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Sample records for tissue biochemical responses

  1. Interactions of Low-Frequency, Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields with Living Tissue: Biochemical Responses and Clinical Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Ulrik L.; Tritsaris, Katerina; Dissing, Steen

    2005-01-01

    , are still lacking. Despite the apparent success of the PEMF technology very little is known regarding the coupling between pulsed electrical fields and biochemical events leading to cellular responses. Insight into this research area is therefore of great importance. In this review we describe the physical...... properties of PEMF-induced electrical fields and explain the typical set up for coils and pulse patterns. Furthermore, we discuss possible models that can account for mechanisms by which induced electric fields are able to enhance cellular signaling. We have emphasized the currently well-documented effects......In recent years many studies have demonstrated stimulatory effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on biological tissue. However, controversies have also surrounded the research often due to the lack of knowledge of the different physical consequences of static versus pulsed electromagnetic...

  2. Interactions of Low-Frequency, Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields with Living Tissue: Biochemical Responses and Clinical Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Ulrik L.; Tritsaris, Katerina; Dissing, Steen

    2005-01-01

    fields. PEMF is widely used for treating fractures and non-unions as well as for treating diseases of the joints. Furthermore, new research has suggested that the technology can be used for nerve regeneration and wound healing although conclusive clinical trials, besides those for fracture healing......, are still lacking. Despite the apparent success of the PEMF technology very little is known regarding the coupling between pulsed electrical fields and biochemical events leading to cellular responses. Insight into this research area is therefore of great importance. In this review we describe the physical...... properties of PEMF-induced electrical fields and explain the typical set up for coils and pulse patterns. Furthermore, we discuss possible models that can account for mechanisms by which induced electric fields are able to enhance cellular signaling. We have emphasized the currently well-documented effects...

  3. Biochemical response of hybrid black poplar tissue culture (Populus × canadensis) on water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, B M; Štajner, D; Ždero-Pavlović, R; Tari, I; Csiszár, J; Gallé, Á; Poór, P; Galović, V; Trudić, B; Orlović, S

    2017-05-01

    In this study, poplar tissue culture (hybrid black poplar, M1 genotype) was subjected to water stress influenced by polyethyleneglycol 6000 (100 and 200 mOsm PEG 6000). The aim of the research was to investigate the biochemical response of poplar tissue culture on water deficit regime. Antioxidant status was analyzed including antioxidant enzymes, superoxide-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guiacol-peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione-reductase, reduced glutathione, total phenol content, Ferric reducing antioxidant power and DPPH radical antioxidant power. Polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine-ammonium-lyase were determined as enzymatic markers of polyphenol metabolism. Among oxidative stress parameters lipid peroxidation, carbonyl-proteins, hydrogen-peroxide, reactive oxygen species, nitric-oxide and peroxynitrite were determined. Proline, proline-dehydrogenase and glycinebetaine were measured also as parameters of water stress. Cell viability is finally determined as a biological indicator of osmotic stress. It was found that water stress induced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and lipid peroxidation in leaves of hybrid black poplar and reduced cell viability. Antioxidant enzymes including SOD, GPx, CAT and GSH-Px were induced but total phenol content and antioxidant capacity were reduced by PEG 6000 mediated osmotic stress. The highest biochemical response and adaptive reaction was the increase of proline and GB especially by 200 mOsm PEG. While long term molecular analysis will be necessary to fully address the poplar potentials for water stress adaptation, our results on hybrid black poplar suggest that glycine-betaine, proline and PDH enzyme might be the most important markers of poplar on water stress and that future efforts should be focused on these markers and strategies to enhance their concentration in poplar.

  4. Hypothalamus metabolomic profiling to elucidate the tissue-targeted biochemical basis of febrile response in yeast-induced pyrexia rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiyu; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Baosheng; Zhang, Zhixin; Qin, Lingling; Zhang, Qingqing; Wang, Qing; Lu, Zhiwei; Gao, Xiaoyan

    2015-04-25

    In the previous reports regarding thermoregulation, the hypothalamus is thought to be the primary centre in the central nervous system for controlling the body temperature. However, to date, there has not been sufficient evidence to reveal its thermoregulatory mechanism. In the current study, we utilised a tissue-targeted metabolomics strategy to elucidate the underlying biochemical mechanisms of thermoregulation in the fever process by analysing the global metabolic profile of the hypothalamus in yeast-induced pyrexia rats. Data acquisition was completed using the HPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap/MS in both positive and negative ion mode. Principal component analysis was used to observe the cluster characteristics between the control group and the pyrexia group. Potential biomarkers were screened using orthogonal partial least-squares-discriminant analysis. Seventeen potential biomarkers were identified in the hypothalamus samples to discriminate the control and pyrexia groups, including amino acids, nucleic acids, vitamins, carbohydrates, and phospholipids. As a result, purine metabolism was enhanced pronouncedly, and perturbation of lipid metabolism was also observed. Meanwhile, amino acid metabolism and energy metabolism were also activated significantly. In conclusion, the study indicated that hypothalamus-targeted metabolomics could provide a powerful tool to further understand the pathogenesis of febrile response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Raman spectroscopic biochemical mapping of tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nicholas; Hart Prieto, Maria C.; Kendall, Catherine A.; Shetty, Geeta; Barr, Hugh

    2006-02-01

    Advances in technologies have brought us closer to routine spectroscopic diagnosis of early malignant disease. However, there is still a poor understanding of the carcinogenesis process. For example it is not known whether many cancers follow a logical sequence from dysplasia, to carcinoma in situ, to invasion. Biochemical tissue changes, triggered by genetic mutations, precede morphological and structural changes. These can be probed using Raman or FTIR microspectroscopy and the spectra analysed for biochemical constituents. Local microscopic distribution of various constituents can then be visualised. Raman mapping has been performed on a number of tissues including oesophagus, breast, bladder and prostate. The biochemical constituents have been calculated at each point using basis spectra and least squares analysis. The residual of the least squares fit indicates any unfit spectral components. The biochemical distribution will be compared with the defined histopathological boundaries. The distribution of nucleic acids, glycogen, actin, collagen I, III, IV, lipids and others appear to follow expected patterns.

  6. Microscopic and Biochemical Visualization of Auxins in Plant Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, Joshua J; Murphy, Angus S

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are a particularly notable class of phytohormones in that they regulate plant growth and development at sites of synthesis, and via a regulated polar transport system comprising PIN, ABCB, and AUX/LAX transport proteins. In order to fully understand auxin-regulated physiological processes, it is therefore essential to be able to determine where indole-3-acetic acid and related compounds are being synthesized, where they are transported to, and how much IAA is accumulating in any given tissue. Auxin may be visualized either indirectly, through the use of auxin responsive promoters; directly, through the use of radiolabelled auxin or fluorescent auxin analogs; or biochemically through extraction and mass-spectrometric quantification of auxin and auxin metabolites from target cells or tissues. Here we focus on the use of the DR5::GUS synthetic auxin promoter reporter construct, fluorescent auxin analogs, and confirmatory biochemical (high-pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry) visualization of auxin and auxin metabolites.

  7. Physiological and biochemical responses of halophyte Kalidium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the physiological and biochemical responses of a halophyte Kalidium foliatum to salinity were studied. In order to reflect salt-tolerance in K. foliatum and to analyze the physiological and biochemical mechanism for its salt tolerance, salinity threshold and biochemical parameters were studied. A halophyte ...

  8. Exploring basic biochemical constituents in the body tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding regime did not influence susceptibility to mass loss during export. Animal age influenced the biochemical composition and export performance of abalone. Keywords: abalone; aquaculture; feeds; Haliotis midae; live export; mass loss; tissue biochemical constituents. African Journal of Marine Science 2010, 32(1): ...

  9. Biochemical composition of muscle tissue of penaeid prawns

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Biochemical composition of muscle tissue of females belonging to four species of penaeid prawns, viz. Metapenaeus affinis, M. dobsoni, Penaeus merguiensis and Parapenaeopsis stylifera, inhabiting the coastal waters of Goa, India, was estimated...

  10. Biochemical Markers of Joint Tissue Turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Sondergaard, Bodil Cecilie; Christiansen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Recent disappointments in late stage developments of anti-osteoarthritic drugs have reinforced efforts to develop better biomarkers for application in both the drug development process as well as in the routine management of these patients. Here we provide a brief review of biochemical tests...

  11. Haematological and biochemical responses of starter broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to investigate the haematological and biochemical responses of starter broiler chickens fed copper and probiotics supplemented diets. A total of 180-day old Marshal broiler chicks were randomly allotted to six treatment groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were divided into three replicates of ten ...

  12. Growth, haematological and biochemical responses of growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth, haematological and biochemical responses of growing lambs injected. A.N.M Nour El-Din, S.Z El-Zarkouny, S.Z El-Zarkouny, H Ghobashy, H Ghobashy, E.I Abdel-Gawad, E.I Abdel-Gawad, D.J Kesler, D.J Kesler ...

  13. Combination of biochemical and mechanical cues for tendon tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Stefano; Costantini, Marco; Fornetti, Ersilia; Bernardini, Sergio; Trombetta, Marcella; Seliktar, Dror; Cannata, Stefano; Rainer, Alberto; Gargioli, Cesare

    2017-11-01

    Tendinopathies negatively affect the life quality of millions of people in occupational and athletic settings, as well as the general population. Tendon healing is a slow process, often with insufficient results to restore complete endurance and functionality of the tissue. Tissue engineering, using tendon progenitors, artificial matrices and bioreactors for mechanical stimulation, could be an important approach for treating rips, fraying and tissue rupture. In our work, C3H10T1/2 murine fibroblast cell line was exposed to a combination of stimuli: a biochemical stimulus provided by Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-β) and Ascorbic Acid (AA); a three-dimensional environment represented by PEGylated-Fibrinogen (PEG-Fibrinogen) biomimetic matrix; and a mechanical induction exploiting a custom bioreactor applying uniaxial stretching. In vitro analyses by immunofluorescence and mechanical testing revealed that the proposed combined approach favours the organization of a three-dimensional tissue-like structure promoting a remarkable arrangement of the cells and the neo-extracellular matrix, reflecting into enhanced mechanical strength. The proposed method represents a novel approach for tendon tissue engineering, demonstrating how the combined effect of biochemical and mechanical stimuli ameliorates biological and mechanical properties of the artificial tissue compared to those obtained with single inducement. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  14. Biochemical Measurements of the Human Stress Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    8217 biochemical stress response. Dr Thomas Longridge was the project scientist and Dr Joe De Maio was the task scientist. This research was conducted by the...under condition A described in next paragraph. Second, DOPAC, MHPG, HVA, 5-HIAA, and VMA were determined by a modified method of Joseph, Kadam , and...n tt Ln 0 0 vJ 0 (N ’lw %.D w 0 0) to CI la, co 0 (r) Ch 𔃺I I 0 𔃺 0 0 0 (’) v 01-4 V~ 4 Hn qqJ Ln NOD & OD N r- ai r, m 0 ~ $4 c4 H 0 OI H r) (n t

  15. BIOCHEMICAL MECHANISM OF AUTOLYTIC PROCESSES OF MUSCULAR TISSUE OF FISHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Antipova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The conducted researches allowed to establish that intensive disintegration of a muscular glycogen leads to sharp decrease in size рН muscular tissue in the sour party that in turn affects a chemical composition and physic-colloidal structure of proteins therefore: resistance of meat of fish to action of putrefactive microorganisms increases; solubility of muscle proteins, level of their hydration which is water connecting abilities decreases; there is a swelling of collagen of connecting fabric; activity of the cathepsin (an optimum рН 5,3 causing hydrolysis of proteins at later stages of an autolysis increases; the bicarbonate system of muscular tissue with release of carbon dioxide collapses; predecessors of taste and aroma of meat are formed; process of oxidation of lipids becomes more active. As a result of accumulation dairy, phosphoric and other acids in meat of fish concentration of hydrogen ions of that decrease рН is result increases. Sharply shown sour environment and availability of inorganic phosphorus is considered the reason of disintegration of an actin-myosin complex on actin and a myosin which begins after 8 hours of storage, i.e. there comes the period of relaxation of muscle fibers and the period of permission of an numbness, and then the last stage of maturing of meat – deep autolysis. Thus, on the basis of classical ideas of biochemical changes of meat of land animals and summarizing the obtained data on posthumous changes in muscular tissue of fishes, it is possible to draw a conclusion that they have similar nature of regularity in comparison with muscular tissue of land animals, but their main difference is higher speed of course of autolytic transformations. It in turn leads to faster change of FTS of meat of fishes who are the defining indicators when developing assortment groups of products taking into account stages of an autolysis in meat.

  16. Behavioural and biochemical responses of juvenile catfish ( Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Behavioural and biochemical responses of juvenile catfish (Clarias gariepinus) exposed to graded concentrations of cassava waste water. Chinweike Norman ASOGWA, Francis O EZENWAJIAKU, Chidinma Adanna, OKOLO, Felicia Nkechi EKEH, Daniel Don NWIBO, Christian Onyeka CHUKWUKA ...

  17. Biochemical characterization of the medaka (Oryzias latipes) orthologue for mammalian tissue-type transglutaminase (TG2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Yuki; Watanabe, Yuko; Okuya, Kazuho; Tatsukawa, Hideki; Hashimoto, Hisashi; Hitomi, Kiyotaka

    2017-03-01

    Transglutaminase is an enzyme family responsible for post-translational modification such as protein cross-linking and the attachment of primary amine and/or deamidation of glutamine-residue in proteins. Medaka (Oryzias latipes), a recently established model fish, has similar functional proteins to those characterized in mammals. Previously, we found the apparent orthologues that correspond to human transglutaminases in medaka. In this study, regarding the medaka orthologue of human tissue-type transglutaminase (OlTGT), recombinant protein was expressed in an active form in bacteria cultured at low temperature. Using the recombinant protein, we biochemically characterized the enzymatic activity and also obtained a monoclonal antibody that specifically recognized OlTGT. Immunochemical analysis revealed that OlTGT was not expressed ubiquitously, unlike its mammalian orthologue, but in primarily limited tissues such as the eye, brain, spinal cord, and gas gland.

  18. Serum biochemical values and mineral contents of tissues in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reference values were established for some serum hematological and biochemical constituents in Przewaiski's and Tibetan gazelles in China. The contents of mineral elements in the blood, hair, liver, lung and muscle of Przewaiski's and Tibetan gazelles were also measured. All values are reported for the first time for ...

  19. Physiological and biochemical responses of halophyte Kalidium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-21

    Sep 21, 2011 ... Peroxidase (POD) activity was determined by methyl catechol reaction. Fresh leaf tissue (2.5 g) with 4 ml phosphate buffer (50. mM, pH 5.5) was ground into homogenate on ice bath, then centrifugated in 3000 rpm at 4°C for 10 min to get crude extract of. POD. 1 ml of methyl catechol (50 mM) was brought to ...

  20. Growth, haematological and biochemical responses of growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Abstract. Physiological and productive responses to recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) injection and calcium soap of fatty acids (CSFA) supplementation were studied in post-weaning male Rahmani lambs. Male lambs (n = 20) of similar initial body weight (27.9 kg) and age (162 d) were divided randomly into four.

  1. Sucralose Induces Biochemical Responses in Daphnia magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson Wiklund, Ann-Kristin; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; Liewenborg, Birgitta; Gorokhova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The intense artificial sweetener sucralose has no bioconcentration properties, and no adverse acute toxic effects have been observed in standard ecotoxicity tests, suggesting negligible environmental risk. However, significant feeding and behavioural alterations have been reported in non-standard tests using aquatic crustaceans, indicating possible sublethal effects. We hypothesized that these effects are related to alterations in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and oxidative status in the exposed animals and investigated changes in AChE and oxidative biomarkers (oxygen radical absorbing capacity, ORAC, and lipid peroxidation, TBARS) in the crustacean Daphnia magna exposed to sucralose (0.0001–5 mg L−1). The sucralose concentration was a significant positive predictor for ORAC, TBARS and AChE in the daphnids. Moreover, the AChE response was linked to both oxidative biomarkers, with positive and negative relationships for TBARS and ORAC, respectively. These joint responses support our hypothesis and suggest that exposure to sucralose may induce neurological and oxidative mechanisms with potentially important consequences for animal behaviour and physiology. PMID:24699280

  2. Experiment K-6-02. Biomedical, biochemical and morphological alterations of muscle and dense, fibrous connective tissues during 14 days of spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vailas, A.; Zernicke, R.; Grindeland, R.; Kaplanski, A.

    1990-01-01

    Findings on the connective tissue response to short-term space flight (12 days) are discussed. Specifically, data regarding the biochemical, biomechanical and morphological characteristics of selected connective tissues (humerus, vertebral body, tendon and skeletal muscle) of growing rats is given. Results are given concerning the humerus cortical bone, the vertebral bone, nutritional effects on bone biomechanical properties, and soft tense fiber connective tissue response.

  3. Evaluation of the Biochemical Responses of Catfish (Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated biochemical responses of Clarias gariepinus after replacing fish oil with plant- based oils in their diets. The sources of ... Aquaculture feed accounts for more than 50% cost in intensive aquaculture operations (NRC, ..... Oil. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 6 (5): 452-. 459. Otubusin, SO (2000).

  4. Psychological wellbeing and biochemical modulation in response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 14 - 21 ... Psychological wellbeing and biochemical modulation in response to weight loss in obese type 2 diabetes patients. Al-Jiffri Osama1, Abd El-Kader Shehab2. 1. Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdulaziz. University. 2. Department of Physical therapy, ...

  5. The influence of zinc and selenium on some biochemical responses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of zinc and selenium on some biochemical responses (lipid peroxidation, ascorbate, glutathione, growth rate, mineral content, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities) of cowpea and maize seedlings to water deficit condition and rehydration were investigated. Plants seedlings were exposed to water ...

  6. Physiological and biochemical responses to low temperature stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cuttings of three hybrid clones of P. ussuriensis × P. deltoides were exposed to different low temperatures (cold and freezing) for 24 h, or consecutive low temperatures (5°C, 0 to 120 h), to determine physiological and biochemical responses to cold stress in these woody plants. Soluble sugar and protein contents increased ...

  7. Evaluation of the biochemical responses of catfish ( Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated biochemical responses of Clarias gariepinus after replacing fish oil with plantbased oils in their diets. The sources of oils were coconut, olive, crude palm, sunflower and sesame seed. These oils were incorporated at 7% level to produce five isonitrogenous (41.03% protein) diets.The sixth diet contained ...

  8. Infrared spectroscopic imaging: Label-free biochemical analysis of stroma and tissue fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeer, Shaiju S; Sreedhar, Hari; Varma, Vishal K; Martinez-Marin, David; Massie, Christine; Walsh, Michael J

    2017-11-01

    Infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging is a potentially powerful adjunct tool to current histopathology techniques. By coupling the biochemical signature obtained through infrared spectroscopy to the spatial information offered by microscopy, this technique can selectively analyze the chemical composition of different features of unlabeled, unstained tissue sections. In the past, the tissue features that have received the most interest were parenchymal and epithelial cells, chiefly due to their involvement in dysplasia and progression to carcinoma; however, the field has recently turned its focus toward stroma and areas of fibrotic change. These components of tissue present an untapped source of biochemical information that can shed light on many diverse disease processes, and potentially hold useful predictive markers for these same pathologies. Here we review the recent applications of infrared spectroscopic imaging to stromal and fibrotic regions of diseased tissue, and explore the potential of this technique to advance current capabilities for tissue analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biochemical Stimulus-Based Strategies for Meniscus Tissue Engineering and Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingxue; Guo, Weimin; Gao, Shunag; Hao, Chunxiang; Shen, Shi; Zhang, Zengzeng; Wang, Zhenyong; Wang, Zehao; Li, Xu; Jing, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Xueliang; Yuan, Zhiguo; Wang, Mingjie; Zhang, Yu; Peng, Jiang; Wang, Aiyuan; Wang, Yu; Sui, Xiang

    2018-01-01

    Meniscus injuries are very common and still pose a challenge for the orthopedic surgeon. Meniscus injuries in the inner two-thirds of the meniscus remain incurable. Tissue-engineered meniscus strategies seem to offer a new approach for treating meniscus injuries with a combination of seed cells, scaffolds, and biochemical or biomechanical stimulation. Cell- or scaffold-based strategies play a pivotal role in meniscus regeneration. Similarly, biochemical and biomechanical stimulation are also important. Seed cells and scaffolds can be used to construct a tissue-engineered tissue; however, stimulation to enhance tissue maturation and remodeling is still needed. Such stimulation can be biomechanical or biochemical, but this review focuses only on biochemical stimulation. Growth factors (GFs) are one of the most important forms of biochemical stimulation. Frequently used GFs always play a critical role in normal limb development and growth. Further understanding of the functional mechanism of GFs will help scientists to design the best therapy strategies. In this review, we summarize some of the most important GFs in tissue-engineered menisci, as well as other types of biological stimulation. PMID:29581987

  10. The effect of tissue-engineered cartilage biomechanical and biochemical properties on its post-implantation mechanical behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoshgoftar, M.; Wilson, W.; Ito, K.; Donkelaar, C.C. van

    2013-01-01

    The insufficient load-bearing capacity of today's tissue-engineered (TE) cartilage limits its clinical application. Focus has been on engineering cartilage with enhanced mechanical stiffness by reproducing native biochemical compositions. More recently, depth dependency of the biochemical content

  11. Dosimetric response of some biochemicals used as lyoluminescent dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettinger, K.V.; Rowe, R.W.; Mallard, J.R.; Takavar, A.; Sephton, J.

    1977-01-01

    It has been found recently that a whole variety of biochemicals exhibit lyoluminescent response to ionizing and UV radiation, which can be used for the purpose of dosimetry. Among the amino acids, glutamine, glutamic acid and valine are showing good response and satisfactory stability of the stored energy i.e. stability of 'frozen' free radicals. Actually, all amino acids involved in naturally occuring proteins, which were investigated (20 compounds) show lyoluminescence to smaller or greater extent. The response is proportional to the dose in the region of 50 rad to 100 kilorad. The mechanism of lyoluminescence in amino acids is probably the same as in the saccharides; formation of free radicals in the solid, conversion to peroxy radicals and, finally generation of excited oxygen dimers on dissolution. Other categories of biochemicals which exhibit lyoluminescence (LL) are DNA, RNA and their salts, as well as some antibiotics like streptomycin, gentamycin and oxytetracycline. Those of proteins that are easily soluble in water, show a good LL response. The half-life of free radicals responsible for LL in albumins (egg, horse and human) is of an order of 24 h. However, in salmine (protamine sulphate) the decay is very slow, of an order of few month, so this material can be used as a 'protein equivalent' dosemeter. In all experiments a 60 Co source was used for irradiations. Proteins, RNA and DNA show a considerable response to UV. In experiments with UV radiation, mostly 2547 A wavelength, the response to radiation in terms of energy deposited in gramme of material was almost twice that for gamma rays of 1.33 and 1.17MeV

  12. Biochemical and histological evaluation of the synovial-like tissue around failed (loose) total joint replacement prostheses in human subjects and a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, T S; Ozuna, R M; Shortkroff, S; Keller, K; Sledge, C B; Spector, M

    1990-07-01

    The tissue around loose total joint replacement prostheses displays a synovial-like lining comprised of cells that produce IL-1 and PGE2, mediators of inflammation that stimulate bone resorption. Particles of titanium alloy, as well as cobalt-chromium alloy and polyethylene, were found to aggravate the histiocytic response and production of IL-1 and PGE2. Tissue with similar histological and biochemical features was produced in a canine model of the aseptic loose cemented femoral stem.

  13. Human biochemical response to ozone and vitamin E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posin, C.I.; Clark, K.W.; Jones, M.P.; Buckley, R.D.; Hackney, J.D.

    1979-11-01

    To determine whether vitamin E (dl-..cap alpha..-tocopherol) supplementation of the diet provides protection from inhaled oxidants such as ozone (O/sub 3/) in community air pollution, its effects were studied in healthy adult volunteers. Experimental groups received 800 or 1600 IU of vitamin E for 9 weeks or more; control groups received placebos. Double-blind conditions were maintained throughout the study. Biochemical parameters studied included red blood cell fragility; hematocrit and hemoglobin values; red cell glutathione concentration; and the enzymes acetylcholinesterase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and lactic acid dehydrogenase. No significant differences between the responses of the supplemented and placebo groups to a controlled O/sub 3/ exposure (0.5 ppM for 2 h) were found for any of these parameters. The results indicate that vitamin E supplementation in humans, at the levels employed in this experiment, gives no added protection against blood biochemical effects of O/sub 3/ in intermittently exercising subjects under exposure conditions simulating summer ambient air pollution episodes.

  14. Heterogeneous response of adipose tissue to cancer cachexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Bertevello

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cachexia causes disruption of lipid metabolism. Since it has been well established that the various adipose tissue depots demonstrate different responses to stimuli, we assessed the effect of cachexia on some biochemical and morphological parameters of adipocytes obtained from the mesenteric (MES, retroperitoneal (RPAT, and epididymal (EAT adipose tissues of rats bearing Walker 256 carcinosarcoma, compared with controls. Relative weight and total fat content of tissues did not differ between tumor-bearing rats and controls, but fatty acid composition was modified by cachexia. Adipocyte dimensions were increased in MES and RPAT from tumor-bearing rats, but not in EAT, in relation to control. Ultrastructural alterations were observed in the adipocytes of tumor-bearing rat RPAT (membrane projections and EAT (nuclear bodies.

  15. Biochemical responses to iron deficiency in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombolà, A D; Brüggemann, W; López-Millán, A F; Tagliavini, M; Abadía, J; Marangoni, B; Moog, P R

    2002-08-01

    A comparative study of two kiwifruit genotypes (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) C.F. Liang et A.R. Ferguson var. deliciosa) with different tolerance to iron (Fe) deficiency was conducted to identify biochemical features associated with tolerance to Fe deficiency. After 14 days of growth in hydroponic culture under Fe-deficient and Fe-sufficient conditions, leaf chlorophyll concentration, activities of ferric chelate reductase (FCR), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and citrate synthase in root extracts, concentrations of organic acids in roots, leaves and xylem sap, and xylem sap pH were measured. In response to Fe deficiency, the tolerant genotype D1 showed: (i) higher FCR activity associated with a longer lasting induction of FCR; (ii) higher PEPC activity; (iii) higher concentrations of citric acid in roots; and (iv) lower xylem sap pH compared with the susceptible genotype Hayward. These findings imply that induction of FCR and PEPC activities in roots in response to Fe deficiency are important physiological adaptations enabling Fe-efficient kiwifruit plants to tolerate Fe deficiency.

  16. Biocompatibility of a novel cyanoacrylate based tissue adhesive: cytotoxicity and biochemical property evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Ju Lee

    Full Text Available Cyanoacrylate (CA is most widely used as a medical and commercial tissue adhesive because of easier wound closure, good cosmetic results and little discomfort. But, CA-based tissue adhesives have some limitations including the release of cytotoxic chemicals during biodegradation. In previous study, we made prepolymerized allyl 2-CA (PACA based tissue adhesive, resulting in longer chain structure. In this study, we investigated a biocompatibility of PACA as alternative tissue adhesive for medical application, comparing with that of Dermabond® as commercial tissue adhesive. The biocompatibility of PACA was evaluated for short-term (24 hr and long-term (3 and 7 days using conventional cytotoxicity (WST, neutral red, LIVE/DEAD and TUNEL assays, hematoxylin-eosin (H&E and Masson trichrome (MT staining. Besides we examined the biochemical changes in cells and DNA induced by PACA and Dermabond® utilizing Raman spectroscopy which could observe the denaturation and conformational changes in protein, as well as disintegration of the DNA/RNA by cell death. In particular, we analyzed Raman spectrum using the multivariate statistical methods including principal component analysis (PCA and support vector machine (SVM. As a result, PACA and Dermabond® tissue adhesive treated cells and tissues showed no difference of the cell viability values, histological analysis and Raman spectral intensity. Also, the classification analysis by means of PCA-SVM classifier could not discriminate the difference between the PACA and Dermabond® treated cells and DNA. Therefore we suggest that novel PACA might be useful as potential tissue adhesive with effective biocompatibility.

  17. Differential response of biochemical parameters to EMS and MMS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B.B.D. Khalandar

    2015-06-10

    Jun 10, 2015 ... Abstract Aim: To study the effect of alkylating agents such as EMS and MMS on chromosomes and biochemical parameters in induced diabetic mouse. Methods: Chromosome preparations from bone marrow was made using the method of Evans et al. (1964) and biochemical estimations from the liver was ...

  18. [Biochemical indices of connective tissue metabolism in patients with chronic hepatitis B and C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynovich, T L; Magomedov, S

    2013-09-01

    37 patients with chronic hepatitis B and C were examined. Patients were divided into 3 groups depending on the degree of connective tissue dysplasia. We investigated: free and protein-bounded hydroxyproline, collagenase activity, total alkaline phosphatase and its bone fraction, creatinine, calcium and phosphorus content in the blood serum and urine. It has been found the dependence of collagen synthesis from the state of connective tissue. The higher is the degree of dysplasia, the more intensive is the process of collagen synthesis (P < 0.05). The index of corellation between protein-bounded and free fraction can be used as a biochemical marker for determination the stage of pathological process in the liver and for monitoring the effectiveness of therapy.

  19. Haematological and biochemical responses to training and overtraining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler-McGowan, C M; Golland, L C; Evans, D L; Hodgson, D R; Rose, R J

    1999-07-01

    We sought a physiological marker of overtraining in horses, using commonly practised field and laboratory tests to allow early prediction and treatment of the syndrome. Thirteen Standardbred horses were trained as follows: phase 1 (endurance, 7 weeks), phase 2 (high intensity, 9 weeks) and phase 3 (overload, 18 weeks). In phase 3 the horses were divided into 2 groups: overload training (OLT) and control (C). The OLT group exercised at greater intensities, frequencies and durations than the C group. Overtraining occurred after 31 weeks and was defined as a significant decrease in treadmill run time to fatigue (RT) in response to a standardised exercise test (SET). Variables measured included: feed intake, bodyweight (BWT), resting haematology and plasma biochemistry and treadmill SETs to measure RT. The OLT group had a decrease in BWT after week 28 (P overtraining. Haematology and biochemistry failed to detect any markers of overtraining. Although no physiological markers of overtraining were identified, empirical observations revealed that the behaviour of horses in the OLT group was different from those in the C group during the period of overtraining. This study reflects that a model of overtraining has been developed based on measurement of a reduction in performance; however, there were no consistent changes in haematology or serum biochemical values in association with the decrement in performance capacity.

  20. Physiological and biochemical responses of thyme plants to some antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALWA A. ORABI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Orabi SA, Talaat IM, Balbaa LK. 2014. Physiological and biochemical responses of thyme plants to some antioxidants. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 118-125. Two pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of tryptophan, nicotinamide and α-tocopherol (each at 50 and 100 mg/L on plant growth, essential oil yield and its main constituents. All treatments significantly promoted plant height, and increased fresh and dry mass (g/plant of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.. The treatment with 100 mg/L nicotinamide showed increasing in total potassium mainly in the first cut. Total soluble sugars, oil percentage and oil yield and protein recorded increments with tryptophan treatments. Treatment of Thymus plants with 100 mg/L nicotinamide observed the highest percentage of thymol (67.61%. Oxygenated compounds recorded the highest value with 50 mg/L α-tocopherol treatment, while the maximum non-oxygenated ones resulted from the application of 100 mg/L nicotinamide. All treatments under study significantly affected the activity of oxidoreductase enzymes (POX and PPO. Nicotinamide at the concentration of 100 mg/L recorded the highest increments in APX and GR and the lowest values in oxidoreductase enzyme activities added to the lowest values of lipid peroxidation to enhance the best protection of thyme plants.

  1. A chemo-mechano-biological formulation for the effects of biochemical alterations on arterial mechanics: the role of molecular transport and multiscale tissue remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Michele; Pontrelli, Giuseppe; Vairo, Giuseppe; Wriggers, Peter

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a chemo-mechano-biological framework for arterial physiopathology. The model accounts for the fine remodelling in the multiscale hierarchical arrangement of tissue constituents and for the diffusion of molecular species involved in cell-cell signalling pathways. Effects in terms of alterations in arterial compliance are obtained. A simple instructive example is introduced. Although oversimplified with respect to realistic case studies, the proposed application mimics the biochemical activity of matrix metalloproteinases, transforming growth factors beta and interleukins on tissue remodelling. Effects of macrophage infiltration, of intimal thickening and of a healing phase are investigated, highlighting the corresponding influence on arterial compliance. The obtained results show that the present approach is able to capture changes in arterial mechanics as a consequence of the alterations in tissue biochemical environment and cellular activity, as well as to incorporate the protective role of both autoimmune responses and pharmacological treatments. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Bioaccumulation of Lead in the Tissues of Japanese Quails and Its Effects on Blood Biochemical Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Hamidipour

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead is the oldest known toxic metal, physiologically and biologically harmful to living creatures. This study aimed to evaluate the lead accumulation in the liver and breast muscles of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica and to compare concentrations in both sexes and its effect on blood biochemical factors. Methods: Twenty-four young farm Japanese quails (25 day old prepared from local breeders in December 2014 and randomly divided into control and treatment group. Treatment group were exposed to 0.4 mg per kg diet of “Lead Acetate” for 21 days. We studied the effects of lead on survival and blood biochemical factors. The lead accumulation in the liver and breast muscles of Japanese quail was determined using atomic absorption. Results: Exposure to lead caused a significant increase in the activity of enzymes (AST, (ALT, (LDH, glucose, creatinine and uric acid in poultry treated with lead compared with the control group (P<0.05. In addition, significant decrease in the activity of ALP, AChE, total protein, albumin, globulin, and triglycerides was found (P<0.05. The treated group had no significant change in the activity of CPK and cholesterol. Lead accumulation was more in the liver rather than the breast muscle. There was no significant difference between males and females as for concentration of lead in muscle and liver of quail. Conclusion: Quail have capabilities to accumulate lead in their tissues. In addition, it can lead to apparent changes in enzymes and blood biochemical factors, which show adverse effects of heavy metals on the immune and physiological system of birds.

  3. Raman spectroscopy uncovers biochemical tissue-related features of extracellular vesicles from mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualerzi, Alice; Niada, Stefania; Giannasi, Chiara; Picciolini, Silvia; Morasso, Carlo; Vanna, Renzo; Rossella, Valeria; Masserini, Massimo; Bedoni, Marzia; Ciceri, Fabio; Bernardo, Maria Ester; Brini, Anna Teresa; Gramatica, Furio

    2017-08-29

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) from mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are emerging as valuable therapeutic agents for tissue regeneration and immunomodulation, but their clinical applications have so far been limited by the technical restraints of current isolation and characterisation procedures. This study shows for the first time the successful application of Raman spectroscopy as label-free, sensitive and reproducible means of carrying out the routine bulk characterisation of MSC-derived vesicles before their use in vitro or in vivo, thus promoting the translation of EV research to clinical practice. The Raman spectra of the EVs of bone marrow and adipose tissue-derived MSCs were compared with human dermal fibroblast EVs in order to demonstrate the ability of the method to distinguish the vesicles of the three cytotypes automatically with an accuracy of 93.7%. Our data attribute a Raman fingerprint to EVs from undifferentiated and differentiated cells of diverse tissue origin, and provide insights into the biochemical characteristics of EVs from different sources and into the differential contribution of sphingomyelin, gangliosides and phosphatidilcholine to the Raman spectra themselves.

  4. Dynamic compressive response of bovine liver tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervin, Farhana; Chen, Weinong W; Weerasooriya, Tusit

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to experimentally determine the strain rate effects on the compressive stress-strain behavior of bovine liver tissues. Fresh liver tissues were used to make specimens for mechanical loading. Experiments at quasi-static strain rates were conducted at 0.01 and 0.1 s(-1). Intermediate-rate experiments were performed at 1, 10, and 100 s(-1). High strain rate (1000, 2000, and 3000 s(-1)) experiments were conducted using a Kolsky bar modified for soft material characterization. A hollow transmission bar with semi-conductor strain gages was used to sense the weak forces from the soft specimens. Quartz-crystal force transducers were used to monitor valid testing conditions on the tissue specimens. The experiment results show that the compressive stress-strain response of the liver tissue is non-linear and highly rate-sensitive, especially when the strain rate is in the Kolsky bar range. The tissue stiffens significantly with increasing strain rate. The responses from liver tissues along and perpendicular to the liver surface were consistent, indicating isotropic behavior. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Differential response of biochemical parameters to EMS and MMS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (1964) and biochemical estimations from the liver was done by the method of Sinha (1972) for catalase, Van der Vies (1954) for glycogen and Uchiyama and Mihara (1978) for MDA. Results: The study has revealed that EMS and MMS induced a dose dependent increase in chromosomal aberrations of chromatid type in the ...

  6. Biochemical response of normal albino rats to the addition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted to determine the biochemical effect of Hibiscus cannabinus and Murraya koenigii extracts on normal albino rats using standard methods. Analyses carried out indicated that the aqueous leaf extract of H. cannabinus and M. koenigii exhibited significant hypolipideamic activity in normal rats.

  7. Biochemical response of ouda sheep to water contaminated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, biochemical examinations of fasting blood glucose(FBGL), total serum protein(TSP), serum albumin(S.ALB), blood urea nitrogen(BUN), serum creatinine(S.CREAT.), serum phosphate(S.PO4), aspartate ... hours of the experiment following standard procedures. The result showed that all the parameters measured were ...

  8. Biochemical Response Of Normal Albino Rats To The Addition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Experiments were conducted to determine the biochemical effect of Hibiscus cannabinus and Murraya koenigii extracts on normal albino rats using standard methods. Analyses carried out indicated that the aqueous leaf extract of H. cannabinus and M. koenigii exhibited significant hypolipideamic activity in ...

  9. Biochemical and histopathologic analysis of the effects of periodontitis on left ventricular heart tissues of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, O; Arabacı, T; Gedikli, S; Eminoglu, D Ö; Kermen, E; Kızıldağ, A; Kara, A; Ozkanlar, S; Yemenoglu, H

    2017-04-01

    Current epidemiological works have suggested that chronic infections, such as periodontitis, are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, including hypertrophy and heart failure. However, mechanisms behind the association are not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of periodontitis on the serum lipid levels, inflammatory marker levels and left ventricular heart muscle tissues of rats. Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (without ligature) and experimental periodontitis (EP; ligatured). Periodontitis was induced by placing ligatures (3.0 silk) at a submarginal position of the lower first molar teeth for 5 wk. Serum samples were collected for biochemical studies (C-reactive protein, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and serum lipids), after which the rats were killed and heart tissue samples were obtained for histopathological and immunological studies (nuclear factor kappa B and β-myosin heavy chain). Significant increases in C-reactive protein and interleukin-1β levels and no statistically significant increase in tumor necrosis factor-α level were observed in the EP group compared to the control group. In addition, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in the EP group. Stereological and immunological findings showed that the number of nuclear factor kappa B-p65- and β-myosin heavy chain-positive cardiomyocytes increased significantly in the left ventricular tissue samples of the rats with periodontitis. Early chronic phase effects of periodontitis on heart tissue are in the form of degenerative and hypotrophic changes. Prolonging the exposure to systemic inflammatory stress may increase the risk of occurrence of hypertrophic changes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Biochemical Responses of Peach Leaves Infected with Taphrina Deformans Berk/Tul.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubka Koleva-Valkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytopathogenic fungus Taphrina deformans causing the so called “leaf curl disease” in peach trees leads to severe yield losses due to the development of leaf hypertrophy and subsequent necrosis and scission. Because of its economic importance, the molecular mechanisms underlying the onset and progression of the disease are of considerable interest to the agricultural science. In this study various biochemical parameters, including the activities of the antioxidant enzymes guaiacol peroxidase, syringaldazine peroxidase and catalase, total polyphenols and anthocyanin content, concentration of free proline, antiradical activity and quantity of plastid pigments, were characterized. All these were measured in both leaves with clear symptoms and distally situated leaves from the same plant that show no signs of the infection. The results demonstrate that the pathogen induces considerable biochemical changes concerning enzymatic and non‑enzymatic elements of the plant defense and antioxidant systems. Moreover, it seems that the fungus provokes a systemic response detectable even in the tissues without observable symptoms.

  11. Arsenic-induced biochemical and genotoxic effects and distribution in tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlolla, Anita K.; Todorov, Todor; Tchounwou, Paul B.; van der Voet, Gijsbert; Centeno, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a well documented human carcinogen. However, its mechanisms of toxic action and carcinogenic potential in animals have not been conclusive. In this research, we investigated the biochemical and genotoxic effects of As and studied its distribution in selected tissues of Sprague–Dawley rats. Four groups of six male rats, each weighing approximately 60 ± 2 g, were injected intraperitoneally, once a day for 5 days with doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 mg/kg BW of arsenic trioxide. A control group was also made of 6 animals injected with distilled water. Following anaesthetization, blood was collected and enzyme analysis was performed by spectrophotometry following standard protocols. At the end of experimentation, the animals were sacrificed, and the lung, liver, brain and kidney were collected 24 h after the fifth day treatment. Chromosome and micronuclei preparation was obtained from bone marrow cells. Arsenic exposure significantly increased (p coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A dynamic reaction cell (DRC) with hydrogen gas was used to eliminate the ArCl interference at mass 75, in the measurement of total As. Total As doses in tissues tended to correlate with specific exposure levels.

  12. Investigation of liver tissue and biochemical parameters of adult wistar rats treated with Arctium lappa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrícia Souza Predes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of Arctium lappa L. (burdock on the liver of adult male Wistar rats as measured by light microscopy and biochemical parameters. The rats received the extract in water bottles at doses of 10 or 20 g/L daily for 40 days. There were no significant changes in the plasma levels of albumin, aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, total protein, total cholesterol, urea, uric acid, triacylglycerol, calcium, phosphorus, chlorine and direct bilirubin. The morphological analysis did not reveal histopathological alterations in liver tissue. Both biochemical and morphological data did not indicate A. lappa toxicity.A bardana (Arctium lappa L é uma planta trazida do Japão e aclimatada no Brasil, e é extensamente utilizada na medicina popular em todo mundo. Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar os possíveis efeitos da A. lappa no fígado e nos parâmetros bioquímicos plasmáticos em ratos Wistar adultos. Estes receberam a infusão de bardana nas doses de 10 ou 20 g de folhas secas /L de água, por 40 dias. Não houve alteração significativa nos níveis plasmáticos de albumina, aspartato transaminase (AST, alanina transaminase (ALT, gamma glutamil transferase (GGT, proteínas totais, colesterol total, uréia, ácido úrico, triglicérides, cálcio, fósforo, bilirrubina direta e cloro. A análise morfológica não revelou alterações histopatológicas no fígado. Os dados bioquímicos e morfológicos não indicaram a toxicidade da bardana.

  13. Responses of physiological and biochemical components in Gossypium hirsutum L. to mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthusamy, A.; Vasanth, K.; Jayabalan, N.

    2003-01-01

    The two tetraploid varieties of cotton were exposed to gamma rays, EMS and SA. Chlorophyll, carotenoids, sugar, starch, free amino acids, protein, lipids, DNA and RNA were estimated quantitatively. All the physiological and biochemical components were increased in lower dose/concentration of the mutagenic treatments and they were decreased in higher dose/concentrations. The stimulation of the biochemical contents was a dose/concentration dependent response. Among the two varieties, MCU 11 was found to be responsive to mutagens than MCU 5. Based on the study the lower dose/concentration of the mutagenic treatments could enhance the biochemical components which is used for improved economic characters of cotton. (author)

  14. Tissue physiology and the response to heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsman, Michael Robert

    2006-01-01

    The most important physiological parameter influencing tissue response to heat is blood flow. At mild hyperthermia temperatures blood perfusion increases in many tumours and this effect is heating time-, temperature- and tumour-dependent. These flow increases can improve tumour oxygenation. When...... physiological effects should occur in normal tissues, such combination therapies must be carefully applied. Heating tumours to higher temperatures typically causes a transient increase in perfusion during heating, followed by vascular collapse which if sufficient will increase tumour necrosis. The speed...... can also be exploited to improve the response to heat. Decreasing blood flow, using transient physiological modifiers or longer acting vascular disrupting agents prior to the initiation of heating, can both increase the accumulation of physical heat in the tumour, as well as increase heat sensitivity...

  15. Fruit response to water-scarcity and biochemical changes : Water relations and biochemical changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez, P.; Galindo Egea, Alejandro; Collado-González, J.; Medina, S.; Corell, M.; Memmi, H.; Girón, I.F.; Centeno, A.; Martín-Palomo, M.J.; Cruz, Z.N.; Carbonell-Barrachina, A.A.; Hernandez, F.; Torrecillas, A.; Moriana, A.; Pérez-López, D.; Garcia Tejero, Ivan Francisco; Duran Zuazo, Victor Hugo

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to give a general idea of the fruit response to water-scarcity conditions, paying special attention to fruit water relations modification and fruit composition changes, which are key for fruit quality. The strengths and weaknesses of fruit water relations measurement

  16. Biochemical and immunological responses to low doses of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabon, M.H.; Sayed, Z.S.; Mahdy, E.M.; El-Gawish, M.A.; Shosha, W.

    2006-01-01

    Malondialdehyde, lactate dehydrogenase, iron concentration, IL-6 and IL-1b concentration, hemoglobin content, red cells, white cells and platelet counts were determined in seventy-two male albino rats divided into two main groups. The first one was subdivided into 7 subgroups; control and 6 irradiated subgroups with 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1 Gy single dose of gamma radiation. The other was subdivided into 4 subgroups irradiated with fractionated doses of gamma radiation; three groups were irradiated with 0.3, 0.7 and 1 Gy (0.1 Gy/day) and the last subgroup with 1 Gy (0.2 Gy/day). All animals were sacrificed after three days of the last irradiation dose. The results revealed that all biochemical parameters were increased in rats exposed to fractionated doses more than the single doses. Hematological parameters were decreased in rats exposed to single doses more than the fractionated ones. In conclusion, the data of this study highlights the stimulatory effect of low ionizing radiation doses (= 1 Gy), whether single or fractionated, on some biochemical and immunological parameters

  17. Congenital spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia. Morphological and biochemical examination of skeletal tissue in an unusual case of this disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engfeldt, B.; Hjerpe, A.; Reinholt, F.P.; Wikstroem, B.; Bolme, P.; Ekloef, O.

    1984-01-01

    This report deals with an unusual case of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, where the diagnosis was suspected clinically and radiologically and where cartilage and osseocartilaginous specimens were taken for ultrastructural and biochemical analyses. Unlike cases described previously the electron microscopic studies of chondrocytes showed vacuolization of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. These vacuoles contained an amorphous substance, and the picture is suggestive of a metabolic disturbance. The results of the biochemical analyses were within the normal range and did not indicate storage of glycosaminoglycans in the tissue. (orig.)

  18. Biochemical biomarker responses of green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus, to acute and subchronic waterborne cadmium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandurvelan, Rathishri, E-mail: rch118@uclive.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Marsden, Islay D., E-mail: islay.marsden@canterbury.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Gaw, Sally, E-mail: sally.gaw@canterbury.ac.nz [Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Glover, Chris N., E-mail: chris.glover@canterbury.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Biochemical biomarkers were measured to assess effects of Cd on Perna canaliculus. •Biochemical responses varied between acute and subchronic exposure to Cd. •MTLP induction correlated strongly with Cd accumulation. •Alkaline phosphatase and glycogen levels decreased during subchronic Cd exposure. •Duration of Cd exposure influenced biochemical biomarker responses in mussels. -- Abstract: The biochemical responses of the green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus, to waterborne cadmium (Cd) were investigated in order to delineate toxic mechanisms, and the impacts of exposure dose and duration, of this important toxicant in a potential sentinel species. Mussels were exposed for either 96 h (acute: 0, 2000, 4000 μg L{sup −1} Cd) or for 28 d (subchronic: 0, 200, 2000 μg L{sup −1} Cd), and the digestive gland, gill and haemolymph were examined for impacts. Biochemical responses measured included those associated with metal detoxification (metallothionein-like protein; MTLP), oxidative stress (catalase, lipid peroxidation), cellular homeostasis (alkaline phosphatase, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase; NKA), and energy utilisation (glycogen, haemolymph protein). Following acute exposure, digestive gland glycogen and gill NKA activity were significantly altered by Cd exposure relative to levels in mussels exposed to Cd-free seawater. Subchronic Cd exposure resulted in a significant increase in MTLP levels in both the gill and the digestive gland. This increase was correlated strongly with the levels of Cd accumulation measured in these tissues (R = 0.957 for gill, 0.964 for digestive gland). Catalase activity followed a similar pattern, although the correlation with tissue Cd accumulation was not as strong (R = 0.907 for gill, 0.708 for digestive gland) as that for MTLP. Lipid peroxidation increased in the digestive gland at Days 7 and 14 at both subchronic Cd levels tested, but this effect had largely dissipated by Days 21 and 28 (with the exception of

  19. Biochemical responses of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-21

    Sep 21, 2011 ... peroxidase;. DHAR, dehydroascorbate reductase; MDHAR, monodehydro ascorbate reductase; GR, glutathione reductase; PPFD, photo period flow ...... reductase from cold-hardened and non-hardened spinach leaf tissue. Cryobiol. 21: 454-464. Hajihashemi S, Kiarostami K, Enteshari S, Saboora A (2006) ...

  20. Biochemical changes in tissue catecholamines and serotonin in duodenal ulceration caused by cysteamine or propionitrile in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, S.; Horner, H.C.; Maull, H.; Schnoor, J.; Chiueh, C.C.; Palkovits, M.

    1987-01-01

    Previous structure-activity and pharmacologic studies with duodenal ulcerogens cysteamine and propionitrile implicating catecholamines in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulceration have now been followed up by dose- and time-response biochemical investigations to assess the importance of monoamines in the development of duodenal ulcers. The concentrations of norepinephrine (noradrenaline), dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites were measured in total brain, brain regions, stomach, duodenum, pancreas and adrenals in the rat. Turnover of catecholamines was determined in rats pretreated with the inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine. The duodenal ulcerogens caused a dose- and time-dependent depletion of norepinephrine in virtually all the tissues examined. The effect was maximal 4 or 7 hr after cysteamine or propionitrile, and norepinephrine levels returned to normal in 24 hr. Dopamine changes were selective and often biphasic, e.g., elevation in adrenals, biphasic in brain cortex, hippocampus and midbrain, but uniformly decreasing in glandular stomach and duodenum. In the median eminence dopamine levels decreased by 181 and 324% at 15 and 30 min, respectively, after cysteamine, but neither dopamine nor 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid was modified in the periventricular nucleus. Serotonin levels were relatively stable, revealing slight elevations or no changes in most of the tissues. The turnover of norepinephrine was accelerated by both chemicals in virtually all brain regions, but dopamine turnover was affected only in a few areas, e.g., in the corpus striatum and medulla oblongata cysteamine decreased dopamine turnover, whereas propionitrile first (at 1 hr) accelerated then (at 8 hr) significantly suppressed it.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Peripheral tissue involvement in sporadic, iatrogenic, and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: an immunohistochemical, quantitative, and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Mark W; Ritchie, Diane; Smith, Nadine; McLoughlin, Victoria; Nailon, William; Samad, Sazia; Masson, Stephen; Bishop, Matthew; McCardle, Linda; Ironside, James W

    2004-01-01

    Human prion diseases are rare fatal neurodegenerative conditions that occur as acquired, familial, or idiopathic disorders. A key event in their pathogenesis is the accumulation of an altered form of the prion protein, termed PrP(Sc), in the central nervous system. A novel acquired human prion disease, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, is thought to result from oral exposure to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent. This disease differs from other human prion diseases in its neurological, neuropathological, and biochemical phenotype. We have used immunohistochemistry and Western blot techniques to analyze the tissue distribution and biochemical properties of PrP(Sc) in peripheral tissues in a unique series of nine cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. We have compared this with the distribution and biochemical forms found in all of the major subtypes of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and in a case of iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease associated with growth hormone therapy. The results show that involvement of the lymphoreticular system is a defining feature of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, but that the biochemical isoform of PrP(Sc) found is influenced by the cell type in which it accumulates.

  2. Comparative biochemical responses of rats to different stressful stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odio, M R; Maickel, R P

    1985-04-01

    Adult male rats were exposed to single applications of one of three stressful stimuli (low environmental temperature, immobilization, random footshock) for periods up to 4 hours and plasma levels of corticosterone (PCS), fatty acids (PFA), and glucose (PGL) were determined at various points during the stress exposure and 1 and 2 hours post-exposure. The levels of PCS were increased by all 3 stressful stimuli in a similar temporal pattern, with the greatest magnitude of effect seen for immobilization and the least for cold exposure. The time courses of increased PFA levels were similar for immobilization and cold exposure; the response to foot shock was delayed in onset by 2 hours. The PGL response was minimal for cold exposure and foot shock, but showed a marked elevation during the first 2 hours of immobilization. The results suggest that the response pattern obtained is characteristic of the stressful stimulus employed, with PCS showing the least degree of specificity.

  3. Productivity and biochemical properties of green tea in response to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    in the HpaGXooc sequence (Liu et al 2006). Despite these distinctions, HpaG proteins affect plants in a similar manner as other harpins. When applied to plants or produced in transgenic plants, HpaG proteins can promote plant growth, induce hypersensitive cell death (HCD), and induce defence responses (Li et al 2004; ...

  4. Response of some metabolic and biochemical indices in rabbits fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty four growing rabbits were used to assess the response of serum metabolites, performance, nutrient digestibility, and carcass characteristics of rabbits to varying dietary cyanide levels. The animals were randomly allocated to four experimental, isocaloric and isoproteinous diets containing 0mg, 250mg, 500mg and ...

  5. Bone tissue response to experimental zirconia implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihatovic, Ilja; Golubovic, Vladimir; Becker, Jürgen; Schwarz, Frank

    2017-03-01

    This study seeks to assess the bone tissue response at experimental zirconia implants in comparison with titanium implants by means of descriptive histology and histomorphometry in a dog model. Experimental zirconia implants with three different surface roughnesses (Z1  Z2 30.1 % > Z3 28.9 % > Z1 25.1 %, p > 0.05, unpaired t test, respectively). A provisional matrix was evident at all implant surfaces. At 14 days, percentages of BIC increased in all groups (tBIC: Ti 62.1 % > Z3 69.2 %  Z1 42.3 %; nBIC: Z3 58.9 % > Ti 52.2 % > Z2 35.1 % > Z1 32.5 %). Two implants, one of group Z1 and one of group Z2, were lost. At 10 weeks, 13 of 18 zirconia implants were lost, equally distributed between all three surface modifications. The remaining implants revealed increased BIC values (tBIC: Z3 69.5 % > Ti 58.5 % > Z1 49.7 % > Z2 37.1 %; nBIC: Z3 57.2 % > Ti 46.5 % > Z1 32.3 % > Z2 29.3 %). Histomorphometrical analysis showed comparable mean BIC values in all groups at all healing periods without showing statistical differences (p > 0.05, unpaired t test, respectively). The bone tissue response throughout the healing periods was characterized by a constant bone remodeling accompanied by resorption of old bone in favor of new bone formation at both titanium and zirconia implants. Surface roughness had a positive effect on BIC, although not showing statistical significance. Due to the poor survival rate, the experimental zirconia implants investigated may not be suitable for clinical use. Zirconia has been introduced as an alternative biomaterial for dental implants. A profound knowledge about the bone tissue response at zirconia implant surfaces is necessary as it plays an important role for proper osseointegration and long-term stability.

  6. Tularemia induces different biochemical responses in BALB/c mice and common voles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitula Frantisek

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both BALB/c mice and common voles (Microtus arvalis are considered highly susceptible to tularemia. However, the common vole is reported to harbour Francisella tularensis in European habitats as well as to survive longer with chronic shedding of the bacterium. The purpose of the present study was to compare the response of these two rodents to a wild Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica strain infection. Methods Rodents were evaluated for differences in the total antioxidant capacity derived from low-molecular-weight antioxidants, biochemistry including lipid metabolism, tissue bacterial burdens and histopathology following experimental intraperitoneal infection with 160 colony forming units (CFU pro toto. Results Bacterial burdens in common voles started to develop later post-exposure and amounted to lower levels than in BALB/c mice. Elevation of liver function enzymes was more pronounced in mice than common voles and there were marked differences in lipid metabolism in the course of tularemia in these two species. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia developed in mice, while physiologically higher levels of triglycerides and cholesterol showed a decreasing tendency in common voles. On the other hand, the total plasma antioxidant capacity gradually dropped to 81.5% in mice on day 5 post-infection, while it increased to 130% on day 6 post-infection in common voles. Significant correlations between tissue bacterial burdens and several biochemical parameters were found. Conclusion As differences in lipid metabolism and the total antioxidant capacity of highly susceptible rodent species were demonstrated, the role of triglycerides, cholesterol and antioxidants in tularemic sepsis should be further investigated.

  7. Molecular and biochemical responses of Volvox carteri to oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingappa, U.; Rankin-Gee, E. K.; Lera, M.; Bebour, B.; Marcu, O.

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the intracellular response to environmental stresses is a key aspect to understanding the limits of habitability for life as we know it. A wide range of relevant stressors, from heat shock to radiation, result in the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are used physiologically as signaling molecules to cause changes in gene expression and metabolism. However, ROS, including superoxide (O2-) and peroxides, are also highly reactive molecules that cause oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and DNA. Here we studied stress response in the multicellular, eukaryotic green alga Volvox carteri, after exposure to heat shock conditions. We show that the ROS response to heat stress is paralleled by changes in photosynthetic metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression, and fluctuations in the elemental composition of cells. Metabolism, as measured by pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry over two hours of heat stress, showed a linear decrease in the photosynthetic efficiency of Volvox. ROS quantification uncovered an increase in ROS in the culture medium, paralleled by a decrease in ROS within the Volvox colonies, suggesting an export mechanism is utilized to mitigate stress. Enzyme kinetics indicated an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity over the heat stress timecourse. Using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, we show that these changes coincide with cell-specific import/export and intracellular redistribution of transition elements and halides, suggesting that the cellular metallome is also engaged in mediating oxidative stress in Volvox.

  8. Plant responses to UV and blue light: biochemical and genetic approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, G.I.; Christie, J.M.; Fuglevand, G.; Long, J.C.; Jackson, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    UV and blue light control many aspects of plant growth and development. It is evident that several different photoreceptors mediate responses to UV and blue light, and there are reports of the functional and biochemical characterisation of a putative photoreceptor for phototropism and of the functional and molecular characterisation of the CRY1 photoreceptor, encoded by the Arabidopsis HY4 gene. The CRY1 photoreceptor mediates extension growth and gene expression responses to UV-A/blue light presumably through different or branching signal transduction pathways. Progress has been made in cell physiological and biochemical studies of UV/blue light signal transduction, but much remains to be done to relate candidate UV/blue signal transduction events to particular photoreceptors and responses. The application of a genetic approach in Arabidopsis has been responsible for many advances in understanding UV/blue responses, but further UV-B, UV-A and blue light response mutants need to be isolated. (author)

  9. Biochemical and morphological changes in endothelial cells in response to hypoxic interstitial edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miserocchi Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A correlation between interstial pulmonary matrix disorganization and lung cellular response was recently documented in cardiogenic interstitial edema as changes in the signal-cellular transduction platforms (lipid microdomains: caveoale and lipid rafts. These findings led to hypothesize a specific "sensing" function by lung cells resulting from a perturbation in cell-matrix interaction. We reason that the cell-matrix interaction may differ between the cardiogenic and the hypoxic type of lung edema due to the observed difference in the sequential degradation of matrix proteoglycans (PGs family. In cardiogenic edema a major fragmentation of high molecular weight PGs of the interfibrillar matrix was found, while in hypoxia the fragmentation process mostly involved the PGs of the basement membrane controlling microvascular permeability. Based on these considerations, we aim to describe potential differences in the lung cellular response to the two types of edema. Methods We analysed the composition of plasma membrane and of lipid microdomains in lung tissue samples from anesthetized rabbits exposed to mild hypoxia (12 % O2 for 3–5 h causing interstitial lung edema. Lipid analysis was performed by chromatographic techniques, while protein analysis by electrophoresis and Western blotting. Lipid peroxidation was assessed on total plasma membranes by a colorimetric assay (Bioxytech LPO-586, OxisResearch. Plasma membrane fluidity was also assessed by fluorescence. Lipid microdomains were isolated by discontinuous sucrose gradient. We also performed a morphometric analysis on lung cell shape on TEM images from lung tissue specimen. Results After hypoxia, phospholipids content in plasma membranes remained unchanged while the cholesterol/phospholipids ratio increased significantly by about 9% causing a decrease in membrane fluidity. No significant increase in lipid peroxidation was detected. Analysis of lipid microdomains showed a

  10. A Review of the Responses of Two- and Three-Dimensional Engineered Tissues to Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hronik-Tupaj, Marie

    2012-01-01

    The application of external biophysical signals is one approach to tissue engineering that is explored less often than more traditional additions of exogenous biochemical and chemical factors to direct cell and tissue outcomes. The study of bioelectromagnetism and the field of electrotherapeutics have evolved over the years, and we review biocompatible electric stimulation devices and their successful application to tissue growth. Specifically, information on capacitively coupled alternating current, inductively coupled alternating current, and direct current devices is described. Cell and tissue responses from the application of these devices, including two- and three-dimensional in vitro studies and in vivo studies, are reviewed with regard to cell proliferation, adhesion, differentiation, morphology, and migration and tissue function. The current understanding of cellular mechanisms related to electric stimulation is detailed. The advantages of electric stimulation are compared with those pf other techniques, and areas in which electric fields are used as an adjuvant therapy for healing and regeneration are discussed. PMID:22046979

  11. Tissue microarrays compared with whole sections and biochemical analyses. A subgroup analysis of DBCG82 b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, M.; Sorensen, F.B.; Overgaard, M.

    2008-01-01

    b&c trials, were IHC stained for ER, PgR and HER2. In addition, ER and PgR were measured in the DBCG82 b&c trials by a biochemical analysis. Statistical analyses included Kappa statistics, Kaplan-Meier survival curves, Log-rank tests, and Cox regression hazards analyses. Results and conclusion. IHC...... cores and biochemical analyses. Patients and methods. A central and a peripheral 1mm core and a whole section from each of 54 paraffin blocks from 27 breast cancers included in a one-institution cohort, and a single 1 min central TMA core, from each breast tumor from 1000 patients included in the DBCG82...... IHC stainings of TMA cores and biochemical analyses. Divergence between IHC and biochemical analyses was predominantly due to the chosen thresholds. IHC staining of one 1mm core from each tumor revealed a significant independent prognostic value of PgR and HER2 on overall survival. In conclusion, IHC...

  12. Tissue microarrays compared with whole sections and biochemical analyses. A subgroup analysis of DBCG 82 b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, Marianne; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Knudsen, H

    2008-01-01

    &c trials, were IHC stained for ER, PgR and HER2. In addition, ER and PgR were measured in the DBCG82 b&c trials by a biochemical analysis. Statistical analyses included Kappa statistics, Kaplan-Meier survival curves, Log-rank tests, and Cox regression hazards analyses. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: IHC stainings...... cores and biochemical analyses. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A central and a peripheral 1mm core and a whole section from each of 54 paraffin blocks from 27 breast cancers included in a one-institution cohort, and a single 1mm central TMA core, from each breast tumor from 1000 patients included in the DBCG82 b...... stainings of TMA cores and biochemical analyses. Divergence between IHC and biochemical analyses was predominantly due to the chosen thresholds. IHC staining of one 1mm core from each tumor revealed a significant independent prognostic value of PgR and HER2 on overall survival. In conclusion, IHC stainings...

  13. Cu and Zn tolerance and responses of the Biochemical and Physiochemical system of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Vinod

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of heavy metals such as Zinc and copper in the environment are currently increasing, due mainly to human activities. Zinc and copper are essential elements for several biochemical processes in plants. Any of these metals, at high concentrations in soil, can cause severe damage to physiological and biochemical activities of plants. Plant growth, pigment concentration, biochemical parameters, uptake of heavy metals were investigated in 30-days old wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in response to Cu and Zn stress. The plant exhibited a decline in growth, chlorophyll content, protein and DNA, RNA content carbohydrate, but proline, total phenol and H2O2 content increased at high concentration of Cu and Zn.

  14. GENOTYPIC VARIABILITY OF PEANUT LINES IN RESPONSE TO WATER STRESS, BASED ON BIOCHEMICAL DESCRIPTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERCKSON MACIEL RODRIGUES ALVES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven biochemical descriptors were used to estimate the genotypic variability of peanut in response to moderate water stress. Six genotypes, constituted by four lines and two cultivars, were grown in pots, each containing two plants. At 15 days after emergence (DAE, the treatment differentiation was carried out: Control-plants maintained with daily watering, and Stress-plants submitted to water stress by complete suspension of watering for 15 days. The experimental design was completely randomized with factorial scheme 6 x 2 (genotype x water treatments, with five replications. The biochemical variables evaluated were: catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, free proline, total carbohydrates, soluble proteins, and amino acids. Results obtained by biochemical analysis and estimation of genotypic variability indicated that proline is the most appropriate descriptor for selecting genotypes tolerant to water stress, which led to identification of L81V and L108V as promising lines for drought tolerance breeding program.

  15. Evaluating biochemical response of filamentous algae integrated with different water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelekli, Abuzer; Kapı, Emine; Soysal, Çiğdem; Arslanargun, Hamdullah; Bozkurt, Hüseyin

    2017-08-01

    The present study prompted the second attempts to evaluate biochemical responses of filamentous algae under different physico-chemical variables in various water bodies in Turkey. These variables were investigated by use of multivariate approach in the years of 2013 (May and November) and 2014 (May and October). Studied ecoregions had the different geographic position, climate, land-use, and anthropogenic activities, could strongly affect physico-chemical variables of water bodies, which caused to change or regulate in algal biomass composition due to the different response of filamentous species. Besides, biochemical responses of species changed at different sampling times and stations. Multivariate analyses indicated that temperature, heavy metals, and nutrient contents of aquatic systems were found to be major variables driving the spatial and temporal occurrence and biochemical contents of filamentous species. Total protein and pigment production by filamentous algae were high in water bodies having high nutrients, whereas they were low in high heavy metal contents. Amount of malondialdehyde (MDA), H 2 O 2 , total thiol group, total phenolic compounds, proline, total carbohydrate, and bioaccumulation of metals by filamentous algae were closely related with heavy metal contents of water bodies, indicated by the multivariate approach. Significant increase in aforementioned biochemical compounds with a distinct range of habitats and sensitive-tolerance to environmental conditions could make them highly valuable indicators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Physiological and biochemical response to high temperature stress in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayamanesh, Shahnoosh; Keitel, Claudia; Ahmad, Nabil; Trethowan, Richard

    2016-04-01

    High temperature has been shown to lower the growth and yield of Okra, an important summer vegetable crop grown in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Australia. We aimed to characterise the physiological and biochemical response of Okra to heat stress. 150 genotypes from Pakistan and the AVRDC (The World Vegetable Centre) were screened for their physiological response (fluorescence, electrolyte leakage and yield) to heat in a greenhouse. Four genotypes (including heat tolerant and sensitive) were selected and subsequently grown in control and hot greenhouses. Daytime temperatures were on average 10°C warmer in the hot greenhouse, whereas nighttime temperatures were similar between the two temperature treatments. During a 12 week period, the physiological (assimilation rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, fluorescence, electrolyte leakage, water potential) and biochemical (carbohydrates, sugar alcohols, C content) response of the four genotypes to heat stress was assessed. The effect of heat stress on the C allocation patterns and yield in Okra will be discussed.

  17. Structure-function relationships in soft tissue mechanics: Examining how the micro-scale architecture of biochemical constituents effects health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, David Sheldon

    Countless debilitating pathologies exhibit symptoms that result from altered mechanical behavior of soft tissue. Therefore, it is of clinical and economic importance to mechanically evaluate soft tissues and attribute degenerative changes to alterations in structural constituents. The studies presented here focus on the annulus fibrosus and the sclera. Failure in these tissues is common and catastrophic. The annulus fibrosus may fail, resulting in herniation and nerve impingement, or the disc may degenerate over time, resulting in reduced mobility and pain. Similarly, the sclera may degenerate over time with intraocular pressure spurring creep behavior that distends the eye beyond its ideal shape. This causes myopic vision and puts patients at risk of macular degeneration and retinal detachment. These two tissues share a common structural role as the outer wall of a pressure vessel. Also, they are made of strikingly similar constituents, primarily consisting of water, type I collagen, glycosaminoglycans and elastin. The microstructure of these tissues, however, is very different. The annulus fibrosus is representative of an anisotropic tissue. Its well-organized fibril structure was analyzed via polarization modulated second harmonic microscopy in order to characterize fibril architecture. Structurally relevant biochemical constituents were quantified with biochemical assays. Morphologically healthy annulus tended to have a more highly organized microstructure and tended to absorb more strain energy when subject to a tensile load cycle. Given the strong correlation between fibril organization and select mechanical properties, predictive models will likely benefit from a characterization of fibril continuity and orientation coherence. The sclera is representative of an isotropic tissue. Its less-organized fibril structure has evolved to sustain biaxial plane stress. In the sclera, collagen content and associated crosslinks were primary determinants of stiffness

  18. Variations in stomach contents and biochemical composition of tissues in some marine fishes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jacob, P.G.; Rajagopal, M.D.

    Relationship between calorific values and protein, fat and carbohydrate of the stomach contents (food) and body tissues of marine fishes, Sardinella longiceps, Valenciennes, Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuvier), Otolithus ruber (Schneider) and Lactarius...

