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Sample records for tissue expression promoter

  1. COX-2 gene expression in colon cancer tissue related to regulating factors and promoter methylation status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asting, Annika Gustafsson; Carén, Helena; Andersson, Marianne; Lönnroth, Christina; Lagerstedt, Kristina; Lundholm, Kent

    2011-01-01

    Increased cyclooxygenase activity promotes progression of colorectal cancer, but the mechanisms behind COX-2 induction remain elusive. This study was therefore aimed to define external cell signaling and transcription factors relating to high COX-2 expression in colon cancer tissue. Tumor and normal colon tissue were collected at primary curative operation in 48 unselected patients. COX-2 expression in tumor and normal colon tissue was quantified including microarray analyses on tumor mRNA accounting for high and low tumor COX-2 expression. Cross hybridization was performed between tumor and normal colon tissue. Methylation status of up-stream COX-2 promoter region was evaluated. Tumors with high COX-2 expression displayed large differences in gene expression compared to normal colon. Numerous genes with altered expression appeared in tumors of high COX-2 expression compared to tumors of low COX-2. COX-2 expression in normal colon was increased in patients with tumors of high COX-2 compared to normal colon from patients with tumors of low COX-2. IL1β, IL6 and iNOS transcripts were up-regulated among external cell signaling factors; nine transcription factors (ATF3, C/EBP, c-Fos, Fos-B, JDP2, JunB, c-Maf, NF-κB, TCF4) showed increased expression and 5 (AP-2, CBP, Elk-1, p53, PEA3) were decreased in tumors with high COX-2. The promoter region of COX-2 gene did not show consistent methylation in tumor or normal colon tissue. Transcription and external cell signaling factors are altered as covariates to COX-2 expression in colon cancer tissue, but DNA methylation of the COX-2 promoter region was not a significant factor behind COX-2 expression in tumor and normal colon tissue

  2. COX-2 gene expression in colon cancer tissue related to regulating factors and promoter methylation status

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    Lagerstedt Kristina

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased cyclooxygenase activity promotes progression of colorectal cancer, but the mechanisms behind COX-2 induction remain elusive. This study was therefore aimed to define external cell signaling and transcription factors relating to high COX-2 expression in colon cancer tissue. Method Tumor and normal colon tissue were collected at primary curative operation in 48 unselected patients. COX-2 expression in tumor and normal colon tissue was quantified including microarray analyses on tumor mRNA accounting for high and low tumor COX-2 expression. Cross hybridization was performed between tumor and normal colon tissue. Methylation status of up-stream COX-2 promoter region was evaluated. Results Tumors with high COX-2 expression displayed large differences in gene expression compared to normal colon. Numerous genes with altered expression appeared in tumors of high COX-2 expression compared to tumors of low COX-2. COX-2 expression in normal colon was increased in patients with tumors of high COX-2 compared to normal colon from patients with tumors of low COX-2. IL1β, IL6 and iNOS transcripts were up-regulated among external cell signaling factors; nine transcription factors (ATF3, C/EBP, c-Fos, Fos-B, JDP2, JunB, c-Maf, NF-κB, TCF4 showed increased expression and 5 (AP-2, CBP, Elk-1, p53, PEA3 were decreased in tumors with high COX-2. The promoter region of COX-2 gene did not show consistent methylation in tumor or normal colon tissue. Conclusions Transcription and external cell signaling factors are altered as covariates to COX-2 expression in colon cancer tissue, but DNA methylation of the COX-2 promoter region was not a significant factor behind COX-2 expression in tumor and normal colon tissue.

  3. FOXO1 expression in keratinocytes promotes connective tissue healing

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    Zhang, Chenying; Lim, Jason; Liu, Jian; Ponugoti, Bhaskar; Alsadun, Sarah; Tian, Chen; Vafa, Rameen; Graves, Dana T.

    2017-01-01

    Wound healing is complex and highly orchestrated. It is well appreciated that leukocytes, particularly macrophages, are essential for inducing the formation of new connective tissue, which requires the generation of signals that stimulate mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), myofibroblasts and fibroblasts. A key role for keratinocytes in this complex process has yet to be established. To this end, we investigated possible involvement of keratinocytes in connective tissue healing. By lineage-specific deletion of the forkhead box-O 1 (FOXO1) transcription factor, we demonstrate for the first time that keratinocytes regulate proliferation of fibroblasts and MSCs, formation of myofibroblasts and production of collagen matrix in wound healing. This stimulation is mediated by a FOXO1 induced TGFβ1/CTGF axis. The results provide direct evidence that epithelial cells play a key role in stimulating connective tissue healing through a FOXO1-dependent mechanism. Thus, FOXO1 and keratinocytes may be an important therapeutic target where healing is deficient or compromised by a fibrotic outcome. PMID:28220813

  4. Relationship between promoter methylation & tissue expression of MGMT gene in ovarian cancer

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    V Shilpa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Epigenetic alterations, in addition to multiple gene abnormalities, are involved in the genesis and progression of human cancers. Aberrant methylation of CpG islands within promoter regions is associated with transcriptional inactivation of various tumour suppressor genes. O 6 -methyguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT is a DNA repair gene that removes mutagenic and cytotoxic adducts from the O 6 -position of guanine induced by alkylating agents. MGMT promoter hypermethylation and reduced expression has been found in some primary human carcinomas. We studied DNA methylation of CpG islands of the MGMT gene and its relation with MGMT protein expression in human epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Methods: A total of 88 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC tissue samples, 14 low malignant potential (LMP tumours and 20 benign ovarian tissue samples were analysed for MGMT promoter methylation by nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP after bisulphite modification of DNA. A subset of 64 EOC samples, 10 LMP and benign tumours and five normal ovarian tissue samples were analysed for protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Results: The methylation frequencies of the MGMT gene promoter were found to be 29.5, 28.6 and 20 per cent for EOC samples, LMP tumours and benign cases, respectively. Positive protein expression was observed in 93.8 per cent of EOC and 100 per cent in LMP, benign tumours and normal ovarian tissue samples. Promoter hypermethylation with loss of protein expression was seen only in one case of EOC. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results suggest that MGMT promoter hypermethylation does not always reflect gene expression.

  5. Novel strong tissue specific promoter for gene expression in human germ cells

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    Kuzmin Denis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue specific promoters may be utilized for a variety of applications, including programmed gene expression in cell types, tissues and organs of interest, for developing different cell culture models or for use in gene therapy. We report a novel, tissue-specific promoter that was identified and engineered from the native upstream regulatory region of the human gene NDUFV1 containing an endogenous retroviral sequence. Results Among seven established human cell lines and five primary cultures, this modified NDUFV1 upstream sequence (mNUS was active only in human undifferentiated germ-derived cells (lines Tera-1 and EP2102, where it demonstrated high promoter activity (~twice greater than that of the SV40 early promoter, and comparable to the routinely used cytomegaloviral promoter. To investigate the potential applicability of the mNUS promoter for biotechnological needs, a construct carrying a recombinant cytosine deaminase (RCD suicide gene under the control of mNUS was tested in cell lines of different tissue origin. High cytotoxic effect of RCD with a cell-death rate ~60% was observed only in germ-derived cells (Tera-1, whereas no effect was seen in a somatic, kidney-derived control cell line (HEK293. In further experiments, we tested mNUS-driven expression of a hyperactive Sleeping Beauty transposase (SB100X. The mNUS-SB100X construct mediated stable transgene insertions exclusively in germ-derived cells, thereby providing further evidence of tissue-specificity of the mNUS promoter. Conclusions We conclude that mNUS may be used as an efficient promoter for tissue-specific gene expression in human germ-derived cells in many applications. Our data also suggest that the 91 bp-long sequence located exactly upstream NDUFV1 transcriptional start site plays a crucial role in the activity of this gene promoter in vitro in the majority of tested cell types (10/12, and an important role - in the rest two cell lines.

  6. Tissue specific promoters improve the localization of radiation-inducible gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallahan, Dennis; Kataoka, Yasushi; Kuchibhotla, Jaya; Virudachalam, Subbu; Weichselbaum, Ralph

    1996-01-01

    expression was quantified in vascular endothelial cells from large vessel (HUVEC) and small vessels (HMEC). We found cell-type specificity of radiation-induction. The promoter region from the ELAM gene gave no expression in cells that were not of endothelial cell origin and x-ray-induction of ELAM in the endothelium required the NFkB binding cis-acting element. ELAM induction was achieved at doses as low as 1 Gy, whereas induction of other radiation inducible genes required 5 to 10 Gy. Cells transfected with the minimal promoter (plasmid pTK-CAT) demonstrated no radiation induction. Expression of the CMV-LacZ genetic construct that was used as a negative control in each transfection was not altered by x-irradiation. Moreover, intravenous administration of liposomes containing a reporter gene linked to the ELAM promoter and a transcriptional amplification system were induced specifically at sites of x-irradiation in an animal model. Conclusions: Activation of transcription of the ELAM-1 promoter by ionizing radiation is a means of activating gene therapy within the vascular endothelium and demonstrates the feasibility of treating vascular lesions with noninvasive procedures. Tissue specific promoters (e. g., ELAM-1) combined with radiation inducible gene therapy improves the localization of gene therapy expression. These results have applications in intravascular brachytherapy for the prevention of blood vessel restenosis

  7. Specific expression of bioluminescence reporter gene in cardiomyocyte regulated by tissue specific promoter

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    Nguyen, Vu Hong; Tae, Seong Ho; Le, Nguyen Uyen Chi; Min, Jung Joon [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    As the human heart is not capable of regenerating the great numbers of cardiac cells that are lost after myocardial infarction, impaired cardiac function is the inevitable result of ischemic disease. Recently, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have gained popularity as a potentially ideal cell candidate for tissue regeneration. In particular, hESCs are capable of cardiac lineage-specific differentiation and confer improvement of cardiac function following transplantation into animal models. Although such data are encouraging, the specific strategy for in vivo and non-invasive detection of differentiated cardiac lineage is still limited. Therefore, in the present study, we established the gene construction in which the optical reporter gene Firefly luciferase was controlled by Myosin Heavy Chain promoter for specific expressing in heart cells. The vector consisting of - MHC promoter and a firefly luciferase coding sequence flanked by full-length bovine growth hormone (BGH) 3'-polyadenylation sequence based on pcDNA3.1- vector backbone. To test the specific transcription of this promoter in g of MHC-Fluc or CMV-Flue (for control) plasmid DNA in myocardial tissue, 20 phosphate-buffered saline was directly injected into mouse myocardium through a midline sternotomy and liver. After 1 week of injection, MHC-Fluc expression was detected from heart region which was observed under cooled CCD camera of in vivo imaging system but not from liver. In control group injected with CMV-Flue, the bioluminescence was detected from all these organs. The expression of Flue under control of Myosin Heavy Chain promoter may become a suitable optical reporter gene for stem cell-derived cardiac lineage differentiation study.

  8. NF45/ILF2 tissue expression, promoter analysis, and interleukin-2 transactivating function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Guohua; Shi Lingfang; Qiu Daoming; Hu Hong; Kao, Peter N.

    2005-01-01

    NF45/ILF2 associates with NF90/ILF3 in the nucleus and regulates IL-2 gene transcription at the antigen receptor response element (ARRE)/NF-AT DNA target sequence (P.N. Kao, L. Chen, G. Brock, J. Ng, A.J. Smith, B. Corthesy, J. Biol. Chem. 269 (1994) 20691-20699). NF45 is widely expressed in normal tissues, especially testis, brain, and kidney, with a predominantly nuclear distribution. NF45 mRNA expression is increased in lymphoma and leukemia cell lines. The human and murine NF45 proteins differ only by substitution of valine by isoleucine at amino acid 142. Fluorescence in situ hybridization localized the human NF45 gene to chromosome 1q21.3, and mouse NF45 gene to chromosome 3F1. Promoter analysis of 2.5 kB of the murine NF45 gene reveals that significant activation is conferred by factors, possible including NF-Y, that bind to the CCAAT-box sequence. The function of human NF45 in regulating IL-2 gene expression was characterized in Jurkat T-cells stably transfected with plasmids directing expression of NF45 cDNA in sense or antisense orientations. NF45 sense expression increased IL-2 luciferase reporter gene activity 120-fold, and IL-2 protein expression 2-fold compared to control cells. NF45 is a highly conserved, regulated transcriptional activator, and one target gene is IL-2

  9. Clinical research on the expression of Lgr5 in the colon cancer tissues and its transfer promoting role

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    Xin-Jun Shu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect the expression of Lgr5 in the colon cancer tissue, and to explore its correlation with the clinical and pathological characteristics and its role in promoting the tumor invasion and metastasis. Methods: A total of 102 specimens from the patients with colon cancer who were admitted in the General Surgery Department of our hospital for resection from April, 2013 to October, 2015 were included in the study; meanwhile, 35 colorectal adenoma specimens, and 137 normal colon tissue specimens were collected. The immunohistochemical method was used to detect the expression of Lgr5. Results: The positive rate of Lgr5 in the colon cancer tissues (62.75% was significantly higher than that in the adenoma tissues (28.57% and normal tissues (16.06%. The positive expression of Lgr5 in the colon cancer tissues was associated with the adenocarcinoma differentiation degree, Dukes staging, lymphatic metastasis, and distant metastasis. Meanwhile, it was found by the Logistic regression that the adenocarcinoma differentiation degree, lymphatic metastasis, and distant metastasis were the independent predictive factors for the positive expression of Lgr5. Conclusions: The increasement of Lgr5 expression is probably involved in the formation, differentiation, invasion, and metastasis of colon cancer; therefore, Lgr5 is expected to be a new therapeutic target aiming at colon cancer stem cells.

  10. [Rhein promotes the expression of SIRT1 in kidney tissues of type 2 diabetic rat].

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    Chen, Weidong; Chang, Baochao; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Ping; Liu, Lei

    2015-05-01

    To observe the effect of rhein on the expression of SIRT1(Sirtuin 1) in kidney of diabetic rats, and to explore the role of rhein in protecting rat kidney against diabetic nephropathy and possible mechanism. The type 2 diabetic rats were induced by high-glucose and high-fat diet combined with streptozotocin (35 mg/kg body mass). Seventy-five eight-week-old male SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: normal group, diabetic group, low-, medium- and high-dose (50, 100, 150 mg/kg) rhein treatment groups and 10 mg/kg pioglitazone treatment group. The rats were given corresponding substances intragastrically once a day. At the end of the 16th week, the fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FINS), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), serum creatinine (Scr) and 24 hours urine protein (24 h U-PRO) were determined. The renal hypertrophy index (KM/BM), insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) were calculated. The pathological changes in renal tissues were examined by PAS staining under a light microscopy. The mean glomerular area (MGA) and mean glomerular volume (MGV) were measured by pathological image analysis system. Western blotting and real-time quantitative PCR were used to determine the expression of SIRT1 in renal tissues at protein and mRNA levels, respectively. The expression of SIRT1 was down-regulated in the kidney of diabetic rats. The levels of FPG, FINS, HOMA-IR, TG, TC, Scr, 24 h U-PRO, KM/BM, MGA and MGV significantly decreased and the histopathology of renal tissues were significantly improved in all treatment groups compared with diabetic group. The expression of SIRT1 mRNA and protein markedly increased in rhein treatment groups and pioglitazone treatment group compared with diabetic group. The indicators in high-dose rhein treatment group were improved more significantly than those in the other groups. Correlation analysis showed that the expression of SIRT1 was negatively correlated with 24 h U-PRO and MGV. The expression of SIRT1 was

  11. Dmp1 Promoter-Driven Diphtheria Toxin Receptor Transgene Expression Directs Unforeseen Effects in Multiple Tissues

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    Ahmed Al-Jazzar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mice harbouring a dentin matrix protein 1 (Dmp1 promoter-driven human diphtheria toxin (DT receptor (HDTR transgene (Tg have recently been used to attain targeted ablation of osteocytes by diphtheria toxin (DT treatment in order to define osteocyte function. Use of these Tg mice has asserted mechano- and novel paracrine regulatory osteocyte functions. To explore osteocyte roles fully, we sought to confirm the selectivity of DT effects in these transgenic mice. However, our findings revealed incomplete DT-induced osteocyte ablation, prevalent HDTR misexpression, as well as more prominent histopathological DT-induced changes in multiple organs in Tg than in wild-type (WT littermate mice. Mechanistic evidence for DT action, via prominent regulation of phosphorylation status of elongation factor-2 (EF-2, was also found in many non-skeletal tissues in Tg mice; indicative of direct “off-target” DT action. Finally, very rapid deterioration in health and welfare status in response to DT treatment was observed in these Tg when compared to WT control mice. Together, these data lead us to conclude that alternative models for osteocyte ablation should be sought and caution be exercised when drawing conclusions from experiments using these Tg mice alone.

  12. Human TMEM174 that is highly expressed in kidney tissue activates AP-1 and promotes cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Pingzhang; Sun, Bo; Hao, Dongxia; Zhang, Xiujun; Shi, Taiping; Ma, Dalong

    2010-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play an important role in regulation of AP-1 activity through the phosphorylation of distinct substrates. In the present study, we identified a novel protein, TMEM174, whose RNA transcripts are highly expressed in human kidney tissue. TMEM174 is comprised of 243 amino acids, and contains two predicted transmembrane helices which determine its subcellular localization in endoplasmic reticulum and influences its functions. Over-expression of TMME174 enhanced the transcriptional activity of AP-1 and promoted cell proliferation, whereas the truncated mutant TMEM174ΔTM without the transmembrane regions did not retain these functions. The possible mechanism of activation of AP-1 by TMEM174 was further examined. Our results suggest the potential role of TMEM174 in renal development and physiological function.

  13. Human TMEM174 that is highly expressed in kidney tissue activates AP-1 and promotes cell proliferation

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    Wang, Pingzhang [Chinese National Human Genome Center, 3-707 North YongChang Road BDA, Beijing 100191 (China); Laboratory of Medical Immunology, School of Basic Medical Science, Peking University Health Science Center, No. 38 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Peking University Center for Human Disease Genomics, No. 38 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Sun, Bo; Hao, Dongxia [Department of Biology, Northchina Coal Medical College, No. 57 JianShe South Road, Tangshan 063000 (China); Zhang, Xiujun, E-mail: zhangxiujun66@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Biology, Northchina Coal Medical College, No. 57 JianShe South Road, Tangshan 063000 (China); Shi, Taiping, E-mail: taiping_shi@yahoo.com.cn [Chinese National Human Genome Center, 3-707 North YongChang Road BDA, Beijing 100191 (China); Laboratory of Medical Immunology, School of Basic Medical Science, Peking University Health Science Center, No. 38 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Peking University Center for Human Disease Genomics, No. 38 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Ma, Dalong [Chinese National Human Genome Center, 3-707 North YongChang Road BDA, Beijing 100191 (China); Laboratory of Medical Immunology, School of Basic Medical Science, Peking University Health Science Center, No. 38 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Peking University Center for Human Disease Genomics, No. 38 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2010-04-16

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play an important role in regulation of AP-1 activity through the phosphorylation of distinct substrates. In the present study, we identified a novel protein, TMEM174, whose RNA transcripts are highly expressed in human kidney tissue. TMEM174 is comprised of 243 amino acids, and contains two predicted transmembrane helices which determine its subcellular localization in endoplasmic reticulum and influences its functions. Over-expression of TMME174 enhanced the transcriptional activity of AP-1 and promoted cell proliferation, whereas the truncated mutant TMEM174{Delta}TM without the transmembrane regions did not retain these functions. The possible mechanism of activation of AP-1 by TMEM174 was further examined. Our results suggest the potential role of TMEM174 in renal development and physiological function.

  14. Multiple promoters drive tissue-specific expression of the human M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor gene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Alena; Bruce, A. W.; Doležal, Vladimír; Tuček, Stanislav; Buckley, N. J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 1 (2004), s. 88-98 ISSN 0022-3042 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5011306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : M2 muscarinic receptor * neuron-restrictive silence factor * promoter Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.824, year: 2004

  15. Ha-ras oncogene expression directed by a milk protein gene promoter: tissue specificity, hormonal regulation, and tumor induction in transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres, A.C.; Schoenenberger, C.A.; Groner, B.; Henninghausen, L.; LeMeur, M.; Gelinger, P.

    1987-01-01

    The activated human Ha-ras oncogene was subjected to the control of the promoter region of the murine whey acidic protein (Wap) gene, which is expressed in mammary epithelial cells in response to lactogenic hormones. The Wap-ras gene was stably introduced into the mouse germ line of five transgenic mice (one male and four females). Wap-ras expression was observed in the mammary glands of lactating females in two lines derived from female founders. The tissue-directed and hormone-dependent Wap expression was conferred on the Ha-ras oncogene. The signals governing Wap expression are located within 2.5 kilobases of 5' flanking sequence. The other two lines derived from female founders did not express the chimeric gene. In the line derived from the male founder the Wap-ras gene is integrated into the Y chromosome. Expression was found in the salivary gland of male animals only. After a long latency, Wap-ras-expressing mice developed tumors. The tumors arose in tissues expressing Wap-ras - i.e., mammary or salivary glands. Compared to the corresponding nonmalignant tissues, Wap-ras expression was enhanced in the tumors

  16. Heterologous expression of Streptococcus mutans Cnm in Lactococcus lactis promotes intracellular invasion, adhesion to human cardiac tissues and virulence.

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    Freires, Irlan A; Avilés-Reyes, Alejandro; Kitten, Todd; Simpson-Haidaris, P J; Swartz, Michael; Knight, Peter A; Rosalen, Pedro L; Lemos, José A; Abranches, Jacqueline

    2017-01-02

    In S. mutans, the expression of the surface glycoprotein Cnm mediates binding to extracellular matrix proteins, endothelial cell invasion and virulence in the Galleria mellonella invertebrate model. To further characterize Cnm as a virulence factor, the cnm gene from S. mutans strain OMZ175 was expressed in the non-pathogenic Lactococcus lactis NZ9800 using a nisin-inducible system. Despite the absence of the machinery necessary for Cnm glycosylation, Western blot and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses demonstrated that Cnm was effectively expressed and translocated to the cell wall of L. lactis. Similar to S. mutans, expression of Cnm in L. lactis enabled robust binding to collagen and laminin, invasion of human coronary artery endothelial cells and increased virulence in G. mellonella. Using an ex vivo human heart tissue colonization model, we showed that Cnm-positive strains of either S. mutans or L. lactis outcompete their Cnm-negative counterparts for tissue colonization. Finally, Cnm expression facilitated L. lactis adhesion and colonization in a rabbit model of infective endocarditis. Collectively, our results provide unequivocal evidence that binding to extracellular matrices mediated by Cnm is an important virulence attribute of S. mutans and confirm the usefulness of the L. lactis heterologous system for further characterization of bacterial virulence factors.

  17. A milk protein gene promoter directs the expression of human tissue plasminogen activator cDNA to the mammary gland in transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittius, C.W.; Hennighausen, L.; Lee, E.; Westphal, H.; Nicols, E.; Vitale, J.; Gordon, K.

    1988-01-01

    Whey acidic protein (WAP) is a major whey protein in mouse milk. Its gene is expressed in the lactating mammary gland and is inducible by steroid and peptide hormones. A series of transgenic mice containing a hybrid gene in which human tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) cDNA is under the control of the murine WAP gene promoter had previously been generated. In this study, 21 tissues from lactating and virgin transgenic female mice containing the WAP-tPA hybrid gene were screened for the distribution of murine WAP and human tPA transcripts. Like the endogenous WAP RNA, WAP-tPA RNA was expressed predominantly in mammary gland tissue and appeared to be inducible by lactation. Whereas WAP transcripts were not detected in 22 tissues of virgin mice, low levels of WAP-tPA RNA, which were not modulated during lactation, were found in tongue, kidney, and sublingual gland. These studies demonstrate that the WAP gene promoter can target the expression of a transgene to the mammary gland and that this expression is inducible during lactation

  18. Isolation and functional characterization of a cotton ubiquitination-related promoter and 5'UTR that drives high levels of expression in root and flower tissues

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    Viana Antonio AB

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cotton (Gossypium spp. is an important crop worldwide that provides raw material to 40% of the textile fiber industry. Important traits have been studied aiming the development of genetically modified crops including resistance to insect and diseases, and tolerance to drought, cold and herbicide. Therefore, the characterization of promoters and regulatory regions is also important to achieve high gene expression and/or a specific expression pattern. Commonly, genes involved in ubiquitination pathways are highly and differentially expressed. In this study, we analyzed the expression of a cotton ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2 family member with no previous characterization. Results Nucleotide analysis revealed high identity with cotton E2 homologues. Multiple alignment showed a premature stop codon, which prevents the encoding of the conserved cysteine residue at the E2 active site, and an intron that is spliced in E2 homologues, but not in GhGDRP85. The GhGDRP85 gene is highly expressed in different organs of cotton plants, and has high transcript levels in roots. Its promoter (uceApro2 and the 5'UTR compose a regulatory region named uceA1.7, and were isolated from cotton and studied in Arabidopsis thaliana. uceA1.7 shows strong expression levels, equaling or surpassing the expression levels of CaMV35S. The uceA1.7 regulatory sequence drives GUS expression 7-fold higher in flowers, 2-fold in roots and at similar levels in leaves and stems. GUS expression levels are decreased 7- to 15-fold when its 5'UTR is absent in uceApro2. Conclusions uceA1.7 is a strong constitutive regulatory sequence composed of a promoter (uceApro2 and its 5'UTR that will be useful in genetic transformation of dicots, having high potential to drive high levels of transgene expression in crops, particularly for traits desirable in flower and root tissues.

  19. Isolation and functional characterization of a cotton ubiquitination-related promoter and 5'UTR that drives high levels of expression in root and flower tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Antonio A B; Fragoso, Rodrigo R; Guimarães, Luciane M; Pontes, Naiara; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Artico, Sinara; Nardeli, Sarah M; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Batista, João A N; Silva, Maria C M; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2011-11-24

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is an important crop worldwide that provides raw material to 40% of the textile fiber industry. Important traits have been studied aiming the development of genetically modified crops including resistance to insect and diseases, and tolerance to drought, cold and herbicide. Therefore, the characterization of promoters and regulatory regions is also important to achieve high gene expression and/or a specific expression pattern. Commonly, genes involved in ubiquitination pathways are highly and differentially expressed. In this study, we analyzed the expression of a cotton ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) family member with no previous characterization. Nucleotide analysis revealed high identity with cotton E2 homologues. Multiple alignment showed a premature stop codon, which prevents the encoding of the conserved cysteine residue at the E2 active site, and an intron that is spliced in E2 homologues, but not in GhGDRP85. The GhGDRP85 gene is highly expressed in different organs of cotton plants, and has high transcript levels in roots. Its promoter (uceApro2) and the 5'UTR compose a regulatory region named uceA1.7, and were isolated from cotton and studied in Arabidopsis thaliana. uceA1.7 shows strong expression levels, equaling or surpassing the expression levels of CaMV35S. The uceA1.7 regulatory sequence drives GUS expression 7-fold higher in flowers, 2-fold in roots and at similar levels in leaves and stems. GUS expression levels are decreased 7- to 15-fold when its 5'UTR is absent in uceApro2. uceA1.7 is a strong constitutive regulatory sequence composed of a promoter (uceApro2) and its 5'UTR that will be useful in genetic transformation of dicots, having high potential to drive high levels of transgene expression in crops, particularly for traits desirable in flower and root tissues.

  20. ESR1 gene promoter region methylation in free circulating DNA and its correlation with estrogen receptor protein expression in tumor tissue in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Galán, Joaquina; Ríos, Sandra; Delgado, Juan Ramón; Torres-Torres, Blanca; Núñez, María Isabel; López-Peñalver, Jesús; Del Moral, Rosario; Ruiz De Almodóvar, José Mariano; Menjón, Salomón; Concha, Ángel; Chamorro, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Tumor expression of estrogen receptor (ER) is an important marker of prognosis, and is predictive of response to endocrine therapy in breast cancer. Several studies have observed that epigenetic events, such methylation of cytosines and deacetylation of histones, are involved in the complex mechanisms that regulate promoter transcription. However, the exact interplay of these factors in transcription activity is not well understood. In this study, we explored the relationship between ER expression status in tumor tissue samples and the methylation of the 5′ CpG promoter region of the estrogen receptor gene (ESR1) isolated from free circulating DNA (fcDNA) in plasma samples from breast cancer patients. Patients (n = 110) with non-metastatic breast cancer had analyses performed of ER expression (luminal phenotype in tumor tissue, by immunohistochemistry method), and the ESR1-DNA methylation status (fcDNA in plasma, by quantitative methylation specific PCR technique). Our results showed a significant association between presence of methylated ESR1 in patients with breast cancer and ER negative status in the tumor tissue (p = 0.0179). There was a trend towards a higher probability of ESR1-methylation in those phenotypes with poor prognosis i.e. 80% of triple negative patients, 60% of HER2 patients, compared to 28% and 5.9% of patients with better prognosis such as luminal A and luminal B, respectively. Silencing, by methylation, of the promoter region of the ESR1 affects the expression of the estrogen receptor protein in tumors of breast cancer patients; high methylation of ESR1-DNA is associated with estrogen receptor negative status which, in turn, may be implicated in the patient’s resistance to hormonal treatment in breast cancer. As such, epigenetic markers in plasma may be of interest as new targets for anticancer therapy, especially with respect to endocrine treatment

  1. TAZ promotes epithelial to mesenchymal transition via the upregulation of connective tissue growth factor expression in neuroblastoma cells.

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    Wang, Qiang; Xu, Zhilin; An, Qun; Jiang, Dapeng; Wang, Long; Liang, Bingxue; Li, Zhaozhu

    2015-02-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is a neuroendocrine cancer that occurs most commonly in infants and young children. The Hippo signaling pathway regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis, and its primary downstream effectors are TAZ and yes‑associated protein 1 (YAP). The effect of TAZ on the metastatic progression of neuroblastoma and the underlying mechanisms involved remain elusive. In the current study, it was determined by western blot analysis that the migratory and invasive properties of SK‑N‑BE(2) human neuroblastoma cells are associated with high expression levels of TAZ. Repressed expression of TAZ in SK‑N‑BE(2) cells was shown to result in a reduction in aggressiveness of the cell line, by Transwell migration and invasion assay. In contrast, overexpression of TAZ in SK‑N‑SH human neuroblastoma cells was shown by Transwell migration and invasion assays, and western blot analysis, to result in epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) and increased invasiveness. Mechanistically, the overexpression of TAZ was demonstrated to upregulate the expression levels of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), by western blot analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, while the knockdown of TAZ downregulated it. Furthermore, TAZ was shown by luciferase assay to induce CTGF expression by modulating the activation of the TGF‑β/Smad3 signaling pathway. In conclusion, the present study is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to demonstrate that the overexpression of TAZ induces EMT, increasing the invasive abilities of neuroblastoma cells. This suggests that TAZ may serve as a potential target in the development of novel therapies for the treatment of neuroblastoma.

  2. In Inflamed Intestinal Tissues and Epithelial Cells, Interleukin 22 Signaling Increases Expression of H19 Long Noncoding RNA, Which Promotes Mucosal Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Hua; Bu, Heng-Fu; Liu, Fangyi; Wu, Longtao; Pfeifer, Karl; Chou, Pauline M; Wang, Xiao; Sun, Jiaren; Lu, Lu; Pandey, Ashutosh; Bartolomei, Marisa S; De Plaen, Isabelle G; Wang, Peng; Yu, Jindan; Qian, Jiaming; Tan, Xiao-Di

    2018-04-03

    expression. Exposure of IECs to interleukin (IL) 22 increased levels of H19 lncRNA with time and dose, which required STAT3 and protein kinase A activity. IL22 induced expression of H19 in mouse intestinal epithelial organoids within 6 hours. Exposure to IL22 increased growth of intestinal epithelial organoids derived from control mice, but not H19 ΔEx1/+ mice. Overexpression of H19 in HT-29 cells increased their proliferation. Intestinal mucosa healed more slowly after withdrawal of DSS from H19 ΔEx1/+ mice vs control mice. Crypt epithelial cells from H19 ΔEx1/+ mice proliferated more slowly than those from control mice after exposure to LPS. H19 lncRNA bound to p53 and microRNAs that inhibit cell proliferation, including microRNA 34a and let-7; H19 lncRNA binding blocked their function, leading to increased expression of genes that promote regeneration of the epithelium. The level of lncRNA H19 is increased in inflamed intestinal tissues from mice and patients. The inflammatory cytokine IL22 induces expression of H19 in IECs, which is required for intestinal epithelial proliferation and mucosal healing. H19 lncRNA appears to inhibit p53 protein and microRNA 34a and let-7 to promote proliferation of IECs and epithelial regeneration. Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Tissue Specific Promoters in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Rama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal carcinoma is the third most prevalent cancer in the world. In the most advanced stages, the use of chemotherapy induces a poor response and is usually accompanied by other tissue damage. Significant progress based on suicide gene therapy has demonstrated that it may potentiate the classical cytotoxic effects in colorectal cancer. The inconvenience still rests with the targeting and the specificity efficiency. The main target of gene therapy is to achieve an effective vehicle to hand over therapeutic genes safely into specific cells. One possibility is the use of tumor-specific promoters overexpressed in cancers. They could induce a specific expression of therapeutic genes in a given tumor, increasing their localized activity. Several promoters have been assayed into direct suicide genes to cancer cells. This review discusses the current status of specific tumor-promoters and their great potential in colorectal carcinoma treatment.

  4. Increased expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene transcript in relation to IL-6 promoter hypomethylation in gingival tissue from patients with chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Ishida, Kohei; Yoshie, Hiromasa

    2016-09-01

    DNA methylation of the cytokine genes may play a role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the alteration of interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene promoter methylation in the gingival tissue (GT) and peripheral blood (PB) is unique to chronic periodontitis (CP). DNA isolated from the GT and PB of 25 patients with (CP) and 20 healthy controls (H) was modified with sodium bisulfite and analyzed for IL-6 promoter methylation with direct sequencing. The levels of IL-6 mRNA and serum IL-6 protein were evaluated by a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The CP group showed that the overall methylation rates of IL-6 promoter that contained 19 cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) motifs were significantly decreased in GT in comparison to PB (p<0.001), which was significantly negatively correlated with the probing depth (p=0.003). The GT and PB of the H group displayed similar overall methylation rates. No significant difference was observed in the methylation rates at each CpG in GT in comparison to the PB in both groups. The levels of IL-6 mRNA in the GT and PB and serum IL-6 of the two groups were comparable. The ratio of IL-6 mRNA in the GT relative to the PB was significantly higher in the CP group than in the H group (p=0.03). The increased expression of IL-6 gene transcription may be related to IL-6 promoter hypomethylation in the GT from CP patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A dual role for microglia in promoting tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP expression in glial cells in response to neuroinflammatory stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milner Richard

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background By neutralizing the effect of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, the tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs play a critical role in maintaining tissue proteolysis in balance. As the major reactive glial cell types in the central nervous system (CNS, microglia and astrocytes play fundamental roles in mediating tissue breakdown and repair. As such, it is important to define the TIMP expression profile in these cells, as well as the mechanisms of regulation by neuroinflammatory stimuli. Methods Primary mixed glial cultures (MGC, pure microglia, and pure astrocytes were used in this study. To study astrocytes, we employed a recently described pure astrocyte culture system, which has the major advantage of totally lacking microglia. The three different types of culture were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS or individual cytokines, and cell culture supernatants assayed for TIMP-1 or TIMP-2 protein expression by western blot. Results LPS induced TIMP-1 expression in MGC, but not in pure astrocyte or microglial cultures. When pure astrocytes were treated with the cytokines IL-1β, IFN-γ, TNF or TGF-β1, only IL-1β induced TIMP-1 expression. Significantly, astrocyte TIMP-1 expression was restored in LPS-treated astrocyte cultures after the addition of microglia, or conditioned medium taken from LPS-activated microglia (MG-CM. Furthermore, this effect was lost after depletion of IL-1β from MG-CM. By contrast, TIMP-2 was constitutively expressed by astrocytes, whereas microglia expressed TIMP-2 only after exposure to serum. Conclusions Taken together, these results demonstrate an important concept in glial interactions, by showing that microglia play a central role in regulating glial cell expression of TIMPs, and identify microglial IL-1β as playing a key role in mediating microglial-astrocyte communication.

  6. Relative expression of rRNA transcripts and 45S rDNA promoter methylation status are dysregulated in tumors in comparison with matched-normal tissues in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Gurbet; Sayar, Nilufer; Gozum, Gokcen; Bozkurt, Betul; Konu, Ozlen; Yulug, Isik G

    2015-06-01

    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) expression, one of the most important factors regulating ribosome production, is primarily controlled by a CG-rich 45 S rDNA promoter. However, the DNA methylation state of the 45 S rDNA promoter, as well as its effect on rRNA gene expression in types of human cancers is controversial. In the present study we analyzed the methylation status of the rDNA promoter (-380 to +53 bp) as well as associated rRNA expression levels in breast cancer cell lines and breast tumor-normal tissue pairs. We found that the aforementioned regulatory region was extensively methylated (74-96%) in all cell lines and in 68% (13/19 tumor-normal pairs) of the tumors. Expression levels of rRNA transcripts 18 S, 28 S, 5.8 S and 45 S external transcribed spacer (45 S ETS) greatly varied in the breast cancer cell lines regardless of their methylation status. Analyses of rRNA transcript expression levels in the breast tumor and normal matched tissues showed no significant difference when normalized with TBP. On the other hand, using the geometric mean of the rRNA expression values (GM-rRNA) as reference enabled us to identify significant changes in the relative expression of rRNAs in the tissue samples. We propose GM-rRNA normalization as a novel strategy to analyze expression differences between rRNA transcripts. Accordingly, the 18S rRNA/GM-rRNA ratio was significantly higher whereas the 5.8S rRNA/GM-rRNA ratio was significantly lower in breast tumor samples than this ratio in the matched normal samples. Moreover, the 18S rRNA/GM-rRNA ratio was negatively correlated with the 45 S rDNA promoter methylation level in the normal breast tissue samples, yet not in the breast tumors. Significant correlations observed between the expression levels of rRNA transcripts in the normal samples were lost in the tumor samples. We showed that the expression of rRNA transcripts may not be based solely on promoter methylation. Carcinogenesis may cause dysregulation of the correlation

  7. Repressor-mediated tissue-specific gene expression in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Richard B [Athens, GA; Balish, Rebecca S [Oxford, OH; Tehryung, Kim [Athens, GA; McKinney, Elizabeth C [Athens, GA

    2009-02-17

    Plant tissue specific gene expression by way of repressor-operator complexes, has enabled outcomes including, without limitation, male sterility and engineered plants having root-specific gene expression of relevant proteins to clean environmental pollutants from soil and water. A mercury hyperaccumulation strategy requires that mercuric ion reductase coding sequence is strongly expressed. The actin promoter vector, A2pot, engineered to contain bacterial lac operator sequences, directed strong expression in all plant vegetative organs and tissues. In contrast, the expression from the A2pot construct was restricted primarily to root tissues when a modified bacterial repressor (LacIn) was coexpressed from the light-regulated rubisco small subunit promoter in above-ground tissues. Also provided are analogous repressor operator complexes for selective expression in other plant tissues, for example, to produce male sterile plants.

  8. A promoter-level mammalian expression atlas

    KAUST Repository

    Forest, Alistair R R

    2014-03-26

    Regulated transcription controls the diversity, developmental pathways and spatial organization of the hundreds of cell types that make up a mammal. Using single-molecule cDNA sequencing, we mapped transcription start sites (TSSs) and their usage in human and mouse primary cells, cell lines and tissues to produce a comprehensive overview of mammalian gene expression across the human body. We find that few genes are truly ‘housekeeping’, whereas many mammalian promoters are composite entities composed of several closely separated TSSs, with independent cell-type-specific expression profiles. TSSs specific to different cell types evolve at different rates, whereas promoters of broadly expressed genes are the most conserved. Promoter-based expression analysis reveals key transcription factors defining cell states and links them to binding-site motifs. The functions of identified novel transcripts can be predicted by coexpression and sample ontology enrichment analyses. The functional annotation of the mammalian genome 5 (FANTOM5) project provides comprehensive expression profiles and functional annotation of mammalian cell-type-specific transcriptomes with wide applications in biomedical research.

  9. A promoter-level mammalian expression atlas

    KAUST Repository

    Forest, Alistair R R; Kawaji, Hideya; Rehli, Michael; Baillie, John Kenneth; De Hoon, Michiel Jl L; Haberle, Vanja; Lassmann, Timo; Kulakovskiy, Ivan V.; Lizio, Marina; Itoh, Masayoshi; Andersson, Robin; Iida, Kei; Ikawa, Tomokatsu; Jankovic, Boris R.; Jia, Hui; Joshi, Anagha Madhusudan; Jurman, Giuseppe; Kaczkowski, Bogumił; Kai, Chieko; Kaida, Kaoru; Kaiho, Ai; Mungall, Christopher J.; Kajiyama, Kazuhiro; Kanamori-Katayama, Mutsumi; Kasianov, Artem S.; Kasukawa, Takeya; Katayama, Shintaro; Kato, Sachi; Kawaguchi, Shuji; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yuki I.; Kawashima, Tsugumi; Meehan, Terrence F.; Kempfle, Judith S.; Kenna, Tony J.; Kere, Juha; Khachigian, Levon M.; Kitamura, Toshio; Klinken, Svend Peter; Knox, Alan; Kojima, Miki; Kojima, Soichi; Kondo, Naoto; Schmeier, Sebastian; Koseki, Haruhiko; Koyasu, Shigeo; Krampitz, Sarah; Kubosaki, Atsutaka; Kwon, Andrew T.; Laros, Jeroen F J; Lee, Weonju; Lennartsson, Andreas; Li, Kang; Lilje, Berit; Bertin, Nicolas; Lipovich, Leonard; MacKay-Sim, Alan; Manabe, Riichiroh; Mar, Jessica; Marchand, Benoî t; Mathelier, Anthony; Mejhert, Niklas; Meynert, Alison M.; Mizuno, Yosuke; De Morais, David A Lima; Jø rgensen, Mette Christine; Morikawa, Hiromasa; Morimoto, Mitsuru; Moro, Kazuyo; Motakis, Efthymios; Motohashi, Hozumi; Mummery, Christine L.; Murata, Mitsuyoshi; Nagao-Sato, Sayaka; Nakachi, Yutaka; Nakahara, Fumio; Dimont, Emmanuel; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Yukio; Nakazato, Kenichi; Van Nimwegen, Erik; Ninomiya, Noriko; Nishiyori, Hiromi; Noma, Shohei; Nozaki, Tadasuke; Ogishima, Soichi; Ohkura, Naganari; Arner, Erik; Ohmiya, Hiroko; Ohno, Hiroshi; Ohshima, Mitsuhiro; Okada-Hatakeyama, Mariko; Okazaki, Yasushi; Orlando, Valerio; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry A.; Pain, Arnab; Passier, Robert C J J; Patrikakis, Margaret; Schmidl, Christian; Persson, Helena A.; Piazza, Silvano; Prendergast, James G D; Rackham, Owen J L; Ramilowski, Jordan A.; Rashid, Mamoon; Ravasi, Timothy; Rizzu, Patrizia; Roncador, Marco; Roy, Sugata; Schaefer, Ulf; Rye, Morten Beck; Saijyo, Eri; Sajantila, Antti; Saka, Akiko; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Sakai, Mizuho; Sato, Hiroki; Satoh, Hironori; Savvi, Suzana; Saxena, Alka; Medvedeva, Yulia; Schneider, Claudio H.; Schultes, Erik A.; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula G.; Schwegmann, Anita; Sengstag, Thierry; Sheng, Guojun; Shimoji, Hisashi; Shimoni, Yishai; Shin, Jay W.; Simon, Chris M.; Plessy, Charles; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Takaaki; Suzuki, Masanori; Suzuki, Naoko; Swoboda, Rolf K.; 't Hoen, Peter Ac Chr; Tagami, Michihira; Tagami, Naokotakahashi; Takai, Jun; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Vitezic, Morana; Tatsukawa, Hideki; Tatum, Zuotian; Thompson, Mark; Toyoda, Hiroo; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Valen, Eivind; Van De Wetering, Marc L.; Van Den Berg, Linda M.; Verardo, Roberto; Vijayan, Dipti; Severin, Jessica M.; Vorontsov, Ilya E.; Wasserman, Wyeth W.; Watanabe, Shoko; Wells, Christine A.; Winteringham, Louise Natalie; Wolvetang, Ernst Jurgen; Wood, Emily J.; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Yoneda, Misako; Semple, Colin Am M; Yonekura, Yohei; Yoshida, Shigehiro; Zabierowski, Susan E.; Zhang, Peter; Zhao, Xiaobei; Zucchelli, Silvia; Summers, Kim M.; Suzuki, Harukazu; Daub, Carsten Olivier; Kawai, Jun; Ishizu, Yuri; Heutink, Peter; Hide, Winston; Freeman, Tom C.; Lenhard, Boris; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Taylor, Martin S.; Makeev, Vsevolod J.; Sandelin, Albin; Hume, David A.; Carninci, Piero; Young, Robert S.; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide Yoshihide; Francescatto, Margherita; Altschuler, Intikhab Alam; Albanese, Davide; Altschule, Gabriel M.; Arakawa, Takahiro; Archer, John A.C.; Arner, Peter; Babina, Magda; Rennie, Sarah; Balwierz, Piotr J.; Beckhouse, Anthony G.; Pradhan-Bhatt, Swati; Blake, Judith A.; Blumenthal, Antje; Bodega, Beatrice; Bonetti, Alessandro; Briggs, James A.; Brombacher, Frank; Burroughs, Alexander Maxwell; Califano, Andrea C.; Cannistraci, Carlo; Carbajo, Daniel; Chen, Yun; Chierici, Marco; Ciani, Yari; Clevers, Hans C.; Dalla, Emiliano; Davis, Carrie Anne; Detmar, Michael J.; Diehl, Alexander D.; Dohi, Taeko; Drablø s, Finn; Edge, Albert SB B; Edinger, Matthias G.; Ekwall, Karl; Endoh, Mitsuhiro; Enomoto, Hideki; Fagiolini, Michela; Fairbairn, Lynsey R.; Fang, Hai; Farach-Carson, Mary Cindy; Faulkner, Geoffrey J.; Favorov, Alexander V.; Fisher, Malcolm E.; Frith, Martin C.; Fujita, Rie; Fukuda, Shiro; Furlanello, Cesare; Furuno, Masaaki; Furusawa, Junichi; Geijtenbeek, Teunis Bh H; Gibson, Andrew P.; Gingeras, Thomas R.; Goldowitz, Dan; Gough, Julian; Guhl, Sven; Guler, Reto; Gustincich, Stefano; Ha, Thomas; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Hara, Mitsuko; Harbers, Matthias; Harshbarger, Jayson; Hasegawa, Akira; Hasegawa, Yuki; Hashimoto, Takehiro; Herlyn, Meenhard F.; Hitchens, Kelly J.; Sui, Shannan J Ho; Hofmann, Oliver M.; Hoof, Ilka; Hori, Fumi; Huminiecki, Łukasz B.

    2014-01-01

    Regulated transcription controls the diversity, developmental pathways and spatial organization of the hundreds of cell types that make up a mammal. Using single-molecule cDNA sequencing, we mapped transcription start sites (TSSs) and their usage in human and mouse primary cells, cell lines and tissues to produce a comprehensive overview of mammalian gene expression across the human body. We find that few genes are truly ‘housekeeping’, whereas many mammalian promoters are composite entities composed of several closely separated TSSs, with independent cell-type-specific expression profiles. TSSs specific to different cell types evolve at different rates, whereas promoters of broadly expressed genes are the most conserved. Promoter-based expression analysis reveals key transcription factors defining cell states and links them to binding-site motifs. The functions of identified novel transcripts can be predicted by coexpression and sample ontology enrichment analyses. The functional annotation of the mammalian genome 5 (FANTOM5) project provides comprehensive expression profiles and functional annotation of mammalian cell-type-specific transcriptomes with wide applications in biomedical research.

  10. Modulating ectopic gene expression levels by using retroviral vectors equipped with synthetic promoters

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Joshua P.; Peacock, Ryan W. S.; Lawhorn, Ingrid E. B.; Wang, Clifford L.

    2011-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus and elongation factor 1α promoters are constitutive promoters commonly employed by mammalian expression vectors. These promoters generally produce high levels of expression in many types of cells and tissues. To generate a library of synthetic promoters capable of generating a range of low, intermediate, and high expression levels, the TATA and CAAT box elements of these promoters were mutated. Other promoter variants were also generated by random mutagenesis. Evalua...

  11. Positional bias of general and tissue-specific regulatory motifs in mouse gene promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farré Domènec

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The arrangement of regulatory motifs in gene promoters, or promoter architecture, is the result of mutation and selection processes that have operated over many millions of years. In mammals, tissue-specific transcriptional regulation is related to the presence of specific protein-interacting DNA motifs in gene promoters. However, little is known about the relative location and spacing of these motifs. To fill this gap, we have performed a systematic search for motifs that show significant bias at specific promoter locations in a large collection of housekeeping and tissue-specific genes. Results We observe that promoters driving housekeeping gene expression are enriched in particular motifs with strong positional bias, such as YY1, which are of little relevance in promoters driving tissue-specific expression. We also identify a large number of motifs that show positional bias in genes expressed in a highly tissue-specific manner. They include well-known tissue-specific motifs, such as HNF1 and HNF4 motifs in liver, kidney and small intestine, or RFX motifs in testis, as well as many potentially novel regulatory motifs. Based on this analysis, we provide predictions for 559 tissue-specific motifs in mouse gene promoters. Conclusion The study shows that motif positional bias is an important feature of mammalian proximal promoters and that it affects both general and tissue-specific motifs. Motif positional constraints define very distinct promoter architectures depending on breadth of expression and type of tissue.

  12. Expression of somatotropin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in bovine tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucy, M.C.; Boyd, C.K.; Koenigsfeld, A.T.; Okamura, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    The somatotropin receptor mRNA is controlled by at least two different gene promoters that generate 2 two variants with different exon 1 sequences (1A and 1B). The location of 1A and 1B somatotropin receptor mRNA within cattle tissues and, hence, the tissue specificity of the 1A and 1B promoters are unknown. In addition, the cDNA sequence of the 1B somatotropin receptor has not been determined. Our objective, therefore, was to sequence a cDNA for the 1B somatotropin receptor and to analyze bovine tissues for expression of 1A and 1B somatotropin receptor mRNA. Twenty adult tissues and six fetal tissues were collected at slaughter from each of four cows and two fetuses. Messenger RNA was analyzed using ribonuclease protection assays. The adult liver expressed both 1A and 1B mRNA. All other adult tissues expressed 1B mRNA but not 1A mRNA. The greatest amount of 1B mRNA was detected in liver and adipose (abdominal and subcutaneous) tissues. Other tissues had approximately one-half to one-tenth of the amount of 1B mRNA in the liver or adipose tissue. Fetal tissues (including fetal liver) expressed 1B mRNA and not 1A mRNA. Based on cDNA sequencing, the protein encoded by the 1A and 1B mRNA was nearly identical. We concluded that 1A somatotropin receptor mRNA is specific to adult bovine liver. Other adult and fetal bovine tissues expressed 1B somatotropin receptor mRNA with a predicted protein sequence that was similar to the 1A somatotropin receptor

  13. Alternative Promoter Usage in Healthy and Inflamed Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilje, Berit

    and cell-lines covering the entire human body. This provides a unique dataset to study gene expression, with promoter level precision. Here we use this large collection of data to study alternative transcription start site usage throughout the human body. We find that many alternative transcription start...... with tumour necrosis factor alpha, and on tissue from mice subjected to carbon nanotubes. Both systems show a strong response, with especially alternative transcription start sites being differentially regulated. Taken together this shows that alternative transcription start sites add an important layer...

  14. Constraint-induced movement therapy promotes motor function recovery and downregulates phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinase expression in ischemic brain tissue of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor function impairment is a common outcome of stroke. Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT involving intensive use of the impaired limb while restraining the unaffected limb is widely used to overcome the effects of ′learned non-use′ and improve limb function after stroke. However, the underlying mechanism of CIMT remains unclear. In the present study, rats were randomly divided into a middle cerebral artery occlusion (model group, a CIMT + model (CIMT group, or a sham group. Restriction of the affected limb by plaster cast was performed in the CIMT and sham groups. Compared with the model group, CIMT significantly improved the forelimb functional performance in rats. By western blot assay, the expression of phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinase in the bilateral cortex and hippocampi of cerebral ischemic rats in the CIMT group was significantly lower than that in the model group, and was similar to sham group levels. These data suggest that functional recovery after CIMT may be related to decreased expression of phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinase in the bilateral cortex and hippocampi.

  15. Gene expression in periodontal tissues following treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisenacher Martin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In periodontitis, treatment aimed at controlling the periodontal biofilm infection results in a resolution of the clinical and histological signs of inflammation. Although the cell types found in periodontal tissues following treatment have been well described, information on gene expression is limited to few candidate genes. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the expression profiles of immune and inflammatory genes in periodontal tissues from sites with severe chronic periodontitis following periodontal therapy in order to identify genes involved in tissue homeostasis. Gingival biopsies from 12 patients with severe chronic periodontitis were taken six to eight weeks following non-surgical periodontal therapy, and from 11 healthy controls. As internal standard, RNA of an immortalized human keratinocyte line (HaCaT was used. Total RNA was subjected to gene expression profiling using a commercially available microarray system focusing on inflammation-related genes. Post-hoc confirmation of selected genes was done by Realtime-PCR. Results Out of the 136 genes analyzed, the 5% most strongly expressed genes compared to healthy controls were Interleukin-12A (IL-12A, Versican (CSPG-2, Matrixmetalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1, Down syndrome critical region protein-1 (DSCR-1, Macrophage inflammatory protein-2β (Cxcl-3, Inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1 (BIRC-1, Cluster of differentiation antigen 38 (CD38, Regulator of G-protein signalling-1 (RGS-1, and Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins murine osteosarcoma virus oncogene (C-FOS; the 5% least strongly expressed genes were Receptor-interacting Serine/Threonine Kinase-2 (RIP-2, Complement component 3 (C3, Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 (COX-2, Interleukin-8 (IL-8, Endothelin-1 (EDN-1, Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-2 (PAI-2, Matrix-metalloproteinase-14 (MMP-14, and Interferon regulating factor-7 (IRF-7. Conclusion Gene expression profiles found in periodontal tissues following

  16. A novel BDNF gene promoter directs expression to skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Gerhard

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell-specific expression of the gene that encodes brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is required for the normal development of peripheral sensory neurons and efficient synaptic transmission in the mature central and peripheral nervous system. The control of BDNF gene expression involves multiple tissue and cell-specific promoters that are differentially regulated. The molecular mechanisms that are responsible for tissue and cell-specific expression of these promoters are still incompletely understood. Results The cloning and analysis of three additional zebrafish (Danio rerio BDNF gene exons and two associated promoters, is reported. Among them are two exons that generate a novel tripartite mature transcript. The exons were located on the transcription unit, whose overall organization was determined by cloning, Southern blot hybridization and sequence analysis, and compared with the pufferfish (Fugu rubripes and mammalian BDNF loci, revealing a conserved but more compact organization. Structural and functional analysis of the exons, their adjacent promoters and 5' flanks, showed that they are expressed cell-specifically. The promoter associated with the 5' exon of the tripartite transcript is GC-rich, TATA-less and the 5' flank adjacent to it contains multiple Sp1, Mef2, and AP1 elements. A fusion gene containing the promoter and 1.5 KB of 5' flank is directed exclusively to skeletal muscle of transiently transfected embryos. The second promoter, whose associated 5' exon contains a 25-nucleotide segment of identity with a mammalian BDNF gene exon, was transiently expressed in yolk of the early embryo. RT-PCR analysis of total RNA from whole juvenile fish and adult female skeletal muscle revealed tissue-specific expression of the 5' exons but the novel exon could not be detected even after two rounds of nested PCR. Conclusion The zebrafish BDNF gene is as complex as the mammalian gene yet much more compact. Its exons are

  17. Johne's disease in cattle is associated with enhanced expression of genes encoding IL-5, GATA-3, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 2, and factors promoting apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coussens, P.M.; Pudrith, C.B.; Skovgaard, Kerstin

    2005-01-01

    remodeling deficiencies through higher expression of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP) 1 and TIMP2 RNA and lower expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 14 RNA than similar cells from healthy controls, and that cells within the PBMC population of M. paratuberculosis-infected cows...... upon by quantitative real-time PCR (Q-RT-PCR). Our results indicate that T cells within PBMCs from M. paratuberculosis-infected cows have adopted a predominant Th 2-like phenotype (enhanced expression of IL-5, GATA 3, and possibly IL-4 mRNA), that cells within infected cow PBMCs may exhibit tissue...

  18. Osseous drill holes to promote granulation tissue: Radiologic appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnik, C.S.; Reiner, B.I.; Diaconis, J.N.; Goldberg, N.H.

    1991-01-01

    Skin grafting following extensive soft-tissue loss is often delayed until adequate granulation tissue can be generated. Surgical drill holes into the marrow cavity promote development of granulation tissue. This article illustrates the radiology appearance of these drill holes in four patients. (orig.)

  19. Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morrissey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In vivo gene therapy directed at tissues of mesenchymal origin could potentially augment healing. We aimed to assess the duration and magnitude of transene expression in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human tissues. Methods. Using bioluminescence imaging, plasmid and adenoviral vector-based transgene expression in murine quadriceps in vivo was examined. Temporal control was assessed using a doxycycline-inducible system. An ex vivo model was developed and optimised using murine tissue, and applied in ex vivo human tissue. Results. In vivo plasmid-based transgene expression did not silence in murine muscle, unlike in liver. Although maximum luciferase expression was higher in muscle with adenoviral delivery compared with plasmid, expression reduced over time. The inducible promoter cassette successfully regulated gene expression with maximum levels a factor of 11 greater than baseline. Expression was re-induced to a similar level on a temporal basis. Luciferase expression was readily detected ex vivo in human muscle and tendon. Conclusions. Plasmid constructs resulted in long-term in vivo gene expression in skeletal muscle, in a controllable fashion utilising an inducible promoter in combination with oral agents. Successful plasmid gene transfection in human ex vivo mesenchymal tissue was demonstrated for the first time.

  20. Is tissue CA125 expression in epithelial ovarian adenocarcinoma heterogenic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparholt, Morten H; Høgdall, Claus K; Nedergaard, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate if heterogeneity of tissue cancer antigen 125 (CA125) expression is present in epithelial serous adenocarcinomas. Furthermore, to investigate whether there is a correlation between levels of CA125 tissue expression, serum level of CA125, stage, and grade. A total of 10 patients...... diagnosed with serous ovarian adenocarcinomas were included. Preoperative blood samples were collected to determine serum CA125 levels. Tumor tissue from primary surgery was collected and processed for immunohistochemical analyses. CA125 was expressed in varying degrees in tumor tissues from all patients....... Mean tissue CA125 expression for each patient ranged from 36% to 98%. Intrapatient variations in tissue expression ranged from 10% to 90% point. No significant correlations between levels of CA125 tissue expression, serum level of CA125, stage, and grade were found. We found that the tissue expression...

  1. Correlation of Slug gene expression with lymph node metastasis and invasion molecule expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Ming Lu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of Slug gene expression with lymph node metastasis and invasion molecule expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue. Methods: Oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue surgical removed in Affiliated Stomatological Hospital of Nanjing Medical University between March 2015 and April 2017 was selected and divided into the oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue with neck lymph node metastasis and the oral squamous cell carcinoma tissues without lymph node metastasis according to the condition of lymph node metastasis. The expression of Slug, epithelial-mesenchymal transition molecules and invasion molecules in the oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue were detected. Results: Slug, N-cadherin, Vimentin, CD147, OPN, GRP78, SDF-1 and CXCR4 protein expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue with neck lymph node metastasis were significantly higher than those in oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue without lymph node metastasis while E-cadherin, P120ctn and ZO-1 protein expression were significantly lower than those in oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue without lymph node metastasis; N-cadherin, Vimentin, CD147, OPN, GRP78, SDF-1 and CXCR4 protein expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue with high Slug expression were significantly higher than those in oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue with low Slug expression while E-cadherin, P120ctn and ZO-1 protein expression were significantly lower than those in oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue with low Slug expression. Conclusion: The highly expressed Slug in oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue can promote the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasion of the cells to participate in the lymph node metastasis of tumor cells.

  2. Expressão eficiente do gene reporter beta-glucuronidase nos tecidos vasculares de batata (Solanum tuberosum L. utilizando de um promotor específico (BRA3 de Agrobacterium rhizogenes Efficient expression of beta-glucuronidase reporter gene in vascular tissue of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. utilizing a specific promoter (BRA3 from Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Torres

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Promotores tecido-específico controlam a transcrição de genes em diferentes tecidos vegetais bem como em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento da planta, levando à indução de distintos níveis de atividade transiente e/ou estável do gene. Tais promotores podem ser empregados para a expressão seletiva de genes de interesse. O promotor rol A de Agrobacterium rhizogenes, por exemplo, é floema-específico, sugerindo que possa ser empregado em estratégias de defesa de plantas que são infectadas por vírus com replicação restrita ao floema. A expressão do gene marcador da ß-glucuronidase (gus dirigido pelo promotor rol A (pBRA3 foi observada em plantas transgênicas de batata (cvs. Macaca e Baronesa. Entrenós e secções de folhas foram submetidos ao cocultivo com A. tumefaciens. A atividade do gene gus avaliada em brotações resistentes à canamicina não se restringiu ao floema (alto nível de expressão do gene, mas também se manifestou no xilema dos caules. As expressões transiente e estável são, no entanto, tecido-específicas, localizadas sobretudo no sistema vascular de entrenós e ausente em raízes e folhas. As plantas gus positivas foram micropropagadas, plantadas em casa de vegetação e avaliadas por PCR, utilizando-se 'primers' específicos para o gene npt II. Nenhuma alteração fenotípica foi observada em plantas transgênicas, em relação às não transformadas.Tissue-especific promoters allow the modulation of gene transcription in different tissue types as well as in different stages of plant development, leading different levels of transient and stable activity of the gene product. These promoters have been employed for selective gene expression. The Agrobacterium rhizogenes rol A gene promoter (BRA3 controls phloem-specific expression indicating that this promoter might have an important role in plant defense strategies against virus which replicated only in the phloem. The expression of

  3. Analysis of tissue-specific region in sericin 1 gene promoter of Bombyx mori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Liu [College of Biomedical Engineering and Instrument Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Lian, Yu [College of Biomedical Engineering and Instrument Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Institute of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Xiuyang, Guo [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Tingqing, Guo [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Shengpeng, Wang [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Changde, Lu [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China)

    2006-03-31

    The gene encoding sericin 1 (Ser1) of silkworm (Bombyx mori) is specifically expressed in the middle silk gland cells. To identify element involved in this transcription-dependent spatial restriction, truncation of the 5' terminal from the sericin 1 (Ser1) promoter is studied in vivo. A 209 bp DNA sequence upstream of the transcriptional start site (-586 to -378) is found to be responsible for promoting tissue-specific transcription. Analysis of this 209 bp region by overlapping deletion studies showed that a 25 bp region (-500 to -476) suppresses the ectopic expression of the Ser1 promoter. An unknown factor abundant in fat body nuclear extracts is shown to bind to this 25 bp fragment. These results suggest that this 25 bp region and the unknown factor are necessary for determining the tissue-specificity of the Ser1 promoter.

  4. DNA entropy reveals a significant difference in complexity between housekeeping and tissue specific gene promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David; Finan, Chris; Newport, Melanie J; Jones, Susan

    2015-10-01

    The complexity of DNA can be quantified using estimates of entropy. Variation in DNA complexity is expected between the promoters of genes with different transcriptional mechanisms; namely housekeeping (HK) and tissue specific (TS). The former are transcribed constitutively to maintain general cellular functions, and the latter are transcribed in restricted tissue and cells types for specific molecular events. It is known that promoter features in the human genome are related to tissue specificity, but this has been difficult to quantify on a genomic scale. If entropy effectively quantifies DNA complexity, calculating the entropies of HK and TS gene promoters as profiles may reveal significant differences. Entropy profiles were calculated for a total dataset of 12,003 human gene promoters and for 501 housekeeping (HK) and 587 tissue specific (TS) human gene promoters. The mean profiles show the TS promoters have a significantly lower entropy (pentropy distributions for the 3 datasets show that promoter entropies could be used to identify novel HK genes. Functional features comprise DNA sequence patterns that are non-random and hence they have lower entropies. The lower entropy of TS gene promoters can be explained by a higher density of positive and negative regulatory elements, required for genes with complex spatial and temporary expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences in rice evolution result in two contrasting types of differentially expressed genes

    KAUST Repository

    Horiuchi, Youko; Harushima, Yoshiaki; Fujisawa, Hironori; Mochizuki, Takako; Fujita, Masahiro; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Kurata, Nori

    2015-01-01

    Since the development of transcriptome analysis systems, many expression evolution studies characterized evolutionary forces acting on gene expression, without explicit discrimination between global expression differences and tissue

  6. Twist and YB-1 gene expression in cervical cancer and precancerous tissue and their correlation with cell invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Tian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of Twist and YB-1 gene expression in cervical cancer and precancerous tissue with cell invasion. Methods: Cervical cancer tissue, precancerous tissue and normal cervical tissue surgically removed in our hospital between May 2013 and April 2015 were collected; immunohistochemical staining kits were used to detect the positive protein expression rate of Twist and YB-1 gene; fluorescence quantitative PCR kits were used to detect Twist, YB-1 and invasion gene mRNA expression. Results: Twist and YB-1 mRNA expression and positive protein expression rate as well as USP22, Rab11, Rac1 and ANXA5 mRNA expression in cervical cancer tissue and precancerous tissue were significantly higher than those in normal cervical tissue, Twist and YB-1 mRNA expression and positive protein expression rate as well as USP22, Rab11, Rac1 and ANXA5 mRNA expression in cervical cancer tissue were significantly higher than those in precancerous tissue; USP22, Rab11, Rac1 and ANXA5 mRNA expression in cervical cancer tissue and precancerous tissue with positive Twist and YB-1 expression were significantly higher than those in cervical cancer tissue and precancerous tissue with negative Twist and YB-1 expression. Conclusion: Highly expressed Twist and YB-1 in cervical cancer and precancerous tissue can promote cell invasion.

  7. Correlation of Claudins6 (CLDN6 gene expression in meningioma tissue with the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs/ tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMPs and epithelialmesenchymal transition (EMT genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Qiang Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of Claudins6 (CLDN6 gene expression in meningioma tissue with the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs/tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMPs and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT genes. Methods: Meningioma tissue samples that were surgically removed in Yibin First People’s Hospital between April 2014 and May 2017 were selected, normal arachnoid tissue samples that were collected from decompressive craniectomy in Yibin First People’s Hospital during the same period were selected, and the expression of CLDN6, MMPs/TIMPs and EMT genes in tissues were determined. Results: CLDN6 protein expression in meningioma tissue was significantly lower than that in normal arachnoid tissue; EMMPRIN, MMP2, MMP9, Vimentin and N-cadherin protein expression in meningioma tissue were significantly higher than those in normal arachnoid tissue while TIMP1, TIMP2, E-cadherin and α-catenin protein expression were significantly lower than those in normal arachnoid tissue; EMMPRIN, MMP2, MMP9, Vimentin and N-cadherin protein expression in meningioma tissue with higher CLDN6 expression were significantly lower than those in meningioma tissue with lower CLDN6 expression while TIMP1, TIMP2, E-cadherin and α-catenin protein expression were significantly higher than those in meningioma tissue with lower CLDN6 expression. Conclusion: Lowly expressed CLDN6 gene in meningioma tissue can increase the hydrolysis activity of MMPs, induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition and thus promote the invasive growth of meningioma.

  8. Tissue-type-specific transcriptome analysis identifies developing xylem-specific promoters in poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jae-Heung; Kim, Hyun-Tae; Hwang, Ildoo; Han, Kyung-Hwan

    2012-06-01

    Plant biotechnology offers a means to create novel phenotypes. However, commercial application of biotechnology in crop improvement programmes is severely hindered by the lack of utility promoters (or freedom to operate the existing ones) that can drive gene expression in a tissue-specific or temporally controlled manner. Woody biomass is gaining popularity as a source of fermentable sugars for liquid fuel production. To improve the quantity and quality of woody biomass, developing xylem (DX)-specific modification of the feedstock is highly desirable. To develop utility promoters that can drive transgene expression in a DX-specific manner, we used the Affymetrix Poplar Genome Arrays to obtain tissue-type-specific transcriptomes from poplar stems. Subsequent bioinformatics analysis identified 37 transcripts that are specifically or strongly expressed in DX cells of poplar. After further confirmation of their DX-specific expression using semi-quantitative PCR, we selected four genes (DX5, DX8, DX11 and DX15) for in vivo confirmation of their tissue-specific expression in transgenic poplars. The promoter regions of the selected DX genes were isolated and fused to a β-glucuronidase (GUS)-reported gene in a binary vector. This construct was used to produce transgenic poplars via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The GUS expression patterns of the resulting transgenic plants showed that these promoters were active in the xylem cells at early seedling growth and had strongest expression in the developing xylem cells at later growth stages of poplar. We conclude that these DX promoters can be used as a utility promoter for DX-specific biomass engineering. © 2012 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Expressão transiente do gene gus, sob regulação de quatro promotores, em diferentes tecidos de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. e videira (Vitis sp. Transient expression of the gus gene, under the regulation of four promoters, on different tissues of papaya (Carica papaya l. and grape (Vitis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelar Almeida Pinto

    2002-12-01

    evaluated on different papaya and grape tissues. Transient expression was evaluated on somatic embryos, leaves, stems, roots and fruits. The UBQ3 promoter, which is constitutive and is in the public domain, showed to be a real promising alternative for future work on genetic transformation of papaya but not grapes.

