El Hage, S; Dos Santos, M J; de Moraes, E L; de Barros E Silva, L B
The aim of this study was to identify the percentage of bone tissue donation in a brain death situation and the tendency of donation rate of this tissue in an organ procurement organization in the county of Sao Paulo from 2001 to 2016. It is a retrospective and quantitative study, based on the Organ and Tissue Donation Term of donors who died of brain death between 2001 and 2016. A logistic regression model was applied, and the odds of donation were identified throughout the years, regarding the odds ratio different from zero. Finally, it was measured the accuracy of the odds ratio through the confidence interval. The analysis has shown a significant change on the trend of bone donation (P 1, indicating that the donation rate has increased. However, the percentage of growth is still considered low. The study evidences a growth trend regarding the donation of bone tissue, but the percentage is still too low to adequately meet the demand of patients who need this modality of therapeutic intervention. It is believed that educational campaigns of donation are not emphasizing the donation of tissues for transplantation, which may be directly impacting their consent rates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... Biologics is affiliated with organ, eye and tissue procurement agencies throughout the U.S. They typically ... Visit DonateLife.net and learn how your gift of tissue can give bring new life to ...
After a patient died in a Veterans Administration hospital, a resident physician asked the next of kin to sign two identical autopsy forms, one of which was stamped "Eye Donor." The family signed, despite orally objecting to donation of tissue. Nevertheless, the patient's eyes were removed because other hospital staff were unaware of the objection. The family sued the hospital and eye bank. The Federal District Court in Minnesota dismissed the case before trial on the basis that both defendants were immune from liability because of the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act. Clear policies communicated to staff and separate autopsy and donation forms can help to avoid confusion and legal difficulties.
Dos Santos, M J; Leal de Moraes, E; Santini Martins, M; Carlos de Almeida, E; Borges de Barros E Silva, L; Urias, V; Silvano Corrêa Pacheco Furtado, M C; Brito Nunes, Á; El Hage, S
The goal of this study was to identify the tendency toward donations of tissue and organs from donors with brain death between 2001 and 2016 as registered by an organ procurement organization in São Paulo City. This quantitative, retrospective, exploratory study encompassed all Tissue and Organ Donation Terms signed between 2001 and 2016. A logistic regression model was applied to verify whether there was an upward or downward trend in donation. After statistical analysis, a significant change trend was identified in skin, bones, valve, vessel, heart, lung, and pancreas donations, indicating an increase in the donation rate through the years. The donation rate did not show changes over the years for donations of liver, kidneys, and corneas. The decision-making process regarding organ and tissue donation is restricted not only to the dilemma of whether to donate but another question then arises as well: which organs and tissues are to be donated? The discrepancy between the authorization for organ donation and the authorization for tissue donation, as well as the option for one or another organ and/or tissue, must be thoroughly examined because these factors directly affect the number of transplants and acquirements effectively accomplished. These factors may be related to explaining to one's relatives aspects of the surgery, body reassembling, and usage of such organs and/or tissues. They may also be related to the lack of knowledge concerning organ donation and the symbolism represented by the organ and/or tissue, among other factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schmidt, S; Schulte, A; Schwarz, S; Hofmann, N; Tietz, S; Boergel, M; Sixt, S U
The biggest obstacle to overcome for routine treatment of various pathologies with fresh osteochondral allograft is the availability of tissue for transplantation. Large fresh osteochondral allografts are usually harvested from organ donors, but in contrast to organs, tissues can be procured after cardiac arrest. Medical staff as well the general public are much less aware of the possibilities and requirements of tissue donation compared to organ donation. This review aims to highlight the current situation of organ and tissue donation in Europe and to raise this much needed awareness. For this research, PubMed database was scanned using the terms "tissue/organ donation", "bone donation/transplantation", "cartilage transplantation/allografts" and "osteochrondral allografts". Relatives of potential donors are often not approached because physicians and nurses do not feel sufficiently prepared for this task and, thus, are reluctant to address this topic. Different options could alleviate the pressure medical staff is feeling. Furthermore, there are different factors influencing consent that can be addressed to increase donation rates. Currently, a lot of potential concerning musculoskeletal tissue grafts remains unused. Most importantly, families should be encouraged to speak about their potenzial will to donate and educational programs should be established to increase trust in organ and tissue donation and the allocation system and to increase knowledge about the importance of transplantation medicine. But joined efforts of different parts of the medical systems and different organizations involved in tissue transplantation should improve the situation for patients waiting for much needed transplants.
Lobo Gajiwala, Astrid
Amendments to India's Transplantation of Human Organs Act, 1994, have established the legality of tissue donation and transplantation from deceased donors and the conditions under which they are permitted. The amended Act, now known as The Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissues Act, 1994, seeks to prevent the commercialization of tissue donation and to guarantee the safety of indigenous allografts. Registration of tissue banks, compliance with national standards and the appointment of transplant co-ordinators in hospitals registered under the Act are now mandatory. A national registry and Regional and State networks for donation and transplantation of tissues have been introduced. Despite the amendments a few anomalies of the principal Act persist as some of the differences between tissue and organ donation and transplantation have been overlooked. These include the possibility of skin donation in locations other than hospitals; the donation of medical and surgical tissue residues which does not pose any risk to the living donor; the non-requirement for compatibility between donor and recipient; the delayed time factor between tissue donation and transplantation which makes identification of a recipient at the time of donation impossible; and the easy availability of alternatives to tissues which make waiting lists redundant for many tissues. Rules for the implementation of the amended Act were framed in 2014 but like the Act must be adopted by the State health assemblies to become universally applicable in the country.
Fahrenwald, Nancy L; Stabnow, Wendy
social ecological model influenced beliefs about organ and tissue donation among the Lakota people in this study. Outreach programs aimed at increasing donation need to respect traditional beliefs yet present the choice about organ and tissue donation within the cultural context. Telling the stories of community members affected by both diabetes and donation is important. Promoting family conversation is critical. Healthcare systems must approach potential donor families with an understanding of traditional beliefs and respect for the process of family communication about organ and tissue donation.
Siminoff, Laura A; Traino, Heather M; Gordon, Nahida H
This study explores the effects of tissue requesters' relational, persuasive, and nonverbal communication on families' final donation decisions. One thousand sixteen (N = 1,016) requests for tissue donation were audiotaped and analyzed using the Siminoff Communication Content and Affect Program, a computer application specifically designed to code and assist with the quantitative analysis of communication data. This study supports the important role of communication strategies in health-related decision making. Families were more likely to consent to tissue donation when confirmational messages (e.g., messages that expressed validation or acceptance) or persuasive tactics such as credibility, altruism, or esteem were used during donation discussions. Consent was also more likely when family members exhibited nonverbal immediacy or disclosed private information about themselves or the patient. The results of a hierarchical log-linear regression revealed that the use of relational communication during requests directly predicted family consent. The results provide information about surrogate decision making in end-of-life situations and may be used to guide future practice in obtaining family consent to tissue donation.
Dos Santos, Marcelo José; Feito, Lydia
The family interview context is permeated by numerous ethical issues which may generate conflicts and impact on organ donation process. This study aims to analyze the family interview process with a focus on principlist bioethics. This exploratory, descriptive study uses a qualitative approach. The speeches were collected using the following prompt: "Talk about the family interview for the donation of organs and tissues for transplantation, from the preparation for the interview to the decision of the family to donate or not." For the treatment of qualitative data, we chose the method of content analysis and categorical thematic analysis. The study involved 18 nurses who worked in three municipal organ procurement organizations in São Paulo, Brazil, and who conducted family interviews for organ donation. Ethical considerations: The data were collected after approval of the study by the Research Ethics Committee of the School of Nursing of the University of São Paulo. The results were classified into four categories and three subcategories. The categories are the principles adopted by principlist bioethics. The principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice permeate the family interview and reveal their importance in the organs and tissues donation process for transplantation. The analysis of family interviews for the donation of organs and tissues for transplantation with a focus on principlist bioethics indicates that the process involves many ethical considerations. The elucidation of these aspects contributes to the discussion, training, and improvement of professionals, whether nurses or not, who work in organ procurement organizations and can improve the curriculum of existing training programs for transplant coordinators who pursue ethics in donation and transplantation as their foundation.
Marcela Cristina de Lemos
Full Text Available Objectives: To know the opinion of senior high school students in publicand private schools on the process of donating and transplanting organsand tissues, and their desire to be donors. Methods: A descriptive crosssectionalstudy, conducted from 2004 to 2005, on the opinion/knowledgeof senior high school students in public and private schools in the VilaMariana region of the city of São Paulo, on the process of organ and tissuedonation and transplantation. The convenience sample was made up of140 (81% students from two private schools and 167 (51% studentsfrom a public school. The project was approved by the Research EthicsCommittee of the UNIFESP. Results: Data showed that 163 (53.1%students believe that donation is by presumed consent and 147 (47.9%that consider that it occurs by informed consent. Of the public schoolstudents, 120 (71.9% believe that transplants are public and free ofcharge in Brazil versus 94 (67.1% of the students from private schools.Students know that donations may be made by living or dead donors(121 - 86.4% private schools versus 113 – 67.7% public school. Wehighlight that 22 (15.7% of the private school students and 16 (9.6%of those from the public school believe that the commerce of organs isallowed in Brazil. As to intentions of being a donor, 108 (77.1% of theprivate school students declared themselves organ and tissue donorsversus 106 (63.5% from the public school, and 63 (59.4% from thepublic versus 61 (56.5% from the private schools have already informedtheir families. Conclusion: There was no difference in knowledge andopinion among the students from the public and private schools as toaspects regarding donation and transplantation.
... Collection; Comment Request; Prohibited Species Donation (PSD) Program AGENCY: National Oceanic and... species donation (PSD) program for Pacific salmon and Pacific halibut has effectively reduced regulatory... individuals through tax-exempt organizations. Vessels and processing plants participating in the donation...
Hancock, Jennifer; Shemie, Sam D; Lotherington, Ken; Appleby, Amber; Hall, Richard
The purpose of this survey was to determine how Canadian healthcare professionals perceive their deficiencies and educational requirements related to organ and tissue donation. We surveyed 641 intensive care unit (ICU) physicians, 1,349 ICU nurses, 1,561 emergency room (ER) physicians, and 1,873 ER nurses. The survey was distributed by the national organization for each profession (the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians, the Canadian Association of Critical Care Nurses, and the National Emergency Nurses Association). Canadian Blood Services developed the critical care physician list in collaboration with the Canadian Critical Care Society. Survey development included questions related to comfort with, and knowledge of, key competencies in organ and tissue donation. Eight hundred thirty-one (15.3%) of a possible 5,424 respondents participated in the survey. Over 50% of respondents rated the following topics as highly important: knowledge of general organ and tissue donation, neurological determination of death, donation after cardiac death, and medical-legal donation issues. High competency comfort levels ranged from 14.7-50.9% for ICU nurses and 8.0-34.6% for ER nurses. Competency comfort levels were higher for ICU physicians (67.5-85.6%) than for ER physicians who rated all competencies lower. Respondents identified a need for a curriculum on national organ donation and preferred e-learning as the method of education. Both ICU nurses and ER practitioners expressed low comfort levels with their competencies regarding organ donation. Intensive care unit physicians had a much higher level of comfort; however, the majority of these respondents were specialty trained and working in academic centres with active donation and transplant programs. A national organ donation curriculum is needed.
Wale, J; Arthur, A; Faull, C
Only a minority of hospice patients eligible to donate tissue and organs choose to do so. Hospice care staff play a key role in discussions about donation, but their willingness to engage in these discussions and their understanding of issues around tissue and organ donation is poorly understood. To (i) identify factors associated with the wish of hospice doctors, nurses and healthcare assistants to donate their own organs after death; (ii) survey the experience of discussing the subject with patients; (iii) determine staff members' knowledge of organ and tissue donation and (iv) identify factors associated with knowledge of organ and tissue donation. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey of hospice care staff. 76 of the 94 care staff of one large UK hospice completed and returned the questionnaire. Staff wishing to donate their organs after death (43/76 56.6%) were more likely to be doctors or nurses than healthcare assistants (p=0.011) and more likely to have discussed organ or tissue donation with their family (pdonation with patients had more years' experience (p=0.045) and had similarly discussed donation with their own family (p=0.039). Those with greater knowledge were more likely to have discussed organ or tissue donation with a patient (p=0.042). A reluctance to instigate discussions about organ and tissue donation may prevent palliative patients and their families being allowed the opportunity to donate. Suboptimal knowledge among hospice staff suggests the need for greater liaison between hospice staff, and the organ and tissue donation teams.
Moraes,Edvaldo Leal de; Santos,Marcelo José dos; Merighi,Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; Massarollo,Maria Cristina Komatsu Braga
OBJECTIVE: to investigate the meaning of the action of nurses in the donation process to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation.METHOD: this qualitative study with a social phenomenological approach was conducted through individual interviews with ten nurses of three Organ and Tissue Procurement Services of the city of São Paulo.RESULTS: the experience of the nurses in the donation process was represented by the categories: obstacles experienced in the donation proce...
Silvana Aparecida Mariano
Full Text Available The Brazilian social assistance policy is guided by the perspective of poverty fight efforts, which prioritize the conditioned income transfer. These programs privilege the income transfer to women and involve them in a net of obligations and conditions, as it is done in the Family Donation Program. The practice within Family Donation Program highlights some contradictions between the State actions and the feminist demands, especially those concerning the motherhood problem. This is thus a core question for the dialogue between the feminism and the social policies sponsored by the State.
de Moraes, Edvaldo Leal; dos Santos, Marcelo José; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; Massarollo, Maria Cristina Komatsu Braga
to investigate the meaning of the action of nurses in the donation process to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation. this qualitative study with a social phenomenological approach was conducted through individual interviews with ten nurses of three Organ and Tissue Procurement Services of the city of São Paulo. the experience of the nurses in the donation process was represented by the categories: obstacles experienced in the donation process, and interventions performed. The meaning of the action to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation was described by the categories: to change paradigms, to humanize the donation process, to expand the donation, and to save lives. knowledge of the experience of the nurses in this process is important for healthcare professionals who work in different realities, indicating strategies to optimize the procurement of organs and tissues for transplantation.
Edvaldo Leal de Moraes
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to investigate the meaning of the action of nurses in the donation process to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation.METHOD: this qualitative study with a social phenomenological approach was conducted through individual interviews with ten nurses of three Organ and Tissue Procurement Services of the city of São Paulo.RESULTS: the experience of the nurses in the donation process was represented by the categories: obstacles experienced in the donation process, and interventions performed. The meaning of the action to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation was described by the categories: to change paradigms, to humanize the donation process, to expand the donation, and to save lives.FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: knowledge of the experience of the nurses in this process is important for healthcare professionals who work in different realities, indicating strategies to optimize the procurement of organs and tissues for transplantation.
Johnson, Jennifer Wiggins; Thomas, Veronica; Peck, Joann
A recent trend among universities shifts from traditional MBA programs to specialized MBA offerings. Specialized programs are believed to cultivate stronger relationships with students, which lead to stronger alumni relationships and increased donations. This research tests this empirically by examining relationship perceptions and donation…
Arriola, Kimberly; Robinson, Dana H.; Thompson, Nancy J.; Perryman, Jennie P.
This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of "Project ACTS: About Choices in Transplantation and Sharing," which was developed to increase readiness for organ and tissue donation among African American adults. Nine churches (N = 425 participants) were randomly assigned to receive donation education materials currently available to consumers…
Halvaei, Iman; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Ghasemi-Esmailabad, Saeed; Nabi, Ali; Shamsi, Farimah
Background The main goal was to evaluate the attitudes and knowledge of Zoroastrians living in Iran towards oocyte donation (OD) and embryo donation (ED) program. Methods This cross sectional study consisted of 318 Zoroastrians (n=175 for OD and n=143 for ED) of both sexes. The questionnaire form comprised two parts of general demographic characteristics of the participants and twenty multiple-choice questions about attitude and knowledge of participants towards OD and ED. For statistical analysis, the chi-square test was applied for comparison of data generated from ED and OD groups. Results Majority of the participants supported OD (69.7%) and ED (71.3%) for infertile patients. In addition, 40% and 42% preferred donation program (OD and ED, respectively), compared to adoption. About 60% of the respondents believed that the donors have no right to find the child and claim it as their own. In addition, more than half of the respondents thought that the recipients of oocyte/embryo should never know the name and address of the donors. More than half of the participants did not know whether their religion accepts donation program or not. Approximately, 80% of respondents supported psychological counseling for both donors and recipients. Moreover, about 56% of the participants necessitated the advertisement on OD/ED program in the mass media. Conclusion Our preliminary data showed that Zoroastrians supported both OD and ED program equally for infertile couples. PMID:25473631
Linyear, A S; Tartaglia, A
To improve organ donation performance, the Medical College of Virginia Hospitals implemented a comprehensive family support and communication program, consisting of a standard family communications protocol, a hospital-based team from the Department of Pastoral Care, targeted staff education, and an ongoing quality assurance measuring and monitoring system. The 3 best-demonstrated request practices, private setting, "decoupling," and collaboration in the request between the organ procurement organization and hospital staff, were incorporated into the program. Improvement in the consent and donation rate was evident in the second calendar year of the program; the consent rate was 72% and the donation rate was 50%. During the second year, there was also a positive correlation between "decoupling," appropriate requestor, and the consent rate. Implementation of a hospital-based team and a standard protocol facilitated the clarification of roles and responsibilities toward clearer and more consistent family communication and support. Data suggest that staff experience is a major contributor to a positive donation outcome.
... the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Prohibited Species Donation Program AGENCY: National Marine... individuals under the prohibited species donation (PSD) program. Salmon and halibut are caught incidentally... 29 to the BSAI and GOA FMPs, respectively, authorize a salmon donation program and were approved by...
Carone, Laura; Alurkar, Shrirang; Kigozi, Phoebe; Vyas, Harish
Approximately 2% of those on the organ transplant list in the UK are children. Early identification of donors and referral to organ donation teams (ODT) has proven to increase both the success rate of gaining consent and the number of organs actually retrieved. To evaluate the practice relating to organ donation for children receiving end-of-life care on a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) measured against the National Guidelines. All children 0-18 who received their end-of-life care and died on the PICU. A retrospective cohort study of organ donation patterns including referral, approach, consent and donation. This involved a review of case notes on PICU between the years 2009 and 2014. One hundred five deaths were identified and 100 notes were examined and data analysed to ascertain if religion, age and length of stay on PICU impacted on practice. Eighty-six children met the early identification criteria for potential donors, 40 (46.5%) children were referred to the ODT and 33 (38.3%) families were approached regarding donation. Twenty-one (24.4%) families consented to donation. Seventeen donations took place with a total of 41 sets of organs/tissues retrieved. Despite the majority of children meeting early identification for potential donors, many were not being referred. All children on end-of-life care should be referred for potential organ donation. Organ donation needs to be seen as a priority for hospitals as a part of routine end-of-life care to help increase referral rates and give families the opportunity to donate. Many paediatric deaths are not referred for consideration of organ donation, despite guidelines stating that this process should be standard of care. Further optimization of referral rates may aid in increasing the number of organs available for donation. What is Known: • Shortage of organs continues to be a national problem. • NICE guidelines state that all patients who are on end-of-life care should have the option of organ donation
Sque, Magi; Walker, Wendy; Long-Sutehall, Tracy; Morgan, Myfanwy; Randhawa, Gurch; Rodney, Amanda
To elicit bereaved families' experiences of organ and tissue donation. A specific objective was to determine families' perceptions of how their experiences influenced donation decision-making. Retrospective, qualitative interviews were undertaken with 43 participants of 31 donor families to generate rich, informative data. Participant recruitment was via 10 National Health Service Trusts, representative of five regional organ donation services in the UK. Twelve families agreed to DBD, 18 agreed to DCD, 1 unknown. Participants' responses were contextualised using a temporal framework of 'The Past', which represented families' prior knowledge, experience, attitudes, beliefs, and intentions toward organ donation; 'The Present', which incorporated the moment in time when families experienced the potential for donation; and 'The Future', which corresponded to expectations and outcomes arising from the donation decision. Temporally interwoven experiences appeared to influence families' decisions to donate the organs of their deceased relative for transplantation. The influence of temporality on donation-decision making is worthy of consideration in the planning of future education, policy, practice, and research for improved rates of family consent to donation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Karbe, Thomas; Braun, Christian; Wulff, Birgit; Schröder, Ann Sophie; Püschel, Klaus; Bratzke, Hansjürgen; Parzeller, Markus
In consequence of the European guidelines of safety and quality standards for the donation, retrieval, storing and distribution of human tissues and cells the purpose of tissue transplantation was implemented into German legislation in May 2007. The law came into effect on August 1st 2007 considering of the European rules. The Institutes for Legal Medicine of the University of Frankfurt/Main and the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf developed a model for tissue retrieval. The Institute of Legal Medicine (I.f.R.) at the University Medical Center Hamburg cooperates with the German Institute of Cell and Tissue Replacement (Deutsches Institut für Zell--und Gewebeersatz DIZG). Potential post-mortem tissue donors (PMTD) among the deceased are selected by standardized sets of defined criteria. The procedure is guided by the intended exclusion criteria of the tissue regulation draft (German Transplant Law TPG GewV) in accordance with the European Guideline (2006/17/EC). Following the identification of the donor and subsequent removal of tissue, the retrieved samples were sent to the DIZG, a non-profit tissue bank according to the tissue regulation. Here the final processing into transplantable tissue grafts takes place, which then results in the allocation of tissue to hospitals in Germany and other European countries. The Center of Legal Medicine at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Medical Center Frankfurt/Main cooperates since 2000 with Tutogen, a pharmaceutical company. Harvesting of musculoskeletal tissues follows corresponding regulations. To verify the outcome of PMTD at the I.f.R. Hamburg, two-statistic analysis over 12 and 4 months have been implemented. Our results have shown an increasing number of potential appropriate PMTD within the second inquiry interval but a relatively small and unvaryingly rate of successful post-mortem tissue retrievals similar to the first examination period. Thus, the aim of the model developed by the I.f.R. is to
Organ donation takes healthy organs and tissues from one person for transplantation into another. Experts say that the organs ... and bone marrow Cornea Most organ and tissue donations occur after the donor has died. But some ...
Strong, M.; Neely, D.; Warnack, K.; Willits, M.; Yriondo, L.
Today the science of marketing is being applied more and more to increase the rate of tissue and organ donation in the United States. To benefit from the proven tools and techniques of successful marketing in the for-profit world transplantation agencies across the country are turning to integrated marketing communications strategies and strategic partnerships to help achieve their goals.The methods used in cause marketing include: Establishing clear and measurable outcomes and goals; building a marketing plan and timeline to achieve the goals; gathering resources (funding, personnel, organizations, partnerships) to execute the plan, implementation, and measurement of outcomes. This session will review the Tissue and Organ Donation campaign implemented in the Northwest and will touch on the national awareness program developed by United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) in the United States. Segments of the Northwest's integrated campaign will include market segmentation strategies and targeted marketing, campaign development, public service advertising and public education campaigns. Media utilized include print, bus signs and billboards, broadcast (radio and TV), video and the internet. Strategies include public service advertising, paid advertising through sponsorships, direct mail, workshops and public speaking. The success of traditional product marketing can be achieved in cause marketing with a long-term, focused public education campaign. The potential benefit to the international community warrants exploration of similar strategies to overcome cultural resistance to life saving transplantation
Waldrop, Deborah P.; Tamburlin, Judith A.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Simon, Mark
Public education that encourages family discussions about organ and tissue donation can enhance understanding, facilitate a donor's wishes and increase the numbers of donations. Action research methods were used to explore the impact of a student-initiated family discussion about donation. Most discussions were positive; only 7% middle school and…
Walker, Wendy; Sque, Magi
Concern for the grieving family can moderate the intentions of critical care staff to advocate deceased organ and tissue donation. Conversely, benevolent actions may provoke distress through missed opportunities to save or transform lives. This article provides insight into the perceived benefits of organ and tissue donation for grieving families who experienced end-of-life care in the intensive care unit. Data were collected via semistructured, face-to-face or telephone interviews with 43 participants from 31 donor families. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and subjected to qualitative content analysis. The study findings affirmed the importance of person-centered end-of-life care. Donor families shared examples of good-quality care and communication that contained the hallmarks of compassion, respect, dignity, and choice. We uncovered a trajectory of hope and despair in which the option of organ and tissue donation appeared to give meaning to the life and death of the deceased person and was comforting to some families in their bereavement. Our study findings underlined the significance of donation decision making for grieving families. Organ and tissue donation has the potential to balance hope and despair at the end of life when the wishes of the dying, deceased, and bereaved are fulfilled. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Farias, Roberta Jansen de Mello; Sousa, Luciene Barbosa de
Penetrating keratoplasty has been the leading and the most successful type of transplant in the world, however corneal deficiency is a commom problem usually presented to corneal surgeons. Impact evaluation of the number of corneal graft donations to the Sorocaba Eye Bank after the implementation of a corneal graft procurement system; to draw the socioeconomic profile of corneal graft donors of the Sorocaba Eye Bank (SEB). Retrospective study on donations to SEB from its creation and after the development of media marketing. Prospective analysis of the socioeconomic profile of corneal graft donors by a questionnaire sent as letters to the families of the donors in a certain month. SEB began its work in 1971 by spreading need of organ donation through lectures in churches, shopping malls, community meetings, radio programs, television programs, etc. In the 70s, the number of retrieved corneal grafts was 1 or 2/month. Between 1984 - 1989 a procurement coordination team was trained to act in mortuaries and by 2000 they also began to work in public hospitals. In 1984 only 260 corneal grafts were retrieved. This number has been increasing to 2,778 corneal graft donations in 2004. The questionnaire was answered by 76 of the 93 donor families, with a response rate of 81.7%. Donor age had a mean of 65.1 +/- 14.7 y/o, forty-two (55.3%) were men. Educational level of the donor families was an important factor for organ donation, once 36.8% had concluded high school and 34.2% completed university. The great majority, sixty-three (82.9%) of the corneal grafts were donated through the efforts of the procurement coordination team. The role of the media and institutional credibility are mandatory for public commitment to organ donation. The proficiency of the procurement coordination team requires intensive training, as the results show that 82.9% donations were made thanks to their efforts.
Background: Tissue banking refers to a structured and organized resource collection of tissue. Recent advances in research technology and knowledge in the fields of human genetics/ genomics highlights the need to maintain a steady supply of tissue for researchers. Objective: To assess the perception and willingness of ...
Full Text Available Scientific developments, positive changes in attitude of the man and the new legal framework allow the donation of organs, tissues and cells of human origin. In this context it is necessary to clarifywhether the donation covered by the special law is, legally, one and the same as that covered by the Romanian Civil Code in force and qualified the successor’s right to accept or reject late withdrawals for transplantation. The right to life and physical integrity is personal patrimony; it is a subjective civil right that has no economic content and it cannot be measured in money. Consequently, the content of these rights can not be expressed in money, the property does not belong to their owner. Given the above view, "the right of disposal" to donation of organs, tissues and cells of human origin is an attribute of ownership, right to life and physical integrity, as a personal right that is an intimate attribute patrimonial related to the person’s right to dispose of his body as it wishes, within the law. Addressing these issues it is necessary to clarify the legal consequences of donating organs, tissues and cells of human origin, considering that medical activities are becoming more numerous.
The international literature on organ donation and transplantation has drawn attention to the popularity of "gift of life" discourse among pro-donation advocates, transplantation specialists, and within organisations lobbying for improved donation rates to promote the benefits of organ donation among members of the general public. In Aotearoa/New Zealand, gift of life discourse is robust. Aside from attempts to elicit altruism by promoting tissue donation in the public domain, gift terminology separates the act of donation from that of commerce and the commodification of body tissues. In distancing donation from commodification and the potential to degrade and exploit human beings, it is assumed that gift discourse transmits the positive message that donation is a noble and morally worthy act. Recent sociological research has shown that assumptions of the gift as one-way and altruistic do not necessarily align with people's perceptions and experience of donating body tissues, and that the vocabulary used to describe these acts is often at variance with reality. This article draws on interview data with 15 critical care specialists (intensivists) and donor and recipient coordinators, examining their perceptions of the relevance of gift discourse and its applicability in the context of deceased donation in Aotearoa/New Zealand. The data indicate several problems with gift rhetoric to describe the situations health professionals encounter. In sum, gift terminology tends to downplay the sacrifice involved in tissue donation generally, as well as depoliticising the exchange relations of tissue transfer in contemporary consumer culture and in the global context. This raises questions about the underlying ethics of language choice and what, if anything, empirical accounts of tissue transfer can contribute to ethical debates. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shafer, Autumn; Kaufhold, Kelly; Luo, Yunjuan
An important part in the effort to prevent, treat, and cure breast cancer is research done with healthy breast tissue. The Susan G. Komen for the Cure Tissue Bank at Indiana University Simon Cancer Center (KTB) encourages women to donate a small amount of healthy breast tissue and then provides that tissue to researchers studying breast cancer. Although KTB has a large donor base, the volume of tissue samples from Asian women is low despite prior marketing efforts to encourage donation among this population. This study builds on prior work promoting breast cancer screenings among Asian women by applying constructs from the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Integrated Behavioral Model (IBM) to investigate why Asian-American women are less inclined to donate their healthy breast tissue than non-Asian women and how this population may be motivated to donate in the future. A national online survey (N = 1,317) found Asian women had significantly lower perceived severity, some lower perceived benefits, and higher perceived barriers to tissue donation than non-Asian women under HBM and significantly lower injunctive norms supporting breast tissue donation, lower perceived behavioral control, and lower intentions to donate under IBM. This study also compares and discusses similarities and differences among East, Southeast, and South Asian women on these same constructs.
Zhang, Luqing; Xiao, Ming; Gu, Mufeng; Zhang, Yongjie; Jin, Jianliang; Ding, Jiong
The use of human tissue is critical for gross anatomy education in the health professions. Chinese medical colleges have faced a shortage of anatomical specimens over the past decade. While body donation plays an important role in overcoming this gap, this practice has only recently been introduced in China, and the donation rate is relatively low…
Porzionato, Andrea; Macchi, Veronica; Stecco, Carla; Mazzi, Anna; Rambaldo, Anna; Sarasin, Gloria; Parenti, Anna; Scipioni, Antonio; De Caro, Raffaele
Quality management improvement has become a recent focus of attention in medical education. The program for the donation of bodies and body parts (Body Donation Program) at the University of Padova has recently been subjected to a global quality management standard, the ISO 9001:2008 certification. The aim of the present work is to show how the…
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1104 Section 630.1104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1104 Donations...
Fox, T.; Tietjen, G.
The Autopsy Tissue Program was begun in 1960. To date, tissues on 900 or more persons in 7 geographic regions have been collected and analyzed for plutonium content. The tissues generally consist of lung, liver, kidney, lymph, bone, and gonadal tissue for each individual. The original objective of the program was to determine the level of plutonium in human tissues due solely to fall-out from weapons testing. The baseline thus established was to be used to evaluate future changes. From the first, this program was beset with chemical and statistical difficulties. Many factors whose effects were not recognized and not planned for were found later to be important. Privacy and ethical considerations hindered the gathering of adequate data. Since the chemists were looking for amounts of plutonium very close to background, possible contamination was a very real problem. Widely used chemical techniques introduced a host of statistical problems. The difficulties encountered touch on areas common to large data sets, unusual outlier detection methods, minimum detection limits, problems with Aliquot sizes, and time-trends in the data. The conclusions point out areas to which the biologists will have to devote much more careful attention than was believed
Marck, C H; Neate, S L; Skinner, M; Dwyer, B; Hickey, B B; Radford, S T; Weiland, T J; Jelinek, G A
We aimed to describe the experiences of families of potential organ and tissue donors eligible for donation after circulatory death or brain death. Forty-nine family members of potential donors from four Melbourne hospitals were interviewed to assess their experiences of communication, processes and the outcomes of donation. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Families expressed a range of perspectives on themes of communication, hospital processes and care, the processes of consent and donation and reflected on decisions and outcomes. They expressed satisfaction overall with communication when receiving bad news, discussing death and donation. Honest and frank communication and being kept up-to-date and prepared for potential outcomes were important aspects for families, especially those of post circulatory death donors. Participants reported high levels of trust in healthcare professionals and satisfaction with the level of care received. Many donor families indicated the process was lengthy and stressful, but not significantly enough to adversely affect their satisfaction with the outcome. Both the decision itself and knowing others' lives had been saved provided them with consolation. No consenting families, and only some non-consenting families, regretted their decisions. Many expressed they would benefit from a follow-up opportunity to ask questions and clarify possible misunderstandings. Overall, while experiences varied, Australian families valued frank communication, trusted health professionals, were satisfied with the care their family member received and with donation processes, despite some apparent difficulties. Family satisfaction, infrequently assessed, is an important outcome and these findings may assist education for Australian organ donation professionals.
organ donation program as an essential component of a comprehensive approach to the problem of the organ shortage. PMID:25013561
Reville, P; Zhao, C; Perez, T; Nowacki, A S; Phillips, D; Bowen, G; Starling, N; Pflaum, B; Strickland, R; Fung, J; Askar, M
The global organ shortage is the strongest factor for the increase in transplant wait time and deaths on waitlists. Here we describe a model for involving high school students in education research around organ donation and transplantation and capitalize on the strength of a pre-existing educational program offered by the local organ procurement organization (OPO). While training in education research at Cleveland Clinic, a high school student embarked on a collaborative project with the local OPO. The project involved evaluating three educational programs, selecting the most appropriate program for administration at her school, coordinating with the student's school administration and teachers, administering an assessment tool for the effectiveness of the program, and analyzing the results. The local OPO program that was selected for implementation consisted of a video presentation entitled "Share your life, share your decision" prepared by the United States Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), lectures by invited speakers and an educational assessment (pre- and post-education). The assessment survey included 3 multiple choice and 7 true/false questions. Compared to the over 2500 programs administered in the last 5 years by the local OPO, this program had a higher volume of participation (n = 353 compared to an average of 150 students/day). Students correctly classified transplantation status of more organ and tissues post-education (P education (P ≤ .002 for all). This experience included for the first time a formal assessment of the program which will be utilized to address targeted areas for specific improvements. This student collaborative model of involving students in organ donation and transplantation related education research has the potential to promote and maximize the effectiveness of educational programs targeting their peers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Padoan, Carolina S; Garcia, Lucas F; Rodrigues, Aline A; Patusco, Lucas M; Atz, Mariana V; Kapczinski, Flavio; Goldim, José R; Magalhães, Pedro V S
In regard to mental illness, brain donation is essential for the biological investigation of central pathology. Nevertheless, little is known about the thoughts of people with mental disorders on tissue donation for research. Here, our objective was to understand the attitudes and opinions of people treated for bipolar disorder and their relatives regarding donation in general, and particularly donation for research. This is a qualitative study that used in-depth interviews to determine the thoughts of participants regarding tissue donation for research. Theoretical sampling was used as a recruitment method. Grounded theory was used as a framework for content analyses of the interviews. A semi-structured interview guide was applied with the topics: donation in general; donation for research; mental health and body organs; opinion regarding donation; feelings aroused by the topic. Although all participants were aware of organ donation for transplant, they were surprised that tissue could be donated for research. Nevertheless, once they understood the concept they were usually in favor of the idea. Although participants demonstrated a general lack of knowledge on donation for research, they were willing to learn more and viewed it as a good thing, with altruistic reasons often cited as a motive for donation. We speculate that bridging this knowledge gap may be a fundamental step towards a more ethical postmortem tissue donation process.
Subasinghe, Sandeepani Kanchana; Jones, D Gareth
Considerable attention is being given to the availability of bodies for anatomical education. This raises the question of the manner in which they are obtained, that is, whether they are unclaimed or donated. With increasing emphasis upon the ethical desirability of using body bequests, the spotlight tends to be focused on those countries with factors that militate against donations. However, little attention has been paid to cultures where donations are readily available. One such country is Sri Lanka where the majority of the Buddhist population follows Theravada Buddhism. Within this context, the expectation is that donations will be given selflessly without expecting anything in return. This is because donation of one's body has blessings for a better outcome now and in the afterlife. The ceremonies to honor donors are outlined, including details of the "Pirith Ceremony." The relevance for other cultures of these features of body donation is discussed paying especial attention to the meaning of altruism and consent, and justification for the anonymization of cadavers. The degree to which anatomy is integrated into the surrounding culture also emerges as significant. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.
Antoine, C; Mourey, F; Prada-Bordenave, E
On the basis of the literature and results presented at the 6th International Conference, donation after cardio-circulatory death provides a significant, practical, additional high quality source of transplantable organs. The vast majority of DCD are 'controlled' Maastricht category III donors. In 2010, the parliamentary information mission on the revision of the bioethics laws invited the Intensive Care Societies to debate and to make recommendations to implement controlled donation after circulatory death. They came to the conclusion that such retrieval is possible in France and insisted on the medical criteria that frame it: the writing of the medical procedures, the ethical aspects and the delay. The major recommendations of the ethics committees were firstly, The WLST decision is independent of the possibility of organ donation; secondly, the strict respect of "The dead donor and organ transplantation rule" and the updated national guidance for the WLST; thirdly, the drafting of a nationally agreed protocol defining the mandatory conditions to determine death and to perform procurement and transplantation. Organ donation after WLST will be authorised only in pilot centres with a locally agreed WLST policy including external second opinion and written transcript of the WLST decision, experienced intensive care staff, a local organ procurement coordination team familiar with DBD and DCD protocols and only in hospitals authorised for organ procurement. It is important to have an optimal and standardized national guidance to limit the known risk factors of graft failure (donor and recipient choice, warm and cold ischemia time), to increase acceptance by medical community and civil society and to improve results and allow more powerful analysis. Copyright © 2013 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Cole, Edward H; Nickerson, Peter; Campbell, Patricia; Yetzer, Kathy; Lahaie, Nick; Zaltzman, Jeffery; Gill, John S
Establishment of a national kidney paired donation (KPD) program represents a unique achievement in Canada's provincially organized health care system. Key factors enabling program implementation included consultation with international experts, formation of a unique organization with a mandate to facilitate interprovincial collaboration, and the volunteer efforts of members of the Canadian transplant community to overcome a variety of logistical barriers. As of December 2013, the program had facilitated 240 transplantations including 10% with Calculated panel reactive antibody (cPRA) ≥97%. Unique features of the Canadian KPD program include participation of n = 55 nondirected donors, performance of only donor specific antibody negative transplants, the requirement for donor travel, and nonuse of bridge donors. The national KPD program has helped maintain the volume of living kidney donor transplants in Canada over the past 5 years and serves as a model of inter-provincial collaboration to improve the delivery of health care to Canadians.
Hodgson, R; Young, A L; Attia, M A; Lodge, J P A
Organ transplantation is the most successful treatment for some forms of organ failure, yet a lack of organs means many die on the waiting list. In the United Kingdom, the Organ Donation Taskforce was set up to identify barriers to organ donation and in 2008 released its first report (Organ Donation Taskforce Report; ODTR). This study assesses the success since the ODTR and examines the impact of the United Kingdom's controlled donation after circulatory death (DCD) program and the controversies surrounding it. There were 12 864 intended donation after brain death (DBD) or DCD donors from April 2004 to March 2014. When the 5 years preceding the ODTR was compared to the 5 years following, intended DCD donors increased 292% (1187 to 4652), and intended DBD donors increased 11% (3327 to 3698). Organs retrieved per intended DBD donor remained static (3.30 to 3.26), whereas there was a decrease in DCD (1.54 to 0.99) due to a large rise in donors who did not proceed to donation (325 to 2464). The majority of DCD donors who proceeded did so within 30 min from time of withdrawal. Our study suggests further work on converting eligible referrals to organ donation and exploring methods of converting DCD to DBD donors. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Li, Alvin Ho-Ting; Lam, Ngan N; Dhanani, Sonny; Weir, Matthew; Prakash, Versha; Kim, Joseph; Knoll, Greg; Garg, Amit X
Canada has low rates of deceased organ and tissue donation. Immigrants to Canada may differ in their registered support for deceased organ donation based on their country of origin. We used linked administrative databases in Ontario (about 11 million residents aged ≥ 16 yr) to study the proportion of immigrants and long-term residents registered for deceased organ and tissue donation as of October 2013. We used modified Poisson regression to identify and quantify predictors of donor registration. Compared with long-term residents ( n = 9 244 570), immigrants ( n = 1 947 646) were much less likely to register for deceased organ and tissue donation (11.9% v. 26.5%). Immigrants from the United States, Australia and New Zealand had the highest registration rate (40.0%), whereas immigrants with the lowest registration rates were from Eastern Europe and Central Asia (9.4%), East Asia and Pacific (8.4%) and sub-Saharan Africa (7.9%). The largest numbers of unregistered immigrants were from India ( n = 202 548), China ( n = 186 678) and the Philippines ( n = 125 686). Characteristics among the immigrant population associated with a higher likelihood of registration included economic immigrant status, living in a rural area (population speak English and French, and more years residing in Canada. Immigrants in Ontario were less likely to register for deceased organ and tissue donation than long-term residents. There is a need to better understand reasons for lower registration rates among Canadian immigrants and to create culture-sensitive materials to build support for deceased organ and tissue donation.
Stiers, Justin; Aguayo, Cecile; Siatta, Angela; Presson, Angela P; Perez, Richard; DiGeronimo, Robert
The need for transplants continues to exceed organ and tissue donor availability. Although recent surgical advances have resulted in successful transplants using very small pediatric donors, including neonates, the actual practice of neonatal organ donation after circulatory determination of death (DCDD) remains uncommon. To describe the percentage of neonates potentially eligible for DCDD, including those who underwent successful donation, and reasons for ineligibility in those who did not in a single neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). We obtained data from the Children's Hospital Neonatal Database and Intermountain Donor Services (IDS) organ procurement records. The 136 deaths that occurred in the NICU of the Primary Children's Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah, from January 1, 2010, through May 7, 2013, were reviewed retrospectively from January 12 through July 1, 2014, to determine potential eligibility for DCDD as determined by IDS minimum eligibility criteria (requirement of life-sustaining interventions and weight >2 kg). For patients who did not undergo DCDD, we reviewed records to determine the reasons for ineligibility. Potential eligibility for DCDD among neonates who died in the study NICU. Of 136 deaths in the NICU, 60 (44.1%) met criteria for DCDD; however, fewer than 10% were referred appropriately to the regional organ procurement organization for evaluation. Forty-five neonates (33.1%) ultimately died within 90 minutes of withdrawal of life-sustaining interventions and thus would have been eligible for organ donation based on warm ischemic time. The most common causes of death among the 60 potentially eligible neonatal donors were neonatal encephalopathy (n = 17) and multiple congenital anomalies (n = 14). Nonreferral or late referral by the medical team was the most frequent reason for donor ineligibility, including 49 neonates (36.0%). Overall, only 4 neonates (2.9%) underwent successful DCDD. Although almost half of all neonatal deaths
Yates, Brian T; Mannix, Danyelle; Freed, Michael C; Campbell, Jean; Johnsen, Matthew; Jones, Kristine; Blyler, Crystal R
Examine cost differences between Consumer Operated Service Programs (COSPs) as possibly determined by a) size of program, b) use of volunteers and other donated resources, c) cost-of-living differences between program locales, d) COSP model applied, and e) delivery system used to implement the COSP model. As part of a larger evaluation of COSP, data on operating costs, enrollments, and mobilization of donated resources were collected for eight programs representing three COSP models (drop-in centers, mutual support, and education/advocacy training). Because the 8 programs were operated in geographically diverse areas of the US, costs were examined with and without adjustment for differences in local cost of living. Because some COSPs use volunteers and other donated resources, costs were measured with and without these resources being monetized. Scale of operation also was considered as a mediating variable for differences in program costs. Cost per visit, cost per consumer per quarter, and total program cost were calculated separately for funds spent and for resources donated for each COSP. Differences between COSPs in cost per consumer and cost per visit seem better explained by economies of scale and delivery system used than by cost-of-living differences between program locations or COSP model. Given others' findings that different COSP models produce little variation in service effectiveness, minimize service costs by maximizing scale of operation while using a delivery system that allows staff and facilities resources to be increased or decreased quickly to match number of consumers seeking services.
In countries where presumed consent for organ donation does not apply, health professionals (HP) are key players for identifying donors and obtaining their consent. This systematic review was designed to verify the efficacy of interventions aimed at HPs to promote organ and tissue donation in clinical settings. CINAHL (1982 to 2012), COCHRANE LIBRARY, EMBASE (1974 to 2012), MEDLINE (1966 to 2012), PsycINFO (1960 to 2012), and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses were searched for papers published in French or English until September 2012. Studies were considered if they met the following criteria: aimed at improving HPs’ practices regarding the donation process or at increasing donation rates; HPs working in clinical settings; and interventions with a control group or pre-post assessments. Intervention behavioral change techniques were analyzed using a validated taxonomy. A risk ratio was computed for each study having a control group. A total of 15 studies were identified, of which only 5 had a control group. Interventions were either educational, organizational or a combination of both, and had a weak theoretical basis. The most common behavior change technique was providing instruction. Two sets of interventions showed a significant risk ratio. However, most studies did not report the information needed to compute their efficacy. Therefore, interventions aimed at improving the donation process or at increasing donation rates should be based on sound theoretical frameworks. They would benefit from more rigorous evaluation methods to ensure good knowledge translation and appropriate organizational decisions to improve professional practices. PMID:24628967
Ross, Lainie Friedman; Rodrigue, James R; Veatch, Robert M
The advanced donation program was proposed in 2014 to allow an individual to donate a kidney in order to provide a voucher for a kidney in the future for a particular loved one. In this article, we explore the logistical and ethical issues that such a program raises. We argue that such a program is ethical in principle but there are many logistical issues that need to be addressed to ensure that the actual program is fair to both those who do and do not participate in this program. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Background: Oocyte donation is an invaluable therapy for couples with impending or complete ovarian failure. In addition, oocyte donation affords a scientific opportunity to study the unique biologic participation of the uterus in the process of human embryo implantation. Aim: To identify the recipient variables that may have a significant impact on pregnancy outcome in order to optimize results of an oocyte donation program. Design and Settings: A prospective study conducted from March 1, 2010 to March 31, 2011 at a private tertiary care IVF Clinic. Materials and methods A total of 270 recipients resulting in embryo transfer as a result of oocyte donation were enrolled. Clinical and Ongoing pregnancy rates, Implantation rates were calculated according to different age groups, Endometrial thickness, Indication, Day and number of embryos transferred. Data was evaluated as chi square analyses with comparative significance determined at P 8 mm is considered ideal before transfer. Transfer of two selected embryos on day 3 yields a favorable pregnancy outcome with reduced multiple pregnancy rates. Recipient′s age above 45 years has negative impact on pregnancy outcome whereas embryo transfers on Day 3 yields better pregnancy
dos Santos, M J; Massarollo, M C K B; de Moraes, E L
The family interview is a complex phase of the organ donation process because it involves aspects of the interviewer, the interviewee, the interview location, and ethical and legal issues. However, there are few publications on this phase of the donation process. This study aimed to reveal the meaning assigned to the interview phase, in the process of donating organs and tissues for transplantation, by the families of potential donors. We performed a qualitative study of the phenomenologic aspect, within the modality "structure situated phenomena." The study included the participation of 10 families. After analyzing the interviews, the meaning of the interview was unveiled by the family members. The statements revealed that the family interview is considered to be an important step for warnings, clarifications, and encouraging families to think about the possibility of donating to save and/or improve the quality of life of people in need for a transplant, and that studies contribute to the technical and scientific qualification of the interviewer as well as stimulate discussion among health professionals to improve the interviewing process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... Program, at a minimum, must head, gut, and freeze the fish in a manner that makes it fit for human... networks, or food bank distributors and that the fish will be maintained in a manner fit for human... distributed for human consumption. (ix) Quality control criteria to be followed by vessels, processors, hunger...
Potter, Julie Elizabeth; Gatward, Jonathan J; Kelly, Michelle A; McKay, Leigh; McCann, Ellie; Elliott, Rosalind M; Perry, Lin
The approach, communication skills, and confidence of clinicians responsible for raising deceased organ donation may influence families' donation decisions. The aim of this study was to increase the preparedness and confidence of intensive care clinicians allocated to work in a "designated requester" role. We conducted a posttest evaluation of an innovative simulation-based training program. Simulation-based training enabled clinicians to rehearse the "balanced approach" to family donation conversations (FDCs) in the designated requester role. Professional actors played family members in simulated clinical settings using authentic scenarios, with video-assisted reflective debriefing. Participants completed an evaluation after the workshop. Simple descriptive statistical analysis and content analysis were performed. Between January 2013 and July 2015, 25 workshops were undertaken with 86 participants; 82 (95.3%) returned evaluations. Respondents were registered practicing clinicians; over half (44/82; 53.7%) were intensivists. Most attended a single workshop. Evaluations were overwhelmingly positive with the majority rating workshops as outstanding (64/80; 80%). Scenario fidelity, competence of the actors, opportunity to practice and receive feedback on performance, and feedback from actors, both in and out of character, were particularly valued. Most (76/78; 97.4%) reported feeling more confident about their designated requester role. Simulation-based communication training for the designated requester role in FDCs increased the knowledge and confidence of clinicians to raise the topic of donation.
Although the possibilities for the treatment of infertility have been improved tremendously, not every couple will be treated successfully. Crude overall pregnancy rates of 50-65% per patient can be achieved nowadays, irrespective of the type of profertility treatment applied first. IVF only accounts for about 20% of the pregnancies achieved. Dropout is an important reason for not reaching the estimated pregnancy rate. Even after failed IVF, spontaneous pregnancies do occur. Sperm and oocyte donation (OD) offer additional chances to subfertile couples. Severity of the male factor (in sperm donation) and young donor age (in OD) are important determinants of success. Analysis of assisted reproduction technology outcomes would benefit from more universally accepted definitions and deserves better statistical analysis. Long-term cumulative live birth rates of 80% may be expected if dropout can be limited. Milder stimulation, a patient-friendlier approach and better counseling may help to keep more patients in the program.
Reubsaet, A.; Reinaerts, E. B. M.; Brug, J.; van Hooff, J. P.; van den Borne, H. W.
This paper describes the process evaluation of an organ donation education program for high school students aged 15-18 years of which the effectiveness was established. The program consisted of three components: a video with group discussion, an interactive computer-tailored program and a registration training session. A cross-sectional survey was…
Vertanous, T; Czer, L S C; de Robertis, M; Kiankhooy, A; Kobashigawa, J; Esmailian, F; Trento, A
The influence of new donor registrations through the California Organ and Tissue Donor Registry on the local OneLegacy Organ Procurement Organization (OPO) was examined during a 6-year period. Publicly available data from Donate Life America for California were examined for the 6 calendar years of 2009-2014. Performance data from OneLegacy for the same 6 years for organ donors and number of transplants were also examined. The donor designation rate (DDR) was defined as the rate at which new individuals joined the state donor registry as a percentage of all driver licenses and ID cards issued within a calendar year. The total donor designation (TDD) was defined as the sum of the new and existing people who were registered organ donors. Donor designation share (DDS) was the total number of designated donors as a percentage of all residents of the state who were ≥18 years old. The business practices and educational efforts of the OneLegacy OPO were examined as well. In California, from 2009 through 2014, the DDR was 25.5%-28%. When added to the existing donor registrations, the TDD and DDS increased each year from 2009 through 2014. With the current level of growth, it is projected that California will be able to reach a DDS of 50% by 2017. For the OneLegacy OPO, designated donors from the California Organ and Tissue Donor Registry made up 15% of the total donations in 2009, and 39% of the total donations in 2014, increasing by ∼5% each year since 2009. By increasing professionalization and transparency, and widening its educational and training efforts, OneLegacy was able to take advantage of an increasing percentage of donors who were designated donors and to increase the overall number of donors and organs transplanted, becoming one of the largest OPOs in the nation. This can be a model for OPOs in other donor service areas, and it may set the stage for the United States to serve as an example to the global community in the practice of organ donation. Copyright
Li, Yijiang; Song, Peter X-K; Zhou, Yan; Leichtman, Alan B; Rees, Michael A; Kalbfleisch, John D
The traditional concept of barter exchange in economics has been extended in the modern era to the area of living-donor kidney transplantation, where one incompatible donor-candidate pair is matched to another pair with a complementary incompatibility, such that the donor from one pair gives an organ to a compatible candidate in the other pair and vice versa. Kidney paired donation (KPD) programs provide a unique and important platform for living incompatible donor-candidate pairs to exchange organs in order to achieve mutual benefit. In this paper, we propose novel organ allocation strategies to arrange kidney exchanges under uncertainties with advantages, including (i) allowance for a general utility-based evaluation of potential kidney transplants and an explicit consideration of stochastic features inherent in a KPD program; and (ii) exploitation of possible alternative exchanges when the originally planned allocation cannot be fully executed. This allocation strategy is implemented using an integer programming (IP) formulation, and its implication is assessed via a data-based simulation system by tracking an evolving KPD program over a series of match runs. Extensive simulation studies are provided to illustrate our proposed approach.
... centers must verify annually in January of each calendar year with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that an eye bank or tissue bank has complied with the FDA registration requirements of 21 CFR part 1271 and that the registration status is active before permitting an eye bank or tissue bank to receive...
Yin, Zhike; Liu, Shan; Yan, Jin; Liu, Jia
BACKGROUND To align with guiding principles on human organ and tissue transplantation published by the World Health Organization (WHO), the Red Cross Society of China (RCSC) launched a new nationwide organ donation program in 2010 to recruit organ donation volunteers. Despite severe shortage of donated organs, there is a very low rate of volunteering for organ donation among the Chinese population (only 0.03 donors per million population) in the national program. Motivating organ donation is the key to the success of organ transplantation in China. MATERIAL AND METHODS Semi-structured 45- to 60-min interviews were conducted among 34 volunteers. Data analysis was performed with Nvivo 8.0 software. RESULTS Six motivations for organ donation were identified: helping others/altruism, fulfilling long-cherished wishes, reducing the burdens, making the best use of everything, giving back to society, and life extension. Factors affecting the motivation of organ donation among volunteers in China included traditional values, personal experiences, role model effect, family support, and problems in the donation system. Possible strategies to improve organ donation included fostering a scientific concept of the body and death, focusing donation promotion efforts on certain groups, and simplifying the process of organ donation. CONCLUSIONS There are multiple reasons for Chinese people to register for organ donation, with helping others as the central motivation.