  19. Olmesartan Attenuates Tacrolimus-Induced Biochemical and Ultrastructural Changes in Rat Kidney Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif O. Al-Harbi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tacrolimus, a calcineurin inhibitor, is clinically used as an immunosuppressive agent in organ transplantation, but its use is limited due to its marked nephrotoxicity. The present study investigated the effect of olmesartan (angiotensin receptor blocker on tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. A total of 24 rats were divided into four groups, which included control, tacrolimus, tacrolimus + olmesartan, and olmesartan groups. Tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity was assessed biochemically and histopathologically. Tacrolimus significantly increased BUN and creatinine level. Treatment with olmesartan reversed tacrolimus-induced changes in the biochemical markers (BUN and creatinine of nephrotoxicity. Tacrolimus significantly decreased GSH level and catalase activity while increasing MDA level. Olmesartan also attenuated the effects of tacrolimus on MDA, GSH, and catalase. In tacrolimus group histological examination showed marked changes in renal tubule, mitochondria, and podocyte processes. Histopathological and ultrastructural studies showed that treatment with olmesartan prevented tacrolimus-induced renal damage. These results suggest that olmesartan has protective effects on tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity, implying that RAS might be playing role in tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of cefpodoxime proxetil with special reference to biochemical parameters, tissue residue, and spermatozoa motility in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujeeb, Momin A; Pardeshi, Milind L

    2011-02-01

    Cefpodoxime is a semisynthetic third generation cephalosporin analogue with a relatively broader spectrum of antimicrobial activity against gram negative and gram positive organisms. This is attributed to their somewhat increased resistance to degradation by the betalactamase. Cefpodoxime shows good activity against Klebsiella pneumonia, many members of enterobactericeae and almost all strains of Escherichia coli. It is extensively used in human beings against infections caused by susceptible organisms for a prolonged period and even without its judicious indication. Though various researchers have worked on the pharmacokinetic aspects of the drug, its effects on biochemical parameters and spermatozoa activity are scarcely available in literature. To determine the oral kinetic ( blood and tissue) after single therapeutic dose of cefpodoxime proxetil (20mg/kg oral bid 7 days) in rats of either sex on tissue half life and certain biochemical parameters such as glucose, hemoglobin, protein, ALT, AST and other parameters like tissue residue, sperm count and spermatozoa motility in male rats. For kinetic studies,24 Wister rats of either sex, 3 months of age, (180-210 gm) were used.(Group I-IV; n=6) Blood samples collected from each animal of Group IV through heart puncture at 0 hour to serve as predrug control. All the group (I-IV) received cefpodoxime proxetil 20 mg/kg once orally as a single dose. At the end of 1,4,12 and 24 hour post oral administration, GroupI,II,III and IVwere utilized for kinetic studies. Blood samples were collected from each animal and vital organs viz brain, lung, liver, spleen, kidney and heart were dissected out for drug analysis and determination of weight. For biochemical parameters, tissue residue and spermatozoa motility, twelve male rats were randomly divided into Groups A and B (n=6) Group B received cefpodoxime (20mg/kg orally bid 7 days) while Group A served as control. Biochemical parameters [Blood glucose, protein, Aspartate

  1. Dietary antioxidants and the biochemical response to oxidant inhalation. II. Influence of dietary selenium on the biochemical effects of ozone exposure in mouse lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed, N.M.; Hacker, A.D.; Kuehn, K.; Mustafa, M.G.; Schrauzer, G.N.

    1983-12-01

    The influence of dietary selenium (Se) on the pulmonary biochemical response to ozone (O/sub 3/) exposure was examined. For 11 weeks, weanling female strain A/St mice were fed a test diet containing Se either at 0 ppm (-Se) or 1 ppm (+Se). Each diet contained 55 ppm vitamin E (vit E). Mice from each dietary group were exposed to 0.8 +/- 0.05 ppm (1568 +/- 98 micrograms/m3) O/sub 3/ continuously for 5 days. After O/sub 3/ exposure, they were killed along with a matched number of unexposed controls, and their lungs were analyzed for various biochemical parameters. The Se contents of lung tissue and whole blood were determined, and the levels were seven- to eightfold higher in +Se mice than in -Se mice, reflecting the Se intake of the animals. In unexposed control mice, Se deficiency caused a decline in glutathione peroxidase (GP) activity relative to +Se group. After O/sub 3/ exposure, the GP activity in the -Se group was associated with a lack of stimulation of glutathione reductase (GR) activity and the pentose phosphate cycle (PPC) as assessed by measuring glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) activities. In contrast, the +Se group after O/sub 3/ exposure exhibited increases in all four enzyme activities. Other parameters, e.g., lung weight, total lung protein, DNA and nonprotein sulfhydryl contents, and O/sub 2/ consumption, were not affected by dietary Se in the presence or absence of O/sub 3/ exposure. The data indicate that dietary Se alters the GP activity, which in turn influences the GR and PPC activities in the lung evidently through a reduced demand for NADPH. The level of vit E in the lung was found to be twofold higher in the -Se group than in the +Se group, suggesting a compensatory relationship between Se and vit E in the lung. With O3 exposure, both Se and vit E contents further increased in the lungs of each dietary group.

  2. Integrating Bayesian variable selection with Modular Response Analysis to infer biochemical network topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santra, Tapesh; Kolch, Walter; Kholodenko, Boris N

    2013-07-06

    Recent advancements in genetics and proteomics have led to the acquisition of large quantitative data sets. However, the use of these data to reverse engineer biochemical networks has remained a challenging problem. Many methods have been proposed to infer biochemical network topologies from different types of biological data. Here, we focus on unraveling network topologies from steady state responses of biochemical networks to successive experimental perturbations. We propose a computational algorithm which combines a deterministic network inference method termed Modular Response Analysis (MRA) and a statistical model selection algorithm called Bayesian Variable Selection, to infer functional interactions in cellular signaling pathways and gene regulatory networks. It can be used to identify interactions among individual molecules involved in a biochemical pathway or reveal how different functional modules of a biological network interact with each other to exchange information. In cases where not all network components are known, our method reveals functional interactions which are not direct but correspond to the interaction routes through unknown elements. Using computer simulated perturbation responses of signaling pathways and gene regulatory networks from the DREAM challenge, we demonstrate that the proposed method is robust against noise and scalable to large networks. We also show that our method can infer network topologies using incomplete perturbation datasets. Consequently, we have used this algorithm to explore the ERBB regulated G1/S transition pathway in certain breast cancer cells to understand the molecular mechanisms which cause these cells to become drug resistant. The algorithm successfully inferred many well characterized interactions of this pathway by analyzing experimentally obtained perturbation data. Additionally, it identified some molecular interactions which promote drug resistance in breast cancer cells. The proposed algorithm

  3. Clinical, haematological and biochemical responses of sheep undergoing autologous blood transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Rejane

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to evaluate the clinical, haematological and biochemical responses to autologous blood transfusion and the feasibility of this practice in sheep. Thus, we used eight male, 8 months old sheep, weighing on average 30 kg, from which 15 mL/kg of whole blood was collected and stored in CPDA-1 bags. Blood samples were refrigerated for 8 days and subsequently re-infused. The clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated before blood collection and reinfusion, after 10 minutes of collection and reinfusion, after 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96 and 192 hours after collection and reinfusion. Results With respect to clinical parameters, we observed a decrease in heart rate after 24, 48 and 196 hours from reinfusion compared to basal values (p p p p  Conclusion Autologous transfusion in sheep slightly altered the physiological, biochemical and haematological responses of sheep, indicating that the technique proposed is safe and can be applied in the clinical practice of this species. The 8 d period was not sufficient for complete recovery of the haematological parameters after blood collection.

  4. Comparative Transcriptomics Unravel Biochemical Specialization of Leaf Tissues of Stevia for Diterpenoid Production1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Jung; Jin, Jingjing; Zheng, Junshi

    2015-01-01

    Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) produces not only a group of diterpenoid glycosides known as steviol glycosides (SGs), but also other labdane-type diterpenoids that may be spatially separated from SGs. However, their biosynthetic routes and spatial distribution in leaf tissues have not yet been elucidated. Here, we integrate metabolome and transcriptome analyses of Stevia to explore the biosynthetic capacity of leaf tissues for diterpenoid metabolism. Tissue-specific chemical analyses confirmed that SGs were accumulated in leaf cells but not in trichomes. On the other hand, Stevia leaf trichomes stored other labdane-type diterpenoids such as oxomanoyl oxide and agatholic acid. RNA sequencing analyses from two different tissues of Stevia provided a comprehensive overview of dynamic metabolic activities in trichomes and leaf without trichomes. These metabolite-guided transcriptomics and phylogenetic and gene expression analyses clearly identified specific gene members encoding enzymes involved in the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway and the biosynthesis of steviol or other labdane-type diterpenoids. Additionally, our RNA sequencing analysis uncovered copalyl diphosphate synthase (SrCPS) and kaurene synthase1 (SrKS1) homologs, SrCPS2 and KS-like (SrKSL), which were specifically expressed in trichomes. In vitro and in planta assays showed that unlike SrCPS and SrKS1, SrCPS2 synthesized labda-13-en-8-ol diphosphate and successively catalyzed the formation of manoyl oxide and epi-manoyl oxide in combination with SrKSL. Our findings suggest that Stevia may have evolved to use distinct metabolic pathways to avoid metabolic interferences in leaf tissues for efficient production of diverse secondary metabolites. PMID:26438788

  5. Comparative Transcriptomics Unravel Biochemical Specialization of Leaf Tissues of Stevia for Diterpenoid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Jung; Jin, Jingjing; Zheng, Junshi; Wong, Limsoon; Chua, Nam-Hai; Jang, In-Cheol

    2015-12-01

    Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) produces not only a group of diterpenoid glycosides known as steviol glycosides (SGs), but also other labdane-type diterpenoids that may be spatially separated from SGs. However, their biosynthetic routes and spatial distribution in leaf tissues have not yet been elucidated. Here, we integrate metabolome and transcriptome analyses of Stevia to explore the biosynthetic capacity of leaf tissues for diterpenoid metabolism. Tissue-specific chemical analyses confirmed that SGs were accumulated in leaf cells but not in trichomes. On the other hand, Stevia leaf trichomes stored other labdane-type diterpenoids such as oxomanoyl oxide and agatholic acid. RNA sequencing analyses from two different tissues of Stevia provided a comprehensive overview of dynamic metabolic activities in trichomes and leaf without trichomes. These metabolite-guided transcriptomics and phylogenetic and gene expression analyses clearly identified specific gene members encoding enzymes involved in the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway and the biosynthesis of steviol or other labdane-type diterpenoids. Additionally, our RNA sequencing analysis uncovered copalyl diphosphate synthase (SrCPS) and kaurene synthase1 (SrKS1) homologs, SrCPS2 and KS-like (SrKSL), which were specifically expressed in trichomes. In vitro and in planta assays showed that unlike SrCPS and SrKS1, SrCPS2 synthesized labda-13-en-8-ol diphosphate and successively catalyzed the formation of manoyl oxide and epi-manoyl oxide in combination with SrKSL. Our findings suggest that Stevia may have evolved to use distinct metabolic pathways to avoid metabolic interferences in leaf tissues for efficient production of diverse secondary metabolites. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Genetic indicators of radiotherapy normal tissue response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birrell, G.W.; Ramsay, J.R.; Lavin, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The aims of this study are to identify a genetic signature for adverse normal tissue damage from clinical radiotherapy (RT) in breast cancer patients, and to characterize the differentially-regulated genes involved. We have chosen to use skin expression profiling for four main reasons; (1) skin is the tissue that expresses the damage and so is directly relevant to the investigation, (2) skin biopsies can be snap frozen to preserve and maintain the in vivo expression profile of the patient, (3) skin punch biopsies are minimally invasive which equates to a high participation rate from RT patients (4) radiosensitivity testing and similar assays of cultured cells have only a low correlation with clinical adverse reaction. We expect our molecular profiling approach will give insight into the inherent genetic status of the patient that has not been demonstrated in cellular assays. We have begun collecting and processing skin punch biopsies from unirradiated sites from informed, consenting patients with adverse (severe acute or late) reaction to the skin or subcutaneous tissue following a standard course of RT, and normal controls. We have profiled biopsies from 7 adverse normal tissue reaction patients and 4 controls. Analyses of this data has identified 202 differentially expressed genes (p<0.01) and a class prediction algorithm correctly identified as adverse reaction or normal reaction 6/7 (86%) of our test samples that it could predict. We plan to focus on the function of some of these genes to determine their biological and clinical relevance. This will include detailed analysis of several of the gene products in an effort to address why these genes are associated with clinical reaction and what signaling pathways are involved. We plan to expand our sample number to 50 severe normal tissue late reaction (RTOG Grade 3 or 4), 50 severe acute normal tissue reaction and 50 no late or acute reaction to RT (RTOG 0) patients. An expected outcome is to fabricate

  7. Biochemical and molecular characterization of thyroid tissue by micro-Raman spectroscopy and gene expression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Lázaro P. M.; Martin, Aírton A.; Soto, Claudio A. T.; Santos, André B. O.; Mello, Evandro S.; Pereira, Marina A.; Cernea, Cláudio R.; Brandão, Lenine G.; Canevari, Renata A.

    2016-02-01

    Thyroid carcinomas represent the main endocrine malignancy and their diagnosis may produce inconclusive results. Raman spectroscopy and gene expression analysis have shown excellent results on the differentiation of carcinomas. This study aimed to improve the discrimination between different thyroid pathologies combining of both analyses. A total of 35 thyroid tissues samples including normal tissue (n=10), goiter (n=10), papillary (n=10) and follicular carcinomas (n=5) were analyzed. Confocal Raman spectra was obtain by using a Rivers Diagnostic System, 785 nm laser excitation and CCD detector. The data was processed by the software Labspec5 and Origin 8.5 and analyzed by Minitab® program. The gene expression analysis was performed by qRT-PCR technique for TG, TPO, PDGFB, SERPINA1, LGALS3 and TFF3 genes and statistically analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. The confocal Raman spectroscopy allowed a maximum discrimination of 91.1% between normal and tumor tissues, 84.8% between benign and malignant pathologies and 84.6% among carcinomas analyzed. Significant differences was observed for TG, LGALS3, SERPINA1 and TFF3 genes between benign lesions and carcinomas, and SERPINA1 and TFF3 genes between papillary and follicular carcinomas. Principal component analysis was performed using PC1 and PC2 in the papillary carcinoma samples that showed over gene expression when compared with normal sample, where 90% of discrimination was observed at the Amide 1 (1655 cm-1), and at the tyrosine spectra region (856 cm-1). The discrimination of tissues thyroid carried out by confocal Raman spectroscopy and gene expression analysis indicate that these techniques are promising tools to be used in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions.

  8. Intraspecific variation in cellular and biochemical heat response strategies of Mediterranean Xeropicta derbentina [Pulmonata, Hygromiidae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troschinski, Sandra; Di Lellis, Maddalena A; Sereda, Sergej; Hauffe, Torsten; Wilke, Thomas; Triebskorn, Rita; Köhler, Heinz-R

    2014-01-01

    Dry and hot environments challenge the survival of terrestrial snails. To minimize overheating and desiccation, physiological and biochemical adaptations are of high importance for these animals. In the present study, seven populations of the Mediterranean land snail species Xeropicta derbentina were sampled from their natural habitat in order to investigate the intraspecific variation of cellular and biochemical mechanisms, which are assigned to contribute to heat resistance. Furthermore, we tested whether genetic parameters are correlated with these physiological heat stress response patterns. Specimens of each population were individually exposed to elevated temperatures (25 to 52°C) for 8 h in the laboratory. After exposure, the health condition of the snails' hepatopancreas was examined by means of qualitative description and semi-quantitative assessment of histopathological effects. In addition, the heat-shock protein 70 level (Hsp70) was determined. Generally, calcium cells of the hepatopancreas were more heat resistant than digestive cells - this phenomenon was associated with elevated Hsp70 levels at 40°C.We observed considerable variation in the snails' heat response strategy: Individuals from three populations invested much energy in producing a highly elevated Hsp70 level, whereas three other populations invested energy in moderate stress protein levels - both strategies were in association with cellular functionality. Furthermore, one population kept cellular condition stable despite a low Hsp70 level until 40°C exposure, whereas prominent cellular reactions were observed above this thermal limit. Genetic diversity (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene) within populations was low. Nevertheless, when using genetic indices as explanatory variables in a multivariate regression tree (MRT) analysis, population structure explained mean differences in cellular and biochemical heat stress responses, especially in the group exposed to 40°C. Our

  9. Intraspecific variation in cellular and biochemical heat response strategies of Mediterranean Xeropicta derbentina [Pulmonata, Hygromiidae].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Troschinski

    Full Text Available Dry and hot environments challenge the survival of terrestrial snails. To minimize overheating and desiccation, physiological and biochemical adaptations are of high importance for these animals. In the present study, seven populations of the Mediterranean land snail species Xeropicta derbentina were sampled from their natural habitat in order to investigate the intraspecific variation of cellular and biochemical mechanisms, which are assigned to contribute to heat resistance. Furthermore, we tested whether genetic parameters are correlated with these physiological heat stress response patterns. Specimens of each population were individually exposed to elevated temperatures (25 to 52°C for 8 h in the laboratory. After exposure, the health condition of the snails' hepatopancreas was examined by means of qualitative description and semi-quantitative assessment of histopathological effects. In addition, the heat-shock protein 70 level (Hsp70 was determined. Generally, calcium cells of the hepatopancreas were more heat resistant than digestive cells - this phenomenon was associated with elevated Hsp70 levels at 40°C.We observed considerable variation in the snails' heat response strategy: Individuals from three populations invested much energy in producing a highly elevated Hsp70 level, whereas three other populations invested energy in moderate stress protein levels - both strategies were in association with cellular functionality. Furthermore, one population kept cellular condition stable despite a low Hsp70 level until 40°C exposure, whereas prominent cellular reactions were observed above this thermal limit. Genetic diversity (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene within populations was low. Nevertheless, when using genetic indices as explanatory variables in a multivariate regression tree (MRT analysis, population structure explained mean differences in cellular and biochemical heat stress responses, especially in the group

  10. Non-steady response of BOD biosensor for the determination of biochemical oxygen demand in wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velling, Siiri; Mashirin, Alexey; Hellat, Karin; Tenno, Toomas

    2011-01-01

    A biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) biosensor for effective and expeditious BOD(7) estimations was constructed and the non-steady phase of the output signal was extensively studied. The modelling approach introduced allows response curve reconstruction and a curve fitting procedure of good quality, resulting in parameters indicating the relationship between response and organic substrate concentration and stability properties of the BOD biosensor. Also, the immobilization matrixes of different thicknesses were characterized to determine their suitability for bio-sensing measurements in non-stationary conditions, as well as for the determination of the mechanical durability of the BOD biosensor in time. The non-steady response of the experimental output of the BOD biosensor was fitted according to the developed model that enables to determine the stability of the biosensor output and dependency on biodegradable organic substrate concentration. The calibration range of the studied BOD biosensor in OECD synthetic wastewater was 15-110 mg O(2) L(-1). Repeatability tests showed relative standard deviation (RSD) values of 2.8% and 5.8% for the parameter τ(d), characterizing the transient output of the amperometric oxygen sensor in time, and τ(s), describing the dependency of the transient response of the BOD biosensor on organic substrate concentration, respectively. BOD biosensor experiments for the evaluation of the biochemical oxygen demand of easily degradable and refractory municipal wastewater showed good concurrence with traditional BOD(7) analysis.

  11. Metabolic rates and biochemical compositions of Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) tissue during periods of inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jie; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Wang, Fang; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Yunwei

    2010-03-01

    Estivation, hibernation, and starvation are indispensable inactive states of sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus in nature and in culture ponds. Generally, temperature is the principal factor that induces estivation or hibernation in the sea cucumber. The present study provided insight into the physiological adaptations of A. japonicus during the three types of inactivity (hibernation, estivation, and starvation) by measuring the oxygen consumption rates ( Vo2) and biochemical compositions under laboratory conditions of low (3°C), normal (17°C) and high (24°C) temperature. The results show that the characteristics of A. japonicus in dormancy (hibernation and estivation) states were quite different from higher animals, such as fishes, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, but more closely resembled a semi-dormant state. It was observed that the shift in the A. japonicus physiological state from normal to dormancy was a chronic rather than acute process, indicated by the gradual depression of metabolic rate. While metabolic rates declined 44.9% for the estivation group and 71.7% for the hibernation group, relative to initial rates, during the 36 d culture period, metabolic rates were not maintained at constant levels during these states. The metabolic depression processes for sea cucumbers in hibernation and estivation appeared to be a passive and an active metabolic suppression, respectively. In contrast, the metabolic rates (128.90±11.70 μg/g h) of estivating sea cucumbers were notably higher (107.85±6.31 μg/g h) than in starving sea cucumbers at 17°C, which indicated that the dormancy mechanism here, as a physiological inhibition, was not as efficient as in higher animals. Finally, the principle metabolic substrate or energy source of sea cucumbers in hibernation was lipid, whereas in estivation they mainly consumed protein in the early times and both protein and lipid thereafter.

  12. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF KIRLIANOGRAFIIA IMAGES GLOW OF BIOLOGICAL TISSUES WITH BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Pisotska

    2015-12-01

    the investigated samples. For kirlianograficeskih studies used an experimental device, RIVERS 1, developed by Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of mechanical engineering technologies (Dnepropetrovsk. For mathematical processing of results using Matlab program. The growing shortage of ATP causes the breach and termination of ion exchange, increases reactive oxygen generation, lipid peroxidation destroys cell membranes. The process of self digestion (autoliza tissue tendons, as shown by the results of the experiments, had cyclical changes metabolism enzyme activity (ALT, carbohydrate (LDH, nucleotides, of total protein and micronutrients.

  13. Tissue response after radiation exposure. Intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Kensuke; Tomita, Masanori; Yamauchi, Motohiro; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal syndrome followed by 'gut death' is due to intestinal disorders. This syndrome is induced by high-dose (>10 Gy) of ionizing radiation. Recovery from the gastrointestinal syndrome would depend on the number of survived clonogens and regeneration capability of crypts. These tissue alterations can be observed by high-dose radiation, however, cellular dynamics in crypts can be affected by low-dose radiation. For example, Potten et al. found that low-dose radiation induce apoptosis of intestinal stem cells, which produce all differentiated function cells. Recently, intestinal stem cells are characterized by molecular markers such as Lgr5. Since intestinal adenomas can be induced by deletion of Apc gene in Lgr5 + stem cells, it is widely recognized that Lgr5 + stem cells are the cell-of-origin of cancer. Duodenal Lgr5 + stem cells are known as radioresistant cells, however, we found that ionizing radiation significantly induces the turnover of colonic Lgr5 + stem cells. Combined with the knowledge of other radioresistant markers, stem-cell dynamics in tissue after irradiation are becoming clear. The present review introduces the history of gastrointestinal syndrome and intestinal stem cells, and discusses those future perspectives. (author)

  14. Biochemical, physiological and molecular responses of Ricinus communis seeds and seedlings to different temperatures: a multi-omics approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro de Jesus, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    Biochemical, physiological and molecular responses of Ricinus communis seeds and seedlings to different temperatures: a multi-omics approach by Paulo Roberto Ribeiro de Jesus The main objective of this thesis was to provide a detailed analysis of physiological, biochemical and molecular-genetic responses of Ricinus communis to temperature during seed germination and seedling establishment. In Chapter 2, I describe the assessment of 17 candidate reference genes across a diverse set of samples,...

  15. Enzymatic activity of granulations tissues under low doses of radiation. Biochemical analysis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosoni, Guilherme Monteiro; Boscolo, Frab Norberto; Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Watanabe, Plauto Christopher Aranha

    1994-01-01

    This paper was designed to investigate in the rat subcutaneous sponge-induced granulation tissue under low doses of X-ray, the activity of alkaline phosphatase, 5'nucleotide phosphodiesterase and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzymes. One hundred and fourteen Wistar rats were divided into three groups, as follows: Group I as control, Group II that received single 7,14 R in split-dosis immediately after sponge-implantation at the third and fifth days postoperatively. Biopsies were taken after 7, 11, 14, 21 and 28 days and the activity of the three enzymes was determined. The results have shown that in Group II alkaline phosphatase had higher activity in the 14th day of tissue evolution when compared to Groups I and III . The 5'nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity in Group I was similar in all days checked, although in Group II the enzyme showed higher activity in 7th day and lower in 21st. In Group III the activity was higher after 14 and 7 days and lower after 28 and 21 days. There was no observation of changing in adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity when the three groups were compared. (author)

  16. Correlated responses in tissue weights measured in vivo by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to estimate correlated responses in lean, fat and bone weights in vivo in Dorset Down sheep selected for lean tissue growth. Over the period 1986-1992 inclusive, the lean tissue growth line had been selected using two economic indices for an increased aggregate breeding value incorporating ...

  17. A non-invasive diffuse reflectance calibration-free method for absolute determination of exogenous biochemicals concentration in biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappa, Alexander V.; Kulikovskiy, Artem N.; Busarov, Oleg G.

    2014-03-01

    The paper presents a new method for distant non-destructive determination of concentration of light absorbing admixtures in turbid media. In particular, it is intended for non-invasive in vivo control of accumulation in patient tissues of various biochemicals introduced to the patients for chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy or diagnostics. It is require that the admixture absorption spectrum should have a clearly marked peak in the wavelength region where the pure medium one varies regularly. Fluorescence of admixtures is not required. The method uses the local diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with optical fiber probe including one emitting and two reading There are several features in the method: the value to be determined is absolute concentration of admixtures; the method needs no calibration measurements on phantoms; it needs no reference measurements on sample with zero admixture concentration; it uses a two parametric kinetic light propagation model and original algorithms to resolve direct and inverse tasks of radiation transport theory. Experimental testing passed with tissue equivalent phantoms and different admixtures, including a chlorine photosensitizer, showed accuracy under 10% in all cases.

  18. Alterations in Somatostatin Cells and Biochemical Parameters Following Zinc Supplementation in Gastrointestinal Tissue of St reptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolkent, Sema; Bolkent, Sehnaz; Yanardag, Refiye; Mutlu, Ozgur; Yildirim, Sukriye

    2006-01-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia in diabetes is a major causative factor of free radical generation which further leads to many secondary diabetic complications via the damage to cellular proteins, membrane lipids, and nucleic acids. Zinc is an essential trace element in all living systems and plays a structural role in many proteins and enzymes. Somatostatin is known to have inhibitory effects on various gastrointestinal functions. Therefore, we determined somatostatin protein production and secretion levels, and biochemical and light microscopical changes following zinc supplementation in the gastrointestinal tract of streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. The animals were divided into four groups: Group I: control (untreated) animals; Group II: control animals given zinc sulfate; Group III: diabetic animals; and Group IV: diabetic animals given zinc sulfate. Zinc sulfate was given to the animals by gavage at a daily dose of 100 mg/kg body weight for 60 days. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of STZ in a single dose of 65 mg/kg. For histological studies, stomach and duodenum tissues were fixed in Bouin solution and sections stained with Masson’s trichrome and Periodic-Acid-Schiff. Tissue homogenates were used for protein, lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione (GSH), and nonenzymatic glycosylation (NEG) analyses. Zinc supplementation to the STZ-diabetic rats revealed the protective effect of zinc on these parameters. Zinc supplementation may contribute to prevent at least some complications of diabetes mellitus

  19. Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita L. and Mentha spicata L. on kidney tissue in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdogan, Mehmet; Kilinç, Ibrahim; Oncu, Meral; Karaoz, Erdal; Delibas, Namik

    2003-04-01

    Peppermint plants have been used as a herbal medicine for many conditions, including loss of appetite, common cold, bronchitis, sinusitis, fever, nausea, vomiting and indigestion. This study is aimed at investigating the biochemical and histological effects of Mentha piperita L., growing in the Yenisar Bademli town of Isparta City, and Mentha spicata L., growing on the Anamas high plateau of Isparta City, on rat kidney tissue. Forty-eight male Wistar albino rats weighing 200-250 g were used for this study. Animals were divided into four experimental groups, each with 12 rats, as follows: control group (group I); 20 g/L M. piperita tea (group II); 20 g/L M. spicata tea (group III); 40 g/L M. spicata tea (group IV). The control group rats were given commercial drinking water (Hayat DANONESA water). The tea for the other groups was prepared daily and provided at all times to the rats during 30 days as drinking water. Plasma urea and creatinine levels were determined, and the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied in the homogenates of kidney tissue. The levels of plasma urea and creatinine were increased significantly (P spicata presents markedly nephrotoxic changes in rats.

  20. Effect of whole-body vibration training on body composition, exercise performance and biochemical responses in middle-aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-I; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Kan, Nai-Wen; Wei, Li; Chiu, Yen-Shuo; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2015-09-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential benefits of WBV on aging-associated changes in body composition, exercise performance, and fatigue are currently unclear. The objective of the study is to investigate the beneficial effects of WBV training on body composition, exercise performance, and physical fatigue-related and biochemical responses in middle-aged mice. In total, 24 male C57BL/6 mice aged 15 months old were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=8 per group): sedentary control (SC), relatively low-frequency WBV (5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g) (LV), and relatively high-frequency WBV (13 Hz, 2 mm, 0.68 g) (HV). Mice in the LV and HV groups were placed inside a vibration platform and vibrated at different frequencies and fixed amplitude (2 mm) for 15 min, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Exercise performance, core temperature and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise, as were changes in body composition and biochemical variables at the end of the experiment. Relative muscle and brown adipose tissue weight (%) was significantly higher for the HV than SC mice, but relative liver weight (%) was lower. On trend analysis, WBV increased grip strength, aerobic endurance and core temperature in mice. As well, serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels were dose-dependently decreased with vibration frequency after the swimming test. Fasting serum levels of albumin and total protein were increased and serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and creatinine decreased dose-dependently with vibration frequency. Moreover, WBV training improved the age-related abnormal morphology of skeletal muscle, liver and kidney tissues. Therefore, it could improve exercise performance and

  1. Molecular and biochemical responses of hypoxia exposure in Atlantic croaker collected from hypoxic regions in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Saydur; Thomas, Peter

    2017-01-01

    A major impact of global climate change has been the marked increase worldwide in the incidence of coastal hypoxia (dissolved oxygen, DOhypoxic waters as well as their molecular and physiological responses to environmental hypoxia exposure are largely unknown. A suite of potential hypoxia exposure biomarkers was evaluated in Atlantic croaker collected from hypoxic and normoxic regions in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM), and in croaker after laboratory exposure to hypoxia (DO: 1.7 mg l-1). Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-α, hif-α; neuronal nitric oxide synthase, nNOS; and insulin-like growth factor binding protein, igfbp mRNAs and protein carbonyl (PC, an oxidative stress indicator) content were elevated several-fold in brain and liver tissues of croaker collected from nGOM hypoxic sites. All of these molecular and biochemical biomarkers were also upregulated ~3-10-fold in croaker brain and liver tissues within 1-2 days of hypoxia exposure in controlled laboratory experiments. These results suggest that hif-αs, nNOS and igfbp-1 transcripts and PC contents are useful biomarkers of environmental hypoxia exposure and some of its physiological effects, making them important components for improved assessments of long-term impacts of environmental hypoxia on fish populations.

  2. Electrode failure: tissue, electrical, and material responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Wolfgang; Xue, Qing-Shan; Prasad, Abhishek; Sankar, Viswanath; Knott, Eric; Dyer, Aubrey; Reynolds, John; Nishida, Toshikazu; Shaw, Gerald; Sanchez, Justin

    2012-01-01

    The development of invasive, rehabilitative neuroprosthetics for humans requires reliable neural probes that are capable of recording large ensembles of neurons for a long period of time. Recent advances in the development of neuroprosthetics in animals and humans have shown that communication and control can be directly derived from the central nervous system (CNS) for restoring lost motor ability. This proof of concept has opened the possibility of new therapies for the millions of individuals suffering from neurological disorders of the nervous system. The success of these therapies hinges on the ability to reliably access the relevant signals from the brain with high quality for the lifetime of the patient. As a result, research has focused on the cascade of events that follow chronic implantation of microelectrodes and temporal degradation in the signal and electrode quality: signal-to-noise ratio, noise floor, peak amplitude, and neuronal yield. Implanted microelectrodes have been reported to suffer from time-dependent degradation in signal quality due to unknown issues related to tissue interfaces.

  3. Genetic and biochemical markers of hydroxyurea therapeutic response in sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Danilo Grunig Humberto; Belini Junior, Edis; Carrocini, Gisele Cristine de Souza; Torres, Lidiane de Souza; Ricci Júnior, Octávio; Lobo, Clarisse Lopes de Castro; Bonini-Domingos, Claudia Regina; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves

    2013-10-09

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) presents a complex pathophysiology which can be affected by a number of modifying factors, including genetic and biochemical ones. In Brazil, there have been no studies verifying βS-haplotypes effect on oxidative stress parameters. This study evaluated βS-haplotypes and Hb F levels effects on oxidative stress markers and their relationship with hydroxyurea (HU) treatment in SCA patients. The studied group was composed by 28 SCA patients. Thirteen of these patients were treated with HU and 15 of them were not. We used molecular methodology (PCR-RFLP) for hemoglobin S genotype confirmation and haplotypes identification. Biochemical parameters were measured using spectrophotometric methods (Thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity levels, catalase and GST activities) and plasma glutathione levels by High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrochemical detection. We found the highest frequency of Bantu haplotype (48.2%) which was followed by Benin (32.1%). We observed also the presence of Cameroon haplotype, rare in Brazilian population and 19.7% of atypical haplotypes. The protective Hb F effect was confirmed in SCA patients because these patients showed an increase in Hb F levels that resulted in a 41.3% decrease on the lipid peroxidation levels (r =-0.74, p=0.01). Other biochemical parameters have not shown differential expression according to patient's haplotypes. Bantu haplotype presence was related to the highest lipid peroxidation levels in patients (p < 0,01), but it also conferred a differential response to HU treatment, raising Hb F levels in 52.6% (p = 0.03) when compared with the group with the same molecular profile without HU usage. SCA patients with Bantu haplotype showed the worst oxidative status. However these patients also demonstrated a better response to the treatment with HU. Such treatment seems to have presented a "haplotype-dependent" pharmacological

  4. Transient Mechanical Response of Lung Airway Tissue during Mechanical Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israr Bin Muhammad Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with acute lung injury, airway and other pulmonary diseases often require Mechanical Ventilation (MV. Knowledge of the stress/strain environment in lung airway tissues is very important in order to avoid lung injuries for patients undergoing MV. Airway tissue strains responsible for stressing the lung’s fiber network and rupturing the lung due to compliant airways are very difficult to measure experimentally. Multi-level modeling is adopted to investigate the transient mechanical response of the tissue under MV. First, airflow through a lung airway bifurcation (Generation 4–6 is modeled using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD to obtain air pressure during 2 seconds of MV breathing. Next, the transient air pressure was used in structural analysis to obtain mechanical strain experienced by the airway tissue wall. Structural analysis showed that airway tissue from Generation 5 in one bifurcation can stretch eight times that of airway tissue of the same generation number but with different bifurcation. The results suggest sensitivity of load to geometrical features. Furthermore, the results of strain levels obtained from the tissue analysis are very important because these strains at the cellular-level can create inflammatory responses, thus damaging the airway tissues.

  5. Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue

    CERN Document Server

    Welch, Ashley J

    2011-01-01

    The second edition of 'Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue' maintains the standard of excellence established in the first edition, while adjusting the content to reflect changes in tissue optics and medical applications since 1995. The material concerning light propagation now contains new chapters devoted to electromagnetic theory for coherent light. The material concerning thermal laser-tissue interactions contains a new chapter on pulse ablation of tissue. The medical applications section now includes several new chapters on Optical Coherent Tomography, acoustic imaging, molecular imaging, forensic optics and nerve stimulation. A detailed overview is provided of the optical and thermal response of tissue to laser irradiation along with diagnostic and therapeutic examples including fiber optics. Sufficient theory is included in the book so that it is suitable for a one or two semester graduate or for senior elective courses. Material covered includes: 1. light propagation and diagnostic appl...

  6. Physiological and biochemical responses of Synechococcus sp. PCC7942 to Irgarol 1051 and diuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiangyuan; Gao, Kun; Sun, Junlong

    2012-10-15

    Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic algae found in oceans and freshwaters worldwide. These organisms are important primary producers in aquatic ecosystems because they can provide essential food for grazers and herbivores. In this study, the physiological and biochemical responses of the freshwater cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC7942 to two organic booster biocides Irgarol 1051 and diuron were compared and evaluated using 96 h growth tests in a batch-culture system. The 96 h median effective concentrations (EC(50)) were 0.019 and 0.097 μmol L(-1) for Irgarol 1051 and diuron, respectively, which indicate that Irgarol 1051 is about 5 times more toxic than diuron to cyanobacteria. Moreover, remarkable physiological and biochemical responses occurred in the Irgarol 1051 and diuron treatments. Irgarol 1051 and diuron stimulated cyanobacterial growth, increased the soluble protein content, and enhanced the catalase (CAT) activity at low concentrations, but inhibited them at high concentrations. However, the malondialdehyde (MDA) and polysaccharide content of the cyanobacteria were only significantly affected by Irgarol 1051. These observations suggest that Irgarol 1051 and diuron are toxic to Synechococcus sp. PCC7942, and their use should be restricted in maritime industries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Biochemical responses of earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to cadmium-contaminated soil with long duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Song, Yufang; Ackland, M Leigh; Liu, Yang; Cao, Xiufeng

    2012-12-01

    The biochemical responses of the earthworms, Eisenia fetida, exposed to a series of Cd concentrations (0.00, 1.25, 2.50, 5.00 and 10.00 mg Cd(2+) kg(-1) soil) for up to 8 weeks were investigated, aiming to evaluate the sublethal effects of Cd with long exposure and to explore the potential for applying these responses as biomarkers to indicate the Cd-contaminated soil. The following biochemical parameters were determined: cytochrome P450 (CYP) contents and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST). Cadmium concentrations in all earthworms were apparently accumulated in 4 weeks, and showed minor changes in weeks 6-8 compared to the first 4 weeks. CYP presented a significant elevation in 2-4 weeks and a decline in 6-8 weeks in each treated group. The activities of SOD and CAT showed an obvious increase with exposure of 6-8 weeks while their levels were not affected in 4 weeks in each treated group. GST activity revealed significant activation starting from week 4. This study confirmed the significance of applying a suite of biomarkers rather than a selective choice to assess the impact of pollutants on organisms. It also indicated that the observed effects were more dependent upon exposure duration than dose.

  8. Tissue specific heterogeneity in effector immune cell response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba eTufail

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Post pathogen invasion, migration of effector T-cell subsets to specific tissue locations is of prime importance for generation of robust immune response. Effector T cells are imprinted with distinct ‘homing codes’ (adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors during activation which regulate their targeted trafficking to specific tissues. Internal cues in the lymph node microenvironment along with external stimuli from food (vitamin A and sunlight (vitamin D3 prime dendritic cells, imprinting them to play centrestage in the induction of tissue tropism in effector T cells. B cells as well, in a manner similar to effector T cells, exhibit tissue tropic migration. In this review, we have focused on the factors regulating the generation and migration of effector T cells to various tissues alongwith giving an overview of tissue tropism in B cells.

  9. Biochemical signatures of in vitro radiation response in human lung, breast and prostate tumour cells observed with Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Q; Jirasek, A; Lum, J J; Brolo, A G

    2011-01-01

    This work applies noninvasive single-cell Raman spectroscopy (RS) and principal component analysis (PCA) to analyze and correlate radiation-induced biochemical changes in a panel of human tumour cell lines that vary by tissue of origin, p53 status and intrinsic radiosensitivity. Six human tumour cell lines, derived from prostate (DU145, PC3 and LNCaP), breast (MDA-MB-231 and MCF7) and lung (H460), were irradiated in vitro with single fractions (15, 30 or 50 Gy) of 6 MV photons. Remaining live cells were harvested for RS analysis at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h post-irradiation, along with unirradiated controls. Single-cell Raman spectra were acquired from 20 cells per sample utilizing a 785 nm excitation laser. All spectra (200 per cell line) were individually post-processed using established methods and the total data set for each cell line was analyzed with PCA using standard algorithms. One radiation-induced PCA component was detected for each cell line by identification of statistically significant changes in the PCA score distributions for irradiated samples, as compared to unirradiated samples, in the first 24-72 h post-irradiation. These RS response signatures arise from radiation-induced changes in cellular concentrations of aromatic amino acids, conformational protein structures and certain nucleic acid and lipid functional groups. Correlation analysis between the radiation-induced PCA components separates the cell lines into three distinct RS response categories: R1 (H460 and MCF7), R2 (MDA-MB-231 and PC3) and R3 (DU145 and LNCaP). These RS categories partially segregate according to radiosensitivity, as the R1 and R2 cell lines are radioresistant (SF 2 > 0.6) and the R3 cell lines are radiosensitive (SF 2 < 0.5). The R1 and R2 cell lines further segregate according to p53 gene status, corroborated by cell cycle analysis post-irradiation. Potential radiation-induced biochemical response mechanisms underlying our RS observations are proposed, such as (1) the

  10. Biochemical signatures of in vitro radiation response in human lung, breast and prostate tumour cells observed with Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Q; Jirasek, A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Lum, J J [Deeley Research Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria BC V8R 6V5 (Canada); Brolo, A G, E-mail: qmatthew@uvic.ca, E-mail: jirasek@uvic.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Victoria, Victoria BC V8W 3V6 (Canada)

    2011-11-07

    This work applies noninvasive single-cell Raman spectroscopy (RS) and principal component analysis (PCA) to analyze and correlate radiation-induced biochemical changes in a panel of human tumour cell lines that vary by tissue of origin, p53 status and intrinsic radiosensitivity. Six human tumour cell lines, derived from prostate (DU145, PC3 and LNCaP), breast (MDA-MB-231 and MCF7) and lung (H460), were irradiated in vitro with single fractions (15, 30 or 50 Gy) of 6 MV photons. Remaining live cells were harvested for RS analysis at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h post-irradiation, along with unirradiated controls. Single-cell Raman spectra were acquired from 20 cells per sample utilizing a 785 nm excitation laser. All spectra (200 per cell line) were individually post-processed using established methods and the total data set for each cell line was analyzed with PCA using standard algorithms. One radiation-induced PCA component was detected for each cell line by identification of statistically significant changes in the PCA score distributions for irradiated samples, as compared to unirradiated samples, in the first 24-72 h post-irradiation. These RS response signatures arise from radiation-induced changes in cellular concentrations of aromatic amino acids, conformational protein structures and certain nucleic acid and lipid functional groups. Correlation analysis between the radiation-induced PCA components separates the cell lines into three distinct RS response categories: R1 (H460 and MCF7), R2 (MDA-MB-231 and PC3) and R3 (DU145 and LNCaP). These RS categories partially segregate according to radiosensitivity, as the R1 and R2 cell lines are radioresistant (SF{sub 2} > 0.6) and the R3 cell lines are radiosensitive (SF{sub 2} < 0.5). The R1 and R2 cell lines further segregate according to p53 gene status, corroborated by cell cycle analysis post-irradiation. Potential radiation-induced biochemical response mechanisms underlying our RS observations are proposed, such as (1

  11. Biochemical signatures of in vitro radiation response in human lung, breast and prostate tumour cells observed with Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Q.; Jirasek, A.; Lum, J. J.; Brolo, A. G.

    2011-11-01

    This work applies noninvasive single-cell Raman spectroscopy (RS) and principal component analysis (PCA) to analyze and correlate radiation-induced biochemical changes in a panel of human tumour cell lines that vary by tissue of origin, p53 status and intrinsic radiosensitivity. Six human tumour cell lines, derived from prostate (DU145, PC3 and LNCaP), breast (MDA-MB-231 and MCF7) and lung (H460), were irradiated in vitro with single fractions (15, 30 or 50 Gy) of 6 MV photons. Remaining live cells were harvested for RS analysis at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h post-irradiation, along with unirradiated controls. Single-cell Raman spectra were acquired from 20 cells per sample utilizing a 785 nm excitation laser. All spectra (200 per cell line) were individually post-processed using established methods and the total data set for each cell line was analyzed with PCA using standard algorithms. One radiation-induced PCA component was detected for each cell line by identification of statistically significant changes in the PCA score distributions for irradiated samples, as compared to unirradiated samples, in the first 24-72 h post-irradiation. These RS response signatures arise from radiation-induced changes in cellular concentrations of aromatic amino acids, conformational protein structures and certain nucleic acid and lipid functional groups. Correlation analysis between the radiation-induced PCA components separates the cell lines into three distinct RS response categories: R1 (H460 and MCF7), R2 (MDA-MB-231 and PC3) and R3 (DU145 and LNCaP). These RS categories partially segregate according to radiosensitivity, as the R1 and R2 cell lines are radioresistant (SF2 > 0.6) and the R3 cell lines are radiosensitive (SF2 < 0.5). The R1 and R2 cell lines further segregate according to p53 gene status, corroborated by cell cycle analysis post-irradiation. Potential radiation-induced biochemical response mechanisms underlying our RS observations are proposed, such as (1) the regulated

  12. Transcriptomic, biochemical and physio-anatomical investigations shed more light on responses to drought stress in two contrasting sesame genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossa, Komivi; Li, Donghua; Wang, Linhai; Zheng, Xiaomin; Liu, Aili; Yu, Jingyin; Wei, Xin; Zhou, Rong; Fonceka, Daniel; Diouf, Diaga; Liao, Boshou; Cissé, Ndiaga; Zhang, Xiurong

    2017-08-18

    Sesame is an important oilseed crop with a high oil quality. It is prone to drought stress in the arid and semi-arid areas where it is widely grown. This study aims to decipher the response of tolerant (DT) and sensitive (DS) genotypes to progressive drought based on transcriptome, biochemical and physio-anatomical characterizations. Results indicated that under severe stress, DT relied on a well-functioning taproot while DS displayed a disintegrated root due to collapsed cortical cells. This was attributed to a higher accumulation of osmoprotectants and strong activity of antioxidant enzymes especially peroxidases in DT. From roots, DT could supply water to the aboveground tissues to ensure photosynthetic activities and improve endurance under stress. Temporal transcriptome sequencing under drought further confirmed that DT strongly activated genes related to antioxidant activity, osmoprotection and hormonal signaling pathways including abscisic acid and Ethylene. Furthermore, DT displayed unique differentially expressed genes in root functioning as peroxidases, interleukin receptor-associated kinase, heat shock proteins, APETALA2/ethylene-responsive element-binding protein and mitogen activated protein kinase, to effectively scavenge reactive oxygen species and preserve root cell integrity. Finally, 61 candidate genes conferring higher drought tolerance in DT were discovered and may constitute useful resources for drought tolerance improvement in sesame.

  13. Fetal tissue research: an ongoing story of professionally responsible success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelber, Shari E; McCullough, Laurence B; Chervenak, Frank A

    2015-12-01

    Therapies derived from fetal tissue research are some of the greatest success stories in medicine. Research using fetal tissue has allowed for development of vaccines for numerous diseases including polio, rubella, and measles. These vaccines have saved countless lives, improved quality of life, and decreased the need for induced abortion secondary to congenital infection. Research using cell lines derived from fetal tissue has assisted in better understanding disease pathogenesis and has served to produce human proteins as research reagents and therapies. Ongoing research points to the potential for fetal tissue to be used to cure debilitating diseases such as Parkinson disease. These scientific and medical advances are dependent on the use of fetal tissue from aborted fetuses. While the practice of induced abortion despite societal benefit may be theologically objectionable to some, these practices are professionally responsible. Federal regulations exist to discourage patients from being influenced by the societal benefit of fetal research in arriving at the decision to terminate as well as to prevent researchers from influencing a patient's decision. After a patient has chosen termination of pregnancy, it is consistent with professional responsibility to allow her to choose the disposition of the cadaveric fetal tissue. While some may view induced abortion and societal benefit from this practice as an ethical burden, the principle of justice makes it ethically obligatory to bear this ethical burden. The success story of cadaveric fetal tissue research and treatment should continue unhindered, to fulfill professional responsibility to current and future patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Biophysical and biochemical models of mechanisms of cellular development via the cellular cycle in normal tissue, cancerous tissue, and inflammatory processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponizovskiy, M R

    2013-01-01

    The significant separate biochemical discoveries of pro- and anti-apoptotic -autophagy, and -proliferative processes in normal and pathology cells were learned in detail from the point of view of biophysics, physical chemistry, and thermodynamics, which made possible the proposal that a common mechanism relates to all of these processes: intracellular balances in catabolic and anabolic processes interconnect with extracellular balances, promoting and maintaining the stability of internal medium and internal energy of cells as well as normal cell development. Nevertheless, violations to these interconnections of intracellular and extracellular balances promote pathologic processes. The study of cellular cycle mechanisms in normal cells explained the mechanisms of the maintenance of stability of the internal medium and internal energy of cells as a component of the overall stability of an organism. It explained the development of the cellular cycle as the oscillating changes in the flow of energy and substances. In addition, violations to mechanisms of the maintenance of stability of the cellular internal medium and internal energy in cancer tissue were elucidated and compared with violations of these mechanisms in inflammatory processes. All of this eliminated a lot of doubts and queries that were expressed by the authors of some experiments.

  15. Salt Stress Responses of Pigeon Pea (Cajanus Cajan) on Growth, Yield and Some Biochemical Attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayyab, A.; Azeem, M.; Ahmad, N; Ahmad, R.; Qasim, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growth responses of leguminous plants to salinity vary considerably among species. Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) is a sub-tropical crop, grown worldwide particularly in South Asia for edible and fodder purposes, while little is known about its salinity tolerance. In order to investigate the effect of salinity, plants were established at six different levels of sea salt concentrations i.e. 0.5, 1.6, 2.8, 3.5, 3.8 and 4.3 (EC/sub e/ dS.m/sup -1/). Plant growth was measured using vegetative (height, fresh and dry biomass, moisture, relative growth rate (RGR) and specific shoot length (SSL)), reproductive (number of flowers, pods, seeds and seed weight) and some biochemical parameters (chlorophylls, carotenoids, sugars and proteins). Pigeon pea showed a salt sensitive growth response, however, it survived up to 3.5 (EC/sub e/ dS.m/sup -1/) sea salt salinity. Plant height, biomass, SSL and RGR linearly decreased under saline conditions. Leaf pigments increased (chlorophylls) or maintained (carotenoids) at 1.6 dS.m/sup -1/ and subsequently decreased in higher salinity. Low moisture content and succulence along with more accumulation of soluble sugars and proteins may be attributed to leaf osmotic adjustments at low salinity. Salinity adversely affect reproductive growth of C. cajan where production of flowers, pods, number of seeds and seed weight were significantly reduced. Present study provides basic information related to plant growth, seed yield and some biochemical attributes, which suggest C. cajan as a salt sensitive leguminous crop. However, detailed information is required to understand the eco-physiological responses of this plant under field and green house conditions. (author)

  16. Impact of cadmium contamination and oxygenation levels on biochemical responses in the Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legeay, Alexia [Laboratoire d' Ecophysiologie et Ecotoxicologie des Systemes Aquatiques (LEESA), UMR 5805-OASU, Universite Bordeaux 1 and CNRS, Place Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France)]. E-mail: a.legeay@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr; Achard-Joris, Maud [Laboratoire d' Ecophysiologie et Ecotoxicologie des Systemes Aquatiques (LEESA), UMR 5805-OASU, Universite Bordeaux 1 and CNRS, Place Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France); Baudrimont, Magalie [Laboratoire d' Ecophysiologie et Ecotoxicologie des Systemes Aquatiques (LEESA), UMR 5805-OASU, Universite Bordeaux 1 and CNRS, Place Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France); Massabuau, Jean-Charles [Laboratoire d' Ecophysiologie et Ecotoxicologie des Systemes Aquatiques (LEESA), UMR 5805-OASU, Universite Bordeaux 1 and CNRS, Place Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France); Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul [Laboratoire d' Ecophysiologie et Ecotoxicologie des Systemes Aquatiques (LEESA), UMR 5805-OASU, Universite Bordeaux 1 and CNRS, Place Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France)

    2005-09-10

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential utility of several biochemical parameters as indicators of the toxic effects of cadmium in the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea under two levels of oxygenation (normoxia 21 kPa and hypoxia 4 kPa). These variations in oxygenation are representative of the natural environments of bivalves living at the bottom of the water column, where hypoxic episodes may occur regularly. Cadmium accumulation, metallothionein synthesis, MXR protein induction, lipoperoxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities (catalase, glutathione reductase and total and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases) were assessed in the gills of C. fluminea in four experimental conditions: normoxia, hypoxia, normoxia with cadmium and hypoxia with cadmium ([Cd] = 30 {mu}g l{sup -1}) over a 14-day period. Behavioural reactions were also followed for the duration of the experiment by monitoring clam activity and valve movements. This study is a first report on biochemical responses under cadmium contamination and hypoxia and will enable us to determine better biomarkers for C. fluminea as they were measured simultaneously. In metal-exposed animals, we found an increasing accumulation of cadmium in the gills with time, and this was more severe in hypoxic conditions. Metallothionein synthesis occurred in contaminated clams and was precocious in hypoxic conditions. MXR protein induction appeared promising due to its quick and significant response to metal with a strong impact from hypoxic contamination. On the other hand, in our experimental conditions, antioxidant parameters did not show decisive responses to contamination and hypoxia, except glutathione peroxidases which decreased systematically with time in a cadmium-independent manner. Lipid peroxidation, expressed as malondialdehyde content, was not stimulated by normoxic contamination, as has been shown in other studies, but was stimulated under hypoxic cadmium contamination. Our study confirms the

  17. Raman spectroscopic analysis of human tissue engineered oral mucosa constructs (EVPOME) perturbed by physical and biochemical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khmaladze, Alexander; Ganguly, Arindam; Raghavan, Mekhala; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Cole, Jacqueline H.; Marcelo, Cynthia L.; Feinberg, Stephen E.; Izumi, Kenji; Morris, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    We show the application of near-infrared Raman Spectroscopy to in-vitro monitoring of the viability of tissue constructs (EVPOMEs). During their two week production period EVPOME may encounter thermal, chemical or biochemical stresses that could cause development to cease, rendering the affected constructs useless. We discuss the development of a Raman spectroscopic technique to study EVPOMEs noninvasively, with the ultimate goal of applying it in-vivo. We identify Raman spectroscopic failure indicators for EVPOMEs, which are stressed by temperature, and discuss the implications of varying calcium concentration and pre-treatment of the human keratinocytes with Rapamycin. In particular, Raman spectra show correlation of the peak height ratios of CH2 deformation to phenylalanine ring breathing, providing a Raman metric to distinguish between viable and nonviable constructs. We also show the results of singular value decomposition analysis, demonstrating the applicability of Raman spectroscopic technique to both distinguish between stressed and non-stressed EVPOME constructs, as well as between EVPOMEs and bare AlloDerm® substrates, on which the oral keratinocytes have been cultured. We also discuss complications arising from non-uniform thickness of the AlloDerm® substrate and the cultured constructs, as well as sampling protocols used to detect local stress and other problems that may be encountered in the constructs.

  18. Temporal specificity of training: intra-day effects on biochemical responses and Olympic-Weightlifting performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Achraf; Chtourou, Hamdi; Trabelsi, Khaled; Padulo, Johnny; Turki, Mouna; El Abed, Kais; Hoekelmann, Anitta; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of an Olympic-Weightlifting session training at three times of the day on the performance related to biochemical responses. Nine weightlifters (21 ± 0.5 years) performed, in randomised order, on three Olympic-Weightlifting training (snatch, clean and jerk) sessions (08:00 a.m., 02:00 p. m., 06:00 p. m.). Blood samples were collected: before, 3 min and 48 h after each training session. Haematological parameters and markers of muscle injury were assessed. Resting oral temperature and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were also assessed during each session. ANOVA showed that the performance was better (P training sessions with lower values ​​in the evening compared to the morning. In conclusion, the afternoon training is more effective than morning or evening sessions for weightlifters. Therefore, coaches and weightlifters should be advised to schedule their training session in the afternoon hour.

  19. Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita Labiatae and Mentha spicata Labiatae on liver tissue in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdogan, M; Ozguner, M; Aydin, G; Gokalp, O

    2004-01-01

    The plant Mentha piperita, or peppermint, is commonly used in the treatment of loss of appetite, common cold, bronchitis, sinusitis, fever, nausea and vomiting, and indigestion as a herbal agent. In this study, we aimed to investigate biochemical and histological effects of M. piperita Labiatae, growing in the Yenisar Bademli town of Isparta city, and Mentha spicata Labiatae, growing in the Anamas high plateau of the Yenisar Bademli town, on the rat liver tissue. Forty-eight male Wistar albino rats weighing 200-250 g were used for this study. Rats were divided into four groups of 12 animals: Group I received no herbal tea (control group); Group II received 20 g/L M. piperita tea; Group III received 20 g/L M. spicata tea; and Group IV received 40 g/L M. spicata tea. Herbal teas were prepared daily and provided at all times to the rats during 30 days as drinking water. Liver function tests, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST/GOT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT/GPT) activities were measured. To evaluate liver antioxidant defences, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) activities were determined in the homogenates of liver tissue. In addition, liver tissues were submitted for histopathologic examination. AST and ALT activities were increased in Group II, Group III and Group IV gradually when compared with the control group. The difference between Group II and the control group was not statistically significant (P > 0.016). Increases in AST and ALT activities of Group III and Group IV were statistically significant when compared with the control group. SOD, GSH-Px and CAT activities were increased in Group II when compared with the control group but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.016). However, SOD, GSH-Px activities and the TBARS level were significantly increased, and CAT activity was significantly decreased in Group III when compared with the

  20. Morphological and biochemical responses of Oryza sativa L. (cultivar MR219) to ion beam irradiation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Anna Pick Kiong; Ung, Ying Chian; Hussein, Sobri; Harun, Abdul Rahim; Tanaka, Atsushi; Yoshihiro, Hase

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Heavy ion beam, which has emerged as a new mutagen in the mutation breeding of crops and ornamental plants, is expected to result in the induction of novel mutations. This study investigates the morphological and biochemical responses of Oryza sativa toward different doses of carbon ion beam irradiation. Methods: In this study, the dry seeds of O. sativa were irradiated at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 Gy, followed by in-vitro germination under controlled conditions. Morphological and biochemical studies were conducted to investigate the morphological and physiological responses of O. sativa towards ion beam irradiation. Results: The study demonstrated that low doses (10 Gy) of ion beam have a stimulating effect on the height, root length, and fresh weight of the plantlets but not on the number of leaves. Meanwhile, doses higher than 10 Gy caused reductions in all the morphological parameters studied as compared to the control samples. The highest total soluble protein content [(2.11±0.47) mg/g FW] was observed in plantlets irradiated at 20 Gy. All irradiated plantlets were found to have 0.85% to 58.32% higher specific activity of peroxidase as compared to the control samples. The present study also revealed that low doses of ion beam (10 and 20 Gy) had negligible effect on the total chlorophyll content of O. sativa plantlets while 40 Gy had a stimulating effect on the chlorophyll content. Plantlets irradiated between 40 to 120 Gy were shown to be 0.38% to 9.98% higher in total soluble nitrogen content which, however, was not significantly different from the control samples. Conclusions: Carbon ion beam irradiation administered at low to moderate doses of 10 to 40 Gy may induce O. sativa mutants with superior characteristics. PMID:24302713

  1. Morphological and biochemical responses of Oryza sativa L. (cultivar MR219) to ion beam irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Anna Pick Kiong; Ung, Ying Chian; Hussein, Sobri; Harun, Abdul Rahim; Tanaka, Atsushi; Yoshihiro, Hase

    2013-12-01

    Heavy ion beam, which has emerged as a new mutagen in the mutation breeding of crops and ornamental plants, is expected to result in the induction of novel mutations. This study investigates the morphological and biochemical responses of Oryza sativa toward different doses of carbon ion beam irradiation. In this study, the dry seeds of O. sativa were irradiated at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 Gy, followed by in-vitro germination under controlled conditions. Morphological and biochemical studies were conducted to investigate the morphological and physiological responses of O. sativa towards ion beam irradiation. The study demonstrated that low doses (10 Gy) of ion beam have a stimulating effect on the height, root length, and fresh weight of the plantlets but not on the number of leaves. Meanwhile, doses higher than 10 Gy caused reductions in all the morphological parameters studied as compared to the control samples. The highest total soluble protein content [(2.11 ± 0.47) mg/g FW] was observed in plantlets irradiated at 20 Gy. All irradiated plantlets were found to have 0.85% to 58.32% higher specific activity of peroxidase as compared to the control samples. The present study also revealed that low doses of ion beam (10 and 20 Gy) had negligible effect on the total chlorophyll content of O. sativa plantlets while 40 Gy had a stimulating effect on the chlorophyll content. Plantlets irradiated between 40 to 120 Gy were shown to be 0.38% to 9.98% higher in total soluble nitrogen content which, however, was not significantly different from the control samples. Carbon ion beam irradiation administered at low to moderate doses of 10 to 40 Gy may induce O. sativa mutants with superior characteristics.

  2. Physiological and Biochemical Responses to Aluminum Stress in the Root of a Biodiesel Plant Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADITE TISTAMA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated J. curcas responses to aluminum stress, histochemically and biochemically. Histochemical stainings were observed to analysis aluminum accumulation, lipid peroxidation and the loss of plasma membrane integrity on the surface and tissue of the root apex. Enzymatic analysis was conducted to measure malate content in leaf, root and malate efflux in the medium. We used M. malabathricum as a comparison for Al-tolerance plant. J. curcas root elongation was inhibited by 0.4 mM AlCl3, while M. malabathricum root elongation was inhibited by 0.8 mM AlCl3 treatment. Inhibition of root elongation has high correlation with Al accumulation in the root apex, which caused lipid degradation and cell death. Generally, malate content in J. curcas leaf and root was higher than that in M. malabathricum. In the contrary malate efflux from the root into the medium was lower. J. curcas root has a different pattern compared to M. malabathricum in malate synthesis and malate secretion when treated with a different Al concentration. We categorized J. curcas acc IP3 as more sensitive to aluminum than M. malabathricum.

  3. Evaluation of the Efficacy of the Stress Protein Response as a Biochemical Water Quality Biomonitoring Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-21

    Immediately after sampling, fish were sacrificed and brain, gill, and striated muscle tissues were disected and respectively pooled within each treatment...protein 70 analysis was disected in our laboratory. Fish Collections Fish were collected from all Soldier Creek and North Canadian River stations on 9...VOGEL, S.M. AND NARAHASHI, T. 1987. Effects of Lindane Upon Transmitter Release and End-Plate Responsiveness In The Neuromuscular Junction of The Frog

  4. Comparative analysis of physio-biochemical responses to cold stress in tetraploid and hexaploid wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejadsadeghi, Leila; Maali-Amiri, Reza; Zeinali, Hassan; Ramezanpour, Sanaz; Sadeghzade, Behzad

    2014-09-01

    The cellular changes induced by cold stress (CS) include responses that lead to oxidative stress and limits plant growth, metabolism, and productivity. In this study, responses of physio-biochemical to CS phases were comparatively studied in three genotypes of bread and durum wheats differing in sensitivity, two of them (Norstar, bread wheat and Gerdish, durum wheat) were tolerant to CS and the other one, SRN (durum wheat) was sensitive to CS. 14-day-old seedlings were subjected to CS (12 and 24 h) with or without cold acclimation (CA) phase. During CS, the elevated levels of electrolyte leakage index, contents of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and malondialdehyde in Norstar and Gerdish were lower than that of SRN plants. Positive correlation and co-regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging systems, superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and proline especially after CA phase suggested crucial role for holding back toxic ROS levels in CS phase. However, different activities of this system resulted in different intensities of oxidative stress in acclimated and non-acclimated plants. Our results showed that a CA phase induced oxidative stress tolerance by modulating antioxidative systems. These responses confirmed the existence of wide range of genetic capacity in durum wheat to increase cold tolerance particularly in Gerdish so that the sensitivity of SRN plants to CS was linearly correlated with the more decrease of antioxidant systems. These general responses may be a sign for associating other metabolites or enzymes activities to create partly tolerance against cold-induced oxidative stress. Eventually, assessing the dynamic of cell responses in short intervals after CS without CA phases profitably could be a novel path in plant stress response investigations in a short period of time.

  5. Erythropoietin Action in Stress Response, Tissue Maintenance and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Erythropoietin (EPO regulation of red blood cell production and its induction at reduced oxygen tension provides for the important erythropoietic response to ischemic stress. The cloning and production of recombinant human EPO has led to its clinical use in patients with anemia for two and half decades and has facilitated studies of EPO action. Reports of animal and cell models of ischemic stress in vitro and injury suggest potential EPO benefit beyond red blood cell production including vascular endothelial response to increase nitric oxide production, which facilitates oxygen delivery to brain, heart and other non-hematopoietic tissues. This review discusses these and other reports of EPO action beyond red blood cell production, including EPO response affecting metabolism and obesity in animal models. Observations of EPO activity in cell and animal model systems, including mice with tissue specific deletion of EPO receptor (EpoR, suggest the potential for EPO response in metabolism and disease.

  6. Physio-biochemical and morphological characters of halophyte legume shrub, Acacia ampliceps seedlings in response to salt stress under greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theerawitaya, Cattarin; Tisarum, Rujira; Samphumphuang, Thapanee; Singh, Harminder P; Suriyan Cha-Um; Kirdmanee, Chalermpol; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-01-01

    Acacia ampliceps (salt wattle), a leguminous shrub, has been introduced in salt-affected areas in the northeast of Thailand for the remediation of saline soils. However, the defense mechanisms underlying salt tolerance A. ampliceps are unknown. We investigated various physio-biochemical and morphological attributes of A. ampliceps in response to varying levels of salt treatment (200-600 mM NaCl). Seedlings of A. ampliceps (25 ± 2 cm in plant height) raised from seeds were treated with 200 mM (mild stress), 400 and 600 mM (extreme stress) of salt treatment (NaCl) under greenhouse conditions. Na(+) and Ca(2+) contents in the leaf tissues increased significantly under salt treatment, whereas K(+) content declined in salt-stressed plants. Free proline and soluble sugar contents in plants grown under extreme salt stress (600 mM NaCl) for 9 days significantly increased by 28.7 (53.33 μmol g(-1) FW) and 3.2 (42.11 mg g(-1) DW) folds, respectively over the control, thereby playing a major role as osmotic adjustment. Na(+) enrichment in the phyllode tissues of salt-stressed seedlings positively related to total chlorophyll (TC) degradation (R (2) = 0.72). Photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll fluorescence in salt-stressed plants increased under mild salt stress (200 mM NaCl). However, these declined under high levels of salinity (400-600 mM NaCl), consequently resulting in a reduced net photosynthetic rate (R (2) = 0.81) and plant dry weight (R (2) = 0.91). The study concludes that A. ampliceps has an osmotic adjustment and Na(+) compartmentation as effective salt defense mechanisms, and thus it could be an excellent species to grow in salt-affected soils.

  7. Physio-biochemical and morphological characters of halophyte legume shrub, Acacia ampliceps seedlings in response to salt stress under greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cattarin eTheerawitaya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Acacia ampliceps (salt wattle, a leguminous shrub, has been introduced in salt-affected areas in northeast of Thailand for remediation of saline soils. However, the defense mechanisms underlying salt tolerance A. ampliceps are unknown. We investigated various physio-biochemical and morphological attributes of A. ampliceps in response to varying levels of salt treatment (200 to 600 mM NaCl. Seedlings of A. ampliceps (252 cm in plant height raised from seeds were treated with 200 mM (mild stress, 400 and 600 mM (extreme stress of salt treatment (NaCl under greenhouse conditions. Na+ and Ca2+ contents in the leaf tissues increased significantly under salt treatment, whereas K+ content declined in salt-stressed plants. Free proline and soluble sugar contents in plant grown under extreme salt stress (600 mM NaCl for 9 days significantly increased by 28.7 (53.33 mol g1 FW and 3.2 (42.11 mg g1 DW folds, respectively over the control, thereby playing a major role as osmotic adjustment. Na+ enrichment in the phyllode tissues of salt-stressed seedlings positively related to total chlorophyll degradation (R2=0.72. Photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll fluorescence in salt-stressed plants increased under mild salt stress (200 mM NaCl. However, these declined under high level of salinity (400-600 mM NaCl, consequently resulting in reduced net photosynthetic rate (R2=0.81 and plant dry weight (R2= 0.91. The study concludes that A. ampliceps has an osmotic adjustment and Na+ compartmentation as effective salt defense mechanisms, and thus it could be an excellent species to grow in salt-affected soils.

  8. T lymphocytes and normal tissue responses to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaue, Dörthe; McBride, William H.

    2012-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that lymphocytes are a recurring feature in radiation damaged normal tissues, but assessing their functional significance has proven difficult. Contradictory roles have been postulated in both tissue pathogenesis and protection, although these are not necessarily mutually exclusive as the immune system can display what may seem to be opposing faces at any one time. While the exact role of T lymphocytes in irradiated normal tissue responses may still be obscure, their accumulation after tissue damage suggests they may be critical targets for radiotherapeutic intervention and worthy of further study. This is accentuated by recent findings that pathologically damaged “self,” such as occurs after exposure to ionizing radiation, can generate danger signals with the ability to activate pathways similar to those that activate adoptive immunity to pathogens. In addition, the demonstration of T cell subsets with their recognition radars tuned to “self” moieties has revolutionized our ideas on how all immune responses are controlled and regulated. New concepts of autoimmunity have resulted based on the dissociation of immune functions between different subsets of immune cells. It is becoming axiomatic that the immune system has the power to regulate radiation-induced tissue damage, from failure of regeneration to fibrosis, to acute and chronic late effects, and even to carcinogenesis. Our understanding of the interplay between T lymphocytes and radiation-damaged tissue may still be rudimentary but this is a good time to re-examine their potential roles, their radiobiological and microenvironmental influences, and the possibilities for therapeutic manipulation. This review will discuss the yin and yang of T cell responses within the context of radiation exposures, how they might drive or protect against normal tissue side effects and what we may be able do about it.