  10. Modulating ectopic gene expression levels by using retroviral vectors equipped with synthetic promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Joshua P; Peacock, Ryan W S; Lawhorn, Ingrid E B; Wang, Clifford L

    2011-12-01

    The human cytomegalovirus and elongation factor 1α promoters are constitutive promoters commonly employed by mammalian expression vectors. These promoters generally produce high levels of expression in many types of cells and tissues. To generate a library of synthetic promoters capable of generating a range of low, intermediate, and high expression levels, the TATA and CAAT box elements of these promoters were mutated. Other promoter variants were also generated by random mutagenesis. Evaluation using plasmid vectors integrated at a single site in the genome revealed that these various synthetic promoters were capable of expression levels spanning a 40-fold range. Retroviral vectors were equipped with the synthetic promoters and evaluated for their ability to reproduce the graded expression demonstrated by plasmid integration. A vector with a self-inactivating long terminal repeat could neither reproduce the full range of expression levels nor produce stable expression. Using a second vector design, the different synthetic promoters enabled stable expression over a broad range of expression levels in different cell lines. The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11693-011-9089-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  11. Differential tissue expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein in ‘Green mice’

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, De-Fu; Tezuka, Hideo; Kondo, Tetsuo; Sudo, Katsuko; Niu, Dong-Feng; Nakazawa, Tadao; Kawasaki, Tomonori; Yamane, Tetsu; Nakamura, Nobuki; Katoh, Ryohei

    2010-01-01

    In order to clarify tissue expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in ‘green mice’ from a transgenic line having an EGFP cDNA under the control of a chicken beta-actin promoter and cytomegalovirus enhancer, we studied the expression of EGFP in various organs and tissues from these ‘green mice’ by immunohistochemistry with anti- EGFP antibody in conjunction with direct observation for EGFP fluorescence using confocal laser scanning microscopy. On i...

  12. Tissue-specific interactions between nuclear proteins and the aminopeptidase N promoter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kärnström, U; Sjöström, H; Norén, O

    1991-01-01

    Aminopeptidase N/CD13 is a metallopeptidase found in many tissues. Aminopeptidase N activity is high in the small intestinal mucosa, moderate in the liver, and low in the spleen. Using DNase I footprinting and electrophoretic mobility shift assays with nuclear extracts from these tissues, three cis...... elements (DF, LF-B1, UF) were identified in the aminopeptidase N promoter. The DF region (-53 to -30) interacts with the ubiquitously expressed transcription factor Sp1. The LF-B1 region (-85 to -58) interacts with the liver transcription factor LF-B1 (HNF-1) which was detected as well in nuclei from small...... intestinal mucosa. The UF region (-112 to -90) interacts with nuclear factors which seem to be expressed differentially in the liver and the small intestine. Transfection of promoter deletions into HepG2 cells showed that the LF-B1 region is necessary for high expression of the aminopeptidase N gene in liver...

  13. Identification of the MUC2 Promoter as a Strong Promoter for Intestinal Gene Expression through Generation of Transgenic Quail Expressing GFP in Gut Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Woodfint

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of tissue- and stage-specific gene promoters is valuable for delineating the functional roles of specific genes in genetically engineered animals. Here, through the comparison of gene expression in different tissues by analysis of a microarray database, the intestinal specificity of mucin 2 (MUC2 expression was identified in mice and humans, and further confirmed in chickens by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR analysis. An analysis of cis-acting elements in avian MUC2 gene promoters revealed conservation of binding sites, within a 2.9 kb proximal promoter region, for transcription factors such as caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2, GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 α (HNF4A, and transcription factor 4 (TCF4 that are important for maintaining intestinal homeostasis and functional integrity. By generating transgenic quail, we demonstrated that the 2.9 kb chicken MUC2 promoter could drive green fluorescent protein (GFP reporter expression exclusively in the small intestine, large intestine, and ceca. Fluorescence image analysis further revealed GFP expression in intestine epithelial cells. The GFP expression was barely detectable in the embryonic intestine, but increased during post-hatch development. The spatiotemporal expression pattern of the reporter gene confirmed that the 2.9 kb MUC2 promoter could retain the regulatory element to drive expression of target genes in intestinal tissues after hatching. This new transgene expression system, using the MUC2 promoter, will provide a new method of overexpressing target genes to study gene function in the avian intestine.

  14. Predicting tissue-specific expressions based on sequence characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Paik, Hyojung; Ryu, Tae Woo; Heo, Hyoungsam; Seo, Seungwon; Lee, Doheon; Hur, Cheolgoo

    2011-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, including humans, understanding expression specificity at the tissue level is essential for interpreting protein function, such as tissue differentiation. We developed a prediction approach via generated sequence features from overrepresented patterns in housekeeping (HK) and tissue-specific (TS) genes to classify TS expression in humans. Using TS domains and transcriptional factor binding sites (TFBSs), sequence characteristics were used as indices of expressed tissues in a Random Forest algorithm by scoring exclusive patterns considering the biological intuition; TFBSs regulate gene expression, and the domains reflect the functional specificity of a TS gene. Our proposed approach displayed better performance than previous attempts and was validated using computational and experimental methods.

  15. Predicting tissue-specific expressions based on sequence characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Paik, Hyojung

    2011-04-30

    In multicellular organisms, including humans, understanding expression specificity at the tissue level is essential for interpreting protein function, such as tissue differentiation. We developed a prediction approach via generated sequence features from overrepresented patterns in housekeeping (HK) and tissue-specific (TS) genes to classify TS expression in humans. Using TS domains and transcriptional factor binding sites (TFBSs), sequence characteristics were used as indices of expressed tissues in a Random Forest algorithm by scoring exclusive patterns considering the biological intuition; TFBSs regulate gene expression, and the domains reflect the functional specificity of a TS gene. Our proposed approach displayed better performance than previous attempts and was validated using computational and experimental methods.

  16. Promoter Methylation and mRNA Expression of Response Gene to Complement 32 in Breast Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasab, E. E.; Nasab, E. E.; Hashemi, M.; Rafighdoost, F.

    2016-01-01

    Response gene to complement 32 (RGC32), induced by activation of complements, has been characterized as a cell cycle regulator; however, its role in carcinogenesis is still controversial. In the present study we compared RGC32 promoter methylation patterns and mRNA expression in breast cancerous tissues and adjacent normal tissues. Materials and Methods. Sixty-three breast cancer tissues and 63 adjacent non neoplastic tissues were included in our study. Design. Nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (Nested-MSP) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were used to determine RGC32 promoter methylation status and its mRNA expression levels, respectively. Results. RGC32 methylation pattern was not different between breast cancerous tissue and adjacent non neoplastic tissue (OR=2.30, 95% CI=0.95-5.54). However, qPCR analysis displayed higher levels of RGC32 mRNA in breast cancerous tissues than in noncancerous tissues (1.073 versus 0.959; P=0.001), irrespective of the promoter methylation status. The expression levels and promoter methylation of RGC32 were not correlated with any of patients’ clinical characteristics (P>0.05).

  17. Thrombomodulin Expression in Tissues From Dogs With Systemic Inflammatory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S D; Baker, P; DeLay, J; Wood, R D

    2016-07-01

    Thrombomodulin (TM) is a membrane glycoprotein expressed on endothelial cells, which plays a major role in the protein C anticoagulation pathway. In people with inflammation, TM expression can be down-regulated on endothelial cells and a soluble form released into circulation, resulting in increased risk of thrombosis and disseminated intravascular coagulation. TM is present in dogs; however, there has been minimal investigation of its expression in canine tissues, and the effects of inflammation on TM expression in canine tissues have not been investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate endothelial TM expression in tissues from dogs with systemic inflammatory diseases. A retrospective evaluation of tissue samples of lung, spleen, and liver from dogs with and without systemic inflammatory diseases was performed using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and a modified manual IHC scoring system. TM expression was significantly reduced in all examined tissues in dogs diagnosed with septic peritonitis or acute pancreatitis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Promoting tissue regeneration by modulating the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julier, Ziad; Park, Anthony J; Briquez, Priscilla S; Martino, Mikaël M

    2017-04-15

    The immune system plays a central role in tissue repair and regeneration. Indeed, the immune response to tissue injury is crucial in determining the speed and the outcome of the healing process, including the extent of scarring and the restoration of organ function. Therefore, controlling immune components via biomaterials and drug delivery systems is becoming an attractive approach in regenerative medicine, since therapies based on stem cells and growth factors have not yet proven to be broadly effective in the clinic. To integrate the immune system into regenerative strategies, one of the first challenges is to understand the precise functions of the different immune components during the tissue healing process. While remarkable progress has been made, the immune mechanisms involved are still elusive, and there is indication for both negative and positive roles depending on the tissue type or organ and life stage. It is well recognized that the innate immune response comprising danger signals, neutrophils and macrophages modulates tissue healing. In addition, it is becoming evident that the adaptive immune response, in particular T cell subset activities, plays a critical role. In this review, we first present an overview of the basic immune mechanisms involved in tissue repair and regeneration. Then, we highlight various approaches based on biomaterials and drug delivery systems that aim at modulating these mechanisms to limit fibrosis and promote regeneration. We propose that the next generation of regenerative therapies may evolve from typical biomaterial-, stem cell-, or growth factor-centric approaches to an immune-centric approach. Most regenerative strategies have not yet proven to be safe or reasonably efficient in the clinic. In addition to stem cells and growth factors, the immune system plays a crucial role in the tissue healing process. Here, we propose that controlling the immune-mediated mechanisms of tissue repair and regeneration may support

  19. Cloning of the chrysanthemum UEP1 promoter and comparative expression in leaves and ray and disc florets of Dendranthema grandiflora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annadana, S.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Kuipers, G.; Visser, P.B.; Outchkourov, N.; Pereira, A.; Udayakumar, M.; Jongsma, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    To attain high transgene expression in petal tissue of ray florets of chrysanthemum an endogenous ubiquitin extension protein (UEP1) promoter was cloned and tested with the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. Expression levels were compared with four heterologous promoters: chalcone synthase

  20. Synthetic promoter libraries- tuning of gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Karin; Mijakovic, Ivan; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2006-01-01

    knockout and strong overexpression. However, applications such as metabolic optimization and control analysis necessitate a continuous set of expression levels with only slight increments in strength to cover a specific window around the wildtype expression level of the studied gene; this requirement can......The study of gene function often requires changing the expression of a gene and evaluating the consequences. In principle, the expression of any given gene can be modulated in a quasi-continuum of discrete expression levels but the traditional approaches are usually limited to two extremes: gene...

  1. Noncanonical Wnt signaling promotes obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation and metabolic dysfunction independent of adipose tissue expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, José J; Zuriaga, María A; Ngo, Doan Thi-Minh; Farb, Melissa G; Aprahamian, Tamar; Yamaguchi, Terry P; Gokce, Noyan; Walsh, Kenneth

    2015-04-01

    Adipose tissue dysfunction plays a pivotal role in the development of insulin resistance in obese individuals. Cell culture studies and gain-of-function mouse models suggest that canonical Wnt proteins modulate adipose tissue expansion. However, no genetic evidence supports a role for endogenous Wnt proteins in adipose tissue dysfunction, and the role of noncanonical Wnt signaling remains largely unexplored. Here we provide evidence from human, mouse, and cell culture studies showing that Wnt5a-mediated, noncanonical Wnt signaling contributes to obesity-associated metabolic dysfunction by increasing adipose tissue inflammation. Wnt5a expression is significantly upregulated in human visceral fat compared with subcutaneous fat in obese individuals. In obese mice, Wnt5a ablation ameliorates insulin resistance, in parallel with reductions in adipose tissue inflammation. Conversely, Wnt5a overexpression in myeloid cells augments adipose tissue inflammation and leads to greater impairments in glucose homeostasis. Wnt5a ablation or overexpression did not affect fat mass or adipocyte size. Mechanistically, Wnt5a promotes the expression of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages in a Jun NH2-terminal kinase-dependent manner, leading to defective insulin signaling in adipocytes. Exogenous interleukin-6 administration restores insulin resistance in obese Wnt5a-deficient mice, suggesting a central role for this cytokine in Wnt5a-mediated metabolic dysfunction. Taken together, these results demonstrate that noncanonical Wnt signaling contributes to obesity-induced insulin resistance independent of adipose tissue expansion. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  2. Determinants of human adipose tissue gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viguerie, Nathalie; Montastier, Emilie; Maoret, Jean-José

    2012-01-01

    weight maintenance diets. For 175 genes, opposite regulation was observed during calorie restriction and weight maintenance phases, independently of variations in body weight. Metabolism and immunity genes showed inverse profiles. During the dietary intervention, network-based analyses revealed strong...... interconnection between expression of genes involved in de novo lipogenesis and components of the metabolic syndrome. Sex had a marked influence on AT expression of 88 transcripts, which persisted during the entire dietary intervention and after control for fat mass. In women, the influence of body mass index...... on expression of a subset of genes persisted during the dietary intervention. Twenty-two genes revealed a metabolic syndrome signature common to men and women. Genetic control of AT gene expression by cis signals was observed for 46 genes. Dietary intervention, sex, and cis genetic variants independently...

  3. Global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences in rice evolution result in two contrasting types of differentially expressed genes

    KAUST Repository

    Horiuchi, Youko

    2015-12-23

    Background Since the development of transcriptome analysis systems, many expression evolution studies characterized evolutionary forces acting on gene expression, without explicit discrimination between global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences. However, different types of gene expression alteration should have different effects on an organism, the evolutionary forces that act on them might be different, and different types of genes might show different types of differential expression between species. To confirm this, we studied differentially expressed (DE) genes among closely related groups that have extensive gene expression atlases, and clarified characteristics of different types of DE genes including the identification of regulating loci for differential expression using expression quantitative loci (eQTL) analysis data. Results We detected differentially expressed (DE) genes between rice subspecies in five homologous tissues that were verified using japonica and indica transcriptome atlases in public databases. Using the transcriptome atlases, we classified DE genes into two types, global DE genes and changed-tissues DE genes. Global type DE genes were not expressed in any tissues in the atlas of one subspecies, however changed-tissues type DE genes were expressed in both subspecies with different tissue specificity. For the five tissues in the two japonica-indica combinations, 4.6 ± 0.8 and 5.9 ± 1.5 % of highly expressed genes were global and changed-tissues DE genes, respectively. Changed-tissues DE genes varied in number between tissues, increasing linearly with the abundance of tissue specifically expressed genes in the tissue. Molecular evolution of global DE genes was rapid, unlike that of changed-tissues DE genes. Based on gene ontology, global and changed-tissues DE genes were different, having no common GO terms. Expression differences of most global DE genes were regulated by cis-eQTLs. Expression

  4. Expressions Creating Confusion among Elements of Promotion Mix: Sales Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Kelesbayev, Dinmukhamed; Kalykulov, Kuatbek; Yertayev, Yermek; Turlybekova, Altynay; Kamalov, Akhmet

    2017-01-01

    More than twenty years on marketing, research and publications have dealt with research problems based on marketing mix and have mostly examined marketing processes. However, the types or elements of the marketing mix that are important for both the enterprises and the consumers are not analyzed too deeply, and different expressions or concepts are used in the analyzed sources. For example, when we look at the literature on marketing, which is being used as a source in our universities, the c...

  5. STAT6 expression in glioblastoma promotes invasive growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merk, Barbara C; Owens, Jennifer L; Lopes, Maria-Beatriz S; Silva, Corinne M; Hussaini, Isa M

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly aggressive malignant primary brain tumor, characterized by rapid growth, diffuse infiltration of cells into both adjacent and remote brain regions, and a generalized resistance to currently available treatment modalities. Recent reports in the literature suggest that Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STATs) play important roles in the regulation of GBM pathophysiology. STAT6 protein expression was analyzed by Western blotting in GBM cell lines and by immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray (TMA) of glioma patient tissues. We utilized shRNA against STAT6 to investigate the effects of prolonged STAT6 depletion on the growth and invasion of two STAT6-positive GBM cell lines. Cell proliferation was assessed by measuring 3 H-Thymidine uptake over time. Invasion was measured using an in vitro transwell assay in which cells invade through a type IV collagen matrix toward a chemoattractant (Fetal Bovine Serum). Cells were then stained and counted. Kaplan-Meyer survival curves were generated to show the correlation between STAT6 gene expression and patient survival in 343 glioma patients and in a subset of patients with only GBM. Gene expression microarray and clinical data were acquired from the Rembrandt [1] public data depository (https://caintegrator.nci.nih.gov/rembrandt/). Lastly, a genome-wide expression microarray analysis was performed to compare gene expression in wild-type GBM cells to expression in stable STAT6 knockdown clones. STAT6 was expressed in 2 GBM cell lines, U-1242MG and U-87MG, and in normal astrocytes (NHA) but not in the U-251MG GBM cell line. In our TMA study, STAT6 immunostaining was visible in the majority of astrocytomas of all grades (I-IV) but not in normal brain tissue. In positive cells, STAT6 was localized exclusively in the nuclei over 95% of the time. STAT6-deficient GBM cells showed a reduction in 3 H-Thymidine uptake compared to the wild-type. There was some variation among the

  6. Azacytidine and miR156 promote rooting in adult but not in juvenile Arabidopsis tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoumi, Mehdi; Krens, Frans A; Visser, Richard G F; De Klerk, Geert-Jan M

    2017-01-01

    Poor adventitious root (AR) formation is a major obstacle in micropropagation and conventional vegetative propagation of many crops. It is affected by many endogenous and exogenous factors. With respect to endogenous factors, the phase change from juvenile to adult has a major influence on AR formation and rooting is usually much reduced or even fully inhibited in adult tissues. It has been reported that the phase change is characterized by an increase in DNA-methylation and a decrease in the expression of microRNA156 (miR156). In this paper, we examined the effect of azacytidine (AzaC) and miR156 on AR formation in adult and juvenile Arabidopsis tissues. To identify the ontogenetic state researchers have used flowering or leaf morphology. We have used the rootability which allows - in contrast with both other characteristics- to examine the ontogenetic state at the cellular level. Overexpression of miR156 promoted only the rooting of adult tissues indicating that the phase change-associated loss in tissues' competence to develop ARs is also under the control of miR156. Azacytidine inhibits DNA methylation during DNA replication. Azacytidine treatment also promoted AR formation in nonjuvenile tissues but had no or little effect in juvenile tissues. Its addition during seedling growth (by which all tissues become hypomethylated) or during the rooting treatment (by which only those cells become hypomethylated that are generated after taking the explant) are both effective in the promotion of rooting. An AzaC treatment may be useful in tissue culture for crops that are recalcitrant to root. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. STAT6 expression in glioblastoma promotes invasive growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Corinne M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastoma (GBM is a highly aggressive malignant primary brain tumor, characterized by rapid growth, diffuse infiltration of cells into both adjacent and remote brain regions, and a generalized resistance to currently available treatment modalities. Recent reports in the literature suggest that Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STATs play important roles in the regulation of GBM pathophysiology. Methods STAT6 protein expression was analyzed by Western blotting in GBM cell lines and by immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray (TMA of glioma patient tissues. We utilized shRNA against STAT6 to investigate the effects of prolonged STAT6 depletion on the growth and invasion of two STAT6-positive GBM cell lines. Cell proliferation was assessed by measuring 3H-Thymidine uptake over time. Invasion was measured using an in vitro transwell assay in which cells invade through a type IV collagen matrix toward a chemoattractant (Fetal Bovine Serum. Cells were then stained and counted. Kaplan-Meyer survival curves were generated to show the correlation between STAT6 gene expression and patient survival in 343 glioma patients and in a subset of patients with only GBM. Gene expression microarray and clinical data were acquired from the Rembrandt 1 public data depository (https://caintegrator.nci.nih.gov/rembrandt/. Lastly, a genome-wide expression microarray analysis was performed to compare gene expression in wild-type GBM cells to expression in stable STAT6 knockdown clones. Results STAT6 was expressed in 2 GBM cell lines, U-1242MG and U-87MG, and in normal astrocytes (NHA but not in the U-251MG GBM cell line. In our TMA study, STAT6 immunostaining was visible in the majority of astrocytomas of all grades (I-IV but not in normal brain tissue. In positive cells, STAT6 was localized exclusively in the nuclei over 95% of the time. STAT6-deficient GBM cells showed a reduction in 3H-Thymidine uptake compared to the wild

  8. Public awareness in promotion of tissue transplantation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Rani Samsudin; Hasim Mohammad

    1999-01-01

    Malaysia is a developing country in South East Asia with a population of 21 million. The population is multiracial, multicultural and multireligion and it is one of the few countries in the world which possess a multicomplexity way of life among its ethnic groups. The health care system in Malaysia is divided into two main system, i.e. government based or public service and private based health care practice. The idea about organ donation and transplant science has a rise in Malaysia some 30 years ago, and the first historical event of a kidney transplant from a cadaveric donor took place in 1976. 22 years down the line, the first heart transplant was performed in Malaysia. Over the last 22 years between 1976 and 1998 many programmes promoting the idea of organ and tissue transplantation has been came out throughout the country led by government based bodies and non governmental Organisation. In terms of government funding, supporting a transplant programme is not a cheap exercise and this aspect of health care financial burden must be given due consideration by government and non governmental bodies for success of the programme. Besides financial burden, there are the common dilemma of culture and religious barrier for the success of the programme, but this problem has been tackled extremely well by the government. The setting up of two tissue banks in Malaysia in 1991 has further enhanced the idea of organ and tissue transplantation in this country, and the establishment of the national transplant resource centre based at Hospital Kuala Lumpur provides a national coordination service system for both organ and tissue procurement services for the whole country. Organ and tissue donation programme-ne and finally the success of a national transplant programme will certainly depend on the health status and health priorities of the country, the standard of general education, the quality of life style while cultural and religious factors in Malaysia will play a minor

  9. CMG2 Expression Is an Independent Prognostic Factor for Soft Tissue Sarcoma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Greither

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The capillary morphogenesis gene 2 (CMG2, also known as the anthrax toxin receptor 2 (ANTXR2, is a transmembrane protein putatively involved in extracellular matrix (ECM adhesion and tissue remodeling. CMG2 promotes endothelial cell proliferation and exhibits angiogenic properties. Its downregulation is associated with a worsened survival of breast carcinoma patients. Aim of this study was to analyze the CMG2 mRNA and protein expression in soft tissue sarcoma and their association with patient outcome. CMG2 mRNA was measured in 121 tumor samples of soft tissue sarcoma patients using quantitative real-time PCR. CMG2 protein was evaluated in 52 tumor samples by ELISA. CMG2 mRNA was significantly correlated with the corresponding CMG2 protein expression (rs = 0.31; p = 0.027. CMG2 mRNA expression was associated with the mRNA expressions of several ECM and tissue remodeling enzymes, among them CD26 and components of the uPA system. Low CMG2 mRNA expression was correlated with a worsened patients’ disease-specific survival in Kaplan-Meier analyses (mean patient survival was 25 vs. 96 months; p = 0.013, especially in high-stage tumors. A decreased CMG2 expression is a negative prognostic factor for soft tissue sarcoma patients. CMG2 may be an interesting candidate gene for the further exploration of soft tissue sarcoma genesis and progression.

  10. CMG2 Expression Is an Independent Prognostic Factor for Soft Tissue Sarcoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greither, Thomas; Wedler, Alice; Rot, Swetlana; Keßler, Jacqueline; Kehlen, Astrid; Holzhausen, Hans-Jürgen; Bache, Matthias; Würl, Peter; Taubert, Helge; Kappler, Matthias

    2017-12-07

    The capillary morphogenesis gene 2 (CMG2), also known as the anthrax toxin receptor 2 (ANTXR2), is a transmembrane protein putatively involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion and tissue remodeling. CMG2 promotes endothelial cell proliferation and exhibits angiogenic properties. Its downregulation is associated with a worsened survival of breast carcinoma patients. Aim of this study was to analyze the CMG2 mRNA and protein expression in soft tissue sarcoma and their association with patient outcome. CMG2 mRNA was measured in 121 tumor samples of soft tissue sarcoma patients using quantitative real-time PCR. CMG2 protein was evaluated in 52 tumor samples by ELISA. CMG2 mRNA was significantly correlated with the corresponding CMG2 protein expression (r s = 0.31; p = 0.027). CMG2 mRNA expression was associated with the mRNA expressions of several ECM and tissue remodeling enzymes, among them CD26 and components of the uPA system. Low CMG2 mRNA expression was correlated with a worsened patients' disease-specific survival in Kaplan-Meier analyses (mean patient survival was 25 vs. 96 months; p = 0.013), especially in high-stage tumors. A decreased CMG2 expression is a negative prognostic factor for soft tissue sarcoma patients. CMG2 may be an interesting candidate gene for the further exploration of soft tissue sarcoma genesis and progression.

  11. Core Promoter Plasticity Between Maize Tissues and Genotypes Contrasts with Predominance of Sharp Transcription Initiation Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Guerra, María Katherine; Li, Wei; Galeano, Narmer F; Vidal, Mabel; Gray, John; Doseff, Andrea I; Grotewold, Erich

    2015-12-01

    Core promoters are crucial for gene regulation, providing blueprints for the assembly of transcriptional machinery at transcription start sites (TSSs). Empirically, TSSs define the coordinates of core promoters and other regulatory sequences. Thus, experimental TSS identification provides an essential step in the characterization of promoters and their features. Here, we describe the application of CAGE (cap analysis of gene expression) to identify genome-wide TSSs used in root and shoot tissues of two maize (Zea mays) inbred lines (B73 and Mo17). Our studies indicate that most TSS clusters are sharp in maize, similar to mice, but distinct from Arabidopsis thaliana, Drosophila melanogaster, or zebra fish, in which a majority of genes have broad-shaped TSS clusters. We established that ∼38% of maize promoters are characterized by a broader TATA-motif consensus, and this motif is significantly enriched in genes with sharp TSSs. A noteworthy plasticity in TSS usage between tissues and inbreds was uncovered, with ∼1500 genes showing significantly different dominant TSSs, sometimes affecting protein sequence by providing alternate translation initiation codons. We experimentally characterized instances in which this differential TSS utilization results in protein isoforms with additional domains or targeted to distinct subcellular compartments. These results provide important insights into TSS selection and gene expression in an agronomically important crop. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic effects on gene expression across human tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battle, Alexis; Brown, Christopher D.; Engelhardt, Barbara E.; Montgomery, Stephen B.; Aguet, François; Ardlie, Kristin G.; Cummings, Beryl B.; Gelfand, Ellen T.; Getz, Gad; Hadley, Kane; Handsaker, Robert E.; Huang, Katherine H.; Kashin, Seva; Karczewski, Konrad J.; Lek, Monkol; Li, Xiao; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Nedzel, Jared L.; Nguyen, Duyen T.; Noble, Michael S.; Segrè, Ayellet V.; Trowbridge, Casandra A.; Tukiainen, Taru; Abell, Nathan S.; Balliu, Brunilda; Barshir, Ruth; Basha, Omer; Bogu, Gireesh K.; Brown, Andrew; Castel, Stephane E.; Chen, Lin S.; Chiang, Colby; Conrad, Donald F.; Cox, Nancy J.; Damani, Farhan N.; Davis, Joe R.; Delaneau, Olivier; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Eskin, Eleazar; Ferreira, Pedro G.; Frésard, Laure; Gamazon, Eric R.; Garrido-Martín, Diego; Gewirtz, Ariel D. H.; Gliner, Genna; Gloudemans, Michael J.; Guigo, Roderic; Hall, Ira M.; Han, Buhm; He, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Characterization of the molecular function of the human genome and its variation across individuals is essential for identifying the cellular mechanisms that underlie human genetic traits and diseases. The Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project aims to characterize variation in gene expression

  13. Reference Gene Screening for Analyzing Gene Expression Across Goat Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR is one of the important methods for investigating the changes in mRNA expression levels in cells and tissues. Selection of the proper reference genes is very important when calibrating the results of real-time quantitative PCR. Studies on the selection of reference genes in goat tissues are limited, despite the economic importance of their meat and dairy products. We used real-time quantitative PCR to detect the expression levels of eight reference gene candidates (18S, TBP, HMBS, YWHAZ, ACTB, HPRT1, GAPDH and EEF1A2 in ten tissues types sourced from Boer goats. The optimal reference gene combination was selected according to the results determined by geNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper software packages. The analyses showed that tissue is an important variability factor in genes expression stability. When all tissues were considered, 18S, TBP and HMBS is the optimal reference combination for calibrating quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression from goat tissues. Dividing data set by tissues, ACTB was the most stable in stomach, small intestine and ovary, 18S in heart and spleen, HMBS in uterus and lung, TBP in liver, HPRT1 in kidney and GAPDH in muscle. Overall, this study provided valuable information about the goat reference genes that can be used in order to perform a proper normalisation when relative quantification by qRT-PCR studies is undertaken.

  14. A compendium of canine normal tissue gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Briggs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our understanding of disease is increasingly informed by changes in gene expression between normal and abnormal tissues. The release of the canine genome sequence in 2005 provided an opportunity to better understand human health and disease using the dog as clinically relevant model. Accordingly, we now present the first genome-wide, canine normal tissue gene expression compendium with corresponding human cross-species analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Affymetrix platform was utilized to catalogue gene expression signatures of 10 normal canine tissues including: liver, kidney, heart, lung, cerebrum, lymph node, spleen, jejunum, pancreas and skeletal muscle. The quality of the database was assessed in several ways. Organ defining gene sets were identified for each tissue and functional enrichment analysis revealed themes consistent with known physio-anatomic functions for each organ. In addition, a comparison of orthologous gene expression between matched canine and human normal tissues uncovered remarkable similarity. To demonstrate the utility of this dataset, novel canine gene annotations were established based on comparative analysis of dog and human tissue selective gene expression and manual curation of canine probeset mapping. Public access, using infrastructure identical to that currently in use for human normal tissues, has been established and allows for additional comparisons across species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data advance our understanding of the canine genome through a comprehensive analysis of gene expression in a diverse set of tissues, contributing to improved functional annotation that has been lacking. Importantly, it will be used to inform future studies of disease in the dog as a model for human translational research and provides a novel resource to the community at large.

  15. Tissue-specific mRNA expression profiling in grape berry tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimplet, Jerome; Deluc, Laurent G; Tillett, Richard L; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Cramer, Grant R; Cushman, John C

    2007-01-01

    Background Berries of grape (Vitis vinifera) contain three major tissue types (skin, pulp and seed) all of which contribute to the aroma, color, and flavor characters of wine. The pericarp, which is composed of the exocarp (skin) and mesocarp (pulp), not only functions to protect and feed the developing seed, but also to assist in the dispersal of the mature seed by avian and mammalian vectors. The skin provides volatile and nonvolatile aroma and color compounds, the pulp contributes organic acids and sugars, and the seeds provide condensed tannins, all of which are important to the formation of organoleptic characteristics of wine. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling tissue-specific mRNA expression patterns, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on each tissue of mature berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0. In order to monitor the influence of water-deficit stress on tissue-specific expression patterns, mRNA expression profiles were also compared from mature berries harvested from vines subjected to well-watered or water-deficit conditions. Results Overall, berry tissues were found to express approximately 76% of genes represented on the Vitis microarray. Approximately 60% of these genes exhibited significant differential expression in one or more of the three major tissue types with more than 28% of genes showing pronounced (2-fold or greater) differences in mRNA expression. The largest difference in tissue-specific expression was observed between the seed and pulp/skin. Exocarp tissue, which is involved in pathogen defense and pigment production, showed higher mRNA abundance relative to other berry tissues for genes involved with flavonoid biosynthesis, pathogen resistance, and cell wall modification. Mesocarp tissue, which is considered a nutritive tissue, exhibited a higher mRNA abundance of genes involved in cell wall function and

  16. Tissue-specific mRNA expression profiling in grape berry tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cramer Grant R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Berries of grape (Vitis vinifera contain three major tissue types (skin, pulp and seed all of which contribute to the aroma, color, and flavor characters of wine. The pericarp, which is composed of the exocarp (skin and mesocarp (pulp, not only functions to protect and feed the developing seed, but also to assist in the dispersal of the mature seed by avian and mammalian vectors. The skin provides volatile and nonvolatile aroma and color compounds, the pulp contributes organic acids and sugars, and the seeds provide condensed tannins, all of which are important to the formation of organoleptic characteristics of wine. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling tissue-specific mRNA expression patterns, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on each tissue of mature berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0. In order to monitor the influence of water-deficit stress on tissue-specific expression patterns, mRNA expression profiles were also compared from mature berries harvested from vines subjected to well-watered or water-deficit conditions. Results Overall, berry tissues were found to express approximately 76% of genes represented on the Vitis microarray. Approximately 60% of these genes exhibited significant differential expression in one or more of the three major tissue types with more than 28% of genes showing pronounced (2-fold or greater differences in mRNA expression. The largest difference in tissue-specific expression was observed between the seed and pulp/skin. Exocarp tissue, which is involved in pathogen defense and pigment production, showed higher mRNA abundance relative to other berry tissues for genes involved with flavonoid biosynthesis, pathogen resistance, and cell wall modification. Mesocarp tissue, which is considered a nutritive tissue, exhibited a higher mRNA abundance of genes involved in cell

  17. Development of a GAL4-VP16/UAS trans-activation system for tissue specific expression in Medicago truncatula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie Sevin-Pujol

    Full Text Available Promoters with tissue-specific activity are very useful to address cell-autonomous and non cell autonomous functions of candidate genes. Although this strategy is widely used in Arabidopsis thaliana, its use to study tissue-specific regulation of root symbiotic interactions in legumes has only started recently. Moreover, using tissue specific promoter activity to drive a GAL4-VP16 chimeric transcription factor that can bind short upstream activation sequences (UAS is an efficient way to target and enhance the expression of any gene of interest. Here, we developed a collection of promoters with different root cell layers specific activities in Medicago truncatula and tested their abilities to drive the expression of a chimeric GAL4-VP16 transcription factor in a trans-activation UAS: β-Glucuronidase (GUS reporter gene system. By developing a binary vector devoted to modular Golden Gate cloning together with a collection of adapted tissue specific promoters and coding sequences we could test the activity of four of these promoters in trans-activation GAL4/UAS systems and compare them to "classical" promoter GUS fusions. Roots showing high levels of tissue specific expression of the GUS activity could be obtained with this trans-activation system. We therefore provide the legume community with new tools for efficient modular Golden Gate cloning, tissue specific expression and a trans-activation system. This study provides the ground work for future development of stable transgenic lines in Medicago truncatula.

  18. A 310-bp minimal promoter mediates smooth muscle cell-specific expression of telokin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A F; Bigsby, R M; Word, R A; Herring, B P

    1998-05-01

    A cell-specific promoter located in an intron of the smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase gene directs transcription of telokin exclusively in smooth muscle cells. Transgenic mice were generated in which a 310-bp rabbit telokin promoter fragment, extending from -163 to +147, was used to drive expression of simian virus 40 large T antigen. Smooth muscle-specific expression of the T-antigen transgene paralleled that of the endogenous telokin gene in all smooth muscle tissues except uterus. The 310-bp promoter fragment resulted in very low levels of transgene expression in uterus; in contrast, a transgene driven by a 2.4-kb fragment (-2250 to +147) resulted in high levels of transgene expression in uterine smooth muscle. Telokin expression levels correlate with the estrogen status of human myometrial tissues, suggesting that deletion of an estrogen response element (ERE) may account for the low levels of transgene expression driven by the 310-bp rabbit telokin promoter in uterine smooth muscle. Experiments in A10 smooth muscle cells directly showed that reporter gene expression driven by the 2.4-kb, but not 310-bp, promoter fragment could be stimulated two- to threefold by estrogen. This stimulation was mediated through an ERE located between -1447 and -1474. Addition of the ERE to the 310-bp fragment restored estrogen responsiveness in A10 cells. These data demonstrate that in addition to a minimal 310-bp proximal promoter at least one distal cis-acting regulatory element is required for telokin expression in uterine smooth muscle. The distal element may include an ERE between -1447 and -1474.

  19. The Somatic Reproductive Tissues of C. elegans Promote Longevity through Steroid Hormone Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, Tracy M.; Berman, Jennifer R.; Suchanek-Kavipurapu, Monika; McCormick, Mark; Gaglia, Marta Maria; Lee, Seung-Jae; Kenyon, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, removing the germline precursor cells increases lifespan. In worms, and possibly also in flies, this lifespan extension requires the presence of somatic reproductive tissues. How the somatic gonad signals other tissues to increase lifespan is not known. The lifespan increase triggered by loss of the germ cells is known to require sterol hormone signaling, as reducing the activity of the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12, or genes required for synthesis of the DAF-12 ligand dafachronic acid, prevents germline loss from extending lifespan. In addition to sterol signaling, the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 is required to extend lifespan in animals that lack germ cells. DAF-12/NHR is known to assist with the nuclear accumulation of DAF-16/FOXO in these animals, yet we find that loss of DAF-12/NHR has little or no effect on the expression of at least some DAF-16/FOXO target genes. In this study, we show that the DAF-12-sterol signaling pathway has a second function to activate a distinct set of genes and extend lifespan in response to the somatic reproductive tissues. When germline-deficient animals lacking somatic reproductive tissues are given dafachronic acid, their expression of DAF-12/NHR-dependent target genes is restored and their lifespan is increased. Together, our findings indicate that in C. elegans lacking germ cells, the somatic reproductive tissues promote longevity via steroid hormone signaling to DAF-12. PMID:20824162

  20. The somatic reproductive tissues of C. elegans promote longevity through steroid hormone signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy M Yamawaki

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, removing the germline precursor cells increases lifespan. In worms, and possibly also in flies, this lifespan extension requires the presence of somatic reproductive tissues. How the somatic gonad signals other tissues to increase lifespan is not known. The lifespan increase triggered by loss of the germ cells is known to require sterol hormone signaling, as reducing the activity of the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12, or genes required for synthesis of the DAF-12 ligand dafachronic acid, prevents germline loss from extending lifespan. In addition to sterol signaling, the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 is required to extend lifespan in animals that lack germ cells. DAF-12/NHR is known to assist with the nuclear accumulation of DAF-16/FOXO in these animals, yet we find that loss of DAF-12/NHR has little or no effect on the expression of at least some DAF-16/FOXO target genes. In this study, we show that the DAF-12-sterol signaling pathway has a second function to activate a distinct set of genes and extend lifespan in response to the somatic reproductive tissues. When germline-deficient animals lacking somatic reproductive tissues are given dafachronic acid, their expression of DAF-12/NHR-dependent target genes is restored and their lifespan is increased. Together, our findings indicate that in C. elegans lacking germ cells, the somatic reproductive tissues promote longevity via steroid hormone signaling to DAF-12.

  1. Analysis of the promoters involved in enterocin AS-48 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrián, Rubén; Rodríguez-Ruano, Sonia; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Valdivia, Eva; Maqueda, Mercedes; Montalbán-López, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The enterocin AS-48 is the best characterized antibacterial circular protein in prokaryotes. It is a hydrophobic and cationic bacteriocin, which is ribosomally synthesized by enterococcal cells and post-translationally cyclized by a head-to-tail peptide bond. The production of and immunity towards AS-48 depend upon the coordinated expression of ten genes organized in two operons, as-48ABC (where genes encoding enzymes with processing, secretion, and immunity functions are adjacent to the structural as-48A gene) and as-48C1DD1EFGH. The current study describes the identification of the promoters involved in AS-48 expression. Seven putative promoters have been here amplified, and separately inserted into the promoter-probe vector pTLR1, to create transcriptional fusions with the mCherry gene used as a reporter. The activity of these promoter regions was assessed measuring the expression of the fluorescent mCherry protein using the constitutive pneumococcal promoter PX as a reference. Our results revealed that only three promoters PA, P2(2) and PD1 were recognized in Enterococcus faecalis, Lactococcus lactis and Escherichia coli, in the conditions tested. The maximal fluorescence was obtained with PX in all the strains, followed by the P2(2) promoter, which level of fluorescence was 2-fold compared to PA and 4-fold compared to PD1. Analysis of putative factors influencing the promoter activity in single and double transformants in E. faecalis JH2-2 demonstrated that, in general, a better expression was achieved in presence of pAM401-81. In addition, the P2(2) promoter could be regulated in a negative fashion by genes existing in the native pMB-2 plasmid other than those of the as-48 cluster, while the pH seems to affect differently the as-48 promoter expression.

  2. Analysis of the promoters involved in enterocin AS-48 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Cebrián

    Full Text Available The enterocin AS-48 is the best characterized antibacterial circular protein in prokaryotes. It is a hydrophobic and cationic bacteriocin, which is ribosomally synthesized by enterococcal cells and post-translationally cyclized by a head-to-tail peptide bond. The production of and immunity towards AS-48 depend upon the coordinated expression of ten genes organized in two operons, as-48ABC (where genes encoding enzymes with processing, secretion, and immunity functions are adjacent to the structural as-48A gene and as-48C1DD1EFGH. The current study describes the identification of the promoters involved in AS-48 expression. Seven putative promoters have been here amplified, and separately inserted into the promoter-probe vector pTLR1, to create transcriptional fusions with the mCherry gene used as a reporter. The activity of these promoter regions was assessed measuring the expression of the fluorescent mCherry protein using the constitutive pneumococcal promoter PX as a reference. Our results revealed that only three promoters PA, P2(2 and PD1 were recognized in Enterococcus faecalis, Lactococcus lactis and Escherichia coli, in the conditions tested. The maximal fluorescence was obtained with PX in all the strains, followed by the P2(2 promoter, which level of fluorescence was 2-fold compared to PA and 4-fold compared to PD1. Analysis of putative factors influencing the promoter activity in single and double transformants in E. faecalis JH2-2 demonstrated that, in general, a better expression was achieved in presence of pAM401-81. In addition, the P2(2 promoter could be regulated in a negative fashion by genes existing in the native pMB-2 plasmid other than those of the as-48 cluster, while the pH seems to affect differently the as-48 promoter expression.

  3. Gene Expression Signature in Adipose Tissue of Acromegaly Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Irit; Tran, Quynh T.; Barkan, Ariel L.; Saltiel, Alan R.; Chandler, William F.; Bridges, Dave

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of chronic excess growth hormone on adipose tissue, we performed RNA sequencing in adipose tissue biopsies from patients with acromegaly (n = 7) or non-functioning pituitary adenomas (n = 11). The patients underwent clinical and metabolic profiling including assessment of HOMA-IR. Explants of adipose tissue were assayed ex vivo for lipolysis and ceramide levels. Patients with acromegaly had higher glucose, higher insulin levels and higher HOMA-IR score. We observed several previously reported transcriptional changes (IGF1, IGFBP3, CISH, SOCS2) that are known to be induced by GH/IGF-1 in liver but are also induced in adipose tissue. We also identified several novel transcriptional changes, some of which may be important for GH/IGF responses (PTPN3 and PTPN4) and the effects of acromegaly on growth and proliferation. Several differentially expressed transcripts may be important in GH/IGF-1-induced metabolic changes. Specifically, induction of LPL, ABHD5, and NRIP1 can contribute to enhanced lipolysis and may explain the elevated adipose tissue lipolysis in acromegalic patients. Higher expression of TCF7L2 and the fatty acid desaturases FADS1, FADS2 and SCD could contribute to insulin resistance. Ceramides were not different between the two groups. In summary, we have identified the acromegaly gene expression signature in human adipose tissue. The significance of altered expression of specific transcripts will enhance our understanding of the metabolic and proliferative changes associated with acromegaly. PMID:26087292

  4. Differential tissue expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein in 'green mice'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, De-Fu; Tezuka, Hideo; Kondo, Tetsuo; Sudo, Katsuko; Niu, Dong-Feng; Nakazawa, Tadao; Kawasaki, Tomonori; Yamane, Tetsu; Nakamura, Nobuki; Katoh, Ryohei

    2010-06-01

    In order to clarify tissue expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in 'green mice' from a transgenic line having an EGFP cDNA under the control of a chicken beta-actin promoter and cytomegalovirus enhancer, we studied the expression of EGFP in various organs and tissues from these 'green mice' by immunohistochemistry with anti- EGFP antibody in conjunction with direct observation for EGFP fluorescence using confocal laser scanning microscopy. On immunohistochemical examination and on direct observation by confocal laser scanning microscopy, the level of EGFP expression varied among organs and tissues. EGFP expression was diffusely and strongly observed in the skin, pituitary, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, heart, gall bladder, pancreas, adrenals and urinary bladder. There was only sporadic and weak expression of EGFP in the epithelium of the trachea, bronchus of the lung, stratified squamous epithelium and gastric glands of the stomach, hepatic bile ducts of the liver, glomeruli and renal tubules of the kidney and endo-metrial glands of the uterus. Furthermore, EGFP was only demonstrated within the goblet and paneth cells in the colon and small intestine, the tall columnar cells in the ductus epididymis, and the leydig cells in the testis. In conclusion, our results show that EGFP is differentially expressed in organs and tissues of 'green mice', which indicates that 'green mice' may prove useful for research involving transplantation and tissue clonality.

  5. MUS81 promotes common fragile site expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ying, Songmin; Minocherhomji, Sheroy; Chan, Kok Lung

    2013-01-01

    Fragile sites are chromosomal loci with a propensity to form gaps or breaks during early mitosis, and their instability is implicated as being causative in certain neurological disorders and cancers. Recent work has demonstrated that the so-called common fragile sites (CFSs) often impair the fait......Fragile sites are chromosomal loci with a propensity to form gaps or breaks during early mitosis, and their instability is implicated as being causative in certain neurological disorders and cancers. Recent work has demonstrated that the so-called common fragile sites (CFSs) often impair...... the faithful disjunction of sister chromatids in mitosis. However, the mechanisms by which CFSs express their fragility, and the cellular factors required to suppress CFS instability, remain largely undefined. Here, we report that the DNA structure-specific nuclease MUS81-EME1 localizes to CFS loci in early...

  6. Silicalite nanoparticles that promote transgene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, Megan E; Mai, Hoang Q; Salem, Aliasger K; Lee, Namhoon; Larsen, Sarah C

    2008-01-01

    Here, we report on a new zeolite-based silicalite nanoparticle that can enhance the transfection efficiencies generated by poly ethylene imine-plasmid DNA (PEI-pDNA) complexes via a sedimentation mechanism and can enhance the transfection efficiencies of pDNA alone when surface functionalized with amine groups. The silicalite nanoparticles have a mean size of 55 nm. Functionalizing the silicalite nanoparticles with amine groups results in a clear transition in zeta potential from -25.9 ± 2.3 mV (pH 7.4) for unfunctionalized silicalite nanoparticles to 4.9 ± 0.7 mV (pH 7.4) for amine functionalized silicalite nanoparticles. We identify that silicalite nanoparticles used to promote non-viral vector acceleration to the cell surface are found in acidic vesicles or the cytoplasm but not the nucleus. An MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay showed that the silicalite nanoparticles were non-toxic at the concentrations tested for transfection. We show that surface functionalization of silicalite nanoparticles with amine groups results in a significant (230%) increase in transfection efficiency of pDNA when compared to unfunctionalized silicalite nanoparticles. Silicalite nanoparticles enhanced pDNA-PEI induced transfection of human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells by over 150%

  7. Comprehensive comparison of large-scale tissue expression datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos Delgado, Alberto; Tsafou, Kalliopi; Stolte, Christian

    2015-01-01

    a comprehensive evaluation of tissue expression data from a variety of experimental techniques and show that these agree surprisingly well with each other and with results from literature curation and text mining. We further found that most datasets support the assumed but not demonstrated distinction between......For tissues to carry out their functions, they rely on the right proteins to be present. Several high-throughput technologies have been used to map out which proteins are expressed in which tissues; however, the data have not previously been systematically compared and integrated. We present......://tissues.jensenlab.org), which makes all the scored and integrated data available through a single user-friendly web interface....

  8. Precise regulation of gene expression dynamics favors complex promoter architectures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Müller

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Promoters process signals through recruitment of transcription factors and RNA polymerase, and dynamic changes in promoter activity constitute a major noise source in gene expression. However, it is barely understood how complex promoter architectures determine key features of promoter dynamics. Here, we employ prototypical promoters of yeast ribosomal protein genes as well as simplified versions thereof to analyze the relations among promoter design, complexity, and function. These promoters combine the action of a general regulatory factor with that of specific transcription factors, a common motif of many eukaryotic promoters. By comprehensively analyzing stationary and dynamic promoter properties, this model-based approach enables us to pinpoint the structural characteristics underlying the observed behavior. Functional tradeoffs impose constraints on the promoter architecture of ribosomal protein genes. We find that a stable scaffold in the natural design results in low transcriptional noise and strong co-regulation of target genes in the presence of gene silencing. This configuration also exhibits superior shut-off properties, and it can serve as a tunable switch in living cells. Model validation with independent experimental data suggests that the models are sufficiently realistic. When combined, our results offer a mechanistic explanation for why specific factors are associated with low protein noise in vivo. Many of these findings hold for a broad range of model parameters and likely apply to other eukaryotic promoters of similar structure.

  9. Expression cartography of human tissues using self organizing maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löffler Markus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parallel high-throughput microarray and sequencing experiments produce vast quantities of multidimensional data which must be arranged and analyzed in a concerted way. One approach to addressing this challenge is the machine learning technique known as self organizing maps (SOMs. SOMs enable a parallel sample- and gene-centered view of genomic data combined with strong visualization and second-level analysis capabilities. The paper aims at bridging the gap between the potency of SOM-machine learning to reduce dimension of high-dimensional data on one hand and practical applications with special emphasis on gene expression analysis on the other hand. Results The method was applied to generate a SOM characterizing the whole genome expression profiles of 67 healthy human tissues selected from ten tissue categories (adipose, endocrine, homeostasis, digestion, exocrine, epithelium, sexual reproduction, muscle, immune system and nervous tissues. SOM mapping reduces the dimension of expression data from ten of thousands of genes to a few thousand metagenes, each representing a minicluster of co-regulated single genes. Tissue-specific and common properties shared between groups of tissues emerge as a handful of localized spots in the tissue maps collecting groups of co-regulated and co-expressed metagenes. The functional context of the spots was discovered using overrepresentation analysis with respect to pre-defined gene sets of known functional impact. We found that tissue related spots typically contain enriched populations of genes related to specific molecular processes in the respective tissue. Analysis techniques normally used at the gene-level such as two-way hierarchical clustering are better represented and provide better signal-to-noise ratios if applied to the metagenes. Metagene-based clustering analyses aggregate the tissues broadly into three clusters containing nervous, immune system and the remaining tissues

  10. Inhibition of Notch signaling by Dll4-Fc promotes reperfusion of acutely ischemic tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ren [Department of Pathology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States); Trindade, Alexandre [Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao em Sanidade Animal (CIISA), Lisbon Technical University, Lisbon (Portugal); Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia, Oeiras (Portugal); Sun, Zhanfeng [Department of Vascular Surgery, 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang (China); Kumar, Ram; Weaver, Fred A. [Department of Surgery, University of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States); Krasnoperov, Valery; Naga, Kranthi [Vasgene Therapeutics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Duarte, Antonio [Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao em Sanidade Animal (CIISA), Lisbon Technical University, Lisbon (Portugal); Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia, Oeiras (Portugal); Gill, Parkash S., E-mail: parkashg@usc.edu [Department of Pathology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low dose Dll4-Fc increases vascular proliferation and overall perfusion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low dose Dll4-Fc helps vascular injury recovery in hindlimb ischemia model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low dose Dll4-Fc helps vascular injury recovery in skin flap model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dll4 heterozygous deletion promotes vascular injury recovery. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dll4 overexpression delays vascular injury recovery. -- Abstract: Notch pathway regulates vessel development and maturation. Dll4, a high-affinity ligand for Notch, is expressed predominantly in the arterial endothelium and is induced by hypoxia among other factors. Inhibition of Dll4 has paradoxical effects of reducing the maturation and perfusion in newly forming vessels while increasing the density of vessels. We hypothesized that partial and/or intermittent inhibition of Dll4 may lead to increased vascular response and still allow vascular maturation to occur. Thus tissue perfusion can be restored rapidly, allowing quicker recovery from ischemia or tissue injury. Our studies in two different models (hindlimb ischemia and skin flap) show that inhibition of Dll4 at low dose allows faster recovery from vascular and tissue injury. This opens a new possibility for Dll4 blockade's therapeutic application in promoting recovery from vascular injury and restoring blood supply to ischemic tissues.

  11. Oxidized LDL Promotes Apoptosis and Expression of Pro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accumulation of lipid within non-adipose tissues can induce inflammation by promoting macrophage infiltration and activation. Oxidized lipoproteins (oxLDL) have been known to induce cellular dysfunction in resident macrophages through pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic properties. However research into the ...

  12. Tissue expression and developmental regulation of chicken cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achanta Mallika

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cathelicidins are a major family of antimicrobial peptides present in vertebrate animals with potent microbicidal and immunomodulatory activities. Four cathelicidins, namely fowlicidins 1 to 3 and cathelicidin B1, have been identified in chickens. As a first step to understand their role in early innate host defense of chickens, we examined the tissue and developmental expression patterns of all four cathelicidins. Real-time PCR revealed an abundant expression of four cathelicidins throughout the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and urogenital tracts as well as in all primary and secondary immune organs of chickens. Fowlicidins 1 to 3 exhibited a similar tissue expression pattern with the highest expression in the bone marrow and lung, while cathelicidin B1 was synthesized most abundantly in the bursa of Fabricius. Additionally, a tissue-specific regulatory pattern was evident for all four cathelicidins during the first 28 days after hatching. The expression of fowlicidins 1 to 3 showed an age-dependent increase both in the cecal tonsil and lung, whereas all four cathelicidins were peaked in the bursa on day 4 after hatching, with a gradual decline by day 28. An abrupt augmentation in the expression of fowlicidins 1 to 3 was also observed in the cecum on day 28, while the highest expression of cathelicidin B1 was seen in both the lung and cecal tonsil on day 14. Collectively, the presence of cathelicidins in a broad range of tissues and their largely enhanced expression during development are suggestive of their potential important role in early host defense and disease resistance of chickens.

  13. Construction and Development of a Cardiac Tissue-Specific and Hypoxia-Inducible Expression Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrooz Ghaderi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Cardiovascular gene therapy is a sophisticated approach, thanks to the safety of vectors, stable transgene expression, delivery method, and different layers of the heart. To date, numerous expression vectors have been introduced in biotechnology and biopharmacy industries in relation to genetic manipulation. Despite the rapid growth of these modalities, they must be intelligently designed, addressing the cardiac-specific transgene expression and less side effects. Herein, we conducted a pilot project aiming to design a cardiac-specific hypoxia-inducible expression cassette. Methods: We explored a new approach to design an expression cassette containing cardiac specific enhancer, hypoxia response elements (HRE, cardiac specific promoter, internal ribosome entry site (IRES, and beta globin poly A sequence to elicit specific and inducible expression of the gene of interest. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP was sub-cloned by BglII and NotI into the cassette. The specificity and inducible expression of the cassette was determined in both mouse myoblast C2C12 and mammary glandular tumor 4T1 as ‘twin’ cells. eGFP expression was evaluated by immunofluorescence microscope and flow cytometry at 520 nm emission peak. Results: Our data revealed that the designed expression cassette provided tissue specific and hypoxia inducible (O2<1% transgene expression. Conclusion: It is suggested that cardiac-specific enhancer combined with cardiac-specific promoter are efficient for myoblast specific gene expression. As well, this is for the first time that HRE are derived from three well known hypoxia-regulated promoters. Therefore, there is no longer need to overlap PCR process for one repeated sequence just in one promoter.

  14. MicroRNA expression variability in human cervical tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia M Pereira

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short (approximately 22 nt non-coding regulatory RNAs that control gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Deregulation of miRNA expression has been discovered in a wide variety of tumours and it is now clear that they contribute to cancer development and progression. Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide and there is a strong need for a non-invasive, fast and efficient method to diagnose the disease. We investigated miRNA expression profiles in cervical cancer using a microarray platform containing probes for mature miRNAs. We have evaluated miRNA expression profiles of a heterogeneous set of cervical tissues from 25 different patients. This set included 19 normal cervical tissues, 4 squamous cell carcinoma, 5 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL and 9 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL samples. We observed high variability in miRNA expression especially among normal cervical samples, which prevented us from obtaining a unique miRNA expression signature for this tumour type. However, deregulated miRNAs were identified in malignant and pre-malignant cervical tissues after tackling the high expression variability observed. We were also able to identify putative target genes of relevant candidate miRNAs. Our results show that miRNA expression shows natural variability among human samples, which complicates miRNA data profiling analysis. However, such expression noise can be filtered and does not prevent the identification of deregulated miRNAs that play a role in the malignant transformation of cervical squamous cells. Deregulated miRNAs highlight new candidate gene targets allowing for a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying the development of this tumour type.

  15. Glucocorticoid receptor gene expression and promoter CpG modifications throughout the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao-Lei, Lei; Suwansirikul, Songkiet; Jutavijittum, Prapan; Mériaux, Sophie B; Turner, Jonathan D; Muller, Claude P

    2013-11-01

    Glucocorticoids and the glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors have been implicated in many processes, particularly in negative feedback regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Epigenetically programmed GR alternative promoter usage underlies transcriptional control of GR levels, generation of GR 3' splice variants, and the overall GC response in the brain. No detailed analysis of GR first exons or GR transcript variants throughout the human brain has been reported. Therefore we investigated post mortem tissues from 28 brain regions of 5 individuals. GR first exons were expressed throughout the healthy human brain with no region-specific usage patterns. First exon levels were highly inter-correlated suggesting that they are co-regulated. GR 3' splice variants (GRα and GR-P) were equally distributed in all regions, and GRβ expression was always low. GR/MR ratios showed significant differences between the 28 tissues with the highest ratio in the pituitary gland. Modification levels of individual CpG dinucleotides, including 5-mC and 5-hmC, in promoters 1D, 1E, 1F, and 1H were low, and diffusely clustered; despite significant heterogeneity between the donors. In agreement with this clustering, sum modification levels rather than individual CpG modifications correlated with GR expression. Two-way ANOVA showed that this sum modification was both promoter and brain region specific, but that there was however no promoter*tissue interaction. The heterogeneity between donors may however hide such an interaction. In both promoters 1F and 1H modification levels correlated with GRα expression suggesting that 5-mC and 5-hmC play an important role in fine tuning GR expression levels throughout the brain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Immunohistochemical evaluation of molecular radiotherapy target expression in neuroblastoma tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gains, Jennifer E.; Gaze, Mark N. [University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Oncology, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Pathology, London (United Kingdom); Moroz, Veronica; Wheatley, Keith [University of Birmingham, Cancer Research UK Clinical Trials Unit, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2018-03-15

    Neuroblastoma may be treated with molecular radiotherapy, {sup 131}I meta-Iodobenzylguanidine and {sup 177}Lu Lutetium DOTATATE, directed at distinct molecular targets: Noradrenaline Transporter Molecule (NAT) and Somatostatin Receptor (SSTR2), respectively. This study used immunohistochemistry to evaluate target expression in archival neuroblastoma tissue, to determine whether it might facilitate clinical use of molecular radiotherapy. Tissue bank samples of formalin fixed paraffin embedded neuroblastoma tissue from patients for whom clinical outcome data were available were sectioned and stained with haematoxylin and eosin, and monoclonal antibodies directed against NAT and SSTR2. Sections were examined blinded to clinical information and scored for the percentage and intensity of tumour cells stained. These data were analysed in conjunction with clinical data. Tissue from 75 patients was examined. Target expression scores varied widely between patients: NAT median 45%, inter-quartile range 25% - 65%; and SSTR2 median 55%, interquartile range 30% - 80%; and in some cases heterogeneity of expression between different parts of a tumour was observed. A weak positive correlation was observed between the expression scores of the different targets: correlation coefficient = 0.23, p = 0.05. MYCN amplified tumours had lower SSTR2 scores: mean difference 23% confidence interval 8% - 39%, p < 0.01. Survival did not differ by scores. As expression of both targets is variable and heterogeneous, imaging assessment of both may yield more clinical information than either alone. The clinical value of immunohistochemical assessment of target expression requires prospective evaluation. Variable target expression within a patient may contribute to treatment failure. (orig.)

  17. MIB-1 expression and iododeoxyuridine labelling in soft tissue sarcomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, V; Høyer, M; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between immunohistochemical estimates of proliferative activity and expression of bcl-2 protein and mutant p53 protein in 23 cases of soft tissue sarcoma. Furthermore, the reproducibility of estimates of proliferative activity was analysed and correlations between...

  18. Differential expression of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) genes in olive tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoulia, K; Haralampidis, K; Poghosyan, Z; Murphy, D J; Hatzopoulos, P

    2000-12-01

    Fatty acids are accumulated in triacylglycerols (TAGs), in specialized organelles of seeds named oil bodies. The major site of TAG accumulation is detected in developing seed and mesocarp of certain species. We have isolated two cDNAs encoding DGAT enzymes from olives. The deduced polypeptides differ by 26 amino acids in size. However, they have high homology and almost identical hydropathy profiles. The DGAT gene is expressed in all tissues that synthesize TAGs. However, higher levels of DGAT transcripts have been detected in seed tissues of developing olive drupe. DGAT expression and mRNA accumulation in drupe tissues is developmentally regulated. Each DGAT transcript shows a distinct profile of accumulation. The existence of two different DGAT transcripts might reflect two different enzymes with discrete function and/or localization.

  19. Cellular and tissue expression of DAPIT, a phylogenetically conserved peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kontro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available DAPIT (Diabetes Associated Protein in Insulin-sensitive Tissues is a small, phylogenetically conserved, 58 amino acid peptide that was previously shown to be down-regulated at mRNA level in insulin-sensitive tissues of type 1 diabetes rats. In this study we characterize a custom made antibody against DAPIT and confirm the mitochondrial presence of DAPIT on cellular level. We also show that DAPIT is localized in lysosomes of HUVEC and HEK 293T cells. In addition, we describe the histological expression of DAPIT in several tissues of rat and man and show that it is highly expressed especially in cells with high aerobic metabolism and epithelial cells related to active transport of nutrients and ions. We propose that DAPIT, in addition to indicated subunit of mitochondrial F-ATPase, is also a subunit of lysosomal V-ATPase suggesting that it is a common component in different proton pumps.

  20. Mechanical Stretching Promotes Skin Tissue Regeneration via Enhancing Mesenchymal Stem Cell Homing and Transdifferentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao; Huang, Xiaolu; Zhou, Yiwen; Jin, Rui; Li, Qingfeng

    2016-07-01

    Skin tissue expansion is a clinical procedure for skin regeneration to reconstruct cutaneous defects that can be accompanied by severe complications. The transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been proven effective in promoting skin expansion and helping to ameliorate complications; however, systematic understanding of its mechanism remains unclear. MSCs from luciferase-Tg Lewis rats were intravenously transplanted into a rat tissue expansion model to identify homing and transdifferentiation. To clarify underlying mechanisms, a systematic approach was used to identify the differentially expressed genes between mechanically stretched human MSCs and controls. The biological significance of these changes was analyzed through bioinformatic methods. We further investigated genes and pathways of interest to disclose their potential role in mechanical stretching-induced skin regeneration. Cross sections of skin samples from the expanded group showed significantly more luciferase(+) and stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α)(+), luciferase(+)keratin 14(+), and luciferase(+)CD31(+) cells than the control group, indicating MSC transdifferentiation into epidermal basal cells and endothelial cells after SDF-1α-mediated homing. Microarray analysis suggested upregulation of genes related to hypoxia, vascularization, and cell proliferation in the stretched human MSCs. Further investigation showed that the homing of MSCs was blocked by short interfering RNA targeted against matrix metalloproteinase 2, and that mechanical stretching-induced vascular endothelial growth factor A upregulation was related to the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (Jak-STAT) and Wnt signaling pathways. This study determines that mechanical stretching might promote skin regeneration by upregulating MSC expression of genes related to hypoxia, vascularization, and cell proliferation; enhancing transplanted MSC homing to the expanded skin; and

  1. Estrogen decreases tight junction protein ZO-1 expression in human primary gut tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zejun; Zhang, Lumin; Ding, Miao; Luo, Zhenwu; Yuan, Shao; Bansal, Meena B; Gilkeson, Gary; Lang, Ren; Jiang, Wei

    2017-10-01

    Females have a higher prevalence of most autoimmune diseases; however, the mechanism is unknown. In this study, we examined the expression of tight junction protein zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1) and estrogen receptor (ER)-α/β in human primary gut tissues by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and qPCR. The expression of ZO-1 and ER-β but not ER-α was present in both male and female gut tissues. There was no sex difference in ER-β expression, but ZO-1 expression was decreased in females compared to males. In vitro, estrogen treatment decreased ZO-1 mRNA and protein expression, ZO-1 promoter activity, IL-6 production, and NF-κB activation in human primary gut tissues or the Caco-2 cells, but increased the ER-β expression in Caco-2 cells. Consistently, plasma IL-6 levels in females were reduced relative to males in vivo. Our finding indicates that estrogen may play a role in gut tight junction expression and permeability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 25-Hydroxycholesterol promotes fibroblast-mediated tissue remodeling through NF-κB dependent pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, Tomohiro [Third Department of Internal Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, School of Medicine, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama 641-8509 (Japan); Sugiura, Hisatoshi, E-mail: sugiura@rm.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan); Koarai, Akira; Kikuchi, Takashi; Hiramatsu, Masataka; Kawabata, Hiroki; Akamatsu, Keiichiro; Hirano, Tsunahiko; Nakanishi, Masanori; Matsunaga, Kazuto; Minakata, Yoshiaki [Third Department of Internal Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, School of Medicine, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama 641-8509 (Japan); Ichinose, Masakazu [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan)

    2013-05-01

    Abnormal structural alterations termed remodeling, including fibrosis and alveolar wall destruction, are important features of the pathophysiology of chronic airway diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) is enzymatically produced by cholesterol 25-hydorxylase (CH25H) in macrophages and is reported to be involved in the formation of arteriosclerosis. We previously demonstrated that the expression of CH25H and production of 25HC were increased in the lungs of COPD. However, the role of 25-HC in lung tissue remodeling is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of 25-HC on fibroblast-mediated tissue remodeling using human fetal lung fibroblasts (HFL-1) in vitro. 25-HC significantly augmented α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) (P<0.001) and collagen I (P<0.001) expression in HFL-1. 25-HC also significantly enhanced the release and activation of matrix metallaoproteinase (MMP)-2 (P<0.001) and MMP-9 (P<0.001) without any significant effect on the production of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2. 25-HC stimulated transforming growth factor (TGF)-β{sub 1} production (P<0.01) and a neutralizing anti-TGF-β antibody restored these 25-HC-augmented pro-fibrotic responses. 25-HC significantly promoted the translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 into the nuclei (P<0.01), but not phospholylated-c-jun, a complex of activator protein-1. Pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB restored the 25-HC-augmented pro-fibrotic responses and TGF-β{sub 1} release. These results suggest that 25-HC could contribute to fibroblast-mediated lung tissue remodeling by promoting myofibroblast differentiation and the excessive release of extracellular matrix protein and MMPs via an NF-κB-TGF-β dependent pathway.