Lindemann, Jessica; Dageforde, Leigh Anne; Vachharajani, Neeta; Stahlschmidt, Emily; Brockmeier, Diane; Wellen, Jason R; Khan, Adeel; Chapman, William C; Doyle, Mb Majella
Donation after cardiac death (DCD) is one method of organ donation. Nationally, more than half of evaluated DCD donors do not yield transplantable organs. There is no algorithm for predicting which DCD donors will be appropriate for organ procurement. Donation after cardiac death program costs from an organ procurement organization (OPO) accounting for all evaluated donors have not been reported. Hospital, transportation, and supply costs of potential DCD donors evaluated at a single OPO from January 2009 to June 2016 were collected. Mean costs per donor and per organ were calculated. Cost of DCD donors that did not yield a transplantable organ were included in cost analyses resulting in total cost of the DCD program. Donation after cardiac death donor costs were compared with costs of in-hospital donation after brain death (DBD) donors. There were 289 organs transplanted from 264 DCD donors evaluated. Mean cost per DCD donor yielding transplantable organs was $9,306. However, 127 donors yielded no organs, at a mean cost of $8,794 per donor. The total cost of the DCD program was $32,020 per donor and $15,179 per organ. Mean cost for an in-hospital DBD donor was $33,546 and $9,478 per organ transplanted. Mean organ yield for DBD donors was 3.54 vs 2.21 for DCD donors (p organ 63% of the cost of a DCD organ. Mean cost per DCD donor is comparable with DBD donors, however, individual cost of DCD organs increases by almost 40% when all costs of an entire DCD program are included. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Tran Cong Toai; Hoang Van Thuc; Nguyen Ngoc Son; Pham Anh Tuan; Yongyudh Vajaradul; Tran Bac Hai; Nguyen Giang Son; Hyunh Ngoc Linh
The study was carried out on next-of-kins of the deceased one to identify factors affecting the final results of organ donation. Among 225 interviewers (67.1% men), 80 people (35.6%) would be willing to give consent for donation of their relative's tissue and organ. When faced with the beloved death, only 8 cases were procured in reality. The obstacles that limited the organ procurement are due to: consent with some conditions (26/80); not the right relative available to make consent (25/80); initial consent subsequently withdrawn (12/80); exclusion criteria by Tissue Bank (7/80) and interview too late (2/80). There were 62.2% of respondents heard about tissue and organ transplantation, but only 50.3% were aware of transplantation operations possible in Viet Nam. Awareness of transplantation and donation revealed the statistically significant association with the consent for organ donation. It is important that these all such factors need to be considered in their cultural, ethical, religious and legislative environment
Cox, Michael A; Brubaker, Scott A
In the context of the EU Directives for human tissues and cells (2004/23/EC, 2006/17/EC and 2006/86/EC) further interest has arisen on the practical application of a few clauses. One such aspect, for the evaluation phase of a potential donor, is the interpretation of the exclusion criterion "transplantation with xenografts." This article outlines the consensus viewpoints regarding the earlier evaluation of the risks related to xenotransplantation and describes the current status of the terminology and recommendations/laws in several healthcare sectors. The application of uniform terminology is encouraged within the healthcare sectors at the international level.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Given that in each country students represent the most progressive population group, as of 2001, the Blood Transfusion Institute of Serbia (BTIS has been carrying the program of voluntary blood donation promotion and education of volunteers at the University of Belgrade (UB. In 2011, the BTIS intensified all activities at the UB. The aim of this study was to present activities performed from 2001 at the Blood Donors` Motivation Department (DMD of the BTIS related with increasing the level of awareness on voluntary blood donation in the Belgrade students` population, enhancing their motivation to become voluntary blood donors (VBDs, increasing the number of blood donations at faculties of the UB, and increasing the number of blood donations in the UB students population compared with the total number of blood units collected by BTIS in Belgrade, with the emphasis on the year 2013. Methods. Initially, the applied methodology was based on encouraging students to donate blood through discussions and preparatory lectures, followed by organized blood drives. Appropriate selection of volunteers at each faculty was crucial. Besides their recognisable identity, they had to have remarkable communication skills and ability to positivly affect persons in their environment. The applied principle was based on retention of volunteers all through the final academic year, with the inclusion of new volunteers each year and 1,000 preparatory lectures on the annual basis. The activities were realized using two Facebook profiles, SMS messages and continuous notification of the public through the media. Results. There was an increase in the average number of students in blood drives at the faculties from 2011, when the average number of the students per blood drive was 39, followed by 43 in 2012 and 46 in 2013. The number of students who donated blood in 2013 increased by 21.3% compared with 2012 data. Conclusion. The applied concept highly
... During your donation you can relax, watch a movie, listen to music…in a few hours you’ ... requirements may become eligible to donate platelets. Please review our eligibility requirements as some states require parental ...
A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...
... The medical history includes questions that help blood bank staff decide if a person is healthy enough to donate blood. They'll ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates U.S. blood banks. All blood ... operating. Sometimes people who donate blood notice a few minor side ...
... time’ to unwind from the daily stresses of life while helping save lives. What are the benefits to donating platelets? Knowing you’re helping cancer ... of your arm. That pinch is similar to what you will feel when the needle is ... compared to a traditional whole blood donation so some donors find it to ...
de Lange, Geertje M; Rademaker, Marleen; Boks, Marco P; Palmen, Saskia J M C
Human brain tissue is crucial to study the molecular and cellular basis of psychiatric disorders. However, the current availability of human brain tissue is inadequate. Therefore, the Netherlands Brain Bank initiated a program in which almost 4.000 participants of 15 large Dutch psychiatric research cohorts were asked to register as prospective brain donors. We approached patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, families with a child with autism or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, healthy relatives and healthy unrelated controls, either face-to-face or by post. We investigated whether diagnosis, method of approach, age, and gender were related to the likelihood of brain-donor registration. We found a striking difference in registration efficiency between the diagnosis groups. Patients with bipolar disorder and healthy relatives registered most often (25% respectively 17%), followed by unrelated controls (8%) and patients with major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (9%, 6% resp. 5%). A face-to-face approach was 1.3 times more effective than a postal approach and the likelihood of registering as brain donor significantly increased with age. Gender did not make a difference. Between 2013 and 2016, our prospective brain-donor program for psychiatry resulted in an almost eightfold increase (from 149 to 1149) in the number of registered psychiatric patients at the Netherlands Brain Bank. Based on our results we recommend, when starting a prospective brain donor program in psychiatric patients, to focus on face to face recruitment of people in their sixties or older.
Bajor, Grzegorz; Likus, Wirginia; Kuszewski, Piotr; Kostro, Karol; Łoś, Andrzej; Kłakus, Piotr
The Conscious Body Donation Program conducted since 2003 by the Department of Human Anatomy, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice was the first innovative project aimed at obtaining informed donors' bodies for the purpose of teaching anatomy in Poland. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the declared donors' characteristics and to establish the possible motivation for body donation. A total of 244 application files were reviewed and the following information was analyzed: donor's age, age at which the decision to donate the body was made, donor's place of residence and declared nationality, family background, education and profession, family structure and religion. Our results showed that mainly elderly people decided to donate their bodies (68.5 ± 11.84 years), living mostly in large and medium-sized cities. Men--donors often lived in small towns. Most of the donors were of blue-collar parentage, completed secondary education and at the time of taking decision to donate where married and retired. Widows were more likely to make the decision to donate than widowers. Most of our donors were Catholic. Our analysis of the profile of Polish donors may be useful to understand better for which groups of people death is not to be perceived as the end, and may become a value, which can be beneficial to living people.
Full Text Available The Conscious Body Donation Program conducted since 2003 by the Department of Human Anatomy, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice was the first innovative project aimed at obtaining informed donors' bodies for the purpose of teaching anatomy in Poland. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the declared donors' characteristics and to establish the possible motivation for body donation. A total of 244 application files were reviewed and the following information was analyzed: donor's age, age at which the decision to donate the body was made, donor's place of residence and declared nationality, family background, education and profession, family structure and religion. Our results showed that mainly elderly people decided to donate their bodies (68.5 ± 11.84 years, living mostly in large and medium-sized cities. Men--donors often lived in small towns. Most of the donors were of blue-collar parentage, completed secondary education and at the time of taking decision to donate where married and retired. Widows were more likely to make the decision to donate than widowers. Most of our donors were Catholic. Our analysis of the profile of Polish donors may be useful to understand better for which groups of people death is not to be perceived as the end, and may become a value, which can be beneficial to living people.
... need for donors and to find resources on how to donate. Together, we can save lives and give hope to... Donate Life Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation As Americans, we..., tissue, stem cell, and blood donation. During National Donate Life Month, we honor donors who provide...
Promoting deceased organ and tissue donation registration in family physician waiting rooms (RegisterNow-1 trial): study protocol for a pragmatic, stepped-wedge, cluster randomized controlled registry.
Li, Alvin H; Garg, Amit X; Prakash, Versha; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Taljaard, Monica; Mitchell, Joanna; Matti, Danny; Linklater, Stefanie; Naylor, Kyla L; Dixon, Stephanie; Faulds, Cathy; Bevan, Rachel; Getchell, Leah; Knoll, Greg; Kim, S Joseph; Sontrop, Jessica; Bjerre, Lise M; Tong, Allison; Presseau, Justin
There is a worldwide shortage of organs available for transplant, leading to preventable mortality associated with end-stage organ disease. While most citizens in many countries with an intent-to-donate "opt-in" system support organ donation, registration rates remain low. In Canada, most Canadians support organ donation but less than 25% in most provinces have registered their desire to donate their organs when they die. The family physician office is a promising yet underused setting in which to promote organ donor registration and address known barriers and enablers to registering for deceased organ and tissue donation. We developed a protocol to evaluate an intervention to promote registration for organ and tissue donation in family physician waiting rooms. This protocol describes a planned, stepped-wedge, cluster randomized registry trial in six family physician offices in Ontario, Canada to evaluate the effectiveness of reception staff providing patients with a pamphlet that addresses barriers and enablers to registration including a description of how to register for organ donation. An Internet-enabled tablet will also be provided in waiting rooms so that interested patients can register while waiting for their appointments. Family physicians and reception staff will be provided with training and/or materials to support any conversations about organ donation with their patients. Following a 2-week control period, the six offices will cross sequentially into the intervention arm in randomized sequence at 2-week intervals until all offices deliver the intervention. The primary outcome will be the proportion of patients visiting the office who are registered organ donors 7 days following their office visit. We will evaluate this outcome using routinely collected registry data from provincial administrative databases. A post-trial qualitative evaluation process will assess the experiences of reception staff and family physicians with the intervention and the
Owusu-Ofori, S; Asenso-Mensah, K; Boateng, P; Sarkodie, F; Allain, J-P
Most African countries are challenged in recruiting and retaining voluntary blood donors by cost and other complexities and in establishing and implementing national blood policies. The availability of replacement donors who are a cheaper source of blood has not enhanced repeat voluntary donor initiatives. An overview of activities for recruiting and retaining voluntary blood donors was carried out. Donor records from mobile sessions were reviewed from 2002 to 2008. A total of 71,701 blood donations; 45,515 (63.5%) being voluntary donations with 11,680 (25%) repeat donations were collected during the study period. Donations from schools and colleges contributed a steady 60% of total voluntary whilst radio station blood drives increased contribution from 10 to 27%. Though Muslim population is less than 20%, blood collection was above the 30-donation cost-effectiveness threshold with a repeat donation trend reaching 60%. In contrast Christian worshippers provided donations. Repeat donation trends amongst school donors and radio blood drives were 20% and 70% respectively. Repeat donations rates have been variable amongst different blood donor groups in Kumasi, Ghana. The impact of community leaders in propagating altruism cannot be overemphasized. Programs aiming at motivating replacement donors to be repeat donors should be developed and assessed. Copyright 2009 The International Association for Biologicals. All rights reserved.
... Red Cell Plasma Platelets Red Cells What blood donation type is best for me? **If you do ... type, a whole blood donation is recommended** Blood Donation Types: Volunteer Donations The standard or most common ...
A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.
Bharambe Vaishaly K.
Full Text Available Introduction. All over the world people on organ transplant waiting lists die due to shortage of donor organs. The success of organ donation program needs education of the population regarding organ donation for which healthcare professionals are most suitable. The present study was taken up to assess the knowledge and attitude of 1st, 2nd and 3rd year medical students about organ donation. Methods. A specially designed self-administered questionnaire was distributed amongst all willing 1st, 2nd and 3rd year medical students at our Medical College and later analyzed statistically. Results. A total of 157, 145 and 92 students from each year of medical education respectively gave their consent for participation in the study. Awareness regarding organ donation was found to be 98.7-100%, 69.4% claimed television as their source of information regarding organ donation and 46.7% stated that it is possible for patient to recover from brain death. The awareness regarding eye, liver, heart and kidney donations was found to be 92.4%, 87%, 87% and 97.8%, respectively. 87% of medical students were aware of need for legal supervision, and awareness regarding the existing laws was found to be 57.6%. Conclusion. Medical students had a high level of awareness and a positive attitude towards organ donation. However, knowledge regarding “brain-death”, organs and tissues donated, legislation and ethical issues was poor. A teaching intervention designed to specifically address these issues could help increase the confidence of the health-care professionals and may result finally in increased organ procurement rates.
Ponzin, Diego; Fasolo, Adriano; Vidale, Enrico; Pozzi, Annalaura; Bottignolo, Elisa; Calabrò, Francesco; Rupolo, Giampietro
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a team-building learning project on job satisfaction, psychological wellbeing, and performance of health care workers involved in the process of organ and tissue donation. The project was conducted between June and September 2011 and consisted of two one-day meetings and a one week sailing, involving 20 staff members. GHQ-12, MBI-HSS, and 25 items taken from the Multidimensional Organizational Health Questionnaire (MOHQ) were used to assess health status, burnout, and job satisfaction. Results of the descriptive analyses were expressed as mean ± SD and as counts and percentages; Chi-square test was used to evaluate statistical significance of differences before and after the initiative. 6 (30,0%) participants showed the likelihood to suffering from anxiety and depression (i.e. recognized as 'cases' by the GHQ-12), 3 (15.0%) of them at baseline and 3 (15.0%), different from the previous ones, in the post-intervention. The presence of stress was revealed in 9 (45.0%) and 12 subjects (60.0%) before and after the experience, respectively (6 subjects showed the presence of stress in both circumstances). We documented 4 burnout cases, 3 (15.0%) at baseline and 1 (5.0%) after the experience. Nevertheless, about 80% of the participants showed a high degree ofjob satisfaction, in terms of positive influence of job in the professional satisfaction and of clear satisfaction for the organization, during both evaluation. In respect to 2010, the number of organ donors and that of ocular tissue donors improved of about 16% and 10%, respectively, during the year of the project and in the following year (mean value). We recognize that our team-building project for personnel involved in the stressful and demanding setting of organ and tissue donation, worthwhile and recompensing at the same time, possibly influenced the personal commitment and the quality of job provided. The high level of stress showed by participants should be
Kovács, D Á; Mihály, S; Rajczy, K; Zsom, L; Zádori, G; Fedor, R; Eszter, K; Enikő, B; Asztalos, L; Nemes, B
Organ transplantation has become an organized, routine, widely used method in the treatment of several end-stage diseases. Kidney transplantation means the best life-quality and longest life expectancy for patients with end-stage renal diseases. Transplantation is the only available long-term medical treatment for patients with end-stage liver, heart, and lung diseases. Despite the number of transplantations increasing worldwide, the needs of the waiting lists remain below expectations. One of the few methods to increase the number of transplantations is public education. In cooperation with the University of Debrecen Institute for Surgery Department of Transplantation, the Hungarian National Blood Transfusion Service Organ Coordination Office, and the Local Committee Debrecen of Hungarian Medical Students' International Relations Committee (HuMSIRC), the Gerundium, a new educational program, has been established to serve this target. Gerundium is a special program designed especially for youth education. Peer education means that age-related medical student volunteers educate their peers during interactive unofficial sessions. Volunteers were trained during specially designed training. Medical students were honored by HuMSIRC, depending on their activity on the basis of their own regulations. Uniform slides and brochures to share were designed. Every Hungarian secondary school was informed. The Local Committee Budapest of HuMSIRC also joined the program, which helps to expand our activity throughout Hungary. The aim of the program is public education to help disperse disapproval, if presented. As a multiple effect, our program promotes medical students to have better skills in the field of transplantation, presentation, and communication skills. Our program is a voluntary program with strong professional support and is free of charge for the community. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oerlemans, A.J.M.; Berg, P.P. van den; Leeuwen, E. van; Dekkers, W.J.M.
This article is part of the EuroSTEC project, which aims at developing tissue engineering-based treatments for structural disorders present at birth. EuroSTEC is positioned at the intersection of three areas with their own ethical issues: (1) regenerative medicine, (2) research with pregnant women
van den Berg, P.P.; van Leeuwen, E.; Dekkers, W.J.M.; Oerlemans, A.J.
This article is part of the EuroSTEC project, which aims at developing tissue engineering-based treatments for structural disorders present at birth. EuroSTEC is positioned at the intersection of three areas with their own ethical issues: (1) regenerative medicine, (2) research with pregnant women
... available for donation screening? 102-37.45 Section 102-37.45 Public Contracts and Property Management... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.45 How long is property available for donation screening? Entities authorized to participate in the donation program may...
O. V. Orlova
Full Text Available From from February 7th to 9th 2011, the World Health Organization (WHO, the Italian National Transplant Cen- tre and the EU-funded Project «Vigilance and Surveillance of Substances of Human Origin» joined forces to organise a major global consultation that took place in Bologna, Italy. The scope of the project included organs, tissues and cells for transplantation and for assisted reproduction. The participants represented regulatory and non-regulatory government agencies, professional societies and scientific and clinical specialities from all WHO regions. The meeting explored the work already carried out on-line and agreed on priorities for the future deve- lopment of the Project «Vigilance and Surveillance of Substances of Human Origin».
Walmsley, Heather L
'Deliberative democracy' is increasingly popular globally, as a means of securing public engagement with emerging health technologies and democratizing their governance. Architects of deliberative 'mini-publics' have tended, however, to privilege consensus within deliberation and the generation of 'action commitments' within a 'decisional context', despite widespread critique. Less attention has been paid to the phenomenon of persistent disagreement within constructed deliberative fora. This paper addresses this lacuna, performing a narrative analysis of four days of deliberation within one small group of demographically diverse public participants at the BC Biobank Deliberation (Vancouver, Canada, 2007). It reveals the value of listening to persistent deliberative disagreements. First, this paper argues that disagreements enable identification of deliberation and evaluation of its quality. Second, they generate insight into the deliberative process and the discursive means through which consensus can be achieved. Third, persistent deliberative disagreements can be creative of innovative governance solutions. In the case of the BC Biobank Deliberation, disagreements about compensation for biobank donors generated a range of suggestions for mediating between donor rights, corporate interests and societal needs--from tissue sample rentals to donor tax credits--suggestions that are unique to the existing academic and policy literature. Finally, this paper argues that practitioners should present persistent disagreements to public and policy audiences as an 'output' of deliberative democracy events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... reporting or recordkeeping provisions that are subject to Office of Management and Budget review in.... This notice was reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866. National.... SUMMARY: This notice announces the national average value of donated foods or, where applicable, cash in...
... reporting or recordkeeping provisions that are subject to Office of Management and Budget review in.... This notice was reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866. National.... SUMMARY: This notice announces the national average value of donated foods or, where applicable, cash in...
... reporting or recordkeeping provisions that are subject to Office of Management and Budget review in.... This notice was reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866. National.... SUMMARY: This notice announces the national average value of donated foods or, where applicable, cash in...
... that are subject to Office of Management and Budget review in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction... the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866. National Average Minimum Value of.... SUMMARY: This notice announces the national average value of donated foods or, where applicable, cash in...
... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Donations. 24.108 Section 24.108 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM RELOCATION ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Real Property Acquisition § 24.108 Donations. An owner whose real...
Full Text Available The legislation called the Transplantation of Human Organ Act (THO was passed in India in 1994 to streamline organ donation and transplantation activities. Broadly, the act accepted brain death as a form of death and made the sale of organs a punishable offence. With the acceptance of brain death, it became possible to not only undertake kidney transplantations but also start other solid organ transplants like liver, heart, lungs, and pancreas. Despite the THO legislation, organ commerce and kidney scandals are regularly reported in the Indian media. In most instances, the implementation of the law has been flawed and more often than once its provisions have been abused. Parallel to the living related and unrelated donation program, the deceased donation program has slowly evolved in a few states. In approximately one-third of all liver transplants, the organs have come from the deceased donor program as have all the hearts and pancreas transplants. In these states, a few hospitals along with committed NGOs have kept the momentum of the deceased donor program. The MOHAN Foundation (NGO based in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh has facilitated 400 of the 1,300 deceased organ transplants performed in the country over the last 14 years. To overcome organ shortage, developed countries are re-looking at the ethics of unrelated programs and there seems to be a move towards making this an acceptable legal alternative. The supply of deceased donors in these countries has peaked and there has been no further increase over the last few years. India is currently having a deceased donation rate of 0.05 to 0.08 per million population. We need to find a solution on how we can utilize the potentially large pool of trauma-related brain deaths for organ donation. This year in the state of Tamil Nadu, the Government has passed seven special orders. These orders are expected to streamline the activity of deceased donors and help increase their numbers. Recently, on
Gamero, Emma Castro; Morales Pedraza, Jorge
The tissue bank "Rosa Guerzoni Chambergo" (RGCTB) located at the Child's Health Institute was inaugurated in 1996, with the financial and technical support of the IAEA program on radiation and tissue banking. Since 1998, the biological bandage of fresh and lyophilised pigskin, amnion and bone tissue is processed routinely in this bank. In all cases, the tissue is sterilised with the use of Cobalt-60 radiation, process carried out at the Laboratories of Irradiation of the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN). The tissue bank in the Child's Health Institute helped to save lives in an accident occurred in Lima, when a New Year's fireworks celebration ran out of control in January 2002. Nearly 300 people died in the tragic blaze and hundreds more were seriously burned and injured. Eight Lima hospitals and clinics suddenly were faced with saving the lives of severely burned men, women and children. Fortunately, authorities were ready to respond to the emergency. More than 1,600 dressings were sterilised and supplied to Lima surgeons. The efforts helped save the lives of patients who otherwise might not have survived the Lima fire. Between 1998 and September 2007, 35,012 tissue grafts were produced and irradiated. Radiation sterilised tissues are used by 20 national medical institutions as well as 17 private health institutions. The tissue bank established in Peru with the support of the IAEA is now producing the following tissues: pigskin dressings, fresh and freeze-dried; bone allografts, chips, wedges and powdered, and amnion dressings air-dried. It is also now leading the elaboration of national standards, assignment being entrusted by ONDT (Organización Nacional de Donación y Transplantes; National Organisation on Donation and Transplant). This among other will permit the accreditation of the tissue bank. In this task is also participating IPEN.
... Print this page My Cart Donating peripheral blood stem cells Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is a nonsurgical procedure to collect ... Donating bone marrow Donor experiences videos Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is one of two methods of ...
Medical and technical developments increase the difficulty to provide sufficient safe blood for all patients in developed countries and their sociodemographic and societal changes. Sufficient national blood supply remains a reached, however still actual, challenge. Tomorrow is prepared today: the management of blood donation programs both in line with these developments and with social marketing strategies is one of the keys to success. If the main components of this organization are well known (mobile blood drives in various appropriate environments, and permanent blood donation centers) their proportions in the whole process must evolve and their contents require adaptations, especially for whole blood donation in urban areas. We have to focus on the people's way of life changes related to increasing urbanization of the society and prominent position taken by very large cities. This requires targeting several goals: to draw the attention of the potential blood-giving candidate, to get into position to collect him when he will decide it, to give meaning and recognition to his "sacrifice" (give time rather than donate blood) and to give him desire and opportunity to come back and donate one more time. In this strategy, permanent blood centers in urban areas have significant potential for whole blood collection, highlighted by the decrease of apheresis technology requirements. This potential requires profound changes in their location, conception and organization. The concept of Maison Du Don (MDD) reflects these changes. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000367.htm Blood donation before surgery To use the sharing features on ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Blood Transfusion and Donation Surgery Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., ...
... Blood Products Special Blood Donation Procedures Precautions and Adverse Reactions During Blood Transfusion (See Overview of Blood Transfusion .) Plateletpheresis (platelet donation) In plateletpheresis, a donor gives only platelets rather than whole blood. Whole ...
Mercado-Martínez, Francisco J; Díaz-Medina, Blanca A; Hernández-Ibarra, Eduardo
Donation coordinators play an important role in the success or failure of organ donation and transplant programs. Nevertheless, these professionals' perspectives and practices have hardly been explored, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. To examine donation coordinators' discourse on the organ donation process and the barriers they perceive. A critical qualitative study was carried out in Guadalajara, Mexico. Twelve donation coordinators from public and private hospitals participated. DATA GATHERING AND ANALYSIS: Data were gathered by using semistructured interviews and critical discourse analysis. Participants indicated that partial results have been achieved in deceased organ donation. Concomitantly, multiple obstacles have adversely affected the process and outcomes: at the structural level, the fragmentation of the health system and the scarcity of financial and material resources; at the relational level, nonegalitarian relationships between coordinators and hospital personnel; at the ideational level, the transplant domain and its specialists overshadow the donation domain and its coordinators. Negative images are associated with donation coordinators. Organ donation faces structural, relational, and ideational barriers; hence, complex interventions should be undertaken. Donation coordinators also should be recognized by the health system.
Full Text Available Based on the concept of Developmental Origin of Health and Disease, both human and animal studies have demonstrated a close link between nutrient supply perturbations in the fetus or neonate (i.e., maternal undernutrition, obesity, gestational diabetes and/or rapid catch-up growth and increased risk of adult-onset obesity. Indeed, the adipose tissue has been recognized as a key target of developmental programming in a sex-and depot-specific manner. Despite different developmental time windows, similar mechanisms of adipose tissue programming have been described in rodents and in bigger mammals (sheep, primates. Maternal nutritional manipulations reprogram offspring’s adipose tissue resulting in series of alterations: enhanced adipogenesis and lipogenesis, impaired sympathetic activity with reduced noradrenergic innervations and thermogenesis as well as low-grade inflammation. These changes affect adipose tissue development, distribution and composition predisposing offspring to fat accumulation. Modifications of hormonal tissue sensitivity (i.e., leptin, insulin, glucocorticoids and/or epigenetic mechanisms leading to persistent changes in gene expression may account for long-lasting programming across generations.
... safely and comfortably returns your plasma and platelets to you. With just a little extra time at your appointment, you can donate more red ... you. AB Elite maximizes your donation and takes just a few minutes longer than donating ... stop bleeding. Time it takes: About 1 hour and 15 minutes ...
... returns your plasma and platelets to you. With just a little extra time at your appointment, you can donate more red ... you. AB Elite maximizes your donation and takes just a few minutes longer than donating ... stop bleeding. Time it takes: About 1 hour and 15 minutes ...
Hall, Bethany; Parkin, Matthew Sw
Organ donation has developed since the Human Tissue Act 1961, and even since the Human Tissue Act 2004, which replaced it. Given the demand for organ transplants, there have been various attempts to increase the number of people on the Organ Donation Register, including awareness campaigns and celebrity endorsement. However, as the UK-wide strategy Taking Organ Transplantation to 2020 indicates, increasing the number of donations will require more than simply increasing the number of registered donors. This article reviews the changes in policies relating to organ donation and the associated issues.
Konaka, S; Shimizu, S; Iizawa, M; Ohkawara, H; Kato, O; Ashikari, J; Fukushima, N
, 93% wanted more professional education. However, it was difficult for them to attend these activities, to manage a rare and sudden donation case, and to find time to learn about organ donation because they had another post. The topics that they wanted to learn were donor family care (72%), overall organ/tissue donation procedures (65%), the role of In-Hp PTC (67%), simulations of donation (65%), legislation and social system of organ donation (61%), medical indications for donation (61%), current status of donation and transplantation in Japan (57%), donor management (56%), and case studies (49%). There were significant variations in the topics of interest among the occupations. As they had another post, they could find only a short period (1 or 2 days) to take professional education, such as lectures. Therefore, it was difficult for them to attend practical on-the-job training. To establish an organ procurement system and increase organ donation, In-Hp PTC have important roles in Japan. However, none is a full-time In-Hp PTC. Most In-Hp PTC require more professional education. A systematic education program for each occupation must be established soon. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aijing, Luo; Wenzhao, Xie; Wei, Wei; Qiquan, Wan; Xuantong, Deng
BACKGROUND China officially launched a pilot program of organ donation after cardiac death to overcome the shortage of available organs since 2011. Voluntary organ donation by deceased citizens became the only source of transplant organs beginning January 1, 2015. To investigate public opinions on organ donation by deceased donors, and discuss the effect of these opinions on the willingness and attitude of the public regarding voluntary organ donation. MATERIAL AND METHODS We designed a questionnaire. The survey was conducted from December 2014 to January 2015 in Changsha City, and 417 valid questionnaires were recovered. RESULTS A total of 162 respondents explicitly expressed a willingness to donate organs, and 269 believed that the organ donors' relatives should be compensated. A total of 255 respondents thought it acceptable to complete the donation-consent form when receiving a driver's license. Among the respondents, 65.3% did not agree with the statement "My body is bestowed by my parents, and to donate my body parts would not display filial respect"; 88.9% agreed that "It is necessary to consider the willingness of my family"; 74.4% agreed that "Donated organs have not been fairly and appropriately used; the wealthy and celebrities have been favored"; and 61.4% agreed that "Organ donation laws and regulations are not well developed, and organ donations will result in unnecessary difficulties." More than 80% believed that organ donation and transplantation extend life. CONCLUSIONS Public opinions on organ donation after death are associated with various factors, including traditional values, religious beliefs, compensation mechanisms, donor registration, institutional credibility, and ideals.
Hinck, Bryan D; Naelitz, Bryan D; Jackson, Brielle; Howard, Mariah; Nowacki, Amy; Modlin, Charles S
African Americans comprise 11 % of living organ donors, yet constitute 34 % of the kidney transplant waiting list. There are many barriers to organ donation among minorities that include decreased awareness of transplantation, cultural mistrust of the medical community, financial concerns, and fear of the transplant operation. This study investigates the societal misconceptions and demographic health factors that correlate with minority participation in organ and tissue donation. A 57 question Health and Wellness survey was designed to assess participants' demographic information, medical history, professional background, and opinions regarding organ transplantation. Participants were also asked to complete Quality Metric's Short Form-8 (SF-8) survey to assess physical health, mental health, and quality-of-life. Three hundred twenty-six surveys were administered to minority men. The majority of men were identified as African American, and 55 % were below the age of 40. Though 44 % of participants were willing to donate, only 27 % were registered as organ and tissue donors. Minorities who held misconceptions about organ donation-including the belief that they were too old or unhealthy to donate, for example-had lower general, physical, and mental health scores than those who did not (p = Minorities aware of the shortage for organs or who know a registered donor, an organ recipient, a dialysis patient, or someone on the waiting list were more willing to donate organs. Improving the general, physical, and mental health of minorities, coupled with an active educational outreach program, could result in a greater percentage of minorities registering and willing to be organ and tissue donors.
Full Text Available Aims • To explore organ donation and transplantation knowledge and attitudes among medical students at the University of Auckland. • To understand students' perception of the extent of training received prior to and during the medical program. Method A validated web-based questionnaire consisting of 42 questions in five categories was anonymously administered to all enrolled medical students at the Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, in September 2012. Results In all, 419 out of 989 (42% Year 2–6 students responded. A total of 99.3% of medical students supported organ donation, but knowledge was limited (mean score 7.54/15±2.26. A total of 38% of students reported having participated in organ donation learning. A total of 96% of students believed that organ donation information should be available in primary care settings. A total of 69% of students reported that if a patient asked a question about organ donation that they did not know the answer to, they also would not know where to source the correct information from. Conclusion This study demonstrates that although medical students support organ donation, they lack the knowledge required to facilitate informative discussions with patients. Enhanced organ donation education in medical programs may enable students to develop skills and knowledge allowing them to better discuss donation with patients.
Beard, J.; Ireland, L.; Robb, B.; Brown, P.
This paper is the result of the first evaluation of the Donor Tissue Bank of Victoria's (DTBV) approaches to families to offer the option of tissue donation. The DTBV has pioneered a new and developing community health service resulting in the provision of 2,318 allografts to surgeons throughout Australia from January 1994 to December 1997. Based within the Coronial Services Centre, the DTBV experience is with families associated with reportable deaths. The location of the program within a Coronial Centre is a significant feature and leads to a range of unique practice differences compared to a hospital donation/transplantation program. However there is a paucity of literature about tissue donation from cadaveric donor apart from what is known about organ donation, with most studies treating tissue and organ donation as the same. Thus ensuring differences between tissue donation and organ donation have not been articulated and to some extent have not been realised. The DTBV is the only tissue bank in Australia, which has been set up as part of Coronial Services. The DTBV was established in 1989 to provide a central facility for the acquisition, processing, storage and distribution of tissue for transplantation. Making a donation to a tissue bank does not have the same sense of immediacy as organ donation to a recipient. Tissue donation is not necessarily life-saving, but is it always life-enhancing. Whilst there are overlaps between hospital based programs and the DTBV program, significant differences exist. In this developing and unique area of practice, the role and functions of the transplant coordinators demands skills across two differing paradigms, the physical/biological sciences and the social sciences. The demands of meeting the requirements of both paradigms as central to many of the challenges and tensions in the Transplant Coordinator's work. The primary purpose of the evaluation was to describe, analyse and theorise the practice of the transplant
... for a stem cell transplant. Risks Bone marrow donation The most serious risk associated with donating bone ... you feel fully recovered. Peripheral blood stem cell donation The risks of this type of stem cell ...
Hoad, Veronica; Bentley, Peter; Bell, Barbara; Pathak, Praveen; Chan, Hiu Tat; Keller, Anthony
It has been suggested that blood donors with hereditary hemochromatosis may pose an increased infectious disease risk and adversely affect recipient outcomes. This study compares the infectious disease risk of whole blood (WB) donors enrolled as therapeutic (T) donors to voluntary WB donors to evaluate the safety of blood products provided by the T donors. This was a retrospective cohort study of all WB donations at the Australian Red Cross Blood Service who donated between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2013, comparing a yearly mean of 11,789 T donors with 107,773 total donations and a yearly mean of 468,889 voluntary WB donors with 2,584,705 total donations. We compared postdonation notification of infectious illnesses, bacterial contamination screening results, and positive tests for blood borne viruses in T and WB donors. Rates of transfusion-transmissible infections in donations destined for component manufacture were significantly lower in therapeutic donations compared to voluntary donations (8.4 vs. 21.6 per 100,000 donations). Bacterial contamination (43.0 vs. 45.9 per 100,000 donations) and postdonation illness reporting (136.2 vs. 110.8 per 100,000 donations) were similar in both cohorts. The Australian therapeutic venisection program enables T donors to provide a safe and acceptable source of donated WB that has a low infectious disease risk profile. © 2016 AABB.
Jones, J M; Bhutiani, N; Wei, D; Goldstein, L; Jones, C M; Cannon, R M
This study sought to approximate the cost-effectiveness of tPA utilization for prevention of biliary strictures (PTBS) in donation after circulatory death liver transplantation (DCD-LT). Previously-reported PTBS rates in DCD-LT with and without tPA were used to calculate the number needed to treat (NNT) for prevention of one PTBS. The incremental cost of PTBS was then used to determine the cost effectiveness of tPA for prevention of PTBS. The incidence of PTBS in the setting of tPA administration was 20%, while incidence in patients without tPA use was 43% (p PTBS management, use of tPA in DCD-LT protocols was estimated to save $31,528 per PTBS prevented. Utilization of tPA in DCD-LT protocols represents one possible cost-effective strategy for prevention of PTBS in DCD-LT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Donation of commodities. 226.5 Section 226.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Assistance to States § 226.5 Donation...
Grazi, Richard V; Wolowelsky, Joel B
In 2000, the Consensus Statement on the Live Organ Donor reported that "direct financial compensation for an organ from a living donor remains controversial and illegal in the United States" and took note of the position of the Transplantation Society that "Organs and tissue should be given without commercial consideration or commercial profit." Christian authorities insist that organ donors must not accrue economic advantage, and "selling" organs deprives the donation of its ethical quality. The writings of major contemporary authorities of Jewish law and ethics whose halakhic positions on bioethical issues are regularly considered by Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform ethicists were reviewed. Their positions on this issue were contrasted with those of various contemporary secular and religious authorities. These Jewish authorities reject the notion that generosity and charity, rather than monetary gain and greed, must serve as the exclusive basis for donation of functioning organs. Although nonaltruistic sale of kidneys may be theoretically ethical, ultimately its ethical status in Jewish ethics and law is inextricably connected to solving a series of pragmatic programs, such as creating a system that ensures that potential vendors and donors are properly informed and not exploited. Lacking such arrangements, ethical nonaltruistic kidney donations remain but a theoretical possibility.
Taise Ribeiro Morais
Full Text Available Transplantation and human organ donation are controversial issues that have generated much interest and discussion. The lack of clarification and the sensationalist news about organ trafficking contribute to raise questions and render the myths and prejudices permanent.The donation of organs and tissues is seen by society in general, as an act of solidarity and love from the family. However, it requires decision-making at a time of extreme pain and distress, caused by the impact of breaking news of death, the feeling of loss and the unexpected interruption of a life course(1.As the criteria of death are modified, the concept of brain death arises, along with the possibility of using donor organs and tissues. When there is not a good understanding of the organ donation process, the relatives of potential donors feel apprehensive, doubtful and undecided at the time of occurrence, because it is a subject about which there hasn’t been much clarification(1.Brazil has the largest public transplants program in the world, since the government finances 92% of procedures done in the country. However, when we consider the rate of post mortem transplant into the population, Brazil’s results are little expressive(2.Family refusal is a major obstacle to the realization of transplants, and is also identified as major cause for the shortage of organs and tissues for transplantation. Families who understand well the diagnosis of brain death are more favorable to organ donation, compared to families who believe that death only occurs after the heart stops. Therefore, the poor level of information, either by the quality of information concerning brain death, either by not having exceeded the barrier of stigmatized fear of organ trading, propagated by the media, drastically reduces the number of patients who are benefited from receiving an organ(3.Although all people are responsible for disseminating information, we must also educate health professionals, since
Sieverdes, John C; Price, Matthew; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Baliga, Prabhakar K; Chavin, Kenneth D; Brunner-Jackson, Brenda; Patel, Sachin; Treiber, Frank A
To describe the rationale, methodology, design, and interventional approach of a mobile health education program designed for African Americans with end stage renal disease (ESRD) to increase knowledge and self-efficacy to approach others about their need for a living donor kidney transplant (LDKT). The Living Organ Video Educated Donors (LOVED) program is a theory-guided iterative designed, mixed methods study incorporating three phases: 1) a formative evaluation using focus groups to develop program content and approach; 2) a 2-month proof of concept trial (n=27) to primarily investigate acceptability, tolerability and investigate increases of LDKT knowledge and self-efficacy; and 3) a 6-month, 2-arm, 60-person feasibility randomized control trial (RCT) to primarily investigate increases in LDKT knowledge and self-efficacy, and secondarily, to increase the number of living donor inquiries, medical evaluations, and LDKTs. The 8-week LOVED program includes an interactive web-based app delivered on 10″ tablet computer incorporating weekly interactive video education modules, weekly group video chat sessions with an African American navigator who has had LDKT and other group interactions for support and improve strategies to promote their need for a kidney. Phase 1 and 2 have been completed and the program is currently enrolling for the feasibility RCT. Phase 2 experienced 100% retention rates with 91% adherence completing the video modules and 88% minimum adherence to the video chat sessions. We are in the early stages of an RCT to evaluate the LOVED program; to date, we have found high tolerability reported from Phase 2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liang, H.; Renneboog, Luc
Do corporate donations enhance shareholder wealth or reflect agency problems? We address this question for a global sample of firms whereby we distinguish between charitable and political donations, as well as between donations in cash and in kind. We find that charitable donations are positively
Full Text Available The link between serotonin (5-HT and one of the most important elements of prosocial behavior, charity, has remained largely uninvestigated. In the present study, we tested whether charitable donating can be promoted by administering the food supplement L-Tryptophan (TRP, the biochemical precursor of 5-HT. Participants were compared with respect to the amount of money they donated when given the opportunity to make a charitable donation. As expected, compared to a neutral placebo, TRP appears to increase the participants’ willingness to donate money to a charity. This result supports the idea that the food we eat may act as a cognitive enhancer modulating the way we think and perceive the world and others.
... Drive Biomedical Services Hospital Partners Blood Products Blood Banking Resources Order Blood Products Invoice Central Case Reports ... Speed up your donation by completing a RapidPass® online or on the Blood Donor app on the ...
Full Text Available The paper discusses public opinion on post-mortem organ donation, especially the difference between high support of public opinion to transplant activity, its general readiness to donate organs and the low number of signed organ donor cards. Through different approaches the article tries to point out possible factors relevant to the decision to donate organs. Early studies showed demographic variables and information as significant factors when deciding to donate organs after death. As there was not enough evidence that long-term effect through these factors is significant, the need for new investigation has grown. Social cognition theories helped understanding the difference mentioned above. It seems that the use of this approach might contribute to the understanding the problem and to delimit most useful factors when working with public.
Esqalli, Imane; Knidiri, Hafssa; Mahoungou, Gael; Aitlahcen, Zineb; Fadili, Wafaa; Laouad, Inass
Morocco stays far behind other countries in the domain of organ donation and transplantation. Improving the knowledge of Moroccan students, about organ donation and transplantation, can be a key factor in the development of transplant activity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of students concerning organ donation and transplantation. The opinion survey was conducted in Marrakech city, with four high education structures with a pre-established questionnaire. The survey questions answered four main themes, which are: the evaluation of knowledge, the opinion and attitude of citizen, the explanation of refusal and the propositions to encourage organ donation in Morocco. Hundred percent of surveyed subjects answered the questionnaire. Among them, 40.3% were men. The middle age was 21.5 years. Out of 503 surveyed students, 89.4% were aware of organ transplant in Morocco. A quarter of students believed that removal and transplant acts were realized just in public health establishments, which have the authorization. Two persons out of 3 were able to identify transplantable organs and tissues. More than half accepted to donate their organs after death. The religious reason was in the head list of refusal determinants of organ donation after death, with a prevalence of 39.7%. Young Moroccans have limited knowledge relating to organ donation. The development of this therapy needs to establish an adequate project of information and motivation of general population. Copyright © 2015 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Weiss, Julius; Elmer, Andreas; Mahíllo, Beatriz; Domínguez-Gil, Beatriz; Avsec, Danica; Costa, Alessandro Nanni; Haase-Kromwijk, Bernadette J J M; Laouabdia, Karim; Immer, Franz F
The donation rate (DR) per million population is not ideal for an efficiency comparison of national deceased organ donation programs. The DR does not account for variabilities in the potential for deceased donation which mainly depends on fatalities from causes leading to brain death. In this study, the donation activity was put into relation to the mortality from selected causes. Based on that metric, this study assesses the efficiency of different donation programs. This is a retrospective analysis of 2001-2015 deceased organ donation and mortality registry data. Included are 27 Council of Europe countries, as well as the USA. A donor conversion index (DCI) was calculated for assessing donation program efficiency over time and in international comparisons. According to the DCI and of the countries included in the study, Spain, France, and the USA had the most efficient donation programs in 2015. Even though mortality from the selected causes decreased in most countries during the study period, differences in international comparisons persist. This indicates that the potential for deceased organ donation and its conversion into actual donation is far from being similar internationally. Compared with the DR, the DCI takes into account the potential for deceased organ donation, and therefore is a more accurate metric of performance. National donation programs could optimize performance by identifying the areas where most potential is lost, and by implementing measures to tackle these issues.
Biticchi, Roberta; Cancedda, Ranieri; Cilli, Michele; Cotronei, Vittorio; Costa, Delfina; Liu, Yi; Piccardi, Federica; Pignataro, Salvatore; Ruggiu, Alessandra; Tasso, Roberta; Tavella, Sara
obtain from the animals sent to the ISS as much as possible information including also microgravity induced modifications of tissues other than bone, we associated to the MDS experiment several international group from Italian, American, Japanese Universities and from NASA and JAXA labs and we created a Tissue Sharing Program (TSP). In total 17 groups from 6 countries were involved in the program. The MDS payload containing three PTN-transgenic mice (Tg) and three wild type (Wt) mice was launched with the Shuttle STS-128, on August, 28 2009 and the MDS transferred to the ISS for three months. The payload re-entry was with the Shuttle STS-129 on November, 27 2009 in Florida. Unfortunately during this period 3 mice (two Wt and one Tg) died due to a spinal cord lesion probably occurred during the shuttle lift off, a liver pathology and a failure of the food delivery system respectively. All the three dead mice were however frozen for subsequent skeletal analysis. The remaining 3 mice had a normal behavior during the flight and appeared in excellent health conditions at the time of landing. During the MDS stay at the ISS several physical parameters were under daily check. With regard to the animal health status checking, the daily water consumption for each individual mouse revealed to be one of the most important parameter. Immediately after landing the mice were sacrificed, blood parameter were measured and all different tissues were dissected. Samples from almost the entire organism are now under investigation by the TSP team. A ground replica of the flight experiment ("ground control") was performed at the University of Genova from November 2009 to the second week of February 2010. Some of the initial results from the flight and the ground control experiments are presented in the individual abstracts.
knowledge, and unfavorable attitude to donation. Educational programs are necessary to increase the level of knowledge and improve the attitude of the Saudi public toward blood donation. Providing mobile blood collection units nearer to individuals' places of work to reduce their time costs of donating is a necessity. Keywords: knowledge, attitude, practice, blood donation, significant predictors, Saudi Arabia
... Support Reimbursement of Travel and Subsistence Expenses Toward Living Organ Donation Program AGENCY... of making living donations of their organs. For example, if the community thinks lost wages and... donation of the organ.'' 42 U.S.C. 274e(c)(2). As the Secretary considers rulemaking, she will consider...
Jones, D Gareth; Nie, Jing-Bao
Confucianism has been widely perceived as a major moral and cultural obstacle to the donation of bodies for anatomical purposes. The rationale for this is the Confucian stress on xiao (filial piety), whereby individuals' bodies are to be intact at death. In the view of many, the result is a prohibition on the donation of bodies to anatomy departments for the purpose of dissection. The role of dissection throughout the development of anatomy within a Confucian context is traced, and in contemporary China the establishment of donation programs and the appearance of memorial monuments is noted. In reassessing Confucian attitudes, the stress laid on a particular interpretation of filial piety is questioned, and an attempt is made to balance this with the Confucian emphasis on a moral duty to those outside one's immediate family. The authors argue that the fundamental Confucian norm ren (humaneness or benevolence) allows for body donation as people have a moral duty to help others. Moreover, the other central Confucian value, li (rites), offers important insights on how body donation should be performed as a communal activity, particularly the necessity of developing ethically and culturally appropriate rituals for body donation. In seeking to learn from this from a Western perspective, it is contended that in all societies the voluntary donation of bodies is a deeply human activity that is to reflect the characteristics of the community within which it takes place. This is in large part because it has educational and personal repercussions for students. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.
Rigourd, V; Meyer, V; Kieffer, F; Aubry, S; Magny, J-F
In France, the screening for human T-cell leukemia/ lymphoma virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) during the donation of human milk has been carried out from 1992 with the application of the circular DGS 24 November 1992. The screening for antibodies against these viruses is regulated and done systematically during every donation of milk. Breast feeding being the main mode of transmission of the HTLV-1, the last ministerial decree of 25 August 2010 has made the screening test compulsory for the anonymous donation and for the personalized donation (of a mother for her own child) from all women including those affected by the infection. The milk delivered by milk banks is pasteurized (62.5 °C for 30 minutes) before freezing at -18 °C, which inactivates the pathogens. This double means of prevention of the transmission of the HTLV-1 paradoxically seems disproportionate in the absence of any precautionary measure in the case of direct breast-feeding and the use of mother's raw milk. Indeed, in most neonatal intensive care units in maternity hospitals, unpasteurized milk is administered to the neonates without any systematic preliminary testing of the serological HTLV-1 status of the mother. An increased sensitization of the community of the obstetricians, midwives and neonatologists by the Association of the Milk Banks of France (ADLF) and the Société de pathologie exotique could address the issue of screening for HTLV-1 in "donated" milk and breast-feeding.
Pulsipher, Michael A; Chitphakdithai, Pintip; Logan, Brent R; Shaw, Bronwen E; Wingard, John R; Lazarus, Hillard M; Waller, Edmund K; Seftel, Matthew; Stroncek, David F; Lopez, Angela M; Maharaj, Dipnarine; Hematti, Peiman; O'Donnell, Paul V; Loren, Alison W; Leitman, Susan F; Anderlini, Paolo; Goldstein, Steven C; Levine, John E; Navarro, Willis H; Miller, John P; Confer, Dennis L
Although peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) have replaced bone marrow (BM) as the most common unrelated donor progenitor cell product collected, a direct comparison of concurrent PBSC versus BM donation experiences has not been performed. We report a prospective study of 2726 BM and 6768 PBSC donors who underwent collection from 2004 to 2009. Pain and toxicities were assessed at baseline, during G-CSF administration, on the day of collection, within 48 hours of donation, and weekly until full recovery. Peak levels of pain and toxicities did not differ between the 2 donation processes for most donors. Among obese donors, PBSC donors were at increased risk of grade 2 to 4 pain as well as grade 2 to 4 toxicities during the pericollection period. In contrast, BM donors were more likely to experience grade 2 to 4 toxicities at 1 week and pain at 1 week and 1 month after the procedure. BM donors experienced slower recovery, with 3% still not fully recovered at 24 weeks, whereas 100% of PBSC donors had recovered. Other factors associated with toxicity included obesity, increasing age, and female sex. In summary, this study provides extensive detail regarding individualized risk patterns of PBSC versus BM donation toxicity, suggesting donor profiles that can be targeted with interventions to minimize toxicity.
Background To determine the knowledge and ethical perception regarding organ donation amongst medical students in Karachi- Pakistan. Methods Data of this cross sectional study was collected by self administered questionnaire from MBBS students of Ziauddin University from 2010 to 2011. Sample size of 158 (83 First years and 75 Fourth years) were selected by convenient sampling and those students who were present and gave consent were included in the study. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results A total of 158 participants from Ziauddin Medical University filled out the questionnaire out of which 83(52.5%) were first years and 75(47.5%) were fourth year medical students. Mean age of sample was 20 ± 1.7. Majority of students were aware about organ donation with print and electronic media as the main source of information. 81.6% agreed that it was ethically correct to donate an organ. In the students’ opinion, most commonly donated organs and tissues were kidney, cornea, blood and platelet. Ideal candidates for donating organ were parents (81%). Regarding list of options for preference to receive an organ, most of the students agreed on young age group patients and persons with family. Willingness to donate was significantly associated with knowledge of allowance of organ donation in religion (P=0.000). Conclusion Both 1st year and 4th year students are aware of Organ Donation, but there is a significant lack of knowledge regarding the topic. PMID:24070261
Stephan, Antoine; Barbari, Antoine; Younan, Farida
Renal transplant remains the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease. Human organs can be harvested from 2 main sources: living and deceased donors. Preference should be given to deceased-donor transplants since they represent the only source of organs for several nonrenal solid-organ transplants and the only modality where there is no risk to the donor. Unfortunately, even the most well-developed deceased-donor program (eg, the Spanish program) can barely cover 50% of its waiting list because the demand for deceased-donor organs far exceeds supply. The success of transplant surgery has created a waiting list dilemma. Despite all efforts, deceased-donor donation cannot meet current needs and therefore, living donation demands serious consideration. This is supported by the fact that the risk to live donors is minimal, graft survival is significantly better than that of deceased-donor kidneys regardless of HLA matching, and professional ethical philosophers have fewer difficulties with voluntary living donations than with the removal of an organ from a cadaver. This is especially true in our region. Living-related donation has always been acceptable ethically. It is, however, limited by the number of willing and qualified donors, the high incidence of familial renal diseases, and donor coercion (especially in our area). Living-unrelated donation increases the availability of donors, decreases the chances of coercion, and eliminates the problem of consanguinity. It raises, however, the ethical issues of commercialism, transplant tourism, and organ trafficking. The arguments for and against living-unrelated donation are innumerable. They have been the subject of several international forums and have raised endless discussions. We have set long ago a series of rules and regulations that are in close agreement with the recent Amsterdam and Kuwait resolutions. We have been continually modifying them over the last 15 years to try to implement our
Vileito, A; Siebelink, M J; Verhagen, A A E
Aim: Paediatric donation is a unique and extremely sensitive process that requires specific knowledge and competencies. Most countries use protocols for organ and tissue donation to ensure optimal care for the donor and family, but these mainly focus on adults. However, the donation process for
Balajee, K L; Ramachandran, N; Subitha, L
For many of the end-stage organ diseases, organ transplantation is the most preferred treatment. The need for the organ transplantation is higher than the availability. For the transplantation program to be successful, awareness regarding organ donation is needed and people must have a positive attitude toward donating organs. This study aims to assess the awareness and attitudes regarding organ donation among the rural population and to evaluate the sociodemographic factors associated with their awareness. This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 360 people living in 4 villages of Puducherry. Face-to-face interviews were carried out using pretested questionnaire, which included the sociodemographic data. Data were entered into Excel and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Of 360 participants, 88% (317/360) were aware of organ donation. Among these 317 participants, awareness was highest in the age group 18-30 years 98.8% (87/88), male 91% (147/161), higher secondary and above 100% (58/58), and Class 1 socioeconomic status 92% (13/14). Source of awareness about organ donation was primarily through media 83% (263/317). The majority of the participants 88% (281/317) felt that the purpose of organ donation was to save life. Most of the participants 91% (290/317) said that all healthy adults are eligible organ donors and 87% (275/317) of the participants said that monetary benefits could not be accepted for organ donation. Most of the participants 70% (223/317) were willing to donate their organs after death. Among the participants who refused to donate their organs, family refusal 57% (25/44) was the most common reason. This study shows that there is a high level of awareness about organ donation among rural people and most of the participants are willing to donate their organs.
Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Heidhues, Paul
We study how website defaults affect consumer behavior in the domain of charitable giving. In a field experiment that was conducted on a large platform for making charitable donations over the web, we exogenously vary the default options in two distinct choice dimensions. The first pertains...
Full Text Available Abstract:Aiming to design a simulate software of human tissue modeling and analysis，Visual Studio 2010 is selected as a development tool to develop a 3 D reconstruction software of human tissue with language C++.It can be used alone. It also can be a module of the virtual surgery systems. The system includes medical image segmentation modules and 3 D reconstruction modules，and can realize the model visualization. This software system has been used to reconstruct hip muscles，femur and hip bone accurately. The results show these geometry models can simulate the structure of hip tissues.
Full Text Available Aiming to design a simulate software of human tissue modeling and analysis，Visual Studio 2010 is selected as a development tool to develop a 3 D reconstruction software of human tissue with language C++.It can be used alone. It also can be a module of the virtual surgery systems. The system includes medical image segmentation modules and 3 D reconstruction modules，and can realize the model visualization. This software system has been used to reconstruct hip muscles，femur and hip bone accurately. The results show these geometry models can simulate the structure of hip tissues.
Cahill, Kevin C
There is a worldwide shortage of organs for transplantation. It has been shown that the attitude of healthcare professionals can improve the rates of organ donation, and that educational programs aimed at improving both attitudes and knowledge base of professionals can have positive outcomes. Although there has been research carried out on this topic, there has been none in Ireland. Anatomy dissection can be a stressor to medical students-we investigate the attitudes of Irish students to organ donation and how they change with exposure to anatomy dissection. A questionnaire was administered to first year students in the School of Medicine in University College Dublin, Ireland, three times over a nine-week period at the commencement of classes in an academic year. The attitudes of the students were positive throughout regarding organ donation by a stranger, a family member, or themselves. There was, however, a significant decrease in support for the donation of a family member\\'s organs in a minority of students. Irish students\\' attitudes to postmortem organ donation are positive and are not changed by exposure to the dissecting room. There is support for the donation of organs, and willingness among students to donate their own organs and support donation by family members.
Recusa de doação de órgãos e tecidos para transplante relatados por familiares de potenciais doadores Negación de donación de órganos y tejidos para transplante relatados por familiares de potenciales donadores Reasons for the family members' refusal to donate organ and tissue for transplant
Edvaldo Leal de Moraes
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conhecer a percepção de familiares de potenciais doadores sobre os motivos de recusa para doação de órgãos e tecidos para transplante. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, na vertente fenomenológica, modalidade "estrutura do fenômeno situado". Participaram do estudo oito familiares que recusaram a doação dos órgãos e tecidos. RESULTADOS: Após análise das entrevistas, foram revelados dez motivos de recusa, considerados pelos familiares. CONSIDERAÇÕES FINAIS: As proposições que emergiram revelaram que os motivos de recusa familiar para doação de órgãos e tecidos estão relacionados à crença, valores e inadequações no processo de doação e transplante.OBJETIVO: Conocer la percepción de familiares de potenciales donadores sobre los motivos de su negación para la donación de órganos y tejidos para transplante. MÉTODOS: Se trata de una investigación cualitativa, en la vertiente fenomenológica, modalidad "estructura del fenómeno situado". Participaron del estudio ocho familiares que se negaron a la donación de órganos y tejidos. RESULTADOS: Después del análisis de las entrevistas se revelaron diez motivos de negación expuestos por los familiares. CONSIDERACIONES FINALES: Las proposiciones que emergieron revelaron que los motivos de la negativa familiar para la donación de órganos y tejidos están relacionados a la creencia, valores e inadecuaciones en el proceso de donación y transplante.OBJECTIVE: To understand the perception of family members of potential donors in regard to their reasons for refusal to donate organ and tissue for transplant. METHODS: A qualitative phenomenological approach was used to conduct this study. A sample of eight family members who refused to donate organ and tissue for transplant participated in the study. RESULTS: Participants reported ten reasons for refusal to donate organ and tissue for transplant. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: Reasons for the family members
Carey, Patricia M.; High, Patrick M.; Schlumpf, Karen S.; Johnson, Bryce R.; Mast, Alan E.; Rios, Jorge A.; Simon, Toby L.; Wilkinson, Susan L.
BACKGROUND This study investigated the effect of blood donation environment, fixed or mobile with differing sponsor types, on donation return time. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Data from 2006 through 2009 at six US blood centers participating in the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II) were used for analysis. Descriptive statistics stratified by whole blood (WB), plateletpheresis (PP), and double red blood cell (R2) donations were obtained for fixed and mobile locations, including median number of donations and median interdonation interval. A survival analysis estimated median return time at fixed and mobile sites, while controlling for censored return times, demographics, blood center, and mandatory recovery times. RESULTS Two-thirds (67.9%) of WB donations were made at mobile sites, 97.4% of PP donations were made at fixed sites, and R2 donations were equally distributed between fixed and mobile locations. For donations at fixed sites only or alternating between fixed and mobile sites, the highest median numbers of donations were nine and eight, respectively, and the shortest model-adjusted median return times (controlling for mandatory eligibility times of 56 and 112 days) were 36 and 30 days for WB and R2 donations, respectively. For PP donations, the shortest model-adjusted median return time was 23 days at a fixed location and the longest was 693 days at community locations. CONCLUSION WB, PP, and R2 donors with the shortest time between donations were associated with fixed locations and those alternating between fixed and mobile locations, even after controlling for differing mandatory recovery times for the different blood donation procedures. PMID:21745215
Boudreau, Kevin J.; Jeppesen, Lars Bo; Reichstein, Toke
For a wide class of crowdfunding approaches, we argue that the reward structure (for funders) is closer to that of charitable donations to public goods than it is to traditional entrepreneurial finance. Many features of the design of crowdfunding platforms can therefore be understood as attempts...... to deal with attendant “free-rider” problems in motivating contributions. Reviewing institutional features of today’s crowdfunding, we clarify that there are often limits in the extent to which tangible rewards can be used to motivate contributions. Drawing on analogies with charitable donations, we...... theorize that intangible sources of motivation — (i) direct psychological rewards, (ii) reciprocity and (iii) social interactions — can play a role in entrepreneurial crowdfunding. In our detailed empirical analysis of a representative project we find abundant evidence consistent with this characterization...
Williams, Andrew M; Allingham, R Rand; Stamer, W Daniel; Muir, Kelly W
A centralized eye donation registry for research could help to bridge the gap between patients interested in donating their eyes to science and scientists who conduct research on human eye tissue. Previous research has demonstrated patient and family support for such a registry. In this study, we assessed the views that eye care professionals have toward an eye donation registry for research. Surveys were distributed to all 46 clinical faculty members of the Duke University Eye Center. In addition to collecting demographic information, the surveys assessed clinicians' experience with discussing eye donation with patients, described the proposed eye donation registry for research and asked how the registry would affect the clinicians' practice. A total of 21 eye care professionals returned the survey. Thirty-three percent reported discussing eye donation with patients, and 43% reported that a patient has asked about donating their eyes for research on their disease. Eighty-six percent of eye care professionals reported that a centralized registry would improve the way they work with patients who express a desire to donate their eyes for research. The majority of eye care professionals at our academic institution indicated that an eye donation registry for research would improve how they work with patients who are interested in donating their eyes for research on their disease. Future research should examine how best to communicate this registry to ophthalmic patients.
Timsit, M-O; Kleinclauss, F; Mamzer Bruneel, M F; Thuret, R
To review ethical, legal and technical aspects of living kidney donor surgery. An exhaustive systematic review of the scientific literature was performed in the Medline database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) and Embase (http://www.embase.com) using different associations of the following keywords: Donor nephrectomy; Kidney paired donation; Kidney transplantation; Laparoscopic nephrectomy; Living donor; Organs trafficking; Robotic assisted nephrectomy; Vaginal extraction. French legal documents have been reviewed using the government portal (http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr). Articles were selected according to methods, language of publication and relevance. A total of 6421 articles were identified; after careful selection, 161 publications were considered of interest and were eligible for our review. The ethical debate focuses on organ shortage, financial incentive, organ trafficking and the recent data suggesting a small but significant increase risk for late renal disease in donor population. Legal decisions aim to increase the number of kidneys available for donation, such as kidney-paired donation that faces several obstacles in France. Laparoscopic approach became widely used, while robotic-assisted donor nephrectomy failed to demonstrate improved outcome as compared with other minimal invasive techniques. Minimally invasive living donor nephrectomy aims to limit side effects in the donor without increasing the morbidity in this specific population of healthy persons; long term surveillance to prevent the onset of renal disease in mandatory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Rodrigue, J R; Tomich, D; Fleishman, A; Glazier, A K
Vascularized composite allograft (VCA) transplantation has emerged as a groundbreaking surgical intervention to return identity and function following traumatic injury, congenital deformity, or disfigurement. While public attitudes toward traditional organ/tissue donation are favorable, little is known about attitudes toward VCA donation and transplantation. A survey was conducted of 1485 U.S. residents in August 2016 to assess VCA donation attitudes. Participants also completed the Revised Health Care System Distrust Scale. Most respondents were willing to donate hands/forearms (67.4%) and legs (66.8%), and almost half (48.0%) were willing to donate the face. Three-quarters (74.4%) of women were willing to donate the uterus; 54.4% of men were willing to donate the penis. VCA donation willingness was more likely among whites and Hispanics (p donation expressed concerns about psychological discomfort, mutilation, identity loss, and the reaction of others to seeing familiar body parts on a stranger. Attitudes toward VCA donation are favorable overall, despite limited exposure to VCA messaging and confusion about how VCA donation occurs. These findings may help guide the development and implementation of VCA public education campaigns. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Tartaglia, Alexander; Dodd-McCue, Diane; Myer, Kevin A; Mullins, Andrew
The rate of organ donation by older potential donors is significantly declining even though recent studies show positive clinical outcomes with organs transplanted from older donors. This study examined the 50+ age demographic to identify the rationale for donation decisions, preferred media methods of donation information delivery, and responsiveness to an age-tailored donation message. Results from 579 surveys, 87% from the 50+ age demographic, found respondents prone to self-select themselves as medically ineligible based on current medication and health status, even though they might be medically suitable donors. Their incentive to pursue additional information on donation is limited except when motivated by personal accounts within their families and communities. In addition, even when computer literate, they continue to favor the printed or spoken word for donation information delivery. The results suggest an opportunity for those working with older adults to develop more personalized, localized donation education programs targeting this age demographic. © The Author(s) 2014.
A donor's or family's religious beliefs are to be ascertained in discussions about organ donation. The positions of the major faith groups about donation are reviewed, leading to the conclusion that the large majority of faiths take a positive stance toward donation. Other factors such as the emotional response, the cultural values, and the spiritual issues may be even more compelling for family members than religious beliefs. Conflicts between one's personal beliefs and the position of one's faith group about donation are to be assessed and processed.
Pedersen, Ole Birger; Axel, Skytthe; Rostgaard, Klaus
active Danish blood donors from 2002 to 2012, to establish blood donor status for Danish twins, who at age 17 years became eligible for donation in 2002 or later. Casewise concordance in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins were presented and heritability was estimated in Mx by variance component...... to donate blood, respectively. CONCLUSION: Becoming a volunteer blood donor is determined by both genetic and environmental factors shared within families.......BACKGROUND: Voluntary blood donation is believed to be mostly motivated by altruism. Because studies have suggested that altruistic personality is determined by both genetic and environmental factors, we speculated that willingness to donate blood could also be governed by constitutional factors...
Ernest L. Mramba
Full Text Available The study was determined to look on the relationship between socio-economic determinants and blood donation in Tanzania. It involved a sample of 128 respondents in which binary logistic regression results showed sex of respondents, level of education and religious beliefs to have a positively relationship with blood donation at 1%, 10%, 10% level respectively, with p values of 0.007, 0.077, 0.094 as theory suggested. Health status, cultural beliefs, fear for HIV test results, and health insurance were negatively related with blood donation at 1%, 5%, 10%, 1% level with p values of 0.000, 0.011, 0.070, 0.012, respectively, as per assumption. However, age, strong social network at community, employment status, and level of income were not significant determinants. Conclusively, blood donation was largely determined by sex, level of education, health status, cultural beliefs, religious beliefs, fear for HIV test results and health insurance. To increase blood donation, females must be encouraged, emphasis on education, eradication of the myths and misconception about blood donation, partnerships between national blood transfusion and religious bodies, need for more community’s awareness about blood donation so as to alleviate unfounded fear (i.e. fear for HIV test results, need of improving health status of the people and donor recruitments programs strategies must be improved.
Salerno, Marco; Giacomelli, Luca; Larosa, Claudio
Examples of programmed tissue response after the interaction of cells with biomaterials are a hot topic in current dental research. We propose here the use of anodic porous alumina (APA) for the programming of cell growth in oral tissues. In particular, APA may trigger cell growth by the controlled release of specific growth factors and/or ions. Moreover, APA may be used as a scaffold to promote generation of new tissue, due to the high interconnectivity of pores and the high surface roughness displayed by this material.
Carroll, Katherine E; Lenne, Brydan S; McEgan, Kerri; Opie, Gillian; Amir, Lisa H; Bredemeyer, Sandra; Hartmann, Ben; Jones, Rachel; Koorts, Pieter; McConachy, Helen; Mumford, Patricia; Polverino, Jan
Lactation and breast milk can hold great value and meaning for grieving mothers who have experienced a recent death of an infant. Donation to a human milk bank (HMB) as an alternative to discarding breast milk is one means of respecting the value of breast milk. There is little research, national policy discussion, or organizational representation in Australia on the subject of breast milk donation after infant death. On 29 November 2013 the Mercy Hospital for Women in Melbourne, Australia hosted Australia's first National Stakeholder Meeting (NSM) on the topic of milk donation after neonatal death. The NSM drew together representatives from Australian HMBs, neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) currently using donor human milk, and Australia's chief NICU parent support organization. The NSM was video-recorded and transcribed, and analyzed thematically by researchers. This article reports the seven dominant themes discussed by stakeholders during the NSM: the spectrum of women's lactation and donation experiences after infant death; the roles of the HMB and NICU in meeting the needs of the bereaved donor; how bereaved mothers' lactation autonomy may interface with a HMB's donation guidelines; how milk donation may be discussed with bereaved mothers; the variation between four categories of milk donation after neonatal death; the impact of limited resources and few HMBs on providing donation programs for bereaved mothers in Australia. This article provides evidence from researchers and practitioners that can assist HMB staff in refining their bank's policy on milk donation after infant death, and provides national policy makers with key considerations to support lactation, human milk banking, and bereavement services nation-wide.
Shemie, Sam D; Simpson, Christy; Blackmer, Jeff; MacDonald, Shavaun; Dhanani, Sonny; Torrance, Sylvia; Byrne, Paul
Donation physicians are specialists with expertise in organ and tissue donation and have been recognized internationally as a key contributor to improving organ and tissue donation services. Subsequent to a 2011 Canadian Critical Care Society-Canadian Blood Services consultation, the donation physician role has been gradually implemented in Canada. These professionals are generally intensive care unit physicians with an enhanced focus and expertise in organ/tissue donation. They must manage the dual obligation of caring for dying patients and their families while providing and/or improving organ donation services. In anticipation of actual, potential or perceived ethical challenges with the role, Canadian Blood Services in partnership with the Canadian Medical Association organized the development of an evidence-informed consensus process of donation experts and bioethicists to produce an ethics guide. This guide includes overarching principles and benefits of the DP role, and recommendations in regard to communication with families, role disclosure, consent discussions, interprofessional conflicts, conscientious objection, death determination, donation specific clinical practices in neurological determination of death and donation after circulatory death, end-of-life care, performance metrics, resources and remuneration. Although this report is intended to inform donation physician practices, it is recognized that the recommendations may have applicability to other professionals (eg, physicians in intensive care, emergency medicine, neurology, neurosurgery, pulmonology) who may also participate in the end-of-life care of potential donors in various clinical settings. It is hoped that this guidance will assist practitioners and their sponsoring organizations in preserving their duty of care, protecting the interests of dying patients, and fulfilling best practices for organ and tissue donation.
Mulder, H.; Olthuis, G.J.; Siebelink, M.; Gerritsen, R; Heurn, E. van
- The multidisciplinary guideline 'Organ donation following euthanasia' was published in March 2017 at request of the Minister of Health, Welfare and Sport.- This guideline provides recommendations for the organisation and implementation of a request to donate organs expressed by a patient who asks
Martínez-Alarcón, L.; Ramis, G.; Gómez-Laguna, J.; Quereda, J.J.; Herrero-Medrano, J.M.; Mrowiec, A.; Mendonça, L.; López-Navas, A.; Ríos, A.
Introduction Due to the current deficit of organs for transplantation, living kidney related donations (LKRD) should be promoted. Veterinarians often hold decision-making positions in the public health care system, and therefore can influence public opinion about organ donation. The objective was
Manyalich, M; Paredes, D; Ballesté, C; Menjívar, A
Donation and transplantation is an accepted therapeutic option when organ failure or tissue replacements are needed to save or improve the quality of life. However, in most medical schools there is no specific training for it, thus disregarding the key role of university students for the future success of the process. Knowledge diffusion about the donation procedure to clarify doubts and stimulate positive attitudes toward donation. Training university students in the donation and transplantation process. Research about the previous donation knowledge and the impact in donation indexes. Three different phases have been designed: (1) Training the University of Barcelona Health Sciences School students; (2) Training the Health Sciences School students in other faculties of Catalonia, Spain, and International; and (3) research. Since 2005, we have offered yearly an Optional Credits Course to medical students with duration of 45 hours, and two Donation days opened to health sciences students. Since 2007, promotional campaigns have been carried out in medicine and other health sciences faculties. Until now, 818 answered surveys have been collected to evaluate previous knowledge among university students. Training medical and other health sciences students in the donation process will improve quality of medical education and develop a trainer role for future professionals to help improve donation rates.
Oocyte donations have increased with improvements in oocyte cryopreservation procedures in recent years. Women with medical conditions that require chemotherapy or radiotherapy have begun to opt for oocyte cryo¬preservation prior to their treatment or to enroll in an oocyte donation program. Alternatively, some women apply for "third-party" oocyte donation programs for nonmedical reasons such as delayed childbearing. Although society seems to accept oocyte donations for medical reasons, it appears that there are still some moral issues surrounding nonmedical oocyte donations. In this review, the ethical aspects of oocyte donations and donors' perspectives are discussed. With developing technologies, the genetic screening of donors has expanded to include diseases. This review explores the ethical issues involved in genetic screening of gamete donors.
Yazer, Mark H; Delaney, Meghan; Germain, Marc; Karafin, Matthew S; Sayers, Merlyn; Vassallo, Ralph; Ziman, Alyssa; Shaz, Beth
To provide the appropriately diverse blood supply necessary to support alloimmunized and chronically transfused patients, minority donation recruitment programs have been implemented. This study investigated temporal changes in minority red blood cell (RBC) donation patterns in the United States. Data on donor race and ethnicity from 2006 through 2015, including the number of unique donors, collections, RBCs successfully donated, and average annual number of RBC donations per donor (donor fraction), were collected from eight US blood collectors. Minority donors were stratified into the following groups: Asian, black or African American, Hispanic or Latino, Native Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, white, multiracial/other, and no answer/not sure. Over the 10-year period, white donors annually constituted the majority of unique donors (range, 70.7%-73.9%), had the greatest proportion of collections (range, 76.1%-79.8%), and donated the greatest proportion of RBC units (range, 76.3%-80.2%). These donors also had the highest annual donor fraction (range, 1.82-1.91 units per donor). Black or African American donors annually constituted between 4.9 and 5.2% of all donors during the study period and donated between 4.0 and 4.3% of all RBC units. Linear regression analysis revealed decreasing numbers of donors, collections, and donated RBC units from white donors over time. Although the US population has diversified, and minority recruitment programs have been implemented, white donors constitute the majority of RBC donors and donations. Focused and effective efforts are needed to increase the proportion of minority donors. © 2017 AABB.
Full Text Available Purpose. In vivo gene therapy directed at tissues of mesenchymal origin could potentially augment healing. We aimed to assess the duration and magnitude of transene expression in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human tissues. Methods. Using bioluminescence imaging, plasmid and adenoviral vector-based transgene expression in murine quadriceps in vivo was examined. Temporal control was assessed using a doxycycline-inducible system. An ex vivo model was developed and optimised using murine tissue, and applied in ex vivo human tissue. Results. In vivo plasmid-based transgene expression did not silence in murine muscle, unlike in liver. Although maximum luciferase expression was higher in muscle with adenoviral delivery compared with plasmid, expression reduced over time. The inducible promoter cassette successfully regulated gene expression with maximum levels a factor of 11 greater than baseline. Expression was re-induced to a similar level on a temporal basis. Luciferase expression was readily detected ex vivo in human muscle and tendon. Conclusions. Plasmid constructs resulted in long-term in vivo gene expression in skeletal muscle, in a controllable fashion utilising an inducible promoter in combination with oral agents. Successful plasmid gene transfection in human ex vivo mesenchymal tissue was demonstrated for the first time.
Full Text Available Objective: to know the nurses' perception in the process of organ and tissue donation for transplants. Methods: qualitative research with data collection performed through a semistructured interview with 16 nurses from a hospital. The data were submitted to Bardin content analysis. Results: categories emerged after content analysis were as follows: Organ donation process: nurses' experience; Nursing care for potential donors; Family approach; Main difficulties in the donation process. Conclusion: the research demonstrated the real difficulties of the professionals during the donation process, such as lack of human resources, extensive protocols, and lack of awareness of the society to understand the donation process and the family approach. Keywords: Transplantation of Organs; Obtaining Tissues and Organs; Nursing care.
Full Text Available The study was set to determine whether knowledge and attitudes toward organ dona-tion differ according to geographical location. Self-administered questionnaires were employed to collect data such as demographic characteristics, basic knowledge, attitudes and source of information about organ donation from subjects in rural and urban areas. The questionnaires were distributed randomly to 1,000 individuals in both areas during 2008. The data were analyzed in a descriptive fashion. Despite similarities in knowledge and attitudes of respondents in both areas, rural res-pondents were less likely to have information about organ donation, to report willingness to donate organs, and to have knowledge about "brain death" or the "organ donation card" than their counter-parts in urban areas. The study identified that the principle respondents′ source of information about organ donation was the television. More than 90% of respondents in rural and urban areas reported that the contribution of health care providers in providing them with knowledge about organ dona-tion and transplantation was "none" or "little". Respondents identified several reasons, which may influence their decisions to donate organs. In conclusion, the deficit in knowledge and attitudes of rural respondents about organ donation may be justified by the lack of information about this signi-ficant issue. Accordingly, health facilities, local mass media and educational institutions should provide intensive educational programs to encourage the public donate organs.
Gill, John S; Klarenbach, Scott; Barnieh, Lianne; Caulfield, Timothy; Knoll, Greg; Levin, Adeera; Cole, Edward H
Unlike the United States, the potential to increase organ donation in Canada may be sufficient to meet the need for transplantation. However, there has been no national coordinated effort to increase organ donation. Strategies that do not involve payment for organs, such as investment in health care resources to support deceased donor organ donation and introduction of a remuneration framework for the work of deceased organ donation, should be prioritized for implementation. Financial incentives that may be permitted under existing legislation and that pose little risk to existing donation sources should be advanced, including the following: payment of funeral expenses for potential donors who register their decision on organ donation during life (irrespective of the decision to donate or actual organ donation) and removal of disincentives for directed and paired exchange living donation, such as payment of wages, payment for pain and suffering related to the donor surgery, and payment of directed living kidney donors for participation in Canada's paired exchange program. In contrast, it would be premature to contemplate a regulated system of organ sales that would require a paradigm shift in the current approach to organ donation and legislative change to implement. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Donations. 553.6 Section 553.6 National Defense... NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.6 Donations. (a) Policy. Under Department of the Army policy, proffered donations... for the donation or gift. (2) Delivery is made to the cemetery or to another point designated by the...
... database. Most whole blood donations are spun in centrifuges to separate it into transfusable components: red cells, ... 2, your test tubes arrive at a testing laboratory. A dozen tests are performed, to establish the ...
... You are here Home » Organ Donation and Transplantation Statistics There are currently 121,678 people waiting for ... org/2015/view/v2_07.aspx Facts and statistics provided by the United States Renal Data System , ...
Uhlig, Constantin E; Böhringer, Daniel; Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Seitz, Berthold; Schmidt, Hartmut
The aim of this study was to characterize postmortem organ donation attitudes in various German cohorts. Employees of 2 German cities and 2 German university hospitals, employees of a German automobile enterprise, and members of a German Medical Society were administered a questionnaire about postmortem organ and tissue donation attitudes. Demographic data and general attitudes were questioned and focused on: I) willingness to donate organs, II) holding a donor card, and III) having discussed the topic with the family. Of 5291 participants, 65.2% reported favoring postmortem organ donation. Missing negative experiences, the idea that donation is helpful, a non-medical professional environment, excellent general health, gender, agreement with the brain-death paradigm, and age significantly influenced the participants' attitudes. Participants were more likely to possess donor cards and had discussed more often with family members if they agreed with the brain-death paradigm and considered donation to be helpful. Males and older participants were the most likely to neglect donor cards, and Catholics, Protestants, and participants with poor health were the least likely to donate organs. Interest in receiving more information was expressed by 38.1% and 50.6% of participants refusing donation of all or of specific organs, respectively, and suggested the internet (60.0%) and family doctors (35.0%) as preferred sources of information. Public campaigns in Germany should focus on males and older people as regards donor cards, and females, younger, and religiously affiliated persons as regards the general willingness to donate organs postmortem.
Banas, B; Bleyer, B; Eckert, M; Gruber, H; Pfirstinger, J; Schaller, O; Dietl, B
As a result of the actual amendment of the German transplantation law, every citizen will be regularly asked by health insurance companies about his attitude towards post-mortem organ donation--without the obligation to decide. The aim is to increase the willingness of donations as well as the availability of organs. Therefore, we investigated the level of information of students at the University of Regensburg and their agreement to organ transplantation regarding an informed consent. Using an interdisciplinary developed questionnaire (Medicine, Theology, Educational Science) the level of information concerning process and possibilities of organ donation, the possession of an organ donor card, as well as the active or passive consent to donate organs was investigated. Out of 1225 respondents 31.5% had an organ donor card, 49.1% wanted to donate organs, 32.1% were unsure. 98% generally favoured organ donation. However, serious information deficits about brain death were identified: 37.4% did not know that brain death is a prerequisite for a post-mortem organ donation, 18% thought brain death is reversible, 52.7% were not aware of the necessity of intensive medical care. Furthermore, providing information about other potential donor organs including lungs, pancreas, small intestine, and tissue is required. Health insurance companies and responsible authorities need to close the identified gaps in knowledge in order to achieve "informed" consent with organ donation, which might increase the availability and number of donor organs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Aykas, A; Uslu, A; Şimşek, C
Contrary to TV programs projecting awareness about organ donation in society, concrete evidence exists about adverse influence of negative broadcasts on organ donation rates. We sought to determine the effect of mass media on public opinion toward organ donation and the efficacy of public campaigns and novel social media attempts on donation rates. We conducted a systematic review of relevant literature and national campaign results. Hoaxes about brain death and organ transplantation adversely affect organ donation rates in both Western and Eastern societies. Scientifically controversial and exaggerated press conferences and institutional advertisements create mistrust in doctors, thus reducing organ donation. The overall effect of public education campaigns in promoting organ donation is a temporary 5% gain. Increments in organ donation rates is expected with novel applications of social media (Facebook effect). Communication, based on mutual trust, must be established between medicine and the media. Continuing education programs with regard to public awareness on organ donation should be conducted over social media. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vincent A Traag
Full Text Available Money is central in US politics, and most campaign contributions stem from a tiny, wealthy elite. Like other political acts, campaign donations are known to be socially contagious. We study how campaign donations diffuse through a network of more than 50,000 elites and examine how connectivity among previous donors reinforces contagion. We find that the diffusion of donations is driven by independent reinforcement contagion: people are more likely to donate when exposed to donors from different social groups than when they are exposed to equally many donors from the same group. Counter-intuitively, being exposed to one side may increase donations to the other side. Although the effect is weak, simultaneous cross-cutting exposure makes donation somewhat less likely. Finally, the independence of donors in the beginning of a campaign predicts the amount of money that is raised throughout a campaign. We theorize that people infer population-wide estimates from their local observations, with elites assessing the viability of candidates, possibly opposing candidates in response to local support. Our findings suggest that theories of complex contagions need refinement and that political campaigns should target multiple communities.
Traag, Vincent A
Money is central in US politics, and most campaign contributions stem from a tiny, wealthy elite. Like other political acts, campaign donations are known to be socially contagious. We study how campaign donations diffuse through a network of more than 50,000 elites and examine how connectivity among previous donors reinforces contagion. We find that the diffusion of donations is driven by independent reinforcement contagion: people are more likely to donate when exposed to donors from different social groups than when they are exposed to equally many donors from the same group. Counter-intuitively, being exposed to one side may increase donations to the other side. Although the effect is weak, simultaneous cross-cutting exposure makes donation somewhat less likely. Finally, the independence of donors in the beginning of a campaign predicts the amount of money that is raised throughout a campaign. We theorize that people infer population-wide estimates from their local observations, with elites assessing the viability of candidates, possibly opposing candidates in response to local support. Our findings suggest that theories of complex contagions need refinement and that political campaigns should target multiple communities.
Dalal, Aparna R
Transplantation ethics is a philosophy that incorporates systematizing, defending and advocating concepts of right and wrong conduct related to organ donation. As the demand for organs increases, it is essential to ensure that new and innovative laws, policies and strategies of increasing organ supply are bioethical and are founded on the principles of altruism and utilitarianism. In the field of organ transplantation, role of altruism and medical ethics values are significant to the welfare of the society. This article reviews several fundamental ethical principles, prevailing organ donation consent laws, incentives and policies related to the field of transplantation. The Ethical and Policy Considerations in Organ Donation after Circulatory Determination of Death outline criteria for death and organ retrieval. Presumed consent laws prevalent mostly in European countries maintain that the default choice of an individual would be to donate organs unless opted otherwise. Explicit consent laws require organ donation to be proactively affirmed with state registries. The Declaration of Istanbul outlines principles against organ trafficking and transplant tourism. World Health Organization's Guiding Principles on Human Cell, Tissue and Organ Transplantation aim at ensuring transparency in organ procurement and allocation. The ethics of financial incentives and non-financial incentives such as incorporation of non-medical criteria in organ priority allocation have also been reviewed in detail.
Shaz, Beth H; Hillyer, Christopher D
In the United States, blood donation rates of African-Americans are 25-50% of that of white individuals. As African-Americans make up an ever increasing and now substantial minority, and African-American recipients of blood transfusion, both specialized, such as sickle cell disease patients, and general hospitalized patients, have a better chance of receiving phenotype-matched or appropriate red blood cell units when there is a significant percentage of products in the inventory from African-American donors, it is important to understand the reason for the observed difference. Possible reasons for this discrepancy in donation rates include increased rates of donor deferral and ineligibility; increased barriers to donation, such as fear and distrust; and different marketing and education strategies. Thus, to increase the blood availability to African-American recipients, the reasons for these donation rate differences must be better understood and subsequently addressed through improved blood donor recruitment programs. The majority of African-American donor recruitment programs have focused on donating for sickle cell disease patients, particularly children, which have been of limited success. Significant improvements in African-American donor recruitment are needed to adequately meet the demand of African-American patients as well as the entire population.
Full Text Available Collection and processing of tissues to preserve space flight effects from animals after return to Earth is challenging. Specimens must be harvested with minimal time after landing to minimize postflight readaptation alterations in protein expression/translation, posttranslational modifications, and expression, as well as changes in gene expression and tissue histological degradation after euthanasia. We report the development of a widely applicable strategy for determining the window of optimal species-specific and tissue-specific posteuthanasia harvest that can be utilized to integrate into multi-investigator Biospecimen Sharing Programs. We also determined methods for ISS-compatible long-term tissue storage (10 months at −80°C that yield recovery of high quality mRNA and protein for western analysis after sample return. Our focus was reproductive tissues. The time following euthanasia where tissues could be collected and histological integrity was maintained varied with tissue and species ranging between 1 and 3 hours. RNA quality was preserved in key reproductive tissues fixed in RNAlater up to 40 min after euthanasia. Postfixation processing was also standardized for safe shipment back to our laboratory. Our strategy can be adapted for other tissues under NASA’s Biospecimen Sharing Program or similar multi-investigator tissue sharing opportunities.
Alvarez Díaz, J A
To explore opinions of patients who undergone to complex ART towards gamete and embryo donation, as well as the reasons to do it or not. The seat was the Hospital Clínico de la Universidad de Chile. There were interviewed ten participants (seven women, three men), who had undergone at least to one ART, without comprising of donation programs. It was a cross-sectional study of descriptive bioethics, done with ethnographic qualitative methodology with a semistructured interview applying speech analysis to the resulting text. Regarding embryo donation, six participants would accept to donate them, five to fertility therapy and one to research. Regarding the cryopreservation, three participants would always accept it, and three with some restrictions, just one on them would rather to discard instead of donating a cryopreserved embryo. It could be suggested: gamete donation is more commented and generally accepted; embryo donation is a more conflicting and less discussed subject, as much to donate as to accept; cryopreservation is a complex subject, commented but also conflicting, whose acceptance or not, as well as the destiny of the probably cryopreserved embryos, depends on the believes that participants have about the origin of the life, personal ethics, and the religion. It could be possible to say that a hypothesis constructed in this study (to be verified in future quantitative researches) is that embryo donation could take place, for therapy of fertility, and exceptionally to research.
Susana A Cardenas
Full Text Available Willingness to donate money for the conservation of endangered species may depend on numerous factors. In this paper, we analyze data from a survey given to tourists visiting Ecuador’s Galapagos National Park and Marine Reserve to investigate determinants of their willingness to donate (WTD towards the conservation of two marine endangered species--the scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini and the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas. Specifically, we use regression analysis to analyze the influence of attitudes and beliefs toward species conservation, levels of concern for specific species, recreational motivations, and past donation patterns on WTD, while also controlling for individual characteristics such as age, gender, place of residence, and other demographics. Additionally, we evaluate the sensitivity of WTD to the species being protected by conservation efforts. Our results demonstrate that specific concern about the species, beliefs about donating to the protection program, and past donation behavior significantly influence the intention to donate money towards the recovery of the two marine endangered species. The likelihood of donating to green sea turtle conservation efforts is marginally higher than for hammerhead sharks, possibly due to its more charismatic nature. In contrast, visitors who are more willing to donate for shark conservation appear to be those with a strong desire to see them in the wild. The results provide useful information on the heterogeneity of tourist preferences towards donating to species conservation efforts, which has broad implications for resource agencies seeking ways to fund conservation actions.
Full Text Available Background Among the young generation, medical and law students’ attitude towards third party reproduction is very important because they will be directly involved in restricting or developing the programs that will support it in the future. The aim of this survey was to investigate attitude of law and medical students to oocyte donation and key aspects of this kind of third party. Materials and Methods In analytical cross-sectional study, 345 medical and law students were randomly selected using stratified sampling. Data was collected using attitude toward donation- oocyte (ATOD-O questionnaire. Re- sponses were on a 5-point Likert scale. Data were analyzed according to established statistical approach by Heeren and D'Agostino. Results The majority of the participants agreed with oocyte donation being the last choice for infertility treatment. There was a significant difference between medical students and law students regarding the acceptance of oocyte donation (3.23 vs. 3.53, P=0.025. In addition, female participants were more tolerant on receiving donated oocytes from their sisters than male participants (3.01 vs. 2.58, P=0.002 and finally, a higher number of the participants had a positive attitude towards anonymity of the donor and the recipient to one another (3.93 vs. 3.86, P=0.580. The vast majority of female students believed that the oocyte recipient naturally likes that child (P<0.0001. Conclusion In the current study, a great majority of law and medical students support oocyte donation as an alternative way of starting a family. There is an interest among female students in donating oocytes anonymously. The majority believed that the oocyte recipient family will like the donor oocyte child naturally.
Francis L. Delmonico
Full Text Available Successful deceased organ donation requires a reproducible – consistent (scientific system that evaluates the potential for organ donation and determines objectively whether the national system is achieving its goals. The science of organ donation also pertains to the determination of death. We are a common humanity that dies similarly – a humanity whose ultimate criterion of life resides in the function of the human brain. The recent brain death law of Israel encouragingly enables a determination of death by the loss of neurologic function, but it has become complicated by a practice that may perpetuate societal misperceptions. As a result opportunities for deceased organ donation – to provide for Israelis in need of organ transplants – are being lost. A statured task force of society could be assembled to convey its support for deceased donation to influence society and resolve these misperceptions. The World Health Organization is now calling for each member state to achieve a self-sufficiency in organ donation and transplantation “equitably meeting the transplantation needs of a given population using resources from within that population”. Patients should not be compelled to go to foreign countries for their organs. Israel has been a leader in the development of a model program intended to address transplant tourism. Insurance companies are no longer permitted to provide resources for Israelis to undergo illegal transplants in foreign destinations. The social necessity of a scientifically and medically applied system of deceased organ donation is now evident so that a sufficient number of organs can be available for patients from within the country where they reside.
Cahill, Kevin C.; Ettarh, Rajunor R.
There is a worldwide shortage of organs for transplantation. It has been shown that the attitude of healthcare professionals can improve the rates of organ donation, and that educational programs aimed at improving both attitudes and knowledge base of professionals can have positive outcomes. Although there has been research carried out on this…
Huang, Jiefu; Millis, J Michael; Mao, Yilei; Millis, M Andrew; Sang, Xinting; Zhong, Shouxian
Organ donation and transplant systems have unique characteristics based on the local culture and socioeconomic context. China's transplant and organ donation systems developed without regulatory oversight until 2006 when regulation and policy were developed and then implemented over the next several years. Most recently, the pilot project of establishing a voluntary citizen-based deceased donor program was established. The pilot program addressed the legal, financial, and cultural barriers to organ donation in China. The pilot program has evolved into a national program. Significantly, it established a uniquely Chinese donor classification system. The Chinese donor classification system recognizes donation after brain death (category I), donation after circulatory death (category II), and donation after brain death followed by circulatory death (category III). Through August 2014, the system has identified 2326 donors and provided 6416 organs that have been allocated though a transparent organ allocation system. The estimated number of donors in 2014 is 1147. As China's attitudes toward organ donation have matured and evolved and as China, as a nation, is taking its place on the world stage, it is recognizing that its past practice of using organs from executed prisoners is not sustainable. It is time to recognize that the efforts to regulate transplantation and provide voluntary citizen-based deceased organ donation have been successful and that China should use this system to provide organs for all transplants in every province and hospital in China. At the national organ transplant congress on October 30, 2014, the Chairman of the China's national organ donation and transplantation committee, Jeifu Huang required all hospitals to stop using organs from executed prisoners immediately and the civilian organ donation will be sole source for organ transplant in China starting January 2015. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Ahmad, Ghazi; Iftikhar, Sadia
There is currently an organ shortage crisis in the United States. This paper analyzes the magnitude of the problem, the organ procurement programs in other developed countries as compared to the US, and discusses the changes that can be made to address this problem. With the opt-in or explicit-consent method currently practiced in the US, less that one third of the population consents to organ donation. In order to narrow the gap between the demand and supply of organs, steps need to be taken to improve the organ procurement infrastructure. The public needs to be educated about the dire need, the benefits and risks in organ donation, and living vs. deceased donation. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2016-05.asp, free with no login].
CERN has been requested by the Japanese High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) to donate the UA1 Magnet for use within the T2K Experiment. The Finance Committee is invited to approve this donation.
Wu, Yijin; Elliott, Robert; Li, Linzi; Yang, Tongwei; Bai, Yusen; Ma, Wen
Abstract In this paper, we will discuss several ethical issues concerning cadaveric organ donation from the perspective of sociocultural factors that are unique to China under the condition that China has ended the use of executed prisoner's organs for transplants. It is found that though great developments have been made in organ transplantation, the ethical issues relating to organ transplantation still face dilemmas in China. It is argued that organ donation and transplantation in China could make further progress if the ethical issues proposed in this paper can be carefully considered. PMID:29517702
Levy, G.C.; Dudewicz, E.J.; Harner, T.J.
The main research goal has been to evalute significant factors affecting the in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters R 1 , T 2 , and 1 H density. This approach differs significantly from other such projects in that the experimental data analysis is being performed while concurrently developing automated, computer-aided analysis software for such MRI tissue parameters. In the experimental portion of the project, statistical analyses, and a heuristic minimum/maximum discriminant analysis algorithm have been explored. Both methods have been used to classify tissue types from 1.5 Tesla transaxial MR images of the human brain. The developing program, written in the logic programming language Prolog, similar in a number of ways to many existing expert systems now in use for other medical applications; inclusion of the underlying statistical data base and advanced statistical analyses is the main differentiating feature of the current approach. First results indicate promising classification accuracy of various brain tissues such as gray and white matter, as well as differentiation of different types of gray matter and white matter (e.g.: caudate-nucleus vs. thalamus, both representatives of gray matter; and, cortical white matter vs. internal capsule as representative of white matter). Taking all four tissue types together, the percentage of correct classifications ranges from 73 to 87%. (author)
Wirken, Lieke; van Middendorp, Henriët; Hooghof, Christina W.; Sanders, Jan-Stephan F.; Dam, Ruth E.; van der Pant, Karlijn A. M. I.; Berendsen, Elsbeth C. M.; Wellink, Hiske; Dackus, Henricus J. A.; Hoitsma, Andries J.; Hilbrands, Luuk B.; Evers, Andrea W. M.
Background. Cognitions surrounding living organ donation, including the motivation to donate, expectations of donation and worries about donation, are relevant themes during living donor evaluation. However, there is no reliable psychometric instrument assessing all these different cognitions. This
Riederer, Beat M
There is considerable agreement that the use of human bodies for teaching and research remains important, yet not all universities use dissection to teach human gross anatomy. The concept of body donation has evolved over centuries and there are still considerable discrepancies among countries regarding the means by which human bodies are acquired and used for education and research. Many countries have well-established donation programs and use body dissection to teach most if not all human gross anatomy. In contrast, there are countries without donation programs that use unclaimed bodies or perhaps a few donated bodies instead. In several countries, use of cadavers for dissection is unthinkable for cultural or religious reasons. Against this background, successful donation programs are highlighted in the present review, emphasizing those aspects of the programs that make them successful. Looking to the future, we consider what best practice could look like and how the use of unclaimed bodies for anatomy teaching could be replaced. From an ethical point of view, countries that depend upon unclaimed bodies of dubious provenance are encouraged to use these reports and adopt strategies for developing successful donation programs. In many countries, the act of body donation has been guided by laws and ethical frameworks and has evolved alongside the needs for medical knowledge and for improved teaching of human anatomy. There will also be a future need for human bodies to ensure optimal pre- and post-graduate training and for use in biomedical research. Good body donation practice should be adopted wherever possible, moving away from the use of unclaimed bodies of dubious provenance and adopting strategies to favor the establishment of successful donation programs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Donation. 596.301 Section 596.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 596.301 Donation. The term donation means a transfer made in the form of a gift or charitable...
... NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 703 and 721 RIN 3133-AE17 Charitable Donation... authorized to fund a charitable donation account (CDA), a hybrid charitable and investment vehicle described... making charitable contributions and donations is among an FCU's incidental powers.\\2\\ \\1\\ 12 U.S.C. 1757...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Donations. 245.609 Section 245.609 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF... Inventory 245.609 Donations. Agencies may donate, with GSA approval and without expense to the United States...
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Donations. 256.426.1 Section... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Income and Expense Accounts § 256.426.1 Donations. This account shall include all payments or donations for charitable, social or community welfare purposes. ...
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the role of fatty acid oxidation on the cellular, molecular, and physiologic response of brown adipose tissue to disparate paradigms of chronic thermogenic stimulation. Methods: Mice with an adipose-specific loss of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 2 (Cpt2A−/−, that lack mitochondrial long chain fatty acid β-oxidation, were subjected to environmental and pharmacologic interventions known to promote thermogenic programming in adipose tissue. Results: Chronic administration of β3-adrenergic (CL-316243 or thyroid hormone (GC-1 agonists induced a loss of BAT morphology and UCP1 expression in Cpt2A−/− mice. Fatty acid oxidation was also required for the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT and the induction of UCP1 in WAT. In contrast, chronic cold (15 °C stimulation induced UCP1 and thermogenic programming in both control and Cpt2A−/− adipose tissue albeit to a lesser extent in Cpt2A−/− mice. However, thermoneutral housing also induced the loss of UCP1 and BAT morphology in Cpt2A−/− mice. Therefore, adipose fatty acid oxidation is required for both the acute agonist-induced activation of BAT and the maintenance of quiescent BAT. Consistent with this data, Cpt2A−/− BAT exhibited increased macrophage infiltration, inflammation and fibrosis irrespective of BAT activation. Finally, obese Cpt2A−/− mice housed at thermoneutrality exhibited a loss of interscapular BAT and were refractory to β3-adrenergic-induced energy expenditure and weight loss. Conclusion: Mitochondrial long chain fatty acid β-oxidation is critical for the maintenance of the brown adipocyte phenotype both during times of activation and quiescence. Keywords: Fatty acid oxidation, Brown adipose tissue, Cold induced thermogenesis, Adrenergic signaling, Adipose macrophage
Taise Ribeiro Morais
Full Text Available Transplantation and human organ donation are controversial issues that have generated much interest and discussion. The lack of clarification and the sensationalist news about organ trafficking contribute to raise questions and render the myths and prejudices permanent.The donation of organs and tissues is seen by society in general, as an act of solidarity and love from the family. However, it requires decision-making at a time of extreme pain and distress, caused by the impact of breaking news of death, the feeling of loss and the unexpected interruption of a life course(1.As the criteria of death are modified, the concept of brain death arises, along with the possibility of using donor organs and tissues. When there is not a good understanding of the organ donation process, the relatives of potential donors feel apprehensive, doubtful and undecided at the time of occurrence, because it is a subject about which there hasn’t been much clarification(1.Brazil has the largest public transplants program in the world, since the government finances 92% of procedures done in the country. However, when we consider the rate of post mortem transplant into the population, Brazil’s results are little expressive(2.Family refusal is a major obstacle to the realization of transplants, and is also identified as major cause for the shortage of organs and tissues for transplantation. Families who understand well the diagnosis of brain death are more favorable to organ donation, compared to families who believe that death only occurs after the heart stops. Therefore, the poor level of information, either by the quality of information concerning brain death, either by not having exceeded the barrier of stigmatized fear of organ trading, propagated by the media, drastically reduces the number of patients who are benefited from receiving an organ(3.Although all people are responsible for disseminating information, we must also educate health professionals, since
Doação de órgãos e tecidos: relação com o corpo em nossa sociedade Donación de órganos y tejidos: relación con el cuerpo en nuestra sociedad Organ and tissues donation: relation with the body in our society
Bartira De Aguiar Roza
rito funerario en la cultura de nuestra sociedad. Las acciones que aseguren una secuencia ética-legal definida por la legislación de trasplantes, presuponen un compromiso con la calidad y seguridad del proceso de la donación de órganos y tejidos, que debe ser rigurosamente seguida por los profesionales que trabajan en esta área. Así, se espera que esas actitudes puedan construir una cultura positiva en materia de donaciones, en el país, contribuyendo en el largo plazo al aumento de las tasas de donación.This is a study of literature review aimed to develop theoretical considerations on the donation of organs and tissues and on its relationship with the human body, in our society. Increasing donation rates depends on a perspective that goes beyond the technical issues of the process of donating organs and tissues. Several countries, with large time frame experience, working systematically in this process with an approach that incorporates social and ethical aspects, based on volunteers, and respecting the families right to autonomy of potential donors. Accompanying the body, after donation, usually requested by the family, represents the beginning of mourning for the death of a relative, which is part of the funeral ritual in the culture of our society. The actions to ensure an ethical-legal sequence, defined by the law of transplants, imply a commitment to quality and safety of the process of organ and tissue donation, which must be strictly followed by professionals working in this area. Thus, it is hoped that these attitudes can build a positive culture on the donation in the country, contributing in the long run to increase donation rates.
Corr, Charles A; Coolican, Margaret B
This article surveys recent literature on bereavement, grief, and mourning. It offers a review of the state of the art of current understandings of those topics to assist professionals who work in the field of organ and tissue donation and transplantation. The article's goal is to provide well-developed and up-to-date education and knowledge about bereavement, grief, and mourning to supplement the natural skills and experience of donation and transplant professionals in their work with bereaved persons.
Reyes F, M.L.; Luna Z, D.
The first donation of human skin coming from a cadaverous donor was obtained in the State of Mexico. The skin was obtained of a 34 year-old multi organic donor, the extraction of the same was carried out in an operating theatre by medical personnel, supported by personal of the Radio sterilized Tissue Bank (BTR) of the ININ. The skin was transported to the BTR for it processing. (Author)
Full Text Available Organ shortage is a major public health challenge for transplant programs globally. The sustenance of such programs as an effective therapy for end-stage organ failure (ESOF requires an exploration of public awareness and willingness to donate organs. This is imperative, especially in developing countries where ESOF is highly prevalent. We studied the awareness and predictors of public attitude toward organ donation in Kano city in northern Nigeria. Using interviewer-administered questionnaires, we assessed the awareness and willingness to donate solid organs among 400 adults in the Kano metropolis. Three hundred and five of the 383 respondents (79.6% reported that they had heard about organ donation. There was a significant variation of awareness by education and ethnicity (P <0.05. Most respondents, 303 (79.1%, were willing to donate an organ. Gender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 2.13; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.40-4.95], educational attainment (AOR = 2.55; 95% CI: 1.35-5.88, marital status (AOR = 4.5; 95% CI: 2.97-9.1, religion (AOR = 3.40; 95% CI: 1.43-8.10 and ethnicity (AOR = 2.36; 95% CI 1.04-5.35 were significant predictors of willingness to donate an organ. Preferred organ recipients were parents (48.9%, children (21.3%, spouses (14.6% and other relatives (13.4%. Reasons for willingness to donate organs included religion (51.2%, moral obligation (21.4% and compassion (11.9%, among others. However, there was widespread ignorance of religious precepts concerning organ donation. The high level of awareness and willingness to donate organs in this society could be further enhanced by intensive information, education and communication strategies providing clear messages on societal benefits, religious aspects and bioethical guidance regarding organ donation.
Ester Silveira Ramos
Full Text Available Ovarian failure is a typical feature of Turner syndrome (TS. Patients are followed clinically with hormone replacement therapy (HRT and inclusion in the oocyte donation program, if necessary. For patients with spontaneous puberty, genetic counseling regarding preimplantation genetic diagnosis and prenatal diagnosis is indicated. Patients with dysgenetic gonads and a Y chromosome are at increased risk of developing gonadoblastoma. Even though this is not an invasive tumor, its frequent association with other malignant forms justifies prophylactic gonadectomy. It is important to perform gonadectomy before HRT and pregnancy with oocyte donation. Among patients with TS stigmata and female genitalia, many have the Y chromosome in one of the cell lines. For this reason, all patients should undergo cytogenetic analysis. Nevertheless, in cases of structural chromosomal alterations or hidden mosaicism, the conventional cytogenetic techniques may be ineffective and molecular investigation is indicated. The author proposes a practical approach for investigating women with TS stigmata in whom identification of the X or Y chromosome is important for clinical management and follow-up.
Impacto do marketing dos processos de divulgação nas doações de córneas a um banco de tecidos oculares humanos e avaliação do perfil socioeconômico de seus doadores Marketing role of corneal graft tissue donation to an eye bank and donors' socioeconomic profile
Roberta Jansen de Mello Farias
abordagem. CONCLUSÃO: O papel da mídia aliado à credibilidade da instituição são obrigatórios na conscientização da população sobre a doação de órgãos. A profissionalização das equipes de abordagem requer intenso treinamento, entretanto, o resultado é percebido quando 82,9% das doações foram obtidas devido a esse trabalho.ABSTRACT Penetrating keratoplasty has been the leading and the most successful type of transplant in the world, however corneal deficiency is a commom problem usually presented to corneal surgeons. PURPOSE: Impact evaluation of the number of corneal graft donations to the Sorocaba Eye Bank after the implementation of a corneal graft procurement system; to draw the socioeconomic profile of corneal graft donors of the Sorocaba Eye Bank (SEB. METHODS: Retrospective study on donations to SEB from its creation and after the development of media marketing. Prospective analysis of the socioeconomic profile of corneal graft donors by a questionnaire sent as letters to the families of the donors in a certain month. RESULTS: SEB began its work in 1971 by spreading need of organ donation through lectures in churches, shopping malls, community meetings, radio programs, television programs, etc. In the 70s, the number of retrieved corneal grafts was 1 or 2/month. Between 1984 - 1989 a procurement coordination team was trained to act in mortuaries and by 2000 they also began to work in public hospitals. In 1984 only 260 corneal grafts were retrieved. This number has been increasing to 2,778 corneal graft donations in 2004. The questionnaire was answered by 76 of the 93 donor families, with a response rate of 81.7%. Donor age had a mean of 65.1 ± 14.7 y/o, forty-two (55.3% were men. Educational level of the donor families was an important factor for organ donation, once 36.8% had concluded high school and 34.2% completed university. The great majority, sixty-three (82.9% of the corneal grafts were donated through the efforts of the procurement
Walker, Douglas G; Whetzel, Alexis M; Serrano, Geidy; Sue, Lucia I; Lue, Lih-Fen; Beach, Thomas G
Many factors affect the integrity of messenger RNA from human autopsy tissues including postmortem interval (PMI) between death and tissue preservation and the pre-mortem agonal and disease states. In this communication, we describe RNA isolation and characterization of 389 samples from 18 different tissues from elderly donors who were participants in a rapid whole-body autopsy program located in Sun City, Arizona ( www.brainandbodydonationprogram.org ). Most tissues were collected within a PMI of 2-6 h (median 3.15 h; N = 455), but for this study, tissue from cases with longer PMIs (1.25-29.25 h) were included. RNA quality was assessed by RNA integrity number (RIN) and total yield (ng RNA/mg tissue). RIN correlated with PMI for heart (r = -0.531, p = 0.009) and liver (r = -558, p = 0.0017), while RNA yield correlated with PMI for colon (r = -485, p = 0.016) and skin (r = -0.460, p = 0.031). RNAs with the lowest integrity were from skin and cervix where 22.7 and 31.4 % of samples respectively failed to produce intact RNA; by contrast all samples from esophagus, lymph node, jejunum, lung, stomach, submandibular gland and kidney produced RNA with measurable RINs. Expression levels in heart RNA of 4 common housekeeping normalization genes showed significant correlations of Ct values with RIN, but only one gene, glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate dehydrogenase, showed a correlation of Ct with PMI. There were no correlations between RIN values obtained for liver, adrenal, cervix, esophagus and lymph node and those obtained from corresponding brain samples. We show that high quality RNA can be produced from most human autopsy tissues, though with significant differences between tissues and donors. The RNA stability and yield did not depend solely on PMI; other undetermined factors are involved, but these do not include the age of the donor.