  9. Physiological and biochemical responses involved in water deficit tolerance of nitrogen-fixing Vicia faba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabbadj, Ablaa; Makoudi, Bouchra; Mouradi, Mohammed; Frendo, Pierre; Ghoulam, Cherki

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is increasingly impacting the water deficit over the world. Because of drought and the high pressure of the rising human population, water is becoming a scarce and expensive commodity, especially in developing countries. The identification of crops presenting a higher acclimation to drought stress is thus an important objective in agriculture. The present investigation aimed to assess the adaptation of three Vicia faba genotypes, Aguadulce (AD), Luz d’Otonio (LO) and Reina Mora (RM) to water deficit. Multiple physiological and biochemical parameters were used to analyse the response of the three genotypes to two soil water contents (80% and 40% of field capacity). A significant lower decrease in shoot, root and nodule dry weight was observed for AD compared to LO and RM. The better growth performance of AD was correlated to higher carbon and nitrogen content than in LO and RM under water deficit. Leaf parameters such as relative water content, mass area, efficiency of photosystem II and chlorophyll and carotenoid content were significantly less affected in AD than in LO and RM. Significantly higher accumulation of proline was correlated to the higher performance of AD compared to LO and RM. Additionally, the better growth of AD genotype was related to an important mobilisation of antioxidant enzyme activities such as ascorbate peroxidase and catalase. Taken together, these results allow us to suggest that AD is a water deficit tolerant genotype compared to LO and RM. Our multiple physiological and biochemical analyses show that nitrogen content, leaf proline accumulation, reduced leaf hydrogen peroxide accumulation and leaf antioxidant enzymatic activities (ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase and polyphenol oxidase) are potential biological markers useful to screen for water deficit resistant Vicia faba genotypes. PMID:29281721

  10. Physiological and biochemical responses involved in water deficit tolerance of nitrogen-fixing Vicia faba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ablaa Kabbadj

    Full Text Available Climate change is increasingly impacting the water deficit over the world. Because of drought and the high pressure of the rising human population, water is becoming a scarce and expensive commodity, especially in developing countries. The identification of crops presenting a higher acclimation to drought stress is thus an important objective in agriculture. The present investigation aimed to assess the adaptation of three Vicia faba genotypes, Aguadulce (AD, Luz d'Otonio (LO and Reina Mora (RM to water deficit. Multiple physiological and biochemical parameters were used to analyse the response of the three genotypes to two soil water contents (80% and 40% of field capacity. A significant lower decrease in shoot, root and nodule dry weight was observed for AD compared to LO and RM. The better growth performance of AD was correlated to higher carbon and nitrogen content than in LO and RM under water deficit. Leaf parameters such as relative water content, mass area, efficiency of photosystem II and chlorophyll and carotenoid content were significantly less affected in AD than in LO and RM. Significantly higher accumulation of proline was correlated to the higher performance of AD compared to LO and RM. Additionally, the better growth of AD genotype was related to an important mobilisation of antioxidant enzyme activities such as ascorbate peroxidase and catalase. Taken together, these results allow us to suggest that AD is a water deficit tolerant genotype compared to LO and RM. Our multiple physiological and biochemical analyses show that nitrogen content, leaf proline accumulation, reduced leaf hydrogen peroxide accumulation and leaf antioxidant enzymatic activities (ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase and polyphenol oxidase are potential biological markers useful to screen for water deficit resistant Vicia faba genotypes.

  11. Physiological and biochemical responses of two maize cultivars (Corralejo and Tlaltizapon under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Amdouni

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study the effect of different concentrations of NaCl (0, 50 and 100mM in two cultivars of maize (Corralejo and Tlaltizapan, on their nutritional and photosynthetic comportment. The measures focused on the physiological parameters (growth weight, hydration and nutritional status of plants and biochemical (chlorophyll, PEPC activity, activity of some anti-oxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation. Analysis of morphological parameters showed a yellowing of the extremity of leaves, at 100 mM of NaCl. These visual symptoms are associated with a decrease of chlorophyll. A decrease in potential growth was found in two cultivars, but less significant in Corralejo. The best salt tolerance of the latter was due to a better hydration of the leaves, to a lesser accumulation of Na+ and Cl- in its leaves and a better selectivity K/Na. To identify the biochemical characteristics associated with the physiological behavior, we conducted measures activity of PEPC, the protein, catalase and peroxidase on the fourth leaf from the bottom. A negative correlation between the activity of PEPC and Na+ amount was found at 50 mM in the sensitive cultivar and at 100 mM of NaCl in tolerant cultivar Corralejo. Furthermore, the antioxidant response was marked by a greater accumulation of malondialdehyde, in Tlaltizapan at 100 mM of NaCl. At the same concentration, catalase peroxidase and SOD activities weren't decreased in this cultivar. This suggests that salt has created a stress oxidative state only in Tlaltizapan leaves. These results showed a better performance of Corralejo cultivar compared to Tlaltizapan cultivar, at 50 and 100 mM of NaCl.

  12. Physiological and biochemical responses involved in water deficit tolerance of nitrogen-fixing Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabbadj, Ablaa; Makoudi, Bouchra; Mouradi, Mohammed; Pauly, Nicolas; Frendo, Pierre; Ghoulam, Cherki

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is increasingly impacting the water deficit over the world. Because of drought and the high pressure of the rising human population, water is becoming a scarce and expensive commodity, especially in developing countries. The identification of crops presenting a higher acclimation to drought stress is thus an important objective in agriculture. The present investigation aimed to assess the adaptation of three Vicia faba genotypes, Aguadulce (AD), Luz d'Otonio (LO) and Reina Mora (RM) to water deficit. Multiple physiological and biochemical parameters were used to analyse the response of the three genotypes to two soil water contents (80% and 40% of field capacity). A significant lower decrease in shoot, root and nodule dry weight was observed for AD compared to LO and RM. The better growth performance of AD was correlated to higher carbon and nitrogen content than in LO and RM under water deficit. Leaf parameters such as relative water content, mass area, efficiency of photosystem II and chlorophyll and carotenoid content were significantly less affected in AD than in LO and RM. Significantly higher accumulation of proline was correlated to the higher performance of AD compared to LO and RM. Additionally, the better growth of AD genotype was related to an important mobilisation of antioxidant enzyme activities such as ascorbate peroxidase and catalase. Taken together, these results allow us to suggest that AD is a water deficit tolerant genotype compared to LO and RM. Our multiple physiological and biochemical analyses show that nitrogen content, leaf proline accumulation, reduced leaf hydrogen peroxide accumulation and leaf antioxidant enzymatic activities (ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase and polyphenol oxidase) are potential biological markers useful to screen for water deficit resistant Vicia faba genotypes.

  13. Effects of Red Wine Vinegar Beverage on the Colonic Tissue of Rodents: Biochemical, Functional and Pharmacological Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkhsaikhan, Azjargal; Takahara, Akira; Nakamura, Yuji; Goto, Ai; Chiba, Koki; Lubna, Nur Jaharat; Hagiwara-Nagasawa, Mihoko; Izumi-Nakaseko, Hiroko; Ando, Kentaro; Naito, Atsuhiko T; Sugiyama, Atsushi

    2018-01-01

    A beverage made of red wine vinegar and grape juice (Yamanashi-no-megumi™) was developed as a supplemental fluid containing polyphenols, which has been clinically shown to enhance the colonic transit. In this study, we assessed the mechanism of its prokinetic action by analyzing the effects on both the colonic phosphodiesterase activity of rats (n=4) and the isolated colonic strip preparation of guinea pigs (n=4). The 7% (v/v) solution of the beverage significantly decreased the phosphodiesterase activity by 9% (n=4). The beverage in concentrations of 0.7, 2.1 and 7% (v/v) relaxed the colonic strips pre-contracted by 1 µmol/L of carbachol in a concentration-related manner with 50, 58 and 79%, each response of which was diminished to 11, 19 and 46%, respectively in the presence of 100 µmol/L of L-nitro-arginine methyl ester. These results obtained by biochemical, functional and pharmacological analyses suggest that the beverage could relax the colon through both cAMP-associated and nitric oxide-dependent pathways, which may partly explain clinically observed prokinetic effect of the beverage.

  14. Response of biochemical biomarkers in the aquatic crustacean Daphnia magna exposed to silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulm, Lea; Krivohlavek, Adela; Jurašin, Darija; Ljubojević, Marija; Šinko, Goran; Crnković, Tea; Žuntar, Irena; Šikić, Sandra; Vinković Vrček, Ivana

    2015-12-01

    The proliferation of silver nanoparticle (AgNP) production and use owing to their antimicrobial properties justifies the need to examine the resulting environmental impacts. The discharge of biocidal nanoparticles to water bodies may pose a threat to aquatic species. This study evaluated the effects of citrate-coated AgNPs on the standardized test organism Daphnia magna Straus clone MBP996 by means of biochemical biomarker response. AgNP toxicity was compared against the toxic effect of Ag(+). The toxicity endpoints were calculated based upon measured Ag concentrations in exposure media. For AgNPs, the NOAEC and LOAEC values at 48 h were 5 and 7 μg Ag/L, respectively, while these values were 0.5 and 1 μg Ag/L, respectively, for Ag(+). The EC50 at 48 h was computed to be 12.4 ± 0.6 and 2.6 ± 0.1 μg Ag/L for AgNPs and Ag(+), respectively, with 95 % confidence intervals of 12.1-12.8 and 2.3-2.8 μg Ag/L, respectively. These results indicate significant less toxicity of AgNP compared to free Ag(+) ions. Five biomarkers were evaluated in Daphnia magna neonates after acute exposure to Ag(+) or AgNPs, including glutathione (GSH) level, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, and catalase (CAT), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. AgNPs induced toxicity and oxidative stress responses in D. magna neonates at tenfold higher concentrations than Ag. Biochemical methods revealed a clear increase in AChE activity, decreased ROS level, increased GSH level and CAT activity, but no significant changes in SOD activity. As Ag(+) may dissolve from AgNPs, these two types of Ag could act synergistically and produce a greater toxic response. The observed remarkably high toxicity of AgNPs (in the parts-per-billion range) to crustaceans indicates that these organisms are a vulnerable link in the aquatic food chain with regard to contamination by nanosilver. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  15. Physiological and biochemical responses of Hibiscus sabdariffa to drought stress in the presence of salicylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Mirshekari

    2017-08-01

    Salicylic acid (SA is one of the important signal molecules, which modulates plant responses to environmental stress. In the present work, impact of exogenous SA on some physiological and biochemical traits of Hibiscus sabdariffa in response to drought stress was studied. Hibiscus sabdariffa seedlings were exposed to six drought levels (0, -0.05, -0.1, -0.5, -0.75, and 1 MPa with two SA concentrations (0 and 500 µM in 5 days intervals up to 20 days in a factorial design. During drought stress period, the root and shoot growth, relative water content, pigments content, non-reducing sugar and starch content was significantly decreased. SA treatment cause prevention of the growth reduction and improvement of relative water content. Protein concentration was roughly unchanged during drought stress with SA, while, reducing sugars accumulates and non-reducing sugars and starch significantly decreases. The results show that exogenous SA application on leaves during drought stress can ameliorate detrimental effects of stress through reducing water loss and accumulating reducing sugars, which cause preserving turgor pressure of the cells.

  16. Biochemical response and the effects of bariatric surgeries on type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Roland; Hughes, Tyler; Lerd Ng, Jia; Ortiz, Roberto; Abou Ghantous, Michel; Bouhali, Othmane; Arredouani, Abdelilah

    2013-03-01

    A general method is introduced for calculating the biochemical response to pharmaceuticals, surgeries, or other medical interventions. This method is then applied in a simple model of the response to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery in obese diabetic patients. We specifically address the amazing fact that glycemia correction is usually achieved immediately after RYGB surgery, long before there is any appreciable weight loss. Many studies indicate that this result is not due merely to caloric restriction, and it is usually attributed to an increase in glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels observed after the surgery. However, our model indicates that this mechanism alone is not sufficient to explain either the largest declines in glucose levels or the measured declines in the homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The most robust additional mechanism would be production of a factor which opens an insulin-independent pathway for glucose transport into cells, perhaps related to the well-established insulin-independent pathway associated with exercise. Potential candidates include bradykinin, a 9 amino acid peptide. If such a substance were found to exist, it would offer hope for medications which mimic the immediate beneficial effect of RYGB surgery. Supported by Qatar Biomedical Research Institute and Science Program at Texas A&M University at Qatar

  17. Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Saltmarsh Plant Spartina alterniflora to Long-term Wave Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, W.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, ecosystem-based flood defence, i.e., eco-shoreline or living shoreline, that is more sustainable and cost-effective than conventional coastal engineering structures has been brought into large-scale practice. Numerous laboratory experiments have been performed to explore the wave-attenuation effects of saltmarsh plants that are widely used in eco-shoreline, and yet no study has ever been conducted on the physiological and biochemical responses of saltmarsh plants to long-term wave exposure, presumably due to the constraint that traditional wave generator fails to provide long-term stable wave conditions necessary for physiological experiments. In this study, a long-term shallow water wave environment simulator using crank-yoke mechanism was built in the laboratory to address this gap. Experiments using the wave simulator were conducted for 8 weeks in a greenhouse and the temperature was maintained at 24-30°C. 5‰ artificial sea water was filled in the test tank, and the water was changed every week. After being acclimatized, nine S. alterniflora individual plants (initial height 30 cm) were planted in each of the three streamlined cuboid containers (12cm×12cm×20cm), which were partially submerged in a test tank, and undertook horizontal sinusoidal motion imposed by the crank-yoke mechanism to mimic plants exposed to shallow water waves. The substrate filled in the containers were soils collected from the Yellow River Delta, so were the S. alterniflora plants. A realistic stem density of 400 stems/m2 was tested, which corresponded to a grid spacing of 5.0 cm. Shallow water waves with six wave heights (H: 0.041, 0.055, 0.069, 0.033, 0.044 and 0.056m), one plants submerged depth (0.1m) and two wave periods (2s and 3s) were simulated in the experiments. A no wave condition was also tested as control. Key physiological and biochemical parameters, such as stem length, peroxidase activity, catalase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, etc

  18. Biochemical markers for prediction of 4-year response in bone mass during bisphosphonate treatment for prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Thompson, Desmond E; Ross, Philip D

    2003-01-01

    Short-term changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover (bone markers) have been suggested as predictors of long-term response in bone mass during antiresorptive treatment. In the Danish cohort (n = 306) of the Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort (EPIC) Study (n = 1609) of oral alendronate...

  19. Biochemical, physiological and molecular responses of Ricinus communis seeds and seedlings to different temperatures: a multi-omics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro de Jesus, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    Biochemical, physiological and molecular responses of Ricinus communis seeds and seedlings to different temperatures: a multi-omics approach by Paulo Roberto Ribeiro de Jesus The main objective of this thesis was to provide a detailed analysis of physiological,

  20. Biochemical markers for prediction of 4-year response in bone mass during bisphosphonate treatment for prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Thompson, Desmond E; Ross, Philip D

    2003-01-01

    Short-term changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover (bone markers) have been suggested as predictors of long-term response in bone mass during antiresorptive treatment. In the Danish cohort (n = 306) of the Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort (EPIC) Study (n = 1609) of oral alendronat...

  1. Biochemical, physiological and molecular responses of Ricinus communis seeds and seedlings to different temperatures: a multi-omics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro de Jesus, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    Biochemical, physiological and molecular responses of Ricinus communis seeds and seedlings to different temperatures: a multi-omics approach

    by Paulo Roberto Ribeiro de Jesus

    The main objective of this thesis was to provide a detailed

  2. Partial response to biotin therapy in a patient with holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency: clinical, biochemical, and molecular genetic aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santer, R.; Muhle, H.; Suormala, T.; Baumgartner, E. R.; Duran, M.; Yang, X.; Aoki, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Stephani, U.

    2003-01-01

    We report the clinical course and biochemical findings of a 10-year-old, mentally retarded girl with late-onset holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS, gene symbol HLCS) deficiency and only partial response to biotin. On treatment, even with an unusually high dose of 200mg/day, activities of the

  3. Biochemical and clinical responses of Common Eiders to implanted satellite transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latty, Christopher J.; Hollmen, Tuula E.; Petersen, Margaret; Powell, Abby; Andrews, Russel D.

    2016-01-01

    Implanted biologging devices, such as satellite-linked platform transmitter terminals (PTTs), have been used widely to delineate populations and identify movement patterns of sea ducks. Although in some cases these ecological studies could reveal transmitter effects on behavior and mortality, experiments conducted under controlled conditions can provide valuable information to understand the influence of implanted tags on health and physiology. We report the clinical, mass, biochemical, and histological responses of captive Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima) implanted with PTTs with percutaneous antennas. We trained 6 individuals to dive 4.9 m for their food, allowed them to acclimate to this dive depth, and implanted them with PTTs. We collected data before surgery to establish baselines, and for 3.5 mo after surgery. The first feeding dive took place 22 hr after surgery, with 5 of 6 birds diving to the bottom within 35 hr of surgery. Plumage waterproofing around surgical sites was reduced ≤21 days after surgery. Mass; albumin; albumin:globulin ratio; aspartate aminotransferase; β1-, β2-, and γ-globulins; creatine kinase; fecal glucocorticoid metabolites; heterophil:lymphocyte ratio; and packed cell volume changed from baseline on one or more of the postsurgery sampling dates, and some changes were still evident 3.5 mo after surgery. Our findings show that Common Eiders physiologically responded for up to 3.5 mo after surgical implantation of a PTT, with the greatest response occurring within the first few weeks of implantation. These responses support the need for postsurgery censor periods for satellite telemetry data and should be considered when designing studies and analyzing information from PTTs in sea ducks.

  4. Histologic response of soft tissue sarcoma to radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willett, C.G.; Schiller, A.L.; Suit, H.D.; Mankin, H.J.; Rosenberg, A.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-seven patients with soft tissue sarcoma had preoperative radiotherapy, limb-sparing marginal surgical resection and whole-mount tumor histologic analysis. Incisional biopsy specimens before radiotherapy were reviewed for tumor type, grade, and extent of necrosis. Preoperative radiotherapy was given in either of two regimens: 13 patients received a mean total dose of 5250 cGy in one daily 180 to 200 cGy fractions and 14 patients a mean total dose of 4770 cGy in two daily fractions of 180 to 200 cGy separated by 4 hours. Twenty-one specimens had at least 80% necrosis or severely altered cells, a 3+ to 4+ response. Grade and size of the tumor appeared to be indicators of response to treatment rather than histologic type. Three of five patients (60%) with Grade 1, eight of 11 patients (73%) with Grade 2 lesions, and ten of 11 patients (91%) with Grade 3 tumors had 80% or greater necrosis or severely altered cells. For tumors 10 cm or less in greatest diameter, the 3+ to 4+ histologic response was seen in 12 of 14 patients (86%) whereas for lesions greater than 10 cm, this response was observed in nine of 13 patients (69%). For patients with Grade 2 or 3 soft tissue sarcoma, 13 of 14 patients (93%) treated with two fractions per day and two of four patients (50%) receiving one fraction per day exhibited significant response. All six patients treated twice daily for lesions greater than 10 cm had 3+ to 4+ histologic response compared to three of seven (43%) patients treated once per day. Therefore, grade and size of soft tissue sarcoma are important predictors of response to radiotherapy and preoperative twice daily radiotherapy may more likely permit the conservative surgical excision of sarcomas of borderline resectability

  5. Physiological and biochemical responses to nacl salinity stress in three roegneria (poaceae) species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, I.; Dai, Y.; De, Y; Wu, Z.; Yu, L.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the most tolerant species under salinity stress, amongst Roegneria turczaninovii (Drob.) Nevski var. macrathera Ohwi (R. turczaninovii), Roegneria stricta Keng (R. stricta) and Roegneria komarovii (Nevski) Nevski (R. komarovii). The seeds of three species were exposed to different NaCl concentrations (0, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 225, 250 or 275 mmol/L) and the germination percentage (GP) was calculated after 7 days. Meanwhile, seedlings grown under normal condition at the two-leaf stage were subjected to 500 mL of NaCl solution (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 or 180 mmol/L) for 7 days. Then the physical indicators such as plant height, root length, contents of chlorophyll (Chl), malondialdehyde (MDA), proline, soluble sugars, relative water content (RWC); and the biochemical changes including activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) in three species under different concentrations of NaCl were determined. As a result, GP, plant height, root length, contents of Chl and RWC were reduced with the increase of concentration of NaCl, while MDA, proline, soluble sugars, SOD, POD and CAT were increased. R. komarovii achieved a higher GP; contents of Chl, RWC, proline, soluble sugars; SOD, POD and CAT activities; but a lower MDA content, compared to the other two species. Significant differences between any two species were detected (P < 0.05). R. komarovii is more resistant and tolerant in response to salinity stress than R. turczaninovii and R. stricta. (author)

  6. Antifungal Activity and Biochemical Response of Cuminic Acid against Phytophthora capsici Leonian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Sun, Yang; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Xing; Feng, Juntao

    2016-06-11

    Phytophthora blight of pepper caused by Phytophthora capsici Leonian is a destructive disease throughout the world. Cuminic acid, extracted from the seed of Cuminum cyminum L., belongs to the benzoic acid chemical class. In this study, the sensitivity and biochemical response of P. capsici to cuminic acid was determined. The mean EC50 (50% effective concentration) values for cuminic acid in inhibiting mycelial growth and zoospore germination of the 54 studied P. capsici isolates were 14.54 ± 5.23 μg/mL and 6.97 ± 2.82 μg/mL, respectively. After treatment with cuminic acid, mycelial morphology, sporangium formation and mycelial respiration were significantly influenced; cell membrane permeability and DNA content increased markedly, but pyruvic acid content, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content, and ATPase activity decreased compared with the untreated control. In pot experiments, cuminic acid exhibited both protective and curative activity. Importantly, POD and PAL activity of the pepper leaves increased after being treated with cuminic acid. These indicated that cuminic acid not only showed antifungal activity, but also could improve the defense capacity of the plants. All the results suggested that cuminic acid exhibits the potential to be developed as a new phytochemical fungicide, and this information increases our understanding of the mechanism of action of cuminic acid against Phytophthora capsici.

  7. Hypoxic Response of Tumor Tissues in a Microfluidic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed, Adnan; Dutta, Prashanta

    2017-11-01

    Inside a tumor tissue, cells growing further away from the blood vessel often suffer from low oxygen levels known as hypoxia. Cancer cells have shown prolonged survival in hostile hypoxic conditions by sharply changing the cellular metabolism. In this work, different stages of growth of the tumor tissue and the oxygen transport across the tissue are investigated. The tissue was modeled as a contiguous block of cells inside a microfluidic environment with nutrient transport through advection and diffusion. While oxygen uptake inside the tissue is through diffusion, ascorbate transport from the extracellular medium is addressed by a concentration dependent uptake model. By varying the experimentally observed oxygen consumption rate, different types of cancer cells and their normoxic and hypoxic stages were studied. Even when the oxygen supply in the channel is maintained at normoxic levels, our results show the onset of hypoxia within minutes inside the cellblock. Interestingly, modeled cell blocks with and without a structured basal layer showed less than 5% variation in hypoxic response in chronic hypoxia. Results also indicate that the balance of cell survival and growth are affected by the flow rate of nutrients and the oxygen consumption rate. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMS 1317671.

  8. Morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of camellia oleifera to low-temperature stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, J.; Shu, Q.; Fu, S.; Wu, W.

    2016-01-01

    Camellia oleifera Abel originates from China and is high healthy effect food oil species. It is also a high additional plant in southern China and can help to keep some people of mountain area out of poverty. In recent years, climate change has been abnormal frequently. Abnormal low temperature in winter and late spring coldness may cause the hard hit to C. oleifera farmers. Freezing injury can be caused by sudden decreases in temperature in winter. However, C. oleifera varieties differ in their hardiness to low temperatures. The paper investigated cold-resistance mechanisms by determining and analyzing the morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics of C. oleifera from eastern, western and southern Anhui, respectively. Sensitivity to low temperature was assessed via the number of leaves in spring shoots, leaf thickness, the activities of protective enzymes such as CAT, POD and SOD, and the inclusion contents of WSS, FPro, MDA, benzene-alcohol extracts and lignin. The results showed that C. oleifera varieties had different physiological and biochemical, and morphological responses to low winter temperatures. In different regions, the number of leaves, leaf thickness, WSS content, FPro content and MDA content varied from 5.2-7.8, 398.79 micro m-465.27 micro m, 23.41 mg/g-24.74 mg/g, 41.86 micro g/g-44.18 micro g/g and 10.08 micro mol/g-14.51 micro mol/g, respectively. The varieties from eastern Anhui, the leaf thickness were thicker. Meanwhile, the protective enzyme activities and inclusion contents were relatively higher. The protective enzyme activities and chemical components contents such as benzene-alcohol extract and lignin represented significantly difference (p<0.05) among three regions. In the future, for the abnormal low temperature in winter, a serious of cultivation measures such as improving the contents of WSS, FPro, benzene-alcohol extract and lignin, were taken to enhance the cold resistance of C. oleifera. The result broadens the

  9. Effects of ocean acidification on the swimming ability, development and biochemical responses of sand smelt larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Cátia S.E.; Novais, Sara C.; Lemos, Marco F.L.; Mendes, Susana; Oliveira, Ana P.; Gonçalves, Emanuel J.; Faria, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification, recognized as a major threat to marine ecosystems, has developed into one of the fastest growing fields of research in marine sciences. Several studies on fish larval stages point to abnormal behaviours, malformations and increased mortality rates as a result of exposure to increased levels of CO 2 . However, other studies fail to recognize any consequence, suggesting species-specific sensitivity to increased levels of CO 2 , highlighting the need of further research. In this study we investigated the effects of exposure to elevated pCO 2 on behaviour, development, oxidative stress and energy metabolism of sand smelt larvae, Atherina presbyter. Larvae were caught at Arrábida Marine Park (Portugal) and exposed to different pCO 2 levels (control: ~ 600 μatm, pH = 8.03; medium: ~ 1000 μatm, pH = 7.85; high: ~ 1800 μatm, pH = 7.64) up to 15 days, after which critical swimming speed (U crit ), morphometric traits and biochemical biomarkers were determined. Measured biomarkers were related with: 1) oxidative stress — superoxide dismutase and catalase enzyme activities, levels of lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, and levels of superoxide anion production; 2) energy metabolism — total carbohydrate levels, electron transport system activity, lactate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase enzyme activities. Swimming speed was not affected by treatment, but exposure to increasing levels of pCO 2 leads to higher energetic costs and morphometric changes, with larger larvae in high pCO 2 treatment and smaller larvae in medium pCO 2 treatment. The efficient antioxidant response capacity and increase in energetic metabolism only registered at the medium pCO 2 treatment may indicate that at higher pCO 2 levels the capacity of larvae to restore their internal balance can be impaired. Our findings illustrate the need of using multiple approaches to explore the consequences of future pCO 2 levels on organisms. - Highlights: • Exposure to high pCO 2

  10. Escherichia coli under Ionic Silver Stress: An Integrative Approach to Explore Transcriptional, Physiological and Biochemical Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulou-Bérion, Claire; Gonzalez, Ignacio; Enjalbert, Brice; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Fourquaux, Isabelle; Jamme, Frédéric; Cocaign-Bousquet, Muriel; Mercier-Bonin, Muriel; Girbal, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    For a better understanding of the systemic effect of sub-lethal micromolar concentrations of ionic silver on Escherichia coli, we performed a multi-level characterization of cells under Ag+-mediated stress using an integrative biology approach combining physiological, biochemical and transcriptomic data. Physiological parameters, namely bacterial growth and survival after Ag+ exposure, were first quantified and related to the accumulation of intracellular silver, probed for the first time by nano secondary ion mass spectroscopy at sub-micrometer lateral resolution. Modifications in E. coli biochemical composition were evaluated under Ag+-mediated stress by in situ synchrotron Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy and a comprehensive transcriptome response was also determined. Using multivariate statistics, correlations between the physiological parameters, the extracellular concentration of AgNO3 and the intracellular silver content, gene expression profiles and micro-spectroscopic data were investigated. We identified Ag+-dependent regulation of gene expression required for growth (e.g. transporter genes, transcriptional regulators, ribosomal proteins), for ionic silver transport and detoxification (e.g. copA, cueO, mgtA, nhaR) and for coping with various types of stress (dnaK, pspA, metA,R, oxidoreductase genes). The silver-induced shortening of the acyl chain of fatty acids, mostly encountered in cell membrane, was highlighted by microspectroscopy and correlated with the down-regulated expression of genes involved in fatty acid transport (fadL) and synthesis/modification of lipid A (lpxA and arnA). The increase in the disordered secondary structure of proteins in the presence of Ag+ was assessed through the conformational shift shown for amides I and II, and further correlated with the up-regulated expression of peptidase (hfq) and chaperone (dnaJ), and regulation of transpeptidase expression (ycfS and ycbB). Interestingly, as these transpeptidases act on

  11. Escherichia coli under Ionic Silver Stress: An Integrative Approach to Explore Transcriptional, Physiological and Biochemical Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Saulou-Bérion

    Full Text Available For a better understanding of the systemic effect of sub-lethal micromolar concentrations of ionic silver on Escherichia coli, we performed a multi-level characterization of cells under Ag+-mediated stress using an integrative biology approach combining physiological, biochemical and transcriptomic data. Physiological parameters, namely bacterial growth and survival after Ag+ exposure, were first quantified and related to the accumulation of intracellular silver, probed for the first time by nano secondary ion mass spectroscopy at sub-micrometer lateral resolution. Modifications in E. coli biochemical composition were evaluated under Ag+-mediated stress by in situ synchrotron Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy and a comprehensive transcriptome response was also determined. Using multivariate statistics, correlations between the physiological parameters, the extracellular concentration of AgNO3 and the intracellular silver content, gene expression profiles and micro-spectroscopic data were investigated. We identified Ag+-dependent regulation of gene expression required for growth (e.g. transporter genes, transcriptional regulators, ribosomal proteins, for ionic silver transport and detoxification (e.g. copA, cueO, mgtA, nhaR and for coping with various types of stress (dnaK, pspA, metA,R, oxidoreductase genes. The silver-induced shortening of the acyl chain of fatty acids, mostly encountered in cell membrane, was highlighted by microspectroscopy and correlated with the down-regulated expression of genes involved in fatty acid transport (fadL and synthesis/modification of lipid A (lpxA and arnA. The increase in the disordered secondary structure of proteins in the presence of Ag+ was assessed through the conformational shift shown for amides I and II, and further correlated with the up-regulated expression of peptidase (hfq and chaperone (dnaJ, and regulation of transpeptidase expression (ycfS and ycbB. Interestingly, as these

  12. Effects of ocean acidification on the swimming ability, development and biochemical responses of sand smelt larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Cátia S.E. [MARE — Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, ISPA − Instituto Universitário (Portugal); MARE — Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, ESTM, Instituto Politécnico de Leiria (Portugal); Novais, Sara C.; Lemos, Marco F.L.; Mendes, Susana [MARE — Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, ESTM, Instituto Politécnico de Leiria (Portugal); Oliveira, Ana P. [IPMA — Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera, Algés (Portugal); Gonçalves, Emanuel J. [MARE — Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, ISPA − Instituto Universitário (Portugal); Faria, Ana M., E-mail: afaria@ispa.pt [MARE — Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, ISPA − Instituto Universitário (Portugal)

    2016-09-01

    Ocean acidification, recognized as a major threat to marine ecosystems, has developed into one of the fastest growing fields of research in marine sciences. Several studies on fish larval stages point to abnormal behaviours, malformations and increased mortality rates as a result of exposure to increased levels of CO{sub 2}. However, other studies fail to recognize any consequence, suggesting species-specific sensitivity to increased levels of CO{sub 2}, highlighting the need of further research. In this study we investigated the effects of exposure to elevated pCO{sub 2} on behaviour, development, oxidative stress and energy metabolism of sand smelt larvae, Atherina presbyter. Larvae were caught at Arrábida Marine Park (Portugal) and exposed to different pCO{sub 2} levels (control: ~ 600 μatm, pH = 8.03; medium: ~ 1000 μatm, pH = 7.85; high: ~ 1800 μatm, pH = 7.64) up to 15 days, after which critical swimming speed (U{sub crit}), morphometric traits and biochemical biomarkers were determined. Measured biomarkers were related with: 1) oxidative stress — superoxide dismutase and catalase enzyme activities, levels of lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, and levels of superoxide anion production; 2) energy metabolism — total carbohydrate levels, electron transport system activity, lactate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase enzyme activities. Swimming speed was not affected by treatment, but exposure to increasing levels of pCO{sub 2} leads to higher energetic costs and morphometric changes, with larger larvae in high pCO{sub 2} treatment and smaller larvae in medium pCO{sub 2} treatment. The efficient antioxidant response capacity and increase in energetic metabolism only registered at the medium pCO{sub 2} treatment may indicate that at higher pCO{sub 2} levels the capacity of larvae to restore their internal balance can be impaired. Our findings illustrate the need of using multiple approaches to explore the consequences of future pCO{sub 2} levels on

  13. Tissue specific responses to cadmium-based quantum dots in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Thiago Lopes [CIMA, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Gomes, Tânia [CIMA, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Gaustadalléen 21, NO-0349 Oslo (Norway); Mestre, Nélia C.; Cardoso, Cátia [CIMA, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Bebianno, Maria João, E-mail: mbebian@ualg.pt [CIMA, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Mussel gills are the main target for oxidative stress induced by Cd-based QDs. • Antioxidants responses induced by Cd-based QDs and dissolved Cd are mediated by different mechanisms. • CdTe QDs are more pro-oxidant Cd form when compared to dissolved Cd. • Differential tissue response indicated nano-specific effects. - Abstract: In recent years, Cd-based quantum dots (QDs) have generated interest from the life sciences community due to their potential applications in nanomedicine, biology and electronics. However, these engineered nanomaterials can be released into the marine environment, where their environmental health hazards remain unclear. This study investigated the tissue-specific responses related to alterations in the antioxidant defense system induced by CdTe QDs, in comparison with its dissolved counterpart, using the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Mussels were exposed to CdTe QDs and dissolved Cd for 14 days at 10 μgCd L{sup −1} and biomarkers of oxidative stress [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidases (total, Se-independent and Se-dependent GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities] were analyzed along with Cd accumulation in the gills and digestive gland of mussels. Results show that both Cd forms changed mussels’ antioxidant responses with distinct modes of action (MoA). There were tissue- and time-dependent differences in the biochemical responses to each Cd form, wherein QDs are more pro-oxidant when compared to dissolved Cd. The gills are the main tissue affected by QDs, with effects related to the increase of SOD, GST and GPx activities, while those of dissolved Cd was associated to the increase of CAT activity, Cd accumulation and exposure time. Digestive gland is a main tissue for accumulation of both Cd forms, but changes in antioxidant enzyme activities are smaller than in gills. A multivariate analysis revealed that the antioxidant patterns are tissue dependent

  14. Biochemical responses of filamentous algae in different aquatic ecosystems in South East Turkey and associated water quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelekli, Abuzer; Arslanargun, Hamdullah; Soysal, Çiğdem; Gültekin, Emine; Bozkurt, Hüseyin

    2016-11-01

    To the best of our knowledge, any study about biochemical response of filamentous algae in the complex freshwater ecosystems has not been found in the literature. This study was designed to explore biochemical response of filamentous algae in different water bodies from May 2013 to October 2014, using multivariate approach in the South East of Turkey. Environmental variables were measured in situ: water temperature, oxygen concentration, saturation, conductivity, salinity, pH, redox potential, and total dissolved solid. Chemical variables of aqueous samples and biochemical compounds of filamentous algae were also measured. It was found that geographic position and anthropogenic activities had strong effect on physico-chemical variables of water bodies. Variation in environmental conditions caused change in algal biomass composition due to the different response of filamentous species, also indicated by FTIR analysis. Biochemical responses not only changed from species to species, but also varied for the same species at different sampling time and sampling stations. Multivariate analyses showed that heavy metals, nutrients, and water hardness were found as the important variables governing the temporal and spatial succession and biochemical compounds. Nutrients, especially nitrate, could stimulate pigment and total protein production, whereas high metal content had adverse effects. Amount of malondialdehyde (MDA), H2O2, total thiol groups, total phenolic compounds, proline, total carbohydrate, and metal bioaccumulation by filamentous algae could be closely related with heavy metals in the ecosystems. Significant increase in MDA, H2O2, total thiol group, total phenolic compounds, and proline productions by filamentous algae and chlorosis phenomenon seemed to be an important strategy for alleviating environmental factors-induced oxidative stress as biomarkers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. DNA methylation and physio-biochemical analysis of chickpea in response to cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakei, Aida; Maali-Amiri, Reza; Zeinali, Hassan; Ranjbar, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Cold stress (CS) signals are translated into physiological changes as products of direct and/or indirect of gene expression regulated by different factors like DNA methylation. In this study, some of these factors were comparatively studied in two chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes (Sel96Th11439, cold-tolerant genotype, and ILC533, cold susceptible one) under control (23 °C) and days 1, 3, and 6 after exposing the seedlings to CS (4 °C). Under CS, tolerant genotype prevented H2O2 accumulation which led to a decrease in damage indices (malondialdehyde and electrolyte leakage index) compared to susceptible one. The significant activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase) along with a significant proportion of change in DNA methylation/demethylation patterns were often effective factors in preserving cell against cold-induced oxidative stress. Chickpea cells in response to CS changed access to their genome as the number of bands without change from day 1 to day 6 of exposure to CS particularly in tolerant genotype was decreased. During CS, the methylation level was higher compared to demethylation (29.05 vs 19.79 %) in tolerant genotype and (27.92 vs 22.09 %) in susceptible one. However, for prolonged periods of CS, changes in demethylated bands in tolerant genotype were higher than that of in susceptible one (9.24 vs 4.13 %), indicating higher potential for activation of CS responsive genes. Such a status along with higher activity of antioxidants and less damage indices could be related to cold tolerance (CT) mechanisms in chickpea. Sequencing analysis confirmed the important role of some specific DNA sequences in creating CT with possible responsive components involved in CS. Thus, dynamic assessment using multi-dimensional approaches allows us to progressively fill in the gaps between physio-biochemical and molecular events in creating CT, to comprehend better the

  16. Tissue-Based MicroRNAs as Predictors of Biochemical Recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy: What Can We Learn from Past Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhongwei; Stephan, Carsten; Weickmann, Sabine; Jung, Monika; Kristiansen, Glen; Jung, Klaus

    2017-09-21

    With the increasing understanding of the molecular mechanism of the microRNAs (miRNAs) in prostate cancer (PCa), the predictive potential of miRNAs has received more attention by clinicians and laboratory scientists. Compared with the traditional prognostic tools based on clinicopathological variables, including the prostate-specific antigen, miRNAs may be helpful novel molecular biomarkers of biochemical recurrence for a more accurate risk stratification of PCa patients after radical prostatectomy and may contribute to personalized treatment. Tissue samples from prostatectomy specimens are easily available for miRNA isolation. Numerous studies from different countries have investigated the role of tissue-miRNAs as independent predictors of disease recurrence, either alone or in combination with other clinicopathological factors. For this purpose, a PubMed search was performed for articles published between 2008 and 2017. We compiled a profile of dysregulated miRNAs as potential predictors of biochemical recurrence and discussed their current clinical relevance. Because of differences in analytics, insufficient power and the heterogeneity of studies, and different statistical evaluation methods, limited consistency in results was obvious. Prospective multi-institutional studies with larger sample sizes, harmonized analytics, well-structured external validations, and reasonable study designs are necessary to assess the real prognostic information of miRNAs, in combination with conventional clinicopathological factors, as predictors of biochemical recurrence.

  17. Tissue-Based MicroRNAs as Predictors of Biochemical Recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy: What Can We Learn from Past Studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongwei Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing understanding of the molecular mechanism of the microRNAs (miRNAs in prostate cancer (PCa, the predictive potential of miRNAs has received more attention by clinicians and laboratory scientists. Compared with the traditional prognostic tools based on clinicopathological variables, including the prostate-specific antigen, miRNAs may be helpful novel molecular biomarkers of biochemical recurrence for a more accurate risk stratification of PCa patients after radical prostatectomy and may contribute to personalized treatment. Tissue samples from prostatectomy specimens are easily available for miRNA isolation. Numerous studies from different countries have investigated the role of tissue-miRNAs as independent predictors of disease recurrence, either alone or in combination with other clinicopathological factors. For this purpose, a PubMed search was performed for articles published between 2008 and 2017. We compiled a profile of dysregulated miRNAs as potential predictors of biochemical recurrence and discussed their current clinical relevance. Because of differences in analytics, insufficient power and the heterogeneity of studies, and different statistical evaluation methods, limited consistency in results was obvious. Prospective multi-institutional studies with larger sample sizes, harmonized analytics, well-structured external validations, and reasonable study designs are necessary to assess the real prognostic information of miRNAs, in combination with conventional clinicopathological factors, as predictors of biochemical recurrence.

  18. Improved Prognosis of Patients With Primary Biliary Cirrhosis That Have a Biochemical Response to Ursodeoxycholic Acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Edith M. M.; Hansen, Bettina E.; de Vries, Richard A.; den Ouden-Muller, Jannie W.; Van Ditzhuijsen, Theo J. M.; Haagsma, Els B.; Houben, Martin H. M. G.; Witteman, Ben J. M.; van Erpecum, Karel J.; van Buuren, Henk R.

    Background & Aims: Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) improves laboratory liver test results in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Few studies have assessed the prognostic significance of biochemical data collected following UDCA treatment. We performed a prospective multicenter study of

  19. Biochemical and Genetical Responses of Phoenix dactylifera L. to Cadmium Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qurainy, Fahad; Alshameri, Aref

    2017-01-01

    The cadmium (Cd), a heavy metal, causes toxicity, which leads to hampering the growth and development of the plant. The molecular and biochemical approaches were used for the investigation of antioxidant system response and genotoxicity in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cv. Sagai in pot experiment having Cd. The root length was more affected than the shoot length as more accumulation of Cd occurs in roots. Fresh weights of root and shoot were reduced significantly in treated plants as compared to the control. The proline content was increased at low concentration of Cd (300 µM-CdCl2) than the medium and high concentrations (600 and 900 µM-CdCl2), respectively. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content was increased at 600 and 900 µM-CdCl2 compared to the plants treated at 300 µM-CdCl2 and controls. Antioxidant enzymatic assay was performed under Cd stress and compared with control plants. The catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were found to be high in plants treated with CdCl2 at 300 µM compared to at 600 and 900 µM-CdCl2, respectively. The genotoxicity of Cd was assessed using the inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker where all treated and control plants were clustered into three main groups based on genetic similarity. P. dactylifera plants were found to be more divergent at high Cd stress as compared to control and plants treated at low concentration of Cd. PMID:29201916

  20. Biochemical and Genetical Responses of Phoenix dactylifera L. to Cadmium Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Al-Qurainy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cadmium (Cd, a heavy metal, causes toxicity, which leads to hampering the growth and development of the plant. The molecular and biochemical approaches were used for the investigation of antioxidant system response and genotoxicity in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. cv. Sagai in pot experiment having Cd. The root length was more affected than the shoot length as more accumulation of Cd occurs in roots. Fresh weights of root and shoot were reduced significantly in treated plants as compared to the control. The proline content was increased at low concentration of Cd (300 µM-CdCl2 than the medium and high concentrations (600 and 900 µM-CdCl2, respectively. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS content was increased at 600 and 900 µM-CdCl2 compared to the plants treated at 300 µM-CdCl2 and controls. Antioxidant enzymatic assay was performed under Cd stress and compared with control plants. The catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities were found to be high in plants treated with CdCl2 at 300 µM compared to at 600 and 900 µM-CdCl2, respectively. The genotoxicity of Cd was assessed using the inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR marker where all treated and control plants were clustered into three main groups based on genetic similarity. P. dactylifera plants were found to be more divergent at high Cd stress as compared to control and plants treated at low concentration of Cd.

  1. Improving the dynamic response of a mediator-less microbial fuel cell as a biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyunsoo; Chang, In Seop; Kang, Kui Hyun; Jang, Jae Kyung; Kim, Byung Hong

    2004-11-01

    The dynamic behavior of a mediator-less, microbial fuel cell (MFC) was studied as a continuous biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) sensor. The response time and the sensitivity were analyzed through the step-change testing of the fuel concentration. The MFC of 25 ml had the shortest response time of 36 +/- 2 min at the fuel-feeding rate of 0.53 ml min(-1) and the resistance of 10 ohms. A smaller MFC of 5 ml had a response time of 5 +/- 1 min.

  2. [Development and application of FD-LC-MS/MS proteomics analysis revealing protein expression and biochemical events in tissues and cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichibangase, Tomoko; Imai, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    It is routine to search for and recognized genetic defects in human disorders to provide knowledge for diagnosis, treatment, and protection against diseases. It is also important to investigate and demonstrate the cause of a disease from the proteomic perspective, because intracellular signaling systems depend on protein dynamics. Demonstrating changes in protein levels enables us to understand biochemical events during the initiation and progression of a disease. To understand changes in protein levels in tissues and cells, we have developed a novel proteomics approach, FD-LC-MS/ MS. This consists of fluorogenic derivatization (FD), HPLC separation and detection/quantification of proteins in a biological sample, followed by the isolation and tryptic digestion of target proteins, and then their identification using HPLC and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) with a database-searching algorithm. The method is highly sensitive (femtomole-level detection) through the use of less noisy fluorogenic rather than fluorescence derivatization, and enables precise and comprehensive relative quantitation of protein levels (between-day relative standard deviation of peak heights of ca. 20%) by combining FD with HPLC separation. In this paper, after a simple review of differential profiling using FD-LC-MS/MS, for example the analysis of stimulated vs. unstimulated samples, we introduce the development and application of the FD-LC-MS/MS method for comprehensive differential proteomics of several tissues, including mouse liver, mouse brain, and breast cancer cell lines, to reveal protein levels and biochemical events in tissues and cells.

  3. Biochemical liver function test parameter levels in relation to treatment response in liver metastatic colorectal patients treated with FOLFOX4 with or without bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denić Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Combined use of bevacizumab and conventional anticancer drugs leads to a significant improvement of treatment response in patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma (CRC. Conventional treatment protocols exert undesired effects on the liver tissue. Hepatotoxic effects are manifested as a disturbance of liver function test parameters. The relation between clinical outcome and disorder of biochemical parameters has not been completely evaluated. Objective. The objective of our study was to examine whether clinical outcome in patients with liver metastatic CRC correlates with the level of liver function test parameters. Methods. The study included 96 patients with untreated liver metastatic CRC who received FOLFOX4 protocol with or without bevacizumab. Biochemical liver parameters were performed before and after the treatment completion. Treatment response was evaluated as disease regression, stable disease, and disease progression. The patients were divided into three groups according to the accomplished treatment response. Results. In the group of patients with disease regression the post-treatment levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and bilirubin were statistically significantly increased. In contrast to this, gamma-glutamyltransferase and protein post-treatment values were significantly lower in relation to initial values. In patients with stable disease, difference was found only in the level of proteins being lower after the treatment. In patients with disease progression, values of aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin were significantly increased after completed treatment. Conclusion. Treatment responses are not completely associated with the level of liver function test parameters. The only parameter which correlated with treatment response is gamma-glutamyltransferase. Its decrease is accompanied with disease regression.

  4. Spatial variability of biochemical responses in resident fish after the M/V Hebei Spirit Oil Spill (Taean, Korea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jee-Hyun; Chae, Young Sun; Kim, Ha Na; Kim, Moonkoo; Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; Han, Gi Myung; An, Joon Geon; Kim, Eunsic; Shim, Won Joon

    2012-09-01

    This study describes the spatial variation and the duration of the impacts from the Hebei Spirit oil spill using specific biochemical indices in resident benthic fish. Enzymatic activities and biliary PAHs metabolites were higher at the site closer to the spill area in four months after spill incident. Regarding our results of detoxification response, markers of Phase I followed a similar trend in accordance with levels of biliary metabolites, while markers of phase II and GST appeared relatively unchanged.

  5. Physiological and Biochemical Responses in Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) Fed Radiation Processed Aflatoxin-Contaminated Diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Niely, H.F.G.; Abdalla, E.A.; Abd El-Azeem, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) contamination of foods and live-stock feeds is an ongoing problem. In this research, the amelioration of aflatoxicosis in Japanese quails was examined by the radiation processing of their contaminated-diets, as a physical detoxifying method. Diets contaminated with two different levels of AFB 1 (2 or 5 mg kg -1 diet) were subjected to 10, 20, or 30 kGy and fed to growing Japanese quails for 5 weeks. The physiological and biochemical responses were evaluated for irradiation ability to reduce the deleterious effects of 2 and 5 mg AFB 1 kg -1 diet. A total of 270 seven-day-old Japanese quail chicks were assigned to 2 factorial arrangements of nine treatments (level of toxin and radiation dose) each consisted of three replicates with 10 quails per pen. The significant adverse effect of AFB 1 on the food consumption, body-weight gain, food conversion ratio, mortality rate and internal organ weights, from the first week onwards, were determined. Radiation processing reduced concentration of AFB 1 in all experimental diets and significantly reduced the deleterious effects of AFB 1 on food consumption, body-weight gain, food conversion ratio, and the relative weights of most observed organs, as a function of radiation dose. Muscles, liver, kidneys and heart tissues were analyzed for aflatoxin (AF) residues. The residual level of AFB 1 was significantly higher in liver than in kidneys, muscles or heart. The level in the observed organs and the muscles was lower in those received irradiated diet at high 30 kGy. Plasma samples were tested for glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urea and creatinine. They were significantly increased in AF treated groups in comparison with those received AF-containing diet and irradiated up to 30 kGy. Birds ate contaminated diet with both level of toxin were suffered from the lower level of total proteins, albumin, globulin, phosphorus and

  6. Biochemical Assessment of Stress in Cardiac Tissue in Response to Weightless Space Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Laurence L.; Meszaros, J. Gary; Lio, Francisco M.

    1997-01-01

    The absence of unit gravity may cause physiological changes in the cardiovascular system. For instance, in the absence of Earth's gravity, venous return to the heart may increase due, in pan, to decreased pooling of the blood in the extremities. We hypothesize that this would produce an increase in the heart's work load ultimately resulting in hypertrophy.

  7. Myocardial response to a triathlon in male athletes evaluated by Doppler tissue imaging and biochemical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leetmaa, T H; Dam, A; Glintborg, D

    2008-01-01

    echocardiography, no significant differences were found in regional or global systolic parameters. Early diastolic peak flow velocity (9+/-2, P = 0.04) and E/A ratio (2+/-1, P = 0.004) were increased pre-race and decreased significantly toward normal values. In one athlete, cTnT levels increased significantly......-competition. CTnT significantly increased immediately, but decreased to within normal limits 12-24 h post-competition. Pro-BNP was significantly increased immediately post-race (27+/-21 vs 7+/-2 pmol/L pre-race, P vs pre-race). During...

  8. Atrazine-Mediated Oxidative Stress Responses and Lipid Peroxidation in the Tissues of Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi David Owolabi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fish have been at high risk of atrazine toxicity. Comparative atrazine toxicity on the tissues of Clarias gariepinus is scanty. Therefore, acute and chronic effects of atrazine on some biochemical parameters in Clarias gariepinus were investigated in this study. Methods: Atrazine toxicity was determined by assessing the responses of glucose, protein, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, acetylcholinestarase (AChE and malondialdehyde (MDA in blood, gill and liver of fish exposed to both acute (0.00, 28.00, 30.00, 32.00 and 34.00 µg/l and chronic (0.00, 7.00, 7.50, 8.00 and 8.50 µg/l concentrations for 96 h and 28 d, respectively. Results: In acute exposure, glucose and MDA levels showed significant (P<0.05 variations in all tissues. Protein and LDH decreased in all tissues except the latter slightly increased at 32.00µg/l in blood and liver compared to control. ALT and AChE were induced in blood but inhibited in gill and liver. SOD significantly decreased in blood but increased in gill and liver. AST was activated in blood and liver but reduced in gill. In chronic exposure, glucose, protein, SOD and AChE were inhibited in all tissues, while MDA level was induced. ALT, AST, and LDH activities were induced in blood but inhibited in gill and liver except 22.90% induction noted in liver at 8.00 µg/l atrazine. Conclusion: Exposure to varying concentrations of atrazine induced enzymatic/metabolic alterations in C. gariepinus. These alterations can be used as biomarkers of atrazine toxicity in fish.

  9. Cellular Responses and Tissue Depots for Nanoformulated Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Martinez-Skinner

    Full Text Available Long-acting nanoformulated antiretroviral therapy (nanoART induces a range of innate immune migratory, phagocytic and secretory cell functions that perpetuate drug depots. While recycling endosomes serve as the macrophage subcellular depots, little is known of the dynamics of nanoART-cell interactions. To this end, we assessed temporal leukocyte responses, drug uptake and distribution following both intraperitoneal and intramuscular injection of nanoformulated atazanavir (nanoATV. Local inflammatory responses heralded drug distribution to peritoneal cell populations, regional lymph nodes, spleen and liver. This proceeded for three days in male Balb/c mice. NanoATV-induced changes in myeloid populations were assessed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS with CD45, CD3, CD11b, F4/80, and GR-1 antibodies. The localization of nanoATV within leukocyte cell subsets was determined by confocal microscopy. Combined FACS and ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry assays determined nanoATV carriages by cell-based vehicles. A robust granulocyte, but not peritoneal macrophage nanoATV response paralleled zymosan A treatment. ATV levels were highest at sites of injection in peritoneal or muscle macrophages, dependent on the injection site. The spleen and liver served as nanoATV tissue depots while drug levels in lymph nodes were higher than those recorded in plasma. Dual polymer and cell labeling demonstrated a nearly exclusive drug reservoir in macrophages within the liver and spleen. Overall, nanoART induces innate immune responses coincident with rapid tissue macrophage distribution. Taken together, these works provide avenues for therapeutic development designed towards chemical eradication of human immunodeficiency viral infection.

  10. Rapid Weight Loss Elicits Harmful Biochemical and Hormonal Responses in Mixed Martial Arts Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coswig, Victor Silveira; Fukuda, David Hideyoshi; Del Vecchio, Fabrício Boscolo

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare biochemical and hormonal responses between mixed martial arts (MMA) competitors with minimal prefight weight loss and those undergoing rapid weight loss (RWL). Blood samples were taken from 17 MMA athletes (Mean± SD; age: 27.4 ±5.3yr; body mass: 76.2 ± 12.4kg; height: 1.71 ± 0.05m and training experience: 39.4 ± 25 months) before and after each match, according to the official events rules. The no rapid weight loss (NWL, n = 12) group weighed in on the day of the event (~30 min prior fight) and athletes declared not having used RWL strategies, while the RWL group (n = 5) weighed in 24 hr before the event and the athletes claimed to have lost 7.4 ± 1.1kg, approximately 10% of their body mass in the week preceding the event. Results showed significant (p < .05) increases following fights, regardless of group, in lactate, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine, and cortisol for all athletes. With regard to group differences, NWL had significantly (p < .05) greater creatinine levels (Mean± SD; pre to post) (NWL= 101.6 ± 15-142.3 ± 22.9μmol/L and RWL= 68.9 ± 10.6-79.5 ± 15.9μmol/L), while RWL had higher LDH (median [interquartile range]; pre to post) (NWL= 211.5[183-236] to 231[203-258]U/L and RWL= 390[370.5-443.5] to 488[463.5-540.5]U/L) and AST (NWL= 30[22-37] to 32[22-41]U/L and 39[32.5-76.5] to 72[38.5-112.5] U/L) values (NWL versus RWL, p < .05). Post hoc analysis showed that AST significantly increased in only the RWL group, while creatinine increased in only the NWL group. The practice of rapid weight loss showed a negative impact on energy availability and increased both muscle damage markers and catabolic expression in MMA fighters.

  11. Response And Recovery Of Sulfate-Reducing Biochemical Reactors From Aerobic Stress Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbially-mediated treatment of mining-influenced water (MIW) through the implementation of sulfate-reducing biochemical reactors (BCRs) is an attractive option for passive, in situ remediation with low operating costs and reduced maintenance requirements. However, BCRs can be...

  12. Response And Recovery Of Sulfate-Reducing Biochemical Reactors From Aerobic Stress Events (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbially-mediated treatment of mining-influenced water (MIW) through the implementation of sulfate-reducing biochemical reactors (BCR) is an attractive option for passive, in situ remediation with low operating costs and reduced maintenance requirements. However, BCRs can be ...

  13. Biomonitoring of aquatic pollution with feral eel (Anguilla anguilla). II. Biomarkers: pollution-induced biochemical responses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Oost, R.; Goksøyr, A.; Celander, M.; Heida, H.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.

    1996-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to select a set of relevant biomarkers in feral eel for the biological assessment of inland water pollution. A suite of biochemical parameters in eel (hepatic biotransformation enzymes and cofactors, antioxidant enzymes, PAH metabolites, DNA adducts, serum

  14. Tissue engineering of electrically responsive tissues using polyaniline based polymers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Taimoor H; Rai, Ranjana; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2014-11-01

    Conducting polymers have found numerous applications as biomaterial components serving to effectively deliver electrical signals from an external source to the seeded cells. Several cell types including cardiomyocytes, neurons, and osteoblasts respond to electrical signals by improving their functional outcomes. Although a wide variety of conducting polymers are available, polyaniline (PANI) has emerged as a popular choice due to its attractive properties such as ease of synthesis, tunable conductivity, environmental stability, and biocompatibility. PANI in its pure form has exhibited biocompatibility both in vitro and in vivo, and has been combined with a host of biodegradable polymers to form composites having a range of mechanical, electrical, and surface properties. Moreover, recent studies in literature report on the functionalization of polyaniline oligomers with end segments that make it biodegradable and improve its biocompatibility, two properties which make these materials highly desirable for applications in tissue engineering. This review will discuss the features and properties of PANI based composites that make them effective biomaterials, and it provides a comprehensive summary of studies where the use of PANI as a biomaterial component has enhanced cellular function and behavior. We also discuss recent studies utilizing functionalized PANI oligomers, and conclude that electroactive PANI and its derivatives show great promise in eliciting favorable responses from various cell lines that respond to electrical stimuli, and are therefore effective biomaterials for the engineering of electrically responsive biological tissues and organs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Salvage Radiation Therapy Dose Response for Biochemical Failure of Prostate Cancer After Prostatectomy—A Multi-Institutional Observational Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisansky, Thomas M., E-mail: pisansky.thomas@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Agrawal, Shree [Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Hamstra, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Koontz, Bridget F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Liauw, Stanley L. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Efstathiou, Jason A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Feng, Felix Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Abramowitz, Matthew C.; Pollack, Alan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami, Miami, Florida (United States); Anscher, Mitchell S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Moghanaki, Drew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Hunter Holmes McGuire Veterans Administration Medical Center, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Den, Robert B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Stephans, Kevin L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Zietman, Anthony L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Lee, W. Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kattan, Michael W. [Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); and others

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: To determine whether a dose-response relationship exists for salvage radiation therapy (RT) of biochemical failure after prostatectomy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Individual data from 1108 patients who underwent salvage RT at 10 academic centers were pooled. The cohort was enriched for selection criteria more likely associated with tumor recurrence in the prostate bed (margin positive and pre-RT prostate-specific antigen [PSA] level of ≤2.0 ng/mL) and without the confounding of planned androgen suppression. The cumulative incidence of biochemical failure and distant metastasis over time was computed, and competing risks hazard regression models were used to investigate the association between potential predictors and these outcomes. The association of radiation dose with outcomes was the primary focus. Results: With a 65.2-month follow-up duration, the 5- and 10-year estimates of freedom from post-RT biochemical failure (PSA level >0.2 ng/mL and rising) was 63.5% and 49.8%, respectively, and the cumulative incidence of distant metastasis was 12.4% by 10 years. A Gleason score of ≥7, higher pre-RT PSA level, extraprostatic tumor extension, and seminal vesicle invasion were associated with worse biochemical failure and distant metastasis outcomes. A salvage radiation dose of ≥66.0 Gy was associated with a reduced cumulative incidence of biochemical failure, but not of distant metastasis. Conclusions: The use of salvage radiation doses of ≥66.0 Gy are supported by evidence presented in the present multicenter pooled analysis of individual patient data. The observational reporting method, limited sample size, few distant metastasis events, modest follow-up duration, and elective use of salvage therapy might have diminished the opportunity to identify an association between the radiation dose and this endpoint.

  16. Repeatedly Heading a Soccer Ball Does Not Increase Serum Levels of S-100B, a Biochemical Marker of Brain Tissue Damage: an Experimental Study

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    Peter Sojka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to analyse whether the controlled heading of soccer balls elicits increased serum concentrations of a biochemical marker of brain tissue damage S-100B.Methods: Nineteen male soccer players were randomly divided into two groups, A and B. Group A headed a soccer ball falling from 18 m five times, while group B served as controls (no heading. Blood samples were taken before and 0.5 h, 2 h and 4 h after the heading for analysis of S-100B.Results: No statistically significant (p > 0.05 increases in serum concentrations of S-100B were encountered in group A at 0.5 h (0.109 ± 0.024 μg/L, 2 h (0.098 ± 0.026 μg/L, and 4 h (0.113 ± 0.035 μg/L when the blood samples obtained before and after the heading were compared (0.157 ± 0.134 μg/L. No statistically significant difference was found when the serum concentrations of S-100B were compared between groups A and B either before or after heading.Conclusions: Heading a soccer ball dropped from a height of 18 m five times was not found to cause an increase in serum concentrations of S-100B, indicating that the impact was not sufficient to cause biochemically discernible damage of brain tissue.

  17. Physiological and biochemical responses of small fish exposed to Athabasca oil sands sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetrault, G.R.; Environment Canada, Burlington, ON; McMaster, M.E.; Dixon, D.G.; Parrott, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of naturally occurring oil sands related compounds on the reproductive function and hepatic responses of fish. Wild fish, both exposed and unexposed to the compounds in question, were collected along with sediments for laboratory testing. The study showed that in vitro gonadal incubation levels of steroid production were lower at the tributary sites within the oil sands deposits. One indicator of exposure to oil sands related compounds (hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity) was shown to be 5 times higher at the same sites. In addition, slimy sculpin were exposed to sediment samples from the Steepbank River site for 4 to 8 days to evaluate the absorption of the indicator. The indicator in exposed fish was found to be comparable to that measured in fish native to the oil sands area. The study was not capable of predicting an altered ability of gonadal tissue of exposed fish to produce steroid hormones in vitro. It was concluded that future development could compromise the reproductive health of fish in the area

  18. Biochemical responses of earthworm (Eisenia foetida) to the pesticides chlorpyrifos and fenvalerate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-hua; Zhu, Lu-sheng; Liu, Wei; Wang, Jun; Xie, Hui

    2012-04-01

    The effects of chlorpyrifos and fenvalerate on the activity of the cellulase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) of the earthworm (Eisenia foetida) were studied. Earthworms were exposed to chlorpyrifos and fenvalerate at a final concentration of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg dry soil, respectively. Tissues from each treatment were collected on days 1, 3, 5, and 7. Compared to the controls, the cellulase activity of E. foetida was inhibited by treatments with chlorpyrifos and fenvalerate. The SOD activity of earthworms exposed to chlorpyrifos was significantly inhibited compared to the control after 1 day of incubation, whereas SOD activity increased on day 3. As exposure to the pesticide progressed, the SOD activity recovered from the stimulative effect and reached the level of the control. The SOD activity of E. foetida in the presence of fenvalerate stress was significantly inhibited at the initial stage of exposure and increased after day 3, whereas the SOD activity continued to decrease in response to increasing exposure to fenvalerate. The CAT activity of E. foetida during pesticide stress first increased and then decreased, after day 5, compared to the controls. Alterations of the enzyme activity under environmental stresses are suggested as indicators of biotic and abiotic stress.

  19. Unexpected differences between mazindol and its homologs on biochemical and behavioral responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkila, R E; Cabbat, F S; Manzino, L; Babington, R G; Houlihan, W J

    1981-06-01

    Mazindol and two homologs of mazindol were tested for their effects as uptake inhibitors in rat tissue slices for [3H]dopamine in the neostriatum, for [3H]norepinephrine in occipital cortex and for [3H]serotonin in whole brain. All three drugs were potent inhibitors of [3H]dopamine uptake (ED50 values between 57 and 280 nM), [3H]norepinephrine uptake (ED50 values less than 19 nM) and were somewhat weaker against [3H]serotonin uptake (ED50 values between 550 and 4100 nM). All three drugs were in contrast very weak as releasing agents for previously accumulated 3H-biogenic amines. Mazindol injection resulted in a large increase in locomotor activity in mice, but its two homologs were without effect. Mazindol was able to counteract amphetamine-induced increases in activity in reserpinized mice, but its homologs were inactive. Mazindol also caused a vigorous ipsilateral rotation in rats with an unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the nigrostriatal system, but again the homologs had no such effect. However, all three drugs were potent inhibitors of prolactin secretion in rats (ID50 values 1-2 mg/kg orally). Correlations between the capacities of the drugs to inhibit 3H-biogenic amine uptake and the various in vivo responses are made.

  20. Insights into thermal stress in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix): dynamics of immunoendocrine and biochemical responses during and after chronic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazar, Franco Nicolas; Videla, Emiliano Ariel; Fernandez, Maria Emilia; Labaque, Maria Carla; Marin, Raul Hector

    2018-05-01

    Avian require comfortable temperatures for optimal development and heat stress is a high concern in warm weather countries. We aimed to assess the dynamics of immunoendocrine and biochemical variables responses of birds exposed to a heat stressor applied during daylight hours, during the chronic stress and the recovery periods. We hypothesize that variables involved in the birds response will be differentially and gradually modified during those periods. Female quail (n = 210) were housed in six rearing boxes. At 29 days of age, the temperature in three boxes was increased from 24 to 34 °C during the light period throughout the nine days (Stress Treatment). The other three boxes remained at 24 °C and were used as controls. The subsequent 12 days were considered as recovery period. Different sets of 12 birds/treatment were blood-sampled at 29 (basal), 32, 35, 38 (stress), 41, 44, 47, and 50 (recovery) days of age, respectively. Immunoendocrine (corticosterone, lymphoproliferation, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio (H/L), and antibody response) and biochemical (glucose, total proteins, globulins, and albumin) variables were assessed. During stress, progressive corticosterone and H/L increments, and antibody titers and lymphoproliferation decreases were detected. No clear pattern of changes was found in biochemical variables. During recovery, while corticosterone and lymphoproliferation had recovered three days after the stressor ended, H/L and antibody responses required respectively nine and 12 days to recover to their basal levels, respectively. Findings suggest that immunity is already threatened when heat stress is sustained for three or more days. However, the system appears resilient, needing six to 12 days to recover to their basal responses.

  1. Biochemical and physiological modifications in tissues of Sardina pilchardus: spatial and temporal patterns as a baseline for biomonitoring studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Silva Nunes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sardina pilchardus is a marine species common in the North Atlantic Ocean, and is subjected to diffuse anthropogenic chemical contamination and seasonal fluctuations in biotic and abiotic parameters that may alter its physiology and condition. Biological material is easily available through commercial fisheries, which could facilitate its use as a bioindicator species. The aim of the present work was to address its potential inclusion in biomonitoring studies, considering a combinatory approach through the use of enzymatic biomarkers and somatic indices, by assessing spatial and temporal patterns in a metapopulation along the west coast of Portugal. Our results showed significant variability of the biochemical and physiological profile of the fish, mainly concordant between sampling sites. Large differences for most markers were found across periods of the year, showing the importance of seasonality, which was mostly related to the reproductive cycle. Hence, environmental scientists should acknowledge seasonality as a strong driving force for physiological adaptations, influencing biochemical markers that are normally used to identify effects of chemical contamination. The here-obtained set of data suggests that S. pilchardus may be successfully included in oceanic biomonitoring studies, when one considers that the contribution of seasonal factors may exceed the influence of eventual anthropogenic contamination.

  2. Evaluation of physiological and biochemical responses in different seasons in Surti buffaloes

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    Sandhya S. Chaudhary

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of hot dry, hot humid and comfortable season on physiological, hematological, biochemical, and oxidative stress parameters in Surti buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Ten lactating Surti buffaloes of similar physiological status were selected. Based on the temperature-humidity index (THI, their natural exposure to the environment was categorized as hot dry (THI1, hot humid (THI2 and moderate winter/comfort season (THI3. Blood/serum samples were collected and analyzed for physiological, hematological, biochemical, and oxidative stress parameters. The results were analyzed using standard statistical methods. Results: With increase in THI, significant rise in physiological parameters such as respiration rate (RR, hematological parameters such as red blood cell (RBC, hematocrit, hemoglobin (Hb and mean cell Hb concentration (MCHC, biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT, Na, K, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, Mn, Cu and Zn, hormones such as cortisol and oxidative stress parameters such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD, lipid peroxide (LPO and total antioxidant status (TAS and significant decline in glucose, cholesterol and triiodothyronine (T3 was observed. Conclusion: It was concluded that THI is a sensitive indicator of heat stress and is impacted by ambient temperature more than the relative humidity in buffaloes. Higher THI is associated with significantly increased RR, total RBC count, Hb, hematocrit, MCHC, ALT, urea, sodium, creatinine, triiodothyronine, SOD, GPx, LPO and TAS and with significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol and triiodothyronine (T3.

  3. Sub-lethal toxicity of chlorpyrifos on Common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758: Biochemical response

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    Mahdi Banaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate pesticide, is widely used to control pests in agriculture farms and orchards of fruit trees. In this study, the fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos which were determined based on numerical value of 96 h LC50. Blood was sampled after 10, 20 and 30 days and biochemical parameters including glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and acetylcholinsetrase (AChE activities were measured. Behavioral changes in the fish were also recorded during the experiment. Unbalanced swimming, swimming in the surface water and hyperglycemia, increased blood triglyceride, and increased levels of AST, LDH and CK activities as well as decreased levels of AChE activity were important changes that were observed in the specimens exposed to chlorpyrifos during experimental periods. The most important alterations in the blood biochemical parameters were measured in the specimens exposed to 40 µg/L chlorpyrifos on the 20th and 30th day of the trial. In conclusion, results of the present study indicated that exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos as low as 40 µg/L may cause biochemical and behavioral changes in Cyprinus carpio.