  3. Oxygen and tissue culture affect placental gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, O; Sullivan, M H F

    2017-07-01

    Placental explant culture is an important model for studying placental development and functions. We investigated the differences in placental gene expression in response to tissue culture, atmospheric and physiologic oxygen concentrations. Placental explants were collected from normal term (38-39 weeks of gestation) placentae with no previous uterine contractile activity. Placental transcriptomic expressions were evaluated with GeneChip ® Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 arrays (Affymetrix). We uncovered sub-sets of genes that regulate response to stress, induction of apoptosis programmed cell death, mis-regulation of cell growth, proliferation, cell morphogenesis, tissue viability, and protection from apoptosis in cultured placental explants. We also identified a sub-set of genes with highly unstable pattern of expression after exposure to tissue culture. Tissue culture irrespective of oxygen concentration induced dichotomous increase in significant gene expression and increased enrichment of significant pathways and transcription factor targets (TFTs) including HIF1A. The effect was exacerbated by culture at atmospheric oxygen concentration, where further up-regulation of TFTs including PPARA, CEBPD, HOXA9 and down-regulated TFTs such as JUND/FOS suggest intrinsic heightened key biological and metabolic mechanisms such as glucose use, lipid biosynthesis, protein metabolism; apoptosis, inflammatory responses; and diminished trophoblast proliferation, differentiation, invasion, regeneration, and viability. These findings demonstrate that gene expression patterns differ between pre-culture and cultured explants, and the gene expression of explants cultured at atmospheric oxygen concentration favours stressed, pro-inflammatory and increased apoptotic transcriptomic response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pairwise comparisons of ten porcine tissues identify differential transcriptional regulation at the gene, isoform, promoter and transcription start site level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farajzadeh, Leila; Hornshøj, Henrik; Momeni, Jamal; Thomsen, Bo; Larsen, Knud; Hedegaard, Jakob; Bendixen, Christian; Madsen, Lone Bruhn

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Transcriptome sequencing yielded 223 mill porcine RNA-seq reads, and 59,000 transcribed locations. •Establishment of unique transcription profiles for ten porcine tissues including four brain tissues. •Comparison of transcription profiles at gene, isoform, promoter and transcription start site level. •Highlights a high level of regulation of neuro-related genes at both gene, isoform, and TSS level. •Our results emphasize the pig as a valuable animal model with respect to human biological issues. -- Abstract: The transcriptome is the absolute set of transcripts in a tissue or cell at the time of sampling. In this study RNA-Seq is employed to enable the differential analysis of the transcriptome profile for ten porcine tissues in order to evaluate differences between the tissues at the gene and isoform expression level, together with an analysis of variation in transcription start sites, promoter usage, and splicing. Totally, 223 million RNA fragments were sequenced leading to the identification of 59,930 transcribed gene locations and 290,936 transcript variants using Cufflinks with similarity to approximately 13,899 annotated human genes. Pairwise analysis of tissues for differential expression at the gene level showed that the smallest differences were between tissues originating from the porcine brain. Interestingly, the relative level of differential expression at the isoform level did generally not vary between tissue contrasts. Furthermore, analysis of differential promoter usage between tissues, revealed a proportionally higher variation between cerebellum (CBE) versus frontal cortex and cerebellum versus hypothalamus (HYP) than in the remaining comparisons. In addition, the comparison of differential transcription start sites showed that the number of these sites is generally increased in comparisons including hypothalamus in contrast to other pairwise assessments. A comprehensive analysis of one of the tissue contrasts, i

  5. Myoglobin Expression in Chelonia mydas Brain, Heart and Liver Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RINI PUSPITANINGRUM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the underpinning physiology and biochemistry of animals is essential to properly understand the impact of anthropogenic changes and natural catastrophes upon the conservation of endangered species. An observation on the tissue location of the key respiratory protein, myoglobin, now opens up new opportunities for understanding how hypoxia tolerance impacts on diving lifestyle in turtles. The respiratory protein, myoglobin has functions other than oxygen binding which are involved in hypoxia tolerance, including metabolism of reactive oxygen species and of the vascular function by metabolism of nitric oxide. Our work aims to determine whether myoglobin expression in the green turtle exists in multiple non muscle tissues and to confirm the hypothesis that reptiles also have a distributed myoglobin expression which is linked to the hypoxiatolerant trait. This initial work in turtle hatch Chelonia mydas confirms the presence of myoglobin transcriptin brain, heart and liver tissues. Furthermore, it will serve as a tool for completing the sequence and generating an in situ hybridization probe for verifying of cell location in expressing tissues.

  6. Myoglobin Expression in Chelonia mydas Brain, Heart and Liver Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RINI PUSPITANINGRUM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the underpinning physiology and biochemistry of animals is essential to properly understand the impact of anthropogenic changes and natural catastrophes upon the conservation of endangered species. An observation on the tissue location of the key respiratory protein, myoglobin, now opens up new opportunities for understanding how hypoxia tolerance impacts on diving lifestyle in turtles. The respiratory protein, myoglobin has functions other than oxygen binding which are involved in hypoxia tolerance, including metabolism of reactive oxygen species and of the vascular function by metabolism of nitric oxide. Our work aims to determine whether myoglobin expression in the green turtle exists in multiple non muscle tissues and to confirm the hypothesis that reptiles also have a distributed myoglobin expression which is linked to the hypoxia-tolerant trait. This initial work in turtle hatch Chelonia mydas confirms the presence of myoglobin transcriptin brain, heart and liver tissues. Furthermore, it will serve as a tool for completing the sequence and generating an in situ hybridization probe for verifying of cell location in expressing tissues.

  7. Expression of modified tocopherol content and profile in sunflower tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Moral, Lidia; Fernández-Martínez, José M; Pérez-Vich, Begoña; Velasco, Leonardo

    2012-01-30

    Alpha-tocopherol is the predominant tocopherol form in sunflower seeds. Sunflower lines that accumulate increased levels of beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol in seeds as well as lines with reduced and increased total seed tocopherol content have been developed. The objective of this research was to evaluate whether the modified tocopherol levels are expressed in plant tissues other than seeds. Lines with increased levels of beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol in seeds also possessed increased levels of these tocopherols in leaves, roots and pollen. Correlation coefficients for the proportion of individual tocopherols in different plant tissues were significantly positive in all cases, ranging from 0.68 to 0.97. A line with reduced tocopherol content in seeds also showed reduced content in roots and pollen. Genetic modifications producing altered seed tocopherol profiles in sunflower are also expressed in leaves, roots and pollen. Reduced total seed tocopherol content is mainly expressed at the root and pollen level. The expression of tocopherol mutations in other plant tissues will enable further studies on the physiological role of tocopherols and could be of interest for early selection for these traits in breeding programmes. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. The Expression of Adipogenic Genes in Adipose Tissues of Feedlot Steers Fed Supplementary Palm Oil or Soybean Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seong Ho; Park, Sung Kwon; Choi, Chang Weon; Li, Xiang Zi; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Won Young; Jeong, Joon; Johnson, Bradley J; Zan, Linsen; Smith, Stephen B

    2016-03-01

    We hypothesized that supplementing finishing diets with palm oil would promote adipogenic gene expression and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression in subcutaneous (s.c.) and intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissues of feedlot steers. Eighteen Angus and Angus crossbred steers were assigned to three groups of 6 steers and fed a basal diet (control), with 3% palm oil, or with 3% soybean oil, for 70 d, top-dressed daily. Tailhead s.c. adipose tissue was obtained by biopsy at 14 d before the initiation of dietary treatments and at 35 d of dietary treatments. At slaughter, after 70 d of dietary treatment, tailhead s.c. adipose tissue and i.m. adipose tissue were obtained from the longissimus thoracis muscle. Palm oil increased plasma palmitic acid and soybean oil increased plasma linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid relative to the initial sampling time. Expression of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) increased between the initial and intermediate biopsies and declined thereafter (poil decreased (p = 0.01) PPARγ gene expression at the intermediate sample time. At the terminal sample time, PPARγ and SCD gene expression was less in i.m. adipose tissue than in s.c. adipose tissue (ppalm oil-fed steers than in control steers (p = 0.04) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein-beta (CEBPβ) gene expression was less in s.c. and i.m. adipose tissues of palm oil-fed steers than in soybean oil-fed steers (poil decreased SCD gene expression in s.c. adipose tissue (p = 0.05); SCD gene expression in palm oil-fed steers was intermediate between control and soybean oil-fed steers. Contrary to our original hypothesis, palm oil did not promote adipogenic gene expression in s.c. and i.m. adipose tissue.

  9. Tissue-dependent paired expression of miRNAs

    OpenAIRE

    Ro, Seungil; Park, Chanjae; Young, David; Sanders, Kenton M.; Yan, Wei

    2007-01-01

    It is believed that depending on the thermodynamic stability of the 5′-strand and the 3′-strand in the stem-loop structure of a precursor microRNA (pre-miRNA), cells preferentially select the less stable one (called the miRNA or guide strand) and destroy the other one (called the miRNA* or passenger strand). However, our expression profiling analyses revealed that both strands could be co-accumulated as miRNA pairs in some tissues while being subjected to strand selection in other tissues. Ou...

  10. Survivin Expression in Colorectal Adenocarcinoma Using Tissue Micro array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Hamed, A.

    2005-01-01

    The additional prognostic information closely related to tumor cell biology is essential for the identification of patients with poor prognosis. Survivin, an identified inhibitor of apoptosis, is unique for its expression in human malignancies but not in normal adult cells. This study examined the expression, and potential prognostic value of survivin in colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC) on tissue micro array (TMA) sections. Analysis of large numbers of tissue samples, improved tissue salvage, cost reduction, ease of interpretation, and significant time saving were realized by using the arrays. Material and Methods: Two-hundred and eighty cases of colorectal adenocarcinoma were arrayed. Immunohistochemical stains of TMA sections were performed for survivin, bcl-2, and p53. Cases were followed up for 5 years. Survivin was detected in 147 of 230 cases (63.9%). No expression of survivin was observed in normal tissues. There was no correlation between survivin immunoreactivity and age, sex, tumor site, tumor size, histopathologic subtype, tumor grade and clinical stage(ρ> 0.05). Prevalence of survivin expression was significantly higher in bcl-2 positive than in bcl-2 negative cases (88.1 % versus 42.1 %, (ρ<0.0001), but was not associated with p53 ((ρ=0.09). The 5-year disease free survival (DFS) for patients with survivin positive colorectal adenocarcinoma was significantly lower than that for patients with survivin negative tumors (46% versus 68.7%, (ρ<0.001). Survivin expression in colorectal adenocarcinoma provides an important prognostic parameter and targeted antagonists of survivin may be beneficial as apoptosis-based therapy for colon cancer

  11. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 and decorin expression in old fracture fragments and surrounding tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, X G; Wang, D K; Gao, F; Liu, R H; Bi, Z G

    2015-09-21

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) can promote fracture healing. Although the complex role BMP-2 in bone formation is increasingly understood, the role of endogenous BMP-2 in nonunion remains unclear. Decorin (DCN) can promote the formation of bone matrix and calcium deposition to control bone morphogenesis. In this study, tissue composition and expression of BMP-2 and DCN were detected in different parts of old fracture zones to explore inherent anti-fibrotic ability and osteogenesis. Twenty-three patients were selected, including eight cases of delayed union and 15 cases of nonunion. Average duration of delayed union or nonunion was 15 months. Fracture fragments and surrounding tissues, including bone grafts, marrow cavity contents, and sticking scars, were categorically sampled during surgery. Through observation and histological testing, component comparisons were made between fracture fragments and surrounding tissue. The expression levels of DCN and BMP-2 in different tissues were detected by immunohistochemical staining and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression of DCN and BMP- 2 in different parts of the nonunion area showed that, compared with bone graft and marrow cavity contents, sticking scars had the highest expression of BMP-2. Compared with the marrow cavity contents and sticking scars, bone grafts had the highest expression of DCN. The low antifibrotic and osteogenic activity of the nonunion area was associated with non-co-expression of BMP-2 and DCN. Therefore, the co-injection of osteogenic factor BMP and DCN into the nonunion area can improve the induction of bone formation and enhance the conversion of the old scar, thereby achieving better nonunion treatment.

  12. Pro-oncogene Pokemon promotes breast cancer progression by upregulating survivin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Xuyu; Ma, Jun; Liu, Hongxia; Liu, Feng; Tan, Chunyan; Yu, Lingling; Wang, Jue; Xie, Zhenhua; Cao, Deliang; Jiang, Yuyang

    2011-03-10

    Pokemon is an oncogenic transcription factor involved in cell growth, differentiation and oncogenesis, but little is known about its role in human breast cancer. In this study, we aimed to reveal the role of Pokemon in breast cancer progression and patient survival and to understand its underlying mechanisms. Tissue microarray analysis of breast cancer tissues from patients with complete clinicopathological data and more than 20 years of follow-up were used to evaluate Pokemon expression and its correlation with the progression and prognosis of the disease. DNA microarray analysis of MCF-7 cells that overexpress Pokemon was used to identify Pokemon target genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and site-directed mutagenesis were utilized to determine how Pokemon regulates survivin expression, a target gene. Pokemon was found to be overexpressed in 158 (86.8%) of 182 breast cancer tissues, and its expression was correlated with tumor size (P = 0.0148) and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0014). Pokemon expression led to worse overall (n = 175, P = 0.01) and disease-related (n = 79, P = 0.0134) patient survival. DNA microarray analyses revealed that in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, Pokemon regulates the expression of at least 121 genes involved in several signaling and metabolic pathways, including anti-apoptotic survivin. In clinical specimens, Pokemon and survivin expression were highly correlated (n = 49, r = 0.6799, P Pokemon induces survivin expression by binding to the GT boxes in its promoter. Pokemon promotes breast cancer progression by upregulating survivin expression and thus may be a potential target for the treatment of this malignancy.

  13. MGMT DNA repair gene promoter/enhancer haplotypes alter transcription factor binding and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meixiang; Cross, Courtney E; Speidel, Jordan T; Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z

    2016-10-01

    The O 6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) protein removes O 6 -alkyl-guanine adducts from DNA. MGMT expression can thus alter the sensitivity of cells and tissues to environmental and chemotherapeutic alkylating agents. Previously, we defined the haplotype structure encompassing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MGMT promoter/enhancer (P/E) region and found that haplotypes, rather than individual SNPs, alter MGMT promoter activity. The exact mechanism(s) by which these haplotypes exert their effect on MGMT promoter activity is currently unknown, but we noted that many of the SNPs comprising the MGMT P/E haplotypes are located within or in close proximity to putative transcription factor binding sites. Thus, these haplotypes could potentially affect transcription factor binding and, subsequently, alter MGMT promoter activity. In this study, we test the hypothesis that MGMT P/E haplotypes affect MGMT promoter activity by altering transcription factor (TF) binding to the P/E region. We used a promoter binding TF profiling array and a reporter assay to evaluate the effect of different P/E haplotypes on TF binding and MGMT expression, respectively. Our data revealed a significant difference in TF binding profiles between the different haplotypes evaluated. We identified TFs that consistently showed significant haplotype-dependent binding alterations (p ≤ 0.01) and revealed their role in regulating MGMT expression using siRNAs and a dual-luciferase reporter assay system. The data generated support our hypothesis that promoter haplotypes alter the binding of TFs to the MGMT P/E and, subsequently, affect their regulatory function on MGMT promoter activity and expression level.

  14. Heritability and tissue specificity of expression quantitative trait loci

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petretto, E.; Mangion, J.; Dickens, N. J.; Cook, S.A.; Kumaran, M. K.; Lu, H.; Fischer, J.; Maatz, H.; Křen, Vladimír; Pravenec, Michal; Hubner, N.; Aitman, T. J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 10 (2006), s. 1625-1633 ISSN 1553-7390 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/06/0028; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/04/0390 Grant - others:HHMI(US) 55005624 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : expression QTL * heritability * tissue specificity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.671, year: 2006

  15. Usherin expression is highly conserved in mouse and human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearsall, Nicole; Bhattacharya, Gautam; Wisecarver, Jim; Adams, Joe; Cosgrove, Dominic; Kimberling, William

    2002-12-01

    Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease that results in varying degrees of hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa. Three types of Usher syndrome (I, II, and III) have been identified clinically with Usher type II being the most common of the three types. Usher type II has been localized to three different chromosomes 1q41, 3p, and 5q, corresponding to Usher type 2A, 2B, and 2C respectively. Usherin is a basement membrane protein encoded by the USH2A gene. Expression of usherin has been localized in the basement membrane of several tissues, however it is not ubiquitous. Immunohistochemistry detected usherin in the following human tissues: retina, cochlea, small and large intestine, pancreas, bladder, prostate, esophagus, trachea, thymus, salivary glands, placenta, ovary, fallopian tube, uterus, and testis. Usherin was absent in many other tissues such as heart, lung, liver, kidney, and brain. This distribution is consistent with the usherin distribution seen in the mouse. Conservation of usherin is also seen at the nucleotide and amino acid level when comparing the mouse and human gene sequences. Evolutionary conservation of usherin expression at the molecular level and in tissues unaffected by Usher 2a supports the important structural and functional role this protein plays in the human. In addition, we believe that these results could lead to a diagnostic procedure for the detection of Usher syndrome and those who carry an USH2A mutation.

  16. Osteoprotegerin expression in triple-negative breast cancer cells promotes metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichhaus, Michael; Segaran, Prabu; Renaud, Ashleigh; Geerts, Dirk; Connelly, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a secreted member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily that has been well characterized as a negative regulator of bone remodeling. OPG is also expressed in human breast cancer tissues and cell lines. In vitro studies suggest that OPG exerts tumor-promoting effects by binding to TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), thereby preventing induction of apoptosis. However, the in vivo effect of OPG expression by primary breast tumors has not been characterized. We knocked down OPG expression in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-436 human breast cancer cells using shRNA and siRNA to investigate impact on metastasis in the chick embryo model. We observed a reduction in metastasis with OPG knockdown cells. We found that lowering OPG expression did not alter sensitivity to TRAIL-induced apoptosis; however, the OPG knockdown cells had a reduced level of invasion. In association with this we observed reduced expression of the proteases Cathepsin D and Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 upon OPG knockdown, indicating that OPG may promote metastasis via modulation of protease expression and invasion. We conclude that OPG has a metastasis-promoting effect in breast cancer cells

  17. Cigarette smoke promotes dendritic cell accumulation in COPD; a Lung Tissue Research Consortium study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Eunhee S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal immune responses are believed to be highly relevant in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Dendritic cells provide a critical checkpoint for immunity by their capacity to both induce and suppress immunity. Although evident that cigarette smoke, the primary cause of COPD, significantly influences dendritic cell functions, little is known about the roles of dendritic cells in the pathogenesis of COPD. Methods The extent of dendritic cell infiltration in COPD tissue specimens was determined using immunohistochemical localization of CD83+ cells (marker of matured myeloid dendritic cells, and CD1a+ cells (Langerhans cells. The extent of tissue infiltration with Langerhans cells was also determined by the relative expression of the CD207 gene in COPD versus control tissues. To determine mechanisms by which dendritic cells accumulate in COPD, complimentary studies were conducted using monocyte-derived human dendritic cells exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE, and dendritic cells extracted from mice chronically exposed to cigarette smoke. Results In human COPD lung tissue, we detected a significant increase in the total number of CD83+ cells, and significantly higher amounts of CD207 mRNA when compared with control tissue. Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells exposed to CSE (0.1-2% exhibited enhanced survival in vitro when compared with control dendritic cells. Murine dendritic cells extracted from mice exposed to cigarette smoke for 4 weeks, also demonstrated enhanced survival compared to dendritic cells extracted from control mice. Acute exposure of human dendritic cells to CSE induced the cellular pro-survival proteins heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1, and B cell lymphoma leukemia-x(L (Bcl-xL, predominantly through oxidative stress. Although activated human dendritic cells conditioned with CSE expressed diminished migratory CCR7 expression, their migration towards the CCR7 ligand CCL21 was not

  18. Gene expression patterns in pancreatic tumors, cells and tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anson W Lowe

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancers of the pancreas originate from both the endocrine and exocrine elements of the organ, and represent a major cause of cancer-related death. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of gene expression for pancreatic tumors, the normal pancreas, and nonneoplastic pancreatic disease.DNA microarrays were used to assess the gene expression for surgically derived pancreatic adenocarcinomas, islet cell tumors, and mesenchymal tumors. The addition of normal pancreata, isolated islets, isolated pancreatic ducts, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines enhanced subsequent analysis by increasing the diversity in gene expression profiles obtained. Exocrine, endocrine, and mesenchymal tumors displayed unique gene expression profiles. Similarities in gene expression support the pancreatic duct as the origin of adenocarcinomas. In addition, genes highly expressed in other cancers and associated with specific signal transduction pathways were also found in pancreatic tumors.The scope of the present work was enhanced by the inclusion of publicly available datasets that encompass a wide spectrum of human tissues and enabled the identification of candidate genes that may serve diagnostic and therapeutic goals.

  19. p27{sup Kip1} inhibits tissue factor expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitenstein, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.breitenstein@usz.ch [Cardiology, University Heart Center, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Cardiovascular Research, Physiology Institute, University of Zurich (Switzerland); Center for Integrative Human Physiology (ZHIP), University of Zurich (Switzerland); Akhmedov, Alexander; Camici, Giovanni G.; Lüscher, Thomas F.; Tanner, Felix C. [Cardiology, University Heart Center, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Cardiovascular Research, Physiology Institute, University of Zurich (Switzerland); Center for Integrative Human Physiology (ZHIP), University of Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •p27{sup Kip1}regulates the expression of tissue factor at the transcriptional level. •This inhibitory effect of p27{sup Kip1} is independently of its cell regulatory action. •The current study provides new insights into a pleiotrophic function of p27{sup Kip1}. -- Abstract: Background: The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) p27{sup Kip1} regulates cell proliferation and thus inhibits atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling. Expression of tissue factor (TF), the key initator of the coagulation cascade, is associated with atherosclerosis. Yet, it has not been studied whether p27{sup Kip1} influences the expression of TF. Methods and results: p27{sup Kip1} overexpression in human aortic endothelial cells was achieved by adenoviral transfection. Cells were rendered quiescent for 24 h in 0.5% fetal-calf serum. After stimulation with TNF-α (5 ng/ml), TF protein expression and activity was significantly reduced (n = 4; P < 0.001) in cells transfected with p27{sup Kip1}. In line with this, p27{sup Kip1} overexpression reduced cytokine-induced TF mRNA expression (n = 4; P < 0.01) and TF promotor activity (n = 4; P < 0.05). In contrast, activation of the MAP kinases p38, ERK and JNK was not affected by p27{sup Kip1} overexpression. Conclusion: This in vitro study suggests that p27{sup Kip1} inhibits TF expression at the transcriptional level. These data indicate an interaction between p27{sup Kip1} and TF in important pathological alterations such as atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling.

  20. The claudin gene family: expression in normal and neoplastic tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewitt, Kyle J; Agarwal, Rachana; Morin, Patrice J

    2006-01-01

    The claudin (CLDN) genes encode a family of proteins important in tight junction formation and function. Recently, it has become apparent that CLDN gene expression is frequently altered in several human cancers. However, the exact patterns of CLDN expression in various cancers is unknown, as only a limited number of CLDN genes have been investigated in a few tumors. We identified all the human CLDN genes from Genbank and we used the large public SAGE database to ascertain the gene expression of all 21 CLDN in 266 normal and neoplastic tissues. Using real-time RT-PCR, we also surveyed a subset of 13 CLDN genes in 24 normal and 24 neoplastic tissues. We show that claudins represent a family of highly related proteins, with claudin-16, and -23 being the most different from the others. From in silico analysis and RT-PCR data, we find that most claudin genes appear decreased in cancer, while CLDN3, CLDN4, and CLDN7 are elevated in several malignancies such as those originating from the pancreas, bladder, thyroid, fallopian tubes, ovary, stomach, colon, breast, uterus, and the prostate. Interestingly, CLDN5 is highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells, providing a possible target for antiangiogenic therapy. CLDN18 might represent a biomarker for gastric cancer. Our study confirms previously known CLDN gene expression patterns and identifies new ones, which may have applications in the detection, prognosis and therapy of several human cancers. In particular we identify several malignancies that express CLDN3 and CLDN4. These cancers may represent ideal candidates for a novel therapy being developed based on CPE, a toxin that specifically binds claudin-3 and claudin-4

  1. GABAA receptor-expressing neurons promote consumption in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Samantha K; Scott, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Feeding decisions are highly plastic and bidirectionally regulated by neurons that either promote or inhibit feeding. In Drosophila melanogaster, recent studies have identified four GABAergic interneurons that act as critical brakes to prevent incessant feeding. These GABAergic neurons may inhibit target neurons that drive consumption. Here, we tested this hypothesis by examining GABA receptors and neurons that promote consumption. We find that Resistance to dieldrin (RDL), a GABAA type receptor, is required for proper control of ingestion. Knockdown of Rdl in a subset of neurons causes overconsumption of tastants. Acute activation of these neurons is sufficient to drive consumption of appetitive substances and non-appetitive substances and acute silencing of these neurons decreases consumption. Taken together, these studies identify GABAA receptor-expressing neurons that promote Drosophila ingestive behavior and provide insight into feeding regulation.

  2. Src Induces Podoplanin Expression to Promote Cell Migration*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yongquan; Chen, Chen-Shan; Ichikawa, Hitoshi; Goldberg, Gary S.

    2010-01-01

    Nontransformed cells can force tumor cells to assume a normal morphology and phenotype by the process of contact normalization. Transformed cells must escape this process to become invasive and malignant. However, mechanisms underlying contact normalization have not been elucidated. Here, we have identified genes that are affected by contact normalization of Src-transformed cells. Tumor cells must migrate to become invasive and malignant. Src must phosphorylate the adaptor protein Cas (Crk-associated substrate) to promote tumor cell motility. We report here that Src utilizes Cas to induce podoplanin (Pdpn) expression to promote tumor cell migration. Pdpn is a membrane-bound extracellular glycoprotein that associates with endogenous ligands to promote tumor cell migration leading to cancer invasion and metastasis. In fact, Pdpn expression accounted for a major part of the increased migration seen in Src-transformed cells. Moreover, nontransformed cells suppressed Pdpn expression in adjacent Src-transformed cells. Of >39,000 genes, Pdpn was one of only 23 genes found to be induced by transforming Src activity and suppressed by contact normalization of Src-transformed cells. In addition, we found 16 genes suppressed by Src and induced by contact normalization. These genes encode growth factor receptors, adaptor proteins, and products that have not yet been annotated and may play important roles in tumor cell growth and migration. PMID:20123990

  3. Decreased Expression of DREAM Promotes the Degeneration of Retinal Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintala, Shravan; Cheng, Mei; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    The intrinsic mechanisms that promote the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) following the activation of N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) are unclear. In this study, we have investigated the role of downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM) in NMDA-mediated degeneration of the retina. NMDA, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and MK801 were injected into the vitreous humor of C57BL/6 mice. At 12, 24, and 48 hours after injection, expression of DREAM in the retina was determined by immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis, and electrophoretic mobility-shift assay (EMSA). Apoptotic death of cells in the retina was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferace dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays. Degeneration of RGCs in cross sections and in whole mount retinas was determined by using antibodies against Tuj1 and Brn3a respectively. Degeneration of amacrine cells and bipolar cells was determined by using antibodies against calretinin and protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha respectively. DREAM was expressed constitutively in RGCs, amacrine cells, bipolar cells, as well as in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). NMDA promoted a progressive decrease in DREAM levels in all three cell types over time, and at 48 h after NMDA-treatment very low DREAM levels were evident in the IPL only. DREAM expression in retinal nuclear proteins was decreased progressively after NMDA-treatment, and correlated with its decreased binding to the c-fos-DRE oligonucleotides. A decrease in DREAM expression correlated significantly with apoptotic death of RGCs, amacrine cells and bipolar cells. Treatment of eyes with NMDA antagonist MK801, restored DREAM expression to almost normal levels in the retina, and significantly decreased NMDA-mediated apoptotic death of RGCs, amacrine cells, and bipolar cells. Results presented in this study show for the first time that down-regulation of DREAM promotes the degeneration of RGCs, amacrine cells, and

  4. 25-Hydroxycholesterol promotes fibroblast-mediated tissue remodeling through NF-κB dependent pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Tomohiro; Sugiura, Hisatoshi; Koarai, Akira; Kikuchi, Takashi; Hiramatsu, Masataka; Kawabata, Hiroki; Akamatsu, Keiichiro; Hirano, Tsunahiko; Nakanishi, Masanori; Matsunaga, Kazuto; Minakata, Yoshiaki; Ichinose, Masakazu

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal structural alterations termed remodeling, including fibrosis and alveolar wall destruction, are important features of the pathophysiology of chronic airway diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) is enzymatically produced by cholesterol 25-hydorxylase (CH25H) in macrophages and is reported to be involved in the formation of arteriosclerosis. We previously demonstrated that the expression of CH25H and production of 25HC were increased in the lungs of COPD. However, the role of 25-HC in lung tissue remodeling is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of 25-HC on fibroblast-mediated tissue remodeling using human fetal lung fibroblasts (HFL-1) in vitro. 25-HC significantly augmented α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) (P 1 production (P 1 release. These results suggest that 25-HC could contribute to fibroblast-mediated lung tissue remodeling by promoting myofibroblast differentiation and the excessive release of extracellular matrix protein and MMPs via an NF-κB-TGF-β dependent pathway

  5. Differentiated embryonic chondrocytes 1 expression of periodontal ligament tissue and gingival tissue in the patients with chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shenlin; Shang, Wei; Yue, Haitao; Chen, Ruini; Dong, Zheng; Hu, Jinhua; Mao, Zhao; Yang, Jian

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the DEC1 expression of periodontal ligament tissue and gingival tissue in the patients with chronic periodontitis. 20 non-smoking patients with chronic periodontitis and 20 healthy individuals were enrolled. Periodontal ligament tissue and gingival tissue samples from healthy subjects were collected during teeth extraction for orthodontic reason or the third molar extraction. The parallel samples from patients with chronic periodontitis were obtained during periodontal flap operations or teeth extraction as part of periodontal treatment. The DEC1 expression and the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of both the periodontal ligament tissue and gingival tissue were determined by Western blot, Immunohistochemistry and ALP Detection Kit. The DEC1 expression of periodontal ligament tissue in the patients with chronic periodontitis decreased significantly along with the decreased ALP activity. On the contrary, the DEC1 expression of gingival tissue in the patients with chronic periodontitis increased significantly. Further study found that the DEC1 expression of gingival tissue increased mainly in the suprabasal layer of gingival epithelial cells but decreased in the gingival connective tissue of the patients with chronic periodontitis. The DEC1 expression decreases in the periodontal ligament tissue which is related to the osteogenic capacity, whereas the DEC1 expression increases in the suprabasal layer of gingival epithelial cells which are involved in immune inflammatory response in the patients with chronic periodontitis. The findings provide a new target to explore the pathology and the therapy of periodontitis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells promote pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, S.Q.; Cao, J.; Zhang, Q.Y.; Li, Y.Y.; Yan, Y.Q.; Yu, F.X.

    2013-01-01

    To explore the effects of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and the possible mechanism involved, ADSCs were cocultured with pancreatic cancer cells, and a cell counting kit (CCK-8) was used to detect the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. ELISA was used to determine the concentration of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in the supernatants. RT-PCR was performed to detect the expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in pancreatic cancer cells and ADSCs. An in vitro invasion assay was used to measure invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. SDF-1 was detected in the supernatants of ADSCs, but not in pancreatic cancer cells. Higher CXCR4 mRNA levels were detected in the pancreatic cancer cell lines compared with ADSCs (109.3±10.7 and 97.6±7.6 vs 18.3±1.7, respectively; P<0.01). In addition, conditioned medium from ADSCs promoted the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, and AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist, significantly downregulated these growth-promoting effects. We conclude that ADSCs can promote the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, which may involve the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis

  7. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells promote pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, S.Q.; Cao, J. [Department of Liver Surgery I, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Q.Y.; Li, Y.Y. [Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China); Yan, Y.Q. [Department of Liver Surgery I, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Yu, F.X. [Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China)

    2013-09-27

    To explore the effects of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and the possible mechanism involved, ADSCs were cocultured with pancreatic cancer cells, and a cell counting kit (CCK-8) was used to detect the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. ELISA was used to determine the concentration of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in the supernatants. RT-PCR was performed to detect the expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in pancreatic cancer cells and ADSCs. An in vitro invasion assay was used to measure invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. SDF-1 was detected in the supernatants of ADSCs, but not in pancreatic cancer cells. Higher CXCR4 mRNA levels were detected in the pancreatic cancer cell lines compared with ADSCs (109.3±10.7 and 97.6±7.6 vs 18.3±1.7, respectively; P<0.01). In addition, conditioned medium from ADSCs promoted the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, and AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist, significantly downregulated these growth-promoting effects. We conclude that ADSCs can promote the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, which may involve the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis.

  8. Effect of helicobacter pylori L-form infection on proliferation, apoptosis and invasion molecule expression in gastric cancer tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Xin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of Helicobacter pylori L-form infection on proliferation, apoptosis and invasion molecule expression in gastric cancer tissue. Methods: The gastric cancer tissues surgically removed in our hospital between May 2013 and October 2016 were collected and divided into Hp negative, Hp-L negative and Hp-L positive according to the condition of helicobacter pylori infection. The proliferation, apoptosis and invasion gene expression were detected. Results: LOXL2, PCNA, CyclinD1, Rab1A, Bcl-2, Snail, N-cadherin, UHRF1 and AnnexinII mRNA expression in Hp-L-positive gastric cancer tissues were significantly higher than those in Hp-L-negative and Hp-negative gastric cancer tissues while ING5, PTPN13, Beclin1 and Mst1 mRNA expression were significantly lower than those in Hp-L-negative and Hp-negative gastric cancer tissues; LOXL2, PCNA, CyclinD1, Rab1A, Bcl-2, ING5, PTPN13, Beclin1, Mst1, Snail, N-cadherin, UHRF1 and AnnexinII mRNA expression in Hp-L-negative gastric cancer tissues were not different from those in Hpnegative gastric cancer tissues. Conclusion: Helicobacter pylori L-form infection can influence the proliferation, apoptosis and invasion gene expression to promote cell proliferation and invasion, and inhibit cell apoptosis.

  9. MeCP2 Expression and Promoter Methylation of Cyclin D1 Gene Are Associated with Cyclin D1 Expression in Developing Rat Epididymal Duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwanto, Agus; Kitazawa, Riko; Mori, Kiyoshi; Kondo, Takeshi; Kitazawa, Sohei

    2008-01-01

    Hypermethylation-dependent silencing of the gene is achieved by recruiting methyl-CpG binding proteins (MeCPs). Among the MeCPs, MeCP2 is the most abundantly and ubiquitously expressed in various types of cells. We first screened the distribution and expression pattern of MeCP2 in adult and developing rat tissues and found strong MeCP2 expression, albeit rather ubiquitously among normal tissues, in ganglion cells and intestinal epithelium in the small intestine, in Purkinje cells and neurons in the brain, in spermatogonia and in epithelial cells in the epididymal duct of the testis. We then assessed the expression and the methylation pattern of the promoter region of cyclin D1 by immunohistochemistry and sodium bisulfite mapping, and found that cyclin D1 expression in the epididymal duct decreased rapidly during rat development: strong in newborn rats and very weak or almost negative in 7-day-old rats. Mirroring the decrease of cyclin D1 expression, methylated cytosine at both CpG and non-CpG loci in the cyclin D1 promoter was frequently observed in the epididymal duct of 7-day-old rats but not in that of newborn rats. Interestingly, MeCP2 expression also increased concomitant with the increase of methylation. Cyclin D1 expression in the epididymal duct may be efficiently regulated by the epigenetic mechanism of the cooperative increase of MeCP2 expression and promoter methylation

  10. Promoter hypermethylation contributes to frequent inactivation of a putative conditional tumor suppressor gene connective tissue growth factor in ovarian cancer.

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    Kikuchi, Ryoko; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Kanai, Yae; Kasamatsu, Takahiro; Sengoku, Kazuo; Hirohashi, Setsuo; Inazawa, Johji; Imoto, Issei

    2007-08-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a secreted protein belonging to the CCN family, members of which are implicated in various biological processes. We identified a homozygous loss of CTGF (6q23.2) in the course of screening a panel of ovarian cancer cell lines for genomic copy number aberrations using in-house array-based comparative genomic hybridization. CTGF mRNA expression was observed in normal ovarian tissue and immortalized ovarian epithelial cells but was reduced in many ovarian cancer cell lines without its homozygous deletion (12 of 23 lines) and restored after treatment with 5-aza 2'-deoxycytidine. The methylation status around the CTGF CpG island correlated inversely with the expression, and a putative target region for methylation showed promoter activity. CTGF methylation was frequently observed in primary ovarian cancer tissues (39 of 66, 59%) and inversely correlated with CTGF mRNA expression. In an immunohistochemical analysis of primary ovarian cancers, CTGF protein expression was frequently reduced (84 of 103 cases, 82%). Ovarian cancer tended to lack CTGF expression more frequently in the earlier stages (stages I and II) than the advanced stages (stages III and IV). CTGF protein was also differentially expressed among histologic subtypes. Exogenous restoration of CTGF expression or treatment with recombinant CTGF inhibited the growth of ovarian cancer cells lacking its expression, whereas knockdown of endogenous CTGF accelerated growth of ovarian cancer cells with expression of this gene. These results suggest that epigenetic silencing by hypermethylation of the CTGF promoter leads to a loss of CTGF function, which may be a factor in the carcinogenesis of ovarian cancer in a stage-dependent and/or histologic subtype-dependent manner.

  11. Dynamic DNA cytosine methylation in the Populus trichocarpa genome: tissue-level variation and relationship to gene expression

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    Vining Kelly J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA cytosine methylation is an epigenetic modification that has been implicated in many biological processes. However, large-scale epigenomic studies have been applied to very few plant species, and variability in methylation among specialized tissues and its relationship to gene expression is poorly understood. Results We surveyed DNA methylation from seven distinct tissue types (vegetative bud, male inflorescence [catkin], female catkin, leaf, root, xylem, phloem in the reference tree species black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa. Using 5-methyl-cytosine DNA immunoprecipitation followed by Illumina sequencing (MeDIP-seq, we mapped a total of 129,360,151 36- or 32-mer reads to the P. trichocarpa reference genome. We validated MeDIP-seq results by bisulfite sequencing, and compared methylation and gene expression using published microarray data. Qualitative DNA methylation differences among tissues were obvious on a chromosome scale. Methylated genes had lower expression than unmethylated genes, but genes with methylation in transcribed regions ("gene body methylation" had even lower expression than genes with promoter methylation. Promoter methylation was more frequent than gene body methylation in all tissues except male catkins. Male catkins differed in demethylation of particular transposable element categories, in level of gene body methylation, and in expression range of genes with methylated transcribed regions. Tissue-specific gene expression patterns were correlated with both gene body and promoter methylation. Conclusions We found striking differences among tissues in methylation, which were apparent at the chromosomal scale and when genes and transposable elements were examined. In contrast to other studies in plants, gene body methylation had a more repressive effect on transcription than promoter methylation.

  12. Evaluation of schistosome promoter expression for transgenesis and genetic analysis.

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    Shuang Liang

    Full Text Available Schistosome worms of the genus Schistosoma are the causative agents of schistosomiasis, a devastating parasitic disease affecting more than 240 million people worldwide. Schistosomes have complex life cycles, and have been challenging to manipulate genetically due to the dearth of molecular tools. Although the use of gene overexpression, gene knockouts or knockdowns are straight-forward genetic tools applied in many model systems, gene misexpression and genetic manipulation of schistosome genes in vivo has been exceptionally challenging, and plasmid based transfection inducing gene expression is limited. We recently reported the use of polyethyleneimine (PEI as a simple and effective method for schistosome transfection and gene expression. Here, we use PEI-mediated schistosome plasmid transgenesis to define and compare gene expression profiles from endogenous and nonendogenous promoters in the schistosomula stage of schistosomes that are potentially useful to misexpress (underexpress or overexpress gene product levels. In addition, we overexpress schistosome genes in vivo using a strong promoter and show plasmid-based misregulation of genes in schistosomes, producing a clear and distinct phenotype--death. These data focus on the schistosomula stage, but they foreshadow strong potential for genetic characterization of schistosome molecular pathways, and potential for use in overexpression screens and drug resistance studies in schistosomes using plasmid-based gene expression.

  13. Ubiquitin fusion expression and tissue-dependent targeting of hG-CSF in transgenic tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (hG-CSF) is an important human cytokine which has been widely used in oncology and infection protection. To satisfy clinical needs, expression of recombinant hG-CSF has been studied in several organisms, including rice cell suspension culture and transient expression in tobacco leaves, but there was no published report on its expression in stably transformed plants which can serve as a more economical expression platform with potential industrial application. Results In this study, hG-CSF expression was investigated in transgenic tobacco leaves and seeds in which the accumulation of hG-CSF could be enhanced through fusion with ubiquitin by up to 7 fold in leaves and 2 fold in seeds, leading to an accumulation level of 2.5 mg/g total soluble protein (TSP) in leaves and 1.3 mg/g TSP in seeds, relative to hG-CSF expressed without a fusion partner. Immunoblot analysis showed that ubiquitin was processed from the final protein product, and ubiquitination was up-regulated in all transgenic plants analyzed. Driven by CaMV 35S promoter and phaseolin signal peptide, hG-CSF was observed to be secreted into apoplast in leaves but deposited in protein storage vacuole (PSV) in seeds, indicating that targeting of the hG-CSF was tissue-dependent in transgenic tobacco. Bioactivity assay showed that hG-CSF expressed in both seeds and leaves was bioactive to support the proliferation of NFS-60 cells. Conclusions In this study, the expression of bioactive hG-CSF in transgenic plants was improved through ubiquitin fusion strategy, demonstrating that protein expression can be enhanced in both plant leaves and seeds through fusion with ubiquitin and providing a typical case of tissue-dependent expression of recombinant protein in transgenic plants. PMID:21985646

  14. Intermittent fasting up-regulates Fsp27/Cidec gene expression in white adipose tissue.

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    Karbowska, Joanna; Kochan, Zdzislaw

    2012-03-01

    Fat-specific protein of 27 kDa (FSP27) is a novel lipid droplet protein that promotes triacylglycerol storage in white adipose tissue (WAT). The regulation of the Fsp27 gene expression in WAT is largely unknown. We investigated the nutritional regulation of FSP27 in WAT. The effects of intermittent fasting (48 d, eight cycles of 3-d fasting and 3-d refeeding), caloric restriction (48 d), fasting-refeeding (3-d fasting and 3-d refeeding), and fasting (3 d) on mRNA expression of FSP27, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ2), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα), and M isoform of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (a positive control for PPARγ activation) in epididymal WAT and on serum triacylglycerol, insulin, and leptin levels were determined in Wistar rats. We also determined the effects of PPARγ activation by rosiglitazone or pioglitazone on FSP27 mRNA levels in primary rat adipocytes. Long-term intermittent fasting, in contrast to other dietary manipulations, significantly up-regulated Fsp27 gene expression in WAT. Moreover, in rats subjected to intermittent fasting, serum insulin levels were elevated; PPARγ2 and C/EBPα mRNA expression in WAT was increased, and there was a positive correlation of Fsp27 gene expression with PPARγ2 and C/EBPα mRNA levels. FSP27 mRNA expression was also increased in adipocytes treated with PPARγ agonists. Our study demonstrates that the transcription of the Fsp27 gene in adipose tissue may be induced in response to nutritional stimuli. Furthermore, PPARγ2, C/EBPα, and insulin may be involved in the nutritional regulation of FSP27. Thus intermittent fasting, despite lower caloric intake, may promote triacylglycerol deposition in WAT by increasing the expression of genes involved in lipid storage, such as Fsp27. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Expression of Adipogenic Genes in Adipose Tissues of Feedlot Steers Fed Supplementary Palm Oil or Soybean Oil

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    Seong Ho Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that supplementing finishing diets with palm oil would promote adipogenic gene expression and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD gene expression in subcutaneous (s.c. and intramuscular (i.m. adipose tissues of feedlot steers. Eighteen Angus and Angus crossbred steers were assigned to three groups of 6 steers and fed a basal diet (control, with 3% palm oil, or with 3% soybean oil, for 70 d, top-dressed daily. Tailhead s.c. adipose tissue was obtained by biopsy at 14 d before the initiation of dietary treatments and at 35 d of dietary treatments. At slaughter, after 70 d of dietary treatment, tailhead s.c. adipose tissue and i.m. adipose tissue were obtained from the longissimus thoracis muscle. Palm oil increased plasma palmitic acid and soybean oil increased plasma linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid relative to the initial sampling time. Expression of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ increased between the initial and intermediate biopsies and declined thereafter (p<0.03. SCD gene expression did not change between the initial and intermediate biopsies but declined by over 75% by the final period (p = 0.04, and G-coupled protein receptor 43 (GPR43 gene expression was unaffected by diet or time on trial. Soybean oil decreased (p = 0.01 PPARγ gene expression at the intermediate sample time. At the terminal sample time, PPARγ and SCD gene expression was less in i.m. adipose tissue than in s.c. adipose tissue (p<0.05. AMPKα gene expression was less in s.c. adipose tissue of palm oil-fed steers than in control steers (p = 0.04 and CCAAT enhancer binding protein-beta (CEBPβ gene expression was less in s.c. and i.m. adipose tissues of palm oil-fed steers than in soybean oil-fed steers (p<0.03. Soybean oil decreased SCD gene expression in s.c. adipose tissue (p = 0.05; SCD gene expression in palm oil-fed steers was intermediate between control and soybean oil-fed steers

  16. Measurement of Gene Expression in Archival Paraffin-Embedded Tissues

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    Cronin, Maureen; Pho, Mylan; Dutta, Debjani; Stephans, James C.; Shak, Steven; Kiefer, Michael C.; Esteban, Jose M.; Baker, Joffre B.

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the last decade many laboratories have shown that mRNA levels in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FPE) tissue specimens can be quantified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques despite the extensive RNA fragmentation that occurs in tissues so preserved. We have developed RT-PCR methods that are sensitive, precise, and that have multianalyte capability for potential wide use in clinical research and diagnostic assays. Here it is shown that the extent of fragmentation of extracted FPE tissue RNA significantly increases with archive storage time. Probe and primer sets for RT-PCR assays based on amplicons that are both short and homogeneous in length enable effective reference gene-based data normalization for cross comparison of specimens that differ substantially in age. A 48-gene assay used to compare gene expression profiles from the same breast cancer tissue that had been either frozen or FPE showed very similar profiles after reference gene-based normalization. A 92-gene assay, using RNA extracted from three 10-μm FPE sections of archival breast cancer specimens (dating from 1985 to 2001) yielded analyzable data for these genes in all 62 tested specimens. The results were substantially concordant when estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 receptor status determined by RT-PCR was compared with immunohistochemistry assays for these receptors. Furthermore, the results highlight the advantages of RT-PCR over immunohistochemistry with respect to quantitation and dynamic range. These findings support the development of RT-PCR analysis of FPE tissue RNA as a platform for multianalyte clinical diagnostic tests. PMID:14695316

  17. Rapid expression of transgenes driven by seed-specific constructs in leaf tissue: DHA production

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    Zhou Xue-Rong

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic engineering of seed biosynthetic pathways to diversify and improve crop product quality is a highly active research area. The validation of genes driven by seed-specific promoters is time-consuming since the transformed plants must be grown to maturity before the gene function can be analysed. Results In this study we demonstrate that genes driven by seed-specific promoters contained within complex constructs can be transiently-expressed in the Nicotiana benthamiana leaf-assay system by co-infiltrating the Arabidopsis thaliana LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2 gene. A real-world case study is described in which we first assembled an efficient transgenic DHA synthesis pathway using a traditional N. benthamiana Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV 35S-driven leaf assay before using the LEC2-extended assay to rapidly validate a complex seed-specific construct containing the same genes before stable transformation in Arabidopsis. Conclusions The LEC2-extended N. benthamiana assay allows the transient activation of seed-specific promoters in leaf tissue. In this study we have used the assay as a rapid preliminary screen of a complex seed-specific transgenic construct prior to stable transformation, a feature that will become increasingly useful as genetic engineering moves from the manipulation of single genes to the engineering of complex pathways. We propose that the assay will prove useful for other applications wherein rapid expression of transgenes driven by seed-specific constructs in leaf tissue are sought.

  18. Loss of expression and promoter methylation of SLIT2 are associated with sessile serrated adenoma formation.

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    Andrew D Beggs

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Serrated adenomas form a distinct subtype of colorectal pre-malignant lesions that may progress to malignancy along a different molecular pathway than the conventional adenoma-carcinoma pathway. Previous studies have hypothesised that BRAF mutation and promoter hypermethylation plays a role, but the evidence for this is not robust. We aimed to carry out a whole-genome loss of heterozygosity analysis, followed by targeted promoter methylation and expression analysis to identify potential pathways in serrated adenomas. An initial panel of 9 sessile serrated adenomas (SSA and one TSA were analysed using Illumina Goldengate HumanLinkage panel arrays to ascertain regions of loss of heterozygosity. This was verified via molecular inversion probe analysis and microsatellite analysis of a further 32 samples. Methylation analysis of genes of interest was carried out using methylation specific PCR (verified by pyrosequencing and immunohistochemistry used to correlate loss of expression of genes of interest. All experiments used adenoma samples and normal tissue samples as control. SSA samples were found on whole-genome analysis to have consistent loss of heterozygosity at 4p15.1-4p15.31, which was not found in the sole TSA, adenomas, or normal tissues. Genes of interest in this region were PDCH7 and SLIT2, and combined MSP/IHC analysis of these genes revealed significant loss of SLIT2 expression associated with promoter methylation of SLIT2. Loss of expression of SLIT2 by promoter hypermethylation and loss of heterozygosity events is significantly associated with serrated adenoma development, and SLIT2 may represent a epimutated tumour suppressor gene according to the Knudson "two hit" hypothesis.

  19. Elevated expression of CD93 promotes angiogenesis and tumor growth in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

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    Bao, Lili [Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu Province (China); Tang, Mingming [Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, 226361, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Qicheng; You, Bo; Shan, Ying; Shi, Si; Li, Li [Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu Province (China); Hu, Songqun, E-mail: hsq@ntu.edu.cn [Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu Province (China); You, Yiwen, E-mail: youyiwen_nantong@163.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2016-08-05

    CD93, also known as the complement component C1q receptor (C1qRp), has been reported to promote the progression of some cancer types. However, the expression and physiological significance of CD93 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remain largely elusive. In this study, we first examined the expression of CD93 in NPC and experimentally manipulated its expression. We observed that vascular CD93 expression is elevated in NPC and is correlated with T classification, N classification, distant metastasis, clinical stage and poor prognosis (all P < 0.05). In addition, overexpression of CD93 promoted angiogenesis in vitro. What’s more, we found that CD93 was highly expressed in NPC tissues and cells, and the regulation of CD93 on cell proliferation was determined by cell counting kit (CCK)-8 assay and cell cycle analyses. Our findings provide unique insight into the pathogenesis of NPC and underscore the need to explore novel therapeutic targets such as CD93 to improve NPC treatment. -- Highlights: •This is the first research about the relationship between CD93 and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. •We explored the prognostic significance of vascular CD93 expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. •We researched on angiogenesis and cell proliferation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and how CD93 affected them.

  20. Human sex hormone-binding globulin gene expression- multiple promoters and complex alternative splicing

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    Rosner William

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG regulates free sex steroid concentrations in plasma and modulates rapid, membrane based steroid signaling. SHBG is encoded by an eight exon-long transcript whose expression is regulated by a downstream promoter (PL. The SHBG gene was previously shown to express a second major transcript of unknown function, derived from an upstream promoter (PT, and two minor transcripts. Results We report that transcriptional expression of the human SHBG gene is far more complex than previously described. PL and PT direct the expression of at least six independent transcripts each, resulting from alternative splicing of exons 4, 5, 6, and/or 7. We mapped two transcriptional start sites downstream of PL and PT, and present evidence for a third SHBG gene promoter (PN within the neighboring FXR2 gene; PN regulates the expression of at least seven independent SHBG gene transcripts, each possessing a novel, 164-nt first exon (1N. Transcriptional expression patterns were generated for human prostate, breast, testis, liver, and brain, and the LNCaP, MCF-7, and HepG2 cell lines. Each expresses the SHBG transcript, albeit in varying abundance. Alternative splicing was more pronounced in the cancer cell lines. PL- PT- and PN-derived transcripts were most abundant in liver, testis, and prostate, respectively. Initial findings reveal the existence of a smaller immunoreactive SHBG species in LNCaP, MCF-7, and HepG2 cells. Conclusion These results extend our understanding of human SHBG gene transcription, and raise new and important questions regarding the role of novel alternatively spliced transcripts, their function in hormonally responsive tissues including the breast and prostate, and the role that aberrant SHBG gene expression may play in cancer.

  1. MSX-1 gene expression and regulation in embryonic palatal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, P; Greene, R M

    1998-01-01

    The palatal cleft seen in Msx-1 knock-out mice suggests a role for this gene in normal palate development. The cleft is presumed secondary to tooth and jaw malformations, since in situ hybridization suggests that Msx-1 mRNA is not highly expressed in developing palatal tissue. In this study we demonstrate, by Northern blot analysis, the expression of Msx-1, but not Msx-2, in the developing palate and in primary cultures of murine embryonic palate mesenchymal cells. Furthermore, we propose a role for Msx-1 in retinoic acid-induced cleft palate, since retinoic acid inhibits Msx-1 mRNA expression in palate mesenchymal cells. We also demonstrate that transforming growth factor beta inhibits Msx-1 mRNA expression in palate mesenchymal cells, with retinoic acid and transforming growth factor beta acting synergistically when added simultaneously to these cells. These data suggest a mechanistic interaction between retinoic acid, transforming growth factor beta, and Msx-1 in the etiology of retinoic acid-induced cleft palate.

  2. Comparison of telomere length and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 promoter methylation between breast cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues in Turkish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Zehra; Akkiprik, Mustafa; Karabulut, Sevgi; Peker, Irem; Gullu Amuran, Gokce; Ozmen, Tolga; Gulluoglu, Bahadır M; Kaya, Handan; Ozer, Ayse

    2017-09-01

    Both insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) and telomere length (TL) are associated with proliferation and senescence of human breast cancer. This study assessed the clinical significance of both TL and IGFBP7 methylation status in breast cancer tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. We also investigated whether IGFBP7 methylation status could be affecting TL. Telomere length was measured by quantitative PCR to compare tumors with their adjacent normal tissues. The IGFBP7 promoter methylation status was evaluated by methylation-specific PCR and its expression levels were determined by western blotting. Telomeres were shorter in tumor tissues compared to controls (Pbreast cancer with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC; n=72; P=.014) compared with other histological type (n=29), and TL in IDC with HER2 negative (n=53; P=.017) was higher than TL in IDC with HER2 positive (n=19). However, telomeres were shortened in advanced stages and growing tumors. IGFBP7 methylation was observed in 90% of tumor tissues and 59% of controls (P=.0002). Its frequency was significantly higher in IDC compared with invasive mixed carcinoma (IMC; P=.002) and it was not correlated either with protein expression or the other clinicopathological parameters. These results suggest that IGFBP7 promoter methylation and shorter TL in tumor compared with adjacent tissues may be predictive biomarkers for breast cancer. Telomere maintenance may be indicative of IDC and IDC with HER2 (-) of breast cancer. Further studies with larger number of cases are necessary to verify this association. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor downregulates MYCN expression and promotes cell differentiation of neuroblastoma.

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    Pei-Yi Wu

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma (NB is the most common malignant disease of infancy. MYCN amplification is a prognostic factor for NB and is a sign of highly malignant disease and poor patient prognosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate novel MYCN-related genes and assess how they affect NB cell behavior. The different gene expression found in 10 MYCN amplification NB tumors and 10 tumors with normal MYCN copy number were analyzed using tissue oligonucleotide microarrays. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was subsequently performed to identify the potential genes involved in MYCN regulation pathways. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR, a receptor for dioxin-like compounds, was found to be inversely correlated with MYCN expression in NB tissues. This correlation was confirmed in a further 14 human NB samples. Moreover, AHR expression in NB tumors was found to correlate highly with histological grade of differentiation. In vitro studies revealed that AHR overexpression in NB cells induced spontaneous cell differentiation. In addition, it was found that ectopic expression of AHR suppressed MYCN promoter activity resulting in downregulation of MYCN expression. The suppression effect of AHR on the transcription of MYCN was compensated for by E2F1 overexpression, indicating that E2F1 is involved in the AHR-regulating MYCN pathway. Furthermore, AHR shRNA promotes the expression of E2F1 and MYCN in NB cells. These findings suggest that AHR is one of the upstream regulators of MYCN. Through the modulation of E2F1, AHR regulates MYCN gene expression, which may in turn affect NB differentiation.

  4. CD147 Promotes CXCL1 Expression and Modulates Liver Fibrogenesis

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    Wen-Pu Shi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs release pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic factors. CXC chemokine-ligand-1 (CXCL1 is expressed on HSCs. We previously found that the CD147 is overexpressed in activated HSCs. In this study, we showed an important role of CD147 in promoting liver fibrosis by activating HSCs and upregulating expression of chemokines. Specifically, we found that CD147 specific deletion in HSCs mice alleviated CCl4-induced liver fibrosis and inhibited HSCs activation. Overexpression of CD147 upregulated the secretion of CXCL1. Meanwhile, CXCL1 promoted HSCs activation through autocrine. Treating with PI3K/AKT inhibitor could effectively suppress CD147-induced CXCL1 expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that CD147 regulates CXCL1 release in HSCs by PI3K/AKT signaling. Inhibition of CD147 attenuates CCl4-induced liver fibrosis and inflammation. Therefore, administration of targeting CD147 could be a promising therapeutic strategy in liver fibrosis.

  5. Cardiac-Specific Gene Expression Facilitated by an Enhanced Myosin Light Chain Promoter

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    Wolfgang Boecker

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adenoviral gene transfer has been shown to be effective in cardiac myocytes in vitro and in vivo. A major limitation of myocardial gene therapy is the extracardiac transgene expression. Methods: To minimize extracardiac gene expression, we have constructed a tissue-specific promoter for cardiac gene transfer, namely, the 250-bp fragment of the myosin light chain-2v (MLC-2v gene, which is known to be expressed in a tissue-specific manner in ventricular myocardium followed by a luciferase (luc reporter gene (Ad.4 × MLC250.Luc. Rat cardiomyocytes, liver and kidney cells were infected with Ad.4 × MLC.Luc or control vectors. For in vivo testing, Ad.4 × MLC250.Luc was injected into the myocardium or in the liver of rats. Kinetics of promoter activity were monitored over 8 days using a cooled CCD camera. Results: In vitro: By infecting hepatic versus cardiomyocyte cells, we found that the promoter specificity ratio (luc activity in cardiomyocytes per liver cells was 20.4 versus 0.9 (Ad.4 × MLC250.Luc vs. Ad.CMV. In vivo: Ad.4 × MLC250.Luc significantly reduced luc activity in liver (38.4-fold, lung (16.1-fold, and kidney (21.8-fold versus Ad.CMV (p = .01; whereas activity in the heart was only 3.8-fold decreased. The gene expression rate of cardiomyocytes versus hepatocytes was 7:1 (Ad.4 × MLC.Luc versus 1:1.4 (Ad.CMV.Luc. Discussion: This new vector may be useful to validate therapeutic approaches in animal disease models and offers the perspective for selective expression of therapeutic genes in the diseased heart.

  6. Immunohistochemical Expression of COX-2 in Uterine Serous Carcinoma Tissue

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    Joseph Menczer

    2016-03-01

    Material and methods. Cox-2 expression assessment by immunohistochemistry was performed on deparaffinized sections of paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of consecutive available USC uterine specimens of patients diagnosed from 2000 to 2014. Staining of more than 10% of the cells was considered positive. Staining intensity was graded on a 0 and ndash;3 scale. A scoring index was calculated by multiplying the intensity grade by the percentage of stained cells and considered low when it was equal to 1 or less and high when it was more than 1. Clinicopathological data were retrospectively abstracted from the records of the study group patients Results. The study comprised uterine specimens of 31 USC patients. Positive immunohistochemical staining was observed in 25 (80.6% USC specimens and a high score in 6 (19.4% of them. No association between immunohistochemical staining parameters and clinicopathological prognostic factors was observed. Conclusion. Although our findings should be verified in larger series, it seems that in view of the lack of association between immunohistochemical Cox-2 staining parameters in USC tissue and clinicopathological prognostic factors, this aggressive tumor is not a candidate for the use of selective Cox-2 inhibitors. Key words: Cox-2 expression, uterine carcinosarcoma, clinicopathological prognostic factors [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2016; 4(1.000: 9-12

  7. Effect of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression on radiation pulmonary fibrosis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shanying; Song Liangwen; Zhang Yong; Sun Li; Li Yang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) on initiation of radiation pulmonary fibrosis (RPF) and the relation to α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Methods: The promotive effect of CTGF on proliferation of human lung fibroblasts (HLF) by 5 Gy of 60 Co γ-rays was determined by MTT colorimetry. The expressions of CTGF and α-SMA in HLF were observed by Western blot. Changes of collagen I and III in rat lungs were determined by Sirius red staining and polarization microscopy. Expressions of CTGF and α-SMA in RPF were observed with immunohisto-chemistry and analysis. Results: Expressions of CTGF and α-SMA were increased. CTGF reached its peak at 24 h after irradiation, whereas α-SMA still kept at a high level 72 h after irradiation. A small amount of collagen was produced in rat lung one month after irradiation, in which type III collagen was the primary component. However, a large amount of collagen was produced in rat lung 3-6 months after irradiation, in which type I was dominant. CTGF began to expression 1 week after irradiation in proliferative fibroblasts of rat lung, and it was most evident 3 months after irradiation. α-SMA began to express in proliferative myofibroblasts 1 week after irradiation, and the high peek was reached at 3 months after irradiation. Conclusion: Irradiation can induce expression of CTGF in pulmonary tissue and the later can promote the transformation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, strengthen the ability of synthesis and secretion of type I and III collagen. (authors)

  8. Association of diminished expression of RASSF1A with promoter methylation in primary gastric cancer from patients of central China

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    Zhou Feng

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although methylation-mediated inactivation of expression of RASSF1A, a candidate tumor suppressor gene, has been observed in several human cancers, the data concerning alteration of RASSF1A expression and methylation in Chinese primary gastric cancer are scarce. Moreover, direct evidence showing the association between protein expression of RASSF1A and primary human cancers is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate RASSF1A expression in tissue of primary gastric cancer (GC at mRNA and protein levels, and to establish the possible relationship between DNA methylation status and protein expression of RASSF1A in Chinese. Methods Fifty-four patients with primary gastric cancers were included in the study of RASSF1A mRNA expression and methylation status between the cancer tissue and the corresponding adjacent normal tissue. 20 out of 54 patients were included for study of RASSF1A protein expression. The expression of RASSF1A at mRNA and protein levels was determined by RT-PCR and Western-blotting, respectively. The RASSF1A promoter methylation was detected by methylation-specific PCR. Results RASSF1A mRNA and protein expressions in GC were reduced significantly with comparison to the corresponding normal tissues (OD value: 0.2589 ± 0.2407 vs 0.5448 ± 0.2971, P P P P Conclusion Expression of RASSF1A was reduced in tissue of GC at mRNA and protein levels. Diminished expression of RASSF1A was associated with the promoter methylation.

  9. TISSUES 2.0: an integrative web resource on mammalian tissue expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palasca, Oana; Santos, Alberto; Stolte, Christian; Gorodkin, Jan; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    2018-01-01

    Physiological and molecular similarities between organisms make it possible to translate findings from simpler experimental systems—model organisms—into more complex ones, such as human. This translation facilitates the understanding of biological processes under normal or disease conditions. Researchers aiming to identify the similarities and differences between organisms at the molecular level need resources collecting multi-organism tissue expression data. We have developed a database of gene–tissue associations in human, mouse, rat and pig by integrating multiple sources of evidence: transcriptomics covering all four species and proteomics (human only), manually curated and mined from the scientific literature. Through a scoring scheme, these associations are made comparable across all sources of evidence and across organisms. Furthermore, the scoring produces a confidence score assigned to each of the associations. The TISSUES database (version 2.0) is publicly accessible through a user-friendly web interface and as part of the STRING app for Cytoscape. In addition, we analyzed the agreement between datasets, across and within organisms, and identified that the agreement is mainly affected by the quality of the datasets rather than by the technologies used or organisms compared. http://tissues.jensenlab.org/

  10. Increased PADI4 expression in blood and tissues of patients with malignant tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PAD4/PADI4 post-translationally converts peptidylarginine to citrulline. Recent studies suggest that PADI4 represses expression of p53-regulated genes via citrullination of histones at gene promoters. Methods Expression of PADI4 was investigated in various tumors and non-tumor tissues (n = 1673 as well as in A549, SKOV3 and U937 tumor cell lines by immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, and western blot. Levels of PADI4 and citrullinated antithrombin (cAT were investigated in the blood of patients with various tumors by ELISA (n = 1121. Results Immunohistochemistry detected significant PADI4 expression in various malignancies including breast carcinomas, lung adenocarcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, esophageal squamous cancer cells, colorectal adenocarcinomas, renal cancer cells, ovarian adenocarcinomas, endometrial carcinomas, uterine adenocarcinomas, bladder carcinomas, chondromas, as well as other metastatic carcinomas. However, PADI4 expression was not observed in benign leiomyomas of stomach, uterine myomas, endometrial hyperplasias, cervical polyps, teratomas, hydatidiform moles, trophoblastic cell hyperplasias, hyroid adenomas, hemangiomas, lymph hyperplasias, schwannomas, neurofibromas, lipomas, and cavernous hemangiomas of the liver. Additionally, PADI4 expression was not detected in non-tumor tissues including cholecystitis, cervicitis and synovitis of osteoarthritis, except in certain acutely inflamed tissues such as in gastritis and appendicitis. Quantitative PCR and western blot analysis showed higher PADI4 expression in gastric adenocarcinomas, lung adenocarcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, esophageal squamous cell cancers and breast cancers (n = 5 for each disease than in the surrounding healthy tissues. Furthermore, western blot analysis detected PADI4 expression in cultured tumor cell lines. ELISA detected increased PADI4 and cAT levels in the blood of patients with

  11. Increased PADI4 expression in blood and tissues of patients with malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Xiaotian; Han, Jinxiang; Pang, Li; Zhao, Yan; Yang, Yi; Shen, Zhonglin

    2009-01-01

    Peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PAD4/PADI4) post-translationally converts peptidylarginine to citrulline. Recent studies suggest that PADI4 represses expression of p53-regulated genes via citrullination of histones at gene promoters. Expression of PADI4 was investigated in various tumors and non-tumor tissues (n = 1673) as well as in A549, SKOV3 and U937 tumor cell lines by immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, and western blot. Levels of PADI4 and citrullinated antithrombin (cAT) were investigated in the blood of patients with various tumors by ELISA (n = 1121). Immunohistochemistry detected significant PADI4 expression in various malignancies including breast carcinomas, lung adenocarcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, esophageal squamous cancer cells, colorectal adenocarcinomas, renal cancer cells, ovarian adenocarcinomas, endometrial carcinomas, uterine adenocarcinomas, bladder carcinomas, chondromas, as well as other metastatic carcinomas. However, PADI4 expression was not observed in benign leiomyomas of stomach, uterine myomas, endometrial hyperplasias, cervical polyps, teratomas, hydatidiform moles, trophoblastic cell hyperplasias, hyroid adenomas, hemangiomas, lymph hyperplasias, schwannomas, neurofibromas, lipomas, and cavernous hemangiomas of the liver. Additionally, PADI4 expression was not detected in non-tumor tissues including cholecystitis, cervicitis and synovitis of osteoarthritis, except in certain acutely inflamed tissues such as in gastritis and appendicitis. Quantitative PCR and western blot analysis showed higher PADI4 expression in gastric adenocarcinomas, lung adenocarcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, esophageal squamous cell cancers and breast cancers (n = 5 for each disease) than in the surrounding healthy tissues. Furthermore, western blot analysis detected PADI4 expression in cultured tumor cell lines. ELISA detected increased PADI4 and cAT levels in the blood of patients with various malignant tumors compared to those in patients

  12. The pea SAD short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase: quinone reduction, tissue distribution, and heterologous expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbak, Nikolai; Ala-Häivälä, Anneli; Brosché, Mikael; Böwer, Nathalie; Strid, Hilja; Gittins, John R; Grahn, Elin; Eriksson, Leif A; Strid, Åke

    2011-04-01

    The pea (Pisum sativum) tetrameric short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase-like protein (SAD) family consists of at least three highly similar members (SAD-A, -B, and -C). According to mRNA data, environmental stimuli induce SAD expression. The aim of this study was to characterize the SAD proteins by examining their catalytic function, distribution in pea, and induction in different tissues. In enzyme activity assays using a range of potential substrates, the SAD-C enzyme was shown to reduce one- or two-ring-membered quinones lacking long hydrophobic hydrocarbon tails. Immunological assays using a specific antiserum against the protein demonstrated that different tissues and cell types contain small amounts of SAD protein that was predominantly located within epidermal or subepidermal cells and around vascular tissue. Particularly high local concentrations were observed in the protoderm of the seed cotyledonary axis. Two bow-shaped rows of cells in the ovary and the placental surface facing the ovule also exhibited considerable SAD staining. Ultraviolet-B irradiation led to increased staining in epidermal and subepidermal cells of leaves and stems. The different localization patterns of SAD suggest functions both in development and in responses to environmental stimuli. Finally, the pea SAD-C promoter was shown to confer heterologous wound-induced expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which confirmed that the inducibility of its expression is regulated at the transcriptional level.