Mark, Christina; Zor, Kinga; Heiskanen, Arto
such as redox activity, O2 and H2O2 concentration, pH, cell viability and release of target enzymes such as α-amylase. We have optimised an intracellular, whole-cell redox activity assay that detects changes in redox activity in barley aleurone layer during PCD. The assay uses a double mediator......This project focuses on developing and applying a tissue culture system with electrochemical and optical detection techniques for tissue culture of barley aleurone layer to increase understanding of the underlying mechanisms of programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. The major advantage......-system to electrochemically measure redox activity via changes in the NADP:NADPH ratio. Experiments show that redox activity changes depend on phytohormone activation or inactivation of aleurone layer metabolism and subsequent PCD. We have also successfully detected PCD induced by phytohormones in barley aleurone layer using...
Carbajal, H; Cabriales, H
Before 1996, solid organs from cadaveric donors (CD) did not account for more than 2% of all transplants. The need for more transplants led the state to undergo several legislative, societal, organizational, and infrastructure changes. A descriptive analysis of the evolution of the transplant program in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico, from 1996 to 2001. Trimester reports have been routinely performed since 1996 from the 14 institutions that are licensed to perform organ and tissue transplants in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico. All reports were concentrated and a descriptive analysis is presented herein. From 1996 until 2001, a total of 1457 organ and tissue (OT) transplants have been performed. At the end of this period, there was a 214% increase in the total number of transplants. By 2001, 73% of the program's total of 1457 OT transplants came from cadaveric donors. The state transplant program of Nuevo León has experienced a dramatic growth since 1996. The percent of organs transplanted from cadaveric donors is one of the highest in Mexico. There is still much work to be done at the state and national levels; better epidemiological studies and dialysis registries are needed as well as investment in transplant research.
Gonzalez-Hurtado, Elsie; Lee, Jieun; Choi, Joseph; Wolfgang, Michael J
To determine the role of fatty acid oxidation on the cellular, molecular, and physiologic response of brown adipose tissue to disparate paradigms of chronic thermogenic stimulation. Mice with an adipose-specific loss of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 2 (Cpt2 A-/- ), that lack mitochondrial long chain fatty acid β-oxidation, were subjected to environmental and pharmacologic interventions known to promote thermogenic programming in adipose tissue. Chronic administration of β3-adrenergic (CL-316243) or thyroid hormone (GC-1) agonists induced a loss of BAT morphology and UCP1 expression in Cpt2 A-/- mice. Fatty acid oxidation was also required for the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) and the induction of UCP1 in WAT. In contrast, chronic cold (15 °C) stimulation induced UCP1 and thermogenic programming in both control and Cpt2 A-/- adipose tissue albeit to a lesser extent in Cpt2 A-/- mice. However, thermoneutral housing also induced the loss of UCP1 and BAT morphology in Cpt2 A-/- mice. Therefore, adipose fatty acid oxidation is required for both the acute agonist-induced activation of BAT and the maintenance of quiescent BAT. Consistent with this data, Cpt2 A-/- BAT exhibited increased macrophage infiltration, inflammation and fibrosis irrespective of BAT activation. Finally, obese Cpt2 A-/- mice housed at thermoneutrality exhibited a loss of interscapular BAT and were refractory to β3-adrenergic-induced energy expenditure and weight loss. Mitochondrial long chain fatty acid β-oxidation is critical for the maintenance of the brown adipocyte phenotype both during times of activation and quiescence. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.
Doolin, Kerry S; Chan, Daniel L; Adamantos, Sophie; Humm, Karen
Describe unexpected events (UEs) that occurred during blood donation in cats with and without sedation. Retrospective observational study (2010-2013). University teaching hospital. Client-owned healthy cats enrolled in a blood donation program. None. Blood collection for transfusion was performed 115 times from 32 cats. Seventy donation events were in unsedated cats and 45 in sedated cats. For each collection, the anticipated blood volume to be collected, actual blood volume collected, sedation protocol, and any UE in the peridonation period were recorded. There were 6 categories of UEs: movement during donation, donor anxiety, inadequate collected blood volume, jugular vessel related UEs, additional sedation requirement, and cardiorespiratory distress. Fisher's exact test was used to compare the frequency of UEs between sedated and unsedated cats. UEs were recorded in 54 of 115 collections. In the donor population, movement was reported as an UE in 0 cats that donated under sedation and 24/70 (34.3%) cats that donated without sedation (P donated under sedation and 14/70 (20.0%) cats that donated unsedated (P = 0.014). Unsedated donation did not increase the likelihood of inadequate donation volume, jugular vessel related UEs, or cardiorespiratory distress. Eight of 45 (17.8%) sedated donations required additional sedation. Movement during donation and signs of donor anxiety were more frequent in unsedated cats. These were considered minor issues, expected in unsedated cats being gently restrained. Blood collection from unsedated feline donors is a viable alternative to sedated donation. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.
Ploeg, RJ; Niesing, J; Sieber-Rasch, MH; Willems, L; Kranenburg, K
Background A major problem in the field of transplantation is the persistent shortage of donor organs and tissues for transplantation. This study was initiated to (1) chart the donor potential for organs and tissue in The Netherlands and (2) to identify factors influencing whether donation is
Ju, M K; Sim, M K; Son, S Y
The purpose of this study was to identify the knowledge, attitude, educational needs, and will of nursing students on organ donation from brain-dead donors. Data were collected by using a 40-item questionnaire to measure knowledge, attitude, educational needs, and will for organ donation of 215 nursing college students in one university in Dangjin city from May 11 to May 31, 2017. The data were analyzed using SPSS 22 program (Data Solution Inc, Seoul). In the general characteristics, 85.1% of the subjects did not receive education on donation, and 99.5% of the subjects responded that education is needed. The desired methods of education were special lecture in school (55.3%), "webtoons" on the Internet (19.5%), formal curriculum (15.8%). Points to improve to increase brain-death organ transplantation and donation included "active publicity through pan-national campaign activities" (56.3%), "respecting prior consent from brain-dead donors" (21.9%), and "encouragement and increased support for organ donors" (12.1%). There was a significant difference in knowledge according to will for organ donation (t = 3.29, P = .001) and consent to brain-death organ donation in family members (t = 3.29, P = .001). There was a statistically significant positive correlation between attitude and knowledge of the subjects regarding brain-death organ donation. The knowledge, attitude, educational need, and will for organ donation of nursing students revealed in this study will be used as basic data to provide systematic transplant education including contents about organ transplantation in the regular nursing curriculum in the future. It will contribute to the activation of organ donation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
On Thursday 27 February, CERN was pleased to donate computer equipment to a physics institute in the Philippines. H.E. Leslie J. Baja and Rolf Heuer. Following donations of computer equipment to institutes in Morocco, Ghana, Bulgaria, Serbia and Egypt, CERN is to send 50 servers and 4 network switches to the National Institute of Physics at the University of the Philippines Diliman. CERN’s Director-General Rolf Heuer and the Ambassador of the Philippines to Switzerland and Lichtenstein, H.E. Leslie J. Baja, spoke of their enthusiasm for the project during an official ceremony. The equipment will be used for various high energy physics research programmes in the Philippines and for the University’s development of digital resources for science.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Blood is the living force of our body and there is no substitute for it. It can only be replaced through blood donation. Blood donation can save millions of lives. Demand for safe blood is increasing every day because of increase in population, increased life-expectancy and urbanisation, trauma cases, major surgeries, patients with regular transfusion requirement like cases of thalassaemia, haemophilia and chemotherapy. To increase blood donor recruitment and retention, the level of knowledge and attitude of blood donors towards blood donation must be known as this affects donor’s decision of blood donation. This information helps for tailoring targeted programs and campaigns in order to recruit more people as regular voluntary blood donors. OBJECTIVE To assess the level of knowledge and attitude regarding blood donation amongst blood donors in Bijapur district, Karnataka. MATERIALS AND METHODS Blood donors registered for blood donation in B.L.D.E. University’s Shri B. M. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre’s Blood Bank, in Bijapur district were included in this study. The data was collected by filling a self-administered structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to all the donors ready to participate in the study. Questionnaires were distributed at the time of registration and were collected after filling during the refreshment period. Also one-on-one individual interviews were conducted to know about the blood donation experience and willingness of donor for future donation. A scoring mechanism was used to understand the level of knowledge, a score of one was given for each correct response and zero for wrong and unaware response. RESULTS In this study, it was found that 61% of the participants had average knowledge [Cumulative score 4-6], 34% of the participants had good knowledge [Cumulative score 7-8] and 5% of participants had poor knowledge [Cumulative score 0-3] about the different
Martin, Dominique E; Danovitch, Gabriel M
Public surveys conducted in many countries report widespread willingness of individuals to donate a kidney while alive to a family member or close friend, yet thousands suffer and many die each year while waiting for a kidney transplant. Advocates of financial incentive programs or "regulated markets" in kidneys present the problem of the kidney shortage as one of insufficient public motivation to donate, arguing that incentives will increase the number of donors. Others believe the solutions lie-at least in part-in facilitating so-called "altruistic donation;" harnessing the willingness of relatives and friends to donate by addressing the many barriers which serve as disincentives to living donation. Strategies designed to minimize financial barriers to donation and the use of paired kidney exchange programs are increasingly enabling donation, and now, an innovative program designed to address what has been termed "chronologically incompatible donation" is being piloted at the University of California, Los Angeles, and elsewhere in the United States. In this program, a person whose kidney is not currently required for transplantation in a specific recipient may instead donate to the paired exchange program; in return, a commitment is made to the specified recipient that priority access for a living-donor transplant in a paired exchange program will be offered when or if the need arises in the future. We address here potential ethical concerns related to this form of organ "banking" from living donors, and argue that it offers significant benefits without undermining the well-established ethical principles and values currently underpinning living donation programs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Blood donation and transfusion are remarkably safe medical procedures. However, attitudes, beliefs and level of knowledge associated with blood donation and transfusion may affect such procedures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the attitude, belief and knowledge about blood donation and transfusion in Saudi Population. The present study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University Hospitals, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A well structured Arabic questionnaire was used to asses the attitude, belief and knowledge regarding blood donation and transfusion. The sample consisted of 335 male (55%) and 274 female (45%); the majority of the sample (65.84%) were non-donors. These non-donors (78.98%) were between the ages of 15-30 years. The 88.5% of the people who participated in the study believed that blood donation was not harmful, 20% of them stated that they would refuse blood transfusion even if they were in need because of the risk of acquiring infectious disease. 84.5% preferred direct donation, (49%) of the sample stated that they would accept blood donation only from relatives, 55.1% believed that blood transfusion was safe. However, 11.6% claimed to have acquired infectious disease after blood transfusion, 58% female in addition to 11.34% male preferred to receive blood from female donor and 69.5% did not know if the blood banks were in need of blood or not and 17.4% believed that all surgical procedures require blood transfusion. Different fears, mistrust in hospital and lack of information may serve as an important issue to be addressed when developing donors recruitment programs or campaigns to clear misconceptions about blood donation. In addition, public should know that numerous screening measures are implemented to ensure that blood donation is safe for the donor and that transfusion of the donated blood is safe for the recipient. (author)
Vileito, A; Siebelink, M J; Verhagen, Aae
Paediatric donation is a unique and extremely sensitive process that requires specific knowledge and competencies. Most countries use protocols for organ and tissue donation to ensure optimal care for the donor and family, but these mainly focus on adults. However, the donation process for children differs from adults in many ways. An overview of the literature was performed to identify protocols for the paediatric population. PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE and the Internet were searched up to March 2016 for papers or other sources in English related to specific organ and tissue donation protocols for children and neonates. This comprised title, abstract and then full-text screening of relevant data. We included 12 papers and two electronic sources that were mainly from North America and Europe. Most discussed donations after cardiac death. The recurring themes included identifying potential donors, approaching parents, palliative care and collaboration with organ procurement organisations. Most papers called for paediatric donation policies to be standardised. Scientific publications in English on paediatric donation protocols are very scarce. No comprehensive paediatric donation protocol was found. We identified several recurring themes in the literature that could be used to develop such protocols. ©2018 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.
Lippi, Giuseppe; Franchini, Massimo
The problem of using material of unsuitable quality, including "nontransparent turbid milky plasma" or more simply "turbid plasma", for producing blood components is not trivial for several epidemiological, technical, analytical, clinical and economical reasons. With some exception, most national and international guidelines mandate that blood components should preferably not be produced from lipaemic donations. The origin of lipaemic blood is variegated, and includes physiological or paraphysiological causes and metabolic disorders, whereas a broad range of common diseases and drugs can also be associated with hypertriglyceridaemia. Overall, the frequency of lipaemic donations ranges between 0.31% and 0.35%, although sporadic reports have highlighted that the frequency might be much higher, up to 13%. Lipaemic donations pose two leading problems in transfusion medicine, that are interference during laboratory testing, and safety of producing blood components from hypertriglyceridaemic materials. While the former issue can be overcome by using chemical or mechanical methods, the clinical use of lipaemic blood for producing components remains an unresolved question. Transfusion medicine should thereby embark on a landmark effort to find a universal agreement of behaviours and harmonization of policies worldwide. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
York, Nicholas J; Tinley, Christopher
Corneal pathology is one of the leading causes of preventable blindness in South Africa (SA). A corneal transplant can restore or significantly improve vision in most cases. However, in SA there is a gross shortage of corneal tissue available to ophthalmologists. Little has been published describing the magnitude of the problem. To describe trends in the number of corneal donors per year in SA, the number of corneal transplants performed each year, the origin of donors, the allocation of corneas to the public or private sector, and the demographics of donors. This was a retrospective review of all corneal donations to SA eye banks over the 15-year period 1 January 2002 - 31 December 2016. There was a progressive year-on-year decline in corneal donors over the study period, from 565 per year in 2002 to 89 in 2016. As a direct result, there has been an 85.5% decrease in the number of corneal transplants performed per year using locally donated corneas, from 1 049 in 2002 to 152 in 2016. Of the donors, 48.8% originated from mortuaries, 39.0% from private hospitals and 12.2% from government hospitals; donors from mortuaries showed the most significant decline over the 15-year period, decreasing by 94.8%. Of donated corneas, 79.3% were allocated to the private sector and 21.7% to the public sector. Males comprised 69.1% of donors, while 77.2% were white, 14.0% coloured, 6.3% black and 2.5% Indian/Asian. Donor age demonstrated a bimodal peak at 25 and 55 years. The number of corneal donations in SA has declined markedly, causing the burden of corneal disease requiring transplantation to rise steadily. Population groups with a low donor rate may have cultural and other objections to corneal donation, which should be a major focus of future research and initiatives aimed at reversing the current trends.
Full Text Available Discretionary firm donation is usually related to the stakeholder theory and corporate social performance. Although theoretical explanations for this social behavior are pervasive in related literature, empirical modeling remains underdeveloped. We developed an explanatory structural model of discretionary firm donation using firm and industry level indicators. Unlike previous research, we estimated the explanatory power of the construct we called stakeholder orientation. Our tentative model was tested on a Brazilian sample of 101 publicly traded donor firms, using data on firm donations to social projects and to political candidates in electoral campaigns. The main results suggest that discretionary donation seems to be a strategy for managing conflicting claims in highly stakeholder oriented firms; the characteristics of the firm are more important than industry effects in explaining firm donations; and large firms, showing slack resources, and with a less concentrated ownership structure tend to engage in discretionary donation more intensively.
WANG Wei; TIAN Hui; YIN Hang; LIU Hang; ZHANG Xiao-dong
Background Organ transplantation represents an important advance in modern medical science,and it has benefited many patients with organ failure; however,the severe deficiency of organ sources has been a bottleneck that has limited the benefits -this technology can bring.The aim of this study was to show the results of a survey on Chinese people's awareness and attitudes toward organ donation.Methods We designed a questionnaire regarding organ donation consisting of 20 short questions,which were distributed to 10 groups.Most of the questions were multiple-choice; the core question related to people's attitudes to organ donation and the development of organ donation.The survey was held in the outpatient hall of Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital,a commercial district,and four professional colleges.Participants were randomly selected,and answered questions about gender,age,educational background,profession,and study major.Results In all,2930 valid responses were received.Male:female ratio was nearly 1:1.2 (mean age 38 years).Over 90.0％ of participants knew about organ transplantation and which organs could be transplanted; more than 95.0％ knew about organ donation,but the time they had been aware of it varied.Nearly 90.0％ of the participants approved of deceased organ donation; 73.0％ indicated they would like to donate their organs post mortem.Participants who knew more about organ failure and organ transplantation were more likely to support organ donation.College students were very positive about organ donation,though as they gain professional knowledge their attitudes may change.Altogether,65.3％ of participants approved of living organ donation,which was obviously lower than the figure for deceased organ donation (P ＜0.05).In all,85.7％ of participants approved of compensation to the deceased donor's family.To promote organ donation in China,62.9％ of participants indicated that the public's knowledge about organ donation should be increased via the media
Boyarsky, B J; Massie, A B; Alejo, J L; Van Arendonk, K J; Wildonger, S; Garonzik-Wang, J M; Montgomery, R A; Deshpande, N A; Muzaale, A D; Segev, D L
The impact of kidney donation on the ability to change or initiate health or life insurance following donation is unknown. To quantify this risk, we surveyed 1046 individuals who donated a kidney at our center between 1970 and 2011. Participants were asked whether they changed or initiated health or life insurance after donation, and if they had any difficulty doing so. Among 395 donors who changed or initiated health insurance after donation, 27 (7%) reported difficulty; among those who reported difficulty, 15 were denied altogether, 12 were charged a higher premium and 8 were told they had a preexisting condition because they were kidney donors. Among 186 donors who changed or initiated life insurance after donation, 46 (25%) reported difficulty; among those who reported difficulty, 23 were denied altogether, 27 were charged a higher premium and 17 were told they had a preexisting condition because they were kidney donors. In this single-center study, a high proportion of kidney donors reported difficulty changing or initiating insurance, particularly life insurance. These practices by insurers create unnecessary burden and stress for those choosing to donate and could negatively impact the likelihood of live kidney donation among those considering donation. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Hyde, Melissa K.; White, Katherine M.
The authors explored common beliefs and preferences for posthumous and living organ donation in Australia where organ donation rates are low and little research exists. Content analysis of discussions revealed the advantage of prolonging/saving life whereas disadvantages differed according to donation context. A range of people/groups perceived to…
van Loo, Ellen S.; Krikke, Christina; Hofker, Hendrik S.; Berger, Stefan P.; Leuvenink, Henri G. D.; Pol, Robert A.
Introduction: To overcome the gap of organ shortage grafts from donation after circulatory death (DCD) can be used. This review evaluates the outcomes after DCD pancreas donation compared to donation after brain death (DBD). Materials and methods: A literature search was performed using Medline,
Dean, Benjamin W; Hewitt, Sarah N; Begos, Morgan C; Gomez, Angela; Messam, Locksley L McV
To estimate the associations of nationality, university program, donation history and gender, with blood donation barriers experienced by non-donating students on the day of a campus blood drive. This project focused particularly on nationality and the effect of the different blood donation cultures in the students' countries of origin. A retrospective cohort study of 398 North American and Caribbean university students was conducted at St. George's University, Grenada, in 2010. Data were collected from non-donating students on campus while a blood drive was taking place. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate associations between the exposures of interest and donation barriers experienced by the students. North American (voluntary blood donation culture) students were more likely than Caribbean (replacement blood donation culture) students to experience "Lack of Time" (relative risk (RR) = 1.57; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19-2.07) and "Lack of Eligibility" (RR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.08-2.22) as barriers to donation. Conversely, Caribbean students were a third as likely to state "Lack of Incentive" (RR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.20-0.50), "Fear of Infection" (RR = 0.35; 95% CI: 0.21-0.58), and "Fear of Needles" (RR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.21-0.48) were barriers than North American students. University students from voluntary blood donation cultures are likely to experience different barriers to donation than those from replacement cultures. Knowledge of barriers that students from contrasting blood donation systems face provides valuable information for blood drive promotion in university student populations that contain multiple nationalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rasiah, R; Manikam, R; Chandrasekaran, S K; Naghavi, N; Mubarik, S; Mustafa, R; Pushparajan, S
Organ donation rates have continued to fall seriously short of needs worldwide, with the lowest rates recorded among developing economies. This study seeks to analyze evidence from a developing economy to explore the usefulness of social psychological theory to solve the problem. The study deployed a large survey (n = 10 412) using a convenience sampling procedure targeted at increasing the number of Malaysians registered with the Ministry of Health, Malaysia who are willing to donate organs upon death. Structural equation modeling was deployed to estimate simultaneously the relative influence of cognitive and noncognitive variables on willingness to donate deceased organs. The cognitive factors of donation perception, socioeconomic status and financial incentives, and the noncognitive factors of demography and fear showed a high statistically significant (1%) relationship with willingness to donate organs after death. While financial incentives were significant, cash rewards showed the least impact. Donation perception showed the highest impact, which shows that the development of effective pedagogic programs with simultaneous improvements to the quality of services provided by medical personnel engaged in retrieving and transplanting deceased donor organs can help raise organ donation rates. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Rajat Kumar Agarwal
Full Text Available Introduction: Complications associated with blood donation significantly lower odds of subsequent donations. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of complications related to blood donation, identify the influencing factors, and come up with suggestions for minimizing discomfort to donors and making outdoor voluntary blood donation camps safer. Materials and Methods: This study covered 181 blood donation camps organized by Sankalp India Foundation where 16 blood banks participated from 01-04-2011 to 01-08-2014 in Karnataka. Uniform protocols for donor selection, predonation preparation, counseling, postdonation care, and refreshments were used. The postdonation complications were recorded on a form immediately, after they were observed. Results: We observed 995 (3.2% complications in 30,928 whole blood donations. Of these 884 (2.86% mild, 77 (0.25% moderate, and 5 (0.02% severe complications were observed. Local symptoms (blood outside vessels, pain, and allergy contributed 1.0%, and generalized symptoms (vasovagal reaction contributed 2.2% to all the complications. Conclusion: We observed 322 complications for every 10,000 donations. Since 27 out of every 10000 experience moderate and severe complication, the readiness to manage complications is crucial. Women donors, young donors, and donors with a lower weight are at a significantly greater risk of experiencing complications, highlighting the need for specific guidelines for the management of higher risk donor groups. Complications varied significantly between various blood banks. Predonation hydration was effective in limiting complications with generalized symptoms. We recommend a robust donor hemovigilance program for voluntary blood donation for monitoring complications and enable assessment of effectiveness and implementation of appropriate interventions.
Milaniak, I; Wilczek-Rużyczka, E; Wierzbicki, K; Sadowski, J; Kapelak, B; Przybyłowski, P
Improvement of the consent rate for solid organ donation from deceased donors is a key component of strategies applied in many countries aiming to increase the availability of organs for transplantation. Attitudes toward living and posthumous donation are favorable. Research shows that the outlook on organ donation and the degree of the willingness to become an organ donor are associated with a wide range of variables. The main objective of this study was to identify factors that influence the willingness to donate organs and the reasons for refusing consent. The study included 191 participants (135 female and 56 male) aged 16 to 61 years (mean age 26.86 ± 12.88). A cross-sectional study was conducted during educational meetings concerning organ donation that was addressed to students, teachers, and nurses. Survey tools included the Individual Questionnaire: Study of attitudes toward transplantation, consisting of 26 closed questions (with the consent of the Statistical Office in Krakow). In all, 97.4% of the respondents accepted transplantation from living donors, and 95.8% accepted deceased donations. Of the respondents, 78.5% agreed to posthumous life-saving organ donation. There was a significant difference between the respondents' sex, age, social group, place of living, and the reasons for their willingness to donate organs both posthumously and during their lifetime, as well as reasons for refusal. Our findings showed that the study group in general had favorable views on treatment involving transplantation and declared willingness to make a posthumous organ donation. These views vary depending on demographic variables. The education on the subject of organ and tissue donation has a positive impact on donation and transplantation rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
to traditional approaches. Future applications of this type of setup could be used for other types of plant tissues such as leaves or germinating embryos for studying the effects of e.g. biotic and abiotic stresses or for screening of compounds for biological effects. Due to the ease of use and many......Programmed cell death (PCD) is a highly regulated process in which cells are killed as part of developmental programmes or as defence mechanisms against pathogens, but the process is less well understood in plant cells compared to animal cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in PCD...... in plants, but the relationship between and mechanisms behind ROS and PCDhas not yet been fully elucidated due to the involvement of complex signalling networks. Elucidation of these mechanisms and signalling pathways will allow manipulation of cell death in plants, which could help to improve yield...
Abbasi, Mahmoud; Kiani, Mehrzad; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Salehi, Bahare
BACKGROUND Organ transplantation is one of the most critical topics in medical ethics that is commonplace in various countries. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and the ethical issues surrounding organ transplantation and organ donation among healthcare personnel in Tehran, Iran. MATERIAL AND METHODS In a cross-sectional study performed on 450 healthcare personnel, self-administered questionnaires were used to derive data from individuals. Among the 450 health personnel who received the questionnaires, 377 completed their questionnaires (83.77%). RESULTS The willingness and unwillingness to donate organs among individuals were 47.48% (n=179) and 52.51% (n=198), respectively. Among the individuals who signed the organ donation card, 96.5% (n=55) were willing to donate their organs and 3.5% (n=2) were unwilling to donate their organs. Most of the individuals that were willing (48.34%; n=175) and unwilling (51.66%; n=187) to donate their organs claimed religious support for organ donation (P=0.00). Out of these people, 110 willing people (67.48%) and 53 (32.52%) unwilling people were familiar with the idea of brain death. The individuals who selected cadavers (67.64%; n=255) and brain death (24.4%; n=92) were chosen as the best candidates for organ donation. Most individuals believed that young patients (n=123; 32.62%) and people who had not already had organ transplants (n=90; 23.87%) should be the preferred recipients of organs. Most individuals had learned about organ transplantation from television (30.24%; n=114), newspapers (23.61%; n=89), and the radio (19.89%; n=75). CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, there is a need for more educational programs for the improvement of knowledge and ethical consideration with regard to organ transplantation and organ donation among healthcare personnel.
Toews, Maeghan; Giancaspro, Mark; Richards, Bernadette; Ferrari, Paolo
As organ donation rates remain unable to meet the needs of individuals waiting for transplants, it is necessary to identify reasons for this shortage and develop solutions to address it. The introduction of kidney paired donation (KPD) programs represents one such innovation that has become a valuable tool in donation systems around the world. Although KPD has been successful in increasing kidney donation and transplantation, there are lingering questions about its legality. Donation through KPD is done in exchange for-and with the expectation of-a reciprocal kidney donation and transplantation. It is this reciprocity that has caused concern about whether KPD complies with existing law. Organ donation systems around the world are almost universally structured to legally prohibit the commercial exchange of organs. Australia, Canada, and the United States have accomplished this goal by prohibiting the exchange of an organ for "valuable consideration," which is a legal term that has not historically been limited to monetary exchange. Whether or not KPD programs violate this legislative prohibition will depend on the specific legislative provision being considered, and the legal system and case law of the particular jurisdiction in question. This article compares the experiences of Australia, Canada, and the United States in determining the legality of KPD and highlights the need for legal clarity and flexibility as donation and transplantation systems continue to evolve.
Boland, Kathleen; Baker, Kerrie
The current process of organ donation in the U.S. relies on the premise of altruism or voluntary consent. Yet, human organs available for donation and transplant do not meet current demands. The literature has suggested that college students, who represent a large group of potential healthy organ donors, often are not part of donor pools. Before…
Tarhan, Merve; Dalar, Levent; Yildirimoglu, Huseyin; Sayar, Adnan; Altin, Sedat
the issue with the public in conversations, meetings, and sermons. Fully 85 % asserted that for interest in organ donation in Turkey to increase, religious officials have to lead on the subject. Of those questioned, 52.5 % considered their knowledge on organ donation and transplantation to be adequate and that they had obtained 52.5 % of such information from seminars/conferences, 50 % from television/radio, and 45 % from Directorate of Religious Affairs publications. However, 40 % expressed that they did not know where organ donations were made. One reason for inadequate organ donation in Turkey is that of incorrect religious beliefs. Thus, it is necessary that informative efforts are made by the Directorate of Religious Affairs through in-house training programs, and that healthcare, religious, and legal officials work jointly to inform the public about organ donation, organ transplantation, and brain death. Additionally, religious officials should donate organs by the way of example and, to increase their sensitivity, healthcare professionals should go more frequently to mosques and Mufti Stations.
Kim, Eun A; Choi, So Eun
The purpose of this study was to test and validate a model to predict living and brain death organ donation intention in nursing students. The conceptual model was based on the theory planned behavior. Quota sampling methodology was used to recruit 921 nursing students from all over the country and data collection was done from October 1 to December 20, 2013. The model fit indices for the hypothetical model were suitable for the recommended level. Knowledge, attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control explained 40.2% and 40.1% respectively for both living and brain death organ donation intention. Subjective norm was the most direct influential factor for organ donation intention. Knowledge had significant direct effect on attitude and indirect effect on subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. These effects were higher in brain death organ donation intention than in living donation intention. The overall findings of this study suggest the need to develop systematic education programs to increases knowledge about brain death organ donation. The development, application, and evaluation of intervention programs are required to improve subjective norm.
S. V. Gautier
Full Text Available Registry data analysis shows stabilization of indicators of donor and transplant activity in 2011 after continuous growth within five years, increase in a share of effective donors after brain death and multi-organ explantation, development of thoracic organs transplantation and living related donor kidney transplantation. In the conditions of decentralization of organ donation and transplant programs it is necessary to develop coope- ration between transplant centers and to expand the practice of an interregional exchange of donor organs. The federal law «About bases of health protection of citizens in the Russian Federation», accepted in 2011, creates a legal basis for development and acceptance of the new legislation in the sphere of organ donation and transplantation.
Family refusal to donate organs and tissue for transplantation El rechazo familiar al pedido de donación de órganos y tejidos para transplante A recusa familiar para a doaçao de órgãos e tecidos para transplante
Edvaldo Leal de Moraes
Full Text Available This study aimed to discover how potential eligible donor families perceive the decision-making process to refuse organ and tissue donation for transplantation. A qualitative research was performed in order to understand the families' perception, based on the situated-phenomenon structure. Eight family members were interviewed, with four themes and fourteen subthemes emerging from the analysis of the statements. The propositions that emerged from the study indicated that the essence of the phenomenon was manifested as a shocking or despairing situation, experienced through the hospitalization of the family member; distrust regarding organ donation; denial of brain death; grief and weariness due to the loss of the loved one, family conflicts for making the decision and the multiple causes for refusing donation. Therefore, the knowledge of this phenomenon can provide information to guide professional action involving the families of potential donors.La investigación tuvo como objetivo conocer la percepción que tienen los familiares de potenciales donadores sobre el proceso de toma de decisión para rechazar la donación de los órganos y tejidos para transplantes. Para comprender la percepción de los familiares fue utilizada la investigación cualitativa, según la modalidad estructura del fenómeno situado. Fueron entrevistados ocho familiares, de los que después de analizar los discursos, se obtuvieron cuatro temas y catorce subtemas. Las proposiciones que emergieron revelaron que la esencia del fenómeno fue revelada como vivenciar una situación de choque y desesperación con la internación del familiar, de desconfianza con la solicitud de la donación de los órganos, de negación de la muerte encefálica, de sufrimiento y desgaste ante la pérdida del ser querido, de conflictos familiares para la toma de decisión y de múltiples causas para rechazar la donación. Sendo así, el conocimiento de este fenómeno puede ofrecer elementos que
Provoost, Veerle; Van Rompuy, Florence; Pennings, Guido
The aim of this article is to study attitudes about sperm donation and willingness to donate sperm in students who have never shown an interest in sperm donation. The method used in this study is an electronic survey of 1012 male students. Only one third of the respondents (34.3%) would consider donating sperm. Overall, 85.7% indicated a positive attitude towards sperm donation while 14.3% indicated a neutral or negative attitude. The highest scored barriers to donating were the lack of practical information and the fear that the partner would not agree. Almost 40% of the respondents feared that the donation might have a negative impact on their current or future relationship. The majority (83.6%) of those who considered donating thought donors should receive a financial compensation. Money was also one of the main motivators. About 85% of the students thought positively about sperm donation but several factors such as perceived negative views by the social environment, especially the partner, may deter students from donating. This study indicates that the effect of strong incentives, for instance in monetary terms, on a donor pool consisting of students could be limited and that relational factors and donor's perceptions of the views of the wider social network should be taken into account when recruiting donors.
Entrevista familiar no processo de doação de órgãos e tecidos para transplante Entrevista familiar en el proceso de donación de órganos y tejidos para transplante Family interview in the process of donating organs and tissues for transplantation
Marcelo José dos Santos
entrevistado y al local de la entrevista, además de preguntas éticas y legales. También evidencian la necesidad de capacitación profesional para conocer, identificar y lidiar con factores que facilitan o dificultan el diálogo con los familiares.OBJECTIVE: To understand the meaning attributed to the family interview by professionals working in Services Procurement of Organs and Tissues, to the process of donating organs and tissues for transplantation. METHODS: Qualitative research from the phenomenological angle, according to the modality "structure of the situated phenomenon." Study participants were 12 professionals. RESULTS: After analysis of the interviews, the meaning attributed by the professionals was unveiled at a meeting. CONCLUSIONS: The statements that emerged revealed that the family interview is an important step, because it addresses the possibility of donating organs and tissues to save and / or improve the quality of life of people needing a transplant. This procedure is complex, since it involves aspects related to interviewer, the interviewee and the interview location, as well as ethical and legal questions. It also highlights the need for professional training to know, identify and cope with factors that facilitate or hinder the dialogue with the family members.
Emotionally-related live organ donation is different from almost all other medical treatments in that a family member or, in some countries, a friend contributes with an organ or parts of an organ to the recipient. Furthermore, there is a long-acknowledged but not well-understood gender-imbalance in emotionally-related live kidney donation. This article argues for the benefit of the concept of just love as an analytic tool in the analysis of emotionally-related live organ donation where the potential donor(s) and the recipient are engaged in a love relation. The concept of just love is helpful in the analysis of these live organ donations even if no statistical gender-imbalance prevails. It is particularly helpful, however, in the analysis of the gender-imbalance in live kidney donations if these donations are seen as a specific kind of care-work, if care-work is experienced as a labour one should perform out of love and if women still experience stronger pressures to engage in care-work than do men. The aim of the article is to present arguments for the need of just love as an analytic tool in the analysis of emotionally-related live organ donation where the potential donor(s) and the recipient are engaged in a love relation. The aim is also to elaborate two criteria that need to be met in order for love to qualify as just and to highlight certain clinical implications.
Alencar, Lucienne Christine Estevez de; Seidl, Eliane Maria Fleury
To describe the characteristics of donation behavior and identify reasons, beliefs and feelings relative to this practice, based on the reports of donor women. Personal and social-environmental aspects, which seem to affect donation behavior in donors and former donors, were also investigated. An exploratory, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out with women donors at two breast-milk banks within the public health system of the Brazilian Federal District. Data was collected from July to September 2005. The participants were 36 women, aged 14 to 33 years (average=24.78; SD=5.22), with different levels of schooling, 58.3% of which were first-time mothers. Data gathering was based on interviews carried out during home visits. In addition to descriptive statistical analyses of quantitative data, a qualitative data categorical analysis was also performed. The most frequently reported reasons for donating breast milk were altruism and excess milk production. The most frequent time interval for donation was 13 days after delivery. Contact by phone with the milk bank was the most common means of communication used by the majority of participants (n=22) to obtain information that enabled the donating process. Psychosocial aspects identified and the experience of donors can contribute to the empowerment of the formal and informal social donation-support network, in addition to serving as a driver for the implementation of technical and policy strategies in promoting future donation practices.
Kidney transplantation is a lifesaving medical treatment. However, very high demand for kidneys with low kidney donation causes a black market that exploits patients' desperation and donors' vulnerability. The current kidney donation programs fail to produce promising results to avoid illegal and unethical kidney trafficking and commercialism. Even though the primary goal of kidney donation is to increase the number of deceased organ donations, in some countries, like Turkey, due to religious or cultural concerns, it is impossible to supply adequate deceased kidney donations. In this view, the aim of this paper is to examine kidney trafficking in the scope of Turkey's current organ donation system and propose a new model, named the Incentivized Kidney Donation Model (IKDM), to increase kidney donation from living donors. The model encompasses the following benefits offered to kidney donors; lifetime health insurance, exemptions from copayments/contribution shares, priority when receiving an organ, priority when finding a job, income tax exemptions for salaried employees, and free or discounted public utilities. This normative model has the potential to promote donors' altruistic acts as well as the solidarity and loyalty among members of a society without violating ethical values and internationally accepted principles. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sollberger, Silja; Bernauer, Thomas; Ehlert, Ulrike
Stress has been found to have both positive and negative effects on prosocial behavior, suggesting the involvement of moderating factors such as context and underlying motives. In the present study, we investigated the conditions under which acute stress leads to an increase vs. decrease in environmental donation behavior as an indicator of prosocial behavior. In particular, we examined whether the effects of stress depended on preexisting pro-environmental orientation and stage of the donation decision (whether or not to donate vs. the amount to be donated). Male participants with either high (N=40) or low (N=39) pro-environmental orientation were randomly assigned to a social stress test or a control condition. Salivary cortisol was assessed repeatedly before and after stress induction. At the end of the experiment, all subjects were presented with an opportunity to donate a portion of their monetary compensation to a climate protection foundation. We found that stress significantly increased donation frequency, but only in subjects with low pro-environmental orientation. Congruously, their decision to donate was positively associated with cortisol response to the stress test and the emotion regulation strategy mood repair, as well as accompanied by an increase in subjective calmness. In contrast, among the participants who decided to donate, stress significantly reduced the donated amount of money, regardless of pro-environmental orientation. In conclusion, our findings suggest that acute stress might generally activate more self-serving motivations, such as making oneself feel better and securing one's own material interests. Importantly, however, a strong pro-environmental orientation partially prevented these effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Harrington, M; Sweeney, M R; Bailie, K; Morris, K; Kennedy, A; Boilson, A; O'Riordan, J; Staines, A
Recent changes have resulted in the loss of 4% of the donor panel in the Republic of Ireland and 3% in Northern Ireland. In order to increase the number of donors in these two regions, it is important that transfusion service providers explore and understand the reasons, which prevent individuals from donating. The aim of this study was to explore these issues particularly in non-donors and those who had lapsed. This 7-month all-Ireland study was conducted by computer-assisted telephone interview. Data collected included sociodemographic history, donation status, as well as barriers/deterrents to donation. There were 4166 completed questionnaires (44% donors; 56% non-donors). Of the donors, 13% had donated blood within the last 2 years. Current donors cited 'awareness of patients needs' (88%), 'trust in the blood transfusion service' (70%), and 'an advertising campaign' (70%) as reasons encouraging them to donate blood. Lapsed donors and non-donors cited 'more frequent mobile clinics/sessions' (30% lapsed donors; 53% non-donors), 'if I was asked' (28% lapsed donors; 53% non-donors), and 'more flexible opening hours' (23% lapsed donors; 44% non-donors) as reasons that would encourage them to donate. The main reasons cited by non-donors for never having donated included 'medical reasons' (41% Republic of Ireland; 43% Northern Ireland), 'lack of information' (20% Republic of Ireland; 22% Northern Ireland), 'fear of needles' (15% Republic of Ireland; 17% Northern Ireland), and 'time constraints' (12% Republic of Ireland; 13% Northern Ireland). Among the non-donor group, 10% (Republic of Ireland) and 6% (Northern Ireland) claimed that they are not permitted to donate. Replacing regular donors is a major challenge for the transfusion service providers. This study shows that by facilitating the general public by introducing more mobile clinics/sessions, more flexible opening hours and having a better level of knowledge in the community about blood donation may encourage
Mackay, Laura K.; Minnich, Martina; Kragten, Natasja A. M.; Liao, Yang; Nota, Benjamin; Seillet, Cyril; Zaid, Ali; Man, Kevin; Preston, Simon; Freestone, David; Braun, Asolina; Wynne-Jones, Erica; Behr, Felix M.; Stark, Regina; Pellicci, Daniel G.; Godfrey, Dale I.; Belz, Gabrielle T.; Pellegrini, Marc; Gebhardt, Thomas; Busslinger, Meinrad; Shi, Wei; Carbone, Francis R.; van Lier, René A. W.; Kallies, Axel; van Gisbergen, Klaas P. J. M.
Tissue-resident memory T (Trm) cells permanently localize to portals of pathogen entry, where they provide immediate protection against reinfection. To enforce tissue retention, Trm cells up-regulate CD69 and down-regulate molecules associated with tissue egress; however, a Trm-specific
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who may offer a donation? 2544.115 Section 2544... COMMUNITY SERVICE SOLICITATION AND ACCEPTANCE OF DONATIONS § 2544.115 Who may offer a donation? Anyone... donation to the Corporation. ...
Hoogerwerf, Maurits; Veldhuizen, Ingrid; Merz, E.M.; De Kort, Wim L.A.M.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith
Background and Objectives Donating blood has been associated with increased stress responses, with scarce evidence indicating that levels of psychological and hormonal stress are higher pre-donation than post-donation. We investigated whether a blood donation induces psychological and/or hormonal
... procedures for reviewing and evaluating potential donors and donations. It lists delegations of authority for... employees authorized to accept donations. It provides guidance on soliciting donations, where appropriate... ``ETHICS AND CONDUCT, Employee Responsibilities and Conduct, Donations'' (374 DM 6), in 2007. This guidance...
Background: There is some evidence to suggest that the greater one's knowledge in the blood donation process and the need to donate blood, the more likely one would donate blood. Generally, the lack of knowledge among participants in most studies on blood donation issues seems to be a major concern. There is a ...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Donations to public... AND DISPOSAL 44-DONATION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 44.7-Donations of Property to Public Bodies § 109-44.702 Donations to public bodies. ...
... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptance of donations. 777.51 Section 777.51... ACQUISITION POLICIES Donations § 777.51 Acceptance of donations. Nothing in these regulations shall prevent a person from making a gift or donation of real property or any part thereof, or any interest therein, or...
... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real property donations. 710.505 Section 710.505...-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Property Acquisition Alternatives § 710.505 Real property donations. (a) Donations..., whichever is greater. All donations of property received prior to the approval of the NEPA document must...
Hoogerwerf, M. D.; Veldhuizen, I. J. T.; Merz, E.-M.; de Kort, W. L. A. M.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.
Background and ObjectivesDonating blood has been associated with increased stress responses, with scarce evidence indicating that levels of psychological and hormonal stress are higher pre-donation than post-donation. We investigated whether a blood donation induces psychological and/or hormonal
Full Text Available Cell specific states of the chromatin are programmed during mammalian development. Dynamic DNA methylation across the developing embryo guides a program of repression, switching off genes in most cell types. Thus, the majority of the tissue specific differentially methylated sites (TS-DMS must be un-methylated CpGs.Comparison of expanded Methyl Sensitive Cut Counting data (eMSCC among four tissues (liver, testes, brain and kidney from three C57BL/6J mice, identified 138,052 differentially methylated sites of which 23,270 contain CpGs un-methylated in only one tissue (TS-DMS. Most of these CpGs were located in intergenic regions, outside of promoters, CpG islands or their shores, and up to 20% of them overlapped reported active enhancers. Indeed, tissue-specific enhancers were up to 30 fold enriched in TS-DMS. Testis showed the highest number of TS-DMS, but paradoxically their associated genes do not appear to be specific to the germ cell functions, but rather are involved in organism development. In the other tissues the differentially methylated genes are associated with tissue-specific physiological or anatomical functions. The identified sets of TS-DMS quantify epigenetic distances between tissues, generated during development. We applied this concept to measure the extent of reprogramming in the liver of mice exposed to in utero or early postnatal nutritional stress. Different protocols of food restriction reprogrammed the liver methylome in different but reproducible ways.Thus, each identified set of differentially methylated sites constituted an epigenetic signature that traced the developmental programing or the early nutritional reprogramming of each exposed mouse. We propose that our approach has the potential to outline a number of disease-associated epigenetic states. The composition of differentially methylated CpGs may vary with each situation, behaving as a composite variable, which can be used as a pre-symptomatic marker for
Montero Salinas, Alejandro; Martínez-Isasi, Santiago; Fieira Costa, Eva; Fernández García, Antón; Castro Dios, Diana Josefa; Fernández García, Daniel
The Spanish model is the model adopted by many countries to increase their donation rate, being the implication of the healthcare professionals one of the keys to this success. The attitude of these before the donation is crucial for the hour of influence on the population. Organ transplantation has been established as an effective treatment that has been improving over the years. The objective was to determine the knowledge and attitudes of health professionals before the donation of organs. Cross-sectional descriptive study. An ad hoc questionnaire was conducted and distributed among the health professionals (medical staff, nurses and nursing assistants) of a tertiary hospital during February 2015. A total of 615 potential participants were estimated in the different areas of the hospital. A total of 342 completed questionnaires were collected (55%). The statistical analysis with SPSS® Statistics for Windows. Version 20.0. A level of significance P lower than 0.05 was used in all the analyses. The average age of the respondents was 43.34 (SD = 10.37) years, being 86.6% women and 60% nurses. 35.5% showed good knowledge about the donation process, being higher in men (51.1% Vs 33.1%, p lower than 0.05), medical personnel (55% vs 34.3% vs 31.9%). %; p lower than 0.05) and lower in those services with a direct relationship with the donation process (36.8% vs 31.9%, p lower than 0.05). 71% of the professionals expressed their willingness to donate their organs, with special sensitivity towards donation those services in direct relation with the donation program (82.2% vs 65.9%, OR: 1.24, p lower than 0.001 ). 50% of the professionals would donate the organs of a family member; the medical group had the highest percentage (70% vs 50.7% vs 40.4%, OR: 3.8, p lower than 0.05). 74.5% knew some Spanish legal document about donation and transplants. Health professionals as a whole have a low level of knowledge; but a good attitude towards donation.
Harrison, Tyler R; Morgan, Susan E; Chewning, Lisa V
While great strides have been made in persuading the public to become potential organ donors, actual behavior has not yet caught up with the nearly universally favorable attitudes the public expresses toward donation. This paper explores the issue by situating the social marketing of organ donation against a broader backdrop of entertainment and news media coverage of organ donation. Organ donation storylines are featured on broadcast television in medical and legal dramas, soap operas, and other television serials approximately four times per month (not including most cable networks), and feature storylines that promote myths and fears of the organ donation process. National news and other non-fictionalized coverage of organ donation are even more common, with stories appearing over twenty times a month on average. These stories tend to be one-dimensional and highly sensationalized in their coverage. The marketing of organ donation for entertainment essentially creates a counter-campaign to organ donation, with greater resources and reach than social marketers have access to. Understanding the broader environmental context of organ donation messages highlights the issues faced by social marketing campaigns in persuading the public to become potential donors.
Liao, Juhong; Devolder, Katrien
Gamete donation from third parties is controversial in China as it severs blood ties, which are considered of utmost importance in Confucian tradition. In recent years, infertile couples are increasingly demonstrating a preference for the use of gametes donated by family members to conceive children-known as "intra-family gamete donation." The main advantage of intra-family gamete donation is that it maintains blood ties between children and both parents. To date there is no practice of intra-family gamete donation in China. In this paper, we investigate intra-family adoption in China in order to illustrate that intra-family gamete donation is consistent with Confucian tradition regarding the importance of maintaining blood ties within the family. There are several specific ethical issues raised by intra-family gamete donation. It may, for example, result in consanguinity and the semblance of incest, lead to confused family relationships, and raise concerns about possible coercion of familial donors. Confucian tradition provides a new approach to understand and deal with these ethical issues in a way that Western tradition does not. As a result, we suggest intra-family gamete donation could be an acceptable solution to the problem of infertility in China. However, further discussion and open debates on the ethical issues raised by intra-family gamete donation are needed in China.
Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Danic, Bruno
Originally pasted on walls and on locations reserved specially for that purpose, the poster is a medium for advertising and promotion to be seen on the streets and in public places. More recently, it has spread, in a smaller format, on dedicated indoor sites: billboards, columns, street furniture, and so forth. For transfusion, it appeared early on that the poster constitutes an important medium to promote blood donation. Thousands of posters supporting regional, national, or international blood donation campaigns have been created all over the planet, with a great variability of images, symbols, and slogans, which are particularly revealing about the image and the reality of blood donation. The topic is rich in information, particularly sociologic, on the variety of ways in which transfusion organizations promote blood donation. The authors present in this article the results of a study based on a total of 283 posters from nations on every continent, divided into 24 different themes. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.
K.W.J. Klop (Karel)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis describes several aspects of live kidney donation, such as surgical techniques, cost-effectivity, cosmetics en quality of life. Kidney transplantation offer several benefits when compared to dialysis. These benefits include better recipient and graft
An official ceremony marking the eighth donation of CERN computing equipment to an outside institute, this time a university in Pakistan, took place on Monday, 2 March. From left to right: Sajjad Mohsin, Dean at the COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General, S. M. Junaid Zaidi, Rector of CIIT, Aumair Qayyum (CIIT) and Syed Ali Zahir Bukhari (CIIT). On this occasion, 224 servers and 30 network hubs were donated to the CIIT (COMSATS Institute of Information Technology) in Islamabad, Pakistan, where they will be used by scientists working on the LHC’s ALICE experiment. For several years now, CERN has regularly donated computing equipment that no longer meets its highly specific requirements but is still more than adequate for less exacting environments. To date, a total of 1,149 servers and 79 hubs have been donated to eight countries, namely Bulgaria, Egypt, Ghana, Morocco, the Philippines, Senegal, Serbia and now P...
Full Text Available Introduction: Nurses play a key role in the process of organ donation and transplantation, and previous studies have widely addressed the level of knowledge and attitude of intensive care unit (ICU nurses in this regard. Considering the direct correlation between the positive attitude of the healthcare team, especially nurses, and the level of consent on organ donation, knowledge and attitude of nurses are important factors that have been assessed in several studies. However, no definite conclusions have been drawn in this regard. The present study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of ICU nurses toward organ donation and the related factors.Methods: A systematic review was conducted via searching in databases such as ProQuest, Medscape, MedlinePlus, MagIran, PubMed, and ScienceDirect to identify the articles published during 1990-2015 using keywords such as knowledge, attitude, organ donation, and nurses.Result: Awareness and knowledge are the main determinants of attitude in nurses, which should be applied in order to foster positive attitudes in the process of organ donation. Furthermore, extensive clinical knowledge should be acquired on organ donation and communication skills by ICU nurses through proper training programs.Conclusion: According to the results, using standard guidelines or scheduled training programs in nursing schools could improve the level of knowledge in nurses, which in turn enhances nursing performance. In addition, our findings indicated that positive attitude and knowledge of nurses could largely infleunce the viewpoint of families toward organ donation.
Ireland, Lynette; McKelvie, Helen
The legal structure for the regulation of tissue banking has existed for many years. In Australia, the donation of human tissue is regulated by legislation in each of the eight States and Territories. These substantially uniform Acts were passed in the late 1970's and early 1980's, based on model legislation and underpinned by the concept of consensual giving. However, it was not until the early 1990's that tissue banking came under the notice of regulatory authorities. Since then the Australian Government has moved quickly to oversee the tissue banking sector in Australia. Banked human tissue has been deemed to be a therapeutic good under the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989, and tissue banks are required to be licensed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration and are audited for compliance with the Code of Good Manufacturing Practice- Human Blood and Tissues. In addition, tissue banks must comply with a myriad of other standards, guidelines and recommendations.