  4. Tropine forming tropinone reductase gene from Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha: biochemical characteristics of the recombinant enzyme and novel physiological overtones of tissue-wide gene expression patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Kushwaha

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera is one of the most reputed medicinal plants of Indian systems of medicine synthesizing diverse types of secondary metabolites such as withanolides, alkaloids, withanamides etc. Present study comprises cloning and E. coli over-expression of a tropinone reductase gene (WsTR-I from W. somnifera, and elucidation of biochemical characteristics and physiological role of tropinone reductase enzyme in tropane alkaloid biosynthesis in aerial tissues of the plant. The recombinant enzyme was demonstrated to catalyze NADPH-dependent tropinone to tropine conversion step in tropane metabolism, through TLC, GC and GC-MS-MS analyses of the reaction product. The functionally active homodimeric ~60 kDa enzyme catalyzed the reaction in reversible manner at optimum pH 6.7. Catalytic kinetics of the enzyme favoured its forward reaction (tropine formation. Comparative 3-D models of landscape of the enzyme active site contours and tropinone binding site were also developed. Tissue-wide and ontogenic stage-wise assessment of WsTR-I transcript levels revealed constitutive expression of the gene with relatively lower abundance in berries and young leaves. The tissue profiles of WsTR-I expression matched those of tropine levels. The data suggest that, in W. somnifera, aerial tissues as well possess tropane alkaloid biosynthetic competence. In vivo feeding of U-[(14C]-sucrose to orphan shoot (twigs and [(14C]-chasing revealed substantial radiolabel incorporation in tropinone and tropine, confirming the de novo synthesizing ability of the aerial tissues. This inherent independent ability heralds a conceptual novelty in the backdrop of classical view that these tissues acquire the alkaloids through transportation from roots rather than synthesis. The TR-I gene expression was found to be up-regulated on exposure to signal molecules (methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid and on mechanical injury. The enzyme's catalytic and structural properties as well as gene

  5. Tropine Forming Tropinone Reductase Gene from Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha): Biochemical Characteristics of the Recombinant Enzyme and Novel Physiological Overtones of Tissue-Wide Gene Expression Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Amit Kumar; Sangwan, Neelam Singh; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Negi, Arvind Singh; Misra, Laxminarain; Sangwan, Rajender Singh

    2013-01-01

    Withania somnifera is one of the most reputed medicinal plants of Indian systems of medicine synthesizing diverse types of secondary metabolites such as withanolides, alkaloids, withanamides etc. Present study comprises cloning and E. coli over-expression of a tropinone reductase gene (WsTR-I) from W. somnifera, and elucidation of biochemical characteristics and physiological role of tropinone reductase enzyme in tropane alkaloid biosynthesis in aerial tissues of the plant. The recombinant enzyme was demonstrated to catalyze NADPH-dependent tropinone to tropine conversion step in tropane metabolism, through TLC, GC and GC-MS-MS analyses of the reaction product. The functionally active homodimeric ∼60 kDa enzyme catalyzed the reaction in reversible manner at optimum pH 6.7. Catalytic kinetics of the enzyme favoured its forward reaction (tropine formation). Comparative 3-D models of landscape of the enzyme active site contours and tropinone binding site were also developed. Tissue-wide and ontogenic stage-wise assessment of WsTR-I transcript levels revealed constitutive expression of the gene with relatively lower abundance in berries and young leaves. The tissue profiles of WsTR-I expression matched those of tropine levels. The data suggest that, in W. somnifera, aerial tissues as well possess tropane alkaloid biosynthetic competence. In vivo feeding of U-[14C]-sucrose to orphan shoot (twigs) and [14C]-chasing revealed substantial radiolabel incorporation in tropinone and tropine, confirming the de novo synthesizing ability of the aerial tissues. This inherent independent ability heralds a conceptual novelty in the backdrop of classical view that these tissues acquire the alkaloids through transportation from roots rather than synthesis. The TR-I gene expression was found to be up-regulated on exposure to signal molecules (methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid) and on mechanical injury. The enzyme's catalytic and structural properties as well as gene expression

  6. Germination and Biochemical Responses to Alkalinity Stress in Two Sesame Cultivars

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    Mahdavi Batool

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of different alkaline concentrations (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 mM on germination and biochemical characteristics of the two sesame (Sesamum indicum L. cultivares (Dashtestan and GL-13 which are registered cultivars of Iran were investigated. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with three replications. Results showed that, germination percentage, germination rate, shoot length and dry weight, root length and dry weight and K+ content decreased, whereas, malondialdehyde (MDA, proline, total soluble sugars and Na+ contents increased with increasing alkalinity stress. GL-13 cultivar had the least root and shoot length, proline and K+ content than Dashtestan.

  7. PACAP is essential for the adaptive thermogenic response of brown adipose tissue to cold exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diané, Abdoulaye; Nikolic, Nikolina; Rudecki, Alexander P; King, Shannon M; Bowie, Drew J; Gray, Sarah L

    2014-09-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a widely distributed neuropeptide that acts as a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, neurotropic factor, neuroprotectant, secretagogue, and neurohormone. Owing to its pleiotropic biological actions, knockout of Pacap (Adcyap1) has been shown to induce several abnormalities in mice such as impaired thermoregulation. However, the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. A previous report has shown that cold-exposed Pacap null mice cannot supply appropriate levels of norepinephrine (NE) to brown adipocytes. Therefore, we hypothesized that exogenous NE would rescue the impaired thermogenic response of Pacap null mice during cold exposure. We compared the adaptive thermogenic capacity of Pacap(-/-) to Pacap(+/+) mice in response to NE when housed at room temperature (24 °C) and after a 3.5-week cold exposure (4 °C). Biochemical parameters, expression of thermogenic genes, and morphological properties of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) were also characterized. Results showed that there was a significant effect of temperature, but no effect of genotype, on the resting metabolic rate in conscious, unrestrained mice. However, the normal cold-induced increase in the basal metabolic rate and NE-induced increase in thermogenesis were severely blunted in cold-exposed Pacap(-/-) mice. These changes were associated with altered substrate utilization, reduced β3-adrenergic receptor (β3-Ar (Adrb3)) and hormone-sensitive lipase (Hsl (Lipe)) gene expression, and increased fibroblast growth factor 2 (Fgf2) gene expression in BAT. Interestingly, Pacap(-/-) mice had depleted WAT depots, associated with upregulated uncoupling protein 1 expression in inguinal WATs. These results suggest that the impairment of adaptive thermogenesis in Pacap null mice cannot be rescued by exogenous NE perhaps in part due to decreased β3-Ar-mediated BAT activation. © 2014 Society for

  8. Cortisol, biochemical, and galvanic skin responses to music stimuli of different preference values by college students in biology and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderArk, S D; Ely, D

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine biochemical and galvanic skin responses to music stimuli. Specifically, 30 university biology and 30 music students' plasma levels of norepinephrine and cortisol and their galvanic skin responses were measured before and after listening to two different musical selections, one of which was preferred (liked) by the music students and not preferred (disliked) by the biology students. The music-listening sessions and the controlled silent sessions were done in an anechoic chamber. 30 biology majors and 30 music majors were in the experimental groups; 14 biology and 17 music majors comprised the control group. Analysis indicated that the cortisol levels and galvanic skin responses were significantly higher for the music majors than the biology majors. The data indicate that music majors listen more critically and analytically to music than biology majors, and cortisol levels are associated with this as increases in music majors and decreases in biology majors after the music.

  9. RESPUESTAS BIOQUÍMICAS EN LA LOMBRIZ DE TIERRA Eisenia andrei EXPUESTA A CADMIO | BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSES IN THE EARTHWORM Eisenia andrei EXPOSED TO CADMIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanny Hernández

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The cadmium (Cd bioaccumulation on metallothioneins (MT, total proteins (TP, sulfhydryl groups (-SH and tiobarbituric acid reaction substances (TBARS levels were determined in medium-anterior (MA and medium-posterior (MP corporal regions of the earthworm Eisenia andrei. The organisms were exposed to concentrations of 0; 2.50 and 10.30 mg Cd/kg of substrate, during 7, 15 and 21 days. Cd levels increased in the exposed organisms proportionally to the concentrations and duration of exposure; this metal was mostly accumulated to the MP region. Cd-treatment caused increases in the MT, -SH and TP levels in both corporal regions, with the highest values in MA. TBARS concentrations increased in doses-days relationship, showed the highest levels in MA; this increment is probably associated to the Cd-bioacumulation that can affect the mechanisms of defenses against reactive oxygen species. MT concentrations in exposed organisms suggest their relevance as effective response of molecular defense against Cd toxicity. These corporal biochemical responses associated to Cd-uptake form part of the molecular defense system that avoids interferences on the reproductive tissue (clitellum, allowing to accumulate the highest quantity of Cd in the MP region. Eisenia andrei has a differential capacity along its body to modulate adjustments of molecular responses, which could allow the tolerance and effectiveness of survival in Cd-polluted soils.

  10. Biochemical Responses of Juvenile European Sturgeon, (Huso Huso to A Sub-Lethal Level of Copper and Cadmium in Freshwater and Brackish Water Environments

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    Saeed Zahedi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In Caspian Sea basin, sturgeons spend the larval and juvenile stages in freshwaters of rivers and then, they migrate to brackish waters of the sea where they grow and mature. With regard to the elevation of the metal concentrations in coastal waters and sediments of the Caspian Sea and its adjacent rivers, it is likely that juvenile sturgeon are exposed to sub-lethal levels of metals during seawater entry process. We compared the biochemical responses of juvenile European sturgeon, (Beluga, Huso huso exposed to a sub-lethal level of copper (Cu, 20 μg/L and cadmium (Cd, 300 μg/L in freshwater (FW, 0 ppt and brackish water (BW, 11 ppt for seven days. The results showed that the levels of plasma glucose increased significantly in BW and in all metal exposed groups. Also, plasma cortisol concentrations showed significant increases when juveniles were exposed to BW, Cu(FW/BW and Cd(BW. The activity of liver superoxide dismutase (SOD decreased significantly in BW compared with FW. Moreover, Cu and Cd exposure enhanced the activity of SOD in BW, while SOD did not show any changes in FW. The levels of tissue and plasma proteins as well as plasma triiodothyronine (T3, thyroxine (T4 and liver Catalase (CAT activity remained constant when animals were exposed to Cu/Cd in both FW and BW environments. Our data indicate that exposure of juvenile beluga to BW stimulated the general biochemical responses of stress such as cortisol and glucose, while sub-lethal exposure to Cu and Cd caused oxidative stress in BW environment but not in FW

  11. Effect of Low-Dose Irradiation on Biochemical and Immunological Responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabon, M.H.; Sayed, Z.S.; El-Gawish, M.A.; Mahdy, E.M.E.; Shosha, W.Gh.

    2008-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation (Malondialdehyde), Lactate dehydrogenase, Iron Concentration, IL-6 and IL-1β concentration were determined in Seventy-two male albino rats divided in two main groups. The first one was subdivided into 7 subgroups; control and 6 irradiated subgroups with 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 1 Gy single dose of gamma radiation. The other was subdivided into 4 irradiated subgroups with fractionated dose .-radiation of 0.3, 0.7 and 1 Gy with 0.1 Gy per day and the last subgroup 1 Gy with 0.2 Gy daily. All animals were sacrificed after three days of the last irradiation dose. The results revealed that all biochemical parameters were increased in rats exposed to fractionated more than single doses. In conclusion, the data of this study highlight on the beneficial and stimulatory effect of low ionizing radiation doses (≥ 1Gy) whether single or fractionated on some biochemical and immunological parameters. These findings may be fruitful for those who undergo radiotherapy as well as the dose-effect relationship

  12. Psychological wellbeing and biochemical modulation in response to weight loss in obese type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osama, Al-Jiffri; Shehab, Abd El-Kader

    2015-06-01

    Obesity in type 2 diabetes patients is a serious health issue by itself; it is also associated with other health problems including psychiatric illnesses. The psychological effects of dieting and weight loss have been a matter of controversy in the field of obesity management. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of weight loss because of aerobic exercise training and dietary measures on psychological wellbeing and biochemical modulation in obese type 2 diabetes patients. One hundred obese type 2 diabetes patients of both sexes participated in this study, and were included into two equal groups. The first group (A) received aerobic exercise training, three sessions per week for three months combined with dietary measures. The second group (B) received no training intervention for three months. There was a significant decrease in body mass index (BMI), leptin, total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), triglycerides(TG), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance- index (HOMA-IR) , beck depression inventory (BDI ) & profile of mood states(POMS) and increase in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) & Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSES) of group (A) after treatments, but the changes of group (B) were not significant. Moreover, there were significant differences between mean levels of the investigated parameters of group (B) and group (A) at the end of the study. Physical training and dietary measures can be used as methods of choice for psychological wellbeing and biochemical modulation in obese type 2 diabetes patients.

  13. Biochemical Responses of Two Soybean (Glycine max Varieties to Aluminum Stress in Nutrient Solution

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    Nafiseh Davarpanah Moghadam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum toxicity is the most widespread form of metal toxicity to plants in soil acids, initially causing inhibition of root elongation and blocks absorption of water and nutrients. According to this fact that soybean has been widely used in industry, this study investigated the effects of aluminum toxicity on biochemical factors in two varieties of Williams and Katoul of soybean plant. The study was carried out in a randomized design with aluminium (0, 200, 500, 700 µM treatments and four replications in hydroponic culture. Results of biochemical tests showed that aluminum reduced the content of photosynthetic pigments, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, anthocyanins and reduced sugars in both cultivars of soybean. The proline content decreased with increasing aluminum in var. williams, but at var. katoul increased. It seems that G. max var. katoul suffers less than var. Williams. As regards, proline accumulation under Al stress to be generally higher in G. max var. katoul; hence, these results suggest that var. katoul is more resistant than var. Williams.

  14. Severe experimental folate deficiency in a human subject - a longitudinal study of biochemical and haematological responses as megaloblastic anaemia develops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Paul Henry

    2014-01-01

    The currently accepted theory, that the human liver store of folate is limited to about four months, is based on the findings of Victor Herbert and others of the era before folate fortification of food. A recent model, developed by Lin et al., predicts far greater liver folate storage capacity than reported by Herbert. The conflict between Herbert's and Lin's models needs to be resolved experimentally, however current research is restricted because ethical considerations prevent such risky experimentation on patients or healthy human volunteers. The objective was to provide a detailed record of the biochemical and haematological responses to the development of severe experimental folate deficiency in an initially replete human subject. This 58 year old male severely depleted himself of folate, using a folate-deficient diet, until overt megaloblastic anaemia developed. The biochemical and haematological responses were monitored by routine blood tests. Daily intake of dietary supplements prevented deficiencies of other relevant nutrients. The rate of change of all analytes was significantly slower, and the delay before any change for several analytes was significantly longer, than reported for previous experiments. The time before reporting of abnormal biochemical and haematological results was therefore very significantly longer than reported by Herbert, but was consistent with the recent model of Lin et al. Serum folate and red-cell folate became abnormally low after 219 and 413 days respectively. Macrocytic anaemia was produced after 469 days, and megaloblastic anaemia was confirmed by bone marrow biopsy on day 575. Folate starvation ceased on day 586, and recovery was complete on day 772. The currently accepted four month time scale for development of megaloblastic anaemia from folate deficiency, based on the early work of Herbert and others, is not consistent with the results from this study. The > 300 day liver folate storage time, predicted by the

  15. Biochemical and morpho-anatomical analyses of strawberry vitroplants hyperhydric tissues affected by BA and gelling agents

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    Leticia Mascarenhas Pereira Barbosa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In vitro propagation has become an effective practice for large-scale production of strawberry plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the hyperhydricity and the multiplication capacity of two strawberry varieties (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. 'Dover' and 'Burkley' propagated in vitro. Plants maintained in MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 BA were individualized and transferred to the same medium solidified with Agar (6.5 g L-1 or Phytagel® (2.5 g L-1 and BA at different concentrations (0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0 and 3.0 mg L-1. Biochemical and anatomical analyses were carried out, as well as the analysis of the morphological hyperhydricity characteristics. The analysis of data showed: a the increase in cytokinin concentration increased hyperhydricity frequency in both varieties; b at concentrations up to 2.0 mg L-1 BA, the replacement of Agar by Phytagel® induced a higher formation of hyperhydric shoots; and c the addition of BA induced oxidative stress, which is characterized by increased antioxidant activity and lipid peroxidation, as well as alterations at the cellular level, such as malformation of stomata and epidermal cells. In conclusion, the culture medium containing 0.5 mg L-1 BA solidified with Agar provided lower hyperhydricity percentages in association with higher rates of shoot proliferation in strawberry.

  16. Quantitative whole-body MRI in familial partial lipodystrophy type 2: changes in adipose tissue distribution coincide with biochemical improvement.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McLaughlin, Patrick D

    2012-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: Familial partial lipodystrophy type 2 (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man no. 151660) is a systemic disorder characterized by regional lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy, severe insulin resistance, and early cardiovascular death. At initial presentation, whole-body MRI allows the radiologist to accurately characterize patients with familial partial lipodystrophy and helps differentiate familial partial lipodystrophy from many other subtypes of lipodystophy. We present the findings of serial quantitative MRI analysis in two patients with familial partial lipodystrophy type 2 and outline the objective imaging changes that occur during medical therapy with oral rosiglitazone. CONCLUSION: Cervical adipose volume and visceral adipose area increased by 105% and 60% in the two patients and hepatic fat fraction decreased by 55% during a 21-month period of medical therapy. These changes coincided with a decrease in biochemical indexes of insulin resistance. Whole body quantitative MRI may therefore help to demonstrate the subclinical changes in fat deposition that occur as a result of novel treatment of familial partial lipodystrophy and with continued research may play a role in guiding the choice, duration, and intensity of novel medical therapy.

  17. Physiological and biochemical stress responses in grassland species are influenced by both early-season ozone exposure and interspecific competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scebba, Francesca [Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Canaccini, Francesca [Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Castagna, Antonella [Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Bender, Juergen [Institute of Agroecology, FAL, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Weigel, Hans-Joachim [Institute of Agroecology, FAL, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Ranieri, Annamaria [Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy)]. E-mail: aranieri@agr.unipi.it

    2006-08-15

    The effects of two-year early season ozone exposure on physiological and biochemical stress response were investigated in model plant communities. Achillea millefolium and Veronica chamaedrys target plants were grown in monocultures and in mixed cultures with Poa pratensis (phytometer) and exposed in open-top chambers over two years for five weeks to charcoal-filtered (CF) air plus 25 nl l{sup -1} O{sub 3} (control) and non-filtered (NF) air plus 50 nl l{sup -1} O{sub 3}. Significant O{sub 3} effects were detected in different physiological and biochemical parameters, evidencing interspecific differences in metabolic stress responses and a strong influence of the competition factor. O{sub 3} induced strong oxidative effects in Achillea irrespective to the different growth modality. Veronica showed less O{sub 3}-induced effects in monoculture than when grown in competition with the phytometer. Poa exhibited a different behaviour against O{sub 3} depending on the species in competition, showing an overall higher sensitivity to O{sub 3} when in mixture with Achillea. - The competition between species modulates the ozone effect in a short-term.

  18. Effect of acute exposure to nonylphenol on biochemical, hormonal, and hematological parameters and muscle tissues residues of Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hager Tarek H. Ismail

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study is aimed to evaluate some biochemical, hormonal, hematological, and histopathological changes in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, after acute exposure to nonylphenol (NP. In addition to detection of NP residues in the fish, muscle tissues for human health concern. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 apparently healthy Nile tilapia, O. niloticus, were randomly divided into three equal groups; each containing 30 fish (three replicates. Groups 1 and 2 kept as a control and solvent control (acetone, respectively, and Group 3 exposed to NP at a dose level of 500 μg/L water for 7 successive days. Blood and tissue samples were collected 2 times randomly from each group after 7 days from fish exposure to NP and 10 days from exposure stopping. Results: Fish exposed to NP Group 3 showed anorexia, sluggish movement, erythema of the skin, areas of scales loss, and hemorrhagic ulcers in some areas of body region leading to exposing the viscera. Biochemical results revealed a significant increase in serum total proteins and globulins levels, a highly significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, triglycerides, cholesterol, and creatinine levels, insignificant increase in serum uric acid level, and a highly significant decrease in serum testosterone and estradiol-β17 levels in Group 3 in compare with the control group. Histopathological finding confirms these results. While hematological results of the same group revealed a significant increase in red blood cells count and packed cell volume value, insignificant increase in hemoglobin concentration, leukopenia, lymphopenia, and monocytopenia in compared with the control group. All of these changes appeared after 7 days from fish exposure to NP. Most of these alterations returned toward the normal level after 10 days from stopping exposure to NP. NP residues detected in fish muscle tissues of Group 3 during exposure and after stopping

  19. Effect of acute exposure to nonylphenol on biochemical, hormonal, and hematological parameters and muscle tissues residues of Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Hager Tarek H; Mahboub, Heba Hassan H

    2016-06-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate some biochemical, hormonal, hematological, and histopathological changes in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, after acute exposure to nonylphenol (NP). In addition to detection of NP residues in the fish, muscle tissues for human health concern. A total of 90 apparently healthy Nile tilapia, O. niloticus, were randomly divided into three equal groups; each containing 30 fish (three replicates). Groups 1 and 2 kept as a control and solvent control (acetone), respectively, and Group 3 exposed to NP at a dose level of 500 µg/L water for 7 successive days. Blood and tissue samples were collected 2 times randomly from each group after 7 days from fish exposure to NP and 10 days from exposure stopping. Fish exposed to NP Group 3 showed anorexia, sluggish movement, erythema of the skin, areas of scales loss, and hemorrhagic ulcers in some areas of body region leading to exposing the viscera. Biochemical results revealed a significant increase in serum total proteins and globulins levels, a highly significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, triglycerides, cholesterol, and creatinine levels, insignificant increase in serum uric acid level, and a highly significant decrease in serum testosterone and estradiol-β17 levels in Group 3 in compare with the control group. Histopathological finding confirms these results. While hematological results of the same group revealed a significant increase in red blood cells count and packed cell volume value, insignificant increase in hemoglobin concentration, leukopenia, lymphopenia, and monocytopenia in compared with the control group. All of these changes appeared after 7 days from fish exposure to NP. Most of these alterations returned toward the normal level after 10 days from stopping exposure to NP. NP residues detected in fish muscle tissues of Group 3 during exposure and after stopping exposure to it. It is concluded that NP is a toxic

  20. Behavioural and biochemical stress responses of Palinurus elephas after exposure to boat noise pollution in tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiciotto, Francesco; Vazzana, Mirella; Celi, Monica; Maccarrone, Vincenzo; Ceraulo, Maria; Buffa, Gaspare; Di Stefano, Vincenzo; Mazzola, Salvatore; Buscaino, Giuseppa

    2014-07-15

    This study examined the effects of boat noise on the behavioural and biochemical parameters of the Mediterranean spiny lobster (Palinurus elephas). The experiment was conducted in a tank equipped with a video and audio recording system. 18 experimental trials, assigned to boat noise and control conditions, were performed using lobsters in single and group of 4 specimens. After a 1h habituation period, we audio- and video-recorded the lobsters for 1h. During the experimental phase, the animals assigned to the boat groups were exposed to boat noise pollution (a random sequence of boat noises). Exposure to the noise produced significant variations in locomotor behaviours and haemolymphatic parameters. Our results indicate that the lobsters exposed to boat noises increased significantly their locomotor activities and haemolymphatic bioindicator of stressful conditions such as glucose, total proteins, Hsp70 expression and THC when tested both singly and in groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Association of serial biochemical markers with acute ischemic stroke: the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke recombinant tissue plasminogen activator Stroke Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Edward C; Lindsell, Christopher; Broderick, Joseph; Fagan, Susan C; Tilley, Barbara C; Levine, Steven R

    2006-10-01

    Biochemical markers of acute neuronal injury may aid in the diagnosis and management of acute ischemic stroke. Serum samples from the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator Stroke Study were analyzed for the presence of 4 biochemical markers of neuronal, glial, and endothelial cell injury. These biochemical markers, myelin basic protein (MBP), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), S100beta, and soluble thrombomodulin, were studied for an association with initial stroke severity, infarct volume, and functional outcome. In the original NINDS study, serum samples were drawn from all patients on presentation to the Emergency Department and at approximately 2 and 24 hours after initiation of study therapy. In this analysis, stored serum samples were available for 359 patients; 107 patients had samples for all 3 time points. Serum marker concentrations were measured by ELISA techniques. We examined the relation between serum concentrations of each marker and the degree of baseline neurological deficit, functional outcome, and infarct size on computed tomography at 24 hours and the effect of fibrinolytic therapy. Higher 24-hour peak concentrations of MBP, NSE, and S100beta were associated with higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale baseline scores (r=0.186, P<0.0001; r=0.117, P=0.032; and r=0.263, P<0.0001, respectively). Higher peak concentrations of MBP and S100beta (r=0.209, P<0.0001; r=0.239, P<0.0001) were associated with larger computed tomography lesion volumes. Patients with favorable outcomes had smaller changes in MBP and S100beta (P<0.05) concentrations in the first 24 hours. Soluble thrombomodulin was not associated with any severity or outcome measure. This study corroborates previous work demonstrating correlations of MBP, NSE, and S100beta with clinical and radiographic features in acute stroke. Despite significantly better outcomes in the tissue plasminogen activator-treated group, we

  2. Tissue-specific responses to the LRPPRC founder mutation in French Canadian Leigh Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasarman, Florin; Nishimura, Tamiko; Antonicka, Hana; Weraarpachai, Woranontee; Shoubridge, Eric A

    2015-01-15

    French Canadian Leigh Syndrome (LSFC) is an early-onset, progressive neurodegenerative disorder with a distinct pattern of tissue involvement. Most cases are caused by a founder missense mutation in LRPPRC. LRPPRC forms a ribonucleoprotein complex with SLIRP, another RNA-binding protein, and this stabilizes polyadenylated mitochondrial mRNAs. LSFC fibroblasts have reduced levels of LRPPRC and a specific complex IV assembly defect; however, further depletion of mutant LRPPRC results in a complete failure to assemble a functional oxidative phosphorylation system, suggesting that LRPPRC levels determine the nature of the biochemical phenotype. We tested this hypothesis in cultured muscle cells and tissues from LSFC patients. LRPPRC levels were reduced in LSFC muscle cells, resulting in combined complex I and IV deficiencies. A similar combined deficiency was observed in skeletal muscle. Complex IV was only moderately reduced in LSFC heart, but was almost undetectable in liver. Both of these tissues showed elevated levels of complexes I and III. Despite the marked biochemical differences, the steady-state levels of LRPPRC and mitochondrial mRNAs were extremely low, LRPPRC was largely detergent-insoluble, and SLIRP was undetectable in all LSFC tissues. The level of the LRPPRC/SLIRP complex appeared much reduced in control tissues by the first dimension blue-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) analysis compared with fibroblasts, and even by second dimension analysis it was virtually undetectable in control heart. These results point to tissue-specific pathways for the post-transcriptional handling of mitochondrial mRNAs and suggest that the biochemical defects in LSFC reflect the differential ability of tissues to adapt to the mutation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress and biochemical changes in tissues and blood of catfish (Clarias gariepinus: antioxidant defense and role of alpha-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Kamal A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pyrethroid class of insecticides, including deltamethrin, is being used as substitutes for organochlorines and organophosphates in pest-control programs because of their low environmental persistence and toxicity. This study was aimed to investigate the impact of commonly used pesticides (deltamethrin on the blood and tissue oxidative stress level in catfish (Clarias gariepinus; in addition to the protective effect of α-tocopherol on deltamethrin induced oxidative stress. Catfish were divided into three groups, 1st control group include 20 fish divided into two tanks each one contain 10 fish, 2nd deltamethrin group, where Fish exposed to deltamethrin in a concentration (0.75 μg/l and 3rd Vitamin E group, Fish exposed to deltamethrin and vitamin E at a dose of 12 μg/l for successive 4 days. Serum, liver, kidney and Gills were collected for biochemical assays. Tissue oxidative stress biomarkers malondialdhyde (MDA and catalase activity in liver, kidney and gills tissues, serum liver enzymes (ALT and AST, serum albumin, total protein, urea and creatinine were analysed. Results Our results showed that 48 h. exposure to 0.75 μg/l deltamethrin significantly (p  Conclusions It could be concluded that deltamethrin is highly toxic to catfish even in very low concentration (0.75 μg/l. Moreover the effect of deltamethrin was pronounced in the liver of catfish in comparison with kidneys and gills. Moreover fish antioxidants and oxidative stress could be used as biomarkers for aquatic pollution, thus helping in the diagnosis of pollution. Adminstration of 12 μg/l α-tocopherol restored the quantified tissue and serum parameters, so supplementation of α-tocopherol consider an effective way to counter the toxicity of deltamethrin in the catfish.

  4. [Molecular mechanisms of protein biosynthesis initiation--biochemical and biomedical implications of a new model of translation enhanced by the RNA hypoxia response element (rHRE)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Adam; Nauman, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    Translation initiation is a key rate-limiting step in cellular protein synthesis. A cap-dependent initiation is the most effective mechanism of the translation. However, some physiological (mitosis) and pathological (oxidative stress) processes may switch the classic mechanism to an alternative one that is regulated by an mRNA element such as IRES, uORF, IRE, CPE, DICE, AURE or CITE. A recently discovered mechanism of RNA hypoxia response element (rHRE)-dependent translation initiation, may change the view of oxygen-regulated translation and give a new insight into unexplained biochemical processes. Hypoxia is one of the better-known factors that may trigger an alternative mechanism of the translation initiation. Temporal events of oxygen deficiency within tissues and organs may activate processes such as angiogenesis, myogenesis, regeneration, wound healing, and may promote an adaptive response in cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. On the other hand, growth of solid tumors may be accompanied by cyclic hypoxia, allowing for synthesis of proteins required for further progression of cancer cells. This paper provides a review of current knowledge on translational control in the context of alternative models of translation initiation.

  5. Induced changes in biochemical parameters of the molluscan tissues non-infected using two potent plants molluscicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Sanaa A; Aly, Hanan F; Saba-el-Rigal, Nagy; Sammour, Elham M

    2004-08-01

    Effect of Capparis spinosa (C. spinosa) and Acacia arabica (A. arabica) dry powder as plant molluscicide on some glycolytic and gluconeogenic enzymes on snail tissues, was investigated. Lactate debydrogenase (LDH), Pyruvate Kinase (PK), Hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase (PFK), glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) as important glycolytic enzymes, were markedly manipulated by both plants when measured one day and one week post-treatment. On the other hand glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6Pase), fructose 1.6 diphosphatase (FDpase), phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) as gluconeogenic enzymes were significantly affected by the moluscicidal plants. In addition, some other parameters as glycogen, glucose, total protein, 5-nucleotidase alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) as kreb's cycle enzyme were tested. As conclusion, LC25 and LC50 concentrations of C. spinosa and A. arabica might render B. alexandrina physiologically unsuitable for S. mansoni infection.

  6. Mechanisms of inflammatory responses in obese adipose tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, S.Y.; Yewei, Ji; Kersten, A.H.; Qi, L.

    2012-01-01

    The fields of immunology and metabolism are rapidly converging on adipose tissue. During obesity, many immune cells infiltrate or populate in adipose tissue and promote a low-grade chronic inflammation. Studies to date have suggested that perturbation of inflammation is critically linked to nutrient

  7. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaris, Catherine; Moschino, Vanessa; Strogyloudi, Evangelia; Coatu, Valentina; Ramšak, Andreja; Alhaija, Rana Abu; Carvalho, Susana; Felline, Serena; Kosyan, Alisa; Lazarou, Yiota; Hatzianestis, Ioannis; Oros, Andra; Tiganus, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the "Integrated Biological Responses version 2" index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses.

  8. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Tsangaris, Catherine

    2015-09-23

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the “Integrated Biological Responses version 2” index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses.

  9. Training signaling pathway maps to biochemical data with constrained fuzzy logic: quantitative analysis of liver cell responses to inflammatory stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melody K Morris

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Predictive understanding of cell signaling network operation based on general prior knowledge but consistent with empirical data in a specific environmental context is a current challenge in computational biology. Recent work has demonstrated that Boolean logic can be used to create context-specific network models by training proteomic pathway maps to dedicated biochemical data; however, the Boolean formalism is restricted to characterizing protein species as either fully active or inactive. To advance beyond this limitation, we propose a novel form of fuzzy logic sufficiently flexible to model quantitative data but also sufficiently simple to efficiently construct models by training pathway maps on dedicated experimental measurements. Our new approach, termed constrained fuzzy logic (cFL, converts a prior knowledge network (obtained from literature or interactome databases into a computable model that describes graded values of protein activation across multiple pathways. We train a cFL-converted network to experimental data describing hepatocytic protein activation by inflammatory cytokines and demonstrate the application of the resultant trained models for three important purposes: (a generating experimentally testable biological hypotheses concerning pathway crosstalk, (b establishing capability for quantitative prediction of protein activity, and (c prediction and understanding of the cytokine release phenotypic response. Our methodology systematically and quantitatively trains a protein pathway map summarizing curated literature to context-specific biochemical data. This process generates a computable model yielding successful prediction of new test data and offering biological insight into complex datasets that are difficult to fully analyze by intuition alone.

  10. Biochemical and hematological responses of the banded knife fish Gymnotus carapo (Linnaeus, 1758 exposed to environmental hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORAES G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen of tropical freshwater environments fluctuates drastically. Eutrophic lakes and ponds of warm waters frequently reach very low oxygen concentrations. This is the most common habitat of the banded knife fish "tuvira" Gymnotus carapo. This electric fish is reported to present bimodal breathing to cope with low environmental oxygen. Biochemical responses can be also observed in fishes facing hypoxia but none were studied in tuvira. In the present study, haematological and metabolic changes were investigated in two groups of fish exposed to hypoxia for 1 and 3 hours. Haematocrit, red blood cells and haemoglobin concentration indicated erythrocyte release from hematopoietic organs and swelling of red blood cells. Glycogen, glucose, lactate, pyruvate, and amino acids were quantified in liver, kidney and white muscle. The metabolic profile of G. carapo to cope with hypoxia suggested liver gluconeogenesis probably supported by proteolysis. The kidney and liver presented the same biochemical trend suggesting similar metabolic role for both organs. Glucogenolysis followed by glucose fermentation and protein mobilisation was observed in the white muscle. The air breathing behaviour of tuvira works in parallel with metabolism to prevent damages from hypoxia. Metabolic adjustments are observed when the air taking is avoided.

  11. Biochemical and hematological responses of the banded knife fish Gymnotus carapo (Linnaeus, 1758 exposed to environmental hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. MORAES

    Full Text Available Oxygen of tropical freshwater environments fluctuates drastically. Eutrophic lakes and ponds of warm waters frequently reach very low oxygen concentrations. This is the most common habitat of the banded knife fish "tuvira" Gymnotus carapo. This electric fish is reported to present bimodal breathing to cope with low environmental oxygen. Biochemical responses can be also observed in fishes facing hypoxia but none were studied in tuvira. In the present study, haematological and metabolic changes were investigated in two groups of fish exposed to hypoxia for 1 and 3 hours. Haematocrit, red blood cells and haemoglobin concentration indicated erythrocyte release from hematopoietic organs and swelling of red blood cells. Glycogen, glucose, lactate, pyruvate, and amino acids were quantified in liver, kidney and white muscle. The metabolic profile of G. carapo to cope with hypoxia suggested liver gluconeogenesis probably supported by proteolysis. The kidney and liver presented the same biochemical trend suggesting similar metabolic role for both organs. Glucogenolysis followed by glucose fermentation and protein mobilisation was observed in the white muscle. The air breathing behaviour of tuvira works in parallel with metabolism to prevent damages from hypoxia. Metabolic adjustments are observed when the air taking is avoided.

  12. Biochemical and ecophysiological responses to manganese stress by ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius and in association with Eucalyptus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canton, Gabriela C; Bertolazi, Amanda A; Cogo, Antônio J D; Eutrópio, Frederico Jacob; Melo, Juliana; de Souza, Sávio Bastos; A Krohling, Cesar; Campostrini, Eliemar; da Silva, Ary Gomes; Façanha, Arnoldo R; Sepúlveda, Nuno; Cruz, Cristina; Ramos, Alessandro C

    2016-07-01

    At relatively low concentrations, the element manganese (Mn) is essential for plant metabolism, especially for photosynthesis and as an enzyme antioxidant cofactor. However, industrial and agricultural activities have greatly increased Mn concentrations, and thereby contamination, in soils. We tested whether and how growth of Pisolithus tinctorius is influenced by Mn and glucose and compare the activities of oxidative stress enzymes as biochemical markers of Mn stress. We also compared nutrient accumulation, ecophysiology, and biochemical responses in Eucalyptus grandis which had been colonized by the ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus tinctorius with those which had not, when both were exposed to increasing Mn concentrations. In vitro experiments comprised six concentrations of Mn in three concentrations of glucose. In vivo experiments used plants colonized by Pisolithus tinctorius, or not colonized, grown with three concentrations of Mn (0, 200, and 1000 μM). We found that fungal growth and glucose concentration were correlated, but these were not influenced by Mn levels in the medium. The anti-oxidative enzymes catalase and glutathione S-transferase were both activated when the fungus was exposed to Mn. Also, mycorrhizal plants grew more and faster than non-mycorrhizal plants, whatever Mn exposure. Photosynthesis rate, intrinsic water use efficiency, and carboxylation efficiency were all inversely correlated with Mn concentration. Thus, we originally show that the ectomycorrhizal fungus provides protection for its host plants against varying and potentially toxic concentrations of Mn.

  13. Agro-physiological and biochemical responses of faba bean (Vicia faba L. var. 'minor' genotypes to water deficit stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid, G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Drought is one of the major abiotic factors affecting growth and productivity of plants by imposing certain morphological, physiological and biochemical changes at different growth stages. Objectives. The objective of this work is to study key morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of faba bean (Vicia faba L. var. 'minor' to soil water deficit stress and to assess the contribution of genetic factors in improving faba bean tolerance to water deficit. Method. Plants of 11 faba bean cultivars were grown in the greenhouse and subjected to three levels of water deficit (90, 50 and 30% of field capacity [FC] in a simple randomized design for 20 days. Water deficit effects on plant growth, relative water content (RWC, gas exchange, chlorophyll a (Chla and chlorophyll b (Chlb content, osmoprotectant accumulations (such as proline and soluble sugars, antioxidant enzyme activities and grain yield were determined. Results. Soil water deficit stress reduced growth and affected physiological parameters, especially antioxidant enzyme activities. Water deficit also increased proline, soluble sugars and protein contents. The studied cultivars significantly differed in their responses to water deficit stress. Photosynthetic parameters were less affected in the 'Hara' cultivar. Furthermore, this cultivar produced the highest value of grain yield at 30% FC, and showed higher antioxidant enzyme activities (CAT, GPX and APX, osmoprotectant accumulations, Chlb and RWC. The 'Hara' cultivar was found to be more tolerant to water deficit stress than the other cultivars. Conclusions. Our methodology can be used for assessing the response of faba bean genetic resources to soil water deficit. The identified tolerant cultivar can be utilized as a source for water stress tolerance in faba bean breeding programs aimed at improving drought tolerance.

  14. Relationship of Salmonella infection and inflammatory intestinal response with hematological and serum biochemical values in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Mario Alberto; Bonnet, María Agustina; Bueno, Dante Javier

    2015-06-15

    There are few studies about the blood serum of laying hens infected with Salmonella. The differential leukocyte count and blood chemistry values are an important aid in the diagnosis of human diseases, but blood parameters in the avian species are not well known. On the other hand, invasive forms of bacterial gastroenteritis, like Salmonella, often cause intestinal inflammation so this study was undertaken to find a biomarker of Salmonella infection and inflammatory intestinal response in the hematological or serum biochemical parameters in laying hens. Furthermore, we evaluated the association of some farm characteristics with Salmonella infection and fecal leukocytes (FL). A fecal sample with at least one fecal leukocyte per field was considered positive for inflammatory intestinal response. False positive serum reactions for Salmonella infection, by serum plate agglutination (SPA) test, were reduced by heating the sample to 56°C for 30 min and then diluting it 5-fold. The range of hematological and biochemical parameter values was very wide, in addition, there was a poor agreement between the SPA and FL results. Comparison of the positive and negative samples in SPA and FL showed that 1.3% and 79.8% of the laying hens were positive and negative in both tests, respectively. Hens with a positive SPA result showed a higher percentage of monocytes than those with a negative SPA result. Hens with a positive FL test had a higher percentage of heterophils, ratio of heterophils to lymphocytes and aspartate aminotransferase values, while the percentage of lymphocytes was significantly lower (P laying hens and the number of hens per poultry house was greater than or equal to 18 months old and 10,000 laying hens, compared to less than 18 months old and 10,000 laying hens, respectively. On the other hand, the risk of inflammatory intestinal response was higher in laying hens ≥ 18 months old than in hens laying hens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Propagation of errors from skull kinematic measurements to finite element tissue responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Calvin; Wu, Lyndia; Zhao, Wei; Fanton, Michael; Ji, Songbai; Camarillo, David B

    2018-02-01

    Real-time quantification of head impacts using wearable sensors is an appealing approach to assess concussion risk. Traditionally, sensors were evaluated for accurately measuring peak resultant skull accelerations and velocities. With growing interest in utilizing model-estimated tissue responses for injury prediction, it is important to evaluate sensor accuracy in estimating tissue response as well. Here, we quantify how sensor kinematic measurement errors can propagate into tissue response errors. Using previous instrumented mouthguard validation datasets, we found that skull kinematic measurement errors in both magnitude and direction lead to errors in tissue response magnitude and distribution. For molar design instrumented mouthguards susceptible to mandible disturbances, 150-400% error in skull kinematic measurements resulted in 100% error in regional peak tissue response. With an improved incisor design mitigating mandible disturbances, errors in skull kinematics were reduced to errors were reduced to errors yielded below 10% error in regional peak tissue response; however, up to 20% error was observed in peak tissue response for individual finite elements. These findings demonstrate that kinematic resultant errors result in regional peak tissue response errors, while kinematic directionality errors result in tissue response distribution errors. This highlights the need to account for both kinematic magnitude and direction errors and accurately determine transformations between sensors and the skull.

  16. Micro- and nanotechnology in cardiovascular tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Boyang; Xiao Yun; Hsieh, Anne; Thavandiran, Nimalan; Radisic, Milica

    2011-01-01

    While in nature the formation of complex tissues is gradually shaped by the long journey of development, in tissue engineering constructing complex tissues relies heavily on our ability to directly manipulate and control the micro-cellular environment in vitro. Not surprisingly, advancements in both microfabrication and nanofabrication have powered the field of tissue engineering in many aspects. Focusing on cardiac tissue engineering, this paper highlights the applications of fabrication techniques in various aspects of tissue engineering research: (1) cell responses to micro- and nanopatterned topographical cues, (2) cell responses to patterned biochemical cues, (3) controlled 3D scaffolds, (4) patterned tissue vascularization and (5) electromechanical regulation of tissue assembly and function.

  17. Effects of meloxicam on hematologic and plasma biochemical analysis variables and results of histologic examination of tissue specimens of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Kristin M; Church, Molly E; Farver, Thomas B; Lowenstine, Linda J; Owens, Sean D; Paul-Murphy, Joanne

    2012-11-01

    To determine the effects of meloxicam on values of hematologic and plasma biochemical analysis variables and results of histologic examination of tissue specimens of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). 30 adult Japanese quail. 15 quail underwent laparoscopic examination of the left kidneys, and 15 quail underwent laparoscopic examination and biopsy of the left kidneys. Quail in each of these groups received meloxicam (2.0 mg/kg, IM, q 12 h; n = 10) or a saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.05 mL, IM, q 12 h; control birds; 5) for 14 days. A CBC and plasma biochemical analyses were performed at the start of the study and within 3 hours after the last treatment. Birds were euthanized and necropsies were performed. No adverse effects of treatments were observed, and no significant changes in values of hematologic variables were detected during the study. Plasma uric acid concentrations and creatine kinase or aspartate aminotransferase activities were significantly different before versus after treatment for some groups of birds. Gross lesions identified during necropsy included lesions at renal biopsy sites and adjacent air sacs (attributed to the biopsy procedure) and pectoral muscle hemorrhage and discoloration (at sites of injection). Substantial histopathologic lesions were limited to pectoral muscle necrosis, and severity was greater for meloxicam-treated versus control birds. Meloxicam (2.0 mg/kg, IM, q 12 h for 14 days) did not cause substantial alterations in function of or histopathologic findings for the kidneys of Japanese quail but did induce muscle necrosis; repeated IM administration of meloxicam to quail may be contraindicated.

  18. Biochemical characterization of embryogenic calli of Vanilla planifolia in response to two years of thidiazuron treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodja, Hippolyte; Noirot, Michel; Khoyratty, Shahnoo S; Limbada, Hafsah; Verpoorte, Robert; Palama, Tony Lionel

    2015-11-01

    Vanilla planifolia embryogenic calli were cultured for two years on a medium containing thidiazuron (TDZ). Due to the presence of TDZ, these calli were under permanent chemical treatment and the differentiation of adventitious shoots from protocorm-like-bodies (PLBs) was blocked. When embryogenic calli were transferred onto a medium without TDZ, shoot organogenesis and plantlet regeneration occurred. To gain better knowledge about the biochemical and molecular processes involved in the morphoregulatory role of TDZ, hormonal and metabolomic analyses were performed. Our results indicate that in the presence of TDZ, embryogenic calli contained a high amount of abscisic acid (ABA) essentially metabolized into abscisic acid glucosyl ester (ABAGE) and phaseic acid (PA), which was the most abundant. When transferred onto a medium without TDZ, shoot regeneration and development take place in four stages that include: embryogenic calli growth, differentiation of PLBs from meristmatic cells zones (MCZ), shoot organogenesis from PLBs and the elongation of well-formed shoots. From a hormonal perspective, the significant reduction in ABA metabolism and its readjustment in the ABAGE pathway triggered PLBs formation. However, this first morphogenesis was stimulated by a strong reduction in IAA metabolism. The organogenesis of PLBs into shoots is associated with an increase in ABA catabolism and a gradual shift in cellular metabolism towards shoot differentiation. Thus, the initiation of the elongation process in shoots is correlated with an alteration in metabolite composition, including an increase in energy reserves (sucrose/starch) and a rapid decrease in alanine content. Our data highlighted the relationship between endogenous hormone signalling, carbohydrate metabolism and shoot organogenesis in Orchid plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Insights into some physiological and biochemical responses of Populus alba and Populus nigra to lead contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Etemadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of lead (PbCl2 increment, under hydroponic conditions up to 15, 45 and 90 mg/l in presence of EDTA, on some physiological and biochemical traits of one year old saplings of P. nigra and P. alba, were investigated. Six weeks after establishing in target concentration, the amount of lead, biomass, water, soluble sugars, proline, electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde, and pigments were assessed in different organs. The results revealed that with increasing lead concentration in culture medium in the studied period, the amount of lead in saplings increased, but no effect was observed on their biomass. In both species the magnitude of lead accumulation in root was higher than leaf. P. nigra had more water and less soluble sugars than P. alba. The concentration of soluble sugars increased up to 1.5 times with lead increment in both species, but proline content increased only in P. nigra up to 2 times and remained constant in P. alba. Elevation of electrolyte leakage in saplings of P. nigra in excess lead treatment was accompanied by no change in malondialdehyde content. Concentrations of pigments were not affected by lead, and only the ratio of chlorophyll a to b in P. nigra increased in high lead concentration. In general both species accumulated high extent of lead in their organs. But it seems that P. nigra, at least with respect of enhancing plasma membrane permeability, increasing proline and the ratio of chlorophyll a to b, was more sensitive to this toxic metal in compare with P. alba.

  20. Comparative biochemical responses and antioxidant activities of the rabbit urinary bladder to whole grapes versus resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Johdi-Ann; Leggett, Robert E; Schuler, Catherine; Levin, Robert M

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the antioxidant activity of a whole-grape suspension with the antioxidant activity or pure resveratrol on the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on malondialdehyde (MDA) generation, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, calcium ATPase activity, and sarcoendoplasmic reticular ATPase (SERCA) of the male rabbit urinary bladder. MDA was used as a model for the effect of H2O2 on lipid peroxidation. ChAT, SERCA, and calcium ATPase were evaluated based on their importance in urinary bladder physiology and pathology. Four male rabbit bladders were used. Each bladder was separated into muscle and mucosa, frozen under liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 °C for biochemical evaluation. The effect of H2O2 on the enzymes listed above was determined in the presence and absence of either resveratrol or a whole-grape suspension. (1) Resveratrol was significantly more effective than the grape suspension at protecting the bladder muscle and mucosa against peroxidation as quantitated by MDA formation. (2) The grape suspension was significantly more effective at protecting ChAT activity against oxidative stress of the muscle than resveratrol. (3) Neither the grape suspension nor resveratrol were particularly effective at protecting the bladder muscle or mucosa calcium ATPase or SERCA against oxidative stress. (4) ChAT was significantly more sensitive to oxidative stress than either calcium ATPase or SERCA. These data support the idea that the grape suspension protects the mitochondria and nerve terminals to a significantly greater degree than resveratrol which suggests that the activities of the grape suspension are due to the combination of active components found in the grape suspension and not just resveratrol alone.

  1. Dose-response relationships in normal tissues and their evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Yoshihiko; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Matsui, Masanori

    1990-01-01

    Radiotherapeutic effects can be defined as the ratio of radiation injuries in normal tissues to in cancer tissues. Much more attention has been paid to refractory delayed reaction rather than early reaction to normal tissues. Focusing on the reevaluation of the Rubin's and Casarett's data concerning delayed injuries in the cerebrospinal nerves, gastrointestinal organ, and lung tissues, this chapter compares tolerance doses of low LET radiation with those of high LET radiation, and discusses how normal tissue reaction is modified by the combination of antineoplastic agents, radiosensitizers, and/or hyperthermia. An effort is also made here to reevaluate daily hyperfractionation from the basic and clinical points of view. The information is allocated into the following 12 subjects: (1) radiation injury of the normal brain tissue after external radiotherapy for brain tumor; (2) treatment policies with active intention for brain tumor and tolerance doses for the nervous system; (3) radiation enteritis - mucosal regeneration and stromal reaction of the small intestine after irradiation; (4) tolerance doses for the small intestine and colon in carcinoma of the uterine cervix; (5) radiation tolerance of the normal lung - pulmonary radiation syndromes; (6) clinical study on development factors of radiation pneumonitis; (7) effect of repeated small doses of radiation on cell killing and repair capacity in plateau phase C3H10T1/2 cells; (8) fractionation and radiation injury - clinical aspect; (9) normal tissue tolerance to high LET radiotherapy; (10) tolerance doses for normal tissues by radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy in patients; (11) radiosensitization of mouse intestinal epithelial cells with BrdR; (12) arterial blood flow changes after hyperthermia in the normal liver, brain, and small intestine. (N.K.)

  2. Some physiological and biochemical responses to copper of detached cucumber (cucumis sativus l.) cotyledons pre-floated in salicylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulengul, S.C.; Yildiz, T.; Deveci, D.

    2017-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a growth regulator that promotes growth of plants under stress and non-stress conditions. In the present investigation we studied the role of salicylic acid in copper induced physiological and biochemical changes and the possible induction of oxidative stress in detached cucumber cotyledons. Detached cotyledons of young cucumber seedlings were floated in 150 ppm SA. Then, the responses of these cotyledons to different concentrations (0, 10, 20 ve 50 mM) of copper (CuCl2. H2O) were investigated. In detached cucumber cotyledons exposed to increasing Cu concentrations, the fresh weight accumulation and the photosynthetic pigment content were decreased. Furthermore, the levels of some important parameters regarding oxidative stress in the cotyledons, namely lipid peroxidation (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and proline were increased. In the detached cucumber cotyledons pre-floation process with SA alleviated the negative effect of Cu ( 20 mM and 50 mM Cu) on growth parameters. (author)

  3. Histopathological alterations, biochemical responses and acetylcholinesterase levels in Clarias gariepinus as biomarkers of exposure to organophosphates pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, V F; Ladipo, M K; Aneyo, I A; Adeola, A; Odulele, W Y

    2016-05-01

    Organophosphate pesticides, commonly used in large scale farming, have been found to be major contaminants in aquatic environment. Clarias gariepinus was exposed to acute and sublethal concentrations of phostoxin and DD Force to evaluate single and joint action toxicity of the organophosphates. Effects of phostoxin and DD force on antioxidant enzymes, fish organs and acetylcholinesterase levels in fingerlings and juveniles of C. gariepinus were also investigated. The lethal concentrations (96 h LC50) for phostoxin and DD Force were 0.631 and 1.759 mg/l, respectively. The results obtained from the bioassay showed that phostoxin was 2.8× more toxic than DD Force after exposure of C. gariepinus. Joint action toxicity evaluations of phostoxin and DD Force showed that the interaction between the chemicals was synergistic (RTU >1). The biochemical responses in the exposed fish differed significantly (P organophosphates pesticides in fish.

  4. Recently duplicated plant heterotrimeric Gα proteins with subtle biochemical differences influence specific outcomes of signal-response coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Choudhury, Swarup; Pandey, Sona

    2017-09-29

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins, comprising Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits, regulate key signaling processes in eukaryotes. The Gα subunit determines the status of signaling by switching between inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound forms. Unlike animal systems, in which multiple Gα proteins with variable biochemical properties exist, plants have fewer, highly similar Gα subunits that have resulted from recent genome duplications. These proteins exhibit subtle differences in their GTP-binding, GDP/GTP-exchange, and GTP-hydrolysis activities, but the extent to which these differences contribute to affect plant signaling and development remains unknown. To evaluate this, we expressed native and engineered Gα proteins from soybean in an Arabidopsis Gα-null background and studied their effects on modulating a range of developmental and hormonal signaling phenotypes. Our results indicated that inherent biochemical differences in these highly similar Gα proteins are biologically relevant, and some proteins are more flexible than others in influencing the outcomes of specific signals. These observations suggest that alterations in the rate of the G-protein cycle itself may contribute to the specificity of response regulation in plants by affecting the duration of active signaling and/or by the formation of distinct protein-protein complexes. In species such as Arabidopsis having a single canonical Gα, this rate could be affected by regulatory proteins in the presence of specific signals, whereas in plants with multiple Gα proteins, an even more complex regulation may exist, which likely contributes to the specificity of signal-response coupling. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloprotease-2 (TIMP-2): Bioprocess Development, Physicochemical, Biochemical, and Biological Characterization of Highly Expressed Recombinant Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Anandã; Brinson, Robert; Wei, Beiyang; Stetler-Stevenson, William G

    2017-12-12

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-2 (TIMP-2) is a secreted 21 kDa multifunctional protein first described as an endogenous inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that prevents breakdown of the extracellular matrix often observed in chronic diseases. TIMP-2 diminishes the level of growth factor-mediated cell proliferation in vitro, as well as neoangiogenesis and tumor growth in vivo independent of its MMP inhibitory activity. These physiological properties make TIMP-2 an excellent candidate for further preclinical development as a biologic therapy of cancer. Here we present a straightforward bioprocessing methodology that yields >35 mg/L recombinant human TIMP-2 6XHis-tagged protein (rhTIMP-2) from suspension cultures of HEK-293-F cells. Enhanced rhTIMP-2-6XHis yields were achieved by optimization of both TIMP-2 cDNA codon sequence and cell culture conditions. Using a two-step chromatographic process, we achieved >95% purity with minimal processing losses. Purified rhTIMP-2-6XHis was free of mouse antigen contamination. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated a well-folded rhTIMP-2-6XHis that is highly stable and refractory to pH changes. Two-dimensional heteronuclear single-quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance of full length rhTIMP-2-6XHis also indicated a monodisperse, well-folded protein preparation. Purified rhTIMP-2-6XHis inhibited MMP-2 enzymatic activity in a dose-dependent fashion with an IC 50 of ∼1.4 nM. Pretreatment of A549 lung cancer and JygMC(A) triple-negative breast cancer cells with rhTIMP-2-6XHis in low-nanomolar amounts inhibited EGF-induced proliferation to basal (unstimulated) levels. This study therefore not only offers a robust bioprocess methodology for rhTIMP-2 production but also characterizes critical physicochemical and biological attributes that are useful for monitoring quality control of the production process.

  6. Operative skill: quantifying surgeon's response to tissue properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Anne-Lise D; Rutherford, Drew N; Ray, Rebecca D; Mason, Andrea; Pugh, Carla M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how tissue characteristics influence psychomotor planning and performance during a suturing task. Our hypothesis was that participants would alter their technique based on tissue type with each subsequent stitch placed while suturing. Surgical attendings (n = 6), residents (n = 4), and medical students (n = 5) performed three interrupted sutures on different simulated materials as follows: foam (dense connective tissue), rubber balloons (artery), and tissue paper (friable tissue). An optical motion tracking system captured performance data from participants' bilateral hand movements. Path length and suture time were segmented by each individual stitch placed to investigate changes to psychomotor performance with subsequent stitch placements. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate for main effects of stitch order on path length and suture time and interactions between stitch order, material, and experience. When participants sutured the tissue paper, they changed their procedure time (F(4,44) = 5.14, P = 0.017) and path length (F(4,44) = 4.64, P = 0.003) in a linear fashion with the first stitch on the tissue paper having the longest procedure time and path length. Participants did not change their path lengths and procedure times when placing subsequent stitches in the foam (P = 0.910) and balloon materials (P = 0.769). This study demonstrates quantifiable real-time adaptation by participants to material characteristics during a suturing task. Participants improved their motion-based performance with each subsequent stitch placement indicating changes in psychomotor planning or performance. This adaptation did not occur with the less difficult tasks. Motion capture technology is a promising method for investigating surgical performance and how surgeons adapt to operative complexity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Oxidative and biochemical responses in Brycon amazonicus anesthetized and sedated with Myrcia sylvatica (G. Mey.) DC. and Curcuma longa L. essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccol, Etiane M H; Londero, Érika P; Bressan, Caroline A; Salbego, Joseânia; Gressler, Luciane T; Silva, Lenise V F; Mourão, Rosa H V; Oliveira, Ricardo B; Llesuy, Susana F; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Pavanato, Maria A

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the effects of rapid anesthesia and long-term sedation with the essential oils (EOs) of Myrcia sylvatica (EOMS) and Curcuma longa (EOCL) on biochemical and oxidative parameters in matrinxã. Prospective, randomized, laboratory experiment. A total of 72 matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus) adults weighing 404.8 ± 27.9 g were divided into eight groups of nine fish. Biochemical and oxidative effects were investigated in plasma and tissues of matrinxã subjected to rapid anesthesia (5 minutes) or long-term sedation (360 minutes, simulating the practice of transport) with EOMS (200 μL L -1 and 10 μL L -1 , respectively) and EOCL (500 μL L -1 and 40 μL L -1 , respectively). Transport simulation without sedation or anesthesia increased lipid peroxidation levels in the gills and kidney of fish in the control group. Anesthesia and sedation with EOs decreased cortisol concentrations and increased lactate concentrations compared with controls. Lipid peroxidation was lower in the brain, gills, liver and kidney of sedated and anesthetized fish, than in the control group. Anesthesia with EOs increased the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase in the brain, and catalase in the liver and gills, compared with controls. Long-term sedation with EOs increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in the brain, catalase in the liver, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in the gills and superoxide dismutase in the kidney. In general, nonprotein thiols content and total reactive antioxidant potential of tissues were higher after anesthesia and sedation with EOs compared with the control group. The concentrations of EOMS and EOCL used were effective at preventing a stress response and excess of reactive oxygen species formation. For these reasons, these substances may be recommended for use in the transportation of fish to improve survival and animal welfare. Copyright © 2017

  8. Microbiological and biochemical response of certain proteolytic bacterial isolates to varying levels of gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hifnawi, H.M.N.E.A.

    1997-01-01

    Amniotic membrane allo - and xeno grafts prepared from human foetal placenta, and their potential replacement of skin autotransplant, would significantly contribute to the success of clinical treatment of skin burns. Allo-and xenografts of human amniotic membrane should be ensured for their sterility, bio-mechanics and tissue antigenicity. The present study has been focused on sterilization and sterility assurance of the membrane grafts. Physico-chemical properties and antigenicity of the grafts await investigation. In the present study the isolation and identification of the bacteria contaminating the amniotic membrane allo-and xenografts prepared from human foetal placenta and the effect of gamma irradiation on it has been investigated. The proteolytic activity of these bacteria and the role of gamma irradiation in the control of bacterial activity were similarly investigated

  9. Physiological and Biochemical Responses of a Medicinal Halophyte Limonium Bicolor (Bag.) Kuntze to Salt-Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Li, W.; Yang, H.; Wu, W.; Ma, L.; Huang, T.; Wang, X.

    2016-01-01

    Limonium bicolor (Bag.) Kuntze is a perennial herb belonging to the Plumbaginaceae family. It is a typical recretohalophyte as well as a medicinal plant, distributing at saline soil areas in coastal areas and grasslands. In this paper,physiological mechanisms of L. bicolor to defend salt stress and effects of salinity on medicinal ingredients were investigated. The effects of different NaCl concentrations on the number of salt glands, Na/sup +/ content, dry weight and water content in tissues, gas exchange parameters involving net CO/sub 2/ assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO/sub 2/ concentration and transpiration rate, malondialdehyde content and electrolyte leakage, activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase and accumulations of secondary metabolites such as total phenolic, total flavonoid, gallic acid and myricetrin of leaves were determined. The results show that 100 and 200 mM NaCl induced facilitated effects in L. bicolor reflected in the increase in dry weight, tissue water content, net CO/sub 2/ assimilation rate, the number of salt glands, activity of superoxide dismutase, and content of gallic acid and myricetrin. The 300 mM NaCl treatment resulted in obviously decline in gas exchange parameters, and significant increases in Na/sup +/ levels, malondialdehyde level and electrolyte leakage. It was suggested that increased salt tolerance of L. bicolor was due to the corresponding resistance mechanisms involving an increased number of salt glands, enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes, and an accelerated accumulation of secondary metabolites. What's more, the results on effects of salinity on medicinal ingredients in L. bicolor under different salt concentrations could provide theoretical basis for the standardization cultivation technique of L. bicolor. (author)

  10. Biochemical and proteomic analyses of the physiological response induced by individual housing in gilts provide new potential stress markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Ramell, Anna; Arroyo, Laura; Peña, Raquel; Pato, Raquel; Saco, Yolanda; Fraile, Lorenzo; Bendixen, Emøke; Bassols, Anna

    2016-11-25

    The objective assessment of animal stress and welfare requires proper laboratory biomarkers. In this work, we have analyzed the changes in serum composition in gilts after switching their housing, from pen to individual stalls, which is generally accepted to cause animal discomfort. Blood and saliva samples were collected a day before and up to four days after changing the housing system. Biochemical analyses showed adaptive changes in lipid and protein metabolism after the housing switch, whereas cortisol and muscular markers showed a large variability between animals. 2D-DIGE and iTRAQ proteomic approaches revealed variations in serum protein composition after changing housing and diet of gilts. Both techniques showed alterations in two main homeostatic mechanisms: the innate immune and redox systems. The acute phase proteins haptoglobin, apolipoprotein A-I and α1-antichymotrypsin 3, and the antioxidant enzyme peroxiredoxin 2 were found differentially expressed by 2D-DIGE. Other proteins related to the innate immune system, including lactotransferrin, protegrin 3 and galectin 1 were also identified by iTRAQ, as well as oxidative stress enzymes such as peroxiredoxin 2 and glutathione peroxidase 3. Proteomics also revealed the decrease of apolipoproteins, and the presence of intracellular proteins in serum, which may indicate physical injury to tissues. Housing of gilts in individual stalls and diet change increase lipid and protein catabolism, oxidative stress, activate the innate immune system and cause a certain degree of tissue damage. We propose that valuable assays for stress assessment in gilts may be based on a score composed by a combination of salivary cortisol, lipid metabolites, innate immunity and oxidative stress markers and intracellular proteins.

  11. Ethylenediurea as a potential tool in evaluating ozone phytotoxicity: a review study on physiological, biochemical and morphological responses of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Supriya

    2017-06-01

    Present-day climate change scenario has intensified the problem of continuously increasing ground-level ozone (O 3 ), which is responsible for causing deleterious effects on growth and development of plants. Studies involving use of ethylenediurea (EDU), a chemical with antiozonant properties, have given some promising results in evaluating O 3 injury in plants. The use of EDU is especially advantageous in developing countries which face a more severe problem of ground-level O 3 , and technical O 3 -induced yield loss assessment techniques like open-top chambers cannot be used. Recent studies have detected a hormetic response of EDU on plants; i.e. treatment with higher EDU concentrations may or may not show any adverse effect on plants depending upon the experimental conditions. Although the mode of action of EDU is still debated, it is confirmed that EDU remains confined in the apoplastic regions. Certain studies indicate that EDU significantly affects the electron transport chain and has positive impact on the antioxidant defence machinery of the plants. However, the mechanism of protecting the yield of plants without significantly affecting photosynthesis is still questionable. This review discusses in details the probable mode of action of EDU on the basis of available data along with the impact of EDU on physiological, biochemical, growth and yield response of plants under O 3 stress. Data regarding the effect of EDU on plant 'omics' is highly insufficient and can form an important aspect of future EDU research.

  12. Stimuli-responsive hydrogels in drug delivery and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Nikhil; Bhardwaj, Ankur; Mehta, Shuchi; Mehta, Abhinav

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogels are the three-dimensional network structures obtained from a class of synthetic or natural polymers which can absorb and retain a significant amount of water. Hydrogels are one of the most studied classes of polymer-based controlled drug release. These have attracted considerable attention in biochemical and biomedical fields because of their characteristics, such as swelling in aqueous medium, biocompatibility, pH and temperature sensitivity or sensitivity towards other stimuli, which can be utilized for their controlled zero-order release. The hydrogels are expected to explore new generation of self-regulated delivery system having a wide array of desirable properties. This review highlights the exciting opportunities and challenges in the area of hydrogels. Here, we review different literatures on stimuli-sensitive hydrogels, such as role of temperature, electric potential, pH and ionic strength to control the release of drug from hydrogels.

  13. SOME BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN SERUM AND TISSUES OF BROILERS EXPOSED TO CADMIUM AND TRIAL TO REDUCE ITS EFFECT BY ZINC SUPPLEMENTATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAMAL, A.M.; ABD EL-HAKIM, T.; ABU-TALEB, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the changes in biochemical parameters of blood and tissue mineral levels caused by various levels of dietary cadmium (Cd) and the effects of zinc on cadmium-induced changes in broilers. A total of 210 days old broiler chicks were randomly distributed into 7 dietary groups of 30 chicks in each. Group 1 was feed basal diet and served as control group. The diets of the groups 2, 3 and 4 were supplemented with 50, 75 and 100 mg Cd/kg, respectively. Groups 5, 6 and 7 received 50, 75 and 100 mg Cd /kg plus 40 mg Zn/kg which added to the basal ration from one day to 42 days. Water and feed were provided ad libitum. The results showed that addition of Cd in the ration of broiler caused the significant reduction in live body weight as well as body weight gain and significant increase in serum total protein, globulin, urea, creatinine and activities of AST, ALT, ALP, LDH and GGT. In addition, Cd caused significant increases in triiodothyronine (T3), T3/T4 ratio and lipid peroxidation. On the other hand, decrease in calcium, phosphorus, zinc and cholesterol was observed while serum glucose did not affect by cadmium.Supplementation of zinc in the diet of broiler improved the reduction in body weight and body weight gain and also increased calcium, phosphorus and zinc and improved liver and kidney functions

  14. Reversal of deltamethrin-induced oxidative damage in rat neural tissues by turmeric-diet: Fourier transform-infrared and biochemical investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiddappa Mallappa Shivanoor

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study is designed to determine the protective effect of turmeric (TMR against neural oxidative damage caused by deltamethrin (DLM. Here we have employed mainly Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy to understand this event, in addition to biochemical analysis. For this purpose, rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6; control, TMR (1% turmeric-diet, DLM-treated (41 ppm and TMR co-administrated with DLM for 48 days. The FT-IR spectra of brain tissues reflect the significant changes in the area values of macromolecules including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids in DLM-treated rats compared to control. In addition, DLM caused increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA level accompanied by decrease in antioxidant enzymes activity such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and glutathione reductase (GR. However, the TMR co-administered with DLM group, exhibits appreciable restoration in area values and peaks of IR spectra and also the restoration of the mentioned antioxidant enzyme activities. The group merely fed with TMR showed insignificant changes in all investigated parameters. Therefore, the results reveal that, 1% of turmeric has a protective effect against deltamethrin caused neural oxidative damage.

  15. Salvage radiotherapy for biochemical relapse after complete PSA response following radical prostatectomy: outcome and prognostic factors for patients who have never received hormonal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaes Paulo ERS

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To evaluate the results of salvage conformal radiation therapy (3DC-EBRT for patients submitted to radical prostatectomy (RP who have achieved complete PSA response and who have never been treated with hormonal therapy (HT. To present the results of biochemical control, a period free from hormonal therapy and factors related to its prognosis. Materials and methods from August 2002 to December 2004, 43 prostate cancer patients submitted to RP presented biochemical failure after achieving a PSA Results 3-year biochemical non-evidence of disease (BNED was 71%. PSA doubling time lower than 4 months (p = 0.01 and time from recurrence to salvage EBRT (p = 0.04 were associated with worse chance of biochemical control. Biochemical control of 76% was achieved when RT had been introduced with a PSA lower than 1 ng/ml vs. 48% with a PSA higher than 1 (p = 0.19. Late toxicity was acceptable. Conclusion 70% of biochemical control in 3 years can be achieved with salvage radiotherapy in selected patients. The importance of PSADT was confirmed in this study and radiotherapy should be started as early as possible. Longer follow up is necessary, but it is possible to conclude that a long interval free from hormonal therapy was achieved with low rate of toxicity avoiding or at least delaying several important adverse effects related to hormonal treatment.