  13. Strontium Promotes Cementoblasts Differentiation through Inhibiting Sclerostin Expression In Vitro

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    Xingfu Bao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cementogenesis, performed by cementoblasts, is important for the repair of root resorption caused by orthodontic treatment. Based on recent studies, strontium has been applied for osteoporosis treatment due to its positive effect on osteoblasts. Although promising, the effect of strontium on cementoblasts is still unclear. So the aim of this research was to clarify and investigate the effect of strontium on cementogenesis via employing cementoblasts as model. A series of experiments including MTT, alkaline phosphatase activity, gene analysis, alizarin red staining, and western blot were carried out to evaluate the proliferation and differentiation of cementoblasts. In addition, expression of sclerostin was checked to analyze the possible mechanism. Our results show that strontium inhibits the proliferation of cementoblasts with a dose dependent manner; however, it can promote the differentiation of cementoblasts via downregulating sclerostin expression. Taking together, strontium may facilitate cementogenesis and benefit the treatment of root resorption at a low dose.

  14. Highly specific expression of luciferase gene in lungs of naive nude mice directed by prostate-specific antigen promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongwei; Li Jinzhong; Helm, Gregory A.; Pan Dongfeng

    2005-01-01

    PSA promoter has been demonstrated the utility for tissue-specific toxic gene therapy in prostate cancer models. Characterization of foreign gene overexpression in normal animals elicited by PSA promoter should help evaluate therapy safety. Here we constructed an adenovirus vector (AdPSA-Luc), containing firefly luciferase gene under the control of the 5837 bp long prostate-specific antigen promoter. A charge coupled device video camera was used to non-invasively image expression of firefly luciferase in nude mice on days 3, 7, 11 after injection of 2 x 10 9 PFU of AdPSA-Luc virus via tail vein. The result showed highly specific expression of the luciferase gene in lungs of mice from day 7. The finding indicates the potential limitations of the suicide gene therapy of prostate cancer based on selectivity of PSA promoter. By contrary, it has encouraging implications for further development of vectors via PSA promoter to enable gene therapy for pulmonary diseases

  15. Trophic factors from adipose tissue-derived multi-lineage progenitor cells promote cytodifferentiation of periodontal ligament cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Keigo [Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka (Japan); Takedachi, Masahide, E-mail: takedati@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka (Japan); Yamamoto, Satomi; Morimoto, Chiaki; Ozasa, Masao; Iwayama, Tomoaki [Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka (Japan); Lee, Chun Man [Medical Center for Translational Research, Osaka University Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Okura, Hanayuki; Matsuyama, Akifumi [Research on Disease Bioresources, Platform of Therapeutics for Rare Disease, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Osaka (Japan); Kitamura, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinya [Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka (Japan)

    2015-08-14

    Stem and progenitor cells are currently being investigated for their applicability in cell-based therapy for periodontal tissue regeneration. We recently demonstrated that the transplantation of adipose tissue-derived multi-lineage progenitor cells (ADMPCs) enhances periodontal tissue regeneration in beagle dogs. However, the molecular mechanisms by which transplanted ADMPCs induce periodontal tissue regeneration remain to be elucidated. In this study, trophic factors released by ADMPCs were examined for their paracrine effects on human periodontal ligament cell (HPDL) function. ADMPC conditioned medium (ADMPC-CM) up-regulated osteoblastic gene expression, alkaline phosphatase activity and calcified nodule formation in HPDLs, but did not significantly affect their proliferative response. ADMPCs secreted a number of growth factors, including insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6 (IGFBP6), hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor. Among these, IGFBP6 was most highly expressed. Interestingly, the positive effects of ADMPC-CM on HPDL differentiation were significantly suppressed by transfecting ADMPCs with IGFBP6 siRNA. Our results suggest that ADMPCs transplanted into a defect in periodontal tissue release trophic factors that can stimulate the differentiation of HPDLs to mineralized tissue-forming cells, such as osteoblasts and cementoblasts. IGFBP6 may play crucial roles in ADMPC-induced periodontal regeneration. - Highlights: • ADMPC-derived humoral factors stimulate cytodifferentiation of HPDLs. • ADMPCs secret growth factors including IGFBP6, VEGF and HGF. • IGFBP6 is involved in the promotion effect of ADMPC-CM on HPDL cytodifferentiation.

  16. Trophic factors from adipose tissue-derived multi-lineage progenitor cells promote cytodifferentiation of periodontal ligament cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Keigo; Takedachi, Masahide; Yamamoto, Satomi; Morimoto, Chiaki; Ozasa, Masao; Iwayama, Tomoaki; Lee, Chun Man; Okura, Hanayuki; Matsuyama, Akifumi; Kitamura, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Stem and progenitor cells are currently being investigated for their applicability in cell-based therapy for periodontal tissue regeneration. We recently demonstrated that the transplantation of adipose tissue-derived multi-lineage progenitor cells (ADMPCs) enhances periodontal tissue regeneration in beagle dogs. However, the molecular mechanisms by which transplanted ADMPCs induce periodontal tissue regeneration remain to be elucidated. In this study, trophic factors released by ADMPCs were examined for their paracrine effects on human periodontal ligament cell (HPDL) function. ADMPC conditioned medium (ADMPC-CM) up-regulated osteoblastic gene expression, alkaline phosphatase activity and calcified nodule formation in HPDLs, but did not significantly affect their proliferative response. ADMPCs secreted a number of growth factors, including insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6 (IGFBP6), hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor. Among these, IGFBP6 was most highly expressed. Interestingly, the positive effects of ADMPC-CM on HPDL differentiation were significantly suppressed by transfecting ADMPCs with IGFBP6 siRNA. Our results suggest that ADMPCs transplanted into a defect in periodontal tissue release trophic factors that can stimulate the differentiation of HPDLs to mineralized tissue-forming cells, such as osteoblasts and cementoblasts. IGFBP6 may play crucial roles in ADMPC-induced periodontal regeneration. - Highlights: • ADMPC-derived humoral factors stimulate cytodifferentiation of HPDLs. • ADMPCs secret growth factors including IGFBP6, VEGF and HGF. • IGFBP6 is involved in the promotion effect of ADMPC-CM on HPDL cytodifferentiation

  17. Vitamin D Proliferates Vaginal Epithelium through RhoA Expression in Postmenopausal Atrophic Vagina tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Arum; Lee, Man Ryul; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Kim, Yeon-Suk; Kim, Jun-Mo; Enkhbold, Temuulee; Kim, Tae-Hee

    2017-09-30

    Postmenopausal atrophic vagina (PAV) is the thinning of the walls of the vagina and decreased lugae of the vagina. PAV is caused by decreased estrogen levels in postmenopausal women. However, the harmful effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have resulted in considerable caution in its use. Various estrogen agonist treatment options are available. Vitamin D is influences the regulation of differentiation and proliferation of various cells, especially tissues lining stratified squamous epithelium, such as the vaginal epithelium. In this study, we hypothesized that vitamin D could provide an alternative and a safe treatment option for PAV by promoting the proliferation and differentiation of the vaginal epithelium. Thirty six patients were enrolled in this case-control study. Vitamin D associated proteins in a vitamin D and sex hormone treated vaginal epithelial cell line as well as normal and PAV tissues were measured. To confirm of cell-to-cell junction protein expression, cell line and tissue studies included RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry staining, and immunoblot analyses. The expression of cell-to-cell junction proteins was higher in women with symptoms of atrophic vagina tissue compared to women without the symptoms. Vitamin D stimulated the proliferation of the vaginal epithelium by activating p-RhoA and Erzin through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The results suggest that vitamin D positively regulates cell-to-cell junction by increasing the VDR/p-RhoA/p-Ezrin pathway. This is the first study to verify the relationship of the expression of RhoA and Ezrin proteins in vaginal tissue of PAV.

  18. AgRP Neurons Control Systemic Insulin Sensitivity via Myostatin Expression in Brown Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steculorum, Sophie M; Ruud, Johan; Karakasilioti, Ismene; Backes, Heiko; Engström Ruud, Linda; Timper, Katharina; Hess, Martin E; Tsaousidou, Eva; Mauer, Jan; Vogt, Merly C; Paeger, Lars; Bremser, Stephan; Klein, Andreas C; Morgan, Donald A; Frommolt, Peter; Brinkkötter, Paul T; Hammerschmidt, Philipp; Benzing, Thomas; Rahmouni, Kamal; Wunderlich, F Thomas; Kloppenburg, Peter; Brüning, Jens C

    2016-03-24

    Activation of Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons potently promotes feeding, and chronically altering their activity also affects peripheral glucose homeostasis. We demonstrate that acute activation of AgRP neurons causes insulin resistance through impairment of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into brown adipose tissue (BAT). AgRP neuron activation acutely reprograms gene expression in BAT toward a myogenic signature, including increased expression of myostatin. Interference with myostatin activity improves insulin sensitivity that was impaired by AgRP neurons activation. Optogenetic circuitry mapping reveals that feeding and insulin sensitivity are controlled by both distinct and overlapping projections. Stimulation of AgRP → LHA projections impairs insulin sensitivity and promotes feeding while activation of AgRP → anterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (aBNST)vl projections, distinct from AgRP → aBNSTdm projections controlling feeding, mediate the effect of AgRP neuron activation on BAT-myostatin expression and insulin sensitivity. Collectively, our results suggest that AgRP neurons in mice induce not only eating, but also insulin resistance by stimulating expression of muscle-related genes in BAT, revealing a mechanism by which these neurons rapidly coordinate hunger states with glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Regeneration of soft tissues is promoted by MMP1 treatment after digit amputation in mice.

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    Xiaodong Mu

    Full Text Available The ratio of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs to the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs in wounded tissues strictly control the protease activity of MMPs, and therefore regulate the progress of wound closure, tissue regeneration and scar formation. Some amphibians (i.e. axolotl/newt demonstrate complete regeneration of missing or wounded digits and even limbs; MMPs play a critical role during amphibian regeneration. Conversely, mammalian wound healing re-establishes tissue integrity, but at the expense of scar tissue formation. The differences between amphibian regeneration and mammalian wound healing can be attributed to the greater ratio of MMPs to TIMPs in amphibian tissue. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of MMP1 to effectively promote skeletal muscle regeneration by favoring extracellular matrix (ECM remodeling to enhance cell proliferation and migration. In this study, MMP1 was administered to the digits amputated at the mid-second phalanx of adult mice to observe its effect on digit regeneration. Results indicated that the regeneration of soft tissue and the rate of wound closure were significantly improved by MMP1 administration, but the elongation of the skeletal tissue was insignificantly affected. During digit regeneration, more mutipotent progenitor cells, capillary vasculature and neuromuscular-related tissues were observed in MMP1 treated tissues; moreover, there was less fibrotic tissue formed in treated digits. In summary, MMP1 was found to be effective in promoting wound healing in amputated digits of adult mice.

  20. Glucose metabolism in pigs expressing human genes under an insulin promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijkstrom, Martin; Bottino, Rita; Iwase, Hayoto; Hara, Hidetaka; Ekser, Burcin; van der Windt, Dirk; Long, Cassandra; Toledo, Frederico G S; Phelps, Carol J; Trucco, Massimo; Cooper, David K C; Ayares, David

    2015-01-01

    Xenotransplantation of porcine islets can reverse diabetes in non-human primates. The remaining hurdles for clinical application include safe and effective T-cell-directed immunosuppression, but protection against the innate immune system and coagulation dysfunction may be more difficult to achieve. Islet-targeted genetic manipulation of islet-source pigs represents a powerful tool to protect against graft loss. However, whether these genetic alterations would impair islet function is unknown. On a background of α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GTKO)/human (h)CD46, additional genes (hCD39, human tissue factor pathway inhibitor, porcine CTLA4-Ig) were inserted in different combinations under an insulin promoter to promote expression in islets (confirmed by immunofluorescence). Seven pigs were tested for baseline and glucose/arginine-challenged levels of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon. This preliminary study did not show definite evidence of β-cell deficiencies, even when three transgenes were expressed under the insulin promoter. Of seven animals, all were normoglycemic at fasting, and five of seven had normal glucose disposal rates after challenge. All animals exhibited insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon responses to both glucose and arginine challenge; however, significant interindividual variation was observed. Multiple islet-targeted transgenic expression was not associated with an overtly detrimental effect on islet function, suggesting that complex genetic constructs designed for islet protection warrants further testing in islet xenotransplantation models. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Expression in Arabidopsis of a nucellus-specific promoter from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Krishna K; Roche, Dominique; Carman, John G

    2010-11-01

    Though many tissue-specific promoters have been identified, few have been associated specifically with the angiospermous megasporangium (nucellus). In the present study the 2000-bp regulatory region upstream to the watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai, gene WM403 (GenBank accession no. AF008925), which shows nucellus-specific expression, was cloned from watermelon gDNA and fused to the β-glucuronidase reporter gene (GUS). The resulting plasmid, WM403 Prom::GUS(+), which also contained NPTII, was transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Co1-0. Seedlings were selected on kanamycin-containing medium, and transformants were confirmed by PCR. GUS assays of T(3) transformants revealed weak promoter activation in epidermal layers of the placenta and locule septum during premeiotic ovule development but strong activation in the nucellus, embryo sac and early embryo, from early embryo sac formation to early globular embryo formation. Expression in seeds was absent thereafter. These results indicate that the WM403 promoter may be useful in driving nucellus-specific gene expression in plants including candidate genes for important nucellus-specific traits such as apospory or adventitious embryony. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Expressions of Ras and Sos1 in epithelial ovarian cancer tissues and their clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zheng-Hua; Linghu, Hua; Liu, Qian-Fen

    2016-11-20

    To detect the expressions of Ras and Sos1 proteins in human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) tissues and explore their correlation with the clinicopathological features of the patients. The expressions of Ras and Sos1 proteins were detected immunohistochemically in 62 EOC tissues, 5 borderline ovarian cancer tissues, 15 benign epithelial ovarian neoplasm tissues, and 18 normal ovarian tissues. The EOC tissues showed significantly higher expression levels of both Ras and Sos1 than the other tissues tested (Ptissues, Ras and Sos1 proteins were expressed mostly on the cell membrane and in the cytoplasm. The expression level of Ras was correlated with pathological types of the tumor (Ptissue-specific variation of Ras expression can lend support to a specific diagnosis of ovarian serous adenocarcinoma. The association of Ras and Sos1 protein expression with the tumor-free survival time of the patients awaits further investigation with a larger sample size.

  3. Tissue factor expression by myeloid cells contributes to protective immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, Sambasivan; Tripathi, Deepak; Tucker, Torry; Paidipally, Padmaja; Cheekatla, Satyanarayana; Welch, Elwyn; Raghunath, Anjana; Jeffers, Ann; Tvinnereim, Amy R; Schechter, Melissa E; Andrade, Bruno B; Mackman, Nizel; Idell, Steven; Vankayalapati, Ramakrishna

    2016-02-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that plays an essential role in hemostasis by activating coagulation. TF is also expressed by monocytes/macrophages as part of the innate immune response to infections. In the current study, we determined the role of TF expressed by myeloid cells during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection by using mice lacking the TF gene in myeloid cells (TF(Δ) ) and human monocyte derived macrophages (MDMs). We found that during M. tb infection, a deficiency of TF in myeloid cells was associated with reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, enhanced arginase 1 (Arg1) expression, enhanced IL-10 production and reduced apoptosis in infected macrophages, which augmented M. tb growth. Our results demonstrate that a deficiency of TF in myeloid cells promotes M2-like phenotype in M .tb infected macrophages. A deficiency in TF expression by myeloid cells was also associated with reduced fibrin deposition and increased matrix metalloproteases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 mediated inflammation in M. tb infected lungs. Our studies demonstrate that TF expressed by myeloid cells has newly recognized abilities to polarize macrophages and to regulate M. tb growth. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. A genome-wide study of DNA methylation patterns and gene expression levels in multiple human and chimpanzee tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athma A Pai

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The modification of DNA by methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism that affects the spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression. Methylation patterns have been described in many contexts within and across a range of species. However, the extent to which changes in methylation might underlie inter-species differences in gene regulation, in particular between humans and other primates, has not yet been studied. To this end, we studied DNA methylation patterns in livers, hearts, and kidneys from multiple humans and chimpanzees, using tissue samples for which genome-wide gene expression data were also available. Using the multi-species gene expression and methylation data for 7,723 genes, we were able to study the role of promoter DNA methylation in the evolution of gene regulation across tissues and species. We found that inter-tissue methylation patterns are often conserved between humans and chimpanzees. However, we also found a large number of gene expression differences between species that might be explained, at least in part, by corresponding differences in methylation levels. In particular, we estimate that, in the tissues we studied, inter-species differences in promoter methylation might underlie as much as 12%-18% of differences in gene expression levels between humans and chimpanzees.

  5. Supplementary Material for: Global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences in rice evolution result in two contrasting types of differentially expressed genes

    KAUST Repository

    Horiuchi, Youko; Harushima, Yoshiaki; Fujisawa, Hironori; Mochizuki, Takako; Fujita, Masahiro; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Kurata, Nori

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Since the development of transcriptome analysis systems, many expression evolution studies characterized evolutionary forces acting on gene expression, without explicit discrimination between global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences. However, different types of gene expression alteration should have different effects on an organism, the evolutionary forces that act on them might be different, and different types of genes might show different types of differential expression between species. To confirm this, we studied differentially expressed (DE) genes among closely related groups that have extensive gene expression atlases, and clarified characteristics of different types of DE genes including the identification of regulating loci for differential expression using expression quantitative loci (eQTL) analysis data. Results We detected differentially expressed (DE) genes between rice subspecies in five homologous tissues that were verified using japonica and indica transcriptome atlases in public databases. Using the transcriptome atlases, we classified DE genes into two types, global DE genes and changed-tissues DE genes. Global type DE genes were not expressed in any tissues in the atlas of one subspecies, however changed-tissues type DE genes were expressed in both subspecies with different tissue specificity. For the five tissues in the two japonica-indica combinations, 4.6 ± 0.8 and 5.9 ± 1.5 % of highly expressed genes were global and changed-tissues DE genes, respectively. Changed-tissues DE genes varied in number between tissues, increasing linearly with the abundance of tissue specifically expressed genes in the tissue. Molecular evolution of global DE genes was rapid, unlike that of changed-tissues DE genes. Based on gene ontology, global and changed-tissues DE genes were different, having no common GO terms. Expression differences of most global DE genes were regulated by cis

  6. Nedd4L expression is decreased in ovarian epithelial cancer tissues compared to ovarian non-cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiuyun; Zhao, Jinghe; Cui, Manhua; Gi, Shuting; Wang, Wei; Han, Xiaole

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 4-like (Nedd4L) gene plays a role in the progression of various cancers. However, reports describing Nedd4L expression in ovarian cancer tissues are limited. A cohort (n = 117) of archival formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded resected normal ovarian epithelial tissues (n = 10), benign ovarian epithelial tumor tissues (n = 10), serous borderline ovarian epithelial tumor tissues (n = 14), mucous borderline ovarian epithelial tumor tissues (n = 11), and invasive ovarian epithelial cancer tissues (n = 72) were assessed for Nedd4L protein expression using immunohistochemistry. Nedd4L protein expression was significantly decreased in invasive ovarian epithelial cancer tissues compared to non-cancer tissues (P < 0.05). Decreased Nedd4L protein expression correlated with clinical stage, pathological grade, lymph node metastasis and survival (P < 0.05). Nedd4L protein expression may be an independent prognostic marker of ovarian cancer development. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Effect of hypoxia on tissue factor pathway inhibitor expression in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, X Y; Tinholt, M; Stavik, B; Dahm, A E A; Kanse, S; Jin, Y; Seidl, S; Sahlberg, K K; Iversen, N; Skretting, G; Sandset, P M

    2016-02-01

    ESSENTIALS: A hypoxic microenvironment is a common feature of tumors that may influence activation of coagulation. MCF-7 and SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells and breast cancer tissue samples were used. The results showed transcriptional repression of tissue factor pathway inhibitor expression in hypoxia. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α may be a target for the therapy of cancer-related coagulation and thrombosis. Activation of coagulation is a common finding in patients with cancer, and is associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis. As a hypoxic microenvironment is a common feature of solid tumors, we investigated the role of hypoxia in the regulation of tissue factor (TF) pathway inhibitor (TFPI) expression in breast cancer. To explore the transcriptional regulation of TFPI by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α in breast cancer cells and their correlation in breast cancer tissues. MCF-7 and SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells were cultured in 1% oxygen or treated with cobalt chloride (CoCl2 ) to mimic hypoxia. Time-dependent and dose-dependent downregulation of TFPI mRNA (quantitative RT-PCR) and of free TFPI protein (ELISA) were observed in hypoxia. Western blotting showed parallel increases in the levels of HIF-1α protein and TF. HIF-1α inhibitor abolished or attenuated the hypoxia-induced downregulation of TFPI. Luciferase reporter assay showed that both hypoxia and HIF-1α overexpression caused strong repression of TFPI promoter activity. Subsequent chromatin immunoprecipitation and mutagenesis analysis demonstrated a functional hypoxia response element within the TFPI promoter, located at -1065 to -1060 relative to the transcriptional start point. In breast cancer tissue samples, gene expression analyses showed a positive correlation between the mRNA expression of TFPI and that of HIF-1α. This study demonstrates that HIF-1α is involved in the transcriptional regulation of the TFPI gene, and suggests that a hypoxic microenvironment inside a breast tumor may

  8. Cooperative binding of transcription factors promotes bimodal gene expression response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo S Gutierrez

    Full Text Available In the present work we extend and analyze the scope of our recently proposed stochastic model for transcriptional regulation, which considers an arbitrarily complex cis-regulatory system using only elementary reactions. Previously, we determined the role of cooperativity on the intrinsic fluctuations of gene expression for activating transcriptional switches, by means of master equation formalism and computer simulation. This model allowed us to distinguish between two cooperative binding mechanisms and, even though the mean expression levels were not affected differently by the acting mechanism, we showed that the associated fluctuations were different. In the present generalized model we include other regulatory functions in addition to those associated to an activator switch. Namely, we introduce repressive regulatory functions and two theoretical mechanisms that account for the biphasic response that some cis-regulatory systems show to the transcription factor concentration. We have also extended our previous master equation formalism in order to include protein production by stochastic translation of mRNA. Furthermore, we examine the graded/binary scenarios in the context of the interaction energy between transcription factors. In this sense, this is the first report to show that the cooperative binding of transcription factors to DNA promotes the "all-or-none" phenomenon observed in eukaryotic systems. In addition, we confirm that gene expression fluctuation levels associated with one of two cooperative binding mechanism never exceed the fluctuation levels of the other.

  9. BAG3 promotes chondrosarcoma progression by upregulating the expression of β-catenin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huijuan; Chen, Wenfang; Dong, Yu; Lu, Xiaofang; Zhang, Wenhui; Wang, Liantang

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the roles of B-cell lymphoma-2 associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) in human chondrosarcoma and the potential mechanisms, the expression levels of BAG3 were detected in the present study, and the associations between BAG3 and clinical pathological parameters, clinical stage as well as the survival of patients were analyzed. The present study detected BAG3 mRNA and protein expression in the normal cartilage cell line HC-a and in SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The BAG3 protein expression in 59 cases of chondrosarcoma, 30 patients with endogenous chondroma and 8 cases of normal cartilage was semi-quantitatively analyzed using the immunohistochemical method. In addition, the BAG3 protein expression level, the clinical pathological parameters, clinical stage and the survival time of patients with chondrosarcoma were analyzed. The plasmid transfection method was employed to upregulate the expression BAG3 and small RNA interference to downregulate the expression of BAG3 in SW1353 cells. The expression levels of BAG3 protein and mRNA were significantly increased in the chondrosarcoma cell line when compared with the normal cartilage cell line. The immunohistochemistry results indicated that BAG3 protein was overexpressed in the tissue of human chondrosarcoma. Statistical analysis showed that the expression level of BAG3 was significantly increased in the different Enneking staging of patients with chondrosarcoma and Tumor staging, and there were no statistical differences in age, gender, histological classification and tumor size. In the in vitro experiments, the data revealed that BAG3 significantly promoted chondrosarcoma cell proliferation, colony-formation, migration and invasion; however, it inhibited chondrosarcoma cell apoptosis. It was observed that BAG3 upregulated β-catenin expression at the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, BAG3 induced the expression of runt

  10. BAG3 promotes chondrosarcoma progression by upregulating the expression of β-catenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huijuan; Chen, Wenfang; Dong, Yu; Lu, Xiaofang; Zhang, Wenhui; Wang, Liantang

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the roles of B‑cell lymphoma‑2 associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) in human chondrosarcoma and the potential mechanisms, the expression levels of BAG3 were detected in the present study, and the associations between BAG3 and clinical pathological parameters, clinical stage as well as the survival of patients were analyzed. The present study detected BAG3 mRNA and protein expression in the normal cartilage cell line HC‑a and in SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The BAG3 protein expression in 59 cases of chondrosarcoma, 30 patients with endogenous chondroma and 8 cases of normal cartilage was semi-quantitatively analyzed using the immunohistochemical method. In addition, the BAG3 protein expression level, the clinical pathological parameters, clinical stage and the survival time of patients with chondrosarcoma were analyzed. The plasmid transfection method was employed to upregulate the expression BAG3 and small RNA interference to downregulate the expression of BAG3 in SW1353 cells. The expression levels of BAG3 protein and mRNA were significantly increased in the chondrosarcoma cell line when compared with the normal cartilage cell line. The immunohistochemistry results indicated that BAG3 protein was overexpressed in the tissue of human chondrosarcoma. Statistical analysis showed that the expression level of BAG3 was significantly increased in the different Enneking staging of patients with chondrosarcoma and Tumor staging, and there were no statistical differences in age, gender, histological classification and tumor size. In the in vitro experiments, the data revealed that BAG3 significantly promoted chondrosarcoma cell proliferation, colony‑formation, migration and invasion; however, it inhibited chondrosarcoma cell apoptosis. It was observed that BAG3 upregulated β‑catenin expression at the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, BAG3 induced the

  11. Nattokinase-promoted tissue plasminogen activator release from human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatagai, Chieko; Maruyama, Masugi; Kawahara, Tomoko; Sumi, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    When heated to a temperature of 70 degrees C or higher, the strong fibrinolytic activity of nattokinase in a solution was deactivated. Similar results were observed in the case of using Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA and H-D-Val-Leu-Lys-pNA, which are synthetic substrates of nattokinase. In the current study, tests were conducted on the indirect fibrinolytic effects of the substances containing nattokinase that had been deactivated through heating at 121 degrees C for 15 min. Bacillus subtilis natto culture solutions made from three types of bacteria strain were heat-treated and deactivated, and it was found that these culture solutions had the ability to generate tissue plasminogen activators (tPA) from vascular endothelial cells and HeLa cells at certain concentration levels. For example, it was found that the addition of heat-treated culture solution of the Naruse strain (undiluted solution) raises the tPA activity of HeLa cells to about 20 times that of the control. Under the same conditions, tPA activity was raised to a level about 5 times higher for human vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC), and to a level about 24 times higher for nattokinase sold on the market. No change in cell count was observed for HeLa cells and HUVEC in the culture solution at these concentrations, and the level of activity was found to vary with concentration. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Cytokeratin 19 promoter directs the expression of Cre recombinase in various epithelia of transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gui-Feng; Zhao, Shuang; Liu, Jia-Jie; Wu, Ji-Cheng; He, Hao-Yu; Ding, Xiao-Qing; Yu, Xue-Wen; Huang, Ke-Qiang; Li, Zhi-Jie; Zheng, Hua-Chuan

    2017-03-14

    Cytokeratin 19 (K19) is expressed in various differentiated cells, including gastric, intestinal and bronchial epithelial cells, and liver duct cells. Here, we generated a transgenic mouse line, K19-Cre, in which the expression of Cre recombinase was controlled by the promoter of K19. To test the tissue distribution and excision activity of Cre recombinase, K19-Cre transgenic mice were bred with Rosa26 reporter strain and a mouse strain that carries PTEN conditional alleles (PTENLoxp/Loxp). At mRNA level, Cre was strongly expressed in the stomach, lung and intestine, while in stomach, lung, and liver at protein level. The immunoreactivity to Cre was strongly observed the cytoplasm of gastric, bronchial and intestinal epithelial cells. Cre activity was detectable in gastric, bronchial and intestinal epithelial cells, according to LacZ staining. In K19-Cre/PTEN Loxp/Loxp mice, PTEN was abrogated in stomach, intestine, lung, liver and breast, the former two of which were verified by in situ PCR. There appeared breast cancer with PTEN loss. These data suggest that K19 promoter may be a useful tool to study the pathophysiological functions of cytokeratin 19-positive cells, especially gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Cell specificity of neoplasia is not completely attributable to the cell-specific expression of oncogenes and cell-specific loss of tumor suppressor genes.

  13. Increased expression of CYP4Z1 promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Wei; Chai, Hongyan; Li, Ying; Zhao, Haixia; Xie, Xianfei; Zheng, Hao; Wang, Chenlong; Wang, Xue; Yang, Guifang; Cai, Xiaojun; Falck, John R.; Yang, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4Z1, a novel CYP4 family member, is over-expressed in human mammary carcinoma and associated with high-grade tumors and poor prognosis. However, the precise role of CYP4Z1 in tumor progression is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer. Stable expression of CYP4Z1 in T47D and BT-474 human breast cancer cells significantly increased mRNA expression and production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and decreased mRNA levels and secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), without affecting cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth in vitro. Notably, the conditioned medium from CYP4Z1-expressing cells enhanced proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and promoted angiogenesis in the zebrafish embryo and chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. In addition, there were lower levels of myristic acid and lauric acid, and higher contents of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in CYP4Z1-expressing T47D cells compared with vector control. CYP4Z1 overexpression significantly increased tumor weight and microvessel density by 2.6-fold and 1.9-fold in human tumor xenograft models, respectively. Moreover, CYP4Z1 transfection increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt, while PI3K or ERK inhibitors and siRNA silencing reversed CYP4Z1-mediated changes in VEGF-A and TIMP-2 expression. Conversely, HET0016, an inhibitor of the CYP4 family, potently inhibited the tumor-induced angiogenesis with associated changes in the intracellular levels of myristic acid, lauric acid and 20-HETE. Collectively, these data suggest that increased CYP4Z1 expression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer partly via PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 activation. -- Highlights: ► CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes human breast cancer growth and angiogenesis. ► The pro-angiogenic effects of CYP4Z1 have

  14. Increased expression of CYP4Z1 promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in human breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Wei [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chai, Hongyan [Center for Gene Diagnosis, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Li, Ying; Zhao, Haixia; Xie, Xianfei; Zheng, Hao; Wang, Chenlong; Wang, Xue [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Yang, Guifang [Department of Pathology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Cai, Xiaojun [Department of Ophthalmology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Falck, John R. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 (United States); Yang, Jing, E-mail: yangjingliu@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2012-10-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4Z1, a novel CYP4 family member, is over-expressed in human mammary carcinoma and associated with high-grade tumors and poor prognosis. However, the precise role of CYP4Z1 in tumor progression is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer. Stable expression of CYP4Z1 in T47D and BT-474 human breast cancer cells significantly increased mRNA expression and production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and decreased mRNA levels and secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), without affecting cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth in vitro. Notably, the conditioned medium from CYP4Z1-expressing cells enhanced proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and promoted angiogenesis in the zebrafish embryo and chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. In addition, there were lower levels of myristic acid and lauric acid, and higher contents of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in CYP4Z1-expressing T47D cells compared with vector control. CYP4Z1 overexpression significantly increased tumor weight and microvessel density by 2.6-fold and 1.9-fold in human tumor xenograft models, respectively. Moreover, CYP4Z1 transfection increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt, while PI3K or ERK inhibitors and siRNA silencing reversed CYP4Z1-mediated changes in VEGF-A and TIMP-2 expression. Conversely, HET0016, an inhibitor of the CYP4 family, potently inhibited the tumor-induced angiogenesis with associated changes in the intracellular levels of myristic acid, lauric acid and 20-HETE. Collectively, these data suggest that increased CYP4Z1 expression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer partly via PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 activation. -- Highlights: ► CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes human breast cancer growth and angiogenesis. ► The pro-angiogenic effects of CYP4Z1 have

  15. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP3) promotes endothelial apoptosis via a caspase-independent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jian Hua; Anand-Apte, Bela

    2015-04-01

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP3) is a tumor suppressor and a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. TIMP3 exerts its anti-angiogenic effect via a direct interaction with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-2 (KDR) and inhibition of proliferation, migration and tube formation of endothelial cells (ECs). TIMP3 has also been shown to induce apoptosis in some cancer cells and vascular smooth muscle cells via MMP inhibition and caspase-dependent mechanisms. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanisms of TIMP3-mediated apoptosis in endothelial cells. We have previously demonstrated that mice developed smaller tumors with decreased vascularity when injected with breast carcinoma cells overexpressing TIMP3, than with control breast carcinoma cells. TIMP3 overexpression resulted in increased apoptosis in human breast carcinoma (MDA-MB435) in vivo but not in vitro. However, TIMP3 could induce apoptosis in ECs in vitro. The apoptotic activity of TIMP3 in ECs appears to be independent of MMP inhibitory activity. Furthermore, the equivalent expression of functional TIMP3 promoted apoptosis and caspase activation in ECs expressing KDR (PAE/KDR), but not in ECs expressing PDGF beta-receptor (PAE/β-R). Surprisingly, the apoptotic activity of TIMP3 appears to be independent of caspases. TIMP3 inhibited matrix-induced focal adhesion kinase (FAK) tyrosine phosphorylation and association with paxillin and disrupted the incorporation of β3 integrin, FAK and paxillin into focal adhesion contacts on the matrix, which were not affected by caspase inhibitors. Thus, TIMP3 may induce apoptosis in ECs by triggering a caspase-independent cell death pathway and targeting a FAK-dependent survival pathway.

  16. Expression of Nanog gene promotes NIH3T3 cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingyu; Wang Xia; Chen Bing; Suo Guangli; Zhao Yanhong; Duan Ziyuan; Dai Jianwu

    2005-01-01

    Cells are the functional elements in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. A large number of cells are usually needed for these purposes. However, there are numbers of limitations for in vitro cell proliferation. Nanog is an important self-renewal determinant in embryonic stem cells. However, it remains unknown whether Nanog will influence the cell cycle and cell proliferation of mature cells. In this study, we expressed Nanog in NIH3T3 cells and showed that expression of Nanog in NIH3T3 promoted cells to enter into S phase and enhanced cell proliferation. This suggests that Nanog gene might function in a similar fashion in mature cells as in ES cells. In addition, it may provide an approach for in vitro cell expansion

  17. Resistin in Dairy Cows: Plasma Concentrations during Early Lactation, Expression and Potential Role in Adipose Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverchon, Maxime; Ramé, Christelle; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Elis, Sébastien; Guillaume, Daniel; Dupont, Joëlle

    2014-01-01

    Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP) and at five months of gestation (5 MG). We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigated the effect of recombinant bovine resistin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue explants. ELISA showed that plasma resistin concentration was low before calving, subsequently increasing and reaching a peak at 1 WPP, decreasing steadily thereafter to reach pre-calving levels at 6 WPP. Plasma resistin concentration was significantly positively correlated with plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels and negatively with milk yield, dry matter intake and energy balance between WPP1 to WPP22. We showed, by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, that resistin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue were higher at WPP1 than at 5 MG. The level of phosphorylation of several early and downstream insulin signaling components (IRβ, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, MAPK ERK1/2, P70S6K and S6) in adipose tissue was also lower at 1 WPP than at 5 MG. Finally, we showed that recombinant bovine resistin increased the release of glycerol and mRNA levels for ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase) and HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase) in adipose tissue explants. Overall, resistin levels were high in the plasma and adipose tissue and were positively correlated with NEFA levels after calving. Resistin is expressed in bovine mature adipocytes and promotes lipid mobilization in adipose explants in vitro. PMID:24675707

  18. Resistin in dairy cows: plasma concentrations during early lactation, expression and potential role in adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Reverchon

    Full Text Available Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP and at five months of gestation (5 MG. We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigated the effect of recombinant bovine resistin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue explants. ELISA showed that plasma resistin concentration was low before calving, subsequently increasing and reaching a peak at 1 WPP, decreasing steadily thereafter to reach pre-calving levels at 6 WPP. Plasma resistin concentration was significantly positively correlated with plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA levels and negatively with milk yield, dry matter intake and energy balance between WPP1 to WPP22. We showed, by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, that resistin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue were higher at WPP1 than at 5 MG. The level of phosphorylation of several early and downstream insulin signaling components (IRβ, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, MAPK ERK1/2, P70S6K and S6 in adipose tissue was also lower at 1 WPP than at 5 MG. Finally, we showed that recombinant bovine resistin increased the release of glycerol and mRNA levels for ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase and HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase in adipose tissue explants. Overall, resistin levels were high in the plasma and adipose tissue and were positively correlated with NEFA levels after calving. Resistin is expressed in bovine mature adipocytes and promotes lipid mobilization in adipose explants in vitro.

  19. Tissue-specific expression of type IX collagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, I.; Muragaki, Y.; Ninomiya, Y.; Olsen, B.R.; Hayashi, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the tissue-specific expression of type IX collagen, a major component of cartilage fibrils. It contains molecules with three genetically distinct subunits. The subunits form three triple-helical (CO) domains separated by non-triple-helical (NC) sequences. One of the subunits in cartilage, α1(IX), contains a large amino-terminal globular domain, NC4, while a second subunit, α2(IX), contains a covalently attached chondroitin sulfate chain. The site of attachment for this chain is located within the non-triple-helical sequence NC3, which separates the amino-terminal and central triple-helical domains of the type IX molecules. The NC3 region is 5 amino acid residues longer in the α2(IX) chain than in the α1(IX) and α3(IX) chains. This may explain why type IX molecules tend to show a sharp angle in the NC3 region, and why monoclonal antibody molecules that are specific for the stub left after chondroitinase ABC digestion of the chondroitin sulfate side chain always are located on the outside of the angle

  20. CDH1 promoter hypermethylation and E-cadherin protein expression in infiltrating breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caldeira, José Roberto F; Prando, Erika C; Quevedo, Francisco C

    2006-01-01

    prognosis, and metastasis. Differential CpG island methylation in the promoter region of the CDH1 gene might be an alternative way for the loss of expression and function of E-cadherin, leading to loss of tissue integrity, an essential step in tumor progression. METHODS: The aim of our study was to assess...... not statistically significant, the levels of E-cadherin expression tended to diminish with the CDH1 promoter region methylation. In the group of 71 ductal cancinomas, most of the cases of showing CDH1 hypermethylation also presented reduced levels of expression of ER and PgR proteins, and a possible association......BACKGROUND: The E-cadherin gene (CDH1) maps, at chromosome 16q22.1, a region often associated with loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in human breast cancer. LOH at this site is thought to lead to loss of function of this tumor suppressor gene and was correlated with decreased disease-free survival, poor...

  1. Pseudogene PHBP1 promotes esophageal squamous cell carcinoma proliferation by increasing its cognate gene PHB expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Feiyue; Qiu, Bin; Zang, Ruochuan; Song, Peng; Gao, Shugeng

    2017-04-25

    Natural antisense transcripts (NATs) as one of the most diverse classes of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), have been demonstrated involved in fundamental biological processes in human. Here, we reported that human prohibitin gene pseudogene 1 (PHBP1) was upregulated in ESCC, and increased PHBP1 expression in ESCC was associated with clinical advanced stage. Functional experiments showed that PHBP1 knockdown inhibited ESCC cells proliferation, colony formation and xenograft tumor growth in vitro and in vivo by causing cell-cycle arrest at the G1-G0 phase. Mechanisms analysis revealed that PHBP1 transcript as an antisense transcript of PHB is partially complementary to PHB mRNA and formed an RNA-RNA hybrid with PHB, consequently inducing an increase of PHB expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, PHBP1 expression is strongly correlated with PHB expression in ESCC tissues. Collectively, this study elucidates an important role of PHBP1 in promoting ESCC partly via increasing PHB expression.

  2. Expression of Caspase-1 in breast cancer tissues and its effects on cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanxia; Guo, Yingzhen

    2018-05-01

    The present study aimed to detect the expression of Caspase-1 in the tumor tissues and tumor-adjacent tissues of patients with breast cancer, and to investigate the effects of Caspase-1 on the proliferation, apoptosis and invasion of breast cancer cells. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect Caspase-1 mRNA expression in breast cancer tissues and tumor-adjacent tissues from patients. Additionally, the human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell line was treated with the Caspase-1 small molecule inhibitor Ac-YVAD-CMK, following which the changes to Caspase-1 protein expression were detected via western blotting. The MTT method detected the changes to cell proliferation, flow cytometry detected the rate of apoptosis, and a Transwell assay was employed to assess invasion. Caspase-1 mRNA expression was significantly decreased in the breast cancer tissues of patients, compared with in the tumor-adjacent tissues, a difference that was statistically significant (P<0.05). Treatment with the Ac-YVAD-CMK markedly decreased the protein expression of Caspase-1 in MDA-MB-231 cells, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Following this treatment of Ac-YVAD-CMK cells, the proliferation and invasion abilities markedly increased, while the apoptotic levels significantly decreased (P<0.05). In conclusion, the expression of Caspase-1 is low in breast cancer tissues, which may promote the proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells and could be closely associated with the occurrence and development of breast cancer.

  3. Expression Pattern of the Alpha-Kafirin Promoter Coupled with a Signal Peptide from Sorghum bicolor L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norazlina Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory sequences with endosperm specificity are essential for foreign gene expression in the desired tissue for both grain quality improvement and molecular pharming. In this study, promoters of seed storage α-kafirin genes coupled with signal sequence (ss were isolated from Sorghum bicolor L. Moench genomic DNA by PCR. The α-kafirin promoter (α-kaf contains endosperm specificity-determining motifs, prolamin-box, the O2-box 1, CATC, and TATA boxes required for α-kafirin gene expression in sorghum seeds. The constructs pMB-Ubi-gfp and pMB-kaf-gfp were microprojectile bombarded into various sorghum and sweet corn explants. GFP expression was detected on all explants using the Ubi promoter but only in seeds for the α-kaf promoter. This shows that the α-kaf promoter isolated was functional and demonstrated seed-specific GFP expression. The constructs pMB-Ubi-ss-gfp and pMB-kaf-ss-gfp were also bombarded into the same explants. Detection of GFP expression showed that the signal peptide (SP::GFP fusion can assemble and fold properly, preserving the fluorescent properties of GFP.

  4. A Baculovirus immediate-early gene, ie1, promoter drives efficient expression of a transgene in both Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Masumoto

    Full Text Available Many promoters have been used to drive expression of heterologous transgenes in insects. One major obstacle in the study of non-model insects is the dearth of useful promoters for analysis of gene function. Here, we investigated whether the promoter of the immediate-early gene, ie1, from the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV could be used to drive efficient transgene expression in a wide variety of insects. We used a piggyBac-based vector with a 3xP3-DsRed transformation marker to generate a reporter construct; this construct was used to determine the expression patterns driven by the BmNPV ie1 promoter; we performed a detailed investigation of the promoter in transgene expression pattern in Drosophila melanogaster and in B. mori. Drosophila and Bombyx belong to different insect orders (Diptera and Lepidoptera, respectively; however, and to our surprise, ie1 promoter-driven expression was evident in several tissues (e.g., prothoracic gland, midgut, and tracheole in both insects. Furthermore, in both species, the ie1 promoter drove expression of the reporter gene from a relatively early embryonic stage, and strong ubiquitous ie1 promoter-driven expression continued throughout the larval, pupal, and adult stages by surface observation. Therefore, we suggest that the ie1 promoter can be used as an efficient expression driver in a diverse range of insect species.

  5. Metformin lowers plasma triglycerides by promoting VLDL-triglyceride clearance by brown adipose tissue in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerling, Janine J; Boon, Mariëtte R; van der Zon, Gerard C; van den Berg, Sjoerd A A; van den Hoek, Anita M; Lombès, Marc; Princen, Hans M G; Havekes, Louis M; Rensen, Patrick C N; Guigas, Bruno

    2014-03-01

    Metformin is the first-line drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Besides its well-characterized antihyperglycemic properties, metformin also lowers plasma VLDL triglyceride (TG). In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms in APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice, a well-established model for human-like lipoprotein metabolism. We found that metformin markedly lowered plasma total cholesterol and TG levels, an effect mostly due to a decrease in VLDL-TG, whereas HDL was slightly increased. Strikingly, metformin did not affect hepatic VLDL-TG production, VLDL particle composition, and hepatic lipid composition but selectively enhanced clearance of glycerol tri[(3)H]oleate-labeled VLDL-like emulsion particles into brown adipose tissue (BAT). BAT mass and lipid droplet content were reduced in metformin-treated mice, pointing to increased BAT activation. In addition, both AMP-activated protein kinase α1 (AMPKα1) expression and activity and HSL and mitochondrial content were increased in BAT. Furthermore, therapeutic concentrations of metformin increased AMPK and HSL activities and promoted lipolysis in T37i differentiated brown adipocytes. Collectively, our results identify BAT as an important player in the TG-lowering effect of metformin by enhancing VLDL-TG uptake, intracellular TG lipolysis, and subsequent mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. Targeting BAT might therefore be considered as a future therapeutic strategy for the treatment of dyslipidemia.

  6. Genome-wide prediction and analysis of human tissue-selective genes using microarray expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Shaolei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding how genes are expressed specifically in particular tissues is a fundamental question in developmental biology. Many tissue-specific genes are involved in the pathogenesis of complex human diseases. However, experimental identification of tissue-specific genes is time consuming and difficult. The accurate predictions of tissue-specific gene targets could provide useful information for biomarker development and drug target identification. Results In this study, we have developed a machine learning approach for predicting the human tissue-specific genes using microarray expression data. The lists of known tissue-specific genes for different tissues were collected from UniProt database, and the expression data retrieved from the previously compiled dataset according to the lists were used for input vector encoding. Random Forests (RFs and Support Vector Machines (SVMs were used to construct accurate classifiers. The RF classifiers were found to outperform SVM models for tissue-specific gene prediction. The results suggest that the candidate genes for brain or liver specific expression can provide valuable information for further experimental studies. Our approach was also applied for identifying tissue-selective gene targets for different types of tissues. Conclusions A machine learning approach has been developed for accurately identifying the candidate genes for tissue specific/selective expression. The approach provides an efficient way to select some interesting genes for developing new biomedical markers and improve our knowledge of tissue-specific expression.

  7. Novel system uses probasin-based promoter, transcriptional silencers and amplification loop to induce high-level prostate expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hong

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite several effective treatment options available for prostate cancer, it remains the second leading cause of cancer death in American men. Thus, there is a great need for new treatments to improve outcomes. One such strategy is to eliminate cancer through the expression of cytotoxic genes specifically in prostate cells by gene therapy vectored delivery. To prevent systemic toxicity, tissue- and/or cancer-specific gene expression is required. However, the use of tissue- or cancer-specific promoters to target transgene expression has been hampered by their weak activity. Results To address this issue, we have developed a regulation strategy that includes feedback amplification of gene expression along with a differentially suppressible tetracycline regulated expression system (DiSTRES. By differentially suppressing expression of the tetracycline-regulated transcriptional activator (tTA and silencer (tTS genes based on the cell origin, this leads to the activation and silencing of the TRE promoter, respectively. In vitro transduction of LNCaP cells with Ad/GFPDiSTRES lead to GFP expression levels that were over 30-fold higher than Ad/CMV-GFP. Furthermore, Ad/FasL-GFPDiSTRES demonstrated cytotoxic effects in prostate cancer cells known to be resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis. Conclusion Prostate-specific regulation from the DiSTRES system, therefore, serves as a promising new regulation strategy for future applications in the field of cancer gene therapy and gene therapy as a whole.

  8. Estrogen receptor (ER)α-regulated lipocalin 2 expression in adipose tissue links obesity with breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Brian G; Hamidi, Habib; Zhou, Zhenqi; Villanueva, Claudio J; Krum, Susan A; Calkin, Anna C; Parks, Brian W; Ribas, Vicent; Kalajian, Nareg Y; Phun, Jennifer; Daraei, Pedram; Christofk, Heather R; Hewitt, Sylvia C; Korach, Kenneth S; Tontonoz, Peter; Lusis, Aldons J; Slamon, Dennis J; Hurvitz, Sara A; Hevener, Andrea L

    2015-02-27

    Obesity is associated with increased breast cancer (BrCA) incidence. Considering that inactivation of estrogen receptor (ER)α promotes obesity and metabolic dysfunction in women and female mice, understanding the mechanisms and tissue-specific sites of ERα action to combat metabolic-related disease, including BrCA, is of clinical importance. To study the role of ERα in adipose tissue we generated fat-specific ERα knock-out (FERKO) mice. Herein we show that ERα deletion increased adipocyte size, fat pad weight, and tissue expression and circulating levels of the secreted glycoprotein, lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), an adipokine previously associated with BrCA development. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter studies showed that ERα binds the Lcn2 promoter to repress its expression. Because adipocytes constitute an important cell type of the breast microenvironment, we examined the impact of adipocyte ERα deletion on cancer cell behavior. Conditioned medium from ERα-null adipocytes and medium containing pure Lcn2 increased proliferation and migration of a subset of BrCA cells in culture. The proliferative and promigratory effects of ERα-deficient adipocyte-conditioned medium on BrCA cells was reversed by Lcn2 deletion. BrCA cell responsiveness to exogenous Lcn2 was heightened in cell types where endogenous Lcn2 expression was minimal, but components of the Lcn2 signaling pathway were enriched, i.e. SLC22A17 and 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH2). In breast tumor biopsies from women diagnosed with BrCA we found that BDH2 expression was positively associated with adiposity and circulating Lcn2 levels. Collectively these data suggest that reduction of ERα expression in adipose tissue promotes adiposity and is linked with the progression and severity of BrCA via increased adipocyte-specific Lcn2 production and enhanced tumor cell Lcn2 sensitivity. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Differentiation-Dependent KLF4 Expression Promotes Lytic Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay M Nawandar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is a human herpesvirus associated with B-cell and epithelial cell malignancies. EBV lytically infects normal differentiated oral epithelial cells, where it causes a tongue lesion known as oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL in immunosuppressed patients. However, the cellular mechanism(s that enable EBV to establish exclusively lytic infection in normal differentiated oral epithelial cells are not currently understood. Here we show that a cellular transcription factor known to promote epithelial cell differentiation, KLF4, induces differentiation-dependent lytic EBV infection by binding to and activating the two EBV immediate-early gene (BZLF1 and BRLF1 promoters. We demonstrate that latently EBV-infected, telomerase-immortalized normal oral keratinocyte (NOKs cells undergo lytic viral reactivation confined to the more differentiated cell layers in organotypic raft culture. Furthermore, we show that endogenous KLF4 expression is required for efficient lytic viral reactivation in response to phorbol ester and sodium butyrate treatment in several different EBV-infected epithelial cell lines, and that the combination of KLF4 and another differentiation-dependent cellular transcription factor, BLIMP1, is highly synergistic for inducing lytic EBV infection. We confirm that both KLF4 and BLIMP1 are expressed in differentiated, but not undifferentiated, epithelial cells in normal tongue tissue, and show that KLF4 and BLIMP1 are both expressed in a patient-derived OHL lesion. In contrast, KLF4 protein is not detectably expressed in B cells, where EBV normally enters latent infection, although KLF4 over-expression is sufficient to induce lytic EBV reactivation in Burkitt lymphoma cells. Thus, KLF4, together with BLIMP1, plays a critical role in mediating lytic EBV reactivation in epithelial cells.

  10. Altered gene-expression profile in rat plasma and promoted body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Altered gene-expression profile in rat plasma and promoted body and brain development ... The study was aimed to explore how the prenatal EE impacts affect the ... positively promote the body and nervous system development of offspring, ...

  11. Tissue-specific expression of silkmoth chorion genes in vivo using Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus as a transducing vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatrou, K; Meidinger, R G

    1990-01-01

    A pair of silkmoth chorion chromosomal genes, HcA.12-HcB.12, was inserted into a baculovirus transfer vector, pBmp2, derived from the nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Bombyx mori. This vector, which permits the insertion of foreign genetic material in the vicinity of a mutationally inactivated polyhedrin gene, was used to acquire the corresponding recombinant virus. Injection of mutant silkmoth pupae that lack all Hc chorion genes with the recombinant virus resulted in the infection of all internal organs including follicular tissue. Analysis of RNA from infected tissues has demonstrated that the two chorion genes present in the viral genome are correctly transcribed under the control of their own promoter in follicular cells, the tissue in which chorion genes are normally expressed. The chorion primary transcripts are also correctly processed in the infected follicular cells and yield mature mRNAs indistinguishable from authentic chorion mRNAs present in wild-type follicles. These results demonstrate that recombinant nuclear polyhedrosis viruses can be used as transducing vectors for introducing genetic material of host origin into the cells of the organism and that the transduced genes are transiently expressed in a tissue-specific manner under the control of their resident regulatory sequences. Thus we show the in vivo expression of cloned genes under cellular promoter control in an insect other than Drosophila melanogaster. The approach should be applicable to all insect systems that are subject to nuclear polyhedrosis virus infection. Images PMID:2187186

  12. Endothelium trans differentiated from Wharton's jelly mesenchymal cells promote tissue regeneration: potential role of soluble pro-angiogenic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Valeria; Briceño, Luis; Contreras, Hector; Lamperti, Liliana; Sepúlveda, Esperanza; Díaz-Perez, Francisca; León, Marcelo; Veas, Carlos; Maura, Rafael; Toledo, Jorge Roberto; Fernández, Paulina; Covarrubias, Ambart; Zuñiga, Felipe Andrés; Radojkovic, Claudia; Escudero, Carlos; Aguayo, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells have a high capacity for trans-differentiation toward many adult cell types, including endothelial cells. Feto-placental tissue, such as Wharton's jelly is a potential source of mesenchymal stem cells with low immunogenic capacity; make them an excellent source of progenitor cells with a potential use for tissue repair. We evaluated whether administration of endothelial cells derived from mesenchymal stem cells isolated from Wharton's jelly (hWMSCs) can accelerate tissue repair in vivo. Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from human Wharton's jelly by digestion with collagenase type I. Endothelial trans-differentiation was induced for 14 (hWMSC-End14d) and 30 (hWMSC-End30d) days. Cell phenotyping was performed using mesenchymal (CD90, CD73, CD105) and endothelial (Tie-2, KDR, eNOS, ICAM-1) markers. Endothelial trans-differentiation was demonstrated by the expression of endothelial markers and their ability to synthesize nitric oxide (NO). hWMSCs can be differentiated into adipocytes, osteocytes, chondrocytes and endothelial cells. Moreover, these cells show high expression of CD73, CD90 and CD105 but low expression of endothelial markers prior to differentiation. hWMSCs-End express high levels of endothelial markers at 14 and 30 days of culture, and also they can synthesize NO. Injection of hWMSC-End30d in a mouse model of skin injury significantly accelerated wound healing compared with animals injected with undifferentiated hWMSC or injected with vehicle alone. These effects were also observed in animals that received conditioned media from hWMSC-End30d cultures. These results demonstrate that mesenchymal stem cells isolated from Wharton's jelly can be cultured in vitro and trans-differentiated into endothelial cells. Differentiated hWMSC-End may promote neovascularization and tissue repair in vivo through the secretion of soluble pro-angiogenic factors.

  13. DSCR9 gene simultaneous expression in placental, testicular and renal tissues from baboon (papio hamadryas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Sanchez Irám

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2002 Takamatsu and co-workers described the human DSCR9 gene and observed that it was transcriptionally active in human testicular tissue, but no protein was identified as a product of this transcript. Similar results were obtained in chimpanzee tissue. This gene has not been detected in species other than primates, suggesting that DSCR9 is exclusively found in these mammals. Results We report evidence of DSCR9 expression in placenta, testis and kidney of baboon (Papio hamadryas. We used primers specific for DSCR9 to amplify transcripts through reverse transcription (RT coupled to polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Furthermore, PCR was used to amplify the complete DSCR9 gene from genomic DNA from three baboons. We amplified and sequenced five overlapping segments that were assembled into the 3284 bp baboon DSCR9 gene, including the putative promoter and the entire transcriptional unit (5'-UTR, CDS and 3'-UTR. Conclusions The baboon DSCR9 gene is highly similar to the human counterpart. The isolated transcripts from baboon tissues (placenta, testis and kidney of three different baboons correspond to the human orthologous gene.

  14. Prolonged Cre expression driven by the α-myosin heavy chain promoter can be cardiotoxic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugach, Emily K; Richmond, Phillip A; Azofeifa, Joseph G; Dowell, Robin D; Leinwand, Leslie A

    2015-09-01

    Studying the importance of genetic factors in a desired cell type or tissue necessitates the use of precise genetic tools. With the introduction of bacteriophage Cre recombinase/loxP mediated DNA editing and promoter-specific Cre expression, it is feasible to generate conditional knockout mice in which particular genes are disrupted in a cell type-specific manner in vivo. In cardiac myocytes, this is often achieved through α-myosin heavy chain promoter (αMyHC)-driven Cre expression in conjunction with a loxP-site flanked gene of interest. Recent studies in other cell types demonstrate toxicity of Cre expression through induction of DNA damage. However, it is unclear to what extent the traditionally used αMyHC-Cre line [1] may exhibit cardiotoxicity. Further, the genotype of αMyHC-Cre(+/-) is not often included as a control group in cardiac myocyte-specific knockout studies. Here we present evidence that these αMyHC-Cre(+/-) mice show molecular signs of cardiac toxicity by 3months of age and exhibit decreased cardiac function by 6months of age compared to wild-type littermates. Hearts from αMyHC-Cre(+/-) mice also display evidence of fibrosis, inflammation, and DNA damage. Interestingly, some of the early functional changes observed in αMyHC-Cre(+/-) mice are sexually dimorphic. Given the high level of Cre recombinase expression resulting from expression from the αMyHC promoter, we asked if degenerate loxP-like sites naturally exist in the mouse genome and if so, whether they are affected by Cre in the absence of canonical loxP-sites. Using a novel bioinformatics search tool, we identified 619 loxP-like sites with 4 or less mismatches to the canonical loxP-site. 227 sites overlapped with annotated genes and 55 of these genes were expressed in cardiac muscle. Expression of ~26% of the 27 genes tested was disrupted in αMyHC-Cre(+/-) mice indicating potential targeting by Cre. Taken together, these results highlight both the importance of using αMyHC-Cre mice

  15. Topical administration of orbital fat-derived stem cells promotes corneal tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ko-Jo; Loi, Mei-Xue; Lien, Gi-Shih; Cheng, Chieh-Feng; Pao, Hsiang-Yin; Chang, Yun-Chuang; Ji, Andrea Tung-Qian; Ho, Jennifer Hui-Chun

    2013-06-14

    Topical administration of eye drops is the major route for drug delivery to the cornea. Orbital fat-derived stem cells (OFSCs) possess an in vitro corneal epithelial differentiation capacity. Both the safety and immunomodulatory ability of systemic OFSC transplantation were demonstrated in our previous work. In this study, we investigated the safety, therapeutic effect, and mechanism(s) of topical OFSC administration in an extensive alkali-induced corneal wound. Corneal injury was created by contact of a piece of 0.5 N NaOH-containing filter paper on the corneal surface of a male Balb/c mouse for 30 s. The area of the filter paper covered the central 70% or 100% of the corneal surface. OFSCs (2 × 10(5)) in 5 μl phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were given by topical administration (T) twice a day or by two intralimbal (IL) injections in the right cornea, while 5 μl of PBS in the left cornea served as the control. Topical OFSCs promoted corneal re-epithelialization of both the limbal-sparing and limbal-involved corneal wounds. In the first three days, topical OFSCs significantly reduced alkali-induced corneal edema and stromal infiltration according to a histopathological examination. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining revealed that transplanted cells were easily detectable in the corneal epithelium, limbal epithelium and stroma, but only some of transplanted cells at the limbal epithelium had differentiated into cytokeratin 3-expressing cells. OFSCs did not alter neutrophil (Ly6G) levels in the cornea, but significantly reduced macrophage (CD68) infiltration and inducible nitrous oxide synthetase (iNOS) production during acute corneal injury as quantified by a Western blot analysis. Continuous topical administration of OFSCs for seven days improved corneal transparency, and this was accompanied by diffuse stromal engraftment of transplanted cells and differentiation into p63-expressing cells at the limbal area. The therapeutic effect of the

  16. Topical administration of orbital fat-derived stem cells promotes corneal tissue regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Topical administration of eye drops is the major route for drug delivery to the cornea. Orbital fat-derived stem cells (OFSCs) possess an in vitro corneal epithelial differentiation capacity. Both the safety and immunomodulatory ability of systemic OFSC transplantation were demonstrated in our previous work. In this study, we investigated the safety, therapeutic effect, and mechanism(s) of topical OFSC administration in an extensive alkali-induced corneal wound. Methods Corneal injury was created by contact of a piece of 0.5 N NaOH-containing filter paper on the corneal surface of a male Balb/c mouse for 30 s. The area of the filter paper covered the central 70% or 100% of the corneal surface. OFSCs (2 × 105) in 5 μl phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were given by topical administration (T) twice a day or by two intralimbal (IL) injections in the right cornea, while 5 μl of PBS in the left cornea served as the control. Results Topical OFSCs promoted corneal re-epithelialization of both the limbal-sparing and limbal-involved corneal wounds. In the first three days, topical OFSCs significantly reduced alkali-induced corneal edema and stromal infiltration according to a histopathological examination. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining revealed that transplanted cells were easily detectable in the corneal epithelium, limbal epithelium and stroma, but only some of transplanted cells at the limbal epithelium had differentiated into cytokeratin 3-expressing cells. OFSCs did not alter neutrophil (Ly6G) levels in the cornea, but significantly reduced macrophage (CD68) infiltration and inducible nitrous oxide synthetase (iNOS) production during acute corneal injury as quantified by a Western blot analysis. Continuous topical administration of OFSCs for seven days improved corneal transparency, and this was accompanied by diffuse stromal engraftment of transplanted cells and differentiation into p63-expressing cells at the limbal area. The

  17. FABP4 dynamics in obesity: discrepancies in adipose tissue and liver expression regarding circulating plasma levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Queipo-Ortuño

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: FABP4 is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue, and its circulating levels are linked with obesity and a poor atherogenic profile. OBJECTIVE: In patients with a wide BMI range, we analyze FABP4 expression in adipose and hepatic tissues in the settings of obesity and insulin resistance. Associations between FABP4 expression in adipose tissue and the FABP4 plasma level as well as the main adipogenic and lipolytic genes expressed in adipose tissue were also analyzed. METHODS: The expression of several lipogenic, lipolytic, PPAR family and FABP family genes was analyzed by real time PCR. FABP4 protein expression in total adipose tissues and its fractions were determined by western blot. RESULTS: In obesity FABP4 expression was down-regulated (at both mRNA and protein levels, with its levels mainly predicted by ATGL and inversely by the HOMA-IR index. The BMI appeared as the only determinant of the FABP4 variation in both adipose tissue depots. FABP4 plasma levels showed a significant progressive increase according to BMI but no association was detected between FABP4 circulating levels and SAT or VAT FABP4 gene expression. The gene expression of FABP1, FABP4 and FABP5 in hepatic tissue was significantly higher in tissue from the obese IR patients compared to the non-IR group. CONCLUSION: The inverse pattern in FABP4 expression between adipose and hepatic tissue observed in morbid obese patients, regarding the IR context, suggests that both tissues may act in a balanced manner. These differences may help us to understand the discrepancies between circulating plasma levels and adipose tissue expression in obesity.

  18. Factors promoting increased rate of tissue regeneration: the zebrafish fin as a tool for examining tissue engineering design concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boominathan, Vijay P; Ferreira, Tracie L

    2012-12-01

    Student interest in topics of tissue engineering is increasing exponentially as the number of universities offering programs in bioengineering are on the rise. Bioengineering encompasses all of the STEM categories: Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math. Inquiry-based learning is one of the most effective techniques for promoting student learning and has been demonstrated to have a high impact on learning outcomes. We have designed program outcomes for our bioengineering program that require tiered activities to develop problem solving skills, peer evaluation techniques, and promote team work. While it is ideal to allow students to ask unique questions and design their own experiments, this can be difficult for instructors to have reagents and supplies available for a variety of activities. Zebrafish can be easily housed, and multiple variables can be tested on a large enough group to provide statistical value, lending them well to inquiry-based learning modules. We have designed a laboratory activity that takes observation of fin regeneration to the next level: analyzing conditions that may impact regeneration. Tissue engineers seek to define the optimum conditions to grow tissue for replacement parts. The field of tissue engineering is likely to benefit from understanding natural mechanisms of regeneration and the factors that influence the rate of regeneration. We have outlined the results of varying temperature on fin regeneration and propose other inquiry modules such as the role of pH in fin regeneration. Furthermore, we have provided useful tools for developing critical thinking and peer review of research ideas, assessment guidelines, and grading rubrics for the activities associated with this exercise.

  19. SDF-1/CXCR4 expression in bladder cancer tissue and the correlation with negative costimulatory molecule PD-L1, cell apoptosis and invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Bao Ye

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the SDF-1/CXCR4 expression in bladder cancer tissue and the correlation with negative costimulatory molecule PD-L1, cell apoptosis and invasion. Methods: A total of 118 cases of bladder cancer tissue and para-carcinoma tissue surgically removed in our hospital between May 2014 and May 2016 were selected as the research samples, the RNA was extracted and then reverse-transcribed into cDNA, and the expression levels of SDF-1/ CXCR4, PD-L1/PD-1, cell apoptosis-related molecules and cell invasion-related molecules were detected. Results: SDF-1 and CXCR4 mRNA expression in bladder cancer tissue were significantly higher than those in para-carcinoma tissue; PD-L1, PD-1, Rec1, Survivin, MRPS5, Nanog, BCAPP2Ac, TRPM8, TRPV2, ILK, β-catenin and GUGBP1 mRNA expression in bladder cancer tissue were significantly higher than those in para-carcinoma tissue and positively correlated with SDF-1 and CXCR4 mRNA expression. Conclusion: Highly expressed SDF-1/CXCR4 in bladder cancer tissue are closely related to the high expression of negative costimulatory molecule PD-L1, pro-proliferation molecules and proinvasion molecules, and SDF-1/CXCR4 can promote the immune escape, proliferation and invasion of bladder cancer cells.

  20. Increased expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha transcribed by promoter 2 indicates a poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Shao-hang; Lu, Shi-xun; Liu, Li-li; Zhang, Chris Zhiyi; Yun, Jing-ping

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) plays an important role in tumourigenesis. There is growing evidence indicating that HNF4α transcribed by promoter 1 (P1-HNF4α) is expressed at relatively low levels in HCC and its presence predicts a favourable outcome for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. However, the role of HNF4α transcribed by promoter 2 (P2-HNF4α) in HCC remains unclear. Methods: A total of 615 HCC specimens were obtained to construct tissue microarrays and pe...

  1. PPAR γ is highly expressed in F4/80hi adipose tissue macrophages and dampens adipose-tissue inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Misyak, Sarah; Guri, Amir J.; Hontecillas, Raquel

    2009-01-01

    Macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue is a hallmark of obesity. We recently reported two phenotypically distinct subsets of adipose tissue macrophages (ATM) based on the surface expression of the glycoprotein F4/80 and responsiveness to treatment with a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ agonist. Hence, we hypothesized that F4/80hi and F4/80lo ATM differentially express PPAR γ. This study phenotypically and functionally characterizes F4/80hi and F4/80lo ATM subsets during obesity. Changes in gene expression were also examined on sorted F4/80lo and F4/80hi ATM by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. We show that while F4/80lo macrophages predominate in adipose tissue of lean mice, obesity causes accumulation of both F4/80lo and F4/80hi ATM. Moreover, accumulation of F4/80hi ATM in adipose tissue is associated with impaired glucose tolerance. Phenotypically, F4/80hi ATM express greater amounts of CD11c, MHC II, CD49b, and CX3CR1 and produce more TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-10 than F4/80lo ATM. Gene expression analyses of the sorted populations revealed that only the F4/80lo population produced IL-4, whereas the F4/80hi ATM expressed greater amounts of PPAR γ, δ, CD36 and toll-like receptor-4. In addition, the deficiency of PPAR γ in immune cells favors expression of M1 and impairs M2 macrophage marker expression in adipose tissue. Thus, PPAR γ is differentially expressed in F4/80hi versus F4/80low ATM subsets and its deficiency favors a predominance of M1 markers in WAT. PMID:19423085

  2. PPAR gamma is highly expressed in F4/80(hi) adipose tissue macrophages and dampens adipose-tissue inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Misyak, Sarah; Guri, Amir J; Hontecillas, Raquel

    2009-01-01

    Macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue is a hallmark of obesity. We recently reported two phenotypically distinct subsets of adipose tissue macrophages (ATM) based on the surface expression of the glycoprotein F4/80 and responsiveness to treatment with a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma agonist. Hence, we hypothesized that F4/80(hi) and F4/80(lo) ATM differentially express PPAR gamma. This study phenotypically and functionally characterizes F4/80(hi) and F4/80(lo) ATM subsets during obesity. Changes in gene expression were also examined on sorted F4/80(lo) and F4/80(hi) ATM by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. We show that while F4/80(lo) macrophages predominate in adipose tissue of lean mice, obesity causes accumulation of both F4/80(lo) and F4/80(hi) ATM. Moreover, accumulation of F4/80(hi) ATM in adipose tissue is associated with impaired glucose tolerance. Phenotypically, F4/80(hi) ATM express greater amounts of CD11c, MHC II, CD49b, and CX3CR1 and produce more TNF-alpha, MCP-1, and IL-10 than F4/80(lo) ATM. Gene expression analyses of the sorted populations revealed that only the F4/80(lo) population produced IL-4, whereas the F4/80(hi) ATM expressed greater amounts of PPAR gamma, delta, CD36 and toll-like receptor-4. In addition, the deficiency of PPAR gamma in immune cells favors expression of M1 and impairs M2 macrophage marker expression in adipose tissue. Thus, PPAR gamma is differentially expressed in F4/80(hi) versus F4/80(low) ATM subsets and its deficiency favors a predominance of M1 markers in WAT.

  3. Ecdysone Receptor-based Singular Gene Switches for Regulated Transgene Expression in Cells and Adult Rodent Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoghyun Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled gene expression is an indispensable technique in biomedical research. Here, we report a convenient, straightforward, and reliable way to induce expression of a gene of interest with negligible background expression compared to the most widely used tetracycline (Tet-regulated system. Exploiting a Drosophila ecdysone receptor (EcR-based gene regulatory system, we generated nonviral and adenoviral singular vectors designated as pEUI(+ and pENTR-EUI, respectively, which contain all the required elements to guarantee regulated transgene expression (GAL4-miniVP16-EcR, termed GvEcR hereafter, and 10 tandem repeats of an upstream activation sequence promoter followed by a multiple cloning site. Through the transient and stable transfection of mammalian cell lines with reporter genes, we validated that tebufenozide, an ecdysone agonist, reversibly induced gene expression, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with negligible background expression. In addition, we created an adenovirus derived from the pENTR-EUI vector that readily infected not only cultured cells but also rodent tissues and was sensitive to tebufenozide treatment for regulated transgene expression. These results suggest that EcR-based singular gene regulatory switches would be convenient tools for the induction of gene expression in cells and tissues in a tightly controlled fashion.

  4. [Expression of connective tissue growth factor in colorectal cancer and its association with prognosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zheng; Yang, Ping; Liang, Li-yuan; Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Wei-jian; Cao, Jie

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in colorectal cancer(CRC) and its association with clinicopathologic parameters and overall survival rate. Fresh tumor tissues and matched distal normal colon tissues were collected from 92 patients diagnosed as CRC by surgical operation. The expression level of CTGF mRNA was quantified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Thirty out of 92 pairs of tissue specimens were selected randomly to detect CTGF protein by immunohistochemistry. All the cases were followed up to identify prognostic factors for survival. CTGF mRNA expression was up-regulated in CRC. The positive rate of CTGF protein expression tissues (73.3%) was significantly higher than that in the corresponding normal tissues (23.3%, Ptissues was classified into high and low expression groups. The 5-year cumulative survival rate was lower in patients with low CTGF expression (29.3%) as compared to those with high CTGF expressions (68.3%) (P<0.01). Cox regression analysis revealed that the relative expression level of CTGF was independent factor of overall survival (RR=2.960, 95%CI:1.491-1.587, P<0.01). ROC curve analysis showed that sensitivity and specificity of CTGF mRNA expression for prediction of 5-year survival were 64.9% and 74.5%, respectively. The aberrant expression of CTGF is associated with the malignant biological behaviors of CRC. Low expression of CTGF is associated with worse prognosis of CRC.

  5. Methylation effect on chalcone synthase gene expression determines anthocyanin pigmentation in floral tissues of two Oncidium orchid cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Jing; Chuang, Yao-Nung; Chiou, Chung-Yi; Chin, Dan-Chu; Shen, Fu-Quan; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2012-08-01

    The anthocyanin-biosynthetic pathway was studied in flowers of Oncidium Gower Ramsey with yellow floral color and mosaic red anthocyanin in lip crests, sepals and petals, and compared with the anthocyanin biosynthesis in flowers of Oncidium Honey Dollp, a natural somatoclone derived from tissue culture of Gower Ramsey, with a yellow perianth without red anthocyanins in floral tissues. HPLC analysis revealed that the red anthocyanin in lip crests of the Gower Ramsey cultivar comprised peonidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, whereas Honey Dollp was devoid of anthocyanin compounds. Among the five anthocyanin-biosynthetic genes, OgCHS was actively expressed in lip crests of Gower Ramsey flowers, but no transcripts of OgCHS were detected in Honey Dollp floral tissues. Transient expression of OgCHS by bombardment confirmed that recovery of the OgCHS gene expression completed the anthocyanin pathway and produced anthocyanin compounds in lip crests of Honey Dollp flowers. Transcription factor genes regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis showed no distinctive differences in the expression level of OgMYB1, OgbHLH and OgWD40 between the two cultivars. A methylation assay revealed that the promoter of OgCHS was not methylated in Gower Ramsey, while a positive methylation effect was present in the upstream promoter region of OgCHS in Honey Dollp. Overall, our results suggest that the failure of anthocyanin accumulation in Honey Dollp floral tissues may be attributed to inactivation of the OgCHS gene resulting from the epigenetic methylation of 5'-upstream promoter region.

  6. Tissue-specific alternative splicing and expression of ATP1B2 gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After heat-stress, the expression levels of the different transcripts were lower in different tissues; however, the expression of the ATP1B2-complete transcript increased in heart and lung tissues. The results of this research provide some useful information for further studies into the function of the bovine ATP1B2 gene.

  7. Identification of novel adipokines in the joint. Differential expression in healthy and osteoarthritis tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Conde

    Full Text Available Emerging data suggest that several metabolic factors, released mainly by white adipose tissue (WAT and joint tissues, and collectively named adipokines, might have a role in the pathophysiology of OA. Recently, novel adipokines such as SERPINE2, WISP2, GPNMB and ITIH5 have been identified in WAT. The main goal of this study was to analyse the expression of these novel adipokines in synovium, infrapatellar fat pad and chondrocytes and to compare the expression of these molecules in healthy and OA tissues.Synovial tissues, infrapatellar fat pad and chondrocytes were obtained from 36 OA patients (age 52-85; mean BMI 28.9 who underwent total knee replacement surgery. Healthy synovial tissues and infrapatellar fat pad were obtained from 15 traumatic knee patients (age 23-53; mean BMI 23.5. mRNA and protein expression were determined by qRT-PCR and western blot analysis respectively.All the novel adipokines, matter of our study, are expressed in OA synovium, infrapatellar fat pad and chondrocytes. Moreover, we detected a differential expression of SERPINE2 and ITIH5 in OA synovial tissues as compared to healthy samples. Finally, we also observed an increased expression of WISP2 in OA infrapatellar fat pad in comparison to healthy controls.In this study we demonstrated for the first time the expression of four novel adipokines in different joint tissues and how these molecules are differentially expressed in healthy and OA joint tissues.

  8. Promoter methylation-associated loss of ID4 expression is a marker of tumour recurrence in human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noetzel, Erik; Veeck, Jürgen; Niederacher, Dieter; Galm, Oliver; Horn, Felicitas; Hartmann, Arndt; Knüchel, Ruth; Dahl, Edgar

    2008-01-01

    Inhibitor of DNA binding/Inhibitor of differentiation 4 (ID4) is a critical factor for cell proliferation and differentiation in normal vertebrate development. ID4 has regulative functions for differentiation and growth of the developing brain. The role of ID1, ID2 and ID3 are expected to be oncogenic due to their overexpression in pancreatic cancer and colorectal adenocarcinomas, respectively. Aside from these findings, loss of ID3 expression was demonstrated in ovarian cancer. The aim of the present study was to reveal the factual role of ID4 in carcinogenesis in more detail, since its role for the pathogenesis of human breast cancer has been discussed controversially, assigning both oncogenic and tumour suppressive functions. ID4 promoter methylation, ID4 mRNA expression and ID4 protein expression were analysed in primary human breast cancer specimens using methylation-specific PCR (MSP) (n=170), semiquantitative realtime RT-PCR (n=46) and immunhistochemistry (n=3), respectively. In order to demonstrate a functional association of ID4 promoter methylation with its gene silencing, we performed DNA demethylation analysis with four human breast cell lines using MSP and semiquantitative realtime RT-PCR. In addition, we performed correlations of ID4 promoter methylation with ID4 mRNA and ID4 protein expression in matched samples of breast tumour and corresponding normal tissue. We carried out statistical analyses in order to find correlations between ID4 promoter methylation and clinicopathological parameters. Frequent ID4 promoter methylation was observed in primary breast cancer samples (69%, 117/170). We found a tight correlation (P<0.0001) between ID4 promoter methylation and loss of ID4 expression in primary breast cancer 3 specimens. Demethylating treatment with breast cancer cell lines was associated with clear ID4 mRNA re-expression. Tumours with ID4 promoter methylation showed distinct loss of ID4 expression on both transcription and protein level

  9. Upregulation of miR-3607 promotes lung adenocarcinoma proliferation by suppressing APC expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong; Gu, Qiangye; Sun, Zongwen; Sheng, Baowei; Qi, Congcong; Liu, Bing; Fu, Tian; Liu, Cun; Zhang, Yan

    2017-11-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of worldwide cancer-related deaths, although many drugs and new therapeutic approaches have been used, the 5-years survival rate is still low for lung cancer patients. microRNAs have been shown to regulate lung cancer initiation and development, here we studied the role of miR-3607 in lung cancer cell proliferation. We found miR-3607 was upregulated in lung cancer tissues and cells, miR-3607 overexpression promoted lung cancer cell A549 proliferation determined by MTT assay, colony formation assay, anchorage-independent growth ability assay and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay, while the opposite phenotypes were shown when miR-3607 was knocked down. Predicted analysis suggested a Wnt signaling pathway regulator adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) was the target of miR-3607, miR-3607 could directly bind to the 3'UTR of APC, and promoted Cyclin D1 and c-Myc expression which can be suppressed by APC. Double knockdown of miR-3607 and APC copied the phenotypes of miR-3607 overexpression, suggesting miR-3607 promoted lung cancer cell A549 proliferation by targeting APC. In conclusion, our study suggested miR-3607 contributes to lung cancer cell proliferation by inhibiting APC. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Expression and promoter DNA methylation of MLH1 in colorectal cancer and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunxia; Chen, Yuan; Petersen, Iver

    2017-04-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation is a common molecular feature in human cancer. The aims of this study were to analyze the methylation status of MLH1, one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes, in human colorectal and lung cancer and to evaluate its clinical relevance. The expression of MLH1 was analyzed in 8 colorectal cancer (CRC) and 8 lung cancer cell lines by real-time RT-PCR and western blotting. The MLH1 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays including 121 primary CRC and 90 lung cancer patient samples. In cancer cell lines, the methylation status of MLH1 promoter and exon 2 was investigated by bisulfite sequencing (BS). Methylation-specific-PCR (MSP) was used to evaluate methylation status of MLH1. The expression of MLH1 mRNA was detected in 8 CRC cell lines as well as normal colonic fibroblast cells CCD-33Co. At protein levels, MLH1 was lost in one CRC cell line HCT-116 and normal cells CCD-33Co. No methylation was found in the promoter and exon 2 of MLH1 in CRC cell lines. MLH1 was expressed in 8 lung cancer cell lines at both mRNA and protein levels. Compared to cancer cells, normal bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) had lower expression of MLH1 protein. In primary CRC, 54.5% of cases exhibited positive staining, while 47.8% of lung tumors were positive for MLH1 protein. MSP analysis showed that 58 out of 92 (63.0%) CRC and 41 out of 73 (56.2%) lung cancer exhibited MLH1 methylation. In CRC, the MLH1 methylation was significantly associated with tumor invasion in veins (P=0.012). However, no significant links were found between MLH1 expression and promoter methylation in both tumor entities. MLH1 methylation is a frequent molecular event in CRC and lung cancer patients. In CRC, methylation of MLH1 could be linked to vascular invasiveness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Global loss of bmal1 expression alters adipose tissue hormones, gene expression and glucose metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David John Kennaway

    Full Text Available The close relationship between circadian rhythm disruption and poor metabolic status is becoming increasingly evident, but role of adipokines is poorly understood. Here we investigated adipocyte function and the metabolic status of mice with a global loss of the core clock gene Bmal1 fed either a normal or a high fat diet (22% by weight. Bmal1 null mice aged 2 months were killed across 24 hours and plasma adiponectin and leptin, and adipose tissue expression of Adipoq, Lep, Retn and Nampt mRNA measured. Glucose, insulin and pyruvate tolerance tests were conducted and the expression of liver glycolytic and gluconeogenic enzyme mRNA determined. Bmal1 null mice displayed a pattern of increased plasma adiponectin and plasma leptin concentrations on both control and high fat diets. Bmal1 null male and female mice displayed increased adiposity (1.8 fold and 2.3 fold respectively on the normal diet, but the high fat diet did not exaggerate these differences. Despite normal glucose and insulin tolerance, Bmal1 null mice had increased production of glucose from pyruvate, implying increased liver gluconeogenesis. The Bmal1 null mice had arrhythmic clock gene expression in epigonadal fat and liver, and loss of rhythmic transcription of a range of metabolic genes. Furthermore, the expression of epigonadal fat Adipoq, Retn, Nampt, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 and liver Pfkfb3 mRNA were down-regulated. These results show for the first time that global loss of Bmal1, and the consequent arrhythmicity, results in compensatory changes in adipokines involved in the cellular control of glucose metabolism.

  12. Over-expression of thymosin β4 in granulomatous lung tissue with active pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yun-Jeong; Jo, Jin-Ok; Ock, Mee Sun; Yoo, Young-Bin; Chun, Bong-Kwon; Oak, Chul-Ho; Cha, Hee-Jae

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that thymosin β4 (Tβ4) stimulates angiogenesis by inducing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and stabilizing hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein. Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), a type of granulomatous disease, is accompanied by intense angiogenesis and VEGF levels have been reported to be elevated in serum or tissue inflamed by pulmonary tuberculosis. We investigated the expression of Tβ4 in granulomatous lung tissues at various stages of active pulmonary tuberculosis, and we also examined the expression patterns of VEGF and HIF-1α to compare their Tβ4 expression patterns in patients' tissues and in the tissue microarray of TB patients. Tβ4 was highly expressed in both granulomas and surrounding lymphocytes in nascent granulomatous lung tissue, but was expressed only surrounding tissues of necrotic or caseous necrotic regions. The expression pattern of HIF-1α was similar to that of Tβ4. VEGF was expressed in both granulomas and blood vessels surrounding granulomas. The expression pattern of VEGF co-localized with CD31 (platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule, PECAM-1), a blood endothelial cell marker, and partially co-localized with Tβ4. However, the expression of Tβ4 did not co-localize with alveolar macrophages. Stained alveolar macrophages were present surrounding regions of granuloma highly expressing Tβ4. We also analyzed mRNA expression in the sputum of 10 normal and 19 pulmonary TB patients. Expression of Tβ4 was significantly higher in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis than in normal controls. These data suggest that Tβ4 is highly expressed in granulomatous lung tissue with active pulmonary TB and is associated with HIF-1α- and VEGF-mediated inflammation and angiogenesis. Furthermore, the expression of Tβ4 in the sputum of pulmonary tuberculosis patients can be used as a potential marker for diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. PEDF expression is inhibited by insulin treatment in adipose tissue via suppressing 11β-HSD1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinli Zhou

    Full Text Available Early intensive insulin therapy improves insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients; while the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF, an anti-angiogenic factor, is believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Here, we hypothesize that PEDF might be down regulated by insulin and then lead to the improved insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients during insulin therapy. We addressed this issue by investigating insulin regulation of PEDF expression in diabetic conditions. The results showed that serum PEDF was reduced by 15% in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients after insulin therapy. In adipose tissue of diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats, PEDF expression was associated with TNF-α elevation and it could be decreased both in serum and in adipose tissue by insulin treatment. In adipocytes, PEDF was induced by TNF-α through activation of NF-κB. The response was inhibited by knockdown and enhanced by over expression of NF-κB p65. However, PEDF expression was indirectly, not directly, induced by NF-κB which promoted 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1 expression in adipocytes. 11β-HSD1 is likely to stimulate PEDF expression through production of active form of glucocorticoids as dexamethasone induced PEDF expression in adipose tissue. Insulin inhibited PEDF by down-regulating 11β-HSD1 expression. The results suggest that PEDF activity is induced by inflammation and decreased by insulin through targeting 11β-HSD1/glucocorticoid pathway in adipose tissue of diabetic patients.

  14. Viral promoters can initiate expression of toxin genes introduced into Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Daniela

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of recombinant proteins in eukaryotic cells requires the fusion of the coding region to a promoter functional in the eukaryotic cell line. Viral promoters are very often used for this purpose. The preceding cloning procedures are usually performed in Escherichia coli and it is therefore of interest if the foreign promoter results in an expression of the gene in bacteria. In the case molecules toxic for humans are to be expressed, this knowledge is indispensable for the specification of safety measures. Results We selected five frequently used viral promoters and quantified their activity in E. coli with a reporter system. Only the promoter from the thymidine kinase gene from HSV1 showed no activity, while the polyhedrin promoter from baculovirus, the early immediate CMV promoter, the early SV40 promoter and the 5' LTR promoter from HIV-1 directed gene expression in E. coli. The determination of transcription start sites in the immediate early CMV promoter and the polyhedrin promoter confirmed the existence of bacterial -10 and -35 consensus sequences. The importance of this heterologous gene expression for safety considerations was further supported by analysing fusions between the aforementioned promoters and a promoter-less cytotoxin gene. Conclusion According to our results a high percentage of viral promoters have the ability of initiating gene expression in E. coli. The degree of such heterologous gene expression can be sufficient for the expression of toxin genes and must therefore be considered when defining safety measures for the handling of corresponding genetically modified organisms.

  15. Microdissection of gonadal tissues for gene expression analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Dalgaard, Marlene Danner; Sonne, Si Brask

    2011-01-01

    Laser microdissection permits isolation of specific cell types from tissue sections or cell cultures. This may be beneficial when investigating the role of specific cells in a complex tissue or organ. In tissues with easily distinguishable morphology, a simple hematoxylin staining is sufficient...... phosphatase enzyme, such as fetal germ cells, testicular carcinoma in situ cells, and putatively also other early stem cell populations. We have applied these protocols for microdissection of rat Leydig cells, fetal human and zebrafish germ cells, and human testicular germ cell tumors, but the staining...

  16. Chronic intermittent hypoxia promotes expression of 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase in adult rat medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingqiang; Nie, Lihong; Hu, Yajie; Yan, Xiang; Xue, Lian; Chen, Li; Zhou, Hua; Zheng, Yu

    2013-12-01

    The present experiments were carried out to investigate the expression of 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST) in medulla oblongata of rats and effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) on its expression. Sprague Dawley adult rats were randomly divided into two groups, including control (Con) group and CIH group. The endogenous production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in medulla oblongata tissue homogenates was measured using the methylene blue assay method, 3MST mRNA and protein expression were analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively, and the expression of 3MST in the neurons of respiratory-related nuclei in medulla oblongata of rats was investigated with immunohistochemical technique. CIH elevated the endogenous H2S production in rat medulla oblongata (Pmedulla oblongata of rats and CIH promoted their expression (P<0.01). Immunohistochemical staining indicated that 3MST existed in the neurons of pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC), hypoglossal nucleus (12N), ambiguous nucleus (Amb), facial nucleus (FN) and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) in the animals and the mean optical densities of 3MST-positive neurons in the pre-BötC, 12N and Amb, but not in FN and NTS, were significantly increased in CIH group (P<0.05). In conclusion, 3MST exists in the neurons of medullary respiratory nuclei and its expression can be up-regulated by CIH in adult rat, suggesting that 3MST-H2S pathway may be involved in regulation of respiration and protection on medullary respiratory centers from injury induced by CIH. © 2013.

  17. Comparative study of four interleukin 17 cytokines of tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis: Genomic structure, expression pattern, and promoter activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Heng; Sun, Li

    2015-11-01

    The interleukin (IL)-17 cytokine family participates in the regulation of many cellular functions. In the present study, we analyzed the genomic structure, expression, and promoter activity of four IL-17 members from the teleost fish tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis), i.e. CsIL-17C CsIL-17D, CsIL-17F, and IL-17F like (IL-17Fl). We found that CsIL-17C, CsIL-17D, CsIL-17F, and CsIL-17Fl share 21.2%-28.6% overall sequence identities among themselves and 31.5%-71.2% overall sequence identities with their counterparts in other teleost. All four CsIL-17 members possess an IL-17 domain and four conserved cysteine residues. Phylogenetic analysis classified the four CsIL-17 members into three clusters. Under normal physiological conditions, the four CsIL-17 expressed in multiple tissues, especially non-immune tissues. Bacterial infection upregulated the expression of all four CsIL-17, while viral infection upregulated the expression of CsIL-17D and CsIL-17Fl but downregulated the expression of CsIL-17C and CsIL-17F. The 1.2 kb 5'-flanking regions of the four CsIL-17 exhibited apparent promoter activity and contain a number of putative transcription factor-binding sites. Furthermore, the promoter activities of CsIL-17C, CsIL-17D, and CsIL-17F, but not CsIL-17Fl, were modulated to significant extents by lipopolysaccharide, PolyI:C, and PMA. This study provides the first evidence that in teleost, different IL-17 members differ in expression pattern and promoter activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. MR molecular imaging of tumours using ferritin heavy chain reporter gene expression mediated by the hTERT promoter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yan [Third Military Medical University, Department of Radiology, XinQiao Hospital, ChongQing (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of ChengDu Medical College, Department of Radiology, ChengDu (China); Gong, Ming-fu; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Song; Wang, Guang-xian; Su, Tong-sheng; Wen, Li; Zhang, Dong [Third Military Medical University, Department of Radiology, XinQiao Hospital, ChongQing (China)

    2016-11-15

    Using the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter and the modified ferritin heavy chain (Fth) reporter gene, reporter gene expression for MRI was examined in telomerase positive and negative tumour cells and xenografts. Activity of the reporter gene expression vector Lenti-hTERT-Fth1-3FLAG-Puro was compared to constitutive CMV-driven expression and to the untransfected parental control in five tumour cell lines: A549, SKOV3, 293T, U2OS and HPDLF. In vitro, transfected cells were evaluated for FLAG-tagged protein expression, iron accumulation and transverse relaxation. In vivo, tumours transduced by lentiviral vector injection were imaged using T2*WI. Changes in tumour signal intensity were validated by histology. Only telomerase positive tumour cells expressed FLAG-tagged Fth and displayed an increase in R2* above the parental control, with a corresponding change in T2*WI. In addition, only telomerase positive tumours, transduced by injection of the reporter gene expression construct, exhibited a change in signal intensity on T2*WI. Tumour histology verified the expression of FLAG-tagged Fth and iron accumulation in telomerase positive tissue. Reporter gene expression for MRI, using the Fth reporter and the hTERT promoter, may be a useful strategy for the non-invasive diagnosis of many types of cancer. (orig.)

  19. MicroRNA expression profiling in neurogenesis of adipose tissue ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are one population of adult stem cells that can self ... Because of advantages in method and quantity of acquisition, ADSCs are gaining ...... miRNAs specifically related to neuron cell generation.

  20. Reduced MeCP2 expression is frequent in autism frontal cortex and correlates with aberrant MECP2 promoter methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Raman P; Hogart, Amber R; Gwye, Ynnez; Martin, Michelle R; LaSalle, Janine M

    2006-01-01

    Mutations in MECP2, encoding methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2), cause most cases of Rett syndrome (RTT), an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder. Both RTT and autism are "pervasive developmental disorders" and share a loss of social, cognitive and language skills and a gain in repetitive stereotyped behavior, following apparently normal perinatal development. Although MECP2 coding mutations are a rare cause of autism, MeCP2 expression defects were previously found in autism brain. To further study the role of MeCP2 in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), we determined the frequency of MeCP2 expression defects in brain samples from autism and other ASDs. We also tested the hypotheses that MECP2 promoter mutations or aberrant promoter methylation correlate with reduced expression in cases of idiopathic autism. MeCP2 immunofluorescence in autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders was quantified by laser scanning cytometry and compared with control postmortem cerebral cortex samples on a large tissue microarray. A significant reduction in MeCP2 expression compared to age-matched controls was found in 11/14 autism (79%), 9/9 RTT (100%), 4/4 Angelman syndrome (100%), 3/4 Prader-Willi syndrome (75%), 3/5 Down syndrome (60%), and 2/2 attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (100%) frontal cortex samples. One autism female was heterozygous for a rare MECP2 promoter variant that correlated with reduced MeCP2 expression. A more frequent occurrence was significantly increased MECP2 promoter methylation in autism male frontal cortex compared to controls. Furthermore, percent promoter methylation of MECP2 significantly correlated with reduced MeCP2 protein expression. These results suggest that both genetic and epigenetic defects lead to reduced MeCP2 expression and may be important in the complex etiology of autism.

  1. Support vector machine classification and validation of cancer tissue samples using microarray expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, T S; Cristianini, N; Duffy, N; Bednarski, D W; Schummer, M; Haussler, D

    2000-10-01

    DNA microarray experiments generating thousands of gene expression measurements, are being used to gather information from tissue and cell samples regarding gene expression differences that will be useful in diagnosing disease. We have developed a new method to analyse this kind of data using support vector machines (SVMs). This analysis consists of both classification of the tissue samples, and an exploration of the data for mis-labeled or questionable tissue results. We demonstrate the method in detail on samples consisting of ovarian cancer tissues, normal ovarian tissues, and other normal tissues. The dataset consists of expression experiment results for 97,802 cDNAs for each tissue. As a result of computational analysis, a tissue sample is discovered and confirmed to be wrongly labeled. Upon correction of this mistake and the removal of an outlier, perfect classification of tissues is achieved, but not with high confidence. We identify and analyse a subset of genes from the ovarian dataset whose expression is highly differentiated between the types of tissues. To show robustness of the SVM method, two previously published datasets from other types of tissues or cells are analysed. The results are comparable to those previously obtained. We show that other machine learning methods also perform comparably to the SVM on many of those datasets. The SVM software is available at http://www.cs. columbia.edu/ approximately bgrundy/svm.

  2. Systematic analysis of gene expression patterns associated with postmortem interval in human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yizhang; Wang, Likun; Yin, Yuxin; Yang, Ence

    2017-07-14

    Postmortem mRNA degradation is considered to be the major concern in gene expression research utilizing human postmortem tissues. A key factor in this process is the postmortem interval (PMI), which is defined as the interval between death and sample collection. However, global patterns of postmortem mRNA degradation at individual gene levels across diverse human tissues remain largely unknown. In this study, we performed a systematic analysis of alteration of gene expression associated with PMI in human tissues. From the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) database, we evaluated gene expression levels of 2,016 high-quality postmortem samples from 316 donors of European descent, with PMI ranging from 1 to 27 hours. We found that PMI-related mRNA degradation is tissue-specific, gene-specific, and even genotype-dependent, thus drawing a more comprehensive picture of PMI-associated gene expression across diverse human tissues. Additionally, we also identified 266 differentially variable (DV) genes, such as DEFB4B and IFNG, whose expression is significantly dispersed between short PMI (S-PMI) and long PMI (L-PMI) groups. In summary, our analyses provide a comprehensive profile of PMI-associated gene expression, which will help interpret gene expression patterns in the evaluation of postmortem tissues.

  3. ST6GalNAc-I controls expression of sialyl-Tn antigen in gastrointestinal tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcos, Nuno T; Bennett, Eric Paul; Gomes, Joana

    2011-01-01

    -Tn biosynthesis. We developed novel monoclonal antibodies specific for ST6GalNAc-I and evaluated its expression in gastrointestinal tissues. ST6GalNAc-I was detected in normal colon mucosa co-localized with O-acetylated sialyl-Tn. Expression was largely unaltered in colorectal adenocarcinomas. In contrast, we......NAc-I as the major enzyme controlling the expression of cancer-associated sialyl-Tn antigen in gastrointestinal tissues....

  4. Survey of the Heritability and Sparse Architecture of Gene Expression Traits across Human Tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather E Wheeler

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic architecture of gene expression traits is key to elucidating the underlying mechanisms of complex traits. Here, for the first time, we perform a systematic survey of the heritability and the distribution of effect sizes across all representative tissues in the human body. We find that local h2 can be relatively well characterized with 59% of expressed genes showing significant h2 (FDR < 0.1 in the DGN whole blood cohort. However, current sample sizes (n ≤ 922 do not allow us to compute distal h2. Bayesian Sparse Linear Mixed Model (BSLMM analysis provides strong evidence that the genetic contribution to local expression traits is dominated by a handful of genetic variants rather than by the collective contribution of a large number of variants each of modest size. In other words, the local architecture of gene expression traits is sparse rather than polygenic across all 40 tissues (from DGN and GTEx examined. This result is confirmed by the sparsity of optimal performing gene expression predictors via elastic net modeling. To further explore the tissue context specificity, we decompose the expression traits into cross-tissue and tissue-specific components using a novel Orthogonal Tissue Decomposition (OTD approach. Through a series of simulations we show that the cross-tissue and tissue-specific components are identifiable via OTD. Heritability and sparsity estimates of these derived expression phenotypes show similar characteristics to the original traits. Consistent properties relative to prior GTEx multi-tissue analysis results suggest that these traits reflect the expected biology. Finally, we apply this knowledge to develop prediction models of gene expression traits for all tissues. The prediction models, heritability, and prediction performance R2 for original and decomposed expression phenotypes are made publicly available (https://github.com/hakyimlab/PrediXcan.

  5. Analysis of CD83 antigen expression in human breast fibroadenoma and adjacent tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Nascimento Borges

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Dendritic cell maturation is considered essential for starting an immune response. The CD83 antigen is an important marker of dendritic cell maturation. The objectives here were to analyze CD83 antigen expression in human breast fibroadenoma and breast tissue adjacent to the lesion and to identify clinical factors that might influence this expression. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a retrospective study at a public university hospital, in which 29 histopathological samples of breast fibroadenoma and adjacent breast tissue, from 28 women of reproductive age, were analyzed. METHODS: The immunohistochemistry method was used to analyze the cell expression of the antigen. The antigen expression in the cells was evaluated by means of random manual counting using an optical microscope. RESULTS: Positive expression of the CD83 antigen in the epithelial cells of the fibroadenoma (365.52; standard deviation ± 133.13 in relation to the adjacent breast tissue cells (189.59; standard deviation ± 140.75 was statistically larger (P < 0.001. Several clinical features were analyzed, but only parity was shown to influence CD83 antigen expression in the adjacent breast tissue, such that positive expression was more evident in nulliparous women (P = 0.042. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of the CD83 antigen in the fibroadenoma was positive and greater than in the adjacent breast tissue. Positive expression of the antigen in the adjacent breast tissue was influenced by parity, and was significantly more evident in nulliparous women.

  6. A Vector with a Single Promoter for In Vitro Transcription and Mammalian Cell Expression of CRISPR gRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Romanienko

    Full Text Available The genomes of more than 50 organisms have now been manipulated due to rapid advancement of gene editing technology. One way to perform gene editing in the mouse using the CRISPR/CAS system, guide RNA (gRNA and CAS9 mRNA transcribed in vitro are microinjected into fertilized eggs that are then allowed to develop to term. As a rule, gRNAs are tested first in tissue culture cells and the one with the highest locus-specific cleavage activity is chosen for microinjection. For cell transfections, gRNAs are typically expressed using the human U6 promoter (hU6. However, gRNAs for microinjection into zygotes are obtained by in vitro transcription from a T7 bacteriophage promoter in a separate plasmid vector. Here, we describe the design and construction of a combined U6T7 hybrid promoter from which the same gRNA sequence can be expressed. An expression vector containing such a hybrid promoter can now be used to generate gRNA for testing in mammalian cells as well as for microinjection purposes. The gRNAs expressed and transcribed from this vector are found to be functional in cells as well as in mice.

  7. A distal region of the human TGM1 promoter is required for expression in transgenic mice and cultured keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Ying

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TGM1(transglutaminase 1 is an enzyme that crosslinks the cornified envelope of mature keratinocytes. Appropriate expression of the TGM1 gene is crucial for proper keratinocyte function as inactivating mutations lead to the debilitating skin disease, lamellar ichthyosis. TGM1 is also expressed in squamous metaplasia, a consequence in some epithelia of vitamin A deficiency or toxic insult that can lead to neoplasia. An understanding of the regulation of this gene in normal and abnormal differentiation states may contribute to better disease diagnosis and treatment. Methods In vivo requirements for expression of the TGM1 gene were studied by fusing various lengths of promoter DNA to a reporter and injecting the DNA into mouse embryos to generate transgenic animals. Expression of the reporter was ascertained by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Further delineation of a transcriptionally important distal region was determined by transfections of progressively shortened or mutated promoter DNA into cultured keratinocytes. Results In vivo analysis of a reporter transgene driven by the TGM1 promoter revealed that 1.6 kilobases, but not 1.1 kilobases, of DNA was sufficient to confer tissue-specific and cell layer-specific expression. This same region was responsible for reporter expression in tissues undergoing squamous metaplasia as a response to vitamin A deprivation. Mutation of a distal promoter AP1 site or proximal promoter CRE site, both identified as important transcriptional elements in transfection assays, did not prevent appropriate expression. Further searching for transcriptional elements using electrophoretic mobility shift (EMSA and transfection assays in cultured keratinocytes identified two Sp1 elements in a transcriptionally active region between -1.6 and -1.4 kilobases. While mutation of either Sp1 site or the AP1 site singly had only a small effect, mutation of all three sites eliminated nearly all the

  8. Cloning of a yeast alpha-amylase promoter and its regulated heterologous expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR; Hooker, Brian S [Kennewick, WA; Anderson, Daniel B [Pasco, WA

    2003-04-01

    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of an alpha-amylase gene of a starch utilizing yeast strain Schwanniomyces castellii. The isolated alpha-amylase promoter is an inducible promoter, which can regulate strong gene expression in starch culture medium.

  9. Limited prognostic value of tissue protein expression levels of cyclin E in Danish ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heeran, Mel C; Høgdall, Claus K; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the expression of cyclin E in tumour tissues from 661 patients with epithelial ovarian tumours. The second was to evaluate whether cyclin E tissue expression levels correlate with clinico-pathological parameters and prognosis of the disease. Using...... tissue arrays (TA), we analysed the cyclin E expression levels in tissues from 168 women with borderline ovarian tumours (BOT) (147 stage I, 4 stage II, 17 stage III) and 493 Ovarian cancer (OC) patients (127 stage I, 45 stage II, 276 stage III, 45 stage IV). Using a 10% cut-off level for cyclin E......-off value showed that cyclin E had no independent prognostic value. In conclusion, we found cyclin E expression in tumour tissue to be of limited prognostic value to Danish OC patients....

  10. TiGER: a database for tissue-specific gene expression and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiong; Yu, Xueping; Zack, Donald J; Zhu, Heng; Qian, Jiang

    2008-06-09

    Understanding how genes are expressed and regulated in different tissues is a fundamental and challenging question. However, most of currently available biological databases do not focus on tissue-specific gene regulation. The recent development of computational methods for tissue-specific combinational gene regulation, based on transcription factor binding sites, enables us to perform a large-scale analysis of tissue-specific gene regulation in human tissues. The results are stored in a web database called TiGER (Tissue-specific Gene Expression and Regulation). The database contains three types of data including tissue-specific gene expression profiles, combinatorial gene regulations, and cis-regulatory module (CRM) detections. At present the database contains expression profiles for 19,526 UniGene genes, combinatorial regulations for 7,341 transcription factor pairs and 6,232 putative CRMs for 2,130 RefSeq genes. We have developed and made publicly available a database, TiGER, which summarizes and provides large scale data sets for tissue-specific gene expression and regulation in a variety of human tissues. This resource is available at 1.

  11. TiGER: A database for tissue-specific gene expression and regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zack Donald J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding how genes are expressed and regulated in different tissues is a fundamental and challenging question. However, most of currently available biological databases do not focus on tissue-specific gene regulation. Results The recent development of computational methods for tissue-specific combinational gene regulation, based on transcription factor binding sites, enables us to perform a large-scale analysis of tissue-specific gene regulation in human tissues. The results are stored in a web database called TiGER (Tissue-specific Gene Expression and Regulation. The database contains three types of data including tissue-specific gene expression profiles, combinatorial gene regulations, and cis-regulatory module (CRM detections. At present the database contains expression profiles for 19,526 UniGene genes, combinatorial regulations for 7,341 transcription factor pairs and 6,232 putative CRMs for 2,130 RefSeq genes. Conclusion We have developed and made publicly available a database, TiGER, which summarizes and provides large scale data sets for tissue-specific gene expression and regulation in a variety of human tissues. This resource is available at 1.

  12. Tissue-specific RNA expression marks distant-acting developmental enhancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Wu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Short non-coding transcripts can be transcribed from distant-acting transcriptional enhancer loci, but the prevalence of such enhancer RNAs (eRNAs within the transcriptome, and the association of eRNA expression with tissue-specific enhancer activity in vivo remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the expression dynamics of tissue-specific non-coding RNAs in embryonic mouse tissues via deep RNA sequencing. Overall, approximately 80% of validated in vivo enhancers show tissue-specific RNA expression that correlates with tissue-specific enhancer activity. Globally, we identified thousands of tissue-specifically transcribed non-coding regions (TSTRs displaying various genomic hallmarks of bona fide enhancers. In transgenic mouse reporter assays, over half of tested TSTRs functioned as enhancers with reproducible activity in the predicted tissue. Together, our results demonstrate that tissue-specific eRNA expression is a common feature of in vivo enhancers, as well as a major source of extragenic transcription, and that eRNA expression signatures can be used to predict tissue-specific enhancers independent of known epigenomic enhancer marks.

  13. Association between plasma metabolites and gene expression profiles in five porcine endocrine tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassols Anna

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endocrine tissues play a fundamental role in maintaining homeostasis of plasma metabolites such as non-esterified fatty acids and glucose, the levels of which reflect the energy balance or the health status of animals. However, the relationship between the transcriptome of endocrine tissues and plasma metabolites has been poorly studied. Methods We determined the blood levels of 12 plasma metabolites in 27 pigs belonging to five breeds, each breed consisting of both females and males. The transcriptome of five endocrine tissues i.e. hypothalamus, adenohypophysis, thyroid gland, gonads and backfat tissues from 16 out of the 27 pigs was also determined. Sex and breed effects on the 12 plasma metabolites were investigated and associations between genes expressed in the five endocrine tissues and the 12 plasma metabolites measured were analyzed. A probeset was defined as a quantitative trait transcript (QTT when its association with a particular metabolic trait achieved a nominal P value Results A larger than expected number of QTT was found for non-esterified fatty acids and alanine aminotransferase in at least two tissues. The associations were highly tissue-specific. The QTT within the tissues were divided into co-expression network modules enriched for genes in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes or gene ontology categories that are related to the physiological functions of the corresponding tissues. We also explored a multi-tissue co-expression network using QTT for non-esterified fatty acids from the five tissues and found that a module, enriched in hypothalamus QTT, was positioned at the centre of the entire multi-tissue network. Conclusions These results emphasize the relationships between endocrine tissues and plasma metabolites in terms of gene expression. Highly tissue-specific association patterns suggest that candidate genes or gene pathways should be investigated in the context of specific tissues.

  14. Metallothionein expression in placental tissue in Menkes' disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hærslev, T.; Krag Jacobsen, G.; Horn, N.

    1995-01-01

    . The avidin-biotin-complex (ABC)-technique was used. The copper content was measured by neutron activation analysis (NAA). In all placental tissue sections positive MT immunostaining appeared only in the trophoblast and only in proliferating cells. In placental tissue sections obtained from foetuses...... and children affected by Menkes' disease an additional MT immunostaining appeared in the Hofbauer cells of the chorionic villi. This staining was associated with an increased content of copper as measured by NAA. We conclude that the immunohistochemical demonstration of MT reflects the copper content and may...

  15. [Adipose-derived stem cell transplantation promotes the expression of netrin-1 in the rat cortex after focal cerebral ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiehua; Hong, Zhuquan; Pan, Ying; Li, Guoqian

    2017-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) transplantation on the expression of netrin-1 in rats after focal cerebral ischemia. Methods Male SD rats were randomly divided into control group, model group and ADSC group. ADSCs were harvested and purified. Focal cerebral ischemia models were established in rats by the suture method. ADSCs were injected into the lateral ventricle of ADSC group rats and the same does of PBS was given to model group rats. At day 4, 7 and 14 after reperfusion, six rats were sacrificed to remove the brain tissues at each time point. The expression of netrin-1 was detected by reverse-transcription PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Results Compared with the control group, the expression of netrin-1 in the brain tissues of the model group increased after focal cerebral ischemia, reached the peak at 4 days, and the expression of netrin-1 was significantly higher than that of the control group at each time point. Compared with the model group, the expression of netrin-1 in the ADSC group increased further, reached the peak at 7 days, and the expression of netrin-1 in the ADSC group was significantly higher than that of the model group at each time point. Conclusion ADSC transplantation could up-regulate the expression of netrin-1, and promote axon regeneration and the recovery of neurological functions.

  16. Integration of molecular biology tools for identifying promoters and genes abundantly expressed in flowers of Oncidium Gower Ramsey

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    Tung Shu-Yun

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orchids comprise one of the largest families of flowering plants and generate commercially important flowers. However, model plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana do not contain all plant genes, and agronomic and horticulturally important genera and species must be individually studied. Results Several molecular biology tools were used to isolate flower-specific gene promoters from Oncidium 'Gower Ramsey' (Onc. GR. A cDNA library of reproductive tissues was used to construct a microarray in order to compare gene expression in flowers and leaves. Five genes were highly expressed in flower tissues, and the subcellular locations of the corresponding proteins were identified using lip transient transformation with fluorescent protein-fusion constructs. BAC clones of the 5 genes, together with 7 previously published flower- and reproductive growth-specific genes in Onc. GR, were identified for cloning of their promoter regions. Interestingly, 3 of the 5 novel flower-abundant genes were putative trypsin inhibitor (TI genes (OnTI1, OnTI2 and OnTI3, which were tandemly duplicated in the same BAC clone. Their promoters were identified using transient GUS reporter gene transformation and stable A. thaliana transformation analyses. Conclusions By combining cDNA microarray, BAC library, and bombardment assay techniques, we successfully identified flower-directed orchid genes and promoters.

  17. EWS Knockdown and Taxifolin Treatment Induced Differentiation and Removed DNA Methylation from p53 Promoter to Promote Expression of Puma and Noxa for Apoptosis in Ewing's Sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Motarab; Ray, Swapan Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a pediatric tumor that mainly occurs in soft tissues and bones. Malignant characteristics of Ewing's sarcoma are correlated with expression of EWS oncogene. We achieved knockdown of EWS expression using a plasmid vector encoding EWS short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to increase anti-tumor mechanisms of taxifolin (TFL), a new flavonoid, in human Ewing's sarcoma cells in culture and animal models. Immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometric analysis showed high expression of EWS in human Ewing's sarcoma SK-N-MC and RD-ES cell lines. EWS shRNA plus TFL inhibited 80% cell viability and caused the highest decreases in EWS expression at mRNA and protein levels in both cell lines. Knockdown of EWS expression induced morphological features of differentiation. EWS shRNA plus TFL caused more alterations in molecular markers of differentiation than either agent alone. EWS shRNA plus TFL caused the highest decreases in cell migration with inhibition of survival, angiogenic and invasive factors. Knockdown of EWS expression was associated with removal of DNA methylation from p53 promoter, promoting expression of p53, Puma, and Noxa. EWS shRNA plus TFL induced the highest amounts of apoptosis with activation of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways in both cell lines in culture. EWS shRNA plus TFL also inhibited growth of Ewing's sarcoma tumors in animal models due to inhibition of differentiation inhibitors and angiogenic and invasive factors and also induction of activation of caspase-3 for apoptosis. Collectively, knockdown of EWS expression increased various anti-tumor mechanisms of TFL in human Ewing's sarcoma in cell culture and animal models.

  18. Transcriptional coactivator NT-PGC-1α promotes gluconeogenic gene expression and enhances hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ji Suk; Jun, Hee-Jin; Park, Minsung

    2016-10-01

    The transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α plays a central role in hepatic gluconeogenesis. We previously reported that alternative splicing of the PGC-1α gene produces an additional transcript encoding the truncated protein NT-PGC-1α NT-PGC-1α is co-expressed with PGC-1α and highly induced by fasting in the liver. NT-PGC-1α regulates tissue-specific metabolism, but its role in the liver has not been investigated. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the role of hepatic NT-PGC-1α in the regulation of gluconeogenesis. Adenovirus-mediated expression of NT-PGC-1α in primary hepatocytes strongly stimulated the expression of key gluconeogenic enzyme genes (PEPCK and G6Pase), leading to increased glucose production. To further understand NT-PGC-1α function in hepatic gluconeogenesis in vivo, we took advantage of a previously reported FL-PGC-1α -/- mouse line that lacks full-length PGC-1α (FL-PGC-1α) but retains a slightly shorter and functionally equivalent form of NT-PGC-1α (NT-PGC-1α 254 ). In FL-PGC-1α -/- mice, NT-PGC-1α 254 was induced by fasting in the liver and recruited to the promoters of PEPCK and G6Pase genes. The enrichment of NT-PGC-1α 254 at the promoters was closely associated with fasting-induced increase in PEPCK and G6Pase gene expression and efficient production of glucose from pyruvate during a pyruvate tolerance test in FL-PGC-1α -/- mice. Moreover, FL-PGC-1α -/- primary hepatocytes showed a significant increase in gluconeogenic gene expression and glucose production after treatment with dexamethasone and forskolin, suggesting that NT-PGC-1α 254 is sufficient to stimulate the gluconeogenic program in the absence of FL-PGC-1α Collectively, our findings highlight the role of hepatic NT-PGC-1α in stimulating gluconeogenic gene expression and glucose production. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  19. MicroRNA expression profiling in neurogenesis of adipose tissue

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are one population of adult stem cells that can self renew and differentiate into multiple lineages. Because of advantages in method and quantity of acquisition, ADSCs are gaining attention as an alternative source of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In this study, we ...

  20. Genomic expression patterns of cardiac tissues from dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Mark A; Chittur, Sridar

    2005-07-01

    To evaluate global genome expression patterns of left ventricular tissues from dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Tissues obtained from the left ventricle of 2 Doberman Pinschers with end-stage DCM and 5 healthy control dogs. Transcriptional activities of 23,851 canine DNA sequences were determined by use of an oligonucleotide microarray. Genome expression patterns of DCM tissue were evaluated by measuring the relative amount of complementary RNA hybridization to the microarray probes and comparing it with gene expression for tissues from 5 healthy control dogs. 478 transcripts were differentially expressed (> or = 2.5-fold change). In DCM tissue, expression of 173 transcripts was upregulated and expression of 305 transcripts was downregulated, compared with expression for control tissues. Of the 478 transcripts, 167 genes could be specifically identified. These genes were grouped into 1 of 8 categories on the basis of their primary physiologic function. Grouping revealed that pathways involving cellular energy production, signaling and communication, and cell structure were generally downregulated, whereas pathways involving cellular defense and stress responses were upregulated. Many previously unreported genes that may contribute to the pathophysiologic aspects of heart disease were identified. Evaluation of global expression patterns provides a molecular portrait of heart failure, yields insights into the pathophysiologic aspects of DCM, and identifies intriguing genes and pathways for further study.

  1. Comparative proteomic analysis of proteins expression changes in the mammary tissue of cows infected with Escherichia coli mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-wei; Yang, Yong-xin; Huang, Dong-wei; Cheng, Guang-long; Zhao, Hui-ling

    2015-01-01

    Cows infected with Escherichia (E.) coli usually experience severe clinical symptoms, including damage to mammary tissues, reduced milk yield, and altered milk composition. In order to investigate the host response to E. coli infection and discover novel markers for mastitis treatment, mammary tissue samples were collected from healthy cows and bovines with naturally occurring severe E. coli mastitis. Changes of mammary tissue proteins were examined using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and label-free proteomic approaches. A total of 95 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Of these, 56 proteins were categorized according to molecular function, cellular component, and biological processes. The most frequent biological processes influenced by the proteins were response to stress, transport, and establishment of localization. Furthermore, a network analysis of the proteins with altered expression in mammary tissues demonstrated that these factors are predominantly involved with binding and structural molecule activities. Vimentin and a-enolase were central "functional hubs" in the network. Based on results from the present study, disease-induced alterations of protein expression in mammary glands and potential markers for the effective treatment of E. coli mastitis were identified. These data have also helped elucidate defense mechanisms that protect the mammary glands and promote the pathogenesis of E. coli mastitis.

  2. Gene expression changes with age in skin, adipose tissue, blood and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Daniel; Viñuela, Ana; Davies, Matthew N; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Parts, Leopold; Knowles, David; Brown, Andrew A; Hedman, Asa K; Small, Kerrin S; Buil, Alfonso; Grundberg, Elin; Nica, Alexandra C; Di Meglio, Paola; Nestle, Frank O; Ryten, Mina; Durbin, Richard; McCarthy, Mark I; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Weale, Michael E; Bataille, Veronique; Spector, Tim D

    2013-07-26

    Previous studies have demonstrated that gene expression levels change with age. These changes are hypothesized to influence the aging rate of an individual. We analyzed gene expression changes with age in abdominal skin, subcutaneous adipose tissue and lymphoblastoid cell lines in 856 female twins in the age range of 39-85 years. Additionally, we investigated genotypic variants involved in genotype-by-age interactions to understand how the genomic regulation of gene expression alters with age. Using a linear mixed model, differential expression with age was identified in 1,672 genes in skin and 188 genes in adipose tissue. Only two genes expressed in lymphoblastoid cell lines showed significant changes with age. Genes significantly regulated by age were compared with expression profiles in 10 brain regions from 100 postmortem brains aged 16 to 83 years. We identified only one age-related gene common to the three tissues. There were 12 genes that showed differential expression with age in both skin and brain tissue and three common to adipose and brain tissues. Skin showed the most age-related gene expression changes of all the tissues investigated, with many of the genes being previously implicated in fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial activity, cancer and splicing. A significant proportion of age-related changes in gene expression appear to be tissue-specific with only a few genes sharing an age effect in expression across tissues. More research is needed to improve our understanding of the genetic influences on aging and the relationship with age-related diseases.

  3. Co-regulated expression of HAND2 and DEIN by a bidirectional promoter with asymmetrical activity in neuroblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthold Frank

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HAND2, a key regulator for the development of the sympathetic nervous system, is located on chromosome 4q33 in a head-to-head orientation with DEIN, a recently identified novel gene with stage specific expression in primary neuroblastoma (NB. Both genes are expressed in primary NB as well as most NB cell lines and are separated by a genomic sequence of 228 bp. The similar expression profile of both genes suggests a common transcriptional regulation mediated by a bidirectional promoter. Results Northern Blot analysis of DEIN and HAND2 in 20 primary NBs indicated concurrent expression levels of the two genes, which was confirmed by microarray analysis of 236 primary NBs (Pearson's correlation coefficient r = 0.65. While DEIN expression in the latter cohort was associated with stage 4S (p = 0.02, HAND2 expression was not associated with tumor stage. In contrast, both HAND2 and DEIN transcript levels were highly associated with age at diagnosis DEIN orientation, an average 3.4 fold increase in activity was observed as compared to the promoterless vector, whereas an average 15.4 fold activation was detected in HAND2 orientation. The presence of two highly conserved putative regulatory elements, one of which was shown to enhance HAND2 expression in branchial arches previously, displayed weak repressor activity for both genes. Conclusion HAND2 and DEIN represent a gene pair that is tightly linked by a bidirectional promoter in an evolutionary highly conserved manner. Expression of both genes in NB is co-regulated by asymmetrical activity of this promoter and modulated by the activity of two cis-regulatory elements acting as weak repressors. The concurrent quantitative and tissue specific expression of HAND2 and DEIN suggests a functional link between both genes.

  4. [Knock-down of BCL11A expression in breast cancer cells promotes MDA-MB-231 cell apoptosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongli; Gui, Chen; Yan, Lijun

    2016-11-01

    Objective To detect the expression and pathological significance of B-cell CLL/lymphoma 11A (BCL11A) in breast cancer and investigate the effect of its silencing on the apoptosis of human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. MethodsImmunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of BCL11A in 62 cases of human breast cancer tissues and 8 cases of normal tissues. We synthesized siRNA targeting BCL11A, and then siRNA was transfected into MDA-MB-231 cells. Forty-eight hours later, the suppression effect of siRNA on BCL11A was determined by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. The apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells was detected by flow cytometry. Results The BCL11A protein was mainly expressed in cytoplasm. The expression level of BCL11A in breast cancer tissues was higher than that in paracancerous tissues. The expression had correlations with tumor grade, tumor stage, while it had no correlations with the patients' age and tumor size. BCL11A-siRNA significantly suppressed the expression of BCL11A mRNA and protein as compared with the control group. MDA-MB-231 cells transfected with BCL11A-siRNA had higher apoptosis rate compared with the control group. Conclusion The BCL11A protein is highly expressed in breast cancer and knock-down of BCL11A promotes the apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells.

  5. Increased expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha transcribed by promoter 2 indicates a poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shao-Hang; Lu, Shi-Xun; Liu, Li-Li; Zhang, Chris Zhiyi; Yun, Jing-Ping

    2017-10-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) plays an important role in tumourigenesis. There is growing evidence indicating that HNF4α transcribed by promoter 1 (P1-HNF4α) is expressed at relatively low levels in HCC and its presence predicts a favourable outcome for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. However, the role of HNF4α transcribed by promoter 2 (P2-HNF4α) in HCC remains unclear. A total of 615 HCC specimens were obtained to construct tissue microarrays and perform immunohistochemistry. The relationship between P2-HNF4α and clinical features of HCC patients were analysed. Kaplan-Meier analysis was conducted to assess the prognostic value of P2-HNF4α. The results showed that the expression of P2-HNF4α in HCC was noticeably increased in HCC tissues compared with the nontumourous tissues. In addition, P1-HNF4α expression was negatively correlated with P2-HNF4α expression ( p  = 0.023). High P2-HNF4α expression was significantly associated with poor differentiation of HCC ( p = 0.002) and vascular invasion ( p = 0.017). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that P2-HNF4α expression was closely correlated with overall survival in the training group ( p = 0.01), validation group ( p = 0.034), and overall group of patients with HCC ( p P2-HNF4α, different from P1-HNF4α, is markedly upregulated and serves as an oncogene-associated protein in HCC. Our study therefore provides a promising biomarker for prognostic prediction and a potential therapeutic target for HCC.

  6. ECRG4 expression in normal rat tissues: expression study and literature review

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    A. Porzionato

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Esophageal Cancer Related Gene 4 (ECRG4 is a highly conserved tumour suppressor gene encoding various peptides (augurin, CΔ16 augurin, ecilin, argilin, CΔ16 argilin which can be processed and secreted. In the present work, we examined ECRG4 expression and location in a wide range of rat organs and reviewed the available literature. ECRG4 mRNA was identified in all examined tissues by quantitative PCR (qPCR. ECRG4 immunoreaction was mainly cytoplasmic, and was detected in heart and skeletal muscles, smooth muscle cells showing only weak reactions. In the digestive system, ECRG4 immunostaining was stronger in the esophageal epithelium, bases of gastric glands, hepatocytes and pancreatic acinar epithelium. In the lymphatic system, immunoreactive cells were detectable in the thymus cortex, lymph node medulla and splenic red pulp. In the central and peripheral nervous systems, different neuronal groups showed different reaction intensities. In the endocrine system, ECRG4 immunoreaction was detected in the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei, hypophysis, thyroid and parathyroid glands, adrenal zona glomerularis and medulla and Leydig cells, as well as in follicular and luteal cells of the ovary. In the literature, ECRG4 has been reported to inhibit cell proliferation and increase apoptosis in various cell types. It is down-regulated, frequently due to hypermethylation, in esophageal, prostate, breast and colon cancers, together with glioma (oncosuppressor function, although it is up-regulated in papillary thyroid cancer (oncogenic role. ECRG4 expression is also higher in non-proliferating cells of the lymphatic system. In conclusion, our identification of ECRG4 in many structures suggests the involvement of ECRG4 in the tumorigenesis of other organs and also the need for further research. In addition, on the basis of the location of ECRG4 in neurons and endocrine cells and the fact that it can be secreted, its role as a

  7. Methylation in the promoter regions of WT1, NKX6-1 and DBC1 genes in cervical cancer tissues of Uygur women in Xinjiang

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    Dan Wu

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to explore: 1 DNA methylation in the promoter regions of Wilms tumor gene 1 (WT1, NK6 transcription factor related locus 1 gene (NKX6-1 and Deleted in bladder cancer 1 (DBC1 gene in cervical cancer tissues of Uygur women in Xinjiang, and 2 the correlation of gene methylation with the infection of HPV16/18 viruses. We detected HPV16/18 infection in 43 normal cervical tissues, 30 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia lesions (CIN and 48 cervical cancer tissues with polymerase chain reaction (PCR method. Methylation in the promoter regions of the WT1, NKX6-1 and DBC1 genes in the above-mentioned tissues was measured by methylation-specific PCR (MSP and cloning sequencing. The expression level of these three genes was measured by real-time PCR (qPCR in 10 methylation-positive cervical cancer tissues and 10 methylation-negative normal cervical tissues. We found that the infection of HPV16 in normal cervical tissues, CIN and cervical cancer tissues was 14.0, 36.7 and 66.7%, respectively. The infection of HPV18 was 0, 6.7 and 10.4%, respectively. The methylation rates of WT1, NKX6-1 and DBC1 genes were 7.0, 11.6 and 23.3% in normal cervical tissues, 36.7, 46.7 and 30.0% in CIN tissues, and 89.6, 77.1 and 85.4% in cervical cancer tissues. Furthermore, WT1, NKX6-1 and DBC1 genes were hypermethylated in the high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (CIN2, CIN3 and in the cervical cancer tissues with infection of HPV16/18 (both P< 0.05. The expression of WT1, NKX6-1 and DBC1 was significantly lower in the methylation-positive cervical cancer tissues than in methylation-negative normal cervical tissues. Our findings indicated that methylation in the promoter regions of WT1, NKX6-1 and DBC1 is correlated with cervical cancer tumorigenesis in Uygur women. The infection of HPV16/18 might be correlated with methylation in these genes. Gene inactivation caused by methylation might be related to the incidence and development of cervical

  8. Differential expression of GPR30 in preeclampsia placenta tissue and normal placenta tissue and its clinical significance

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    Ben-Zhou Feng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the differential expression of GPR30 in preeclampsia placenta tissue and normal placenta tissue and its clinical significance. Methods: Preeclampsia placenta tissue and normal placenta tissue were collected and GPR30 expression levels were detected; human umbilical vein endothelial cells were cultured and processed with GRP30 inhibitor and GRP30 agonist combined with hypoxia-reoxygenation respectively, and cell apoptosis as well as pro-angiogenesis molecule and apoptosis molecule contents were detected. Results: mRNA content and protein content of GRP30 in preeclampsia placenta tissue were significantly lower than those in normal placenta tissue; apoptosis rate of G15 group was significantly higher than that of control group, VEGF and bFGF contents in supernatant were significantly lower than those of control group, and mRNA contents of Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in cells were significantly higher than those of control group; apoptosis rate of H/R group was significantly higher than that of control group, VEGF and bFGF contents in supernatant were significantly lower than those of control group, and mRNA contents of Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in cells were significantly higher than those of control group; apoptosis rate of G1 group was significantly lower than that of H/R group, VEGF and bFGF contents in supernatant were significantly higher than those of H/R group, and mRNA contents of Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in cells were significantly lower than those of H/R group. Conclusions: Low expression of GPR30 in placenta tissue is closely associated with the occurrence of preeclampsia, enhancing GPR function can reduce endothelial cell apoptosis and increase the contents of pro-angiogenesis factors, and it has endothelial protection effect.

  9. Identification and target prediction of miRNAs specifically expressed in rat neural tissue

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    Tu Kang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a large group of RNAs that play important roles in regulating gene expression and protein translation. Several studies have indicated that some miRNAs are specifically expressed in human, mouse and zebrafish tissues. For example, miR-1 and miR-133 are specifically expressed in muscles. Tissue-specific miRNAs may have particular functions. Although previous studies have reported the presence of human, mouse and zebrafish tissue-specific miRNAs, there have been no detailed reports of rat tissue-specific miRNAs. In this study, Home-made rat miRNA microarrays which established in our previous study were used to investigate rat neural tissue-specific miRNAs, and mapped their target genes in rat tissues. This study will provide information for the functional analysis of these miRNAs. Results In order to obtain as complete a picture of specific miRNA expression in rat neural tissues as possible, customized miRNA microarrays with 152 selected miRNAs from miRBase were used to detect miRNA expression in 14 rat tissues. After a general clustering analysis, 14 rat tissues could be clearly classified into neural and non-neural tissues based on the obtained expression profiles with p values Conclusion Our work provides a global view of rat neural tissue-specific miRNA profiles and a target map of miRNAs, which is expected to contribute to future investigations of miRNA regulatory mechanisms in neural systems.

  10. Immunohistochemical expression of promyelocytic leukemia body in soft tissue sarcomas

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    Yasunaga Yuji

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The function of promyelocytic leukemia (PML bodies is not well known but plays an important role in controlling cell proliferation, apoptosis and senescence. This study was undertaken to analyze the clinical significance of PML body expression in primary tumor samples from malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH and liposarcoma patients. Methods We studied MFH and liposarcoma samples from 55 patients for PML bodies. Fluorescent immunostaining of PML bodies was performed in the paraffin-embedded tumor sections. Results PML body immunostaining was identified in 63.9% of MFH and 63.2% of liposarcoma samples. PML body expression rates of all sarcoma cells were 1.5 ± 1.8% (range: 0–7.0 in MFH and 1.3 ± 1.4% (0–5.2 in liposarcoma samples. PML body expression (p = 0.0053 and a high rate of PML body expression (p = 0.0012 were significantly greater prognostic risk factors for death than the other clinical factors in MFH patients. All liposarcoma patients without expression of PML were disease free at the end of the study. Conclusion Our study suggests that the presence of PML bodies may indicate a poor prognosis for MFH and liposarcoma patients.

  11. Structure of the gene for human β2-adrenergic receptor: expression and promoter characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emorine, L.J.; Marullo, S.; Delavier-Klutchko, C.; Kaveri, S.V.; Durieu-Trautmann, O.; Strosberg, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    The genomic gene coding for the human β 2 -adrenergic receptor (β 2 AR) from A431 epidermoid cells has been isolated. Transfection of the gene into eukaryotic cells restores a fully active receptor/GTP-binding protein/adenylate cyclase complex with β 2 AR properties. Southern blot analyses with β 2 AR-specific probes show that a single β 2 AR gene is common to various human tissues and that its flanking sequences are highly conserved among humans and between man and rabbit, mouse, and hamster. Functional significance of these regions is supported by the presence of a promoter region (including mRNA cap sites, two TATA boxes, a CAAT box, and three G + C-rich regions that resemble binding sites for transcription factor Sp1) 200-300 base pairs 5' to the translation initiation codon. In the 3' flanking region, sequences homologous to glucocorticoid-response elements might be responsible for the increased expression of the β 2 AR gene observed after treatment of the transfected cells with hydrocortisone. In addition, 5' to the promoter region, an open reading frame encodes a 251-residue polypeptide that displays striking homologies with protein kinases and other nucleotide-binding proteins

  12. Co-expression networks reveal the tissue-specific regulation of transcription and splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Ashis; Kim, Yungil; Gewirtz, Ariel D H; Jo, Brian; Gao, Chuan; McDowell, Ian C; Engelhardt, Barbara E; Battle, Alexis

    2017-11-01

    Gene co-expression networks capture biologically important patterns in gene expression data, enabling functional analyses of genes, discovery of biomarkers, and interpretation of genetic variants. Most network analyses to date have been limited to assessing correlation between total gene expression levels in a single tissue or small sets of tissues. Here, we built networks that additionally capture the regulation of relative isoform abundance and splicing, along with tissue-specific connections unique to each of a diverse set of tissues. We used the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project v6 RNA sequencing data across 50 tissues and 449 individuals. First, we developed a framework called Transcriptome-Wide Networks (TWNs) for combining total expression and relative isoform levels into a single sparse network, capturing the interplay between the regulation of splicing and transcription. We built TWNs for 16 tissues and found that hubs in these networks were strongly enriched for splicing and RNA binding genes, demonstrating their utility in unraveling regulation of splicing in the human transcriptome. Next, we used a Bayesian biclustering model that identifies network edges unique to a single tissue to reconstruct Tissue-Specific Networks (TSNs) for 26 distinct tissues and 10 groups of related tissues. Finally, we found genetic variants associated with pairs of adjacent nodes in our networks, supporting the estimated network structures and identifying 20 genetic variants with distant regulatory impact on transcription and splicing. Our networks provide an improved understanding of the complex relationships of the human transcriptome across tissues. © 2017 Saha et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  13. Sleep deprivation affects inflammatory marker expression in adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Ronaldo VT

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sleep deprivation has been shown to increase inflammatory markers in rat sera and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Inflammation is a condition associated with pathologies such as obesity, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. We investigated changes in the pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines in different depots of white adipose tissue in rats. We also assessed lipid profiles and serum levels of corticosterone, leptin, and adiponectin after 96 hours of sleep deprivation. Methods The study consisted of two groups: a control (C group and a paradoxical sleep deprivation by 96 h (PSD group. Ten rats were randomly assigned to either the control group (C or the PSD. Mesenteric (MEAT and retroperitoneal (RPAT adipose tissue, liver and serum were collected following completion of the PSD protocol. Levels of interleukin (IL-6, interleukin (IL-10 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α were analysed in MEAT and RPAT, and leptin, adiponectin, glucose, corticosterone and lipid profile levels were analysed in serum. Results IL-6 levels were elevated in RPAT but remained unchanged in MEAT after PSD. IL-10 protein concentration was not altered in either depot, and TNF-α levels decreased in MEAT. Glucose, triglycerides (TG, VLDL and leptin decreased in serum after 96 hours of PSD; adiponectin was not altered and corticosterone was increased. Conclusion PSD decreased fat mass and may modulate the cytokine content in different depots of adipose tissue. The inflammatory response was diminished in both depots of adipose tissue, with increased IL-6 levels in RPAT and decreased TNF-α protein concentrations in MEAT and increased levels of corticosterone in serum.

  14. Large scale gene expression meta-analysis reveals tissue-specific, sex-biased gene expression in humans

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    Benjamin Mayne

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The severity and prevalence of many diseases are known to differ between the sexes. Organ specific sex-biased gene expression may underpin these and other sexually dimorphic traits. To further our understanding of sex differences in transcriptional regulation, we performed meta-analyses of sex biased gene expression in multiple human tissues. We analysed 22 publicly available human gene expression microarray data sets including over 2500 samples from 15 different tissues and 9 different organs. Briefly, by using an inverse-variance method we determined the effect size difference of gene expression between males and females. We found the greatest sex differences in gene expression in the brain, specifically in the anterior cingulate cortex, (1818 genes, followed by the heart (375 genes, kidney (224 genes, colon (218 genes and thyroid (163 genes. More interestingly, we found different parts of the brain with varying numbers and identity of sex-biased genes, indicating that specific cortical regions may influence sexually dimorphic traits. The majority of sex-biased genes in other tissues such as the bladder, liver, lungs and pancreas were on the sex chromosomes or involved in sex hormone production. On average in each tissue, 32% of autosomal genes that were expressed in a sex-biased fashion contained androgen or estrogen hormone response elements. Interestingly, across all tissues, we found approximately two-thirds of autosomal genes that were sex-biased were not under direct influence of sex hormones. To our knowledge this is the largest analysis of sex-biased gene expression in human tissues to date. We identified many sex-biased genes that were not under the direct influence of sex chromosome genes or sex hormones. These may provide targets for future development of sex-specific treatments for diseases.

  15. DNMT 1 maintains hypermethylation of CAG promoter specific region and prevents expression of exogenous gene in fat-1 transgenic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunrong; Shang, Xueying; Cheng, Lei; Yang, Lei; Liu, Xuefei; Bai, Chunling; Wei, Zhuying; Hua, Jinlian; Li, Guangpeng

    2017-01-01

    Methylation is an important issue in gene expression regulation and also in the fields of genetics and reproduction. In this study, we created fat-1 transgenic sheep, investigated the fine-mapping and the modulatory mechanisms of promoter methylation. Sheep fetal fibroblasts were transfected by pCAG-fat1-IRES-EGFP. Monoclonal cell line was screened as nuclear donor and carried out nuclear transfer (441 transgenic cloned embryos, 52 synchronism recipient sheep). Six offsprings were obtained. Expressions of exogenous genes fat-1 and EGFP were detectable in 10 examined tissues and upregulated omega-3 fatty acid content. Interestingly, more or less EGFP negative cells were detectable in the positive transgenic fetal skin cells. EGFP negative and positive cells were sorted by flow cytometry, and their methylation status in the whole promoter region (1701 nt) were investigated by bisulphate sequencing. The fine-mapping of methylation in CAG promoter were proposed. The results suggested that exogenous gene expression was determined by the methylation status from 721-1346 nt and modulated by methylation levels at 101, 108 and 115 nt sites in CAG promoter. To clarify the regulatory mechanism of methylation, examination of four DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) demonstrated that hypermethylation of CAG promoter is mainly maintained by DNMT 1 in EGFP negative cells. Furthermore, investigation of the cell surface antigen CD34, CD45 and CD166 indicated that EGFP positive and negative cells belong to different types. The present study systematically clarified methylation status of CAG promoter in transgenic sheep and regulatory mechanism, which will provide research strategies for gene expression regulation in transgenic animals.