Nordfalk, Francisca; Olejaz, Maria; Jensen, Anja M B; Skovgaard, Lea Larsen; Hoeyer, Klaus
Over the past three decades, public attitudes to organ donation have been a subject of numerous studies focusing on donor motivation. Here, we present a fresh approach. We suggest focusing on public acceptability instead of motivation. The point is to understand public attitudes well enough to avoid risking public support for organ transplantation. We conducted the study in Denmark because there have been significant developments in public attitudes to organ donation in this country. In the 1990s, Denmark was a country with very low public support for organ donation and Denmark was the last country in Europe to introduce brain death as a legal criterion of death, whereas today Eurobarometer surveys rate Denmark as one of the European countries with the highest support for deceased organ donation from brain dead donors. We conducted a telephone survey in Denmark (N = 1195). A questionnaire was developed on the basis of preceding qualitative studies and pilot testing and included reuse of one item from earlier surveys to facilitate historical comparison. The analysis of the data was carried out using IBM SPSS Statistics 22 and focused on descriptive statistics. A clear majority of 91.9 % are positive or very positive towards organ donation; 85.8 % like the idea of their body being used after their death, 85.0 % is willing to donate their own organs, 82.1 % to donate their tissue and only 2.3 % find that too much has been done to promote organ donation. There is limited support for monetary incentives for organ donation (5.8 %) and presumed consent (30.4 %), while a majority (63.9 %) supports making it mandatory to register a personal decision. Religious self-identification has limited impact on attitudes. We can identify a shift over the past three decades from marked opposition to organ transplantation to strong support as well as a pattern in the contemporary public attitudes, which can help explain what is central to public acceptability: self
Nohara, Kazunari; Waraich, Rizwana S; Liu, Suhuan; Ferron, Mathieu; Waget, Aurélie; Meyers, Matthew S; Karsenty, Gérard; Burcelin, Rémy; Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck
Among women, the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is considered a form of metabolic syndrome with reproductive abnormalities. Women with PCOS show increased sympathetic tone, visceral adiposity with enlarged adipocytes, hypoadiponectinemia, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, increased inactive osteocalcin, and hypertension. Excess fetal exposure to androgens has been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Previously, we showed that neonatal exposure to the androgen testosterone (NT) programs leptin resistance in adult female mice. Here, we studied the impact of NT on lean and adipose tissues, sympathetic tone in cardiometabolic tissues, and the development of metabolic dysfunction in mice. Neonatally androgenized adult female mice (NTF) displayed masculinization of lean tissues with increased cardiac and skeletal muscle as well as kidney masses. NTF mice showed increased and dysfunctional white adipose tissue with increased sympathetic tone in both visceral and subcutaneous fat as well as increased number of enlarged and insulin-resistant adipocytes that displayed altered expression of developmental genes and hypoadiponectinemia. NTF exhibited dysfunctional brown adipose tissue with increased mass and decreased energy expenditure. They also displayed decreased undercarboxylated and active osteocalcin and were predisposed to obesity during chronic androgen excess. NTF showed increased renal sympathetic tone associated with increased blood pressure, and they developed glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Thus, developmental exposure to testosterone in female mice programs features of cardiometabolic dysfunction, as can be observed in women with PCOS, including increased sympathetic tone, visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, prediabetes, and hypertension.
Candelaria, Laura M; Spatz, Diane L; Giordano, Noreen
To examine the experiences of women who donated breast milk to a hospital-based milk bank regulated under the policies and procedures set forth by the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HMBANA). Qualitative, phenomenological design. The Mothers' Milk Bank in a children's hospital in the Northeastern region of the United States. Twelve HMBANA-approved milk donors older than 21 years with infants hospitalized in the NICU. Edmund Husserl's design of interpretive phenomenology and Colaizzi's method of data analysis were used for this study. Participants were interviewed using a face-to-face, semistructured interview format. Four themes represented the experience of donating breast milk: Ripple of Hope and Help, Dynamic Interplay of Nurturance, Standing on the Shoulders of Others, and Sharing Their Stories. Donors felt proud and accomplished to provide hope for other infants and families. Nurses were crucial in facilitating and motivating donors and making donation achievable in a supportive environment. Donors felt compelled to share their experiences to teach and motivate others to donate. For our participants, donation of human milk was a positive, valuable, and nurturing experience. Donors reported feelings of increased self-esteem during donation that motivated them to "give back" and continue. The support of a well-trained nursing staff is essential for donors to meet their personal goals. Copyright © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What information must FAA provide to GSA on its administration of the public airport donation program? 102-37.535 Section... Donations to Public Airports § 102-37.535 What information must FAA provide to GSA on its administration of...
Cutting-edge research requires a constantly high performance of the computing equipment. At the CERN Computing Centre, computers typically need to be replaced after about four years of use. However, while servers may be withdrawn from cutting-edge use, they are still good for other uses elsewhere. This week, 220 servers and 30 routers were donated to the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) in Ghana. “KNUST will provide a good home for these computers. The university has also developed a plan for using them to develop scientific collaboration with CERN,” said John Ellis, a professor at King’s College London and a visiting professor in CERN’s Theory Group. John Ellis was heavily involved in building the relationship with Ghana, which started in 2006 when a Ghanaian participated in the CERN openlab student programme. Since 2007 CERN has hosted Ghanaians especially from KNUST in the framework of the CERN Summer Student Progr...
Ouhbi, Sofia; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Toval, Ambrosio; Idri, Ali; Pozo, José Rivera
Blood donation (BD) is a noble act and mobile applications (apps) can help increase awareness about it. This paper analyzes and assesses the characteristics of free apps for BD as regards features and functionality. A search in Google Play, Apple Apps store, Blackberry App World and Windows Mobile App store was carried out to select 169 free BD apps from the 188 apps identified. The results presented in this paper show that the majority of the apps selected have been developed for the Android operating system. Moreover, most of the apps selected are available to help users search for donors. Few of the apps could not be installed and/or accessed. Of those that could be installed: half of them do not require any kind of authentication; a few of them are available in more than one language; half of them have a geographical restriction; around 60 % of them do not notify the user of BD events and requests; one, which is available for Android and iOS, can connect with a laboratory; around 45 % of them allow users to share information via social networks, and the majority of them do not provide BD recommendations. These results are used as a basis to provide app developers with certain recommendations. There is a need for better BD apps with more features in order to increase the number of volunteer donors.
Law, Debra R; McNiesh, Susan
There are a disproportionate number of African-Americans on transplant waiting lists across the country. The outcomes of a transplant are greatly improved when the donor and the recipient are from the same ethnic group. Sadly, the demand for cadaver organs in the African-American community exceeds the supply. Researchers in the past have sought to identify barriers to organ and tissue donation. To date, the studies have been conducted in the eastern and southern regions of the United States. This study examines whether the previously identified barriers are applicable in the African-American communities of California. A revised version of the Bone Marrow Donation Intention Tool was administered both in person and online. A t-test was used for analysis. The findings revealed statistically significant agreement/disagreement statements. These statements indicated that the barriers to organ donation from other areas of the United States were not representative of the respondents on the west coast.
Martínez-Pardo, María Esther; Morales Pedraza, Jorge; Sánchez Ramírez, Omar
Tissue banking started in Mexico in 1948-1949, when two bone banks were established, one at the Infantile Hospital of Mexico and other at the Central Military Hospital. Mexico has benefited for the implementation of the IAEA program since through it has been able to settle down and to consolidate the Tissue Bank at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares ININ (National Institute for Nuclear Research). This is the only bank in Latin America that has a Quality Management System in force, certified under ISO 9001:2000 since August 1, 2003. The first tissue processed was amnion. The main products of the BTR are amnion and pig skin. Both are biological tissues which their main use is as a wound dressing in patients with burns, scars, diabetic ulcers, epidermolysis bullosa, damaged ocular surface, etc. The General Health Law, published in 1984 and reformed in June 19, 2007, describes the procedure for the disposal of organs, tissues and human cadavers in its fourteenth title and in the Regulation for Sanitary Control. During the period 2001-2005, the ININ Tissue Bank produced 292 sterilised tissues (amnion, 86,668 cm(2), and frozen pig skin, 164,220 cm(2), at an estimated cost of 1,012,668 Mexican pesos. Until 2006, one hundred eighty five (185) patients have been treated with the use of sterilised tissues produced by the ININ Tissue Bank. The radiation source used for sterilisation of tissues is an industrial Cobalt-60 irradiator model JS-6500 AECL, which belongs to ININ. This equipment is located in other building, close to the BTR, in the Centro Nuclear de México "Dr. Nabor Carrillo Flores" (Nuclear Center of Mexico). Until 2006, six hospitals use in a routine way the sterilised tissues produced by the ININ Tissue Bank, for the treatment of burns originated by diverse agents like flame, electricity, liquids in boil, chemical reagents, as well as for the reconstruction of the ocular surface. Two of these hospitals treat patients of very low economic
Wong, Li Ping
Malaysia's organ and tissue donation rates are among the lowest in the world. The study aims to explore the knowledge, attitudes, practices and behaviors regarding deceased organ donation and transplantation in the diverse ethnic communities in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. A cross-sectional, population-based, computer-assisted telephone interview exploring multi-ethnic participants' knowledge, attitudes, practices and behavioral on deceased organ donation and transplantation was conducted from February to April 2009. Although only 5.5% of the total participants (N = 1174) reported that they have registered to be organ donor, a further 35.2% of those who have not register for organ donation indicated willingness to donate their own. Significant socio-demographic disparities with respect to knowledge and attitudes scores were observed. In particular, Malays (20.7%) indicated lower willingness to donate organs compared to the Chinese (36.6%) and Indians (51.4%) (p < 0.001). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, willingness to donate one's own organ was associated with knowledge score (odds ratio [OR] = 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13-1.22), attitude score (OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.05-1.31), secondary school education (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.05-2.02), and Malay ethnicity (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.03-0.94). Findings assist organ donation and transplantation organizations to reach out the diverse socio-demographic and ethnic communities with cultural-specific information about organ donation. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Next of kin decisive on organ donation Changing the donor registration systems is not expected to result in more donor organs. We better try to solve the bottlenecks in the donation process within hospitals and to reduce the number of refusals by next of kin, as NIVEL research shows, based on which
Kong, Wei; Wanda, Soo-Young; Zhang, Xin; Bollen, Wendy; Tinge, Steven A.; Roland, Kenneth L.; Curtiss, Roy
We have devised and constructed a biological containment system designed to cause programmed bacterial cell lysis with no survivors. We have validated this system, using Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccines for antigen delivery after colonization of host lymphoid tissues. The system is composed of two parts. The first component is Salmonella typhimurium strain χ8937, with deletions of asdA and arabinose-regulated expression of murA, two genes required for peptidoglycan synthesis a...
van Wijk, Marja J.; Maas, D. Willemijn; Renders, Nicole H. M.; Hermans, Mirjam H. A.; Zaaijer, Hans L.; Hogema, Boris M.
After the largest outbreaks of Q fever ever recorded in history occurred in the Netherlands, concern arose that Coxiella may be transmitted via donated tissues of latent or chronically infected donors. The Dutch Health Council recently advised to screen tissue donors, donating high risk tissues, for
Full Text Available ... JACS Jobs Events Find a Surgeon Patients and Family Contact My Profile Shop ( 0 ) Cart Donate American College of Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Ostomy Home Skills Program Ostomy Home ...
Eren, Emre A; Latchana, Nicholas; Beal, Eliza; Hayes, Don; Whitson, Bryan; Black, Sylvester M
The supply of liver grafts for treatment of end-stage liver disease continues to fall short of ongoing demands. Currently, most liver transplants originate from donations after brain death. Enhanced utilization of the present resources is prudent to address the needs of the population. Donation after circulatory or cardiac death is a mechanism whereby the availability of organs can be expanded. Donations after circulatory death pose unique challenges given their exposure to warm ischemia. Technical principles of donations after circulatory death procurement and pertinent studies investigating patient outcomes, graft outcomes, and complications are highlighted in this review. We also review associated risk factors to suggest potential avenues to achieve improved outcomes and reduced complications. Future considerations and alternative techniques of organ preservation are discussed, which may suggest novel strategies to enhance preservation and donor expansion through the use of marginal donors. Ultimately, without effective measures to bolster organ supply, donations after circulatory death should remain a consideration; however, an understanding of inherent risks and limitations is necessary.
Shah, Malay B; Vilchez, Valery; Goble, Adam; Daily, Michael F; Berger, Jonathan C; Gedaly, Roberto; DuBay, Derek A
Despite numerous initiatives to increase solid organs for transplant, the gap between donors and recipients widens. There is little in the literature identifying socioeconomic predictors for donation. We evaluate the correlation between socioeconomic factors and familial authorization for donation. A retrospective analysis of adult potential donor referrals between 2007 and 2012 to our organ procurement organization (OPO) was performed. Potential donor information was obtained from the OPO database, death certificates, and the US Census Report. Data on demographics, education, residence, income, registry status, cause and manner of death, as well as OPO assessments and approach for donation were collected. End point was familial authorization for donation. A total of 1059 potential donors were included, with an overall authorization rate of 47%. The majority was not on the donor registry (73%). Younger donors (18-39 y: odds ratio [OR] = 4.9, P donation first mentioned by the local health care provider (OR = 1.8, P = 0.01) were also independently associated with higher authorization rates. Donor registration correlated most strongly with the highest authorization rates. These results indicate that public educational efforts in populations with unfavorable socioeconomic considerations may be beneficial in improving donor registration. Collaborations with local providers as well as OPO in-hospital assessments and approach techniques can help with improving authorization rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sojka, B Nilsson; Sojka, P
The aim of the study was to investigate motives for donating blood as well as difficulties and obstacles associated with blood donation as perceived by the donors themselves. Six hundred consecutive blood donors (i.e. all blood donors with a history of at least one previous whole blood donation attending, during nine working days, the Blood Centre of Umeå University Hospital) received a self-administered questionnaire that contained questions aimed at elucidating motives for donating blood (general motives for donating blood, specific motives for the first donation and motives for continuing to be an active blood donor). Questions concerning difficulties and obstacles that had to be overcome in order to continue being a blood donor were also included in the questionnaire. Altogether 531 whole blood donors filled in the questionnaire (88.5%; 322 men and 209 women). No statistically significant differences were found between male and female blood donors concerning general reasons and motives related to donating blood. The most frequently reported reasons for giving blood the first time were 'influence from a friend' (47.2% of donors) and 'request via media' (23.5% of donors). Among general reasons/motives with highest ranking of importance, the most commonly reported motive for donating blood were 'general altruism' (40.3%), 'social responsibility/obligation' (19.7%) and 'influence from friends' (17.9%). General altruism' and 'social responsibility/obligation' were also the most frequent reasons for continuing to donate blood (68.4 and 16.0%, respectively). The most commonly reported obstacle to becoming a regular blood donor was 'laziness' (19.1%) followed by 'fear of needles' (10.5%). Altruism was the most common general motive for donating blood and also for continuing to be an active blood donor. Yet, for the first blood donation, direct 'influence from friends/relatives', 'media appeal' and other types of recruitment were more commonly reported as reasons or
Kitchen, Alan D; Hewitt, Patricia E; Chiodini, Peter L
Trypanosoma cruzi is a parasitic infection endemic in Central and Southern America, but is spreading into nonendemic countries with migration of infected individuals from endemic countries. The parasite is transmitted by transfusion or transplantation and donation screening is performed routinely in endemic countries to prevent transmission. In situations where migrants from endemic countries have settled in nonendemic countries and present as donors (blood or other cellular products), intervention is required to prevent transfusion or transplantation transmission. A screening program for T. cruzi was developed and has been used successfully for over 10 years that includes donor selection and donation screening. Donor selection criteria to identify specific risk of T. cruzi infection were developed together with laboratory screening of donations for T. cruzi antibodies and the subsequent confirmation of screen reactivity. Since the introduction of T. cruzi screening in England in 1998, a total of 38,585 donors and donations have been screened for T. cruzi antibodies, of which 223 were repeat reactive on screening and referred for confirmation: 206 confirmed negative, 14 inconclusive, and three positive. Since the move in 2005 from donor qualification to donation release testing, 15,536 donations were collected and screened, of which 15,499 (99.8%) were T. cruzi antibody negative and released to inventory. An effective program to minimize risk of the transmission of T. cruzi infection via donations has been developed and implemented. Not only does the program minimize risk of transmission, it also minimizes the cumulative, and needless, loss of donors and donations that would ensue if permanent donor deferral alone was adopted. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.
Full Text Available Human biological samples (biosamples are increasingly important in diagnosing, treating and measuring the prevalence of illnesses. For the gay and bisexual population, biosample research is particularly important for measuring the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. By determining people's understandings of, and attitudes towards, the donation and use of biosamples, researchers can design studies to maximise acceptability and participation. In this study we examine gay and bisexual men's attitudes towards donating biosamples for HIV research. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 46 gay and bisexual men aged between 18 and 63 recruited in commercial gay scene venues in two Scottish cities. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically using the framework approach. Most men interviewed seemed to have given little prior consideration to the issues. Participants were largely supportive of donating tissue for medical research purposes, and often favourable towards samples being stored, reused and shared. Support was often conditional, with common concerns related to: informed consent; the protection of anonymity and confidentiality; the right to withdraw from research; and ownership of samples. Many participants were in favour of the storage and reuse of samples, but expressed concerns related to data security and potential misuse of samples, particularly by commercial organisations. The sensitivity of tissue collection varied between tissue types and collection contexts. Blood, urine, semen and bowel tissue were commonly identified as sensitive, and donating saliva and as unlikely to cause discomfort. To our knowledge, this is the first in-depth study of gay and bisexual men's attitudes towards donating biosamples for HIV research. While most men in this study were supportive of donating tissue for research, some clear areas of concern were identified. We suggest that these minority concerns should be accounted
Pereima, Rosane Suely May Rodrigues; Reibnitz, Kenya Schmidt; Martini, Jussara Gue; Nitschke, Rosane Gonçalves
The article offers a reflection of blood donation in an hemocenter of Santa Catarina, with a mechanic and organic solidarity approach. It discuss the way of life in contemporary globalization and the cult of speed in a context pervaded by uncertainties and adversities. People live in a fast world, making social interaction difficult, contributing to the weakening of values and attitudes that could improve the quality of life. Considering the difficulties of everyday contemporary society, concerning Brazilian hemotherapy history on blood donation, there is a perception that attitudes and values, such as solidarity, have been modifying in subtle ways with a background of current events. It searches for understanding of blood donation as mechanic and organic solidarity.
This article examines the ethics of egg donation. It begins by looking at objections to noncommercial gamete donation, and then takes up criticism of commercial egg donation. After discussing arguments based on concern for offspring, inequality, commodification, exploitation of donors, and threats to the family, I conclude that some payment to donors is ethically acceptable. Donors should not be paid for their eggs, but rather they should be compensated for the burdens of egg retrieval. Making the distinction between compensation for burdens and payment for a product has the advantages of limiting payment, not distinguishing between donors on the basis of their traits, and ensuring that donors are paid regardless of the number or quality of eggs retrieved.
Jacobs, Cheryl; Thomas, Charlie
The shortage of cadaveric organs and increased success of living donor transplantation support the use of living organ donors. Clinical social workers have the opportunity to explore a variety of donor-specific issues when performing psychosocial evaluations of living donors, including motivation, psychological stability, and personal and family consequences of donation, as well as the direct and indirect financial consequences faced by living donors. Although most donor-related medical costs are covered, other associated expenses are not reimbursable and may put donors at risk for financial hardship. Out-of-pocket expenses also serve as a disincentive to donate for some volunteers. During the evaluation process, healthcare professionals should openly discuss how surgery, recovery, and any potential complications might impact prospective donors' financial situation. Donors can then decide whether they are able to realistically handle the costs of donation. We present the financial dilemmas experienced by many living donors and highlight efforts that have been made to deal with them.
Mwachaka, Philip Maseghe; Mandela, Pamela; Saidi, Hassan
The use of unclaimed bodies for anatomical dissection has been the main method of instruction at our institution. There is however a shortage of cadavers for dissection given the increase in the number of medical schools as well as in the number of students enrolling in these schools. This shortage could be mitigated by having voluntary human body donation programs. This study aimed at assessing the attitudes of medical students and surgical residents towards body donation for anatomy learning. We conducted an online survey involving 72 first-year medical students and 41 surgical residents at University of Nairobi who had completed one year of anatomy dissection. For the medical students, this was their first dissection experience while it was the second exposure for the surgery trainees. Most of the surgical trainees (70.7%) and medical students (68.1%) were opposed to self-body donation. This was mainly due to cultural (37%) and religious (20%) barriers. Surprisingly, of those not willing to donate themselves, 67.9% (82.8% surgical trainees, 59.2% medical students) would recommend the practice to other people. Exposure to repeated dissection does not change the perceptions towards body donation. It is noteworthy that culture and religion rank high as clear barriers amongst this “highly informed” group of potential donors. PMID:27190650
Mwachaka, Philip Maseghe; Mandela, Pamela; Saidi, Hassan
The use of unclaimed bodies for anatomical dissection has been the main method of instruction at our institution. There is however a shortage of cadavers for dissection given the increase in the number of medical schools as well as in the number of students enrolling in these schools. This shortage could be mitigated by having voluntary human body donation programs. This study aimed at assessing the attitudes of medical students and surgical residents towards body donation for anatomy learning. We conducted an online survey involving 72 first-year medical students and 41 surgical residents at University of Nairobi who had completed one year of anatomy dissection. For the medical students, this was their first dissection experience while it was the second exposure for the surgery trainees. Most of the surgical trainees (70.7%) and medical students (68.1%) were opposed to self-body donation. This was mainly due to cultural (37%) and religious (20%) barriers. Surprisingly, of those not willing to donate themselves, 67.9% (82.8% surgical trainees, 59.2% medical students) would recommend the practice to other people. Exposure to repeated dissection does not change the perceptions towards body donation. It is noteworthy that culture and religion rank high as clear barriers amongst this "highly informed" group of potential donors.
Karacan, Eda; Cengiz Seval, Guldane; Aktan, Zeynep; Ayli, Meltem; Palabiyikoglu, Refia
Donations in Turkey are insufficient to cover the high transfusion needs arising from large numbers of thalassemia and sickle cell anemia patients and increasing demands for blood due to advanced surgery and cancer treatment. The most acceptable means to get blood is voluntary blood donation and the blood donor system in Turkey mostly depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The main aim of this study is to explore the motivations of Turkish voluntary blood donors toward blood donation and to determine predictors of blood donation motivation. A cross-sectional sample survey of active blood donors in Ankara, Turkey was conducted. The sample consisted of 189 male volunteer blood donor adults. Donors filled in a self-administered questionnaire including the measures of demographic information, empathetic concern, altruism, social responsibility and blood donation motivation questionnaire during donation. Factor analysis of Blood Donation Motivation Measure with varimax rotation revealed a three-factor solution named as "values and moral duty", "positive feelings and esteem" and "self-benefit and external reasons". The results with regression analyses showed that only social responsibility had an significant effect independent of age, income, and education on blood donation motivation. These result reflects that blood donation motivation not only linked to a high degree of altruistic reasons, but also to a combination of some self-regarding motives. Additionally, feelings of empathy or altruism may be less strong at the time the decision to help, other factors may have a larger influence on helping decisions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hyde, Melissa K; White, Katherine M
To use a theory of planned behaviour (TPB) framework to explore the beliefs underlying communication of the donation decision for people who had not previously registered their consent on a donor register or discussed their decision with significant others. Initially, a focus group study elicited the common TPB (behavioural, normative, and control) beliefs about registering and discussing the organ donation decision. The main study assessed the important TPB belief predictors of intentions to register and discuss the donation decision. University students and community members from Queensland, Australia (N=123) completed items assessing their intentions and the TPB behavioural, normative, and control beliefs for registering and discussing their donation decision. Structural equation modelling (SEM) analyses revealed significant paths between people's intentions to register their donation decisions and underlying behavioural (e.g. enabling efficient donation procedures), normative (e.g. friends, doctors/medical professionals), and control (e.g. lack of motivation, knowing details about transplant recipients) beliefs (R2=.30). There were also significant paths between people's intentions to discuss their donation decision and underlying behavioural (e.g. feeling uncomfortable talking about death related topics) and normative (e.g. partner/spouse, family members) beliefs, but not control beliefs (R2=.33). There was a significant path between intentions to register and intentions to discuss one's donation decision. Results highlight the importance of focusing on behavioural and normative beliefs about communicating the donation decision, specifically for people who have not previously communicated their decision, and suggest potential targets for interventions designed to promote decision communication.
Preaubert, Lise; Vincent-Rohfritsch, Aurélie; Santulli, Pietro; Gayet, Vanessa; Goffinet, François; Le Ray, Camille
Women increasingly resort to oocyte donation to become pregnant. The high risk of preeclampsia found in oocyte donation pregnancies and the separate risk of preeclampsia associated with sperm donation may be cumulative in double donation pregnancies. We aimed to study the obstetrical and perinatal outcomes of pregnancies obtained by double donation (both oocyte and sperm) in comparison with those obtained by oocyte donation alone (oocyte donation and partner's sperm). This cohort study included all women aged 43 and older who became pregnant after oocyte donation and gave birth between 2010 and 2016 in a tertiary maternity center. Primary outcomes were preeclampsia and hypertensive gestational disorders. Secondary outcomes were gestational diabetes, placental abnormalities, postpartum hemorrhage, perinatal death, and preterm delivery. We used univariate and multivariate analysis to compare IVF with double donation and IVF with oocyte donation alone for obstetric and perinatal outcomes. 247 women, 53 with double donations and 194 with oocyte donations alone, gave birth to 339 children. We observed no significant differences between groups for any obstetric or perinatal complications, except for the risk of gestational diabetes, which was more frequent in women with double donations compared with oocyte donation alone (26.4% vs. 12.9%, P = 0.02) and remained significant after adjustment (aOR = 2.80 95%CI[1.26-6.17]). Rates of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia were high, but similar between groups (20.7% vs. 26.3%, P = 0.41, and 18.9% vs. 17.5%, P = 0.82). Women undergoing oocyte donation should be fully informed of its high rates of obstetric and perinatal risks. However, except for a higher observed risk of gestational diabetes, double donation does not appear to be associated with a higher risk of complications than oocyte donation alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
highlights the integral role of nurses in the organ donation process, and elegantly shows ... leader in deceased organ donation, with a rate approaching 40 per million population and ... be completely independent of the transplant team..
... members, doctor, or faith leader about the decision to donate life. To find out more about donation and... call upon health care professionals, volunteers, educators, government agencies, faith-based and...
Park, Ui Jun; Han, Sang Youb; Han, Kum Hyun; Oh, Se Won; Jang, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Hyoung Tae; Roh, Young-Nam
This study aims to investigate the effects of phased education on attitudes toward organ donation and willingness to donate after brain death. A survey was conducted using a questionnaire to examine attitudes toward organ donation of the families of patients admitted to a surgical intensive care unit (SICU) between March 1, 2014 and September 30, 2016. Ninety-two people voluntarily participated in this survey. Before reviewing the educational material, 75.0% had a positive attitude toward organ donation, 60.9% were willing to donate their own organs, and 38.0% were willing to donate a family member's organs. After reviewing the educational material, these figures increased to 92.4%, 80.4%, and 56.5%, respectively. Before receiving an education, there was a significant difference in consistency between people's attitudes and willingness to donate their own organs, versus donating a family member's organs (79.3% vs 54.3%, p donating one's own organs, and from 54.3% to 64.1% with regard to donating a family member's organs. Phased education was effective overall, but it had a limited effect on changing the willingness to donate a family member's organs. It increased the consistency between people's attitudes toward organ donation and willingness to donate their own, or a family member's organs. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.
Lefrère, J-J; Garraud, O
The French pioneer for blood transfusion, who eventually organized the very early blood transfusion centers worldwide, went to imagine a scenario written in purpose for Charlie Chaplin, the unique character of "The Tramp" ("Charlot" in French). The movie Star was offered to feature a blood donation propagandist, and no longer the perpetual, well-known, "loser". This anecdote, besides being amusing, tells a lot on how Arnault Tzank encompassed all the difficulties in collecting blood enough to meet the demand, at all times; his proposal turns out to be extremely modern and questions nowadays marketing for blood donation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bona fide donations. 433.54 Section 433.54 Public... Financial Participation § 433.54 Bona fide donations. (a) A bona fide donation means a provider-related donation, as defined in § 433.52, made to the State or unit of local government, that has no direct or...
D'Alessandro, Anthony M; Peltier, James W; Dahl, Andrew J
This report focuses on the University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics organ procurement organization's efforts to increase deceased organ and tissue donation by using social media and personalized messages targeting members of university student organizations, their families, and their friends. A grant from the US Department of Health and Human Services funded a 2-year study to (1) identify barriers/opportunities for increasing awareness, attitudes, and behaviors related to organ and tissue donation; (2) implement an intervention using social media and personalized message to increase knowledge, support, and donor registrations; (3) measure impact on awareness and attitudinal and behavioral changes within the organization; and (4) assess behavioral measures across a host of social media analytics and organ donor registrations. The results show increases in knowledge about and support for organ donation, including a 20% increase in donor registration. As a result, funding was secured to continue the project for an additional 2 years.
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Donation or loan. 12.36 Section 12.36... SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES Disposal of Forfeited or Abandoned Property § 12.36 Donation or loan. (a... and security for the item. (b) Any donation or loan may be made only after execution of a transfer...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 426.1, Donations. 367.4261 Section 367.4261 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY..., Donations. This account must include all payments or donations for charitable, social or community welfare...
... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permissible provider-related donations. 433.66... Requirements State Financial Participation § 433.66 Permissible provider-related donations. (a) General rule... provider-related donations without a reduction in FFP, only in accordance with the requirements of this...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gifts and donations. 38...) NATIONAL CEMETERIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS § 38.603 Gifts and donations. (a) Gifts and donations will be accepted only after it has been determined that the donor has a clear understanding that...
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Charitable contributions and donations. 701.25... ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF FEDERAL CREDIT UNIONS § 701.25 Charitable contributions and donations. (a) A... directors must approve charitable contributions and/or donations, and the approval must be based on a...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contributions or donations. 31.205-8 Section 31.205-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Organizations 31.205-8 Contributions or donations. Contributions or donations, including cash, property and...
Felts, W. Michael; Glascoff, Mary A.
Presents a primer for health educators about blood donation and transfusion, examining the nature of human blood, the background of blood transfusion, blood donation criteria, risks related to homologous blood transfusion, directed blood donation, potential alternatives to homologous transfusion, and resources for education on the subject. (SM)
Scognamiglio, Giosuè; De Chiara, Anna; Di Bonito, Maurizio; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Losito, Nunzia Simona; Anniciello, Annamaria; De Cecio, Rossella; D’Alterio, Crescenzo; Scala, Stefania; Cantile, Monica; Botti, Gerardo
In normal cell physiology, programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand, PD-L1, play an immunoregulatory role in T-cell activation, tolerance, and immune-mediated tissue damage. The PD-1/PD-L1 pathway also plays a critical role in immune escape of tumor cells and has been demonstrated to correlate with a poor prognosis of patients with several types of cancer. However, recent reports have revealed that the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of the PD-L1 in tumor cells is not uniform for the use of different antibodies clones, with variable specificity, often doubtful topographical localization, and with a score not uniquely defined. The purpose of this study was to analyze the IHC expression of PD-L1 on a large series of several human tumors to correctly define its staining in different tumor tissues. PMID:27213372
Tavakol, Najmeh; Kheiri, Soleiman; Sedehi, Morteza
Time to donating blood plays a major role in a regular donor to becoming continues one. The aim of this study was to determine the effective factors on the interval between the blood donations. In a longitudinal study in 2008, 864 samples of first-time donors in Shahrekord Blood Transfusion Center, capital city of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran were selected by a systematic sampling and were followed up for five years. Among these samples, a subset of 424 donors who had at least two successful blood donations were chosen for this study and the time intervals between their donations were measured as response variable. Sex, body weight, age, marital status, education, stay and job were recorded as independent variables. Data analysis was performed based on log-normal hazard model with gamma correlated frailty. In this model, the frailties are sum of two independent components assumed a gamma distribution. The analysis was done via Bayesian approach using Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm by OpenBUGS. Convergence was checked via Gelman-Rubin criteria using BOA program in R. Age, job and education were significant on chance to donate blood (Pdonation for the higher-aged donors, clericals, workers, free job, students and educated donors were higher and in return, time intervals between their blood donations were shorter. Due to the significance effect of some variables in the log-normal correlated frailty model, it is necessary to plan educational and cultural program to encourage the people with longer inter-donation intervals to donate more frequently.
Arage, Getachew; Ibrahim, Seada; Adimasu, Endeshaw
Blood donation has remained a challenge in developing countries, like Ethiopia. In Ethiopia there is a high reliance on family surrogate and waged blood donors which carries an attendant increased risk of transfusion transmissible infection. Health workers are expected to practice blood donation so as to create a good image to the public. A study on blood donation behavior may improve successful implementation of the blood donation programs. An institution based cross-sectional study was deployed from January to June 2015. An aggregate of 427 health workers were included in the study by using simple random sampling technique. Data were collected by using pre tested and structured questionnaire via self-administrated method. Descriptive and summary statistics were employed. Bivariate and multiple logistic regressions were computed. Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine the level of significance. A total of 427 participants were included in the final analysis (response rate = 100%). Among these participants, 33.2% of them practice blood donation. Age above 25 years [AOR = 1.8 (95% CI 1.1, 3.0)], health professionals' knowledge of blood donation [AOR = 1.9 (95% CI 1.1, 3.1)], health professionals' attitude towards blood donation [AOR = 3.0, 95% CI 1. 8, 4.9)], and the presence of family members or relatives who received blood [AOR = 5.4, 95% CI 3.7, 8.7)] were significantly and independently associated with blood donation behavior of health professionals. Blood donation practice of health professionals in this study was found to be low as compared to other studies conducted in developing countries. Health professionals' knowledge, attitude, age and the presence of family members or relatives who received blood before were independently associated with blood donation practice. Thus, awareness has to be created for health professionals to improve blood donation practices.
Bolt, S.H.; Eisinga, R.N.; Venbrux, H.J.M.; Kuks, J.B.M.; Gerrits, P.O.
Background This study examines the relationship between motivation for body donation to science and personality characteristics using a body donor survey (N = 759) conducted by the University Medical Centre Groningen (UMCG) in The Netherlands. The survey expands on anthropological studies that
For the third year in a row, NCI at Frederick is participating in the Feds Feed Families campaign, which aims to stock food banks during the summer when donations are often limited. The 2016 campaign runs through August 31. This year, the Office of Scientific Operations (OSO) has decided to send the campaign off with a twist. Rich Folkers, public affairs specialist, Office of
Bolt, Sophie; Eisinga, Rob; Venbrux, Eric; Kuks, Jan B. M.; Gerrits, Peter O.
Background: This study examines the relationship between motivation for body donation to science and personality characteristics using a body donor survey (N = 759) conducted by the University Medical Centre Groningen (UMCG) in The Netherlands. The survey expands on anthropological studies that
Sperm donation is an increasingly common method of assisted reproduction. In the debate on sperm donation, the right to privacy - construed as a right that refers to the limits of the realm of information to which others have access - plays a pivotal role with regard to two questions. The first question is whether the sperm donor's right to privacy implies his right to retain his anonymity, the second is whether the gamete recipients' right to privacy entitles them to withhold information about the circumstances of their conception from their donor-conceived offspring. In this contribution, I tackle these two interrelated questions. In part (1), I defend the view that there is a prima facie right of sperm donors to remain anonymous. Part (2) widens the perspective by taking into consideration the welfare of donor-conceived offspring. I argue that anonymity may harm the child only if the gametes' recipients decide to disclose information about the circumstances of her birth to the child. Non-disclosure of these circumstances, however, is morally problematic because it may not necessarily harm, but wrong the child. In section (3), I attempt to rebut some arguments in defense of non-disclosure. In part (4), I defend the view that the best practice of sperm donation would be 'direct donation', i.e. that the identity of the donor is known from the time of conception. Part (5) concludes.
Smith, Colin; Millar, Tracey
Brain banks typically receive donations through premortem consent procedures, often through disease-specific patient cohorts, such as dementia. While some control cases can be obtained through this route, access to age-matched control tissues, and some chronic neurologic conditions, particularly psychiatric disorders, can be challenging. The Edinburgh Sudden Death Brain Bank was established to try and increase access to control cases across all ages, and also access to psychiatric disorders through suicides. This chapter outlines the processes for establishing donations through medicolegal postmortems, which, although often with a prolonged postmortem interval, can provide high-quality well-characterized postmortem brain tissue to the neuroscience research community. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: It was aimed to present the acceptance rate of organ donation of cases that were diagnosed with brain death and evaluated in terms of their demographic and clinical properties retrospectively in Adıyaman University Training and Research Hospital. Material and Method: In the intensive care unit of our hospital, cases that were diagnosed with brain death between the dates of January 2008 and December 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Cases were evaluated in terms of age, sex, cause of brain death, blood groups, donation status, reasons for acceptance or rejection of donation, cardiac arrest, vasopressin treatment, laboratory test results, arterial blood gas values before and after the apnea test, intensive care unit follow-up durations, apnea test, seasonal and annual distribution. Also, potential donors and recipients were analyzed in accordance with their demographic characteristics. Results: The diagnosis of brain death was made in totally 57 cases; of those, 34 (59.6% were men and 23 (40.4% were women. The most common causes for brain death were traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH and intracerebral hematoma. Most of the cases had A Rh+ blood type (n=18, 31.5% and the rate of brain death was 4.7 times higher in Rh (+ patients in comparison to Rh (- patients. The rate of incidence of cardiac arrest was 12.3% (n=7, and it was more common in traumatic SAH patients. The rate of receiving vasopressor therapy was 21.1% (n=12, and the mean duration of therapy was 1.3±0.8 days. It was more commonly used in traumatic SAH patients (n=10. The follow-up period was 2.7±3.2 (minimum: 1, maximum: 17 days. Five patients were considered to be organ donors. The most common reason for acceptance of donation was the effect of organ transplantation coordinator during family interviews (n=3, 60%. In total, 4 livers, 5 kidneys and 1 heart transplantation operations were performed to 10 patients. Conclusion: Due to problems in organ donation
Wirken, Lieke; van Middendorp, Henriët; Hooghof, Christina W; Sanders, Jan-Stephan F; Dam, Ruth E; van der Pant, Karlijn A M I; Berendsen, Elsbeth C M; Wellink, Hiske; Dackus, Henricus J A; Hoitsma, Andries J; Hilbrands, Luuk B; Evers, Andrea W M
Cognitions surrounding living organ donation, including the motivation to donate, expectations of donation and worries about donation, are relevant themes during living donor evaluation. However, there is no reliable psychometric instrument assessing all these different cognitions. This study developed and validated a questionnaire to assess pre-donation motivations, expectations and worries regarding donation, entitled the Donation Cognition Instrument (DCI). Psychometric properties of the DCI were examined using exploratory factor analysis for scale structure and associations with validated questionnaires for construct validity assessment. From seven Dutch transplantation centres, 719 potential living kidney donors were included. The DCI distinguishes cognitions about donor benefits, recipient benefits, idealistic incentives, gratitude and worries about donation (Cronbach's alpha 0.76-0.81). Scores on pre-donation cognitions differed with regard to gender, age, marital status, religion and donation type. With regard to construct validity, the DCI was moderately correlated with expectations regarding donor's personal well-being and slightly to moderately to health-related quality of life. The DCI is found to be a reliable instrument assessing cognitions surrounding living organ donation, which might add to pre-donation quality of life measures in facilitating psychosocial donor evaluation by healthcare professionals. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.
Trompeta, Joyce A; Cooper, Bruce A; Ascher, Nancy L; Kools, Susan M; Kennedy, Christine M; Chen, Jyu-Lin
Despite the growing need for organ donation among Asian Americans, studies suggest that they are reluctant to donate. To examine the association of attitudes and knowledge about organ donation and transplantation with willingness to donate and willingness to engage in family discussion about organ donation among Asian American adolescents. A cross-sectional study. The Big Island of Hawaii. Self-identified Asian American adolescents (Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Korean), ages 16 to 17 years old, and each adolescent's parent or guardian. Asian American adolescents provided demographic information and completed the Modified Organ Donation Attitude Survey, the Organ Donation and Transplantation Knowledge Survey, and the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale. A parent or guardian also provided demographic information. Linear regression analyses were used to examine the associations with willingness to donate and to engage in family discussion about organ discussion. Willingness to donate was associated with positive knowledge related to general aspects about organ donation and cultural limitations in receiving an organ transplant, a high level of acculturation, and a low level of negative attitudes (R2 = 0.402, F = 18.86, P = .005). Asian American adolescents with approving or positive attitudes were likely to engage in family discussion about organ donation (R2 = 0.195, F = 27.93, P = .005). To reinforce and maintain high levels of knowledge and positive attitudes, organ donation education is most likely needed in high schools.
Siqueira, Marina Martins; Araujo, Claudia Affonso; de Aguiar Roza, Bartira; Schirmer, Janine
To search the literature and identify indicators used to monitor and control the organ donation and transplantation process and to group these indicators into categories. In November 2014, a systematic review of the literature was carried out in the following databases: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), EBSCO, Emerald, Proquest, Science Direct, and Web of Science. The following search terms (and the corresponding terms in Brazilian Portuguese) were employed: "efficiency," "indicators," "organ donation," "tissue and organ procurement," and "organ transplantation." Of the 344 articles retrieved, 23 original articles published between 1992 and 2013 were selected and reviewed for analysis of efficiency indicators. The review revealed 117 efficiency indicators, which were grouped according to similarity of content and divided into three categories: 1) 71 indicators related to organ donation, covering mortality statistics, communication of brain death, clinical status of donors and exclusion of donors for medical reasons, attitude of families, confirmation of donations, and extraction of organs and tissues; 2) 22 indicators related to organ transplantation, covering the surgical procedure per se and post-transplantation follow-up; and 3) 24 indicators related to the demand for organs and the resources of hospitals involved in the process. Even if organ transplantation is a recent phenomenon, the high number of efficiency indicators described in the literature suggests that scholars interested in this field have been searching for ways to measure performance. However, there is little standardization of the indicators used. Also, most indicators focus on the donation step, suggesting gaps in the measurement of efficiency at others points in the process. Additional indicators are needed to monitor important stages, such as organ distribution (for example, organ loss indicators) and post-transplantation aspects (for example, survival and quality of life).
McInroy, J.F.; Boyd, H.A.; Miglio, J.J.; Eutsler, B.C.
The US Transuranium Registry instituted a program for whole-body donation in 1976 to improve the data on the distribution of transuranics within the entire skeleton and those tissues not available from a routine autopsy. Two whole bodies have been submitted for radiochemical analysis. The first, a 241 Am exposure, has been described in an earlier report. The primary exposure of the second donor (a chemist in the Manhattan Project) was to 239 Pu in 1945. Of the total whole-body deposition of 6.52 nCi in the second case, 56% remained in the lung and tracheobronchial lymph nodes; 44% (2.86 nCi) was distributed through the systemic system with 46% of this burden in the liver and 46% in the skeleton. 5 references, 2 tables
Corman Dincer, Pelin; Birtan, Deniz; Arslantas, Mustafa Kemal; Tore Altun, Gulbin; Ayanoglu, Hilmi Omer
Organ donation is the most important stage for organ transplant. Studies reveal that attitudes of families of brain-dead patients toward donation play a significant role in their decision. We hypothesized that supporting family awareness about the meaning of organ donation, including saving lives while losing a loved one, combined with being informed about brain death and the donation process must be maintained by intensive care unit physicians through standardized interviews and questionnaires to increase the donation rate. We retrospectively evaluated the final decisions of families of 52 brain-dead donors treated at our institution between 2014 and 2017. Data underwent descriptive analyses. The standard interview content was generated after literature search results were reviewed by the authors. Previously, we examined the impact of standardized interviews done by intensive care unit physicians with relatives of potential brain-dead donors regarding decisions to donate or reasons for refusing organ donation. After termination of that study, interviews were done according to the intensivist's orientation, resulting in significantly decreased donation rates. Standardized interviews were then started again, resulting in increased donation rates. Of 17 families who participated in standardized interviews, 5 families (29.4%) agreed to donate organs of their brain-dead relatives. In the other group of families, intensivists governed informing the families of donation without standardized interviews. In this group of 35 families, 5 families (14.3%) approved organ donation. The decision regarding whether to agree to organ donation was statistically different between the 2 family groups (P donation process resulted in an increased rate of organ donation compared with routine protocols.
Hoogerwerf, M D; Veldhuizen, I J T; Merz, E-M; de Kort, W L A M; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K
Donating blood has been associated with increased stress responses, with scarce evidence indicating that levels of psychological and hormonal stress are higher pre-donation than post-donation. We investigated whether a blood donation induces psychological and/or hormonal stress during the course of a blood donation, and whether responses differed between men and women, first-time and experienced donors and donors with high or low non-acute stress. In 363 donors, psychological (donation-stress and arousal) and hormonal (cortisol) stress were measured by questionnaire and salivary sample at seven key moments during a routine donation. Non-acute stress was assessed by a questionnaire. Repeated measurement analyses were performed, using the last measurement (leaving the donation center) as reference value. Levels of donation-stress, arousal and cortisol were significantly higher during donation than when leaving the donation center. When compared with men, women reported higher levels of donation-stress and cortisol in the first part of the visit. When compared with first-time donors, experienced donors reported lower levels of donation-stress during the first part of the visit, and higher levels of arousal but less reactivity throughout the visit. When compared to donors high on non-acute stress, donors low on non-acute stress reported lower levels of donation-stress during the first part of the visit, and showed less cortisol reactivity throughout the visit. Donating blood influences psychological and hormonal stress response patterns. The response patterns differ between women and men, first-time and experienced donors and between donors high and low on non-acute stress. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.
Tackmann, E; Dettmer, S
The German post-mortem organ donation rate has dropped by one third since 2010. Furthermore, 958 patients died in 2015 in Germany while waiting for an organ. To decrease organ shortage, an amendment of the transplantation law was established in 2012. An information package including an organ donor card is sent to all German citizens via the postal service. A voluntary national transplantation register was introduced in 2016 to improve transparency in the organ donation process. The influence of several transplantation scandals starting in 2012 on organ donation rates is in question. Therefore, the objective of this article is to discuss approval and objections to post-mortem organ donation among the next of kin of potential donors and the general public in Germany. Binary logistic regression of data from the 2014 survey by the Federal Centre for Health Education on attitudes towards organ and tissue donation in Germany was conducted, aiming to identify influencing factors on the likelihood of organ donor card possession. Additionally, data of the German Organ Transplantation Foundation on post-mortem organ donations in Germany in 2014 were studied to highlight reasons for approval and objections by next of kin of potential and explanted post-mortem organ donors. Methods of documentation of the deceased's will according to data of the German Organ Transplantation Foundation were analyzed. Male gender and lack of knowledge about organ donation decrease the likelihood of having an organ donor card. Of the respondents in the survey of the Federal Centre for Health Education 71.0% would donate their own organs, whereas only one third possess an organ donor card. Health insurances and physicians are the most important providers of organ donor cards in Germany. An increase in the percentage of organ donor card possession following the amendment of the transplantation law could not be observed by 2016. Fear of organ trade and unjust organ allocation are the main reasons
Weiss, Matthew J; Hornby, Laura; Witteman, William; Shemie, Sam D
Although pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death is increasing in frequency, there are no national or international donation after circulatory determination of death guidelines specific to pediatrics. This scoping review was performed to map the pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death literature, identify pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death knowledge gaps, and inform the development of national or regional pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death guidelines. Terms related to pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death were searched in Embase and MEDLINE, as well as the non-MEDLINE sources in PubMed from 1980 to May 2014. Seven thousand five hundred ninety-seven references were discovered and 85 retained for analysis. All references addressing pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death were considered. Exclusion criteria were articles that did not address pediatric patients, animal or laboratory studies, surgical techniques, and local pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death protocols. Narrative reviews and opinion articles were the most frequently discovered reference (25/85) and the few discovered studies were observational or qualitative and almost exclusively retrospective. Retained references were divided into themes and analyzed using qualitative methodology. The main discovered themes were 1) studies estimating the number of potential pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death donors and their impact on donation; 2) ethical issues in pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death; 3) physiology of the dying process after withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy; 4) cardiac pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death; and 5) neonatal pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death. Donor estimates suggest that pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death will
Reyes F, M L; Luna Z, D [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)
The first donation of human skin coming from a cadaverous donor was obtained in the State of Mexico. The skin was obtained of a 34 year-old multi organic donor, the extraction of the same was carried out in an operating theatre by medical personnel, supported by personal of the Radio sterilized Tissue Bank (BTR) of the ININ. The skin was transported to the BTR for it processing. (Author)
Mark, Christina; Heiskanen, Arto; Zor, Kinga
, et al., (2006), BioEssays, 28, p. 1091). Microfluidic cell culture enables in vitro experiments to approach in vivo conditions. Combining microfluidics with the Lab-On-a-Chip concept allows implementing a wide range of assays for real-time monitoring of effects in a biological system of factors...... such as concentration of selected compounds, external pH, oxygen consumption, redox state and cell viability. The aleurone layer of the barley seed is a 2-3 single cell type thick tissue that can be dissected from the embryo and starchy endosperm. During incubation in vitro this mechanically very robust maintains...
Bellali, Thalia; Papadatou, Danai
The purpose of this study was to investigate the grieving process of parents who were faced with the dilemma of donating organs and tissues of their underage brain dead child, and to explore the impact of their decision on their grief process. A grounded theory methodology was adopted and a semi-structured interview was conducted with 11 bereaved…
Baughn, Daniel; Auerbach, Stephen M; Siminoff, Laura A
Interpersonal relations with health care providers influence families' decisions to consent to solid-organ donation. However, previous research has been based on retrospective interviews with donation-eligible families and has not directly examined the interpersonal interactions between families and organ procurement coordinators. To increase understanding of the interpersonal interaction between procurement coordinators and families during the organ donation discussion, with special attention to the influence of the sex and race of the procurement coordinator and the race of the potential donor's family. A descriptive study in which standardized patients portrayed family members interacting with actual procurement coordinators in simulated donation request scenarios. Thirty-three videotaped interactions between standardized patients and 17 procurement coordinators involving 2 different scenarios depicting deceased donation were evaluated. Video recordings were rated by independent coders. Coders completed the Impact Message Inventory-Form C, the Participatory Style of Physician Scale, and the Siminoff Communication and Content and Affect Program-Global Observer Ratings scale. African American procurement coordinators, particularly African American women, were rated as more controlling and work-oriented than white procurement coordinators. Male procurement coordinators were more affiliative with the white family than the African American family, whereas female procurement coordinators were slightly less affiliative with the white family. African American procurement coordinators expressed more positive affect when interacting with the African American family than the white family, whereas the opposite was true for white procurement coordinators. Research is needed to cross-validate these exploratory findings and further examine cultural mistrust between procurement coordinators and families of ethnic minorities, especially given the negative attitudes of many
Brzeziński, Michał; Klikowicz, Paweł
The number of potential registered organ donors does not cover the actual demand in most developed countries. Therefore, methods increasing awareness and interest in organ donation, including modern tools of social marketing, are being researched worldwide. The aim of this paper is to present our 5-year experiences with a Facebook networking campaign - the Dawca.pl Club. The mission of the campaign is to raise awareness and educate Polish society on tissue, cell, and organ transplants, to increase public acceptance for transplants as a treatment method, and to increase the number of voluntary donors signing consents for organ donation. The project is based on the idea of creating a community promoting transplantation, focused around the Dawca.pl Club. At present the club has over 48,000 registered members - people who declared willingness to donate their organs after death. We present a description of members of this social networking service, the possibilities of using it to promote transplants and organ donation, and the efficacy of selected schemes for creating and publishing content on Facebook. The example of Dawca.pl shows that 2-way relations, spread over time, are required for social media to effectively engage and exert influence in a chosen sphere of public health and medicine. Unfortunately, at this time it is difficult to assess how such campaigns, apart from raising social awareness and acceptance, will affect the number of transplantations of organs from living and deceased donors.
Beurel, A; Terrade, F; Lebaudy, J-P; Danic, B
The major contribution of Human Sciences in the understanding of the whole blood donation behavior has been through the study of individuals' motivations and deterrents to donate. However, if whole blood donation has been very widely studied in the last sixty years, we still know very little about plasma donation in voluntary non-remunerated environments. Yet, the need for plasma-derived products has been strongly increasing for some years, and blood collection agencies have to adapt if they want to meet this demand. This article aims to review the main motivations and deterrents to whole blood donation, and to compare them with those that we already know concerning plasma donation. Current evidence shows similarities between both behaviors, but also differences that indicate a need for further research regarding plasma donation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier SAS.
Callé, N; Plainfossé, C; Georget, P; Sénémeaud, C; Rasonglès, P
The supply of blood cell products requires from the National French Blood Institute (Établissement Français du Sang - EFS) to rely upon regular blood donors. Contact with donors, tailored to individuals as much as possible, helps them to donate on a regular basis. Within the context of a research program conducted with the Psychology Department of the Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, persuasive theoretical models from social psychology have been tested. These models allow adapting messages according to the motivation of donors. The content is centred on the previous donation, differently labelled according to two types of labelling: functional labelling and social labelling. Functional labelling points out the efficiency of what "has been done" (the previous blood donation), whereas social labelling emphasizes the social value of the individual. Different types of mailing invitations have been sent to 1917 donors from the Normandy database, invited to three different blood collections. Every experimental letter worked better than the standard EFS letter (which was used as the "control" letter) in terms of effective blood donation after reception of the letter. Some of the letters are more efficient in motivating donors than other ones. The letters labelling the previous blood donation as functional (efficiency of the donation) appeared more efficient than those with social label (social value) in whichever motivation induced. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Ancillary personnel faced with living liver donation in a Spanish hospital with a transplant program El personal no sanitario de un hospital español con programa de trasplantes ante la donación de vivo hepática
Full Text Available Introduction: ancillary hospital personnel represent an important body of opinion because as they work in a hospital their opinion has more credibility for the general public as a result of their activity in hospitals. However, in most cases they do not have any health care training which means that their attitude could be based on a lack of knowledge or unfounded fears. The objective of this study is to analyze the attitude toward living liver donation among ancillary personnel in a hospital with a cadaveric and living liver organ transplant program and to analyze the variables that might influence such attitude. Patients and method: a random sample was taken which was stratified by service (n = 401 among ancillary personnel in the hospital. Attitude was evaluated using a survey that was validated in our geographical area. A representative from each service was contacted. This person was given an explanation of the study and was made responsible for the distribution of the questionnaire in selected work shifts. The survey was completed anonymously and was self-administered. The c2 test, Student's t-test and logistical regression analysis were used in the statistical analysis. Results: the questionnaire completion rate was 94% (n = 377. Of all the respondents, 20% (n = 74 are in favor of donating a living hemi-liver, but an additional 62% (n = 233 are in favor if donation is for a relative. Of the rest, 8% (n = 30 do not accept this type of donation and the remaining 11% (n = 40 are unsure. The following variables are related to attitude toward living liver donation: attitude toward cadaveric donation (p = 0.002; a respondent's belief that he or she might need a transplant in the future (p Introducción: los profesionales no sanitarios de centros hospitalarios representan un grupo de opinión importante, pues por el hecho de trabajar en un centro hospitalario su opinión tiene credibilidad entre la población, y sin embargo no tienen la
Two ethical frameworks have dominated the discussion of organ donation for long: that of property rights and that of gift-giving. However, recent years have seen a drastic rise in the number of philosophical analyses of the meaning of giving and generosity, which has been mirrored in ethical debates on organ donation and in critical sociological, anthropological and ethnological work on the gift metaphor in this context. In order to capture the flourishing of this field, this article distinguishes between four frameworks for thinking about bodily exchanges in medicine: those of property rights, heroic gift-giving, sacrifice, and gift-giving as aporia. These frameworks represent four different ways of making sense of donation of organs as well as tissue, gametes and blood, draw on different conceptions of the relations between the self and the other, and bring out different ethical issues as core ones. The article presents these frameworks, argues that all of them run into difficulties when trying to make sense of reciprocity and relational interdependence in donation, and shows how the three gift-giving frameworks (of heroism, sacrifice and aporia) hang together in a critical discussion about what is at stake in organ donation. It also presents and argues in favour of an alternative intercorporeal framework of giving-through-sharing that more thoroughly explicates the gift metaphor in the context of donation, and offers tools for making sense of relational dimensions of live and post mortem donations.