  16. Elucidating the physiological and biochemical responses of different tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) genotypes to lead toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maodzeka, Antony; Hussain, Nazim; Wei, Liquan; Zvobgo, Gerald; Mapodzeke, James Mutemachani; Adil, Muhammad Faheem; Jabeen, Salma; Wang, Feng; Jiang, Lixi; Shamsi, Imran Haider

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of lead (Pb) uptake and toxicity were investigated in a hydroponic culture using 7 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) genotypes (Bina 1 [B1], Kutsaga Mammoth 10 [KM10], Nanjing 3 [N3], Kutsaga 35 [K35], Kutsaga E1 [KE1], Cocker 176 [C176], and Kutsaga RK6 [KRK6]) that differed in Pb tolerance. Lead was applied as a solution of Pb nitrate at concentrations of 0 μM, 10 μM, 250 μM, and 500 μM. After 4 wk of Pb treatment, tissue biomass and photosynthetic parameters were measured and elemental analysis was performed. The results showed decreases in growth and photosynthetic parameters with increases in Pb concentration compared with the control. The least reduction in the recorded physiological parameters was noted in K35, whereas the greatest reduction was observed in N3, which is an obvious indication of genotypic differences. Activities of peroxidase, catalase, and malondialdehyde increased significantly with increases in Pb concentration, with genotypes K35 and N3 showing the least and the greatest reduction, respectively. The results demonstrate the phototoxic nature of Pb on plants, and it can be concluded that in Pb-prone areas genotypes K35 and B1 can be used for cultivation because they can grow efficiently in the presence of high Pb concentrations while restricting Pb uptake in the aboveground parts, as seen by the higher Pb tolerance index. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:175-181. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  17. Biochemical responses in freshwater fish after exposure to water-soluble fraction of gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettim, Franciele Lima; Galvan, Gabrieli Limberger; Cestari, Marta Margarete; Yamamoto, Carlos Itsuo; de Assis, Helena Cristina Silva

    2016-02-01

    The water-soluble fraction of gasoline (WSFG) is a complex mixture of mono-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of WSFG diluted 1.5% on freshwater fish. Astyanax altiparanae were exposed to the WSFG for 96 h, under a semi-static system, with renewal of 25% of the gasoline test solution every 24 h. In addition, a decay of the contamination (DC) was carried out. During DC, the fish was exposed to the WSFG for 8 d, followed by another 7 d with renewal of 25% of volume aquaria with clean water every 24 h. For depuration, fish were transferred to aquaria with clean water, and in addition, 25% of the water was replaced every 24 h. The liver and kidney biotransformation, antioxidant defenses and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were evaluated. In the liver, the WSFG 1.5% caused reduction of glutathione S-transferase (GST) after 96 h and DC. In the kidney, only in depuration an increased GST activity was observed, and after DC a higher LPO levels. An increase of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity occurred at 96 h in both tissues; however, in the liver was also observed during the depuration. In WSFG 96 h, the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the kidney increased. As biomarkers of neurotoxicity, the brain and muscle acetylcholinesterase activities were measured, but the WSFG 1.5% did not change them. Therefore, this study brought forth more data about WSFG effects on freshwater fish after lower concentrations exposure and a DC, simulating an environmental contamination. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Reproduction and biochemical responses in Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta) to zinc or cadmium exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novais, Sara C., E-mail: sara.novais@ua.pt [CESAM and Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Gomes, Susana I.L. [CESAM and Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Gravato, Carlos [CIIMAR-Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia e Ecologia, Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Guilhermino, Lucia [CIIMAR-Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia e Ecologia, Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); ICBAS-Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas Abel Salazar, Departamento de Estudos de Populacoes, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); De Coen, Wim [University of Antwerp, Department of Biology - E.B.T., Groenenborgerlaan 171 - U.7., B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.; Amorim, Monica J.B. [CESAM and Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2011-07-15

    To better understand chemical modes of action, emphasis has been given to stress responses at lower levels of biological organization. Cholinesterases and antioxidant defenses are among the most used biomarkers due to their crucial role in the neurocholinergic transmission and in cell homeostasis preventing DNA damage, enzymatic inactivation and lipid peroxidation. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of zinc and cadmium on survival and reproduction of E. albidus and to assess metals oxidative stress potential and neurotoxic effects at concentrations that affected reproduction. Both metals affected the enchytraeids' survival and reproduction and induced significant changes in the antioxidant defenses as well as increased lipid peroxidation, indicating oxidative damage. This study demonstrates that determining effects at different levels of biological organization can give better information on the physiological responses of enchytraeids in metal contamination events and further unravel the mechanistic processes dealing with metal stress. - Highlights: > Zinc and cadmium influence the survival and reproduction of Enchytraeus albidus. > Oxidative stress and membrane damage occur at reproduction effect concentrations. > Glutathione seems to be important in the antioxidant defense against metals. > Time intervals (2, 4, 8 days) allowed following the evolution of oxidative events. - Zinc and cadmium cause oxidative stress and membrane damage in Enchytraeus albidus at reproduction effect concentrations.

  19. The response of MRI contrast parameters in in vitro tissues and tissue mimicking phantoms to fractionation by histotripsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Steven P.; Vlaisavljevich, Eli; Shi, Jiaqi; Hernandez-Garcia, Luis; Cain, Charles A.; Xu, Zhen; Hall, Timothy L.

    2017-09-01

    Histotripsy is a non-invasive, focused ultrasound lesioning technique that can ablate precise volumes of soft tissue using a novel mechanical fractionation mechanism. Previous research suggests that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be a sensitive image-based feedback mechanism for histotripsy. However, there are insufficient data to form some unified understanding of the response of the MR contrast mechanisms in tissues to histotripsy. In this paper, we investigate the response of the MR contrast parameters R1, R2, and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) to various treatment levels of histotripsy in in vitro porcine liver, kidney, muscle, and blood clot as well in formulations of bovine red blood cells suspended in agar gel. We also make a histological analysis of histotripsy lesions in porcine liver. We find that R2 and the ADC are both sensitive to ablation in all materials tested here, and the degree of response varies with tissue type. Correspondingly, under histologic analysis, the porcine liver exhibited various levels of mechanical disruption and necrotic debris that are characteristic of histotripsy. While the area of intact red blood cells and nuclei found within these lesions both decreased with increasing amounts of treatment, the area of red blood cells decreased much more rapidly than the area of intact nuclei. Additionally, the decrease in area of intact red blood cells saturated at the same treatment levels at which the response of the R2 saturated while the area of intact nuclei appeared to vary linearly with the response of the ADC.

  20. Iron oxide nanoparticles induced alterations in haematological, biochemical and ionoregulatory responses of an Indian major carp Labeo rohita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, M.; Suganya, R.; Ramesh, M., E-mail: mathanramesh@yahoo.com; Poopal, R. K. [Bharathiar University, Unit of Toxicology, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences (India); Gopalan, N. [Bharathiar University, DRDO-BU (India); Ponpandian, N. [Bharathiar University, Department of Nanoscience and Technology (India)

    2015-06-15

    The wide use of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs) in various applications has raised great concerns worldwide. In this work, we measured the potential harmful effects of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NP (<50 nm) at concentrations of 1 and 25 mg/L on haematological, biochemical, and ionoregulatory responses in an Indian major carp, Labeo rohita for a short-term period of 96 h. The results revealed significant (P < 0.05) decreases in haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean cellular volume, mean cellular haemoglobin, protein, sodium (Na{sup +}), potassium (K{sup +}), chloride (Cl{sup −}) and gill Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase levels in both the concentrations. White blood cell, mean cellular haemoglobin concentration and glucose levels were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in response to both concentrations during the study period. However, no significant changes in red blood cell count and gill Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase (25 mg/L) activity were noticed compared to those of the respective control groups. Based on this study, it was found that the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs do have prominent effects on freshwater fish L. rohita. Our data suggest that the alterations of these parameters can be used as nonspecific biomarkers to monitor the environmental risks arising from nanoparticles in aquatic ecosystem and also regulate the use, production and release of nanoparticles.

  1. Physiological and biochemical responses to severe drought stress of nine Eucalyptus globulus clones: a multivariate approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granda, Víctor; Delatorre, Carolina; Cuesta, Candela; Centeno, María L; Fernández, Belén; Rodríguez, Ana; Feito, Isabel

    2014-07-01

    Seasonal drought, typical of temperate and Mediterranean environments, creates problems in establishing plantations and affects development and yield, and it has been widely studied in numerous species. Forestry fast-growing species such as Eucalyptus spp. are an important resource in such environments, selected clones being generally used for production purposes in plantations in these areas. However, use of mono-specific plantations increases risk of plant loss due to abiotic stresses, making it essential to understand differences in an individual clone's physiological responses to drought stress. In order to study clonal differences in drought responses, nine Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.) clones (C14, C46, C97, C120, C222, C371, C405, C491 and C601) were gradually subjected to severe drought stress (globulus clones on the basis of their different strategies when faced with drought stress. The C14 group (C14, C120, C405, C491 and C601) clones behave as water savers, maintaining high water content and showing high stomatal adjustment, and reducing their aerial growth to a great extent. The C46 group (C46, C97, C222 and C371) clones behave as water spenders, reducing their water content drastically and presenting osmotic adjustment. The latter maintains the highest growth rate under the conditions tested. The method presented here can be used to identify appropriate E. globulus clones for drought environments, facilitating the selection of material for production and repopulation environments. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Multiaxial mechanical response and constitutive modeling of esophageal tissues: Impact on esophageal tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Gerhard; Schriefl, Andreas; Zeindlinger, Georg; Katzensteiner, Andreas; Ainödhofer, Herwig; Saxena, Amulya; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2013-12-01

    Congenital defects of the esophagus are relatively frequent, with 1 out of 2500 babies suffering from such a defect. A new method of treatment by implanting tissue engineered esophagi into newborns is currently being developed and tested using ovine esophagi. For the reconstruction of the biological function of native tissues with engineered esophagi, their cellular structure as well as their mechanical properties must be considered. Since very limited mechanical and structural data for the esophagus are available, the aim of this study was to investigate the multiaxial mechanical behavior of the ovine esophagus and the underlying microstructure. Therefore, uniaxial tensile, biaxial tensile and extension-inflation tests on esophagi were performed. The underlying microstructure was examined in stained histological sections through standard optical microscopy techniques. Moreover, the uniaxial ultimate tensile strength and residual deformations of the tissue were determined. Both the mucosa-submucosa and the muscle layers showed nonlinear and anisotropic mechanical behavior during uniaxial, biaxial and inflation testing. Cyclical inflation of the intact esophageal tube caused marked softening of the passive esophagi in the circumferential direction. The rupture strength of the mucosa-submucosa layer was much higher than that of the muscle layer. Overall, the ovine esophagus showed a heterogeneous and anisotropic behavior with different mechanical properties for the individual layers. The intact and layer-specific multiaxial properties were characterized using a well-known three-dimensional microstructurally based strain-energy function. This novel and complete set of data serves the basis for a better understanding of tissue remodeling in diseased esophagi and can be used to perform computer simulations of surgical interventions or medical-device applications. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Growth, Physiological, Biochemical, and Ionic Responses of Morus alba L. Seedlings to Various Salinity Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Lu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry (Morus alba L., a moderately salt-tolerant tree species, is considered to be economically important. In this study, 1-year-old mulberry seedlings cultivated in soil under greenhouse conditions were treated with five concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl; 0%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, and 0.5% for 3 and 21 days. Plant growth parameters were not affected by 0.1% NaCl, but significant reductions were observed after treatment with 0.2%, 0.3%, and 0.5% NaCl. The malondialdehyde content and cell membrane stability of mulberry seedlings exposed to 0.1% NaCl did not change, indicating that mulberry is not significantly affected by low-salinity conditions. The Na contents of various organs did not increase significantly in response to 0.1% NaCl, but the K:Na, Mg:Na, and Ca:Na ratios of various organs were affected by NaCl. Marked changes in the levels of major compatible solutes (proline, soluble sugars, and soluble proteins occurred in both the leaves and roots of NaCl-treated seedlings relative to control seedlings. Under severe saline conditions (0.5% NaCl, the ability of mulberry to synthesize enzymatic antioxidants may be impaired.

  4. Biochemical response of Anticarsia gemmatalis fed with soybean plants pulverized with the synthetic trypsin inhibitor benzamidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.G.A.; Pilon, A.M.; Pilon, F.M.; Ribeiro, F.R.; Silva, F.C.; Ribon, A.O.B.; Reis, A.P.; Visotto, L.E. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular; Guedes, R.N.C. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal; Oliveira, J.A. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Insects are responsible for severe crop losses. New alternatives for pest control other than agrochemicals have been investigated. Protease inhibitors are one of the prime candidates effective against insect pests. In this work we studied the effect of the synthetic trypsin inhibitor benzamidine on the development of Anticarsia gemmatalis, an important pest of the soybean culture. Larvae were reared on soybean plants containing 0.00, 0.15, 0.30, 0.45, 0.60 and 0.75% (w/w) of benzamidine. After 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of feeding midgut extracts were prepared and assayed for enzymatic activity (proteolytic, amidasic and stearic). Benzamidine altered the activity patterns but was not able to totally abolish enzyme activity. The proteolytic, amidasic and stearic activity showed the higher time of inhibition in 48 h in concentration of 0,75%, the inhibition was the around 93%, 63.1% and 36.6%, respectively. We suggest that the presence of inhibitor has made insects to adapt and produce proteases which are insensitive to the action of benzamidine. (author)

  5. Biochemical changes in male rat serumin response to treatment with the organochlorine insecticide endrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayez, V.

    2003-01-01

    Administrations to rats of oral single doses of endrin at levels 1.1, 3.3 and 5.5 mg/kg representing 10, 30 and 50% of the LD 5 0 has been attempted to determine it;s effect on serum levels of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, creatinine, blood urea, protein, albumin, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and cancer embryonic antigen. Endrin induced significant elevation of serum aminotransferases at the mid-and high-doses. Blood urea was altered significantly at the three dose levels. serum creatinine was not appreciably altered. Serum albumin was lowered significantly on day 4 at the level of 1.1 mg/kg. Total cholesterol was substantially elevated on day 1, while HDL-cholesterol was lowered significantly on day 6 at the level of 5.5 mg/kg.Triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol were sporadically elevated throughout the experimental period. Cancer embryonic antigen was elevated insignificantly on day 6 and 8 at the level of 3.3 mg/kg and on day 1 and 4 at the level of 5.5 mg/kg, approaching normal values thereafter. Comparing the toxic effect of the three dose levels evidence of a strict dose-response relationship was apparent

  6. Some physiological and biochemical responses to nickel in salicylic acid applied chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canakci, Songül; Dursun, Bahar

    2011-09-01

    The present study examined the effects of salicylic acid pre-application on the responses of seven-day-old chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seedlings to nickel. For this purpose, the plants were treated with 1 mM salicylic acid solution for 6 and 10 hours and then treated with 0.75, 1.5 and 3 mM nickel solutions for 48 hours hydroponically. Following the treatment, changes in seedling length, seedling fresh weight and leaf dry weight (after 10 hours), as well as MDA, proline, protein and pigment contents (after 6 and 10 hours) were examined. Salicylic acid pre-application was found to significantly alleviate the typical harmful effects caused by nickel and 3 mM nickel concentration in particular, on the parameters associated with toxic stress. However, pre-application of salicylic acid for 6 and 10 hours without nickel treatment did not produce any stimulatory or inhibitory effect on the seedlings as compared to the controls.

  7. The surrounding tissue modifies the placental stem villous vascular responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Torbjørn; Forman, Axel; Aalkjær, Christian

    2014-01-01

    or endotheline-1. These differences partly disappeared in the presence of L-NAME. Conclusion: The perivascular tissue significantly reduces sensitivity and force development of stem villous arteries, partly due to release of NO This represents a new mechanism for control of human stem villous artery tone.......46619, 5-HT and endothelin-1 were significantly lower in preparations with intact trophoblast compared to preparations where the trophoblast had been removed. Moreover, maximal force development (Emax) was lower in arteries with intact trophoblast after stimulation with high extracellular [K+], PGF2α...

  8. Copper and hypoxia modulate transcriptional and mitochondrial functional-biochemical responses in warm acclimated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sappal, Ravinder; Fast, Mark; Purcell, Sara; MacDonald, Nicole; Stevens, Don; Kibenge, Fred; Siah, Ahmed; Kamunde, Collins

    2016-01-01

    To survive in changing environments fish utilize a wide range of biological responses that require energy. We examined the effect of warm acclimation on the electron transport system (ETS) enzymes and transcriptional responses to hypoxia and copper (Cu) exposure in fish. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were acclimated to cold (11 °C; control) and warm (20 °C) temperatures for 3 weeks followed by exposure to Cu, hypoxia or both for 24 h. Activities of ETS enzyme complexes I-IV (CI–CIV) were measured in liver and gill mitochondria. Analyses of transcripts encoding for proteins involved in mitochondrial respiration (cytochrome c oxidase subunits 4-1 and 2: COX4-1 and COX4-2), metal detoxification/stress response (metallothioneins A and B: MT-A and MT-B) and energy sensing (AMP-activated protein kinase α1: AMPKα1) were done in liver mitochondria, and in whole liver and gill tissues by RT-qPCR. Warm acclimation inhibited activities of ETS enzymes while effects of Cu and hypoxia depended on the enzyme and thermal acclimation status. The genes encoding for COX4-1, COX4-2, MT-A, MT-B and AMPKα1 were strongly and tissue-dependently altered by warm acclimation. While Cu and hypoxia clearly increased MT-A and MT-B transcript levels in all tissues, their effects on COX4-1, COX4-2 and AMPKα1 mRNA levels were less pronounced. Importantly, warm acclimation differentially altered COX4-2/COX4-1 ratio in liver mitochondria and gill tissue. The three stressors showed both independent and joint actions on activities of ETS enzymes and transcription of genes involved in energy metabolism, stress response and metals homeostasis. Overall, we unveiled novel interactive effects that should not be overlooked in real world situations wherein fish normally encounter multiple stress factors. - Highlights: • Joint and individual effects of copper, hypoxia and warm acclimation differ quantitatively. • Energy metabolism genes are differentially altered by multiple stressors.

  9. Different responses of biochemical markers in frogs (Rana ridibunda) from urban and rural wetlands to the effect of carbamate fungicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falfushinska, Halina I; Romanchuk, Liliya D; Stolyar, Oksana B

    2008-09-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effects of carbamate fungicide TATTU (mixture of propamocarb and mancozeb, 0.091 mg L(-1)) on biochemical markers of exposure in Rana ridibunda from clean (reference) and polluted sites. The untreated animals from the polluted site had lower Cu,Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and acetylcholinesterase activity, the levels of lipid peroxidation products (TBARS) and protein carbonyls in the liver and vitellogenin-like proteins (Vtg-LP) in the serum, but higher levels of glutathione in the liver in comparison with untreated frogs from the reference site. Catalase activity, superoxide anion and metallothionein levels were the same in both groups. The animals from two sites demonstrate different response on the effect of TATTU during 14 days. In the frogs from polluted site the oxidative damage (the decrease of Mn-SOD activity, lipids and protein oxidative destruction), neurotoxicity (depletion of acetylcholinesterase activity), and endocrine disruption (increase of Vtg-LP level) were revealed. On the other hand, the part of the indices in the animals from the reference site was unchanged after the treatment and the level of metallothionein was elevated demonstrating the satisfactory ability for the adaptation to unfavourable conditions.

  10. Submergence-induced morphological, anatomical, and biochemical responses in a terrestrial species affect gas diffusion resistance and photosynthetic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommer, Liesje; Pons, Thijs L; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Venema, Jan Henk; Visser, Eric J W

    2005-09-01

    Gas exchange between the plant and the environment is severely hampered when plants are submerged, leading to oxygen and energy deficits. A straightforward way to reduce these shortages of oxygen and carbohydrates would be continued photosynthesis under water, but this possibility has received only little attention. Here, we combine several techniques to investigate the consequences of anatomical and biochemical responses of the terrestrial species Rumex palustris to submergence for different aspects of photosynthesis under water. The orientation of the chloroplasts in submergence-acclimated leaves was toward the epidermis instead of the intercellular spaces, indicating that underwater CO(2) diffuses through the cuticle and epidermis. Interestingly, both the cuticle thickness and the epidermal cell wall thickness were significantly reduced upon submergence, suggesting a considerable decrease in diffusion resistance. This decrease in diffusion resistance greatly facilitated underwater photosynthesis, as indicated by higher underwater photosynthesis rates in submergence-acclimated leaves at all CO(2) concentrations investigated. The increased availability of internal CO(2) in these "aquatic" leaves reduced photorespiration, and furthermore reduced excitation pressure of the electron transport system and, thus, the risk of photodamage. Acclimation to submergence also altered photosynthesis biochemistry as reduced Rubisco contents were observed in aquatic leaves, indicating a lower carboxylation capacity. Electron transport capacity was also reduced in these leaves but not as strongly as the reduction in Rubisco, indicating a substantial increase of the ratio between electron transport and carboxylation capacity upon submergence. This novel finding suggests that this ratio may be less conservative than previously thought.

  11. Weight cycling enhances adipose tissue inflammatory responses in male mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Barbosa-da-Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation attributed to dysregulated production, release of cytokines and adipokines and to dysregulated glucose-insulin homeostasis and dyslipidemia. Nutritional interventions such as dieting are often accompanied by repeated bouts of weight loss and regain, a phenomenon known as weight cycling (WC. METHODS: In this work we studied the effects of WC on the feed efficiency, blood lipids, carbohydrate metabolism, adiposity and inflammatory markers in C57BL/6 male mice that WC two or three consecutive times by alternation of a high-fat (HF diet with standard chow (SC. RESULTS: The body mass (BM grew up in each cycle of HF feeding, and decreased after each cycle of SC feeding. The alterations observed in the animals feeding HF diet in the oral glucose tolerance test, in blood lipids, and in serum and adipose tissue expression of adipokines were not recuperated after WC. Moreover, the longer the HF feeding was (two, four and six months, more severe the adiposity was. After three consecutive WC, less marked was the BM reduction during SC feeding, while more severe was the BM increase during HF feeding. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that both the HF diet and WC are relevant to BM evolution and fat pad remodeling in mice, with repercussion in blood lipids, homeostasis of glucose-insulin and adipokine levels. The simple reduction of the BM during a WC is not able to recover the high levels of adipokines in the serum and adipose tissue as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokines enhanced during a cycle of HF diet. These findings are significant because a milieu with altered adipokines in association with WC potentially aggravates the chronic inflammation attributed to dysregulated production and release of adipokines in mice.

  12. Biochemical adaptation to ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Jonathon H; Paganini, Adam W

    2015-06-01

    The change in oceanic carbonate chemistry due to increased atmospheric PCO2  has caused pH to decline in marine surface waters, a phenomenon known as ocean acidification (OA). The effects of OA on organisms have been shown to be widespread among diverse taxa from a wide range of habitats. The majority of studies of organismal response to OA are in short-term exposures to future levels of PCO2 . From such studies, much information has been gathered on plastic responses organisms may make in the future that are beneficial or harmful to fitness. Relatively few studies have examined whether organisms can adapt to negative-fitness consequences of plastic responses to OA. We outline major approaches that have been used to study the adaptive potential for organisms to OA, which include comparative studies and experimental evolution. Organisms that inhabit a range of pH environments (e.g. pH gradients at volcanic CO2 seeps or in upwelling zones) have great potential for studies that identify adaptive shifts that have occurred through evolution. Comparative studies have advanced our understanding of adaptation to OA by linking whole-organism responses with cellular mechanisms. Such optimization of function provides a link between genetic variation and adaptive evolution in tuning optimal function of rate-limiting cellular processes in different pH conditions. For example, in experimental evolution studies of organisms with short generation times (e.g. phytoplankton), hundreds of generations of growth under future conditions has resulted in fixed differences in gene expression related to acid-base regulation. However, biochemical mechanisms for adaptive responses to OA have yet to be fully characterized, and are likely to be more complex than simply changes in gene expression or protein modification. Finally, we present a hypothesis regarding an unexplored area for biochemical adaptation to ocean acidification. In this hypothesis, proteins and membranes exposed to the

  13. Tissue-specific Regulation of Immune Responses to Dietary Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. du Pré (Fleur)

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The term oral (or mucosal) tolerance has been defined as the suppression of T- and B-cell responses to an antigen by prior administration of the antigen by the oral route . From this definition, it can be inferred that mucosal tolerance is not just the ignorance of

  14. Gender discrimination in the influence of hyperglycemia and hyperosmolarity on rat aortic tissue responses to insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Nikki L; Achike, Francis I

    2010-08-09

    Hyperglycaemia initiates endothelial dysfunction causing diabetic macro- and micro-vasculopathy, the main causes of morbidity and mortality in diabetes mellitus. The vasculopathy exhibits gender peculiarities. We therefore explored gender differences in comparing the effects of hyperglycaemia (50 mM) per se with its hyperosmolar (50 mM) effects on vascular tissue responses to insulin. Endothelium-intact or denuded thoracic aortic rings from age-matched male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were incubated for 10 min or 6 h (acute versus chronic exposure) in normal, hyperglycaemic or hyperosmolar Krebs solution. Relaxant responses to insulin (6.9x10(-7)-6.9x10(-5) M) of the phenylephrine-contracted tissues were recorded. Endothelium denudation in both genders inhibited relaxation to insulin in all conditions, more significantly in female than in male tissues, suggesting the female response to insulin is more endothelium-dependent than the male. Acutely and chronically exposed normoglycemic endothelium-intact or -denuded tissues responded similarly to insulin. Chronic hyperglycemic or hyperosmolar exposure did not alter the endothelium-denuded tissue responses to insulin, whereas the responses of the endothelium-intact male and female hyperosmolar, and male hyperglycemic tissues were enhanced. The results show that insulin exerts an endothelium-dependent and independent relaxation with the female tissue responses more endothelium-dependent than the male. The data also suggest that hyperosmolarity per se enhances aortic tissue relaxant responses to insulin whereas hyperglycemia per se inhibits the same and more so in female than male tissues. These effects are endothelium-dependent. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Instructional PowerPoint presentations for cutaneous wound healing and tissue response to sutures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroncek, John D; Bell, Nicole; Reichert, W Monty

    2009-09-15

    Wound healing is an intricate process involving the interaction of cells and molecules, resulting in a complex series of events that change the morphology and characteristics of the wounded area. Interactive animations are useful for illustrating challenging concepts, helping students learn and retain new material. Instructional PowerPoint presentations describing the basic elements of cutaneous wound healing and the response of cutaneous tissue to sutures were developed by seven biomedical engineering students at Duke University. "Cutaneous Wound Healing.ppt" is an interactive presentation reviewing the four phases of wound healing (hemostasis, inflammation, repair, and remodeling) as well as the major molecular and cellular mechanisms that comprise these processes for cutaneous tissue. "Tissue Response to Sutures.ppt" is an interactive presentation that uses sutures to illustrate the foreign body response to biomaterials in cutaneous tissue. The tissue response program reviews the basics of suturing, common suture materials, and the tissue, cellular, and molecular responses to absorbable and nonabsorbable sutures. This manuscript provides a brief overview of the programs that are freely available on the Duke Center for Biomolecular and Tissue Engineering web site at http://bte.egr.duke.edu. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The influence of dose fractionation and dose rate on normal tissue responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barendsen, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of responses of a variety of normal tissues in animals to fractionated irradiations has been made with the aim of developing a formalism for the prediction of tolerance doses as a function of the dose per fraction and the overall treatment time. An important feature of the formalism is that it is directly based on radiological insights and therefore provides a logical concept to account for the diversity of tissue responses. (Auth.)

  17. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee L. Dordevic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD; body mass index (BMI 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water, carbohydrate (maltodextrin or lipid (dairy-cream. Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h, as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03 and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001 decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed.

  18. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dordevic, Aimee L; Pendergast, Felicity J; Morgan, Han; Villas-Boas, Silas; Caldow, Marissa K; Larsen, Amy E; Sinclair, Andrew J; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-07-01

    Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD)); body mass index (BMI) 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water), carbohydrate (maltodextrin) or lipid (dairy-cream). Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h), as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03) and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001) decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed.

  19. Radiological and pathological response following pre-operative radiotherapy for soft-tissue sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberge, David; Skamene, Tanya; Nahal, Ayoub; Turcotte, Robert E.; Powell, Tom; Freeman, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To report radiological and pathological response to neo-adjuvant radiotherapy for extremity and trunk soft-tissue sarcomas. Materials/methods: Fifty patients were identified retrospectively. All patients had MRI imaging pre and post neo-adjuvant external beam radiotherapy. Tumor volumes were measured in 3D on T1 Gadolinium enhanced sequences. Pathological treatment response was quantified in terms of percentage of treatment-related necrosis for each case. Results: Histopathologic responses to treatment varied from 0% to 100%. The median pathological treatment response was 67.5% for low-grade sarcomas and 50% for high-grade sarcomas. The median decrease in tumor volume was 13.8% for non-myxoid low-grade sarcomas, 82.1% for myxoid liposarcomas and <1% for high-grade sarcomas. A partial response on MRI (volume reduction ≥ 50%) was highly predictive of a good pathological response (p < 0.001). Patients with stable disease on imaging or volumetric progression had wide ranging pathological responses. Conclusions: Soft-tissue sarcomas show significant pathological treatment responses in the form of hyaline fibrosis, necrosis and granulation tissue. Despite this, there is minimal early volumetric response to radiation, especially for high-grade tumors. Although radiological partial response was predictive of pathological response, the significance of radiological progression was unclear. Myxoid liposarcoma tumor type was predictive of both pathological and radiological tumor response.

  20. Performance, biochemical and haematological responses, and relative organ weights of laying hens fed diets supplemented with prebiotic, probiotic and synbiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shirley Gee Hoon; Sieo, Chin Chin; Ramasamy, Kalavathy; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Wong, Hee Kum; Ho, Yin Wan

    2017-08-17

    The increasing trend of ban on the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) across the globe in the poultry industry has led to a growing need for alternatives to AGPs. Prebiotic, probiotic and their combination as a synbiotic have been considered as potential alternatives. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a prebiotic (isomaltooligosaccharide, IMO), a probiotic (PrimaLac®), and their combination (synbiotic) on hen performance, biochemical and haematological responses, and relative organ weights from 20 to 52 weeks of age. Supplementation of 1% IMO (PRE), 0.1% PrimaLac® (PRO) and 1% IMO + 0.1% PrimaLac® (SYN) improved (P feed intake and egg production at 20-36 weeks of age; body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and egg mass at 20-36 and 20-52 weeks of age; and egg weight at 20-36, 37-52 and 20-52 weeks of age. Compared to control-fed hens at 20-36 weeks of age, PRO- and SYN-fed hens produced less (P hens produced more large size eggs. From 37 to 52 weeks of age, PRE-, PRO- or SYN-fed hens produced less (P hens from 20 to 52 weeks of age. These results demonstrated the use of PRE, PRO and SYN as alternative feed additives to AGPs for improving the health and productivity of hens, while PRO is the best for commercial layer production to yield maximum profit.

  1. Immune response in the adipose tissue of lean mice infected with the protozoan parasite Neospora caninum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Luzia; Moreira, João; Melo, Joana; Bezerra, Filipa; Marques, Raquel M; Ferreirinha, Pedro; Correia, Alexandra; Monteiro, Mariana P; Ferreira, Paula G; Vilanova, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The adipose tissue can make important contributions to immune function. Nevertheless, only a limited number of reports have investigated in lean hosts the immune response elicited in this tissue upon infection. Previous studies suggested that the intracellular protozoan Neospora caninum might affect adipose tissue physiology. Therefore, we investigated in mice challenged with this protozoan if immune cell populations within adipose tissue of different anatomical locations could be differently affected. Early in infection, parasites were detected in the adipose tissue and by 7 days of infection increased numbers of macrophages, regulatory T (Treg) cells and T-bet+ cells were observed in gonadal, mesenteric, omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Increased expression of interferon-γ was also detected in gonadal adipose tissue of infected mice. Two months after infection, parasite DNA was no longer detected in these tissues, but T helper type 1 (Th1) cell numbers remained above control levels in the infected mice. Moreover, the Th1/Treg cell ratio was higher than that of controls in the mesenteric and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Interestingly, chronically infected mice presented a marked increase of serum leptin, a molecule that plays a role in energy balance regulation as well as in promoting Th1-type immune responses. Altogether, we show that an apicomplexa parasitic infection influences immune cellular composition of adipose tissue throughout the body as well as adipokine production, still noticed at a chronic phase of infection when parasites were already cleared from that particular tissue. This strengthens the emerging view that infections can have long-term consequences for the physiology of adipose tissue. PMID:25581844

  2. Tissue accumulation of microplastics in mice and biomarker responses suggest widespread health risks of exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yongfeng; Zhang, Yan; Lemos, Bernardo; Ren, Hongqiang

    2017-04-01

    Microplastics (MPs) are a significant environmental health issue and increasingly greater source of concern. MPs have been detected in oceans, rivers, sediments, sewages, soil and even table salts. MPs exposure on marine organisms and humans has been documented, but information about the toxicity of MPs in mammal is limited. Here we used fluorescent and pristine polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs) particles with two diameters (5 μm and 20 μm) to investigate the tissue distribution, accumulation, and tissue-specific health risk of MPs in mice. Results indicated that MPs accumulated in liver, kidney and gut, with a tissue-accumulation kinetics and distribution pattern that was strongly depended on the MPs particle size. In addition, analyses of multiple biochemical biomarkers and metabolomic profiles suggested that MPs exposure induced disturbance of energy and lipid metabolism as well as oxidative stress. Interestingly, blood biomarkers of neurotoxicity were also altered. Our results uncovered the distribution and accumulation of MPs across mice tissues and revealed significant alteration in several biomarkers that indicate potential toxicity from MPs exposure. Collectively, our data provided new evidence for the adverse consequences of MPs.

  3. Biological response of tissues with macrophagic activity to titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, Daniel G; Tasat, Deborah R; Evelson, Pablo; Guglielmotti, María B; Cabrini, Rómulo L

    2008-03-15

    The titanium dioxide layer is composed mainly of anatase and rutile. This layer is prone to break, releasing particles to the milieu. Therefore, corrosion may cause implant failure and body contamination. We have previously shown that commercial anatase-titanium dioxide (TiO(2)-anatase) is deposited in organs with macrophagic activity, transported in the blood by phagocytic-mononuclear cells, and induces an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we evaluated the effects of rutile-titanium dioxide (TiO(2)-rutile). Male Wistar rats were injected i.p. with a suspension of TiO(2)-rutile powder at a dose of 1.60 g/100 g b.w. Six months postinjection, the presence of Ti was assessed in serum, blood cells, liver, spleen, and lung. Titanium was found in phagocytic mononuclear cells, serum, and in the parenchyma of all the organs tested. TiO(2)-rutile generated a rise in the percentage of reactive cells, which was smaller than that observed when TiO(2)-anatase was employed in a previous study. Although TiO(2)-rutile provoked an augmentation of ROS, it failed to induce damage to membrane lipids, possibly due to an adaptive response. The present study reveals that TiO(2)-rutile is less bioreactive than TiO(2)-anatase. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Products of neutrophils and eosinophils increase the responsiveness of human isolated bronchial tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallahan, A R; Armour, C L; Black, J L

    1990-05-01

    This study examines the possibility that products of neutrophils and eosinophils could increase the responsiveness of human isolated bronchial tissue. Neutrophils and eosinophils were isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. The cells were incubated with 1 microM calcium ionophore A23187 for 10-15 min then centrifuged, the supernatant collected and stored at -70 degrees C. Human bronchial rings (2-3 mm diameter, 3-4 mm long) were prepared from specimens resected at thoracotomy. The tissues were suspended in organ baths under a 1 g load and changes in tension measured isometrically. Stable contractions to bolus doses of histamine (0.1-10 microM) or to electrical field stimulation (40-100 V, 4-16 Hz, 1 ms for 20 s) were established. Supernatant from 106 neutrophils or 105 eosinophils was then added and tissue responsiveness reassessed. Neutrophil supernatant increased tissue responsiveness to histamine and electrical field stimulation by 54 +/- 17% (n = 5, p less than 0.05) and 18 +/- 7% (n = 6, p less than 0.05), respectively. Eosinophil supernatant increased the histamine response by 60 +/- 23% (n = 8, p less than 0.05) while tissue responsiveness to electrical field stimulation was unchanged (n = 3). Thus, as neutrophils and eosinophils can change the responsiveness of human bronchus in vitro it is possible that they do this in vivo and may not simply be temporally related to the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness.

  5. Study of the Biochemical Responses and Enzymatic Activity of GF677 (Peach and Almond Hybrid Rootstock to In Vitro Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mashayekhi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Salinity is the most significant abiotic factor limiting crop productivity and several physiological responses, including modification of ion balance, water status, mineral nutrition, stomatal behavior, photosynthetic efficiency and so on. The GF677 (Prunuspersica×Prunusamygdalus is widelyusedas rootstock for peach and almond. It is mainly used as a rootstock because of its resistance to drought, calcic soil and Fe deficiency. Nowadays, using tissue culture techniques is very popular for the selection of plant resistant to abiotic stress (in vitro salinity; because in vitro conditions are more controllable than in vivo conditions and the large number of genotypes can be evaluated in a limited space. For example, in the field, plants are exposed to variable biological and climatic conditions which result in some interaction effects. In other words, the nutrition and climatic effects are easily controllable in the in vitro conditions all over the year. The objective of this study is to identify biochemical markers of salinity stress of GF677 rootstock under in vitro conditions. Materials and Methods: Plantlets of GF677 rootstock were subcultured into the Murashige and Skoog (MS proliferation medium containing1 mg/l BA (6-Benzyladenineand 0.1 mg/l NAA (naphthaline acetic acid with different concentrations (0, 40, 80 and 120 mM of sodium chloride (NaCl with four replicates. Cultures were transferred to the growth chamber with temperature of 25±2°C, relative humidity of 70%, under a 16/8 h (day/night photoperiod. Data were collected at the end of the experiment (6th weeks. Antioxidant enzymes activity (catalase and peroxidase,total protein content, proline content, soluble sugars, and Na and Cl were measured. The experiments were set up in a completely randomized design (CRD with four replicates (a vessel in each replicate and statistical analysis was performed using MSTAT-C program. Means were separated according to the Duncan

  6. Physiological and biochemical responses of fruit exocarp of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) mutants to natural photo-oxidative conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carolina A; Andrews, Preston K; Davies, Neal M

    2006-01-01

    Photo-oxidative stress was imposed under natural solar radiation on exposed and shaded sections of detached fruit of immature green tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller = Solanum lycopersicum L.) mutants (anthocyanin absent, beta-carotene, Delta, and high pigment-1) and their nearly isogenic parents ('Ailsa Craig' and 'Rutgers'). After 5 h exposure to high solar irradiance, either with or without ultraviolet (UV) radiation, surface colour changes, pigment composition, photosynthetic efficiency, antioxidant metabolites and enzyme activities, and selected flavonoids and antioxidant proteins in exocarp tissue were evaluated. The imposed photo-oxidative stress reproduced the symptoms observed on attached fruit. Both high temperature and solar irradiance caused fruit surface discoloration with faster degradation of chlorophyll (Chl) than carotenoids (Car), leading to an increase in the Car/Chl ratio. Surface bleaching was mostly caused by visible light, whereas elevated temperatures were mostly responsible for the inactivation of photosynthesis, measured as decreased F(v)/F(m). Ascorbate, glutathione, and total soluble protein concentrations decreased in the exocarp as the duration of exposure increased. Specific activities of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase, monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), and catalase increased with exposure, suggesting that these proteins were conserved during the imposed stress. GR protein expression remained stable during the imposed stress, whereas, MDHAR protein expression increased. Quercetin and kaempferol concentrations increased rapidly upon exposure, but not to UV radiation, suggesting rapid photo-protection in response to visible light; however, naringenin synthesis was not induced. The apparent increased tolerance of hp-1 fruit is discussed.

  7. Immune Responses to Tissue-Restricted Nonmajor Histocompatibility Complex Antigens in Allograft Rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Bharat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases that result in end-stage organ damage cause inflammation, which can reveal sequestered self-antigens (SAgs in that organ and trigger autoimmunity. The thymus gland deletes self-reactive T-cells against ubiquitously expressed SAgs, while regulatory mechanisms in the periphery control immune responses to tissue-restricted SAgs. It is now established that T-cells reactive to SAgs present in certain organs (e.g., lungs, pancreas, and intestine are incompletely eliminated, and the dysregulation of peripheral immuneregulation can generate immune responses to SAgs. Therefore, chronic diseases can activate self-reactive lymphocytes, inducing tissue-restricted autoimmunity. During organ transplantation, donor lymphocytes are tested against recipient serum (i.e., cross-matching to detect antibodies (Abs against donor human leukocyte antigens, which has been shown to reduce Ab-mediated hyperacute rejection. However, primary allograft dysfunction and rejection still occur frequently. Because donor lymphocytes do not express tissue-restricted SAgs, preexisting Abs against SAgs are undetectable during conventional cross-matching. Preexisting and de novo immune responses to tissue-restricted SAgs (i.e., autoimmunity play a major role in rejection. In this review, we discuss the evidence that supports autoimmunity as a contributor to rejection. Testing for preexisting and de novo immune responses to tissue-restricted SAgs and treatment based on immune responses after organ transplantation may improve short- and long-term outcomes after transplantation.

  8. Histological characterization of periprosthetic tissue responses for metal-on-metal hip replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Eual A.; Klein, Gregg R.; Cates, Harold E.; Kurtz, Steven M.; Steinbeck, Marla J.

    2014-01-01

    The histology of periprosthetic tissue from metal-on-metal (MOM) hip devices has been characterized by a variety of methods. The purpose of this study was to compare and evaluate the suitability of two previously developed aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesions (ALVAL) scoring systems for periprosthetic hip tissue responses retrieved from MOM THR systems revised for loosening. Two ALVAL scoring systems (Campbell and Oxford) were used to perform histological analysis of soft tissues from seventeen failed MOM THRs. The predominant reactions for this patient cohort were macrophage infiltration and necrosis, with less than half of the patients (41%) showing a significant lymphocytic response or a high ALVAL reaction (6%). Other morphological changes which varied among patients included hemosiderin accumulation, cartilage formation and heterotopic ossification. Both scoring systems correlated with macrophage and lymphocyte responses and with each other, however given the diversity and variability of the current responses the Oxford-ALVAL system was more suitable for scoring tissues from MOM THR patients revised for loosening. It is important that standardized methods to score MOM tissue responses be used consistently so multiple study results can be compared to one another and a consensus can be generated. PMID:24941402

  9. Th1-skewed tissue responses to a mycolyl glycolipid in mycobacteria-infected rhesus macaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Ayumi; Hattori, Yuki; Komori, Takaya [Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Nakamura, Takashi [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita 12 Nishi 6, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0812 (Japan); Igarashi, Tatsuhiko, E-mail: tigarash@virus.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Primate Model, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Harashima, Hideyoshi, E-mail: harasima@pharm.hokudai.ac.jp [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita 12 Nishi 6, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0812 (Japan); Sugita, Masahiko, E-mail: msugita@virus.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Glucose monomycolate (GMM) is a marker glycolipid for active tuberculosis. •Tissue responses to GMM involved up-regulation of Th1-attracting chemokines. •Th1-skewed local responses were mounted at the GMM-injected tissue. -- Abstract: Trehalose 6,6′-dimycolate (TDM) is a major glycolipid of the cell wall of mycobacteria with remarkable adjuvant functions. To avoid detection by the host innate immune system, invading mycobacteria down-regulate the expression of TDM by utilizing host-derived glucose as a competitive substrate for their mycolyltransferases; however, this enzymatic reaction results in the concomitant biosynthesis of glucose monomycolate (GMM) which is recognized by the acquired immune system. GMM-specific, CD1-restricted T cell responses have been detected in the peripheral blood of infected human subjects and monkeys as well as in secondary lymphoid organs of small animals, such as guinea pigs and human CD1-transgenic mice. Nevertheless, it remains to be determined how tissues respond at the site where GMM is produced. Here we found that rhesus macaques vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette–Guerin mounted a chemokine response in GMM-challenged skin that was favorable for recruiting T helper (Th)1 T cells. Indeed, the expression of interferon-γ, but not Th2 or Th17 cytokines, was prominent in the GMM-injected tissue. The GMM-elicited tissue response was also associated with the expression of monocyte/macrophage-attracting CC chemokines, such as CCL2, CCL4 and CCL8. Furthermore, the skin response to GMM involved the up-regulated expression of granulysin and perforin. Given that GMM is produced primarily by pathogenic mycobacteria proliferating within the host, the Th1-skewed tissue response to GMM may function efficiently at the site of infection.

  10. Th1-skewed tissue responses to a mycolyl glycolipid in mycobacteria-infected rhesus macaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Ayumi; Hattori, Yuki; Komori, Takaya; Nakamura, Takashi; Igarashi, Tatsuhiko; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Sugita, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Glucose monomycolate (GMM) is a marker glycolipid for active tuberculosis. •Tissue responses to GMM involved up-regulation of Th1-attracting chemokines. •Th1-skewed local responses were mounted at the GMM-injected tissue. -- Abstract: Trehalose 6,6′-dimycolate (TDM) is a major glycolipid of the cell wall of mycobacteria with remarkable adjuvant functions. To avoid detection by the host innate immune system, invading mycobacteria down-regulate the expression of TDM by utilizing host-derived glucose as a competitive substrate for their mycolyltransferases; however, this enzymatic reaction results in the concomitant biosynthesis of glucose monomycolate (GMM) which is recognized by the acquired immune system. GMM-specific, CD1-restricted T cell responses have been detected in the peripheral blood of infected human subjects and monkeys as well as in secondary lymphoid organs of small animals, such as guinea pigs and human CD1-transgenic mice. Nevertheless, it remains to be determined how tissues respond at the site where GMM is produced. Here we found that rhesus macaques vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette–Guerin mounted a chemokine response in GMM-challenged skin that was favorable for recruiting T helper (Th)1 T cells. Indeed, the expression of interferon-γ, but not Th2 or Th17 cytokines, was prominent in the GMM-injected tissue. The GMM-elicited tissue response was also associated with the expression of monocyte/macrophage-attracting CC chemokines, such as CCL2, CCL4 and CCL8. Furthermore, the skin response to GMM involved the up-regulated expression of granulysin and perforin. Given that GMM is produced primarily by pathogenic mycobacteria proliferating within the host, the Th1-skewed tissue response to GMM may function efficiently at the site of infection

  11. Delivery strategies to control inflammatory response: Modulating M1-M2 polarization in tissue engineering applications

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Mario Moisés; Liu, Julie C.; Santiago, Grissel Trujillo-de; Cha, Byung-Hyun; Vishwakarma, Ajaykumar; Ghaemmaghami, Amir; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are key players in many physiological scenarios including tissue homeostasis. In response to injury, typically the balance between macrophage sub-populations shifts from an M1 phenotype (pro-inflammatory) to an M2 phenotype (anti-inflammatory). In tissue engineering scenarios, after implantation of any device, it is desirable to exercise control on this M1-M2 progression and to ensure a timely and smooth transition from the inflammatory to the healing stage. In this review, we bri...

  12. Tissue Tropism in Host Transcriptional Response to Members of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behura, Susanta K; Tizioto, Polyana C; Kim, JaeWoo; Grupioni, Natalia V; Seabury, Christopher M; Schnabel, Robert D; Gershwin, Laurel J; Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Toaff-Rosenstein, Rachel; Neibergs, Holly L; Regitano, Luciana C A; Taylor, Jeremy F

    2017-12-20

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common infectious disease of beef and dairy cattle and is characterized by a complex infectious etiology that includes a variety of viral and bacterial pathogens. We examined the global changes in mRNA abundance in healthy lung and lung lesions and in the lymphoid tissues bronchial lymph node, retropharyngeal lymph node, nasopharyngeal lymph node and pharyngeal tonsil collected at the peak of clinical disease from beef cattle experimentally challenged with either bovine respiratory syncytial virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Mannheimia haemolytica or Mycoplasma bovis. We identified signatures of tissue-specific transcriptional responses indicative of tropism in the coordination of host's immune tissue responses to infection by viral or bacterial infections. Furthermore, our study shows that this tissue tropism in host transcriptional response to BRD pathogens results in the activation of different networks of response genes. The differential crosstalk among genes expressed in lymphoid tissues was predicted to be orchestrated by specific immune genes that act as 'key players' within expression networks. The results of this study serve as a basis for the development of innovative therapeutic strategies and for the selection of cattle with enhanced resistance to BRD.

  13. Novel Bioceramic Urethral Bulking Agents Elicit Improved Host Tissue Responses in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis K. Mann-Gow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To test the physical properties and host response to the bioceramic particles, silica-calcium phosphate (SCPC10 and Cristobalite, in a rat animal model and compare their biocompatibility to the current clinically utilized urethral bulking materials. Material and Methods. The novel bulking materials, SCPC10 and Cristobalite, were suspended in hyaluronic acid sodium salt and injected into the mid urethra of a rat. Additional animals were injected with bulking materials currently in clinical use. Physiological response was assessed using voiding trials, and host tissue response was evaluated using hard tissue histology and immunohistochemical analysis. Distant organs were evaluated for the presence of particles or their components. Results. Histological analysis of the urethral tissue five months after injection showed that both SCPC10 and Cristobalite induced a more robust fibroblastic and histiocytic reaction, promoting integration and encapsulation of the particle aggregates, leading to a larger bulking effect. Concentrations of Ca, Na, Si, and P ions in the experimental groups were comparable to control animals. Conclusions. This side-by-side examination of urethral bulking agents using a rat animal model and hard tissue histology techniques compared two newly developed bioactive ceramic particles to three of the currently used bulking agents. The local host tissue response and bulking effects of bioceramic particles were superior while also possessing a comparable safety profile.

  14. Reduced tonicity stimulates an inflammatory response in nucleus pulposus tissue that can be limited by a COX-2-specific inhibitor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Bart; Potier, Esther; van Dijk, Maarten; Langelaan, Marloes; Papen-Botterhuis, Nicole; Ito, K

    2015-01-01

    In intervertebral disc herniation with nucleus pulposus (NP) extrusion, the elicited inflammatory response is considered a key pain mechanism. However, inflammatory cytokines are reported in extruded herniated tissue, even before monocyte infiltration, suggesting that the tissue itself initiates the

  15. Reduced Tonicity Stimulates an Inflammatory Response in Nucleus Pulposus Tissue That Can Be Limited by a COX-2-Specific Inhibitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, B. van; Potier, E.; Dijk, M. van; Langelaan, M.; Papen-Botterhuis, N.E.; Ito, K.

    2015-01-01

    In intervertebral disc herniation with nucleus pulposus (NP) extrusion, the elicited inflammatory response is considered a key pain mechanism. However, inflammatory cytokines are reported in extruded herniated tissue, even before monocyte infiltration, suggesting that the tissue itself initiates the

  16. Time-dose response of human tumors and normal tissues during and after fractionated radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Geijn, J.

    1988-01-01

    The background and some results of initial applications of a new model of time-dose response of tumors as well as fast-renewing normal tissues to fractionated radiation therapy are presented. Both the linear-quadratic and the single-hit/single-target, single-hit/multi-target model may be used for the single-dose survival of both the viable stem cells and the clonogenic tumor cells. Normal tissue tolerance is expressed as a minimum acceptable level of normal tissue functionality, due to insufficient production of replacement cells, which in turn is caused by radiation-induced depletion of the viable stem cell population. A logistic function describes the homeostatically controlled inter-fraction and post-treatment normal tissue stem cell repopulation. The onset of stem cell repopulation may be delayed, and the doubling rate of clonogenic tumor cells may increase, upon the onset of treatment. Criteria for the selection of acceptable parameter values for normal tissue as well as tumors are described. An interactive Fortran77 program has been developed to assist in the search for acceptable parameter values, the simulation of the time-dose response of normal tissues and tumors to conventional clinical fractionation schemes and the exploration of alternative schedules, including hyperfractionation. Some provisional results are presented. 29 refs.; 11 figs.; 2 tabs

  17. Rat subcutaneous tissue response to MTA Fillapex® and Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Nádia Carolina Teixeira; Lourenço Neto, Natalino; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Rodini, Camila de Oliveira; Duarte, Marco Antônio Hungaro; Oliveira, Thais Marchini

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of rat subcutaneous tissue to MTA Fillapex® (Angelus), an experimental root canal filling material based on Portland cement and propylene glycol (PCPG), and a zinc oxide, eugenol and iodoform (ZOEI) paste. These materials were placed in polyethylene tubes and implanted into the dorsal connective tissue of Wistar rats for 7 and 15 days. The specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and evaluated regarding inflammatory reaction parameters by optical microscopy. The intensity of inflammatory response against the sealers was analyzed by two blinded and previously calibrated examiners for all experimental periods (kappa=0.96). The histological evaluation showed that all materials caused a moderate inflammatory reaction at 7 days, which subsided with time. A greater inflammatory reaction was observed at 7 days in the tubes filled with ZOEI paste. Tubes filled with MTA Fillapex presented some giant cells, macrophages and lymphocytes after 7 days. At 15 days, the presence of fibroblasts and collagen fibers was observed indicating normal tissue healing. The tubes filled with PCPG showed similar results to those observed in MTA Fillapex. At 15 days, the inflammatory reaction was almost absent at the tissue, with several collagen fibers indicating normal tissue healing. Data were analyzed by the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test (α=0.05). Statistically significant difference (p0.05). MTA Fillapex and Portland cement added with propylene glycol had greater tissue compatibility than the PCPG paste.

  18. Soft tissue response in orthognathic surgery patients treated by bimaxillary osteotomy: cephalometry compared with 2-D photogrammetry

    OpenAIRE

    Rustemeyer, Jan; Martin, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Since improvement of facial aesthetics after orthognathic surgery moves increasingly into the focus of patients, prediction of soft tissue response to hard tissue movement becomes essential for planning. The aim of this study was to assess the facial soft tissue response in skeletal class II and III patients undergoing orthognathic surgery and to compare the potentials of cephalometry and two-dimensional (2-D) photogrammetry for predicting soft tissue changes. Material and methods Twe...

  19. Biochemical and proteomic analyses of the physiological response induced by individual housing in gilts provide new potential stress markers

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Ramell, Anna; Arroyo, Laura; Peña, Raquel; Pato, Raquel; Saco, Yolanda; Fraile Sauce, Lorenzo José; Bendixen, Emøke; Bassols, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective assessment of animal stress and welfare requires proper laboratory biomarkers. In this work, we have analyzed the changes in serum composition in gilts after switching their housing, from pen to individual stalls, which is generally accepted to cause animal discomfort. Results Blood and saliva samples were collected a day before and up to four days after changing the housing system. Biochemical analyses showed adaptive changes in lipid and protein metabolism after the...

  20. Tissue-specific fatty acids response to different diets in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Markus; Schultz, Sebastian; Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Kainz, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA) to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively) in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue) of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO) with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption.

  1. Tissue-specific fatty acids response to different diets in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Böhm

    Full Text Available Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption.

  2. Investigation of the biochemical state of paramagnetic ions in vivo using the magnetic field dependence of 1/T1 of tissue protons (NMRD profile): applications to contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, S.H.; Brown, R.D. III; Spiller, M.; Wolf, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) profiles of protons are obtained in homogenous aqueous solutions of the paramagnetic ions, Mn 2+ and Gd 3+ and their chelate and macromolecular complexes in vitro, giving information regarding the biochemical state of these ions. Similarly NMRD profiles of protons of excised rabbit tissues containing Mn 2+ and Gd 3+ complexes are obtained. These NMRD profiles are shown to be very useful for determining the fate of potentially useful paramagnetic NMR imaging contrast agents in vivo. (U.K.)

  3. Response of Selenium and Selenogenome in Immune Tissues to LPS-Induced Inflammatory Reactions in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lv-Hui; Pi, Ding-An; Zhao, Ling; Wang, Xiu-Ying; Zhu, Luo-Yi; Qi, De-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Lan

    2017-05-01

    Circulating concentration of the essential trace element selenium (Se) was significantly lower in inflammatory disorders. Although Se plays physiological roles mainly through the function of 25 selenoproteins, the response of the selenogenome in immune tissues during inflammatory reactions remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the Se retention and selenogenome expression in immune tissues during the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in porcine. A total of 12 male pigs were randomly divided into two groups and injected with LPS or saline. After 4 h postinjection, blood samples were collected and pigs were euthanized. Pigs challenged with LPS had 36.8 and 16.6 % lower (P response of Txnrd2, Txnrd3, Sep15, Selh, Seli, Seln, Selo, Selt, Selx, and Sephs2 to inflammatory reaction in immune tissues were newly illustrated in this study. In conclusion, the LPS-induced inflammatory response impaired Se metabolism and was associated with dysregulation of the selenogenome expression in immune tissues.

  4. Sex differences in metabolic and adipose tissue responses to juvenile-onset obesity in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloor, Ian D; Sébert, Sylvain P; Saroha, Vivek; Gardner, David S; Keisler, Duane H; Budge, Helen; Symonds, Michael E; Mahajan, Ravi P

    2013-10-01

    Sex is a major factor determining adipose tissue distribution and the subsequent adverse effects of obesity-related disease including type 2 diabetes. The role of gender on juvenile obesity and the accompanying metabolic and inflammatory responses is not well established. Using an ovine model of juvenile onset obesity induced by reduced physical activity, we examined the effect of gender on metabolic, circulatory, and related inflammatory and energy-sensing profiles of the major adipose tissue depots. Despite a similar increase in fat mass with obesity between genders, males demonstrated a higher storage capacity of lipids within perirenal-abdominal adipocytes and exhibited raised insulin. In contrast, obese females became hypercortisolemic, a response that was positively correlated with central fat mass. Analysis of gene expression in perirenal-abdominal adipose tissue demonstrated the stimulation of inflammatory markers in males, but not females, with obesity. Obese females displayed increased expression of genes involved in the glucocorticoid axis and energy sensing in perirenal-abdominal, but not omental, adipose tissue, indicating a depot-specific mechanism that may be protective from the adverse effects of metabolic dysfunction and inflammation. In conclusion, young males are at a greater risk than females to the onset of comorbidities associated with juvenile-onset obesity. These sex-specific differences in cortisol and adipose tissue could explain the earlier onset of the metabolic-related diseases in males compared with females after obesity.

  5. Tissue-specific consequences of the anti-adenoviral immune response: implications for cardiac transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S Y; Li, K; Piccotti, J R; Louie, M C; Judge, T A; Turka, L A; Eichwald, E J; Bishop, D K

    1999-10-01

    The immune response to adenoviral vectors can induce inflammation and loss of transgene expression in transfected tissues. This would limit the use of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in disease states in which long-term gene expression is required. While studying the effect of the anti-adenoviral immune response in transplantation, we found that transgene expression persisted in cardiac isografts transfected with an adenovirus encoding beta-galactosidase. Transfected grafts remained free of inflammation, despite the presence of an immune response to the vector. Thus, adenovirus-mediated gene transfer may have therapeutic value in cardiac transplantation and heart diseases. Furthermore, immunological limitations of adenoviral vectors for gene therapy are not universal for all tissue types.

  6. Early plant growth and biochemical responses induced by Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 lipopolysaccharides in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings are attenuated by procyanidin B2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo-Ochoa, Juan; López-Marmolejo, Mariel; Hernández-Esquivel, Alma Alejandra; Méndez-Gómez, Manuel; Suárez-Soria, Laura Nicolasa; Castro-Mercado, Elda; García-Pineda, Ernesto

    2018-03-01

    This study analyzes the effects of procyanidin B2 on early wheat plant growth and plant biochemical responses promoted by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) derived from the rhizobacteria Azospirillum brasilense Sp245. Measurements of leaf, root length, fresh weight, and dry weight showed in vitro plant growth stimulation 4 days after treatment with A. brasilense as well as LPS. Superoxide anion (O 2 ·- ) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) levels increased in seedling roots treated with LPS (100 μg mL -1 ). The chlorophyll content in leaf decreased while the starch content increased 24 h after treatment in seedling roots. The LPS treatment induced a high increase in total peroxidase (POX) (EC 1.11.1.7) activity and ionically bound cell wall POX content in roots, when compared to respective controls. Early plant growth and biochemical responses observed in wheat seedlings treated with LPS were inhibited by the addition of procyanidin B2 (5 μg mL -1 ), a B type proanthocyanidin (PAC), plant-derived polyphenolic compound with binding properties of LPS. All results suggest first that the ionically bound cell wall POX enzymes could be a molecular target of A. brasilense LPS, and second that the recognition or association of LPS by plant cells is required to activate plant responses. This last event could play a critical role during plant growth regulation by A. brasilense LPS.

  7. Carcinoma cells misuse the host tissue damage response to invade the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Han-Ning; van Rossum, Denise; Sieger, Dirk; Siam, Laila; Klemm, Florian; Bleckmann, Annalen; Bayerlová, Michaela; Farhat, Katja; Scheffel, Jörg; Schulz, Matthias; Dehghani, Faramarz; Stadelmann, Christine; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Binder, Claudia; Pukrop, Tobias

    2013-08-01

    The metastatic colonization of the brain by carcinoma cells is still barely understood, in particular when considering interactions with the host tissue. The colonization comes with a substantial destruction of the surrounding host tissue. This leads to activation of damage responses by resident innate immune cells to protect, repair, and organize the wound healing, but may distract from tumoricidal actions. We recently demonstrated that microglia, innate immune cells of the CNS, assist carcinoma cell invasion. Here we report that this is a fatal side effect of a physiological damage response of the brain tissue. In a brain slice coculture model, contact with both benign and malignant epithelial cells induced a response by microglia and astrocytes comparable to that seen at the interface of human cerebral metastases. While the glial damage response intended to protect the brain from intrusion of benign epithelial cells by inducing apoptosis, it proved ineffective against various malignant cell types. They did not undergo apoptosis and actually exploited the local tissue reaction to invade instead. Gene expression and functional analyses revealed that the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) and WNT signaling were involved in this process. Furthermore, CXCR4-regulated microglia were recruited to sites of brain injury in a zebrafish model and CXCR4 was expressed in human stroke patients, suggesting a conserved role in damage responses to various types of brain injuries. Together, our findings point to a detrimental misuse of the glial damage response program by carcinoma cells resistant to glia-induced apoptosis. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Tissue-Specific Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Multiple Responses to Salt Stress in Populus euphratica Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Yu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress is one of the most crucial factors impacting plant growth, development and reproduction. However, information regarding differences in tissue-specific gene expression patterns, which may improve a plant’s tolerance to salt stress, is limited. Here, we investigated the gene expression patterns in tissues of Populus euphratica Oliv. seedlings using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq technology. A total of 109.3 million, 125bp paired-end clean reads were generated, and 6428, 4797, 2335 and 3358 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified in leaf, phloem, xylem and root tissues, respectively. While the tissue-specific DEGs under salt stress had diverse functions, “membrane transporter activity” was the most significant leaf function, whereas “oxidation–reduction process” was the most significant function in root tissue. Further analysis of the tissue-specific DEGs showed that the expression patterns or functions of gene families, such as SOS, NHX, GolS, GPX, APX, RBOHF and CBL, were diverse, suggesting that calcium signaling, reactive oxygen species (ROS and salt overly sensitive (SOS pathways are all involved in ionic homeostasis in tissues from P. euphratica seedlings. The DEGs, for example the up-regulated antioxidant genes, contribute to ROS-scavenging induced by salt stress but result in decreased Na+ concentrations in root vasculature cells and in xylem sap, while the down-regulated rbohF leads to the reverse results. These results suggest that the divergence of DEGs expression patterns contribute to maintenance of ionic and ROS homeostasis in tissues and improve plant salinity tolerance. We comprehensively analyzed the response of P. euphratica seedlings to salt stress and provide helpful genetic resources for studying plant-abiotic stress interactions.

  9. Morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization of twelve nitrogen-fixing bacteria and their response to various zinc concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadook, Mohammad; Mehrabian, Sedigheh; Salehi, Mitra; Irian, Saeed

    2014-04-01

    Zinc is an essential micronutrient used in the form of zinc sulfate in fertilizers in the agriculture production system. Nitrogen-fixing microorganisms are also of considerable value in promoting soil fertility. This study aimed to investigate the degree of sensitivity to varying concentrations of zinc, in the form of ZnSO4, in different strains of Azotobacter chroococcum in a laboratory environment. To isolate A. chroococcum strains, soil samples were collected from wheat, corn and asparagus rhizospheres and cultured in media lacking nitrogen at 30˚C for 48 hours. Strains were identified based on morphological and biochemical characteristics. The presence of the nitrogenase enzyme system was confirmed by testing for the presence of the nifH gene using PCR analysis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and optimal zinc concentration for the growth of each strain was determined. A total of 12 bacterial strains were isolated from six different soil samples. A. chroococcum strains were morphologically and biochemically characterized. The presence of the nifH gene was confirmed in all the strains. MIC and the optimal zinc concentration for bacterial growth were 50 ppm and 20 ppm, respectively. It was concluded that increasing the concentration of zinc in the agricultural soil is harmful to beneficial microorganisms and reduces the soil fertility. A 20-ppm zinc concentration in soil is suggested to be optimal.

  10. Morphological, biochemical, physiological and molecular aspects of the response of Fusobacterium nucleatum exposed to subinhibitory concentrations of antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Filho, Job Alves; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo; Barbosa, Natália Bento; de Freitas, Michele Cristine Ribeiro; Lopes Neves, Mariana Silva; da Gama Mazzei, Rafaella Nogueira; Gameiro, Jacy; Coelho, Cíntia Marques; da Silva, Vânia Lúcia

    2012-12-01

    Subinhibitory concentrations (SICs) of antimicrobials may result in alterations in bacterial biology with implications for its potential aggression. This has considerable importance for the resident microbiota. Our aim was to analyze the effects of SICs of antimicrobials on the morphological, biochemical, physiological and molecular characteristics of the resident anaerobic Fusobacterium nucleatum. Fourteen strains were obtained from F. nucleatum ATCC 25586, selected by culturing on SICs of ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, levofloxacin, metronidazole and piperacillin/tazobactam and subsequent culturing in the absence of drugs. Antimicrobial susceptibility, bacterial morphology, biochemical profiles and biofilm formation were evaluated. Genotyping and analysis of protein profiles were also performed. The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns showed that most of the derived strains were less sensitive to the antimicrobials, even after culturing them without drugs. Morphological and cell complexity alterations were observed, mainly in strains grown in SICs of β-lactam; these strains also expressed a reduced ability for biofilm formation. The other strains showed an increase in biofilm formation but no apparent morphological changes. Alterations were observed in the carbohydrate metabolism patterns and in the activity of microbial enzymes. Several proteins were positively or negatively regulated and there was polymorphism in the DNA from all derived strains. Therefore, SICs of antimicrobials induce alterations in F. nucleatum, which directly impact its biology. These results emphasize the risk of inadequate antibioticotherapy, which may have serious implications for clinical microbiology and infectious diseases and also may interfere with the host-bacteria relationship. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative tissue transcriptomics reveal prompt inter-organ communication in response to local bacterial kidney infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhen Mikael

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucosal infections elicit inflammatory responses via regulated signaling pathways. Infection outcome depends strongly on early events occurring immediately when bacteria start interacting with cells in the mucosal membrane. Hitherto reported transcription profiles on host-pathogen interactions are strongly biased towards in vitro studies. To detail the local in vivo genetic response to infection, we here profiled host gene expression in a recent experimental model that assures high spatial and temporal control of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC infection within the kidney of a live rat. Results Transcriptional profiling of tissue biopsies from UPEC-infected kidney tissue revealed 59 differentially expressed genes 8 h post-infection. Their relevance for the infection process was supported by a Gene Ontology (GO analysis. Early differential expression at 3 h and 5 h post-infection was of low statistical significance, which correlated to the low degree of infection. Comparative transcriptomics analysis of the 8 h data set and online available studies of early local infection and inflammation defined a core of 80 genes constituting a "General tissue response to early local bacterial infections". Among these, 25% were annotated as interferon-γ (IFN-γ regulated. Subsequent experimental analyses confirmed a systemic increase of IFN-γ in rats with an ongoing local kidney infection, correlating to splenic, rather than renal Ifng induction and suggested this inter-organ communication to be mediated by interleukin (IL-23. The use of comparative transcriptomics allowed expansion of the statistical data handling, whereby relevant data could also be extracted from the 5 h data set. Out of the 31 differentially expressed core genes, some represented specific 5 h responses, illustrating the value of comparative transcriptomics when studying the dynamic nature of gene regulation in response to infections. Conclusion Our hypothesis

  12. Examining the role of nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoreticular tissue (NALT) in mouse responses to vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisney, Emily D; Fernandez, Stefan; Hall, Shannan I; Krietz, Gale A; Ulrich, Robert G

    2012-08-01

    The nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoreticular tissues (NALT) found in humans, rodents, and other mammals, contribute to immunity in the nasal sinuses(1-3). The NALT are two parallel bell-shaped structures located in the nasal passages above the hard palate, and are usually considered to be secondary components of the mucosal-associated lymphoid system(4-6). Located within the NALT are discrete compartments of B and T lymphocytes interspersed with antigen-presenting dendritic cells(4,7,8). These cells are surrounded by an epithelial cell layer intercalated with M-cells that are responsible for antigen retrieval from the mucosal surfaces of the air passages(9,10). Naive lymphocytes circulating through the NALT are poised to respond to first encounters with respiratory pathogens(7). While NALT disappear in humans by the age of two years, the Waldeyer's Ring and similarly structured lymphatic organs continue to persist throughout life(6). In contrast to humans, mice retain NALT throughout life, thus providing a convenient animal model for the study of immune responses originating within the nasal sinuses(11). Cultures of single-cell suspensions of NALT are not practical due to low yields of mononuclear cells. However, NALT biology can be examined by ex vivo culturing of the intact organ, and this method has the additional advantage of maintaining the natural tissue structure. For in vivo studies, genetic knockout models presenting defects limited to NALT are not currently available due to a poor understanding of the developmental pathway. For example, while lymphotoxin-α knockout mice have atrophied NALT, the Peyer's patches, peripheral lymph nodes, follicular dendritic cells and other lymphoid tissues are also altered in these genetically manipulated mice(12,13). As an alternative to gene knockout mice, surgical ablation permanently eliminates NALT from the nasal passage without affecting other tissues. The resulting mouse model has been used to establish

  13. Response of the periapical tissue of dogs' teeth to the action of citric acid and EDTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Berthold Sperandio

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the inflammatory response of dog's periapical tissues to 17% trisodium EDTA salt (pH 8.0 and 1% citric acid (pH 2.0. Saline was used as a control. Six adult dogs were used as the biological model of the study. The experimental units comprised 56 roots of mandibular molars (first and second and premolars (first, second and third. After coronal opening, pulpectomy and root canal instrumentation were performed using the above-mentioned irrigating solutions. After 24 and 48 hours, the animals were euthanized and the teeth and their supporting tissues were removed and histologically processed. The sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and analyzed histopathologically with a light microscope at x100 magnification. The histological analysis focused on the occurrence of acute inflammatory response. The presence of swelling, vasodilatation and inflammatory cells were evaluated and the degree of inflammation was determined for each case. Data were analyzed by Fisher's exact test using the SPSS software with a confidence interval of 95% (p<0.05. 17% EDTA and 1% citric acid caused inflammatory responses in dog's periapical tissues with no significant differences to each other or to saline (control at either the 24-hour (p=0.482 or 48-hour (p=0.377 periods. It may be concluded that the inflammatory response was of mild intensity for the tested substances.