  16. OCT4 increases BIRC5 and CCND1 expression and promotes cancer progression in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Lu; Wu, Mengchao; Zhang, Ying; Su, Changqing; Li, Chunguang; Shen, Shuwen; Yan, Yan; Ji, Weidan; Wang, Jinghan; Qian, Haihua; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Li, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    OCT4 and BIRC5 are preferentially expressed in human cancer cells and mediate cancer cell survival and tumor maintenance. However, the molecular mechanism that regulates OCT4 and BIRC5 expression is not well characterized. By manipulating OCT4 and BIRC5 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, the regulatory mechanism of OCT4 on BIRC5 and CCND1 were investigated. Increasing or decreasing OCT4 expression could enhance or suppress BIRC5 expression, respectively, by regulating the activity of BIRC5 promoter. Because there is no binding site for OCT4 within BIRC5 promoter, the effect of OCT4 on BIRC5 promoter is indirect. An octamer motif for OCT4 in the CCND1 promoter has directly and partly participated in the regulation of CCND1 promoter activity, suggesting that OCT4 also could upregulated the expression of CCND1. Co-suppression of OCT4 and BIRC5 induced cancer cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, thereby efficiently inhibiting the proliferative activity of cancer cells and suppressing the growth of HCC xenogrfts in nude mice. OCT4 can upregulate BIRC5 and CCND1 expression by increasing their promoter activity. These factors collusively promotes HCC cell proliferation, and co-suppression of OCT4 and BIRC5 is potentially beneficial for HCC treatment

  17. Ectopic expression of PTTG1/securin promotes tumorigenesis in human embryonic kidney cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Mohammed T

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pituitary tumor transforming gene1 (PTTG1 is a novel oncogene that is expressed in most tumors. It encodes a protein that is primarily involved in the regulation of sister chromatid separation during cell division. The oncogenic potential of PTTG1 has been well characterized in the mouse, particularly mouse fibroblast (NIH3T3 cells, in which it induces cell proliferation, promotes tumor formation and angiogenesis. Human tumorigenesis is a complex and a multistep process often requiring concordant expression of a number of genes. Also due to differences between rodent and human cell biology it is difficult to extrapolate results from mouse models to humans. To determine if PTTG1 functions similarly as an oncogene in humans, we have characterized its effects on human embryonic kidney (HEK293 cells. Results We report that introduction of human PTTG1 into HEK293 cells through transfection with PTTG1 cDNA resulted in increased cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth in soft agar, and formation of tumors after subcutaneous injection of nu/nu mice. Pathologic analysis revealed that these tumors were poorly differentiated. Both analysis of HEK293 cells transiently transfected with PTTG1 cDNA and analysis of tumors developed on injection of HEK293 cells that had been stably transfected with PTTG1 cDNA indicated significantly higher levels of secretion and expression of bFGF, VEGF and IL-8 compared to HEK293 cells transfected with pcDNA3.1 vector or uninvolved tissues collected from the mice. Mutation of the proline-rich motifs at the C-terminal of PTTG1 abolished its oncogenic properties. Mice injected with this mutated PTTG1 either did not form tumors or formed very small tumors. Taken together our results suggest that PTTG1 is a human oncogene that possesses the ability to promote tumorigenesis in human cells at least in part through the regulation of expression or secretion of bFGF, VEGF and IL-8. Conclusions Our results

  18. Isolation, sequence identification and tissue expression profile of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The complete expressed sequence tag (CDS) sequence of Banna mini-pig inbred line (BMI) ribokinase gene (RBKS) was amplified using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based on the conserved sequence information of the cattle or other mammals and known highly homologous swine ESTs.

  19. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and tissue expression of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proofreader

    2017-10-01

    Oct 1, 2017 ... p-distance model for amino acid substitutions. A bootstrap .... These were a thymine/cytosine (T/C) SNP and a thymine/adenine (T/A) SNP. ..... Two rat homologues of Drosophila achaete–scute specifically expressed in ...

  20. Expression and clinical significance of PIWIL2 in hilar cholangiocarcinoma tissues and cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y J; Xiong, X F; Wen, S Q; Tian, L; Cheng, W L; Qi, Y Q

    2015-06-26

    The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between PIWI-like protein 2 (PIWIL2) and clinicopathological charac-teristics and prognosis after radical resection. To accomplish this, we analyzed PIWIL2 expression in hilar cholangiocarcinoma tissues and cell lines. PIWIL2 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in 41 hilar cholangiocarcinoma samples and 10 control tissues. Western blotting and immunocytofluorescence were used to investigate PIWIL2 expression in the cholangiocarcinoma cell line QBC939 and the bile duct epithelial cell line HIBEpic. Univariate and multivariate surviv-al analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method for hilar cholangiocarcinoma patients who underwent radical resection. PIWIL2 expression was significantly higher in the hilar cholangiocarcinoma tissues and QBC939 cells than in control tissues and HIBEpic cells, respectively (P hilar cholangiocarcinoma (P hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

  1. Digital sorting of complex tissues for cell type-specific gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yi; Wan, Ying-Wooi; Pang, Kaifang; Chow, Lionel M L; Liu, Zhandong

    2013-03-07

    Cellular heterogeneity is present in almost all gene expression profiles. However, transcriptome analysis of tissue specimens often ignores the cellular heterogeneity present in these samples. Standard deconvolution algorithms require prior knowledge of the cell type frequencies within a tissue or their in vitro expression profiles. Furthermore, these algorithms tend to report biased estimations. Here, we describe a Digital Sorting Algorithm (DSA) for extracting cell-type specific gene expression profiles from mixed tissue samples that is unbiased and does not require prior knowledge of cell type frequencies. The results suggest that DSA is a specific and sensitivity algorithm in gene expression profile deconvolution and will be useful in studying individual cell types of complex tissues.

  2. Long non-coding RNA expression profile in cervical cancer tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hua; Chen, Xiangjian; Hu, Yan; Shi, Zhengzheng; Zhou, Qing; Zheng, Jingjie; Wang, Yifeng

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC), one of the most common types of cancer of the female population, presents an enormous challenge in diagnosis and treatment. Long non-coding (lnc)RNAs, non-coding (nc)RNAs with length >200 nucleotides, have been identified to be associated with multiple types of cancer, including CC. This class of nc transcripts serves an important role in tumor suppression and oncogenic signaling pathways. In the present study, the microarray method was used to obtain the expression profile of lncRNAs and protein-coding mRNAs and to compare the expression of lncRNAs between CC tissues and corresponding adjacent non-cancerous tissues in order to screen potential lncRNAs for associations with CC. Overall, 3356 lncRNAs with significantly different expression pattern in CC tissues compared with adjacent non-cancerous tissues were identified, while 1,857 of them were upregulated. These differentially expressed lncRNAs were additionally classified into 5 subgroups. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reactions were performed to validate the expression pattern of 5 random selected lncRNAs, and 2lncRNAs were identified to have significantly different expression in CC samples compared with adjacent non-cancerous tissues. This finding suggests that those lncRNAs with different expression may serve important roles in the development of CC, and the expression data may provide information for additional study on the involvement of lncRNAs in CC. PMID:28789353

  3. Methylation of Promoter Regions of Genes of the Human Intrauterine Renin Angiotensin System and Their Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane D. Sykes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The intrauterine renin angiotensin system (RAS is implicated in placentation and labour onset. Here we investigate whether promoter methylation of RAS genes changes with gestation or labour and if it affects gene expression. Early gestation amnion and placenta were studied, as were term amnion, decidua, and placenta collected before labour (at elective caesarean section or after spontaneous labour and delivery. The expression and degree of methylation of the prorenin receptor (ATP6AP2, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1, and two proteases that can activate prorenin (kallikrein, KLK1, and cathepsin D, CTSD were measured by qPCR and a DNA methylation array. There was no effect of gestation or labour on the methylation of RAS genes and CTSD. Amnion and decidua displayed strong correlations between the percent hypermethylation of RAS genes and CTSD, suggestive of global methylation. There were no correlations between the degree of methylation and mRNA abundance of any genes studied. KLK1 was the most methylated gene and the proportion of hypermethylated KLK1 alleles was lower in placenta than decidua. The presence of intermediate methylated alleles of KLK1 in early gestation placenta and in amnion after labour suggests that KLK1 methylation is uniquely dynamic in these tissues.

  4. Histone Acetylation Modifications Affect Tissue-Dependent Expression of Poplar Homologs of C4 Photosynthetic Enzyme Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Histone modifications play important roles in regulating the expression of C4 photosynthetic genes. Given that all enzymes required for the C4 photosynthesis pathway are present in C3 plants, it has been hypothesized that this expression regulatory mechanism has been conserved. However, the relationship between histone modification and the expression of homologs of C4 photosynthetic enzyme genes has not been well determined in C3 plants. In the present study, we cloned nine hybrid poplar (Populus simonii × Populus nigra homologs of maize (Zea mays C4 photosynthetic enzyme genes, carbonic anhydrase (CA, pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, and investigated the correlation between the expression levels of these genes and the levels of promoter histone acetylation modifications in four vegetative tissues. We found that poplar homologs of C4 homologous genes had tissue-dependent expression patterns that were mostly well-correlated with the level of histone acetylation modification (H3K9ac and H4K5ac determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A further confirmed the role of histone acetylation in the regulation of the nine target genes. Collectively, these results suggest that both H3K9ac and H4K5ac positively regulate the tissue-dependent expression pattern of the PsnCAs, PsnPPDKs, PsnPCKs, and PsnPEPCs genes and that this regulatory mechanism seems to be conserved among the C3 and C4 species. Our findings provide new insight that will aid efforts to modify the expression pattern of these homologs of C4 genes to engineer C4 plants from C3 plants.

  5. Increased expression of resistin in ectopic endometrial tissue of women with endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yoon Kyung; Ha, Young Ran; Yi, Kyong Wook; Park, Hyun Tae; Shin, Jung-Ho; Kim, Tak; Hur, Jun-Young

    2017-11-01

    Inflammation is a key process in the establishment and progression of endometriosis. Resistin, an adipocytokine, has biological properties linked to immunologic functions, but its role in endometriosis is unclear. Resistin gene expression was examined in eutopic and ectopic endometrial tissues from women with (n=25) or without (n=25) endometriosis. Resistin mRNA and protein levels were determined in endometrial tissue using quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting, following adipokine profiling arrays. Resistin protein was detected in human endometrial tissues using an adipokine array test. Resistin mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher in ectopic endometrial tissue of patients with endometriosis than in normal eutopic endometrial tissue. Our results indicate that resistin is differentially expressed in endometrial tissues from women with endometriosis and imply a role for resistin in endometriosis-associated pelvic inflammation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Maternal nutrition induces gene expression changes in fetal muscle and adipose tissues in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñagaricano, Francisco; Wang, Xin; Rosa, Guilherme Jm; Radunz, Amy E; Khatib, Hasan

    2014-11-28

    Maternal nutrition during different stages of pregnancy can induce significant changes in the structure, physiology, and metabolism of the offspring. These changes could have important implications on food animal production especially if these perturbations impact muscle and adipose tissue development. Here, we evaluated the impact of different maternal isoenergetic diets, alfalfa haylage (HY; fiber), corn (CN; starch), and dried corn distillers grains (DG; fiber plus protein plus fat), on the transcriptome of fetal muscle and adipose tissues in sheep. Prepartum diets were associated with notable gene expression changes in fetal tissues. In longissimus dorsi muscle, a total of 224 and 823 genes showed differential expression (FDR ≤0.05) in fetuses derived from DG vs. CN and HY vs. CN maternal diets, respectively. Several of these significant genes affected myogenesis and muscle differentiation. In subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues, 745 and 208 genes were differentially expressed (FDR ≤0.05), respectively, between CN and DG diets. Many of these genes are involved in adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and adipose tissue development. Pathway analysis revealed that several GO terms and KEGG pathways were enriched (FDR ≤0.05) with differentially expressed genes associated with tissue and organ development, chromatin biology, and different metabolic processes. These findings provide evidence that maternal nutrition during pregnancy can alter the programming of fetal muscle and fat tissues in sheep. The ramifications of the observed gene expression changes, in terms of postnatal growth, body composition, and meat quality of the offspring, warrant future investigation.

  7. Expression of scavenger receptor‐AI promotes alternative activation of murine macrophages to limit hepatic inflammation and fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonte, Adam C.; Sung, Sun‐Sang J.; Jennelle, Lucas T.; Dandekar, Aditya P.

    2016-01-01

    The liver maintains an immunologically tolerant environment as a result of continuous exposure to food and bacterial constituents from the digestive tract. Hepatotropic pathogens can take advantage of this niche and establish lifelong chronic infections causing hepatic fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Macrophages (Mϕ) play a critical role in regulation of immune responses to hepatic infection and regeneration of tissue. However, the factors crucial for Mϕ in limiting hepatic inflammation or resolving liver damage have not been fully understood. In this report, we demonstrate that expression of C‐type lectin receptor scavenger receptor‐AI (SR‐AI) is crucial for promoting M2‐like Mϕ activation and polarization during hepatic inflammation. Liver Mϕ uniquely up‐regulated SR‐AI during hepatotropic viral infection and displayed increased expression of alternative Mϕ activation markers, such as YM‐1, arginase‐1, and interleukin‐10 by activation of mer receptor tyrosine kinase associated with inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin. Expression of these molecules was reduced on Mϕ obtained from livers of infected mice deficient for the gene encoding SR‐AI (msr1). Furthermore, in vitro studies using an SR‐AI‐deficient Mϕ cell line revealed impeded M2 polarization and decreased phagocytic capacity. Direct stimulation with virus was sufficient to activate M2 gene expression in the wild‐type (WT) cell line, but not in the knockdown cell line. Importantly, tissue damage and fibrosis were exacerbated in SR‐AI–/– mice following hepatic infection and adoptive transfer of WT bone‐marrow–derived Mϕ conferred protection against fibrosis in these mice. Conclusion: SR‐AI expression on liver Mϕ promotes recovery from infection‐induced tissue damage by mediating a switch to a proresolving Mϕ polarization state. (Hepatology 2017;65:32‐43). PMID:27770558

  8. Tissue Factor-Expressing Tumor-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Activate Quiescent Endothelial Cells via Protease-Activated Receptor-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara P. Y. Che

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tissue factor (TF-expressing tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs can promote metastasis and pre-metastatic niche formation, but the mechanisms by which this occurs remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that generation of activated factor X (FXa by TF expressed on tumor-derived EV could activate protease-activated receptors (PARs on non-activated endothelial cells to induce a pro-adhesive and pro-inflammatory phenotype. We obtained EV from TF-expressing breast (MDA-MB-231 and pancreatic (BxPC3 and Capan-1 tumor cell lines. We measured expression of E-selectin and secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells after exposure to EV and various immunologic and chemical inhibitors of TF, FXa, PAR-1, and PAR-2. After 6 h of exposure to tumor-derived EV (pretreated with factor VIIa and FX in vitro, endothelial cells upregulated E-selectin expression and secreted IL-8. These changes were decreased with an anti-TF antibody, FXa inhibitors (FPRCK and EGRCK, and PAR-1 antagonist (E5555, demonstrating that FXa generated by TF-expressing tumor-derived EV was signaling through endothelial PAR-1. Due to weak constitutive PAR-2 expression, these endothelial responses were not induced by a PAR-2 agonist peptide (SLIGKV and were not inhibited by a PAR-2 antagonist (FSLLRY after exposure to tumor-derived EV. In conclusion, we found that TF-expressing cancer-derived EVs activate quiescent endothelial cells, upregulating E-selectin and inducing IL-8 secretion through generation of FXa and cleavage of PAR-1. Conversion of resting endothelial cells to an activated phenotype by TF-expressing cancer-derived EV could promote cancer metastases.

  9. Concordance of gene expression in human protein complexes reveals tissue specificity and pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Börnigen, Daniela; Pers, Tune Hannes; Thorrez, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    Disease-causing variants in human genes usually lead to phenotypes specific to only a few tissues. Here, we present a method for predicting tissue specificity based on quantitative deregulation of protein complexes. The underlying assumption is that the degree of coordinated expression among prot...

  10. Expression of protein-tyrosine phosphatases in the major insulin target tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norris, K; Norris, F; Kono, D H

    1997-01-01

    Protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are key regulators of the insulin receptor signal transduction pathway. We have performed a detailed analysis of PTP expression in the major human insulin target tissues or cells (liver, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and endothelial cells). To obtain a repre...

  11. Estrogens increase expression of bone morphogenetic protein 8b in brown adipose tissue of mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Grefhorst (Aldo); J.C. van den Beukel (Anneke); A.F. van Houten (A.); J. Steenbergen (Jacobie); J.A. Visser (Jenny); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In mammals, white adipose tissue (WAT) stores fat and brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates fat to produce heat. Several studies showed that females have more active BAT. Members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) families are expressed

  12. Lipoprotein Lipase mRNA expression in different tissues of farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) controls triacylglycerol partitioning between adipose tissues and muscles, so it is important enzyme for fattening of animals .The present work was planned to clarify the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of LPL mRNA expression in different tissues representing internal organs of ...

  13. Fibrocartilage tissue engineering: the role of the stress environment on cell morphology and matrix expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomopoulos, Stavros; Das, Rosalina; Birman, Victor; Smith, Lester; Ku, Katherine; Elson, Elliott L; Pryse, Kenneth M; Marquez, Juan Pablo; Genin, Guy M

    2011-04-01

    Although much is known about the effects of uniaxial mechanical loading on fibrocartilage development, the stress fields to which fibrocartilaginous regions are subjected to during development are mutiaxial. That fibrocartilage develops at tendon-to-bone attachments and in compressive regions of tendons is well established. However, the three-dimensional (3D) nature of the stresses needed for the development of fibrocartilage is not known. Here, we developed and applied an in vitro system to determine whether fibrocartilage can develop under a state of periodic hydrostatic tension in which only a single principal component of stress is compressive. This question is vital to efforts to mechanically guide morphogenesis and matrix expression in engineered tissue replacements. Mesenchymal stromal cells in a 3D culture were exposed to compressive and tensile stresses as a result of an external tensile hydrostatic stress field. The stress field was characterized through mechanical modeling. Tensile cyclic stresses promoted spindle-shaped cells, upregulation of scleraxis and type one collagen, and cell alignment with the direction of tension. Cells experiencing a single compressive stress component exhibited rounded cell morphology and random cell orientation. No difference in mRNA expression of the genes Sox9 and aggrecan was observed when comparing tensile and compressive regions unless the medium was supplemented with the chondrogenic factor transforming growth factor beta3. In that case, Sox9 was upregulated under static loading conditions and aggrecan was upregulated under cyclic loading conditions. In conclusion, the fibrous component of fibrocartilage could be generated using only mechanical cues, but generation of the cartilaginous component of fibrocartilage required biologic factors in addition to mechanical cues. These studies support the hypothesis that the 3D stress environment influences cell activity and gene expression in fibrocartilage development.

  14. Bayesian models and meta analysis for multiple tissue gene expression data following corticosteroid administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelemen Arpad

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper addresses key biological problems and statistical issues in the analysis of large gene expression data sets that describe systemic temporal response cascades to therapeutic doses in multiple tissues such as liver, skeletal muscle, and kidney from the same animals. Affymetrix time course gene expression data U34A are obtained from three different tissues including kidney, liver and muscle. Our goal is not only to find the concordance of gene in different tissues, identify the common differentially expressed genes over time and also examine the reproducibility of the findings by integrating the results through meta analysis from multiple tissues in order to gain a significant increase in the power of detecting differentially expressed genes over time and to find the differential differences of three tissues responding to the drug. Results and conclusion Bayesian categorical model for estimating the proportion of the 'call' are used for pre-screening genes. Hierarchical Bayesian Mixture Model is further developed for the identifications of differentially expressed genes across time and dynamic clusters. Deviance information criterion is applied to determine the number of components for model comparisons and selections. Bayesian mixture model produces the gene-specific posterior probability of differential/non-differential expression and the 95% credible interval, which is the basis for our further Bayesian meta-inference. Meta-analysis is performed in order to identify commonly expressed genes from multiple tissues that may serve as ideal targets for novel treatment strategies and to integrate the results across separate studies. We have found the common expressed genes in the three tissues. However, the up/down/no regulations of these common genes are different at different time points. Moreover, the most differentially expressed genes were found in the liver, then in kidney, and then in muscle.

  15. Differential Expression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes in Normal and Tumor Tissues from Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Ortiz, Dora; Camacho-Carranza, Rafael; González-Zamora, José Francisco; Shalkow-Kalincovstein, Jaime; Cárdenas-Cardós, Rocío; Ností-Palacios, Rosario; Vences-Mejía, Araceli

    2014-01-01

    Intratumoral expression of genes encoding Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP) might play a critical role not only in cancer development but also in the metabolism of anticancer drugs. The purpose of this study was to compare the mRNA expression patterns of seven representative CYPs in paired tumor and normal tissue of child patients with rabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Using real time quantitative RT-PCR, the gene expression pattern of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2E1, CYP2W1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 were analyzed in tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues from 13 child RMS patients. Protein concentration of CYPs was determined using Western blot. The expression levels were tested for correlation with the clinical and pathological data of the patients. Our data showed that the expression levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 were negligible. Elevated expression of CYP1B1 mRNA and protein was detected in most RMS tumors and adjacent normal tissues. Most cancerous samples exhibit higher levels of both CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 compared with normal tissue samples. Expression of CYP2E1 mRNA was found to be significantly higher in tumor tissue, however no relation was found with protein levels. CYP2W1 mRNA and/or protein are mainly expressed in tumors. In conclusion, we defined the CYP gene expression profile in tumor and paired normal tissue of child patients with RMS. The overexpression of CYP2W1, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in tumor tissues suggests that they may be involved in RMS chemoresistance; furthermore, they may be exploited for the localized activation of anticancer prodrugs. PMID:24699256

  16. Diurnal gene expression of lipolytic natriuretic peptide receptors in white adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Julie; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Jørgensen, Henrik L

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of the circadian rhythm can lead to obesity and cardiovascular disease. In white adipose tissue, activation of the natriuretic peptide receptors (NPRs) stimulates lipolysis. We have previously shown that natriuretic peptides are expressed in a circadian manner in the heart, but the tem......Disruption of the circadian rhythm can lead to obesity and cardiovascular disease. In white adipose tissue, activation of the natriuretic peptide receptors (NPRs) stimulates lipolysis. We have previously shown that natriuretic peptides are expressed in a circadian manner in the heart......, but the temporal expression profile of their cognate receptors has not been examined in white adipose tissue. We therefore collected peri-renal white adipose tissue and serum from WT mice. Tissue mRNA contents of NPRs - NPR-A and NPR-C, the clock genes Per1 and Bmal1, and transcripts involved in lipid metabolism...... in serum peaked in the active dark period (P=0.003). In conclusion, NPR-A and NPR-C gene expression is associated with the expression of clock genes in white adipose tissue. The reciprocal expression may thus contribute to regulate lipolysis and energy homeostasis in a diurnal manner....

  17. Relative IGF-1 and IGF-2 gene expression in maternal and fetal tissues from diabetic swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolverton, C.K.; Leaman, D.W.; White, M.E.; Ramsay, T.G.

    1990-01-01

    Fourteen pregnant, crossbred gilts were utilized in this study. Seven gilts were injected with alloxan (50 mg/kg) at day 75 of gestation to induce diabetes. Gilts underwent caesarean section on day 105 of gestation. Samples were collected from maternal skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, uterus and endometrium; and from fetal skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, placenta, liver, lung, kidney, heart, brain and spleen. Tissues were frozen in liquid nitrogen for later analysis of IGF-1 and IGF-2 gene expression. Samples were pooled and total RNA was isolated using the guanidine isothiocynate method. Total mRNA was analyzed by dot blot hybridization. Blots were probed with 32 P-cDNA for porcine IGF-1 and rat IGF-2. IGF-1 gene expression in maternal tissues was unaffected by diabetes. Maternal diabetes increased IGF-2 mRNA in maternal adipose tissue but exhibited no effect in muscle or uterus. Expression of IGF-2 by maternal endometrium was decreased by diabetes. Maternal diabetes induced an increase in IGF-1 gene expression in muscle and placenta while causing an increase in IGF-2 expression in fetal liver and placenta. IGF-2 mRNA was lower in lung from fetuses of diabetic mothers than in controls. These results suggest that maternal diabetes alters IGF-1 and IGF-2 gene expression in specific tissues and differential regulation of these genes appears to exist in the mother and developing fetus

  18. Bmi-1 promotes invasion and metastasis, and its elevated expression is correlated with an advanced stage of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background B-lymphoma Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion region-1 (Bmi-1) acts as an oncogene in various tumors, and its overexpression correlates with a poor outcome in several human cancers. Ectopic expression of Bmi-1 can induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and enhance the motility and invasiveness of human nasopharyngeal epithelial cells (NPECs), whereas silencing endogenous Bmi-1 expression can reverse EMT and reduce the metastatic potential of nasopharyngeal cancer cells (NPCs). Mouse xenograft studies indicate that coexpression of Bmi-1 and H-Ras in breast cancer cells can induce an aggressive and metastatic phenotype with an unusual occurrence of brain metastasis; although, Bmi-1 overexpression did not result in oncogenic transformation of MCF-10A cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of Bmi-1-mediated progression and the metastasis of breast cancer are not fully elucidated at this time. Results Bmi-1 expression is more pronouncedly increased in primary cancer tissues compared to matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues. High Bmi-1 expression is correlated with advanced clinicopathologic classifications (T, N, and M) and clinical stages. Furthermore, a high level of Bmi-1 indicates an unfavorable overall survival and serves as a high risk marker for breast cancer. In addition, inverse transcriptional expression levels of Bmi-1 and E-cadherin are detected between the primary cancer tissues and the matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Higher Bmi-1 levels are found in the cancer tissue, whereas the paired adjacent non-cancer tissue shows higher E-cadherin levels. Overexpression of Bmi-1 increases the motility and invasive properties of immortalized human mammary epithelial cells, which is concurrent with the increased expression of mesenchymal markers, the decreased expression of epithelial markers, the stabilization of Snail and the dysregulation of the Akt/GSK3β pathway. Consistent with these observations, the repression of Bmi

  19. An abundance of ubiquitously expressed genes revealed by tissue transcriptome sequence data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ramsköld

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The parts of the genome transcribed by a cell or tissue reflect the biological processes and functions it carries out. We characterized the features of mammalian tissue transcriptomes at the gene level through analysis of RNA deep sequencing (RNA-Seq data across human and mouse tissues and cell lines. We observed that roughly 8,000 protein-coding genes were ubiquitously expressed, contributing to around 75% of all mRNAs by message copy number in most tissues. These mRNAs encoded proteins that were often intracellular, and tended to be involved in metabolism, transcription, RNA processing or translation. In contrast, genes for secreted or plasma membrane proteins were generally expressed in only a subset of tissues. The distribution of expression levels was broad but fairly continuous: no support was found for the concept of distinct expression classes of genes. Expression estimates that included reads mapping to coding exons only correlated better with qRT-PCR data than estimates which also included 3' untranslated regions (UTRs. Muscle and liver had the least complex transcriptomes, in that they expressed predominantly ubiquitous genes and a large fraction of the transcripts came from a few highly expressed genes, whereas brain, kidney and testis expressed more complex transcriptomes with the vast majority of genes expressed and relatively small contributions from the most expressed genes. mRNAs expressed in brain had unusually long 3'UTRs, and mean 3'UTR length was higher for genes involved in development, morphogenesis and signal transduction, suggesting added complexity of UTR-based regulation for these genes. Our results support a model in which variable exterior components feed into a large, densely connected core composed of ubiquitously expressed intracellular proteins.

  20. Immunohistochemical Study of Expression of Sohlh1 and Sohlh2 in Normal Adult Human Tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Zhang

    Full Text Available The expression pattern of Sohlh1 (spermatogenesis and oogenesis specific basic helix-loop-helix 1 and Sohlh2 in mice has been reported in previous studies. Sohlh1 and Sohlh2 are specifically expressed in spermatogonia, prespermatogonia in male mice and oocytes of primordial and primary follicles in female mice. In this report, we studied the expression pattern of Sohlh1 and Sohlh2 in human adult tissues. Immunohistochemical staining of Sohlh1 and Sohlh2 was performed in 5 samples of normal ovaries and testes, respectively. The results revealed that Sohlh genes are not only expressed in oocytes and spermatogonia, but also in granular cells, theca cells, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells, and in smooth muscles of blood vessel walls. To further investigate the expression of Sohlh genes in other adult human tissues, we collected representative normal adult tissues developed from three embryonic germ layers. Compared with the expression in mice, Sohlhs exhibited a much more extensive expression pattern in human tissues. Sohlhs were detected in testis, ovary and epithelia developed from embryonic endoderm, ectoderm and tissues developed from embryonic mesoderm. Sohlh signals were found in spermatogonia, Sertoli cells and also Leydig cells in testis, while in ovary, the expression was mainly in oocytes of primordial and primary follicles, granular cells and theca cells of secondary follicles. Compared with Sohlh2, the expression of Sohlh1 was stronger and more extensive. Our study explored the expression of Sohlh genes in human tissues and might provide insights for functional studies of Sohlh genes.

  1. Short-term fasting promotes insulin expression in rat hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakic, Tamara B; Jevdjovic, Tanja V; Peric, Mina I; Bjelobaba, Ivana M; Markelic, Milica B; Milutinovic, Bojana S; Lakic, Iva V; Jasnic, Nebojsa I; Djordjevic, Jelena D; Vujovic, Predrag Z

    2017-07-01

    In the hypothalamus, insulin takes on many roles involved in energy homoeostasis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine hypothalamic insulin expression during the initial phase of the metabolic response to fasting. Hypothalamic insulin content was assessed by both radioimmunoassay and Western blot. The relative expression of insulin mRNA was examined by qPCR. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the distribution of insulin immunopositivity in the hypothalamus. After 6-h fasting, both glucose and insulin levels were decreased in serum but not in the cerebrospinal fluid. Our study showed for the first time that, while the concentration of circulating glucose and insulin decreased, both insulin mRNA expression and insulin content in the hypothalamic parenchyma were increased after short-term fasting. Increased insulin immunopositivity was detected specifically in the neurons of the hypothalamic periventricular nucleus and in the ependymal cells of fasting animals. These novel findings point to the complexity of mechanisms regulating insulin expression in the CNS in general and in the hypothalamus in particular. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Expression of MiR-9 promotes proliferation, migration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of miR-9 on the proliferation, differentiation and migration of human neural stem cells (NSCs). Methods: The expression of miR-9 was investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Cell proliferation was assessed by cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) assay, while cell ...

  3. Expression studies of six human obesity-related genes in seven tissues from divergent pig breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirera, S.; Jensen, M. S.; Elbrønd, V. S.

    2014-01-01

    receptor (MC4R), fat mass and obesity associated (FTO), neuronal growth regulator 1 (NEGR)1 and adiponectin (ADIPOQ), in seven obesity-relevant tissues (liver; muscle; pancreas; hypothalamus; and retroperitoneal, subcutaneous and mesenteric adipose tissues) in two pig breeds (production pigs and Göttingen...... minipigs) that deviate phenotypically and genetically from each other with respect to obesity traits. We observe significant differential expression for LEP, LEPR and ADIPOQ in muscle and in all three adipose tissues. Interestingly, in pancreas, LEP expression is only detected in the fat minipigs. FTO...

  4. The Pea SAD Short-Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase: Quinone Reduction, Tissue Distribution, and Heterologous Expression1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbak, Nikolai; Ala-Häivälä, Anneli; Brosché, Mikael; Böwer, Nathalie; Strid, Hilja; Gittins, John R.; Grahn, Elin; Eriksson, Leif A.; Strid, Åke

    2011-01-01

    The pea (Pisum sativum) tetrameric short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase-like protein (SAD) family consists of at least three highly similar members (SAD-A, -B, and -C). According to mRNA data, environmental stimuli induce SAD expression. The aim of this study was to characterize the SAD proteins by examining their catalytic function, distribution in pea, and induction in different tissues. In enzyme activity assays using a range of potential substrates, the SAD-C enzyme was shown to reduce one- or two-ring-membered quinones lacking long hydrophobic hydrocarbon tails. Immunological assays using a specific antiserum against the protein demonstrated that different tissues and cell types contain small amounts of SAD protein that was predominantly located within epidermal or subepidermal cells and around vascular tissue. Particularly high local concentrations were observed in the protoderm of the seed cotyledonary axis. Two bow-shaped rows of cells in the ovary and the placental surface facing the ovule also exhibited considerable SAD staining. Ultraviolet-B irradiation led to increased staining in epidermal and subepidermal cells of leaves and stems. The different localization patterns of SAD suggest functions both in development and in responses to environmental stimuli. Finally, the pea SAD-C promoter was shown to confer heterologous wound-induced expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which confirmed that the inducibility of its expression is regulated at the transcriptional level. PMID:21343423

  5. RNA polymerase II mediated transcription from the polymerase III promoters in short hairpin RNA expression vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumi, Mohammad; Ishihara, Shunji; Aziz, Monowar; Kazumori, Hideaki; Ishimura, Norihisa; Yuki, Takafumi; Kadota, Chikara; Kadowaki, Yasunori; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2006-01-01

    RNA polymerase III promoters of human ribonuclease P RNA component H1, human U6, and mouse U6 small nuclear RNA genes are commonly used in short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vectors due their precise initiation and termination sites. During transient transfection of shRNA vectors, we observed that H1 or U6 promoters also express longer transcripts enough to express several reporter genes including firefly luciferase, green fluorescent protein EGFP, and red fluorescent protein JRed. Expression of such longer transcripts was augmented by upstream RNA polymerase II enhancers and completely inhibited by downstream polyA signal sequences. Moreover, the transcription of firefly luciferase from human H1 promoter was sensitive to RNA polymerase II inhibitor α-amanitin. Our findings suggest that commonly used polymerase III promoters in shRNA vectors are also prone to RNA polymerase II mediated transcription, which may have negative impacts on their targeted use

  6. Transcriptional analysis of heterologous gene expression using the endogenous sD promoter from Bacillus halodurans

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Crampton, Michael C

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This presentation focused on the transcriptional analysis of heterologous gene expression using the endogenous sD promoter from Bacillus halodurans. It concludes to a successful implementation of a high throughput mRNA sandwich hybridisation...

  7. Hh pathway expression in human gut tissues and in inflammatory gut diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, Corinne M.; Williams, Jerrell; van den Brink, Gijs R.; Lauwers, Gregory Y.; Roberts, Drucilla J.

    2004-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) directs early gut patterning via epithelial-mesenchymal signaling and remains expressed in endoderm-derived tissues into the adult period. In human adult gut epithelium SHH/SHH expression is strongest in basal layers, which suggests that SHH may function in the maintenance of

  8. Differential expression of BK channel isoforms and beta-subunits in rat neuro-vascular tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Asser Nyander; Wulf, Helle; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the expression of splice variants and beta-subunits of the BK channel (big conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel, Slo1, MaxiK, K(Ca)1.1) in rat cerebral blood vessels, meninges, trigeminal ganglion among other tissues. An alpha-subunit splice variant X1(+24) was found expresse...

  9. Stromal cell markers are differentially expressed in the synovial tissue of patients with early arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, Ivy Y.; Karpus, Olga N.; Turner, Jason D.; Hardie, Debbie; Marshall, Jennifer L.; de Hair, Maria J. H.; Maijer, Karen I.; Tak, Paul P.; Raza, Karim; Hamann, Jörg; Buckley, Christopher D.; Gerlag, Danielle M.; Filer, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown increased expression of stromal markers in synovial tissue (ST) of patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here, ST expression of stromal markers in early arthritis in relationship to diagnosis and prognostic outcome was studied. ST from 56 patients included

  10. A Novel Collection of snRNA-Like Promoters with Tissue-Specific Transcription Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pagano

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We recently identified a novel dataset of snRNA-like trascriptional units in the human genome. The investigation of a subset of these elements showed that they play relevant roles in physiology and/or pathology. In this work we expand our collection of small RNAs taking advantage of a newly developed algorithm able to identify genome sequence stretches with RNA polymerase (pol III type 3 promoter features thus constituting putative pol III binding sites. The bioinformatic analysis of a subset of these elements that map in introns of protein-coding genes in antisense configuration suggest their association with alternative splicing, similarly to other recently characterized small RNAs. Interestingly, the analysis of the transcriptional activity of these novel promoters shows that they are active in a cell-type specific manner, in accordance with the emerging body of evidence of a tissue/cell-specific activity of pol III.

  11. Engineered promoters enable constant gene expression at any copy number in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall-Shapiro, Thomas H; Sontag, Eduardo D; Voigt, Christopher A

    2018-04-01

    The internal environment of growing cells is variable and dynamic, making it difficult to introduce reliable parts, such as promoters, for genetic engineering. Here, we applied control-theoretic ideas to design promoters that maintained constant levels of expression at any copy number. Theory predicts that independence to copy number can be achieved by using an incoherent feedforward loop (iFFL) if the negative regulation is perfectly non-cooperative. We engineered iFFLs into Escherichia coli promoters using transcription-activator-like effectors (TALEs). These promoters had near-identical expression in different genome locations and plasmids, even when their copy number was perturbed by genomic mutations or changes in growth medium composition. We applied the stabilized promoters to show that a three-gene metabolic pathway to produce deoxychromoviridans could retain function without re-tuning when the stabilized-promoter-driven genes were moved from a plasmid into the genome.

  12. Over-expression of heme oxygenase-1 promotes oxidative mitochondrial damage in rat astroglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Su, Haixiang; Song, Sisi; Paudel, Hemant K; Schipper, Hyman M

    2006-03-01

    Glial heme oxygenase-1 is over-expressed in the CNS of subjects with Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson disease (PD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Up-regulation of HO-1 in rat astroglia has been shown to facilitate iron sequestration by the mitochondrial compartment. To determine whether HO-1 induction promotes mitochondrial oxidative stress, assays for 8-epiPGF(2alpha) (ELISA), protein carbonyls (ELISA) and 8-OHdG (HPLC-EC) were used to quantify oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, respectively, in mitochondrial fractions and whole-cell compartments derived from cultured rat astroglia engineered to over-express human (h) HO-1 by transient transfection. Cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion and the MTT assay, and cell proliferation was determined by [3H] thymidine incorporation and total cell counts. In rat astrocytes, hHO-1 over-expression (x 3 days) resulted in significant oxidative damage to mitochondrial lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, partial growth arrest, and increased cell death. These effects were attenuated by incubation with 1 microM tin mesoporphyrin, a competitive HO inhibitor, or the iron chelator, deferoxamine. Up-regulation of HO-1 engenders oxidative mitochondrial injury in cultured rat astroglia. Heme-derived ferrous iron and carbon monoxide (CO) may mediate the oxidative modification of mitochondrial lipids, proteins and nucleic acids in these cells. Glial HO-1 hyperactivity may contribute to cellular oxidative stress, pathological iron deposition, and bioenergetic failure characteristic of degenerating and inflamed neural tissues and may constitute a rational target for therapeutic intervention in these conditions. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Vitamin D modulates tissue factor and protease-activated receptor 2 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Moreno, Julio M; Herencia, Carmen; Montes de Oca, Addy; Muñoz-Castañeda, Juan R; Rodríguez-Ortiz, M Encarnación; Díaz-Tocados, Juan M; Peralbo-Santaella, Esther; Camargo, Antonio; Canalejo, Antonio; Rodriguez, Mariano; Velasco-Gimena, Francisco; Almaden, Yolanda

    2016-03-01

    Clinical and epidemiologic studies reveal an association between vitamin D deficiency and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Because vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC)-derived tissue factor (TF) is suggested to be critical for arterial thrombosis, we investigated whether the vitamin D molecules calcitriol and paricalcitol could reduce the expression of TF induced by the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α in human aortic VSMCs. We found that, compared with controls, incubation with TNF-α increased TF expression and procoagulant activity in a NF-κB-dependent manner, as deduced from the increased nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells protein 65 (p65-NF-κB) and direct interaction of NF-κB to the TF promoter. This was accompanied by the up-regulation of TF signaling mediator protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) expression and by the down-regulation of vitamin D receptor expression in a miR-346-dependent way. However, addition of calcitriol or paricalcitol blunted the TNF-α-induced TF expression and activity (2.01 ± 0.24 and 1.32 ± 0.14 vs. 3.02 ± 0.39 pmol/mg protein, P < 0.05), which was associated with down-regulation of NF-κB signaling and PAR-2 expression, as well as with restored levels of vitamin D receptor and enhanced expression of TF pathway inhibitor. Our data suggest that inflammation promotes a prothrombotic state through the up-regulation of TF function in VSMCs and that the beneficial cardiovascular effects of vitamin D may be partially due to decreases in TF expression and its activity in VSMCs. © FASEB.

  14. Instructive role of the vascular niche in promoting tumour growth and tissue repair by angiocrine factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Jason M; Kobayashi, Hideki; Rafii, Shahin

    2010-02-01

    The precise mechanisms whereby anti-angiogenesis therapy blocks tumour growth or causes vascular toxicity are unknown. We propose that endothelial cells establish a vascular niche that promotes tumour growth and tissue repair not only by delivering nutrients and O2 but also through an 'angiocrine' mechanism by producing stem and progenitor cell-active trophogens. Identification of endothelial-derived instructive angiocrine factors will allow direct tumour targeting, while diminishing the unwanted side effects associated with the use of anti-angiogenic agents.

  15. Resolvin D1 prevents smoking-induced emphysema and promotes lung tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kang-Hyun; Park, Tai Sun; Kim, You-Sun; Lee, Jae Seung; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lee, Sang-Do; Lee, Sei Won

    2016-01-01

    Emphysema is an irreversible disease that is characterized by destruction of lung tissue as a result of inflammation caused by smoking. Resolvin D1 (RvD1), derived from docosahexaenoic acid, is a novel lipid that resolves inflammation. The present study tested whether RvD1 prevents smoking-induced emphysema and promotes lung tissue regeneration. C57BL/6 mice, 8 weeks of age, were randomly divided into four groups: control, RvD1 only, smoking only, and smoking with RvD1 administration. Four different protocols were used to induce emphysema and administer RvD1: mice were exposed to smoking for 4 weeks with poly(I:C) or to smoking only for 24 weeks, and RvD1 was injected within the smoking exposure period to prevent regeneration or after completion of smoking exposure to assess regeneration. The mean linear intercept and inflammation scores were measured in the lung tissue, and inflammatory cells and cytokines were measured in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Measurements of mean linear intercept showed that RvD1 significantly attenuated smoking-induced lung destruction in all emphysema models. RvD1 also reduced smoking-induced inflammatory cell infiltration, which causes the structural derangements observed in emphysema. In the 4-week prevention model, RvD1 reduced the smoking-induced increase in eosinophils and interleukin-6 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In the 24-week prevention model, RvD1 also reduced the increased neutrophils and total cell counts induced by smoking. RvD1 attenuated smoking-induced emphysema in vivo by reducing inflammation and promoting tissue regeneration. This result suggests that RvD1 may be useful in the prevention and treatment of emphysema.

  16. The expression of Egfl7 in human normal tissues and epithelial tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chun; Yang, Lian-Yue; Wu, Fan; Tao, Yi-Ming; Liu, Lin-Sen; Zhang, Jin-Fan; He, Ya-Ning; Tang, Li-Li; Chen, Guo-Dong; Guo, Lei

    2013-04-23

    To investigate the expression of Egfl7 in normal adult human tissues and human epithelial tumors.
 RT-PCR and Western blot were employed to detect Egfl7 expression in normal adult human tissues and 10 human epithelial tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), lung cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, malignant glioma, ovarian cancer and renal cancer. Immunohistochemistry and cytoimmunofluorescence were subsequently used to determine the localization of Egfl7 in human epithelial tumor tissues and cell lines. ELISA was also carried out to examine the serum Egfl7 levels in cancer patients. In addition, correlations between Egfl7 expression and clinicopathological features as well as prognosis of HCC and breast cancer were also analyzed on the basis of immunohistochemistry results.
 Egfl7 was differentially expressed in 19 adult human normal tissues and was overexpressed in all 10 human epithelial tumor tissues. The serum Egfl7 level was also significantly elevated in cancer patients. The increased Egfl7 expression in HCC correlated with vein invasion, absence of capsule formation, multiple tumor nodes and poor prognosis. Similarly, upregulation of Egfl7 in breast cancer correlated strongly with TNM stage, lymphatic metastasis, estrogen receptor positivity, Her2 positivity and poor prognosis. 
 Egfl7 is significantly upregulated in human epithelial tumor tissues, suggesting Egfl7 to be a potential biomarker for human epithelial tumors, especially HCC and breast cancer.

  17. Visfatin mRNA expression in human subcutaneous adipose tissue is regulated by exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydelund-Larsen, Lone; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Nielsen, Søren

    2006-01-01

    in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle biopsies obtained from healthy young men at time points 0, 3, 4.5, 6, 9, and 24 h in relation to either 3 h of ergometer cycle exercise at 60% of Vo(2 max) or rest. Adipose tissue visfatin mRNA expression increased threefold at the time points 3, 4......Visfatin [pre-beta-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF)] is a novel adipokine that is produced by adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver and has insulin-mimetic actions. Regular exercise enhances insulin sensitivity. In the present study, we therefore examined visfatin mRNA expression.......5, and 6 h in response to exercise (n = 8) compared with preexercise samples and compared with the resting control group (n = 7, P = 0.001). Visfatin mRNA expression in skeletal muscle was not influenced by exercise. The exercise-induced increase in adipose tissue visfatin was, however, not accompanied...

  18. CD34/CD133 enriched bone marrow progenitor cells promote neovascularization of tissue engineered constructs in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietta Herrmann

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate that this population of cells, isolated in a clinically relevant manner and cultured with autologous growth factors readily promoted neovascularization in tissue engineered constructs in vivo enabling a potential translation into the clinic.

  19. Melanoma NOS1 expression promotes dysfunctional IFN signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiuzhen; Tomei, Sara; Ascierto, Maria Libera; De Giorgi, Valeria; Bedognetti, Davide; Dai, Cuilian; Uccellini, Lorenzo; Spivey, Tara; Pos, Zoltan; Thomas, Jaime; Reinboth, Jennifer; Murtas, Daniela; Zhang, Qianbing; Chouchane, Lotfi; Weiss, Geoffrey R; Slingluff, Craig L; Lee, Peter P; Rosenberg, Steven A; Alter, Harvey; Yao, Kaitai; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco M

    2014-05-01

    In multiple forms of cancer, constitutive activation of type I IFN signaling is a critical consequence of immune surveillance against cancer; however, PBMCs isolated from cancer patients exhibit depressed STAT1 phosphorylation in response to IFN-α, suggesting IFN signaling dysfunction. Here, we demonstrated in a coculture system that melanoma cells differentially impairs the IFN-α response in PBMCs and that the inhibitory potential of a particular melanoma cell correlates with NOS1 expression. Comparison of gene transcription and array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) between melanoma cells from different patients indicated that suppression of IFN-α signaling correlates with an amplification of the NOS1 locus within segment 12q22-24. Evaluation of NOS1 levels in melanomas and IFN responsiveness of purified PBMCs from patients indicated a negative correlation between NOS1 expression in melanomas and the responsiveness of PBMCs to IFN-α. Furthermore, in an explorative study, NOS1 expression in melanoma metastases was negatively associated with patient response to adoptive T cell therapy. This study provides a link between cancer cell phenotype and IFN signal dysfunction in circulating immune cells.

  20. Analysis of CD83 antigen expression in human breast fibroadenoma and adjacent tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Marcus Nascimento; Facina, Gil; Silva, Ismael Dale Cotrin Guerreiro; Waitzberg, Angela Flávia Logullo; Nazario, Afonso Celso Pinto

    2011-12-01

    Dendritic cell maturation is considered essential for starting an immune response. The CD83 antigen is an important marker of dendritic cell maturation. The objectives here were to analyze CD83 antigen expression in human breast fibroadenoma and breast tissue adjacent to the lesion and to identify clinical factors that might influence this expression. This was a retrospective study at a public university hospital, in which 29 histopathological samples of breast fibroadenoma and adjacent breast tissue, from 28 women of reproductive age, were analyzed. The immunohistochemistry method was used to analyze the cell expression of the antigen. The antigen expression in the cells was evaluated by means of random manual counting using an optical microscope. Positive expression of the CD83 antigen in the epithelial cells of the fibroadenoma (365.52; standard deviation ± 133.13) in relation to the adjacent breast tissue cells (189.59; standard deviation ± 140.75) was statistically larger (P fibroadenoma was positive and greater than in the adjacent breast tissue. Positive expression of the antigen in the adjacent breast tissue was influenced by parity, and was significantly more evident in nulliparous women.

  1. Connective tissue growth factor immunohistochemical expression is associated with gallbladder cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Patricia; Leal, Pamela; Alvarez, Hector; Brebi, Priscilla; Ili, Carmen; Tapia, Oscar; Roa, Juan C

    2013-02-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an aggressive neoplasia associated with late diagnosis, unsatisfactory treatment, and poor prognosis. Molecular mechanisms involved in GBC pathogenesis remain poorly understood. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is thought to play a role in the pathologic processes and is overexpressed in several human cancers, including GBC. No information is available about CTGF expression in early stages of gallbladder carcinogenesis. Objective.- To evaluate the expression level of CTGF in benign and malignant lesions of gallbladder and its correlation with clinicopathologic features and GBC prognosis. Connective tissue growth factor protein was examined by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays containing tissue samples of chronic cholecystitis (n = 51), dysplasia (n = 15), and GBC (n = 169). The samples were scored according to intensity of staining as low/absent and high CTGF expressers. Statistical analysis was performed using the χ(2) test or Fisher exact probability test with a significance level of P Connective tissue growth factor expression showed a progressive increase from chronic cholecystitis to dysplasia and then to early and advanced carcinoma. Immunohistochemical expression (score ≥2) was significantly higher in advanced tumors, in comparison with chronic cholecystitis (P < .001) and dysplasia (P = .03). High levels of CTGF expression correlated with better survival (P = .04). Our results suggest a role for CTGF in GBC progression and a positive association with better prognosis. In addition, they underscore the importance of considering the involvement of inflammation on GBC development.

  2. Adipose tissue endocannabinoid system gene expression: depot differences and effects of diet and exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Rongze

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations of endocannabinoid system in adipose tissue play an important role in lipid regulation and metabolic dysfunction associated with obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether gene expression levels of cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1 and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH are different in subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue, and whether hypocaloric diet and aerobic exercise influence subcutaneous adipose tissue CB1 and FAAH gene expression in obese women. Methods Thirty overweight or obese, middle-aged women (BMI = 34.3 ± 0.8 kg/m2, age = 59 ± 1 years underwent one of three 20-week weight loss interventions: caloric restriction only (CR, N = 9, caloric restriction plus moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (CRM, 45-50% HRR, N = 13, or caloric restriction plus vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise (CRV, 70-75% HRR, N = 8. Subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue samples were collected before and after the interventions to measure CB1 and FAAH gene expression. Results At baseline, FAAH gene expression was higher in abdominal, compared to gluteal adipose tissue (2.08 ± 0.11 vs. 1.78 ± 0.10, expressed as target gene/β-actin mRNA ratio × 10-3, P Conclusions There are depot differences in subcutaneous adipose tissue endocannabinoid system gene expression in obese individuals. Aerobic exercise training may preferentially modulate abdominal adipose tissue endocannabinoid-related gene expression during dietary weight loss. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00664729.

  3. Evaluation of novel inducible promoter/repressor systems for recombinant protein expression in Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Silvia; Hörmann, Angelika; Tauer, Christopher; Sonnleitner, Margot; Egger, Esther; Grabherr, Reingard; Heinl, Stefan

    2016-03-10

    Engineering lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is of growing importance for food and feed industry as well as for in vivo vaccination or the production of recombinant proteins in food grade organisms. Often, expression of a transgene is only desired at a certain time point or period, e.g. to minimize the metabolic burden for the host cell or to control the expression time span. For this purpose, inducible expression systems are preferred, though cost and availability of the inducing agent must be feasible. We selected the plasmid free strain Lactobacillus plantarum 3NSH for testing and characterization of novel inducible promoters/repressor systems. Their feasibility in recombinant protein production was evaluated. Expression of the reporter protein mCherry was monitored with the BioLector(®) micro-fermentation system. Reporter gene mCherry expression was compared under the control of different promoter/repressor systems: PlacA (an endogenous promoter/repressor system derived from L. plantarum 3NSH), PxylA (a promoter/repressor system derived from Bacillus megaterium DSMZ 319) and PlacSynth (synthetic promoter and codon-optimized repressor gene based on the Escherichia coli lac operon). We observed that PlacA was inducible solely by lactose, but not by non-metabolizable allolactose analoga. PxylA was inducible by xylose, yet showed basal expression under non-induced conditions. Growth on galactose (as compared to exponential growth phase on glucose) reduced basal mCherry expression at non-induced conditions. PlacSynth was inducible with TMG (methyl β-D-thiogalactopyranoside) and IPTG (isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside), but also showed basal expression without inducer. The promoter PlacSynth was used for establishment of a dual plasmid expression system, based on T7 RNA polymerase driven expression in L. plantarum. Comparative Western blot supported BioLector(®) micro-fermentation measurements. Conclusively, overall expression levels were moderate (compared to a

  4. Expression of connective tissue growth factor in tumor tissues is an independent predictor of poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lu-Ying; Han, Yan-Chun; Wu, Shu-Hua; Lv, Zeng-Hua

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To examine the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), also known as CCN2, in gastric carcinoma (GC), and the correlation between the expression of CTGF, clinicopathologic features and clinical outcomes of patients with GC.

  5. Adipose Tissue CLK2 Promotes Energy Expenditure during High-Fat Diet Intermittent Fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatting, Maximilian; Rines, Amy K; Luo, Chi; Tabata, Mitsuhisa; Sharabi, Kfir; Hall, Jessica A; Verdeguer, Francisco; Trautwein, Christian; Puigserver, Pere

    2017-02-07

    A promising approach to treating obesity is to increase diet-induced thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT), but the regulation of this process remains unclear. Here we find that CDC-like kinase 2 (CLK2) is expressed in BAT and upregulated upon refeeding. Mice lacking CLK2 in adipose tissue exhibit exacerbated obesity and decreased energy expenditure during high-fat diet intermittent fasting. Additionally, tissue oxygen consumption and protein levels of UCP1 are reduced in CLK2-deficient BAT. Phosphorylation of CREB, a transcriptional activator of UCP1, is markedly decreased in BAT cells lacking CLK2 due to enhanced CREB dephosphorylation. Mechanistically, CREB dephosphorylation is rescued by the inhibition of PP2A, a phosphatase that targets CREB. Our results suggest that CLK2 is a regulatory component of diet-induced thermogenesis in BAT through increased CREB-dependent expression of UCP1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. LncRNA CCAT2 promotes tumorigenesis by over-expressed Pokemon in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhihong; Wang, Ju; Wang, Shengfa; Chang, Hao; Zhang, Tiewa; Qu, Junfeng

    2017-03-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains one of the most important death-related diseases, with poor effective diagnosis and less therapeutic biomarkers. LncRNA colon cancer-associated transcript 2 (CCAT2) was identified as an oncogenic lncRNA and over-expressed in many tumor cells. The aims of this study were to detect the correlation between CCAT2 and its regulatory genes and then explore the potential mechanism between them in NSCLC. In this study, qRT-PCR was used to detect CCAT2, Pokemon and p21 expression. Western-blot was used to detect protein levels of Pokemon and p21. CCK-8 assay and Transwell chambers were used to assess cell viability and invasion. CCAT2 and Pokemon were over-expressed in NSCLC tissue and cells. In NSCLC cells, CCAT2 knockdown significantly decreased cell viability and invasion as well as Pokemon expression, but increased the expression of p21; then CCAT2 overexpression revealed an opposite result. In addition, over-expressed Pokemon reversed the results that induced by si-CCAT2, while down-regulation of Pokemon significantly reversed the results that induced by CCAT2 overexpression. The results indicated that CCAT2 promotes tumorigenesis by over-expression of Pokemon, and the potential mechanism might relate to the Pokemon related gene p21. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Regucalcin expression in bovine tissues and its regulation by sex steroid hormones in accessory sex glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Starvaggi Cucuzza

    Full Text Available Regucalcin (RGN is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle.

  8. Dynamic, mating-induced gene expression changes in female head and brain tissues of Drosophila melanogaster

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    Stirling Emma J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drosophila melanogaster females show changes in behavior and physiology after mating that are thought to maximize the number of progeny resulting from the most recent copulation. Sperm and seminal fluid proteins induce post-mating changes in females, however, very little is known about the resulting gene expression changes in female head and central nervous system tissues that contribute to the post-mating response. Results We determined the temporal gene expression changes in female head tissues 0-2, 24, 48 and 72 hours after mating. Females from each time point had a unique post-mating gene expression response, with 72 hours post-mating having the largest number of genes with significant changes in expression. At most time points, genes expressed in the head fat body that encode products involved in metabolism showed a marked change in expression. Additional analysis of gene expression changes in dissected brain tissues 24 hours post-mating revealed changes in transcript abundance of many genes, notably, the reduced transcript abundance of genes that encode ion channels. Conclusions Substantial changes occur in the regulation of many genes in female head tissues after mating, which might underlie aspects of the female post-mating response. These results provide new insights into the physiological and metabolic changes that accompany changes in female behaviors.

  9. Ether à go-go potassium channel expression in soft tissue sarcoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stühmer Walter

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of the human Eag1 potassium channel (Kv10.1 is normally restricted to the adult brain, but it has been detected in both tumour cell lines and primary tumours. Our purpose was to determine the frequency of expression of Eag1 in soft tissue sarcoma and its potential clinical implications. Results We used specific monoclonal antibodies to determine the expression levels of Eag1 in soft tissue sarcomas from 210 patients by immunohistochemistry. Eag1 was expressed in 71% of all tumours, with frequencies ranging from 56% (liposarcoma to 82% (rhabdomyosarcoma. We detected differences in expression levels depending on the histological type, but no association was seen between expression of this protein and sex, age, grade or tumour size. Four cell lines derived from relevant sarcoma histological types (fibrosarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma were tested for Eag1 expression by real-time RT-PCR. We found all four lines to be positive for Eag1. In these cell lines, blockage of Eag1 by RNA interference led to a decrease in proliferation. Conclusion Eag1 is aberrantly expressed in over 70% sarcomas. In sarcoma cell lines, inhibition of Eag1 expression and/or function leads to reduced proliferation. The high frequency of expression of Eag1 in primary tumours and the restriction of normal expression of the channel to the brain, suggests the application of this protein for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.

  10. TLR9 expression in glioma tissues correlated to glioma progression and the prognosis of GBM patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chao; Cao, Shouqiang; Yan, Ying; Ying, Qiao; Jiang, Tao; Xu, Ke; Wu, Anhua

    2010-01-01

    Our study aims to evaluate the expression of TLR9 in glioma tissues, examine the association between TLR9 expression, clinicopathological variables, and glioma patient outcome, we further characterized the direct effects of TLR9 agonist CpG ODN upon the proliferation and invasion of glioma cells in vitro. RT-PCR and immunofluorescence were used to determine the expression of TLR9 in glioma cell lines and clinical glioma samples. Tissue microarry and immunohistochemistry were applied to evaluated TLR9 expression in 292 newly diagnosed glioma and 13 non-neoplastic brain tissues. We further investigated the effect of CpG ODN on the proliferation and invasion of glioma cells in vitro with MTT assays and matrigel transwell assay respectively. RT-PCR showed that TLR9 expressed in all the glioma samples and glioma cell lines we examined. The tissue array analysis indicated that TLR9 expression is correlated with malignancy of glioma (p < 0.01). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that TLR9 expression is an independent prognostic factor for PFS of GBM patients(P = 0.026). TLR9 agonist CpG ODN has no significant effect on glioma proliferation, but matrigel transwell analysis showed that TLR9 agonist CpG ODN can significantly enhance glioma invasion in vitro. Our data indicated that TLR9 expression increases according to the histopathological grade of glioma, and the TLR9 expression level is related to the PFS of GBM patients. In addition, our findings warrant caution in the directly injection of TLR9 agonist CpG ODN into glioma tissues for the glioma immunotherapy

  11. The promoter for a variant surface glycoprotein gene expression site in Trypanosoma brucei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomerdijk, J. C.; Ouellette, M.; ten Asbroek, A. L.; Kieft, R.; Bommer, A. M.; Clayton, C. E.; Borst, P.

    1990-01-01

    The variant-specific surface glycoprotein (VSG) gene 221 of Trypanosoma brucei is transcribed as part of a 60 kb expression site (ES). We have identified the promoter controlling this multigene transcription unit by the use of 221 chromosome-enriched DNA libraries and VSG gene 221 expression site

  12. Genomic organization and tissue-specific expression of hepcidin in the pacific mutton hamlet, Alphestes immaculatus (Breder, 1936).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masso-Silva, Jorge; Diamond, Gill; Macias-Rodriguez, Maria; Ascencio, Felipe

    2011-12-01

    Hepcidin is a cysteine-rich peptide involved in iron metabolism, inflammatory response and as antimicrobial peptide. Despite the fact that hepcidins have been identified in several fish species, only few have been completely characterized. This study, described the identification and complete molecular characterization of the hepcidin antimicrobial peptide 1 (HAMP1) gene of Alphestes immaculatus. Moreover, its specific expression level at both basal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced conditions in different tissues was also determined by real-time PCR. Results showed that the HAMP1gene consists of three exons and two introns encoding a preprohepcidin composed of 90 aa (24 aa for signal peptide, 40 aa for prodomain and 26 aa for mature peptide). The promoter region analysis revealed a TATA box sequence and several putative transcription factor binding sites. A comparative analysis showed CEBPα, CEBPβ, NF-kB, HNF3, GATA-1 and c-Rel as the most common found in fishes. The mature peptide possesses a pI of 8.34, which is the average among fish hepcidin. In addition, the structural modeling showed a hairpin structure with four putative disulfide bonds. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that this hepcidin gene is a HAMP1 class, and is clustered into the same group with the Serranid fish Epinephelus moara and the Antarctic fish Lycodichthys dearborni. Finally, the relative expression levels showed high basal values in liver and muscle, whereas in LPS-induced fish the relative expression tendency changed, with the highest values in spleen and head kidney tissues. This study describes the completely characterized HAMP1 gene of A. immaculatus and their patterns of expression level at different conditions and in different tissues, showing by first time muscle hepcidin expression could be relevant in the immune response in fish. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Low-intensity infrared lasers alter actin gene expression in skin and muscle tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, A S; Mencalha, A L; Campos, V M A; Ferreira-Machado, S C; Peregrino, A A F; Magalhães, L A G; Geller, M; Paoli, F

    2013-01-01

    The biostimulative effect of low-intensity lasers is the basis for treatment of diseases in soft tissues. However, data about the influence of biostimulative lasers on gene expression are still scarce. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of low-intensity infrared lasers on the expression of actin mRNA in skin and muscle tissue. Skin and muscle tissue of Wistar rats was exposed to low-intensity infrared laser radiation at different fluences and frequencies. One and 24 hours after laser exposure, tissue samples were withdrawn for total RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis and evaluation of actin gene expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The data obtained show that laser radiation alters the expression of actin mRNA differently in skin and muscle tissue of Wistar rats depending of the fluence, frequency and time after exposure. The results could be useful for laser dosimetry, as well as to justify the therapeutic protocols for treatment of diseases of skin and muscle tissues based on low-intensity infrared laser radiation. (paper)

  14. mRNA Expression of Ovine Angiopoietin-like Protein 4 Gene in Adipose Tissues

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    Jing Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4 is involved in a variety of functions, including lipoprotein metabolism and angiogenesis. To reveal the role of ANGPTL4 in fat metabolism of sheep, ovine ANGPTL4 mRNA expression was analyzed in seven adipose tissues from two breeds with distinct tail types. Forty-eight animals with the gender ratio of 1:1 for both Guangling Large Tailed (GLT and Small Tailed Han (STH sheep were slaughtered at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months of age, respectively. Adipose tissues were collected from greater and lesser omental, subcutaneous, retroperitoneal, perirenal, mesenteric, and tail fats. Ontogenetic mRNA expression of ANGPTL4 in these adipose tissues from GTL and STH was studied by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that ANGPTL4 mRNA expressed in all adipose tissues studied with the highest in subcutaneous and the lowest in mesenteric fat depots. Months of age, tissue and breed are the main factors that significantly influence the mRNA expression. These results provide new insights into ovine ANGPTL4 gene expression and clues for its function mechanism.

  15. Low-level lasers affect uncoupling protein gene expression in skin and skeletal muscle tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canuto, K S; Sergio, L P S; Mencalha, A L; Fonseca, A S; Paoli, F

    2016-01-01

    Wavelength, frequency, power, fluence, and emission mode determine the photophysical, photochemical, and photobiological responses of biological tissues to low-level lasers. Free radicals are involved in these responses acting as second messengers in intracellular signaling processes. Irradiated cells present defenses against these chemical species to avoid unwanted effects, such as uncoupling proteins (UCPs), which are part of protective mechanisms and minimize the effects of free radical generation in mitochondria. In this work UCP2 and UCP3 mRNA gene relative expression in the skin and skeletal muscle tissues of Wistar rats exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers was evaluated. Samples of the skin and skeletal muscle tissue of Wistar rats exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers were withdrawn for total RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and the evaluation of gene expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. UCP2 and UCP3 mRNA expression was differently altered in skin and skeletal muscle tissues exposed to lasers in a wavelength-dependent effect, with the UCP3 mRNA expression dose-dependent. Alteration on UCP gene expression could be part of the biostimulation effect and is necessary to make cells exposed to red and infrared low-level lasers more resistant or capable of adapting in damaged tissues or diseases. (paper)

  16. A Breast Tissue Protein Expression Profile Contributing to Early Parity-Induced Protection Against Breast Cancer

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    Christina Marie Gutierrez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Early parity reduces breast cancer risk, whereas, late parity and nulliparity increase breast cancer risk. Despite substantial efforts to understand the protective effects of early parity, the precise molecular circuitry responsible for these changes is not yet fully defined. Methods: Here, we have conducted the first study assessing protein expression profiles in normal breast tissue of healthy early parous, late parous, and nulliparous women. Breast tissue biopsies were obtained from 132 healthy parous and nulliparous volunteers. These samples were subjected to global protein expression profiling and immunohistochemistry. GeneSpring and MetaCore bioinformatics analysis software were used to identify protein expression profiles associated with early parity (low risk versus late/nulliparity (high risk. Results: Early parity reduces expression of key proteins involved in mitogenic signaling pathways in breast tissue through down regulation of EGFR1/3, ESR1, AKT1, ATF, Fos, and SRC. Early parity is also characterized by greater genomic stability and reduced tissue inflammation based on differential expression of aurora kinases, p53, RAD52, BRCA1, MAPKAPK-2, ATF-1, ICAM1, and NF-kappaB compared to late and nulli parity. Conclusions: Early parity reduces basal cell proliferation in breast tissue, which translates to enhanced genomic stability, reduced cellular stress/inflammation, and thus reduced breast cancer risk.

  17. Survey of the Heritability and Sparse Architecture of Gene Expression Traits across Human Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Heather E; Shah, Kaanan P; Brenner, Jonathon; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Aquino-Michaels, Keston; Cox, Nancy J; Nicolae, Dan L; Im, Hae Kyung

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the genetic architecture of gene expression traits is key to elucidating the underlying mechanisms of complex traits. Here, for the first time, we perform a systematic survey of the heritability and the distribution of effect sizes across all representative tissues in the human body. We find that local h2 can be relatively well characterized with 59% of expressed genes showing significant h2 (FDR Decomposition (OTD) approach. Through a series of simulations we show that the cross-tissue and tissue-specific components are identifiable via OTD. Heritability and sparsity estimates of these derived expression phenotypes show similar characteristics to the original traits. Consistent properties relative to prior GTEx multi-tissue analysis results suggest that these traits reflect the expected biology. Finally, we apply this knowledge to develop prediction models of gene expression traits for all tissues. The prediction models, heritability, and prediction performance R2 for original and decomposed expression phenotypes are made publicly available (https://github.com/hakyimlab/PrediXcan).

  18. Erythropoietin promotes network formation of transplanted adipose tissue-derived microvascular fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Karschnia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The seeding of tissue constructs with adipose tissue-derived microvascular fragments (ad-MVF is an emerging pre-vascularisation strategy. Ad-MVF rapidly reassemble into new microvascular networks after in vivo implantation. Herein it was analysed whether this process was improved by erythropoietin (EPO. Ad-MVF were isolated from green fluorescent protein (GFP+ as well as wild-type C57BL/6 mice and cultivated for 24 h in medium supplemented with EPO (20 IU/mL or vehicle. Freshly isolated, non-cultivated ad-MVF served as controls. Protein expression, cell viability and proliferation of ad-MVF were assessed by proteome profiler array and fluorescence microscopy. GFP+ ad-MVF were seeded on collagen-glycosaminoglycan matrices, which were implanted into dorsal skinfold chambers of C57BL/6 mice, to analyse their vascularisation over 14 d by intravital fluorescence microscopy, histology and immunohistochemistry. Cultivation up-regulated the expression of pro- and anti-angiogenic factors within both vehicle- and EPO-treated ad-MVF when compared with non-cultivated controls. Moreover, EPO treatment suppressed cultivation-associated apoptosis and significantly increased the number of proliferating endothelial cells in ad-MVF when compared with vehicle-treated and non-cultivated ad-MVF. Accordingly, implanted matrices seeded with EPO-treated ad-MVF exhibited an improved vascularisation, as indicated by a significantly higher functional microvessel density. The matrices of the three groups contained a comparably large fraction of GFP+ microvessels originating from the ad-MVF, whereas the tissue surrounding the matrices seeded with EPO-treated ad-MVF exhibited a significantly increased microvessel density when compared with the other two groups. These findings indicated that EPO represents a promising cytokine to further boost the excellent vascularisation properties of ad-MVF in tissue-engineering applications.

  19. Role of promoter element in c-mpl gene expression induced by TPO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunohara, Masataka; Morikawa, Shigeru; Fuse, Akira; Sato, Iwao

    2013-01-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) and its receptor, c-Mpl, play the crucial role for the development of megakaryocyte and considered to regulate megakaryocytopoiesis. Previously we reported that TPO increased the c-mpl promoter activity determined by a transient expression system using a vector containing the luciferase gene as a reporter and the expression of the c-mpl gene is modulated by transcription through a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent pathway in the megakaryoblastic cells. In this research, to elucidate the required elements in c-mpl promoter, the promoter activity of the deletion constructs and site-directed mutagenesis were measured by a transient transfection assay system. Destruction of -77GATA in c-mpl promoter decreased the activity by 22.8%. Our study elucidated that -77GATA involved in TPO-induced c-mpl gene expression in a human megakaryoblastic cell line, CMK.

  20. Brown adipose tissue (BAT specific vaspin expression is increased after obesogenic diets and cold exposure and linked to acute changes in DNA-methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Weiner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Several studies have demonstrated anti-diabetic and anti-obesogenic properties of visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor (vaspin and so evoked its potential use for treatment of obesity-related diseases. The aim of the study was to unravel physiological regulators of vaspin expression and secretion with a particular focus on its role in brown adipose tissue (BAT biology. Methods: We analyzed the effects of obesogenic diets and cold exposure on vaspin expression in liver and white and brown adipose tissue (AT and plasma levels. Vaspin expression was analyzed in isolated white and brown adipocytes during adipogenesis and in response to adrenergic stimuli. DNA-methylation within the vaspin promoter was analyzed to investigate acute epigenetic changes after cold-exposure in BAT. Results: Our results demonstrate a strong induction of vaspin mRNA and protein expression specifically in BAT of both cold-exposed and high-fat (HF or high-sugar (HS fed mice. While obesogenic diets also upregulated hepatic vaspin mRNA levels, cold exposure tended to increase vaspin gene expression of inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT depots. Concomitantly, vaspin plasma levels were decreased upon obesogenic or thermogenic triggers. Vaspin expression was increased during adipogenesis but unaffected by sympathetic activation in brown adipocytes. Analysis of vaspin promoter methylation in AT revealed lowest methylation levels in BAT, which were acutely reduced after cold exposure. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate a novel BAT-specific regulation of vaspin gene expression upon physiological stimuli in vivo with acute epigenetic changes that may contribute to cold-induced expression in BAT. We conclude that these findings indicate functional relevance and potentially beneficial effects of vaspin in BAT function. Keywords: Brown adipose tissue, Browning, Cold exposure, DNA methylation, High-fat diet, High-sucrose diet, SerpinA12, Thermogenesis

  1. Expression of glucocorticoid and progesterone nuclear receptor genes in archival breast cancer tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Robert A; Lea, Rod A; Curran, Joanne E; Weinstein, Stephen R; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown associations of specific nuclear receptor gene variants with sporadic breast cancer. In order to investigate these findings further, we conducted the present study to determine whether expression levels of the progesterone and glucocorticoid nuclear receptor genes vary in different breast cancer grades. RNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded archival breast tumour tissue and converted into cDNA. Sample cDNA underwent PCR using labelled primers to enable quantitation of mRNA expression. Expression data were normalized against the 18S ribosomal gene multiplex and analyzed using analysis of variance. Analysis of variance indicated a variable level of expression of both genes with regard to breast cancer grade (P = 0.00033 for glucocorticoid receptor and P = 0.023 for progesterone receptor). Statistical analysis indicated that expression of the progesterone nuclear receptor is elevated in late grade breast cancer tissue

  2. Proteomic Analysis of Lung Tissue in a Rat Acute Lung Injury Model: Identification of PRDX1 as a Promoter of Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS remains a high morbidity and mortality disease entity in critically ill patients, despite decades of numerous investigations into its pathogenesis. To obtain global protein expression changes in acute lung injury (ALI lung tissues, we employed a high-throughput proteomics method to identify key components which may be involved in the pathogenesis of ALI. In the present study, we analyzed lung tissue proteomes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced ALI rats and identified eighteen proteins whose expression levels changed more than twofold as compared to normal controls. In particular, we found that PRDX1 expression in culture medium was elevated by a lipopolysaccharide (LPS challenge in airway epithelial cells in vitro. Furthermore, overexpression of PRDX1 increased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-8 (IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, whereas knockdown of PRDX1 led to downregulated expression of cytokines induced by LPS. In conclusion, our findings provide a global alteration in the proteome of lung tissues in the ALI rat model and indicate that PRDX1 may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of ARDS by promoting inflammation and represent a novel strategy for the development of new therapies against ALI.

  3. GenoCAD Plant Grammar to Design Plant Expression Vectors for Promoter Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Anna; Wilson, Mandy L; Gruden, Kristina; Peccoud, Jean

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid advances in prediction tools for discovery of new promoters and their cis-elements, there is a need to improve plant expression methodologies in order to facilitate a high-throughput functional validation of these promoters in planta. The promoter-reporter analysis is an indispensible approach for characterization of plant promoters. It requires the design of complex plant expression vectors, which can be challenging. Here, we describe the use of a plant grammar implemented in GenoCAD that will allow the users to quickly design constructs for promoter analysis experiments but also for other in planta functional studies. The GenoCAD plant grammar includes a library of plant biological parts organized in structural categories to facilitate their use and management and a set of rules that guides the process of assembling these biological parts into large constructs.

  4. Gene Expression in Class 2 Integrons Is SOS-Independent and Involves Two Pc Promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jové, Thomas; Da Re, Sandra; Tabesse, Aurore; Gassama-Sow, Amy; Ploy, Marie-Cécile

    2017-01-01

    Integrons are powerful bacterial genetic elements that permit the expression and dissemination of antibiotic-resistance gene cassettes. They contain a promoter Pc that allows the expression of gene cassettes captured through site-specific recombination catalyzed by IntI, the integron-encoded integrase. Class 1 and 2 integrons are found in both clinical and environmental settings. The regulation of intI and of Pc promoters has been extensively studied in class 1 integrons and the regulatory role of the SOS response on intI expression has been shown. Here we investigated class 2 integrons. We characterized the P intI2 promoter and showed that intI2 expression is not regulated via the SOS response. We also showed that, unlike class 1 integrons, class 2 integrons possess not one but two active Pc promoters that are located within the attI2 region that seem to contribute equally to gene cassette expression. Class 2 integrons mostly encode an inactive truncated integrase, but the rare class 2 integrons that encode an active integrase are associated with less efficient Pc2 promoter variants. We propose an evolutionary model for class 2 integrons in which the absence of repression of the integrase gene expression led to mutations resulting in either inactive integrase or Pc variants of weaker activity, thereby reducing the potential fitness cost of these integrons.

  5. White Adipose Tissue Cells Are Recruited by Experimental Tumors and Promote Cancer Progression in Mouse Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Daquinag, Alexes; Traktuev, Dmitry O.; Amaya-Manzanares, Felipe; Simmons, Paul J.; March, Keith L.; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih; Kolonin, Mikhail G.

    2010-01-01

    The connection between obesity and accelerated cancer progression has been established, but the mediating mechanisms are not well understood. We have shown that stromal cells from white adipose tissue (WAT) cooperate with the endothelium to promote blood vessel formation through the secretion of soluble trophic factors. Here, we hypothesize that WAT directly mediates cancer progression by serving as a source of cells that migrate to tumors and promote neovascularization. To test this hypothesis, we have evaluated the recruitment of WAT-derived cells by tumors and the effect of their engraftment on tumor growth by integrating a transgenic mouse strain engineered for expansion of traceable cells with established allograft and xenograft cancer models. Our studies show that entry of adipose stromal and endothelial cells into systemic circulation leads to their homing to and engraftment into tumor stroma and vasculature, respectively. We show that recruitment of adipose stromal cells by tumors is sufficient to promote tumor growth. Finally, we show that migration of stromal and vascular progenitor cells from WAT grafts to tumors is also associated with acceleration of cancer progression. These results provide a biological insight for the clinical association between obesity and cancer, thus outlining potential avenues for preventive and therapeutic strategies. PMID:19491274

  6. Robust heat-inducible gene expression by two endogenous hsp70-derived promoters in transgenic Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenetti, Tiffany L. G.; Aryan, Azadeh; Myles, Kevin M.; Adelman, Zach N.

    2011-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is an important vector of the viruses that cause dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and yellow fever. Reverse genetic approaches to the study of gene function in this mosquito have been limited by the lack of a robust inducible promoter to allow precise temporal control over a protein-encoding or hairpin RNA transgene. Likewise, investigations into the molecular and biochemical basis of vector competence would benefit from the ability to activate an anti-pathogen molecule at specific times during infection. We have characterized the ability of genomic sequences derived from two Ae. aegypti hsp70 genes to drive heat-inducible expression of a reporter in both transient and germline transformation contexts. AaHsp70-luciferase transcripts accumulated specifically after heat shock, and displayed a pattern of rapid induction and decay similar to endogenous AaHsp70 genes. Luciferase expression in transgenic Ae. aegypti increased by ∼25-50 fold in whole adults by four hours after heat-shock, with significant activity (∼20 fold) remaining at 24 hr. Heat-induced expression was even more dramatic in midgut tissues, with one strain showing a ∼2500-fold increase in luciferase activity. The AaHsp70 promoters described could be valuable for gene function studies as well as for the precise timing of the expression of anti-pathogen molecules. PMID:22142225

  7. Hepatitis Bx Antigen Stimulates Expression of a Novel Cellular Gene, URG4, that Promotes Hepatocellular Growth and Survival

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    N. Lale Satiroglu Tufan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus encoded X antigen (HBxAg may contribute to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC by up-or downregulating the expression of cellular genes that promote cell growth and survival. To test this hypothesis, HBxAg-positive and-negative HepG2 cells were constructed, and the patterns of cellular gene expression compared by polymerase chain reaction select cDNA subtraction. The full-length clone of one of these upregulated genes (URG, URG4, encoded a protein of about 104 kDa. URG4 was strongly expressed in hepatitis 13-infected liver and in HCC cells, where it costained with HBxAg, and was weakly expressed in uninfected liver, suggesting URG4 was an effector of HBxAg in vivo. Overexpression of URG4 in HepG2 cells promoted hepatocellular growth and survival in tissue culture and in soft agar, and accelerated tumor development in nude mice. Hence, URG4 may be a natural effector of HBxAg that contributes importantly to multistep hepatocarcinogenesis.

  8. Quantitative Analyses of Core Promoters Enable Precise Engineering of Regulated Gene Expression in Mammalian Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ede, Christopher; Chen, Ximin; Lin, Meng-Yin; Chen, Yvonne Y.

    2016-01-01

    Inducible transcription systems play a crucial role in a wide array of synthetic biology circuits. However, the majority of inducible promoters are constructed from a limited set of tried-and-true promoter parts, which are susceptible to common shortcomings such as high basal expression levels (i.e., leakiness). To expand the toolbox for regulated mammalian gene expression and facilitate the construction of mammalian genetic circuits with precise functionality, we quantitatively characterized a panel of eight core promoters, including sequences with mammalian, viral, and synthetic origins. We demonstrate that this selection of core promoters can provide a wide range of basal gene expression levels and achieve a gradient of fold-inductions spanning two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, commonly used parts such as minimal CMV and minimal SV40 promoters were shown to achieve robust gene expression upon induction, but also suffer from high levels of leakiness. In contrast, a synthetic promoter, YB_TATA, was shown to combine low basal expression with high transcription rate in the induced state to achieve significantly higher fold-induction ratios compared to all other promoters tested. These behaviors remain consistent when the promoters are coupled to different genetic outputs and different response elements, as well as across different host-cell types and DNA copy numbers. We apply this quantitative understanding of core promoter properties to the successful engineering of human T cells that respond to antigen stimulation via chimeric antigen receptor signaling specifically under hypoxic environments. Results presented in this study can facilitate the design and calibration of future mammalian synthetic biology systems capable of precisely programmed functionality. PMID:26883397

  9. Forager bees (Apis mellifera) highly express immune and detoxification genes in tissues associated with nectar processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannette, Rachel L; Mohamed, Abbas; Johnson, Brian R

    2015-11-09

    Pollinators, including honey bees, routinely encounter potentially harmful microorganisms and phytochemicals during foraging. However, the mechanisms by which honey bees manage these potential threats are poorly understood. In this study, we examine the expression of antimicrobial, immune and detoxification genes in Apis mellifera and compare between forager and nurse bees using tissue-specific RNA-seq and qPCR. Our analysis revealed extensive tissue-specific expression of antimicrobial, immune signaling, and detoxification genes. Variation in gene expression between worker stages was pronounced in the mandibular and hypopharyngeal gland (HPG), where foragers were enriched in transcripts that encode antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and immune response. Additionally, forager HPGs and mandibular glands were enriched in transcripts encoding detoxification enzymes, including some associated with xenobiotic metabolism. Using qPCR on an independent dataset, we verified differential expression of three AMP and three P450 genes between foragers and nurses. High expression of AMP genes in nectar-processing tissues suggests that these peptides may contribute to antimicrobial properties of honey or to honey bee defense against environmentally-acquired microorganisms. Together, these results suggest that worker role and tissue-specific expression of AMPs, and immune and detoxification enzymes may contribute to defense against microorganisms and xenobiotic compounds acquired while foraging.

  10. Creating and validating cis-regulatory maps of tissue-specific gene expression regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Timothy R.; Bailey, Timothy L.

    2014-01-01

    Predicting which genomic regions control the transcription of a given gene is a challenge. We present a novel computational approach for creating and validating maps that associate genomic regions (cis-regulatory modules–CRMs) with genes. The method infers regulatory relationships that explain gene expression observed in a test tissue using widely available genomic data for ‘other’ tissues. To predict the regulatory targets of a CRM, we use cross-tissue correlation between histone modifications present at the CRM and expression at genes within 1 Mbp of it. To validate cis-regulatory maps, we show that they yield more accurate models of gene expression than carefully constructed control maps. These gene expression models predict observed gene expression from transcription factor binding in the CRMs linked to that gene. We show that our maps are able to identify long-range regulatory interactions and improve substantially over maps linking genes and CRMs based on either the control maps or a ‘nearest neighbor’ heuristic. Our results also show that it is essential to include CRMs predicted in multiple tissues during map-building, that H3K27ac is the most informative histone modification, and that CAGE is the most informative measure of gene expression for creating cis-regulatory maps. PMID:25200088

  11. TNF-α and IL-1β Dependent Induction of CCL3 Expression by Nucleus Pulposus Cells Promotes Macrophage Migration through CCR1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianru; Tian, Ye; Phillips, Kate L.E.; Chiverton, Neil; Haddock, Gail; Bunning, Rowena A.; Cross, Alison K.; Shapiro, Irving M.; LeMaitre, Christine L.; Risbud, Makarand V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate TNF-α and IL-1β regulation of CCL3 expression in nucleus pulposus (NP) cells and in macrophage migration. Methods qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to measure CCL3 expression in NP cells. Transfections were used to determine the role of NF-κB, C/EBP-β and MAPK on cytokine mediated CCL3 promoter activity. Effect of NP-conditioned medium on macrophage migration was measured using a transwell system. Results An increase in CCL3 expression and promoter activity was observed in NP cells after TNF-α or IL-1β treatment. Treatment of cells with NF-κB and MAPK inhibitors abolished the effect of the cytokines on CCL3 expression. The inductive effect of p65 and C/EBP-β on CCL3 promoter was confirmed through gain- and loss-of-function studies. Noteworthy, co-transfection of p50 completely blocked cytokine and p65 dependent induction. In contrast, c-Rel and RelB had little effect on promoter activity. Lentiviral transduction with Sh-p65 and Sh-Ikkβ significantly decreased TNF-α dependent increase in CCL3 expression. Analysis of degenerate human NP tissues showed that CCL3, but not CCL4 expression correlated positively with the grade of tissue degeneration. Importantly, treatment of macrophages with conditioned medium of NP cells treated with TNF-α or IL-1β promoted their migration; pretreatment of macrophages with antagonist to CCR1, primary receptor for CCL3 and CCL4, blocked cytokine mediated migration. Conclusions By controlling the activation of MAPK, NF-κB and C/EBPβ signaling, TNF-α and IL-1β modulate the expression of CCL3 in NP cells. The CCL3-CCR1 axis may play an important role in promoting macrophage infiltration in degenerate, herniated discs. PMID:23233369

  12. NM23 protein expression in colorectal carcinoma using TMA (tissue microarray: association with metastases and survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levindo Alves de Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: NM23, a metastasis suppressor gene, may be associated with prognosis in patients with colorectal carcinoma. OBJECTIVE: To analyze NM23 expression and its association with the presence of lymph node and liver metastases and survival in patients operated on for colorectal carcinoma. METHODS: One hundred thirty patients operated on for colorectal carcinoma were investigated. Tissue microarray blocks containing neoplastic tissue and tumor-adjacent non-neoplastic mucosa were obtained and analyzed by immunohistochemical staining using a monoclonal anti-NM23 antibody. Immunohistochemical expression was assessed using a semiquantitative scoring method, counting the percentage of stained cells. The results were compared regarding morphological and histological characteristics of the colorectal carcinoma, presence of lymph node and liver metastases, tumor staging, and patient survival. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney test, the Kruskal-Wallis test and Fisher's exact test. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. RESULTS: NM23 expression was higher in colorectal carcinoma tissue than in adjacent non-neoplastic mucosa (P<0.0001. NM23 protein expression did not correlate with degree of cell differentiation (P = 0.57, vascular invasion (P = 0.85, lymphatic invasion (P = 0.41, perineural infiltration (P = 0.46, staging (P = 0.19, lymph node metastases (P = 0.08, or liver metastases (P = 0.59. Disease-free survival showed significant association (P = 0.01 with the intensity of NM23 protein immunohistochemical expression in colorectal carcinoma tissue, whereas overall survival showed no association with NM23 protein expression (P = 0.13. CONCLUSIONS: NM23 protein expression was higher in neoplastic colorectal carcinoma tissue than in adjacent non-neoplastic mucosa, showing no correlation with morphological aspects, presence of lymph node or liver metastases, colorectal carcinoma

  13. Regional differences in gene expression and promoter usage in aged human brains

    KAUST Repository

    Pardo, Luba M.

    2013-02-19

    To characterize the promoterome of caudate and putamen regions (striatum), frontal and temporal cortices, and hippocampi from aged human brains, we used high-throughput cap analysis of gene expression to profile the transcription start sites and to quantify the differences in gene expression across the 5 brain regions. We also analyzed the extent to which methylation influenced the observed expression profiles. We sequenced more than 71 million cap analysis of gene expression tags corresponding to 70,202 promoter regions and 16,888 genes. More than 7000 transcripts were differentially expressed, mainly because of differential alternative promoter usage. Unexpectedly, 7% of differentially expressed genes were neurodevelopmental transcription factors. Functional pathway analysis on the differentially expressed genes revealed an overrepresentation of several signaling pathways (e.g., fibroblast growth factor and wnt signaling) in hippocampus and striatum. We also found that although 73% of methylation signals mapped within genes, the influence of methylation on the expression profile was small. Our study underscores alternative promoter usage as an important mechanism for determining the regional differences in gene expression at old age.

  14. Hypoxia promotes IL-32 expression in myeloma cells, and high expression is associated with poor survival and bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, Muhammad; Westhrin, Marita; Aass, Kristin Roseth; Moen, Siv Helen; Misund, Kristine; Psonka-Antonczyk, Katarzyna Maria; Giliberto, Mariaserena; Buene, Glenn; Sundan, Anders; Waage, Anders; Sponaas, Anne-Marit; Standal, Therese

    2017-12-26

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematologic cancer characterized by expansion of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow. Most patients develop an osteolytic bone disease, largely caused by increased osteoclastogenesis. The myeloma bone marrow is hypoxic, and hypoxia may contribute to MM disease progression, including bone loss. Here we identified interleukin-32 (IL-32) as a novel inflammatory cytokine expressed by a subset of primary MM cells and MM cell lines. We found that high IL-32 gene expression in plasma cells correlated with inferior survival in MM and that IL-32 gene expression was higher in patients with bone disease compared with those without. IL-32 was secreted from MM cells in extracellular vesicles (EVs), and those EVs, as well as recombinant human IL-32, promoted osteoclast differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. The osteoclast-promoting activity of the EVs was IL-32 dependent. Hypoxia increased plasma-cell IL-32 messenger RNA and protein levels in a hypoxia-inducible factor 1α-dependent manner, and high expression of IL-32 was associated with a hypoxic signature in patient samples, suggesting that hypoxia may promote expression of IL-32 in MM cells. Taken together, our results indicate that targeting IL-32 might be beneficial in the treatment of MM bone disease in a subset of patients.

  15. [Influence of FPS on the expression of LDL-R mRNA in the liver tissues of hyperlipidemic rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing-he; Xing, Yan-hong; Rong, Xiang-lu; Huang, Ping

    2007-08-01

    To explore the effect of FPS on low-density lipoprotein acceptor (LDL-R) mRNA in the liver tissues of hyperlipidemic rats. Sixty healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into six groups: normal control, model control, Gynostemma pentaphyllum, FPS low dosage, FPS moderate dosage, and FPS high dosage group. Excepting the rats in the normal control group, the ones in other groups were all made rats' hyperlipidemic model by irrigating hyperlipidemic emulsion into the stomach and observed the expression of LDL-R mRNA in the liver tissues of rats of each group. Relative content of LDL-RmRNA in low and moderate dosage groups was notably higher than that inmodel group. The contents's difference was not remarkable between FPS moderate dosage group and Gynostemma pentaphyllum group. FPS can appreciably increase the expression of LDL-R mRNA in the liver tissues of hyperlipidemic rats and promote the elimination ofLDL-C to reduce serum cholesterol notably.

  16. Tissue Specific Expression Of Sprouty1 In Mice Protects Against High Fat Diet Induced Fat Accumulation, Bone Loss, And Metabolic Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs, Sumithra; Henderson, Terry; Le, Phuong; Rosen, Clifford J.; Liaw, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    We recently characterized Sprouty1 (Spry1), a growth factor signaling inhibitor as a regulator of marrow progenitor cells promoting osteoblast differentiation at the expense of adipocytes. Adipose tissue specific Spry1 expression in mice resulted in increased bone mass and reduced body fat while conditional knockout of Spry1 had the opposite effect with decreased bone and increased body fat. Because Spry1 suppresses normal fat development, we tested the hypothesis that Spry1 expression prevents high fat diet-induced obesity, bone loss, and associated lipid abnormalities and demonstrate that Spry1 has a long-term protective effect on mice fed a high caloric diet. We studied diet-induced obesity in mice with fatty acid binding promoter (aP2)-driven expression or conditional knockout of Spry1 in adipocytes. Phenotyping was performed by whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, microCT, histology and blood analysis. In conditional Spry1 null mice, high fat diet increased body fat by 40%, impaired glucose regulation, and led to liver steatosis. However, over-expression of Spry1 led to 35% lower body fat, reduced bone loss, and normal metabolic function compared to single transgenics. This protective phenotype was associated with decreased circulating insulin (70%) and leptin (54%) compared to controls on a high fat diet. Additionally, Spry1 expression decreased adipose tissue inflammation by 45%. We show that conditional Spry1 expression in adipose tissue protects against high fat diet-induced obesity and associated bone loss. PMID:22142492

  17. YKL-40 tissue expression and plasma levels in patients with ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgdall, Estrid V S; Ringsholt, Merete; Høgdall, Claus K

    2009-01-01

    survival. The aim of the study was to determine the expression of YKL-40 in tumor tissue and plasma in patients with borderline ovarian tumor or epithelial ovarian cancer (OC), and investigate prognostic value of this marker. METHODS: YKL-40 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry...... in tissue arrays from 181 borderline tumors and 473 OC. Plasma YKL-40 was determined by ELISA in preoperative samples from 19 patients with borderline tumor and 76 OC patients. RESULTS: YKL-40 protein expression was found in cancer cells, tumor associated macrophages, neutrophils and mast cells. The tumor...... stage, age and radicality after primary surgery as variables, showed that elevated plasma YKL-40 was associated with a shorter survival (HR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.40-3.25, p = 0.0004). CONCLUSION: YKL-40 in OC tissue and plasma are related to stage and histology, but only plasma YKL-40 is a prognostic...

  18. Expression profiling of microRNAs in human bone tissue from postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Ugarte, Laura; Serra-Vinardell, Jenny; Nonell, Lara; Balcells, Susana; Arnal, Magdalena; Nogues, Xavier; Mellibovsky, Leonardo; Grinberg, Daniel; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Garcia-Giralt, Natalia

    2018-01-01

    Bone tissue is composed of several cell types, which express their own microRNAs (miRNAs) that will play a role in cell function. The set of total miRNAs expressed in all cell types configures the specific signature of the bone tissue in one physiological condition. The aim of this study was to explore the miRNA expression profile of bone tissue from postmenopausal women. Tissue was obtained from trabecular bone and was analyzed in fresh conditions (n = 6). Primary osteoblasts were also obtained from trabecular bone (n = 4) and human osteoclasts were obtained from monocyte precursors after in vitro differentiation (n = 5). MicroRNA expression profiling was obtained for each sample by microarray and a global miRNA analysis was performed combining the data acquired in all the microarray experiments. From the 641 miRNAs detected in bone tissue samples, 346 (54%) were present in osteoblasts and/or osteoclasts. The other 46% were not identified in any of the bone cells analyzed. Intersection of osteoblast and osteoclast arrays identified 101 miRNAs shared by both cell types, which accounts for 30-40% of miRNAs detected in these cells. In osteoblasts, 266 miRNAs were detected, of which 243 (91%) were also present in the total bone array, representing 38% of all bone miRNAs. In osteoclasts, 340 miRNAs were detected, of which 196 (58%) were also present in the bone tissue array, representing 31% of all miRNAs detected in total bone. These analyses provide an overview of miRNAs expressed in bone tissue, broadening our knowledge in the microRNA field.

  19. Effects of warm ischemic time on gene expression profiling in colorectal cancer tissues and normal mucosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Musella

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome-wide gene expression analyses of tumors are a powerful tool to identify gene signatures associated with biologically and clinically relevant characteristics and for several tumor types are under clinical validation by prospective trials. However, handling and processing of clinical specimens may significantly affect the molecular data obtained from their analysis. We studied the effects of tissue handling time on gene expression in human normal and tumor colon tissues undergoing routine surgical procedures. METHODS: RNA extracted from specimens of 15 patients at four time points (for a total of 180 samples after surgery was analyzed for gene expression on high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. A mixed-effects model was used to identify probes with different expression means across the four different time points. The p-values of the model were adjusted with the Bonferroni method. RESULTS: Thirty-two probe sets associated with tissue handling time in the tumor specimens, and thirty-one in the normal tissues, were identified. Most genes exhibited moderate changes in expression over the time points analyzed; however four of them were oncogenes, and two confirmed the effect of tissue handling by independent validation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that a critical time point for tissue handling in colon seems to be 60 minutes at room temperature. Although the number of time-dependent genes we identified was low, the three genes that already showed changes at this time point in tumor samples were all oncogenes, hence recommending standardization of tissue-handling protocols and effort to reduce the time from specimen removal to snap freezing accounting for warm ischemia in this tumor type.

  20. Connective Tissue Growth Factor Promotes Pulmonary Epithelial Cell Senescence and Is Associated with COPD Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jun-Ho; Chand, Hitendra S; Bruse, Shannon; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Royer, Christopher; McDonald, Jacob; Qualls, Clifford; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J; Lin, Yong; Mallampalli, Rama; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes; Nyunoya, Toru

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) protein in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is consistent in humans and animal models of COPD and to investigate the role of this protein in lung epithelial cells. CTGF in lung epithelial cells of ex-smokers with COPD was compared with ex-smokers without COPD by immunofluorescence. A total of twenty C57Bl/6 mice and sixteen non-human primates (NHPs) were exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) for 4 weeks. Ten mice of these CS-exposed mice and eight of the CS-exposed NHPs were infected with H3N2 influenza A virus (IAV), while the remaining ten mice and eight NHPs were mock-infected with vehicle as control. Both mRNA and protein expression of CTGF in lung epithelial cells of mice and NHPs were determined. The effects of CTGF overexpression on cell proliferation, p16 protein, and senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity were examined in cultured human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). In humans, CTGF expression increased with increasing COPD severity. We found that protein expression of CTGF was upregulated in lung epithelial cells in both mice and NHPs exposed to CS and infected with IAV compared to those exposed to CS only. When overexpressed in HBECs, CTGF accelerated cellular senescence accompanied by p16 accumulation. Both CTGF and p16 protein expression in lung epithelia are positively associated with the severity of COPD in ex-smokers. These findings show that CTGF is consistently expressed in epithelial cells of COPD lungs. By accelerating lung epithelial senescence, CTGF may block regeneration relative to epithelial cell loss and lead to emphysema.

  1. Lysyl oxidase‑like 2 is expressed in kidney tissue and is associated with the progression of tubulointerstitial fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung-Eun; Jeon, Nara; Choi, Hoon Young; Shin, Jae Il; Jeong, Hyeon Joo; Lim, Beom Jin

    2017-09-01

    Tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a common end point of chronic kidney diseases, and preventing its progression is key to avoiding renal failure. Transforming growth factor‑β (TGF‑β) and associated molecules promote tubulointerstitial fibrosis; however, effective therapies targeting these molecules have yet to be developed. Lysyl oxidase‑like 2 (LOXL2), which is involved in invasive growth and metastasis of malignant neoplasms, has recently been reported to serve a key role in hepatic and pulmonary fibrosis. However, little is currently known regarding LOXL2 expression in the kidney and its involvement in tubulointerstitial fibrosis. The present study evaluated LOXL2 expression in human and mouse kidney tissues, as well as in cultured renal cells. LOXL2 protein expression was detected in glomerular capillary loops and tubular epithelial cells in human and mouse kidneys. Glomerular LOXL2 was localized to the cytoplasm of podocytes, as determined by double immunofluorescence microscopy using a podocyte marker (synaptopodin). This result was supported by western blot analysis, which demonstrated that LOXL2 protein expression is present in cultured human podocytes and HK‑2 human proximal tubular cells. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of LOXL2 were higher in a mouse model of tubulointerstitial fibrosis compared with in control mice. In addition, immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that LOXL2 is present in the fibrous interstitium and infiltrating mononuclear cells in a mouse model of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. The present study demonstrated that LOXL2 is expressed in compartments of renal tissue, where it appears to contribute to the progression of tubulointerstitial fibrosis.

  2. Mechanisms of foot-and-mouth disease virus tropism inferred from differential tissue gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Zhu

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV targets specific tissues for primary infection, secondary high-titer replication (e.g. foot and mouth where it causes typical vesicular lesions and long-term persistence at some primary replication sites. Although integrin αVβ6 receptor has been identified as primary FMDV receptors in animals, their tissue distribution alone fails to explain these highly selective tropism-driven events. Thus, other molecular mechanisms must play roles in determining this tissue specificity. We hypothesized that differences in certain biological activities due to differential gene expression determine FMDV tropism and applied whole genome gene expression profiling to identify genes differentially expressed between FMDV-targeted and non-targeted tissues in terms of supporting primary infection, secondary replication including vesicular lesions, and persistence. Using statistical and bioinformatic tools to analyze the differential gene expression, we identified mechanisms that could explain FMDV tissue tropism based on its association with differential expression of integrin αVβ6 heterodimeric receptor (FMDV receptor, fibronectin (ligand of the receptor, IL-1 cytokines, death receptors and the ligands, and multiple genes in the biological pathways involved in extracellular matrix turnover and interferon signaling found in this study. Our results together with reported findings indicate that differences in (1 FMDV receptor availability and accessibility, (2 type I interferon-inducible immune response, and (3 ability to clear virus infected cells via death receptor signaling play roles in determining FMDV tissue tropism and the additional increase of high extracellular matrix turnover induced by FMDV infection, likely via triggering the signaling of highly expressed IL-1 cytokines, play a key role in the pathogenesis of vesicular lesions.

  3. Expression of embryonic stem cell markers in keloid-associated lymphoid tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Chelsea; Chudakova, Daria A; Itinteang, Tinte; Chibnall, Alice M; Brasch, Helen D; Davis, Paul F; Tan, Swee T

    2016-07-01

    To identify, characterise and localise the population of primitive cells in keloid scars (KS). 5-µm-thick formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of KS samples from 10 patients underwent immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for the embryonic stem cell (ESC) markers OCT4, SOX2, pSTAT3 and NANOG, and keloid-associated lymphoid tissue (KALT) markers CD4 and CD20. NanoString gene expression analysis and in situ hybridisation (ISH) were used to determine the abundance and localisation of the mRNA for these ESC markers. IHC staining revealed the expression of the ESC markers OCT4, SOX2, pSTAT3 and NANOG by a population of cells within KS tissue. These are localised to the endothelium of the microvessels within the KALTs. NanoString gene expression analysis confirmed the abundance of the transcriptional expression of the same ESC markers. ISH localised the expression of the ESC transcripts to the primitive endothelium in KS tissue. This report demonstrates the expression of ESC markers OCT4, SOX2, pSTAT3 and NANOG by the endothelium of the microvessels within the KALTs. These findings show a unique niche of primitive cells within KS, expressing ESC markers, revealing a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of KS. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Expression and function of NOD-like receptors by human term gestation-associated tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Aled H; Bevan, Ryan J; Spencer-Harty, Samantha; Scott, Louis M; Jones, Ruth H; Thornton, Catherine A

    2017-10-01

    Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors or NOD-like receptors (NLRs) have been implicated in several disease pathologies associated with inflammation. Since local and systemic inflammation is a hallmark of both term and preterm labour, a role for NLRs at the materno-fetal interface has been postulated. Gene expression and immunolocalisation of NLR family members in human placenta, choriodecidua, and amnion were examined. Tissue explants were used to examine the response to activators of NOD1 (Tri-DAP), NOD2 (MDP) and NLRP3 (nigericin). Cell/tissue-free supernatants were examined for the production of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 using specific ELISAs. Expression of transcripts for NOD1, NOD2, NLRP3, NLRC4, NLRX1, NLRP1 and NAIP and protein expression of NOD1, NOD2 and NLRP3 were a broad feature of all term gestation-associated tissues. Production of cytokines was increased significantly in response to all ligands in placenta and choriodecidua, except for MDP-induced IL-10. Similarly, there was a significant in the amnion except for MDP induced IL-1β and IL-10 response to either agonist. IL-1β production was dependent on caspase-1 regardless of agonist used or tissue examined. Term human gestation-associated tissues express functional NLRs which likely play a role in both sterile and pathogen-driven inflammatory responses at the materno-fetal interface. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. DUOX2 Expression Is Increased in Barrett Esophagus and Cancerous Tissues of Stomach and Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Qi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To detect the expression of dual oxidase (DUOX 2 in Barrett esophagus, gastric cancer, and colorectal cancer (CRC. Materials and Methods. The endoscopic biopsies were collected from patients with Barrett esophagus, while the curative resection tissues were obtained from patients with gastric cancer, CRC, or hepatic carcinoma. The DUOX2 protein and mRNA levels were detected with immunohistochemistry (IHC and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR. The correlation of DUOX2 expression with clinicopathological parameters of tumors was identified. Results. Low levels of DUOX2 mRNA were detected in Barrett esophagus and the adjacent normal tissues, and there was no difference between these two groups. DUOX2 protein was found in Barrett esophagus and undetectable in the normal epithelium. The DUOX2 mRNA and protein levels in the gastric cancer and CRC were increased compared to the adjacent nonmalignant tissues. The elevated DUOX2 in the gastric cancer was significantly associated with smoking history. In CRC tissues, the DUOX2 protein expression level in stages II–IV was significantly higher than that in stage I. In both hepatic carcinoma and the adjacent nonmalignant tissue, the DUOX2 was virtually undetectable. Conclusion. DUOX2 in Barrett esophagus, gastric cancer, and CRC may be involved in the tumorigenesis of these tissues.

  6. The expression and significance of tyrosine hydroxylase in the brain tissue of Parkinsons disease rats

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yuan; Lian, Yajun; Ma, Yunqing; Wu, Chuanjie; Zheng, Yake; Xie, Nanchang

    2017-01-01

    The expression and significance of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in brain tissue of rats with Parkinson's disease (PD) were explored and analyzed. A total of 120 clean-grade and healthy adult Wistar rats weighing 180–240 g were randomly divided equally into four groups according to the random number table method. Rats were sacrificed before and after the model establishment for 3, 6 or 8 weeks. The number of revolutions in rats was observed and the relative expression of TH mRNA in brain tissue w...

  7. Tissue Molecular Anatomy Project (TMAP): an expression database for comparative cancer proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjahed, Djamel; Luke, Brian T; Tontesh, Tawady S; Smythers, Gary W; Munroe, David J; Lemkin, Peter F

    2003-08-01

    By mining publicly accessible databases, we have developed a collection of tissue-specific predictive protein expression maps as a function of cancer histological state. Data analysis is applied to the differential expression of gene products in pooled libraries from the normal to the altered state(s). We wish to report the initial results of our survey across different tissues and explore the extent to which this comparative approach may help uncover panels of potential biomarkers of tumorigenesis which would warrant further examination in the laboratory.

  8. Tissue-Specific Expression of Monocarboxylate Transporters during Fasting in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutkowski, Alexandra; Wege, Nicole; Stangl, Gabriele I.; König, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Monocarboxylates such as pyruvate, lactate and ketone bodies are crucial for energy supply of all tissues, especially during energy restriction. The transport of monocarboxylates across the plasma membrane of cells is mediated by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). Out of 14 known mammalian MCTs, six isoforms have been functionally characterized to transport monocarboxylates and short chain fatty acids (MCT1-4), thyroid hormones (MCT8, -10) and aromatic amino acids (MCT10). Knowledge on the regulation of the different MCT isoforms is rare. In an attempt to get more insights in regulation of MCT expression upon energy deprivation, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of tissue specific expression of five MCT isoforms upon 48 h of fasting in mice. Due to the crucial role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α as a central regulator of energy metabolism and as known regulator of MCT1 expression, we included both wildtype (WT) and PPARα knockout (KO) mice in our study. Liver, kidney, heart, small intestine, hypothalamus, pituitary gland and thyroid gland of the mice were analyzed. Here we show that the expression of all examined MCT isoforms was markedly altered by fasting compared to feeding. Expression of MCT1, MCT2 and MCT10 was either increased or decreased by fasting dependent on the analyzed tissue. MCT4 and MCT8 were down-regulated by fasting in all examined tissues. However, PPARα appeared to have a minor impact on MCT isoform regulation. Due to the fundamental role of MCTs in transport of energy providing metabolites and hormones involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, we assumed that the observed fasting-induced adaptations of MCT expression seem to ensure an adequate energy supply of tissues during the fasting state. Since, MCT isoforms 1–4 are also necessary for the cellular uptake of drugs, the fasting-induced modifications of MCT expression have to be considered in future clinical care algorithms. PMID:25390336

  9. Gene Expression Changes in Femoral Head Necrosis of Human Bone Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadett Balla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH is the result of an interruption of the local circulation and the injury of vascular supply of bone. Multiple factors have been implicated in the development of the disease. However the mechanism of ischemia and necrosis in non-traumatic ONFH is not clear. The aim of our investigation was to identify genes that are differently expressed in ONFH vs. non-ONFH human bone and to describe the relationships between these genes using multivariate data analysis. Six bone tissue samples from ONFH male patients and 8 bone tissue samples from non-ONFH men were examined. The expression differences of selected 117 genes were analyzed by TaqMan probe-based quantitative real-time RT-PCR system. The significance test indicated marked differences in the expression of nine genes between ONFH and non-ONFH individuals. These altered genes code for collagen molecules, an extracellular matrix digesting metalloproteinase, a transcription factor, an adhesion molecule, and a growth factor. Canonical variates analysis demonstrated that ONFH and non-ONFH bone tissues can be distinguished by the multiple expression profile analysis of numerous genes controlled via canonical TGFB pathway as well as genes coding for extracellular matrix composing collagen type molecules. The markedly altered gene expression profile observed in the ONFH of human bone tissue may provide further insight into the pathogenetic process of osteonecrotic degeneration of bone.

  10. An amplified promoter system for targeted expression of calcium indicator proteins in the cerebellar cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd eKuhn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Recording of identified neuronal network activity using genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs requires labeling that is cell type-specific and bright enough for the detection of functional signals. However, specificity and strong expression are often not achievable using the same promoter. Here we present a combinatorial approach for targeted expression and single-cell-level quantification in which a weak promoter is used to drive trans-amplification under a strong general promoter. We demonstrated this approach using recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs to deliver the sequence of the GECI D3cpv in the mouse cerebellar cortex. Direct expression under the human synapsin promoter (hSYN led to high levels of expression (50-100 µM in five interneuron types of the cerebellar cortex but not in Purkinje cells (PCs (≤10 μM, yielding sufficient contrast to allow functional signals to be recorded from somata and processes in awake animals using two-photon microscopy. When the hSYN promoter was used to drive expression of the tetracycline transactivator (tTA, a second rAAV containing the bidirectional TET promoter (Ptetbi could drive strong D3cpv expression in PCs (10-300 µM, enough to allow reliable complex spike detection in the dendritic arbor. An amplified approach should be of use in monitoring neural processing in selected cell types and boosting expression of optogenetic probes. Additionally, we overcome cell toxicity associated with rAAV injection and/or local GECI overexpression by combining the virus injection with systemic pre-injection of hyperosmotic D-mannitol, and by this double the time window for functional imaging.

  11. Cytoglobin expression is upregulated in all tissues upon hypoxia: an in vitro and in vivo study by quantitative real-time PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fordel, E.; Geuens, E.; Dewilde, S.; Rottiers, P.; Carmeliet, P.; Grooten, J.; Moens, L.

    2004-01-01

    The vertebrate globin family has been extended with two members: neuroglobin and cytoglobin. We here investigate the changes of expression levels upon hypoxia of cytoglobin in parallel with neuroglobin, in vivo and in vitro, by using real-time quantitative PCR. Our data prove that cytoglobin is upregulated upon hypoxia in all tissues. The mechanism of induction of cytoglobin is regulated by the hypoxia-inducible factor 1, a posttranscriptionally regulated transcription factor controlling several hypoxia-inducible genes. The latter is argumented by: (1) cytoglobin is significantly upregulated upon hypoxia and this is dependent on the tissue and severity of hypoxia; (2) the regulation of cytoglobin expression in HIF-1 (+/-) knockout mice is affected; (3) the variations of the expression regulation are in the same manner as seen in the expression of our control gene VEGF, that is proven to be regulated by the HIF-1-pathway; and (4) cytoglobin promoter region contains HRE sites

  12. Molecular cloning, genomic organization, chromosome mapping, tissues expression pattern and identification of a novel splicing variant of porcine CIDEb gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, YanHua; Li, AiHua; Yang, Z.Q.

    2016-01-01

    Cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-α-like effector b (CIDEb) is a member of the CIDE family of apoptosis-inducing factors, CIDEa and CIDEc have been reported to be Lipid droplets (LDs)-associated proteins that promote atypical LD fusion in adipocytes, and responsible for liver steatosis under fasting and obese conditions, whereas CIDEb promotes lipid storage under normal diet conditions [1], and promotes the formation of triacylglyceride-enriched VLDL particles in hepatocytes [2]. Here, we report the gene cloning, chromosome mapping, tissue distribution, genetic expression analysis, and identification of a novel splicing variant of the porcine CIDEb gene. Sequence analysis shows that the open reading frame of the normal porcine CIDEb isoform covers 660bp and encodes a 219-amino acid polypeptide, whereas its alternative splicing variant encodes a 142-amino acid polypeptide truncated at the fourth exon and comprised of the CIDE-N domain and part of the CIDE-C domain. The deduced amino acid sequence of normal porcine CIDEb shows an 85.8% similarity to the human protein and 80.0% to the mouse protein. The CIDEb genomic sequence spans approximately 6KB comprised of five exons and four introns. Radiation hybrid mapping demonstrated that porcine CIDEb is located at chromosome 7q21 and at a distance of 57cR from the most significantly linked marker, S0334, regions that are syntenic with the corresponding region in the human genome. Tissue expression analysis indicated that normal CIDEb mRNA is ubiquitously expressed in many porcine tissues. It was highly expressed in white adipose tissue and was observed at relatively high levels in the liver, lung, small intestine, lymphatic tissue and brain. The normal version of CIDEb was the predominant form in all tested tissues, whereas the splicing variant was expressed at low levels in all examined tissues except the lymphatic tissue. Furthermore, genetic expression analysis indicated that CIDEb mRNA levels were

  13. Molecular cloning, genomic organization, chromosome mapping, tissues expression pattern and identification of a novel splicing variant of porcine CIDEb gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, YanHua, E-mail: liyanhua.1982@aliyun.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Translational Medical Research in Cognitive Development and Learning and Memory Disorders, China International Science and Technology Cooperation base of Child development and Critical Disorders, Children’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400014 (China); Li, AiHua [Chongqing Cancer Institute & Hospital & Cancer Center, Chongqing 404100 (China); Yang, Z.Q. [Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2016-09-09

    Cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-α-like effector b (CIDEb) is a member of the CIDE family of apoptosis-inducing factors, CIDEa and CIDEc have been reported to be Lipid droplets (LDs)-associated proteins that promote atypical LD fusion in adipocytes, and responsible for liver steatosis under fasting and obese conditions, whereas CIDEb promotes lipid storage under normal diet conditions [1], and promotes the formation of triacylglyceride-enriched VLDL particles in hepatocytes [2]. Here, we report the gene cloning, chromosome mapping, tissue distribution, genetic expression analysis, and identification of a novel splicing variant of the porcine CIDEb gene. Sequence analysis shows that the open reading frame of the normal porcine CIDEb isoform covers 660bp and encodes a 219-amino acid polypeptide, whereas its alternative splicing variant encodes a 142-amino acid polypeptide truncated at the fourth exon and comprised of the CIDE-N domain and part of the CIDE-C domain. The deduced amino acid sequence of normal porcine CIDEb shows an 85.8% similarity to the human protein and 80.0% to the mouse protein. The CIDEb genomic sequence spans approximately 6KB comprised of five exons and four introns. Radiation hybrid mapping demonstrated that porcine CIDEb is located at chromosome 7q21 and at a distance of 57cR from the most significantly linked marker, S0334, regions that are syntenic with the corresponding region in the human genome. Tissue expression analysis indicated that normal CIDEb mRNA is ubiquitously expressed in many porcine tissues. It was highly expressed in white adipose tissue and was observed at relatively high levels in the liver, lung, small intestine, lymphatic tissue and brain. The normal version of CIDEb was the predominant form in all tested tissues, whereas the splicing variant was expressed at low levels in all examined tissues except the lymphatic tissue. Furthermore, genetic expression analysis indicated that CIDEb mRNA levels were

  14. High calcium concentration in bones promotes bone metastasis in renal cell carcinomas expressing calcium-sensing receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joeckel, Elke; Haber, Tobias; Prawitt, Dirk; Junker, Kerstin; Hampel, Christian; Thüroff, Joachim W; Roos, Frederik C; Brenner, Walburgis

    2014-02-28

    The prognosis for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is related to a high rate of metastasis, including 30% of bone metastasis. Characteristic for bone tissue is a high concentration of calcium ions. In this study, we show a promoting effect of an enhanced extracellular calcium concentration on mechanisms of bone metastasis via the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and its downstream signaling molecules. Our analyses were performed using 33 (11/category) matched specimens of normal and tumor tissue and 9 (3/category) primary cells derived from RCC patients of the 3 categories: non-metastasized, metastasized into the lung and metastasized into bones during a five-year period after nephrectomy. Expression of CaSR was determined by RT-PCR, Western blot analyses and flow cytometry, respectively. Cells were treated by calcium and the CaSR inhibitor NPS 2143. Cell migration was measured in a Boyden chamber with calcium (10 μM) as chemotaxin and proliferation by BrdU incorporation. The activity of intracellular signaling mediators was quantified by a phospho-kinase array and Western blot. The expression of CaSR was highest in specimens and cells of patients with bone metastases. Calcium treatment induced an increased migration (19-fold) and proliferation (2.3-fold) exclusively in RCC cells from patients with bone metastases. The CaSR inhibitor NPS 2143 elucidated the role of CaSR on the calcium-dependent effects. After treatment with calcium, the activity of AKT, PLCγ-1, p38α and JNK was clearly enhanced and PTEN expression was almost completely abolished in bone metastasizing RCC cells. Our results indicate a promoting effect of extracellular calcium on cell migration and proliferation of bone metastasizing RCC cells via highly expressed CaSR and its downstream signaling pathways. Consequently, CaSR may be regarded as a new prognostic marker predicting RCC bone metastasis.

  15. Gene Expression Profiling in Lung Tissues from Rat Exposed to Lunar Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Zalesak, Selina M.; Kidane, Yared H.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Scully, Robert R.; Williams, Kyle; Wu, Honglu; James, John T.

    2014-01-01

    The Moon's surface is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust. Lunar dust contain about 1-2% of very fine dust (gene expression changes in lung tissues from rats exposed to lunar dust particles. F344 rats were exposed for 4 weeks (6h/d; 5d/wk) in nose-only inhalation chambers to concentrations of 0 (control air), 2.1, 6.8, 21, and 61 mg/m(exp 3) of lunar dust. Five rats per group were euthanized 1 day, and 3 months after the last inhalation exposure. The total RNAs were isolated from lung tissues after being lavaged. The Agilent Rat GE v3 microarray was used to profile global gene expression (44K). The genes with significant expression changes are identified and the gene expression data were further analyzed using various statistical tools.

  16. AKT increases VEGF expression in tumor cells by transactivating the proximal VEGF promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pore, N.; Bernhard, E.J.; Shu, H.-K.; Li, B.; O'Rourke, D.M.; Maity, A.; Haas-Kogan, D.

    2003-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is overexpressed in many cancers including glioblastomas and may contribute to their growth. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) amplification and loss of PTEN, commonly found in glioblastomas leading to increase phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) activity and VEGF expression. In the current study we show that AKT, which is downstream of PI3K, regulates VEGF expression. U87MG human glioblastoma cells lack wildtype PTEN and express high levels of phosphorylated AKT. Over expression of AKT either by stable expression in immortalized human astrocytes or by transduction with adenovirus containing activated myristoylated AKT in SF188 glioblastoma cells increases VEGF expression. Moreover the elevation of angiogenesis by constitutively expressed AKT is further confirmed by in vivo matrigel plug assay in nude mice. The upregulation of VEGF by AKT is mediated through a region in the proximal promoter located between -88 and -70 (+1 is transcription start site). In transient transfection activity of a luciferase reporter containing the -88/+54 region of the VEGF promoter is increased by cotransfection with myristoylated AKT and downregulated by a dominant negative AKT expression vector. Mutation of the putative Sp1 binding sites located in the -88/-70 region we show that AKT acts through Sp1 to transactivate the VEGF promoter. Cotransfection of the VEGF promoter reporter with both Sp1 and myristoylated AKT expression vectors increases promoter activity to a greater extent than either Sp1 or Akt by itself. In vivo phosphate labeling of proteins reveals that AKT leads to increased Sp1 phosphorylation. Gel shift assays using a radio labeled probe corresponding to nucleotides -88 through -66 in the promoter show increased binding with nuclear extracts from cells transduced with adenovirus expressing myristoylated AKT. In conclusion, our results suggest that loss of PTEN leads to increased VEGF expression by increasing AKT

  17. Cancer cell specific cytotoxic gene expression mediated by ARF tumor suppressor promoter constructs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurayoshi, Kenta; Ozono, Eiko; Iwanaga, Ritsuko; Bradford, Andrew P.; Komori, Hideyuki; Ohtani, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ARF promoter showed higher responsiveness to deregulated E2F activity than the E2F1 promoter. • ARF promoter showed higher cancer cell-specificity than E2F1 promoter to drive gene expression. • HSV-TK driven by ARF promoter showed higher cancer cell-specific cytotoxicity than that driven by E2F1 promoter. - Abstract: In current cancer treatment protocols, such as radiation and chemotherapy, side effects on normal cells are major obstacles to radical therapy. To avoid these side effects, a cancer cell-specific approach is needed. One way to specifically target cancer cells is to utilize a cancer specific promoter to express a cytotoxic gene (suicide gene therapy) or a viral gene required for viral replication (oncolytic virotherapy). For this purpose, the selected promoter should have minimal activity in normal cells to avoid side effects, and high activity in a wide variety of cancers to obtain optimal therapeutic efficacy. In contrast to the AFP, CEA and PSA promoters, which have high activity only in a limited spectrum of tumors, the E2F1 promoter exhibits high activity in wide variety of cancers. This is based on the mechanism of carcinogenesis. Defects in the RB pathway and activation of the transcription factor E2F, the main target of the RB pathway, are observed in almost all cancers. Consequently, the E2F1 promoter, which is mainly regulated by E2F, has high activity in wide variety of cancers. However, E2F is also activated by growth stimulation in normal growing cells, suggesting that the E2F1 promoter may also be highly active in normal growing cells. In contrast, we found that the tumor suppressor ARF promoter is activated by deregulated E2F activity, induced by forced inactivation of pRB, but does not respond to physiological E2F activity induced by growth stimulation. We also found that the deregulated E2F activity, which activates the ARF promoter, is detected only in cancer cell lines. These observations suggest that ARF promoter

  18. Cancer cell specific cytotoxic gene expression mediated by ARF tumor suppressor promoter constructs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurayoshi, Kenta [Department of Bioscience, School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan); Ozono, Eiko [Centre for Molecular Oncology, Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary, University of London, John Vane Science Centre, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ (United Kingdom); Iwanaga, Ritsuko; Bradford, Andrew P. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Anschutz Medical Campus, 12800 East 19th Avenue, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Komori, Hideyuki [Center for Stem Cell Biology, Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Ohtani, Kiyoshi, E-mail: btm88939@kwansei.ac.jp [Department of Bioscience, School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • ARF promoter showed higher responsiveness to deregulated E2F activity than the E2F1 promoter. • ARF promoter showed higher cancer cell-specificity than E2F1 promoter to drive gene expression. • HSV-TK driven by ARF promoter showed higher cancer cell-specific cytotoxicity than that driven by E2F1 promoter. - Abstract: In current cancer treatment protocols, such as radiation and chemotherapy, side effects on normal cells are major obstacles to radical therapy. To avoid these side effects, a cancer cell-specific approach is needed. One way to specifically target cancer cells is to utilize a cancer specific promoter to express a cytotoxic gene (suicide gene therapy) or a viral gene required for viral replication (oncolytic virotherapy). For this purpose, the selected promoter should have minimal activity in normal cells to avoid side effects, and high activity in a wide variety of cancers to obtain optimal therapeutic efficacy. In contrast to the AFP, CEA and PSA promoters, which have high activity only in a limited spectrum of tumors, the E2F1 promoter exhibits high activity in wide variety of cancers. This is based on the mechanism of carcinogenesis. Defects in the RB pathway and activation of the transcription factor E2F, the main target of the RB pathway, are observed in almost all cancers. Consequently, the E2F1 promoter, which is mainly regulated by E2F, has high activity in wide variety of cancers. However, E2F is also activated by growth stimulation in normal growing cells, suggesting that the E2F1 promoter may also be highly active in normal growing cells. In contrast, we found that the tumor suppressor ARF promoter is activated by deregulated E2F activity, induced by forced inactivation of pRB, but does not respond to physiological E2F activity induced by growth stimulation. We also found that the deregulated E2F activity, which activates the ARF promoter, is detected only in cancer cell lines. These observations suggest that ARF promoter

  19. Classification between normal and tumor tissues based on the pair-wise gene expression ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, YeeLeng; Zhang, XueWu; Ling, MT; Wang, XiangHong; Wong, YC; Danchin, Antoine

    2004-01-01

    Precise classification of cancer types is critically important for early cancer diagnosis and treatment. Numerous efforts have been made to use gene expression profiles to improve precision of tumor classification. However, reliable cancer-related signals are generally lacking. Using recent datasets on colon and prostate cancer, a data transformation procedure from single gene expression to pair-wise gene expression ratio is proposed. Making use of the internal consistency of each expression profiling dataset this transformation improves the signal to noise ratio of the dataset and uncovers new relevant cancer-related signals (features). The efficiency in using the transformed dataset to perform normal/tumor classification was investigated using feature partitioning with informative features (gene annotation) as discriminating axes (single gene expression or pair-wise gene expression ratio). Classification results were compared to the original datasets for up to 10-feature model classifiers. 82 and 262 genes that have high correlation to tissue phenotype were selected from the colon and prostate datasets respectively. Remarkably, data transformation of the highly noisy expression data successfully led to lower the coefficient of variation (CV) for the within-class samples as well as improved the correlation with tissue phenotypes. The transformed dataset exhibited lower CV when compared to that of single gene expression. In the colon cancer set, the minimum CV decreased from 45.3% to 16.5%. In prostate cancer, comparable CV was achieved with and without transformation. This improvement in CV, coupled with the improved correlation between the pair-wise gene expression ratio and tissue phenotypes, yielded higher classification efficiency, especially with the colon dataset – from 87.1% to 93.5%. Over 90% of the top ten discriminating axes in both datasets showed significant improvement after data transformation. The high classification efficiency achieved suggested

  20. Regulation of mtl operon promoter of Bacillus subtilis: requirements of its use in expression vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altenbuchner Josef

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several vector systems have been developed to express any gene desired to be studied in Bacillus subtilis. Among them, the transcriptionally regulated promoters involved in carbohydrate utilization are a research priority. Expression systems based on Bacillus promoters for xylose, maltose, and mannose utilization, as well as on the heterologous E. coli lactose promoter, have been successfully constructed. The promoter of the mtlAFD operon for utilization of mannitol is another promising candidate for its use in expression vectors. In this study, we investigated the regulation of the mtl genes in order to identify the elements needed to construct a strong mannitol inducible expression system in B. subtilis. Results Regulation of the promoters of mtlAFD operon (PmtlA and mtlR (PmtlR encoding the activator were investigated by fusion to lacZ. Identification of the PmtlA and PmtlR transcription start sites revealed the σA like promoter structures. Also, the operator of PmtlA was determined by shortening, nucleotide exchange, and alignment of PmtlA and PmtlR operator regions. Deletion of the mannitol-specific PTS genes (mtlAF resulted in PmtlA constitutive expression demonstrating the inhibitory effect of EIICBMtl and EIIAMtl on MtlR in the absence of mannitol. Disruption of mtlD made the cells sensitive to mannitol and glucitol. Both PmtlA and PmtlR were influenced by carbon catabolite repression (CCR. However, a CcpA deficient mutant showed only a slight reduction in PmtlR catabolite repression. Similarly, using PgroE as a constitutive promoter, putative cre sites of PmtlA and PmtlR slightly reduced the promoter activity in the presence of glucose. In contrast, glucose repression of PmtlA and PmtlR was completely abolished in a ΔptsG mutant and significantly reduced in a MtlR (H342D mutant. Conclusions The mtl operon promoter (PmtlA is a strong promoter that reached a maximum of 13,000 Miller units with lacZ as a reporter on

  1. [Correlation between RNA Expression Level and Early PMI in Human Brain Tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Y H; Ma, K J; Li, Z H; Gu, J; Bao, J Y; Yang, Z F; Gao, J; Zeng, Y; Tao, L; Chen, L

    2016-08-01

    To explore the correlation between the expression levels of several RNA markers in human brain tissue and early postmortem interval (PMI). Twelve individuals with known PMI (range from 4.3 to 22.5 h) were selected and total RNA was extracted from brain tissue. Eight commonly used RNA markers were chosen including β -actin, GAPDH, RPS29, 18S rRNA, 5S rRNA, U6 snRNA, miRNA-9 and miRNA-125b, and the expression levels were detected in brain tissue by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. The internal reference markers with stable expression in early PMI were screened using geNorm software and the relationship between its expression level and some relevant factors such as age, gender and cause of death were analyzed. RNA markers normalized by internal reference were inserted into the mathematic model established by previous research for PMI estimation using R software. Model quality was judged by the error rate calculated with estimated PMI. 5S rRNA, miRNA-9 and miRNA-125b showed quite stable expression and their expression levels had no relation with age, gender and cause of death. The error rate of estimated PMI using β -actin was 24.6%, while GAPDH was 41.0%. 5S rRNA, miRNA-9 and miRNA-125b are suitable as internal reference markers of human brain tissue owing to their stable expression in early PMI. The expression level of β -actin correlates well with PMI, which can be used as an additional index for early PMI estimation. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  2. The rs10993994 risk allele for prostate cancer results in clinically relevant changes in microseminoprotein-beta expression in tissue and urine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley C Whitaker

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Microseminoprotein-beta (MSMB regulates apoptosis and using genome-wide association studies the rs10993994 single nucleotide polymorphism in the MSMB promoter has been linked to an increased risk of developing prostate cancer. The promoter location of the risk allele, and its ability to reduce promoter activity, suggested that the rs10993994 risk allele could result in lowered MSMB in benign tissue leading to increased prostate cancer risk.MSMB expression in benign and malignant prostate tissue was examined using immunohistochemistry and compared with the rs10993994 genotype. Urinary MSMB concentrations were determined by ELISA and correlated with urinary PSA, the presence or absence of cancer, rs10993994 genotype and age of onset. MSMB levels in prostate tissue and urine were greatly reduced with tumourigenesis. Urinary MSMB was better than urinary PSA at differentiating men with prostate cancer at all Gleason grades. The high risk allele was associated with heterogeneity of MSMB staining and loss of MSMB in both tissue and urine in benign prostate.These data show that some high risk alleles discovered using genome-wide association studies produce phenotypic effects with potential clinical utility. We provide the first link between a low penetrance polymorphism for prostate cancer and a potential test in human tissue and bodily fluids. There is potential to develop tissue and urinary MSMB for a biomarker of prostate cancer risk, diagnosis and disease monitoring.

  3. The rs10993994 risk allele for prostate cancer results in clinically relevant changes in microseminoprotein-beta expression in tissue and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Hayley C; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Ross-Adams, Helen; Warren, Anne Y; Burge, Johanna; George, Anne; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Jhavar, Sameer; Leongamornlert, Daniel; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Saunders, Edward; Page, Elizabeth; Mitra, Anita; Mitchell, Gillian; Lindeman, Geoffrey J; Evans, D Gareth; Blanco, Ignacio; Mercer, Catherine; Rubinstein, Wendy S; Clowes, Virginia; Douglas, Fiona; Hodgson, Shirley; Walker, Lisa; Donaldson, Alan; Izatt, Louise; Dorkins, Huw; Male, Alison; Tucker, Kathy; Stapleton, Alan; Lam, Jimmy; Kirk, Judy; Lilja, Hans; Easton, Douglas; Cooper, Colin; Eeles, Rosalind; Neal, David E

    2010-10-13

    Microseminoprotein-beta (MSMB) regulates apoptosis and using genome-wide association studies the rs10993994 single nucleotide polymorphism in the MSMB promoter has been linked to an increased risk of developing prostate cancer. The promoter location of the risk allele, and its ability to reduce promoter activity, suggested that the rs10993994 risk allele could result in lowered MSMB in benign tissue leading to increased prostate cancer risk. MSMB expression in benign and malignant prostate tissue was examined using immunohistochemistry and compared with the rs10993994 genotype. Urinary MSMB concentrations were determined by ELISA and correlated with urinary PSA, the presence or absence of cancer, rs10993994 genotype and age of onset. MSMB levels in prostate tissue and urine were greatly reduced with tumourigenesis. Urinary MSMB was better than urinary PSA at differentiating men with prostate cancer at all Gleason grades. The high risk allele was associated with heterogeneity of MSMB staining and loss of MSMB in both tissue and urine in benign prostate. These data show that some high risk alleles discovered using genome-wide association studies produce phenotypic effects with potential clinical utility. We provide the first link between a low penetrance polymorphism for prostate cancer and a potential test in human tissue and bodily fluids. There is potential to develop tissue and urinary MSMB for a biomarker of prostate cancer risk, diagnosis and disease monitoring.

  4. The Influence of Tissue Ischemia on Biomarker Expression in Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Birgitte M; Aalund Olsen, Dorte; Andersen, Rikke F

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of fixation delay and the perioperative ischemia on hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α gene expression, HIF-1α protein expression, and immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of HIF-1α, GLUT-1, Bcl-2, and Ki-67 in colorectal cancer....... The study included 25 surgically removed colorectal tumors. Three sets of samples were collected readily after removal and exposed to 0, 30, and 60 minutes of delay of fixation or freezing. The perioperative ischemia time was registered. In each set of the samples, HIF-1α gene expression was analyzed...... by IHC. We found that the HIF-1α gene expression, HIF-1α protein concentration, and IHC expression of HIF-1α, GLUT-1, Ki-67, and Bcl-2 were not systematically affected by either the fixation or freezing delay of the tissue, the perioperative ischemia time, or the total ischemia time (perioperative...

  5. Promoter characteristics of two cyp19 genes differentially expressed in the brain and ovary of teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchoudakova, A; Kishida, M; Wood, E; Callard, G V

    2001-11-01

    Teleost fish are characterized by exceptionally high levels of neural estrogen biosynthesis when compared with the brains of other vertebrates or to the ovaries of the same fish. Two P450arom mRNAs which derive from separate gene loci (cyp19a and cyp19b) are differentially expressed in brain (b>a) and ovary (a>b) and have a different developmental program (b>a) and estrogen upregulation (b only). A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genomic walking strategy was used to isolate the 5'-flanking regions of the goldfish (Carassius auratus) cyp19 genes. Sequence analysis of the cyp19b gene approximately 1.8 kb upstream of the transcription start site revealed a TATA box at nucleotide (nt) -30, two estrogen responsive elements (EREs; nt -351 and -211) and a consensus binding site (NBRE) for nerve growth factor inducible-B protein (NGFI-B/Nur77) at -286, which includes another ERE half-site. Also present were a sequence at nt -399 (CCCTCCT) required for neural specificity of the zebrafish GATA-2 gene, and 16 copies of an SRY/SOX binding motif. The 5'-flanking region ( approximately 1.0 kb) of the cyp19a gene had TATA (nt -48) and CAAT (nt -71) boxes, a steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) binding site (nt -265), eight copies of the SRY/SOX motif, and two copies of a recognition site for binding the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR)/AhR nuclear translocator factor (ARNT) heterodimer. Both genes had elements previously identified in the brain specific exon I promoter of the mouse aromatase gene. Cyp19a- and -b/luciferase constructs showed basal promoter activity in aromatase-expressing rodent pituitary (GH3) cells, but differences (a>b) did not reflect expression in fish pituitary in vivo (b>a), implying a lack of appropriate cell factors. Consistent with the onset of cyp19b expression in zebrafish embryos, microinjection of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter plasmid into fertilized eggs revealed labeling in neural tissues at 30-48 h post-fertilization (hpf), most

  6. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) specific vaspin expression is increased after obesogenic diets and cold exposure and linked to acute changes in DNA-methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Juliane; Rohde, Kerstin; Krause, Kerstin; Zieger, Konstanze; Klöting, Nora; Kralisch, Susan; Kovacs, Peter; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Böttcher, Yvonne; Heiker, John T

    2017-06-01

    Several studies have demonstrated anti-diabetic and anti-obesogenic properties of visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor (vaspin) and so evoked its potential use for treatment of obesity-related diseases. The aim of the study was to unravel physiological regulators of vaspin expression and secretion with a particular focus on its role in brown adipose tissue (BAT) biology. We analyzed the effects of obesogenic diets and cold exposure on vaspin expression in liver and white and brown adipose tissue (AT) and plasma levels. Vaspin expression was analyzed in isolated white and brown adipocytes during adipogenesis and in response to adrenergic stimuli. DNA-methylation within the vaspin promoter was analyzed to investigate acute epigenetic changes after cold-exposure in BAT. Our results demonstrate a strong induction of vaspin mRNA and protein expression specifically in BAT of both cold-exposed and high-fat (HF) or high-sugar (HS) fed mice. While obesogenic diets also upregulated hepatic vaspin mRNA levels, cold exposure tended to increase vaspin gene expression of inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) depots. Concomitantly, vaspin plasma levels were decreased upon obesogenic or thermogenic triggers. Vaspin expression was increased during adipogenesis but unaffected by sympathetic activation in brown adipocytes. Analysis of vaspin promoter methylation in AT revealed lowest methylation levels in BAT, which were acutely reduced after cold exposure. Our data demonstrate a novel BAT-specific regulation of vaspin gene expression upon physiological stimuli in vivo with acute epigenetic changes that may contribute to cold-induced expression in BAT. We conclude that these findings indicate functional relevance and potentially beneficial effects of vaspin in BAT function.

  7. [The Expression of Pokemon in Endometrial Carcinoma Tissue and the Correlation with Mutant p53].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Tian-jin; Wang, Ping

    2016-05-01

    To detect the expression of Pokemon in endometrial carcinoma (EC), to provide preliminary theoretical basis for clarifying pathogenesis and searching for effective targets. Ninety-eight cases of endometrial tissue paraffin specimens form July 2012 to July 2014 in West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, were collected, including: EC group, consisting of adenocarcinoma 23 cases, adenosquamous 12 cases, serous 3 cases, mucinous 11 cases and clear cell 9 cases, and control group, consisting of atypical hyperplasia endometrium 20 cases and normal endometrium 20 cases (secretory 10 cases, hyperplasia 10 cases). Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of Pokemonin each section, analyzing the correlation of Pokemon expression with clinicopathologic characteristics and p53 expression. The positive rate of Pokemon in normal endometrium was 25% (5/20), significantly lower than that in atypical hyperplasia endometrium (60.0%, 12/20) and EC (93.1%, 54/58) (P Pokemon in III-IV stage, type II and Ki-67 ≥ 50 EC tissue was much higher (P = 0.012, 0.023, 0.029). In type II EC tissue, the correlation index between Pokemon and p53 is 0.669 (P = 0.000). The over expression of Pokemon upregulates the expression of mutant p53, which may be one of the carcinogenesis modes in type II EC.

  8. Changes in UCP expression in tissues of Zucker rats fed diets with different protein content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masanés, R M; Yubero, P; Rafecas, I; Remesar, X

    2002-09-01

    The effect of dietary protein content on the uncoupling proteins (UCP) 1, 2 and 3 expression in a number of tissues of Zucker lean and obese rats was studied. Thirty-day-old male Zucker lean (Fa/?) and obese (fa/fa) rats were fed on hyperproteic (HP, 30% protein), standard (RD, 17% protein) or hypoproteic (LP, 9% protein) diets ad libitum for 30 days. Although dietary protein intake affected the weights of individual muscles in lean and obese animals, these weights were similar. In contrast, huge differences were observed in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and liver weights. Lean rats fed on the LP diet generally increased UCP expression, whereas the HP group had lower values. Obese animals, HP and LP groups showed higher UCP expression in muscles, with slight differences in BAT and lower values for UCP3 in subcutaneous adipose tissue. The mean values of UCP expression in BAT of obese rats were lower than in their lean counterpart, whereas the expression in skeletal muscle was increased. Thus, expression of UCPs can be modified by dietary protein content, in lean and obese rats. A possible thermogenic function of UCP3 in muscle and WAT in obese rats must be taken into account.

  9. Pattern of somatostatin receptors expression in normal and bladder cancer tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavitakis, Markos; Msaouel, Pavlos; Michalopoulos, Vassilis; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Known risks factors for bladder cancer progression and recurrence are limited regarding their prognostic ability. Therefore identification of molecular determinants of disease progression could provide with more specific prognostic information and could be translated into new approaches for biomarker development. In the present study we evaluated, the expression patterns of somatostatin receptors 1-5 (SSTRs) in normal and tumor bladder tissues. The expression of SSTR1-5 was characterized in 45 normal and bladder cancer tissue samples using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). SSTR1 was expressed in 24 samples, SSTR2 in 15, SSTR3 in 23, SSTR4 in 16 and SSTR5 in all but one sample. Bladder cancer tissue samples expressed lower levels of SSTR3. Co-expression of SSTRs was associated with superficial disease. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that there is expression of SSTR in normal and bladder cancer urothelium. Further studies are required to evaluate the prognostic and therapeutic significance of these findings. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  10. Identifying Growth Conditions for Nicotiana benthimiana Resulting in Predictable Gene Expression of Promoter-Gus Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, V.; Barton, K.; Longhurst, A.

    2012-12-01

    Revoluta (Rev) is a transcription factor that establishes leaf polarity inArabidopsis thaliana. Through previous work in Dr. Barton's Lab, it is known that Revoluta binds to the ZPR3 promoter, thus activating the ZPR3 gene product inArabidopsis thaliana. Using this knowledge, two separate DNA constructs were made, one carrying revgene and in the other, the ZPR3 promoter fussed with the GUS gene. When inoculated in Nicotiana benthimiana (tobacco), the pMDC32 plasmid produces the Rev protein. Rev binds to the ZPR3 promoter thereby activating the transcription of the GUS gene, which can only be expressed in the presence of Rev. When GUS protein comes in contact with X-Gluc it produce the blue stain seen (See Figure 1). In the past, variability has been seen of GUS expression on tobacco therefore we hypothesized that changing the growing conditions and leaf age might improve how well it's expressed.

  11. Gene expression profiles help identify the Tissue of Origin for metastatic brain cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VandenBerg Scott R

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metastatic brain cancers are the most common intracranial tumor and occur in about 15% of all cancer patients. In up to 10% of these patients, the primary tumor tissue remains unknown, even after a time consuming and costly workup. The Pathwork® Tissue of Origin Test (Pathwork Diagnostics, Redwood City, CA, USA is a gene expression test to aid in the diagnosis of metastatic, poorly differentiated and undifferentiated tumors. It measures the expression pattern of 1,550 genes in these tumors and compares it to the expression pattern of a panel of 15 known tumor types. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Tissue of Origin Test in the diagnosis of primary sites for metastatic brain cancer patients. Methods Fifteen fresh-frozen metastatic brain tumor specimens of known origins met specimen requirements. These specimens were entered into the study and processed using the Tissue of Origin Test. Results were compared to the known primary site and the agreement between the two results was assessed. Results Fourteen of the fifteen specimens produced microarray data files that passed all quality metrics. One originated from a tissue type that was off-panel. Among the remaining 13 cases, the Tissue of Origin Test accurately predicted the available diagnosis in 12/13 (92.3% cases. Discussion This study demonstrates the accuracy of the Tissue of Origin Test when applied to predict the tissue of origin of metastatic brain tumors. This test could be a very useful tool for pathologists as they classify metastatic brain cancers.

  12. Radiolabelled GLP-1 receptor antagonist binds to GLP-1 receptor-expressing human tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waser, Beatrice; Reubi, Jean Claude [University of Berne, Division of Cell Biology and Experimental Cancer Research, Institute of Pathology, PO Box 62, Berne (Switzerland)

    2014-06-15

    Radiolabelled glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists have recently been shown to successfully image benign insulinomas in patients. For the somatostatin receptor targeting of tumours, however, it was recently reported that antagonist tracers were superior to agonist tracers. The present study therefore evaluated various forms of the {sup 125}iodinated-Bolton-Hunter (BH)-exendin(9-39) antagonist tracer for the in vitro visualization of GLP-1 receptor-expressing tissues in rats and humans and compared it with the agonist tracer {sup 125}I-GLP-1(7-36)amide. Receptor autoradiography studies with {sup 125}I-GLP-1(7-36)amide agonist or {sup 125}I-BH-exendin(9-39) antagonist radioligands were performed in human and rat tissues. The antagonist {sup 125}I-BH-exendin(9-39) labelled at lysine 19 identifies all human and rat GLP-1 target tissues and GLP-1 receptor-expressing tumours. Binding is of high affinity and is comparable in all tested tissues in its binding properties with the agonist tracer {sup 125}I-GLP-1(7-36)amide. For comparison, {sup 125}I-BH-exendin(9-39) with the BH labelled at lysine 4 did identify the GLP-1 receptor in rat tissues but not in human tissues. The GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin(9-39) labelled with {sup 125}I-BH at lysine 19 is an excellent GLP-1 radioligand that identifies human and rat GLP-1 receptors in normal and tumoural tissues. It may therefore be the molecular basis to develop suitable GLP-1 receptor antagonist radioligands for in vivo imaging of GLP-1 receptor-expressing tissues in patients. (orig.)

  13. Radiolabelled GLP-1 receptor antagonist binds to GLP-1 receptor-expressing human tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waser, Beatrice; Reubi, Jean Claude

    2014-01-01

    Radiolabelled glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists have recently been shown to successfully image benign insulinomas in patients. For the somatostatin receptor targeting of tumours, however, it was recently reported that antagonist tracers were superior to agonist tracers. The present study therefore evaluated various forms of the 125 iodinated-Bolton-Hunter (BH)-exendin(9-39) antagonist tracer for the in vitro visualization of GLP-1 receptor-expressing tissues in rats and humans and compared it with the agonist tracer 125 I-GLP-1(7-36)amide. Receptor autoradiography studies with 125 I-GLP-1(7-36)amide agonist or 125 I-BH-exendin(9-39) antagonist radioligands were performed in human and rat tissues. The antagonist 125 I-BH-exendin(9-39) labelled at lysine 19 identifies all human and rat GLP-1 target tissues and GLP-1 receptor-expressing tumours. Binding is of high affinity and is comparable in all tested tissues in its binding properties with the agonist tracer 125 I-GLP-1(7-36)amide. For comparison, 125 I-BH-exendin(9-39) with the BH labelled at lysine 4 did identify the GLP-1 receptor in rat tissues but not in human tissues. The GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin(9-39) labelled with 125 I-BH at lysine 19 is an excellent GLP-1 radioligand that identifies human and rat GLP-1 receptors in normal and tumoural tissues. It may therefore be the molecular basis to develop suitable GLP-1 receptor antagonist radioligands for in vivo imaging of GLP-1 receptor-expressing tissues in patients. (orig.)

  14. Biomarker expression in rectal cancer tissue before and after neoadjuvant therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boogerd LS

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Leonora SF Boogerd,1 Maxime JM van der Valk,1 Martin C Boonstra,1 Hendrica AJM Prevoo,1 Denise E Hilling,1 Cornelis JH van de Velde,1 Cornelis FM Sier,1 Arantza Fariña Sarasqueta,2 Alexander L Vahrmeijer1 1Department of Surgery, 2Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands Purpose: Intraoperative identification of rectal cancer (RC can be challenging, especially because of fibrosis after treatment with preoperative chemo- and radiotherapy (CRT. Tumor-targeted fluorescence imaging can enhance the contrast between tumor and normal tissue during surgery. Promising targets for RC imaging are carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM and the tyrosine-kinase receptor Met (c-Met. The effect of CRT on their expression determines their applicability for imaging. Therefore, we investigated whether CRT modifies expression patterns in tumors, lymph node (LN metastases and adjacent normal rectal tissues. Patients and methods: Preoperative biopsies, primary tumor specimens and metastatic LNs were collected from 38 RC patients who did not receive CRT (cohort 1 and 34 patients who did (cohort 2. CEA, EpCAM and c-Met expression was determined using immunohistochemical staining and was semiquantified by a total immunostaining score (TIS, consisting of the percentage and intensity of stained tumor cells (0–12. Results: In both cohorts CEA, EpCAM and c-Met were significantly highly expressed in >60% of tumor tissues compared with adjacent normal epithelium (T/N ratio, P<0.01. EpCAM showed the most homogenous expression in tumors, whereas CEA showed the highest T/N ratio. Most importantly, CEA and EpCAM expression did not significantly change in normal or neoplastic RC tissue after CRT, whereas levels of c-Met changed (P=0.02. Tissues of eight patients with a pathological complete response after CRT showed expression of all biomarkers with TIS close to normal epithelium. Conclusion: Histological

  15. Prognostic value of matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression in patients with juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: tissue microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xicai; Guo, Limin; Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Huan; Liu, Zhuofu; Liu, Juan; Yu, Huapeng; Hu, Li; Li, Han; Wang, Dehui

    2014-08-01

    Although JNA is a benign neoplasm histopathologically, it has a propensity for locally destructive growth and remains a higher postoperative recurrence rate. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression and localization of MMP-9 in JNA using tissue microarray to elucidate its correlation with clinicopathological features and recurrence. The expression of MMP-9 was assessed by immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray from 70 patients with JNA and 10 control subjects. Correlation between the levels of MMP-9 expression and clinicopathologic variables, as well as tumor recurrence, were analyzed. MMP-9 was detected in perivascular and extravascular less differentiated cells and stromal cells of patients with JNA but not in the matured vascular endothelial cells of these patients. The presence of MMP-9 expression in JNA was correlated with patient's age (p=0.001). Spearman correlation analysis suggested that high expression of MMP-9 in JNA had negative correlation with patient's age (r=-0.412, p<0.001). The recurrence rate in JNA patients with high MMP-9 expression was significantly higher than those with low MMP-9 expression (p=0.002). In multivariate and ROC curve analysis, MMP-9 was a good prognostic factor for tumor recurrence of JNA. Higher MMP-9 expression is a poor prognostic factor for patients with JNA who have been surgically treated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Promoter methylation inhibits BRD7 expression in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Huaying; Li, Guiyuan; Zhang, Liming; Niu, Zhaoxia; Zhou, Ming; Peng, Cong; Li, Xiayu; Deng, Tan; Shi, Lei; Tan, Yixin

    2008-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a head and neck malignancy with high occurrence in South-East Asia and Southern China. Recent findings suggest that epigenetic inactivation of multiple tumor suppressor genes plays an important role in the tumourigenesis of NPC. BRD7 is a NPC-associated bromodomain gene that exhibits a much higher-level of mRNA expression in normal than in NPC biopsies and cell lines. In this study, we explored the role of DNA methylation in regulation of BRD7 transcription. The presence of CpG islands within BRD7 promoter was predicted by EMBOSS CpGplot and Softberry CpGFinder, respectively. Nested methylation-specific PCR and RT-PCR were employed to detect the methylation status of BRD7 promoter and the mRNA expression of BRD7 gene in tumor cell lines as well as clinical samples. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) and luciferase assay were used to detect the effects of cytosine methylation on the nuclear protein binding to BRD7 promoter. We found that DNA methylation suppresses BRD7 expression in NPC cells. In vitro DNA methylation in NPC cells silenced BRD7 promoter activity and inhibited the binding of the nuclear protein (possibly Sp1) to Sp1 binding sites in the BRD7 promoter. In contrast, inhibition of DNA methylation augments induction of endogenous BRD7 mRNA in NPC cells. We also found that methylation frequency of BRD7 promoter is much higher in the tumor and matched blood samples from NPC patients than in the blood samples from normal individuals. BRD7 promoter demethylation is a prerequisite for high level induction of BRD7 gene expression. DNA methylation of BRD7 promoter might serve as a diagnostic marker in NPC

  17. Adaptive growth factor delivery from a polyelectrolyte coating promotes synergistic bone tissue repair and reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nisarg J.; Hyder, Md. Nasim; Quadir, Mohiuddin A.; Dorval Courchesne, Noémie-Manuelle; Seeherman, Howard J.; Nevins, Myron; Spector, Myron; Hammond, Paula T.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic wounds and congenital defects that require large-scale bone tissue repair have few successful clinical therapies, particularly for craniomaxillofacial defects. Although bioactive materials have demonstrated alternative approaches to tissue repair, an optimized materials system for reproducible, safe, and targeted repair remains elusive. We hypothesized that controlled, rapid bone formation in large, critical-size defects could be induced by simultaneously delivering multiple biological growth factors to the site of the wound. Here, we report an approach for bone repair using a polyelectrolye multilayer coating carrying as little as 200 ng of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and platelet-derived growth factor-BB that were eluted over readily adapted time scales to induce rapid bone repair. Based on electrostatic interactions between the polymer multilayers and growth factors alone, we sustained mitogenic and osteogenic signals with these growth factors in an easily tunable and controlled manner to direct endogenous cell function. To prove the role of this adaptive release system, we applied the polyelectrolyte coating on a well-studied biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) support membrane. The released growth factors directed cellular processes to induce bone repair in a critical-size rat calvaria model. The released growth factors promoted local bone formation that bridged a critical-size defect in the calvaria as early as 2 wk after implantation. Mature, mechanically competent bone regenerated the native calvaria form. Such an approach could be clinically useful and has significant benefits as a synthetic, off-the-shelf, cell-free option for bone tissue repair and restoration. PMID:25136093

  18. Promoter hypermethylation of the RECK gene is associated with its low expression and poor survival of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing; Ling, Yang; Xu, Yun; Lu, Mingzhu; Liu, Yongping; Zhang, Changsong

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the association between the methylation status of the reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK) gene and its mRNA expression levels in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The methylation status of RECK was analyzed by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and RECK mRNA expression levels were analyzed by quantitative PCR, in 310 paired ESCC tissues. The mean RECK methylation index (MI) was 0.65 in ESCCs and 0.49 in non-tumor samples. There was a significant association between RECK methylation and the American Joint Committee on Cancer stage and lymph node metastasis in ESCC (P0.16; mean-∆∆Cq=−2.85) compared with those with hypomethylation of the RECK gene (∆MI ≤0.16; mean-∆∆Ct=−0.83), and there was a significant difference in the mRNA expression levels of RECK between those with N0–1 and N2–3 lymph node metastasis (P<0.0001). A significant correlation was observed between RECK mRNA expression levels, the MI of RECK and poor postoperative survival (P=0.0003; P<0.0001). The results of the present study suggested that promoter hypermethylation may be an important factor for loss of RECK mRNA expression and may be an indicator of poor survival in ESCC. PMID:28454343

  19. High efficiency of targeted mutagenesis in arabidopsis via meiotic promoter-driven expression of Cas9 endonuclease

    KAUST Repository

    Eid, Ayman

    2016-05-28

    Key message: The use of a meiosis I-specific promoter increased the efficiency of targeted mutagenesis and will facilitate the manipulation of homologous recombination. Abstract: The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been harnessed for targeted engineering of eukaryotic genomes, including plants; however, CRISPR/Cas9 efficiency varies considerably in different plant tissues and species. In Arabidopsis, the generation of homozygous or bi-allelic mutants in the first (T1) generation is inefficient. Here, we used specific promoters to drive the expression of Cas9 during meiosis to maximize the efficiency of recovering heritable mutants in T1 plants. Our data reveal that the use of a promoter active in meiosis I resulted in high-efficiency (28 %) recovery of targeted mutants in the T1 generation. Moreover, this method enabled efficient simultaneous targeting of three genes for mutagenesis. Taken together, our results show that the use of meiosis-specific promoters will improve methods for functional genomic analysis and studying the molecular underpinnings of homologous recombination. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  20. c-Myc activates BRCA1 gene expression through distal promoter elements in breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yinghua; Xu, Jinhua; Borowicz, Stanley; Collins, Cindy; Huo, Dezheng; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I

    2011-01-01

    The BRCA1 gene plays an important role in the maintenance of genomic stability. BRCA1 inactivation contributes to breast cancer tumorigenesis. An increasing number of transcription factors have been shown to regulate BRCA1 expression. c-Myc can act as a transcriptional activator, regulating up to 15% of all genes in the human genome and results from a high throughput screen suggest that BRCA1 is one of its targets. In this report, we used cultured breast cancer cells to examine the mechanisms of transcriptional activation of BRCA1 by c-Myc. c-Myc was depleted using c-Myc-specific siRNAs in cultured breast cancer cells. BRCA1 mRNA expression and BRCA1 protein expression were determined by quantitative RT-PCR and western blot, respectively and BRCA1 promoter activities were examined under these conditions. DNA sequence analysis was conducted to search for high similarity to E boxes in the BRCA1 promoter region. The association of c-Myc with the BRCA1 promoter in vivo was tested by a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. We investigated the function of the c-Myc binding site in the BRCA1 promoter region by a promoter assay with nucleotide substitutions in the putative E boxes. BRCA1-dependent DNA repair activities were measured by a GFP-reporter assay. Depletion of c-Myc was found to be correlated with reduced expression levels of BRCA1 mRNA and BRCA1 protein. Depletion of c-Myc decreased BRCA1 promoter activity, while ectopically expressed c-Myc increased BRCA1 promoter activity. In the distal BRCA1 promoter, DNA sequence analysis revealed two tandem clusters with high similarity, and each cluster contained a possible c-Myc binding site. c-Myc bound to these regions in vivo. Nucleotide substitutions in the c-Myc binding sites in these regions abrogated c-Myc-dependent promoter activation. Furthermore, breast cancer cells with reduced BRCA1 expression due to depletion of c-Myc exhibited impaired DNA repair activity. The distal BRCA1 promoter region is associated with c

  1. Reduced expression of APC-1B but not APC-1A by the deletion of promoter 1B is responsible for familial adenomatous polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Kiyoshi; Nagayama, Satoshi; Shimizu, Eigo; Komura, Mitsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Rui; Shibuya, Tetsuo; Arai, Masami; Hatakeyama, Seira; Ikenoue, Tsuneo; Ueno, Masashi; Miyano, Satoru; Imoto, Seiya; Furukawa, Yoichi

    2016-05-24

    Germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene APC are associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Here we applied whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to the DNA of a sporadic FAP patient in which we did not find any pathological APC mutations by direct sequencing. WGS identified a promoter deletion of approximately 10 kb encompassing promoter 1B and exon1B of APC. Additional allele-specific expression analysis by deep cDNA sequencing revealed that the deletion reduced the expression of the mutated APC allele to as low as 11.2% in the total APC transcripts, suggesting that the residual mutant transcripts were driven by other promoter(s). Furthermore, cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) demonstrated that the deleted promoter 1B region is responsible for the great majority of APC transcription in many tissues except the brain. The deletion decreased the transcripts of APC-1B to 39-45% in the patient compared to the healthy controls, but it did not decrease those of APC-1A. Different deletions including promoter 1B have been reported in FAP patients. Taken together, our results strengthen the evidence that analysis of structural variations in promoter 1B should be considered for the FAP patients whose pathological mutations are not identified by conventional direct sequencing.

  2. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue of the Syrian golden hamster expresses high levels of PrPC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa D Clouse

    Full Text Available The key event in the pathogenesis of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies is a template-dependent misfolding event where an infectious isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc comes into contact with native prion protein (PrPC and changes its conformation to PrPSc. In many extraneurally inoculated models of prion disease this PrPC misfolding event occurs in lymphoid tissues prior to neuroinvasion. The primary objective of this study was to compare levels of total PrPC in hamster lymphoid tissues involved in the early pathogenesis of prion disease. Lymphoid tissues were collected from golden Syrian hamsters and Western blot analysis was performed to quantify PrPC levels. PrPC immunohistochemistry (IHC of paraffin embedded tissue sections was performed to identify PrPC distribution in tissues of the lymphoreticular system. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue contained the highest amount of total PrPC followed by Peyer's patches, mesenteric and submandibular lymph nodes, and spleen. The relative levels of PrPC expression in IHC processed tissue correlated strongly with the Western blot data, with high levels of PrPC corresponding with a higher percentage of PrPC positive B cell follicles. High levels of PrPC in lymphoid tissues closely associated with the nasal cavity could contribute to the relative increased efficiency of the nasal route of entry of prions, compared to other routes of infection.

  3. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue of the Syrian golden hamster expresses high levels of PrPC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouse, Melissa D; Shikiya, Ronald A; Bartz, Jason C; Kincaid, Anthony E

    2015-01-01

    The key event in the pathogenesis of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies is a template-dependent misfolding event where an infectious isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc) comes into contact with native prion protein (PrPC) and changes its conformation to PrPSc. In many extraneurally inoculated models of prion disease this PrPC misfolding event occurs in lymphoid tissues prior to neuroinvasion. The primary objective of this study was to compare levels of total PrPC in hamster lymphoid tissues involved in the early pathogenesis of prion disease. Lymphoid tissues were collected from golden Syrian hamsters and Western blot analysis was performed to quantify PrPC levels. PrPC immunohistochemistry (IHC) of paraffin embedded tissue sections was performed to identify PrPC distribution in tissues of the lymphoreticular system. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue contained the highest amount of total PrPC followed by Peyer's patches, mesenteric and submandibular lymph nodes, and spleen. The relative levels of PrPC expression in IHC processed tissue correlated strongly with the Western blot data, with high levels of PrPC corresponding with a higher percentage of PrPC positive B cell follicles. High levels of PrPC in lymphoid tissues closely associated with the nasal cavity could contribute to the relative increased efficiency of the nasal route of entry of prions, compared to other routes of infection.

  4. Expression and clinical significance of connective tissue growth factor in thyroid carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guimin; Zhang, Wei; Meng, Wei; Liu, Jia; Wang, Peisong; Lin, Shan; Xu, Liyan; Li, Enmin; Chen, Guang

    2013-08-01

    To examine expression of the connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene in human thyroid cancer and establish whether a correlation exists between the presence of CTGF protein and clinicopathological parameters of the disease. CTGF protein expression was investigated retrospectively by immunohistochemical analysis of CTGF protein levels in thyroid tumour tissue. Associations between immunohistochemical score and several clinicopathological parameters were examined. In total, 131 thyroid tissue specimens were included. High levels of CTGF protein were observed in papillary thyroid carcinoma tissue; benign thyroid tumour tissue scored negatively for CTGF protein. In papillary thyroid carcinoma, there was a significant relationship between high CTGF protein levels and Union for International Cancer Control disease stage III-IV, and presence of lymph node metastasis. In papillary thyroid carcinomas, CTGF protein levels were not significantly associated with sex or age. These findings suggest that the CTGF protein level is increased in papillary thyroid carcinoma cells compared with benign thyroid tumours. CTGF expression might play a role in the development of malignant tumours in the thyroid.

  5. Differential expression of proteoglycans in tissue remodeling and lymphangiogenesis after experimental renal transplantation in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen Rienstra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic transplant dysfunction explains the majority of late renal allograft loss and is accompanied by extensive tissue remodeling leading to transplant vasculopathy, glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. Matrix proteoglycans mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and play key roles in tissue remodeling. The aim of this study was to characterize differential heparan sulfate proteoglycan and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan expression in transplant vasculopathy, glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis in renal allografts with chronic transplant dysfunction. METHODS: Renal allografts were transplanted in the Dark Agouti-to-Wistar Furth rat strain combination. Dark Agouti-to-Dark Agouti isografts and non-transplanted Dark Agouti kidneys served as controls. Allograft and isograft recipients were sacrificed 66 and 81 days (mean after transplantation, respectively. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan (collXVIII, perlecan and agrin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (versican expression, as well as CD31 and LYVE-1 (vascular and lymphatic endothelium, respectively expression were (semi- quantitatively analyzed using immunofluorescence. FINDINGS: Arteries with transplant vasculopathy and sclerotic glomeruli in allografts displayed pronounced neo-expression of collXVIII and perlecan. In contrast, in interstitial fibrosis expression of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan versican dominated. In the cortical tubular basement membranes in both iso- and allografts, induction of collXVIII was detected. Allografts presented extensive lymphangiogenesis (p<0.01 compared to isografts and non-transplanted controls, which was associated with induced perlecan expression underneath the lymphatic endothelium (p<0.05 and p<0.01 compared to isografts and non-transplanted controls, respectively. Both the magnitude of lymphangiogenesis and perlecan expression correlated with severity of interstitial fibrosis and impaired graft function

  6. EXPRESSION OF ANTIVIRAL GENE ON TIGER SHRIMP Penaeus monodon AT DIFFERENT TISSUE AND BODY SIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Parenrengi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of tiger shrimp defense against invading pathogen on molecular level such antiviral gene expression is limited to be reported. Gene expression is a process which codes information of genes that is converted to the protein as a phenotype. Distribution of PmAV antivirus gene, that has been reported as an important gene on non-specific response immune, is needed to be observed to several organs/tissues and size of tiger shrimp. The aim of this study is to determine the distribution of gene antiviral expression at several organ/tissue and size of shrimp. The organs/tissues observed in this study were: gill, hepatopancres, muscle tissue, eyes, heart, stomach, gonad, and intestine. While the size of shrimp consisted of three groups, those are: (A 10-20 g/ind., (B 30-40 g/ind., and (C 60-70 g/ind. Analysis of antiviral gene expression was performed by RNA extraction, followed by the cDNA syntesis, and amplification of gene expression by semi-quantitative PCR. The result of PCR optimation showed the optimal concentration of cDNA and primer was 1 μL and 50 mol, respectively for PCR final volume of 25 μL. Antiviral gene was expressed on the hepatopancreas and stomach in percentage of 50.0% and 16.7%, respectively. While the highest percentage of individual expressing the antiviral gene was observed in the shrimp size of C (66.7%, followed by B (50.0% and A (16.7%. The result of study implied that the hepatopancreas has importantly involed in tiger shrimp defense mechanism on viral infection.

  7. Evaluation of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies in bovine muscular tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunner Susana

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Real-time reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time RTqPCR is a technique used to measure mRNA species copy number as a way to determine key genes involved in different biological processes. However, the expression level of these key genes may vary among tissues or cells not only as a consequence of differential expression but also due to different factors, including choice of reference genes to normalize the expression levels of the target genes; thus the selection of reference genes is critical for expression studies. For this purpose, ten candidate reference genes were investigated in bovine muscular tissue. Results The value of stability of ten candidate reference genes included in three groups was estimated: the so called 'classical housekeeping' genes (18S, GAPDH and ACTB, a second set of genes used in expression studies conducted on other tissues (B2M, RPII, UBC and HMBS and a third set of novel genes (SF3A1, EEF1A2 and CASC3. Three different statistical algorithms were used to rank the genes by their stability measures as produced by geNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper. The three methods tend to agree on the most stably expressed genes and the least in muscular tissue. EEF1A2 and HMBS followed by SF3A1, ACTB, and CASC3 can be considered as stable reference genes, and B2M, RPII, UBC and GAPDH would not be appropriate. Although the rRNA-18S stability measure seems to be within the range of acceptance, its use is not recommended because its synthesis regulation is not representative of mRNA levels. Conclusion Based on geNorm algorithm, we propose the use of three genes SF3A1, EEF1A2 and HMBS as references for normalization of real-time RTqPCR in muscle expression studies.

  8. Different Cells Make Different Proteins: A Laboratory Exercise Illustrating Tissue-Specific Protein Expression in Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarguren, Izaskun; Villamarín, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    All the cells of higher organisms have the same DNA but not the same proteins. Each type of specialised cell that forms a tissue has its own pattern of gene expression and, consequently, it contains a particular set of proteins that determine its function. Here, we describe a laboratory exercise addressed to undergraduate students that aims to…

  9. Tissue-specific alternative splicing and expression of ATP1B2 gene

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user6

    2012-05-15

    May 15, 2012 ... The Na+-K+-ATPase is an essential transport enzyme expressed in all animal tissues, where it generates ion gradients to maintain membrane potential and drive the transport of other solutes. It also balances metabolism and body temperature. In this study, the characterization of three novel bovine ...

  10. Tissue specific and androgen-regulated expression of human prostate-specific transglutaminase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Dubbink (Erik Jan); N.S. Verkaik (Nicole); P.W. Faber; J. Trapman (Jan); F.H. Schröder (Fritz); J.C. Romijn (Johannes)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractTransglutaminases (TGases) are calcium-dependent enzymes catalysing the post-translational cross-linking of proteins. In the prostate at least two TGases are present, the ubiquitously expressed tissue-type TGase (TGC), and a prostate-restricted TGase (TGP).

  11. PRDM1 expression on the epithelial component but not on ectopic lymphoid tissues of Warthin tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Zhou, J; Zhang, Y; Wang, L; Liu, Y; Fan, L; Zhu, J; Xu, X; Huang, G; Li, X; Xun, W

    2015-05-01

    To determine the role of PRDM1, a key molecule for modulating the immune cells, in Warthin tumour (WT) pathogenesis. Forty paraffin-embedded parotid tissues of patients (mean age: 62.08 ± 11.90) with WT were retrieved from the pathology archives of Qindu Hospital from January 2012 to December 2012. The PRDM1 expression was investigated in a cohort of WT by immunohistochemistry. PRDM1 was expressed only on the epithelial component but not on ectopic lymphoid tissue of the tumour. Statistically, PRDM1 expression rates between WT glandular epithelial cells (40/40 cases) and the tumour-adjacent tissues (0/9 cases), and WT germinal centres (0/34 cases) and tonsil tissues (10/10 cases) were significantly different (P < 0.001), respectively. The PRDM1 expression appeared to play an essential role in WT pathogenesis. A better understanding of it might give options for revealing possible novel management strategies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Identification of reference genes and validation for gene expression studies in diverse axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelke, Eileen; Bucan, Vesna; Liebsch, Christina; Lazaridis, Andrea; Radtke, Christine; Vogt, Peter M; Reimers, Kerstin

    2015-04-10

    For the precise quantitative RT-PCR normalization a set of valid reference genes is obligatory. Moreover have to be taken into concern the experimental conditions as they bias the regulation of reference genes. Up till now, no reference targets have been described for the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). In a search in the public database SalSite for genetic information of the axolotl we identified fourteen presumptive reference genes, eleven of which were further tested for their gene expression stability. This study characterizes the expressional patterns of 11 putative endogenous control genes during axolotl limb regeneration and in an axolotl tissue panel. All 11 reference genes showed variable expression. Strikingly, ACTB was to be found most stable expressed in all comparative tissue groups, so we reason it to be suitable for all different kinds of axolotl tissue-type investigations. Moreover do we suggest GAPDH and RPLP0 as suitable for certain axolotl tissue analysis. When it comes to axolotl limb regeneration, a validated pair of reference genes is ODC and RPLP0. With these findings, new insights into axolotl gene expression profiling might be gained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. C60 exposure induced tissue damage and gene expression alterations in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, van der M.J.C.; Handy, R.D.; Heckmann, L.H.; Hout, van der A.; Brink, van den N.W.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of C60 exposure (0, 15 or 154 mg/kg soil) on the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus were assessed at the tissue and molecular level, in two experiments. In the first experiment, earthworms were exposed for four weeks, and in the second lifelong. In both experiments, gene expression of heat shock

  14. cDNA sequence and tissue expression analysis of glucokinase from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-10

    Jan 10, 2012 ... distribution of GK mRNA in brain, mesenteric adipose tissue, spleen, white muscle and liver of grass ... expression profile of GK mRNA in liver normalized with β-actin level was 31, 454 and 649-fold compared .... Primers and expected products used for GK gene cDNA RT-PCR, RACE and real-time PCR.

  15. Influence of surgical decompression on the expression of inflammatory and tissue repair biomarkers in periapical cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Janderson Teixeira; Dos Santos Antunes, Henrique; Armada, Luciana; Pires, Fábio Ramôa

    2017-12-01

    The biologic effects of surgical decompression on the epithelium and connective tissues of periapical cysts are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of tissue repair and inflammatory biomarkers in periapical cysts before and after surgical decompression. Nine specimens of periapical cysts treated with decompression before undergoing complete enucleation were immunohistochemically analyzed to investigate the expression of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor-β1, matrix metalloproteinase-9, Ki-67, and epidermal growth factor receptor. Expression of the biomarkers was classified as positive, focal, or negative. Ki-67 immunoexpression was calculated as a cell proliferation index. The expression of the biomarkers was compared in the specimens from decompression and from the final surgical procedure. Computed tomography demonstrated that volume was reduced in all cysts after decompression. There were no differences in the immunoexpression of the proinflammatory and tissue repair biomarkers when comparing the specimens obtained before and after the decompression. Surgical decompression was efficient in reducing the volume of periapical cysts before complete enucleation. When comparing the specimens obtained from surgical decompression and from complete surgical removal, the immunohistochemical analysis did not show a decrease in proinflammatory biomarkers; neither did it show an increase in tissue repair biomarkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Tissue distribution and developmental expression of type XVI collagen in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C H; Chu, M L

    1996-04-01

    The expression of a recently identified collagen, alpha 1 (XVI), in adult mouse tissue and developing mouse embryo was examined by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. A polyclonal antiserum was raised against a recombinant fusion protein, which contained a segment of 161 amino acids in the N-terminal noncollagenous domain of the human alpha 1 (XVI) collagen. Immunoprecipitation of metabolically labelled human or mouse fibroblast cell lysates with this antibody revealed a major, bacterial collagenase sensitive polypeptide of approximately 210 kDa. The size agrees with the prediction from the full-length cDNA. Immunofluorescence examination of adult mouse tissues using the affinity purified antibody revealed a rather broad distribution of the protein. The heart, kidney, intestine, ovary, testis, eye, arterial walls and smooth muscles all exhibited significant levels of expression, while the skeletal muscle, lung and brain showed very restricted and low signals. During development, no significant expression of the mRNA or protein was observed in embryo of day 8 of gestation, but strong signals was detected in placental trophoblasts. Expression in embryos was detectable first after day 11 of gestation with weak positive signals appearing in the heart. In later stages of development, stronger RNA hybridizations were observed in a variety of tissues, particularly in atrial and ventricular walls of the developing heart, spinal root neural fibers and skin. These data demonstrate that type XVI collagen represents another collagenous component widely distributed in the extracellular matrix and may contribute to the structural integrity of various tissues.

  17. Report on emerging technologies for translational bioinformatics: a symposium on gene expression profiling for archival tissues

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    Waldron Levi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With over 20 million formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue samples archived each year in the United States alone, archival tissues remain a vast and under-utilized resource in the genomic study of cancer. Technologies have recently been introduced for whole-transcriptome amplification and microarray analysis of degraded mRNA fragments from FFPE samples, and studies of these platforms have only recently begun to enter the published literature. Results The Emerging Technologies for Translational Bioinformatics symposium on gene expression profiling for archival tissues featured presentations of two large-scale FFPE expression profiling studies (each involving over 1,000 samples, overviews of several smaller studies, and representatives from three leading companies in the field (Illumina, Affymetrix, and NuGEN. The meeting highlighted challenges in the analysis of expression data from archival tissues and strategies being developed to overcome them. In particular, speakers reported higher rates of clinical sample failure (from 10% to 70% than are typical for fresh-frozen tissues, as well as more frequent probe failure for individual samples. The symposium program is available at http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/ffpe. Conclusions Multiple solutions now exist for whole-genome expression profiling of FFPE tissues, including both microarray- and sequencing-based platforms. Several studies have reported their successful application, but substantial challenges and risks still exist. Symposium speakers presented novel methodology for analysis of FFPE expression data and suggestions for improving data recovery and quality assessment in pre-analytical stages. Research presentations emphasized the need for careful study design, including the use of pilot studies, replication, and randomization of samples among batches, as well as careful attention to data quality control. Regardless of any limitations in quantitave transcriptomics for

  18. An Intergenic Region Shared by At4g35985 and At4g35987 in Arabidopsis thaliana Is a Tissue Specific and Stress Inducible Bidirectional Promoter Analyzed in Transgenic Arabidopsis and Tobacco Plants

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    Banerjee, Joydeep; Sahoo, Dipak Kumar; Dey, Nrisingha; Houtz, Robert L.; Maiti, Indu Bhushan

    2013-01-01

    On chromosome 4 in the Arabidopsis genome, two neighboring genes (calmodulin methyl transferase At4g35987 and senescence associated gene At4g35985) are located in a head-to-head divergent orientation sharing a putative bidirectional promoter. This 1258 bp intergenic region contains a number of environmental stress responsive and tissue specific cis-regulatory elements. Transcript analysis of At4g35985 and At4g35987 genes by quantitative real time PCR showed tissue specific and stress inducible expression profiles. We tested the bidirectional promoter-function of the intergenic region shared by the divergent genes At4g35985 and At4g35987 using two reporter genes (GFP and GUS) in both orientations in transient tobacco protoplast and Agro-infiltration assays, as well as in stably transformed transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. In transient assays with GFP and GUS reporter genes the At4g35985 promoter (P85) showed stronger expression (about 3.5 fold) compared to the At4g35987 promoter (P87). The tissue specific as well as stress responsive functional nature of the bidirectional promoter was evaluated in independent transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco lines. Expression of P85 activity was detected in the midrib of leaves, leaf trichomes, apical meristemic regions, throughout the root, lateral roots and flowers. The expression of P87 was observed in leaf-tip, hydathodes, apical meristem, root tips, emerging lateral root tips, root stele region and in floral tissues. The bidirectional promoter in both orientations shows differential up-regulation (2.5 to 3 fold) under salt stress. Use of such regulatory elements of bidirectional promoters showing spatial and stress inducible promoter-functions in heterologous system might be an important tool for plant biotechnology and gene stacking applications. PMID:24260266

  19. An intergenic region shared by At4g35985 and At4g35987 in Arabidopsis thaliana is a tissue specific and stress inducible bidirectional promoter analyzed in transgenic arabidopsis and tobacco plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joydeep Banerjee

    Full Text Available On chromosome 4 in the Arabidopsis genome, two neighboring genes (calmodulin methyl transferase At4g35987 and senescence associated gene At4g35985 are located in a head-to-head divergent orientation sharing a putative bidirectional promoter. This 1258 bp intergenic region contains a number of environmental stress responsive and tissue specific cis-regulatory elements. Transcript analysis of At4g35985 and At4g35987 genes by quantitative real time PCR showed tissue specific and stress inducible expression profiles. We tested the bidirectional promoter-function of the intergenic region shared by the divergent genes At4g35985 and At4g35987 using two reporter genes (GFP and GUS in both orientations in transient tobacco protoplast and Agro-infiltration assays, as well as in stably transformed transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. In transient assays with GFP and GUS reporter genes the At4g35985 promoter (P85 showed stronger expression (about 3.5 fold compared to the At4g35987 promoter (P87. The tissue specific as well as stress responsive functional nature of the bidirectional promoter was evaluated in independent transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco lines. Expression of P85 activity was detected in the midrib of leaves, leaf trichomes, apical meristemic regions, throughout the root, lateral roots and flowers. The expression of P87 was observed in leaf-tip, hydathodes, apical meristem, root tips, emerging lateral root tips, root stele region and in floral tissues. The bidirectional promoter in both orientations shows differential up-regulation (2.5 to 3 fold under salt stress. Use of such regulatory elements of bidirectional promoters showing spatial and stress inducible promoter-functions in heterologous system might be an important tool for plant biotechnology and gene stacking applications.

  20. Matrix- and plasma-derived peptides promote tissue-specific injury responses and wound healing in diabetic swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Anthony R; Massey, Conner J; Cronk, Stephen M; Iafrati, Mark D; Herman, Ira M

    2016-07-02

    Non-healing wounds are a major global health concern and account for the majority of non-traumatic limb amputations worldwide. However, compared to standard care practices, few advanced therapeutics effectively resolve these injuries stemming from cardiovascular disease, aging, and diabetes-related vasculopathies. While matrix turnover is disrupted in these injuries, debriding enzymes may promote healing by releasing matrix fragments that induce cell migration, proliferation, and morphogenesis, and plasma products may also stimulate these processes. Thus, we created matrix- and plasma-derived peptides, Comb1 and UN3, which induce cellular injury responses in vitro, and accelerate healing in rodent models of non-healing wounds. However, the effects of these peptides in non-healing wounds in diabetes are not known. Here, we interrogated whether these peptides stimulate healing in a diabetic porcine model highly reminiscent of human healing impairments in type 1 and type 2-diabetes. After 3-6 weeks of streptozotocin-induced diabetes, full-thickness wounds were surgically created on the backs of adult female Yorkshire swine under general anesthesia. Comb1 and UN3 peptides or sterile saline (negative control) were administered to wounds daily for 3-7 days. Following sacrifice, wound tissues were harvested, and quantitative histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed for wound closure, angiogenesis and granulation tissue deposition, along with quantitative molecular analyses of factors critical for angiogenesis, epithelialization, and dermal matrix remodeling. Comb1 and UN3 significantly increase re-epithelialization and angiogenesis in diabetic porcine wounds, compared to saline-treated controls. Additionally, fluorescein-conjugated Comb1 labels keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and vascular endothelial cells in porcine wounds, and Far western blotting reveals these cell populations express multiple fluorescein-Comb1-interacting proteins in vitro. Further

  1. Commensal bacteria-dependent select expression of CXCL2 contributes to periodontal tissue homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenobia, Camille; Luo, Xiao Long; Hashim, Ahmed; Abe, Toshiharu; Jin, Lijian; Chang, Yucheng; Jin, Zhi Chao; Sun, Jian Xun; Hajishengallis, George; Curtis, Mike A; Darveau, Richard P

    2013-08-01

    The oral and intestinal host tissues both carry a heavy microbial burden. Although commensal bacteria contribute to healthy intestinal tissue structure and function, their contribution to oral health is poorly understood. A crucial component of periodontal health is the recruitment of neutrophils to periodontal tissue. To elucidate this process, gingival tissues of specific-pathogen-free and germ-free wild-type mice and CXCR2KO and MyD88KO mice were examined for quantitative analysis of neutrophils and CXCR2 chemoattractants (CXCL1, CXCL2). We show that the recruitment of neutrophils to the gingival tissue does not require commensal bacterial colonization but is entirely dependent on CXCR2 expression. Strikingly, however, commensal bacteria selectively upregulate the expression of CXCL2, but not CXCL1, in a MyD88-dependent way that correlates with increased neutrophil recruitment as compared with germ-free conditions. This is the first evidence that the selective use of chemokine receptor ligands contributes to neutrophil homing to healthy periodontal tissue. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Expression of Kirsten murine sarcoma virus sequences in Beagle dog tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkof, P R; Kelly, G

    1988-12-01

    Labeled cDNA synthesized from RNA extracted from {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}-, {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}-, and {sup 90}Sr-induced lung tumors in Beagle dogs, from nontumor tissue from {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}-exposed dogs, and from unexposed dog lung and liver tissue produces strong hybridization signals with a plasmid (pKSma) that contains Kirsten murine sarcoma virus (KMSV) sequences. At least 90 percent of the KMSV sequences are expressed in these dog tissues, including sequences corresponding to p21 K-ras, qp70 envelope glycoprotein, and at least one other proviral sequence. The expression of Kirsten ras and other sarcoma virus sequences may have important implications for the interpretation of carcinogenesis studies in these dogs. (author)

  3. Expression of Kirsten murine sarcoma virus sequences in Beagle dog tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerkof, P.R.; Kelly, G.

    1988-01-01

    Labeled cDNA synthesized from RNA extracted from 238 PuO 2 -, 239 PuO 2 -, and 90 Sr-induced lung tumors in Beagle dogs, from nontumor tissue from 239 PuO 2 -exposed dogs, and from unexposed dog lung and liver tissue produces strong hybridization signals with a plasmid (pKSma) that contains Kirsten murine sarcoma virus (KMSV) sequences. At least 90 percent of the KMSV sequences are expressed in these dog tissues, including sequences corresponding to p21 K-ras, qp70 envelope glycoprotein, and at least one other proviral sequence. The expression of Kirsten ras and other sarcoma virus sequences may have important implications for the interpretation of carcinogenesis studies in these dogs. (author)

  4. Hypoxic regulation of cytoglobin and neuroglobin expression in human normal and tumor tissues

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    Emara Marwan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytoglobin (Cygb and neuroglobin (Ngb are recently identified globin molecules that are expressed in vertebrate tissues. Upregulation of Cygb and Ngb under hypoxic and/or ischemic conditions in vitro and in vivo increases cell survival, suggesting possible protective roles through prevention of oxidative damage. We have previously shown that Ngb is expressed in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM cell lines, and that expression of its transcript and protein can be significantly increased after exposure to physiologically relevant levels of hypoxia. In this study, we extended this work to determine whether Cygb is also expressed in GBM cells, and whether its expression is enhanced under hypoxic conditions. We also compared Cygb and Ngb expression in human primary tumor specimens, including brain tumors, as well as in human normal tissues. Immunoreactivity of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX, a hypoxia-inducible metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydration of CO2 to bicarbonate, was used as an endogenous marker of hypoxia. Results Cygb transcript and protein were expressed in human GBM cells, and this expression was significantly increased in most cells following 48 h incubation under hypoxia. We also showed that Cygb and Ngb are expressed in both normal tissues and human primary cancers, including GBM. Among normal tissues, Cygb and Ngb expression was restricted to distinct cell types and was especially prominent in ductal cells. Additionally, certain normal organs (e.g. stomach fundus, small bowel showed distinct regional co-localization of Ngb, Cygb and CA IX. In most tumors, Ngb immunoreactivity was significantly greater than that of Cygb. In keeping with previous in vitro results, tumor regions that were positively stained for CA IX were also positive for Ngb and Cygb, suggesting that hypoxic upregulation of Ngb and Cygb also occurs in vivo. Conclusions Our finding of hypoxic up-regulation of Cygb/Ngb in GBM cell lines and human

  5. The application of powerful promoters to enhance gene expression in industrial microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shenghu; Du, Guocheng; Kang, Zhen; Li, Jianghua; Chen, Jian; Li, Huazhong; Zhou, Jingwen

    2017-02-01

    Production of useful chemicals by industrial microorganisms has been attracting more and more attention. Microorganisms screened from their natural environment usually suffer from low productivity, low stress resistance, and accumulation of by-products. In order to overcome these disadvantages, rational engineering of microorganisms to achieve specific industrial goals has become routine. Rapid development of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology strategies provide novel methods to improve the performance of industrial microorganisms. Rational regulation of gene expression by specific promoters is essential to engineer industrial microorganisms for high-efficiency production of target chemicals. Identification, modification, and application of suitable promoters could provide powerful switches at the transcriptional level for fine-tuning of a single gene or a group of genes, which are essential for the reconstruction of pathways. In this review, the characteristics of promoters from eukaryotic, prokaryotic, and archaea microorganisms are briefly introduced. Identification of promoters based on both traditional biochemical and systems biology routes are summarized. Besides rational modification, de novo design of promoters to achieve gradient, dynamic, and logic gate regulation are also introduced. Furthermore, flexible application of static and dynamic promoters for the rational engineering of industrial microorganisms is highlighted. From the perspective of powerful promoters in industrial microorganisms, this review will provide an extensive description of how to regulate gene expression in industrial microorganisms to achieve more useful goals.

  6. Four inducible promoters for controlled gene expression in the oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula toruloides

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    Alexander Michael Bedford Johns

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rhodotorula (Rhodosporidium toruloides is an oleaginous yeast with great biotechnological potential, capable of accumulating lipid up to 70 % of its dry biomass, and of carotenoid biosynthesis. However, few molecular genetic tools are available for manipulation of this basidiomycete yeast and its high genomic GC content can make routine cloning difficult. We have developed plasmid vectors for transformation of R. toruloides which include elements for Saccharomyces cerevisiae in-yeast assembly; this method is robust to the assembly of GC-rich DNA and of large plasmids. Using such vectors we screened for controllable promoters, and identified inducible promoters from the genes NAR1, ICL1, CTR3 and MET16. These four promoters have independent induction/repression conditions and exhibit different levels and rates of induction in R. toruloides, making them appropriate for controllable transgene expression in different experimental situations. Nested deletions were used to identify regulatory regions in the four promoters, and to delimit the minimal inducible promoters, which are as small as 200 bp for the NAR1 promoter. The NAR1 promoter shows very tight regulation under repressed conditions as determined both by an EGFP reporter gene and by conditional rescue of a leu2 mutant. These new tools facilitate molecular genetic manipulation and controllable gene expression in R. toruloides.

  7. BZLF1 Expression of EBV is correlated with PARP1 Regulation on Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Tissues

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    Wahyu nur laili fajri, Ahmad Rofi'i, Fatchiyah Fatchiyah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC is a cancer that arises in the epithelial tissue that covers the inside of the nasopharyngeal mucosa and nasopharynx. Infected Epstein Barr Virus (EBV cell in a latent infection associated with the expression of nine latent proteins. Latent Membrane Protein 1 (LMP1 is one of latent proteins, and mayor EBV oncoprotein, with functions including virus growth, and to activate BamHI-Z Leftward Reading Frame 1 (BZLF1-EBV, which can inhibit p53 to induce apoptotic resistance, metastasis, and immune modulation. The body will respond to the expansion of EBV infection with activation of Poly(ADP-ribosePolymerase-1 (PARP1. The objective of study is to observe the expression of BZLF1 and determine PARP1 regulation in nasopharyngeal tissues. NPC-T2, NPC-T3 and polyp tissues slides are from Ulin Hospital, Banjarmasin. To characterize the necrotic cells such as pyknosis, karyorrhexsis, and karyolysis, histological slides were stained by HE that the necrotic cells measured by using a BX-53 microscope (Olympus with CellSens Standard software. Tissues slides were stained by using immunofluorohistochemistry with EBV-BZLF1 antibody-Mouse anti-EBV monoclonal antibody against Goat anti-mouse IgG-FITC and anti-PARP1 antibody (MC-10 against Goat anti-mouse IgG labeled Rhodamin. The expression intensities were measured by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (Olympus. The percentage number of necrotic cells and BZLF1 and PARP1 expression intensity were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 by one-way ANOVA test with α = 0.05, beside that we use correlate and regression analyze. The research showed that the amount of karryorhexis higher than pyknosis and karyolysis in both tissues. BZLF1 expression 1.79 INT/sel (in polyp, 2.76 INT/sel (NPC Type 2 and 4.36 INT/sel (NPC Type 3, PARP1 expression 2.25 INT/sel (in polyp, 3.31 INT/sel (NPC Type 2, dan 5.93 INT/sel (NPC Type 3.The high of intensity of expression BZLF1 induced the increasing of PARP1 expression

  8. Immunohistochemical Expression of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 (Timp-1 in Invasive Breast Carcinoma

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    Suada Kuskunović

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1 is a natural inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinas-es (MMPs. Aim of this study was to assess the immunohistochemical expression of TIMP-1 in invasive breast carcinomas, and to examine its association with classical clinico-pathological parameters, oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and Her-2/neu protein expression. Immuno-histochemistry was used to determine the expression of TIMP-1 on 38 paraffin-embedded breast tissue specimens - 18 with invasive ductal carcinoma, 10 with invasive lobular carcinoma, and 10 specimens from patients with fibrocystic breast disease. TIMP-1 protein was immunodetected in the carcinoma cells, fibroblasts and inflammatory cells of the stroma in 92,9%, 65,8%, and 65,8% of cases, respectively. TIMP-1 protein expression in carcinoma cells showed positive correlation with TIMP-1 protein expression in peritumoural fibroblasts (p=0,010. Positive peritumoural fibroblast TIMP-1 expression was associated with histological tumour type with higher frequency in ductal carcinomas (p=0,023. Negative association was found between TIMP-1 protein expression in carcinoma cells and HER-2/neu nuclear staining (p=0,005. TIMP-1 may be particularly useful as a predictive marker in breast carcinoma when evaluated along with HER-2/neu protein being a promising indicator of favourable prognosis in breast carcinoma.

  9. Differential expression of pancreatitis-associated protein and thrombospondins in arterial versus venous tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Theodora; Eddy, Susan; Paulauskis, Joseph; Burnett, Robert; Ellekilde, Merete; Iovanna, Juan L; Watts, Stephanie W

    2009-01-01

    Arteries and veins modulate cardiovascular homeostasis and contribute to hypertension pathogenesis. Functional differences between arteries and veins are based upon differences in gene expression. To better characterize these expression patterns, and to identify candidate genes that could be manipulated selectively in the venous system, we performed whole genome expression profiling of arteries and veins. We used the CodeLink platform and the major artery (thoracic aorta) and vein (caudal vena cava) of the rat. The most prominent difference was pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP1), expressed 64-fold higher in vena cava versus aorta. Expression of mRNA for thrombospondins (TSP-1, TSP-4) was greater than 5-fold higher in veins versus arteries. Higher mRNA expression of TSP-1, TSP-2, TSP-4 and PAP1 in vena cava versus aorta was confirmed by PCR. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue sections qualitatively confirmed a higher expression of these proteins in vena cava versus aorta. This is the first gene array study of adult rat arterial and venous tissues, and also the first study to report differences in inflammatory genes between arteries and veins. Data from these studies may provide novel insights into the genetic basis for functional differences between arteries and veins in health and disease. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Differential expression of pancreatitis associated protein and thrombospondins in arterial vs venous tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Theodora; Eddy, Susan; Paulauskis, Joseph; Burnett, Robert; Ellekilde, Merete; Iovanna, Juan L.; Watts, Stephanie W.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS Arteries and veins modulate cardiovascular homeostasis and contribute to hypertension pathogenesis. Functional differences between arteries and veins are based upon differences in gene expression. To better characterize these expression patterns, and to identify candidate genes that could be manipulated selectively in the venous system, we performed whole genome expression profiling of arteries and veins. METHODS We used the CodeLink platform and the major artery (thoracic aorta) and vein (caudal vena cava) of the rat. RESULTS The most prominent difference was pancreatitis associated protein (PAP1), expressed 64-fold higher in vena cava vs aorta. Expression of mRNA for thrombospondins (TSP-1, TSP-4) was greater than 5-fold higher in veins vs arteries. Higher mRNA expression of thrombospondins (TSP-1, 2, 4) and PAP1 in vena cava vs aorta was confirmed by PCR. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue sections qualitatively confirmed a higher expression of these proteins in vena cava vs aorta. CONCLUSION This is the first gene array study of adult rat arterial and venous tissues, and also the first study to report differences in inflammatory genes between arteries and veins. Data from these studies may provide novel insights into the genetic basis for functional differences between arteries and veins in health and disease. PMID:19571575

  11. Expression of human cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) in murine acinar cells promotes pancreatitis and apoptotic cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athwal, T; Huang, W; Mukherjee, R; Latawiec, D; Chvanov, M; Clarke, R; Smith, K; Campbell, F; Merriman, C; Criddle, D; Sutton, R; Neoptolemos, J; Vlatković, N

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary pancreatitis (HP) is an autosomal dominant disease that displays the features of both acute and chronic pancreatitis. Mutations in human cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) are associated with HP and have provided some insight into the pathogenesis of pancreatitis, but mechanisms responsible for the initiation of pancreatitis have not been elucidated and the role of apoptosis and necrosis has been much debated. However, it has been generally accepted that trypsinogen, prematurely activated within the pancreatic acinar cell, has a major role in the initiation process. Functional studies of HP have been limited by the absence of an experimental system that authentically mimics disease development. We therefore developed a novel transgenic murine model system using wild-type (WT) human PRSS1 or two HP-associated mutants (R122H and N29I) to determine whether expression of human cationic trypsinogen in murine acinar cells promotes pancreatitis. The rat elastase promoter was used to target transgene expression to pancreatic acinar cells in three transgenic strains that were generated: Tg(Ela-PRSS1)NV, Tg(Ela-PRSS1*R122H)NV and Tg(Ela-PRSS1*N29I)NV. Mice were analysed histologically, immunohistochemically and biochemically. We found that transgene expression is restricted to pancreatic acinar cells and transgenic PRSS1 proteins are targeted to the pancreatic secretory pathway. Animals from all transgenic strains developed pancreatitis characterised by acinar cell vacuolisation, inflammatory infiltrates and fibrosis. Transgenic animals also developed more severe pancreatitis upon treatment with low-dose cerulein than controls, displaying significantly higher scores for oedema, inflammation and overall histopathology. Expression of PRSS1, WT or mutant, in acinar cells increased apoptosis in pancreatic tissues and isolated acinar cells. Moreover, studies of isolated acinar cells demonstrated that transgene expression promotes apoptosis rather than necrosis. We therefore

  12. Coordinated and interactive expression of genes of lipid metabolism and inflammation in adipose tissue and liver during metabolic overload.

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    Wen Liang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic metabolic overload results in lipid accumulation and subsequent inflammation in white adipose tissue (WAT, often accompanied by non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. In response to metabolic overload, the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and inflammatory processes is adapted. However, it still remains unknown how these adaptations in gene expression in expanding WAT and liver are orchestrated and whether they are interrelated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ApoE*3Leiden mice were fed HFD or chow for different periods up to 12 weeks. Gene expression in WAT and liver over time was evaluated by micro-array analysis. WAT hypertrophy and inflammation were analyzed histologically. Bayesian hierarchical cluster analysis of dynamic WAT gene expression identified groups of genes ('clusters' with comparable expression patterns over time. HFD evoked an immediate response of five clusters of 'lipid metabolism' genes in WAT, which did not further change thereafter. At a later time point (>6 weeks, inflammatory clusters were induced. Promoter analysis of clustered genes resulted in specific key regulators which may orchestrate the metabolic and inflammatory responses in WAT. Some master regulators played a dual role in control of metabolism and inflammation. When WAT inflammation developed (>6 weeks, genes of lipid metabolism and inflammation were also affected in corresponding livers. These hepatic gene expression changes and the underlying transcriptional responses in particular, were remarkably similar to those detected in WAT. CONCLUSION: In WAT, metabolic overload induced an immediate, stable response on clusters of lipid metabolism genes and induced inflammatory genes later in time. Both processes may be controlled and interlinked by specific transcriptional regulators. When WAT inflammation began, the hepatic response to HFD resembled that in WAT. In all, WAT and liver respond to metabolic overload by

  13. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of estrogen receptor gene expression in laser microdissected prostate cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Thomas J; Li, Geng; McCulloch, Thomas A; Seth, Rashmi; Powe, Desmond G; Bishop, Michael C; Rees, Robert C

    2009-06-01

    Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis of laser microdissected tissue is considered the most accurate technique for determining tissue gene expression. The discovery of estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) has focussed renewed interest on the role of estrogen receptors in prostate cancer, yet few studies have utilized the technique to analyze estrogen receptor gene expression in prostate cancer. Fresh tissue was obtained from 11 radical prostatectomy specimens and from 6 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia. Pure populations of benign and malignant prostate epithelium were laser microdissected, followed by RNA isolation and electrophoresis. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed using primers for androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta), estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), progesterone receptor (PGR) and prostate specific antigen (PSA), with normalization to two housekeeping genes. Differences in gene expression were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Correlation coefficients were analyzed using Spearman's test. Significant positive correlations were seen when AR and AR-dependent PSA, and ERalpha and ERalpha-dependent PGR were compared, indicating a representative population of RNA transcripts. ERbeta gene expression was significantly over-expressed in the cancer group compared with benign controls (P cancer group (P prostate cancer specimens. In concert with recent studies the findings suggest differential production of ERbeta splice variants, which may play important roles in the genesis of prostate cancer. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Nuclear factor 1 regulates adipose tissue-specific expression in the mouse GLUT4 gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Shinji; Tsunoda, Nobuyo; Ikeda, Shinobu; Kai, Yuko; Cooke, David W.; Lane, M. Daniel; Ezaki, Osamu

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that an adipose tissue-specific element(s) (ASE) of the murine GLUT4 gene is located between -551 and -506 in the 5'-flanking sequence and that a high-fat responsive element(s) for down-regulation of the GLUT4 gene is located between bases -701 and -552. A binding site for nuclear factor 1 (NF1), that mediates insulin and cAMP-induced repression of GLUT4 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes is located between bases -700 and -688. To examine the role of NF1 in the regulation of GLUT4 gene expression in white adipose tissues (WAT) in vivo, we created two types of transgenic mice harboring mutated either 5' or 3' half-site of NF1-binding sites in GLUT4 minigene constructs. In both cases, the GLUT4 minigene was not expressed in WAT, while expression was maintained in brown adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and heart. This was an unexpected finding, since a -551 GLUT4 minigene that did not have the NF1-binding site was expressed in WAT. We propose a model that explains the requirement for both the ASE and the NF1-binding site for expression of GLUT4 in WAT

  15. Adiponectin and Its Receptors Are Differentially Expressed in Human Tissues and Cell Lines of Distinct Origin

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    Simon Jasinski-Bergner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adiponectin is secreted by adipose tissue and exerts high abundance and an anti-inflammatory potential. However, only little information exists about the expression profiles of adiponectin and its recently identified receptor CDH13 in non-tumorous human tissues and their association to clinical parameters. Methods: The expression levels of adiponectin and CDH13 were analyzed in heart, liver, kidney, spleen, skin, blood vessels, peripheral nerve and bone marrow of 21 human body donors, in 12 human cell lines, and in purified immune effector cell populations of healthy blood donors by immunohistochemistry, Western-blot, and semi-quantitative PCR. The obtained results were then correlated to clinical parameters, including age, sex and known diseases like cardiovascular and renal diseases. Results: Adiponectin expression in renal corpuscles was significantly higher in humans with known renal diseases. A coordinated expression of adiponectin and CDH13 was observed in the myocard. High levels of adiponectin could be detected in the bone marrow, in certain lymphoid tumor cell lines and in purified immune effector cell populations of healthy donors, in particular in cytotoxic T cells. Conclusion: For the first time, the expression profiles of adiponectin and CDH13 are analyzed in many human tissues in correlation to each other and to clinical parameters.

  16. Disease Development and Symptom Expression of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri in Various Citrus Plant Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernière, C J; Gottwald, T R; Pruvost, O

    2003-07-01

    ABSTRACT Experimental inoculations of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri in different tissues of Tahiti lime and Pineapple sweet orange were conducted monthly under natural conditions on Réunion Island. The interactions between a set of environmental and epidemic variables associated with disease expression and 184 different factor combinations were investigated to determine the parameters needed to explain Asiatic citrus canker (ACC) disease expression. Area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC), inoculation date (Id), fruit and leaf age ratings (FAR and LAR), and number of days during the first 2 weeks postinoculation for which the temperature was less than 14 degrees C (T(min)) or more than 28 degrees C (T(max)) were retained by principal component analysis and canonical correlation analysis as the most meaningful epidemic and environmental variables, respectively. AUDPC as the strongest dependent variable and combinations of the environmental variables as independent variables were used in multiple regression analyses. Tissue age rating at the time of infection was a good predictor for disease resulting from spray inoculation on fruits and leaves and also on fruits following a wound inoculation. Temperature, as expressed by T(min) or T(max), was also a significant factor in determining disease development described by AUDPC. Mature green stems were highly susceptible after wounding, similarly to leaves, but buds and leaf scars expressed the lowest susceptibility. These variations in disease expression according to the tissues will have different impacts on ACC epidemiology.

  17. Thaumatin-like proteins are differentially expressed and localized in phloem tissues of hybrid poplar

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    Dafoe Nicole J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs were previously identified in phloem exudate of hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa × P. deltoides using proteomics methods, and their sieve element localization confirmed by immunofluorescence. In the current study, we analyzed different tissues to further understand TLP expression and localization in poplar, and used immunogold labelling to determine intracellular localization. Results Immunofluorescence using a TLP antiserum confirmed the presence of TLP in punctate, organelle-like structures within sieve elements. On western blots, the antiserum labeled two constitutively expressed proteins with distinct expression patterns. Immunogold labelling suggested that TLPs are associated with starch granules and starch-containing plastids in sieve elements and phloem parenchyma cells. In addition, the antiserum recognized TLPs in the inner cell wall and sieve plate region of sieve elements. Conclusions TLP localization in poplar cells and tissues is complex. TLP1 is expressed predominantly in tissues with a prominent vascular system such as midveins, petioles and stems, whereas the second TLP is primarily expressed in starch-storing plastids found in young leaves and the shoot apex.

  18. Candidate Genes for Testicular Cancer Evaluated by In Situ Protein Expression Analyses on Tissue Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf I. Skotheim

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available By the use of high-throughput molecular technologies, the number of genes and proteins potentially relevant to testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT and other diseases will increase rapidly. In a recent transcriptional profiling, we demonstrated the overexpression of GRB7 and JUP in TGCTs, confirmed the reported overexpression of CCND2. We also have recent evidences for frequent genetic alterations of FHIT and epigenetic alterations of MGMT. To evaluate whether the expression of these genes is related to any clinicopathological variables, we constructed a tissue microarray with 510 testicular tissue cores from 279 patients diagnosed with TGCT, covering various histological subgroups and clinical stages. By immunohistochemistry, we found that JUP, GRB7, CCND2 proteins were rarely present in normal testis, but frequently expressed at high levels in TGCT. Additionally, all premalignant intratubular germ cell neoplasias were JUP-immunopositive. MGMT and FHIT were expressed by normal testicular tissues, but at significantly lower frequencies in TGCT. Except for CCND2, the expressions of all markers were significantly associated with various TGCT subtypes. In summary, we have developed a high-throughput tool for the evaluation of TGCT markers, utilized this to validate five candidate genes whose protein expressions were indeed deregulated in TGCT.

  19. Efficient expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) mediated by a chimeric promoter in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinxia; Hu, Zhangli; Wang, Chaogang; Li, Shuangfei; Lei, Anping

    2008-08-01

    To improve the expression efficiency of exogenous genes in Chlamydomonas reinhard