"Bravo! A huge success! A big thanks to everyone involved for their valuable participation this summer," says Ms. Troillet, the nurse responsible for the Transfusion Centre (CTS) at HUG. During the 24 July blood donation, blood was collected from 109 of the 150 people who attended (including 53 new donors). This excellent result is particularly noteworthy, since blood supplies are at their lowest levels in hospitals during the summer season. The CERN Medical Service joins CTS in thanking all donors for their generous gesture and Ms. Vuattaz, manager of the restaurant NOVAE No. 2 and her team, for their collaboration. Upcoming blood donations: Wednesday 16 October 2013 Thursday 3 April 2014 Wednesday 23 July 23 2014
Shaw, David M
In this article I argue that vagueness concerning consent to post-mortem organ donation causes considerable harm in several ways. First, the information provided to most people registering as organ donors is very vague in terms of what is actually involved in donation. Second, the vagueness regarding consent to donation increases the distress of families of patients who are potential organ donors, both during and following the discussion about donation. Third, vagueness also increases the chances that the patient's intention to donate will not be fulfilled due to the family's distress. Fourth, the consequent reduction in the number of donated organs leads to avoidable deaths and increased suffering among potential recipients, and distresses them and their families. There are three strategies which could be used to reduce the harmful effects of this vagueness. First, recategorizing the reasons (commonly referred to as 'overrules' under the current system) given by families who refuse donation from registered donors would bring greater clarity to donation discussions. Second, people who wish to donate their organs should be encouraged to discuss their wishes in detail with their families, and to consider recording their wishes in other ways. Finally, the consent system for organ donation could be made more detailed, ensuring both that more information is provided to potential donors and that they have more flexibility in how their intentions are indicated; this last strategy, however, could have the disadvantage of discouraging some potential donors from registering. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
For the third year in a row, NCI at Frederick is participating in the Feds Feed Families campaign, which aims to stock food banks during the summer when donations are often limited. The 2016 campaign runs through August 31. This year, the Office of Scientific Operations (OSO) has decided to send the campaign off with a twist. Rich Folkers, public affairs specialist, Office of Scientific Operations, came up with the idea for a "lock-in" event.
Mark, Christina; Heiskanen, Arto; Svensson, Birte
Programmed cell death (PCD) in plants can influence the outcome of yield and quality of crops through its important role in seed germination and the defence process against pathogens. The main scope of the project is to apply microfluidic cell culture for the measurement of electrochemically......, since it is known that reactive oxygen species, which are affected by changes in the redox activity of the cells3, are involved in PCD in plants, but the relationship between and mechanisms behind ROS and PCD is only poorly understood in plant cells4. Recently, it has been shown, using optical detection...
Balwani, Manish R; Gumber, Manoj R; Shah, Pankaj R; Kute, Vivek B; Patel, Himanshu V; Engineer, Divyesh P; Gera, Dinesh N; Godhani, Umesh; Shah, Mehin; Trivedi, Hargovind L
To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding organ donation in western India. Convenience sampling was used to generate a sample of 250; 200 interviews were successfully completed and used for analysis. Data collection was carried out via face to face interviews based on a pre-tested questionnaire in selected public areas of Ahmedabad, Gujarat state of India. Data entry was made in excel software in codes and analysis was done by SPSS software. About 86% of participants were aware of the term organ donation but knowledge about its various aspects was low. About 48% aware people heard about organ donation through medical fraternity, whereas only about 21% became aware through mass media. About 59% of aware people believed there is a potential danger of donated organs being misused, abused or misappropriated. About 47% of aware people said they would consider donating organs, while only 16% said they would definitely donate irrespective of circumstances. Around 97.67% participants said they would prefer to donate to nonsmokers. About 74.41% participants were unaware about any legislation regarding organ donation. About 77% participants showed their will to donate to mentally sound persons, and 42.04% participants showed their will to donate even physically challenged people. Around 78 participants felt that they would donate organs to persons irrespective of their religion. About 81% of aware people were of the opinion that consent for organ donation after death should be given by family members. None of the interviewed participants had a donor card. Better knowledge and awareness will help in promoting organ donation. Effective campaign needs to be driven to educate people with relevant information with the involvement of media, doctors and religious scholars.
Full Text Available ... Find a Surgeon Patients and Family Contact My Profile Shop ( 0 ) Cart Donate Become a Member Join ... Discount Programs FACS Resources Career Connection Update Your Profile Member Communities 2018 Initiates Leadership Opportunities Leadership Opportunities ...
Full Text Available ... at ACS ACS and Veterans Diversity at ACS Benefits ... Profile Shop ( 0 ) Cart Donate American College of Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Ostomy Home Skills ...
Full Text Available ... Stay Up to Date with ACS Association Management Jobs Events Find a Surgeon Patients and Family Contact My Profile Shop ( 0 ) Cart Donate American College of Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Ostomy Home Skills ...
Full Text Available ... Up to Date with ACS Association Management JACS Jobs Events Find a Surgeon Patients and Family Contact My Profile Shop ( 0 ) Cart Donate American College of Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Ostomy Home Skills ...
Full Text Available ... ACS ACS and Veterans Diversity at ACS Benefits ... Profile Shop ( 0 ) Cart Donate American College of Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Ostomy Home Skills ...
Mridula, Meenu R; Nair, Ashalatha S; Kumar, K Satheesh
In this paper, we compared the efficacy of observation based modeling approach using a genetic algorithm with the regular statistical analysis as an alternative methodology in plant research. Preliminary experimental data on in vitro rooting was taken for this study with an aim to understand the effect of charcoal and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) on successful rooting and also to optimize the two variables for maximum result. Observation-based modelling, as well as traditional approach, could identify NAA as a critical factor in rooting of the plantlets under the experimental conditions employed. Symbolic regression analysis using the software deployed here optimised the treatments studied and was successful in identifying the complex non-linear interaction among the variables, with minimalistic preliminary data. The presence of charcoal in the culture medium has a significant impact on root generation by reducing basal callus mass formation. Such an approach is advantageous for establishing in vitro culture protocols as these models will have significant potential for saving time and expenditure in plant tissue culture laboratories, and it further reduces the need for specialised background.
Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Chu, Jennifer; Polonec, Lindsey
Donated media placements for public service announcements (PSAs) can be difficult to secure, and may not always reach intended audiences. Strategies used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign (SFL) to obtain donated media placements include producing a diverse mix of high-quality PSAs, co-branding with state and tribal health agencies, securing celebrity involvement, monitoring media trends to identify new distribution opportunities, and strategically timing the release of PSAs. To investigate open-ended recall of PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, CDC conducted 12 focus groups in three U.S. cities with men and women either nearing age 50 years, when screening is recommended to begin, or aged 50-75 years who were not in compliance with screening guidelines. In most focus groups, multiple participants recalled exposure to PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, and most of these individuals reported having seen SFL PSAs on television, in transit stations, or on the sides of public buses. Some participants reported exposure to SFL PSAs without prompting from the moderator, as they explained how they learned about the disease. Several participants reported learning key campaign messages from PSAs, including that colorectal cancer screening should begin at age 50 years and screening can find polyps so they can be removed before becoming cancerous. Donated media placements can reach and educate mass audiences, including millions of U.S. adults who have not been screened appropriately for colorectal cancer.
Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Danic, Bruno
The representation of blood transfusion and donation of blood in the comic strip has never been studied. The comic strip, which is a relatively recent art, emerged in the 19th century before becoming a mass medium during the 20th century. We have sought, by calling on collectors and using the resources of Internet, comic strips devoted, wholly or in part, to the themes of transfusion and blood donation. We present some of them here in chronologic order, indicating the title, country of origin, year of publication, and names of authors. The theme of the superhero using transfusion to transmit his virtues or his powers is repeated throughout the 20th century in North American comic strips. More recently, comic strips have been conceived from the outset with a promotional aim. They perpetuate positive images and are directed toward a young readership, wielding humor to reduce the fear of venipuncture. Few comic strips denounce the abuse of the commercialization of products derived from the human body. The image of transfusion and blood donation given by the comic strips is not to be underestimated because their readership is primarily children, some of whom will become blood donors. Furthermore, if some readers are transfused during their lives, the impact of a memory more or less conscious of these childhood readings may resurface, both in hopes and in fears. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Whyte, Kyle Powys; Selinger, Evan; Caplan, Arthur L; Sadowski, Jathan
Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein (2008) contend that mandated choice is the most practical nudge for increasing organ donation. We argue that they are wrong, and their mistake results from failing to appreciate how perceptions of meaning can influence people's responses to nudges. We favor a policy of default to donation that is subject to immediate family veto power, includes options for people to opt out (and be educated on how to do so), and emphasizes the role of organ procurement organizations and in-house transplant donation coordinators creating better environments for increasing the supply of organs and tissues obtained from cadavers. This policy will provide better opportunities for offering nudges in contexts where in-house coordinators work with families. We conclude by arguing that nudges can be introduced ethically and effectively into these contexts only if nudge designers collaborate with in-house coordinators and stakeholders.
Suguitan, G A; Cabanayan-Casasola, C B; Danguilan, R A; Jaro, J M A
The Human Organ Preservation Effort is a government organ procurement organization that pioneered the Deceased Organ Donation Program in the Philippines. Deceased organ donation comprises only 20% of kidney transplantation in the Philippines in the last 3 years. Various measures were implemented to improve deceased organ donor referrals and organ retrieval. To compare outcome of deceased organ donor referrals from 2002 to 2008 and 2009 to 2012 in the Philippines. This retrospective study reviewed the deceased organ donor referrals from 2002 to 2008 and 2009 to 2012. There were 437 referrals for potential deceased organ donors from 2009 to 2012, compared to 434 referrals from 2002 to 2008. Referrals were mainly trauma victims (76%) followed by those with cerebrovascular accidents (12%). In the recent cohort, 81% were approached and 60% consented for donation, but only 23% were retrieved and transplanted. Among those not retrieved, the majority (19%) were medically unsuitable and 6% retracted their consent. Although there was an increasing trend of organ donation referrals in the last 4 years, only 25% were procured. The reasons for nonprocurement should be addressed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Milaniak, I; Przybylowski, P; Wierzbicki, K; Sadowski, J
Organ shortage for transplantation is a crucial problem all over the world. Educational intervention may appeal to young people's altruism, increasing organ donation and decreasing the opposition. This study assessed the influence of an educational program, including organ donation and transplantation, to forming students' altruistic behaviors. A total 680 students of 25 secondary schools were asked about their attitudes, intentions, and knowledge about organ donation and transplantation from September 2008 to June 2009 during a 45-minute lesson. In this study, altruistic attitudes were measured through questions about the expression of will to give organs away after death; to give one kidney to relatives; to use the bone marrow from a foreign person; and to sign a donor card. Attitudes were assessed by questions about conversations with relatives, an evaluation of the educational project. More than 1500 donor card were distributed and more than 90% of students wanted to sign them; 73.6% agreed to sign a donor card with the ID card. Before the project, only 8% of students had a signed donor card. Almost everybody is ready to agree to give their organs after death (80.6% male; 92.2% female), or to relatives (100% male; 90.38% female), or bone marrow (80% male; 55.7% female). The students talked to their family, informing them about their decision (36.9% male; 45.9% female). The proposed educational project successfully encouraged teenagers to make well-considered choices with regard to organ donation and created altruistic behaviors.
Gillet, P; Rapaille, A; Benoît, A; Ceinos, M; Bertrand, O; de Bouyalsky, I; Govaerts, B; Lambermont, M
Whole blood donation is generally safe although vasovagal reactions can occur (approximately 1%). Risk factors are well known and prevention measures are shown as efficient. This study evaluates the impact of the donor's retention in relation to the occurrence of vasovagal reaction for the first three blood donations. Our study of data collected over three years evaluated the impact of classical risk factors and provided a model including the best combination of covariates predicting VVR. The impact of a reaction at first donation on return rate and complication until the third donation was evaluated. Our data (523,471 donations) confirmed the classical risk factors (gender, age, donor status and relative blood volume). After stepwise variable selection, donor status, relative blood volume and their interaction were the only remaining covariates in the model. Of 33,279 first-time donors monitored over a period of at least 15 months, the first three donations were followed. Data emphasised the impact of complication at first donation. The return rate for a second donation was reduced and the risk of vasovagal reaction was increased at least until the third donation. First-time donation is a crucial step in the donors' career. Donors who experienced a reaction at their first donation have a lower return rate for a second donation and a higher risk of vasovagal reaction at least until the third donation. Prevention measures have to be processed to improve donor retention and provide blood banks with adequate blood supply. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Kong, Wei; Wanda, Soo-Young; Zhang, Xin; Bollen, Wendy; Tinge, Steven A; Roland, Kenneth L; Curtiss, Roy
We have devised and constructed a biological containment system designed to cause programmed bacterial cell lysis with no survivors. We have validated this system, using Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccines for antigen delivery after colonization of host lymphoid tissues. The system is composed of two parts. The first component is Salmonella typhimurium strain chi8937, with deletions of asdA and arabinose-regulated expression of murA, two genes required for peptidoglycan synthesis and additional mutations to enhance complete lysis and antigen delivery. The second component is plasmid pYA3681, which encodes arabinose-regulated murA and asdA expression and C2-regulated synthesis of antisense asdA and murA mRNA transcribed from the P22 P(R) promoter. An arabinose-regulated c2 gene is present in the chromosome. chi8937(pYA3681) exhibits arabinose-dependent growth. Upon invasion of host tissues, an arabinose-free environment, transcription of asdA, murA, and c2 ceases, and concentrations of their gene products decrease because of cell division. The drop in C2 concentration results in activation of P(R), driving synthesis of antisense mRNA to block translation of any residual asdA and murA mRNA. A highly antigenic alpha-helical domain of Streptococcus pneumoniae Rx1 PspA was cloned into pYA3681, resulting in pYA3685 to test antigen delivery. Mice orally immunized with chi8937(pYA3685) developed antibody responses to PspA and Salmonella outer membrane proteins. No viable vaccine strain cells were detected in host tissues after 21 days. This system has potential applications with other Gram-negative bacteria in which biological containment would be desirable.
Chen, Zhi; Wu, Xiaochun; Luo, Hongjie; Zhao, Lingling; Ji, Xin; Qiao, Xianfeng; Jin, Yaping; Liu, Wei
We used Drosophila as an animal model to study the digestive tract in response to the exposure of inorganic mercury (HgCl2). We found that after oral administration, mercury was mainly sequestered within the midgut. This resulted in increased cell death, which in turn stimulated the tissue regeneration program, including accelerated proliferation and differentiation of the intestinal stem cells (ISCs). We further demonstrated that these injuries correlate closely with the excessive production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS), as vitamin E, an antioxidant reagent, efficiently suppressed the HgCl2-induced phenotypes of midgut and improved the viability. We propose that the Drosophila midgut could serve as a suitable model to study the treatment of acute hydrargyrism on the digestive systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Marván, Maria Luisa; Álvarez Del Río, Asunción; Jasso, Kristian; Santillán-Doherty, Patricio
There is a severe shortage of organs for transplantation worldwide, and Mexico has one of the lowest organ donation rates. In this study, we explored the psychosocial barriers that prevent posthumous organ donation by Mexicans. We asked 218 adults who were not willing to be donors to complete the sentence "I don't want to donate my organs after death because organ donation is…" The data were analyzed using the Natural Semantic Networks Technique. The most important answers given by the participants were related to mistrust. Older participants and those with limited education gave more answers that reflect misconceptions about organ donation. Many participants acknowledged its benefits, even though they did not want to be donors, especially the youngest and those with a higher education. Mistrust and poor education are problems that urgently need to be addressed in order to increase acceptance of organ donation and transplantation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
... become available for donation? 102-37.30 Section 102-37.30 Public Contracts and Property Management... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.30 When does property become available for donation? Excess personal property becomes available for donation the day...
... for public airport donations? 102-37.520 Section 102-37.520 Public Contracts and Property Management... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Donations to Public Airports § 102-37.520 What is the authority for public airport donations? The authority for public airport donations is 49 U.S.C. 47151. 49 U...
Shaw, David; Gardiner, Dale; Lewis, Penney; Jansen, Nichon; Wind, Tineke; Samuel, Undine; Georgieva, Denie; Ploeg, Rutger; Broderick, Andrew
In this article, we analyse the potential benefits and disadvantages of permitting healthcare professionals to invoke conscientious objection to deceased organ donation. There is some evidence that permitting doctors and nurses to register objections can ultimately lead to attitudinal change and acceptance of organ donation. However, while there may be grounds for conscientious objection in other cases such as abortion and euthanasia, the life-saving nature of donation and transplantation ren...
Araujo, C; Siqueira, M
Healthcare professionals have a crucial role in organ donation and transplantation processes. Their attitude toward organ donation can affect public opinion and the donation decision made by deceased donors' relatives. The objectives of the study were to analyze the attitude of medical and nursing personnel toward deceased organ donation in two hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and the factors that can affect this attitude. A random sample (n = 162) was selected from the population of nurses and physicians in the hospitals analyzed. The sample was stratified by age, sex, marital status, religion, professional category, and educational level. A validated questionnaire addressing psychosocial aspects of organ donation was used to evaluate attitudes. The χ 2 and Mann-Whitney U tests were applied for statistical analysis. Of personnel surveyed, 86.4% (n = 140) were in favor of deceased organ donation, whereas 11.1% (n = 18) were not sure and 2.5% (n = 4) were against. The favorable attitude was related to the following aspects: (1) educational level, (2) having spoken with family members about organ donation, (3) having a chronic disease, (4) favorable attitude of one's family, (5) belief that organ donation can save lives, (6) concerns about body manipulation, illegal trade of organs, and organ donation being against God's will, (7) feeling proud of working with organ donation/transplantation, (8) self-assessment of experience and knowledge in organ donation/transplantation activities (P organ donation is well accepted among the healthcare professionals surveyed, and the attitude is affected by socio-personal variables. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K; Rachiotis, George; Papagiannis, Dimitrios; Markaki, Adelais; Dimitroglou, Yiannis; Morgan, Myfanwy; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Jones, Roger
The impact of presumed consent on donation rates has been widely debated. In June 2013 Greece adopted a 'soft' presumed consent law for organ and tissue donation, where relatives' approval is sought prior to organ removal. To report on the knowledge, attitudes and concerns of undergraduate students, enrolled in three health science disciplines, in regards to organ donation and presumed consent. Undergraduate junior and senior health science students [medical (MS), nursing (NS) and medical laboratory students (MLS)] were recruited from higher education settings in Thessaly, Greece. Dichotomous questions, previously used, were adopted to assess knowledge, attitudes and concerns towards organ donation, together with questions regarding the recent presumed consent legislation. Three hundred seventy-one out of 510 students participated in the study (response rate: 72.7%). Only 3.6% of NS, 8.7% of MS and 3.2% of MLS carried a donor card. Although over 78% in all groups knew that it was possible to leave kidneys for transplant after death, only 10% to 39% considered themselves well-informed. NS were more likely to consider opting-out (21.5%), followed by MLS (17.9%) and MS (10.9%). Respondents were more likely to refuse organ removal upon death when expressing one of the following views: a) opposing a system making it lawful to take kidneys from an adult who has just died, unless forbidden while alive [Odds ratio (OR) 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.96 (1.48-5.93), p=0.002], b) worrying about their kidneys being removed after death [OR, 95% CI: 3.37 (1.75-6.49), p=students, soon to become healthcare professionals, demonstrated limited awareness in regards to the newly reformed organ donation system. Identified knowledge deficits and concerns could have far-reaching implications in terms of conveying a clear message and shaping the public's stand. The feasibility and effectiveness of a joint inter-professional curriculum on organ and tissue donation issues across all three
Febrero, B; Almela, J; Ríos, A; Ros, I; Pérez-Sánchez, B; Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ruiz-Carreño, P; Ferreras, D; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P
In rural areas it is common to find unfavorable attitudes toward organ donation, and therefore it is important to find out the attitude and profile of new generations for improving predisposition to organ donation in these areas. Our objective was to analyze the attitude toward organ donation and the related variables of teenagers in a rural area. Students in the final year of compulsory education (mostly 15-16 years of age) were selected from secondary schools in a rural area in southeastern Spain (n = 319; population density donating their organs, 30% (n = 90) were undecided, and 5% (n = 16) were against. Attitude toward the donation of one's own organs was related with sex (P = .015), previous experience of organ donation or transplantation (P = .046), comment on the topic of organ donation within the family (P = .003; odds ratio 2.155), knowing one's mother's opinion about the matter (P = .021), knowing the correct concept of brain death (P = .012; odds ratio 2.076), and religion (P = .014). A favorable attitude of teenagers in rural areas toward organ donation is slightly higher than in the adult population and is determined by many psychosocial variables, above all family discussion about organ donation and transplantation and correct knowledge of the brain death concept. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Today, oocyte donation has become well established, giving rise to thousands of children born worldwide annually. The introduction of oocyte cryopreservation through vitrification allows the introduction of egg banking, improving the efficiency and comfort of oocyte donation. Moreover, the vitrification technique can now enable autologous donation of oocytes to prevent future infertility. We evaluated fresh heterologous oocyte donation in terms of obstetrical and perinatal outcome as well as of the reproductive outcome of past donors. We then evaluated the efficiency of a closed vitrification device and its clinical applications within ART. Thirdly, we evaluated the opinion of women with regard to preventive egg freezing and the efficiency of a human oocyte in relation to age. Oocyte donation is associated with an increased risk of first trimester bleeding and pregnancy induced hypertension. Donating oocytes does not seem to increase the likelihood for a later need of fertility treatment. The chance of an oocyte to result in live birth (utilization rate) in women women would consider safeguarding their reproductive potential through egg freezing or are at least open to the idea. The introduction of efficient oocyte cryopreservation has revolutionized oocyte donation through the establishment of eggbank donation. The technique also enables women to perform autologous donation after preventive oocyte storage in order to circumvent their biological clock.
dosSantos, Marcelo José; Massarollo, Maria Cristina Komatsu Braga
This study aimed to disclose how relatives of cadaverous donors perceive the organ donation process for transplantation. A phenomenological, qualitative research was carried out on the basis of the "situated-phenomenon structure". The statements revealed that, for the relatives of the donors, the process of donation begins with the patients' hospital admission and only ends when they are buried. Furthermore, it is considered bureaucratic, long, consuming and tiring. This situation results in suffering and stress, but there is no regret about the organ donation since, although the pain caused by the loss does not end, the donation initiative comforts and brings satisfaction.
Flemming, Shauna St Clair; Redmond, Nakeva; Williamson, Dana Hz; Thompson, Nancy J; Perryman, Jennie P; Patzer, Rachel E; Arriola, Kimberly Jacob
Increasing public commitment to organ donation is critical to improving donor kidney availability for end-stage renal disease patients desiring transplant. This study surveyed ( N = 1339) African Americans, measuring perceived pros relative to cons of organ donation, to evaluate an existing Transtheoretical Model decisional balance scale and associations between decisional balance and expressing donation intentions. Findings supported the existing scale structure. More positive decisional balance ratios were associated with 1.76 times the odds of expressing intentions (95% confidence interval = 1.52-2.04). Pros were more strongly linked to donation intentions than cons. Greater understanding of organ donation decision-making is valuable for informing interventions that encourage donation.
Radiation sterilization of human tissues in Argentina was a consequence of health care products sterilization by gamma radiation. Radiation technology was implemented in 1970 when the first multipurpose gamma facility was built at the Ezeiza Atomic Centre of CNEA. Organ and tissue transplantation is a well established effective therapy that saves lives and significantly improves the quality of life. Ionizing radiation is used for sterilization in order to provide clinically safe tissue for therapeutic purposes of implantation in every patient in need. Argentina radiation and tissue banking activity started in 1993 with the establishment of two tissue banks using radiation under the IAEA programme of technical cooperation, a skin bank and a bone one. Additionally to this start, other tissue banks have adopted tissue sterilization by irradiation. The compatible tissues sterilized with this methodology are mainly skin (frozen, glycerolized), bone (lyophilized, frozen), and amniotic membrane (glycerolized, frozen, dehydrated). The donation and transplant of human organ, tissue and cells is regulated and coordinated by the National Institute Unique Central Coordinator of Ablation and Implant (INCUCAI). In regards to radiation and nuclear safety, physical protection and nuclear non-proliferation issues are regulated and contorted by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN). Eight tissue banks use gamma radiation for sterilization of human tissues (6 musculoskeletal, 1 skin and 1 amniotic membrane). Argentina has participated actively in several IAEA projects regarding radiation and tissue banking program, and it has been selected by the IAEA to host the Regional Training Centre for the Latin American region. The following activities were implemented: regional training courses in Buenos Aires, face to face (five) and virtual (four) modalities; collaboration on several materials related to tissue banking and radiation sterilization of tissue allograft, codes of practice for
Oliver, Mike; Ahmed, Aimun; Woywodt, Alexander
There is worldwide shortage of organs for solid-organ transplantation. Many obstacles to deceased and live donation have been described and addressed, such as lack of understanding of the medical process, the issue of the definition of brain death, public awareness of the need for transplants, and many others. However, it is clear that the striking differences in deceased and live donation rates between different countries are only partly explained by these factors and many cultural and social reasons have been invoked to explain these observations. We believe that one obstacle to both deceased and live donation that is less well appreciated is that of religious concerns. Looking at the major faiths and religions worldwide, it is reassuring to see that most of them encourage donation. However, there is also scepticism amongst some of them, often relating to the concept of brain death and/or the processes surrounding death itself. It is worthwhile for transplant teams to be broadly aware of the issues and also to be mindful of resources for counselling. We believe that increased awareness of these issues within the transplant community will enable us to discuss these openly with patients, if they so wish.
Koplin, Julian J
An innovative program recently initiated at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Medical Center allows people to donate a kidney in exchange for a voucher that a loved one can redeem for a kidney if and when needed. As a relatively new practice, the ethical implications of advanced kidney donation have not yet been widely discussed. This paper reflects on some of the bioethical issues at stake in this new donation program, as well as some broader philosophical issues related to the meaning and moral salience of commodification. I first consider whether the literature on commercial markets in organs--a longstanding topic of bioethical debate--can meaningfully inform ethical analysis of kidney voucher programs. Specifically, I consider whether and to what extent common objections to the exchange of kidneys for cash also apply to the exchange of kidneys for "kidney vouchers." Second, I argue that the contrast between the ethical issues raised by these two practices highlights the need to understand commodification as existing on a continuum, with different degrees of commodification giving rise to different ethical issues. Doing so can help sharpen our understanding of commodification as a moral concept, as well as its relevance to broader debates about the moral limits of markets. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
De Boeck, E; Jacxsens, L; Goubert, H; Uyttendaele, M
The food donation process in Belgium is mapped and analyzed to identify bottlenecks in compliance with the legal framework and implementation of food safety management, based on literature search and interviews with stakeholders (donors, acceptors, regulators and facilitators) in Belgium and at EU level. The study revealed that the food donation/acceptation chain is far less structured and organized than the conventional food supply chain. The fragmented landscape of many small food banks and charity organizations (acceptors), often directed by and working with volunteers without training in food safety and lack of knowledge of legal food hygiene requirements is a bottleneck to generate trust among food donors and restricts the provision of perishable products in food donations. Lack of refrigerated transport and insufficient cold/freezing capacity in food banks and charity organizations was identified as a barrier to distribute perishable products. Furthermore, in two cities in Flanders (Belgium), at some food donation centers, donated perishable food samples (n=72) were taken and subjected to microbiological analysis to determine their overall food quality, hygiene and food safety status. Twenty-two of 72 analyzed samples showed marginal microbiological quality based on numbers of yeast, lactic acid bacteria or total viable count. In three samples Listeria monocytogenes was detected per 25g among which one ready-to-eat cooked meat product which showed increased numbers of L. monocytogenes (3.5logCFU/g) and Enterobacteriaceae (6.7logCFU/g). Overall, in Belgium, most of the donated foods considers nonperishable foods, with more or less half of the food collected by the food banks being purchased with funds from FEAD (Fund for European Aid to the Most Deprived) and thus not derived from food losses. Efforts are being made by facilitators to provide a platform for better coordination of donors and acceptors to make more efficient use of food losses. Regulators at the
Samorinha, Catarina; Pereira, Margarida; Machado, Helena; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Silva, Susana
Systematic knowledge on the factors that influence the decisions of IVF users regarding embryo donation for research is a core need for patient-centred policies and ethics in clinical practice. However, no systematic review has been provided on the motivations of patients who must decide embryo disposition. This paper fills this gap, presenting a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies, which synthesizes the current body of knowledge on the factors and reasons associated with IVF patients' decisions to donate or not to donate embryos for research. A systematic search of studies indexed in PubMed, ISI WoK and PsycINFO, published before November 2013, was conducted. Only empirical, peer-reviewed, full-length, original studies reporting data on factors and reasons associated with the decision concerning donation or non-donation of embryos for research were included. Eligibility and data extraction were performed by two independent researchers and disagreements were resolved by discussion or a third reviewer, if required. The main quantitative findings were extracted and synthesized and qualitative data were assessed by thematic content analysis. A total of 39 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. More than half of the studies (n = 21) used a quantitative methodology, and the remaining were qualitative (n = 15) or mixed-methods (n = 3) studies. The studies were derived mainly from European countries (n = 18) and the USA (n = 11). The proportion of IVF users who donated embryos for research varied from 7% in a study in France to 73% in a Swiss study. Those who donate embryos for research reported feelings of reciprocity towards science and medicine, positive views of research and high levels of trust in the medical system. They described their decision as better than the destruction of embryos and as an opportunity to help others or to improve health and IVF treatments. The perception of risks, the lack of information
Mohammed, Hamish; Linnen, Jeffrey M; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L; Tomashek, Kay; Foster, Gregory; Broulik, Amy S; Petersen, Lyle; Stramer, Susan L
A single instance of transfusion-transmitted dengue infection has been reported. The high incidence of dengue in endemic countries, the high proportion of asymptomatic infection, and the median 5-day viremia, however, suggest that transfusion-associated dengue transmission may be more widespread than documented. The prevalence of dengue virus (DENV) RNA was determined in all blood donations to the American Red Cross in Puerto Rico from September 20 to December 4, 2005, using a specific type of nucleic acid amplification test called transcription-mediated amplification (TMA). TMA-positive donations were defined as those having two repeatedly reactive TMA results. TMA-positive donations were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies, by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and by viral culture. Twelve (0.07%) of 16,521 blood donations tested were TMA-positive. Four were positive by RT-PCR (DENV serotypes 2 and 3). Virus was cultured from 3 of 4 RT-PCR-positive donations. One of the 12 TMA-positive donations was IgM-positive. Only 5 donations remained TMA-positive when diluted 1:16, as is done for routine minipool screening for other transfusion-transmissible viral infections (hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency, West Nile viruses [WNVs]). Nearly 1 in 1000 blood donations contained DENV RNA, and virus could be cultured from TMA-positive donations, suggesting a transfusion transmission risk similar to that which existed in the United States for WNV before universal donation screening. Similar to WNV, IgM antibody screening is likely to be ineffective, and some potentially infectious donations will be missed by minipool screening. Transfusion transmission should be considered in patients with dengue after blood transfusion.
Luo, A J; Xie, W Z; Luo, J J; Ouyang, W
Our aim was to (1) survey public' perception and attitudes toward organ donation and (2) analyze the relationship between knowledge, attitudes, and willingness to donate. We developed a questionnaire, and conducted the survey with stratified random sampling. Overall, 600 residents, aged ≥18 who resided in Hunan, and 600 undergraduates from 3 universities in Hunan were surveyed randomly. For this study, 1085 valid questionnaires were completed, with a response rate of 90.4%. Of the 1085 participants, 581 (53.5%) were students, 504 (46.5%) were residents, and 519 (47.8%) were male and 566 (52.2%) female. The mean accuracy rate was 71.96%, and the students' mean accuracy rate was slightly higher than that of the resident population (73.06% vs 70.68%, respectively). The results showed that 82.2% of public support organ donation, and 53.5% were willing to donate their organs after death. Students scored higher than the residents (88% vs 75.6% and 55.6% vs 51.2%). Nearly 1.8% felt that organ donation was against their religion, 14.9% thought it was important to ensure the integrity of the body, 71.7% agreed that organ donation allowed a positive outcome after a person's death, and 61.5% agreed that organ donation represented a continuation of life, to help families cope with grief. Age and gender were related to attitudes. Public knowledge of organ donation and their attitudes were correlated positively (r = 0.666). Public knowledge of organ donation is poor, biased, and incomplete, and based on television, movies, and communication networks. Positive attitudes toward donation displayed in the surveys were not matched by actual organ donation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Reubsaet, A.; Brug, J.; Kitslaar, J.; Van Hooff, J. P.; van den Borne, H. W.
The present paper describes the impact and evaluation of two intervention components--a video with group discussion and an interactive computer-tailored program--in order to encourage adolescents to register their organ donation preference. Studies were conducted in school during regular school hours. The video with group discussion in class had a…
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Donation to a public body. 644.495 Section 644.495 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Land) § 644.495 Donation to a public body. A public body, as defined by GSA for this purpose, means any...
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494 Section 644.494 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be abandoned...
Rokade, Shrikant A.; Gaikawad, Anjana P.
With the attendant rise of the number of medical colleges in India over past few decades, the demand for cadavers used in medical education and research is growing. However, there is an insufficient supply of donated cadavers available for dissection. This study was undertaken to assess the general population's awareness of body donation programs…
Taylor, Lauren J; Buffington, Anne; Scalea, Joseph R; Fost, Norman; Croes, Kenneth D; Mezrich, Joshua D; Schwarze, Margaret L
While donation after circulatory death (DCD) has expanded options for organ donation, many who wish to donate are still unable to do so. We conducted face-to-face interviews with family members (N = 15) who had direct experience with unsuccessful DCD and 5 focus groups with professionals involved in the donation process. We used qualitative content analysis to characterize the harms of nondonation as perceived by participants. Participants reported a broad spectrum of harms affecting organ recipients, donors, and donor families. Harms included waste of precious life-giving organs and hospital resources, inability to honor the donor's memory and character, and impaired ability for families to make sense of tragedy and cope with loss. Donor families empathized with the initial hope and ultimate despair of potential recipients who must continue their wait on the transplant list. Focus group members reinforced these findings and highlighted the struggle of families to navigate the uncertainty regarding the timing of death during the donation process. While families reported significant harm, many appreciated the donation attempt. These findings highlight the importance of organ donation to donor families and the difficult experiences associated with current processes that could inform development of alternative donation strategies. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Feeley, Thomas Hugh; Anker, Ashley E.; Soriano, Rainier; Friedman, Erica
Medical students at Mount Sinai School of Medicine participated in an intervention designed to promote knowledge and improved communication skills related to cadaveric organ donation. The intervention required students to interact with a standardized patient for approximately 10 minutes and respond to questions posed about organ donation in a…
Background: Blood donation is an essential component of health care which saves millions of lives each year.Students of tertiary institutions in Nigeria constitute a significant percentage of the population who areconsidered to meet the criteria for voluntary blood donation. We sought to assess the knowledge, attitude ...
van Doorn, Janne; Zeelenberg, M.; Breugelmans, S.M.
This article investigates if and when anger appeals (communications that elicit anger in people), can be used to increase donations to charity. In an experimental study the idea was tested that anger leads to higher charitable donations, under the condition that people can restore equity with that
Gift items such as hematinics, T-shirts and wrist bands (29%) would motivate respondents to donate. Conclusion: The Students' Union body and other Organizations in the University should include a blood donation drive in their monthly/annual activities. The University authorities, the University health service centre and the ...
Saritha, S.; Rao, M. Vittoo; Sumangala; Supriya, G.; Kumar, Praveen
Body donation is a gracious act, Shankarcharaya firmly believed in concept of Body Donation or Organ Donation and said Iddham sharirum paropakarum i.e. the body is for use of others and death is not the end, it is the beginning. Anatomy is important basic subject for medicalstudents, both U.G. & P.G. Best method of Anatomy learning is by dissection on human cadavers, which remains principle teaching tool. Human cadavers for purpose of study are a scarcity with mushrooming of medical institutions in this country. Unclaimed bodies are no more origin of cadavers. Whole Body donation is the need of the hour. A Voluntary Body Donation is defined as the act of giving oneís Body after death for Medical research and education. In this article a survey was done in S.V.S. Medical & Dental Colleges Faculty members and medical exhibition visitors which include lawyers, engineers, teachers and others during the year of 2010. The body donation including organ donation and various factors such as age, religion, culture and donorís attitude are discussed. Body donation provides the students and medical researchers with unparalleled opportunities to study the human body. Computers nor books cannot totally replace body dissection in learning the anatomy.
Kasteren, Y.M. van; Braat, D.D.M.
The introduction ofoocyte donation has provided a new perspective on reproduction for women with premature ovarian failure. In contrast to other forms ofassisted reproductive technology, the success ofoocyte donation is not affected by the age of the future mother. This has prompted a discussion on
Kelly Anne Correa
Full Text Available Research on narrative persuasion has yet to investigate whether this process influences behavior. The current study explored whether: 1 a narrative could persuade participants to donate to a charity, a prosocial, behavioral decision; 2 psychophysiological metrics can delineate the differences between donation/non-donation behaviors; and 3 donation behavior can be correlated with measures of psychophysiology, self-reported reactions to the narrative, and intrinsic characteristics. Participants (n = 49 completed personality/disposition questionnaires, viewed one of two versions of a narrative while EEG and ECG were recorded, completed a questionnaire regarding their reactions to the narrative, and were given an opportunity to donate to a charity related to the themes of the narrative. Results showed that 1 34.7% of participants donated; 2 psychophysiological metrics successfully delineated between donation behaviors and the effects of narrative version; and 3 psychophysiology and reactions to the narrative were better able to explain the variance (88% and 65%, respectively in the amount donated than all 3 metrics combined as well as any metric alone. These findings demonstrate the promise of narrative persuasion for influencing prosocial, behavioral decisions. Our results also illustrate the utility of the previously stated metrics for understanding and possibly even manipulating behaviors resulting from narrative persuasion.
Malchau, Sara S; Loft, Anne; Larsen, Elisabeth C
To describe perinatal outcomes in children born after oocyte donation (OD) compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and spontaneous conception (SC).......To describe perinatal outcomes in children born after oocyte donation (OD) compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and spontaneous conception (SC)....
Müller-Steinhardt, M; Müller-Kuller, T; Weiss, C; Menzel, D; Wiesneth, M; Seifried, E; Klüter, H
Within the coming decades, a steadily growing demand for blood products will face a shrinking blood donor population in many countries. After increasing the donor age of repeat donors for whole blood donation (WB) from 68 to 70 years in 2009 in our Blood Service, we investigated whether this is sufficient as a safe and effective strategy to sustain future blood supply. Between 1 March 2009 and 28 February 2011, WB donations from donors aged between 69 and 70 and their proportion of total donations in 2010 were determined. We analysed adverse reaction rates in donors with respect to sex and age and calculated mean annual donation frequencies. Of all invited donors, 32·5% responded and contributed 0·98% (men) and 0·56% (women) to all WB units collected in 2010. The overall and systemic adverse reaction rate per 1·000 WB donations declined by age [men: 1·10 (95%CI: 0·84-1·35) vs. 0 (0-0·8), P donation frequencies were strongly correlated with increasing age (men: r = 0·953, P donate blood. Thus, we consider donations from repeat donors aged 69-70 safe and suggest it a powerful short- to midterm strategy to, at least partially, overcome the challenges of the demographic change. © 2011 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2011 International Society of Blood Transfusion.
Holtzman, Susan; Adcock, Lesley; Dubay, Derek A; Therapondos, George; Kashfi, Arash; Greenwood, Sarah; Renner, Eberhard L; Grant, David R; Levy, Gary A; Abbey, Susan E
The ability to inform prospective donors of the psychosocial risks of living liver donation is currently limited by the scant empirical literature. The present study was designed to examine donor perceptions of the impact of donation on financial, vocational, and interpersonal life domains and identify demographic and clinical factors related to longer recovery times and greater life interference. A total of 143 donors completed a retrospective questionnaire that included a standardized measure of life interference [Illness Intrusiveness Rating Scale (IIRS)] and additional questions regarding the perceived impact of donation. Donor IIRS scores suggested that donors experience a relatively low level of life interference due to donation [1.60 +/- 0.72, with a possible range of 1 ("not very much" interference) to 7 ("very much" interference)]. However, approximately 1 in 5 donors reported that donating was a significant financial burden. Logistic regression analysis revealed that donors with a psychiatric diagnosis at or prior to donation took longer to return to their self-reported predonation level of functioning (odds ratio = 3.78, P = 0.016). Medical complications were unrelated to self-reported recovery time. Multiple regression analysis revealed 4 independent predictors of greater life interference: less time since donation (b = 0.11, P financial burden of donation.
... Security Council or a duly authorized body subordinate thereto to govern the shipment of medical supplies... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Donations of medical supplies... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 585.522 Donations of...
Hansen, Pelle Guldborg
Originaltitel: Getting the purpose of mandated choice wrong - Is Increasing Supply of Donated Cadaver Organs really what we want to nudge?......Originaltitel: Getting the purpose of mandated choice wrong - Is Increasing Supply of Donated Cadaver Organs really what we want to nudge?...
Klenow, Daniel J.; Youngs, George A., Jr.
Presents findings from a mail survey of 414 persons regarding organ transplantation and donation policy issues. Gauged three measures of support for organ donation: donor card commitment, required request of next-of-kin support, and weak presumed consent support. High levels of support exist for organ donor cards and the next-of-kin law. Little…
Background. Nurses are intricately involved in organ donation; however, the referral of donors appears to be declining in Johannesburg, South Africa (SA). This may be due to barriers in the referral process. Objectives. The objectives of this study were to explore nurses' knowledge of the organ donation process and to ...
The association between blood donation practice and socio demographic .... maximum errors to be +/-5% plus 10 % contingency. The 95% .... population for donation, only a small proportion had ... significant in the model. .... journal of Business Economics, and Management ... Scholars Journal of Applied Medical Sciences.
The UK is at the forefront of mitochondrial science and is currently the only country in the world to legalize germ-line technologies involving mitochondrial donation. However, concerns have been raised about genetic modification and the 'slippery slope' to designer babies. This review uses academic articles, newspaper reports and public documents. Mitochondrial donation offers women with mitochondrial disease an opportunity to have healthy, genetically related children. Key areas of disagreement include safety, the creation of three-parent babies, impact on identity, implications for society, definitions of genetic modification and reproductive choice. The UK government legalized the techniques in March 2015. Scientific and medical communities across the world followed the developments with interest. It is expected that the first cohort of 'three parent' babies will be born in the UK in 2016. Their health and progress will be closely monitored. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available Abstract The issue of organ donation and of how the donor pool can or should be increased is one with significant practical, ethical and logistic implications. Here we comment on an article advocating a paradigm change in the so-called "dead donor rule". Such change would involve the societal and legal abandonment of the above rule and the introduction of mandated choice. In this commentary, we review some of the problems associated with the proposed changes as well as the problems associated with the current model. We emphasize the continuing problems with the definition of death and the physiological process of dying; we discuss the difficulties associated with a dichotomous view of death; we review the difficulties with non-beating heart donation and emphasize the current limitations of society's understanding of these complex issues. We conclude that public education remains the best approach and that such education should not be merely promotion of a particular ideology but honest debate of what is socially and morally acceptable and appropriate given the changes in vital organ support technology and the need to respect patient autonomy.
Majzner, Robbie G; Simon, Jason S; Grosso, Joseph F; Martinez, Daniel; Pawel, Bruce R; Santi, Mariarita; Merchant, Melinda S; Geoerger, Birgit; Hezam, Imene; Marty, Virginie; Vielh, Phillippe; Daugaard, Mads; Sorensen, Poul H; Mackall, Crystal L; Maris, John M
Programmed death 1 (PD-1) signaling in the tumor microenvironment dampens immune responses to cancer, and blocking this axis induces antitumor effects in several malignancies. Clinical studies of PD-1 blockade are only now being initiated in pediatric patients, and little is known regarding programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in common childhood cancers. The authors characterized PD-L1 expression and tumor-associated immune cells (TAICs) (lymphocytes and macrophages) in common pediatric cancers. Whole slide sections and tissue microarrays were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for PD-L1 expression and for the presence of TAICs. TAICs were also screened for PD-L1 expression. Thirty-nine of 451 evaluable tumors (9%) expressed PD-L1 in at least 1% of tumor cells. The highest frequency histotypes comprised Burkitt lymphoma (80%; 8 of 10 tumors), glioblastoma multiforme (36%; 5 of 14 tumors), and neuroblastoma (14%; 17 of 118 tumors). PD-L1 staining was associated with inferior survival among patients with neuroblastoma (P = .004). Seventy-four percent of tumors contained lymphocytes and/or macrophages. Macrophages were significantly more likely to be identified in PD-L1-positive versus PD-L1-negative tumors (P cancers exhibit PD-L1 expression, whereas a much larger fraction demonstrates infiltration with tumor-associated lymphocytes. PD-L1 expression may be a biomarker for poor outcome in neuroblastoma. Further preclinical and clinical investigation will define the predictive nature of PD-L1 expression in childhood cancers both at diagnosis and after exposure to chemoradiotherapy. Cancer 2017;123:3807-3815. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
Chappelow, Jonathan; Tomaszewski, John E.; Feldman, Michael; Shih, Natalie; Madabhushi, Anant
We present an interactive program called HistoStitcher© for accurate and rapid reassembly of histology fragments into a pseudo-whole digitized histological section. HistoStitcher© provides both an intuitive graphical interface to assist the operator in performing the stitch of adjacent histology fragments by selecting pairs of anatomical landmarks, and a set of computational routines for determining and applying an optimal linear transformation to generate the stitched image. Reconstruction of whole histological sections from images of slides containing smaller fragments is required in applications where preparation of whole sections of large tissue specimens is not feasible or efficient, and such whole mounts are required to facilitate (a) disease annotation and (b) image registration with radiological images. Unlike manual reassembly of image fragments in a general purpose image editing program (such as Photoshop), HistoStitcher© provides memory efficient operation on high resolution digitized histology images and a highly flexible stitching process capable of producing more accurate results in less time. Further, by parameterizing the series of transformations determined by the stitching process, the stitching parameters can be saved, loaded at a later time, refined, or reapplied to multi-resolution scans, or quickly transmitted to another site. In this paper, we describe in detail the design of HistoStitcher© and the mathematical routines used for calculating the optimal image transformation, and demonstrate its operation for stitching high resolution histology quadrants of a prostate specimen to form a digitally reassembled whole histology section, for 8 different patient studies. To evaluate stitching quality, a 6 point scoring scheme, which assesses the alignment and continuity of anatomical structures important for disease annotation, is employed by three independent expert pathologists. For 6 studies compared with this scheme, reconstructed sections
....62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE... Program (NSLP) and Other Child Nutrition Programs § 250.62 Summer Food Service Program (SFSP). (a... eligible for donated food support, in accordance with 7 CFR part 225. (c) Distribution of donated foods to...
Frech, Adrianne; Natale, Ginny; Hayes, Don; Tumin, Dmitry
Living kidney donation is safe and effective, but patients in need of a transplant continue to outnumber donors. Disincentives to living donation include lost income, risk of job loss, perioperative complications, and unreimbursed medical expenses. This study uses US registry and follow-up data on living kidney donors from 2013 to 2015 to identify social predictors of return to work across gender following living kidney donation. Using logistic regression, we find that predictors of return to work following living kidney donation differ for women and men. Among women, age, education, smoking status, and procedure type are associated with return to work. Among men, education, procedure type, and hospital readmission within 6 weeks postdonation are associated with return to work. Notably, single and divorced men are less likely to return to work compared to married men (odds ratio [OR] for single men 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.69, P donation.
The issue of organ donation in Islam has been debated for decades, with most religious authorities sanctioning both living-organ and deceased-organ donation. However, disquiet among the Islamic community on the compatibility of organ donation with their faith remains, especially in relation to deceased-organ donation. This remains a topical, controversial, and challenging component of organ procurement at both local and international levels. In this article, I will explore Islamic arguments both for and against organ donation, in the context of both living-donor and deceased-donor models. By discussing both practical and philosophical perspectives, the aim is to facilitate discussion on how best to achieve consensus on this issue by driving the debate forward in an open and all-encompassing manner. Although every attempt should be made to achieve consensus among key Muslim opinion makers (individuals, authorities, and institutions), encouraging personalized decision making by intellectual effort should be the goal to achieve genuine informed consent.
The analogy between gift-giving and organ donation was first suggested at the beginning of the transplantation era, when policy makers and legislators were promoting voluntary organ donation as the preferred procurement procedure. It was believed that the practice of gift-giving had some features which were also thought to be necessary to ensure that an organ procurement procedure would be morally acceptable, namely voluntarism and altruism. Twenty-five years later, the analogy between gift-giving and organ donation is still being made in the literature and used in organ donation awareness campaigns. In this paper I want to challenge this analogy. By examining a range of circumstances in which gift-giving occurs, I argue that the significant differences between the various types of gift-giving and organ donation makes any analogy between the two very general and superficial, and I suggest that a more appropriate analogy can be found elsewhere.
Valdecyr Herdy Alves
Full Text Available This study aims at signifying the values related to the act of milk donation which emerges in the symbolic imaginary traumas of nursing mother’s values and understanding the meaning of the imaginary value structures which are revealed in the action of the donating women. This is a descriptive study with eleven nursing mothers of a bank of human milk of a university hospital through the systematized observation and individual interview. The concerning of the nursing mothers with a transforming action, willing to donate their milk, believing that this is a way for the transformation of the world. The values engendered in the action of donation of human milk emerge from the symbolic domains of acting of the health professionals, characterizing the imaginary myth of the nursing mothers. The donations require practices which reinforce the social imaginary during the care to health offered by the Milk Bank.
Colak, M Yavuz; Hekimoglu, D; Ersoy, K; Sozen, F; Haberal, M
The media affects individuals' behaviors, especially by means of news and advertisements. In this study, we evaluated health content of organ donation and transplantation news in the printed media and on television programs for a 1-year period in Turkey. We examined 2449 news items in 230 newspapers and magazines; 1179 news programs on 45 television channels, all concerning organ donation and transplantation. The news obtained from the Media Pursuit Center were transferred to an electronic file to evaluate the format and content of the news. Nine variables were examined about the scope and the formal characteristics of the news: the publication name, its type, the province, the date, the headline, the title length, the presence of a photograph, or its kind, the news size, and the page number. In the content analysis of the news, we also examined 9 variables: the topic, the message of the headline, the property of the words in the title, the identification of photographs in the news, the age, gender of actors in the news, as well as donor or recipient. In a summary, print media and television channels, failed to show sufficient information about organ donation and transplantation. The percentage of news about organ donation and transplantation was small and mostly negative items in the media. On television channels, sufficient place was not given to organ donation and transplantation. The news in printed media and on television channels was not about motivated or altruistic behavior. The pattern of organ donation and transplantation news is important in terms of perception and comment by the public. Furthermore it directly affects the perception of the news by the reader.
Norimah Yusof; Asnah Hassan
A survey was conducted with the objective to determine the level of public knowledge and awareness in tissue banking. From 233 respondents of 62.2% male and 37.8% female, only 44.6% have heard about tissue banking in Malaysia, mainly from newspapers and mass media, and only 11.6% realised the existence of the two tissue banks i.e at MINT, Bangi and USM, Kubang Kerian. However, higher percentage of respondents were aware of donation for both organs (56.2%) and tissues (51.1%). When asked about donating, 54.5% were willing to donate after death and surprisingly only 39.9% as life donors. On the contrary, 71.7% were willing to accept tissue grafts for clinical treatment and transplantation. The findings suggest that more aggressive publicity on tissue banking is necessary and more detailed information have to be made known especially regarding the 'fatwa' in particular for the Muslims and the Human Tissue Act 1974 for the general public. This may lead to even better response to the tissue donation programme which is being planned. Most of the respondents congratulated both tissue banks in our effort to develop indigenous expertise in this interesting new venture with high appreciation to our social and welfare obligations
Josep M. PUIG ROVIRA
Full Text Available The altruistic donation of blood recommended by the World Health Organisation and carried out through blood banks not only contributes to providing the health system with an indispensable therapeutic element, it is also a means of fostering social integration and educating for citizenship. Within this general context, the article begins by arguing why altruistic donation is better than buying and selling blood and why the gift theory – developed by sociology on the basis of the work by Marcel Mauss – more than justifies the possibility of meeting the demand for blood in this way. On the basis of these considerations it can be said that blood banks are social institutions that perform three basic functions: technical, civic and educational. The article continues by examining the educational project undertaken by the Blood and Tissue Bank of Catalonia, which consists in a programme based on the methodology of service learning and which invites young people to cultivate and develop a communicative approach to promoting the altruistic donation of blood in their neighbourhood. The article concludes by evaluating the consolidation, effectiveness and degree of satisfaction of the project, and suggesting that this model can be used to form the basis of ideas for educational proposals of other social institutions.
Techataweewan, N; Panthongviriyakul, C; Toomsan, Y; Mothong, W; Kanla, P; Chaichun, A; Amarttayakong, P; Tayles, N
Culture, society and spirituality contribute to variability in the characteristics of human body donors and donation programmes worldwide. The donors and the body donation programme at Khon Kaen University, northeast Thailand, reflect all these aspects of Thailand, including the status accorded to the donors and the ceremonial acknowledgement of the donors and their families. Data from the programme records and from surveys of samples of currently registering donors and recently received donor bodies are analysed to define the characteristics of both registering and received donors, including motivation, demography, socio-economic status, health, and use of the bodies. The body donation programme at Khon Kaen University currently has a very high rate of registration of body donors, with gender and age differences in the patterns of donation. Registrants include more females than males, a long-standing pattern, and are an average age of 50 years. The bodies of 12% of registrants are received after death and include more males than females. Both sexes are of an average age of 69 years. Males had registered their donation eight years prior to death and females ten years prior. Current registrants identified altruistic motives for their decision to donate, although the coincidence of body donation by a highly revered monk with a surge in donations in 2015 suggests that Buddhism plays a primary role in motivation. The opportunity to make merit for donors and their families, and respect shown to donors and the nature of the ceremonies acknowledging the donors and their families, including the use of the Royal Flame at the cremation ceremony, all contribute to decisions to donate. The characteristics of body donors and the body donation programme at Khon Kaen University are reflective of Thai society and the centrality of Buddhism to Thai culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Galel, Susan A; Williamson, Phillip C; Busch, Michael P; Stanek, Danielle; Bakkour, Sonia; Stone, Mars; Lu, Kai; Jones, Scott; Rossmann, Susan N; Pate, Lisa Lee
Zika virus (ZIKV) has spread in the Americas, including parts of the southern United States, and infection can be associated with serious complications, including congenital brain abnormalities. Probable transfusion transmission of ZIKV has been documented in Brazil. Preemptive testing of blood donations for ZIKV RNA was implemented in southern US states at risk of local transmission using a test approved under a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) investigational new drug application, cobas Zika. Screening was expanded after issuance of an updated FDA guidance. Donations reactive on initial screening were further tested by nucleic acid and antibody tests to determine the donor status. Of 358,786 donations from US states screened by individual donation testing, 23 were initially reactive on cobas Zika. Fourteen of these represented probable ZIKV infection based on reactivity on additional nucleic acid testing or anti-Zika immunoglobulin M. Ten of the 14 donors reported travel to an identified ZIKV-active area within 90 days before donation (median time from end of travel to donation, 25 days; range, 6-71 days). Three donors with travel history also had a potential sexual exposure. Only seven of the 14 donations with probable ZIKV infection were detectable upon 1:6 dilution to simulate minipool testing. The estimated specificity of the cobas Zika test was 99.997%. Screening of donations for ZIKV RNA can interdict ZIKV-infected donors. Donor risk factors include travel more than 4 weeks before donation and sexual exposure. Minipool screening would have detected only 50% of the RNA-positive donations. © 2017 The Authors Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.
This article examines the impact of traditional Chinese culture on organ donation from the perspective of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism. In each of these cultural systems, it appears that there are some particular sayings or remarks that are often taken in modern Chinese society to be contrary to organ donation, especially cadaveric organ donation. However, this article argues that the central concerns of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism are "great love," "ren," and "dao," which can be reasonably interpreted to support organ donation. The author understands that each cultural system, in order to play its cultural function, must have its central concerns as well as relevant ritual practices (li) that incarnate its religious and ethical commitments. That is, each plays a general cultural role, which influences organ donation in particular not merely through abstract or general ethical principles and teachings, but through a combination of ethical teachings and the forming of particular ritual practices. This article contends that the primary reason Chinese individuals fail to donate sufficient cadaveric organs for transplantation is not because particular remarks or sayings from each of these systems appear to conflict with donation. Neither is it that the central concerns of these systems cannot support cadaveric donation. Rather, it is that modern Chinese individuals have failed to develop and secure relevant ritual practices that support the central concerns of organ transplantation. The article concludes that in order to promote more donations, there is a need to form relevant ritual practices supporting organ donation in conformity with the central concerns of these cultural systems.
Conclusion: Office-based NBI flexible laryngoscopy tissue sampling is a cost-saving procedure for patients and the Taiwanese National Health Insurance program. It also saves the procedure time. However, the net financial loss for the institution and physician would limit its popularization unless reimbursement patterns are changed.
Williams, Nicola Jane
For the majority of scholars concerned with the ethics of living organ donation, inflicting moderate harms on competent volunteers in order to save the lives or increase the life chances of others is held to be justifiable provided certain conditions are met. These conditions tend to include one, or more commonly, some combination of the following: (1) The living donor provides valid consent to donation. (2) Living donation produces an overall positive balance of harm-benefit for donors and recipients which cannot be obtained in a less harmful manner. (3) Donation is not liable to cause significant and long-term morbidity to, or the death of, the donor. This paper critically examines the suggestion that these criteria are not sufficient to offer a general account of justified living organ donation in the context of competent volunteers and that key to justified living organ donation is that donors receive sufficient benefits from their donation that these outweigh the harms they suffer. However, although this view-termed here 'The Donor Benefit Standard'-directs welcome attention to the many and complex motives which may underlie living organ donation, this paper ultimately concludes that given the threats this position poses to individual autonomy and the lives of those in need of organ transplants 'The Donor Benefit Standard' should ultimately be rejected.
Rice, Christopher; Tamburlin, Judith
The need for transplant exceeds the number of available organs. Antigen compatible organs are particularly scarce for African Americans because of their proportionately lower rate of donations. This study presents a measure of organ donation readiness. Examination of the factor structure and a test of weak invariance were conducted on…
Harel, Inbal; Kogut, Tehila; Pinchas, Meir; Slovic, Paul
We examine how presentations of organ donation cases in the media may affect people's willingness to sign organ donation commitment cards, donate the organs of a deceased relative, support the transition to an "opt-out" policy, or donate a kidney while alive. We found that providing identifying information about the prospective recipient (whose life was saved by the donation) increased the participants' willingness to commit to organ donation themselves, donate the organs of a deceased relative, or support a transition to an "opt-out" policy. Conversely, identifying the deceased donor tended to induce thoughts of death rather than about saving lives, resulting in fewer participants willing to donate organs or support measures that facilitated organ donation. A study of online news revealed that identification of the donor is significantly more common than identification of the recipient in the coverage of organ donation cases-with possibly adverse effects on the incidence of organ donations.
Cañigueral-Vila, Nuria; Chen, Jennifer C; Frenkel-Rorden, Lindsey; Laing, Richard
Some humanitarian and development organizations respond to major natural disasters and emergencies by donating medicines. Many provide medicines on a routine basis to support health systems, particularly those run by Faith-Based Organizations. Although such donations can provide essential medicines to populations in great need, inappropriate donations also take place, with burdensome consequences. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed the interagency Guidelines for Medicine Donations for use by donors and recipients in the context of emergency aid and international development assistance. Although comprehensive in nature and transferable to various emergency situations, adjustments to both content and formatting would improve this resource. Recommendations for the next version of these guidelines include: specific wording and consistent formatting; definition of who is a recipient, clear distinction between acute and long-term emergencies, and proper donation procedures pertaining to each; inclusion of visual aides such as flowcharts, checklists, and photos; and improving the citations system.
Carver, A; Chell, K; Davison, T E; Masser, B M
Effective recruitment and retention of male donors are vital for the ongoing provision of blood products. Compared with females, male donors are less likely to be medically deferred or experience vasovagal reactions and are typically preferred for plasmapheresis donation in voluntary non-remunerated settings. However, females outnumber males among donors aged under 40 years. This systematic review aimed to synthesize evidence and identify key motivators for blood donation among males to inform targeted recruitment/retention campaigns. Databases (e.g. EBSCOhost, Web of Science) were searched using terms (dona* OR dono*) AND (blood OR aphaeresis OR apheresis OR plasma* OR platelet* OR platlet*) in title AND (male OR gender OR sex OR female) AND (motivat* OR intention OR attitude OR behavi* OR predictor OR barrier OR deter*) NOT (organ OR sperm OR tissue OR autologous OR oocyte) in text. Two researchers independently systematically scanned quantitative, full-text, English language, peer-reviewed publications from 1990 to 2015 that examined males/females separately with outcomes of blood donation or self-reported intention. Two additional researchers resolved discrepancies. Among 28 identified articles, the most frequently cited motivators for male blood product donation were as follows: altruism; positive attitude towards incentives; health check(s); subjective norms. Altruism was less pronounced among males compared with females and was combined with 'warm glow' in novice males (impure altruism). Perceived health benefits and incentives (e.g. coffee mugs) were stronger motivators of males than females. Marketing campaigns for recruitment/retention of male donors should focus on identified motivators rather than take a 'one-size-fits-all' approach. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.
Michaut, Carine; Baumann, Antoine; Gregoire, Hélène; Laviale, Corinne; Audibert, Gérard; Ducrocq, Xavier
Advance announcement of forthcoming brain death has developed to enable intensivists and organ procurement organisation coordinators to more appropriately, and separately from each other, explain to relatives brain death and the subsequent post-mortem organ donation opportunity. Research aim: The aim was to assess how potentially involved healthcare professionals perceived ethical issues surrounding the strategy of advance approach. A multi-centre opinion survey using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire was conducted in the six-member hospitals of the publicly funded East of France regional organ and tissue procurement network called 'Prélor'. The study population comprised 460 physicians and nurses in the Neurosurgical, Surgical and Medical Intensive Care Units, the Stroke Units and the Emergency Departments. Ethical considerations: The project was approved by the board of the Lorraine University Diploma in Medical Ethics and the Prélor Network administrators. A slight majority of 53.5% of respondents had previously participated in an advance relatives approach: 83% of the physicians and 42% of the nurses. A majority of healthcare professionals (68%) think that the main justification for advance relatives approach is the comprehensive care of the dying patient and the research of his or her most likely opinion (74%). The misunderstanding of the related issues by relatives is an obstacle for 47% of healthcare professionals and 51% think that the answer given by the relatives regarding the most likely opinion of the person regarding post-mortem organ donation really corresponds to the person opinion in only 50% of the cases or less. Time given by advance approach should be employed to help and enable relatives to authentically bear the values and interests of the potential donor in the post-mortem organ donation discussion. Nurses' attendance of advance relatives approach seems necessary to enable them to optimally support the families facing death and
Oosthuizen, Charlene Sherryl
Background Benefits of breastfeeding for infants and mothers are well recognized. South Africa has a very low breastfeeding rate. Strategies to improve and promote exclusive breastfeeding rates include implementation of human milk banks (HMB). The North West Province started its first HMB in 2012 and the success and sustainability will depend on numerous factors, including identification of possible barriers to donation or receiving donor human milk. In support of such an in...
Fatores que facilitam e dificultam a entrevista familiar no processo de doação de órgãos e tecidos para transplante Factores que facilitan y dificultan la entrevista familiar en el proceso de donación de órganos y tejidos para transplante Factors that facilitate and hinder family interviews in the process of donating organs and tissues for transplantation
Marcelo José dos Santos
professionals working in Organ Procurement Organizations about the factors that facilitate and hinder family interviews in the process of donating organs and tissues for transplantation. METHODS: This qualitative, phenomenological research used the "structure of the situated-phenomenon" modality. The study included 18 professionals who worked in Organ Procurement Organizations. RESULTS: After analyzing the interviews, the factors that facilitate and hinder family interview were revealed. CONCLUSION: The proposals that emerged revealed that the factors that facilitate and hinder family interview were related to the interview site, assistance provided to potential donors and their families, the explanations provided to the family and the manifestations to the potential donors' lives on the decision regarding organ donation.
Ballen, K K; Verter, F; Kurtzberg, J
Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a graft source for patients with malignant or genetic diseases who can be cured by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but who do not have an appropriately HLA-matched family or volunteer unrelated adult donor. Starting in the 1990s, unrelated UCB banks were established, accepting donations from term deliveries and storing UCB units for public use. An estimated 730 000 UCB units have been donated and stored to date and ~35 000 UCB transplants have been performed worldwide. Over the past 20 years, private and family banks have grown rapidly, storing ~4 million UCB units for a particular patient or family, usually charging an up-front and yearly storage fee; therefore, these banks are able to be financially sustainable without releasing UCB units. Private banks are not obligated to fulfill the same regulatory requirements of the public banks. The public banks have released ~30 times more UCB units for therapy. Some countries have transitioned to an integrated banking model, a hybrid of public and family banking. Today, pregnant women, their families, obstetrical providers and pediatricians are faced with multiple choices about the disposition of their newborn's cord blood. In this commentary, we review the progress of UCB banking technology; we also analyze the current data on pediatric and adult unrelated UCB, including the recent expansion of interest in transplantation for hemoglobinopathies, and discuss emerging studies on the use of autologous UCB for neurologic diseases and regenerative medicine. We will review worldwide approaches to UCB banking, ethical considerations, criteria for public and family banking, integrated banking ideas and future strategies for UCB banking.
Istrate, Melania G; Harrison, Tyler R; Valero, Ricard; Morgan, Susan E; Páez, Gloria; Zhou, Quan; Rébék-Nagy, Gábor; Manyalich, Martí
Training on organ donation and transplantation is relevant for transplantation improvement. This study aimed at investigating the perceived benefits of Transplant Procurement Management training programs on professional competence development and career evolutions of health care workers in organ donation and transplantation. An online survey was developed in 5 languages (Spanish, English, Italian, French, and Portuguese) and its link was emailed to 6839 individuals. They were asked to forward it to other professionals in organ donation and transplantation. The link was also shared on Facebook and at relevant congresses. Two research questions on the perceived influence of specialized training programs were identified. A total of 1102 participants (16.1%) took the survey; 87% reported participating in Transplant Procurement Management training programs, of which 95% selected Transplant Procurement Management courses as the most influential training they had participated in. For research question one, 98% reported influence on knowledge (score 4.5 [out of 5]), 93% on technical (4.2) and communication skills (4.1), 89% on attitude toward organ donation and transplantation (4.1), 92% on motivation to work (4.2), 91% on desire to innovate (4.0), 87% and 79% on ability to change organ donation and trans plantation practices (3.9) and policies (3.5). For research question 2, main and interaction effects for position at the time of training and type of training were reported. Transplant Procurement Management training programs had positive perceived effects.
Dunkel, Anke; Nakamoto, Kent; Schulz, Peter J
Organ transplantation is plagued by limited availability of organs. This study investigated the effect of messages promoting organ donation which were customized according to the language-defined micro-cultures in Switzerland. Community-, informative-, and emotional-oriented messages were carried by conventional flyers. A 3 × 3 between-subjects experiment was conducted with short- and long-term willingness to donate, long-term signing of organ donation card and long-term interpersonal communication on organ donation as outcome variables. The culturally customized interventions appeared to have no immediate effect and consequently no differential effect on willingness to donate organs and on signing a donor card. Among the Swiss Germans, of the three messages, the community-oriented one instigated less interpersonal communication. Findings are consistent with a mechanism in which the message does not have an immediate effect on willingness to donate organs but motivates further thought and related behaviors that lead to higher commitment and later increased willingness to donate. Targeting not only the message but also the objective that drives the messages must be considered. Campaigns should include elements that build on the unfolding commitment process to promote the follow-up actions that lead to greater willingness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Grieco, Daniela; Lacetera, Nicola; Macis, Mario; Di Martino, Daniela
Umbilical cord blood is a source of hematopoietic stem cells essential to treat life-threatening diseases, such as leukemia and lymphoma. However, only a very small percentage of parents donate upon delivery. The decision to donate the cord blood occurs at a very specific time and when parents likely experience emotional, informational, and decisional overloads; these features of cord blood donation make it different from other pro-social activities. In collaboration with an OB-GYN clinic in Milan, Italy, we conducted the first randomized controlled trial that applies tools from behavioral science to foster cord blood donation, and quantified the gains that informational and behavioral "nudges" can achieve. We found that information and "soft" commitments increased donations; approaching expecting parents closer to the delivery date and providing them with multiple reminders, moreover, had the strongest impact. However, a significant portion of women who expressed consent to donate could not do so because of organizational constraints. We conclude that simple, non-invasive behavioral interventions that address information gaps and procrastination, and that increase the salience of the activity can substantially enhance altruistic donations of cord blood, especially when coupled with organizational support.
Randhawa, Gurch; Brocklehurst, Anna; Pateman, Ruth; Kinsella, Suzannah; Parry, Vivienne
This article reports the findings from the one-to-one interviews with the main UK faith and belief leaders which were commissioned by the Organ Donation Taskforce as part of its evidence gathering. Interviews were arranged with the main faith and belief organisations within the UK. Interviews covered a range of issues related to organ donation. Although some faith groups had some reservations regarding organ donation, interviews with these leaders demonstrated that none of these faith groups have reached a consensus against organ donation. The interviewees stated that the majority opinion in their faith or belief group is to permit organ donation, with some actively supporting it. Interviewees were keen to stress that there is a broad spectrum of opinion on organ transplantation within each faith and belief group and that consequently it is difficult to speak on behalf of an entire group. One complication mentioned by interviewees is that as organ transplantation is a relatively new medical procedure, there is no explicit reference to it in many original religious texts. Consequently, positions on the receipt and donation of organs are based on interpretation. It was felt that a much greater level of engagement is needed, as organ donation is currently not a priority for many faith and belief groups.
Full Text Available Canadian income tax law provides incentives for taxpayers to make charitable donations. Since only those donations to charities qualifying as charitable “gifts” are eligible for donation incentives, the definition of gift bodes significant revenue implications for charities and government alike. The Income Tax Act does not, however, define the term gift. The tests applied by courts and regulators to identify gifts in the absence of a statutory definition are contradictory, unnecessarily restrictive, and inconsistent with the tax policy behind donation incentives. The recent attempt to improve the law through the proposed “split-receipting” rules has achieved little in the way of meaningful reform. The ideal solution is to adopt a statutory definition of “charitable donation” that will both broaden and clarify the range of eligible donations. / La loi canadienne de l’impôt sur le revenu prévoit des incitatifs visant à encourager les contribuables à faire des dons. Étant donné que seuls les dons faits aux oeuvres de bienfaisance qui se qualifient en tant que « dons » de bienfaisance peuvent donner droit à ces incitatifs, la définition du terme « don » est porteuse d’importantes répercussions fiscales, tant pour les organisations caritatives que pour le gouvernement. Toutefois, la Loi de l’impôt sur le revenu ne définit pas le terme « don ». Les critères appliqués par les cours et les autorités de réglementation pour identifier ce qui constitue un don, en l’absence d’une définition établie par la loi, sont contradictoires, inutilement restrictives et incohérentes avec la politique fiscale concernant les incitatifs accordés au titre des dons de bienfaisance. La récente tentative d’améliorer la loi avec les règles proposées sur le fractionnement des reçus n’a eu que peu de résultats pour mener à une réforme significative. La solution idéale est d’adopter une définition législative du
Full Text Available Abstract Background This investigation describes features of patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF and embryo transfer (ET where both gametes were obtained from anonymous donors. Methods Gamete unsuitability or loss was confirmed in both members of seven otherwise healthy couples presenting for reproductive endocrinology consultation over a 12-month interval in Ireland. IVF was undertaken with fresh oocytes provided by anonymous donors in Ukraine; frozen sperm (anonymous donor was obtained from a licensed tissue establishment. For recipients, saline-enhanced sonography was used to assess intrauterine contour with endometrial preparation via transdermal estrogen. Results Among commissioning couples, mean±SD female and male age was 41.9 ± 3.7 and 44.6 ± 3.5 yrs, respectively. During this period, female age for non dual anonymous gamete donation IVF patients was 37.9 ± 3 yrs (p Conclusions Mean age of females undergoing dual anonymous donor gamete donation with IVF is significantly higher than the background IVF patient population. Even when neither partner is able to contribute any gametes for IVF, the clinical pregnancy rate per transfer can be satisfactory if both anonymous egg and sperm donation are used concurrently. Our report emphasises the role of pre-treatment counselling in dual anonymous gamete donation, and presents a coordinated screening and treatment approach in IVF where this option may be contemplated.
Kane, Francis; Clement, Grace; Kane, Mary
In this paper, we seek to re-conceptualize the ethical framework through which ethicists and medical professionals view the practice of live kidney donations. The ethics of organ donation has been understood primarily within the framework of individual rights and impartiality, but we show that the ethic of care captures the moral situation of live kidney donations in a more coherent and comprehensive way, and offers guidance for practitioners that is more attentive to the actual moral transactions among donors and recipients. A final section offers guidelines for the practice of live kidney transplants that emerge from an ethic of care.
Shaw, David; Gardiner, Dale; Lewis, Penney; Jansen, Nichon; Wind, Tineke; Samuel, Undine; Georgieva, Denie; Ploeg, Rutger; Broderick, Andrew
In this article, we analyse the potential benefits and disadvantages of permitting healthcare professionals to invoke conscientious objection to deceased organ donation. There is some evidence that permitting doctors and nurses to register objections can ultimately lead to attitudinal change and acceptance of organ donation. However, while there may be grounds for conscientious objection in other cases such as abortion and euthanasia, the life-saving nature of donation and transplantation renders objection in this context more difficult to justify. In general, dialogue between healthcare professionals is a more appropriate solution, and any objections must be justified with a strong rationale in hospitals where such policies are put in place.
S. V. Gautier
Full Text Available Aim. To carry out monitoring of the organization and development of organ donation and transplantation in the Russian Federation according to 2014. Materials and methods. Questioning of heads of all the centers of transplantation is carried out. The comparative analysis of the obtained data in dynamics of years, between certain regions of the Russian Federation, the transplantation centers, and also with data of the international registers is made. Results. According to the Register in 2014 in the Russian Federation functioned 36 centers of kidney transplantation, 14 centers of liver transplantation and 9 centers of heart transplantation. The waiting list of kidney transplantation in 2014 included 4636 potential recipients that makes 16% of total number of the patients 29 000 receiving dialysis. The rate of donor activity in 2014 made 3.2 per million population (pmp. Efficiency of donor programs in 2014 continued to increase: the share of effective donors after brain death in 2014 increased to 77.2%, the share of multiorgan explantation made 50.5%, average number of organs received from one effective donor made 2.6. In 2014 the rate of kidney transplantation made 7.0 pmp, the rate of liver transplantation made 2.1 pmp and the rate of heart transplantation made 1.1 pmp. In the Russian Federation the number of transplantations of liver and heart continues to increase. The significant contribution to development of the organ donation and transplantation brings the Moscow region in which 11 centers of transplantation function and nearly a half from all kidney transplantations and more than 65% of all liver and heart transplantations are carried out. Conclusion. In theRussian Federation the potential for further development of the transplantology remains. In particular, at the expense of increase in the efficiency of regional donation programs, introduction of technologies, expansion of the practices of multiorgan donation and transplantations of
... costs associated with the donation? 102-37.580 Section 102-37.580 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Donations to Public Bodies in Lieu of Abandonment/Destruction § 102-37.580 Who is responsible for costs associated with the donation? The recipient public body...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How should an offer of a donation be made? 2544... NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SOLICITATION AND ACCEPTANCE OF DONATIONS § 2544.135 How should an offer of a donation be made? (a) In general, an offer of donation should be made by providing a letter of tender that...
... property is available for donation? 102-37.40 Section 102-37.40 Public Contracts and Property Management... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.40 What type of surplus property is available for donation? All surplus property (including property held by...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Donation and loan of wildlife specimens... of Wildlife Reduction and Disposal § 31.11 Donation and loan of wildlife specimens. Wildlife specimens may be donated or loaned to public institutions for specific purposes. Donation or loans of...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will accepted donations be recorded and used... FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SOLICITATION AND ACCEPTANCE OF DONATIONS § 2544.150 How will accepted donations be recorded and used? (a) All accepted donations of money and other property will be...
Steven R. Martin
Day-use visitors to the Desolation Wilderness were asked about making voluntary donations at the trailhead. Of the 111 visitors who used one of the four trailheads at which voluntary donations were requested, 55% reported making a donation, with an average reported donation amount of $4.20. Subjects were categorized into three groups: donors, would-be donors, and...
... provider-related donations. 433.67 Section 433.67 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... permissible provider-related donations. (a)(1) Limitations on bona fide donations. There are no limitations on the amount of bona fide provider-related donations that a State may receive without a reduction in FFP...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are some donations... PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Holding Agency § 102-37.125 What are some donations that do not require GSA's approval? (a) Some donations of surplus property that do not require GSA's...
... for donations to public bodies? 102-37.565 Section 102-37.565 Public Contracts and Property Management... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Donations to Public Bodies in Lieu of Abandonment/Destruction § 102-37.565 What is the authority for donations to public bodies? Section 527 of title 40, United...
Diarra, A; Kouriba, B; Baby, M; Murphy, E; Lefrere, J-J
Good data on background seroprevalence of major transfusion transmitted infections is lacking in Mali. We gathered data on the rate of positive donations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and syphilis among blood donations in Mali for calendar year 2007. Donations with repeatedly reactive results on screening enzyme immunoassay (EIA) were considered to be seropositive. Rate of positive donations per blood unit collected was 2.6% for HIV, 3.3% for HCV, 13.9% for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 0.3% for syphilis. For HIV, HBsAg and syphilis, rate of positive donations was significantly (pdonations from replacement donors than those from volunteer donors, while HCV rate of positive donations was similar in the two groups. Rate of positive donations was also significantly (p<0.0001) lower in blood units from regular than from first-time donors. These data reinforce WHO recommendations for increasing the number of regular, volunteer blood donors in Africa.
Clevers, Hans; Loh, Kyle M; Nusse, Roel
Stem cells fuel tissue development, renewal, and regeneration, and these activities are controlled by the local stem cell microenvironment, the "niche." Wnt signals emanating from the niche can act as self-renewal factors for stem cells in multiple mammalian tissues. Wnt proteins are lipid-modified,
Paez, G; Valero, R; Manyalich, M
Successes in organ donation and transplantation programs are directly evidence-based education. Transplant Procurement Management (TPM) is an international educational project on organ donation and transplantation. Our purpose was to evaluate the TPM educational project. We compared the data of 17 years of experience, strategies, and methods. We retrospectively performed a descriptive analysis of all educational activities developed between 1991 and 2008. We identified 7 crucial points. (1) In 1991, TPM was started under the auspices of the University of Barcelona (UB) and the National Spanish Transplant Organization (ONT; national training, face-to-face). (2) In 1994, TPM became international (international advanced training and country-based). (3) Since 1997 in Italy and 2006 in France, national training courses were organized adapting the same methodologies as the advanced international TPM courses. TPM also implemented short (1-3 days) introductory courses worldwide. (4) In 2002, the e-learning platform program was launched to facilitate the education of professionals. (5) In 2005, an international master's degree was created at UB under the Life-Long Learning Institute (IL3). (6) In 2006, the courses were expanded to include pregraduate health science faculties with the International Project on Education and Research in Donation at University of Barcelona (PIERDUB). (7) In 2007, the European-funded European Training Program on Organ Donation (ETPOD) project was started. Currently, TPM offers face-to-face, e-learning, and blended international courses. As of 2008, TPM has trained 6498 professionals in 89 countries on 5 continents. TPM has impacted positively on the various essential levels in the process of organ donation and transplantation, with lifelong follow-up and an international network through the capacity to adapt to specific country needs as well as continuous quality improvement thanks to the collaboration of expert teachers and consultants.
Allen, M B; Reese, P P
Recommendations from the 2014 Consensus Conference on Best Practices in Living Kidney Donation reflect increasing attention to overcoming barriers to donation as a means of expanding access to living donor kidney transplantation. "High priority" initiatives include empowering transplant candidates and their loved ones in their search for a living kidney donor. Transplant programs are assuming an unprecedented role as facilitators of patients' solicitation for donors, and nonprofits are promoting living kidney donation (LKD) in the community. New strategies to promote LKD incorporate "nonargumentative" forms of influence (i.e. approaches to shaping behavior that do not attempt to persuade through reason) such as appeals to emotion, messenger effects and social norms. These approaches have raised ethical concerns in other settings but have received little attention in the transplantation literature despite their increasing relevance. Previous work on using nonargumentative influence to shape patient behavior has highlighted implications for (1) the relationship between influencer and influenced and (2) patient autonomy. We argue that using nonargumentative influence to promote LKD is a promising strategy that can be compatible with ethical standards. We also outline potential concerns and solutions to be implemented in practice. © Copyright 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Estressores vivenciados pelos familiares no processo de doação de órgãos e tecidos para transplante Estresores experimentados por los familiares en el proceso de donación de órganos y tejidos para transplante Stressor experienced by family members in the process of organ and tissue donation for transplant
Valdir Moreira Cinque
variables de interés con la experiencia de la familia. Concluyendo, el proceso de donación de órganos es estresante para la familia, y la atención de enfermería se vuelve necesaria en cada etapa de la donación, brindando apoyo para disminuir el sufrimiento de los familiares.The purpose of the present study is to identify the stressors experienced by family members during the process of organ donation, evince the most distressful moment of the process and verify the association of variable with the family members' experience. The sample consisted of 16 family members that were making the donation through a Organ Search Organization, in São Paulo, in 2007. A structured instrument was used, containing question addressing the family members' experience and their evaluation of the donation process. The main stressors reported were: dissatisfaction with the service (31.25%; receiving a harsh notification about the individual's brain death (62.50%; and the wait to release the body (62.50%, which was considered the most distressful moment of the process. Using the phi coefficient, it was found that there was a moderate association between the variables of interest with the family's experience. In conclusion, the donation process is stressful on the family and nursing care is necessary in each stage of the process to offer support and reduce the distress on the family members.
Leiden, H; Haase-Kromwijk, B; Hoitsma, A; Jansen, N
The Netherlands was one of the first countries in Europe to stimulate controlled donation after circulatory death (cDCD) at a national level in addition to donation after brain death (DBD). With this program the number of organ transplants increased, but it also proved to have challenges as will be shown in this 15-year review. Data about deceased organ donation in the Netherlands, from 2000 until 2014, were analysed taking into account the whole donation process from donor referral to the number of organs transplanted. Donor referral increased by 58%, from 213 to 336 donors per year, and the number of organs transplanted rose by 42%. Meanwhile the contribution of cDCD donors increased from 14% in 2000 to 54% in 2014 among all referrals. The organs were transplanted from 92-99% of referred DBD donors, but this percentage was significantly lower for cDCD donors and also decreased from 86% in 2000-2002 to 67% in 2012-2014. In 16% of all referred cDCD donors, organs were not recovered because donors did not die within the expected two-hour time limit after withdrawal of life- upporting treatment. Furthermore, cDCD is more often performed at a higher donor age, which is associated with a lower percentage of transplanted organs. Although cDCD resulted in more transplants, the effort in donor recruitment is considerably higher. Important challenges in cDCD that need further attention are the time limit after withdrawal of life-supporting treatment and donor age, as well as the possibilities to stimulate non-renal transplants including the heart by machine preservation.
Rabiu, T B; Oshola, H A; Adebayo, B O
Organ transplantation is a developing field in Nigeria, and availability of organs for donation would be a determining factor of the success of the transplant programs. Patients with brainstem death (BSD) are a major source of organs for transplantation. The level of knowledge of BSD as well as attitudes toward organ donation are very important determinants of people's willingness or otherwise to donate organs. We conducted a survey of relations of our in-service neurosurgical patients to assess their knowledge of brainstem death and attitude toward organ donation. To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind among the growing Nigerian neurosurgery patient and patient-relations population. Convenience sampling of randomly selected relations of neurosurgical patients on admission using interviewer-administered questionnaires was performed. Demographic information and information about brainstem death, attitude toward brainstem death, knowledge of organ donation, and attitude toward organ donation were obtained. The study comprised 127 respondents with a mean age of 36 years (range, 19-72). The majority of the respondents (87, 62.4%) were Christians, 122 (96.1%) were Yorubas, and 66 (52.0%) were women. Eighty-five (66.9%) of the respondents had at least a secondary level of education, and 77 (60.6%) were of low socioeconomic status. Twenty-eight (22.2%) of the respondents had heard of brainstem death. Twenty-six (92.9%) of those who had heard of brainstem death believed that the brain could die long before life finally ceases. One hundred twenty-five (98.4%) of the respondents believed that death only occurs when both breathing and heartbeat stop, and 107 (83.6%) would agree with the physician on a diagnosis of brainstem death in the relation. Sixty-five (51.2%) would want such patients put on a ventilator, and, of these, 43 (66.2%) would want such patients on the ventilator in hope that he or she may recover. One hundred twelve (88.2%) of the relations were
Lee, Allie; Ni, Michael Y; Luk, Amanda C K; Lau, Jessie K P; Lam, Karen S Y; Li, Tom K; Wong, Catherine S M; Wong, Victoria W Y
Corneal transplantation is the treatment of choice for many corneal diseases. At present, there is a global shortage of corneal transplant tissues, and failure to obtain consent from families of potential donors is a major limiting factor in tissue procurement. All family members of potential donors after cardiac death approached by the local eye bank staff members from January 2008 to December 2014 in Hong Kong were included. Reasons for consent or refusal and sociodemographic details of the deceased and the family members approached were reviewed. Trends in consent rates from 2008 to 2014 were examined. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to examine determinants of donation among cases from 2013 to 2014. A total of 1740 cases were identified. The overall consent rate was 36.8%, and the consent rate did not change significantly over the 7-year study period (P = 0.24). The most common reason for consent by family members was "the wish to help others" (86.0%), and the most common reason for refusal was "traditional Chinese culture to keep the body intact after death" (42.7%). From the multivariable analysis in the subset of cases from 2013 to 2014 (n = 628), family members were more likely to consent when the deceased was female (adjusted odds ratio 1.45, P = 0.03), with a do-not-resuscitate order (adjusted odds ratio 2.27, P < 0.001). The consent rate for eye donation did not change significantly from 2008 to 2014. Our findings suggest that health education and promotion campaigns need to address cultural barriers to organ donation.
Conclusion: Despite positive attitudes towards posthumous organ donation, college students are hesitant to become donors because of lack of knowledge/publicity; cultural disdain; and lack of governmental assurance.
Frutos, M A; Mansilla, J J; Ruiz, P; Guerrero, F; Lebrón, M; Ortuño, R; Daga, D; Carballo, M
Organs donated from persons born outside Spain are becoming increasingly numerous. These persons now account for 26.1% of all donors in the "Malaga sector," an area of tourism with a high percentage of immigrants. Acceptance to donation among persons from Europe and South America is similar to that of Spanish persons but lower among those born in Africa. We must recognize the great help that cultural mediators provided not only by assistance with the language barrier but also by generating confidence among families and understanding their emotions, feelings, and traditions, mainly during interviews with families from different social and cultural miliere. To be efficient, the interpreters or cultural mediators need to have received specific training in the organ donation process and to be involved and convinced that organ donation and transplantation is the best solution for severe health problems.
Heng, B C
The rising demand for donor oocytes in developed countries has led to what is referred to as transnational or international oocyte donation, or the outsourcing of oocyte donation to poorer countries. In a further twist, frozen sperm from a recipient's partner can also be mailed to a foreign clinic to fertilize donor oocytes, and the resulting embryos are mailed back, cryopreserved, for transfer to the recipient. Among the numerous ethical concerns raised by this practice of mail order oocyte donation, the most obvious are that underprivileged women from poorer countries are often exploited; fertility physicians from richer counties abdicate responsibility for the welfare of donors; and responsibility could become an issue of contention if transmission of disease to the oocyte recipient or congenital defects in offspring born from such oocyte donation were to occur. Moreover, savings from utilizing donors from poorer countries ought to be shared with oocyte recipients.
... driver's license or state ID card. Donate the gift of life. OrganDonor.gov. http://www.organdonor.gov. Accessed Feb. 11, 2016. Organ procurement and transplantation network: Uniting people and information to ...
have been employed in an attempt to address this problem. ... as possible to ascertain whether public attitudes to organ donation in ..... Kahn D, McCurdie F, Michaelides A. Socioeconomic factors, as well as race, impact on consent rates.
Nivea Coelho Degasperi
Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study is to identify external motivating factors that favor individual money donation. Methodologically, we adopted a descriptive and quantitative cross-sectional study. In order to collect data, we prepared a questionnaire containing 49 statements based on external motivating variables of regular individual money donation found in the literature on the subject. After testing the questionnaire, we applied it to 1073 Brazilians, regular money donors and we performed an exploratory factor analysis. Conclusively, we identified 8 external factors that motivate individual money donation: Trust, Reward, Leadership influences, Characteristics of the organization, Environmental influences, Personal benefits, Characteristics of beneficiaries and Future Interests. We expect that these 8 factors combined, could become a useful tool to improve the management of charitable organizations, especially in defining campaigns or other marketing strategies to attract new donors and raise funds on occasions that are favorable to individual money donation.
Newman, Bruce H
Approximately 3% to 3.5% of the US population donates whole blood each year. Physicians might be approached by a blood donor because of a donor suitability issue, a positive postdonation test, or a donation-related complication. Approximately 83% of blood donors successfully donate; but 13% are rejected because of a donor suitability issue; 1% have a positive test, which is often nonspecific or false-positive; and 2% to 4% of the phlebotomies are not successful. The most common adverse physical events based on donor interviews are bruise (23%), sore arm (10%), fatigue (8%), and vasovagal reaction (7%), while uncommon events include nerve irritation (0.9%), syncope (0.1-0.3%), and arterial puncture (0.01%). One in 3400 donors (0.033%) report seeking outside medical care. Serious injuries occur but are very rare. More often, blood donors do well and feel satisfied with the blood donation experience.
Singleton, Ashley; Spratling, Regena
Historically, African Americans (AAs) have been underrepresented as blood donors. Having a lack of racially diverse blood donors contributes to transfusion complications, particularly in patients with sickle cell disease, who are both disproportionately AA and the recipients of frequent transfusions. Increasing AA blood donation is a complex public health issue. This review article serves to fill a gap in translating research regarding known hindrances and facilitators of AA blood donation to improve real-world donation practice and ultimately, patient outcomes. We incorporate findings from a literature review to develop a tool that blood centers, provider organizations, and patient advocacy groups can use to aid strategic planning efforts aimed at increasing AA blood donation.
AJRH Managing Editor
Most felt surrogates should not be paid. Acceptance ... Keywords: infertility, IVF, gamete donation, surrogacy, Nigeria ... The International Federation of ... of exploiting the surrogate, who is often of a lower ..... Surrogacy Arrangements Act 1985.
Maggiore, Umberto; Budde, Klemens; Heemann, Uwe
Two recent matched cohort studies from the USA and Norway published in 2014 have raised some concerns related to the long-term safety of kidney living donation. Further studies on the long-term risks of living donation have since been published. In this position paper, Developing Education Science...... and Care for Renal Transplantation in European States (DESCARTES) board members critically review the literature in an effort to summarize the current knowledge concerning long-term risks of kidney living donation to help physicians for decision-making purposes and for providing information...... to the prospective live donors. Long-term risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) can be partially foreseen by trying to identify donors at risk of developing ‘de novo’ kidney diseases during life post-donation and by predicting lifetime ESRD risk. However, lifetime risk may be difficult to assess in young donors...
influence of cultural beliefs, racial prejudices and super- stitions on public attimdes ... added, free of charge, to existing market research ques- tionnaires. ..... changing attitude. The Xhosa ... lack of knowledge about brain death, organ donation.
Fang, Tuan-Jen; Li, Hsueh-Yu; Liao, Chun-Ta; Chiang, Hui-Chen; Chen, I-How
Narrow band imaging (NBI)-guided flexible laryngoscopy tissue sampling for laryngopharyngeal lesions is a novel technique. Patients underwent the procedure in an office-based setting without being sedated, which is different from the conventional technique performed using direct laryngoscopy. Although the feasibility and effects of this procedure were established, its financial impact on the institution and Taiwanese National Health Insurance program was not determined. This is a retrospective case-control study. From May 2010 to April 2011, 20 consecutive patients who underwent NBI flexible laryngoscopy tissue sampling were recruited. During the same period, another 20 age-, sex-, and lesion-matched cases were enrolled in the control group. The courses for procedures and financial status were analyzed and compared between groups. Office-based NBI flexible laryngoscopy tissue sampling procedure took 27 minutes to be completed, while 191 minutes were required for the conventional technique. Average reimbursement for each case was New Taiwan Dollar (NT$)1264 for patients undergoing office-based NBI flexible laryngoscopy tissue sampling, while NT$10,913 for those undergoing conventional direct laryngoscopy in the operation room (p institution suffered a loss of at least NT$690 when performing NBI flexible laryngoscopy tissue sampling. Office-based NBI flexible laryngoscopy tissue sampling is a cost-saving procedure for patients and the Taiwanese National Health Insurance program. It also saves the procedure time. However, the net financial loss for the institution and physician would limit its popularization unless reimbursement patterns are changed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Background: Renal transplantation is the optimal treatment for the majority of patients with end-stage renal disease. Objective: To examine the donor characteristics of kidney transplants in Syria and the impact of national Syrian legislation on the evolution of kidney transplantation activities in the private and public sectors. Methods: Available data on all kidney transplants performed in Syria over the last 2 decades was retrospectively analyzed to assess the characteristics of kidney don...
Donation of fresh breastmilk in neonatology is subject to guidelines set out in a 1997 memorandum and recommendations issued in 2005. The results of a survey carried out in 2013 show that practices in this area vary greatly from one neonatology unit to another. There is a clear need to adopt a national consensus regarding the conditions of this donation in neonatology, in order to adapt and standardise practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Ashkenazi, Tamar; Klein, Moti
CONTEXT-Most reports on organ donation have been related to the importance of support for families, explanations of brain death, and the appeal for organ donation. In contrast, no reports have addressed organ donation from the perspective of intervention in cases of "sudden mourning" and the practical aspects of how to facilitate donation in such cases. OBJECTIVE-To develop a specific strategy for professional intervention in cases of imminent death to bring the family to a state of cognitive and emotional preparedness that will enable them to accept the tragic news, donate organs, and then take leave of the deceased. METHOD-The strategy presented here was developed on the basis of the records of donor coordinators who documented their interaction with families; consultations with professionals in the fields of marketing, persuasion, and negotiating; research conducted on families who did or did not donate organs; and statements made by family members of donors in focus and support groups in more than 10 years. RESULTS-The strategic approach includes early-stage rules such as staff self-awareness, and then later, critical stages of the process that take place before and at the time of determination of brain death: preparation for and the notification of death itself and the request for organ donation, including persuasion skills, coping with resistance and expressions of anger, and physical leave-taking from the deceased. CONCLUSIONS-The flexible, strategic approach set out here is designed to maximize the chances of procuring organ donation while protecting the family's rights and welfare.
Carroll, Katherine E; Lenne, Brydan S; McEgan, Kerri; Opie, Gillian; Amir, Lisa H; Bredemeyer, Sandra; Hartmann, Ben; Jones, Rachel; Koorts, Pieter; McConachy, Helen; Mumford, Patricia; Polverino, Jan
Lactation and breast milk can hold great value and meaning for grieving mothers who have experienced a recent death of an infant. Donation to a human milk bank (HMB) as an alternative to discarding breast milk is one means of respecting the value of breast milk. There is little research, national policy discussion, or organizational representation in Australia on the subject of breast milk donation after infant death. On 29 November 2013 the Mercy Hospital for Women in Melbourne, Australia ho...
Rucinski, Dianne; Jones, Risé; Reyes, Brenda; Tidwell, Lawon; Phillips, RoiAnn; Delves, Denise
Despite higher birth rates among non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, the availability of umbilical cord blood from these groups is lower due to lower donation rates than that of non-Hispanic whites. Similar racial and ethnic disparities in donation rates have been found for blood and organ donation. This study is among the first to explore beliefs and attitudes toward umbilical cord blood donation among Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women. Five focus groups composed of Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women were conducted to explore how women conceptualize information needs about umbilical cord blood donation and from whom women want to receive information about donation. Participants were adult women who had given birth within the past year or were pregnant. Lack of basic information regarding umbilical cord blood, its harvesting and use, and the steps and conditions necessary to donate were primary barriers to donation. Women expressed confusion over the differences between "donation" and "banking." The social value of donation was explicitly weighed in terms of the cost of the donation effort. Doctors were viewed as critical sources for information about donation, although women expressed skepticism about doctors' ability to convey sufficient information during short office visits. Efforts to increase donation rates among Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women should include information about both the technical aspects and the social value of donation. The specific terms "umbilical" and "donation" should be used consistently to prevent misunderstanding. Information should be provided by physicians with follow-up by other health providers.
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The adequacy of blood depends on blood donation rates and numbers of blood donors. To prepare adequate blood supplies, it is essential to investigate the barriers and factors that stop individuals from donating. This study aimed to identify the causes of lapsed donation at our center. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study of volunteer blood donors in Shiraz, Iran. METHODS: We selected 850 donors who had donated between January 1, 2005 and June 1, 2005, but had not donated again by June 2008. The participants were recruited by letter and telephone, and were interviewed using a specially designed questionnaire that contained items on demographic characteristics, donor motivations and reasons for not returning to donate. We used the chi-square test to identify associations between lapsed donor characteristics and reasons for declining to donate. RESULTS: The greatest motivation for donation was altruism. The most frequent reasons for lapsed donation were lack of time because of work and self-exclusion for medical reasons. Among first-time donors, the most frequent reasons were unsuitability for donation and lack of time. CONCLUSIONS: The reasons for not returning to donate are varied and may correlate with demographic characteristics. In this study, the main reason for not returning was lack of time. Changing donation hours so that donors can donate after work, providing mobile teams at workplaces, and shortening the duration of the donation process may help increase repeat donation rates.
Fang, Tuan-Jen; Li, Hsueh-Yu; Liao, Chun-Ta; Chiang, Hui-Chen; Chen, I-How
Narrow band imaging (NBI)-guided flexible laryngoscopy tissue sampling for laryngopharyngeal lesions is a novel technique. Patients underwent the procedure in an office-based setting without being sedated, which is different from the conventional technique performed using direct laryngoscopy. Although the feasibility and effects of this procedure were established, its financial impact on the institution and Taiwanese National Health Insurance program was not determined. Methods: This is a ...
Tumin, Makmor; Noh, Abdillah; Mohd Satar, Nurulhuda; Chin-Sieng, Chong; Soo-Kun, Lim; Abdullah, Nawi; Kok-Peng, Ng
The aim of this paper is to look into the factors influencing Malaysian Muslims' decision to become deceased organ donors in Malaysia. We approached 900 Malaysian Muslims and 779 participated in our survey, conducted in Kuala Lumpur and its suburb. We examined their willingness to become donors and the willing donors were asked why they did not pledge to become donors. Non-donors were asked why they refuse to become donors. The survey found the main reason for Malaysian Muslims not pledging their organs was due to their lack of information on organ donation and/or their lack of confidence in the government's ability to properly administer organ donation procedures. Another interesting finding is that religion is not a main deterrent to organ donation. The survey suggests that Malaysia can explore many ways to encourage organ donation without having to resort to the highly controversial financial incentive option. A key to Malaysia's success or failure to increase organ donation rate lies in its ability to persuade its Muslim population (its largest population) to donate organs. This can be done by adopting a segmented, focused, and highly localized form of public education and by leveraging on existing networks involving local religious and community leaders as well as government and non-governmental institutions.
Zhu, Xiaodong; Wang, Yue; Li, Bangyi
Remanufactured products offer better environmental benefits, and governments encourage manufacturers to remanufacture through various subsidy policies. This practice has shown that, in addition to product sales, remanufactured product can also achieve its value through social donation. Based on the remanufactured product value realization approaches, governments provide two kinds of incentive policies, which are remanufactured product sales subsidies and remanufactured product donation subsidies. This paper constructs a two-stage Stackelberg game model including a government and a manufacturer under two different policies, which can be solved by backward induction. By comparing the optimal decision of the two policies, our results show that, compared with the remanufacturing sales subsidy, donation subsidy weakens the cannibalization of remanufactured products for new products and increases the quantity of new products. It reduces the sales quantity of remanufactured products, but increases their total quantity. Under certain conditions of low subsidy, the manufacturer adopting sales subsidy provides better economic and environmental benefits. Under certain conditions of high subsidy, the manufacturer adopting donation subsidy offers better economic and environmental benefits. When untreated product environmental impact is large enough, donation subsidy policy has a better social welfare. Otherwise, the choice of social welfare of these two different policies depends on the social impact of remanufactured product donated. PMID:29194411
Zhu, Xiaodong; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Yue; Li, Bangyi
Remanufactured products offer better environmental benefits, and governments encourage manufacturers to remanufacture through various subsidy policies. This practice has shown that, in addition to product sales, remanufactured product can also achieve its value through social donation. Based on the remanufactured product value realization approaches, governments provide two kinds of incentive policies, which are remanufactured product sales subsidies and remanufactured product donation subsidies. This paper constructs a two-stage Stackelberg game model including a government and a manufacturer under two different policies, which can be solved by backward induction. By comparing the optimal decision of the two policies, our results show that, compared with the remanufacturing sales subsidy, donation subsidy weakens the cannibalization of remanufactured products for new products and increases the quantity of new products. It reduces the sales quantity of remanufactured products, but increases their total quantity. Under certain conditions of low subsidy, the manufacturer adopting sales subsidy provides better economic and environmental benefits. Under certain conditions of high subsidy, the manufacturer adopting donation subsidy offers better economic and environmental benefits. When untreated product environmental impact is large enough, donation subsidy policy has a better social welfare. Otherwise, the choice of social welfare of these two different policies depends on the social impact of remanufactured product donated.
Israni, A K; Zaun, D; Rosendale, J D; Snyder, J J; Kasiske, B L
The status of deceased organ donation is assessed using several metrics, including donation/conversion rate (how often at least one organ is recovered for transplant from an eligible death), organ yield (ratio of observed/expected numbers of organs transplanted), and rate of organs discarded (number of organs discarded divided by the number of organs recovered for transplant). The 2012 donation/conversion rate was 72.5. eligible donors per 100 eligible deaths, slightly lower than the 2011 rate but higher than in previous years. The 2011-2012 yield ratio varied by donation service area from 0.91 (fewer organs transplanted per donor than expected) to 1.09 (more than expected), and also varied for specific organs. The mean number of organs transplanted per donor in 2012 was 3.02, lower than in 2011 and 2010; this number varied by donation service area from 2.04 to 3.76. The number of organs discarded is calculated by subtracting the number of organs transplanted from the number recovered for transplant; this number is used to calculate the discard rate. The discard rate in 2012 for all organs combined was 0.14 per recovered organ, slightly higher than in 2011 and 2011; it varied by donation service area and organ type. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Embryo donation produces a family structure where neither rearing parent is genetically related to the child, as in adoption. It is not known how embryo donation parents view the donors compared with how adoptive parents view the birth parents. 21 couples with an embryo donation child aged 2-5 years were compared with 28 couples with an adopted child. Parents were administered a semi-structured interview, assessing knowledge of the donors/birth parents, frequency of thoughts and discussions about the donors/birth parents and disclosure of the donor conception/adoption to the child. Comparisons were made between mothers and fathers to examine gender differences. Embryo donation parents generally knew only the donors' physical characteristics, and thought about and talked about the donors less frequently than adoptive parents thought about and talked about the birth parents. Embryo donation fathers tended to think about the donors less often than did mothers. Disclosure of the child's origins in embryo donation families was far less common than in adoptive families (P parents' views on the donors differ from adoptive parents' views on the birth parents, with donors having little significance in family life once treatment is successful.
Rashev, P Z; Mintchev, M P; Bowes, K L
The aim of this study was to develop a novel three-dimensional (3-D) object-oriented modeling approach incorporating knowledge of the anatomy, electrophysiology, and mechanics of externally stimulated excitable gastrointestinal (GI) tissues and emphasizing the "stimulus-response" principle of extracting the modeling parameters. The modeling method used clusters of class hierarchies representing GI tissues from three perspectives: 1) anatomical; 2) electrophysiological; and 3) mechanical. We elaborated on the first four phases of the object-oriented system development life-cycle: 1) analysis; 2) design; 3) implementation; and 4) testing. Generalized cylinders were used for the implementation of 3-D tissue objects modeling the cecum, the descending colon, and the colonic circular smooth muscle tissue. The model was tested using external neural electrical tissue excitation of the descending colon with virtual implanted electrodes and the stimulating current density distributions over the modeled surfaces were calculated. Finally, the tissue deformations invoked by electrical stimulation were estimated and represented by a mesh-surface visualization technique.
Sills, Eric Scott
Abstract Background This investigation describes features of patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) where both gametes were obtained from anonymous donors. Methods Gamete unsuitability or loss was confirmed in both members of seven otherwise healthy couples presenting for reproductive endocrinology consultation over a 12-month interval in Ireland. IVF was undertaken with fresh oocytes provided by anonymous donors in Ukraine; frozen sperm (anonymous donor) was obtained from a licensed tissue establishment. For recipients, saline-enhanced sonography was used to assess intrauterine contour with endometrial preparation via transdermal estrogen. Results Among commissioning couples, mean±SD female and male age was 41.9 ± 3.7 and 44.6 ± 3.5 yrs, respectively. During this period, female age for non dual anonymous gamete donation IVF patients was 37.9 ± 3 yrs (p < 0.001). Infertility duration was ≥3 yrs for couples enrolling in dual gamete donation, and each had ≥2 prior failed fertility treatments using native oocytes. All seven recipient couples proceeded to embryo transfer, although one patient had two transfers. Clinical pregnancy was achieved for 5\\/7 (71.4%) patients. Non-transferred cryopreserved embryos were available for all seven couples. Conclusions Mean age of females undergoing dual anonymous donor gamete donation with IVF is significantly higher than the background IVF patient population. Even when neither partner is able to contribute any gametes for IVF, the clinical pregnancy rate per transfer can be satisfactory if both anonymous egg and sperm donation are used concurrently. Our report emphasises the role of pre-treatment counselling in dual anonymous gamete donation, and presents a coordinated screening and treatment approach in IVF where this option may be contemplated.
Christopher W. White
Full Text Available Cardiac transplantation has become limited by a critical shortage of suitable organs from brain-dead donors. Reports describing the successful clinical transplantation of hearts donated after circulatory death (DCD have recently emerged. Hearts from DCD donors suffer significant ischemic injury prior to organ procurement; therefore, the traditional approach to the transplantation of hearts from brain-dead donors is not applicable to the DCD context. Advances in our understanding of ischemic post-conditioning have facilitated the development of DCD heart resuscitation strategies that can be used to minimize ischemia-reperfusion injury at the time of organ procurement. The availability of a clinically approved ex situ heart perfusion device now allows DCD heart preservation in a normothermic beating state and minimizes exposure to incremental cold ischemia. This technology also facilitates assessments of organ viability to be undertaken prior to transplantation, thereby minimizing the risk of primary graft dysfunction. The application of a tailored approach to DCD heart transplantation that focuses on organ resuscitation at the time of procurement, ex situ preservation, and pre-transplant assessments of organ viability has facilitated the successful clinical application of DCD heart transplantation. The transplantation of hearts from DCD donors is now a clinical reality. Investigating ways to optimize the resuscitation, preservation, evaluation, and long-term outcomes is vital to ensure a broader application of DCD heart transplantation in the future.
Muhammet Ali TİLTAY; Behçet Yalın ÖZKARA
Nonprofit organizations provide products and services via online shopping websites in order to procure financial sources. The consumers that purchase these products and services both make donations and fulfill their needs. This study examines the role of donation motivations and online purchase elements on purchase intention. The study, which has been conducted via taking the online store of the Foundation for Children with Leukemia, lsvdukkan.com, has found out that the online purchase eleme...
Czeizler, Amalia; Garbarino, Ellen
The research extends construal theory by testing if a match between the temporal construal framing of a blood donation decision and a blood donation request leads to higher donation intentions than a mismatch. Results show participants considering future donation who read an abstract donation request have significantly higher donation intentions than those who read a concrete request. Conversely, participants considering donating today who read a concrete donation request have significantly higher donation intentions than those who read an abstract request. This study confirms the importance of matching the construal framing of the communication to the temporal framing of the decision.
Haimov-Kochman, Ronit; Har-Nir, Ruth; Ein-Mor, Eliana; Ben-Shoshan, Vered; Greenfield, Caryn; Eldar, Ido; Bdolah, Yuval; Hurwitz, Arye
Studies suggest that global semen quality is declining, but the debate remains open owing to geographic variation. To evaluate temporal trends of sperm parameters - namely concentration, motility and total motile sperm count - in sperm donated during the period 1995-2009. In a retrospective longitudinal cohort study we analyzed the sperm count and motility of 2182 semen samples provided on a weekly basis by 58 young, healthy, fertile, university-educated, paid donors. Despite the lowering of criteria for sperm parameters satisfactory for donation that were implemented in 2004, 38% of applicants for sperm donation are now rejected based on semen quality as compared to a third of applicants 10-15 years ago (P average sperm parameters dropped from a concentration of 106 +/- 25 million spermatozoa/ml with 79% +/- 4.3% motility to 68 +/- 14 million/ ml with 66% +/- 4.5% motile sperm (P sperm count per ejaculate also decreased, from 66.4 +/- 18.2 million to 48.7 +/- 12 million (P sperm donors, only 18% of donors had an acceptable sperm quality, with an average concentration of 87 +/- 12 million spermatozoa/ml, 73% +/- 2.6% motile sperm and total motile sperm count of 53.1 +/- 3.8 million per ejaculate - still significantly lower than 15 years ago (P= 0.01, P= 0.003, P= 0.058 respectively). The rapid deterioration of sperm quality among fertile semen donors is alarming and may lead to cessation of sperm donation programs.
Oocyte donation (OD), a technique successfully used in Assisted reproductive techniques (ART), has been effective for 20 years as the palliative treatment of certain exocrine ovarian failures. Its indications have also been extended to cover some genetic diseases and documented occult ovarian insufficiency. In France, after an extensive judicial and ethical deliberation, OD was deemed legal and its practice was proscribed in the Bioethics Laws 94-653 and 94-654 of 29 July 1994. Its essential underlying principles are: voluntary, free, anonymous and confidential OD; according to a French decree to meet safety concerns, OD-derived embryos must be quarantined for six months. In vitro fertilization (IVF) programs using donated oocytes are conducted in authorized centers under the responsibility of physicians authorized to retrieve and manipulate donated oocytes. The managers of these programs are the system's keystone, as their role includes, among other, the verification of indications, legal documents, public health safety, anonymous pairing of donor and recipient, and the collection of outcome data. At present, depending of the year, French programs have achieved 17-22% clinical pregnancy rates from transferred OD-derived frozen-thawed embryos, and follow-up studies reported excellent results concerning family relationships, and the physical and psychological development of the children. However, difficulties encountered in the daily practice of OD have led concerned physicians to form the Study group for OD (GEDO) to explore different topics with the aim of improving the overall management of this form of ART. We discussed these points herein, in comparison with the approaches of other European countries.
Rita C. Mousinho-Ribeiro
Full Text Available Iron is a vital element in the human metabolism. It plays a central role in erythropoiesis and is also involved in many other intracellular processes in all the tissues of the body. Blood donation results in a substantial (200 to 250 ng loss of iron at each donation (425 to 475 ml with subsequent mobilization of iron from body deposits. Repetitive donations of blood my cause the depletion of iron reserves in blood donors and thus cause health disorders. Recent reports have shown that iron reserves are generally small and iron depletion is more common in blood donors than in non-donors. The high frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors reported by these studies suggests a need for more accurate studies, as measurement of hemoglobin and hematicrit alone is insufficient to identify and exclude prospective blood donors with iron deficiency but without anemia. It is important, therefore, that blood banks evaluate the risk-benefit of implanting tests to analyze organism iron reserves such as the measurement of serum ferritin of all individuals who donate more than three times per year in order to make the blood donation process safer for both donors and transfused patients.
V. V. Uyba
Full Text Available In the period from 2005 to December 2015, 37 transplantations of vascularized composite facial tissue allografts (VCAs were performed in the world. A vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation has been recognized as a solid organ transplantation rather than a special kind of tissue transplantation. The recent classification of composite tissue allografts into the category of donor organs gave rise to a number of organizational, ethical, legal, technical, and economic problems. In May 2015, the first successful transplantation of a composite facial tissue allograft was performed in Russia. The article describes our experience of multiple team interactions at donor management stage when involved in the identification, conditioning, harvesting, and delivering donor organs to various hospitals. A man, aged 51 years old, diagnosed with traumatic brain injury became a donor after the diagnosis of brain deathhad been made, his death had been ascertained, and the requested consent for organ donation had been obtained from relatives. At donor management stage, a tracheostomy was performed and a posthumous facial mask was molded. The "face first, concurrent completion" algorithm was chosen for organ harvesting and facial VCA procurement; meanwhile, the facial allograft was procured as the "full face" category. The total surgery duration from the incision to completing the procurement (including that of solid organs made 8 hours 20 minutes. Immediately after the procurement, the facial VCA complex was sent to the St. Petersburg clinic by medical aircraft transportation, and was there transplanted 9 hours later. Donor kidneys were transported to Moscow bycivil aviation and transplanted 17 and 20 hours later. The authors believe that this clinical case report demonstrates the feasibility and safety of multiple harvesting of solid organs and a vascularized composite facial tissue allograft. However, this kind of surgery requires an essential
Mossialos, Elias; Costa-Font, Joan; Rudisill, Caroline
Maintaining adequately high organ donation rates proves essential to offering patients all appropriate and available treatment options. However, the act of donation is in itself an individual decision that requires a depth of understanding that interacts with the social setting and the institutional framework into which an individual is embedded. This study contributes to understanding factors driving organ donation rates by examining how country regulation, individuals' awareness of regulatory setting, social interactions and socio-demographic determinants influence individuals' willingness to donate their own organs or those of a relative. We draw representative data from the Eurobarometer survey 58.2 undertaken in 2002 with respondents throughout the European Union to capture heterogeneity in institutional setting. We use logistic regression techniques to estimate the determinants of willingness to donate one's own organs and those of a deceased relative. We employ interaction terms to examine the relationship between institutional setting and respondent's awareness of organ donation legislation in their country. Our findings indicate that individuals are more likely to donate their organs than to consent to the donation of a relative's organs. Both decisions are affected by regulation (presumed consent), awareness of regulation and social interactions such as the ability to count on others in case of a serious problem (reciprocity). Furthermore, education (more educated), age (younger), expressing some sort of political affiliation determine willingness to donate one's own organs and consent to the donation of those of a relative. This study confirms and develops further previous research findings that presumed consent organ donation policy positively affects the willingness of individuals to donate their own organs and those of relative by highlighting the importance of awareness of this regulation and an individual's level of social interactions in making
Bortoletto, Pietro; Farland, Leslie V; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S; Goldman, Randi H
To determine whether the general public supports intergenerational oocyte donation. Cross-sectional study. Not applicable. A nationally representative sample based on age distribution of United States residents. Not applicable. Characteristics of respondents who supported (strongly agree and agree) various oocyte donation practices were compared with participants who did not support them (disagree and strongly disagree) using log binomial regression to calculate risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals of support (95% CIs). Models were adjusted for age, gender, and religion to yield adjusted risk ratios (aRR). A total of 1,915 people responded to the Web-based survey; 53% were female, and 24% were racial/ethnic minorities. Eighty-five percent had prior knowledge of oocyte donation, and 74% felt that a woman should be able to donate oocytes to a family member. The desire to help a family member was the most commonly perceived motivation for donors (79%). Christian-Catholics compared with Christian-non-Catholics (aRR 0.91, 95% CI 0.86-0.98), African Americans compared with non-Hispanic Caucasians (aRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.76-0.97), and Republicans compared with Democrats (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.88-0.98) were less likely to support intergenerational oocyte donation. Respondents with three or more biological children (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.00-1.11) compared with those with no children were less likely to support this practice. Eight percent of participants disapproved of donation to any family member. The most common reason for disapproval was the potential negative impact on the child (53%). A majority of Americans support the practice of intergenerational oocyte donation; however, support varies according to demographic characteristics. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Axdorph Nygell, Ulla; Sollén-Nilsson, Agneta; Lundahl, Joachim
Granulocyte transfusions are given to patients with life-threatening infections, refractory to treatment. The donors are stimulated with corticosteroids ± granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). However, data regarding the donors' safety is sparse. The objective was therefore to evaluate short- and long-term adverse events (AE) in G-CSF stimulated donors. All consecutive granulocyte donors from 1994 to 2012 were identified through our registry. From the donation records, the number of aphereses, stimulation therapy, AE, blood values post donation, and recent status were evaluated. One hundred fifty-four volunteer donors were mobilized for 359 collections. Age at first granulocyte donation was 43 years (median; range 19-64 years). Follow-up was 60 months (median; range 0-229 months). The dose of G-CSF per collection was 3.8 ug/kg body weight (median; range 1.6-6.0 ug/kg). Sedimentation agent was HES. Short-term AE were mild. Blood values 4 weeks post donation with minor reductions/elevations mostly resolved in later donations. Fourteen donors were excluded from the registry due to hypertension (4), diabetes (2), atrial flutter (1), breast carcinoma (1), urethral carcinoma in situ (1), MGUS (1), thrombosis (1), anaphylaxis (1), primary biliary cirrhosis (1), and unknown (1). Three donors are deceased due to diabetes, acute myocardial infarction, and unknown cause. All excluded/deceased donors except one were excluded/died at least 6 months after first granulocyte donation. No serious short-term AE were observed. Due to the variability of diagnoses among excluded/deceased donors, we propose that it is less likely that granulocyte donations have a causative impact on these donors' exclusion or death. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lin, Alice; Tsai, Karin; Rangel, Antonio; Adolphs, Ralph
People with autism have abnormal preferences, ranging from an apparent lack of preference for social stimuli to unusually strong preferences for restricted sets of highly idiosyncratic stimuli. Yet the profile of preferences across social and nonsocial domains has not been mapped out in detail, and the processes responsible remain poorly understood. To assess preferences across a range of stimuli, we measured real monetary donations to 50 charities spanning categories pertaining to people, mental health, animals, or the environment. We compared the donations made by 16 high-functioning adults with autism to those made by neurotypical controls matched on age, gender and education. We additionally collected ratings of how people evaluated the different charities. Compared with controls, high-functioning adults with autism donated less overall and also showed a significantly disproportionate reduction in donations to people charities compared with donations to the other charities. Furthermore, whereas controls discriminated strongly between different people charities, choosing to donate a lot of money to some and very little to others, much less discrimination was seen in the autism group. Ratings that probed how participants constructed their preferences did not differ between groups, except for a difference in the perceived impact of pictures and text information about people charities. Strikingly, there were some charities related to mental health, and autism in particular, to which the autism group donated considerably more than did the controls. People with autism were found to have reduced preference and sensitivity towards charities benefiting other people. The findings provide evidence for a domain-specific impairment in social cognition in autism spectrum disorder, and in particular in linking otherwise intact social knowledge to the construction of value signals on which preferences regarding other people are based.
Garozzo, Giovanni; Crocco, Isabella; Giussani, Barbara; Martinucci, Annalisa; Monacelli, Stefano; Randi, Vanda
In 2006 in Italy 2,404,267 donations of blood components were made by 1,539,454 donors; approximately 55% of the donations were collected directly by Transfusion Structures (TS), while about 45% were collected in Donation Centres managed by Associations and Federations of Donors. The aim of the READ (Rilevamento Eventi Avversi alla Donazione) project is to create a network of TS to test a standardised system for monitoring adverse events (AE) related to blood donations. Shared, standardised data collection forms, compatible with the forms produced by the ISBT-EHN, were prepared. Two types of form were used: (i) a form to collect data on single events (READ 1), to be used at the individual collection sites; (ii) a form for processing the data collected by each TS (READ 2). Between February and August 2008 six TS collected data related to the donation of 89,332 units of blood. Overall, 523 AE were recorded. The AE occurred in 0.59% of the donations. The mean duration of the symptoms was 17 minutes. Fifteen percent of the symptoms were related to the venipuncture (mainly haematomas) and 77% to vasovagal AE. The AE were defined severe (grade C) in 47 cases. The donations in which AE were recorded were completed in 81% of the cases; 59% of the AE did not require treatment. Three donors were monitored briefly (for less than 4 hours) in hospital. The use of standardised forms enabled the collection of data that could be analysed. Some problems related to the performance of the haemovigilance programme did, however, emerge: (i) organisational problems, (ii) limited sensitivity, (iii) inadequate training, and (iv) poorly defined responsibilities. These problems must be resolved at various levels: local, regional and national.
Full Text Available Abstract Background People with autism have abnormal preferences, ranging from an apparent lack of preference for social stimuli to unusually strong preferences for restricted sets of highly idiosyncratic stimuli. Yet the profile of preferences across social and nonsocial domains has not been mapped out in detail, and the processes responsible remain poorly understood. Methods To assess preferences across a range of stimuli, we measured real monetary donations to 50 charities spanning categories pertaining to people, mental health, animals, or the environment. We compared the donations made by 16 high-functioning adults with autism to those made by neurotypical controls matched on age, gender and education. We additionally collected ratings of how people evaluated the different charities. Results Compared with controls, high-functioning adults with autism donated less overall and also showed a significantly disproportionate reduction in donations to people charities compared with donations to the other charities. Furthermore, whereas controls discriminated strongly between different people charities, choosing to donate a lot of money to some and very little to others, much less discrimination was seen in the autism group. Ratings that probed how participants constructed their preferences did not differ between groups, except for a difference in the perceived impact of pictures and text information about people charities. Strikingly, there were some charities related to mental health, and autism in particular, to which the autism group donated considerably more than did the controls. Conclusions People with autism were found to have reduced preference and sensitivity towards charities benefiting other people. The findings provide evidence for a domain-specific impairment in social cognition in autism spectrum disorder, and in particular in linking otherwise intact social knowledge to the construction of value signals on which preferences
Batool Y. Bosakhar
Full Text Available Background and objectives: In Kuwait, information regarding public knowledge and attitudes towards organ donation are scanty. This study aimed to evaluate public knowledge and attitude regarding organ donation and determine factors which predict them. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 630 participants recruited from 27 randomly selected public cooperative societies and private supermarkets in Kuwait. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Results: The prevalence rate of knowledge about organ donation was 68%, with a significantly higher rate among females than males (73% vs. 63%, respectively, p = 0.01. A composite score of knowledge was also higher among females than males (8.4 ± 5.8 vs. 6.8 ± 5.8, respectively, p = 0.001. In multivariate analysis, female gender (OR = 1.7; 95% CI =1.2, 2.4 and an educational level of bachelor’s degree or higher (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.7, 3.9 were significant predictors of the knowledge. Among the barriers, more females than males mentioned about the fear of the operative procedures (p<0.001 and complications after the surgery (p = 0.011. Overall, 73% accepted the idea of organ donation during life, and 67% actually opted for donating their organs during life. However, almost everybody wanted to donate organs to their relatives. Conclusion: The study identified factors predicting knowledge and attitude regarding organ donation. The results will help in planning how to improve the rate of donors in Kuwait. IMC J Med Sci 2016; 10(1: 01-09
Ferland-McCollough, D; Fernandez-Twinn, D S; Cannell, I G
substantially modulates the capacity of adipocytes to differentiate and store lipids. We show that some of these effects are mediated by translational repression of growth/differentiation factor-3, a target of miR-483-3p. We propose that increased miR-483-3p expression in vivo, programmed by early......Nutrition during early mammalian development permanently influences health of the adult, including increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such programming are poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that programmed changes in mi......RNA expression link early-life nutrition to long-term health. Specifically, we show that miR-483-3p is upregulated in adipose tissue from low-birth-weight adult humans and prediabetic adult rats exposed to suboptimal nutrition in early life. We demonstrate that manipulation of miR-483-3p levels in vitro...
Abdo, A; Ugarte, J C; Castellanos, R; González, L; López, O; Hernández, J C; Valdivia, J; Almora, E; Suárez, O; Diaz, J; Collera, S; Enamorado, A; Vázquez, A; Beníte, P; Dominguez, J; Wilford, M; Falcon, J
In 1998 in the Centro de Investigaciones Medico Quirurgicas the Transplant Coordination Office (TCO) was created, with the aim to organize a system to support a hepatic transplantation program. This organization, which changed the transplantation-donation process not only in our center but in the whole country, is described in this article. The files of donors generated in our hospital were studied together with the transplant coordination records, from 1999 till the first half of 2002. In the period studied, 21 potential donors were diagnosed with brain death, yielding a donation rate of 71.4%. Brain death was most frequently caused by vascular brain disease; however, in the realized donor group, the cranioencephalic trauma predominated. The typical donor was a man of average age 39.2 years (range, 18-86 years). Among the potential donors, 24% were excluded based on medical criteria, and 5% due to family objections. Forty liver transplantation were performed in 36 patients including 1 liver-kidney simultaneous procedure. The principal etiologies for transplant included hepatitis C virus cirrhosis, 22%; alcoholic, 19%; and acute hepatic failure, 13%. Kidney transplantations were performed in 70 patients, including 41 from cadaveric donors (53.6%) and 29 from living related donors (41.4%). In 2001, a pancreas-kidney transplantation program was started. The creation of the TCO has been of paramount importance to optimize transplantation program functions.
Aghayan, Hamid Reza; Goodarzi, Parisa; Baradaran-Rafii, Alireza; Larijani, Bagher; Moradabadi, Leila; Rahim, Fakher; Arjmand, Babak
Human Amniotic Membrane (AM) transplantation can promote tissue healing and reduce inflammation, tissue scarring and neovascularization. Homa Peyvand Tamin (HPT) tissue bank has focused on manufacturing human cell and tissue based products including AM. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and identify bacterial contamination of AMs that is produced by HPT for several ophthalmic applications. From July 2006 to April 2011, 122 placentas from cesarean sections were retrieved by HPT after obtaining informed consent from the donors. Besides testing donor's blood sample for viral markers, microbiological evaluation was performed pre and post processing. During tissue processing, decontamination was performed by an antibiotic cocktail including; Gentamicin, Ceftriaxone and Cloxacillin. Of 271 cesarean section AM donors who were screened as potential donors, 122 were accepted for processing and assessed for microbiological contamination. Donors' age were between 21 and 41 years (Mean = 27.61 ± 0.24). More than 92% of mothers were in their first or second gravidity with full term pregnancies. The most prevalent organisms were Staphylococci species (72.53%). After processing, contamination rates markedly decreased by 84.62% (p value = 0.013). According to our results, most of bacterial contaminations were related to donation process and the contamination pattern suggests procurement team as a source. Therefore we recommend that regular training programs should be implemented by tissue banks for procurement staff. These programs should focus on improved donor screening and proper aseptic technique for tissue retrieval. We also suggest that tissue banks should periodically check the rate and types of tissue contaminations. These data help them to find system faults and to update processing methods.
Jose Eduardo Levi
Full Text Available Objective: To describe general data on nucleic acid/serology testing and report the first hepatitis B-nucleic acid testing yield case of an immunized donor in Brazil. Methods: A total of 24,441 donations collected in 2010 and 2011 were submitted to individual nucleic acid testing for hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus using the TaqMan® MPX kit (Roche on the Cobas s201 platform, in addition to routine screening for serological markers. Nucleic acid testing-reactive donations were further evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction using Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus tests. Results: Thirty-two donations were reactive by nucleic acid testing, 31 were also serologically reactive and one first-time donor was identified as having hepatitis B in the window period. Follow-up samples showed increasing titers of anti-HBs rising from 19 UI/mL in the index donation to 109 IU/mL seven months later attributable to his vaccination history. Curiously, this donor was never reactive for HbsAg nor for anti-HBc. In the yield donation, he was concomitantly reactive for syphilis (enzyme immunoassay and fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption; venereal disease research laboratory non-reactive. Overall, six donors (0.02% were characterized as occult hepatitis B. A total of 35% of the confirmed (recombinant immunoblot assay positive hepatitis C donations were nucleic acid testing non-reactive and no human immunodeficiency virus "elite controller" was identified. Conclusion: The yield rate (1:24,441; 95% confidence interval: 1:9,537 - 1:89,717 contrasts to the North American rate (1:410,540 donations and strongly advocates the adoption of nucleic acid testing for hepatitis B in Brazil despite the increasing rate of anti-HBs reactive subjects due to the successful immunization program.
Reichman, T W; Fox, A; Adcock, L; Wright, L; Abbey, S E; Levy, G; Grant, D R
There are no published series of the assessment process, profiles and outcomes of anonymous, directed or nondirected live liver donation. The outcomes of 29 consecutive potential anonymous liver donors at our center were assessed. We used our standard live liver assessment process, augmented with the following additional acceptance criteria: a logical rationale for donation, a history of social altruism, strong social supports and a willingness to maintain confidentiality of patient information. Seventeen potential donors were rejected and 12 donors were ultimately accepted (six male, six female). All donors were strongly motivated by a desire and sense of responsibility to help others. Four donations were directed toward recipients who undertook media appeals. The donor operations included five left lateral segmentectomies and seven right hepatectomies. The overall donor morbidity was 40% with one patient having a transient Clavien level 3 complication (a pneumothorax). All donors are currently well. None expressed regret about their decision to donate, and all volunteered the opinion that donation had improved their lives. The standard live liver donor assessment process plus our additional requirements appears to provide a robust assessment process for the selection of anonymous live liver donors. Acceptance of anonymous donors enlarges the donor liver pool. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Rodrigue, James R; Cornell, Danielle L; Kaplan, Bruce; Howard, Richard J
Living donor kidney transplantation has several advantages for patients with end-stage renal disease. However, many patients are reluctant to pursue this treatment option, preferring instead to wait for a deceased donor organ. To examine predictors of patients' willingness to talk to others about living kidney donation. One hundred thirty-two adult patients awaiting kidney transplantation who were enrolled in a randomized trial examining the effectiveness of education on rates of live donor kidney transplantation completed a baseline rating of their willingness to talk to others about living kidney donation. Also, patients completed measures of knowledge and concerns about living donation and a rating of perceived health. Slightly more than half the patients (56.1%) had low willingness to talk to others about living donation. The following variables were associated with higher willingness to talk to others: white race (odds ratio, 3.31; confidence interval, 1.7-7.4), college education (odds ratio, 3.43, confidence interval, 2.0-5.6), fewer concerns about living donor kidney transplantation (odds ratio, 0.31; confidence interval, 0.2-0.6), and less favorable perceptions of their current health status (odds ratio, 4.31; confidence interval, 2.6-7.6). White race, more education, less concern about living donor kidney transplantation, and poorer perceived health are associated with greater willingness to talk to others about living kidney donation. These findings have important implications for educating patients about living donor kidney transplantation.
Hsu, Ho-Torng; Fong, Tze-Vun; Hassan, Nurulhuda Mat; Wong, Hoi-Ling; Rai, Jasminder Kaur; Khalid, Zorina
Human milk bank is a source of human milk supply in many neonatal intensive care units. However, there are some hospitals without this facility because of financial or religious impediments, such as the Muslim community. We introduced human milk donation as an alternative to human milk banking based on Islamic principles. The suitable donor is a healthy rooming-in mother whose expressed breastmilk is in excess of her baby's demand. The milk is used after 72 hours of freezing at -20°C. The donor must fulfill the criteria for selection of donors and be nonreactive to human immunodeficiency virus and syphilis. Once the recipient's family and the donor state their desire for the human milk donation, a meeting with both parties is made. Unpasteurized frozen-thawed donor's milk will be provided to the recipient after written consents are obtained from both parties. This study was carried out in the Duchess of Kent Hospital (Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia) between January 2009 and December 2010. A total of 48 babies received donated breastmilk. Forty-two infants were from the special care nursery, and the remaining six were from the pediatric ward. Eighty-eight percent of the donors and 77% of the recipients were Muslims. Sixty percent of the infants who received donated human milk were premature. Two infants died because of the underlying nature of their disease. Human milk donation is an option for hospitals without a human milk bank or in the Muslim community.
Hoogerwerf, M D; Veldhuizen, I J T; Tarvainen, M P; Merz, E-M; Huis In 't Veld, E M J; de Kort, W L A M; Sluiter, J K; Frings-Dresen, M H W
Donating blood is associated with increased psychological stress. This study investigates whether a blood donation induces physiological stress and if response patterns differ by gender, donation experience and non-acute stress. In 372 donors, physiological stress [blood pressure, pulse rate, pulse rate variability (PRV)] was measured at seven moments during routine donation. PRV was assessed using time domain [root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD)] and frequency domain [high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) power] parameters. Non-acute stress was assessed by questionnaire. Shape and significance of time course patterns were assessed by fitting multilevel models for each stress measure and comparing men and women, first-time and experienced donors, and donors with high and low levels of non-acute stress. Significant response patterns were found for all stress measures, where levels of systolic blood pressure (F(1,1315) = 24·2, P blood pressure (F(1,1326) = 50·9, P blood pressure/pulse rate in women; higher pulse rate in first-time donors; higher RMSSD at arrival and from screening until leaving in first-time donors; and higher LF and HF in first-time donors. This study shows an increase in physiological stress related to needle insertion, followed by a decrease when leaving the donation centre. Some group effects were also found. © 2018 International Society of Blood Transfusion.
Blaschke-Hellmessen, R; Henker, J; Futschik, M
From 1968 to 1989 altogether 37,000 specimens of donated and collected mother's milk were mycologically examined by means of a liquid medium (twofold concentrated Raulin solution). The yearly incidence of Candida albicans varied between 8.5 and 5.2%. 25% respectively 14.8% of the donors (n = 60 respectively 813) had delivered milk to the human milk bank which was contaminated by Candida albicans. The mother's milk was primarily contaminated by the donor's own suckling baby. 92.3% of these infants were infected with Candida albicans in the mouth and/or rectum and/or on the skin. Candida albicans was also detected in 46.2% on the nipples of the mothers. It is recommended to transport donated mother's milk at temperatures of 4-8 degrees C and to store the milk at -20 degrees C until the mycological examination is finished to exclude samples contaminated by Candida albicans. Judging our experience donated human milk to be fed in raw state should be regularly controlled mycologically. If the donated milk contains Candida albicans, the donation of milk should be interrupted and an antifungal treatment of the donor and her baby should be performed.
Woo, K T
In Asian countries, it is more difficult to obtain cadaver kidneys for renal transplantation because of certain socio-cultural beliefs and customs. The issues affecting living related kidney donation are more social than cultural. This is due to the web of family pressures and personal conflicts for both donor and recipient surrounding the donation. Important misconceptions and fears are: fear of death, the belief that removal of organ violates sanctity of decreased, concern about being cut up after death, desire to be buried whole, dislike of idea of kidneys inside another person, wrong concept of brain death, and the idea of donation being against religious conviction. In Singapore, with the introduction of the Human Organ Transplant Act (HOTA) in 1988, the number of cadaveric transplants have increased, including those from the Medical Therapy Act (MTA). HOTA and education have played pivotal roles in bringing about an increased yield of cadaveric kidneys. With the availability of living unrelated donor (LUD) transplants in India, our living related donor (LRD) transplant programme has suffered, because patients would rather buy a kidney from overseas than get a relative to donate one. Patients are also going to China for overseas cadaveric transplants where the kidneys come from executed convicts. People in countries like Hong Kong, Japan and the Philippines share the same Asian tradition of not parting with their organs after death. Muslim countries like Malaysia require the deceased to have earlier pledged his kidneys for donation prior to death before they can be harvested for transplantation at death.
Mulder, J G H; Sonneveld, J P C
Patients considering physician-hastened death (PHD) increasingly express a wish to donate organs after death. This fairly unique proposition stems from patients' desire to do something good with (parts of) the same diseased body that has prompted them to request physician-hastened death. In this article we describe a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) who expressed this wish. In March 2017 a national guideline on 'Organ donation following physician-hastened death' (ODP) was presented to the Minister of Health, Welfare and Sport of the Netherlands. From the development of this guideline it emerged that, for PHD patients, being forced to experience their final conscious moments in hospital - in order to facilitate organ donation - was a key reason for not choosing ODP. Together with an anaesthesiologist-intensivist, the GP of the ALS patient developed a domestic ODP, thereby overcoming the hurdle of experiencing death in hospital and maintaining the possible option of organ donation. The applied solution is an 'anaesthesia bridge' which separates the experience of farewells, and losing consciousness under pre-medication at home, from biological death and organ donation in hospital.
Joseph, Bellal; Khalil, Mazhar; Pandit, Viraj; Orouji Jokar, Tahereh; Cheaito, Ali; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Tang, Andrew; O'Keeffe, Terence; Vercruysse, Gary; Green, Donald J; Friese, Randall S; Rhee, Peter
Organ donation after cardiac death (DCD) is not optimal but still remains a valuable source of organ donation in trauma donors. The aim of this study was to assess national trends in DCD from trauma patients. A 12-year (2002 to 2013) retrospective analysis of the United Network for Organ Sharing database was performed. Outcome measures were the following: proportion of DCD donors over the years and number and type of solid organs donated. DCD resulted in procurement of 16,248 solid organs from 8,724 donors. The number of organs donated per donor remained unchanged over the study period (P = .1). DCD increased significantly from 3.1% in 2002 to 14.6% in 2013 (P = .001). There was a significant increase in the proportion of kidney (2002: 3.4% vs 2013: 16.3%, P = .001) and liver (2002: 1.6% vs 2013: 5%, P = .041) donation among DCD donors over the study period. DCD from trauma donors provides a significant source of solid organs. The proportion of DCD donors increased significantly over the last 12 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Israni, A K; Zaun, D A; Rosendale, J D; Snyder, J J; Kasiske, B L
The status of deceased organ donation is assessed using metrics such as donation/conversation rate, organ yield, and rate of organs recovered for transplant and not transplanted. These metrics are based on eligible deaths (brain death of a person aged 70 years or younger) as well as on actual donors. The 9132 eligible deaths reported in 2013 represented a slight increase over 2012. The donation/conversion rate was 71.3 eligible donors per 100 eligible deaths, a slight decline from 2012, and varied by donation service area from 50.0 to 87.0. The number of organs recovered per donor, 3.55, also varied by donation service area, from 2.79 to 4.10. The mean number of organs transplanted per donor was 3.08 in 2013, slightly higher than 3.02 in 2012. The mean observed/expected organ yield ratio for kidneys varied from 0.86 to 1.18; for pancreata, from 0.29 to 2.59; for livers, from 0.69 to 1.17; for hearts, from 0.68 to 1.41; and for lungs, from 0.33 to 1.41. The rate of organs recovered for transplant and not transplanted in 2013 for all organs combined was 0.13 per recovered organ, slightly lower than the rate of 0.14 in 2012. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Pennings, Guido; Ravel, Célia; Girard, Jean-Maxime; Domin-Bernhard, Mathilde; Provoost, Veerle
Finding out whether patients would be motivated by reciprocity when considering donating oocytes to others. This is a prospective monocentric study in the CECOS of the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) of Rennes (France) on the opinion of patients regarding reciprocity. Couples who had a child with donor sperm were asked whether they would consider oocyte donation as a way of giving something back. Twenty six couples and one man answered the questionnaire. About half of the respondents (49%) felt that they should contribute to the system from which they benefitted. Although the patients would benefit from a reduction in waiting time, this advantage was only important for one in four persons. The only items on which the answers between men and women were significantly different concerned the results of the donation: women would think more often about the potential recipient and the child and they more often wanted to know whether children were born from their donation. The results show that beside altruism, reciprocity may be an important moral reason for people to donate gametes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Summers, D. M.; Johnson, R. J.; Hudson, A. J.; Collett, D.; Murphy, P.; Watson, C. J. E.; Neuberger, J. M.; Bradley, J. A.
Background The UK has implemented a national strategy for organ donation that includes a centrally coordinated network of specialist nurses in organ donation embedded in all intensive care units and a national organ retrieval service for deceased organ donors. We aimed to determine whether despite the national approach to donation there is significant regional variation in deceased donor kidney donation rates. Methods The UK prospective audit of deaths in critical care was analysed for a cohort of patients who died in critical care between April 2010 and December 2011. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with kidney donation. The logistic regression model was then used to produce risk-adjusted funnel plots describing the regional variation in donation rates. Results Of the 27 482 patients who died in a critical care setting, 1528 (5.5%) became kidney donors. Factors found to influence donation rates significantly were: type of critical care [e.g. neurointensive vs general intensive care: OR 1.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34–1.75, P69 vs age 18–39 yr: OR 0.2, 0.15–0.25, Pdonation rates for the 20 UK kidney donor regions showed marked variation. The overall standardized donation rate ranged from 3.2 to 7.5%. Four regions had donation rates of >2 standard deviations (sd) from the mean (two below and two above). Regional variation was most marked for donation after circulatory death (DCD) kidney donors with 9 of the 20 regions demonstrating donation rates of >2 sd from the mean (5 below and 4 above). Conclusions The marked regional variation in kidney donation rates observed in this cohort after adjustment for factors strongly associated with donation rates suggests that there is considerable scope for further increasing kidney donation rates in the UK, particularly DCD. PMID:24335581
Livitz, Irina E; Fox, Kristen R; Himawan, Lina K; France, Christopher R
Recruitment and retention of first-time and repeat donors is essential to maintain a stable blood supply. Recent evidence has shown that promoting internal motivation may be an effective strategy to enhance donation behavior. We tested the efficacy of an in-person motivational interview at increasing internal motivation and intention to donate. A sample of 219 donors and nondonors (69.4% female; mean ± SD age, 19.2 ± 1.1 years; 52.1% nondonors) were randomly assigned to either a motivational or a knowledge interview. Immediately before and after the interview participants completed a measure of donation intention and the Blood Donor Identity Survey, which is a multidimensional measure of donor motivation. A latent profile analysis revealed three distinct latent classes, which were identified as low internal motivation, mid internal motivation, and high internal motivation. Comparison of change in latent class from pre- to postinterview revealed that a higher proportion of participants in the motivational interview group moved to a more internally motivated class compared to the knowledge interview group (i.e., 34% vs. 4%, respectively). Further, relative to the knowledge interview group, participants in the motivational interview group reported greater increases in intention to donate. A brief motivational interview may enhance donation intention and intrinsic motivation among both experienced donors and nondonors alike. © 2017 AABB.
Background Kidney transplantation is associated with greater long term survival rates and improved quality of life compared with dialysis. Continuous growth in the number of patients with kidney failure has not been matched by an increase in the availability of kidneys for transplantation. This leads to long waiting lists, higher treatment costs and negative health outcomes. Discussion Misunderstandings, public uncertainty and issues of trust in the medical system, that limit willingness to be registered as a potential donor, could be addressed by community dissemination of information and new family practice initiatives that respond to individuals' personal beliefs and concerns regarding organ donation and transplantation. Summary Tackling both personal and public inertia on organ donation is important for any community oriented kidney donation campaign. PMID:20478042
Ito, Nobuyuki; Takeuchi, Kenji; Tsuge, Takahiro; Kishimoto, Atsuo
This study applies a threshold model proposed by to analyze the diffusion process of donating behavior for renewable energy. We first use a stated preference survey to estimate the determinants of a decision to support the donation scheme under various predicted participation rates. Using the estimated coefficients, we simulate how herd behavior spreads and the participation rate reaches the equilibrium. The participation rate at the equilibrium is estimated as 37.88% when the suggested donation is 500 yen, while it is 17.76% when the suggested amount is 1000 yen. The influence of environmentalism and altruism is also examined, and we find that these motivations increase the participation rate by 31.51% on average.
One of the key fundaments of building a society is common interest or shared aims of the group members. This research work is a try to analyze web-based services oriented towards money collection for various social and charity projects. The phenomenon of social founding is worth a closer look at because its success strongly depends on the ability to build an ad-hoc or persistent groups of people sharing their believes and willing to support external institutions or individuals. The paper presents a review of money collection sites, various models of donation and money collection process as well as ways how the projects' results are reported to their founders. There is also a proposal of money collection service, where donators are not charged until total declared help overheads required resources to complete the project. The risk of missing real donations for declared payments, after the collection is closed, can be assessed and minimized by building a social network.
Kim, Youngwan; Nunnenkamp, Peter; Bagchi, Chandreyee
Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are widely believed to raise their flag in humanitarian hotspots with a strong media presence in order to attract higher private donations. We assess this hypothesis by comparing the changes in donations between US-based NGOs with and without aid operations in the four countries most affected by the tsunami in the Indian Ocean in 2004. Simple before-after comparisons tend to support the hypothesis that 'flying the flag' helps attract higher private donations. However, performing a difference-in-difference-in-differences (DDD) approach, we find only weak indications that private donors systematically and strongly preferred NGOs with operations in the region. Extended specifications of the baseline regressions reveal that our major findings are robust. NGO heterogeneity matters in some respects, but the DDD results hold when accounting for proxies of the NGOs' reputation and experience. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.
Silva, Gilce Erbe de Miranda; Valadares, Glaucia Valente
The study aims at discussing the significations apprehended by the non-blood donators, considering the context and the consequences of the acting of the nurse in hemotherapy. It is a qualitative approach, with theoretical frame of Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory method. The data production was carried out by intensive interview with subjects of three sample groups of a University Hospital of Rio de Janeiro City. The phenomenon originated two analysis categories: "Perceiving the blood matter" and "Reflecting about the blood donation campaigns". It was observed that the environment of the donor is not composed by contact with the other and the information that it can achieve, including the media. These were the main basis for the knowledge of blood donation according to their beliefs, culture and values. Therefore, all these aspects must be considered by the nurse acting on donors capture.
al-Naqeeb, N A; Azab, A; Eliwa, M S; Mohammed, B Y
Breast milk donation (wet-nursing) for full-term babies is a well-known practice in Kuwait, but it has never been organized formally in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) for preterm babies. Donor milk banking as conducted in Western society is not considered to be ethical in Muslim society, where the milk donor and the recipient are required to know each other. Human milk is known to decrease the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis; improve host defenses, digestion, absorption of nutrients, gastrointestinal function, and neurodevelopment of the child; and contribute to maternal physical and psychological well-being. A culturally accepted approach to donor milk banking is proposed as a means of overcoming the ethical issues surrounding milk donation in Muslim society. This report addresses the first step in raising awareness of the valuable contribution of donor milk to preterm babies and the organization of human milk donation for use in an NICU.
Kottow Lang, Miguel Hugo
The worldwide scarcity of cadaveric organs for transplants is on the rise, due in part to extended medical indications and longevity of chronic patients with organic insufficiencies. Chile has an extremely low donor rate of 6.7 per million. Although consent is presumed by law, and recently amended to include a reciprocity principle, nearly four million persons have expressed in writing their unwillingness to donate and, of those remaining, 53% of families have rejected donating the organs of their deceased. New proposals are urgently needed, even if some of them have previously been rejected: nonmaterial incentives, partial donations and unveiling anonymity to enhance personal ties between donors and recipients. Transparency, information and assistance are to be reinforced in order to regain trust in transplant procedures.
Sussman, Abigail B; Sharma, Eesha; Alter, Adam L
Many articles have examined the psychological drivers of charitable giving, but little is known about how people mentally budget for charitable gifts. The present research aims to address this gap by investigating how perceptions of donations as exceptional (uncommon and infrequent) rather than ordinary (common and frequent) expenses might affect budgeting for and giving to charity. We provide the first demonstration that exceptional framing of an identical item can directly influence mental budgeting processes, and yield societal benefits. In 5 lab and field experiments, exceptional framing increased charitable behavior, and diminished the extent to which people considered the effect of the donation on their budgets. The current work extends our understanding of mental accounting and budgeting for charitable gifts, and demonstrates practical techniques that enable fundraisers to enhance the perceived exceptionality of donations. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering
Ehrhart, Susan M. (ed.); Filipy, Ronald E. (ed.)
The United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) are a human tissue research program studying the deposition, biokinetics and dosimetry of the actinide elements in humans with the primary goals of providing data fundamental to the verification, refinement, or future development of radiation protection standards for these and other radionuclides, and of determining possible bioeffects on both a macro and subcellular level attributable to exposure to the actinides. This annual report covers October 1, 1997, through January 31, 1999; the reporting period has been extended so that future annual reports will coincide with the period covered by the grant itself.
Perrin, Maryanne Tigchelaar; Goodell, L Suzanne; Fogleman, April; Pettus, Hannah; Bodenheimer, Amanda L; Palmquist, Aunchalee E L
Lactating women in the United States have several options for what they do with excess breast milk, including donating to milk banks that serve medically fragile infants, sharing directly with families seeking milk, and selling to individuals or for-profit entities. The World Health Organization and the US Surgeon General have issued calls to increase access to pasteurized donor milk for medically fragile infants. To explore how lactating women with a surplus of breast milk come to the decision to share their milk with a peer rather than donate to a milk bank. A qualitative design using a grounded theory approach was employed. Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with 27 women who had shared milk with a peer but not with a milk bank. Five dominant themes were identified: a strong belief in the value of breast milk, unexpected versus planned donation, sources of information regarding milk exchange, concerns and knowledge gaps about milk banks, and helping and connecting. This research offers insights into potential strategies for promoting milk bank donation among peer-to-peer milk sharers, including developing donor education campaigns focused on knowledge gaps regarding milk banks and developing health care professional referral programs that can reduce barriers associated with the convenience of milk bank donation. © The Author(s) 2016.
Terbonssen, Tobias; Settmacher, Utz; Wurst, Christine; Dirsch, Olaf; Dahmen, Uta
It is well known that personal decision making in respect to organ donation is highly dependent on the balance of knowledge, trust, and fear. We wanted to explore the attitude of German medical students towards organ donation and investigate the relationship between knowledge, trust, and fear in this special subgroup. We conducted an online survey utilizing (1) the snowball effect of using Facebook groups and advertisement as well as (2) mailing lists of medical faculties in Germany for distribution. We surveyed 1370 medical students. 75.8 % (N = 988) of the participants stated to carry an organ donor card and allowed their organs to be donated. 1.8 % (N = 23) refused donation. 22.5 % (N = 293) did not carry an organ donor card. Analysis of the "decided" versus the "undecided" group revealed substantial differences regarding transplantation knowledge (mean knowledge score of 4.23 vs. 3.81; P < 0.001), trust in (mean trust score 4.11 vs. 3.39; P < 0.001), and fear of (mean fear score 1.63 vs. 2.22; P < 0.001) organ donation. 45.9 % of the undecided group (N = 134) opted for accessing additional information material. After reading the info material, 22.7 % (N = 29) stated their willingness to sign a donor card, whereas 76.6 % (N = 98) still could not reach a decision. The willingness to potentially act as organ donor was related to the pre-existent knowledge, trust, and fear. Access to information material did promote the decision towards organ donation in a group of previously undecided medical students. This advocates initiating information campaigns even in population groups with strong medical background.
Hagman, Anna; Loft, Anne; Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt
What are the obstetric and neonatal outcomes of deliveries after oocyte donation (OD) in women with Turner syndrome (TS)?......What are the obstetric and neonatal outcomes of deliveries after oocyte donation (OD) in women with Turner syndrome (TS)?...
Stevens, Jack; Keim, Sarah A
Many hospitalized preterm infants do not exclusively receive mother's own milk, so milk from another mother may be sought. Previous research indicated that just 1% of US women who express breast milk actually donate it for another family. Therefore, strategies to boost donation rates should be identified. We draw upon the experimental literature on charitable giving of monetary donations to offer 6 strategies to promote breast milk donations to milk banks in North America. These strategies include (1) highlighting a potential identifiable recipient of donated breast milk as opposed to highlighting groups of potential recipients; (2) emphasizing similarities between the potential donor and potential beneficiaries; (3) emphasizing similarities between the potential donor and previous donors; (4) using negative arousal to promote donations; (5) emphasizing the self-interest of those asking for breast milk donations; and (6) highlighting the specific effect of breast milk donations. Potential limitations of these strategies are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
This article follows the recent publication of the Organs for Donation Task Force report, "Organs for Transplants", and considers the debate surrounding a change in the law in favour of presumed consent in organ donation.
Ernest L. Mramba; Ismail J. Ismail
The study was determined to look on the relationship between socio-economic determinants and blood donation in Tanzania. It involved a sample of 128 respondents in which binary logistic regression results showed sex of respondents, level of education and religious beliefs to have a positively relationship with blood donation at 1%, 10%, 10% level respectively, with p values of 0.007, 0.077, 0.094 as theory suggested. Health status, cultural beliefs, fear for HIV test results, and health in...
Willum Adrian, Stine
as the use of donated sperm continuously has been debated as an ethical issue, and increasingly been regulated. In this presentation I will discuss how Denmark became a destination for fertility travelling (sperm donation) as a result of various subversive strategies of family making. The article inquires......-sited ethnography drawing on ethnographic research including observations and interviews from fertility clinics and sperm banks in Denmark during 2002/2003 and 2011- 2013, legislative documents and websites of fertility clinics and sperm banks. The presentation is methodologically inspired by Adele Clarke...
Fugate, Jennifer E; Stadtler, Maria; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Wijdicks, Eelco F M
As donation after cardiac death practices expand, the number of institutional policies is increasing. We contacted organ procurement organizations throughout the United States and requested protocols in hospitals in their donor service areas. Sixty-four protocols were obtained with representation from 16 different states. The terminology and recommended practices varied substantially. The methods for death determination were not specified in 28 (44%) protocols. Most adhered to a 2- to 5-min observation time between circulatory arrest and organ procurement, but 10 (16%) provided no information. This variability reveals a need to define a uniform standard in donation after cardiac death protocols and death determination practices.
Chile, a middle-income country, recently joined Israel and Singapore as the world's only countries to require reciprocity as a precondition for organ transplantation. The Chilean reform includes opt-out provisions designed to foster donation and priority for organ transplantation for registered people. Although the reform has had serious difficulties in achieving its mission, it can be reviewed by other countries that seek to address the serious shortage of organs. As increased organ donation can substantially enhance or save more lives, the effect on organ availability due to incentives arising from rules of preference should not be underestimated.
Salaudeen, A G; Odeh, E
Blood donation is the only way of acquiring blood to meet emergency requirements in cases of road traffic accidents, complications of pregnancy and childbirth, various anemic disorders and surgical emergencies among others. Globally, 80 million units of blood are donated each year, but only two million units are donated in sub-Saharan Africa where the need is enormous. The objective of this study was to determine the behavior of the students of a tertiary institution in Nigeria towards voluntary blood donation. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study, which involved students of a tertiary institution in Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was employed in selecting the participants for this study. A semi-structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude and factors affecting voluntary blood donation. The data obtained were analyzed using EPI-INFO 2005 software Version 3.3.2. Less than two-thirds (61%) of total respondents had good knowledge of blood donation. More than three quarters (85%) of the respondents had never donated blood. Of the 15% that had donated, only 3% donated voluntarily. Among those that had ever donated, males (57%) were more than females. Many of the donors donated for relatives (57%). The majority of the respondents were compelled to donate because of emergency situations (75%). The reasons why many did not donate were lack of opportunity (45%) due to tight lecture schedule and inadequate knowledge (24%). Gift items such as hematinics, T-shirts and wrist bands (29%) would motivate respondents to donate. The Students' Union body and other Organizations in the University should include a blood donation drive in their monthly/annual activities. The University authorities, the University health service centre and the Hematology Department of the Teaching hospital should collaborate in promoting voluntary blood donation among the students.
Harun Tugcu; Mehmet Toygar; Ender Senol; I. Ozgur Can; Mukerrem Safali
Physicians have to write reports in accordance with the relevant laws, statutes and regulations when requested by the administrations for distribution of monetary donations and allowances. The Statutes for Distribution of Monetary Donations and Allowances show the conditions requiring monetary support, the people who need monetary donations and the types of making monetary donations in cases of disabilities and injuries. We retrospectively reviewed the reports written in accordance with the S...
services Operational Activity Collect and Manage Cash Donations Once activated, refer cash donations to appropriate voluntary organizations...recovery operations. Operational Activity Conduct Euthanasia /Disposal Provide humane methods to euthanize affected animals to stop the spread of the...issue stop movement orders, and initiate animal vaccination and treatment programs, euthanasia efforts, or other protective measures designed to control
de Perio, Marie A; Bernard, Bruce P; Delaney, Lisa J; Pesik, Nicki; Cohen, Nicole J
CDC is investigating reports of potential occupational exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis among workers performing preparation and dissection procedures on human nontransplant anatomical materials at a nontransplant anatomical donation center in Arizona. CDC is working with Arizona public health officials to inform persons exposed to these potentially infected materials. Nontransplant anatomical centers around the United States process thousands of donated cadavers annually. These materials (which might be fresh, frozen, or chemically preserved) are used by universities and surgical instrument and pharmaceutical companies for medical education and research. The American Association of Tissue Banks has developed accreditation policies for nontransplant anatomical donation organizations. It also has written standards that specify exclusion criteria for donor material, as well as use of proper environmental controls and safe work practices to prevent transmission of infectious agents during receipt and handling of nontransplant anatomical materials. At the center under investigation, which is now closed, these standards might not have been consistently implemented.
Wang, Tso-Fu; Wen, Shu-Hui; Yang, Kuo-Liang; Yang, Shang-Hsien; Yang, Yun-Fan; Chang, Chu-Yu; Wu, Yi-Feng; Chen, Shu-Huey
To provide information for umbilical cord blood (UCB) banks to adopt optimal collection strategies and to make UCB banks operate efficiently, we investigated the reasons for exclusion of UCB units in a 3-year recruitment period. We analyzed records of the reasons for exclusion of the potential UCB donation from 2004 to 2006 in the Tzu-Chi Cord Blood Bank and compared the results over 3 years. We grouped these reasons for exclusion into five phases, before collection, during delivery, before processing, during processing, and after freezing according to the time sequence and analyzed the reasons at each phase. Between 2004 and 2006, there were 10,685 deliveries with the intention of UCB donation. In total, 41.2% of the UCB units were considered eligible for transplantation. The exclusion rates were 93.1, 48.4, and 54.1% in 2004, 2005, and 2006, respectively. We excluded 612 donations from women before their child birth, 133 UCB units during delivery, 80 units before processing, 5010 units during processing, and 421 units after freezing. There were 24 UCB units with unknown reasons of ineligibility. Low UCB weight and low cell count were the first two leading causes of exclusion (48.6 and 30.9%). The prevalence of artificial errors, holiday or transportation problem, low weight, and infant problems decreased year after year. The exclusion rate was high at the beginning of our study as in previous studies. Understanding the reasons for UCB exclusion may help to improve the efficiency of UCB banking programs in the future. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.
... property available for donation? 102-41.170 Section 102-41.170 Public Contracts and Property Management... Personal Property § 102-41.170 Is unclaimed personal property available for donation? No, unclaimed personal property is not available for donation because reimbursement at fair market value is required. ...
Lown, Robert N.; Tulpule, Sameer; Russell, Nigel H.; Craddock, Charles F.; Roest, Rochelle; Madrigal, J. Alejandro; Shaw, Bronwen E.
Approximately 1 in 20 unrelated donors are asked to make a second donation of hematopoietic progenitor cells, the majority for the same patient. Anthony Nolan undertook a study of subsequent hematopoietic progenitor cell donations made by its donors from 2005 to 2011, with the aims of predicting those donors more likely to be called for a second donation, assessing rates of serious adverse reactions and examining harvest yields. This was not a study of factors predictive of second allografts. During the study period 2591 donations were made, of which 120 (4.6%) were subsequent donations. The median time between donations was 179 days (range, 21–4016). Indications for a second allogeneic transplant included primary graft failure (11.7%), secondary graft failure (53.2%), relapse (30.6%) and others (1.8%). On multivariate analysis, bone marrow harvest at first donation was associated with subsequent donation requests (odds ratio 2.00, P=0.001). The rate of serious adverse reactions in donors making a subsequent donation appeared greater than the rate in those making a first donation (relative risk=3.29, P=0.005). Harvest yields per kilogram recipient body weight were equivalent between donations, although females appeared to have a lower yield at the subsequent donation. Knowledge of these factors will help unrelated donor registries to counsel their donors. PMID:23812935