  14. The developing schistosome worms elicit distinct immune responses in different tissue regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliam, Hamish E G; Driguez, Patrick; Piedrafita, David; Maupin, Kevin A; Haab, Brian B; McManus, Donald P; Meeusen, Els N T

    2013-08-01

    Schistosome parasites follow a complex migration path through various tissues, changing their antigenic profile as they develop. A thorough understanding of the antibody response in each tissue region could help unravel the complex immunology of these developing parasites and aid vaccine design. Here we used a novel strategy for analysing the local antibody responses induced by Schistosoma japonicum infection at each site of infection. Cells from rat lymph nodes draining the sites of larval migration (the skin and lungs), the liver-lymph nodes where adults reside and the spleens were cultured to allow the in vivo-induced antibody-secreting cells to release antibody into the media. The amount and isotype of antibodies secreted in the supernatants differed significantly in the different lymph nodes and spleen, corresponding with the migration path of the schistosome worms. In addition, there were significant differences in binding specificity, as determined by surface labelling, western blots and by screening a glycan array. Through capturing the local antibody response, this study has revealed dramatic differences in the quality and specificity of the immune response at different tissue sites, and highlighted the existence of stage-specific protein and carbohydrate antigens. This will provide a valuable tool for the isolation of novel vaccine targets against the larval stages of schistosomes.

  15. Wound trauma mediated inflammatory signaling attenuates a tissue regenerative response in MRL/MpJ mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elster Eric A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe trauma can induce pathophysiological responses that have marked inflammatory components. The development of systemic inflammation following severe thermal injury has been implicated in immune dysfunction, delayed wound healing, multi-system organ failure and increased mortality. Methods In this study, we examined the impact of thermal injury-induced systemic inflammation on the healing response of a secondary wound in the MRL/MpJ mouse model, which was anatomically remote from the primary site of trauma, a wound that typically undergoes scarless healing in this specific strain. Ear-hole wounds in MRL/MpJ mice have previously displayed accelerated healing and tissue regeneration in the absence of a secondary insult. Results Severe thermal injury in addition to distal ear-hole wounds induced marked local and systemic inflammatory responses in the lungs and significantly augmented the expression of inflammatory mediators in the ear tissue. By day 14, 61% of the ear-hole wounds from thermally injured mice demonstrated extensive inflammation with marked inflammatory cell infiltration, extensive ulceration, and various level of necrosis to the point where a large percentage (38% had to be euthanized early during the study due to extensive necrosis, inflammation and ear deformation. By day 35, ear-hole wounds in mice not subjected to thermal injury were completely closed, while the ear-hole wounds in thermally injured mice exhibited less inflammation and necrosis and only closed partially (62%. Thermal injury resulted in marked increases in serum levels of IL-6, TNFα, KC (CXCL1, and MIP-2α (CXCL2. Interestingly, attenuated early ear wound healing in the thermally injured mouse resulted in incomplete tissue regeneration in addition to a marked inflammatory response, as evidenced by the histological appearance of the wound and increased transcription of potent inflammatory mediators. Conclusion These findings suggest that the

  16. Methods of Assessing Human Tendon Metabolism and Tissue Properties in Response to Changes in Mechanical Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, Katja M; Kjaer, Michael; Magnusson, S Peter

    2016-01-01

    expression as well as protein synthesis rate. Further the (14)C bomb-pulse method has provided data on long-term tissue turnover in human tendon. Non-invasive techniques allow measurement of tendon metabolism (positron emission tomography (PET)), tendon morphology (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI......In recent years a number of methodological developments have improved the opportunities to study human tendon. Microdialysis enables sampling of interstitial fluid in the peritendon tissue, while sampling of human tendon biopsies allows direct analysis of tendon tissue for gene- and protein......)), and tendon mechanical properties (ultrasonography combined with force measurement during movement). Finally, 3D cell cultures of human tendon cells provide the opportunity to investigate cell-matrix interactions in response to various interventions....

  17. Utilizing the Foreign Body Response to Grow Tissue Engineered Blood Vessels in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelhoed, Wouter J; Moroni, Lorenzo; Rotmans, Joris I

    2017-04-01

    It is well known that the number of patients requiring a vascular grafts for use as vessel replacement in cardiovascular diseases, or as vascular access site for hemodialysis is ever increasing. The development of tissue engineered blood vessels (TEBV's) is a promising method to meet this increasing demand vascular grafts, without having to rely on poorly performing synthetic options such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or Dacron. The generation of in vivo TEBV's involves utilizing the host reaction to an implanted biomaterial for the generation of completely autologous tissues. Essentially this approach to the development of TEBV's makes use of the foreign body response to biomaterials for the construction of the entire vascular replacement tissue within the patient's own body. In this review we will discuss the method of developing in vivo TEBV's, and debate the approaches of several research groups that have implemented this method.

  18. Biochemical responses of ecological importance in males of the austral South America amphipod Hyalella curvispina Shoemaker, 1942 exposed to waterborne cadmium and copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusto, Anabella; Ferrari, Lucrecia

    2014-02-01

    The use of physiological parameters as sensitive indicators of toxic stress from exposure to different pollutants is an important issue to be studied. Hyalella curvispina is a Neotropical amphipod often used in ecotoxicological evaluations. This work aimed to quantify biochemical responses of ecological importance in H. curvispina males under stress exposure to sublethal concentrations of waterborne copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd); in order to obtain basic physiological data as indicators of early effect on this species, on track to its standardization. In order to evaluate the physiological, biochemical and energetic status of the exposed animals, the following endpoints were selected: content of glycogen, total proteins, total lipids, triglycerides, glycerol, arginine, arginine phosphate, levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS), and Na(+)/K(+)ATPase, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Our results show that the concentrations of Cu (135 and 175 µg/L) and Cd (6.5 and 10.5 µg/L) tested altered most of the biochemical variables measured (glycogen, total proteins, total lipids, triglycerides, arginine phosphate, TBARS, and SOD and Na(+)/K(+)ATPase activities). In addition, neither the levels of glycerol and arginine nor CAT activity were affected by exposure to either metal. Energy metabolism was similarly affected both by exposure to Cu and exposure to Cd. The results obtained show the existence of an energy imbalance associated with oxidative damage, suggesting a comprehensive response. This work represents a first contribution of the evaluation of the effect of two heavy metals in some parameters of oxidative stress and energy metabolism of H. curvispina males. The results indicate these parameters can provide a sensitive criterion for the assessment of early ecotoxicological effects of Cu and Cd in laboratory assays, on a native species representative of the zoobenthic and epiphytic communities of South America. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  19. SU-E-J-31: Biodynamic Imaging of Cancer Tissue and Response to Chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolte, D; Turek, J; Childress, M; An, R; Merrill, D [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Matei, D [Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To measure intracellular motions inside three-dimensional living cancer tissue samples to establish a novel set of biodynamic biomarkers that assess tissue proliferative activity and sensitivity or resistance to chemotherapy. Methods: Biodynamic imaging (BDI) uses digital holography with low-coherence low-intensity light illumination to construct 3D holograms from depths up to a millimeter deep inside cancer tissue models that include multicellular tumor spheroids and ex vivo cancer biopsies from canine non-Hodgkins lymphoma and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) mouse explants. Intracellular motions modulate the holographic intensity with frequencies related to the Doppler effect caused by the motions of a wide variety of intracellular components. These motions are affected by applied therapeutic agents, and BDI produces unique fingerprints of the action of specific drugs on the motions in specific cell types. In this study, chemotherapeutic agents (doxorubicin for canine lymphoma and oxoplatin for ovarian) are applied to the living tissue models and monitored over 10 hours by BDI. Results: Multicellular spheroids and patient biopsies are categorized as either sensitive or insensitive to applied therapeutics depending on the intracellular Doppler signatures of chemotherapy response. For both lymphoma and EOC there is strong specificity to the two types of sensitivities, with sensitive cell lines and biopsies exhibiting a global cessation of proliferation and strong suppression of metabolic activity, while insensitive cell lines and biopsies show moderate activation of Doppler frequencies associated with membrane processes and possible membrane trafficking. Conclusion: This work supports the hypothesis that biodynamic biomarkers from three-dimensional living tumor tissue, that includes tissue heterogeneity and measured within 24 hours of surgery, is predictive of near-term patient response to therapy. Future work will correlate biodynamic biomarkers with

  20. In silico prediction of the mechanobiological response of arterial tissue: application to angioplasty and stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Colin J; Lennon, Alexander B; Prendergast, Patrick J

    2011-08-01

    One way to restore physiological blood flow to occluded arteries involves the deformation of plaque using an intravascular balloon and preventing elastic recoil using a stent. Angioplasty and stent implantation cause unphysiological loading of the arterial tissue, which may lead to tissue in-growth and reblockage; termed "restenosis." In this paper, a computational methodology for predicting the time-course of restenosis is presented. Stress-induced damage, computed using a remaining life approach, stimulates inflammation (production of matrix degrading factors and growth stimuli). This, in turn, induces a change in smooth muscle cell phenotype from contractile (as exists in the quiescent tissue) to synthetic (as exists in the growing tissue). In this paper, smooth muscle cell activity (migration, proliferation, and differentiation) is simulated in a lattice using a stochastic approach to model individual cell activity. The inflammation equations are examined under simplified loading cases. The mechanobiological parameters of the model were estimated by calibrating the model response to the results of a balloon angioplasty study in humans. The simulation method was then used to simulate restenosis in a two dimensional model of a stented artery. Cell activity predictions were similar to those observed during neointimal hyperplasia, culminating in the growth of restenosis. Similar to experiment, the amount of neointima produced increased with the degree of expansion of the stent, and this relationship was found to be highly dependant on the prescribed inflammatory response. It was found that the duration of inflammation affected the amount of restenosis produced, and that this effect was most pronounced with large stent expansions. In conclusion, the paper shows that the arterial tissue response to mechanical stimulation can be predicted using a stochastic cell modeling approach, and that the simulation captures features of restenosis development observed with real

  1. Complete biochemical (prostate-specific antigen) response to sipuleucel-T with enzalutamide in castration-resistant prostate cancer: a case report with implications for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Julie N; Drake, Charles G; Beer, Tomasz M

    2013-02-01

    To describe the case of a patient with castration-resistant, metastatic prostate cancer who achieved a complete and durable biochemical response after treatment with sipuleucel-T while continuing with enzalutamide and to explore the immunologic basis for such a response. We obtained serial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements and bone scans to assess the patient's response to enzalutamide followed by the addition of sipuleucel-T. Using preclinical and clinical data, we describe his response through known immunobiologic mechanisms. This patient's PSA level became undetectable during treatment with enzalutamide and began to increase again after 14 months. He opted for treatment with sipuleucel-T, while continuing with the enzalutamide. This resulted in another complete PSA response 6 months after exposure to sipuleucel-T. Sipuleucel-T typically does not produce significant PSA reductions, and, to the best of our knowledge, only 1 previous report of a durable complete PSA response in a patient with metastatic disease has been published. The timing of this response supports an immune mechanism. The biologic rationale for the combination, coupled with the clinical result observed in our patient, provides a basis for studies of the combination of sipuleucel-T and enzalutamide. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Predictors of excess cement and tissue response to fixed implant-supported dentures after cementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsch, Michael; Robra, Bernt-Peter; Walther, Winfried

    2015-01-01

    The cementation of fixed implant-supported restorations involves the risk of excess cement remaining in the peri-implant tissue that may cause a peri-implant tissue response with attachment loss. The aim was to study the peri-implant tissue response after cementation and to detect potential predictors of excess cement. Clinical complications after cementation in several index cases led to a recall of all patients treated with a special methacrylate cement (one hundred five patients with one hundred eighty-eight implants) and systematic reevaluation of 71 patients (68%) with one hundred twenty-six implants (67%). In all cases, suprastructures including abutments were removed, and findings were documented. Implant diameter was significantly associated with the frequency of excess cement. Implant location or system had no significant effect. Excess cement in turn was associated with bleeding on probing, suppuration, and peri-implant attachment loss. In the absence of excess cement 58.8% of implants had no peri-implant attachment loss versus 37.3% when excess cement was present. With increasing retention time of the methacrylate cement, more peri-implant attachment loss was detected. However, the latter association was not significant. Larger diameters are significantly associated with excess cement in peri-implant tissue. Consequences of excess cement may be increased bleeding on probing, suppuration, and possibly peri-implant attachment loss. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Structural and biochemical changes in dermis of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) during autolysis in response to cutting the body wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Xin; Zhou, Da-Yong; Liu, Zi-Qiang; Lu, Ting; Song, Liang; Li, Dong-Mei; Dong, Xiu-Ping; Qi, Hang; Zhu, Bei-Wei; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2018-02-01

    The autolysis of sea cucumber body wall is caused by endogenous proteolysis of its structural elements. However, changes in collagen fibrils, collagen fibres and microfibrils, the major structural elements in sea cucumber body wall during autolysis are less clear. Autolysis of sea cucumber (S. japonicus) was induced by cutting the body wall, and the structural and biochemical changes in its dermis were investigated using electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, electrophoresis, and chemical analysis. During autolysis, both collagen fibres and microfibrils gradually degraded. In contrast, damage to microfibrils was more pronounced. Upon massive autolysis, collagen fibres disaggregated into collagen fibril bundles and individual fibrils due to the fracture of interfibrillar bridges. Meanwhile, excessive unfolding of collagen fibrils occurred. However, there was only slight damage to collagen monomers. Therefore, structural damage in collagen fibres, collagen fibrils and microfibrils rather than monomeric collagen accounts for autolysis of S. japonicus dermis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcriptional response of kidney tissue after 177Lu-octreotate administration in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schüler, Emil; Rudqvist, Nils; Parris, Toshima Z.; Langen, Britta; Helou, Khalil; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The kidneys are one of the main dose limiting organs in 177 Lu-octreotate therapy of neuroendocrine tumors. Therefore, biomarkers for radiation damage would be of great importance in this type of therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the absorbed dose dependency on early transcriptional changes in the kidneys from 177 Lu-octreotate exposure. Methods: Female Balb/c nude mice were i.v. injected with 1.3, 3.6, 14, 45 or 140 MBq 177 Lu-octreotate. The animals were killed 24 h after injection followed by excision of the kidneys. The absorbed dose to the kidneys ranged between 0.13 and 13 Gy. Total RNA was extracted from separated renal tissue samples, and applied to Illumina MouseRef-8 Whole-Genome Expression Beadchips to identify regulated transcripts after irradiation. Nexus Expression 2.0 and Gene Ontology terms were used for data processing and to determine affected biological processes. Results: Distinct transcriptional responses were observed following 177 Lu-octreotate administration. A higher number of differentially expressed transcripts were observed in the kidney medulla (480) compared to cortex (281). In addition, 39 transcripts were regulated at all absorbed dose levels in the medulla, compared to 32 in the cortex. Three biological processes in the cortex and five in the medulla were also shared by all absorbed dose levels. Strong association to metabolism was found among the affected processes in both tissues. Furthermore, an association with cellular and developmental processes was prominent in kidney medulla, while transport and immune response were prominent in kidney cortex. Conclusion: Specific biological and dose-dependent responses were observed in both tissues. The number of affected transcripts and biological processes revealed distinct response differences between the absorbed doses delivered to the tissues

  5. Estimation of induced secondary metabolites in chickpea tissues in response to elicitor preparation of seaweeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, F.; Iqbal, S.

    2000-01-01

    Disease response of plants in terms of induced browning and phytoalexin (induced secondary metabolites) production were recorded in the tissues of Cicer arietinum (Chick pea) treated with the High Molecular Crude Elicitor Preparations, HMWCEP 'Polysaccharides' of Hypnea musciformis (red algae), Padina tetrastromatica (brown algae) and Ulva lactulus (green algae). A UV-visible spectrophotometric method has been developed for the quantification of induced secondary metabolites with time. (author)

  6. Cold exposure down-regulates immune response pathways in ferret aortic perivascular adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynés, Bàrbara; van Schothorst, Evert M; García-Ruiz, Estefanía; Keijer, Jaap; Palou, Andreu; Oliver, Paula

    2017-05-03

    Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounds blood vessels and releases paracrine factors, such as cytokines, which regulate local inflammation. The inflammatory state of PVAT has an important role in vascular disease; a pro-inflammatory state has been related with atherosclerosis development, whereas an anti-inflammatory one is protective. Cold exposure beneficially affects immune responses and, could thus impact the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of one-week of cold exposure at 4°C of ferrets on aortic PVAT (aPVAT) versus subcutaneous adipose tissue. Ferrets were used because of the similarity of their adipose tissues to those of humans. A ferret-specific Agilent microarray was designed to cover the complete ferret genome and global gene expression analysis was performed. The data showed that cold exposure altered gene expression mainly in aPVAT. Most of the regulated genes were associated with cell cycle, immune response and gene expression regulation, and were mainly down-regulated. Regarding the effects on immune response, cold acclimation decreased the expression of genes involved in antigen recognition and presentation, cytokine signalling and immune system maturation and activation. This immunosuppressive gene expression pattern was depot-specific, as it was not observed in the inguinal subcutaneous depot. Interestingly, this depression in immune response related genes was also evident in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In conclusion, these results reveal that cold acclimation produces an inhibition of immune response-related pathways in aPVAT, reflected in PBMC, indicative of an anti-inflammatory response, which can potentially be exploited for the enhancement or maintenance of cardiovascular health.

  7. Dickkopf-3, a tissue-derived modulator of local T cell responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eMeister

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive immune system protects organisms from harmful environmental insults. In parallel, regulatory mechanisms control immune responses in order to assure preservation of organ integrity. Yet, molecules involved in the control of T cell responses in peripheral tissues are poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the function of Dickkopf-3 in the modulation of local T cell reactivity. Dkk3 is a secreted, mainly tissue derived protein with highest expression in organs considered as immune privileged such as the eye, embryo, placenta and brain. While T cell development and activation status in naïve Dkk3 deficient mice was comparable to littermate controls, we found that Dkk3 contributes to the immunosuppressive microenvironment that protects transplanted, class-I mismatched embryoid bodies from T cell mediated rejection. Moreover, genetic deletion or antibody mediated neutralization of Dkk3 led to an exacerbated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. This phenotype was accompanied by a change of T cell polarization displayed by an increase of IFNγ producing T cells within in the CNS. In the wild type situation, Dkk3 expression in the brain was up-regulated during the course of EAE in an IFNγ dependent manner. In turn, Dkk3 decreased IFNγ activity and served as part of a negative feedback mechanism. Thus, our findings suggest that Dkk3 functions as a tissue-derived modulator of local CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses.

  8. Liver regeneration - The best kept secret: A model of tissue injury response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A. Cienfuegos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Liver regeneration (LR is one of the most amazing tissue injury response. Given its therapeutic significance has been deeply studied in the last decades. LR is an extraordinary complex process, strictly regulated, which accomplishes the characteristics of the most evolutionary biologic systems (robustness and explains the difficulties of reshaping it with therapeutic goals. TH reproduces the physiological tissue damage response pattern, with a first phase of priming of the hepatocytes -cell-cycle transition G0-G1-, and a second phase of proliferation -cell-cycle S/M phases- which ends with the liver mass recovering. This process has been related with the tissue injury response regulators as: complement system, platelets, inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, growth factors (HGF, EGF, VGF and anti-inflammatory factors (IL-10, TGF-β. Given its complexity and strict regulation, illustrates the unique alternative to liver failure is liver transplantation. The recent induced pluripotential cells (iPS description and the mesenchymal stem cell (CD133+ plastic capability have aroused new prospects in the cellular therapy field. Those works have assured the cooperation between mesenchymal and epithelial cells. Herein, we review the physiologic mechanisms of liver regeneration.

  9. Liver but not adipose tissue is responsive to the pattern of enteral feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Yolanda F; Lundblad, Tammy M; Ford, Eric A; House, Lawrence M; McGuinness, Owen P

    2014-02-01

    Nutritional support is an important aspect of medical care, providing calories to patients with compromised nutrient intake. Metabolism has a diurnal pattern, responding to the light cycle and food intake, which in turn can drive changes in liver and adipose tissue metabolism. In this study, we assessed the response of liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) to different feeding patterns under nutritional support (total enteral nutrition or TEN). Mice received continuous isocaloric TEN for 10 days or equal calories of chow once a day (Ch). TEN was given either at a constant (CN, same infusion rate during 24 h) or variable rate (VN, 80% of calories fed at night, 20% at day). Hepatic lipogenesis and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) expression increased in parallel with the diurnal feeding pattern. Relative to Ch, both patterns of enteral feeding increased adiposity. This increase was not associated with enhanced lipogenic gene expression in WAT; moreover, lipogenesis was unaffected by the feeding pattern. Surprisingly, leptin and adiponectin expression increased. Moreover, nutritional support markedly increased hepatic and adipose FGF21 expression in CN and VN, despite being considered a fasting hormone. In summary, liver but not WAT, respond to the pattern of feeding. While hepatic lipid metabolism adapts to the pattern of nutrient availability, WAT does not. Moreover, sustained delivery of nutrients in an isocaloric diet can cause adiposity without the proinflammatory state observed in hypercaloric feeding. Thus, the liver but not adipose tissue is responsive to the pattern of feeding behavior.

  10. Study of Okra Powder (Abelmoscus Esculentus Effects on Histology of Liver Tissue and Sero-Biochemical Parameters in Diabetic Rats (HFD/STZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N erfani majd

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 2 diabete is a kind of metabolic disease that it is associated with hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and disturbed liver function.  The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of Okra Powder on liver damage in high fat diet fed / streptozotocin (HFD-STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 25 Wistar Albino female rats with an average weight of (200–220 g were randomly divided  into 5 groups: Group I: (control group rats were fed the standard diet, Group II: healthy rats that received Okra Powder (200 mg/kg for 4 weeks; Group III (HFD/STZ group: Rats were fed with high-fat diet (HFD (60% fat for 4 weeks  and then injected low dose of STZ (35 mg/kg, Group IV:  Diabetic rats that received Okra Powder (200 mg/kg for 4 weeks. GroupV: Diabetic rats that received metformin (200 mg/kg for 4 weeks. At the end of experiment, biochemical parameters were measured. Liver samples were removed and 5-6 µ sections were made and stained by H&E and Sudan black staining. Results: The results showed that all the biochemical parameters, except HDL-C and serum insulin were increased in diabetic rats, while they were decreased in Okra supplementation group compared  to diabetic rats (p<0.05. The liver structure alterations were improved in treated diabetic rats with Okra Powder and metformin.  Conclusion: Our findings confirmed the potential anti-hyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Okra Powder. Thus, it seems it has an important role in the management of type 2 diabete.

  11. Sleep is not just for the brain: transcriptional responses to sleep in peripheral tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Many have assumed that the primary function of sleep is for the brain. We evaluated the molecular consequences of sleep and sleep deprivation outside the brain, in heart and lung. Using microarrays we compared gene expression in tissue from sleeping and sleep deprived mice euthanized at the same diurnal times. Results In each tissue, nearly two thousand genes demonstrated statistically significant differential expression as a function of sleep/wake behavioral state. To mitigate the influence of an artificial deprivation protocol, we identified a subset of these transcripts as specifically sleep-enhanced or sleep-repressed by requiring that their expression also change over the course of unperturbed sleep. 3% and 6% of the assayed transcripts showed “sleep specific” changes in the lung and heart respectively. Sleep specific transcripts in these tissues demonstrated highly significant overlap and shared temporal dynamics. Markers of cellular stress and the unfolded protein response were reduced during sleep in both tissues. These results mirror previous findings in brain. Sleep-enhanced pathways reflected the unique metabolic functions of each tissue. Transcripts related to carbohydrate and sulfur metabolic processes were enhanced by sleep in the lung, and collectively favor buffering from oxidative stress. DNA repair and protein metabolism annotations were significantly enriched among the sleep-enhanced transcripts in the heart. Our results also suggest that sleep may provide a Zeitgeber, or synchronizing cue, in the lung as a large cluster of transcripts demonstrated systematic changes in inter-animal variability as a function of both sleep duration and circadian time. Conclusion Our data support the notion that the molecular consequences of sleep/wake behavioral state extend beyond the brain to include peripheral tissues. Sleep state induces a highly overlapping response in both heart and lung. We conclude that sleep enhances organ specific

  12. Mammalian Tissue Response to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation: The Role of Oxidative Metabolism and Intercellular Communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azzam, Edouard I

    2013-01-16

    The objective of the project was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of low dose/low dose rate ionizing radiation in organs/tissues of irradiated mice that differ in their susceptibility to ionizing radiation, and in human cells grown under conditions that mimic the natural in vivo environment. The focus was on the effects of sparsely ionizing cesium-137 gamma rays and the role of oxidative metabolism and intercellular communication in these effects. Four Specific Aims were proposed. The integrated outcome of the experiments performed to investigate these aims has been significant towards developing a scientific basis to more accurately estimate human health risks from exposures to low doses ionizing radiation. By understanding the biochemical and molecular changes induced by low dose radiation, several novel markers associated with mitochondrial functions were identified, which has opened new avenues to investigate metabolic processes that may be affected by such exposure. In particular, a sensitive biomarker that is differentially modulated by low and high dose gamma rays was discovered.

  13. Evaluation of oral tissue response and blood levels of mercury released from dental amalgam in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soussa, Essam; Shalaby, Yosreya; Maria, Ahmed M; Maria, Ola M

    2013-08-01

    Dental amalgam is the most common restorative material used in dentistry. It was reported that amalgam might constitute potential toxic hazards to pregnant patients and foetuses through mercury release and absorption. The present study aimed to investigate the vital tissue response in contact to dental amalgam plus determination of blood mercury levels in mother and offspring Wistar strain albino rats. Pregnant mothers were divided into two main groups each had dental amalgam implanted into either an oral mucosa incision or a bony socket following extraction. Third and fourth groups included the offspring rats of mothers from the first and second groups, respectively. The blood mercury levels and histopathology of oral tissues were analyzed in mothers at one and six months post-implantation and in offspring rats one day after birth. The blood mercury levels of mothers increased significantly at six months (PP>0.05) when the two offspring (third and fourth) groups were compared. Histopathology results from mothers showed inflammatory response at the bottom of the socket, one month after amalgam implantation. At six months, teeth germs showed vacuolation of the abnormal odontoblasts with globular dentine formation. Degenerated periodontal fibres and thin trabeculae forming the bony sockets with large marrow spaces were evident. A fibrous connective tissue capsule surrounded the amalgam mass inside the mucosa of mothers at one month and was evident also at 6 months with a huge inflammatory cell infiltrate. Teeth germs showed elongated odontoblasts with intercellular oedema, thinner dentine and bony trabeculae with wider marrow spaces. Offspring rats showed comparable oral tissue response. There is a positive correlation between blood mercury levels and oral tissue response in mothers, however, the negative impact of mercury on oral tissues of offspring rats was due to high mercury levels in their mothers' blood during pregnancy. We would recommend that women should

  14. Evaluation of bone tissue response to a sealer containing mineral trioxide aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, Eloísa; Böttcher, Daiana Elisabeth; Hoppe, Carolina Bender; Grecca, Fabiana Soares; Kopper, Patrícia Maria Poli

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed bone tissue reactions to MTA Fillapex (Ângelus Industria de Produtos Odontológicos Ltda, Londrina, Brazil) compared with an epoxy resin-based material in the femur of Wistar rats. Bone tissue reactions were evaluated in 15 animals after 7, 30, and 90 days (n = 5 per period). Three surgical cavities were prepared on the femur and filled with 0.2 mL MTA Fillapex, AH Plus (Dentsply DeTrey GmbH, Konstanz, Germany), or no sealer (negative control). By the end of each experimental period, 5 animals were randomly euthanized. The samples were histologically processed and analyzed using a light microscope. The presence of inflammatory cells, fibers, and hard tissue barrier formation was evaluated. Differences among the groups and between the 3 experimental periods were evaluated by using 2-way analysis of variance followed by the Bonferroni post hoc test (P ≤ .05). MTA Fillapex scored significantly higher for neutrophils at 7 days than at 90. At 7 days, the same occurred when comparing MTA Fillapex with AH Plus. The presence of lymphocytes/plasmocytes significantly decreased over time in all groups. Macrophages, giant cells, eosinophils, and fiber condensation presented no differences among groups and periods. Within 90 days, all groups presented complete hard tissue barrier formation. The presence of mineral trioxide aggregate in MTA Fillapex composition did not improve the bone tissue repair. The presence of sealers provided the re-establishment of the original bone tissue structure and the inflammatory response decreased over time, so they can be considered biocompatible. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dynamic mechanical response of brain tissue in indentation in vivo, in situ and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevost, Thibault P; Jin, Guang; de Moya, Marc A; Alam, Hasan B; Suresh, Subra; Socrate, Simona

    2011-12-01

    Characterizing the dynamic mechanical properties of brain tissue is deemed important for developing a comprehensive knowledge of the mechanisms underlying brain injury. The results gathered to date on the tissue properties have been mostly obtained in vitro. Learning how these results might differ quantitatively from those encountered in vivo is a critical step towards the development of biofidelic brain models. The present study provides novel and unique experimental results on, and insights into, brain biorheology in vivo, in situ and in vitro, at large deformations, in the quasi-static and dynamic regimes. The nonlinear dynamic response of the cerebral cortex was measured in indentation on the exposed frontal and parietal lobes of anesthetized porcine subjects. Load-unload cycles were applied to the tissue surface at sinusoidal frequencies of 10, 1, 0.1 and 0.01 Hz. Ramp-relaxation tests were also conducted to assess the tissue viscoelastic behavior at longer times. After euthanasia, the indentation test sequences were repeated in situ on the exposed cortex maintained in its native configuration within the cranium. Mixed gray and white matter samples were subsequently excised from the superior cortex to be subjected to identical indentation test segments in vitro within 6-7 h post mortem. The main response features (e.g. nonlinearities, rate dependencies, hysteresis and conditioning) were measured and contrasted in vivo, in situ and in vitro. The indentation response was found to be significantly stiffer in situ than in vivo. The consistent, quantitative set of mechanical measurements thereby collected provides a preliminary experimental database, which may be used to support the development of constitutive models for the study of mechanically mediated pathways leading to traumatic brain injury. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Studies the alterations of biochemical and mineral contents in bone tissue of mus musculus due to aluminum toxicity and the protective action of desferrioxamine and deferiprone by FTIR, ICP-OES, SEM and XRD techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, S; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad; Sivasubramanian, J

    2014-05-21

    The present study has attempt to analyze the changes in the biochemical and mineral contents of aluminum intoxicated bone and determine the protective action of desferrioxamine (DFO) and deferiprone (DFP) by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques for four groups of animals such as control (Group I), aluminum intoxicated (Group II), Al+DFP (Group III) and Al+DFO+DFP (Group IV) treated groups respectively. The FTIR spectra of the aluminum intoxicated bone showed significant alteration in the biochemical constituents. The bands ratio at I1400/I877 significantly decreased from control to aluminum, but enhanced it by Al+DFP to Al+DFO+DFP treated bone tissue for treatments of 16 weeks. This result suggests that DFO and DFP are the carbonate inhibitor, recovered from chronic growth of bone diseases and pathologies. The alteration of proteins profile indicated by Amide I and Amide II, where peak area values decreased from control to aluminum respectively, but enhanced by treated with DFP (p.o.) and DFO+DFP (i.p.) respectively. The XRD analysis showed a decrease in crystallinity due to aluminum toxicity. Further, the Ca, Mg, and P contents of the aluminum exposed bone were less than those of the control group, and enhanced by treatments with DFO and DFP. The concentrations of trace elements were found by ICP-OES. Therefore, present study suggests that due to aluminum toxicity severe loss of bone minerals, decrease in the biochemical constituents and changes in the surface morphology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling of chicken adipose tissue in response to insulin neutralization and fasting

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    Ji Bo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic broiler chickens rapidly accumulate adipose tissue due to intensive genetic selection for rapid growth and are naturally hyperglycemic and insulin resistant, making them an attractive addition to the suite of rodent models used for studies of obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans. Furthermore, chicken adipose tissue is considered as poorly sensitive to insulin and lipolysis is under glucagon control. Excessive fat accumulation is also an economic and environmental concern for the broiler industry due to the loss of feed efficiency and excessive nitrogen wasting, as well as a negative trait for consumers who are increasingly conscious of dietary fat intake. Understanding the control of avian adipose tissue metabolism would both enhance the utility of chicken as a model organism for human obesity and insulin resistance and highlight new approaches to reduce fat deposition in commercial chickens. Results We combined transcriptomics and metabolomics to characterize the response of chicken adipose tissue to two energy manipulations, fasting and insulin deprivation in the fed state. Sixteen to 17 day-old commercial broiler chickens (ISA915 were fed ad libitum, fasted for five hours, or fed but deprived of insulin by injections of anti-insulin serum. Pair-wise contrasts of expression data identified a total of 2016 genes that were differentially expressed after correction for multiple testing, with the vast majority of differences due to fasting (1780 genes. Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analyses indicated that a short term fast impacted expression of genes in a broad selection of pathways related to metabolism, signaling and adipogenesis. The effects of insulin neutralization largely overlapped with the response to fasting, but with more modest effects on adipose tissue metabolism. Tissue metabolomics indicated unique effects of insulin on amino acid metabolism. Conclusions Collectively, these data provide a foundation

  18. Proteomic and biochemical responses of canola (Brassica napus L.) exposed to salinity stress and exogenous lipoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, Mustafa; Akçalı, Nermin; Terzi, Hakan

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the mitigating effects of exogenous lipoic acid (LA) on NaCl toxicity, proteomic, biochemical and physiological changes were investigated in the leaves of canola (Brassica napus L.) seedlings. Salinity stress decreased the growth parameters and contents of ascorbate (AsA) and glutathione (GSH), and increased the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), proline, cysteine and the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). The foliar application of LA alleviated the toxic effects of salinity stress on canola seedlings and notably decreased MDA content and increased growth parameters, cysteine content, and activities of CAT and POD. In the proteomic analyses, total proteins from the leaves of control, LA, NaCl and NaCl+LA treated-seedlings were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). A total of 28 proteins were differentially expressed. Of these, 21 proteins were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. These proteins had functions related to photosynthesis, stress defense, energy metabolism, signal transduction, protein folding and stabilization indicating that LA might play important roles in salinity through the regulation of photosynthesis, stress defense and signal transduction related proteins. The proteomic findings have provided new insight to reveal the effect of LA on salinity stress for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Exchange transfusion with entirely synthetic red-cell substitute albumin-heme into rats: physiological responses and blood biochemical tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yubin; Komatsu, Teruyuki; Yamamoto, Hisashi; Horinouchi, Hirohisa; Kobayashi, Koichi; Tsuchida, Eishun

    2004-10-01

    Recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) incorporating 2-[8-[N-(2-methylimidazolyl)]octanoyloxymethyl]-5,10,15,20-[tetrakis[alpha,alpha,alpha,alpha-o-(1-methylcyclohexanoyl)amino]phenyl]porphinatoiron(II) [albumin-heme (rHSA-heme)] is an artificial hemoprotein which has the capability to transport O(2) in vitro and in vivo. A 20% exchange transfusion with rHSA-heme into anesthetized rats has been performed to evaluate its clinical safety by monitoring the circulation parameters and blood parameters for 6 h after the infusion. Time course changes in all parameters essentially showed the same features as those of the control group (without infusion) and rHSA group (with administration of the same amount of rHSA). Blood biochemical tests of the withdrawn plasma at 6 h after the exchange transfusion have also been carried out. No significant difference was found between the rHSA-heme and rHSA groups, suggesting the initial clinical safety of this entirely synthetic O(2)-carrier as a red-cell substitute.

  20. The dtudy of physiological and biochemical responses of Agrostis stolonifera and Festuca arundinacea Schreb. under drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Alibiglouei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is a main limiting factor of turfgrass growth in arid and semi-arid regions. Therefore, in this study, the physiological and biochemical changes in two turfgrass species Agrostis stolonifera and Festuca arundinacea schreb during drought stress (70-75 centibar in a 40-day period and recovery were investigated. Control plants during drought stress were regularly irrigated at soil field capacity (20-25 centibar. The results showed that leaf relative water content and leaf chlorophyll content with long-term stress decreased. Electrolyte leakage and proline during drought stress significantly increased and in recovery stage, the level of electrolyte leakage and proline reached to the control. The activity of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in two turfgrass significantly increased after 30 days and then significantly reduced. In F. arundinacea schreb the activity of ascorbat peroxidase after 20 days significantly increased and then significantly reduced. Also, in F. arundinacea schreb species the activity of catalase increased during drought stress and in recovery stage the activity of catalase reduced. In studied species during drought stress and recovery stage, the activity of ascorbat peroxidase and catalase significantly increased compared to the control. These results suggested that the resistant species F. arundinacea schreb, under drought stress had a low level of electrolyte leakage, higher level of relative water content and chlorophyll destruction was less than A. stolonifera.

  1. Enhanced response of microbial fuel cell using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone membrane as a biochemical oxygen demand sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyaru, Sivasankaran; Dharmalingam, Sangeetha

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane in SCMFC used to determine the BOD. • The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm. • This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion ® . • SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion ® . • Nafion ® shows high anodic internal resistance (67 Ω) than the SPEEK (39 Ω). - Abstract: The present study is focused on the development of single chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC) using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane to determine the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) matter present in artificial wastewater (AW). The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm when using artificial wastewater. This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion ® . The most serious problem in using MFC as a BOD sensor is the oxygen diffusion into the anode compartment, which consumes electrons in the anode compartment, thereby reducing the coulomb yield and reducing the electrical signal from the MFC. SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion ® , resulting in low internal resistance and substrate loss, thus improving the sensing range of BOD. The system was further improved by making a double membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with an increased electrode surface area which provide high surface area for electrically active bacteria

  2. Enhanced response of microbial fuel cell using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone membrane as a biochemical oxygen demand sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyaru, Sivasankaran; Dharmalingam, Sangeetha

    2014-03-25

    The present study is focused on the development of single chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC) using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane to determine the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) matter present in artificial wastewater (AW). The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm when using artificial wastewater. This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion(®). The most serious problem in using MFC as a BOD sensor is the oxygen diffusion into the anode compartment, which consumes electrons in the anode compartment, thereby reducing the coulomb yield and reducing the electrical signal from the MFC. SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion(®), resulting in low internal resistance and substrate loss, thus improving the sensing range of BOD. The system was further improved by making a double membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with an increased electrode surface area which provide high surface area for electrically active bacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhanced response of microbial fuel cell using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone membrane as a biochemical oxygen demand sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayyaru, Sivasankaran; Dharmalingam, Sangeetha, E-mail: sangeetha@annauniv.edu

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane in SCMFC used to determine the BOD. • The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm. • This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion{sup ®}. • SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion{sup ®}. • Nafion{sup ®} shows high anodic internal resistance (67 Ω) than the SPEEK (39 Ω). - Abstract: The present study is focused on the development of single chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC) using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane to determine the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) matter present in artificial wastewater (AW). The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm when using artificial wastewater. This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion{sup ®}. The most serious problem in using MFC as a BOD sensor is the oxygen diffusion into the anode compartment, which consumes electrons in the anode compartment, thereby reducing the coulomb yield and reducing the electrical signal from the MFC. SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion{sup ®}, resulting in low internal resistance and substrate loss, thus improving the sensing range of BOD. The system was further improved by making a double membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with an increased electrode surface area which provide high surface area for electrically active bacteria.

  4. Monosaccharide-responsive phenylboronate-polyol cell scaffolds for cell sheet and tissue engineering applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachamalla Maheedhar Reddy

    Full Text Available Analyte-responsive smart polymeric materials are of great interest and have been actively investigated in the field of regenerative medicine. Phenylboronate containing copolymers form gels with polyols under alkaline conditions. Monosaccharides, by virtue of their higher affinity towards boronate, can displace polyols and solubilize such gels. In the present study, we investigate the possibility of utilizing phenylboronate-polyol interactions at physiological pH in order to develop monosaccharide-responsive degradable scaffold materials for systems dealing with cells and tissues. Amine assisted phenylboronate-polyol interactions were employed to develop novel hydrogel and cryogel scaffolds at neutral pH. The scaffolds displayed monosaccharide inducible gel-sol phase transformability. In vitro cell culture studies demonstrated the ability of scaffolds to support cell adhesion, viability and proliferation. Fructose induced gel degradation is used to recover cells cultured on the hydrogels. The cryogels displayed open macroporous structure and superior mechanical properties. These novel phase transformable phenylboronate-polyol based scaffolds displayed a great potential for various cell sheet and tissue engineering applications. Their monosaccharide responsiveness at physiological pH is very useful and can be utilized in the fields of cell immobilization, spheroid culture, saccharide recognition and analyte-responsive drug delivery.

  5. Long-Term Clinical Responses of Neoadjuvant Dendritic Cell Infusions and Radiation in Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailaja Raj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Patients with large >5 cm, high-grade resectable soft tissue sarcomas (STS have the highest risk of distant metastases. Previously we have shown that dendritic cell (DC based vaccines show consistent immune responses. Methods. This was a Phase I single institution study of neoadjuvant radiation with DC injections on 18 newly diagnosed high-risk STS patients. Neoadjuvant treatment consisted of 50 Gy of external beam radiation (EBRT, given in 25 fractions delivered five days/week, combined with four intratumoral injections of DCs followed by complete resection. The primary endpoint was to establish the immunological response to neoadjuvant therapy and obtain data on its clinical safety and outcomes. Results. There were no unexpected toxicities or serious adverse events. Twelve out of 18 (67% patients were alive, of which an encouraging 11/18 (61% were alive with no systemic recurrence over a period of 2–8 years. Favorable immunological responses correlated with clinical responses in some cases. Conclusions. This study provides clinical support to using dendritic cell injections along with radiation in sarcomas, which when used optimally in combination can help clinical outcomes in soft tissue sarcoma. Study registration number is NCT00365872.

  6. Biomimeticity in tissue engineering scaffolds through synthetic peptide modifications-altering chemistry for enhanced biological response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejalekshmi, Kumaran G; Nair, Prabha D

    2011-02-01

    Biomimetic and bioactive biomaterials are desirable as tissue engineering scaffolds by virtue of their capability to mimic natural environments of the extracellular matrix. Biomimeticity has been achieved by the incorporation of synthetic short peptide sequences into suitable materials either by surface modification or by bulk incorporation. Research in this area has identified several novel synthetic peptide segments, some of them with cell-specific interactions, which may serve as potential candidates for use in explicit tissue applications. This review focuses on the developments and prospective directions of incorporating short synthetic peptide sequences onto scaffolds for tissue engineering, with emphasis on the chemistry of peptide immobilization and subsequent cell responses toward modified scaffolds. The article provides a decision-tree-type flow chart indicating the most probable cellular events on a given peptide-modified scaffold along with the consolidated list of synthetic peptide sequences, supports as well as cell types used in various tissue engineering studies, and aims to serve as a quick reference guide to peptide chemists and material scientists interested in the field. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Variation in biochemical and antioxidant attributes of Raphanus sativus in response to foliar application of plant leaf extracts as plant growth regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Ashraf

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to appraise the variations in biochemical, antioxidant and nutritional attributes of radish (Raphanus sativus L. under foliar application of plant leaf aqueous extracts i.e., mulberry leaf extract (MLE, brassica leaf extract (BLE, sorghum leaf extract (SLE and moringa leaf extract (MoLE as natural growth regulators. Samples were collected after three sprays of extracts and analyzed. Total phenolic constituents were determined using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent method, whereas antioxidant potential was evaluated by 1,1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical radical scavenging and reducing power assays. Results revealed that application of MLE, BLE, SLE, and MoLE not only improved growth, but also enhanced biochemical and antioxidant activities. Foliar spray of MoLE furnished relatively three folds higher amounts of extractable bioactive compounds (37.65 ± 0.94%, phenolic constituents (54.51–182.71 mg GAE/g f.w. The radical scavenging capacity (RSC and reducing potential were also enhanced considerably. Furthermore, the moisture, dietary fiber, crude protein, and carotenoids were also enhanced in response of foliar spray of plant extracts. From results, it is concluded that plant extracts are effective sources of natural growth regulars and might be useful for the production of vegetables with improved nutritional value and antioxidant activity.

  8. The role of the dorsomedial part of the prefrontal cortex serotonergic innervation in rat responses to the aversively conditioned context: behavioral, biochemical and immunocytochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Małgorzata; Taracha, Ewa; Turzyńska, Danuta; Sobolewska, Alicja; Hamed, Adam; Kołomańska, Paulina; Skórzewska, Anna; Maciejak, Piotr; Szyndler, Janusz; Bidziński, Andrzej; Płaźnik, Adam

    2008-10-10

    In this study we have explored differences in animal reactivity to conditioned aversive stimuli using the conditioned fear test (a contextual fear-freezing response), in rats subjected to the selective lesion of the prefrontal cortex serotonergic innervation, and differing in their response to the acute painful stimulation, a footshock (HS--high sensitivity rats, and LS--low sensitivity rats, selected arbitrarily according to their behavior in the 'flinch-jump' pre-test). Local administration of serotonergic neurotoxin (5,7-dihydroxytryptamine) to the dorsomedial part of the prefrontal cortex caused a very strong, structure and neurotransmitter selective depletion of serotonin concentration. In HS rats, the serotonergic lesion significantly disinhibited rat behavior controlled by fear, enhanced c-Fos expression in the dorsomedial prefrontal area, and increased the concentration of GABA in the basolateral amygdala, measured in vivo after the testing session of the conditioned fear test. The LS animals revealed an opposite pattern of behavioral and biochemical changes after serotonergic lesion: an increase in the duration of a freezing response, and expression of c-Fos in the basolateral and central nuclei of amygdala, and a lower GABA concentration in the basolateral amygdala. In control conditions, c-Fos expression did not differ in LS and HS, naïve, not conditioned and not exposed to the test cage animals. The present study adds more arguments for the controlling role of serotonergic innervation of the dorsomedial part of the prefrontal cortex in processing emotional input by other brain centers. Moreover, it provides experimental data, which may help to better explain the anatomical and biochemical basis of differences in individual reactivity to stressful stimulation, and, possibly, to anxiolytic drugs with serotonergic or GABAergic profiles of action.

  9. Soft tissue response to a new austenitic stainless steel with a negligible nickel content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschon, M; Fini, M; Giavaresi, G; Borsari, V; Lenger, H; Bernauer, J; Chiesa, R; Cigada, A; Chiusoli, L; Giardino, R

    2005-10-01

    This study evaluates the soft tissue response to a new austenitic stainless steel with a low nickel content (P558) in comparison with a conventional stainless steel (SSt)and a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). Previous findings showed its in vitro biocompatibility by culturing P558 with healthy and osteoporotic osteoblasts and its in vivo effectiveness as bone implant material. Regarding its use as a material in osteosynthesis,P558 biocompatibility when implanted in soft tissues, as subcutis and muscle, was assessed. Disks and rods of these metals were implanted in rat subcutis and in rabbit muscle, respectively. Four and twelve weeks post surgery implants with surrounding tissue were retrieved for histologic and histomorphometric analysis: fibrous capsule thickness and new vessel formation were measured. Around all implanted materials, light microscopy highlighted a reactive and fibrous capsule formation coupled with ongoing neoangiogenesis both in rats and in rabbits. Histomorphometric measurements revealed a stronger inflammatory response,in terms of capsule thickness,surrounding SSt implants (9.8% Ni content) both in rat subcutis and in rabbit muscle independently of shape and site of implantation. A progressive decrease in capsule thickness around P558 (implantation. However,in the light of the previous and present studies, P558 is a good material, instead of titanium alloys, in orthopedic research.

  10. Comparison of tumour age response to radiation for cells derived from tissue culture or solid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keng, P.C.; Siemann, D.W.; Rochester Univ., NY; Rochester Univ., NY; Wheeler, K.T.

    1984-01-01

    Direct comparison of the cell age response of 9L and KHT tumour cells derived either from tissue culture or solid tumours was achieved. Cells from dissociated KHT and 9L tumours (the latter implanted either subcutaneously or intracerebrally) and cells from tissue culture were separated into homogenous sized populations by centrifugal elutriation. In both tumour models these homogeneous sized populations correspond to populations enriched at different stages of the cell cycle. The survival of these elutriated cell populations was measured after a single dose of Cs-137 gamma rays. For cells isolated from 9L solid tumours, there was little variation in radiosensitivity throughout the cell cycle; however, a very small but significant increase in resistance was found in late G 1 cells. This lack of a large variation in radiosensitivity through the cell cycle for 9L cells from solid tumours also was seen in 9L cells growing in monolayer tissue culture. When similar experiments were performed using the KHT sarcoma tumour model, the results showed that KHT cells in vitro exhibited a fairly conventional increase in radioresistance in both mid G 1 and late S. However, the cell age response of KHT cells from solid tumours was different; particularly in the late S and G 2 + M phases. (author)

  11. RESPONSE FUNCTIONS FOR COMPUTING ABSORBED DOSE TO SKELETAL TISSUES FROM NEUTRON IRRADIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Amir A.; Johnson, Perry; Jokisch, Derek W.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2016-01-01

    Spongiosa in the adult human skeleton consists of three tissues - active marrow (AM), inactive marrow (IM), and trabecularized mineral bone (TB). Active marrow is considered to be the target tissue for assessment of both long-term leukemia risk and acute marrow toxicity following radiation exposure. The total shallow marrow (TM50), defined as all tissues laying within the first 50 μm the bone surfaces, is considered to be the radiation target tissue of relevance for radiogenic bone cancer induction. For irradiation by sources external to the body, kerma to homogeneous spongiosa has been used as a surrogate for absorbed dose to both of these tissues, as direct dose calculations are not possible using computational phantoms with homogenized spongiosa. Recent microCT imaging of a 40-year-old male cadaver has allowed for the accurate modeling of the fine microscopic structure of spongiosa in many regions of the adult skeleton [Hough et al PMB (2011)]. This microstructure, along with associated masses and tissue compositions, was used to compute specific absorbed fractions (SAF) values for protons originating in axial and appendicular bone sites [Jokisch et al PMB (submitted)]. These proton SAFs, bone masses, tissue compositions, and proton production cross-sections, were subsequently used to construct neutron dose response functions (DRFs) for both AM and TM50 targets in each bone of the reference adult male. Kerma conditions were assumed for other resultant charged particles. For comparison, active marrow, total shallow marrow, and spongiosa kerma coefficients were also calculated. At low incident neutron energies, AM kerma coefficients for neutrons correlate well with values of the AM DRF, while total marrow (TM) kerma coefficients correlate well with values of the TM50 DRF. At high incident neutron energies, all kerma coefficients and DRFs tend to converge as charged particle equilibrium (CPE) is established across the bone site. In the range of 10 eV to 100 Me

  12. Linking biochemical perturbations in tissues of the African catfish to the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Ovia River, Niger Delta region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obinaju, Blessing E.; Graf, Carola; Halsall, Crispin; Martin, Francis L.

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a pollution issue in the Niger Delta region due to oil industry activities. PAHs were measured in the water column of the Ovia River with concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1055.6 ng L −1 . Attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy detected alterations in tissues of the African catfish (Heterobranchus bidorsalis) from the region showed varying degrees of statistically significant (P < 0.0001, P < 0.001, P < 0.05) changes to absorption band areas and shifts in centroid positions of peaks. Alteration patterns were similar to those induced by benzo[a]pyrene in MCF-7 cells. These findings have potential health implications for resident local communities as H. bidorsalis constitutes a key nutritional source. The study provides supporting evidence for the sensitivity of infrared spectroscopy in environmental studies and supports their potential application in biomonitoring. - Highlights: • PAHs measured in the water column of the Ovia River (Nigeria). • ATR-FTIR spectroscopy detects alterations in tissues of the African catfish (Heterobranchus bidorsalis). • Spectral alteration similar to those induced by benzo[a]pyrene in MCF-7 cells. • Alterations in tissues of African catfish (H. bidorsalis) a function of exposure to waterborne PAHs. • Vibrational spectroscopy techniques detect minimal changes induced by environmental exposures. - Spatial and temporal analyses by biospectroscopy techniques of African catfish (Heterobranchus bidorsalis) tissues suggest that detected alterations can reflect fluctuating exposures to PAHs

  13. Dietary response of sympatric deer to fire using stable isotope analysis of liver tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, W. David; Zimmerman, T.J.; Leslie, David M.; Jenks, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon (??13C) and nitrogen (??15N) isotopes in biological samples from large herbivores identify photosynthetic pathways (C3 vs. C4) of plants they consumed and can elucidate potential nutritional characteristics of dietary selection. Because large herbivores consume a diversity of forage types, ??13C and ??15N in their tissue can index ingested and assimilated diets through time. We assessed ??13C and ??15N in metabolically active liver tissue of sympatric mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (O. virginianus) to identify dietary disparity resulting from use of burned and unburned areas in a largely forested landscape. Interspecific variation in dietary disparity of deer was documented 2-3 years post-fire in response to lag-time effects of vegetative response to burning and seasonal (i.e., summer, winter) differences in forage type. Liver ??13C for mule deer were lower during winter and higher during summer 2 years post-fire on burned habitat compared to unburned habitat suggesting different forages were consumed by mule deer in response to fire. Liver ??15N for both species were higher on burned than unburned habitat during winter and summer suggesting deer consumed more nutritious forage on burned habitat during both seasons 2 and 3 years post-fire. Unlike traditional methods of dietary assessment that do not measure uptake of carbon and nitrogen from dietary components, analyses of stable isotopes in liver or similar tissue elucidated ??13C and ??15N assimilation from seasonal dietary components and resulting differences in the foraging ecology of sympatric species in response to fire.

  14. Biochemical and bioactive phytonutrients changes in tissues of two cultivars of fresh-cut cassava in stick form under refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus da Silva Junqueira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fresh-cut in stick form of two cassava cultivars on their biochemical and antioxidant characteristics, at two harvest times. The fresh cut cassava sticks were packaged in polypropylene, maintained at 5±1ºC, with 90±5% relative humidity for 12 days. The concentration of carotenoids, total soluble phenolic compounds and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase and antioxidant capacity were significantly higher for the sticks of cultivar 'Amarela' cassava than for the sticks of cultivar 'Cacau'. The concentrations of carotenoids, total soluble phenolic compounds, and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase and antioxidant capacity were all significantly greater when harvested at 14-month of age. There was a significant increase in the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase during the 12 days of storage at 5ºC. However, there was a decrease in total carotenoids, soluble phenolic compounds, and in the antioxidant capacity of the two cultivars.

  15. Morphological, physiological and biochemical responses to soil water deficit in seedlings of three populations of wild pear tree (Pyrus boisseriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarafshar, M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage limits the production of fruit orchards, such as pear, in arid and semi-arid regions. The identification of wild pear germplasm for potential use as rootstock would be valuable for pear cultivation in semi-arid regions. The relative drought tolerance of wild pear germplasm (Pyrus boisseriana from three different populations distributed along an elevational gradient ('semi-arid 1,000', 'semi-wet 1,350' and 'semi-wet 1,600' populations was evaluated in a greenhouse trial. Established container-grown seedlings were exposed to 18 days of simulated drought, or not, followed by a seven day recovery period. Biomass allocation and accumulation, physiological (stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, transpiration, xylem water potential and biochemical parameters (leaf pigments, free proline, malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide production were evaluated. Although all populations were able to recover from water shortage, thereby proving to be relatively drought tolerant, some differences between populations were detected for gas exchange parameters, biomass accumulation and proline concentration in favor of the 'semi-arid 1,000' elevation population, which was more drought tolerant. This population showed the most rapid and complete recovery of physiological activity (stomatal conductance and carbon fixation. In addition, all populations showed an increase in carotenoid content in the leaves. Overall, we showed that plants from the 'semi-arid 1,000' elevation had greater tolerance to drought than those from the higher elevations (semi-wet populations. It therefore appears that plants from the 'semi-arid 1,000' elevation represent a promising source of material to be tested as rootstock for commercial scions of pear in field conditions in areas prone to suffer from water deficit.

  16. Studies on Impact of Irradiation Treatment on Certain Pharmacological and Biochemical Responses of Naja nigricollis Snake Venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Hamid, F.Y.A.

    2015-01-01

    Snakebite is a serious medical problem worldwide, especially in the tropics. In Egypt, the Black-neck Spitting Cobra; Naja nigricollis is one of the most venomous snakes distributed in the south part of Egypt. The lethality as well as the immunological, biochemical and histological effects of Naja nigricollis venom at a sublethal dose has been investigated before and after exposure to gamma radiation (1.5 KGy and 3 KGy). The toxicity of irradiated venom decreased as compared to that of the native one. There was no change in the antigenic reactivity between both native and irradiated venom. The effect of ½ LD 50 of native or irradiated (1.5 KGy) was studied on the activities of heart enzymes: CPK, CK-MB, LDH and AST after (1, 2, 4, 24 hours) of envenomation. The present study showed that snake venom envenomation caused significant (p ≤ 0.05) elevation in serum CPK, CK-MB, LDH and AST levels. In contrast, the 1.5 KGy gamma-irradiated venom recorded no significant changes compared to that of normal rats. Histopathological study of heart confirmed these findings. The 1.5 KGy and 3 KGy gamma irradiation decrease the phospholipase activity of the venom. Anticoagulant activity was prominent when re calcification time was tested on human plasma using each venom (native, γ- irradiated venoms) as a test solution. Naja nigricollis venom detoxified by gamma irradiation (1.5 KGy or 3 KGy) was used as toxoid for active immunization of rabbits following a short schedule of immunization with complete Freund's adjuvant. Effective neutralization of venom toxin by immune sera of rabbits was observed.

  17. Toxicity of furadan (carbofuran 3% g in Cyprinus carpio: Haematological, biochemical and enzymological alterations and recovery response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathan Ramesh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Furadan, a carbamate pesticide is widely used in paddy fields and it has been detected in ground, surface and rain waters. In this study, fingerlings of Cyprinus carpio were exposed to different concentrations of furadan ranging from 25 to 50 mg L−1 for 96 h and the acute toxicity was calculated as 43.651 mg L−1. To assess the effect of furadan, fish were exposed to two concentrations of furadan (8.730 mg L−1, Treatment I and 4.365 mg L−1, Treatment II and certain haematological, biochemical and enzymological parameters were evaluated at the end of 24, 48, 72 and 96 h exposure periods with a recovery period of 96 h. A significant (p < 0.05 decrease in haemoglobin (Hb, haematocrit (Hct, red blood cells (RBC, plasma protein and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT activity in gill, liver and kidney (except at the end of 96 h in Treatment I were noted in both the concentrations tested while white blood cells (WBC and glucose level were significantly increased after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h exposure periods when compared to untreated groups. A mixed trend in mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT activity in gill, liver and kidney was noted. During the recovery study period (96 h MCHC and plasma glucose level was recovered to some extent whereas the other parameters remain altered. The alterations of these parameters can be used to assess the toxic levels of the pesticide furadan on aquatic biota.

  18. Induction of wound-periderm-like tissue in Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. (Crassulaceae) leaves as a defence response to high UV-B radiation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Luana Beatriz dos Santos; Moreira, Nattacha dos Santos; Leal-Costa, Marcos Vinícius; Costa, Sônia Soares; Tavares, Eliana Schwartz

    2015-10-01

    UV-B radiation can be stressful for plants and cause morphological and biochemical changes. Kalanchoe pinnata is a CAM leaf-succulent species distributed in hot and dry regions, and is rich in flavonoids, which are considered to be protective against UV-B radiation. This study aims to verify if K. pinnata has morphological or anatomical responses as a strategy in response to high UV-B levels. Kalanchoe pinnata plants of the same age were grown under white light (control) or white light plus supplemental UV-B radiation (5 h d(-1)). The plants were treated with the same photoperiod, photosynthetically active radiation, temperature and daily watering system. Fragments of the middle third of the leaf blade and petiole were dehydrated and then embedded in historesin and sectioned in a rotary microtome. Sections were stained with toluidine blue O and mounted in Entellan®. Microchemical analyses by optical microscopy were performed on fresh material with Sudan III, Sudan IV and phloroglucinol, and analysed using fluorescence microscopy. Supplemental UV-B radiation caused leaf curling and the formation of brown areas on the leaves. These brown areas developed into a protective tissue on the adaxial side of the leaf, but only in directly exposed regions. Anatomically, this protective tissue was similar to a wound-periderm, with outer layer cell walls impregnated with suberin and lignin. This is the first report of wound-periderm formation in leaves in response to UV-B radiation. This protective tissue could be important for the survival of the species in desert regions under high UV-B stress conditions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Transgenic zebrafish reveal tissue-specific differences in estrogen signaling in response to environmental water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Daniel A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Hung, Alice L.; Blazer, Vicki; Halpern, Marnie E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Environmental endocrine disruptors (EED) are exogenous chemicals that mimic endogenous hormones, such as estrogens. Previous studies using a zebrafish transgenic reporter demonstrated that the EEDs bisphenol A and genistein preferentially activate estrogen receptors (ER) in the larval heart compared to the liver. However, it was not known whether the transgenic zebrafish reporter was sensitive enough to detect estrogens from environmental samples, whether environmental estrogens would exhibit similar tissue-specific effects as BPA and genistein or why some compounds preferentially target receptors in the heart. Methods: We tested surface water samples using a transgenic zebrafish reporter with tandem estrogen response elements driving green fluorescent protein expression (5xERE:GFP). Reporter activation was colocalized with tissue-specific expression of estrogen receptor genes by RNA in situ hybridization. Results: Selective patterns of ER activation were observed in transgenic fish exposed to river water samples from the Mid-Atlantic United States, with several samples preferentially activating receptors in embryonic and larval heart valves. We discovered that tissue-specificity in ER activation is due to differences in the expression of estrogen receptor subtypes. ERα is expressed in developing heart valves but not in the liver, whereas ERβ2 has the opposite profile. Accordingly, subtype-specific ER agonists activate the reporter in either the heart valves or the liver. Conclusion: The use of 5xERE:GFP transgenic zebrafish has revealed an unexpected tissue-specific difference in the response to environmentally relevant estrogenic compounds. Exposure to estrogenic EEDs in utero is associated with adverse health effects, with the potentially unanticipated consequence of targeting developing heart valves.

  20. Buttock tissue response to loading in men with spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Eve Sonenblum

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that most people with a spinal cord injury who use a wheelchair for mobility are considered at-risk for pressure ulcer (PrU development, there still exists a spectrum of risk amongst this group. Efforts to differentiate risk level would benefit from clinical tools that can measure or predict the buttocks response to loading. Therefore, the goal of this study was to identify how tissue compliance and blood flow were impacted by clinically-measurable risk factors in young men with SCI.Blood flow at the ischial tuberosity was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry while the seated buttock was unloaded, and loaded at lower (40-60 mmHg and high (>200 mmHg loads. Tissue compliance of the buttock was measured using the Myotonometer while subject were lifted in a Guldmann Net.Across 28 participants, blood flow was significantly reduced at high loads, while no consistent, significant changes were found at lower loads. At 40-60 mmHg, blood flow decreased in participants with a pressure ulcer history and lower BMI, but stayed the same or increased in most other participants. The buttock displaced an average of 9.3 mm (2.7 mm at 4.2 N, which represented 82% (7% of maximum displacement. BMI was related to the amount of buttock tissue displacement while smoking status explained some of the variation in the percent of max displacement.Wide variability in tissue compliance and blood flow responses across a relatively homogeneous population indicate that differences in biomechanical risk may provide an explanation for the spectrum of PrU risk among persons with SCI.

  1. Biochemical adaptation of phytopathogenic fungi, Sclerotium rolfsii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical adaptation of phytopathogenic fungi, Sclerotium rolfsii, in response to temperature stress. Natthiya Buensanteai, Kanjana Thumanu, Khanistha Kooboran, Dusit Athinuwat, Sutruedee Prathuangwong ...

  2. Proteomic Assessment of Biochemical Pathways That Are Critical to Nickel-Induced Toxicity Responses in Human Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying toxicity initiated by nickel, a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and known human carcinogen is necessary for proper assessment of its risks to human and environment. Among a variety of toxic mechanisms, disruption of protein responses a...

  3. 3D-Printed pHEMA Materials for Topographical and Biochemical Modulation of Dorsal Root Ganglion Cell Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, Adina; McCracken, Joselle M; Tillmaand, Emily G; Kandel, Mikhail E; Oraham, Aaron W; Mevis, Molly B; Rubakhin, Stanislav S; Popescu, Gabriel; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Nuzzo, Ralph G

    2017-09-13

    Understanding and controlling the interactions occurring between cells and engineered materials are central challenges toward progress in the development of biomedical devices. In this work, we describe materials for direct ink writing (DIW), an extrusion-based type of 3D printing, that embed a custom synthetic protein (RGD-PDL) within the microfilaments of 3D-hydrogel scaffolds to modify these interactions and differentially direct tissue-level organization of complex cell populations in vitro. The RGD-PDL is synthesized by modifying poly-d-lysine (PDL) to varying extents with peptides containing the integrin-binding motif Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD). Compositional gradients of the RGD-PDL presented by both patterned and thin-film poly(2-hydroxyethyl) methacrylate (pHEMA) substrates allow the patterning of cell-growth compliance in a grayscale form. The surface chemistry-dependent guidance of cell growth on the RGD-PDL-modified pHEMA materials is demonstrated using a model NIH-3T3 fibroblast cell line. The formation of a more complex cellular system-organotypic primary murine dorsal root ganglion (DRG)-in culture is also achieved on these scaffolds, where distinctive forms of cell growth and migration guidance are seen depending on their RGD-PDL content and topography. This experimental platform for the study of physicochemical factors on the formation and the reorganization of organotypic cultures offers useful capabilities for studies in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and diagnostics.

  4. Multi-scale mechanical response of freeze-dried collagen scaffolds for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offeddu, Giovanni S; Ashworth, Jennifer C; Cameron, Ruth E; Oyen, Michelle L

    2015-02-01

    Tissue engineering has grown in the past two decades as a promising solution to unresolved clinical problems such as osteoarthritis. The mechanical response of tissue engineering scaffolds is one of the factors determining their use in applications such as cartilage and bone repair. The relationship between the structural and intrinsic mechanical properties of the scaffolds was the object of this study, with the ultimate aim of understanding the stiffness of the substrate that adhered cells experience, and its link to the bulk mechanical properties. Freeze-dried type I collagen porous scaffolds made with varying slurry concentrations and pore sizes were tested in a viscoelastic framework by macroindentation. Membranes made up of stacks of pore walls were indented using colloidal probe atomic force microscopy. It was found that the bulk scaffold mechanical response varied with collagen concentration in the slurry consistent with previous studies on these materials. Hydration of the scaffolds resulted in a more compliant response, yet lesser viscoelastic relaxation. Indentation of the membranes suggested that the material making up the pore walls remains unchanged between conditions, so that the stiffness of the scaffolds at the scale of seeded cells is unchanged; rather, it is suggested that thicker pore walls or more of these result in the increased moduli for the greater slurry concentration conditions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Calcium hydroxide associated with a new vehicle: Psidium cattleianum leaf extracts. Tissue response evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego VALENTIM

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate edemogenic activity and subcutaneous inflammatory reaction induced by Psidium cattleianum leaf extracts associated with Ca(OH2. Thirty male Wistar rats, split equally into three groups [aqueous extract + Ca(OH2; ethanolic extract + Ca(OH2; and propylene glycol + Ca(OH2], were assessed every 3 h or 6 h (five animals in each period. Under general anesthesia, 0.2 mL of 1% Evans blue per 100 g of body weight was injected into the penile vein and each combination to be evaluated was subcutaneously injected into the dorsal region 30 min thereafter. Edemogenic activity was analyzed by spectrophotometry (λ=630 nm. For inflammatory reaction analysis, 50 rats received four polyethylene tubes (three experimental groups and an empty tube (control group. The assessments were made at 7, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days, followed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and by the assignment of scores for evaluation of tissue response intensity. Ethanolic extract + Ca(OH2 yielded the largest edemogenic activity at 3 h. Intergroup differences at 6 h were not significant. The histological analysis showed progressive repair over time (p<0.05 and aqueous and ethanolic extracts produced similar responses to those of the control and Ca(OH2 + propylene glycol groups. Psidium cattleianum leaf extracts used as Ca(OH2 vehicles evoked similar tissue response when compared to Ca(OH2 associated with propylene glycol.

  6. Gene Expression Profile Analysis as a Prognostic Indicator of Normal Tissue Response to Simulated Space Radiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Michael; Stivers, David N.

    2004-01-01

    This project was funded as a pilot project to determine the feasibility of using gene expression profiles to characterize the response of human cells to exposure to particulate radiations such as those encountered in the spaceflight environment. We proposed to use microarray technology to examine the gene expression patterns of a bank of well-characterized human fibroblast cell cultures. These fibroblast cultures were derived from breast or head and neck cancer patients who exhibited normal, minimal, or severe normal tissue reactions following low LET radiation exposure via radiotherapy. Furthermore, determination of SF2 values from fibroblasts cultured from these individuals were predictive of risk for severe late reactions. We hypothesized that by determining the expression of thousands of genes we could identify gene expression patterns that reflect how normal tissues respond to high Z and energy (HZE) particles, that is, that there are molecular signatures for HZE exposures. We also hypothesized that individuals who are intrinsically radiosensitive may elicit a unique response. Because this was funded as a pilot project we focused our initial studies on logistics and appropriate experimental design, and then to test our hypothesis that there is a unique molecular response to specific particles, in this case C and Fe, for primary human skin fibroblasts.

  7. A method to determine insulin responsiveness in synaptosomes isolated from frozen brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Whitney; Taglialatela, Giulio

    2016-03-01

    Studying the insulin signaling response at the synapse is an important approach to understand molecular mechanisms involved in disease-related neurodegenerative processes. We developed a method for studying the insulin responsiveness at the synaptic level by isolating functional synaptosomes from fresh or frozen tissue and exposing them to insulin in the presence of ATP (a critical step) to detect insulin receptor (IR) activation. We performed an ATP dose-response curve, insulin dose-response curve, and insulin response time course to optimize this method. We also demonstrated that our protocol reflects the degree of insulin responsiveness in vivo by using an animal model of known insulin resistance, AtENPP1-Tg mice. This method is advantageous over other methods detecting IR in total brain homogenates due to the ability to detect IR response without confounding contributions from other cell areas and cell types also expressing IR. Furthermore, ex vivo insulin stimulation can be compared to baseline synaptosomes obtained from the same animal which improves reliability and statistical power while decreasing the number of animals required to perform individual experiments. We have developed a reliable, efficient method to measure insulin-driven ex vivo phosphorylation of the synaptosomal insulin receptor that can reliably reflect the pre-existing insulin responsiveness status in the CNS of the animal. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first evidence of stimulation of isolated synaptosomes with insulin and a promising new technique to study the synaptic CNS insulin responsiveness under physiological or disease conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Is Biochemical Response More Important Than Duration of Neoadjuvant Hormone Therapy Before Radiotherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer? An Analysis of the 3- Versus 8-Month Randomized Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, Abraham; Crook, Juanita; Jones, Stuart; Malone, Shawn; Bowen, Julie; Truong, Pauline; Pai, Howard; Ludgate, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To ascertain whether biochemical response to neoadjuvant androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) before radiotherapy (RT), rather than duration, is the critical determinant of benefit in the multimodal treatment of localized prostate cancer, by comparing outcomes of subjects from the Canadian multicenter 3- vs 8-month trial with a pre-RT, post-hormone PSA (PRPH-PSA) ≤0.1 ng/ml vs those >0.1 ng/ml. Methods and Materials: From 1995 to 2001, 378 men with localized prostate cancer were randomized to 3 or 8 months of neoadjuvant ADT before RT. On univariate analysis, survival indices were compared between those with a PRPH-PSA ≤0.1 ng/ml vs >0.1 ng/ml, for all patients and subgroups, including treatment arm, risk group, and gleason Score. Multivariate analysis identified independent predictors of outcome. Results: Biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS) was significantly higher for those with a PRPH-PSA ≤0.1 ng/ml compared with PRPH-PSA >0.1 ng/ml (55.3% vs 49.4%, p = 0.014). No difference in survival indices was observed between treatment arms. There was no difference in bDFS between patients in the 3- and 8-month arms with a PRPH-PSA ≤0.1 ng/ml nor those with PRPH-PSA >0.1 ng/ml. bDFS was significantly higher for high-risk patients with PRPH-PSA ≤0.1 ng/ml compared with PRPH-PSA >0.1 ng/ml (57.0% vs 29.4%, p = 0.017). Multivariate analysis identified PRPH-PSA (p = 0.041), Gleason score (p = 0.001), initial PSA (p = 0.025), and T-stage (p = 0.003), not ADT duration, as independent predictors of outcome. Conclusion: Biochemical response to neoadjuvant ADT before RT, not duration, appears to be the critical determinant of benefit in the setting of combined therapy. Individually tailored ADT duration based on PRPH-PSA would maximize therapeutic gain, while minimizing the duration of ADT and its related toxicities.

  9. Peri-implant tissue response following connective tissue and bone grafting in conjunction with immediate single-tooth replacement in the esthetic zone: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Hirotaka; Rungcharassaeng, Kitichai; Kan, Joseph Y K; Roe, Phillip; Lozada, Jaime L; Zimmerman, Grenith

    2011-01-01

    This case series evaluated the peri-implant tissue response following extraction and immediate placement and restoration of an implant in conjunction with subepithelial connective tissue grafting (SCTG) and bone grafting in the esthetic zone. Implant success rates and the peri-implant tissue response were also reported. Ten patients (four men, six women) with a mean age of 48 years (range, 35 to 70) underwent extraction and immediate tooth replacement with SCTG and were evaluated clinically and radiographically presurgically (T0), immediately after immediate tooth replacement and SCTG (T1), and at 3 months (T2), 6 months (T3), and 12 months (T4) after surgery. Data was analyzed using Friedman and Wilcoxon signed-ranks tests at the significance level of a = .05. At 1 year, all implants remained osseointegrated, with an overall mean marginal bone change of +0.10 mm and a mean facial gingival level change of -0.05 mm. Modified Plaque Index scores showed that patients were able to maintain a good level of hygiene throughout the study. Papilla Index scores indicated that at T4, more than 50% papilla fill was observed in 80% of all sites. The results of this case series suggest that, in addition to a favorable implant success rate and peri-implant tissue response, the facial gingival level around single immediately placed implants can also be maintained following connective tissue grafting when proper three-dimensional implant positioning is achieved and bone is grafted into the implant-socket gap.

  10. Inhibition of SERPINE1 Function Attenuates Wound Closure in Response to Tissue Injury: A Role for PAI-1 in Re-Epithelialization and Granulation Tissue Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa M. Simone

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1; SERPINE1 is a prominent member of the serine protease inhibitor superfamily (SERPIN and a causative factor of multi-organ fibrosis as well as a key regulator of the tissue repair program. PAI-1 attenuates pericellular proteolysis by inhibiting the catalytic activity of both urokinase and tissue-type protease activators (uPA and tPA effectively modulating, thereby, plasmin-mediated fibrinolysis and the overall pericellular proteolytic cascade. PAI-1 also impacts cellular responses to tissue injury and stress situations (growth, survival, migration by titering the locale and temporal activation of multimeric cell-surface signaling complexes. This review will describe PAI-1 structure and function and detail the role of PAI-1 in the tissue repair program with an emphasis on cutaneous wound healing.

  11. Biomarkers of Necrotising Soft Tissue Infections Aspects of the Innate Immune Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marco Bo

    2017-01-01

    for Necrotizing Fasciitis (LRINEC) score, presence of septic shock, microbial aetiology, renal replacement therapy, and amputation. In Study 1, we assessed the following acute-phase proteins in 135 patients with NSTI: pentraxin-3 (PTX3), procalcitonin, and C-reactive protein. We found that a high baseline PTX3......-existent in this group of patients. Instead data regarding biomarkers are extrapolated from the wide and heterogenic group of patients with sepsis, even though the immunological responses are likely to differ because of the large amount of necrotic tissue seen in patients with NSTI. We performed the largest prospective...

  12. Proteomic and biochemical analyses reveal the activation of unfolded protein response, ERK-1/2 and ribosomal protein S6 signaling in experimental autoimmune myocarditis rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Chan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the molecular and cellular pathogenesis underlying myocarditis, we used an experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM-induced heart failure rat model that represents T cell mediated postinflammatory heart disorders. Results By performing unbiased 2-dimensional electrophoresis of protein extracts from control rat heart tissues and EAM rat heart tissues, followed by nano-HPLC-ESI-QIT-MS, 67 proteins were identified from 71 spots that exhibited significantly altered expression levels. The majority of up-regulated proteins were confidently associated with unfolded protein responses (UPR, while the majority of down-regulated proteins were involved with the generation of precursor metabolites and energy metabolism in mitochondria. Although there was no difference in AKT signaling between EAM rat heart tissues and control rat heart tissues, the amounts and activities of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK-1/2 and ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6 were significantly increased. By comparing our data with the previously reported myocardial proteome of the Coxsackie viruses of group B (CVB-mediated myocarditis model, we found that UPR-related proteins were commonly up-regulated in two murine myocarditis models. Even though only two out of 29 down-regulated proteins in EAM rat heart tissues were also dysregulated in CVB-infected rat heart tissues, other proteins known to be involved with the generation of precursor metabolites and energy metabolism in mitochondria were also dysregulated in CVB-mediated myocarditis rat heart tissues, suggesting that impairment of mitochondrial functions may be a common underlying mechanism of the two murine myocarditis models. Conclusions UPR, ERK-1/2 and S6RP signaling were activated in both EAM- and CVB-induced myocarditis murine models. Thus, the conserved components of signaling pathways in two murine models of acute myocarditis could be targets for developing new therapeutic drugs or

  13. Replacement of inorganic zinc with lower levels of organic zinc (zinc nicotinate on performance, hematological and serum biochemical constituents, antioxidants status, and immune responses in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nagalakshmi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of organic zinc (zinc nicotinate, Zn-nic supplementation (6, 9, and 12 ppm compared to inorganic zinc (12 ppm on growth performance, hematology, serum biochemical constituents oxidative stress, and immunity in weaned female Sprague–Dawley rats. Material and Methods: A 48 weaned rats (285.20±1.95 g were randomly distributed to 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicates in each and reared in polypropylene cages for 10 weeks. Basal diet (BD was formulated with purified ingredients without zinc (Zn. Four dietary treatments were prepared by adding 12 ppm Zn from ZnCO3 (control and 6, 9, and 12 ppm Zn from Zn-nic to the BD. On 42nd day, blood was collected by retro-orbital puncture for analyzing hematological constituents, glucose, cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin, and globulin and antioxidant enzyme activities. At 43rd day, rats were antigenically challenged with sheep red blood cell (RBC to assess humoral immune response and on 70th day cell-mediated immune response. Results: Weekly body weight gains, daily feed intake, blood hematological constituents (white blood cell, RBC, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, lymphocyte, monocyte, and granulocyte concentration and serum glucose, total protein levels were comparable among the rats feed Zn from ZnCO3 and Zn-nic (6, 9, and 12 ppm. Serum cholesterol reduced with organic Zn supplementation at either concentration (6-12 ppm. Serum globulin concentration reduced (p<0.05 with 6 ppm Zn-nic supplementation compared to other dietary treatments. Lipid peroxidation lowered (p<0.05 reduced with 12 ppm organic Zn; thiobarbituric acid reacting substances and protein carbonyls concentrations in liver reduced (p<0.05 with 9 and 12 ppm levels of organic Zn supplementation compared to 12 ppm Zn supplementation from inorganic source. RBC catalase and glutathione peroxidase enzymes activities were highest (p

  14. Differential response between histological and biochemical biomarkers in the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Gasteropoda: Amullariidae) exposed to cypermethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighetti, F; Ambrosio, E; Astiz, M; Capítulo, A Rodrigues; Lavarías, S

    2018-01-01

    To develop effective programs to monitor water quality is necessary to identify sensitive biomarkers in indicator species. The aim of this study was to evaluate different biomarkers in the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata exposed to the insecticide Cypermethrin (CYP). Adult male and female snails were exposed to sublethal CYP concentrations (10, 25 and 100μgl -1 ) for 1, 4, 7 and 14days. The recovery of the exposed snails was also studied by a post-exposure assay. The activities of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein oxidation (PC) in digestive gland and gills were studied as biomarkers of exposure. Histopathological changes in target tissues were also evaluated. In digestive gland, CYP caused a significant increase in SOD, CAT and GST activities compared to control (pbiomarkers of toxicity induced by CYP in P. canaliculata. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Tissue Specificity of a Response of the Pro- and Antioxidative System After Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Zhukova

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was undertaken to study the resistance of membrane structures and the level of the intracellular defense systems of the heart, brain, and liver in animals with active versus passive behavior in different periods (days 7 and 30 after resuscitation made 10 minutes following systemic circulatory arrest. All the animals in which systemic circulation had been stopped were survivors with the cession of neurological deficit. The activity of antioxidative defense enzymes, such as cata-lase and superoxide dismutase, in cardiac, cerebral, and hepatic tissues was assayed by spectrophotometry using the conventional methods. The level of stress-induced protein HSP70 was measured in the tissue cytosolic fraction by the Western blotting assay. The activity of Ca2+ transport in the myocardial sarcoplasmic reticulum was determined on an Orion EA 940 ionomer («Orion Research», USA having a Ca2+-selective electrode. The findings show a significant tissue specificity in different postresuscitative periods (days 7 and 30 and varying (protective to damaging cardiac, cerebral, and hepatic responses in active and passive animals to hypoxia.

  16. [Predictive factors of response to erytrhocytapheresis in patients with biochemical iron overload with or without hereditary hemochromatosis type 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra Salinas, Ingrid; Montes Limon, Anel; Recasens Flores, Valle; Fernandez-Mosteirin, Nuria; Garcia-Erce, Jose Antonio

    2014-03-04

    Progressive increase of iron stores leads to the development of varied diseases, some of them irreversible. Until now, phlebotomy has been the cornerstone in the treatment of iron overload. Nevertheless, each erytrhocytapheresis procedure removes more than twice the volume of red cells and iron than phlebotomy, allowing to achieve iron depletion in shorter time. Our aim was to describe clinical features and analytical tests parameters of patients with iron overload, to analyze global and subsets results, to suggest predictive factors of response and to evaluate security of the procedure. Descriptive, longitudinal and prospective study of 663 procedures corresponding to 35 patients (December 2002 to October 2011). Response was defined as a serum ferritine value lower than 50 ng/mL during two months. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS(®) v 17.0 and the minimum level of statistical significance was defined as p-value < 0,05. Seventy-seven percent of patients reached response with 11 (interquartile range 1-42) erytrhocytapheresis procedures and at 11 (1-108) months. Eighty-seven point five percent of patients who did not achieve response had their ferritine values reduced in more than 50%. The decrease of all iron metabolism parameters was statistically significant. Statistically significant predictive factors of response to erytrhocytapheresis were: patients younger than 60 years-old, hereditary hemochromatosis cases, and patients who had received treatment with phlebotomies prior to erytrhocytapheresis. Erytrhocytapheresis is a secure and effective procedure for iron depletion in patients with iron overload, especially in high risk hereditary hemochromatosis cases that do not respond to phlebotomies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Differential responsiveness in VEGF receptor subtypes to hypoxic stress in various tissues of plateau animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hui-Chun; Li, Jin-Gang; He, Jian-Ping

    2017-05-04

    With hypoxic stress, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are elevated and their responses are altered in skeletal muscles of plateau animals [China Qinghai-Tibetan plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae)] as compared with control animals [normal lowland Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats]. The results indicate that HIF-1alpha and VEGF are engaged in physiological functions under hypoxic environment. The purpose of the current study was to examine the protein levels of VEGF receptor subtypes (VEGFRs: VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3) in the end organs, namely skeletal muscle, heart and lung in response to hypoxic stress. ELISA and Western blot analysis were employed to determine HIF-1alpha and the protein expression of VEGFRs in control animals and plateau pikas. We further blocked HIF-1alpha signal to determine if HIF-1alpha regulates alternations in VEGFRs in those tissues. We hypothesized that responsiveness of VEGFRs in the major end organs of plateau animals is differential with insult of hypoxic stress and is modulated by low oxygen sensitive HIF-1alpha. Our results show that hypoxic stress induced by exposure of lower O(2) for 6 h significantly increased the levels of VEGFR-2 in skeletal muscle, heart and lung and the increases were amplified in plateau pikas. Our results also demonstrate that hypoxic stress enhanced VEGFR-3 in lungs of plateau animals. Nonetheless, no significant alternations in VEGFR-1 were observed in those tissues with hypoxic stress. Moreover, we observed decreases of VEGFR-2 in skeletal muscle, heart and lung; and decreases of VEGFR-3 in lung following HIF-1alpha inhibition. Overall, our findings suggest that in plateau animals 1) responsiveness of VEGFRs is different under hypoxic environment; 2) amplified VEGFR-2 response appears in skeletal muscle, heart and lung, and enhanced VEGFR-3 response is mainly observed in lung; 3) HIF-1alpha plays a regulatory role in the levels of VEGFRs. Our results

  18. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells acquire bone cell-like responsiveness to fluid shear stress on osteogenic stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippenberg, M.; Helder, M.N.; Doulabi, B.Z.; Semeins, C.M.; Wuisman, P.I.J.M.; Klein-Nulend, J.

    2005-01-01

    To engineer bone tissue, mechanosensitive cells are needed that are able to perform bone cell-specific functions, such as (re)modeling of bone tissue. In vivo, local bone mass and architecture are affected by mechanical loading, which is thought to provoke a cellular response via loading-induced

  19. Effects of dietary administration of Rose hip and Safflower on growth performance, haematological, biochemical parameters and innate immune response of Beluga, Huso huso (Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadras, Hadiseh; Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad Reza; Shelton, William L; Golpour, Amin

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of two dietary medicinal herbs, Rose hip (Rosa canina) and Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) supplementation on growth performance, haematological, biochemical parameters and innate immune response of in juvenile beluga, Huso huso. Fish (26.3 ± 0.4 g) were allocated into 15 tanks (20 fish per tank) and triplicate groups were fed a control diet or diets containing 1% and 2% of medicinal herbs, respectively. Feed conversion ratio (FCR), specific growth rate (SGR) and condition factor (CF) did not show significant differences (P > 0.05) in fish given herbal diets. Significant differences were observed in number of white blood cells (WBC) and haemoglobin (Hb) values among the dietary treatments. The serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were significantly lower in supplemented diet groups compared with the control. Innate immune responses (lysozyme activity and ACH 50 ) were significantly higher in 2% Safflower-fed fish compared with other groups (P < 0.05). These results indicate that medicinal herbs in diets can be considered as a beneficial dietary supplement for improving the physiological parameters and enhance the immune response of Persian sturgeon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Effect of consumption of bread with amaranth (Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell.) on glycemic response and biochemical parameters in Sprague dawley rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Quintero, Keyla Carolina; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Molina, Edgar Alí; Colina-Barriga, Máximo Segundo; Sánchez-Urdaneta, Adriana Beatriz

    2014-11-01

    The incorporation of functional ingredients like amaranth (Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell.) in bread making is a strategy to increase fiber intake, which is associated with beneficial health effects, improving glycemic response and lipid profile. Thirty male Sprague dawley rats were randomized into three groups: diet of bread with 0% amaranth (PA0, control), diet of bread with 10% amaranth (PA10) and bread diet with 20% amaranth (PA20) for determining the feed intake, weight gain, triglyceride, total cholesterol, VLDL-C, LDL-C, HDL-C, protein and postprandial glycemic response. Data were analyzed using a completely randomized with 10 replications analysis, using the comparison test of Tukey for biochemical parameters. Postprandial glycemic response was analyzed by the method of repeated measures over time. The daily intake and weight gain was not affected (P>0.05) in the groups with PA10 and PA20. The concentration of glucose, triglycerides and protein showed statistically significant differences (P>0.05) by the difference in content of amaranth diets. The values of total cholesterol, LDL-C, and atherogenic risk factor index were statistically significant (P. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. A comparative analysis of transcriptomic, biochemical, and physiological responses to elevated ozone identifies species-specific mechanisms of resilience in legume crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yendrek, Craig R; Koester, Robert P; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2015-12-01

    Current concentrations of tropospheric ozone ([O3]) pollution negatively impact plant metabolism, which can result in decreased crop yields. Interspecific variation in the physiological response of plants to elevated [O3] exists; however, the underlying cellular responses explaining species-specific differences are largely unknown. Here, a physiological screen has been performed on multiple varieties of legume species. Three varieties of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) were resilient to elevated [O3]. Garden pea showed no change in photosynthetic capacity or leaf longevity when exposed to elevated [O3], in contrast to varieties of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Global transcriptomic and targeted biochemical analyses were then done to examine the mechanistic differences in legume responses to elevated [O3]. In all three species, there was an O3-mediated reduction in specific leaf weight and total non-structural carbohydrate content, as well as increased abundance of respiration-related transcripts. Differences specific to garden pea included a pronounced increase in the abundance of GLUTATHIONE REDUCTASE transcript, as well as greater contents of foliar glutathione, apoplastic ascorbate, and sucrose in elevated [O3]. These results suggest that garden pea may have had greater capacity for detoxification, which prevented net losses in CO2 fixation in an elevated [O3] environment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  2. Influenza infection induces host DNA damage and dynamic DNA damage responses during tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Parrish, Marcus; Chan, Tze Khee; Yin, Lu; Rai, Prashant; Yoshiyuki, Yamada; Abolhassani, Nona; Tan, Kong Bing; Kiraly, Orsolya; Chow, Vincent T K; Engelward, Bevin P

    2015-08-01

    Influenza viruses account for significant morbidity worldwide. Inflammatory responses, including excessive generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), mediate lung injury in severe influenza infections. However, the molecular basis of inflammation-induced lung damage is not fully understood. Here, we studied influenza H1N1 infected cells in vitro, as well as H1N1 infected mice, and we monitored molecular and cellular responses over the course of 2 weeks in vivo. We show that influenza induces DNA damage to both, when cells are directly exposed to virus in vitro (measured using the comet assay) and also when cells are exposed to virus in vivo (estimated via γH2AX foci). We show that DNA damage, as well as responses to DNA damage persist in vivo until long after virus has been cleared, at times when there are inflammation associated RONS (measured by xanthine oxidase activity and oxidative products). The frequency of lung epithelial and immune cells with increased γH2AX foci is elevated in vivo, especially for dividing cells (Ki-67-positive) exposed to oxidative stress during tissue regeneration. Additionally, we observed a significant increase in apoptotic cells as well as increased levels of DNA double strand break (DSB) repair proteins Ku70, Ku86 and Rad51 during the regenerative phase. In conclusion, results show that influenza induces DNA damage both in vitro and in vivo, and that DNA damage responses are activated, raising the possibility that DNA repair capacity may be a determining factor for tissue recovery and disease outcome.

  3. Novel whole-tissue quantitative assay of nitric oxide levels in Drosophila neuroinflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajjuri, Rami R; O'Donnell, Janis M

    2013-12-04

    Neuroinflammation is a complex innate immune response vital to the healthy function of the central nervous system (CNS). Under normal conditions, an intricate network of inducers, detectors, and activators rapidly responds to neuron damage, infection or other immune infractions. This inflammation of immune cells is intimately associated with the pathology of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease and ALS. Under compromised disease states, chronic inflammation, intended to minimize neuron damage, may lead to an over-excitation of the immune cells, ultimately resulting in the exacerbation of disease progression. For example, loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain, a hallmark of PD, is accelerated by the excessive activation of the inflammatory response. Though the cause of PD is largely unknown, exposure to environmental toxins has been implicated in the onset of sporadic cases. The herbicide paraquat, for example, has been shown to induce Parkinsonian-like pathology in several animal models, including Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we have used the conserved innate immune response in Drosophila to develop an assay capable of detecting varying levels of nitric oxide, a cell-signaling molecule critical to the activation of the inflammatory response cascade and targeted neuron death. Using paraquat-induced neuronal damage, we assess the impact of these immune insults on neuroinflammatory stimulation through the use of a novel, quantitative assay. Whole brains are fully extracted from flies either exposed to neurotoxins or of genotypes that elevate susceptibility to neurodegeneration then incubated in cell-culture media. Then, using the principles of the Griess reagent reaction, we are able to detect minor changes in the secretion of nitric oxide into cell-culture media, essentially creating a primary live-tissue model in a simple procedure. The utility of this model is amplified by the robust genetic and molecular

  4. Radiation risk of tissue late effects, a net consequence of probabilities of various cellular responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinendegen, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Late effects from the exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation are hardly or not at all observed in man mainly due to the low values of risk coefficients that preclude statistical analyses of data from populations that are exposed to doses less than 0.2 Gy. In order to arrive at an assessment of potential risk from radiation exposure in the low dose range, the microdosimetry approach is essential. In the low dose range, ionizing radiation generates particle tracks, mainly electrons, which are distributed rather heterogeneously within the exposed tissue. Taking the individual cell as the elemental unit of life, observations and calculations of cellular responses to being hit by energy depositions events from low LET type are analysed. It emerges that besides the probability of a hit cell to sustain a detrimental effect with the consequense of malignant transformation there are probabilities of various adaptive responses that equipp the hit cell with a benefit. On the one hand, an improvement of cellular radical detoxification was observed in mouse bone marrow cells; another adaptive response pertaining to improved DNA repair, was reported for human lymphocytes. The improved radical detoxification in mouse bone marrow cells lasts for a period of 5-10 hours and improved DNA repair in human lymphocytes was seen for some 60 hours following acute irradiation. It is speculated that improved radical detoxification and improved DNA repair may reduce the probability of spontaneous carcinogenesis. Thus it is proposed to weigh the probability of detriment for a hit cell within a multicellular system against the probability of benefit through adaptive responses in other hit cells in the same system per radiation exposure. In doing this, the net effect of low doses of low LET radiation in tissue with individual cells being hit by energy deposition events could be zero or even beneficial. (orig./MG)

  5. Homeostatic tissue responses in skin biopsies from NOMID patients with constitutive overproduction of IL-1β.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Aubert

    Full Text Available The autoinflammatory disorder, Neonatal-onset Multisystem Inflammatory Disease (NOMID is the most severe phenotype of disorders caused by mutations in CIAS1 that result in increased production and secretion of active IL-1β. NOMID patients present with systemic and organ-specific inflammation of the skin, central nervous system and bone, and respond dramatically to treatment with IL-1 blocking agents. We compared the cellular infiltrates and transcriptome of skin biopsies from patients with NOMID (n = 14 before treatment (lesional (LS and non-lesional (pre-NL skin and after treatment (post-NL with the IL-1 blocker anakinra (recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist, Kineret®, Swedish Orphan Biovitrum AB, SOBI, to normal skin (n = 5 to assess tissue responses in the context of untreated and treated disease. Abundant neutrophils distinguish LS skin from pre-NL and post-NL skin. CD11c(+ dermal dendritic cells and CD163(+ macrophages expressed activated caspase-1 and are a likely source of cutaneous IL-1 production. Treatment with anakinra led to the disappearance of neutrophils, but CD3(+ T cells and HLA-DR(+ cells remained elevated. Among the upregulated genes IL-6, IL-8, TNF, IL-17A, CCL20, and the neutrophil defensins DEFA1 and DEFA3 were differentially regulated in LS tissues (compared to normal skin. Important significantly downregulated pathways in LS skin included IL-1R/TLR signaling, type I and II cytokine receptor signaling, mitochondrial dysfunction, and antigen presentation. The differential expression and regulation of microRNAs and pathways involved in post-transcriptional modification were suggestive of epigenetic modification in the chronically inflamed tissue. Overall, the dysregulated genes and pathways suggest extensive "adaptive" mechanisms to control inflammation and maintain tissue homeostasis, likely triggered by chronic IL-1 release in the skin of patients with NOMID.

  6. Are Mussels Always the Best Bioindicators? Comparative Study on Biochemical Responses of Three Marine Invertebrate Species to Chronic Port Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitano, María V; Fernández-Gimenez, Analía V

    2016-07-01

    Bivalves have traditionally been considered good bioindicators due to their sensitivity to pollution, among other features. This characteristic is shared by several other non-bivalve species as well, though studies in this respect remain scarce. This work aims to compare biomarker sensitivity to chronic port pollution among three intertidal invertebrate species with good bioindicator characteristics. Mussels' immunological (phenoloxidase and peroxidases) and biotransformation (glutathione-S-transferase) responses were contrasted against those of limpets and barnacles. The three species under study evidenced activity of all the enzymes measured, although with differences. Barnacle Balanus glandula was the most sensitive species showing pollution modulation of the three enzymes, which suggests that mussels would not always be the best bioindicator species among marine invertebrates depending on the responses that are assessed.

  7. Linking hematological, biochemical, genotoxic, and behavioral responses to crude oil in the Amazon fish Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1816).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhann, Daiani; de Azevedo Brust, Sandra Maristher; Domingos, Fabíola Xochilt Valdez; Val, Adalberto Luis

    2013-08-01

    Despite safety protocols, crude oil extraction and transportation in the Amazon basin has a potential for inadvertent oil spills, which can impact aquatic organisms in local rivers. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of crude oil on juvenile Amazonian fish tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, at various biological levels. Furthermore, the effect of crude oil on response to alarm substance, an important communication system in fish, was reported for the first time. Fish exposed to crude oil showed a 90 % decrease in their response to alarm substance and a 60 % decrease in swimming activity relative to control fish. Basic hematology was not affected, although an increase of 200 % of DNA damage and an increase of GST activity were observed in animals exposed to crude oil. Inverse correlations were found between genotoxicity end points and behavioral parameters, suggesting that genotoxic end points can also reflect behavioral changes.

  8. Epidermal Homeostasis and Radiation Responses in a Multiscale Tissue Modeling Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaowen; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2013-01-01

    The surface of skin is lined with several thin layers of epithelial cells that are maintained throughout life time by a small population of stem cells. High dose radiation exposures could injure and deplete the underlying proliferative cells and induce cutaneous radiation syndrome. In this work we propose a multiscale computational model for skin epidermal dynamics that links phenomena occurring at the subcellular, cellular, and tissue levels of organization, to simulate the experimental data of the radiation response of swine epidermis, which is closely similar to human epidermis. Incorporating experimentally measured histological and cell kinetic parameters, we obtain results of population kinetics and proliferation indexes comparable to observations in unirradiated and acutely irradiated swine experiments. At the sub-cellular level, several recently published Wnt signaling controlled cell-cycle models are applied and the roles of key components and parameters are analyzed. Based on our simulation results, we demonstrate that a moderate increase of proliferation rate for the survival proliferative cells is sufficient to fully repopulate the area denuded by high dose radiation, as long as the integrity of underlying basement membrane is maintained. Our work highlights the importance of considering proliferation kinetics as well as the spatial organization of tissues when conducting in vivo investigations of radiation responses. This integrated model allow us to test the validity of several basic biological rules at the cellular level and sub-cellular mechanisms by qualitatively comparing simulation results with published research, and enhance our understanding of the pathophysiological effects of ionizing radiation on skin.

  9. In vivo tissue response and durability of five novel synthetic polymers in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, E; Cingi, C; Eskiizmir, G; Altintoprak, N; Calli, A; Calli, C; Yilgör, I; Yilgör, E

    2016-04-01

    Alloplastic materials are frequently used in facial plastic surgeries such as rhinoplasty and nasal reconstruction. Unfortunately, the ideal alloplastic material has not been found. This experimental study evaluates the tissue response and durability of five novel polymers developed as an alloplastic material. In this experimental study involving a tertiary university hospital, six subcuticular pockets were formed at the back of 10 rabbits for the implantation of each polymer and sham group. Each pocket was excised with its adjacent tissue after three months, and collected for histopathological examination. Semi-quantitative examination including neovascularisation, inflammation, fibrosis, abscess formation, multinucleated foreign body giant cells was performed, and integrity of polymer was evaluated. A statistical comparison was performed. No statically significant difference was detected in neovascularisation, inflammation, fibrosis, abscess formation and multinucleated foreign body giant cells when a paired comparison between sham and polymer II, III and IV groups was performed individually. Nevertheless, the degree of fibrosis was less than sham group in polymer I (p = .027) and V (p = .018), although the other variables were almost similar. The integrity of polymers III (9 intact, 1 fragmented) and IV (8 intact, 2 absent) was better than the other polymers. These novel synthetic polymers could be considered as good candidates for clinical applicability. All polymers provided satisfactory results in terms of tissue response; however, fibrovascular integration was higher in polymers II, III and IV. In addition, the durability of polymer III and IV was better than the others. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.

  10. Pain and Tissue Damage in Response to Orthodontic Tooth Movement: Are They Correlated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuoghi, Osmar A; Topolski, Francielle; de Faria, Lorraine P; de Mendonça, Marcos R

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the correlation between pain and tissue damage in response to orthodontic tooth movement (OTM), such as hyalinization and external apical root resorption (EARR). The literature review was used as a methodological strategy, following the knowledge development process - constructivist (ProKnow-C). Study axes were defined and keywords that best represented each axis were selected. The terms were submitted to an adherence test and validation, resulting in 12 keyword combinations. Searches were carried out in the most representative databases for the selected terms, without restriction as for language or publication dates. Retrieved studies were filtered using the EndNote X6 program and classified according to analysis of title, abstract, and keywords. The final portfolio of articles was submitted to bibliometric and systematic analysis. A total of 1,091 studies were retrieved, out of which 719 were repeated and 335 were removed in the classification stage. A total of 37 articles remained in the final portfolio. Only one article was in line with the purpose of this study, indicating absence of correlation between pain and EARR in response to OTM. Further studies are necessary to confirm whether orthodontic pain might serve as a criterion for the use of appropriate mechanical forces, contributing to minimize tissue damage following OTM. This article presents a systematic literature review, in which scientific evidence of the correlation between pain and tissue damage during orthodontic movement was studied, providing a scientific answer for the following question: Is pain reported by patients associated with application of inappropriate orthodontic force? Thus, it aims at aiding the orthodontist in the definition of clinical parameters for the use of optimal orthodontic force.

  11. Mechanisms underlying cellular responses of cells from haemopoietic tissue to low dose/low LET radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munira A Kadhim

    2010-03-05

    To accurately define the risks associated with human exposure to relevant environmental doses of low LET ionizing radiation, it is necessary to completely understand the biological effects at very low doses (i.e., less than 0.1 Gy), including the lowest possible dose, that of a single electron track traversal. At such low doses, a range of studies have shown responses in biological systems which are not related to the direct interaction of radiation tracks with DNA. The role of these “non-targeted” responses in critical tissues is poorly understood and little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms. Although critical for dosimetry and risk assessment, the role of individual genetic susceptibility in radiation risk is not satisfactorily defined at present. The aim of the proposed grant is to critically evaluate radiation-induced genomic instability and bystander responses in key stem cell populations from haemopoietic tissue. Using stem cells from two mouse strains (CBA/H and C57BL/6J) known to differ in their susceptibility to radiation effects, we plan to carefully dissect the role of genetic predisposition on two non-targeted radiation responses in these models; the bystander effect and genomic instability, which we believe are closely related. We will specifically focus on the effects of low doses of low LET radiation, down to doses approaching a single electron traversal. Using conventional X-ray and γ-ray sources, novel dish separation and targeted irradiation approaches, we will be able to assess the role of genetic variation under various bystander conditions at doses down to a few electron tracks. Irradiations will be carried out using facilities in routine operation for bystander targeted studies. Mechanistic studies of instability and the bystander response in different cell lineages will focus initially on the role of cytokines which have been shown to be involved in bystander signaling and the initiation of instability. These studies also aim

  12. Estimated Brain Tissue Response Following Impacts Associated With and Without Diagnosed Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, Jonathan G; Zhao, Wei; Ji, Songbai; Ajamil, Amaris G; Bolander, Richard P; Chu, Jeffrey J; McAllister, Thomas W; Crisco, Joseph J; Duma, Stefan M; Rowson, Steven; Broglio, Steven P; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Mihalik, Jason P; Anderson, Scott; Schnebel, Brock; Gunnar Brolinson, P; Collins, Michael W; Greenwald, Richard M

    2018-02-22

    Kinematic measurements of head impacts are sensitive to sports concussion, but not highly specific. One potential reason is these measures reflect input conditions only and may have varying degrees of correlation to regional brain tissue deformation. In this study, previously reported head impact data recorded in the field from high school and collegiate football players were analyzed using two finite element head models (FEHM). Forty-five impacts associated with immediately diagnosed concussion were simulated along with 532 control impacts without identified concussion obtained from the same players. For each simulation, intracranial response measures (max principal strain, strain rate, von Mises stress, and pressure) were obtained for the whole brain and within four regions of interest (ROI; cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem, corpus callosum). All response measures were sensitive to diagnosed concussion; however, large inter-athlete variability was observed and sensitivity strength depended on measure, ROI, and FEHM. Interestingly, peak linear acceleration was more sensitive to diagnosed concussion than all intracranial response measures except pressure. These findings suggest FEHM may provide unique and potentially important information on brain injury mechanisms, but estimations of concussion risk based on individual intracranial response measures evaluated in this study did not improve upon those derived from input kinematics alone.

  13. Ultrastructural and biochemical observations on proteoglycans and collagen in the mutable connective tissue of the feather star Antedon bifida (Echinodermata, Crinoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlinger, R; Welsch, U; Scott, J E

    1993-01-01

    Mutable connective tissue, unique to echinoderms, changes its mechanical behaviour within seconds of nervous stimulation. The molecular mechanism of this phenomenon is not understood. In this study proteoglycans and collagen of the brachial ligaments connecting neighbouring ossicles of the arms of the feather star Antedon bifida have been investigated by biochemistry, light and electron microscopy and the critical electrolyte concentration (CEC) technique using the dye Cupromeronic Blue (CB). The ligaments consist mainly of parallel cross-striated collagen fibrils, 82 +/- 12 nm in diameter, with a characteristic banding pattern and a D-period of 52.8 +/- 3.2 nm. Some fibrils were disaggregated into bundles of 10-11 nm protofibrils, lying between the normal fibrils. Proteoglycans occur at the surface of the fibrils with 2 binding sites (each with a different CEC) per D-period and also inside the fibrils. The surface proteoglycans are more highly sulphated (i.e. their CECs are > 1.3 M) than the intrafibrillar proteoglycans (CEC < 0.9 M). The glycosaminoglycans consist of a highly sulphated chondroitin sulphate, possibly with fucose residues. The results are consistent with the theory that disaggregation of the fibrils into protofibrils and reaggregation might be a mechanism of mutability, without excluding the possibility that fibrils may slide alongside each other during movements in the viscous phase of the ligament. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:8270464

  14. Some of physiological and biochemical responses of Prunus amygdalus to air pollution of the Shazand industrial area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Askari Mehrabadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In today's world where human life is dependent on the industry, the problems impose in the human life along with theachievement of growing in the field of industrial works. One of the challenging problems is entry of pollutants into air that has the destructive effects on human life and environment especially plants. Plants show different responses against the air pollutants. Plant responses can be vary due to climate, geography and plant species. In this study, the effects of air pollutants in the Shazand industrial area (refinery, petrochemical and thermal power stationin Markazi province has been checked on almond. For this purpose, the leaves of almond in Haftadgholle (control area, Shazand (closest city to industrial zone and Kazaz (adjacent industrial zone were collected. Also, soil samples were collected from three areas to determine lead and zinc amounts in soil. Results showed that proline, sulfur, heavy metals (lead and zinc and lipid peroxidation enhanced significantly in Kazaz and Shazand in compared with Haftadgholle, while antioxidant activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase and guaicol peroxidase didn’t significant changes in three areas. The increase of sulfur amount in leaves, lead and zinc in soil of the Kazaz and Shazand regions could be one of the reasons to prove the presence of pollutants in these areas. The increase of lipid peroxidation indicative plant damage against the air pollution. The plant defense mechanism against of stress is the increase of non-enzymatic antioxidant proline. No change in chlorophylls and protein contents reflects increased resistance to the stress.

  15. Effects of Coralliophila violacea on tissue loss in the scleractinian corals Porites spp. depend on host response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymundo, L.; Work, Thierry M.; Miller, R.L.; Lozada-Misa, P.L.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated interactions between the corallivorous gastropod Coralliophila violacea and its preferred hosts Porites spp. Our objectives were to experimentally determine whether tissue loss could progress in Porites during or after Coralliophila predation on corals with and without tissue loss and to histologically document snail predation. In 64% of feeding scars, tissue regenerated within 3 wk, leaving no trace of predation. However, in roughly 28% of scars, lesions progressed to subacute tissue loss resembling white syndrome. In feeding experiments, scars from snails previously fed diseased tissue developed progressive tissue loss twice as frequently as scars from snails previously fed healthy tissue. Scars from previously healthy-fed snails were 3 times as likely to heal as those from previously diseased-fed snails. Histology revealed marked differences in host responses to snails; P. cylindrica manifested a robust inflammatory response with fewer secondary colonizing organisms such as algae, sponges, and helminths, whereas P. rus showed no evident inflammation and more secondary colonization. We conclude that lesion progression associated with Coralliophila may be associated with secondary colonization of coral tissues damaged by predator-induced trauma and necrosis. Importantly, variation at the cellular level should be considered when explaining interspecific differences in host responses in corals impacted by phenomena such as predation.

  16. Prediction of treatment response and metastatic disease in soft tissue sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhidzadeh, Hamidreza; Zhou, Mu; Goldgof, Dmitry B.; Hall, Lawrence O.; Raghavan, Meera.; Gatenby, Robert A.

    2014-03-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are a heterogenous group of malignant tumors comprised of more than 50 histologic subtypes. Based on spatial variations of the tumor, predictions of the development of necrosis in response to therapy as well as eventual progression to metastatic disease are made. Optimization of treatment, as well as management of therapy-related side effects, may be improved using progression information earlier in the course of therapy. Multimodality pre- and post-gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance images (MRI) were taken before and after treatment for 30 patients. Regional variations in the tumor bed were measured quantitatively. The voxel values from the tumor region were used as features and a fuzzy clustering algorithm was used to segment the tumor into three spatial regions. The regions were given labels of high, intermediate and low based on the average signal intensity of pixels from the post-contrast T1 modality. These spatially distinct regions were viewed as essential meta-features to predict the response of the tumor to therapy based on necrosis (dead tissue in tumor bed) and metastatic disease (spread of tumor to sites other than primary). The best feature was the difference in the number of pixels in the highest intensity regions of tumors before and after treatment. This enabled prediction of patients with metastatic disease and lack of positive treatment response (i.e. less necrosis). The best accuracy, 73.33%, was achieved by a Support Vector Machine in a leave-one-out cross validation on 30 cases predicting necrosis treatment and metastasis.

  17. Human Subcutaneous Tissue Response to Glucose Sensors: Macrophages Accumulation Impact on Sensor Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigla, Mercedes; Pons, Belén; Rebasa, Pere; Luna, Alexis; Pozo, Francisco Javier; Caixàs, Assumpta; Villaplana, Maria; Subías, David; Bella, Maria Rosa; Combalia, Neus

    2018-02-22

    Subcutaneous (s.c.) glucose sensors have become a key component in type 1 diabetes management. However, their usability is limited by the impact of foreign body response (FBR) on their duration, reliability, and accuracy. Our study gives the first description of human acute and subacute s.c. response to glucose sensors, showing the changes observed in the sensor surface, the inflammatory cells involved in the FBR and their relationship with sensor performance. Twelve obese patients (seven type 2 diabetes) underwent two abdominal biopsies comprising the surrounding area where they had worn two glucose sensors: the first one inserted 7 days before and the second one 24 h before biopsy procedure. Samples were processed and studied to describe tissue changes by two independent pathologists (blind regarding sensor duration). Macrophages quantification was studied by immunohistochemistry methods in the area surrounding the sensor (CD68, CD163). Sensor surface changes were studied by scanning electron microscopy. Seven-day continuous glucose monitoring records were considered inaccurate when mean absolute relative difference was higher than 10%. Pathologists were able to correctly classify all the biopsies regarding sensor duration. Acute response (24 h) was characterized by the presence of neutrophils while macrophages were the main cell involved in subacute inflammation. The number of macrophages around the insertion hole was higher for less accurate sensors compared with those performing more accurately (32.6 ± 14 vs. 10.6 ± 1 cells/0.01 mm 2 ; P sensor-tissue interface is related with decrease in accuracy of the glucose measure.

  18. Murine Neonates Infected with Yersinia enterocolitica Develop Rapid and Robust Proinflammatory Responses in Intestinal Lymphoid Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefker, David T.; Echeverry, Andrea; Brambilla, Roberta; Fukata, Masayuki; Schesser, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal animals are generally very susceptible to infection with bacterial pathogens. However, we recently reported that neonatal mice are highly resistant to orogastric infection with Yersinia enterocolitica. Here, we show that proinflammatory responses greatly exceeding those in adults arise very rapidly in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of neonates. High-level induction of proinflammatory gene expression occurred in the neonatal MLN as early as 18 h postinfection. Marked innate phagocyte recruitment was subsequently detected at 24 h postinfection. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISPOT) analyses indicated that enhanced inflammation in neonatal MLN is contributed to, in part, by an increased frequency of proinflammatory cytokine-secreting cells. Moreover, both CD11b+ and CD11b− cell populations appeared to play a role in proinflammatory gene expression. The level of inflammation in neonatal MLN was also dependent on key bacterial components. Y. enterocolitica lacking the virulence plasmid failed to induce innate phagocyte recruitment. In contrast, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) protein expression and neutrophil recruitment were strikingly higher in neonatal MLN after infection with a yopP-deficient strain than with wild-type Y. enterocolitica, whereas only modest increases occurred in adults. This hyperinflammatory response was associated with greater colonization of the spleen and higher mortality in neonates, while there was no difference in mortality among adults. This model highlights the dynamic levels of inflammation in the intestinal lymphoid tissues and reveals the protective (wild-type strain) versus harmful (yopP-deficient strain) consequences of inflammation in neonates. Moreover, these results reveal that the neonatal intestinal lymphoid tissues have great potential to rapidly mobilize innate components in response to infection with bacterial enteropathogens. PMID:24478090

  19. Changes in blood glucose and insulin responses to intravenous glucose tolerance tests and blood biochemical values in adult female Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamine, Akari; Shimozuru, Michito; Shibata, Haruki; Tsubota, Toshio

    2012-02-01

    The metabolic mechanisms to circannual changes in body mass of bears have yet to be elucidated. We hypothesized that the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) has a metabolic mechanism that efficiently converts carbohydrates into body fat by altering insulin sensitivity during the hyperphagic stage before hibernation. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the changes in blood biochemical values and glucose and insulin responses to intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) during the active season (August, early and late November). Four, adult, female bears (5-17 years old) were anesthetized with 6 mg/kg TZ (tiletamine HCl and zolazepam HCl) in combination with 0.1 mg/kg acepromazine maleate. The bears were injected intravenously with glucose (0.5 g/kg of body mass), and blood samples were obtained before, at, and intermittently after glucose injection. The basal triglycerides concentration decreased significantly with increase in body mass from August to November. Basal levels of plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations were not significantly different among groups. The results of IVGTT demonstrated the increased peripheral insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in early November. In contrast, peripheral insulin resistance was indicated by the exaggerated insulin response in late November. Our findings suggest that bears shift their glucose and lipid metabolism from the stage of normal activity to the hyperphagic stage in which they show lipogenic-predominant metabolism and accelerate glucose uptake by increasing the peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  20. Tumour cell lysate-loaded dendritic cell vaccine induces biochemical and memory immune response in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, D; Salazar, L; Espinoza, E; Pereda, C; Castellón, E; Valdevenito, R; Huidobro, C; Inés Becker, M; Lladser, A; López, M N; Salazar-Onfray, F

    2013-09-17

    Recently, we produced a tumour antigen-presenting cells (TAPCells) vaccine using a melanoma cell lysate, called TRIMEL, as an antigen source and an activation factor. Tumour antigen-presenting cells induced immunological responses and increased melanoma patient survival. Herein, we investigated the effect of TAPCells loaded with prostate cancer cell lysates (PCCL) as an antigen source, and TRIMEL as a dendritic cell (DC) activation factor; which were co-injected with the Concholepas concholepas haemocyanin (CCH) as an adjuvant on castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. The lysate mix capacity, for inducing T-cell activation, was analysed by flow cytometry and Elispot. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction against PCCL, frequency of CD8(+) memory T cells (Tm) in blood and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in serum were measured in treated patients. The lysate mix induced functional mature DCs that were capable of activating PCCL-specific T cells. No relevant adverse reactions were observed. Six out of 14 patients showed a significant decrease in levels of PSA. DTH(+) patients showed a prolonged PSA doubling-time after treatment. Expansion of functional central and effector CD8(+) Tm were detected. Treatment of CRPC patients with lysate-loaded TAPCells and CCH as an adjuvant is safe: generating biochemical and memory immune responses. However, the limited number of cases requires confirmation in a phase II clinical trial.

  1. Effects of progressive soil water deficit on growth, and physiological and biochemical responses of populus euphratica in arid area: a case study in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.; Chen, Y.; Li, W.; Zhu, C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the responses of Populus euphratica seedlings under a short-term soil water deficit. To mimic natural conditions in which drought stress develops gradually, stress was imposed by subjecting plants to a gradual decrease of soil water content for a period of 21 d. We studied growth, physiological and biochemical responses to progressive soil water deficit of potted Populus euphratica seedlings at outdoors. Results showed that, in 6 d of water withholding, the soil moisture content decreased to a slight drought stress level, and it reached a severe drought stress level after 15 d of water withholding in July. In the process of soil water declining from saturated to severe drought levels, the increasing soil water deficit resulted in decreases in the height, stem base diameter, number of lateral branches. Leaf predawn water potential decreased after 15 d of withholding irrigation. After 21 d of withholding irrigation, actual photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) in light-adapted leaves and photochemical quenching coefficient decreased, respectively; the peroxidase activity, the content of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b decreased. There were no significant changes in proline, malondialdehyde content, chlorophyll a/b value and superoxide dismutase activity. (author)

  2. L-arginine does not improve biochemical and hormonal response in trained runners after 4 weeks of supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvares, Thiago Silveira; Conte-Junior, Carlos Adam; Silva, Joab Trajano; Paschoalin, Vânia Margaret Flosi

    2014-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that L-arginine improves exercise performance by increasing nitric oxide synthesis and levels of insulin and growth hormone (GH). Metabolic and hormonal responses to chronic L-arginine supplementation may clarify the mechanisms underlying its putative physiologic effects on physical performance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects that 4 weeks of supplementation with L-arginine would have on metabolic and hormonal parameters at rest and in response to exercise. Fifteen healthy runners were divided into treatment (ARG; 6 g L-arginine) and placebo (PLA; 6 g cornstarch) groups. On the first visit, blood samples were collected for baseline, and the supplement or placebo was provided. After 4 weeks of supplementation (second visit), blood samples were collected at the following intervals: at rest, immediately after the first 5-km time-trial running test (5km-TT), immediately after the second 5km-TT, and after 20 minutes of recovery (+20). In addition to exercise performance (total running time), plasma nitrate, nitrite, nitrate plus nitrite, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, lactate, ammonia and serum insulin, GH, insulin-like growth factor 1, and cortisol concentrations were evaluated. There were significant increases in plasma nitrite, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, lactate, ammonia and serum GH, and cortisol at the first 5km-TT, immediately after the second 5km-TT, and +20 in both ARG and PLA. Nitrate plus nitrite and nitrate increased only at +20. No significant change was observed in serum insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 in any sample period. Total running time did not differ significantly between the 2 tests, in either ARG or PLA. Thus, according to our results, 4 weeks of L-arginine supplementation did not cause beneficial changes in metabolic and hormonal parameters, beyond those achieved with exercise alone. © 2013.

  3. The Biochemical Origin of Pain: The origin of all Pain is Inflammation and the Inflammatory Response. PART 2 of 3 –Inflammatory Profile of Pain Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Every pain syndrome has an inflammatory profile consisting of the inflammatory mediators that are present in the pain syndrome. The inflammatory profile may have variations from one person to another and may have variations in the same person at different times. The key to treatment of Pain Syndromes is an understanding of their inflammatory profile. Pain syndromes may be treated medically or surgically. The goal should be inhibition or suppression of production of the inflammatory mediators and inhibition, suppression or modulation of neuronal afferent and efferent (motor) transmission. A successful outcome is one that results in less inflammation and thus less pain. We hereby describe the inflammatory profile for several pain syndromes including arthritis, back pain, neck pain, fibromyalgia, interstitial cystitis, migraine, neuropathic pain, complex regional pain syndrome / reflex sympathetic dystrophy (CRPS/RSD), bursitis, shoulder pain and vulvodynia. These profiles are derived from basic science and clinical research performed in the past by numerous investigators and will be updated in the future by new technologies such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Our unifying theory or law of pain states: The origin of all pain is inflammation and the inflammatory response. The biochemical mediators of inflammation include cytokines, neuropeptides, growth factors and neurotransmitters. Irrespective of the type of pain whether it is acute or chronic pain, peripheral or central pain, nociceptive or neuropathic pain, the underlying origin is inflammation and the inflammatory response. Activation of pain receptors, transmission and modulation of pain signals, neuro plasticity and central sensitization are all one continuum of inflammation and the inflammatory response. Irrespective of the characteristic of the pain, whether it is sharp, dull, aching, burning, stabbing, numbing or tingling, all pain arise from inflammation and the inflammatory response. We are proposing

  4. Bioavailability of cadmium and biochemical responses on the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea--the role of TiO₂ nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Gonçalo; Franco, Cristiana; Diniz, Mário S; dos Santos, Margarida M C; Domingos, Rute F

    2014-11-01

    The increasing and widespread applications of TiO2 engineered nanoparticles (nTiO2) led to the release of these materials into aquatic environments and consequently a change on the assessment of the environmental risk of trace metals. In this work, the role of two commercial nTiO2 with distinct crystalline phases and sizes (nTiO2-P25: 80% anatase+20% rutile, d=20nm; nTiO2-NA: 100% anatase, d=5 nm; 0.1 and 1.0 mg L(-1)) on Cd (112 μg L(-1)) speciation, biouptake and toxicity for the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea was evaluated. The electroanalytical technique 'absence of gradients and Nernstian equilibrium stripping (AGNES)' was used to quantify the free Cd concentrations in the exposure medium in presence of both particles. Despite ca. 30-40% decrease of free Cd in the medium in presence of nTiO2, Cd uptake by C. fluminea was similar in the absence and presence of either of the particles. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase activities remained unchanged for Cd in absence and presence of nTiO2, whereas a significant increase of the catalase activity was obtained at the third day for Cd in presence of both nTiO2. Despite lipid peroxidation data shows that the presence of both nTiO2 seems to exert cells damage, a more quantitative description is not possible with the obtained data. The lack of clear-cut responses by the studied biomarkers, even when only in presence of Cd, do not allow insights into the effect of the presence of nTiO2 on the Cd toxicity to the bivalves. Notwithstanding, morphological changes in the digestive gland were clearly obtained in the presence of Cd, nTiO2 and Cd+nTiO2 indicating an inflammatory response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Attachment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to leaf tissue in response to infiltration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Christopher W; VanderGheynst, Jean S; Nitin, N

    2014-01-01

    Transient expression of recombinant proteins in plant tissues following Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is a promising technique for rapid protein production. However, transformation rates and transient expression levels can be sub-optimal depending on process conditions. Attachment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to plant cells is an early, critical step in the gene transfer pathway. Bacterial attachment levels and patterns may influence transformation and, by extension, transient expression. In this study, attachment of A. tumefaciens to lettuce leaf tissue was investigated in response to varying infiltration conditions, including bacterial density, surfactant concentration, and applied vacuum level. Bacterial density was found to most influence attachment levels for the levels tested (10(8) , 10(9) , and 10(10) CFU/mL), with the relationship between bacterial density and attachment levels following a saturation trend. Surfactant levels tested (Break-Thru S240: 1, 10, 100, and 1,000 µL/L) also had a significant positive effect on bacterial attachment while vacuum level (5, 25, and 45 kPa) did not significantly affect attachment in areas exposed to bacteria. In planta transgene transient expression levels were measured following infiltration with 10(8) , 10(9) , and 10(10) CFU/mL bacterial suspension. Notably, the highest attachment level tested led to a decrease in transient expression, suggesting a potential link between bacterial attachment levels and downstream phenomena that may induce gene silencing. These results illustrate that attachment can be controlled by adjusting infiltration conditions and that attachment levels can impact transgene transient expression in leaf tissue. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  6. Differential physiological and biochemical responses of two cyanobacteria Nostoc muscorum and Phormidium foveolarum against oxyfluorfen and UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeba; Pratap Singh, Vijay; Kumar Srivastava, Prabhat; Mohan Prasad, Sheo

    2011-10-01

    In the present study, degree of tolerance and tolerance strategies of two paddy field cyanobacteria viz. Nostoc muscorum and Phormidium foveolarum against oxyfluorfen (10 and 20 μg ml(-1)) and UV-B (7.2 kJ m(-2)d(-1)) stress were investigated. Oxyfluorfen and UV-B decreased growth, photosynthesis, nutrient uptake, nitrate reductase, acid and alkaline phosphatase activities, which accompanied with the increase in the level of oxidative stress. However, growth was more affected in N. muscorum than P. foveolarum. Antioxidants exhibited differential responses against oxyfluorfen and UV-B stress. Ascorbate and proline levels were higher in P. foveolarum. A protein of 66 kDa was expressed in N. muscorum, however, it was absent in P. foveolarum than those of N. muscorum. Besides this, a protein of 29 kDa appeared in P. foveolarum under all the treatments, but it was present only in control cells of N. muscorum cells. Overall results indicated resistant nature of P. foveolarum against oxyfluorfen and UV-B stress in comparison to N. muscorum. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Interrogating the viscoelastic properties of tissue using viscoelastic response (VISR) ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selzo, Mallory Renee

    Affecting approximately 1 in 3,500 newborn males, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is one of the most common lethal genetic disorders in humans. Boys with DMD suffer progressive loss of muscle strength and function, leading to wheelchair dependence, cardiac and respiratory compromise, and death during young adulthood. There are currently no treatments that can halt or reverse the disease progression, and translating prospective treatments into clinical trials has been delayed by inadequate outcome measures. Current outcome measures, such as functional and muscle strength assessments, lack sensitivity to individual muscles, require subjective effort of the child, and are impacted by normal childhood growth and development. The goal of this research is to develop Viscoelastic Response (VisR) ultrasound which can be used to delineate compositional changes in muscle associated with DMD. In VisR, acoustic radiation force (ARF) is used to produce small, localized displacements within the muscle. Using conventional ultrasound to track the motion, the displacement response of the tissue can be evaluated against a mechanical model. In order to develop signal processing techniques and assess mechanical models, finite element method simulations are used to model the response of a viscoelastic material to ARF excitations. Results are then presented demonstrating VisR differentiation of viscoelastic changes with progressive dystrophic degeneration in a dog model of DMD. Finally, clinical feasibility of VisR imaging is demonstrated in two boys with DMD.

  8. Evaluation of tissue response to Gore-Tex (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene) implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serin, Gediz; Baylancicek, Serdar; Aksoy, Elif; Polat, Senol; Sağlican, Yeşim; Inanli, Selcuk

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the tissue response to Gore-Tex (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene) in rats and compare the results of surgical placement modalities. Prospective animal study. Experiments were performed in 18 young Sprague-Dawley rats that were divided into 3 groups. Gore-Tex patches were implanted subcutaneously over the periosteum in the first group and under the periosteum in the other groups. Gore-Tex was immersed in an antibiotic-containing solution in the third group. All animals were killed 4 weeks after the procedure. The tissue samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain and evaluated using a light microscope. The Gore-Tex patches were displaced and not observed at the originally implanted sites in the first group. The Gore-Tex patches were observed at the originally implanted sites in the other groups. In group 1, edema and inflammation were prominent. In the second group, ossification was detected in 5 rats and foreign-body reaction and edema were identified in 1 rat. In the third group, all of the rats were found to have developed ossification, but no inflammatory reactions were observed. The results suggest that implanting synthetic graft materials immersed in an antibiotic solution at the subperiosteal plane provides better stabilization and low complication rates.

  9. Fibrocellular tissue responses to endovascular and external beam irradiation in the porcine model of restenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marijianowski, Monique M.H.; Crocker, Ian R.; Styles, Terry; Forestner, Donna M.; Waksman, Ron; Cipolla, Gustavo D.; King, Spencer B.; Robinson, Keith A.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Endovascular radiation has reduced postangioplasty restenosis in preclinical and early clinical studies. External radiation treatment may have advantages over endovascular therapy. We examined vascular and perivascular tissue responses to endovascular and external irradiation in pig coronary arteries. Methods and Materials: Ninety-one animals received endovascular or external radiation following balloon injury and were sacrificed at 14, 30, or 180 days. Injured segments of coronary vessels including perivascular and myocardial tissues were evaluated with histochemistry. Results: Endovascular radiation was associated with delayed arterial wound healing as late as 6 months, evidenced by paucity of smooth muscle α-actin in neointimal cells compared to control. External treatment was associated with increased collagen in neointima and adventitia, and focal interstitial necrosis in adjacent myocardium. Conclusions: These investigations showed whole-heart 14 Gy external radiation treatment following coronary injury exacerbated certain aspects of arterial healing. In addition focal myocardial necrosis and fibrosis was observed following external but not endovascular irradiation. Endovascular radiation has some advantages over external irradiation; however the persistence of a synthetic smooth muscle cell phenotype in the neointima at 6 months suggests ionizing radiation in general may have profound effects on vessel architecture over the long term

  10. Excess boron responsive regulations of antioxidative mechanism at physio-biochemical and molecular levels in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayıhan, Doğa Selin; Kayıhan, Ceyhun; Çiftçi, Yelda Özden

    2016-12-01

    This work was aimed to evaluate the effect of boron (B) toxicity on oxidative damage level, non-enzymatic antioxidant accumulation such as anthocyanin, flavonoid and proline and expression levels of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) and their respective activities as well as expression levels of miR398 and miR408 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants were germinated and grown on MS medium containing 1 mM B (1B) and 3 mM B (3B) for 14 d. Toxic B led to a decrease of photosynthetic pigments and an increase in accumulation of total soluble and insoluble sugars in accordance with phenotypically viewed chlorosis of seedlings through increasing level of B concentration. Along with these inhibitions, a corresponding increase in contents of flavonoid, anthocyanin and proline occurred that provoked oxidative stress tolerance. 3B caused a remarkable increase in total SOD activity whereas the activities of APX, GR and CAT remained unchanged as verified by expected increase in H 2 O 2 content. In contrast to GR, the coincidence was found between the expressions of SOD and APX genes and their respective activities. 1B induced mir398 expression, whereas 3B did not cause any significant change in expression of mir408 and mir398. Expression levels of GR genes were coordinately regulated with DHAR2 expression. Moreover, the changes in expression level of MDAR2 was in accordance with changes in APX6 expression and total APX activity, indicating fine-tuned regulation of ascorbate-glutathione cycle which might trigger antioxidative responses against B toxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Measuring the Contractile Response of Isolated Tissue Using an Image Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Díaz-Martín

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Isometric or isotonic transducers have traditionally been used to study the contractile/relaxation effects of drugs on isolated tissues. However, these mechanical sensors are expensive and delicate, and they are associated with certain disadvantages when performing experiments in the laboratory. In this paper, a method that uses an image sensor to measure the contractile effect of drugs on blood vessel rings and other luminal organs is presented. The new method is based on an image-processing algorithm, and it provides a fast, easy and non-expensive way to analyze the effects of such drugs. In our tests, we have obtained dose-response curves from rat aorta rings that are equivalent to those achieved with classical mechanic sensors.

  12. Marginal tissue response adjacent to Astra Dental Implants supporting overdentures in the mandible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, K; Holm, B; Sewerin, I

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the marginal tissue response adjacent to implant supported overdentures. Twenty edentulous patients had 2 Astra Dental Implants placed in the canine region of the lower jaw. New overdentures were retained by individual ball attachments in 11 patients...... and by a bar attachment in 9 patients. Periodontal registrations were recorded 0 months, 6 months, 12 months and 24 months after the overdentures were inserted. One of the 40 fixtures was lost at the stage of abutment connection. No fixtures were lost during the 2- to 4-year observation period and no fixtures...... showed any periodontal signs of failure. At the 2-year examination, no pocket depths adjacent to the implants exceeded 4 mm and no bone loss exceeded 3 mm. The mean annual bone loss was less than 0.2 mm during the first 2 years. The preliminary results from this limited study were promising and showed...

  13. Marginal tissue response adjacent to Astra Dental Implants supporting overdentures in the mandible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, K; Holm, B; Sewerin, I

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the marginal tissue response adjacent to implant supported overdentures. Twenty edentulous patients had 2 Astra Dental Implants placed in the canine region of the lower jaw. New overdentures were retained by individual ball attachments in 11 patients...... that two osseointegrated Astra Dental Implants could successfully retain an overdenture in the lower jaw. However, long-term observation is needed for a definitive evaluation of this treatment concept....... showed any periodontal signs of failure. At the 2-year examination, no pocket depths adjacent to the implants exceeded 4 mm and no bone loss exceeded 3 mm. The mean annual bone loss was less than 0.2 mm during the first 2 years. The preliminary results from this limited study were promising and showed...

  14. Predictive and prognostic factors associated with soft tissue sarcoma response to chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Robin J; Litière, Saskia; Lia, Michela

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 62012 study was a Phase III trial of doxorubicin versus doxorubicin-ifosfamide chemotherapy in 455 patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Analysis of the main study showed that combination chemotherapy...... from combination chemotherapy. METHODS: Central pathology review was performed by six reference pathologists. Gender, age, performance status, time from first presentation with sarcoma to starting palliative chemotherapy, tumor grade, histological subgroup, primary tumor site involvement, and sites.......56, 95% CI 1.16-2.09; p = 0.003]. By central pathology review, patients with undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) had improved tumor response and OS with doxorubicin-ifosfamide compared to single-agent doxorubicin (OR 9.90, 95% CI 1.93-50.7 and HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.26-0.79, respectively). Grade III...

  15. Dopaminergic Immunofluorescence Studies in Kidney Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, J J; Van Sciver, R E; McGrath, H E; Kemp, B A; Jose, P A; Carey, R M; Felder, R A

    2017-01-01

    The kidney is a highly integrated system of specialized differentiated cells that are responsible for fluid and electrolyte balance in the body. While much of today's research focuses on isolated nephron segments or cells from nephron segments grown in tissue culture, an often overlooked technique that can provide a unique view of many cell types in the kidney is slice culture. Here, we describe techniques that use freshly excised kidney tissue from rats to perform a variety of experiments shortly after isolating the tissue. By slicing the rat kidney in a "bread loaf" format, multiple studies can be performed on slices from the same tissue in parallel. Cryosectioning and staining of the tissue allow for the evaluation of physiological or biochemical responses in a wide variety of specific nephron segments. The procedures described within this chapter can also be extended to human or mouse kidney tissue.

  16. The Effects of Low Dose Irradiation on Inflammatory Response Proteins in a 3D Reconstituted Human Skin Tissue Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varnum, Susan M.; Springer, David L.; Chaffee, Mary E.; Lien, Katie A.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Waters, Katrina M.; Sacksteder, Colette A.

    2012-12-01

    Skin responses to moderate and high doses of ionizing radiation include the induction of DNA repair, apoptosis, and stress response pathways. Additionally, numerous studies indicate that radiation exposure leads to inflammatory responses in skin cells and tissue. However, the inflammatory response of skin tissue to low dose radiation (<10 cGy) is poorly understood. In order to address this, we have utilized a reconstituted human skin tissue model (MatTek EpiDerm FT) and assessed changes in 23 cytokines twenty-four and forty eight hours following treatment of skin with either 3 or 10 cGy low-dose of radiation. Three cytokines, IFN-γ, IL-2, MIP-1α, were significantly altered in response to low dose radiation. In contrast, seven cytokines were significantly altered in response to a high radiation dose of 200 cGy (IL-2, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-γ, MIP-1α, TNF α, and VEGF) or the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-1α, IL-8, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, RANTES). Additionally, radiation induced inflammation appears to have a distinct cytokine response relative to the non-radiation induced stressor, TPA. Overall, these results indicate that there are subtle changes in the inflammatory protein levels following exposure to low dose radiation and this response is a sub-set of what is seen following a high dose in a human skin tissue model.

  17. Interconnected contribution of tissue morphogenesis and the nuclear protein NuMA to the DNA damage response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidi, Pierre-Alexandre; Chandramouly, Gurushankar; Gray, Matthew; Wang, Lei; Liu, Er; Kim, Joseph J; Roukos, Vassilis; Bissell, Mina J; Moghe, Prabhas V; Lelièvre, Sophie A

    2012-01-15

    Epithelial tissue morphogenesis is accompanied by the formation of a polarity axis--a feature of tissue architecture that is initiated by the binding of integrins to the basement membrane. Polarity plays a crucial role in tissue homeostasis, preserving differentiation, cell survival and resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs among others. An important aspect in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis is genome integrity. As normal tissues frequently experience DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), we asked how tissue architecture might participate in the DNA damage response. Using 3D culture models that mimic mammary glandular morphogenesis and tumor formation, we show that DSB repair activity is higher in basally polarized tissues, regardless of the malignant status of cells, and is controlled by hemidesmosomal integrin signaling. In the absence of glandular morphogenesis, in 2D flat monolayer cultures, basal polarity does not affect DNA repair activity but enhances H2AX phosphorylation, an early chromatin response to DNA damage. The nuclear mitotic apparatus protein 1 (NuMA), which controls breast glandular morphogenesis by acting on the organization of chromatin, displays a polarity-dependent pattern and redistributes in the cell nucleus of basally polarized cells upon the induction of DSBs. This is shown using high-content analysis of nuclear morphometric descriptors. Furthermore, silencing NuMA impairs H2AX phosphorylation--thus, tissue polarity and NuMA cooperate to maintain genome integrity.

  18. Biochemical Stability and Molecular Dynamic Characterization of Aspergillus fumigatus Cystathionine γ-Lyase in Response to Various Reaction Effectors

    KAUST Repository

    El-Sayed, Ashraf S.A.

    2015-08-11

    Cystathionine γ-lyase (CGL) is a key enzyme in the methionine-cysteine cycle in all living organisms forming cysteine, α-ketobutyrate and ammonia via homocysteine and cystathionine intermediates. Although, human and plant CGLs have been extensively studied at the molecular and mechanistic levels, there has been little work on the molecular and catalytic properties of fungal CGL. Herein, we studied in detail for the first time the molecular and catalytic stability of Aspergillus fumigatus CGL, since conformational instability, inactivation and structural antigenicity are the main limitations of the PLP-dependent enzymes on various therapeutic uses. We examined these properties in response to buffer compositions, stabilizing and destabilizing agents using Differential Scanning Fluorometery (DSF), steady state and gel-based fluorescence of the intrinsic hydrophobic core, stability of internal aldimine linkage and catalytic properties. The activity of the recombinant A. fumigatus CGL was 13.8 U/mg. The melting temperature (Tm) of CGL in potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0-8.0) was 73.3 °C, with ∼3 °C upshifting in MES and sodium phosphate buffers (pH 7.0). The conformational thermal stability was increased in potassium phosphate, sodium phosphate and MES buffers, in contrast to Tris-HCl, HEPES (pH 7.0) and CAPS (pH 9.0-10.0). The thermal stability and activity of CGL was slightly increased in the presence of trehalose and glycerol that might be due to hydration of the enzyme backbone, unlike the denaturing effect of GdmCl and urea. Modification of surface CGL glutamic and aspartic acids had no significant effect on the enzyme conformational and catalytic stability. Molecular modeling and dynamics simulations unveil the high conformational stability of the overall scaffold of CGL with high flexibility at the non-structural regions. CGL structure has eight buried Trp residues, which are reoriented to the enzyme surface and get exposed to the solvent under

  19. Replacement of inorganic zinc with lower levels of organic zinc (zinc nicotinate) on performance, hematological and serum biochemical constituents, antioxidants status, and immune responses in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagalakshmi, D; Sridhar, K; Parashuramulu, S

    2015-09-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of organic zinc (zinc nicotinate, Zn-nic) supplementation (6, 9, and 12 ppm) compared to inorganic zinc (12 ppm) on growth performance, hematology, serum biochemical constituents oxidative stress, and immunity in weaned female Sprague-Dawley rats. A 48 weaned rats (285.20±1.95 g) were randomly distributed to 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicates in each and reared in polypropylene cages for 10 weeks. Basal diet (BD) was formulated with purified ingredients without zinc (Zn). Four dietary treatments were prepared by adding 12 ppm Zn from ZnCO3 (control) and 6, 9, and 12 ppm Zn from Zn-nic to the BD. On 42(nd) day, blood was collected by retro-orbital puncture for analyzing hematological constituents, glucose, cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin, and globulin and antioxidant enzyme activities. At 43(rd) day, rats were antigenically challenged with sheep red blood cell (RBC) to assess humoral immune response and on 70(th) day cell-mediated immune response. Weekly body weight gains, daily feed intake, blood hematological constituents (white blood cell, RBC, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, lymphocyte, monocyte, and granulocyte concentration) and serum glucose, total protein levels were comparable among the rats feed Zn from ZnCO3 and Zn-nic (6, 9, and 12 ppm). Serum cholesterol reduced with organic Zn supplementation at either concentration (6-12 ppm). Serum globulin concentration reduced (pantioxidant status, and immunity. In addition, replacement of 12 ppm inorganic Zn with 12 ppm organic Zn significantly improved antioxidant status and immune response.

  20. Randomized comparison of the effects of the vitamin D3 adequate intake versus 100 mcg (4000 IU per day on biochemical responses and the wellbeing of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Amanda

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For adults, vitamin D intake of 100 mcg (4000 IU/day is physiologic and safe. The adequate intake (AI for older adults is 15 mcg (600 IU/day, but there has been no report focusing on use of this dose. Methods We compared effects of these doses on biochemical responses and sense of wellbeing in a blinded, randomized trial. In Study 1, 64 outpatients (recruited if summer 2001 25(OHD Results In Study 1, basal summer 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] averaged 48 ± 9 (SD nmol/L. Supplementation for more than 6 months produced mean 25(OHD levels of 79 ± 30 nmol/L for the 15 mcg/day group, and 112 ± 41 nmol/L for the 100 mcg/day group. Both doses lowered plasma parathyroid hormone with no effect on plasma calcium. Between December and February, wellbeing score improved more for the 100-mcg/day group than for the lower-dosed group (1-tail Mann-Whitney p = 0.036. In Study 2, 25(OHD averaged 39 ± 9 nmol/L, and winter wellbeing scores improved with both doses of vitamin D (two-tail p Conclusion The highest AI for vitamin D brought summertime 25(OHD to >40 nmol/L, lowered PTH, and its use was associated with improved wellbeing. The 100 mcg/day dose produced greater responses. Since it was ethically necessary to provide a meaningful dose of vitamin D to these insufficient patients, we cannot rule out a placebo wellbeing response, particularly for those on the lower dose. This work confirms the safety and efficacy of both 15 and 100 mcg/day vitamin D3 in patients who needed additional vitamin D.

  1. RPE in perfusion tissue culture and its response to laser application. Preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Framme, Carsten; Kobuch, Karin; Eckert, Elfriede; Monzer, Jan; Roider, Johann

    2002-01-01

    To study the effects of conventional laser application on the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in a perfusion tissue culture model of porcine retinal pigment epithelium without overlying neurosensory retina. RPE with underlying choroid was prepared from enucleated porcine eyes and fixed in a holding ring (Minusheet). Specimens were then placed in two-compartment tissue culture containers (MinuCell & Minutissue, Bad Abbach, Germany) and were cultured during continuous perfusion with culture medium at both sides of the entire specimen, the upper RPE and the lower choroid (12 specimens out of 6 eyes). Cultures were kept for 1, 3, 7 and 14 days and were examined histologically. Laser treatment was performed on each tissue ring by application of 3 x 3 laser burns one day after culture began (argon ion laser, wavelength: 514 nm, pulse duration: 100 ms; spot size: 200 microm) using different energy levels (400-1,000 mW); (16 specimens out of 8 eyes). During laser treatment a marked lightening of the RPE with centrifugal spreading was observed. Using higher levels of energy, a contraction of the RPE towards the center of the laser spot was noticed. One day after laser photocoagulation histology revealed destruction of RPE; within 3-7 days of culture, migration and proliferation of neighboring cells was observed in several lesions. After 7 days the initial defect of the irradiated area was covered with dome shaped RPE cells and after 14 days multilayered RPE cells were showing ongoing proliferation. However, there were also cases without proliferation after laser treatment. The non-treated, continuously perfused RPE showed regular appearance in histological sections: during the first 7 days of culture, light microscopy revealed a normal matrix with a well-differentiated RPE monolayer. Subsequently proliferation even without treatment was observed and after 14 days the RPE became multilayered. It was possible to study the early healing response to the effect of laser

  2. Responsiveness of genes to manipulation of transcription factors in ES cells is associated with histone modifications and tissue specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Marshall

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to determining static states of gene expression (high vs. low, it is important to characterize their dynamic status. For example, genes with H3K27me3 chromatin marks are not only suppressed but also poised for activation. However, the responsiveness of genes to perturbations has never been studied systematically. To distinguish gene responses to specific factors from responsiveness in general, it is necessary to analyze gene expression profiles of cells responding to a large variety of disturbances, and such databases did not exist before. Results We estimated the responsiveness of all genes in mouse ES cells using our recently published database on expression change after controlled induction of 53 transcription factors (TFs and other genes. Responsive genes (N = 4746, which were readily upregulated or downregulated depending on the kind of perturbation, mostly have regulatory functions and a propensity to become tissue-specific upon differentiation. Tissue-specific expression was evaluated on the basis of published (GNF and our new data for 15 organs and tissues. Non-responsive genes (N = 9562, which did not change their expression much following any perturbation, were enriched in housekeeping functions. We found that TF-responsiveness in ES cells is the best predictor known for tissue-specificity in gene expression. Among genes with CpG islands, high responsiveness is associated with H3K27me3 chromatin marks, and low responsiveness is associated with H3K36me3 chromatin, stronger tri-methylation of H3K4, binding of E2F1, and GABP binding motifs in promoters. Conclusions We thus propose the responsiveness of expression to perturbations as a new way to define the dynamic status of genes, which brings new insights into mechanisms of regulation of gene expression and tissue specificity.

  3. Adaptive capability as indicated by endocrine and biochemical responses of Malpura ewes subjected to combined stresses (thermal and nutritional) in a semi-arid tropical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejian, Veerasamy; Maurya, Vijai P.; Naqvi, Sayeed M. K.

    2010-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of combined stresses (thermal and nutritional) on endocrine and biochemical responses in Malpura ewes. Twenty eight adult Malpura ewes (average body weight 33.56 kg) were used in the present study. The ewes were divided into four groups viz., GI ( n = 7; control), GII ( n = 7; thermal stress), GIII ( n = 7; nutritional stress) and GIV ( n = 7; combined stress). The animals were stall fed with a diet consisting of 60% roughage and 40% concentrate. GI and GII ewes were provided with ad libitum feeding while GIII and GIV ewes were provided with restricted feed (30% intake of GI ewes) to induce nutritional stress. GII and GIV ewes were kept in climatic chamber at 40°C and 55% RH for 6 h a day between 1000 hours and 1600 hours to induce thermal stress. The study was conducted for a period of two estrus cycles. The parameters studied were Hb, PCV, glucose, total protein, total cholesterol, ACP, ALP, cortisol, T4, T3, and insulin. Combined stress significantly ( P ewes. It can be concluded from this study that two stressors occurring simultaneously may impact severely on the biological functions necessary to maintain homeostasis in sheep.

  4. Time course of biochemical, physiological and molecular responses to field-mimicked conditions of drought, salinity and recovery in two maize lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eMorari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought and salinity stresses will have a high impact on future crop productivity, due to climate change and the increased competition for land, water and energy. The response to drought (WS, salinity (SS and the combined stresses (WS+SS was monitored in two maize lines: the inbred B73 and an F1 commercial stress-tolerant hybrid. A protocol mimicking field progressive stress conditions was developed and its effect on plant growth analyzed at different time points. The results indicated that the stresses limited growth in the hybrid and arrested it in the inbred line. In SS, the two genotypes had different ion accumulation and translocation capacity, particularly for Na+ and Cl-. Moreover, the hybrid perceived the stress, reduced all the analyzed physiological parameters, and kept them reduced until the recovery. B73 decreased all physiological parameters more gradually, being affected mainly by SS. Both lines recovered better from WS than the other stresses. Molecular analysis revealed a diverse modulation of some stress markers in the two genotypes, reflecting their different capacity to cope with stresses. Combining biochemical and physiological data with expression analyses yielded insight into the mechanisms regulating the different stress tolerance of the two lines.

  5. Combined or Individual Effects of Dietary Probiotic Pedicoccus acidilactici and Nucleotide on Growth Performance, Intestinal Microbiota, Hemato-biochemical Parameters, and Innate Immune Response in Goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdinejad, Nooshin; Imanpour, Mohammad Reza; Jafari, Valiollah

    2017-06-21

    This study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of probiotic Pedicoccus acidilactici and nucleotide (separately or combined) on growth performance, intestinal microbiota, hemato-immunological parameters, and immunity response in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Fish (average weight 5-6 g) were acclimatized and divided into eight experimental diets supplemented with P. acidilactici of different concentrations (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% diet) and nucleotides (0 and 0.5% diet) for 6 months. Fish fed with experimental diets showed significant differences in terms of final weight, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, daily growth rate, and condition factor when compared to control diet (P < 0.05). Fish fed with probiotic (0.3%) separately and combined with nucleotide (0.5%) had highest RBC and WBC when compared to other diets (P < 0.05), while the highest values for Hb and Hct as well as total protein, glucose, albumin, and globulin were observed in probiotic (0.2%) and nucleotide (0.5%) combined diet. Serum lysozyme and anti-protease activities were significantly higher in probiotic (0.1 and 0.2%) and nucleotide (0.5%) combined diets. Similarly, these two diets combined showed the highest colonization of P. acidilactici when compared to other diets. In conclusion, combined dietary probiotic and nucleotide improve the growth performance, hemato-biochemical parameters, and intestine growth in C. auratus.

  6. Biochemical and ultrastructural changes in the liver of European perch (Perca fluviatilis L. in response to cyanobacterial bloom in the Gruža reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perendija Branka R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the biochemical and ultrastructural changes in the liver of the freshwater fish, European perch (Perca fluviatilis, in response to Aphanizomenon flos-aquae bloom in the Gruža Reservoir, Serbia. The activities of total manganese- and copper zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (Tot SOD, Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, glutathione reductase (GR and biotransformation phase II enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST, as well as concentrations of total glutathione (GSH and sulfhydryl (-SH groups were examined before and during the bloom period. Mn-SOD activity was significantly higher, while the activities of Cu/Zn-SOD, CAT and GSH-Px and the concentration of the -SH groups were significantly lower during the bloom. The ultrastructure of the liver revealed necrotic and apoptotic damage to the hepatocytes during the bloom period. Our work represents the first study to report the influences of an Aphanizomenon flos-aquae bloom in the Gruža Reservoir on antioxidant biomarkers and on histopathological alterations in the liver of the freshwater fish European perch (Perca fluviatilis.

  7. Effects of dietary onion (Allium cepa) powder on growth, innate immune response and hemato-biochemical parameters of beluga (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1754) juvenile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrami, Raza; Gharaei, Ahmad; Mansour, Majid Razeghi; Galeshi, Ali

    2015-08-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the effects of dietary onion powder on growth, innate immune response and hemato-biochemical parameters of beluga juvenile (Huso huso). Basal diets containing onion powder 0 (control), 0.5 and 1% of feed were fed to beluga juvenile. At the end of the experiment, the highest weight gain (WG%) and specific growth rate (SGR) was observed in group fed with 1% onion (P 0.05) about feed conversion ratio (FCR) in treatment groups that fed diets containing various levels of onion powder. After 8 weeks, serum lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), respiratory burst activity and serum total immunoglobulin (Ig) showed a significant increase in treatment group with 1% onion powder compared to other groups (P onion showed a significantly increases in the number of erythrocytes (RBC), leucocyte (WBC), haematocrit (Hct) levels compared to the control group (P 0.05) in treatment groups and control. The analysis of AST and LDH levels showed a significant decrease in 1% onion compared to the control and 0.5% onion diet (P 0.05). The blood glucose, total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol, albumin and globulin levels were lower in treated groups compared with the control (P onion powder could be an improvement in growth, hematological parameters and immune function of beluga juvenile. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of dietary Spirulina platensis on growth performance, hematological and serum biochemical parameters, hepatic antioxidant status, immune responses and disease resistance of Coral trout Plectropomus leopardus (Lacepede, 1802).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Wen, Guoliang; Lin, Heizhao; Yang, Yukai; Huang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Chuanpeng; Zhang, Zaiwang; Duan, Yafei; Huang, Zhong; Li, Tao

    2018-03-01

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary Spirulina platensis supplementation on growth performance, hematological and serum biochemical parameters, hepatic antioxidant status, immune responses and resistance to the pathogen infection in Coral trout Plectropomus leopardus. The fish were fed for 8-week with diets containing different levels of S. platensis: 0% (C), 2% (SP2), 4% (SP4), 6% (SP6), 8% (SP8) and 10% (SP10) as treatment groups, followed by a Vibrio harveyi infection test for 14 d. The study indicated that dietary supplementation with Spirulina platensis could significantly improve growth performance, and the highest weight gain rate (WGR) and specific growth rate (SGR) were observed in group SP10 (P platensis supplemented groups were significantly higher than those of group C (P platensis levels. Compared with group C, the lysozyme (LYZ) and respiratory burst activities (RBA), and immunoglobulin (Ig) and complement contents in group SP4, SP6, SP8 and SP10 increased significantly than those of group C respectively (P platensis (especially at 10%) could significantly promote its growth performance, improve its hepatic antioxidant status, and enhance its immune ability and resistance to V. harveyi infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Expression analysis of five tobacco EIN3 family members in relation to tissue-specific ethylene responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieu, I; Mariani, C; Weterings, K

    2003-10-01

    Ethylene induces different sets of genes in different tissues and at different stages of development. To investigate whether these differential responses are caused by differential expression of members of the EIN3 family transcription factors, five tobacco family members were isolated. They can be divided into three subgroups, which is probably due to the amphidiploid nature of tobacco. In phylogenetic analysis, each of the subgroups clustered with one of the three tomato EIL proteins and all NtEILs proved to be most homologous to Arabidopsis EIN3 and EIL1. Although organ-specific ethylene responses have been observed before, northern blot analysis showed that all NtEILs were expressed in all organs. To study differential NtEIL expression at the cellular level, in situ hybridization was used on the tobacco ovary. It was found that different ovary tissues displayed variable ethylene-induced expression of two ethylene-responsive marker genes. By contrast, no differences were found in expression level or tissue-specificity for any of the NtEILs in the ovary, before or after ethylene treatment. This indicates that the organ and tissue-specific ethylene responses are not caused by differential expression of NtEIL family members. These results support a model in which the developmental signals that regulate the tissue-specific responses are integrated with the ethylene signal downstream of a common primary ethylene-signalling pathway.

  10. The Biochemical Origin of Pain – Proposing a new law of Pain: The origin of all Pain is Inflammation and the Inflammatory Response PART 1 of 3 – A unifying law of pain

    OpenAIRE

    Omoigui, Sota

    2007-01-01

    We are proposing a unifying theory or law of pain, which states: The origin of all pain is inflammation and the inflammatory response. The biochemical mediators of inflammation include cytokines, neuropeptides, growth factors and neurotransmitters. Irrespective of the type of pain whether it is acute or chronic pain, peripheral or central pain, nociceptive or neuropathic pain, the underlying origin is inflammation and the inflammatory response. Activation of pain receptors, transmission and m...

  11. Numerical analysis of temperature and thermal dose response of biological tissues to thermal non-equilibrium during hyperthermia therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ping

    2008-03-01

    The temperature and thermal dose response of tumor tissue to hyperthermia therapy under conditions of thermal non-equilibrium have been investigated. The thermal model considers the tissue with its blood vessel distribution as a porous medium and employs the convection term instead of the perfusion term in the energy conservation equations for both tissue and blood. By using a numerical method, the temperatures and thermal dose responses of tissues with different vessel diameters, blood velocities, and porosities were calculated. Through an accuracy comparison, the numerical results were used to compare this model with the results for the one-equation porous model under thermal equilibrium. The primary results indicate that the one-equation porous model is suitable for a distribution of blood vessels when the diameters are less than 30 microm and the blood velocities are lower than 0.4 cm s(-1).

  12. Effects of the Variation in Brain Tissue Mechanical Properties on the Intracranial Response of a 6-Year-Old Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihai Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain tissue mechanical properties are of importance to investigate child head injury using finite element (FE method. However, these properties used in child head FE model normally vary in a large range in published literatures because of the insufficient child cadaver experiments. In this work, a head FE model with detailed anatomical structures is developed from the computed tomography (CT data of a 6-year-old healthy child head. The effects of brain tissue mechanical properties on traumatic brain response are also analyzed by reconstruction of a head impact on engine hood according to Euro-NCAP testing regulation using FE method. The result showed that the variations of brain tissue mechanical parameters in linear viscoelastic constitutive model had different influences on the intracranial response. Furthermore, the opposite trend was obtained in the predicted shear stress and shear strain of brain tissues caused by the variations of mentioned parameters.

  13. Simulated Response of a Tissue-equivalent Proportional Counter on the Surface of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northum, Jeremy D; Guetersloh, Stephen B; Braby, Leslie A; Ford, John R

    2015-10-01

    Uncertainties persist regarding the assessment of the carcinogenic risk associated with galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposure during a mission to Mars. The GCR spectrum peaks in the range of 300(-1) MeV n to 700 MeV n(-1) and is comprised of elemental ions from H to Ni. While Fe ions represent only 0.03% of the GCR spectrum in terms of particle abundance, they are responsible for nearly 30% of the dose equivalent in free space. Because of this, radiation biology studies focusing on understanding the biological effects of GCR exposure generally use Fe ions. Acting as a thin shield, the Martian atmosphere alters the GCR spectrum in a manner that significantly reduces the importance of Fe ions. Additionally, albedo particles emanating from the regolith complicate the radiation environment. The present study uses the Monte Carlo code FLUKA to simulate the response of a tissue-equivalent proportional counter on the surface of Mars to produce dosimetry quantities and microdosimetry distributions. The dose equivalent rate on the surface of Mars was found to be 0.18 Sv y(-1) with an average quality factor of 2.9 and a dose mean lineal energy of 18.4 keV μm(-1). Additionally, albedo neutrons were found to account for 25% of the dose equivalent. It is anticipated that these data will provide relevant starting points for use in future risk assessment and mission planning studies.

  14. Mechanisms underlying cellular responses of cells from haemopoietic tissue to low

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadhim, Munira A

    2012-08-22

    The above studies will provide fundamental mechanistic information relating genetic predisposition to important low dose phenomena, and will aid in the development of Department of Energy policy, as well as radiation risk policy for the public and the workplace. We believe the proposed studies accurately reflect the goals of the DOE low dose program. To accurately define the risks associated with human exposure to relevant environmental doses of low LET ionizing radiation, it is necessary to completely understand the biological effects at very low doses (i.e. less than 0.1 Gy), including the lowest possible dose, that of a single electron track traversal. At such low doses, a range of studies have shown responses in biological systems which are not related to the direct interaction of radiation tracks with DNA. The role of these "non-targeted responses in critical tissues is poorly understood and little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms. Although critical for dosimetry and risk assessment, the role of individual genetic susceptibility in radiation risk is not satisfactorily defined at present. The aim of the proposed grant is to critically evaluate non-targeted effects of ionizing radiation with a focus on the induction of genomic instability (GI) in key stem cell populations from haemopoietic tissue. Using stem cells from two mouse strains (CBA/CaH and C57BL/6J) known to differ in their susceptibility to radiation effects, we plan to carefully dissect the role of genetic predisposition in these models on genomic instability. We will specifically focus on the effects of low doses of low LET radiation, down to the dose of 10mGy (0.01Gy) X-rays. Using conventional X-ray and we will be able to assess the role of genetic variation under various conditions at a range of doses down to the very low dose of 0.01Gy. Irradiations will be carried out using facilities in routine operation for such studies. Mechanistic studies of instability in different cell

  15. Histopathological and biochemical disrupting effects of Escravos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The histological findings include: lymphocytic infiltration, cirrhosis, fibrosis, hemosiderin, oedema, mild tissue scaring and tissue necrosis. Thus, this result suggests that Escravos crude oil is a potential biochemical disruptor and can also affect the micro-architecture of liver and heart. Key words: Escravos crude oil, liver, ...

  16. Photosynthesis and biochemical responses to elevated O3in Plantago major and Sonchus oleraceus growing in a lowland habitat of northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Benying; Zhou, Meihua; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Xiujie; Li, Yonggeng; Su, Hua; Xiang, Bao

    2017-03-01

    A field experiment was carried out to compare the responses to ozone (O 3 ) in two common herbaceous plant species, Plantago major L. and Sonchus oleraceus L., by building open-top growth chambers in situ to simulate O 3 stress (+O 3 , 85±5ppb, 9hr/day for 30days) in a lowland habitat in Inner Mongolia, Northern China. Responses to O 3 of gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, leaf pigment content, antioxidant capability, soluble protein content, membrane lipid peroxidation and dark respiration (R d ) were analyzed. Results showed that elevated O 3 exposure significantly reduced the light-saturated net photosynthesis (P Nsat ), stomatal conductance (g s ) and transpiration rate (E) in both species. Although non-significant interactive effect between species and O 3 on P Nsat was analyzed, the reduction in P Nsat in S. oleraceus might be due primarily to the higher fraction of close PSII reaction centers and impaired activities of plant mesophyll cells as evidences by decreased maximum efficiency of PSII photochemistry after dark adapted state (F v /F m ) and unchanged intercellular CO 2 concentration (C i ). Besides, biochemical analysis showed that S. oleraceus had lower antioxidant ability compared to P. major. As a result, S. oleraceus was damaged to the larger extent in terms of lipid peroxidation and visible O 3 injury, indicating that S. oleraceus was more sensitive to O 3 than P. major. Our results indicated that wild herbaceous plant species growing in a lowland habitat in sandy grassland were sensitive to O 3 stress and S. oleraceus can be considered as one of the bio-indicators for high O 3 concentration in semi-arid grassland of northern China. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. The physiological and biochemical responses of a medicinal plant (Salvia miltiorrhiza L. to stress caused by various concentrations of NaCl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Gengmao

    Full Text Available Salvia miltiorrhiza, which is commonly known as Danshen, is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. To illustrate its physiological and biochemical responses to salt stress and to evaluate the feasibility of cultivating this plant in saline coastal soils, a factorial experiment under hydroponic conditions was arranged on the basis of a completely randomised design with three replications. Five salinity treatments (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM NaCl were employed in this experiment. The results showed that salinity treatments of <100 mM NaCl did not affect the growth of Salvia miltiorrhiza in a morphological sense, but significantly inhibit the accumulation of dry matter. Salinity treatments significantly decreased the Chl-b content but caused a negligible change in the Chl-a content, leading to a conspicuous overall decrease in the T-Chl content. The Na(+ content significantly increased with increasing hydroponic salinity but the K(+ and Ca(2+ contents were reversed, indicating that a high level of external Na(+ resulted in a decrease in both K(+ and Ca(2+ concentrations in the organs of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Salt stress significantly decreased the superoxide dismutase (SOD activity of Salvia miltiorrhiza leaves in comparison with that of the control. On the contrary, the catalase (CAT activity in the leaves markedly increased with the increasing salinity of the hydroponic solution. Moreover, the soluble sugar and protein contents in Salvia miltiorrhiza leaves dramatically increased with the increasing salinity of the hydroponic solution. These results suggested that antioxidant enzymes and osmolytes are partially involved in the adaptive response to salt stress in Salvia miltiorrhiza, thereby maintaining better plant growth under saline conditions.

  18. Biochemical and behavioral responses of the Amazonian fish Colossoma macropomum to crude oil: the effect of oil layer on water surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhann, Daiani; Meyersieck Jardim, Manoela; Valdez Domingos, Fabíola Xochilt; Val, Adalberto Luis

    2015-01-01

    The largest Brazilian terrestrial province of petroleum mining is located at the margins of Urucu River, Amazonas. Mined crude oil is transported along 400 km across Solimões River to be refined in Manaus. Thus, the main goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of crude oil exposure on biochemical, physiological and behavioral parameters of juveniles of the Amazonian fish tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). The toxicity of water-soluble and insoluble oil fractions and the influence of a layer formed by the oil on the water surface from low and high concentrations of crude oil were analyzed. The results showed a strong physical effect of oil at the water surface and a significant effect on fish behavior. Swimming time and response to alarm substance decreased when fish was exposed for just one day to water insoluble fraction, and remain lower after 30 days of exposure, compared to control. Chronic exposure to water insoluble fraction of the inert oil also affected these two parameters. Critical swimming velocity decreased in fish exposed to both crude and inert oil water insoluble fraction. These reductions are possibly related to a decrease in aerobic capacity. Only exposure to high concentrations of petroleum water-soluble fractions induced transient alterations of the analyzed parameters. The exposure of fish to low and high concentrations of water insoluble fraction of Urucu oil caused a reduction of responses to alarm substance, spontaneous swimming activity and swimming capacity (Ucrit), decreased activity of acetylcholinesterase, and increased activity of alkaline phosphatase. Severe hypertrophy of lamellar epithelium and extensive lamellar fusion of the gills were also observed. Overall, these results show significant behavioral and physiological changes caused by the oil layer on the water surface, which means that toxicity of petroleum produced by its chemical components is, in fact, in this fish species, enhanced by the presence of an oil phase as a

  19. The Tissue Response and Degradation of Electrospun Poly(ε-caprolactone/Poly(trimethylene-carbonate Scaffold in Subcutaneous Space of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the advantage of controllability on the mechanical property and the degradation rates, electrospun PCL/PTMC nanofibrous scaffold could be appropriate for vascular tissue engineering. However, the tissue response and degradation of electrospun PCL/PTMC scaffold in vivo have never been evaluated in detail. So, electrospun PCL/PTMC scaffolds with different blend ratios were prepared in this study. Mice subcutaneous implantation showed that the continuous degradation of PCL/PTMC scaffolds induced a lasted macrophage-mediated foreign body reaction, which could be in favor of the tissue regeneration in graft.

  20. Soft tissue response in orthognathic surgery patients treated by bimaxillary osteotomy: cephalometry compared with 2-D photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustemeyer, Jan; Martin, Alice

    2013-03-01

    Since improvement of facial aesthetics after orthognathic surgery moves increasingly into the focus of patients, prediction of soft tissue response to hard tissue movement becomes essential for planning. The aim of this study was to assess the facial soft tissue response in skeletal class II and III patients undergoing orthognathic surgery and to compare the potentials of cephalometry and two-dimensional (2-D) photogrammetry for predicting soft tissue changes. Twenty-eight patients with class II relationship and 33 with class III underwent bimaxillary surgery. All subjects had available both a traced lateral cephalogram and a traced lateral photogram taken pre- and postsurgery in natural head position (median follow-up, 9.4 ± 0.6 months). Facial convexity and lower lip length were highly correlated with hard tissue movements cephalometrically in class III patients and 2-D photogrammetrically in both classes. In comparison, cephalometric correlations for class II patients were weak. Correlations of hard and soft tissue movements between pre- and postoperative corresponding landmarks in horizontal and vertical planes were significant for cephalometry and 2-D photogrammetry. No significant difference was found between cephalometry and 2-D photogrammetry with respect to soft to hard tissue movement ratios. This study revealed that cephalometry is still a feasible standard for evaluating and predicting outcomes in routine orthognathic surgery cases. Accuracy could be enhanced with 2-D photogrammetry, especially in class II patients.

  1. A longitudinal study of estrogen-responsive tissues and hormone concentrations in infants fed soy formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adgent, Margaret A; Umbach, David M; Zemel, Babette S; Kelly, Andrea; Schall, Joan I; Ford, Eileen G; James, Kerry; Darge, Kassa; Botelho, Julianne C; Vesper, Hubert W; Chandler, Donald Walt; Nakamoto, Jon M; Rogan, Walter J; Stallings, Virginia A

    2018-03-01

    Chemicals with hormone-like activity, such as estrogenic isoflavones, may perturb human development. Infants exclusively fed soy-based formula are highly exposed to isoflavones, but their physiologic responses remain uncharacterized. Here, we compare estrogen-responsive postnatal development in infants exclusively fed soy formula, cow-milk formula and breast milk. We enrolled 410 infants born in Philadelphia area hospitals, 2010-2013; 283 infants were exclusively fed soy formula (n=102), cow-milk formula (n=111), or breast milk (n=70) throughout the study (birth to 28 [boys] or 36 [girls] weeks). We repeatedly measured maturation index (MI) in vaginal and urethral epithelial cells using standard cytological methods, uterine volume and breast-bud diameter using ultrasound, serum estradiol and, in girls, follicle-stimulating hormone. We estimated MI, organ-growth and hormone trajectories by diet using mixed-effects regression splines. Maternal demographics did not differ between cow-milk-fed and soy-fed infants but did differ between formula-fed and breastfed infants. Vaginal cell MI trended higher (p=0.01) and uterine volume decreased more slowly (p=0.01) in soy-fed girls compared to cow-milk-fed girls; however, their trajectories of breast-bud diameter and hormone concentrations did not differ. We observed no significant differences between boys fed cow-milk formula versus soy formula; estradiol was not detectable. Breastfed infants differed from soy-formula-fed infants in vaginal cell MI, uterine volume, girls' estradiol and boys' breast-bud diameter trajectories. Relative to cow-milk formula-fed girls, soy formula-fed girls demonstrated tissue and organ-level developmental trajectories consistent with response to exogenous estrogen exposure. Additional studies are needed to further evaluate the effects of soy on child development.

  2. The adult brain tissue response to hollow fiber membranes of varying surface architecture with or without cotransplanted cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning

    A variety of biomaterials have been chronically implanted into the central nervous system (CNS) for repair or therapeutic purposes. Regardless of the application, chronic implantation of materials into the CNS induces injury and elicits a wound healing response, eventually leading to the formation of a dense extracellular matrix (ECM)-rich scar tissue that is associated with the segregation of implanted materials from the surrounding normal tissue. Often this reaction results in impaired performance of indwelling CNS devices. In order to enhance the performance of biomaterial-based implantable devices in the CNS, this thesis investigated whether adult brain tissue response to implanted biomaterials could be manipulated by changing biomaterial surface properties or further by utilizing the biology of co-transplanted cells. Specifically, the adult rat brain tissue response to chronically implanted poly(acrylonitrile-vinylchloride) (PAN-PVC) hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) of varying surface architecture were examined temporally at 2, 4, and 12 weeks postimplantation. Significant differences were discovered in the brain tissue response to the PAN-PVC HFMs of varying surface architecture at 4 and 12 weeks. To extend this work, whether the soluble factors derived from a co-transplanted cellular component further affect the brain tissue response to an implanted HFM in a significant way was critically exploited. The cells used were astrocytes, whose ability to influence scar formation process following CNS injury by physical contact with the host tissue had been documented in the literature. Data indicated for the first time that astrocyte-derived soluble factors ameliorate the adult brain tissue reactivity toward HFM implants in an age-dependent manner. While immature astrocytes secreted soluble factors that suppressed the brain tissue reactivity around the implants, mature astrocytes secreted factors that enhanced the gliotic response. These findings prove the feasibility

  3. Rat subcutaneous tissue response to calcium silicate containing different arsenic concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    MINOTTI, Paloma Gagliardi; ORDINOLA-ZAPATA, Ronald; MIDENA, Raquel Zanin; MARCIANO, Marina Angélica; CAVENAGO, Bruno Cavalini; BRAMANTE, Clovis Monteiro; GARCIA, Roberto Brandão; DUARTE, Marco Antonio Hungaro; de MORAES, Ivaldo Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the response of rat subcutaneous tissue in implanted polyethylene tubes that were filled with GMTA Angelus and Portland cements containing different arsenic concentrations. Material and Methods Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was utilized to obtain the values of the arsenic concentration in the materials. Thirty-six rats were divided into 3 groups of 12 animals for each experimental period. Each animal received two implants of polyethylene tubes filled with different test cements and the lateral of the tubes was used as a control group. After 15, 30 and 60 days of implantation, the animals were killed and the specimens were prepared for descriptive and morphometric analysis considering: inflammatory cells, collagen fibers, fibroblasts, blood vessels and other components. The results were analyzed utilizing the Kuskal-Wallis test and the Dunn´s Multiple test for comparison (p<0.05). Results The materials showed, according to atomic absorption spectrophotometry, the following doses of arsenic: GMTA Angelus: 5.01 mg/kg, WPC Irajazinho: 0.69 mg/kg, GPC Minetti: 18.46 mg/kg and GPC Votoran: 10.76 mg/kg. In a 60-day periods, all specimens displayed a neoformation of connective tissue with a structure of fibrocellular aspect (capsule). Control groups and MTA Angelus produced the lower amount of inflammatory reaction and GPC Minetti, the highest reaction. Conclusions There was no direct relationship between the concentration of arsenic present in the composition of the materials and the intensity of the inflammatory reactions. Higher values, as 18.46 mg/kg of arsenic in the cement, produce characteristics of severe inflammation reaction at the 60-day period. The best results were found in MTA angelus. PMID:25075671

  4. Rat subcutaneous tissue response to calcium silicate containing different arsenic concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Gagliardi MINOTTI

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the response of rat subcutaneous tissue in implanted polyethylene tubes that were filled with GMTA Angelus and Portland cements containing different arsenic concentrations. Material and Methods: Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was utilized to obtain the values of the arsenic concentration in the materials. Thirty-six rats were divided into 3 groups of 12 animals for each experimental period. Each animal received two implants of polyethylene tubes filled with different test cements and the lateral of the tubes was used as a control group. After 15, 30 and 60 days of implantation, the animals were killed and the specimens were prepared for descriptive and morphometric analysis considering: inflammatory cells, collagen fibers, fibroblasts, blood vessels and other components. The results were analyzed utilizing the Kuskal-Wallis test and the Dunn's Multiple test for comparison (p<0.05. Results: The materials showed, according to atomic absorption spectrophotometry, the following doses of arsenic: GMTA Angelus: 5.01 mg/kg, WPC Irajazinho: 0.69 mg/kg, GPC Minetti: 18.46 mg/kg and GPC Votoran: 10.76 mg/kg. In a 60-day periods, all specimens displayed a neoformation of connective tissue with a structure of fibrocellular aspect (capsule. Control groups and MTA Angelus produced the lower amount of inflammatory reaction and GPC Minetti, the highest reaction. Conclusions: There was no direct relationship between the concentration of arsenic present in the composition of the materials and the intensity of the inflammatory reactions. Higher values, as 18.46 mg/kg of arsenic in the cement, produce characteristics of severe inflammation reaction at the 60-day period. The best results were found in MTA angelus.

  5. The In Vitro Response of Tissue Stem Cells to Irradiation With Different Linear Energy Transfers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagle, Peter W.; Hosper, Nynke A. [Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Ploeg, Emily M. [Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Goethem, Marc-Jan van [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); KVI-Center for Advanced Radiation Research, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Brandenburg, Sytze [KVI-Center for Advanced Radiation Research, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Chiu, Roland K. [Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Coppes, Robert P., E-mail: r.p.coppes@umcg.nl [Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: A reduction in the dose, irradiated volume, and sensitivity of, in particular, normal tissue stem cells is needed to advance radiation therapy. This could be obtained with the use of particles for radiation therapy. However, the radiation response of normal tissue stem cells is still an enigma. Therefore, in the present study, we developed a model to investigate the in vitro response of stem cells to particle irradiation. Methods and Materials: We used the immortalized human salivary gland (HSG) cell line resembling salivary gland (SG) cells to translate the radiation response in 2-dimensional (2D) to 3-dimensional (3D) conditions. This response was subsequently translated to the response of SG stem cells (SGSCs). Dispersed single cells were irradiated with photons or carbon ions at different linear energy transfers (LETs; 48.76 ± 2.16, 149.9 ± 10.8, and 189 ± 15 keV/μm). Subsequently, 2D or 3D clonogenicity was determined by counting the colonies or secondary stem cell-derived spheres in Matrigel. γH2AX immunostaining was used to assess DNA double strand break repair. Results: The 2D response of HSG cells showed a similar increase in dose response to increasing higher LET irradiation as other cell lines. The 3D response of HSG cells to increasing LET irradiation was reduced compared with the 2D response. Finally, the response of mouse SGSCs to photons was similar to the 3D response of HSG cells. The response to higher LET irradiation was reduced in the stem cells. Conclusions: Mouse SGSC radiosensitivity seems reduced at higher LET radiation compared with transformed HSG cells. The developed model to assess the radiation response of SGSCs offers novel possibilities to study the radiation response of normal tissue in vitro.

  6. Blood cell-derived tissue factor influences host response during murine endotoxemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, Saskia H. H. F.; Groot, Angelique P.; Florquin, Sandrine; Reitsma, Pieter H.; Spek, C. Arnold

    2004-01-01

    During endotoxemia, blood coagulation becomes activated due to tissue factor (TF) expression on leukocytes and/or endothelial cells. We investigated the influence of blood cell-derived tissue factor on murine endotoxemia. Therefore, we generated mice that lack tissue factor on their blood cells by

  7. Bioreactor Technology in Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertsching, H.; Hansmann, J.

    Cardiovascular tissue engineering is a fast evolving field of biomedical science and technology to manufacture viable blood vessels, heart valves, myocar-dial substitutes and vascularised complex tissues. In consideration of the specific role of the haemodynamics of human circulation, bioreactors are a fundamental of this field. The development of perfusion bioreactor technology is a consequence of successes in extracorporeal circulation techniques, to provide an in vitro environment mimicking in vivo conditions. The bioreactor system should enable an automatic hydrodynamic regime control. Furthermore, the systematic studies regarding the cellular responses to various mechanical and biochemical cues guarantee the viability, bio-monitoring, testing, storage and transportation of the growing tissue.

  8. Autotaxin : biochemical and functional studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, Anna Jacoba Sara

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on autotaxin (ATX), the main enzyme responsible for the production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). The ATX-LPA receptor axis has a wide implication in health and disease. The studies described in this thesis aim at characterizing the biochemical and functional properties of ATX,

  9. Tissue Culture as a Source of Replicates in Nonmodel Plants: Variation in Cold Response in Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenta, Tanaka; Edwards, Jessica E M; Butlin, Roger K; Burke, Terry; Quick, W Paul; Urwin, Peter; Davey, Matthew P

    2016-12-07

    While genotype-environment interaction is increasingly receiving attention by ecologists and evolutionary biologists, such studies need genetically homogeneous replicates-a challenging hurdle in outcrossing plants. This could be potentially overcome by using tissue culture techniques. However, plants regenerated from tissue culture may show aberrant phenotypes and "somaclonal" variation. Here, we examined somaclonal variation due to tissue culturing using the response to cold treatment of photosynthetic efficiency (chlorophyll fluorescence measurements for F v /F m , F v '/F m ', and Φ PSII , representing maximum efficiency of photosynthesis for dark- and light-adapted leaves, and the actual electron transport operating efficiency, respectively, which are reliable indicators of photoinhibition and damage to the photosynthetic electron transport system). We compared this to variation among half-sibling seedlings from three different families of Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea Somaclonal variation was limited, and we could detect within-family variation in change in chlorophyll fluorescence due to cold shock successfully with the help of tissue-culture derived replicates. Icelandic and Norwegian families exhibited higher chlorophyll fluorescence, suggesting higher performance after cold shock, than a Swedish family. Although the main effect of tissue culture on F v /F m , F v '/F m ', and Φ PSII was small, there were significant interactions between tissue culture and family, suggesting that the effect of tissue culture is genotype-specific. Tissue-cultured plantlets were less affected by cold treatment than seedlings, but to a different extent in each family. These interactive effects, however, were comparable to, or much smaller than the single effect of family. These results suggest that tissue culture is a useful method for obtaining genetically homogenous replicates for studying genotype-environment interaction related to adaptively-relevant phenotypes, such

  10. Micro- and nanotechnology in cardiovascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Boyang; Xiao, Yun; Hsieh, Anne; Thavandiran, Nimalan; Radisic, Milica

    2011-12-09

    While in nature the formation of complex tissues is gradually shaped by the long journey of development, in tissue engineering constructing complex tissues relies heavily on our ability to directly manipulate and control the micro-cellular environment in vitro. Not surprisingly, advancements in both microfabrication and nanofabrication have powered the field of tissue engineering in many aspects. Focusing on cardiac tissue engineering, this paper highlights the applications of fabrication techniques in various aspects of tissue engineering research: (1) cell responses to micro- and nanopatterned topographical cues, (2) cell responses to patterned biochemical cues, (3) controlled 3D scaffolds, (4) patterned tissue vascularization and (5) electromechanical regulation of tissue assembly and function.

  11. High surface adsorption properties of carbon-based nanomaterials are responsible for mortality, swimming inhibition, and biochemical responses in Artemia salina larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesarič, Tina; Gambardella, Chiara; Milivojević, Tamara; Faimali, Marco; Drobne, Damjana; Falugi, Carla; Makovec, Darko; Jemec, Anita; Sepčić, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon-based nanomaterials adsorb onto the body surface of A. salina larvae. • Surface adsorption results in concentration–dependent inhibition of larval swimming. • Carbon-based nanomaterials induce no significant mortality of A. salina larvae. - Abstract: We investigated the effects of three different carbon-based nanomaterials on brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations of carbon black, graphene oxide, and multiwall carbon nanotubes for 48 h, and observed using phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Acute (mortality) and behavioural (swimming speed alteration) responses and cholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase enzyme activities were evaluated. These nanomaterials were ingested and concentrated in the gut, and attached onto the body surface of the A. salina larvae. This attachment was responsible for concentration–dependent inhibition of larval swimming, and partly for alterations in the enzyme activities, that differed according to the type of tested nanomaterials. No lethal effects were observed up to 0.5 mg/mL carbon black and 0.1 mg/mL multiwall carbon nanotubes, while graphene oxide showed a threshold whereby it had no effects at 0.6 mg/mL, and more than 90% mortality at 0.7 mg/mL. Risk quotients calculated on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations indicate that carbon black and multiwall carbon nanotubes currently do not pose a serious risk to the marine environment, however if uncontrolled release of nanomaterials continues, this scenario can rapidly change

  12. High surface adsorption properties of carbon-based nanomaterials are responsible for mortality, swimming inhibition, and biochemical responses in Artemia salina larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesarič, Tina, E-mail: tina.mesaric84@gmail.com [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gambardella, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.gambardella@ge.ismar.cnr.it [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Genova (Italy); Milivojević, Tamara, E-mail: milivojevictamara@gmail.com [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Faimali, Marco, E-mail: marco.faimali@ismar.cnr.it [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Genova (Italy); Drobne, Damjana, E-mail: damjana.drobne@bf.uni-lj.si [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CO Nanocentre), Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence in Advanced Materials and Technologies for the Future (CO NAMASTE), Ljubljana (Slovenia); Falugi, Carla, E-mail: carlafalugi@hotmail.it [Department of Earth, Environment and Life Sciences, University of Genova, Genova (Italy); Makovec, Darko, E-mail: darko.makovec@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jemec, Anita, E-mail: anita.jemec@bf.uni-lj.si [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sepčić, Kristina, E-mail: kristina.sepcic@bf.uni-lj.si [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Carbon-based nanomaterials adsorb onto the body surface of A. salina larvae. • Surface adsorption results in concentration–dependent inhibition of larval swimming. • Carbon-based nanomaterials induce no significant mortality of A. salina larvae. - Abstract: We investigated the effects of three different carbon-based nanomaterials on brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations of carbon black, graphene oxide, and multiwall carbon nanotubes for 48 h, and observed using phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Acute (mortality) and behavioural (swimming speed alteration) responses and cholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase enzyme activities were evaluated. These nanomaterials were ingested and concentrated in the gut, and attached onto the body surface of the A. salina larvae. This attachment was responsible for concentration–dependent inhibition of larval swimming, and partly for alterations in the enzyme activities, that differed according to the type of tested nanomaterials. No lethal effects were observed up to 0.5 mg/mL carbon black and 0.1 mg/mL multiwall carbon nanotubes, while graphene oxide showed a threshold whereby it had no effects at 0.6 mg/mL, and more than 90% mortality at 0.7 mg/mL. Risk quotients calculated on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations indicate that carbon black and multiwall carbon nanotubes currently do not pose a serious risk to the marine environment, however if uncontrolled release of nanomaterials continues, this scenario can rapidly change.

  13. Biochemical responses of Gammarus pulex to malachite green solutions decolorized by Coriolus versicolor as a biosorbent under batch adsorption conditions optimized with response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Nuran Cikcikoglu; Tanyol, Mehtap; Yildirim, Numan; Serdar, Osman; Tatar, Sule

    2018-03-08

    The current study was aimed to investigate the detoxifying and antioxidant enzyme response of Gammarus pulex exposed to malachite green (MG) after decolorization by Coriolus versicolor. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to optimize the decolorization conditions of MG synthetic solutions by C. versicolor. Glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and glutathione peroxidase (GP X ), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) activities in G. pulex exposed to undecolorized (A1) and decolorized (A2) MG synthetic solution during 24 and 96 h were tested by using ELISA method. SOD and GP X enzyme activity was increased after decolorization (p > 0.05). CAT enzyme activity was increased in A2 group during 24 h (p > 0.05) but decreased during 96 h (p < 0.05). GSH levels were increased in A2 group during 24 and 96 h (p < 0.05). GST, CYP1A1 enzyme activity and MDA levels were decreased after decolorization during 96 h (p < 0.05). In this study, GSH levels, CAT, GST and CYP1A1 activities in G. pulex approved the capability of C. versicolor in MG decolorization, optimized with RSM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. High surface adsorption properties of carbon-based nanomaterials are responsible for mortality, swimming inhibition, and biochemical responses in Artemia salina larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesarič, Tina; Gambardella, Chiara; Milivojević, Tamara; Faimali, Marco; Drobne, Damjana; Falugi, Carla; Makovec, Darko; Jemec, Anita; Sepčić, Kristina

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the effects of three different carbon-based nanomaterials on brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations of carbon black, graphene oxide, and multiwall carbon nanotubes for 48 h, and observed using phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Acute (mortality) and behavioural (swimming speed alteration) responses and cholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase enzyme activities were evaluated. These nanomaterials were ingested and concentrated in the gut, and attached onto the body surface of the A. salina larvae. This attachment was responsible for concentration-dependent inhibition of larval swimming, and partly for alterations in the enzyme activities, that differed according to the type of tested nanomaterials. No lethal effects were observed up to 0.5mg/mL carbon black and 0.1mg/mL multiwall carbon nanotubes, while graphene oxide showed a threshold whereby it had no effects at 0.6 mg/mL, and more than 90% mortality at 0.7 mg/mL. Risk quotients calculated on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations indicate that carbon black and multiwall carbon nanotubes currently do not pose a serious risk to the marine environment, however if uncontrolled release of nanomaterials continues, this scenario can rapidly change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization and response of antioxidant systems in the tissues of the freshwater pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis) during acute copper exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atli, Gülüzar; Grosell, Martin

    2016-07-01

    The response of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glutathione peroxidase, GPX and glutathione reductase, GR) and non-enzymatic responses (glutathione, GSH, oxidized glutathione, GSSG and GSH/GSSG) against acute Cu toxicity (2-90μg/mL for 48h) in different tissues of Lymnaea stagnalis were measured. Incubation conditions for enzymatic activity measurements were optimized for L. stagnalis tissues. Three examined tissues, the hepatopancreas, the foot muscle and the mantle, exhibited variable responses in antioxidant parameters as a function of Cu concentrations. The most responsive antioxidant enzymes were GPX and CAT while GR appeared less sensitive. In general antioxidant enzymes at higher Cu concentrations though GSH levels at lower Cu concentrations exhibited the greatest changes in hepatopancreas and foot muscle, respectively. All antioxidant enzymes except GR increased after exposure to the highest Cu concentration in mantle. Total and reduced GSH increased in hepatopancreas but decreased with GSH/GSSG ratios at all Cu concentrations in foot muscle. The present results show that antioxidants respond to acute Cu exposure at concentrations as low as 2μg Cu/L in adult L. stagnalis with variable responses in different tissues. Antioxidants both including enzymatic and non-enzymatic parameters may account, in part, for the high tolerance to acute metal exposure observed in adult L. stagnalis and could form suited biomarkers to evaluate the metal exposure and toxicity in aquatic environment even at relatively low level short term exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Designing PolyHEMA Substrates that Mimic the Viscoelastic Response of Soft Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Brian; Tripathi, Anubhav; Morgan, Jeffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Matching the mechanical properties of a biomaterial to soft tissue is often overlooked despite the fact that it’s well known that cells respond to and are capable of changing their mechanical environment. In this paper, we used NaCl and alginate beads as porogens to make a series of micro- and macro-porous pHEMA substrates [poly(2-hydroxyethly methacrylate)] and quantified their mechanical behavior under low-magnitude shear loads over physiologically relevant frequencies. Using a stress-controlled rheometer, we performed isothermal (37°C) frequency response experiments between 0.628 and 75.4 rad/s [0.01–12Hz] at 0.1% strain. Both micro- and macro-porous pHEMA substrates were predominately elastic in nature with a narrow range of G′ and G″ values that mimicked the response of human skin. The magnitude of the G′ and G″ values of the macro-porous substrates were designed to closely match human skin. To determine how cell growth might alter their mechanical properties, pHEMA substrates were functionalized and human skin fibroblasts grown on them for fourteen days. As a result of cell growth, the magnitude of G′ and G″ increased at low frequencies while also altering the degree of high frequency dependence, indicating that cellular interactions with the micro-pore infrastructure has a profound effect on the viscoelastic behavior of the substrates. These data could be fit to a mathematical model describing a soft solid. A quantitative understanding of the mechanical behavior of biomaterials in regimes that are physiologically relevant and how these mechanics may change after implantation may aid in the design of new materials. PMID:21496821

  17. The physiological response of soft tissue to periodic repositioning as a strategy for pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Marjolein; Worsley, Peter R; Voegeli, David; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Bader, Dan L

    2015-02-01

    Individuals who have reduced mobility are at risk of developing pressure ulcers if they are subjected to sustained static postures. To reduce this risk, clinical guidelines advocate healthcare professionals reposition patients regularly. Automated tilting mechanisms have recently been introduced to provide periodic repositioning. This study compared the performance of such a prototype mattress to conventional manual repositioning. Ten healthy participants (7 male and 3 female, aged 23-66 years) were recruited to compare the effects of an automated tilting mattress to standard manual repositioning, using the 30° tilt. Measures during the tilting protocols (supine, right and left tilt) included comfort and safety scores, interface pressures, inclinometer angles and transcutaneous gas tensions (sacrum and shoulder). Data from these outcomes were compared between each protocol. Results indicated no significant differences for either interface pressures or transcutaneous gas responses between the two protocols (P>0.05 in both cases). Indeed a small proportion of participants (~30%) exhibited changes in transcutaneous oxygen and carbon dioxide values in the shoulder during a right tilt for both protocols. The tilt angles at the sternum and the pelvis were significantly less in the automated tilt compared to the manual tilt (mean difference=9.4-11.5°, Pmattress. Although further studies are required to assess its performance in maintaining tissue viability, an automated tilting mattress offers the ability to periodically reposition vulnerable individuals, with potential economic savings to health services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biochemical Hypermedia: Galactose Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Sugai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Animations of biochemical processes and virtual laboratory environments lead to true molecular simulations. The use of interactive software’s in education can improve cognitive capacity, better learning and, mainly, it makes information acquisition easier. Material and Methods: This work presents the development of a biochemical hypermedia to understanding of the galactose metabolism. It was developed with the help of concept maps, ISIS Draw, ADOBE Photoshop and FLASH MX Program. Results and Discussion: A step by step animation process shows the enzymatic reactions of galactose conversion to glucose-1-phosphate (to glycogen synthesis, glucose-6-phosphate (glycolysis intermediary, UDP-galactose (substrate to mucopolysaccharides synthesis and collagen’s glycosylation. There are navigation guide that allow scrolling the mouse over the names of the components of enzymatic reactions of via the metabolism of galactose. Thus, explanatory text box, chemical structures and animation of the actions of enzymes appear to navigator. Upon completion of the module, the user’s response to the proposed exercise can be checked immediately through text box with interactive content of the answer. Conclusion: This hypermedia was presented for undergraduate students (UFSC who revealed that it was extremely effective in promoting the understanding of the theme.

  19. Effects of dietary dandelion extracts on growth performance, body composition, plasma biochemical parameters, immune responses and disease resistance of juvenile golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaohong; Sun, Zhenzhu; Chen, Shu; Chen, Silin; Huang, Zhong; Zhou, Chuanpeng; Zou, Cuiyun; Liu, Qingying; Ye, Huaqun; Lin, Heizhao; Ye, Chaoxia; Wang, Anli

    2017-07-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary dandelion extracts (DE) supplementation on growth performance, feed utilization, body composition, plasma biochemical indices, immune responses, hepatic antioxidant abilities, and resistance to the pathogen Vibrio harveyi in Trachinotus ovatus. A basal diet supplemented with DE at 0, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, 4.00 and 10.00 g kg -1 were fed to golden pompano for 8 weeks. The study indicated that dietary supplementation with DE could significantly improve final body weight (FBW), weight gain rate (WGR), specific growth rate (SGR), feed efficiency ratio (FER), feed intake (FI), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and protein deposit rate (PDR) (P dietary DE (P dietary DE (P dietary DE showed significant increase in plasma total protein, complement 4 content and alkaline phosphatase, lysozyme, glutathione reductase (GSR) activity, but significant decrease in triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and aspartate aminotransferase activities compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Hepatic antioxidant enzymes (SOD, T-AOC, CAT, GSH-Px, GSR) significantly increased whereas MDA content significantly decreased in fish fed 1.00 g kg -1 DE supplement (P < 0.05). After challenge with Vibrio harveyi, significant higher post-challenge survival was observed in fish fed DE supplement (P < 0.05). These results indicated that golden pompano fed a diet supplemented with DE (especially at 1.00 g kg -1 of fed supplement) could significantly promote its growth performance, feed utilization, body protein deposit, immune ability, hepatic and plasma antioxidative enzyme activities and improve its resistance to infection by Vibrio harveyi. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Phyto-management of Cr-contaminated soils by sunflower hybrids: physiological and biochemical response and metal extractability under Cr stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Mujahid; Ali, Shafaqat; Akram, Nudrat Aisha; Rizwan, Muhammad; Abbas, Farhat; Bukhari, Syed Asad Hussain; Saeed, Rashid

    2017-07-01

    Chromium (Cr) is a biologically non-essential, carcinogenic and toxic heavy metal. The cultivation of Cr-tolerant genotypes seems the most favorable and environment friendly strategy for rehabilitation and remediation of Cr-contaminated soils. To prove this hypothesis and identify the Cr tolerance, the present study was performed to assess the physiological and biochemical response of sunflower genotypes to Cr stress. The seeds of six sunflower hybrids, namely FH-425, FH-600, FH-612, FH-614, FH-619, and FH-620, were grown in spiked soil for 12 weeks under increasing concentrations of Cr (0, 5, 10, and 20 mg kg -1 ). A seed germination test was also run under different concentrations of Cr (0, 5, 10, 200 mM) in petri dishes. Plants were harvested after 12 weeks of germination. Different plant attributes such as growth; biomass; photosynthesis; gas exchange; activity of antioxidant enzymes, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), ascorbate (APX), and catalases (CAT); reactive oxygen species (ROS); lipid peroxidation; electrolyte leakage; and Cr concentration as well as accumulations in all plant parts were studied for the selection of the most Cr-tolerant genotype. Increasing concentration of Cr in soil triggered the reduction of all plant parameters in sunflower. Cr stress increased electrolyte leakage and production of reactive oxygen species which stimulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes and gas exchange attributes of sunflower. Chromium accumulation in the root and shoot increased gradually with increasing Cr treatments and caused reduction in overall plant growth. The accumulation of Cr was recorded in the order of FH-614 > FH-620 > FH-600 > FH-619 > FH-612 > FH-425. The differential uptake and accumulation of Cr by sunflower hybrids may be useful in selection and breeding for Cr-tolerant genotypes.

  1. Pulmonary biochemical alterations resulting from ozone exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafa, M.G.; Lee, S.D.

    1976-07-01

    Metabolic response of lung tissue to ozone was studied in rats and monkeys after exposure of animals to various levels of ozone (0.1 to 0.8 ppM) for 1 to 30 days. In rats, 0.8 ppM ozone exposure resulted in a 40 to 50 percent augmentation of oxygen utilization in lung homogenate in the presence of an added substrate (e.g., succinate or 2-oxoglutarate). Activities of marker enzymes, viz. mitochondrial succinate-cytochrome c reductase; microsomal NADPH-cytochrome c reductase and cytosolic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, increased maximally (40 to 70 percent over control) after 3 to 4 days of exposure, and remained elevated throughout the 0.8 ppM ozone exposure for 30 days. In monkeys, the observations were the same except that the magnitude of biochemical changes was relatively smaller. Exposure of animals to lower levels of ozone resulted in proportionately smaller biochemical changes in the lung, and ozone effects were detectable up to the 0.2 ppM level. While 0.1 ppM ozone exposure was ineffective, dietary deficiency of vitamin E, a natural antioxidant, increased the sensitivity of rat lungs to this concentration of ozone. The results suggest that low-level ozone exposures may cause metabolic alterations in the lung, and that dietary supplementation of vitamin E may offer protection against oxidant stress.

  2. Enhanced HIV-1 replication in ex vivo ectocervical tissues from post-menopausal women correlates with increased inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollenhagen, C; Asin, S N

    2011-11-01

    Knowledge about early innate immune responses at the mucosal surfaces of the female genital tract is important in understanding the pathogenesis of heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). As estradiol decreases inflammatory responses, we postulated that an estradiol-deficient state such as post-menopause could enhance expression of inflammatory factors that stimulate HIV-1 replication. We compare HIV-1 integration, transcription, and viral p24 release levels among ectocervical tissues obtained from pre- and post-menopausal donors. We detected enhanced HIV-1 p24 release levels in post- compared with pre-menopausal tissues (Ppost-menopausal tissues exhibited levels of HIV-1 transcription above background compared with only 60% of pre-menopausal tissues. Increased HIV-1 transcription was associated with enhanced interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, growth-regulated oncogene-α, and interferon-γ-inducible protein-10 expression. Neutralization and nuclear factor-κB-targeting small-interfering RNA experiments both decreased HIV-1 transcription, suggesting that the early inflammatory response may facilitate HIV-1 replication in ex vivo ectocervical tissues from post-menopausal women.

  3. Improved phytoaccumulation of cadmium by genetically modified tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Physiological and biochemical response of the transformants to cadmium toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorinova, N.; Nedkovska, M.; Todorovska, E.; Simova-Stoilova, L.; Stoyanova, Z.; Georgieva, K.; Demirevska-Kepova, K.; Atanassov, A.; Herzig, R.

    2007-01-01

    The response of tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.)-non-transformed and transformed with a metallothionein gene MThis from Silene vulgaris L. - to increase cadmium supply in the nutrient solution was compared. The transgenic plants accumulated significantly more Cd both in the roots and the leaves. Visual toxicity symptoms and disturbance in water balance were correlated with Cd tissue content. Treatment with 300 μM CdCl 2 resulted in inhibition of photosynthesis and mobilization of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle. Treatment with 500 μM CdCl 2 led to irreversible damage of photosynthesis and oxidative stress. An appearance of a new peroxidase isoform and changes in the leaf polypeptide pattern were observed at the highest Cd concentration. The level of non-protein thiols gradually increased following the Cd treatment both in transgenic and non-transformed plants. - Genetic transformation of Nicotiana tabacum L. by metallothionein gene improved phytoaccumulation of cadmium

  4. A comparison of the effects of Portulaca oleracea seeds hydro-alcoholic extract and Vitamin C on biochemical, hemodynamic and functional parameters in cardiac tissue of rats with subclinical hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadi, Hadi; Pakdel, Roghayeh; Khazaei, Majid; Niazmand, Said; Bavarsad, Kowsar; Hadjzadeh, Mousa AL-Reza

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Portulaca oleracea (P. oleracea) seeds and Vitamin C on biochemical and hemodynamic parameters in cardiac tissue of rats with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Materials and Methods: Forty eight male rats were divided into six groups of 8 and treated for 4 weeks. T4 group received daily injection of levothyroxine sodium (20 μg/kg) and control group was given daily injection of saline. T4-Po groups were given T4 plus 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of P. oleracea seeds extract in drinking water daily. T4-Vit C group received T4 plus daily injection of Vitamin C (100 mg/kg). At the end of the experiment, body weight, serum free T4 level, left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), malondialdehyde (MDA) and total thiol levels were measured. Results: Free T4 levels were increased in all groups that were treated with T4. Weight gain was decreased in T4 and T4-Po100 groups compared to control group (p<0.001 and p<0.05). However, body weight was increased in T4-Po (200 and 400) and T4-Vit C groups compared to T4 group. LVDP was increased in T4 group compared to control group but, LVDP was decreased in T4-Po and T4-Vit C groups. Malondialdehyde was decreased in T4-Po groups and T4-Vit C group compared to T4 group. Total thiol groups were increased in T4-Po (200 and 400) and T4-Vit C groups compared to T4 group. Conclusion: The results showed that P. oleracea extract has a protective effect on cardiac dysfunction due to subclinical hyperthyroidism induced by levothyroxine sodium in rats. PMID:29632847

  5. Bioprinted 3D Primary Liver Tissues Allow Assessment of Organ-Level Response to Clinical Drug Induced Toxicity In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah G Nguyen

    Full Text Available Modeling clinically relevant tissue responses using cell models poses a significant challenge for drug development, in particular for drug induced liver injury (DILI. This is mainly because existing liver models lack longevity and tissue-level complexity which limits their utility in predictive toxicology. In this study, we established and characterized novel bioprinted human liver tissue mimetics comprised of patient-derived hepatocytes and non-parenchymal cells in a defined architecture. Scaffold-free assembly of different cell types in an in vivo-relevant architecture allowed for histologic analysis that revealed distinct intercellular hepatocyte junctions, CD31+ endothelial networks, and desmin positive, smooth muscle actin negative quiescent stellates. Unlike what was seen in 2D hepatocyte cultures, the tissues maintained levels of ATP, Albumin as well as expression and drug-induced enzyme activity of Cytochrome P450s over 4 weeks in culture. To assess the ability of the 3D liver cultures to model tissue-level DILI, dose responses of Trovafloxacin, a drug whose hepatotoxic potential could not be assessed by standard pre-clinical models, were compared to the structurally related non-toxic drug Levofloxacin. Trovafloxacin induced significant, dose-dependent toxicity at clinically relevant doses (≤ 4uM. Interestingly, Trovafloxacin toxicity was observed without lipopolysaccharide stimulation and in the absence of resident macrophages in contrast to earlier reports. Together, these results demonstrate that 3D bioprinted liver tissues can both effectively model DILI and distinguish between highly related compounds with differential profile. Thus, the combination of patient-derived primary cells with bioprinting technology here for the first time demonstrates superior performance in terms of mimicking human drug response in a known target organ at the tissue level.

  6. Periradicular Tissue Responses to Biologically Active Molecules or MTA When Applied in Furcal Perforation of Dogs' Teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Zairi, Anna; Lambrianidis, Theodoros; Pantelidou, Ourania; Papadimitriou, Serafim; Tziafas, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was the comparative evaluation of inflammatory reactions and tissue responses to four growth factors, or mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), or a zinc-oxide-eugenol-based cement (IRM) as controls, when used for the repair of furcal perforations in dogs' teeth. Results showed significantly higher inflammatory cell response in the transforming growth factor ? 1 (TGF ? 1) and zinc-oxide-eugenol-based cement (IRM) groups and higher rates of epithelial proliferation in the TGF ...

  7. Biochemical markers can predict the response in bone mass during alendronate treatment in early postmenopausal women. Alendronate Osteoporosis Prevention Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Clemmesen, B; Christiansen, C

    1999-01-01

    Data from the Danish cohort (n = 67) of a multicenter trial of oral alendronate in the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis were used to evaluate the capacity of the biochemical markers to predict changes in bone mineral density (BMD). A panel of markers were measured: serum N-terminal midfr......Data from the Danish cohort (n = 67) of a multicenter trial of oral alendronate in the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis were used to evaluate the capacity of the biochemical markers to predict changes in bone mineral density (BMD). A panel of markers were measured: serum N...... at month 6 in the biochemical markers for predicting prevention of bone loss in the spine over 2 years. The cutpoints used were a 30% (N-MID OC) or 50% (all other markers) decrease from baseline. Sensitivity levels were 82% (N-MID OC), 98% (total OC), 78% (sCL and NTX), and 89% (uCL). Specificities were 91...... at the spine were similar: sensitivity, 82%; specificity, 55%; and positive predictive value, 79%. In conclusion, short-term changes in biochemical markers were valid predictors of long-term changes in BMD. Short-term changes in the sensitive biochemical markers revealed a predictive capacity similar to bone...

  8. The biocontrol endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 induces systemic defense responses in aerial tissues upon colonization of olive roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eGómez-Lama Cabanás

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7, a native olive root endophyte and effective biocontrol agent (BCA against Verticillium wilt of olive, is able to trigger a broad range of defense responses in root tissues of this woody plant. In order to elucidate whether strain PICF7 also induces systemic defense responses in above-ground organs, aerial tissues of olive plants grown under non-gnotobiotic conditions were collected at different time points after root bacterization with this endophytic BCA. A suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH cDNA library, enriched in up-regulated genes, was generated. This strategy enabled the identification of 376 ESTs (99 contigs and 277 singlets, many of them related to response to different stresses. Five ESTs, involved in defense responses, were selected to carry out time-course quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR experiments aiming to: (i validate the induction of these genes, and (ii shed light on their expression pattern along time (from 1 to 15 days. Induction of olive genes potentially coding for lypoxigenase 2, catalase, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase and phenylananine ammonia-lyase was thus confirmed at some time points. Computational analysis also revealed that different transcription factors were up-regulated in olive aerial tissues (i.e. jerf, bHLH, WRKYs, as previously reported for roots. Results confirmed that root colonization by this endophytic bacterium does not only trigger defense responses in this organ but also mount a wide array of systemic defense responses in distant tissues (stems, leaves. This sheds light on how olive plants respond to the ‘non-hostile’ colonization by a bacterial endophyte and how induced defense response can contribute to the biocontrol activity of strain PICF7.

  9. The biocontrol endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 induces systemic defense responses in aerial tissues upon colonization of olive roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Lama Cabanás, Carmen; Schilirò, Elisabetta; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7, a native olive root endophyte and effective biocontrol agent (BCA) against Verticillium wilt of olive, is able to trigger a broad range of defense responses in root tissues of this woody plant. In order to elucidate whether strain PICF7 also induces systemic defense responses in above-ground organs, aerial tissues of olive plants grown under non-gnotobiotic conditions were collected at different time points after root bacterization with this endophytic BCA. A suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library, enriched in up-regulated genes, was generated. This strategy enabled the identification of 376 ESTs (99 contigs and 277 singlets), many of them related to response to different stresses. Five ESTs, involved in defense responses, were selected to carry out time-course quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) experiments aiming to: (1) validate the induction of these genes, and (2) shed light on their expression pattern along time (from 1 to 15 days). Induction of olive genes potentially coding for lipoxygenase 2, catalase, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase, and phenylananine ammonia-lyase was thus confirmed at some time points. Computational analysis also revealed that different transcription factors were up-regulated in olive aerial tissues (i.e., JERF, bHLH, WRKY), as previously reported for roots. Results confirmed that root colonization by this endophytic bacterium does not only trigger defense responses in this organ but also mounts a wide array of systemic defense responses in distant tissues (stems, leaves). This sheds light on how olive plants respond to the "non-hostile" colonization by a bacterial endophyte and how induced defense response can contribute to the biocontrol activity of strain PICF7.

  10. Role of elasticity on the Rheological Response of the Uterus Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi Khorasani, Nariman; Piroozram, Parastoo

    2015-11-01

    N. Khorasani and P. piroozram Department of Mechanical Engineering, Payame Noor University, 19395-3697, Tehran, Iran, The effect of uterus tissue viscoelasticity on its internal pressure is explored. The tissue of the uterus is presented by a linear viscoelastic model with two major time constants. A proper user defined function is developed and incorporated in the simulation software, to represent the model. The geometry of the uterus is separately modeled. It is found that viscoelasticity of the tissue which can be controlled and altered by change the concentration can directly affect its internal pressure. It is also observed that the pressure decreases as the moisture of the tissue is increased. The study is repeated for several practical conditions and parameters pertaining to the viscoelasticity of the tissue are evaluated.

  11. Prebiotics modulate immune responses in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue o