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Sample records for tissue augmentation ii

  1. Facial sculpting and tissue augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Jean D A; Carruthers, Alastair

    2005-11-01

    Until recently, deep facial sculpting was exclusively the domain of surgical interventions. Recent advances in the available array of dermal and subdermal fillers combined with an esthetic appreciation by both surgeons and nonsurgeons alike of the positive effect of filling the volume-depleted face have led to an expansion in the indications for the use of soft tissue augmenting agents. Subdermal support of the lateral two-thirds of the brow, the nasojugal fold, the malar and buccal fat pads, the lateral lip commissures, and the perioral region, including the pre-jowl sulcus, all restore youthful facial contour and harmony. An important advance in technique is the subdermal rather than the intradermal injection plane. "Instant" facial sculpting giving a brow-lift, cheek-lift, lip expansion, and perioral augmentation is possible using modern soft tissue augmenting agents. The softer, more relaxed appearance contrasts to the somewhat "pulled" appearance of subjects who have had surgical overcorrections. Treatments can be combined with botulinum toxin and other procedures if required. Newer advances in the use of fillers include the use of fillers injected in the subdermal plane for "lunchtime" facial sculpting. Using the modern esthetic filler compounds, which are biodegradable but longer lasting, subjects can have a "rehearsal" treatment or make it ongoing. Some individuals, such as those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related lipoatrophy or those who desire to obtain a longer-lasting effect, may elect to use a nonbiodegradable filling agent.

  2. Dermal fillers for facial soft tissue augmentation.

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    Dastoor, Sarosh F; Misch, Carl E; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, patients are demanding not only enhancement to their dental (micro) esthetics, but also their overall facial (macro) esthetics. Soft tissue augmentation via dermal filling agents may be used to correct facial defects such as wrinkles caused by age, gravity, and trauma; thin lips; asymmetrical facial appearances; buccal fold depressions; and others. This article will review the pathogenesis of facial wrinkles, history, techniques, materials, complications, and clinical controversies regarding dermal fillers for soft tissue augmentation.

  3. Soft tissue augmentation 2006: filler fantasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Arnold William

    2006-01-01

    As an increasing number of patients seek esthetic improvement through minimally invasive procedures, interest in soft tissue augmentation and filling agents is at an all-time high. One reason for this interest is the availability of botulinum toxin type A, which works superbly in the upper face. The rejuvenation of the upper face has created much interest in injectable filling agents and implant techniques that work equally well in the restoration of the lower face. One of the central tenets of soft tissue augmentation is the concept of the three-dimensional face. The youthful face has a soft, full appearance, as opposed to the flat, pulled, two-dimensional look often achieved by more traditional surgical approaches. Injectable filling agents can augment and even at times, replace pulling. Additionally, with the lip as the focal center of the lower face, subtle lip enhancement is here to stay, and is in fact, the number one indication for injectable fillers. Moreover, minimally invasive soft tissue augmentation offers cosmetic enhancement without the cost and recovery time associated with more invasive procedures. As more and more physicians take interest in minimally invasive surgery, courses in cosmetic surgery techniques are becoming increasingly popular at the medical meetings of many specialties. Today, physicians have a much larger armamentarium of techniques and materials with which to improve facial contours, ameliorate wrinkles, and provide esthetic rejuvenation to the face. For a substance or device to be amenable for soft tissue augmentation in the medical community, it must meet certain criteria. It must have both a high "use" potential, producing cosmetically pleasing results with a minimum undesirable reactions, and have a low abuse potential in that widespread or incorrect or indiscriminate use would not result in significant morbidity. It must be nonteratogenic, noncarcinogenic, and nonmigratory. In addition, the agent must provide predictable

  4. Soft tissue augmentation - Use of hyaluronic acid as dermal filler

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    Vedamurthy Maya

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue augmentation has revolutionized the treatment of the aging face. It is a technique in which a substance is injected under the skin. The concept of utilizing materials for soft tissue augmentation actually began around 1950 with the use of fluid silicone. Today we have a large armamentarium of implant materials to delay the tell tale signs of aging. Filling has replaced conventional surgery in facial rejuvenation. In this article, the emphasis will be on hyaluronic acid as this substance is easily available in India and ranks among the most widely used dermal fillers.

  5. Soft tissue augmentation - Use of hyaluronic acid as dermal filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedamurthy Maya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue augmentation has revolutionized the treatment of the aging face. It is a technique in which a substance is injected under the skin. The concept of utilizing materials for soft tissue augmentation actually began around 1950 with the use of fluid silicone. Today we have a large armamentarium of implant materials to delay the tell tale signs of aging. Filling has replaced conventional surgery in facial rejuvenation. In this article, the emphasis will be on hyaluronic acid as this substance is easily available in India and ranks among the most widely used dermal fillers.

  6. Review of soft tissue augmentation in the face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Newman

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available James NewmanFacial Plastic Surgery, Stanford University Medical Center, Palo Alto, CAFacial Plastic Surgery, Stanford University Medical Center, Palo Alto, CA, USAAbstract: A primary pillar of facial rejuvenation is the replacement of soft tissue atrophy via a variety of augmentation techniques. The techniques can be classified into three categories, skeletal onlay grafts, subcutaneous volumizers, and dermal fillers. While onlay grafts and subcutaneous volumizers have the most persistent results, the emergence of improved dermal fillers in the past 5 years has become increasingly popular. An accurate diagnosis of the level(s of soft tissue atrophy in the face needs to be made prior to selection of the category or combination of techniques. In the younger patient, the selection of a dermal filler or combination of fillers can be adequate for treatment. A comparison of the composition and characteristics of the available dermal fillers are discussed in detail to assist the clinician in understanding the actual mechanism of soft tissue augmentation. In the more advanced aging face, a combination of the three categories may be necessary to produce optimal results. Just as dermal fillers have become more differentiated to increase their longevity, the non-injectible long-lasting implants are becoming more developed to mimic accurate viscoelastic properties of the facial soft tissues. All three classes of augmentation techniques can provide patients with very satisfactory results as part of overall facial rejuvenation.Keywords: soft tissue, dermal fillers, facial implants, facial augmentation

  7. Biological augmentation and tissue engineering approaches in meniscus surgery.

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    Moran, Cathal J; Busilacchi, Alberto; Lee, Cassandra A; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A; Verdonk, Peter C

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this review was to evaluate the role of biological augmentation and tissue engineering strategies in meniscus surgery. Although clinical (human), preclinical (animal), and in vitro tissue engineering studies are included here, we have placed additional focus on addressing preclinical and clinical studies reported during the 5-year period used in this review in a systematic fashion while also providing a summary review of some important in vitro tissue engineering findings in the field over the past decade. A search was performed on PubMed for original works published from 2009 to March 31, 2014 using the term "meniscus" with all the following terms: "scaffolds," "constructs," "cells," "growth factors," "implant," "tissue engineering," and "regenerative medicine." Inclusion criteria were the following: English-language articles and original clinical, preclinical (in vivo), and in vitro studies of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine application in knee meniscus lesions published from 2009 to March 31, 2014. Three clinical studies and 18 preclinical studies were identified along with 68 tissue engineering in vitro studies. These reports show the increasing promise of biological augmentation and tissue engineering strategies in meniscus surgery. The role of stem cell and growth factor therapy appears to be particularly useful. A review of in vitro tissue engineering studies found a large number of scaffold types to be of promise for meniscus replacement. Limitations include a relatively low number of clinical or preclinical in vivo studies, in addition to the fact there is as yet no report in the literature of a tissue-engineered meniscus construct used clinically. Neither does the literature provide clarity on the optimal meniscus scaffold type or biological augmentation with which meniscus repair or replacement would be best addressed in the future. There is increasing focus on the role of mechanobiology and biomechanical and

  8. Alveolar ridge augmentation by connective tissue grafting using a pouch method and modified connective tissue technique: A prospective study.

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    Agarwal, Ashish; Gupta, Narinder Dev

    2015-01-01

    Localized alveolar ridge defect may create physiological and pathological problems. Developments in surgical techniques have made it simpler to change the configuration of a ridge to create a more aesthetic and more easily cleansable shape. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of alveolar ridge augmentation using a subepithelial connective tissue graft in pouch and modified connective tissue graft technique. In this randomized, double blind, parallel and prospective study, 40 non-smoker individuals with 40 class III alveolar ridge defects in maxillary anterior were randomly divided in two groups. Group I received modified connective tissue graft, while group II were treated with subepithelial connective tissue graft in pouch technique. The defect size was measured in its horizontal and vertical dimension by utilizing a periodontal probe in a stone cast at base line, after 3 months, and 6 months post surgically. Analysis of variance and Bonferroni post-hoc test were used for statistical analysis. A two-tailed P connective tissue graft proposed significantly more improvement as compare to connective tissue graft in pouch.

  9. Alveolar ridge augmentation by connective tissue grafting using a pouch method and modified connective tissue technique: A prospective study

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    Ashish Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Localized alveolar ridge defect may create physiological and pathological problems. Developments in surgical techniques have made it simpler to change the configuration of a ridge to create a more aesthetic and more easily cleansable shape. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of alveolar ridge augmentation using a subepithelial connective tissue graft in pouch and modified connective tissue graft technique. Materials and Methods: In this randomized, double blind, parallel and prospective study, 40 non-smoker individuals with 40 class III alveolar ridge defects in maxillary anterior were randomly divided in two groups. Group I received modified connective tissue graft, while group II were treated with subepithelial connective tissue graft in pouch technique. The defect size was measured in its horizontal and vertical dimension by utilizing a periodontal probe in a stone cast at base line, after 3 months, and 6 months post surgically. Analysis of variance and Bonferroni post-hoc test were used for statistical analysis. A two-tailed P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Mean values in horizontal width after 6 months were 4.70 ± 0.87 mm, and 4.05 ± 0.89 mm for group I and II, respectively. Regarding vertical heights, obtained mean values were 4.75 ± 0.97 mm and 3.70 ± 0.92 mm for group I and group II, respectively. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, connective tissue graft proposed significantly more improvement as compare to connective tissue graft in pouch.

  10. Soft tissue augmentation techniques and materials used in the oral cavity : an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, J.; Farré-Guasch, E.; Sándor, G.K.; Gibbs, S.; Jager, D.J.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Oral soft tissue augmentation or grafting procedures are often necessary to achieve proper wound closure after deficits resulting from tumor excision, clefts, trauma, dental implants, and tooth recessions. Materials and Methods: Autologous soft tissue grafts still remain the gold standard

  11. Injection resorbable polymer shells for soft tissue augmentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Kersch

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available CSIR researchers have developed an injectable, resorbable soft tissue bulking product that has potential applications in fields ranging from heart and recontructive surgery, to minimally invasive cosmetic surgery. Biomaterials research is very...

  12. Augmentation of Rotator Cuff Repair With Soft Tissue Scaffolds

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    Thangarajah, Tanujan; Pendegrass, Catherine J.; Shahbazi, Shirin; Lambert, Simon; Alexander, Susan; Blunn, Gordon W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Tears of the rotator cuff are one of the most common tendon disorders. Treatment often includes surgical repair, but the rate of failure to gain or maintain healing has been reported to be as high as 94%. This has been substantially attributed to the inadequate capacity of tendon to heal once damaged, particularly to bone at the enthesis. A number of strategies have been developed to improve tendon-bone healing, tendon-tendon healing, and tendon regeneration. Scaffolds have received considerable attention for replacement, reconstruction, or reinforcement of tendon defects but may not possess situation-specific or durable mechanical and biological characteristics. Purpose To provide an overview of the biology of tendon-bone healing and the current scaffolds used to augment rotator cuff repairs. Study Design Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods A preliminary literature search of MEDLINE and Embase databases was performed using the terms rotator cuff scaffolds, rotator cuff augmentation, allografts for rotator cuff repair, xenografts for rotator cuff repair, and synthetic grafts for rotator cuff repair. Results The search identified 438 unique articles. Of these, 214 articles were irrelevant to the topic and were therefore excluded. This left a total of 224 studies that were suitable for analysis. Conclusion A number of novel biomaterials have been developed into biologically and mechanically favorable scaffolds. Few clinical trials have examined their effect on tendon-bone healing in well-designed, long-term follow-up studies with appropriate control groups. While there is still considerable work to be done before scaffolds are introduced into routine clinical practice, there does appear to be a clear indication for their use as an interpositional graft for large and massive retracted rotator cuff tears and when repairing a poor-quality degenerative tendon. PMID:26665095

  13. 2-Dimensional changes of the soft tissue profile of augmented and non-augmented human extraction sockets: a randomized pilot study.

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    Flügge, Tabea; Nelson, Katja; Nack, Claudia; Stricker, Andres; Nahles, Susanne

    2015-04-01

    This study identified the soft tissue changes of the alveolar ridge at different time points within 12 weeks after tooth extraction with and without socket augmentation. In 38 patients with single tooth extractions, 40 sockets were augmented and 39 extraction sockets were not augmented. At 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 weeks impressions were taken and casts digitized with a laser scanner. The horizontal and vertical changes were compared between augmented and non-augmented sites. A p-value sockets were between 0.4 mm (2 weeks) and 0.8 mm (12 weeks). In non-augmented sockets changes of 0.7 mm (2 weeks) and of 1.0 mm (12 weeks) were demonstrated. The mean values differed significantly between the buccal and oral region (p sockets showed less resorption within 4 weeks after extraction compared to non-augmented sockets. Non-augmented sockets showed a continuous dimensional loss with a great variation over 12 weeks whereas augmented sockets had the highest degree of resorption between 4 and 6 weeks. At 12 weeks a comparable resorption in augmented and non-augmented sockets was observed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Soft tissue expansion before vertical ridge augmentation: Inflatable silicone balloons or self-filling osmotic tissue expanders?

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    Prasad Vijayrao Dhadse

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in periodontal plastic surgical procedures allow the clinician to reconstruct deficient alveolar ridges in more predictable ways than previously possible. Placement of implant/s in resorbed ridges poses numerous challenges to the clinician for successful esthetic and functional rehabilitation. The reconstruction frequently utilizes one or combination of periodontal plastic surgical procedures in conjunction with autogenous bone grafting, allogenic bone block grafting, ridge split techniques, distraction osteogenesis, or guided bone regeneration (GBR for most predictable outcomes. Current surgical modalities used in reconstruction of alveolar ridge (horizontal and/or vertical component often involve the need of flap transfer. Moreover, there is compromise in tissue integrity and color match owing to different surgical site and the tissue utilized is insufficient in quantity leading to post surgical graft exposition and/or loss of grafted bone. Soft tissue expansion (STE by implantation of inflatable silicone balloon or self filling osmotic tissue expanders before reconstructive surgery can overcome these disadvantages and certainly holds a promise for effective method for generation of soft tissue thereby achieving predictable augmentation of deficient alveolar ridges for the implant success. This article focuses and compares these distinct tissue expanders for their clinical efficacy of achieving excess tissue that predominantly seems to be prerequisite for ridge augmentation which can be reasonably followed by successful placement of endosseous fixtures.

  15. Soft tissue augmentation in skin of color: market growth, available fillers, and successful techniques.

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    Burgess, Cheryl M

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, people of color have become an increasingly important market force for the cosmetics industry. Product lines have been expanded to accommodate a broader spectrum of skin colors and marketing strategies have been specialized in order to target specific ethnic populations. In addition, it is predicted that people with pigmented skin will eventually comprise a majority of the domestic and international population during the 21st century. Not surprisingly, people of color are increasingly seeking out products and procedures to fight the effects of aging, including an increase in surgical and nonsurgical cosmetic procedures. Among nonsurgical procedures, soft tissue augmentation has experienced dramatic growth. Today, clinicians are performing more and more of these procedures in people of color. As a result of these shifts in the cosmetics industry, clinicians performing soft tissue augmentation require increased expertise in the treatment of ethnic skin. This article reviews the important differences that exist between the appearance of the aging faces of Caucasians and people of color. In addition, soft tissue augmentation strategies and injection techniques that are specific to skin of color are discussed.

  16. Injectable silk-based biomaterials for cervical tissue augmentation: an in vitro study.

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    Brown, Joseph E; Partlow, Benjamin P; Berman, Alison M; House, Michael D; Kaplan, David L

    2016-01-01

    Cerclage therapy is an important treatment option for preterm birth prevention. Several patient populations benefit from cerclage therapy including patients with a classic history of cervical insufficiency; patients who present with advanced cervical dilation prior to viability; and patients with a history of preterm birth and cervical shortening. Although cerclage is an effective treatment option in some patients, it can be associated with limited efficacy and procedure complications. Development of an alternative to cerclage therapy would be an important clinical development. Here we report on an injectable, silk protein-based biomaterial for cervical tissue augmentation. The rationale for the development of an injectable biomaterial is to restore the native properties of cervical tissue. While cerclage provides support to the tissue, it does not address excessive tissue softening, which is a central feature of the pathogenesis of cervical insufficiency. Silk protein-based hydrogels, which are biocompatible and naturally degrade in vivo, are suggested as a platform for restoring the native properties of cervical tissue and improving cervical function. We sought to study the properties of an injectable, silk-based biomaterial for potential use as an alternative treatment for cervical insufficiency. These biomaterials were evaluated for mechanical tunability, biocompatibility, facile injection, and in vitro degradation. Silk protein solutions were cross-linked by an enzyme catalyzed reaction to form elastic biomaterials. Biomaterials were formulated to match the native physical properties of cervical tissue during pregnancy. The cell compatibility of the materials was assessed in vitro using cervical fibroblasts, and biodegradation was evaluated using concentrated protease solution. Tissue augmentation or bulking was demonstrated using human cervical tissue from nonpregnant hysterectomy specimens. Mechanical compression tests measured the tissue stiffness as a

  17. Human Adipose Tissue Derived Extracellular Matrix and Methylcellulose Hydrogels Augments and Regenerates the Paralyzed Vocal Fold.

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    Dong Wook Kim

    Full Text Available Vocal fold paralysis results from various etiologies and can induce voice changes, swallowing complications, and issues with aspiration. Vocal fold paralysis is typically managed using injection laryngoplasty with fat or synthetic polymers. Injection with autologous fat has shown excellent biocompatibility. However, it has several disadvantages such as unpredictable resorption rate, morbidities associated with liposuction procedure which has to be done in operating room under general anesthesia. Human adipose-derived extracellular matrix (ECM grafts have been reported to form new adipose tissue and have greater biostability than autologous fat graft. Here, we present an injectable hydrogel that is constructed from adipose tissue derived soluble extracellular matrix (sECM and methylcellulose (MC for use in vocal fold augmentation. Human sECM derived from adipose tissue was extracted using two major steps-ECM was isolated from human adipose tissue and was subsequently solubilized. Injectable sECM/MC hydrogels were prepared by blending of sECM and MC. Sustained vocal fold augmentation and symmetric vocal fold vibration were accomplished by the sECM/MC hydrogel in paralyzed vocal fold which were confirmed by laryngoscope, histology and a high-speed imaging system. There were increased number of collagen fibers and fatty granules at the injection site without significant inflammation or fibrosis. Overall, these results indicate that the sECM/MC hydrogel can enhance vocal function in paralyzed vocal folds without early resorption and has potential as a promising material for injection laryngoplasty for stable vocal fold augmentation which can overcome the shortcomings of autologous fat such as unpredictable duration and morbidity associated with the fat harvest.

  18. Human Adipose Tissue Derived Extracellular Matrix and Methylcellulose Hydrogels Augments and Regenerates the Paralyzed Vocal Fold.

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    Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Eun Ji; Kim, Eun Na; Sung, Myung Whun; Kwon, Tack-Kyun; Cho, Yong Woo; Kwon, Seong Keun

    2016-01-01

    Vocal fold paralysis results from various etiologies and can induce voice changes, swallowing complications, and issues with aspiration. Vocal fold paralysis is typically managed using injection laryngoplasty with fat or synthetic polymers. Injection with autologous fat has shown excellent biocompatibility. However, it has several disadvantages such as unpredictable resorption rate, morbidities associated with liposuction procedure which has to be done in operating room under general anesthesia. Human adipose-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) grafts have been reported to form new adipose tissue and have greater biostability than autologous fat graft. Here, we present an injectable hydrogel that is constructed from adipose tissue derived soluble extracellular matrix (sECM) and methylcellulose (MC) for use in vocal fold augmentation. Human sECM derived from adipose tissue was extracted using two major steps-ECM was isolated from human adipose tissue and was subsequently solubilized. Injectable sECM/MC hydrogels were prepared by blending of sECM and MC. Sustained vocal fold augmentation and symmetric vocal fold vibration were accomplished by the sECM/MC hydrogel in paralyzed vocal fold which were confirmed by laryngoscope, histology and a high-speed imaging system. There were increased number of collagen fibers and fatty granules at the injection site without significant inflammation or fibrosis. Overall, these results indicate that the sECM/MC hydrogel can enhance vocal function in paralyzed vocal folds without early resorption and has potential as a promising material for injection laryngoplasty for stable vocal fold augmentation which can overcome the shortcomings of autologous fat such as unpredictable duration and morbidity associated with the fat harvest.

  19. Morphological Evaluation of Soft Tissue Augmentation Using Porous Poly-DL-Lactic Acid With Straight Holes.

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    Ken, Yukawa; Noriko, Tachikawa; Furuichi, Akiko; Shohei, Kasugai

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the biological reaction to porous poly-DL-lactic acid (PDLLA) scaffolds with holes for soft tissue augmentation. The control group was porous PDLLA with a diameter of 5.0 mm and a height of 2.0 mm. For the 2 test groups, 7 holes were drilled from the upper to the lower base of the scaffolds; the holes had diameters of 0.5 and 1.0 mm. A scaffold was placed in the periosteum of the cranium. The height and molecular weight (Mw) of the scaffolds were measured at 4 and 8 weeks. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to measure the connective tissue and blood vessel areas. All groups had similar scaffold heights, but the Mw decreased significantly over time. There were significant differences in the connective tissue and blood vessel areas among the control, 0.5-mm, and 1.0-mm groups at the same time point. The soft tissue was increased by drilling holes in the scaffolds. Porous poly-DL-lactic acid (PDLLA) contributed favorable prognosis for soft tissue. A wider hole was associated with increased connective tissue and blood vessel areas. The scaffold height and Mw were not impacted by size of the holes.

  20. Augmentation of limb perfusion and reversal of tissue ischemia produced by ultrasound-mediated microbubble cavitation.

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    Belcik, J Todd; Mott, Brian H; Xie, Aris; Zhao, Yan; Kim, Sajeevani; Lindner, Nathan J; Ammi, Azzdine; Linden, Joel M; Lindner, Jonathan R

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasound can increase tissue blood flow, in part, through the intravascular shear produced by oscillatory pressure fluctuations. We hypothesized that ultrasound-mediated increases in perfusion can be augmented by microbubble contrast agents that undergo ultrasound-mediated cavitation and sought to characterize the biological mediators. Contrast ultrasound perfusion imaging of hindlimb skeletal muscle and femoral artery diameter measurement were performed in nonischemic mice after unilateral 10-minute exposure to intermittent ultrasound alone (mechanical index, 0.6 or 1.3) or ultrasound with lipid microbubbles (2×10(8) IV). Studies were also performed after inhibiting shear- or pressure-dependent vasodilator pathways, and in mice with hindlimb ischemia. Ultrasound alone produced a 2-fold increase (Pultrasound power. Ultrasound-mediated augmentation in flow was greater with microbubbles (3- and 10-fold higher than control for mechanical index 0.6 and 1.3, respectively; Pultrasound and microbubbles by 70% (Pultrasound and ultrasound with microbubbles. In mice with unilateral hindlimb ischemia (40%-50% reduction in flow), ultrasound (mechanical index, 1.3) with microbubbles increased perfusion by 2-fold to a degree that was greater than the control nonischemic limb. Increases in muscle blood flow during high-power ultrasound are markedly amplified by the intravascular presence of microbubbles and can reverse tissue ischemia. These effects are most likely mediated by cavitation-related increases in shear and activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Use of Artelon® Cosmetic in soft tissue augmentation in dentistry

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    Ko YK

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Youngkyung Ko, NamRyang Kim, Seojin Park, Jun-Beom ParkDepartment of Periodontics, Seoul St Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, KoreaBackground: Soft tissue augmentation is a widely used procedure in partially and fully edentulous patients to increase soft tissue volume. Polyurethanes have been used for scaffolds in a variety of implantable devices. Artelon® is a degradable polyurethane that has been manufactured as fibers, films, and porous scaffolds to be used for various purposes. In this review, the characteristics of Artelon are described, and its clinical applications in orthopedics, dermatology, cardiovascular medicine, and dentistry are also discussed.Methods: A Medline (PubMed search was conducted, and articles published in English were included. Keywords, including “Artelon”, “polyurethanes”, “soft tissue augmentation”, “biocompatibility”, “resorption”, “mechanical stability”, and “complications” were used in different combinations. Titles and abstracts were screened, and full text article analyses were performed.Results: Most of the studies reported orthopedic, dermal, and myocardial applications. There were only a few reports related to dental and implant applications. Artelon has been successfully used for reinforcement of soft tissues, including the rotator cuff, Achilles, patellar, biceps, and quadriceps tendons in orthopedic surgery, and is used clinically for the treatment of osteoarthritis in the hand, wrist, and foot. One type of Artelon material, Artelon Cosmetic, has been used in the dental field to increase soft tissue volume, and stable results are achieved for up to 6 months. This material is reported to be easily handled when cut to the desired shape, with little additional time needed for manipulation during surgery, eliminates the need for connective tissue autografts, and thereby decreases patient morbidity and postoperative discomfort, with increased likelihood of a

  2. Use of cross-linked carboxymethyl cellulose for soft-tissue augmentation: preliminary clinical studies

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    Mauro Leonardis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Mauro Leonardis1, Andrea Palange2, Rodrigo FV Dornelles3, Felipe Hund41Department of Plastic Surgery, Salvator Mundi International Hospital, Roma, Italy; 2Department of Aesthetic Medicine, Fisiobios, Roma, Italy; 3Department of Plastic Surgery, Núcleo de Plástica Avançada, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 4Department of Plastic Surgery, Consultorio de Cirurgia Plastica, Criciuma, SC, BrazilPurpose: The continual search for new products for soft-tissue augmentation has in recent years led to the introduction of long lasting alternatives to hyaluronic acids and collagen that are composed of other polymers able to improve clinical persistence over time. This is the first report in which sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC has been chemically treated by the cross-linking process and thus used as a hydrogel for soft-tissue augmentation through injection with thin needles. The study evaluates, from a clinical point of view, the behavior of cross-linked carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogel used in the aesthetic field and its side effects so as to check the safety and performance of the polymer following intradermal injections.Patients and methods: This work shows the preliminary results of an ongoing clinical study conducted between 2006 and 2009, performed on 84 healthy volunteers (62 females, 22 males aged between 18 and 72 years, for the treatment of 168 nasolabial folds, 45 perioral wrinkles, and 39 lip volume.Results: Study results show an excellent correction of facial defects. Tolerance and aesthetic quality of the correction obtained indicate considerable safety features and absence of side effects. From a clinical point of view, hydrogel is gradually absorbed into the injection site without migration issues.Conclusion: Cross-linked CMC hydrogel proves to be an ideal agent for soft tissue augmentation with regard to safety and ease of application. It did not cause infection, extrusion, migration, or adverse reactions in the patients who have been

  3. Soft Tissue Augmentation Techniques in Implants Placed and Provisionalized Immediately: A Systematic Review

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    Rosa Rojo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of techniques for soft tissue augmentation in the placement of immediate implants with and without provisionalization and to assess the quality of the reports in the literature. Randomized clinical trials, prospective clinical trials, and case series were included in this review. Clinical questions were formulated and organised according to the PICOS strategy. An electronic search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus, and ISI Web up until June 2016. Interexaminer agreement on eligibility (k=0.842; p=0.103 and quality (k=0.933; p<0.001 was high. Methodological approaches were assessed using criteria based on design related forms designed by the Dutch Cochrane Collaboration. Finally, 14 papers were identified. In two studies, the implant survival was 90%; for the rest of the studies it was 100%. All studies reported favourable aesthetic, biological, and radiographic outcomes. Surgical and biomechanical complications of this technique were not relevant. This technique effectively compensates for the expected loss of volume of the oral soft tissues and maintains high success rates with good aesthetic results over time.

  4. Impact of timing on soft tissue augmentation during implant treatment: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Lin, Cho-Ying; Chen, Zhaozhao; Pan, Whei-Lin; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2018-05-01

    To achieve a predictable esthetic and functional outcome, soft tissue augmentation has become popular in implant treatment. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the influence of different timing for soft tissue augmentation during implant treatment on soft tissue conditions and its stability. Electronic and manual searches for articles written in English up to September 2017 were performed by two independent reviewers. Human clinical studies with the purpose of evaluating outcomes (at least 3-month follow-up) of autogenous soft tissue graft for augmentation during implant treatment, either simultaneous or after implant placement (staged), were included. Cumulative changes of keratinized tissue width (KTW), soft tissue thickness (STT), and mid-buccal mucosal recession (MR) data were analyzed with a random-effects model to compare the postoperative outcomes. Twenty-nine human studies (eight randomized clinical trials, six cohort studies, and 15 case series) that met the inclusion criteria were included. For the overall data, the weighted mean STT gain (1 year after surgery) was 1.03 mm (95% CI: 0.78-1.29 mm), among which the simultaneous group was 1.12 mm (95% CI: 0.75-1.49 mm) and staged group (3-6 months after implant placement) was 0.95 mm (95% CI: 0.58-1.31 mm). There was no statistically significant difference in KTW and MR between 3 months and more than 3 months after surgery. This review revealed that the stability of soft tissue, in terms of KTW and mid-buccal MR, can be obtained 3 months after surgery. There is no difference between simultaneous and staged soft tissue augmentation during implant treatment, and both procedures significantly enhance KTW and STT. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Alpha-1-antitrypsin augmentation therapy in deficient individuals enrolled in the Alpha-1 Foundation DNA and Tissue Bank

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    Adriano R Tonelli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Adriano R Tonelli1, Farshid Rouhani1, Ning Li2, Pam Schreck1, Mark L Brantly11Alpha-1 Research Program, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USAIntroduction: Intravenous augmentation therapy with purified intravenous alpha-1 antitrypsin replaces the deficient protein and is the only currently approved treatment for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD related lung disease. While augmentation therapy has been available for more than 20 years, there are a limited number of studies evaluating the effect of augmentation on lung function.Material and methods: We examined the decline in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 in patients enrolled in the Alpha-1 Foundation DNA and Tissue Bank in relation to the use or not of alpha-1 antitrypsin augmentation therapy. For the purpose of our analysis we included 164 patients with AATD and PI ZZ genotype.Results: Mean age of the patients was 60 years, 52% were females, 94% were white and 78% ex-smokers. The mean FEV1 at baseline was 1.7 L and the mean FEV1 % of predicted was 51.3%. The mean follow-up time was 41.7 months. A total of 124 (76% patients received augmentation therapy (augmented group while 40 patients (24% did not received it (non-augmented group. When adjusted by age at baseline, sex, smoking status, baseline FEV1 % of predicted, the mean overall change in FEV1 was 47.6 mL/year, favoring the augmented group (?FEV1 10.6 ± 21.4 mL/year in comparison with the non-augmented group (?FEV1 −36.96 ± 12.1 mL/year (P = 0.05. Beneficial ?FEV1 were observed in ex-smokers and the group with initial FEV1 % of predicted of <50%. No differences were observed in mortality.Conclusions: In conclusion, augmentation therapy improves lung function in subjects with AATD when adjusted by age, gender, smoking status and baseline FEV1 % of predicted. The beneficial

  6. Chronic ankle pain and fibrosis successfully treated with a new noninvasive augmented soft tissue mobilization technique (ASTM): a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melham, T J; Sevier, T L; Malnofski, M J; Wilson, J K; Helfst, R H

    1998-06-01

    This clinical case report demonstrates the clinical effectiveness of a new form of soft tissue mobilization in the treatment of excessive connective tissue fibrosis (scar tissue) around an athlete's injured ankle. The scar tissue was causing the athlete to have pain with activity, pain on palpation of the ankle, decreased range of motion, and loss of function. Surgery and several months of conventional physical therapy failed to alleviate the athlete's symptoms. As a final resort, augmented soft tissue mobilization (ASTM) was administered. ASTM is an alternative nonsurgical treatment modality that is being researched at Performance Dynamics (Muncip, IN). ASTM is a process that uses ergonomically designed instruments that assist therapists in the rapid localization and effective treatment of areas exhibiting excessive soft tissue fibrosis. This is followed by a stretching and strengthening program. Upon the completion of 6 wk of ASTM therapy, the athlete had no pain and had regained full range of motion and function. This case report is an example of how a noninvasive augmented form of soft tissue mobilization (ASTM) demonstrated impressive clinical results in treating a condition caused by connective tissue fibrosis.

  7. Consensus recommendations for soft-tissue augmentation with nonanimal stabilized hyaluronic acid (Restylane).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarasso, Seth L; Carruthers, Jean D; Jewell, Mark L

    2006-03-01

    The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery recently reported that there were nearly 12 million cosmetic procedures (2.1 million surgical and 9.7 million nonsurgical) performed in the United States in 2004. Almost 900,000 of the nonsurgical procedures were soft-tissue augmentation procedures using hyaluronic acid fillers. Restylane (Medicis Aesthetics, Inc., Scottsdale, Ariz.), nonanimal stabilized hyaluronic acid, was approved for use in the United States in December of 2003. Although the use of all fillers increased from 2003 to 2004, use of hyaluronic acid fillers increased nearly 700 percent. The dramatic increase in all cosmetic procedures reflects the growing trend, especially with increasing job competition, to maintain a youthful lifestyle and appearance. Basic recommendations for aesthetic use of Restylane were established based on short- and long-term efficacy and safety studies (Medicis Aesthetics, package insert). With the widespread and growing use of Restylane, a cross-sectional panel of experts with extensive clinical experience, including cosmetic dermatologists and surgical specialists (cosmetic, plastic, and ocular), convened to develop consensus guidelines for the use of Restylane. This supplement reviews the aesthetic affects of aging on the face, the role of fillers in facial soft-tissue volume replacement, and general principles for the use of Restylane, including patient comfort and assessment techniques. Specific recommendations for Restylane use in each potential target area, including type of anesthesia, injection techniques, volume for injection, use in combination with other procedures, and expected longevity of corrections, are provided. Techniques for optimizing patient outcomes and satisfaction and for minimizing and managing expected problems and potential complications are described.

  8. Breast Augmentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-04-13

    Apr 13, 1974 ... Complications encountered after breast augmentation are dealt with in .... in Phisohex or other suitable preparation for a few days before surgery ... In all cases, the prosthesis causes a fibrous tissue capsule to form around it.

  9. Tissue engineering for lateral ridge augmentation with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 combination therapy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelaris, George A; Spagnoli, Daniel B; Rosenfeld, Alan L; McKee, James; Lu, Mei

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes a tissue-engineered reconstruction with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2/acellular collagen sponge (rhBMP-2/ ACS) + cancellous allograft and space maintenance via Medpor Contain mesh in the treatment of a patient requiring maxillary and mandibular horizontal ridge augmentation to enable implant placement. The patient underwent a previously unsuccessful corticocancellous bone graft at these sites. Multiple and contiguous sites in the maxilla and in the mandibular anterior, demonstrating advanced lateral ridge deficiencies, were managed using a tissue engineering approach as an alternative to autogenous bone harvesting. Four maxillary and three mandibular implants were placed 9 and 10 months, respectively, after tissue engineering reconstruction, and all were functioning successfully after 24 months of follow-up. Histomorphometric analysis of a bone core obtained at the time of the maxillary implant placement demonstrated a mean of 76.1% new vital bone formation, 22.2% marrow/cells, and 1.7% residual graft tissue. Tissue engineering for lateral ridge augmentation with combination therapy requires further research to determine predictability and limitations.

  10. CO II laser free-form processing of hard tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Martin; Klasing, Manfred; Ivanenko, Mikhail; Harbecke, Daniela; Steigerwald, Hendrik; Hering, Peter

    2007-07-01

    Drilling and surface processing of bone and tooth tissue belongs to standard medical procedures (bores and embeddings for implants, trepanation etc.). Small circular bores can be generally quickly produced with mechanical drills. However problems arise at angled drilling, the need to execute drilling procedures without damaging of sensitive soft tissue structures underneath the bone or the attempt to mill small non-circular cavities in hard tissue with high precision. We present investigations on laser hard tissue "milling", which can be advantageous for solving these problems. The processing of bone is done with a CO II laser (10.6 μm) with pulse durations of 50 - 100 μs, combined with a PC-controlled fast galvanic laser beam scanner and a fine water-spray, which helps keeping the ablation process effective and without thermal side-effects. Laser "milling" of non-circular cavities with 1 - 4 mm width and about 10 mm depth can be especially interesting for dental implantology. In ex-vivo investigations we found conditions for fast laser processing of these cavities without thermal damage and with minimised tapering. It included the exploration of different filling patterns (concentric rings, crosshatch, parallel lines, etc.), definition of maximal pulse duration, repetition rate and laser power, and optimal water spray position. The optimised results give evidence for the applicability of pulsed CO II lasers for biologically tolerable effective processing of deep cavities in hard tissue.

  11. Bibliography on augmentation of convective heat and mass transfer-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergles, A.E.; Nirmalan, V.; Junkhan, G.H.; Webb, R.L.

    1983-12-01

    Heat transfer augmentation has developed into a major specialty area in heat transfer research and development. This report presents and updated bibliography of world literature on augmentation. The literature is classified into passive augmentation techniques, which require no external power, and active techniques, which do require external power. The fifteen techniques are grouped in terms of their applications to the various modes of heat transfer. Mass transfer is included for completeness. Key words are included with each citation for technique/mode identification. The total number of publications cited is 3045, including 135 surveys of various techniques and 86 papers on performance evaluation of passive techniques. Patents are not included, as they are the subject of a separate bibliographic report.

  12. Achieving a predictable 24-hour return to normal activities after breast augmentation: part II. Patient preparation, refined surgical techniques, and instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbetts, John B

    2006-12-01

    The goal of this study was to develop practices that would allow patients undergoing subpectoral augmentation to predictably return to full normal activities within 24 hours after the operation, free of postoperative adjuncts. Part I of this study used motion and time study principles to reduce operative times, medication dosages, perioperative morbidity, and recovery times in augmentation mammaplasty. Part II of the study focuses on details of patient education, preoperative planning, instrumentation, and surgical technique modifications that were identified, modified, and implemented to achieve the results reported in part I. Two groups of 16 patients each (groups 1 and 2) were studied retrospectively for comparison to a third group of 627 patients (group 3) studied prospectively. Patients in group 1 had axillary partial retropectoral breast augmentations in 1982-1983, using dissociative anesthesia, blunt instrument implant pocket dissection, and Dow Corning, double-lumen implants containing 20 mg of methylprednisolone and 20 cc of saline in the outer lumen of the implants. Patients in group 2 (1990) had inframammary, retromammary augmentations by using a combination of blunt and electrocautery dissection, Surgitek Replicon polyurethane-covered, silicone gel-filled implants, and general endotracheal anesthesia. Patients in group 3 (1998 to 2001, n = 627) had inframammary partial retropectoral, inframammary retromammary, and axillary partial retropectoral augmentations under general endotracheal anesthesia. Refined practices and surgical techniques from studies of groups 1 and 2 were applied in group 3. Videotapes from operative procedures of groups 1 and 2 were analyzed with macromotion and micromotion study principles, and tables of events were formulated for each move during the operation for all personnel in the operating room. Extensive details of surgical technique were examined and reexamined in 13 different stages by using principles of motion and time

  13. Control of uncertain systems by feedback linearization with neural networks augmentation. Part II. Controller validation by numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TOADER

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper was conceived in two parts. Part I, previously published in this journal, highlighted the main steps of adaptive output feedback control for non-affine uncertain systems, having a known relative degree. The main paradigm of this approach was the feedback linearization (dynamic inversion with neural network augmentation. Meanwhile, based on new contributions of the authors, a new paradigm, that of robust servomechanism problem solution, has been added to the controller architecture. The current Part II of the paper presents the validation of the controller hereby obtained by using the longitudinal channel of a hovering VTOL-type aircraft as mathematical model.

  14. Bimaxillary protrusion with an atrophic alveolar defect: orthodontics, autogenous chin-block graft, soft tissue augmentation, and an implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Grace S C; Chang, Chris H N; Roberts, W Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Bimaxillary protrusion in a 28-year-old woman was complicated by multiple missing, restoratively compromised, or hopeless teeth. The maxillary right central incisor had a history of avulsion and replantation that subsequently evolved into generalized external root resorption with Class III mobility and severe loss of the supporting periodontium. This complex malocclusion had a discrepancy index of 21, and 8 additional points were scored for the atrophic dental implant site (maxillary right central incisor). The comprehensive treatment plan included extraction of 4 teeth (both maxillary first premolars, the maxillary right central incisor, and the mandibular right first molar), orthodontic closure of all spaces except for the future implant site (maxillary right central incisor), augmentation of the alveolar defect with an autogenous chin-block graft, enhancement of the gingival biotype with a connective tissue graft, and an implant-supported prosthesis. Orthodontists must understand the limitations of bone grafts. Augmented alveolar defects are slow to completely turn over to living bone, so they are usually good sites for implants but respond poorly to orthodontic space closure. However, postsurgical orthodontic treatment is often indicated to optimally finish the esthetic zone before placing the final prosthesis. The latter was effectively performed for this patient, resulting in a total treatment time of about 36 months for comprehensive interdisciplinary care. An excellent functional and esthetic result was achieved. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Augmentation of the hard palate thin masticatory mucosa in the potential connective tissue donor sites using two collagen materials-Clinical and histological comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Wojciech; Kobierzycki, Christopher; Dzięgiel, Piotr; Botzenhart, Ute; Gedrange, Tomasz; Ziętek, Marek

    2016-11-01

    Due to the similarity of keratinized gingival and palatal mucosa the latter can pose as a potential donor site for gingival recession coverage. However, its availability is restricted and a thin transplant bears the risk of being rejected. The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical and histological results of thin palatal mucosa augmentation, using lyophilized Biokol ® xenogenous collagen sponge and a suspension of xenogenous Gel 0 ® pure collagen with non-augmented tissue from the same patients. Ten patients simultaneously underwent bilateral augmentation procedures using Biokol ® and Gel 0 ® collagen material. The donor sites were augmented 8 weeks prior to the harvesting of the connective tissue graft (CTG) for the gingival recession coverage procedures. Prior to the implantation of the collagen material and during the course of harvesting the augmented CTG, tissue specimens were taken for histological examination. Prior to the commencement of the study and after it, the parameters of palatal gingival thickness at 4mm (PGT1), and at 8mm apical to the gingival margin (PGT2) around the teeth neighboring the operating fields were determined. In both groups the palatal mucosa had thickened significantly in both measuring sites. An intergroup comparison revealed greater thickening of the masticatory mucosa in the Biokol ® group at both measuring points. The histological image of the grafts, obtained from sites augmented using both test methods, revealed a typical pattern of mature fibrous connective tissue. No epithelial cells were found. Augmentation of thin masticatory mucosa using Biokol ® or Gel 0 ® collagen materials resulted in a significant thickening of the mucosa, which could be demonstrated to be greater in the first group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Biomechanical and histological effects of augmented soft tissue mobilization therapy on achilles tendinopathy in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Kan; Ikoma, Kazuya; Chen, Qingshan; Zhao, Chunfeng; An, Kai-Nan; Gay, Ralph E

    2015-02-01

    Augmented soft tissue mobilization (ASTM) has been used to treat Achilles tendinopathy and is thought to promote collagen fiber realignment and hasten tendon regeneration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical and histological effects of ASTM therapy on rabbit Achilles tendons after enzymatically induced injury. This study was a non-human bench controlled research study using a rabbit model. Both Achilles tendons of 12 rabbits were injected with collagenase to produce tendon injury simulating Achilles tendinopathy. One side was then randomly allocated to receive ASTM, while the other received no treatment (control). ASTM was performed on the Achilles tendon on postoperative days 21, 24, 28, 31, 35, and 38. Tendons were harvested 10 days after treatment and examined with dynamic viscoelasticity and light microscopy. Cross-sectional area in the treated tendons was significantly greater than in controls. Storage modulus tended to be lower in the treated tendons but elasticity was not significantly increased. Loss modulus was significantly lower in the treated tendons. There was no significant difference found in tangent delta (loss modulus/storage modulus). Microscopy of control tendons showed that the tendon fibers were wavy and type III collagen was well stained. The tendon fibers of the augmented soft tissue mobilization treated tendons were not wavy and type III collagen was not prevalent. Biomechanical and histological findings showed that the Achilles tendons treated with ASTM had better recovery of biomechanical function than did control tendons. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimisation of ported yield of hemispherical ported microparticles for soft tissue augmentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barnard, A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available degradation period and biocompatibility. Micro-porous particles are useful in soft-tissue bulking due to their relatively large surface area, low density and high degree of porosity. In this study, the authors have developed ported porous PCL particles...

  18. Strontium eluting graphene hybrid nanoparticles augment osteogenesis in a 3D tissue scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sachin; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to prepare hybrid nanoparticles of graphene sheets decorated with strontium metallic nanoparticles and demonstrate their advantages in bone tissue engineering. Strontium-decorated reduced graphene oxide (RGO_Sr) hybrid nanoparticles were synthesized by the facile reduction of graphene oxide and strontium nitrate. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy revealed that the hybrid particles were composed of RGO sheets decorated with 200-300 nm metallic strontium particles. Thermal gravimetric analysis further confirmed the composition of the hybrid particles as 22 wt% of strontium. Macroporous tissue scaffolds were prepared by incorporating RGO_Sr particles in poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL). The PCL/RGO_Sr scaffolds were found to elute strontium ions in aqueous medium. Osteoblast proliferation and differentiation was significantly higher in the PCL scaffolds containing the RGO_Sr particles in contrast to neat PCL and PCL/RGO scaffolds. The increased biological activity can be attributed to the release of strontium ions from the hybrid nanoparticles. This study demonstrates that composites prepared using hybrid nanoparticles that elute strontium ions can be used to prepare multifunctional scaffolds with good mechanical and osteoinductive properties. These findings have important implications for designing the next generation of biomaterials for use in tissue regeneration.The objective of this work was to prepare hybrid nanoparticles of graphene sheets decorated with strontium metallic nanoparticles and demonstrate their advantages in bone tissue engineering. Strontium-decorated reduced graphene oxide (RGO_Sr) hybrid nanoparticles were synthesized by the facile reduction of graphene oxide and strontium nitrate. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy revealed that the hybrid particles were composed of RGO sheets decorated with 200-300 nm metallic strontium

  19. Co-administration of creatine and guanidinoacetic acid for augmented tissue bioenergetics: A novel approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojic, Sergej M

    2017-07-01

    A confined absorption of exogenous creatine through creatine transporter (CRT1) seems to hamper its optimal uptake in bioenergetical deficits. Co-administration of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) along with creatine could target other transport channels besides CRT1, and supremely improve cellular levels of creatine. This innovative approach might tackle tissues difficult to reach with conventional creatine interventions, providing a potentially more effective and safe mixture in clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Hyaluronic acid fillers with cohesive polydensified matrix for soft-tissue augmentation and rejuvenation: a literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Adri D; Prager, Welf; Rubin, Mark G; Moretti, Ernesto A; Nikolis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background Cohesive monophasic polydensified fillers show unique viscoelastic properties and variable density of hyaluronic acid, allowing for a homogeneous tissue integration and distribution of the material. Objective The aim of this paper was to review the clinical data regarding the performance, tolerability, and safety of the Belotero® fillers for soft-tissue augmentation and rejuvenation. Methods A literature search was performed up until May 31, 2015 to identify all relevant articles on Belotero® fillers (Basic/Balance, Hydro, Soft, Intense, Volume) and equivalent products (Esthélis®, Mesolis®, Fortélis®, Modélis®). Results This comprehensive review included 26 papers. Findings from three randomized controlled trials showed a greater reduction in nasolabial fold severity with Belotero® Basic/Balance than with collagen (at 8, 12, 16, and 24 weeks, n=118) and Restylane® (at 4 weeks, n=40), and higher patient satisfaction with Belotero® Intense than with Perlane® (at 2 weeks, n=20). With Belotero® Basic/Balance, an improvement of at least 1 point on the severity scale can be expected in ~80% of patients 1–6 months after injection, with an effect still visible at 8–12 months. Positive findings were also reported with Belotero® Volume (no reduction in hyaluronic acid volume at 12 months, as demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging), Soft (improvement in the esthetic outcomes when used in a sequential approach), and Hydro (improvement in skin appearance in all patients). The most common adverse effects were mild-to-moderate erythema, edema, and hematoma, most of which were temporary. There were no reports of Tyndall effect, nodules, granulomas, or tissue necrosis. Conclusion Clinical evidence indicates sustainable esthetic effects, good safety profile, and long-term tolerability of the Belotero® fillers, particularly Belotero® Basic/Balance and Intense. PMID:27660479

  1. Experimental Models Used in Fat Grafting Research for Volume Augmentation in Soft Tissue Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Lujan-Hernandez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As the popularity of fat grafting research increases, animal models are being used as the source of pre-clinical experimental information for discovery and to enhance techniques. To date, animal models used in this research have not been compared to provide a standardized model. We analyzed publications from 1968–2015 to compare published accounts of animal models in fat grafting research. Data collected included: species used, graft characteristics (donor tissue, recipient area, amount injected, injection technique, time of sacrifice and quantification methods. Mice were most commonly used (56% of studies, with the “athymic nude” strain utilized most frequently (44%. Autologous fat was the most common source of grafted tissue (52%. Subcutaneous dorsum was the most common recipient site (51%. On average, 0.80±0.60 mL of fat was grafted. A single bolus technique was used in 57% of studies. Fat volume assessment was typically completed at the end of the study, occurring at less than 1 week to one year. Graft volume was quantified by weight (63%, usually in conjunction with another analysis. The results demonstrate the current heterogeneity of animal models in this research. We propose that the research community reach a consensus to allow better comparison of techniques and results. One example is the model used in our laboratory and others; this model is described in detail. Eventually, larger animal models may better translate to the human condition but, given increased financial costs and animal facility capability, should be explored when data obtained from small animal studies is exhausted or inconclusive.

  2. Mean Field Type Control with Congestion (II): An Augmented Lagrangian Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achdou, Yves, E-mail: achdou@ljll.univ-paris-diderot.fr; Laurière, Mathieu [Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, UMR 7598, UPMC, CNRS (France)

    2016-12-15

    This work deals with a numerical method for solving a mean-field type control problem with congestion. It is the continuation of an article by the same authors, in which suitably defined weak solutions of the system of partial differential equations arising from the model were discussed and existence and uniqueness were proved. Here, the focus is put on numerical methods: a monotone finite difference scheme is proposed and shown to have a variational interpretation. Then an Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers for solving the variational problem is addressed. It is based on an augmented Lagrangian. Two kinds of boundary conditions are considered: periodic conditions and more realistic boundary conditions associated to state constrained problems. Various test cases and numerical results are presented.

  3. Hyaluronic acid fillers with cohesive polydensified matrix for soft-tissue augmentation and rejuvenation: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasetyo AD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adri D Prasetyo,1 Welf Prager,2 Mark G Rubin,3 Ernesto A Moretti,4 Andreas Nikolis5 1Rejuva Skin & Beauty, Surabaya, Indonesia; 2Prager & Partner, Hamburg, Germany; 3University of California, San Diego, CA, USA; 4Gamma Health Group, Sanatorio Los Arroyos, Santa Fe, Republic of Argentina; 5Victoria Park Clinical Research Centre, Westmount, QC, Canada Background: Cohesive monophasic polydensified fillers show unique viscoelastic properties and variable density of hyaluronic acid, allowing for a homogeneous tissue integration and distribution of the material.Objective: The aim of this paper was to review the clinical data regarding the performance, tolerability, and safety of the Belotero® fillers for soft-tissue augmentation and rejuvenation.Methods: A literature search was performed up until May 31, 2015 to identify all relevant articles on Belotero® fillers (Basic/Balance, Hydro, Soft, Intense, Volume and equivalent products (Esthélis®, Mesolis®, Fortélis®, Modélis®.Results: This comprehensive review included 26 papers. Findings from three randomized controlled trials showed a greater reduction in nasolabial fold severity with Belotero® Basic/Balance than with collagen (at 8, 12, 16, and 24 weeks, n=118 and Restylane® (at 4 weeks, n=40, and higher patient satisfaction with Belotero® Intense than with Perlane® (at 2 weeks, n=20. With Belotero® Basic/Balance, an improvement of at least 1 point on the severity scale can be expected in ~80% of patients 1–6 months after injection, with an effect still visible at 8–12 months. Positive findings were also reported with Belotero® Volume (no reduction in hyaluronic acid volume at 12 months, as demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging, Soft (improvement in the esthetic outcomes when used in a sequential approach, and Hydro (improvement in skin appearance in all patients. The most common adverse effects were mild-to-moderate erythema, edema, and hematoma, most of which were

  4. Interdisciplinary approach to enhance the esthetics of maxillary anterior region using soft- and hard-tissue ridge augmentation in conjunction with a fixed partial prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetarpal, Shaleen; Chouksey, Ajay; Bele, Anand; Vishnoi, Rahul

    2018-01-01

    Favorable esthetics is one of the most important treatment outcomes in dentistry, and to achieve this, interdisciplinary approaches are often required. Ridge deficiencies can be corrected for both, soft- and hard-tissue discrepancies. To overcome such defects, not only a variety of prosthetic options are at our disposal but also several periodontal plastic surgical techniques are available as well. Various techniques have been described and revised, over the year to correct ridge defects. For enhancing soft-tissue contours in the anterior region, the subepithelial connective tissue graft is the treatment of choice. A combination of alloplastic bone graft in adjunct to connective tissue graft optimizes ridge augmentation and minimizes defects. The present case report describes the use of vascular interpositional connective tissue graft in combination with alloplastic bone graft for correction of Seibert's Class III ridge deficiency followed by a fixed partial prosthesis to achieve a better esthetic outcome.

  5. Interdisciplinary approach to enhance the esthetics of maxillary anterior region using soft- and hard-tissue ridge augmentation in conjunction with a fixed partial prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaleen Khetarpal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Favorable esthetics is one of the most important treatment outcomes in dentistry, and to achieve this, interdisciplinary approaches are often required. Ridge deficiencies can be corrected for both, soft- and hard-tissue discrepancies. To overcome such defects, not only a variety of prosthetic options are at our disposal but also several periodontal plastic surgical techniques are available as well. Various techniques have been described and revised, over the year to correct ridge defects. For enhancing soft-tissue contours in the anterior region, the subepithelial connective tissue graft is the treatment of choice. A combination of alloplastic bone graft in adjunct to connective tissue graft optimizes ridge augmentation and minimizes defects. The present case report describes the use of vascular interpositional connective tissue graft in combination with alloplastic bone graft for correction of Seibert's Class III ridge deficiency followed by a fixed partial prosthesis to achieve a better esthetic outcome.

  6. Effect of supramolecular organization of a cartilaginous tissue on thermal stability of collagen II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat'eva, N. Yu.; Averkiev, S. V.; Lunin, V. V.; Grokhovskaya, T. E.; Obrezkova, M. V.

    2006-08-01

    The thermal stability of collagen II in various cartilaginous tissues was studied. It was found that heating a tissue of nucleus pulposus results in collagen II melting within a temperature range of 60-70°C; an intact tissue of hyaline cartilage (of nasal septum and cartilage endplates) is a thermally stable system, where collagen II is not denatured completely up to 100°C. It was found that partial destruction of glycosaminoglycans in hyaline cartilage leads to an increase in the degree of denaturation of collagen II upon heating, although a significant fraction remains unchanged. It was shown that electrostatic interactions of proteoglycans and collagen only slightly affect the thermal stability of collagen II in the tissues. Evidently, proteoglycan aggregates play a key role: they create topological hindrances for moving polypeptide chains, thereby reducing the configurational entropy of collagen macromolecules in the state of a random coil.

  7. Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitute leads to sufficient bone tissue formation already after 3 months: histological and histomorphometrical analysis 3 and 6 months following human sinus cavity augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanaati, Shahram; Barbeck, Mike; Willershausen, Ines; Thimm, Benjamin; Stuebinger, Stefan; Korzinskas, Tadas; Obreja, Karina; Landes, Constantin; Kirkpatrick, Charles J; Sader, Robert A

    2013-12-01

    In this study the de novo bone formation capacity of a nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitute was assessed 3 and 6 months after its insertion into the human sinus cavity. Sinus cavity augmentation was performed in a total of 14 patients (n = 7 implantation after 3 months; n = 7 implantation after 6 months) with severely atrophic maxillary bone. The specimens obtained after 3 and 6 months were analyzed histologically and histomorphometrically with special focus on bone metabolism within the residual bone and the augmented region. This study revealed that bone tissue formation started from the bone-biomaterial-interface and was directed into the most cranial parts of the augmented region. There was no statistically significant difference in new bone formation after 3 and 6 months (24.89 ± 10.22% vs 31.29 ± 2.29%), respectively. Within the limits of the present study and according to previously published data, implant insertion in regions augmented with this bone substitute material could be considered already after 3 months. Further clinical studies with bone substitute materials are necessary to validate these findings. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Safety of radiofrequency treatment over human skin previously injected with medium-term injectable soft-tissue augmentation materials: a controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Murad; Levy, Ross; Pajvani, Urvi; Pavjani, Urvi; Ramierez, James A; Guitart, Joan; Veen, Heather; Gladstone, Hayes B

    2006-03-01

    Several soft-tissue augmentation materials are now available for reduction of nasolabial fold creases and perioral rhytides. Nasolabial folds and perioral rhytides can also be improved by skin tightening delivered by non-ablative radiofrequency (RF) treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety of RF treatment over skin areas recently injected with medium-term injectable soft-tissue augmentation materials. Five subjects were assigned to the experimental arm (augmentation materials plus RF) and one to the control arm (augmentation materials alone). Each subject received injections of 0.3 mL of hyaluronic acid derivative (Restylane) and calcium hydroxylapatite (Radiesse) 3 cm apart on the upper inner arm. Two weeks later, two non-overlapping passes of RF (Thermage ThermaCool TC) were delivered at 63.5 setting with medium-fast 1.5 cm2 tip over injected sites in all of the experimental subjects. Punch skin biopsies were obtained 3 days later from each of the two injection sites on each subject. Light microscopy and digital photomicrographs obtained at low, medium, and high power showed no difference between filler materials in experimental and control subjects. In both cases filler was evident at the deep dermal-subcutaneous junction. Nodule formation, foreign body extravasation, or hemorrhage/clot was not observed grossly or histologically. Subjects and physicians did not report any difference in signs and symptoms between the experimental and control arms. Slightly increased transitory pain was noted when RF was delivered over filler versus over normal skin. Applying RF treatment over the same area 2 weeks after deep dermal injection with hyaluronic acid derivatives or calcium hydroxylapatite does not appear to cause gross morphological changes in the filler material or surrounding skin. Further studies with different parameters are necessary to confirm these findings. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morrissey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In vivo gene therapy directed at tissues of mesenchymal origin could potentially augment healing. We aimed to assess the duration and magnitude of transene expression in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human tissues. Methods. Using bioluminescence imaging, plasmid and adenoviral vector-based transgene expression in murine quadriceps in vivo was examined. Temporal control was assessed using a doxycycline-inducible system. An ex vivo model was developed and optimised using murine tissue, and applied in ex vivo human tissue. Results. In vivo plasmid-based transgene expression did not silence in murine muscle, unlike in liver. Although maximum luciferase expression was higher in muscle with adenoviral delivery compared with plasmid, expression reduced over time. The inducible promoter cassette successfully regulated gene expression with maximum levels a factor of 11 greater than baseline. Expression was re-induced to a similar level on a temporal basis. Luciferase expression was readily detected ex vivo in human muscle and tendon. Conclusions. Plasmid constructs resulted in long-term in vivo gene expression in skeletal muscle, in a controllable fashion utilising an inducible promoter in combination with oral agents. Successful plasmid gene transfection in human ex vivo mesenchymal tissue was demonstrated for the first time.

  10. Bones - joints - soft tissues II. 7. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dihlmann, W.; Frommhold, W.

    1991-01-01

    With the publication of the 2nd part to Volume VI, 'Bones - joints - soft tissues', the 7th edition of 'Diagnostic radiology in the hospital and medical practice' is complete. The advances made particularly during the past decade in the field of diagnostic radiology have made it neccesary for all the individual sections to be completely revised. Recently developed methods of imaging like sonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance tomography are increasingly used as a replacement for or, at least, an adjunct to conventional X-ray procedures. Owing to the development and continuous refinement of related methods of intervention the gap between mere diagnostic applications and therapeutic uses of radiology could eventually be closed. The issues mainly discussed in this volume are bone fractures and healing, bone transplantation, osteopathy and osteoarthropathy, fibrous dyplasia or Albright's disease, Pagetoid osteitis, genetically transmitted constitutional disorders of the skeleton and soft tissue changes. While in the key sections on bone fractures and healing, osteopathy and osteoarthropathy as well as constitutional genetic disorders X-ray techniques are still described as the prevailing method of diagnosis, diseases of soft tissues now are much more commonly diagnosed using magnetic resonance imaging. (orig./MG) With 2248 figs., 59 tabs [de

  11. Tissue glycogen and blood glucose in irradiated rats. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlersova, E.; Ahlers, I.; Praslicka, M.

    1980-01-01

    Male rats of the Wistar strain were continuously irradiated with 0.57 Gy (60 R) of gamma rays from a 60 Co source. Irradiation lasted from 1 to 50 days in an experimental field where also control animals shielded from radiation were placed. After a 16 h starvation, the concentration of glucose in the blood and of glycogen in the liver and the heart was determined 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 25, 32, 39 and 50 days after the beginning of irradiation. The concentration of blood glucose in irradiated rats did not practically differ from that of control animals during the whole period of investigation. The concentration of liver glycogen in irradiated animals was higher than that in the controls during all time intervals, except for day 1. The values of glycogen in the heart muscle were approximately identical in the irradiated and control rats, except for day 21 when they sharply increased in the irradiated animals. In addition to the investigation of blood glucose and tissue glycogen during continuous irradiation, these parameters were studied immediately, and 1, 6 and 12 months after continuous irradiation with a daily exposure of 0.57 Gy (60 R) up to a total exposure of 14.35 Gy (1500 R) of gamma rays. Considerably higher values of liver glycogen were detected in the irradiated rats immediately, and 1 and 6 months after the end of irradiation. (author)

  12. β class II tubulin predominates in normal and tumor breast tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozier, James H; Hiser, Laree; Davis, Jennifer A; Thomas, Nancy Stubbs; Tucci, Michelle A; Benghuzzi, Hamed A; Frankfurter, Anthony; Correia, John J; Lobert, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    Antimitotic chemotherapeutic agents target tubulin, the major protein in mitotic spindles. Tubulin isotype composition is thought to be both diagnostic of tumor progression and a determinant of the cellular response to chemotherapy. This implies that there is a difference in isotype composition between normal and tumor tissues. To determine whether such a difference occurs in breast tissues, total tubulin was fractionated from lysates of paired normal and tumor breast tissues, and the amounts of β-tubulin classes I + IV, II, and III were measured by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only primary tumor tissues, before chemotherapy, were examined. Her2/neu protein amplification occurs in about 30% of breast tumors and is considered a marker for poor prognosis. To gain insight into whether tubulin isotype levels might be correlated with prognosis, ELISAs were used to quantify Her2/neu protein levels in these tissues. β-Tubulin isotype distributions in normal and tumor breast tissues were similar. The most abundant β-tubulin isotypes in these tissues were β-tubulin classes II and I + IV. Her2/neu levels in tumor tissues were 5–30-fold those in normal tissues, although there was no correlation between the Her2/neu biomarker and tubulin isotype levels. These results suggest that tubulin isotype levels, alone or in combination with Her2/neu protein levels, might not be diagnostic of tumorigenesis in breast cancer. However, the presence of a broad distribution of these tubulin isotypes (for example, 40–75% β-tubulin class II) in breast tissue, in conjunction with other factors, might still be relevant to disease progression and cellular response to antimitotic drugs

  13. Overexpressed connective tissue growth factor in cardiomyocytes attenuates left ventricular remodeling induced by angiotensin II perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Yan, Hua; Guang, Gong-Chang; Deng, Zheng-Rong

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the improving effects of specifically overexpressed connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in cardiomyocytes on mice with hypertension induced by angiotensin II (AngII) perfusion, 24 transgenic mice with cardiac-restricted overexpression of CTGF (Tg-CTGF) were divided into two equal groups that were perfused with acetic acid and AngII, respectively, for 7 days. Another 24 cage-control wild-type C57BL/6 mice (NLC) were divided and treated identically. Blood pressure was detected by caudal artery cannulation. Cardiac structural and functional changes were observed by echocardiography. Cardiac fibrosis was detected by Masson staining. After AngII perfusion, blood pressures of NLC and Tg-CTGF mice, especially those of the formers, significantly increased. Compared with NLC + AngII group, Tg-CTGF + AngII group had significantly lower left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end-diastole and left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end-systole as well as significantly higher left ventricular end-systolic diameter and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (P tissues (P < 0.05). Tg-CTGF can protect AngII-induced cardiac remodeling of mice with hypertension by mitigating inflammatory response. CTGF may be a therapy target for hypertension-induced myocardial fibrosis, but the detailed mechanism still needs in-depth studies.

  14. Augmented postcard

    OpenAIRE

    Bernik , Aleš

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the examination of augmented reality technology, which allows us mixing real and virtual elements. Augmented reality is a relatively new technology which is becoming more widespread, thanks to a fairly reasonable price of smart phones. Here we presents the types of augmented reality, the necessary technology and their advantages and disadvantages, its current use in applications, and software for building augmented reality applications. The thesis is mainly focuse...

  15. Casein kinase II is elevated in solid human tumours and rapidly proliferating non-neoplastic tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münstermann, U; Fritz, G; Seitz, G

    1990-01-01

    Protein kinase CKII (i.e. casein kinase II, CKII, NII) is expressed at a higher level in rapidly proliferating tissues and in solid human tumours (e.g. colorectal carcinomas) when compared to the corresponding non-neoplastic colorectal mucosa. This could be shown by (a) Western blotting of cellular...

  16. Bones - joints - soft tissues II. 7. rev. ed. Knochen - Gelenke - Weichteile II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dihlmann, W. (Roentgeninstitut, Allgemeines Krankenhaus Barmbek, Hamburg (Germany)); Frommhold, W. (Radiologische Klinik, Tuebingen Univ. (Germany)) (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    With the publication of the 2nd part to Volume VI, 'Bones - joints - soft tissues', the 7th edition of 'Diagnostic radiology in the hospital and medical practice' is complete. The advances made particularly during the past decade in the field of diagnostic radiology have made it neccesary for all the individual sections to be completely revised. Recently developed methods of imaging like sonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance tomography are increasingly used as a replacement for or, at least, an adjunct to conventional X-ray procedures. Owing to the development and continuous refinement of related methods of intervention the gap between mere diagnostic applications and therapeutic uses of radiology could eventually be closed. The issues mainly discussed in this volume are bone fractures and healing, bone transplantation, osteopathy and osteoarthropathy, fibrous dyplasia or Albright's disease, Pagetoid osteitis, genetically transmitted constitutional disorders of the skeleton and soft tissue changes. While in the key sections on bone fractures and healing, osteopathy and osteoarthropathy as well as constitutional genetic disorders X-ray techniques are still described as the prevailing method of diagnosis, diseases of soft tissues now are much more commonly diagnosed using magnetic resonance imaging. (orig./MG) With 2248 figs., 59 tabs.

  17. Influence of collagen type II and nucleus pulposus cells on aggregation and differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Z.F.; Zandieh Doulabi, B.; Wuisman, P.I.; Bank, R.A.; Helder, M.N.

    2008-01-01

    Tissue microenvironment plays a critical role in guiding local stem cell differentiation. Within the intervertebral disc, collagen type II and nucleus pulposus (NP) cells are two major components. This study aimed to investigate how collagen type II and NP cells affect adipose tissue-derived stem

  18. Predictors of favorable soft tissue profile outcomes following Class II Twin-block treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Mah, Su-Jung; Kim, Tae-Woo; Kim, Su-Jung; Park, Ki-Ho; Kang, Yoon-Goo

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine cephalometric factors that help predict favorable soft-tissue profile outcomes following treatment with the Class II Twin-block appliance. Pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalograms of 45 patients treated with the Class II Twin-block appliance were retrospectively analyzed. Profile silhouettes were drawn from the cephalograms and evaluated by three orthodontists in order to determine the extent of improvement. Samples were divided into a favorable group (upper 30% of visual analogue scale [VAS] scores, n = 14) and an unfavorable group (lower 30% of VAS scores, n = 14). Skeletal and soft-tissue measurements were performed on the cephalograms and an intergroup comparison was conducted. An independent t -test revealed that the following pre-treatment values were lower in the favorable group compared to the unfavorable group: lower incisor to mandibular plane angle, lower incisor to pogonion distance, point A-nasion-point B angle, sella-nasion line (SN) to maxillary plane angle, SN to mandibular plane angle, gonial angle, and symphysis inclination. The favorable group had a larger incisor inclination to occlusal plane. Moreover, the favorable group showed larger post-treatment changes in gonial angle, B point projection, and pogonion projection than did the unfavorable group. Class II malocclusion patients with a low divergent skeletal pattern and reduced lower incisor protrusions are likely to show more improvement in soft-tissue profile outcomes following Class II Twin-block treatment.

  19. Overexpression of the human angiotensin II type 1 receptor in the rat heart augments load induced cardiac hypertrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, S.; Krause, T.; van Geel, P. P.; Willenbrock, R.; Pagel, I.; Pinto, Y. M.; Buikema, H.; van Gilst, W. H.; Lindschau, C.; Paul, M.; Inagami, T.; Ganten, D.; Urata, H.

    2001-01-01

    Angiotensin II is known to stimulate cardiac hypertrophy and contractility. Most angiotensin II effects are mediated via membrane bound AT1 receptors. However, the role of myocardial AT1 receptors in cardiac hypertrophy and contractility is still rarely defined. To address the hypothesis that

  20. Overexpression of the human angiotensin II type 1 receptor in the rat heart augments load induced cardiac hypertrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, S; van Geel, PP; Willenbrock, R; Pagel, [No Value; Pinto, YM; Buikema, H; van Gilst, WH; Lindschau, C; Paul, M; Inagami, T; Ganten, D; Urata, H

    2001-01-01

    Angiotensin II is known to stimulate cardiac hypertrophy and contractility. Most angiotensin II effects are mediated via membrane bound AT(1) receptors. However, the role of myocardial AT(1) receptors in cardiac hypertrophy and contractility is still rarely defined. To address the hypothesis that

  1. Extensive scarring induced by chronic intrathecal tubing augmented cord tissue damage and worsened functional recovery after rat spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-xin; Huang, Fengfa; Gates, Mary; White, Jason; Holmberg, Eric G

    2010-08-30

    Intrathecal infusion has been widely used to directly deliver drugs or neurotrophins to a lesion site following spinal cord injury. Evidence shows that intrathecal infusion is efficient for 7 days but is markedly reduced after 14 days, due to time dependent occlusion. In addition, extensive fibrotic scarring is commonly observed with intrathecal infusion. These anomalies need to be clearly elucidated in histology. In the present study, all adult Long-Evans rats received a 25 mm contusion injury on spinal cord T10 produced using the NYU impactor device. Immediately after injury, catheter tubing with an outer diameter of 0.38 mm was inserted through a small dural opening at L3 into the subdural space with the tubing tip positioned near the injury site. The tubing was connected to an Alzet mini pump, which was filled with saline solution and was placed subcutaneously. Injured rats without tubing served as control. Rats were behaviorally tested for 6 weeks using the BBB locomotor rating scale and histologically assessed for tissue scarring. Six weeks later, we found that the intrathecal tubing caused extensive scarring and inflammation, related to neutrophils, macrophages and plasma cells. The tubing's tip was occluded by scar tissue and inflammatory cells. The scar tissue surrounding the tubing consists of 20-70 layers of fibroblasts and densely compacted collagen fibers, seriously compressing and damaging the cord tissue. BBB scores of rats with intrathecal tubing were significantly lower than control rats (p<0.01) from 2 weeks after injury, implying serious impairment of functional recovery caused by the scarring. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Immunobiotic Lactobacillus strains augment NLRP3 expression in newborn and adult porcine gut-associated lymphoid tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohno, Masanori; Shimosato, Takeshi; Aso, Hisashi; Kitazawa, Haruki

    2011-12-15

    We isolated cDNA encoding porcine nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor family, pryin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) from Peyer's patches. The complete nucleotide open reading frame of porcine NLRP3 contains 3108-bp encoding a deduced polypeptide of 1036-amino acid residues. The porcine NLRP3 amino acid sequence is more similar to the longest isoform of human than the mouse counterpart. The predicted amino acid sequence of porcine NLRP3 presented nine C-terminal leucine-rich repeat domains. In newborn swine, the expression of NLRP3 was detected at higher levels in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes, while lower levels were observed in intestinal tissues. In adult swine, NLRP3 was strongly expressed in Peyer's patches and the mesenteric lymph nodes, and the expression level in the lower intestinal tissues was comparable to that in spleen. Toll-like receptor and nucleotide-binding domain ligands, as well as Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus gasseri, enhanced NLRP3 expression in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) of newborn and adult swine. Our results should aid in understanding the intestinal immunoregulatory mechanisms underlying NLRP3 activation and the priming ability of immunobiotic lactic acid bacteria in porcine GALT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Chymase-dependent generation of angiotensin II from angiotensin-(1-12 in human atrial tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarfaraz Ahmad

    Full Text Available Since angiotensin-(1-12 [Ang-(1-12] is a non-renin dependent alternate precursor for the generation of cardiac Ang peptides in rat tissue, we investigated the metabolism of Ang-(1-12 by plasma membranes (PM isolated from human atrial appendage tissue from nine patients undergoing cardiac surgery for primary control of atrial fibrillation (MAZE surgical procedure. PM was incubated with highly purified ¹²⁵I-Ang-(1-12 at 37°C for 1 h with or without renin-angiotensin system (RAS inhibitors [lisinopril for angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, SCH39370 for neprilysin (NEP, MLN-4760 for ACE2 and chymostatin for chymase; 50 µM each]. ¹²⁵I-Ang peptide fractions were identified by HPLC coupled to an inline γ-detector. In the absence of all RAS inhibitor, ¹²⁵I-Ang-(1-12 was converted into Ang I (2±2%, Ang II (69±21%, Ang-(1-7 (5±2%, and Ang-(1-4 (2±1%. In the absence of all RAS inhibitor, only 22±10% of ¹²⁵I-Ang-(1-12 was unmetabolized, whereas, in the presence of the all RAS inhibitors, 98±7% of ¹²⁵I-Ang-(1-12 remained intact. The relative contribution of selective inhibition of ACE and chymase enzyme showed that ¹²⁵I-Ang-(1-12 was primarily converted into Ang II (65±18% by chymase while its hydrolysis into Ang II by ACE was significantly lower or undetectable. The activity of individual enzyme was calculated based on the amount of Ang II formation. These results showed very high chymase-mediated Ang II formation (28±3.1 fmol × min⁻¹ × mg⁻¹, n = 9 from ¹²⁵I-Ang-(1-12 and very low or undetectable Ang II formation by ACE (1.1±0.2 fmol×min⁻¹ × mg⁻¹. Paralleling these findings, these tissues showed significant content of chymase protein that by immunocytochemistry were primarily localized in atrial cardiac myocytes. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time in human cardiac tissue a dominant role of cardiac chymase in the formation of Ang II from Ang-(1-12.

  4. AUGMENTED REALITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Kirsten; Bahn, Anne Louise

    2017-01-01

    Projektets grundlæggende idé er udvikling af visuel, æstetisk læring med Augmented Reality, hvor intentionen er at bidrage med konkrete undersøgelser og udforskning af begrebet Augmented Reality – herunder koblingen mellem det analoge og digitale i forhold til læring, multimodalitet og it...

  5. Biocompatible Porous Polyester-Ether Hydrogel Scaffolds with Cross-Linker Mediated Biodegradation and Mechanical Properties for Tissue Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkay Ozcelik

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Porous polyester-ether hydrogel scaffolds (PEHs were fabricated using acid chloride/alcohol chemistry and a salt templating approach. The PEHs were produced from readily available and cheap commercial reagents via the reaction of hydroxyl terminated poly(ethylene glycol (PEG derivatives with sebacoyl, succinyl, or trimesoyl chloride to afford ester cross-links between the PEG chains. Through variation of the acid chloride cross-linkers used in the synthesis and the incorporation of a hydrophobic modifier (poly(caprolactone (PCL, it was possible to tune the degradation rates and mechanical properties of the resulting hydrogels. Several of the hydrogel formulations displayed exceptional mechanical properties, remaining elastic without fracture at compressive strains of up to 80%, whilst still displaying degradation over a period of weeks to months. A subcutaneous rat model was used to study the scaffolds in vivo and revealed that the PEHs were infiltrated with well vascularised tissue within two weeks and had undergone significant degradation in 16 weeks without any signs of toxicity. Histological evaluation for immune responses revealed that the PEHs incite only a minor inflammatory response that is reduced over 16 weeks with no evidence of adverse effects.

  6. Augmenter of liver regeneration inhibits TGF-β1-induced renal tubular epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via suppressing TβR II expression in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Xiao-hui; Zhang, Ling; Chen, Guo-tao; Yan, Ru-yu; Sun, Hang; Guo, Hui; Liu, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Tubular epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a crucial role in the progression of renal tubular interstitial fibrosis (TIF), which subsequently leads to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and eventually, end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We propose that augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR), a member of the newly discovered ALR/Erv1 protein family shown to ameliorate hepatic fibrosis, plays a similar protective role in renal tubular cells and has potential as a new treatment option for CKD. Here, we showed that recombinant human ALR (rhALR) inhibits EMT in renal tubular cells by antagonizing activation of the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signaling pathway. Further investigation revealed that rhALR suppresses the expression of TGF-β receptor type II (TβR II) and significantly alleviates TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of Smad2 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). No apparent adverse effects were observed upon the addition of rhALR alone to cells. These findings collectively suggest that ALR plays a role in inhibiting progression of renal tubular EMT, supporting its potential utility as an effective antifibrotic strategy to reverse TIF in CKD. - Highlights: • ALR is involved in the pathological progression of renal EMT in NRK-52E cells. • ALR suppresses the expression of TβRII and the phosphorylation of Smad2 and NF-κB. • ALR plays a role in inhibiting progression of renal tubular EMT

  7. Augmenter of liver regeneration inhibits TGF-β1-induced renal tubular epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via suppressing TβR II expression in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Xiao-hui [Department of Nephrology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400010 (China); Zhang, Ling, E-mail: lindazhang8508@hotmail.com [Department of Nephrology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400010 (China); Chen, Guo-tao; Yan, Ru-yu [Department of Nephrology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400010 (China); Sun, Hang; Guo, Hui [Institute for Viral Hepatitis, Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Infectious Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400010 (China); Liu, Qi, E-mail: txzzliuqi@163.com [Institute for Viral Hepatitis, Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Infectious Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400010 (China)

    2014-10-01

    Tubular epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a crucial role in the progression of renal tubular interstitial fibrosis (TIF), which subsequently leads to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and eventually, end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We propose that augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR), a member of the newly discovered ALR/Erv1 protein family shown to ameliorate hepatic fibrosis, plays a similar protective role in renal tubular cells and has potential as a new treatment option for CKD. Here, we showed that recombinant human ALR (rhALR) inhibits EMT in renal tubular cells by antagonizing activation of the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signaling pathway. Further investigation revealed that rhALR suppresses the expression of TGF-β receptor type II (TβR II) and significantly alleviates TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of Smad2 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). No apparent adverse effects were observed upon the addition of rhALR alone to cells. These findings collectively suggest that ALR plays a role in inhibiting progression of renal tubular EMT, supporting its potential utility as an effective antifibrotic strategy to reverse TIF in CKD. - Highlights: • ALR is involved in the pathological progression of renal EMT in NRK-52E cells. • ALR suppresses the expression of TβRII and the phosphorylation of Smad2 and NF-κB. • ALR plays a role in inhibiting progression of renal tubular EMT.

  8. Augmented marked graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, King Sing

    2014-01-01

    Petri nets are a formal and theoretically rich model for the modelling and analysis of systems. A subclass of Petri nets, augmented marked graphs possess a structure that is especially desirable for the modelling and analysis of systems with concurrent processes and shared resources.This monograph consists of three parts: Part I provides the conceptual background for readers who have no prior knowledge on Petri nets; Part II elaborates the theory of augmented marked graphs; finally, Part III discusses the application to system integration. The book is suitable as a first self-contained volume

  9. Chin augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or bigger compared to the nose. The best candidates for chin augmentation are people with weak or ... www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. ...

  10. Cement augmentation in the proximal femur to prevent stem subsidence in revision hip arthroplasty with Paprosky type II/IIIa defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Wen Tsai

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Subsidence remains a common complication after revision hip arthroplasty which may lead to prolonged weight-bearing restrictions, leg-length discrepancies or considerable loss of function. We evaluated the effectiveness of cement augmentation in the proximal femoral metaphysis during a revision of femoral components to prevent post-operative stem subsidence. Methods: Forty patients were enrolled. Follow-up averaged 67.7 months (range: 24–149. Twenty-seven patients had a Paprosky type II defect and 13 had a type IIIa defect. All revision hip arthroplasty used a cementless, cylindrical, non-modular cobalt–chromium stem. The defect in the metaphysis was filled with antibiotic-loaded bone cement. Thirteen patients who had undergone stem revision only was allowed to walk immediately without weight-bearing restrictions. Twenty-seven patients who had undergone revision total hip arthroplasty was allowed partial weight-bearing within 6 weeks after surgery in the consideration of acetabular reconstruction. Results: Three patients (7.5% had post-surgery stem subsidences of three mm, five mm, and 10 mm, respectively, at three, one, and 14 months. There were no acute surgical site infections. There were three femoral stem failures: two delayed infections and one periprosthetic Vancouver B2 fracture. Both five- and 10-year survivorships of the femoral implant were 90.1%. Conclusion: An adequate length of the scratch-fit segment and diaphyseal ingrowth remain of paramount importance when revising femoral components. To fill metaphyseal bone defects with antibiotic-loaded bone cement may be an alternative method in dealing with proximal femoral bone loss during a femoral revision. Keywords: Bone defect, Cement augmentation, Femur, Revision hip arthroplasty, Subsidence

  11. Picroside I and Picroside II from Tissue Cultures of Picrorhiza kurroa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeshkumar, Yamjala; Ramarao, Ajmera; Veeresham, Ciddi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Picrorhiza kurroa (PK) belongs to Scrophulariaceae family and is a representative endemic, medicinal herb, widely distributed throughout the higher altitudes of alpine Himalayas from west to east, between 3000 and 4500 m above mean sea level. Objective: The objective of the present study is to assess the production of picroside I and picroside II from tissue cultures of PK. Materials and Methods: Auxiliary shoot tips of PK were incubated in Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with indole-3-butyric acid and kinetin phytohormones. The callus produced was collected at different time intervals and was processed for extraction of picroside I and picroside II followed by thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography HPLC analysis. Results: The maximum growth index was found to be 5.109 ± 0.159 at 16-week-old callus culture. The estimation of picroside-I and picroside-II was carried out by (HPLC) analysis; quantity of secondary metabolite found to be 16.37 ± 0.0007 mg/g for PK-I and 6.34 ± 0.0012 mg/g for PK-II. Conclusion: This is the first attempt to produce the Picroside-I and II in large amount by the tissue culture technique. It can be observed that the method of callus culture can be used in production of secondary metabolites Picroside-I and II from PK SUMMARY Picrorhiza kurroa is a high value medicinal herb due to rich source of hepatoprotective metabolites, Picroside-I and Picroside-II. The medicinal importance of P. kurroa is due to its pharmacological properties like hepatoprotective, antioxidant (particularly in liver), antiallergic and antiasthamatic, anticancer activity particularly in liver and immunomodulatory. Shoot apices which were produced a good response was inoculated on selected medium i.e., on MS medium containing 2, 4 D (mg/l) + KN (1mg/l) for induction of callus. The initiation of callus was observed after 4weeks and it was light green and fragile Maximum growth was observed with 3% w/v of sucrose

  12. Radiation protection instruments based on tissue equivalent proportional counters: Part II of an international intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberts, W.G.; Dietz, E.; Guldbakke, S.; Kluge, H.; Schumacher, H.

    1988-04-01

    This report describes the irradiation conditions and procedures of Part II of an international intercomparison of tissue-equivalent proportional counters used for radiation protection measurements. The irradiations took place in monoenergetic reference neutron fields produced by the research reactor and accelerator facilities of the PTB Braunschweig in the range from thermal neutrons to 14.8 MeV. In addition measurements were performed in 60 Co and D 2 O-moderated 252 Cf radiation fields. Prototype instruments from 7 European groups were investigated. The results of the measurements are summarized and compared with the reference data of the irradiations. (orig.) [de

  13. Autoimmunity and inflammation are independent of class II transactivator type PIV-dependent class II major histocompatibility complex expression in peripheral tissues during collagen-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldburger, Jean-Marc; Palmer, Gaby; Seemayer, Christian; Lamacchia, Celine; Finckh, Axel; Christofilopoulos, Panayiotis; Baeten, Dominique; Reith, Walter; Gabay, Cem

    2011-11-01

    To determine the regulation of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expression in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) in order to investigate their role as nonprofessional antigen-presenting cells in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Expression of class II MHC, class II MHC transactivator (CIITA), and Ciita isoforms PI, PIII, and PIV was examined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry in human synovial tissues, arthritic mouse joints, and human and murine FLS. CIA was induced in mice in which isoform PIV of Ciita was knocked out (PIV(-/-) ), in PIV(-/-) mice transgenic for CIITA in the thymus (K14 CIITA), and in their control littermates. HLA-DRA, total CIITA, and CIITA PIII messenger RNA levels were significantly increased in synovial tissue samples from patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared with the levels in tissue from patients with osteoarthritis. Human FLS expressed surface class II MHC via CIITA PIII and PIV, while class II MHC expression in murine FLS was entirely mediated by PIV. Mice with a targeted deletion of CIITA PIV lack CD4+ T cells and were protected against CIA. The expression of CIITA was restored in the thymus of PIV(-/-) K14 CIITA-transgenic mice, which had a normal CD4+ T cell repertoire and normal surface levels of class II MHC on professional antigen-presenting cells, but did not induce class II MHC on FLS. Synovial inflammation and immune responses against type II collagen were similar in PIV(-/-) K14 CIITA-transgenic mice and control mice with CIA, but bone erosion was significantly reduced in the absence of PIV. Overexpression of class II MHC is tightly correlated with CIITA expression in arthritic synovium and in FLS. Selective targeting of Ciita PIV in peripheral tissues abrogates class II MHC expression by murine FLS but does not protect against inflammation and autoimmune responses in CIA. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  14. Augmented reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Pucer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Today we can obtain in a simple and rapid way most of the information that we need. Devices, such as personal computers and mobile phones, enable access to information in different formats (written, pictorial, audio or video whenever and wherever. Daily we use and encounter information that can be seen as virtual objects or objects that are part of the virtual world of computers. Everyone, at least once, wanted to bring these virtual objects from the virtual world of computers into real environments and thus mix virtual and real worlds. In such a mixed reality, real and virtual objects coexist in the same environment. The reality, where users watch and use the real environment upgraded with virtual objects is called augmented reality. In this article we describe the main properties of augmented reality. In addition to the basic properties that define a reality as augmented reality, we present the various building elements (possible hardware and software that provide an insight into such a reality and practical applications of augmented reality. The applications are divided into three groups depending on the information and functions that augmented reality offers, such as help, guide and simulator.

  15. Treatment strategy for guided tissue regeneration in various class II furcation defect: Case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra Kumar Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal regeneration is a main aspect in the treatment of teeth affected by periodontitis. Periodontal regeneration in furcation areas is quite challenging, especially when it is in interproximal region. There are several techniques used alone or in combination considered to achieve periodontal regeneration, including the bone grafts or substitutes, guided tissue regeneration (GTR, root surface modification, and biological mediators. Many factors may account for variability in response to regenerative therapy in class II furcation. This case series describes the management of class II furcation defect in a mesial interproximal region of a maxillary tooth and other with a buccal class II furcation of mandibular tooth, with the help of surgical intervention including the GTR membrane and bone graft materials. This combined treatment resulted in healthy periodontium with a radiographic evidence of alveolar bone gain in both cases. This case series demonstrates that proper diagnosis, followed by removal of etiological factors and utilizing the combined treatment modalities will restore health and function of the tooth with the severe attachment loss.

  16. Augmented hepatic injury followed by impaired regeneration in metallothionein-I/II knockout mice after treatment with thioacetamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Jordan R.; Jiang, Sean; Cherian, M. George

    2006-01-01

    A previous study (Oliver, J.R., Mara, T.W., Cherian, M.G. 2005. Impaired hepatic regeneration in metallothionein-I/II knockout mice after partial hepatectomy. Exp. Biol. Med. 230, 61-67) has shown an impairment of liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy (PH) in metallothionein (MT)-I and MT-II gene knockout (MT-null) mice, thus suggesting a requirement for MT in cellular growth. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether MT may play a similar role in hepatic injury and regeneration after acute treatment with thioacetamide (TAA). Hepatotoxicity of TAA is caused by the generation of oxidative stress. TAA was injected ip to both wild-type (WT) and MT-null mice. Mice were killed at 6, 12, 24, 48, 60, and 72 h after injection of TAA (125 mg/kg) or 48 h after injection of saline (vehicle control), and different parameters of hepatic injury were measured. The levels of hepatic lipid peroxidation were increased at 12 h in both types of mice; however, lipid peroxidation was significantly less in WT mice than MT-null mice at 48 h after injection of TAA. Analysis of hepatic glutathione (GSH) levels after TAA injection showed depletion of GSH at 12 h in WT mice and at 6 h in MT-null mice; however, significantly more GSH was depleted early (6-24 h) in MT-null mice than WT mice. An increase in hepatic iron (Fe) levels was observed in both types of mice after injection of TAA, but Fe levels were significantly higher in MT-null mice than WT mice at 6-60 h. The levels of hepatic copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were significantly higher in WT mice than MT-null mice at 6-60 h for Cu, and at 24 h and 60 h for Zn, respectively. Histopathological examination showed hemorrhagic necrosis in the liver of both types of mice at 12-72 h, with hepatic injury being more prominent in MT-null mice than WT mice. The hepatic MT levels were increased in WT mice after injection of TAA, and were highest at 24-72 h. Immunohistochemical staining for MT in WT mice indicated the presence

  17. Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher; Kjeldsen, Lars Peter Bech; Rahn, Annette

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of iPad-facilitated application of augmented reality in the teaching of highly complex anatomical and physiological subjects in the training of nurses at undergraduate level. The general aim of the project is to investigate the potentials of this application in terms...... of making the complex content and context of these subjects more approachable to the students through the visualization made possible through the use of this technology. A case study is described in this chapter. Issues and factors required for the sustainable use of the mobile-facilitated application...... of augmented reality are discussed....

  18. Class I and II histone deacetylase expression in human chronic periodontitis gingival tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantley, M D; Dharmapatni, A A S S K; Algate, K; Crotti, T N; Bartold, P M; Haynes, D R

    2016-04-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are being considered to treat chronic inflammatory diseases at low doses. Currently HDACi that are more specific are being developed to target particular HDACs; therefore, this study aimed to determine levels and distribution of class I and II HDAC in human gingival samples obtained from patients with chronic periodontitis. Gingival biopsies were obtained from patients with and without (mild inflammation, no bone loss) periodontitis. Total RNA was isolated for real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to determine expression of HDACs 1-10. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine protein distribution of HDACs 1, 5, 8 and 9. Factor VIII, CD3 and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) were detected in serial sections to identify blood vessels, lymphocytes, pre-osteoclasts and osteoclasts cells respectively. Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) expression was also assessed. mRNA for HDAC 1, 5, 8 and 9 were significantly upregulated in chronic periodontitis gingival tissues compared to non-periodontitis samples (p chronic periodontitis samples (p chronic periodontitis gingival tissues. HDAC 1, 5, 8 and 9 expression was higher in gingival tissues from patients with chronic periodontitis compared to non-periodontitis samples. Results suggest that these HDACs could therefore be targeted with specific acting HDACi. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Brandt, Harald; Radmer, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Artiklen præsenterer resultater fra pilotafprøvning i 7.-klasses fysik/kemi og biologi af to Augmented Reality (AR)-apps til naturfagsundervisning. Muligheder og udfordringer ved lærerens stilladsering af elevernes undersøgende samtale og modelleringskompetence er undersøgt med interview...

  20. Non-intrusive Assessment of Photosystem II and Photosystem I in Whole Coral Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milán Szabó

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Reef building corals (phylum Cnidaria harbor endosymbiotic dinoflagellate algae (genus Symbiodinium that generate photosynthetic products to fuel their host's metabolism. Non-invasive techniques such as chlorophyll (Chl fluorescence analyses of Photosystem II (PSII have been widely used to estimate the photosynthetic performance of Symbiodinium in hospite. However, since the spatial origin of PSII chlorophyll fluorescence in coral tissues is uncertain, such signals give limited information on depth-integrated photosynthetic performance of the whole tissue. In contrast, detection of absorbance changes in the near infrared (NIR region integrates signals from deeper tissue layers due to weak absorption and multiple scattering of NIR light. While extensively utilized in higher plants, NIR bio-optical techniques are seldom applied to corals. We have developed a non-intrusive measurement method to examine photochemistry of intact corals, based on redox kinetics of the primary electron donor in Photosystem I (P700 and chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics (Fast-Repetition Rate fluorometry, FRRf. Since the redox state of P700 depends on the operation of both PSI and PSII, important information can be obtained on the PSII-PSI intersystem electron transfer kinetics. Under moderate, sub-lethal heat stress treatments (33°C for ~20 min, the coral Pavona decussata exhibited down-regulation of PSII electron transfer kinetics, indicated by slower rates of electron transport from QA to plastoquinone (PQ pool, and smaller relative size of oxidized PQ with concomitant decrease of a specifically-defined P700 kinetics area, which represents the active pool of PSII. The maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm and functional absorption cross-section of PSII (σPSII remained unchanged. Based on the coordinated response of P700 parameters and PSII-PSI electron transport properties, we propose that simple P700 kinetics parameters as employed here serve as indicators of

  1. Augmented reality

    OpenAIRE

    Jecha, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is focused on a technology called Augmented reality, especially on its use in marketing. The main objective of the thesis is to define why this technology is a suitable tool for marketing and to assess its use in real conditions. This is achieved by defining specific devices and use cases of this technology in practice, whereas evaluation of its use in real enviroment is based on statistics. The contribution of the thesis is objective evaluation of this technology and provision of...

  2. Changes in soft tissue profile using functional appliances in the treatment of skeletal class II malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković Zorana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The effects of orthodontic treatment are considered to be successful if the facial harmony is achieved, while the structures of soft tissue profile are in harmony with skeletal structures of neurocranium and viscerocranium. In patients with skeletal distal bite caused by mandibular retrognathism, facial esthetics is disturbed often, in terms of pronounced convexity of the profile and change in the position and relationship of the lips. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of soft tissue profile changes in patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion treated with three different orthodontic appliances: Fränkel functional regulator type I (FR-I, Balters’ Bionator type I and Hotz appliance. Methods. The study included 60 patients diagnosed with skeletal Class II malocclusion caused by mandibular retrognathism, in the period of early mixed dentition. Each subgroup of 20 patients was treated with a variety of orthodontic appliances. On the lateral cephalogram, before and after treatment, the following parameters were analyzed: T angle, H angle, the height of the upper lip, the position of the upper and lower lip in relation to the esthetic line. Within the statistical analysis the mean, maximum, minimum, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measures and the factor analysis of variance were calculated using ANOVA, Bonferroni test and Student’s t-test. Results. A significant decrease of angles T and H was noticed in the application of FR-I, from 21.60° to 17.15°, and from 16.45° to 13.40° (p<0.001. FR-I decreased the height of the upper lip from 26.15 mm to 25.85 mm, while Hotz appliance and Balters’ Bionator type I increased the height of the upper lip, thereby deteriorating esthetics of the patient. Conclusion. All used orthodontic appliances lead to changes in soft tissue profile in terms of improving facial esthetics, with the most distinctive

  3. Local angiotensin II promotes adipogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells through type 2 angiotensin receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Y. Sysoeva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is often associated with high systemic and local activity of renin-angiotensin system (RAS. Mesenchymal stem cells of adipose tissue are the main source of adipocytes. The aim of this study was to clarify how local RAS could control adipose differentiation of human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs. We examined the distribution of angiotensin receptor expressing cells in human adipose tissue and found that type 1 and type 2 receptors are co-expressed in its stromal compartment, which is known to contain mesenchymal stem cells. To study the expression of receptors specifically in ADSCs we have isolated them from adipose tissue. Up to 99% of cultured ADSCs expressed angiotensin II (AngII receptor type 1 (AT1. Using the analysis of Ca2+ mobilization in single cells we found that only 5.2 ± 2.7% of ADSCs specifically respond to serial Ang II applications via AT1 receptor and expressed this receptor constantly. This AT1const ADSCs subpopulation exhibited increased adipose competency, which was triggered by endogenous AngII. Inhibitory and expression analyses showed that AT1const ADSCs highly co-express AngII type 2 receptor (AT2, which was responsible for increased adipose competency of this ADSC subpopulation.

  4. Transaxillary Endoscopic Breast Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Bo Sim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The axillary technique is the most popular approach to breast augmentation among Korean women. Transaxillary breast augmentation is now conducted with sharp electrocautery dissection under direct endoscopic vision throughout the entire process. The aims of this method are clear: both a bloodless pocket and a sharp non-traumatic dissection. Round textured or anatomical cohesive gel implants have been used to make predictable well-defined inframammary creases because textured surface implants demonstrated a better stability attributable to tissue adherence compared with smooth surface implants. The axillary endoscopic technique has greatly evolved, and now the surgical results are comparable to those with the inframammary approach. The author feels that this technique is an excellent choice for young patients with an indistinct or absent inframammary fold, who do not want a scar in the aesthetic unit of their chest.

  5. Tunnel technique with connective tissue graft versus coronally advanced flap with enamel matrix derivative for root coverage: a RCT using 3D digital measuring methods. Part II. Volumetric studies on healing dynamics and gingival dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebele, Stephan F; Zuhr, Otto; Schneider, David; Jung, Ronny E; Hürzeler, Markus B

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this randomized clinical trial (RCT) was to compare the clinical performance of the tunnel technique with subepithelial connective tissue graft (TUN) versus a coronally advanced flap with enamel matrix derivative (CAF) in the treatment of gingival recession defects. The use of innovative 3D digital measuring methods allowed to study healing dynamics at connective tissue (CT)-grafted sites and to evaluate the influence of the thickness of the root covering soft tissues on the outcome of surgical root coverage. Twenty-four patients contributed a total of 47 Miller class I or II recessions for scientific evaluation. Precise study models collected at baseline and follow-up examinations were optically scanned and virtually superimposed for digital evaluation of clinical outcome measures including mean marginal soft tissue thickness (THK). Healing dynamics were measured in a defined region of interest at CT-grafted sites where volume differences between time points were calculated. At 12 months, recession reduction as well as mean root coverage were significantly better at CT-grafted sites treated in the TUN group (1.94 mm and 98.4% respectively) compared to the non-augmented sites of the CAF group (1.17 mm and 71.8% respectively) and statistical analysis revealed a positive correlation of THK (1.63 mm TUN versus 0.91 mm CAF, p tissue healing following surgical root coverage with CT-grafting was mainly accomplished after 6 months, with around two-thirds of the augmented volume being maintained after 12 months. The TUN resulted in thicker gingiva and better clinical outcomes compared to CAF. Increased gingival thickness was associated with better surgical outcomes in terms of recession reduction and root coverage. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Mobile Collaborative Augmented Reality: The Augmented Stroll

    OpenAIRE

    Renevier , Philippe; Nigay , Laurence

    2001-01-01

    International audience; The paper focuses on Augmented Reality systems in which interaction with the real world is augmented by the computer, the task being performed in the real world. We first define what mobile AR systems, collaborative AR systems and finally mobile and collaborative AR systems are. We then present the augmented stroll and its software design as one example of a mobile and collaborative AR system. The augmented stroll is applied to Archaeology in the MAGIC (Mobile Augmente...

  7. Exatecan in pretreated adult patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma: results of a phase II--study of the EORTC Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichardt, P; Nielsen, Ole Steen; Bauer, S

    2007-01-01

    No standard treatment is established for patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma after previous chemotherapy with anthracyclines and ifosfamide, given either in combination or sequentially. Exatecan (DX-8951f) is a totally synthetic analogue of the topoisomerase I-inhibitor camptothecin, which...... was synthesised to impart increased aqueous solubility, greater tumour efficacy, and less toxicity than camptothecin itself, topotecan or irinotecan. Since some activity against soft tissue sarcomas, especially leiomyosarcomas, has been reported for topoisomerase I-inhibitors, a study with a new and more potent...... agent seemed justified. We report on a prospective multicentre phase II study of Exatecan in adult soft tissue sarcomas failing 1 or 2 lines of chemotherapy in advanced phase, performed within the STBSG of EORTC. Thirty-nine patients (16 leiomyosarcomas and 23 other histologies) were included in two...

  8. Collagen type II enhances chondrogenesis in adipose tissue-derived stem cells by affecting cell shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Z.; Doulabi, B.Z.; Huang, C.; Bank, R.A.; Helder, M.N.

    2010-01-01

    Ideally, biomaterials have inductive properties, favoring specific lineage differentiation. For chondrogenic induction, these properties have been attributed to collagen type II. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether collagen type II favors

  9. Collagen Type II Enhances Chondrogenesis in Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells by Affecting Cell Shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, ZuFu; Doulabi, Behrouz Zandieh; Huang, ChunLing; Bank, Ruud A.; Helder, Marco N.

    Ideally, biomaterials have inductive properties, favoring specific lineage differentiation. For chondrogenic induction, these properties have been attributed to collagen type II. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether collagen type II favors

  10. ARLearn: augmented reality meets augmented virtuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ternier, Stefaan; Klemke, Roland; Kalz, Marco; Van Ulzen, Patricia; Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Ternier, S., Klemke, R., Kalz, M., Van Ulzen, P., & Specht, M. (2012). ARLearn: augmented reality meets augmented virtuality [Special issue]. Journal of Universal Computer Science - Technology for learning across physical and virtual spaces, 18(15), 2143-2164.

  11. A systematic review on soft-to-hard tissue ratios in orthognathic surgery part II: Chin procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel Moragas, Joan; Oth, Olivier; Büttner, Michael; Mommaerts, Maurice Y

    2015-10-01

    Precise soft-to-hard tissue ratios in orthofacial chin procedures are not well established. The aim of this study was to determine useful soft-to-hard tissue ratios for planning the magnitude of sliding genioplasty (chin osteotomy), osseous chin recontouring and alloplastic chin augmentation. A systematic review of English and non-English articles using PubMed central, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Science Citation Index, Elsevier Science Direct Complete, Highwire Press, Springer Standard Collection, SAGE premier 2011, DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals, Sweetswise, Free E-Journals, Ovid Lippincott Williams & Wilkins total Access Collection, Wiley Online Library Journals, and Cochrane Plus databases from their onset until July 2014. Additional studies were identified by searching the references. Search terms included soft tissue, ratios, genioplasty, mentoplasty, chin, genial AND advancement, augmentation, setback, retrusion, impaction, reduction, vertical deficit, widening, narrowing, and expansion. Study selection criteria were as follows: only academic publications; human patients; no reviews; systematic reviews or meta-analyses; no cadavers; no syndromic patients; no pathology at the chin or mandible region; only articles of level of evidence from I to IV; number of patients must be cited in the articles; hard-to-soft tissue ratios must be cited in the articles or at least are able to be calculated with the quantitative data available in the article; if all patients of one article have had bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) performed along with chin osteotomy, there should be an independent group evaluation of the data concerning to the chin; and no restriction regarding the size of the group. Independent extraction of articles by two authors using predefined data fields, including study quality indicators (level of evidence). The search identified 22 articles. Eleven additional articles were found in their reference sections. Of these, two were

  12. The local expression of adult chicken heart myosins during development. II. Ventricular conducting tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, E.; de Groot, I. J.; Geerts, W. J.; de Jong, F.; van Horssen, A. A.; Los, J. A.; Moorman, A. F.

    1986-01-01

    The development of the ventricular conducting tissue of the embryonic chicken heart has been studied using a previous finding that morphologically recognizable atrial conducting tissue coexpresses the atrial and the ventricular myosin isoforms. It is found that, by these criteria, at 9 days part of

  13. Tissue-specific expression of insulin-like growth factor II mRNAs with distinct 5' untranslated regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irminger, J.C.; Rosen, K.M.; Humble, R.E.; Villa-Komaroff, L.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have used RNA from human hypothalamus as template for the production of cDNAs encoding insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). The prohormone coding sequence of brain IGF-II RNA is identical to that found in liver; however, the 5' untranslated sequence of the brain cDNA has no homology to the 5' untranslated sequence of the previously reported liver cDNAs. By using hybridization to specific probes as well as a method based on the properties of RNase H, they found that the human IGF-II gene has at least three exons that encode alternative 5' untranslated regions and that are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. A probe specific to the brain cDNA 5' untranslated region hybridizes to a 6.0-kilobase transcript present in placenta, hypothalamus, adrenal gland, kidney, Wilms tumor, and a pheochromocytoma. The 5' untranslated sequence of the brain cDNA does not hybridize to a 5.3-kilobase transcript found in liver or to a 5.0-kb transcript found in pheochromocytoma. By using RNase H to specifically fragment the IGF-II transcripts into 3' and 5' fragments, they found that the RNAs vary in size due to differences in the 5' end but not the 3' end

  14. Use of cyanoacrylate as barrier in guided tissue regeneration in class II furcation defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L Mueller Storrer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The guided bone regeneration (GBR is a technique that uses resorbable and non-resorbable membranes in association with other filling biomaterials. GBR is one of the optional treatments for therapy of class II furcation defects. The current case report evaluates clinically and radiographically the use of the cyanoacrylate membrane (Glubran ®2 associated with organic bovine bone (GenOx for the treatment of vestibular class II furcation defect on the lower left molar. Conclusion: The GBR is an option in the treatment of vestibular class II furcation defects and cyanoacrylate surgical glue, acting as a mechanic barrier and providing an efficient stability for the graft.

  15. Advanced 3D Human Simulation Components with Thermal/Haptic Feedback and Tissue Deformation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In integrating the following three significant components for its research/research and development (R/R&D) effort, the power of this candidate Phase II project...

  16. CT Imaging of facial trauma. The role of different types of reconstruction. Part II - soft tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myga-Porosilo, J.; Sraga, W.; Borowiak, H.; Jackowska, Z.; Kluczewska, E.; Skrzelewski, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Injury to facial soft tissues as a complication of skeleton fractures is an important problem among patients with facial trauma. The aim of this work was to assess the value of multiplanar and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction computed tomography (CT) images obtained by using multi-detector row technology in spiral data acquisition in patients with facial injuries of soft tissue. Material/Methods: Sixty-seven patients diagnosed with injury to the facial skeleton underwent a CT scan with the use of GE Hispeed Qx/i scanner. For each patient: a two-dimensional (2D) multiplanar reconstruction (MPR), maximum intensity projection (MIP), and 3D volume rendering (VR) were conducted. Post-injury lesions of soft tissues were assessed. During the assessment of the post-injury lesions of soft tissues, the following features were evaluated: Extra ocular muscle and fat tissue herniation through fractures in the medial and inferior orbital walls. Fluid in the sinuses and in the nasal cavity. Subcutaneous tissue emphysema. Results: For subcutaneous emphysema and sinus fluid imaging, both the axial and the 2D image reconstruction proved comparably effective. However, 2D reconstructions were superior to transverse plane images with regard to herniations into fractures of the inferior orbital wall. 3D reconstruction has no importance in diagnosing soft tissue injuries. Conclusions: Multiplanar CT reconstructions increase the effectiveness of imaging of orbital tissue herniations, especially in case of fractures in the inferior orbital wall. In suspected soft tissue herniations, as well as prior to surgical treatment, spiral CT with 2D multiplanar reconstructions should be the method of choice. (authors)

  17. Metabolic aspects of growth in HU-treated crown-gall tissue cultures. II. Helianthus annuus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldona Rennert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of growth and changes in nucleic acid and protein contents in sunflower calluses and tumours cultured in hydroxyurea (HU containing media were examined. HU-induced changes in healthy tissues ran in parallel always in the same direction, in tumourous ones however an uncoupling between DNA synthesis and tissue growth on one hand and RNA and protein synthesis on the other took place. A detailed analysis of the results allows to suppose that the specific activity of HU on tumourous tissue could be an index of: 1 quantitative disturbances in its genes function (2 degree of the lass of sensitivity to the factors of regulation.

  18. Anisotropic Shape-Memory Alginate Scaffolds Functionalized with Either Type I or Type II Collagen for Cartilage Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Henrique V; Sathy, Binulal N; Dudurych, Ivan; Buckley, Conor T; O'Brien, Fergal J; Kelly, Daniel J

    2017-01-01

    Regenerating articular cartilage and fibrocartilaginous tissue such as the meniscus is still a challenge in orthopedic medicine. While a range of different scaffolds have been developed for joint repair, none have facilitated the development of a tissue that mimics the complexity of soft tissues such as articular cartilage. Furthermore, many of these scaffolds are not designed to function in mechanically challenging joint environments. The overall goal of this study was to develop a porous, biomimetic, shape-memory alginate scaffold for directing cartilage regeneration. To this end, a scaffold was designed with architectural cues to guide cellular and neo-tissue alignment, which was additionally functionalized with a range of extracellular matrix cues to direct stem cell differentiation toward the chondrogenic lineage. Shape-memory properties were introduced by covalent cross-linking alginate using carbodiimide chemistry, while the architecture of the scaffold was modified using a directional freezing technique. Introducing such an aligned pore structure was found to improve the mechanical properties of the scaffold, and promoted higher levels of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG) and collagen deposition compared to an isotropic (nonaligned) pore geometry when seeded with adult human stem cells. Functionalization with collagen improved stem cell recruitment into the scaffold and facilitated more homogenous cartilage tissue deposition throughout the construct. Incorporating type II collagen into the scaffolds led to greater cell proliferation, higher sGAG and collagen accumulation, and the development of a stiffer tissue compared to scaffolds functionalized with type I collagen. The results of this study demonstrate how both scaffold architecture and composition can be tailored in a shape-memory alginate scaffold to direct stem cell differentiation and support the development of complex cartilaginous tissues.

  19. Augmented reality for breast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancati, Alberto; Angrigiani, Claudio; Nava, Maurizio B; Catanuto, Giuseppe; Rocco, Nicola; Ventrice, Fernando; Dorr, Julio

    2018-02-21

    Augmented reality (AR) enables the superimposition of virtual reality reconstructions onto clinical images of a real patient, in real time. This allows visualization of internal structures through overlying tissues, thereby providing a virtual transparency vision of surgical anatomy. AR has been applied to neurosurgery, which utilizes a relatively fixed space, frames, and bony references; the application of AR facilitates the relationship between virtual and real data. Augmented Breast imaging (ABI) is described. Breast MRI studies for breast implant patients with seroma were performed using a Siemens 3T system with a body coil and a four-channel bilateral phased-array breast coil as the transmitter and receiver, respectively. The contrast agent used was (CA) gadolinium (Gd) injection (0.1 mmol/kg at 2 ml/s) by a programmable power injector. Dicom formated images data from 10 MRI cases of breast implant seroma and 10 MRI cases with T1-2 N0 M0 breast cancer, were imported and transformed into Augmented reality images. Augmented breast imaging (ABI) demonstrated stereoscopic depth perception, focal point convergence, 3D cursor use, and joystick fly-through. Augmented breast imaging (ABI) to the breast can improve clinical outcomes, giving an enhanced view of the structures to work on. It should be further studied to determine its utility in clinical practice.

  20. Radioactivity in the pelagic fish. II. Group separation of radioactive elements in fish tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, K; Tozawa, H; Amano, K; Takase, A

    1955-01-01

    Analytical group separation was performed with various ashed tissues of some fishes exposed to radioactive ash. The radioactivity was particularly large with elements belonging to the 3rd group, both A and B subgroups. The 2nd group showed considerable activity in pyloric ceca and kidney of Skipjacks. The radioactivity of the 1st and 4th groups was detected in some tissues; the 5th group showed slight activity.

  1. Time-domain scanning optical mammography: II. Optical properties and tissue parameters of 87 carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosenick, Dirk; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Moesta, K Thomas; Mucke, Joerg; Schlag, Peter M; Rinneberg, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    Within a clinical trial on scanning time-domain optical mammography reported on in a companion publication (part I), craniocaudal and mediolateral projection optical mammograms were recorded from 154 patients, suspected of having breast cancer. Here we report on in vivo optical properties of the subset of 87 histologically validated carcinomas which were visible in optical mammograms recorded at two or three near-infrared wavelengths. Tumour absorption and reduced scattering coefficients were derived from distributions of times of flight of photons recorded at the tumour site employing the model of diffraction of photon density waves by a spherical inhomogeneity, located in an otherwise homogeneous tissue slab. Effective tumour radii, taken from pathology, and tumour location along the compression direction, deduced from off-axis optical scans of the tumour region, were included in the analysis as prior knowledge, if available. On average, tumour absorption coefficients exceeded those of surrounding healthy breast tissue by a factor of about 2.5 (670 nm), whereas tumour reduced scattering coefficients were larger by about 20% (670 nm). From absorption coefficients at 670 nm and 785 nm total haemoglobin concentration and blood oxygen saturation were deduced for tumours and surrounding healthy breast tissue. Apart from a few outliers total haemoglobin concentration was observed to be systematically larger in tumours compared to healthy breast tissue. In contrast, blood oxygen saturation was found to be a poor discriminator for tumours and healthy breast tissue; both median values of blood oxygen saturation are the same within their statistical uncertainties. However, the ratio of total haemoglobin concentration over blood oxygen saturation further improves discrimination between tumours and healthy breast tissue. For 29 tumours detected in optical mammograms recorded at three wavelengths (670 nm, 785 nm, 843 nm or 884 nm), scatter power was derived from transport

  2. Near-infrared II fluorescence for imaging hindlimb vessel regeneration with dynamic tissue perfusion measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Lee, Jerry C; Jha, Arshi; Diao, Shuo; Nakayama, Karina H; Hou, Luqia; Doyle, Timothy C; Robinson, Joshua T; Antaris, Alexander L; Dai, Hongjie; Cooke, John P; Huang, Ngan F

    2014-05-01

    Real-time vascular imaging that provides both anatomic and hemodynamic information could greatly facilitate the diagnosis of vascular diseases and provide accurate assessment of therapeutic effects. Here, we have developed a novel fluorescence-based all-optical method, named near-infrared II (NIR-II) fluorescence imaging, to image murine hindlimb vasculature and blood flow in an experimental model of peripheral arterial disease, by exploiting fluorescence in the NIR-II region (1000-1400 nm) of photon wavelengths. Because of the reduced photon scattering of NIR-II fluorescence compared with traditional NIR fluorescence imaging and thus much deeper penetration depth into the body, we demonstrated that the mouse hindlimb vasculature could be imaged with higher spatial resolution than in vivo microscopic computed tomography. Furthermore, imaging during 26 days revealed a significant increase in hindlimb microvascular density in response to experimentally induced ischemia within the first 8 days of the surgery (Pimaging make it a useful imaging tool for murine models of vascular disease. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Vorinostat in refractory soft tissue sarcomas - Results of a multi-centre phase II trial of the German Soft Tissue Sarcoma and Bone Tumour Working Group (AIO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Thomas; Mayer-Steinacker, Regine; Mayer, Frank; Grünwald, Viktor; Schütte, Jochen; Hartmann, Jörg T; Kasper, Bernd; Hüsing, Johannes; Hajda, Jacek; Ottawa, Gregor; Mechtersheimer, Gunhild; Mikus, Gerd; Burhenne, Jürgen; Lehmann, Lorenz; Heilig, Christoph E; Ho, Anthony D; Egerer, Gerlinde

    2016-09-01

    New treatment options for patients with metastatic Soft Tissue Sarcoma are urgently needed. Preclinical studies suggested activity of vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor. A multi-centre, open-label, non-randomised phase II trial to investigate the efficacy and safety of vorinostat in patients with locally advanced or metastatic Soft Tissue Sarcoma failing 1st-line anthracycline-based chemotherapy was initiated. Patients were treated with vorinostat 400 mg po qd for 28 d followed by a treatment-free period of 7 d, representing a treatment cycle of 5 weeks. Restaging was performed every three cycles or at clinical progression. Between 06/10 and 09/13, 40 Soft Tissue Sarcoma patients were treated with vorinostat at seven participating centres. Patients had received 1 (n=8, 20%), 2 (n=10, 25%) or ≥3 (n=22, 55%) previous lines of chemotherapy. Best response after three cycles of treatment was stable disease (n=9, 23%). Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 3.2 and 12.3 months, respectively. Six patients showed long-lasting disease stabilisation for up to ten cycles. Statistical analyses failed to identify baseline predictive markers in this subgroup. Major toxicities (grade ≥III) included haematological toxicity (n=6, 15%) gastrointestinal disorders (n=5, 13%), fatigue (n=4, 10%), musculoskeletal pain (n=4, 10%), and pneumonia (n=2, 5%). In a heavily pre-treated patient population, objective response to vorinostat was low. However, a small subgroup of patients had long-lasting disease stabilisation. Further studies aiming to identify predictive markers for treatment response as well as exploration of combination regimens are warranted. NCT00918489 (ClinicalTrials.gov) EudraCT-number: 2008-008513-19. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The immune complex CTA1-DD/IgG adjuvant specifically targets connective tissue mast cells through FcγRIIIA and augments anti-HPV immunity after nasal immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Y; Zhang, T; Lidell, L; Xu, X; Lycke, N; Xiang, Z

    2013-11-01

    We have previously reported that CTA1-DD/IgG immune complexes augment antibody responses in a mast cell-dependent manner following intranasal (IN) immunizations. However, from a safety perspective, mast cell activation could preclude clinical use. Therefore, we have extended these studies and demonstrate that CTA1-DD/IgG immune complexes administered IN did not trigger an anaphylactic reaction. Importantly, CTA1-DD/IgE immune complexes did not activate mast cells. Interestingly, only connective tissue, but not mucosal, mast cells could be activated by CTA1-DD/IgG immune complexes. This effect was mediated by FcγRIIIA, only expressed on connective tissue mast cells, and found in the nasal submucosa. FcγRIIIA-deficient mice had compromised responses to immunization adjuvanted by CTA1-DD/IgG. Proof-of-concept studies revealed that IN immunized mice with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 L1 virus-like particles (VLP) and CTA1-DD/IgG immune complexes demonstrated strong and sustained specific antibody titers in serum and vaginal secretions. From a mast cell perspective, CTA1-DD/IgG immune complexes appear to be safe and effective mucosal adjuvants.

  5. A Recombinant Trivalent Fusion Protein F1-LcrV-HSP70(II) Augments Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses and Imparts Full Protection against Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shailendra K; Batra, Lalit; Tuteja, Urmil

    2016-01-01

    Plague is one of the most dangerous infections in humans caused by Yersinia pestis, a Gram-negative bacterium. Despite of an overwhelming research success, no ideal vaccine against plague is available yet. It is well established that F1/LcrV based vaccine requires a strong cellular immune response for complete protection against plague. In our earlier study, we demonstrated that HSP70(II) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis modulates the humoral and cellular immunity of F1/LcrV vaccine candidates individually as well as in combinations in a mouse model. Here, we made two recombinant constructs caf1-lcrV and caf1-lcrV-hsp70(II). The caf1 and lcrV genes of Y. pestis and hsp70 domain II of M. tuberculosis were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Both the recombinant constructs caf1-lcrV and caf1-lcrV-hsp70(II) were cloned in pET28a vector and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant fusion proteins F1-LcrV and F1-LcrV-HSP70(II) were purified using Ni-NTA columns and formulated with alum to evaluate the humoral and cell mediated immune responses in mice. The protective efficacies of F1-LcrV and F1-LcrV-HSP70(II) were determined following challenge of immunized mice with 100 LD50 of Y. pestis through intraperitoneal route. Significant differences were noticed in the titers of IgG and it's isotypes, i.e., IgG1, IgG2b, and IgG3 in anti- F1-LcrV-HSP70(II) sera in comparison to anti-F1-LcrV sera. Similarly, significant differences were also noticed in the expression levels of IL-2, IFN-γ and TNF-α in splenocytes of F1-LcrV-HSP(II) immunized mice in comparison to F1-LcrV. Both F1-LcrV and F1-LcrV-HSP70(II) provided 100% protection. Our research findings suggest that F1-LcrV fused with HSP70 domain II of M. tuberculosis significantly enhanced the humoral and cellular immune responses in mouse model.

  6. Ridge augmentation with soft tissue procedures in aesthetic dentistry: pre- and postoperative volume measurements with a new kind of moire technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Stephan P.; Mueller, Ernst; Bucher, Alfred

    1993-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to measure the volume differences of operated alveolar ridge defects before and until 3 months post-surgically. Ten patients with ten localized alveolar ridge defects were operated on. Five alveolar ridge defects were corrected by using the full thickness onlay graft technique and the other five defects were operated by the subepithelial connective tissue graft technique. A strict standardized operation protocol was followed and all alveolar ridge defects were operated on by the same dental surgeon. Before as well as 1, 2, and 3 months after surgery the corrected defect was photographed and an impression was made by using an A-silicon material to produce a gypsum-cast model. The form of all these cast models was then measured using the moire technique. The three months result of ten cases shows that the form of the operated alveolar ridge defects, which were corrected by the subepithelial connective tissue graft technique are more stable compared to those which were operated on by the full thickness onlay graft technique. Localized alveolar ridge defects using the latter method does not show a form stability after 3 months post-surgically.

  7. MO-D-BRF-01: Pediatric Treatment Planning II: The PENTEC Report On Normal Tissue Complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constine, L; Hodgson, D; Bentzen, S

    2014-01-01

    With advances in multimodality therapy, childhood cancer cure rates approach 80%. However, both radiotherapy and chemotherapy may cause debilitating or even fatal ‘late effects’ that are critical to understand, mitigate, or prevent. QUANTEC identified the uncertainties relating to side-effects of adult treatments, but this is more complicated for children in whom a mosaic of tissues develops at different rates and temporal sequences. Childhood cancer survivors have long life expectancy and may develop treatmentinduced secondary cancers and severe organ/tissue injury decades after treatment. Collaborative long-term observational studies and clinical research programs for survivors of pediatric and adolescent cancer provide some dose-response data for follow-up periods exceeding 40 years. Data analysis is challenging due to the influence of both therapeutic and developmental variables. PENTEC is a group of radiation oncologists, pediatric oncologists, subsepcialty physicians, medical physicists, biomathematic modelers/statisticians, and epidemiologists charged with conducting a critical synthesis of existing literature aiming to: critically analyze radiation dose-volume effects on normal tissue tolerances as a function of age/development in pediatric cancer patients in order to inform treatment planning and improve outcomes for survivors; describe relevant physics issues specific to pediatric radiotherapy; propose dose-volumeoutcome reporting standards to improve the knowledge base to inform future treatment guidelines. PENTEC has developed guidelines for systematic literature reviews, data extraction tolls and data analysis. This education session will discuss:1. Special considerations for normal tissue radiation response of children/adolescents, e.g. the interplay between development and radiotherapy effects.2. Epidemiology of organ/tissue injuries and secondary cancers.3. Exploration of dose-response differences between children and adults4. Methodology for

  8. MO-D-BRF-01: Pediatric Treatment Planning II: The PENTEC Report On Normal Tissue Complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constine, L; Hodgson, D; Bentzen, S [University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-06-15

    With advances in multimodality therapy, childhood cancer cure rates approach 80%. However, both radiotherapy and chemotherapy may cause debilitating or even fatal ‘late effects’ that are critical to understand, mitigate, or prevent. QUANTEC identified the uncertainties relating to side-effects of adult treatments, but this is more complicated for children in whom a mosaic of tissues develops at different rates and temporal sequences. Childhood cancer survivors have long life expectancy and may develop treatmentinduced secondary cancers and severe organ/tissue injury decades after treatment. Collaborative long-term observational studies and clinical research programs for survivors of pediatric and adolescent cancer provide some dose-response data for follow-up periods exceeding 40 years. Data analysis is challenging due to the influence of both therapeutic and developmental variables. PENTEC is a group of radiation oncologists, pediatric oncologists, subsepcialty physicians, medical physicists, biomathematic modelers/statisticians, and epidemiologists charged with conducting a critical synthesis of existing literature aiming to: critically analyze radiation dose-volume effects on normal tissue tolerances as a function of age/development in pediatric cancer patients in order to inform treatment planning and improve outcomes for survivors; describe relevant physics issues specific to pediatric radiotherapy; propose dose-volumeoutcome reporting standards to improve the knowledge base to inform future treatment guidelines. PENTEC has developed guidelines for systematic literature reviews, data extraction tolls and data analysis. This education session will discuss:1. Special considerations for normal tissue radiation response of children/adolescents, e.g. the interplay between development and radiotherapy effects.2. Epidemiology of organ/tissue injuries and secondary cancers.3. Exploration of dose-response differences between children and adults4. Methodology for

  9. Phase II Study of Neoadjuvant Bevacizumab and Radiotherapy for Resectable Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sam S.; Duda, Dan G.; Karl, Daniel L.; Kim, Tae-Min; Kambadakone, Avinash R.; Chen, Yen-Lin; Rothrock, Courtney; Rosenberg, Andrew E.; Nielsen, G. Petur; Kirsch, David G.; Choy, Edwin; Harmon, David C.; Hornicek, Francis J.; Dreyfuss, Jonathan; Ancukiewicz, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Numerous preclinical studies have demonstrated that angiogenesis inhibitors can increase the efficacy of radiotherapy (RT). We sought to examine the safety and efficacy of bevacizumab (BV) and RT in soft tissue sarcomas and explore biomarkers to help determine the treatment response. Methods and Materials: Patients with ≥5 cm, intermediate- or high-grade soft tissue sarcomas at significant risk of local recurrence received neoadjuvant BV alone followed by BV plus RT before surgical resection. Correlative science studies included analysis of the serial blood and tumor samples and serial perfusion computed tomography scans. Results: The 20 patients had a median tumor size of 8.25 cm, with 13 extremity, 1 trunk, and 6 retroperitoneal/pelvis tumors. The neoadjuvant treatment was well tolerated, with only 4 patients having Grade 3 toxicities (hypertension, liver function test elevation). BV plus RT resulted in ≥80% pathologic necrosis in 9 (45%) of 20 tumors, more than double the historical rate seen with RT alone. Three patients had a complete pathologic response. The median microvessel density decreased 53% after BV alone (p <.05). After combination therapy, the median tumor cell proliferation decreased by 73%, apoptosis increased 10.4-fold, and the blood flow, blood volume, and permeability surface area decreased by 62–72% (p <.05). Analysis of gene expression microarrays of untreated tumors identified a 24-gene signature for treatment response. The microvessel density and circulating progenitor cells at baseline and the reduction in microvessel density and plasma soluble c-KIT with BV therapy also correlated with a good pathologic response (p <.05). After a median follow-up of 20 months, only 1 patient had developed local recurrence. Conclusions: The results from the present exploratory study indicated that BV increases the efficacy of RT against soft tissue sarcomas and might reduce the incidence of local recurrence. Thus, this regimen warrants

  10. Dentoskeletal and Soft Tissue Effects in the Treatment of Class II Malocclusion with Klammt's Elastic Open Activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamassu-Lemes, Sheila Marques; Fuziy, Acácio; Costa, André Luiz Ferreira; Carvalho, Paulo Eduardo Guedes; Nahás-Scocate, Ana Carla Raphaelli

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dentoskeletal and soft tissue effects resulting from treatment with Klammt's elastic open activator (EOA) functional orthopedic appliance in patients with Class II malocclusion characterized by mandibular deficiency. Teleradiographs were evaluated in the lateral aspect of the initial (T1) and final (T2) orthopedic phases for 16 patients with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion. The age range was from 9 to 11.2 years, with a mean age of 9.9 years. The cephalometric points were demarcated, and cephalometric measurements were obtained by the same investigator to avoid interobserver variability. The EOA promoted increased lower anterior facial height (LAFH), increased effective mandibular length, clockwise rotation of the mandible, retrusion and verticalization of the upper incisors, proclination and protrusion of the lower incisors, extrusion of the upper molars, mesial movement of the lower molars and anterior projection of the lower lip. Skeletal changes characterized by an increase in mandibular length and dentoalveolar changes with an emphasis on the verticalization and retrusion of the upper incisors, proclination of the lower incisors and mesial positioning of the lower molars were key to improving the occlusal relationship and esthetic facial factors. The EOA is well indicated in patients with Class II malocclusion due to mandibular deficiency with increased overbite, proclined upper incisors and verticalized lower incisors.

  11. Somatomedin-C/insulin-like growth factor-I and Insulin-like growth factor-II mRNAs in rate fetal and adult tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, P.K.; Moats-Staats, B.M.; Hynes, M.A.; Simmons, J.G.; Jansen, M.; D'ercole, A.J.; Van Wyk, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Somatomedin-C or insulin-like growth factor I (Sm-C/IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) have been implicated in the regulation of fetal growth and development. In the present study 32 P-labeled complementary DNA probes encoding human and mouse Sm-C/IGF-I and human IGF-II were used in Northern blot hybridizations to analyze rat Sm-C/IGF-I and IGF-II mRNAs in poly(A + ) RNAs from intestine, liver, lung, and brain of adult rats and fetal rats between day 14 and 17 of gestation. In fetal rats, all four tissues contained a major mRNA of 1.7 kilobase (kb) that hybridized with the human Sm-C/IGF-I cDNA and mRNAs of 7.5, 4.7, 1.7, and 1.2 kb that hybridized with the mouse Sm-C/IGF-I cDNA. Adult rat intestine, liver, and lung also contained these mRNAs but Sm-C/IGF-I mRNAs were not detected in adult rat brain. These findings provide direct support for prior observations that multiple tissues in the fetus synthesize immunoreactive Sm-C/IGF-I and imply a role for Sm-C/IGF-I in fetal development as well as postnatally. Multiple IGF-II mRNAs of estimated sizes 4.7, 3.9, 2.2, 1.75, and 1.2 kb were observed in fetal rat intestine, liver, lung, and brain. The 4.7- and 3.9-kb mRNAs were the major hybridizing IGF-II mRNAs in all fetal tissues. Higher abundance of IGF-II mRNAs in rat fetal tissues compared with adult tissues supports prior hypotheses, based on serum IGF-II concentrations, that IGF-II is predominantly a fetal somatomedin. IGF-II mRNAs are present, however, in some poly(A + ) RNAs from adult rat tissues. The brain was the only tissue in the adult rat where the 4.7- and 3.9-kb IGF-II mRNAs were consistently detected. These findings suggest that a role for IGF-II in the adult rat, particularly in the central nervous system, cannot be excluded

  12. Continuous stress-induced dopamine dysregulation augments PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the pituitary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: konishi@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program ' Base to Overcome Fatigue' , Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Ogawa, Tokiko, E-mail: togawa@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program ' Base to Overcome Fatigue' , Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Kawahara, Shinichi, E-mail: kawahara@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Matsumoto, Sakiko, E-mail: s-matsumoto@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Kiyama, Hiroshi, E-mail: kiyama@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program ' Base to Overcome Fatigue' , Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan)

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} We focused on the rat pituitary intermediate lobe (IL) under continuous stress (CS). {yields} CS induced PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the IL. {yields} This gene induction was triggered by CS-related dopamine dysregulation. {yields} PAP-I and PAP-II may sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS. -- Abstract: Under continuous stress (CS) in rats, melanotrophs, the predominant cell-type in the intermediate lobe (IL) of the pituitary, are hyperactivated to secrete {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and thereafter degenerate. Although these phenomena are drastic, the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular changes are mostly unknown. In this study, we focused on the pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) family members of the secretory lectins and characterized their expression in the IL of CS model rats because we had identified two members of this family as up-regulated genes in our previous microarray analysis. RT-PCR and histological studies demonstrated that prominent PAP-I and PAP-II expression was induced in melanotrophs in the early stages of CS, while another family member, PAP-III, was not expressed. We further examined the regulatory mechanisms of PAP-I and PAP-II expression and revealed that both were induced by the decreased dopamine levels in the IL under CS. Because the PAP family members are implicated in cell survival and proliferation, PAP-I and PAP-II secreted from melanotrophs may function to sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS conditions in an autocrine or a paracrine manner.

  13. Continuous stress-induced dopamine dysregulation augments PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Tokiko; Kawahara, Shinichi; Matsumoto, Sakiko; Kiyama, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We focused on the rat pituitary intermediate lobe (IL) under continuous stress (CS). → CS induced PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the IL. → This gene induction was triggered by CS-related dopamine dysregulation. → PAP-I and PAP-II may sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS. -- Abstract: Under continuous stress (CS) in rats, melanotrophs, the predominant cell-type in the intermediate lobe (IL) of the pituitary, are hyperactivated to secrete α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and thereafter degenerate. Although these phenomena are drastic, the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular changes are mostly unknown. In this study, we focused on the pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) family members of the secretory lectins and characterized their expression in the IL of CS model rats because we had identified two members of this family as up-regulated genes in our previous microarray analysis. RT-PCR and histological studies demonstrated that prominent PAP-I and PAP-II expression was induced in melanotrophs in the early stages of CS, while another family member, PAP-III, was not expressed. We further examined the regulatory mechanisms of PAP-I and PAP-II expression and revealed that both were induced by the decreased dopamine levels in the IL under CS. Because the PAP family members are implicated in cell survival and proliferation, PAP-I and PAP-II secreted from melanotrophs may function to sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS conditions in an autocrine or a paracrine manner.

  14. Bioreactor systems for tissue engineering II. Strategies for the expansion and directed differentiation of stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasper, Cornelia [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie; Griensven, Martijn van [Ludwig Boltzmann Institut fuer Klinische und Experimentelle Traumatologie, Wien (Austria); Poertner, Ralf (eds.) [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg (Germany). Inst. Biotechnologie und Verfahrenstechnik

    2010-07-01

    Alternative Sources of Adult Stem Cells: Human Amniotic Membrane, by S. Wolbank, M. van Griensven, R. Grillari-Voglauer, and A. Peterbauer-Scherb; - Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Derived from Human Umbilical Cord Tissues: Primitive Cells with Potential for Clinical and Tissue Engineering Applications, by P. Moretti, T. Hatlapatka, D. Marten, A. Lavrentieva, I. Majore, R. Hass and C. Kasper; - Isolation, Characterization, Differentiation, and Application of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells, by J. W. Kuhbier, B. Weyand, C. Radtke, P. M. Vogt, C. Kasper and K. Reimers; - Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Characteristics and Perspectives, by T. Cantz and U. Martin; - Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Technology in Regenerative Medicine and Biology, by D. Pei, J. Xu, Q. Zhuang, H.-F. Tse and M. A. Esteban; - Production Process for Stem Cell Based Therapeutic Implants: Expansion of the Production Cell Line and Cultivation of Encapsulated Cells, by C. Weber, S. Pohl, R. Poertner, P. Pino-Grace, D. Freimark, C. Wallrapp, P. Geigle and P. Czermak; - Cartilage Engineering from Mesenchymal Stem Cells, by C. Goepfert, A. Slobodianski, A.F. Schilling, P. Adamietz and R. Poertner; - Outgrowth Endothelial Cells: Sources, Characteristics and Potential Applications in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, by S. Fuchs, E. Dohle, M. Kolbe, C. J. Kirkpatrick; - Basic Science and Clinical Application of Stem Cells in Veterinary Medicine, by I. Ribitsch, J. Burk, U. Delling, C. Geissler, C. Gittel, H. Juelke, W. Brehm; - Bone Marrow Stem Cells in Clinical Application: Harnessing Paracrine Roles and Niche Mechanisms, by R. M. El Backly, R. Cancedda; - Clinical Application of Stem Cells in the Cardiovascular System, C. Stamm, K. Klose, Y.-H. Choi. (orig.)

  15. Angiotensin II receptor blocker ameliorates stress-induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoharu Hayashi

    Full Text Available A strong causal link exists between psychological stress and insulin resistance as well with hypertension. Meanwhile, stress-related responses play critical roles in glucose metabolism in hypertensive patients. As clinical trials suggest that angiotensin-receptor blocker delays the onset of diabetes in hypertensive patients, we investigated the effects of irbesartan on stress-induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 2-week intermittent restraint stress and orally treated with vehicle, 3 and 10 mg/kg/day irbesartan. The plasma concentrations of lipid and proinflammatory cytokines [Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6] were assessed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Monocyte/macrophage accumulation in inguinal white adipose tissue (WAT was observed with CD11b-positive cell counts and mRNA expressions of CD68 and F4/80 using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR methods respectively. The mRNA levels of angiotensinogen, proinflammatory cytokines shown above, and adiponectin in WAT were also assessed with RT-PCR method. Glucose metabolism was assessed by glucose tolerance tests (GTTs and insulin tolerance tests, and mRNA expression of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1 and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 in WAT. Restraint stress increased monocyte accumulation, plasma free fatty acids, expression of angiotensinogen and proinflammatory cytokines including MCP-1, and reduced adiponectin. Irbesartan reduced stress-induced monocyte accumulation in WAT in a dose dependent manner. Irbesartan treatment also suppressed induction of adipose angiotensinogen and proinflammatory cytokines in WAT and blood, and reversed changes in adiponectin expression. Notably, irbesartan suppressed stress-induced reduction in adipose tissue weight and free fatty acid release, and improved insulin tolerance with restoration of IRS-1 and GLUT4 mRNA expressions in WAT. The results

  16. Hypercholesterolemia Induced by a PCSK9 Gain-of-Function Mutation Augments Angiotensin II-Induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in C57BL/6 Mice-Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hong; Howatt, Deborah A; Balakrishnan, Anju; Graham, Mark J; Mullick, Adam E; Daugherty, Alan

    2016-09-01

    Gain-of-function mutations of PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) lead to hypercholesterolemia. This study was to determine whether infection of normocholesterolemic mice with an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector expressing a gain-of-function mutation of mouse PCSK9 increased angiotensin II (AngII)-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms. In an initial study, male C57BL/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with either an empty vector or PCSK9 gain-of-function mutation (D377Y). AAV at 3 doses and fed a saturated fat-enriched diet for 6 weeks. Two weeks after AAV injection, mice were infused with AngII for 4 weeks. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations were increased dose dependently in mice injected with AAV containing PCSK9D377Y mutation and positively associated with elevations of plasma cholesterol concentrations. Infection with intermediate and high doses of PCSK9D377Y.AAV led to equivalent increases of maximal width of abdominal aortas in C57BL/6 mice infused with AngII. Therefore, the intermediate dose was used in subsequent experiments. We then determined effects of PCSK9D377Y.AAV infection on 5 normolipidemic mouse strains, demonstrating that C57BL/6 mice were the most susceptible to this AAV infection. PCSK9D377Y.AAV infected male C57BL/6 mice were also compared with age-matched male low-density lipoprotein receptor(-/-) mice. Although plasma cholesterol concentrations were lower in mice infected with PCSK9D377Y.AAV, these mice had equivalent abdominal aortic aneurysmal formation, compared to low-density lipoprotein receptor(-/-) mice. In a separate study, reduced plasma PCSK9 concentrations by PCSK9 antisense oligonucleotides in male low-density lipoprotein receptor(-/-) mice did not influence AngII-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms. AAV-mediated infection with a mouse PCSK9 gain-of-function mutation is a rapid, easy, and efficient approach for inducing hypercholesterolemia and promoting abdominal aortic aneurysms in C57BL/6 mice infused with AngII

  17. Arginase II expressed in cancer-associated fibroblasts indicates tissue hypoxia and predicts poor outcome in patients with pancreatic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Ino

    Full Text Available An adequate level of arginine in the tissue microenvironment is essential for T cell activity and survival. Arginine levels are regulated by the arginine-catabolizing enzyme, arginase (ARG. It has been reported that arginase II (ARG2, one of two ARGs, is aberrantly expressed in prostate cancer cells, which convert arginine into ornithine, resulting in a lack of arginine that weakens tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and renders them dysfunctional. However, immune suppression mediated by ARG2-expressing cancer cells in lung cancer has not been observed. Here we studied the expression of ARG2 in pancreatic ductal carcinoma (PDC tissue clinicopathologically by examining over 200 cases of PDC. In contrast to prostate cancer, ARG2 expression was rarely demonstrated in PDC cells by immunohistochemistry, and instead ARG2 was characteristically expressed in α-smooth muscle actin-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs, especially those located within and around necrotic areas in PDC. The presence of ARG2-expressing CAFs was closely correlated with shorter overall survival (OS; P  = 0.003 and disease-free survival (DFS; P  = 0.0006. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the presence of ARG2-expressing CAFs in PDC tissue was an independent predictor of poorer OS (hazard ratio [HR]  = 1.582, P  = 0.007 and DFS (HR  = 1.715, P  = 0.001 in PDC patients. In addition to the characteristic distribution of ARG2-expressing CAFs, such CAFs co-expressed carbonic anhydrase IX, SLC2A1, or HIF-1α, markers of hypoxia, in PDC tissue. Furthermore, in vitro experiments revealed that cultured fibroblasts extracted from PDC tissue expressed the ARG2 transcript after exposure to hypoxia, which had arginase activity. These results indicate that cancer cell-mediated immune suppression through ARG2 expression is not a general event and that the presence of ARG2-expressing CAFs is an indicator of poor prognosis, as well as hypoxia, in PDC

  18. Condensin II mutation causes T-cell lymphoma through tissue-specific genome instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Jessica; Taylor, Gillian C.; Soares, Dinesh C.; Boyle, Shelagh; Sie, Daoud; Read, David; Chathoth, Keerthi; Vukovic, Milica; Tarrats, Nuria; Jamieson, David; Campbell, Kirsteen J.; Blyth, Karen; Acosta, Juan Carlos; Ylstra, Bauke; Arends, Mark J.; Kranc, Kamil R.; Jackson, Andrew P.; Bickmore, Wendy A.

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal instability is a hallmark of cancer, but mitotic regulators are rarely mutated in tumors. Mutations in the condensin complexes, which restructure chromosomes to facilitate segregation during mitosis, are significantly enriched in cancer genomes, but experimental evidence implicating condensin dysfunction in tumorigenesis is lacking. We report that mice inheriting missense mutations in a condensin II subunit (Caph2nes) develop T-cell lymphoma. Before tumors develop, we found that the same Caph2 mutation impairs ploidy maintenance to a different extent in different hematopoietic cell types, with ploidy most severely perturbed at the CD4+CD8+ T-cell stage from which tumors initiate. Premalignant CD4+CD8+ T cells show persistent catenations during chromosome segregation, triggering DNA damage in diploid daughter cells and elevated ploidy. Genome sequencing revealed that Caph2 single-mutant tumors are near diploid but carry deletions spanning tumor suppressor genes, whereas P53 inactivation allowed Caph2 mutant cells with whole-chromosome gains and structural rearrangements to form highly aggressive disease. Together, our data challenge the view that mitotic chromosome formation is an invariant process during development and provide evidence that defective mitotic chromosome structure can promote tumorigenesis. PMID:27737961

  19. Secondary Breast Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mitchell H; Somogyi, Ron B; Aggarwal, Shagun

    2016-07-01

    After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Assess common clinical problems in the secondary breast augmentation patient. 2. Describe a treatment plan to correct the most common complications of breast augmentation. 3. Provide surgical and nonsurgical options for managing complications of breast augmentation. 4. Decrease the incidence of future complications through accurate assessment, preoperative planning, and precise surgical technique. Breast augmentation has been increasing steadily in popularity over the past three decades. Many of these patients present with secondary problems or complications following their primary breast augmentation. Two of the most common complications are capsular contracture and implant malposition. Familiarity and comfort with the assessment and management of these complications is necessary for all plastic surgeons. An up-to-date understanding of current devices and techniques may decrease the need to manage future complications from the current cohort of breast augmentation patients.

  20. Mobile Augmented Reality Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Prochazka, David; Stencl, Michael; Popelka, Ondrej; Stastny, Jiri

    2011-01-01

    Augmented reality have undergone considerable improvement in past years. Many special techniques and hardware devices were developed, but the crucial breakthrough came with the spread of intelligent mobile phones. This enabled mass spread of augmented reality applications. However mobile devices have limited hardware capabilities, which narrows down the methods usable for scene analysis. In this article we propose an augmented reality application which is using cloud computing to enable using...

  1. Soluble TGF-β type II receptor gene therapy reduces TGF-β activity in irradiated lung tissue and protects lungs from radiation-induced injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujaskovic, Z.; Rabbani, Z.; Zhang, X.; Samulski, T.V.; Li, C.-Y.; Anscher, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The objective was to determine whether administration of recombinant human adenoviral vector carrying soluble TGF-β1 type II receptor (TβR-II) gene reduces availability of active TGFβ1 and protects lung from radiation-induced injury. Female Fisher-344 rats were randomized into four groups to receive: 1) Control 2) Adenoviral green fluorescent protein vector (AdGFP) alone 3) Radiation (RT) + Adenoviral vector with TGF-β1 type II receptor gene (AdexTβR-II-Fc) 4) RT alone. Animals were irradiated to right hemithorax using a single dose of 30 Gy. The packaging and production of a recombinant adenovirus carrying the fused human TβR-II-IgG1 Fc gene was achieved by use of the AdEasy system. The treatment vector AdexTbR-II-Fc (1.5*1010 PFU) and control vector AdGFP (1*109 PFU) were injected i.v. 24 hrs after RT. Respiratory rate was measured as an index of pulmonary function weekly for 5 weeks post RT. Structural damage was scored histologically. Immunohistochemistry was performed to identify activated macrophages. ELISA was used to quantify active TGF-β1 in tissue homogenate. Western blot was used to determine TβR-II expression in plasma and lung tissue. Animals receiving treatment vector AdexTbR-II-Fc have elevated plasma levels of soluble TβR-II at 24 and 48 hours after injection. In the RT+AdexTbR-II-Fc group, there was a significant reduction in respiratory rate (p = 0.002) at four weeks after treatment compared to RT alone group. Histology revealed a significant reduction in lung structural damage in animals receiving gene therapy after RT vs RT alone (p=0.0013). There was also a decrease in the number of activated macrophage (p= 0.02) in RT+AdexTbR-II-Fc group vs RT alone. The tissue protein expression of active TGF-β1 was significantly reduced in rats receiving RT+AdexTbR-II-Fc treatment (p<0.05). This study shows the ability of adenovirus mediated soluble TβR-II gene therapy to reduce tissue levels of active TGF-β1 and ameliorate radiation

  2. An MHC II-Dependent Activation Loop between Adipose Tissue Macrophages and CD4+ T Cells Controls Obesity-Induced Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae Won Cho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive immune response triggered by obesity is characterized by the activation of adipose tissue CD4+ T cells by unclear mechanisms. We have examined whether interactions between adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs and CD4+ T cells contribute to adipose tissue metainflammation. Intravital microscopy identifies dynamic antigen-dependent interactions between ATMs and T cells in visceral fat. Mice deficient in major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II showed protection from diet-induced obesity. Deletion of MHC II expression in macrophages led to an adipose tissue-specific decrease in the effector/memory CD4+ T cells, attenuation of CD11c+ ATM accumulation, and improvement in glucose intolerance by increasing adipose tissue insulin sensitivity. Ablation experiments demonstrated that the maintenance of proliferating conventional T cells is dependent on signals from CD11c+ ATMs in obese mice. These studies demonstrate the importance of MHCII-restricted signals from ATMs that regulate adipose tissue T cell maturation and metainflammation.

  3. Confronting an Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munnerley, Danny; Bacon, Matt; Wilson, Anna; Steele, James; Hedberg, John; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2012-01-01

    How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself ? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and…

  4. Augmented Reality on Android

    OpenAIRE

    Chunghan Li; Chang-Shyh Peng; Daisy F. Sang

    2013-01-01

    Augmented Reality is an application which combines a live view of real-world environment and computer-generated images. This paper studies and demonstrates an efficient Augmented Reality development in the mobile Android environment with the native Java language and Android SDK. Major components include Barcode Reader, File Loader, Marker Detector, Transform Matrix Generator, and a cloud database.

  5. Molecular cloning and tissue-specific expression analysis of mouse spinesin, a type II transmembrane serine protease 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Okui, Akira; Mitsui, Shinichi; Kawarabuki, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Tatsuyuki; Uemura, Hidetoshi; Yamaguchi, Nozomi

    2004-01-01

    We have previously reported novel serine proteases isolated from cDNA libraries of the human and mouse central nervous system (CNS) by PCR using degenerate oligodeoxyribonucleotide primers designed on the basis of the serine protease motifs, AAHC and DSGGP. Here we report a newly isolated serine protease from the mouse CNS. This protease is homologous (77.9% identical) to human spinesin type II transmembrane serine protease 5. Mouse spinesin (m-spinesin) is also composed of (from the N-terminus) a short cytoplasmic domain, a transmembrane domain, a stem region containing a scavenger-receptor-like domain, and a serine protease domain, as is h-spinesin. We also isolated type 1, type 2, and type 3 variant cDNAs of m-spinesin. Full-length spinesin (type 4) and type 3 contain all the domains, whereas type 1 and type 2 variants lack the cytoplasmic, transmembrane, and scavenger-receptor-like domains. Subcellular localization of the variant forms was analyzed using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fusion proteins. EGFP-type 4 fusion protein was predominantly localized to the ER, Golgi apparatus, and plasma membrane, whereas EGFP-type 1 was localized to the cytoplasm, reflecting differential classification of m-spinesin variants into transmembrane and cytoplasmic types. We analyzed the distribution of m-spinesin variants in mouse tissues, using RT-PCR with variant-specific primer sets. Interestingly, transmembrane-type spinesin, types 3 and 4, was specifically expressed in the spinal cord, whereas cytoplasmic type, type 1, was expressed in multiple tissues, including the cerebrum and cerebellum. Therefore, m-spinesin variants may have distinct biological functions arising from organ-specific variant expression

  6. Complications 15 years after breast augmentation with polyacrylamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib M. Ghasemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG has been used as an injectable, permanent filler for soft-tissue augmentation for more than two decades. Several complications have been reported worldwide. In this case report, we present a woman with long-term complications 15 years after bilateral breast augmentation with PAAG injections.

  7. The HART I augmented electric gun facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fikse, D.A.; Ciesar, J.A.; Wehrli, H.A.; Rimersma, H.; Docherty, E.F.; Pipich, C.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an augmented electric gun system that has been commissioned. This system, called HART I (Hypervelocity Augmented Railgun Test), is built around a double augmented rail arrangement with a 1.27-cm square bore. It is powered by the SUVAC II 5.6-MJ distributed capacitor power supply. This arrangement allows operation in a simple, series augmented, or transaugmented gun system configuration. The objective of this facility is to perform materials research augmentation studies, and armature development in the 10-km/s regime. Armature masses of 2 to 4 g will be accelerated in a 4-m long barrel. Baseline bore materials will begin with conventional G9/GlidCop systems and then move into pyrolytic boron nitride/refractory materials. Hybrids, plasma, and ablation stabilized armature systems are planned. The gun system is instrumented with plasma and rail B probes for inbore velocity measurements. In addition, breech and muzzle voltages, currents, and external velocities are measured. The HART I system is currently performing hypervelocity experiments to verify the augmentation models

  8. Ethical and technical considerations for the creation of cell lines in the head & neck and tissue harvesting for research and drug development (Part II: Ethical aspects of obtaining tissue specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upile Tahwinder

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although much has been published for the development of cell lines, these were lab based and developed for scientific technical staff. Objective of review We discuss the ethical implications of tissue retention and present a generic consent form (Part II. We also present a simple and successful protocol for the development of cell lines and tissue harvesting for the clinical scientist (Part I. Conclusion Consent is also more proximate and assurance can be given of appropriate usage. Ethical questions concerning tissue ownership are in many institutions raised during the current consenting procedure. We provide a robust ethical framework, based on the current legislation, which allows clinicians to be directly involved in cell and tissue harvesting.

  9. Operação de Senning com a utilização de tecidos do próprio paciente Senning operation with autologous tissue for atrial septum augmentation or pulmonary venous pathway enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando CANÊO

    1999-10-01

    advantages of the original Senning Operation is the ability to avoid either biologic or synthetic patches for atrial septum augmentation or to enlarge pulmonary venous pathways. To accomplish this we have performed the Senning procedure with some modifications that allow the operation to be completed without the use of heterologous tissue. Twelve children, aged 5 months to 4 years (mean age: 20 months with transposition of great arteries who had previous balloon atrial septostomy were submitted to the Senning procedure. The following associated lesions were diagnosed: ventricular septal defect in 1 patient, valvular pulmonary stenosis in 1 and auricular juxtaposition in 1. The modified technique used for atrial septum augmentation was the use of open inverted left auricula in 5 cases, inverted auricula in 2 and in situ autologous pericardium for venous pathway enlargement in 5. The hospitalization was 10 to 24 days (mean = 15 days and the post-operative period was 7 to 22 days (mean = 12 days. There were no in-hospital or late deaths during a mean follow-up period of 23 months (range 8 to 34 months. All patients had a good clinical outcome and their follow-up echocardiographic examinations showed no evidence of venous pathway obstruction. This modified Senning Operation can be performed without either biologic or synthetic patches for atrial septum augmentation or to enlarge pulmonary venous pathway. The use of autologous in situ tissues with potential for growth, retains the main theoretical advantage of the original technique.

  10. Augmented reality: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Donna R

    2012-01-01

    Augmented reality is a technology that overlays digital information on objects or places in the real world for the purpose of enhancing the user experience. It is not virtual reality, that is, the technology that creates a totally digital or computer created environment. Augmented reality, with its ability to combine reality and digital information, is being studied and implemented in medicine, marketing, museums, fashion, and numerous other areas. This article presents an overview of augmented reality, discussing what it is, how it works, its current implementations, and its potential impact on libraries.

  11. Skin-Tissue-sparing Excision with Electrosurgical Peeling (STEEP): a surgical treatment option for severe hidradenitis suppurativa Hurley stage II/III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, J L; Spoo, J R; Leeman, F W J; Jonkman, M F; Horváth, B

    2015-02-01

    Surgery is the only curative treatment for removal of the persistent sinus tracts in the skin that are characteristic of severe hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). Complete resection of the affected tissue by wide excision is currently regarded as the preferred surgical technique in these cases. However, relatively large amounts of healthy tissue are removed with this method and suitable skin-tissue-saving techniques aiming at creating less-extensive surgical defects are therefore needed in severe HS. We describe a skin-tissue-saving surgical technique for HS Hurley stage II-III disease: the Skin-Tissue-sparing Excision with Electrosurgical Peeling (STEEP) procedure. In contrast to wide excisions that generally reach into the deep subcutaneous fat, the fat is maximally spared with the STEEP procedure by performing successive tangential excisions of lesional tissue until the epithelialized bottom of the sinus tracts has been reached. From here, secondary intention healing can occur. In addition, fibrotic tissue is completely removed in the same manner as this also serves as a source of recurrence. This tissue-sparing technique results in low recurrence rates, high patient satisfaction with relatively short healing times and favourable cosmetic outcomes without contractures. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  12. Augmented Reality, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Augmented Reality systems come with many benefits derived by co-locating information with a user's environment through the use of one or more output modalities such...

  13. Chin augmentation - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100009.htm Chin augmentation - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  14. Augmenting Clozapine With Sertindole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Emborg, Charlotte; Gydesen, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Clozapine augmentation with antipsychotic drugs is widely used despite sparse evidence supporting this strategy. Sertindole is a nonsedating atypical antipsychotic drug with low affinity for cholinergic receptors, which makes it potentially suitable for augmentation of clozapine. The study design...... glucose, lipids, and electrocardiogram. Clozapine augmentation with sertindole was not superior to placebo regarding total score or subscale score of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impression, World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief, or Drug Attitude Inventory....... No increased adverse effects compared with placebo were found. Four patients randomized to sertindole experienced a significant worsening of psychosis, and 2 of them required psychiatric admission. Metabolic parameters were unchanged during the study, but augmentation of clozapine with sertindole...

  15. Breast augmentation - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100205.htm Breast augmentation - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  16. Augmented reality in neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagaytayan, Raniel; Kelemen, Arpad; Sik-Lanyi, Cecilia

    2018-04-01

    Neurosurgery is a medical specialty that relies heavily on imaging. The use of computed tomography and magnetic resonance images during preoperative planning and intraoperative surgical navigation is vital to the success of the surgery and positive patient outcome. Augmented reality application in neurosurgery has the potential to revolutionize and change the way neurosurgeons plan and perform surgical procedures in the future. Augmented reality technology is currently commercially available for neurosurgery for simulation and training. However, the use of augmented reality in the clinical setting is still in its infancy. Researchers are now testing augmented reality system prototypes to determine and address the barriers and limitations of the technology before it can be widely accepted and used in the clinical setting.

  17. Exploration Augmentation Module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Exploration Augmentation Module (EAM) project goal is to design and deliver a flight module that is to be deployed to Earth-Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO)....

  18. Marketing and Augmented Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Zelený, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this diploma thesis is to identify the usage of augmented reality in contemporary marketing practice and the expectations of marketers for the future use. This will be achieved by conducting a quantitative and qualitative research among existing creative and advertising companies. Secondary goal is introducing the concept of augmented reality from the theoretical point of view and also description of potential utilization based on known examples. The tools for the practical p...

  19. INFORMATION VIA AUGMENTED

    OpenAIRE

    Tetteh, Sampson

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of mobile technology today has developed over the past dec-ades. The thirst for information and communication has brought about high data transfer speed on modern mobile handset devices. This makes it possible for Augmented Reality to be used on mobile phones. Vaasa University of Applied Science, Technobothnia science resource center and Lumivaara Museum saw the importance of information and decided to embark on a pilot project where Augmented Reality will not be only us...

  20. Confronting an augmented reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hedberg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and suggest that they be used as drivers for research into effective educational applications of augmented reality. We discuss how multi-modal, sensorial augmentation of reality links to existing theories of education and learning, focusing on ideas of cognitive dissonance and the confrontation of new realities implied by exposure to new and varied perspectives. We also discuss connections with broader debates brought on by the social and cultural changes wrought by the increased digitalisation of our lives, especially the concept of the extended mind. Rather than offer a prescription for augmentation, our intention is to throw open debate and to provoke deep thinking about what interacting with and creating an augmented reality might mean for both teacher and learner.

  1. Death of pastures syndrome: tissue changes in Urochloa hybrida cv. Mulato II and Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Ribeiro-Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract The quality of forage production is a prerequisite to raising livestock. Therefore, income losses in this activity, primarily cattle raising, can result in the impossibility of economic activity. Through the qualitative and quantitative anatomical study of Urochloa hybrida cv. Mulato II and U. brizantha cv. Marandu, we searched for descriptions and compared changes in the individual vegetative body from populations with death syndrome pastures (DPS. Specimens were collected at different physiological stages from farms in northern Mato Grosso. After collection, the individuals were fixed in FAA50 and stored in 70% alcohol. Histological slides were prepared from the middle third of the sections of roots, rhizomes, and leaves, and the proportions and characteristics of tissues were evaluated in healthy, intermediate, and advanced stages of DPS. Changes were compared between cultivars. With the advancement of the syndrome, the following changes were observed: a more marked decrease in the length of roots in U. hybrida; disorganization of the cortical region of the roots and rhizome cultivars; fungal hyphae in roots and aerenchyma formation in U. hybrida; a decrease in sclerenchyma fiber proportions in roots and leaves; sclerification of the epidermis of U. brizantha rhizomes; and an increase in pericyclic fibers in U. hybrida. Furthermore, there was a decrease in the volume of epidermal cells of the abaxial face of the leaves of both cultivars, with a greater reduction in U. hybrida; a gradual decrease in thickness in the midrib of leaves similar to leaf mesophyll; conduction system obstructions; partial or total cell lysis in roots and rhizomes affected by the syndrome. Obstructions in sieve tube element and companion cells, and sometimes obstruction in xylem vessel elements. The evolution of DPS in cultivars was similar, but there were variations, arising probably from the physiological response to stress, such as aerenchyma formation in

  2. Normal tissue sparing in a phase II trial on daily adaptive plan selection in radiotherapy for urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Anne; Muren, Ludvig P; Lindberg, Henriette; Jakobsen, Kirsten L; Petersen, Jørgen B B; Elstrøm, Ulrik V; Agerbæk, Mads; Høyer, Morten

    2014-08-01

    Background: Patients with urinary bladder cancer often display large changes in the shape and size of their bladder target during a course of radiotherapy (RT), making adaptive RT (ART) appealing for this tumour site. We are conducting a clinical phase II trial of daily plan selection-based ART for bladder cancer and here report dose-volume data from the first 20 patients treated in the trial. All patients received 60 Gy in 30 fractions to the bladder; in 13 of the patients the pelvic lymph nodes were simultaneously treated to 48 Gy. Daily patient set-up was by use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) guidance. The first 5 fractions were delivered with large, population-based (non-adaptive) margins. The bladder contours from the CBCTs acquired in the first 4 fractions were used to create a patient-specific library of three plans, corresponding to a small, medium and large size bladder. From fraction 6, daily online plan selection was performed, where the smallest plan covering the bladder was selected prior to each treatment delivery. A total of 600 treatment fractions in the 20 patients were evaluated. Small, medium and large size plans were used almost equally often, with an average of 10, 9 and 11 fractions, respectively. The median volume ratio of the course-averaged PTV (PTV-ART) relative to the non-adaptive PTV was 0.70 (range: 0.46-0.89). A linear regression analysis showed a 183 cm(3) (CI 143-223 cm(3)) reduction in PTV-ART compared to the non-adaptive PTV (R(2) = 0.94). Daily adaptive plan selection in RT of bladder cancer results in a considerable normal tissue sparing, of a magnitude that we expect will translate into a clinically significant reduction of the treatment-related morbidity.

  3. Augmented reality som wearable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Rahn, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler design og implementering af Augmented Reality (AR) i form af en wearable i sygeplejerskeuddannelsens anatomiundervisning, mere specifikt undervisning i lungeanatomi og respiration, med fokus på potentialer for visuel læring. Projektet undersøger, hvordan en udviklet AR-applikat......Artiklen omhandler design og implementering af Augmented Reality (AR) i form af en wearable i sygeplejerskeuddannelsens anatomiundervisning, mere specifikt undervisning i lungeanatomi og respiration, med fokus på potentialer for visuel læring. Projektet undersøger, hvordan en udviklet AR...

  4. Prototyping Augmented Reality

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Learn to create augmented reality apps using Processing open-source programming language Augmented reality (AR) is used all over, and you may not even realize it. Smartphones overlay data onto live camera views to show homes for sale, restaurants, or historical sites. American football broadcasts use AR to show the invisible first-down line on the field to TV viewers. Nike and Budweiser, among others, have used AR in ads. Now, you can learn to create AR prototypes using 3D data, Processing open-source programming language, and other languages. This unique book is an easy-to-follow guide on how

  5. Mathematical modelling and numerical solution of swelling of cartilaginous tissues. Part II: Mixed hybrid finite element solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malakpoor, K.; Kaasschieter, E.F.; Huyghe, J.M.R.J.

    2007-01-01

    The swelling and shrinkage of biological tissues are modelled by a four-component mixture theory [J.M. Huyghe and J.D. Janssen, Int. J. Engng. Sci. 35 (1997) 793-802; K. Malakpoor, E.F. Kaasschieter and J.M. Huyghe, Mathematical modelling and numerical solution of swelling of cartilaginous tissues.

  6. Dose to level I and II axillary lymph nodes and lung by tangential field radiation in patients undergoing postmastectomy radiation with tissue expander reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, James K; Armeson, Kent E; Rhome, Ryan; Spanos, Michele; Harper, Jennifer L

    2011-01-01

    To define the dosimetric coverage of level I/II axillary volumes and the lung volume irradiated in postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) following tissue expander placement. Twenty-three patients were identified who had undergone postmastectomy radiotherapy with tangent only fields. All patients had pre-radiation tissue expander placement and expansion. Thirteen patients had bilateral expander reconstruction. The level I/II axillary volumes were contoured using the RTOG contouring atlas. The patient-specific variables of expander volume, superior-to-inferior location of expander, distance between expanders, expander angle and axillary volume were analyzed to determine their relationship to the axillary volume and lung volume dose. The mean coverage of the level I/II axillary volume by the 95% isodose line (V D95% ) was 23.9% (range 0.3 - 65.4%). The mean Ipsilateral Lung V D50% was 8.8% (2.2-20.9). Ipsilateral and contralateral expander volume correlated to Axillary V D95% in patients with bilateral reconstruction (p = 0.01 and 0.006, respectively) but not those with ipsilateral only reconstruction (p = 0.60). Ipsilateral Lung V D50% correlated with angle of the expander from midline (p = 0.05). In patients undergoing PMRT with tissue expanders, incidental doses delivered by tangents to the axilla, as defined by the RTOG contouring atlas, do not provide adequate coverage. The posterior-superior region of level I and II is the region most commonly underdosed. Axillary volume coverage increased with increasing expander volumes in patients with bilateral reconstruction. Lung dose increased with increasing expander angle from midline. This information should be considered both when placing expanders and when designing PMRT tangent only treatment plans by contouring and targeting the axilla volume when axillary treatment is indicated

  7. Towards Pervasive Augmented Reality: Context-Awareness in Augmented Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubert, Jens; Langlotz, Tobias; Zollmann, Stefanie; Regenbrecht, Holger

    2017-06-01

    Augmented Reality is a technique that enables users to interact with their physical environment through the overlay of digital information. While being researched for decades, more recently, Augmented Reality moved out of the research labs and into the field. While most of the applications are used sporadically and for one particular task only, current and future scenarios will provide a continuous and multi-purpose user experience. Therefore, in this paper, we present the concept of Pervasive Augmented Reality, aiming to provide such an experience by sensing the user's current context and adapting the AR system based on the changing requirements and constraints. We present a taxonomy for Pervasive Augmented Reality and context-aware Augmented Reality, which classifies context sources and context targets relevant for implementing such a context-aware, continuous Augmented Reality experience. We further summarize existing approaches that contribute towards Pervasive Augmented Reality. Based our taxonomy and survey, we identify challenges for future research directions in Pervasive Augmented Reality.

  8. Expression and role of the angiotensin II AT2 receptor in human prostate tissue: in search of a new therapeutic option for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Marie-Odile; Battista, Marie-Claude; Nikjouitavabi, Fatemeh; Carmel, Maude; Barres, Véronique; Doueik, Alexandre A; Fazli, Ladan; Gleave, Martin; Sabbagh, Robert; Gallo-Payet, Nicole

    2013-07-01

    Evidence shows that angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blockers may be associated with improved outcome in prostate cancer patients. It has been proposed that part of this effect could be due to angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) activation, the only active angiotensin II receptor in this situation. This study aimed to characterize the localization and expression of AT2R in prostate tissues and to assess its role on cell morphology and number in prostatic epithelial cells in primary culture. AT2R and its AT2R-interacting protein (ATIP) expression were assessed on non-tumoral and tumoral human prostate using tissue microarray immunohistochemistry, binding assay, and Western blotting. AT2R effect on cell number was measured in primary cultures of epithelial cells from non-tumoral human prostate. AT2R was localized at the level of the acinar epithelial layer and its expression decreased in cancers with a Gleason score 6 or higher. In contrast, ATIP expression increased with cancer progression. Treatment of primary cell cultures from non-tumoral prostate tissues with C21/M024, a selective AT2R agonist, alone or in co-incubation with losartan, an AT1R antagonist, significantly decreased cell number compared to untreated cells. AT2R and ATIP are present in non-tumoral human prostate tissues and differentially regulated according to Gleason score. The decrease in non-tumoral prostate cell number upon selective AT2R stimulation suggests that AT2R may have a protective role against prostate cancer development. Treatment with a selective AT2R agonist could represent a new approach for prostate cancer prevention or for patients on active surveillance. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Maxillary Sinus Floor Augmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starch-Jensen, Thomas; Jensen, Janek Dalsgaard

    2017-01-01

    , radiological and histomorphometric outcome as well as complications are presented after maxillary sinus floor augmentation applying the lateral window technique with a graft material, maxillary sinus membrane elevation without a graft material and osteotome-mediated sinus floor elevation with or without...

  10. Augmented Reality og kulturarv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikkel Kirkedahl Lysholm

    2013-01-01

    Museerne står overfor at skulle omfavne den digitale kultur i håndteringen af den store mængde viden, institutionerne repræsenterer. Augmented Reality-systemer forbinder ved hjælp af moderne teknologi det virtuelle med det virkelige, og kan derfor synes som en oplagt anvendelsesmulighed i...

  11. Augmented Reality i naturfagsundervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radmer, Ole; Surland, Mogens; Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    Augmented Reality (AR) giver ny mulighed for, at elever kan lave undersøgelser i naturfag med enkel teknologi, hvor animationer og simulationer kobles med det virkelige fænomen. I workshoppen kan I afprøve AR eksempler, udviklet i et internationalt EU projekt. Der vil være noget, der direkte kan...

  12. Collaboration in Augmented Reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukosch, S.; Billinghurst, M.; Alem, L.; Kiyokawa, K.

    2015-01-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is a technology that allows users to view and interact in real time with virtual images seamlessly superimposed over the real world. AR systems can be used to create unique collaborative experiences. For example, co-located users can see shared 3D virtual objects that they

  13. A four step model for the IL-6 amplifier, a regulator of chromic inflammations in tissue specific MHC class II-associated autoimmune diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki eMurakami

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It is thought autoimmune diseases are caused by the breakdown of self-tolerance, which suggests the recognition of specific antigens by autoreactive CD4+ T cells contribute to the specificity of autoimmune diseases. In several cases, however, even for diseases associated with class II MHC alleles, the causative tissue-specific antigens recognized by memory/activated CD4+ T cells have not been established. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA and arthritis in F759 knock-in mouse line (F759 mice are such examples, even though evidences support a pathogenic role for CD4+ T cells in both diseases. We have recently shown local events such as microbleeding together with an accumulation of activated CD4+ T cells in a manner independent of tissue antigen-recognitions induces arthritis in the joints of F759 mice. For example, local microbleeding-mediated CCL20 expression induced such an accumulation, causing arthritis development via chronic activation of an IL-17A-dependent IL-6 signaling amplification loop in type 1 collagen+ cells that is triggered by CD4+ T cell-derived cytokine(s such as IL-17A, which leads to the synergistic activation of STAT3 and NFκB in non hematopoietic cells in the joint. We named this loop the IL-6-mediated inflammation amplifier, or IL-6 amplifier. Thus, certain class II MHC–associated, tissue-specific autoimmune diseases may be induced by local events that cause an antigen-independent accumulation of effector CD4+ T cells followed by the induction of the IL-6 amplifier in the affected tissue. To explain this hypothesis, we have proposed a Four Step Model for MHC class II associated autoimmune diseases. The interaction of four local events results in chronic activation of the IL-6 amplifier, leading to the manifestation of autoimmune diseases. Thus, we have concluded the IL-6 amplifier is a critical regulator of chromic inflammations in tissue specific MHC class II-associated autoimmune diseases.

  14. Radiotherapy. Non-standard fractionated regimens improving cancer treatment. Part II. Response of normal tissues to fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, A.; Hernandez, M.; Pera, J.; Cambray, M.; Villa, S.; Arnaiz, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    The phenomena participating in the response of tissues to fractionated irradiation are analyzed with special emphasis on the most relevant points influencing the design of non-standard fractionated regimens. (Author)

  15. Capillary Refill using Augmented Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Clausen, Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis in Computer science The opportunities within augmented reality is growing. Augmented reality is a combination of the real and the virtual world in real time, and large companies like Microsoft and Google is now investing heavily in the technology. This thesis presents a solution for simulating a medical test called capillary refill, by using augmented reality. The simulation is performed with an augmented reality headset called HoloLens. The HoloLens will recognise a mark...

  16. AR DOC: Augmented reality documentaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Augmented Reality Documentaries (AR DOC) er et ’lille’ Shareplay projekt (ansøgte midler augmented reality cross media løsninger, til at skabe engagerende publikumsformidling...... indenfor oplevelsesindustrien. Projektet har genereret ny viden omkring, hvordan fysisk og digital formidling kan understøttes via Augmented Reality som formidlingsformat....

  17. Physical interface dynamics alter how robotic exosuits augment human movement: implications for optimizing wearable assistive devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yandell, Matthew B; Quinlivan, Brendan T; Popov, Dmitry; Walsh, Conor; Zelik, Karl E

    2017-05-18

    Wearable assistive devices have demonstrated the potential to improve mobility outcomes for individuals with disabilities, and to augment healthy human performance; however, these benefits depend on how effectively power is transmitted from the device to the human user. Quantifying and understanding this power transmission is challenging due to complex human-device interface dynamics that occur as biological tissues and physical interface materials deform and displace under load, absorbing and returning power. Here we introduce a new methodology for quickly estimating interface power dynamics during movement tasks using common motion capture and force measurements, and then apply this method to quantify how a soft robotic ankle exosuit interacts with and transfers power to the human body during walking. We partition exosuit end-effector power (i.e., power output from the device) into power that augments ankle plantarflexion (termed augmentation power) vs. power that goes into deformation and motion of interface materials and underlying soft tissues (termed interface power). We provide empirical evidence of how human-exosuit interfaces absorb and return energy, reshaping exosuit-to-human power flow and resulting in three key consequences: (i) During exosuit loading (as applied forces increased), about 55% of exosuit end-effector power was absorbed into the interfaces. (ii) However, during subsequent exosuit unloading (as applied forces decreased) most of the absorbed interface power was returned viscoelastically. Consequently, the majority (about 75%) of exosuit end-effector work over each stride contributed to augmenting ankle plantarflexion. (iii) Ankle augmentation power (and work) was delayed relative to exosuit end-effector power, due to these interface energy absorption and return dynamics. Our findings elucidate the complexities of human-exosuit interface dynamics during transmission of power from assistive devices to the human body, and provide insight into

  18. Augmented reality in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhaiber, Jeffrey H

    2004-02-01

    To evaluate the history and current knowledge of computer-augmented reality in the field of surgery and its potential goals in education, surgeon training, and patient treatment. National Library of Medicine's database and additional library searches. Only articles suited to surgical sciences with a well-defined aim of study, methodology, and precise description of outcome were included. Augmented reality is an effective tool in executing surgical procedures requiring low-performance surgical dexterity; it remains a science determined mainly by stereotactic registration and ergonomics. Strong evidence was found that it is an effective teaching tool for training residents. Weaker evidence was found to suggest a significant influence on surgical outcome, both morbidity and mortality. No evidence of cost-effectiveness was found. Augmented reality is a new approach in executing detailed surgical operations. Although its application is in a preliminary stage, further research is needed to evaluate its long-term clinical impact on patients, surgeons, and hospital administrators. Its widespread use and the universal transfer of such technology remains limited until there is a better understanding of registration and ergonomics.

  19. Augmented reality services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Koubek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We assume that one of the key reasons is in the difference between a standalone application and a web service. Both architectures have some advantages and disadvantages. The Standalone application (e.g. Nokia/OVI Maps provides the required functionality. From the user point of view, main asset of this “offline” approach is network connectivity independence. However, this kind of applications must be upgraded manually. Moreover, it is hard to get any data about the application usage because it requires additional actions from the user – data are usually acquired through conventional ways, such as email or web forms.The online service such as Google Maps (including its mobile application can offer the same functionality as the offline application. Nevertheless, a permanent connection to provider servers is necessary. This can be taken as a drawback. On the other hand, usage data collection is easier and can be done without the user intervention. The data collection provides a valuable analysis basis of the user habits and needs. This analysis is necessary for design of a complex “user” based solutions such as Google Now.Augmented reality applications are usually based on the first mentioned approach. In this article, we describe our model of augmented reality as a service and compare its features with standalone solutions. Further, other important key aspects for large emergence of augmented reality services in a mainstream market are discussed.

  20. Expression of vascular endothelial factor protein in the tumor tissues of patients with Stages I-II ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Karapetyan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To define tumor markers is presently the most interesting and promising direction for the diagnosis of malignancies. The expression of the major angiogenesis factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in primary tumor tissue was studied in ovarian cancer (OC patients to define the prognostic value of the marker.The study enrolled 48 patients with OC. The immunohistochemical technique was used to examine VEGF expression in the primary tu- mor tissue. The frequency of VEGF expression, which was associated with lower relapse-free survival rates, was found to be high (85.4% in OC patients (p > 0.05.The tumor expression of the angiogenic factor VEGF was shown to provide prognostic information in early-stage ovarian epithelial cancer.

  1. Effects of copper on the sabellid polychaete, Eudistylia vancouveri. II. copper accumulation and tissue injury in the branchial crown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J S [Pacific Northwest Lab., Sequim, WA; Adee, R R; Piscopo, I; Buschbom, R L

    1981-01-01

    Copper in seawater caused injury to the radioles (gills) of the sabellid polychaete, Eudistylia vancouveri. Light and electron microscopy showed the loss of cellular adhesion and the structural derangement that lead to cell necrosis and death. The progression of injury was related to the uptake of copper into the tissues. Copper was found by X-ray microanalysis to be localized subcellularly in membrane-bound vesicles that are similar to lysosomes. Cell breakdown may result from lysosmal labilization.

  2. Bioactive Sr(II/Chitosan/Poly(ε-caprolactone Scaffolds for Craniofacial Tissue Regeneration. In Vitro and In Vivo Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzia Rodríguez-Méndez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In craniofacial tissue regeneration, the current gold standard treatment is autologous bone grafting, however, it presents some disadvantages. Although new alternatives have emerged there is still an urgent demand of biodegradable scaffolds to act as extracellular matrix in the regeneration process. A potentially useful element in bone regeneration is strontium. It is known to promote stimulation of osteoblasts while inhibiting osteoclasts resorption, leading to neoformed bone. The present paper reports the preparation and characterization of strontium (Sr containing hybrid scaffolds formed by a matrix of ionically cross-linked chitosan and microparticles of poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL. These scaffolds of relatively facile fabrication were seeded with osteoblast-like cells (MG-63 and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs for application in craniofacial tissue regeneration. Membrane scaffolds were prepared using chitosan:PCL ratios of 1:2 and 1:1 and 5 wt % Sr salts. Characterization was performed addressing physico-chemical properties, swelling behavior, in vitro biological performance and in vivo biocompatibility. Overall, the composition, microstructure and swelling degree (≈245% of scaffolds combine with the adequate dimensional stability, lack of toxicity, osteogenic activity in MG-63 cells and hBMSCs, along with the in vivo biocompatibility in rats allow considering this system as a promising biomaterial for the treatment of craniofacial tissue regeneration.

  3. Quantitative radiation dose-response relationships for normal tissues in man. II. Response of the salivary glands during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossman, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    A quantitative dose-response curve for salivary gland function in patients during radiotherapy is presented. Salivary-function data used in this study were obtained from four previously published reports. All patients were treated with 60 Co teletherapy to the head and neck using conventional treatment techniques. Salivary dysfunction was determined at specific dose levels by comparing salivary flow rates before therapy with flow rates at specific dose intervals during radiotherapy up to a total dose of 6000 cGy. Fifty percent salivary dysfunction occurred after 1000 cGy and eighty percent dysfunction was observed by the end of the therapy course (6000 cGy). The salivary-function curve was also compared to the previously published dose-response curve for taste function. Comparisons of the two curves indicate that salivary dysfunction precedes taste loss and that the shapes of the dose-response curves are different. A new term, tissue tolerance ratio, defined as the ratio of responses of two tissues given the same radiation dose, was used to make the comparisons between gustatory and salivary gland tissue effects. Measurements of salivary gland function and analysis of dose-response curves may be useful in evaluating chemical modifiers of radiation response

  4. Confocal arthroscopy-based patient-specific constitutive models of cartilaginous tissues - II: prediction of reaction force history of meniscal cartilage specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Zeike A; Kirk, Thomas B; Miller, Karol

    2007-10-01

    The theoretical framework developed in a companion paper (Part I) is used to derive estimates of mechanical response of two meniscal cartilage specimens. The previously developed framework consisted of a constitutive model capable of incorporating confocal image-derived tissue microstructural data. In the present paper (Part II) fibre and matrix constitutive parameters are first estimated from mechanical testing of a batch of specimens similar to, but independent from those under consideration. Image analysis techniques which allow estimation of tissue microstructural parameters form confocal images are presented. The constitutive model and image-derived structural parameters are then used to predict the reaction force history of the two meniscal specimens subjected to partially confined compression. The predictions are made on the basis of the specimens' individual structural condition as assessed by confocal microscopy and involve no tuning of material parameters. Although the model does not reproduce all features of the experimental curves, as an unfitted estimate of mechanical response the prediction is quite accurate. In light of the obtained results it is judged that more general non-invasive estimation of tissue mechanical properties is possible using the developed framework.

  5. AMI: Augmented Michelson Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furió, David; Hachet, Martin; Guillet, Jean-Paul; Bousquet, Bruno; Fleck, Stéphanie; Reuter, Patrick; Canioni, Lionel

    2015-10-01

    Experiments in optics are essential for learning and understanding physical phenomena. The problem with these experiments is that they are generally time consuming for both their construction and their maintenance, potentially dangerous through the use of laser sources, and often expensive due to high technology optical components. We propose to simulate such experiments by way of hybrid systems that exploit both spatial augmented reality and tangible interaction. In particular, we focus on one of the most popular optical experiments: the Michelson interferometer. In our approach, we target a highly interactive system where students are able to interact in real time with the Augmented Michelson Interferometer (AMI) to observe, test hypotheses and then to enhance their comprehension. Compared to a fully digital simulation, we are investigating an approach that benefits from both physical and virtual elements, and where the students experiment by manipulating 3D-printed physical replicas of optical components (e.g. lenses and mirrors). Our objective is twofold. First, we want to ensure that the students will learn with our simulator the same concepts and skills that they learn with traditional methods. Second, we hypothesis that such a system opens new opportunities to teach optics in a way that was not possible before, by manipulating concepts beyond the limits of observable physical phenomena. To reach this goal, we have built a complementary team composed of experts in the field of optics, human-computer interaction, computer graphics, sensors and actuators, and education science.

  6. Augmented Reality for Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Harald; Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Georgsen, Marianne

    Augmented reality (AR) holds great promise as a learning tool. So far, however, most research has looked at the technology itself – and AR has been used primarily for commercial purposes. As a learning tool, AR supports an inquiry-based approach to science education with a high level of student...... involvement. The AR-sci-project (Augmented Reality for SCIence education) addresses the issue of applying augmented reality in developing innovative science education and enhancing the quality of science teaching and learning....

  7. Type II collagen-hyaluronan hydrogel – a step towards a scaffold for intervertebral disc tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Calderon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Intervertebral disc regeneration strategies based on stem cell differentiation in combination with the design of functional scaffolds is an attractive approach towards repairing/regenerating the nucleus pulposus. The specific aim of this study was to optimise a composite hydrogel composed of type II collagen and hyaluronic acid (HA as a carrier for mesenchymal stem cells. Hydrogel stabilisation was achieved by means of 1-ethyl-3(3-dimethyl aminopropyl carbodiimide (EDC and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS cross-linking. Optimal hydrogel properties were determined by investigating different concentrations of EDC (8mM, 24mM and 48mM. Stable hydrogels were obtained independent of the concentration of carbodiimide used. The hydrogels cross-linked by the lowest concentration of EDC (8mM demonstrated high swelling properties. Additionally, improved proliferation of seeded rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs and hydrogel stability levels in culture were observed with this 8mM cross-linked hydrogel. Results from this study indicate that EDC/NHS (8mM cross-linked type II collagen/HA hydrogel was capable of supporting viability of rMSCs, and furthermore their differentiation into a chondrogenic lineage. Further investigations should be conducted to determine its potential as scaffold for nucleus pulposus regeneration/repair.

  8. Crime Scenes as Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    Using the concept of augmented reality, this article will investigate how places in various ways have become augmented by means of different mediatization strategies. Augmentation of reality implies an enhancement of the places' emotional character: a certain mood, atmosphere or narrative surplus......, physical damage: they are all readable and interpretable signs. As augmented reality the crime scene carries a narrative which at first is hidden and must be revealed. Due to the process of investigation and the detective's ability to reason and deduce, the crime scene as place is reconstructed as virtual...

  9. Conservative treatment of bone tissue metabolic disorders among patients with vitamin D-dependent rickets type II with genetic abnormality of type I collagen formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Martsyniak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of the article is to determine the effect of conservative therapy on genetically caused disorders of bone tissue metabolism in patients with vitamin D-dependent rickets type II and genetic abnormality of type I collagen formation (VDDR(COL1. Materials and methods. At the premises of consulting and outpatient department of SI “Institute of Traumatology and Orthopaedics of the NAMS of Ukraine”, 13 patients having VDDR type II and genetic damage of type I collagen formation were examined and treated. The medical treatment was conducted in four stages. The first stage included full examination of patients (calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood serum and their urinary excretion, as well as determination of calcidiol and calcitriol serum levels, indicators of parathyroid hormone and osteocalcin, and a marker of bone formation P1NP and osteoresorption b-CTx. At this stage, children were obligated to undergo a genetic test to detect changes (polymorphism in alleles of receptors to vitamin D and type I collagen. Besides genetic tests, examinations at the other stages were conducted in full. Results. The study has shown the following. The genetically caused abnormality of reception to vitamin D results into substantial accumulation of vitamin D active metabolite in the blood serum. When combined with gene­tic abnormality of type I collagen formation, it significantly affected bone formation and destruction processes that causes development of osteomalacia (parathormone — vitamin D — osteocalcin system. The comprehensive study of vitamin D metabolism and biochemical vitals of bone tissue in patients having VDDR (COL1 brought us to understanding of some issues related to pathogenesis and nature of osteomalacia and, in future, osteoporotic changes on different levels, ensured us to express these changes by corresponding indices in the biochemical research and, finally, to develop appropriate schemes for the treatment of

  10. Elastase-2, a Tissue Alternative Pathway for Angiotensin II Generation, Plays a Role in Circulatory Sympathovagal Balance in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becari, Christiane; Durand, Marina T; Guimaraes, Alessander O; Lataro, Renata M; Prado, Cibele M; de Oliveira, Mauro; Candido, Sarai C O; Pais, Paloma; Ribeiro, Mauricio S; Bader, Michael; Pesquero, Joao B; Salgado, Maria C O; Salgado, Helio C

    2017-01-01

    In vitro and ex vivo experiments indicate that elastase-2 (ELA-2), a chymotrypsin-serine protease elastase family member 2A, is an alternative pathway for angiotensin II (Ang II) generation. However, the role played by ELA-2 in vivo is unclear. We examined ELA-2 knockout (ELA-2KO) mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice and determined whether ELA-2 played a role in hemodynamics [arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR)], cardiocirculatory sympathovagal balance and baroreflex sensitivity. The variability of systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and pulse interval (PI) for evaluating autonomic modulation was examined for time and frequency domains (spectral analysis), whereas a symbolic analysis was also used to evaluate PI variability. In addition, baroreflex sensitivity was examined using the sequence method. Cardiac function was evaluated echocardiographically under anesthesia. The AP was normal whereas the HR was reduced in ELA-2KO mice (425 ± 17 vs. 512 ± 13 bpm from WT). SAP variability and baroreflex sensitivity were similar in both strains. The LF power from the PI spectrum (33.6 ± 5 vs. 51.8 ± 4.8 nu from WT) and the LF/HF ratio (0.60 ± 0.1 vs. 1.45 ± 0.3 from WT) were reduced, whereas the HF power was increased (66.4 ± 5 vs. 48.2 ± 4.8 nu from WT) in ELA-2KO mice, indicating a shift toward parasympathetic modulation of HR. Echocardiographic examination showed normal fractional shortening and an ejection fraction in ELA-2KO mice; however, the cardiac output, stroke volume, and ventricular size were reduced. These findings provide the first evidence that ELA-2 acts on the sympathovagal balance of the heart, as expressed by the reduced sympathetic modulation of HR in ELA-2KO mice.

  11. Estrogen receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals: II. Tissue distribution of 17 α-methylestradiol in normal and tumor-bearing rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feenstra, A.; Vaalburg, W.; Nolten, G.M.J.; Reiffers, S.; Talma, A.G.; Wiegman, T.; van der Molen, H.D.; Woldring, M.G.

    1983-01-01

    Tritiated 17α-methylestradiol was synthesized to investigate the potential of the carbon-11-labeled analog as an estrogen-receptor-binding radiopharmaceutical. In vitro, 17α-methylestradiol is bound with high affinity to the cytoplasmic estrogen receptor from rabbit uterus (K/sub d/ = 1.96 x 10 -10 M), and it sediments as an 8S hormone-receptor complex in sucrose gradients. The compound shows specific uptake in the uterus of the adult rat, within 1 h after injection. In female rats bearing DMBA-induced tumors, specific uterine and tumor uptakes were observed, although at 30 min the tumor uptake was only 23 to 30% of the uptake in the uterus. Tritiated 17α-methylestradiol with a specific activity of 6 Ci/mmole showed a similar tissue distribution. Our results indicate that a 17 α-methylestradiol is promising as an estrogen-receptor-binding radiopharmaceutical

  12. NASA Communications Augmentation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidyar, Guy C.; Butler, Thomas E.; Laios, Straton C.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Communications (Nascom) Division of the Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate (MO&DSD) is to undertake a major initiative to develop the Nascom Augmentation (NAUG) network to achieve its long-range service objectives for operational data transport to support the Space Station Freedom Program, the Earth Observing System (EOS), and other projects. The NAUG is the Nascom ground communications network being developed to accommodate the operational traffic of the mid-1990s and beyond. The NAUG network development will be based on the Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model (OSI-RM). This paper describes the NAUG network architecture, subsystems, topology, and services; addresses issues of internetworking the Nascom network with other elements of the Space Station Information System (SSIS); discusses the operations environment. This paper also notes the areas of related research and presents the current conception of how the network will provide broadband services in 1998.

  13. Augmented fish health monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michak, P.; Rogers, R.; Amos, K.

    1991-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) initiated the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project in 1986. This project was a five year interagency project involving fish rearing agencies in the Columbia Basin. Historically, all agencies involved with fish health in the Columbia Basin were conducting various levels of fish health monitoring, pathogen screening and collection. The goals of this project were; to identify, develop and implement a standardized level of fish health methodologies, develop a common data collection and reporting format in the area of artificial production, evaluate and monitor water quality, improve communications between agencies and provide annual evaluation of fish health information for production of healthier smolts. This completion report will contain a project evaluation, review of the goals of the project, evaluation of the specific fish health analyses, an overview of highlights of the project and concluding remarks. 8 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  14. Augmented Virtual Reality Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully-Hanson, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Real time motion tracking hardware has for the most part been cost prohibitive for research to regularly take place until recently. With the release of the Microsoft Kinect in November 2010, researchers now have access to a device that for a few hundred dollars is capable of providing redgreenblue (RGB), depth, and skeleton data. It is also capable of tracking multiple people in real time. For its original intended purposes, i.e. gaming, being used with the Xbox 360 and eventually Xbox One, it performs quite well. However, researchers soon found that although the sensor is versatile, it has limitations in real world applications. I was brought aboard this summer by William Little in the Augmented Virtual Reality (AVR) Lab at Kennedy Space Center to find solutions to these limitations.

  15. Augmented reality system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Liang; Su, Yu-Zheng; Hung, Min-Wei; Huang, Kuo-Cheng

    2010-08-01

    In recent years, Augmented Reality (AR)[1][2][3] is very popular in universities and research organizations. The AR technology has been widely used in Virtual Reality (VR) fields, such as sophisticated weapons, flight vehicle development, data model visualization, virtual training, entertainment and arts. AR has characteristics to enhance the display output as a real environment with specific user interactive functions or specific object recognitions. It can be use in medical treatment, anatomy training, precision instrument casting, warplane guidance, engineering and distance robot control. AR has a lot of vantages than VR. This system developed combines sensors, software and imaging algorithms to make users feel real, actual and existing. Imaging algorithms include gray level method, image binarization method, and white balance method in order to make accurate image recognition and overcome the effects of light.

  16. Maxillary sinus augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A B Tarun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Placing dental implants in the maxillary posterior region can be both challenging and un-nerving for a regular implant dentist who is not well versed with advanced surgical procedures. It is vital for a general dentist to understand the fundamentals of bone grafting the maxillary sinus if he/she is really committed to providing the best health care for their patients. The dental practice is seeing an increasing group of patients who are living longer, and this group of older baby boomers often has an edentulous posterior maxilla either unilateral or bilateral. When edentulous, the posterior maxilla more likely has diminished bone height, which does not allow for the placement of dental implants without creating additional bone. Through grafting the maxillary sinus, bone of ideal quality can be created (allowing for placement of dental implants, which offer many advantages over other tooth replacement modalities. The sinus graft offers the dental patient a predictable procedure of regenerating lost osseous structure in the posterior maxilla. This offers the patient many advantages for long-term success. If dentists understand these concepts, they can better educate their patients and guide them to have the procedure performed. This article outlines bone grafting of the maxillary sinus for the purpose of placing dental implants. This review will help the readers to understand the intricacies of sinus augmentation. They can relate their patient's condition with the available literature and chalk out the best treatment plan for the patient, especially by using indirect sinus augmentation procedures which are less invasive and highly successful if done using prescribed technique.

  17. Microscopic study of dental hard tissues in primary teeth with Dentinogenesis Imperfecta Type II: Correlation of 3D imaging using X-ray microtomography and polarising microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Graham R; Fearne, Janice M; Sabel, Nina; Norén, Jörgen G

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the histological appearance of dental hard tissues in primary teeth from children with DI using conventional polarised light microscopy and correlate that with 3D imaging using X-ray microtomograpy (XMT) to gain a further understanding of the dentine structure of teeth diagnosed with dentinogenesis imperfecta. Undecalcified sections of primary teeth from patients diagnosed with Dentinogenesis Imperfecta Type II were examined using polarised light microscopy. XMT was employed for 3D-imaging and analysis of the dentine. The polarised light microscopy and XMT revealed tubular structures in the dentine seen as vacuoles coinciding with the path of normal dentinal tubules but not continuous tubules. The size of the tubules was close to that of capillaries. The largest tubular structures had a direction corresponding to where the pulp tissue would have been located during primary dentine formation. The dysfunctional mineralisation of the dentine and obliteration of the pulp evidently leaves blood vessels in the dentine which have in the main been tied off and, in the undecalcified sections, appear as vacuoles. Although from radiographs, the pulp in teeth affected by Dentinogenesis Imperfect type II appears to be completely obliterated, a network of interconnected vessels may remain. The presence of large dentinal tubules and blood vessels, or the remnants of blood vessels, could provide a pathway for bacteria from the oral cavity. This might account for why some of these teeth develop periapical abscesses in spite of apparently having no pulp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Advanced Intellect-Augmentation Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbart, D. C.

    This progress report covers a two-year project which is part of a program that is exploring the value of computer aids in augmenting human intellectual capability. The background and nature of the program, its resources, and the activities it has undertaken are outlined. User experience in applying augmentation tools and techniques to various…

  19. Augmented Reality Comes to Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesing, Mark; Cook, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology used on computing devices where processor-generated graphics are rendered over real objects to enhance the sensory experience in real time. In other words, what you are really seeing is augmented by the computer. Many AR games already exist for systems such as Kinect and Nintendo 3DS and mobile apps, such as…

  20. Augmented reality som wearable technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahn, Annette

    “How Augmented reality can facilitate learning in visualizing human anatomy “ At this station I demonstrate how Augmented reality can be used to visualize the human lungs in situ and as a wearable technology which establish connection between body, image and technology in education. I will show...

  1. Complications 15 years after breast augmentation with polyacrylamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghasemi, Habib; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg; Stolle, Lars Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) has been used as an injectable, permanent filler for soft-tissue augmentation for more than two decades. Several complications have been reported worldwide. In this case report, we present a woman with long-term complications 15 years after bilateral breast augmenta...

  2. Histomorphometric Analysis of Periodontal Tissue Regeneration by the Use of High Density Polytetrafluoroethylen Membrane in Grade II Furcation Defects of Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoofi S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: There are limited histomorphometric studies on biologic efficacy of high density tetrafluoroethylen (d-PTFE membrane. Objectives: To investigate the healing of surgically induced grade II furcation defects in dogs following the use of dense polytetrafluoroethylene as the barrier membrane and to compare the results with the contra lateral control teeth without the application of any membrane. Materials andMethods: Mandibular and maxillary 3rd premolar teeth of 18 young adult male mongrel dogs were used for the experiment. The furcation defects were created during the surgery. 5 weeks later, regenerative surgery was performed. The third premolar teeth were assigned randomly to control and test groups. In the test group, after a full thickness flap reflection, the d-PTFE membrane was placed over furcation defects. In the control group, no membrane was placed over the defect. 37 tissue blocks containing the teeth and surrounding hard and soft tissues were obtained three months post-regenerative surgery. The specimens were demineralized, serially sectioned, mounted and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin staining technique. From each tissue block, 35-45 sections of 10 μm thickness within 60μm interval captured the entire surgically created defect. The histological images were transferred to computer and then the linear measurement ranges of the defects area, interadicular alveolar bone, epithelial attachment and coronal extension of the new cementum were done. Then, the volume and area of aforementioned parameters were calculated considering the thickness and interval of the sections. To compare the parameters between the control and test teeth, we calculated the amount of each one proportionally to the original amount of defects. Results: The mean interradicular root surface areas of original defects covered with new cementum was 74.46% and 29.59% for the membrane and control defects, respectively (p < 0.0001. Corresponding

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Cole, John; Lineberry, John; Chapman, Jim; Schmidt, Harold; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A fundamental obstacle to routine space access is the specific energy limitations associated with chemical fuels. In the case of vertical take-off, the high thrust needed for vertical liftoff and acceleration to orbit translates into power levels in the 10 GW range. Furthermore, useful payload mass fractions are possible only if the exhaust particle energy (i.e., exhaust velocity) is much greater than that available with traditional chemical propulsion. The electronic binding energy released by the best chemical reactions (e.g., LOX/LH2 for example, is less than 2 eV per product molecule (approx. 1.8 eV per H2O molecule), which translates into particle velocities less than 5 km/s. Useful payload fractions, however, will require exhaust velocities exceeding 15 km/s (i.e., particle energies greater than 20 eV). As an added challenge, the envisioned hypothetical RLV (reusable launch vehicle) should accomplish these amazing performance feats while providing relatively low acceleration levels to orbit (2-3g maximum). From such fundamental considerations, it is painfully obvious that planned and current RLV solutions based on chemical fuels alone represent only a temporary solution and can only result in minor gains, at best. What is truly needed is a revolutionary approach that will dramatically reduce the amount of fuel and size of the launch vehicle. This implies the need for new compact high-power energy sources as well as advanced accelerator technologies for increasing engine exhaust velocity. Electromagnetic acceleration techniques are of immense interest since they can be used to circumvent the thermal limits associated with conventional propulsion systems. This paper describes the Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment (MAPX) being undertaken at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). In this experiment, a 1-MW arc heater is being used as a feeder for a 1-MW magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerator. The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate

  4. Phenobarbital Augments Hypothermic Neuroprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barks, John D.; Liu, Yi-Qing; Shangguan, Yu; Silverstein, Faye S.

    2010-01-01

    Seizures are associated with adverse outcome in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. We hypothesized that early administration of the anticonvulsant phenobarbital after cerebral hypoxia-ischemia could enhance the neuroprotective efficacy of delayed-onset hypothermia. We tested this hypothesis in a neonatal rodent model. Seven-day-old rats (n=104) underwent right carotid ligation, followed by 90 min 8%O2 exposure; 15 min later, they received injections of phenobarbital (40 mg/kg) or saline. One or 3h later, all were treated with hypothermia (30°C, 3h). Function and neuropathology were evaluated after 7 days (“early outcomes”) or 1 month (“late outcomes”). Early outcome assessment demonstrated better sensorimotor performance and less cortical damage in phenobarbital-treated groups; there were no differences between groups in which the hypothermia delay was shortened from 3h to 1h. Late outcome assessment confirmed sustained benefits of phenobarbital+hypothermia treatment; sensorimotor performance was better (persistent attenuation of contralateral forepaw placing deficits and absence of contralateral forepaw neglect); neuropathology scores were lower (medians, phenobarbital 2, saline 8.5, pphenobarbital may augment the neuroprotective efficacy of therapeutic hypothermia. PMID:20098339

  5. Understanding augmented reality concepts and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Alan B

    2013-01-01

    Augmented reality is not a technology. Augmented reality is a medium. Likewise, a book on augmented reality that only addresses the technology that is required to support the medium of augmented reality falls far short of providing the background that is needed to produce, or critically consume augmented reality applications. One reads a book. One watches a movie. One experiences augmented reality. Understanding Augmented Reality addresses the elements that are required to create compelling augmented reality experiences. The technology that supports

  6. Augmented Mirror: Interactive Augmented Reality System Based on Kinect

    OpenAIRE

    Vera , Lucía; Gimeno , Jesús; Coma , Inmaculada; Fernández , Marcos

    2011-01-01

    Part 1: Long and Short Papers; International audience; In this paper we present a virtual character controlled by an actor in real time, who talks with an audience through an augmented mirror. The application, which integrates video images, the avatar and other virtual objects within an Augmented Reality system, has been implemented using a mixture of technologies: two kinect systems for motion capture, depth map and real images, a gyroscope to detect head movements, and control algorithms to...

  7. Novel roles for metallothionein-I + II (MT-I + II) in defense responses, neurogenesis, and tissue restoration after traumatic brain injury: insights from global gene expression profiling in wild-type and MT-I + II knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Cáceres, Mario; Borup, Rehannah

    2006-01-01

    of the somatosensorial cortex and killed at 0, 1, 4, 8, and 16 days postlesion (dpl) using Affymetrix genechips/oligonucleotide arrays interrogating approximately 10,000 different murine genes (MG_U74Av2). Hierarchical clustering analysis of these genes readily shows an orderly pattern of gene responses at specific...... and opened new avenues that were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Data in KO, MT-I-overexpressing, and MT-II-injected mice strongly suggest a role of these proteins in postlesional activation of neural stem cells....

  8. Mersiline mesh in premaxillary augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2005-01-01

    Premaxillary retrusion may distort the aesthetic appearance of the columella, lip, and nasal tip. This defect is characteristically seen in, but not limited to, patients with cleft lip nasal deformity. This study investigated 60 patients presenting with premaxillary deficiencies in which Mersiline mesh was used to augment the premaxilla. All the cases had surgery using the external rhinoplasty technique. Two methods of augmentation with Mersiline mesh were used: the Mersiline roll technique, for the cases with central symmetric deficiencies, and the Mersiline packing technique, for the cases with asymmetric deficiencies. Premaxillary augmentation with Mersiline mesh proved to be simple technically, easy to perform, and not associated with any complications. Periodic follow-up evaluation for a mean period of 32 months (range, 12-98 months) showed that an adequate degree of premaxillary augmentation was maintained with no clinically detectable resorption of the mesh implant.

  9. Guided tissue regeneration and platelet rich growth factor for the treatment of Grade II furcation defects: A randomized double-blinded clinical trial - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenabian, Niloofar; Haghanifar, Sina; Ehsani, Hodis; Zahedi, Ehsan; Haghpanah, Masumeh

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of furcation area defects remained as a challenging issue in periodontal treatments. Regeneration treatment of furcation defects is the most discussed periodontal treatment. Although not completely hopeless in prognosis, the presence of the furcation involvement significantly increases the chance of tooth loss. The current research was conductedeto compare theeadditive effect of combined guided tissue regeneration (GTR) and platelet-rich growth factor (PRGF) on the treatment of furcation bony defects. A randomized, triple-blinded, split-mouth study was designed. It included patients with a moderate to severe chronic periodontitis with bilateral Grade II furcation involvement of first or second mandibular molars. Each side of mouth was randomly allocated for the treatment with either Bio-Gide American Society of Anesthesiologists GTR or a PRGF or PRGF by itself. Plaque index, gingival index, vertical clinical attachment level, vertical probing depth, recession depth (REC), horizontal probing depth, fornix to alveolar crest (FAC), fornix to base of defect (FBD), furcation vertical component and furcation horizontal component (FHC) were recorded. The current research was conducted to compare the additive effect of combined GTR and PRGF on treatment of furcation bony defects. Altman's nomogram, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Friedman test, general linear model, repeated measures, and paired t -test were used as statistical analysis in this research. P PRGF group ( P = 0.02). A significant improvement in the Grade II furcation defects treated with either GTR or PRGF/GTR was noticed. Further large-scale trials are needed to reveal differences of mentioned treatment in more details.

  10. Phase II study of the safety and antitumor activity of the hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302 in combination with doxorubicin in patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Sant P; Cranmer, Lee D; Van Tine, Brian A; Reed, Damon R; Okuno, Scott H; Butrynski, James E; Adkins, Douglas R; Hendifar, Andrew E; Kroll, Stew; Ganjoo, Kristen N

    2014-10-10

    TH-302, a prodrug of the cytotoxic alkylating agent bromo-isophosphoramide mustard, is preferentially activated in hypoxic conditions. This phase II study investigated TH-302 in combination with doxorubicin, followed by single-agent TH-302 maintenance therapy in patients with first-line advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS) to assess progression-free survival (PFS), response rate, overall survival, safety, and tolerability. In this open-label phase II study, TH-302 300 mg/m(2) was administered intravenously on days 1 and 8 with doxorubicin 75 mg/m(2) on day 1 of each 21-day cycle. After six cycles, patients with stable and/or responding disease could receive maintenance monotherapy with TH-302. Ninety-one patients initiated TH-302 plus doxorubicin induction treatment. The PFS rate at 6 months (primary efficacy measure) was 58% (95% CI, 46% to 68%). Median PFS was 6.5 months (95% CI, 5.8 to 7.7 months); median overall survival was 21.5 months (95% CI, 16.0 to 26.2 months). Best tumor responses were complete response (n = 2 [2%]) and partial response (n = 30 [34%]). During TH-302 maintenance (n = 48), five patients improved from stable disease to partial response, and one patient improved from partial to complete response. The most common adverse events during induction were fatigue, nausea, and skin and/or mucosal toxicities as well as anemia, thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia. These were less severe and less frequent during maintenance. There was no evidence of TH-302-related hepatic, renal, or cardiac toxicity. PFS, overall survival, and tumor response compared favorably with historical outcomes achieved with other first-line chemotherapies for advanced STS. A phase III study of TH-302 is ongoing (NCT01440088). © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  11. The Augmented REality Sandtable (ARES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Introduction The US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Human Sciences Campaign calls out the topic of Virtual /Mixed and Augmented Reality as one of the...type of virtual environment. In virtual reality (VR), the totality of the environment is computer generated. In AR, the real world is augmented by...tangible user interfaces; and the effectiveness of virtual sand tables and similar systems. A market survey was also done to discover the state of

  12. 2,5-hexanedione (HD) treatment alters calmodulin, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and protein kinase C in rats' nerve tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qingshan; Hou Liyan; Zhang Cuili; Zhao Xiulan; Yu Sufang; Xie, Ke-Qin

    2008-01-01

    Calcium-dependent mechanisms, particularly those mediated by Ca 2+ /calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), have been implicated in neurotoxicant-induced neuropathy. However, it is unknown whether similar mechanisms exist in 2,5-hexanedione (HD)-induced neuropathy. For that, we investigated the changes of CaM, CaMKII, protein kinase C (PKC) and polymerization ratios (PRs) of NF-L, NF-M and NF-H in cerebral cortex (CC, including total cortex and some gray), spinal cord (SC) and sciatic nerve (SN) of rats treated with HD at a dosage of 1.75 or 3.50 mmol/kg for 8 weeks (five times per week). The results showed that CaM contents in CC, SC and SN were significantly increased, which indicated elevation of Ca 2+ concentrations in nerve tissues. CaMKII contents and activities were also increased in CC and were positively correlated with gait abnormality, but it could not be found in SC and SN. The increases of PKC contents and activities were also observed in SN and were positively correlated with gait abnormality. Except for that of NF-M in CC, the PRs of NF-L, NF-M and NF-H were also elevated in nerve tissues, which was consistent with the activation of protein kinases. The results suggested that CaMKII might be partly (in CC but not in SC and SN) involved in HD-induced neuropathy. CaMKII and PKC might mediate the HD neurotoxicity by altering the NF phosphorylation status and PRs

  13. Predictive role of HER2/neu, topoisomerase-II-alpha, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1) for response to adjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy in patients with intermediate-risk breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erber, Ramona; Gluz, Oleg; Brünner, Nils

    2015-01-01

    . In this study, we investigate a large cohort of patients with intermediate-risk BC treated within the WSG EC-DOC Trial for the predictive impact of topoisomerase-II-alpha, HER2/neu, and TIMP-1. Tumor tissue was available in a representative cohort of 772 cases of the WSG EC-DOC Trial collective which compared 4...

  14. The SafeBoosC Phase II Randomised Clinical Trial : A Treatment Guideline for Targeted Near-Infrared-Derived Cerebral Tissue Oxygenation versus Standard Treatment in Extremely Preterm Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellicer, Adelina; Greisen, Gorm; Benders, Manon; Claris, Olivier; Dempsey, Eugene; Fumagalli, Monica; Gluud, Christian; Hagmann, Cornelia; Hellstroem-Westas, Lena; Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Lemmers, Petra; Naulaers, Gunnar; Pichler, Gerhard; Roll, Claudia; van Bel, Frank; van Oeveren, Wim; Skoog, Maria; Wolf, Martin; Austin, Topun

    2013-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy-derived regional tissue oxygen saturation of haemoglobin (rSto(2)) reflects venous oxygen saturation. If cerebral metabolism is stable, rSto(2) can be used as an estimate of cerebral oxygen delivery. The SafeBoosC phase II randomised clinical trial hypothesises that the

  15. Advances in Gingival Augmentation Techniques - A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiral Shah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the current practice of periodontics, clinicians are faced with the challenge of not only addressing biological and functional problems present in the periodontium but also providing therapy that results in acceptable aesthetics. The presence of mucogingival problems and gingival recession around anterior, highly visible teeth exemplifies a situation in which a treatment modality that addresses both biological and aesthetic demands is required from the therapist. A variety of soft tissue augmentation procedures directed at root coverage have been documented in the literature utilizing autogenous or allogenic soft tissue grafting or guided tissue regeneration (GTR. The purpose of this review was to assess the effectiveness of newer materials in gingival augmentation procedures.

  16. Combined orthodontic and surgical correction of adult skeletal class II with hyperdivergent jaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jiku; Bagchi, Paulami; Gupta, Swati; Gupta, Hemant; Autar, Ram

    2012-01-01

    A case of severe Class II skeletal malocclusion with anterior open bite having vertical growth pattern and matching soft tissue profile is presented. Considering age of the patient and the severity of the malocclusion, it was decided to combine orthodontic treatment with surgery. A 0.022 Roth Pre-adjusted Edgewise Appliance was chosen for the orthodontic correction and Le-Fort 1 differential vertical impaction of maxilla with mandibular autorotation and augmentation genioplasty was considered as the treatment plan. The main aim was to reduce the gummy smile and correct the class II profile.

  17. Interstitial brachytherapy for stage I and II squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue: factors influencing local control and soft tissue complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Minoru; Hirokawa, Yutaka; Kashiwado, Kouzo; Akagi, Yukio; Kashimoto, Kazuki; Kiriu, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Kanji; Ito, Katsuhide

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Our aim was to study the treatment parameters that influence local control and soft tissue complications (STC) in a series of 207 Stage I and II squamous cell carcinomas of the oral tongue treated by interstitial brachytherapy (BRT) alone (127 patients), or by a combination using external beam irradiation (EBI) (80 patients) between 1980 and 1993. Methods and Materials: The patient distribution was 93 T1, 72 T2a, and 42 T2b. The prescribed BRT dose at the plane 5 mm from the plane of the radioactive sources was 65-70 Gy in BRT alone, and 50-60 Gy in the combined treatment using EBI. Generally, an EBI dose of 30 Gy was used. No prophylactic neck treatment was performed. Results: The 5-year local recurrence-free rate for T1, T2a, and T2b was 92.9%, 81.9%, and 71.8%, respectively (p 85 Gy (p = 0.01), BRT dose > 55 Gy (p = 0.04), and a dose rate = 0.6 Gy/h was significantly related to more STC in BRT alone (p = 0.03), and that a dose rate > = 0.55 Gy/h (p 70 Gy (p 100 Gy (p 85 Gy and 55 Gy and < = 70 Gy, and < 0.55 Gy/h, respectively. We also recommend longer follow-up periods; more than 5 years might be necessary for late local recurrences and for secondary cancers

  18. Bayesian Alternation During Tactile Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caspar Mathias Goeke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A large number of studies suggest that the integration of multisensory signals by humans is well described by Bayesian principles. However, there are very few reports about cue combination between a native and an augmented sense. In particular, we asked the question whether adult participants are able to integrate an augmented sensory cue with existing native sensory information. Hence for the purpose of this study we build a tactile augmentation device. Consequently, we compared different hypotheses of how untrained adult participants combine information from a native and an augmented sense. In a two-interval forced choice (2 IFC task, while subjects were blindfolded and seated on a rotating platform, our sensory augmentation device translated information on whole body yaw rotation to tactile stimulation. Three conditions were realized: tactile stimulation only (augmented condition, rotation only (native condition, and both augmented and native information (bimodal condition. Participants had to choose one out of two consecutive rotations with higher angular rotation. For the analysis, we fitted the participants’ responses with a probit model and calculated the just notable difference (JND. Then we compared several models for predicting bimodal from unimodal responses. An objective Bayesian alternation model yielded a better prediction (χred2 = 1.67 than the Bayesian integration model (χred2= 4.34. Slightly higher accuracy showed a non-Bayesian winner takes all model (χred2= 1.64, which either used only native or only augmented values per subject for prediction. However the performance of the Bayesian alternation model could be substantially improved (χred2= 1.09 utilizing subjective weights obtained by a questionnaire. As a result, the subjective Bayesian alternation model predicted bimodal performance most accurately among all tested models. These results suggest that information from augmented and existing sensory modalities in

  19. Mutual augmentation of the induction of the histamine-forming enzyme, histidine decarboxylase, between alendronate and immuno-stimulants (IL-1, TNF, and LPS), and its prevention by clodronate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xue; Yu Zhiqian; Funayama, Hiromi; Shoji, Noriaki; Sasano, Takashi; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Sugawara, Shunji; Endo, Yasuo

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs), powerful anti-bone-resorptive drugs, have inflammatory side effects, while histamine is not only an inflammatory mediator, but also an immuno-modifier. In murine models, a single intraperitoneal injection of an N-BP induces various inflammatory reactions, including the induction of the histamine-forming enzyme histidine decarboxylase (HDC) in tissues important in immune responses (such as liver, lungs, spleen, and bone marrow). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 and TNF are also capable of inducing HDC. We reported previously that in mice (i) the inflammatory actions of N-BPs depend on IL-1 (ii) N-BP pretreatment augments both LPS-stimulated IL-1 production and HDC induction, and (iii) the co-administration of clodronate (a non-N-BP) with an N-BP inhibits the latter's inflammatory actions (including HDC induction). Here, we add the new findings that (a) pretreatment with alendronate (a typical N-BP) augments both IL-1- and TNF-induced HDC elevations, (b) LPS pretreatment augments the alendronate-induced HDC elevation, (c) co-administration of clodronate with alendronate abolishes these augmentations, (d) alendronate does not induce HDC in IL-1-deficient mice even if they are pretreated with LPS, and (e) alendronate increases IL-1β in all tissues tested, but not in the serum. These results suggest that (1) there are mutual augmentations between alendronate and immuno-stimulants (IL-1, TNF, and LPS) in HDC induction, (2) tissue IL-1β is important in alendronate-stimulated HDC induction, and (3) combination use of clodronate may have the potential to reduce the inflammatory effects of alendronate (we previously found that clodronate, conveniently, does not inhibit the anti-bone-resorptive activity of alendronate)

  20. Preoperative therapy with pazopanib in high-risk soft tissue sarcoma: a phase II window-of-opportunity study by the German Interdisciplinary Sarcoma Group (GISG-04/NOPASS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronellenfitsch, Ulrich; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia; Jakob, Jens; Kasper, Bernd; Nowak, Kai; Pilz, Lothar R; Attenberger, Ulrike; Gaiser, Timo; Egerer, Gerlinde; Fröhling, Stefan; Derigs, Hans-Günter; Schwarzbach, Matthias; Hohenberger, Peter

    2016-01-06

    For resectable soft tissue sarcoma (STS), radical surgery, usually combined with radiotherapy, is the mainstay of treatment and the only potentially curative modality. Since surgery is often complicated by large tumour size and extensive tumour vasculature, preoperative treatment strategies with the aim of devitalising the tumour are being explored. One option is treatment with antiangiogenic drugs. The multikinase inhibitor pazopanib, which possesses pronounced antiangiogenic effects, has shown activity in metastatic and unresectable STS, but has so far not been tested in the preoperative setting. This open-label, multicentre phase II window-of-opportunity trial assesses pazopanib as preoperative treatment of resectable STS. Participants receive a 21-day course of pazopanib 800 mg daily during wait time for surgery. Major eligibility criteria are resectable, high-risk adult STS of any location, or metachronous solitary STS metastasis for which resection is planned, and adequate organ function and performance status. The trial uses an exact single-stage design. The primary end point is metabolic response rate (MRR), that is, the proportion of patients with >50% reduction of the mean standardised uptake value (SUVmean) in post-treatment compared to pre-treatment fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography CT. The MRR below which the treatment is considered ineffective is 0.2. The MRR above which the treatment warrants further exploration is 0.4. With a type I error of 5% and a power of 80%, the sample size is 35 evaluable patients, with 12 or more responders as threshold. Main secondary end points are histopathological and MRI response, resectability, toxicity, recurrence-free and overall survival. In a translational substudy, endothelial progenitor cells and vascular epithelial growth factor receptor are analysed as potential prognostic and predictive markers. Approval by the ethics committee II, University of Heidelberg, Germany (2012-019F-MA), German Federal

  1. A phase II study evaluating neo-/adjuvant EIA chemotherapy, surgical resection and radiotherapy in high-risk soft tissue sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Thomas; Lehner, Burkhard; Kasper, Bernd; Bischof, Marc; Roeder, Falk; Dietrich, Sascha; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia; Strauss, Ludwig G; Mechtersheimer, Gunhild; Wuchter, Patrick; Ho, Anthony D; Egerer, Gerlinde

    2011-12-07

    The role of chemotherapy in high-risk soft tissue sarcoma is controversial. Though many patients undergo initial curative resection, distant metastasis is a frequent event, resulting in 5-year overall survival rates of only 50-60%. Neo-adjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy (CTX) has been applied to achieve pre-operative cytoreduction, assess chemosensitivity, and to eliminate occult metastasis. Here we report on the results of our non-randomized phase II study on neo-adjuvant treatment for high-risk STS. Patients with potentially curative high-risk STS (size ≥ 5 cm, deep/extracompartimental localization, tumor grades II-III [FNCLCC]) were included. The protocol comprised 4 cycles of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (EIA, etoposide 125 mg/m(2) iv days 1 and 4, ifosfamide 1500 mg/m2 iv days 1 - 4, doxorubicin 50 mg/m(2) day 1, pegfilgrastim 6 mg sc day 5), definitive surgery with intra-operative radiotherapy, adjuvant radiotherapy and 4 adjuvant cycles of EIA. Between 06/2005 and 03/2010 a total of 50 subjects (male = 33, female = 17, median age 50.1 years) were enrolled. Median follow-up was 30.5 months. The majority of primary tumors were located in the extremities or trunk (92%), 6% originated in the abdomen/retroperitoneum. Response by RECIST criteria to neo-adjuvant CTX was 6% CR (n = 3), 24% PR (n = 12), 62% SD (n = 31) and 8% PD (n = 4). Local recurrence occurred in 3 subjects (6%). Distant metastasis was observed in 12 patients (24%). Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) at 2 years was 83% and 68%, respectively. Multivariate analysis failed to prove influence of resection status or grade of histological necrosis on OS or DFS. Severe toxicities included neutropenic fever (4/50), cardiac toxicity (2/50), and CNS toxicity (4/50) leading to CTX dose reductions in 4 subjects. No cases of secondary leukemias were observed so far. The current protocol is feasible for achieving local control rates, as well as OS and DFS comparable to previously published

  2. A phase II study evaluating neo-/adjuvant EIA chemotherapy, surgical resection and radiotherapy in high-risk soft tissue sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitt Thomas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of chemotherapy in high-risk soft tissue sarcoma is controversial. Though many patients undergo initial curative resection, distant metastasis is a frequent event, resulting in 5-year overall survival rates of only 50-60%. Neo-adjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy (CTX has been applied to achieve pre-operative cytoreduction, assess chemosensitivity, and to eliminate occult metastasis. Here we report on the results of our non-randomized phase II study on neo-adjuvant treatment for high-risk STS. Method Patients with potentially curative high-risk STS (size ≥ 5 cm, deep/extracompartimental localization, tumor grades II-III [FNCLCC] were included. The protocol comprised 4 cycles of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (EIA, etoposide 125 mg/m2 iv days 1 and 4, ifosfamide 1500 mg/m2 iv days 1 - 4, doxorubicin 50 mg/m2 day 1, pegfilgrastim 6 mg sc day 5, definitive surgery with intra-operative radiotherapy, adjuvant radiotherapy and 4 adjuvant cycles of EIA. Result Between 06/2005 and 03/2010 a total of 50 subjects (male = 33, female = 17, median age 50.1 years were enrolled. Median follow-up was 30.5 months. The majority of primary tumors were located in the extremities or trunk (92%, 6% originated in the abdomen/retroperitoneum. Response by RECIST criteria to neo-adjuvant CTX was 6% CR (n = 3, 24% PR (n = 12, 62% SD (n = 31 and 8% PD (n = 4. Local recurrence occurred in 3 subjects (6%. Distant metastasis was observed in 12 patients (24%. Overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS at 2 years was 83% and 68%, respectively. Multivariate analysis failed to prove influence of resection status or grade of histological necrosis on OS or DFS. Severe toxicities included neutropenic fever (4/50, cardiac toxicity (2/50, and CNS toxicity (4/50 leading to CTX dose reductions in 4 subjects. No cases of secondary leukemias were observed so far. Conclusion The current protocol is feasible for achieving local control rates, as well as OS

  3. Augmented Reality Tower Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisman, Ronald J.; Brown, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Augmented Reality technology may help improve Air Traffic Control Tower efficiency and safety during low-visibility conditions. This paper presents the assessments of five off-duty controllers who shadow-controlled' with an augmented reality prototype in their own facility. Initial studies indicated unanimous agreement that this technology is potentially beneficial, though the prototype used in the study was not adequate for operational use. Some controllers agreed that augmented reality technology improved situational awareness, had potential to benefit clearance, control, and coordination tasks and duties and could be very useful for acquiring aircraft and weather information, particularly aircraft location, heading, and identification. The strongest objections to the prototype used in this study were directed at aircraft registration errors, unacceptable optical transparency, insufficient display performance in sunlight, inadequate representation of the static environment and insufficient symbology.

  4. Therapeutic options for lip augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, Lorne; Ellis, David A F

    2007-11-01

    Aesthetic ideals vary with emerging fashion trends and within different cultures. However, over the past few decades, fuller lips have been considered a desirable trait. Many younger patients are presenting for lip augmentation to achieve the sought-after look commonly seen in many fashion magazines. In addition, as individuals age, they lose lip volume, with a thinning of the red lip, some effacement of the vermillion border, and elongation and flattening of the white portion of the lip. Rejuvenation of the lips plays a key role in restoring a more youthful appearance. As a result, lip augmentation appeals to a wide spectrum of patients who present with various different aesthetic goals and expectations. Numerous therapeutic options exist for aesthetic lip augmentation, ranging from temporary and permanent injectable fillers to implants and other surgical techniques.

  5. AUGMENTATION-RELATED BRAIN PLASTICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni eDi Pino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, the anthropomorphism of the tools and the development of neural interfaces require reconsidering the concept of human-tools interaction in the framework of human augmentation. This review analyzes the plastic process that the brain undergoes when it comes into contact with augmenting artificial sensors and effectors and, on the other hand, the changes that the use of external augmenting devices produces in the brain.Hitherto, few studies investigated the neural correlates of augmentation, but clues on it can be borrowed from logically-related paradigms: sensorimotor training, cognitive enhancement, cross-modal plasticity, sensorimotor functional substitution, use and embodiment of tools.Augmentation modifies function and structure of a number of areas, i.e. primary sensory cortices shape their receptive fields to become sensitive to novel inputs. Motor areas adapt the neuroprosthesis representation firing-rate to refine kinematics. As for normal motor outputs, the learning process recruits motor and premotor cortices and the acquisition of proficiency decreases attentional recruitment, focuses the activity on sensorimotor areas and increases the basal ganglia drive on the cortex. Augmentation deeply relies on the frontoparietal network. In particular, premotor cortex is involved in learning the control of an external effector and owns the tool motor representation, while the intraparietal sulcus extracts its visual features. In these areas, multisensory integration neurons enlarge their receptive fields to embody supernumerary limbs. For operating an anthropomorphic neuroprosthesis, the mirror system is required to understand the meaning of the action, the cerebellum for the formation of its internal model and the insula for its interoception. In conclusion, anthropomorphic sensorized devices can provide the critical sensory afferences to evolve the exploitation of tools through their embodiment, reshaping the body representation and the

  6. Superconducting augmented rail gun (SARG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homan, C.G.; Cummings, C.E.; Fowler, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    Superconducting augmentation consists of a superconducting coil operating in the persistent mode closely coupled magnetically with a normally conducting rail gun. A theoretical investigation of the effect of this system on a rail gun has shown that two benefits occur. Projectile velocities and launch efficiencies increase significantly depending on the magnetic coupling between the rail and augmentation circuits. Previous work evaluated an idealized system by neglecting energy dissipation effects. In this paper, the authors extend the analysis to include the neglected terms and show improved actual launch efficiencies for the SARG configuration. In this paper, the authors discuss details of projectile design in depth and present preliminary results of rail gun performance

  7. Radiation Therapy Administration and Survival in Stage I/II Extranodal Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, Adam J., E-mail: adam_olszewski@brown.edu; Desai, Amrita

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To determine the factors associated with the use of radiation therapy and associated survival outcomes in early-stage marginal zone lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Methods and Materials: We extracted data on adult patients with stage I/II MALT lymphoma diagnoses between 1998 and 2010 recorded in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. We studied factors associated with radiation therapy administration in a logistic regression model and described the cumulative incidence of lymphoma-related death (LRD) according to receipt of the treatment. The association of radiation therapy with survival was explored in multivariate models with adjustment for immortal time bias. Results: Of the 7774 identified patients, 36% received radiation therapy as part of the initial course of treatment. Older patients; black or Hispanic men; white, Hispanic, and black women; and socioeconomically disadvantaged and underinsured patients had a significantly lower chance of receiving radiation therapy. Radiation therapy administration was associated with a lower chance of LRD in most sites. In cutaneous, ocular, and salivary MALT lymphomas, the 5-year estimate of LRD after radiation therapy was 0%. The association of radiation therapy with overall survival in different lymphoma sites was heterogeneous, and statistically significant in cutaneous (hazard ratio 0.45, P=.009) and ocular (hazard ratio 0.47, P<.0001) locations after multivariate adjustment. Conclusions: Demographic factors are associated with the use of radiation therapy in MALT lymphoma. Clinicians should be sensitive to those disparities because the administration of radiation therapy may be associated with improved survival, particularly in cutaneous and ocular lymphomas.

  8. Radiation Therapy Administration and Survival in Stage I/II Extranodal Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, Adam J.; Desai, Amrita

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the factors associated with the use of radiation therapy and associated survival outcomes in early-stage marginal zone lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Methods and Materials: We extracted data on adult patients with stage I/II MALT lymphoma diagnoses between 1998 and 2010 recorded in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. We studied factors associated with radiation therapy administration in a logistic regression model and described the cumulative incidence of lymphoma-related death (LRD) according to receipt of the treatment. The association of radiation therapy with survival was explored in multivariate models with adjustment for immortal time bias. Results: Of the 7774 identified patients, 36% received radiation therapy as part of the initial course of treatment. Older patients; black or Hispanic men; white, Hispanic, and black women; and socioeconomically disadvantaged and underinsured patients had a significantly lower chance of receiving radiation therapy. Radiation therapy administration was associated with a lower chance of LRD in most sites. In cutaneous, ocular, and salivary MALT lymphomas, the 5-year estimate of LRD after radiation therapy was 0%. The association of radiation therapy with overall survival in different lymphoma sites was heterogeneous, and statistically significant in cutaneous (hazard ratio 0.45, P=.009) and ocular (hazard ratio 0.47, P<.0001) locations after multivariate adjustment. Conclusions: Demographic factors are associated with the use of radiation therapy in MALT lymphoma. Clinicians should be sensitive to those disparities because the administration of radiation therapy may be associated with improved survival, particularly in cutaneous and ocular lymphomas

  9. Pursuit of X-ray Vision for Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    applications. Virtual Reality 15(2–3), 175–184 (2011) 29. Livingston, M.A., Swan II, J.E., Gabbard , J.L., Höllerer, T.H., Hix, D., Julier, S.J., Baillot, Y...Brown, D., Baillot, Y., Gabbard , J.L., Hix, D.: A perceptual matching technique for depth judgments in optical, see-through augmented reality. In: IEEE

  10. Computer Augmented Learning; A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindred, J.

    The report contains a description and summary of computer augmented learning devices and systems. The devices are of two general types programed instruction systems based on the teaching machines pioneered by Pressey and developed by Skinner, and the so-called "docile" systems that permit greater user-direction with the computer under student…

  11. Aplikasi Web Augmented Reality Villa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gede Yudha Prema Pangestu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bali is one of the highly developed tourist destination in Indonesia. The arrival of tourists having holiday in Bali led to increase residential needs with complete amenities. The occupancy rate of hotel and villa in Bali is increase significantlly during the long vacation. The emergence of new villa and hotel occupancy raises the level of competition in business, so it needs a correct use good marketing communication strategy in marketing the product in order to attract the attention of consumers. Web Application Augmented Reality Villa can help visualize the residential villa in three-dimensional shapes that look more attractive and practical. The use of brochures as written information and the application of augmented reality technology on the Web Application Augmented Reality Villa aims to develop an application that can provide information about the villa to visitors. Web Application uses Augmented Reality Villa designed by FlarToolkit library. Based on the test results show the application can display 3-dimensional objects by scanning marker villa in a brochure which already contain marker.

  12. Data Augmentation for Plant Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawara, Pornntiwa; Okafor, Emmanuel; Schomaker, Lambertus; Wiering, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Data augmentation plays a crucial role in increasing the number of training images, which often aids to improve classification performances of deep learning techniques for computer vision problems. In this paper, we employ the deep learning framework and determine the effects of several

  13. Augmented reality and its practical application

    OpenAIRE

    ZÍTKOVÁ, Helena

    2011-01-01

    This thesis combines topic of augmented reality with tourism. For analyzing the state of the use of augmented reality was composed case studies. It was created product, which is called Guide to mobile phone.

  14. Augmented assessment as a means to augmented reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Bryan

    2006-01-01

    Rigorous scientific assessment of educational technologies typically lags behind the availability of the technologies by years because of the lack of validated instruments and benchmarks. Even when the appropriate assessment instruments are available, they may not be applied because of time and monetary constraints. Work in augmented reality, instrumented mannequins, serious gaming, and similar promising educational technologies that haven't undergone timely, rigorous evaluation, highlights the need for assessment methodologies that address the limitations of traditional approaches. The most promising augmented assessment solutions incorporate elements of rapid prototyping used in the software industry, simulation-based assessment techniques modeled after methods used in bioinformatics, and object-oriented analysis methods borrowed from object oriented programming.

  15. Use of Augmented Reality in Education

    OpenAIRE

    Jeřábek, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with phenomena of augmented reality in context of didactics. The thesis aims to define augmented reality in conceptual and content area and focuses on augmented reality in the structure of educational tools and identification of its functions and use from the didactical standpoint. The thesis characterizes augmented reality as a specific technological-perceptual concept and establishes a system of perceptual, technological and resulting aspects that reflect important paramet...

  16. Affordances in Mobile Augmented Reality Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gjøsæter, Tor

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the affordances of augmented reality content in a mobile augmented reality application. A user study was conducted by performing a multi-camera video recording of seven think aloud sessions. The think aloud sessions consisted of individual users performing tasks, exploring and experiencing a mobile augmented reality (MAR) application we developed for the iOS platform named ARad. We discuss the instrumental affordances we observed when users interacted with augmented realit...

  17. New Augmented Reality Taxonomy: Technologies and Features of Augmented Environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Hugues , Olivier; Fuchs , Philippe; Nannipieri , Olivier

    2011-01-01

    978-1-4614-0063-9; This article has a dual aim: firstly to define augmented reality (AR) en- vironments and secondly, based on our definition, a new taxonomy enabling these environments to be classified. After briefly reviewing existing classifica- tions, we define AR by its purpose, ie. to enable someone to create sensory- motor and cognitive activities in a new space combining the real environment and a virtual environment. Below we present our functional taxonomy of AR environments. We div...

  18. [Augmentation technique on the proximal humerus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scola, A; Gebhard, F; Röderer, G

    2015-09-01

    The treatment of osteoporotic fractures is still a challenge. The advantages of augmentation with respect to primary in vitro stability and the clinical use for the proximal humerus are presented in this article. In this study six paired human humeri were randomized into an augmented and a non-augmented group. Osteosynthesis was performed with a PHILOS plate (Synthes®). In the augmented group the two screws finding purchase in the weakest cancellous bone were augmented. The specimens were tested in a 3-part fracture model in a varus bending test. The augmented PHILOS plates withstood significantly more load cycles until failure. The correlation to bone mineral density (BMD) showed that augmentation could partially compensate for low BMD. The augmentation of the screws in locked plating in a proximal humerus fracture model is effective in improving the primary stability in a cyclic varus bending test. The targeted augmentation of two particular screws in a region of low bone quality within the humeral head was almost as effective as four screws with twice the amount of bone cement. Screw augmentation combined with a knowledge of the local bone quality could be more effective in enhancing the primary stability of a proximal humerus locking plate because the effect of augmentation can be exploited more effectively limiting it to the degree required. The technique of augmentation is simple and can be applied in open and minimally invasive procedures. When the correct procedure is used, complications (cement leakage into the joint) can be avoided.

  19. Augmented Reality for Multi-disciplinary Collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiangyu; Rui,

    2010-01-01

    This chapter presents a framework for multi-disciplinary collaboration. Tangible Augmented Reality has been raised as one of suitable systems for design collaboration. Furthermore, it emphasizes the advantages of Tangible Augmented Reality to illustrate the needs for integrating the Tangible User Interfaces and Augmented Reality Systems.

  20. A murine experimental anthracycline extravasation model: pathology and study of the involvement of topoisomerase II alpha and iron in the mechanism of tissue damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thougaard, Annemette V; Langer, Seppo W; Hainau, Bo

    2010-01-01

    in the topoisomerase II alpha gene (Top2a(Y165S/+)), we found that dexrazoxane provided a protection against anthracycline-induced skin wounds that was indistinguishable from that found in wildtype mice. Thus, interaction with topoisomerase II alpha is not central in the pathogenesis of anthracycline-induced skin...

  1. Construction of ontology augmented networks for protein complex prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yijia; Lin, Hongfei; Yang, Zhihao; Wang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Protein complexes are of great importance in understanding the principles of cellular organization and function. The increase in available protein-protein interaction data, gene ontology and other resources make it possible to develop computational methods for protein complex prediction. Most existing methods focus mainly on the topological structure of protein-protein interaction networks, and largely ignore the gene ontology annotation information. In this article, we constructed ontology augmented networks with protein-protein interaction data and gene ontology, which effectively unified the topological structure of protein-protein interaction networks and the similarity of gene ontology annotations into unified distance measures. After constructing ontology augmented networks, a novel method (clustering based on ontology augmented networks) was proposed to predict protein complexes, which was capable of taking into account the topological structure of the protein-protein interaction network, as well as the similarity of gene ontology annotations. Our method was applied to two different yeast protein-protein interaction datasets and predicted many well-known complexes. The experimental results showed that (i) ontology augmented networks and the unified distance measure can effectively combine the structure closeness and gene ontology annotation similarity; (ii) our method is valuable in predicting protein complexes and has higher F1 and accuracy compared to other competing methods.

  2. Augmented reality building operations tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Larry J.

    2014-09-09

    A method (700) for providing an augmented reality operations tool to a mobile client (642) positioned in a building (604). The method (700) includes, with a server (660), receiving (720) from the client (642) an augmented reality request for building system equipment (612) managed by an energy management system (EMS) (620). The method (700) includes transmitting (740) a data request for the equipment (612) to the EMS (620) and receiving (750) building management data (634) for the equipment (612). The method (700) includes generating (760) an overlay (656) with an object created based on the building management data (634), which may be sensor data, diagnostic procedures, or the like. The overlay (656) is configured for concurrent display on a display screen (652) of the client (642) with a real-time image of the building equipment (612). The method (700) includes transmitting (770) the overlay (656) to the client (642).

  3. Augmented Reality 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalstieg, Dieter; Langlotz, Tobias; Billinghurst, Mark

    Augmented Reality (AR) was first demonstrated in the 1960s, but only recently have technologies emerged that can be used to easily deploy AR applications to many users. Camera-equipped cell phones with significant processing power and graphics abilities provide an inexpensive and versatile platform for AR applications, while the social networking technology of Web 2.0 provides a large-scale infrastructure for collaboratively producing and distributing geo-referenced AR content. This combination of widely used mobile hardware and Web 2.0 software allows the development of a new type of AR platform that can be used on a global scale. In this paper we describe the Augmented Reality 2.0 concept and present existing work on mobile AR and web technologies that could be used to create AR 2.0 applications.

  4. Augmented Reality in Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Brandt, Harald; Swensen, Hakon

    Augmented reality (AR) holds great promise as a learning tool. However, most extant studies in this field have focused on the technology itself. The poster presents findings from the first stage of the AR-sci project addressing the issue of applying AR for educational purposes. Benefits and chall......Augmented reality (AR) holds great promise as a learning tool. However, most extant studies in this field have focused on the technology itself. The poster presents findings from the first stage of the AR-sci project addressing the issue of applying AR for educational purposes. Benefits...... and challenges related to AR enhancing student learning in science in lower secondary school were identified by expert science teachers, ICT designers and science education researchers from four countries in a Delphi survey. Findings were condensed in a framework to categorize educational AR designs....

  5. Media-Augmented Exercise Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, T.

    2002-01-01

    Cardio-vascular exercise has been used to mitigate the muscle and cardiac atrophy associated with adaptation to micro-gravity environments. Several hours per day may be required. In confined spaces and long duration missions this kind of exercise is inevitably repetitive and rapidly becomes uninteresting. At the same time, there are pressures to accomplish as much as possible given the cost- per-hour for humans occupying orbiting or interplanetary. Media augmentation provides a the means to overlap activities in time by supplementing the exercise with social, recreational, training or collaborative activities and thereby reducing time pressures. In addition, the machine functions as an interface to a wide range of digital environments allowing for spatial variety in an otherwise confined environment. We hypothesize that the adoption of media augmented exercise machines will have a positive effect on psycho-social well-being on long duration missions. By organizing and supplementing exercise machines, data acquisition hardware, computers and displays into an interacting system this proposal increases functionality with limited additional mass. This paper reviews preliminary work on a project to augment exercise equipment in a manner that addresses these issues and at the same time opens possibilities for additional benefits. A testbed augmented exercise machine uses a specialty built cycle trainer as both input to a virtual environment and as an output device from it using spatialized sound, and visual displays, vibration transducers and variable resistance. The resulting interactivity increases a sense of engagement in the exercise, provides a rich experience of the digital environments. Activities in the virtual environment and accompanying physiological and psychological indicators may be correlated to track and evaluate the health of the crew.

  6. Tracking for Outdoor Mobile Augmented Reality: Further development of the Zion Augmented Reality Application

    OpenAIRE

    Strand, Tor Egil Riegels

    2008-01-01

    This report deals with providing tracking to an outdoor mobile augmented reality system and the Zion Augmented Reality Application. ZionARA is meant to display a virtual recreation of a 13th century castle on the site it once stood through an augmented reality Head Mounted Display. Mobile outdoor augmented/mixed reality puts special demands on what kind of equipment is practical. After briefly evaluating the different existing tracking methods, a solution based on GPS and an augmented inertia...

  7. Aesthetic occiput augmentation using methylmethacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yong Tai

    2015-01-01

    Cranioplasty for only aesthetic reasons has not been commonly performed to date. However, recently there has been a new focus by the public on a more aesthetically pleasing head shape with frequent patient requests for purely aesthetic contouring of the occiput, an important definer of cosmetic head shape. For example, in Asia, where the normal cranial shape is mesocephalic or brachycephalic and often with a planar occiput, requests for its aesthetic correction are increasingly common. Accordingly, the author developed a minimally invasive occiput augmentation using methylmethacrylate. In this study, the indications for aesthetic occiput contouring were planar occiput, left-right asymmetric occiput, and grooved occiput. Under local anesthesia, soft methylmethacrylate is subperiosteally inserted through a small incision (about 5-cm length), manually and precisely contoured in situ through the scalp to the desired occipital shape. All is performed as an outpatient procedure, and a quick recovery is the case. Between March 2007 and October 2013, 959 patients received such aesthetic occiput augmentation. The mean follow-up period was 49 months (range, 3-84 months). Nearly all patients were satisfied with the outcome, and complications were very rare. Only 5 patients (0.5%) needed additional corrective procedures. The author has concluded that aesthetic occiput augmentation using methylmethacrylate yields consistent, predictable, and satisfactory results. Additional long-term follow-up is required for a final conclusion, however.

  8. Stereoscopic augmented reality for laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xin; Azizian, Mahdi; Wilson, Emmanuel; Wu, Kyle; Martin, Aaron D; Kane, Timothy D; Peters, Craig A; Cleary, Kevin; Shekhar, Raj

    2014-07-01

    Conventional laparoscopes provide a flat representation of the three-dimensional (3D) operating field and are incapable of visualizing internal structures located beneath visible organ surfaces. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images are difficult to fuse in real time with laparoscopic views due to the deformable nature of soft-tissue organs. Utilizing emerging camera technology, we have developed a real-time stereoscopic augmented-reality (AR) system for laparoscopic surgery by merging live laparoscopic ultrasound (LUS) with stereoscopic video. The system creates two new visual cues: (1) perception of true depth with improved understanding of 3D spatial relationships among anatomical structures, and (2) visualization of critical internal structures along with a more comprehensive visualization of the operating field. The stereoscopic AR system has been designed for near-term clinical translation with seamless integration into the existing surgical workflow. It is composed of a stereoscopic vision system, a LUS system, and an optical tracker. Specialized software processes streams of imaging data from the tracked devices and registers those in real time. The resulting two ultrasound-augmented video streams (one for the left and one for the right eye) give a live stereoscopic AR view of the operating field. The team conducted a series of stereoscopic AR interrogations of the liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and kidneys in two swine. The preclinical studies demonstrated the feasibility of the stereoscopic AR system during in vivo procedures. Major internal structures could be easily identified. The system exhibited unobservable latency with acceptable image-to-video registration accuracy. We presented the first in vivo use of a complete system with stereoscopic AR visualization capability. This new capability introduces new visual cues and enhances visualization of the surgical anatomy. The system shows promise to improve the precision and

  9. Human glans penis augmentation using injectable hyaluronic acid gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J J; Kwak, T I; Jeon, B G; Cheon, J; Moon, D G

    2003-12-01

    Although augmentation phalloplasty is not an established procedure, some patients still need enlargement of their penis. Current penile augmentation is girth enhancement of penile body by dermofat graft. We performed this study to identify the efficacy and the patient's satisfaction of human glans penis augmentation with injectable hyaluronic acid gel. In 100 patients of subjective small penis (Group I) and 87 patients of small glans after dermofat graft (Group II), 2 cm(3) of hyaluronic acid gel was injected into the glans penis, subcutaneously. At 1 y after injection, changes of glandular diameter were measured by tapeline. Patient's visual estimation of glandular size (Gr 0-4) and patient's satisfaction (Grade (Gr) 0-4) were evaluated, respectively. Any adverse reactions were also evaluated. The mean age of patients was 42.2 (30-70) y in Group I and 42.13 (28-61) y in Group II. The maximal glandular circumference was significantly increased compared to basal circumference of 9.13+/-0.64 cm in Group I (Ppenis.

  10. Augmented robotic device for EVA hand manoeuvres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Eloise; Brooker, Graham

    2012-12-01

    During extravehicular activities (EVAs), pressurised space suits can lead to difficulties in performing hand manoeuvres and fatigue. This is often the cause of EVAs being terminated early, or taking longer to complete. Assistive robotic gloves can be used to augment the natural motion of a human hand, meaning work can be carried out more efficiently with less stress to the astronaut. Lightweight and low profile solutions must be found in order for the assistive robotic glove to be easily integrated with a space suit pressure garment. Pneumatic muscle actuators combined with force sensors are one such solution. These actuators are extremely light, yet can output high forces using pressurised gases as the actuation drive. Their movement is omnidirectional, so when combined with a flexible exoskeleton that itself provides a degree of freedom of movement, individual fingers can be controlled during flexion and extension. This setup allows actuators and other hardware to be stored remotely on the user's body, resulting in the least possible mass being supported by the hand. Two prototype gloves have been developed at the University of Sydney; prototype I using a fibreglass exoskeleton to provide flexion force, and prototype II using torsion springs to achieve the same result. The gloves have been designed to increase the ease of human movements, rather than to add unnatural ability to the hand. A state space control algorithm has been developed to ensure that human initiated movements are recognised, and calibration methods have been implemented to accommodate the different characteristics of each wearer's hands. For this calibration technique, it was necessary to take into account the natural tremors of the human hand which may have otherwise initiated unexpected control signals. Prototype I was able to actuate the user's hand in 1 degree of freedom (DOF) from full flexion to partial extension, and prototype II actuated a user's finger in 2 DOF with forces achieved

  11. Advances in biologic augmentation for rotator cuff repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sahishnu; Gualtieri, Anthony P.; Lu, Helen H.; Levine, William N.

    2016-01-01

    Rotator cuff tear is a very common shoulder injury that often necessitates surgical intervention for repair. Despite advances in surgical techniques for rotator cuff repair, there is a high incidence of failure after surgery because of poor healing capacity attributed to many factors. The complexity of tendon-to-bone integration inherently presents a challenge for repair because of a large biomechanical mismatch between the tendon and bone and insufficient regeneration of native tissue, leading to the formation of fibrovascular scar tissue. Therefore, various biological augmentation approaches have been investigated to improve rotator cuff repair healing. This review highlights recent advances in three fundamental approaches for biological augmentation for functional and integrative tendon–bone repair. First, the exploration, application, and delivery of growth factors to improve regeneration of native tissue is discussed. Second, applications of stem cell and other cell-based therapies to replenish damaged tissue for better healing is covered. Finally, this review will highlight the development and applications of compatible biomaterials to both better recapitulate the tendon–bone interface and improve delivery of biological factors for enhanced integrative repair. PMID:27750374

  12. Augmented reality in intraventricular neuroendoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, T; Schaumann, A; Schulz, M; Thomale, Ulrich-W

    2017-06-01

    Individual planning of the entry point and the use of navigation has become more relevant in intraventricular neuroendoscopy. Navigated neuroendoscopic solutions are continuously improving. We describe experimentally measured accuracy and our first experience with augmented reality-enhanced navigated neuroendoscopy for intraventricular pathologies. Augmented reality-enhanced navigated endoscopy was tested for accuracy in an experimental setting. Therefore, a 3D-printed head model with a right parietal lesion was scanned with a thin-sliced computer tomography. Segmentation of the tumor lesion was performed using Scopis NovaPlan navigation software. An optical reference matrix is used to register the neuroendoscope's geometry and its field of view. The pre-planned ROI and trajectory are superimposed in the endoscopic image. The accuracy of the superimposed contour fitting on endoscopically visualized lesion was acquired by measuring the deviation of both midpoints to one another. The technique was subsequently used in 29 cases with CSF circulation pathologies. Navigation planning included defining the entry points, regions of interests and trajectories, superimposed as augmented reality on the endoscopic video screen during intervention. Patients were evaluated for postoperative imaging, reoperations, and possible complications. The experimental setup revealed a deviation of the ROI's midpoint from the real target by 1.2 ± 0.4 mm. The clinical study included 18 cyst fenestrations, ten biopsies, seven endoscopic third ventriculostomies, six stent placements, and two shunt implantations, being eventually combined in some patients. In cases of cyst fenestrations postoperatively, the cyst volume was significantly reduced in all patients by mean of 47%. In biopsies, the diagnostic yield was 100%. Reoperations during a follow-up period of 11.4 ± 10.2 months were necessary in two cases. Complications included one postoperative hygroma and one insufficient

  13. Webizing mobile augmented reality content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sangchul; Ko, Heedong; Yoo, Byounghyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a content structure for building mobile augmented reality (AR) applications in HTML5 to achieve a clean separation of the mobile AR content and the application logic for scaling as on the Web. We propose that the content structure contains the physical world as well as virtual assets for mobile AR applications as document object model (DOM) elements and that their behaviour and user interactions are controlled through DOM events by representing objects and places with a uniform resource identifier. Our content structure enables mobile AR applications to be seamlessly developed as normal HTML documents under the current Web eco-system.

  14. Controlling bistability by linear augmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Pooja Rani; Shrimali, Manish Dev; Prasad, Awadhesh; Feudel, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    In many bistable oscillating systems only one of the attractors is desired to possessing certain system performance. We present a method to drive a bistable system to a desired target attractor by annihilating the other one. This shift from bistability to monostability is achieved by augmentation of the nonlinear oscillator with a linear control system. For a proper choice of the control function one of the attractors disappears at a critical coupling strength in an control-induced boundary crisis. This transition from bistability to monostability is demonstrated with two paradigmatic examples, the autonomous Chua oscillator and a neuronal system with a periodic input signal.

  15. Indeterminacy and labor augmenting externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Odile; Goenka, Aditya

    2002-01-01

    In this two-sector discrete time model of endogenous economic growth intersectoral effects are assumed to be "labor augmenting" We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for local indeterminacy and multiplicity of the balanced growth path in terms of factor intensities in both sectors....... The balanced growth path is unique if the consumption good sector is more capital intensive. However, it can be indeterminate. When the investment good sector is more capital intensive a sufficient condition for indeterminacy is that there exists at least three balanced growth paths....

  16. Context-Sensitive Augmented Reality for Mission Operations, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current NASA missions to the International Space Station (ISS) are heavily dependent upon ground controllers to assist crew members in performing routine operations...

  17. Context-Augmented Robotic Interaction Layer (CARIL), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CHI Systems and the Institute for Human Machine Cognition have teamed to create a human-robot interaction system that leverages cognitive representations of shared...

  18. Psychotherapy augmentation through preconscious priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois eBorgeat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the hypothesis that repeated preconscious (masked priming of personalized positive cognitions could augment cognitive change and facilitate achievement of patients’ goals following a therapy.Methods: Twenty social phobic patients (13 women completed a 36 weeks study beginning by 12 weeks of group behavioural therapy. After the therapy, they received 6 weeks of preconscious priming and 6 weeks of a control procedure in a randomized cross-over design. The Priming condition involved listening twice daily with a passive attitude to a recording of individualized formulations of appropriate cognitions and attitudes masked by music. The Control condition involved listening to an indistinguishable recording where the formulations had been replaced by random numbers. Changes in social cognitions were measured by the Social Interaction Self Statements Test (SISST.Results: Patients improved following therapy. The Priming procedure was associated with increased positive cognitions and decreased negative cognitions on the SISST while the Control procedure was not. The Priming procedure induced more cognitive change when applied immediately after the group therapy. Conclusion: An effect of priming was observed on social phobia related cognitions in the expected direction. This self administered addition to a therapy could be seen as an augmentation strategy.

  19. Enhancing tourism with augmented and virtual reality

    OpenAIRE

    Jenny, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Augmented and virtual reality are on the advance. In the last twelve months, several interesting devices have entered the market. Since tourism is one of the fastest growing economic sectors in the world and has become one of the major players in international commerce, the aim of this thesis was to examine how tourism could be enhanced with augmented and virtual reality. The differences and functional principles of augmented and virtual reality were investigated, general uses were described ...

  20. Interactive Assembly Guide using Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin; Andersen, Rasmus Skovgaard; Larsen, Christian Lindequist

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an Augmented Reality system for aiding a pump assembling process at Grundfos, one of the leading pump producers. Stable pose estimation of the pump is required in order to augment the graphics correctly. This is achieved by matching image edges with synthesized edges from CAD...... norm. A dynamic visualization of the augmented graphics provides the user with guidance. Usability tests show that the accuracy of the system is sufficient for assembling the pump....

  1. Augmented Reality Using JavaScript

    OpenAIRE

    Hailemichael, Aida

    2013-01-01

    The project goal was to provide a mobile application, for a venue called Kulturhuset Karelia which is located in Tammisaari Finland. In this paper, the concept of Augmented Reality technology is briefly discussed along with the mobile application for the venue. The utilisation of JavaScript for creating Augmented reality content for mobile Augmented reality browser is also demonstrated. The application was created by using Architecht API which is Jacvascript library based on the Wikitude...

  2. Augmenting Locomotion in an Anthropomorphic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Wight

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A powered orthosis has applications ranging from assisting the elderly to augmenting astronauts. An assistive control scheme is developed that uses the force from a slave actuator to augment the force of a master actuator. This can be used to augment a closed-loop control scheme applied to the master actuator. Initially, actuator augmentation is explored both theoretically and experimentally using a simple mechanical system. The control scheme is then applied to a scale model of human lower limbs on a stationary bicycle to investigate the feasibility of a powered orthosis using pneumatic muscle actuators.

  3. [Cement augmentation on the spine : Biomechanical considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, J P; Weiser, L; Kueny, R A; Huber, G; Rueger, J M; Lehmann, W

    2015-09-01

    Vertebral compression fractures are the most common osteoporotic fractures. Since the introduction of vertebroplasty and screw augmentation, the management of osteoporotic fractures has changed significantly. The biomechanical characteristics of the risk of adjacent fractures and novel treatment modalities for osteoporotic vertebral fractures, including pure cement augmentation by vertebroplasty, and cement augmentation of screws for posterior instrumentation, are explored. Eighteen human osteoporotic lumbar spines (L1-5) adjacent to vertebral bodies after vertebroplasty were tested in a servo-hydraulic machine. As augmentation compounds we used standard cement and a modified low-strength cement. Different anchoring pedicle screws were tested with and without cement augmentation in another cohort of human specimens with a simple pull-out test and a fatigue test that better reflects physiological conditions. Cement augmentation in the osteoporotic spine leads to greater biomechanical stability. However, change in vertebral stiffness resulted in alterations with the risk of adjacent fractures. By using a less firm cement compound, the risk of adjacent fractures is significantly reduced. Both screw augmentation techniques resulted in a significant increase in the withdrawal force compared with the group without cement. Augmentation using perforated screws showed the highest stability in the fatigue test. The augmentation of cement leads to a significant change in the biomechanical properties. Differences in the stability of adjacent vertebral bodies increase the risk of adjacent fractures, which could be mitigated by a modified cement compound with reduced strength. Screws that were specifically designed for cement application displayed greatest stability in the fatigue test.

  4. Augmented reality in dentistry: a current perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ho-Beom; Park, Young-Seok; Han, Jung-Suk

    2018-02-21

    Augmentation reality technology offers virtual information in addition to that of the real environment and thus opens new possibilities in various fields. The medical applications of augmentation reality are generally concentrated on surgery types, including neurosurgery, laparoscopic surgery and plastic surgery. Augmentation reality technology is also widely used in medical education and training. In dentistry, oral and maxillofacial surgery is the primary area of use, where dental implant placement and orthognathic surgery are the most frequent applications. Recent technological advancements are enabling new applications of restorative dentistry, orthodontics and endodontics. This review briefly summarizes the history, definitions, features, and components of augmented reality technology and discusses its applications and future perspectives in dentistry.

  5. INTEGRATIVE AUGMENTATION OF STANDARDIZED MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Karapetrovic

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The development, features and integrating abilities of different international standards related to management systems are discussed. A group of such standards that augment the performance of quality management systems in organizations is specifically focused on. The concept, characteristics and an illustrative example of one augmenting standard, namely ISO 10001, are addressed. Integration of standardized augmenting systems, both by themselves and within the overall management system, is examined. It is argued that, in research and practice alike, integrative augmentation represents the future of standardized quality and other management systems.

  6. Long-term stability of contour augmentation in the esthetic zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon S; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Gruber, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    , recent data from cone beam computed tomography studies have shown the augmented volume to be stable long-term. However, no human histologic data are available to document the tissue reactions to this bone augmentation procedure. METHODS: Over an 8-year period, 12 biopsies were harvested 14 to 80 months......BACKGROUND: Contour augmentation around early-placed implants (Type 2 placement) using autogenous bone chips combined with deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) and a collagen barrier membrane has been documented to predictably provide esthetically satisfactory clinical outcomes. In addition...... after implant placement with simultaneous contour augmentation in 10 patients. The biopsies were subjected to histologic and histomorphometric analysis. RESULTS: The biopsies consisted of 32.0% ± 9.6% DBBM particles and 40.6% ± 14.6% mature bone. 70.3% ± 14.5% of the DBBM particle surfaces were covered...

  7. Development and independent validation of a prognostic assay for stage II colon cancer using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, Richard D

    2011-12-10

    Current prognostic factors are poor at identifying patients at risk of disease recurrence after surgery for stage II colon cancer. Here we describe a DNA microarray-based prognostic assay using clinically relevant formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples.

  8. Jointly Optimize Data Augmentation and Network Training: Adversarial Data Augmentation in Human Pose Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Xi; Tang, Zhiqiang; Yang, Fei; Feris, Rogerio; Metaxas, Dimitris

    2018-01-01

    Random data augmentation is a critical technique to avoid overfitting in training deep neural network models. However, data augmentation and network training are usually treated as two isolated processes, limiting the effectiveness of network training. Why not jointly optimize the two? We propose adversarial data augmentation to address this limitation. The main idea is to design an augmentation network (generator) that competes against a target network (discriminator) by generating `hard' au...

  9. Skin-Tissue-sparing Excision with Electrosurgical Peeling (STEEP) : a surgical treatment option for severe hidradenitis suppurativa Hurley stage II/III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, J. L.; Spoo, J. R.; Leeman, F. W. J.; Jonkman, M. F.; Horvath, B.

    BackgroundSurgery is the only curative treatment for removal of the persistent sinus tracts in the skin that are characteristic of severe hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). Complete resection of the affected tissue by wide excision is currently regarded as the preferred surgical technique in these

  10. Augmented nonlinear differentiator design and application to nonlinear uncertain systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xingling; Liu, Jun; Li, Jie; Cao, Huiliang; Shen, Chong; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, an augmented nonlinear differentiator (AND) based on sigmoid function is developed to calculate the noise-less time derivative under noisy measurement condition. The essential philosophy of proposed AND in achieving high attenuation of noise effect is established by expanding the signal dynamics with extra state variable representing the integrated noisy measurement, then with the integral of measurement as input, the augmented differentiator is formulated to improve the estimation quality. The prominent advantages of the present differentiation technique are: (i) better noise suppression ability can be achieved without appreciable delay; (ii) the improved methodology can be readily extended to construct augmented high-order differentiator to obtain multiple derivatives. In addition, the convergence property and robustness performance against noises are investigated via singular perturbation theory and describing function method, respectively. Also, comparison with several classical differentiators is given to illustrate the superiority of AND in noise suppression. Finally, the robust control problems of nonlinear uncertain systems, including a numerical example and a mass spring system, are addressed to demonstrate the effectiveness of AND in precisely estimating the disturbance and providing the unavailable differential estimate to implement output feedback based controller. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. LEARNING ANATOMY WITH AUGMENTED REALITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Cita; Dyhrberg O'Neill, Lotte; Nielsen, Kurt Gammelgaard

    An Augmented Reality (AR) app for Hololens glasses was developed to help students learn the anatomy of the human body mediastinum. In this research project, we wanted to evaluate whether AR: strengthened the students’ self-efficacy and motivation, helped students to improve learning, and provided...... a questionnaire regarding their self-efficacy and motivation, presence in the virtual room, experiences with Hololens teaching, and how they used the quizzes. In addition, students answered a test with the same 20 questions used in the app and three additional transfer questions new to students. Finally, students......’ scores on the mediastinum questions in the exam 2 month later were collected to examine the long-term memory of content. Internal consistency was estimated for all measures. Correlations between measures were examined with a correlation matrix, and group differences were examined with one-way analysis...

  12. Augmented reality in laser laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quercioli, Franco

    2018-05-01

    Laser safety glasses block visibility of the laser light. This is a big nuisance when a clear view of the beam path is required. A headset made up of a smartphone and a viewer can overcome this problem. The user looks at the image of the real world on the cellphone display, captured by its rear camera. An unimpeded and safe sight of the laser beam is then achieved. If the infrared blocking filter of the smartphone camera is removed, the spectral sensitivity of the CMOS image sensor extends in the near infrared region up to 1100 nm. This substantial improvement widens the usability of the device to many laser systems for industrial and medical applications, which are located in this spectral region. The paper describes this modification of a phone camera to extend its sensitivity beyond the visible and make a true augmented reality laser viewer.

  13. Augmented reality for improved safety

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2016-01-01

    Sometimes, CERN experts have to operate in low visibility conditions or in the presence of possible hazards. Minimising the duration of the operation and reducing the risk of errors is therefore crucial to ensuring the safety of personnel. The EDUSAFE project integrates different technologies to create a wearable personnel safety system based on augmented reality.    The EDUSAFE integrated safety system uses a camera mounted on the helmet to monitor the working area.  In its everyday operation of machines and facilities, CERN adopts a whole set of measures and safety equipment to ensure the safety of its personnel, including personal wearable safety devices and access control systems. However, sometimes, scheduled and emergency maintenance work needs to be done in zones with potential cryogenic hazards, in the presence of radioactive equipment or simply in demanding conditions where visibility is low and moving around is difficult. The EDUSAFE Marie Curie Innovative&...

  14. Augmented Reality and Mobile Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwilt, Ian

    The combined notions of augmented-reality (AR) and mobile art are based on the amalgamation of a number of enabling technologies including computer imaging, emergent display and tracking systems and the increased computing-power in hand-held devices such as Tablet PCs, smart phones, or personal digital assistants (PDAs) which have been utilized in the making of works of art. There is much published research on the technical aspects of AR and the ongoing work being undertaken in the development of faster more efficient AR systems [1] [2]. In this text I intend to concentrate on how AR and its associated typologies can be applied in the context of new media art practices, with particular reference to its application on hand-held or mobile devices.

  15. LOFT Augmented Operator Capability Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenbeck, D.A.; Krantz, E.A.; Hunt, G.L.; Meyer, O.R.

    1980-01-01

    The outline of the LOFT Augmented Operator Capability Program is presented. This program utilizes the LOFT (Loss-of-Fluid Test) reactor facility which is located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and the LOFT operational transient experiment series as a test bed for methods of enhancing the reactor operator's capability for safer operation. The design of an Operational Diagnotics and Display System is presented which was backfit to the existing data acquisition computers. Basic color-graphic displays of the process schematic and trend type are presented. In addition, displays were developed and are presented which represent safety state vector information. A task analysis method was applied to LOFT reactor operating procedures to test its usefulness in defining the operator's information needs and workload

  16. M-CSF deficiency leads to reduced metallothioneins I and II expression and increased tissue damage in the brain stem after 6-aminonicotinamide treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Poulsen, Christian; Carrasco, Javier

    2002-01-01

    6-Aminonicotinamide (6-AN) is a niacin antagonist, which leads to degeneration of gray-matter astrocytes followed by a vigorous inflammatory response. Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) is important during inflammation, and in order to further clarify the roles for M-CSF...... in neurodegeneration and brain cell death, we have examined the effect of 6-AN on osteopetrotic mice with genetic M-CSF deficiency (op/op mice). The 6-AN-induced degeneration of gray-matter areas was comparable in control and op/op mice, but the numbers of reactive astrocytes, macrophages, and lymphocytes...... for caspases and cytochrome c) were significantly increased in 6-AN-injected op/op mice relative to controls. From a number of antioxidant factors assayed, only metallothioneins I and II (MT-I+II) were decreased in op/op mice in comparison to controls. Thus, the present results indicate that M-CSF...

  17. Blunt dissection in augmentation mammaplasty-an instrumental aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, R C; Pedroza, L V; Smith, R C; Smith, K F

    1981-11-01

    The iconoclast is an instrument that facilitates blunt dissection in areas where this basic technique is difficult because of anatomical or postsurgical adherence. Medical and inferior undermining in augmentation mammaplasty in primary and revisional cases is described. The instrument capitalizes on the gripping rather than the spreading strength of the surgeon's hand, allows easy penetration of tissues to be spread apart, and diminished severance of blood vessels. We have used the iconoclast for almost two years in selected cases and have had no problems or complications attributable to it.

  18. Provisional prostheses during ridge augmentation and implant dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livada, Rania; Hottel, Timothy L; Shiloah, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Recent advancements in ridge augmentation and bone regeneration have expanded the pool of patients that could benefit from dental implants. However, providing the patient with a temporary prosthesis during the wound healing phase without impairing the process is a challenging task. This article summarizes available information pertaining to provisional prostheses, both tooth-supported and soft tissue-supported, that may meet the patient needs. The advantages and disadvantages of each class of prosthesis, along with indications and contraindications, were taken into consideration to aid the restorative dentist in choosing the optimal provisional for their patients.

  19. Guided tissue regeneration and platelet rich growth factor for the treatment of Grade II furcation defects: A randomized double-blinded clinical trial - A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Jenabian

    2017-01-01

    Results: Eight patients were finally enrolled for this study. Overly, general and specific clinical and furcation parameters were improved except REC that was deteriorated insignificantly and FAC improved not significantly. Intergroup comparison revealed better improvement of FHC in GTR/PRGF group (P = 0.02. Conclusion: A significant improvement in the Grade II furcation defects treated with either GTR or PRGF/GTR was noticed. Further large-scale trials are needed to reveal differences of mentioned treatment in more details.

  20. A Phase I/II Clinical Trial of Belinostat (PXD101) in Combination with Doxorubicin in Patients with Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitfell-Rasmussen, Joanna; Judson, Ian; Safwat, Akmal Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    ) and 75 mg/m(2) Dox. Results. 41 patients were included (25 in phase I, 16 in phase II). Adverse events were fatigue (95%), nausea (76%), and alopecia (63%). There was one DLT, grade 3 rash/hand and foot syndrome. MTD was Bel 1000 mg/m(2)/d and Dox 75 mg/m(2). Four responses were seen: 2 PR in phase I, RR...

  1. Sensory augmentation for the blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Manuela Kärcher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Enacted theories of consciousness conjecture that perception and cognition arise from an active experience of the regular relations that are tying together the sensory stimulation of different modalities and associated motor actions. Previous experiments investigated this concept by employing the technique of sensory substitution. Building on these studies, here we test a set of hypotheses derived from this framework and investigate the utility of sensory augmentation in handicapped people. We provide a late blind subject with a new set of sensorimotor laws: A vibro-tactile belt continually signals the direction of magnetic north. The subject completed a set of behavioral tests before and after an extended training period. The tests were complemented by questionnaires and interviews. This newly supplied information improved performance on different time scales. In a pointing task we demonstrate an instant improvement of performance based on the signal provided by the device. Furthermore, the signal was helpful in relevant daily tasks, often complicated for the blind, such as keeping a direction over longer distances or taking shortcuts in familiar environments. A homing task with an additional attentional load demonstrated a significant improvement after training. The subject found the directional information highly expedient for the adjustment of his inner maps of familiar environments and describes an increase in his feeling of security when exploring unfamiliar environments with the belt. The results give evidence for a firm integration of the newly supplied signals into the behavior of this late blind subject with better navigational performance and more courageous behavior in unfamiliar environments. Most importantly, the complementary information provided by the belt lead to a positive emotional impact with enhanced feeling of security. This experimental approach demonstrates the potential of sensory augmentation devices for the help of

  2. Augmenter la production alimentaire de subsistance en vue d'une ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Augmenter la production alimentaire de subsistance en vue d'une meilleure nutrition au Cambodge (FCRSAI, phase II). L'insécurité alimentaire des familles, les pénuries de vivres saisonnières et les carences nutritionnelles chez les femmes et les enfants sont chose courante au Cambodge. Ce projet peaufinera les ...

  3. Design for Natural Breast Augmentation: The ICE Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallucci, Patrick; Branford, Olivier Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    The authors' published studies have helped define breast beauty in outlining key parameters that contribute to breast attractiveness. The "ICE" principle puts design into practice. It is a simplified formula for inframammary fold incision planning as part of the process for determining implant selection and placement to reproduce the 45:55 ratio previously described as fundamental to natural breast appearance. The formula is as follows: implant dimensions (I) - capacity of the breast (C) = excess tissue required (E). The aim of this study was to test the accuracy of the ICE principle for producing consistent natural beautiful results in breast augmentation. A prospective analysis of 50 consecutive women undergoing primary breast augmentation by means of an inframammary fold incision with anatomical or round implants was performed. The ICE principle was applied to all cases to determine implant selection, placement, and incision position. Changes in parameters between preoperative and postoperative digital clinical photographs were analyzed. The mean upper pole-to-lower pole ratio changed from 52:48 preoperatively to 45:55 postoperatively (p principle for surgical planning in breast augmentation that attractive natural breasts may be achieved consistently and with precision. Therapeutic, IV.

  4. An Integrative Introduction to Human Augmentation Science

    OpenAIRE

    Alicea, Bradly

    2018-01-01

    Human Augmentation (HA) spans several technical fields and methodological approaches, including Experimental Psychology, Human-Computer Interaction, Psychophysiology, and Artificial Intelligence. Augmentation involves various strategies for optimizing and controlling cognitive states, which requires an understanding of biological plasticity, dynamic cognitive processes, and models of adaptive systems. As an instructive lesson, we will explore a few HA-related concepts and outstanding issues. ...

  5. Augmented REality Sandtables (ARESs) Impact on Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    ARL-CR-0803 ● JULY 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Augmented REality Sandtable’s (ARES’s) Impact on Learning by Tarah N......The use of augmented reality (AR) to supplement training tools, specifically sand tables, can produce highly effective systems at relatively low

  6. Augmented Reality Interfaces for Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Pedersen, David Bue; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores potential use cases for using augmented reality (AR) as a tool to operate industrial machines. As a baseline we use an additive manufacturing system, more commonly known as a 3D printer. We implement novel augmented interfaces and controls using readily available open source...

  7. Enhancing Education through Mobile Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joan, D. R. Robert

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author has discussed about the Mobile Augmented Reality and enhancing education through it. The aim of the present study was to give some general information about mobile augmented reality which helps to boost education. Purpose of the current study reveals the mobile networks which are used in the institution campus as well…

  8. Age grouping to optimize augmentation success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Robert W

    2010-05-01

    This article has described the different age groups that present for noninvasive injectable lip and perioral augmentation, as well as the breakdown of 3 subgroups that present within the 4 general age groups. With the fundamental understanding of these presenting groups and subgroups, the practicing augmenter will be able to better treatment plan and educate the patient on realistic and optimal aesthetic outcomes.

  9. From Augmentation Media to Meme Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yuzuru

    Computers as meta media are now evolving from augmentation media vehicles to meme media vehicles. While an augmentation media system provides a seamlessly integrated environment of various tools and documents, meme media system provides further functions to edit and distribute tools and documents. Documents and tools on meme media can easily…

  10. Radioimmunoassay studies of intestinal calcium-binding protein in the pig. II. The distribution of intestinal CaBP in pig tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, B M; Kuttner, M; Willis, D M; Hitchman, A J.W.; Harrison, J E; Murray, T M [Toronto Univ., Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Medicine

    1975-12-01

    Using a specific radioimmunoassay for porcine intestinal calcium-binding protein (CaBP), we have measured the concentration of CaBP in the various tissues and organs of normal pigs. Intestinal CaBP was present in highest concentration in the upper small intestine, with lower concentrations in the distal small intestine. Intestinal CaBP was also found, in lower concentrations, in kidney, liver, thyroid, pancreas, and blood. In all other tissues, including parathyroid, bone, skeletal muscle, and brain, CaBP immunoreactivity was undetectable or less than in blood. The elution profile of calcium-binding activity and immunoreactivity from gel filtration analysis of kidney and parathyroid extracts suggest that the calcium-binding protein in the parathyroid gland, and the major calcium-binding protein(s) in the kidney, are chemically and immunochemically different from intestinal CaBP.

  11. Radiation-induced DNA damage in tumors and normal tissues. II. Influence of dose, residual DNA damage and physiological factors in oxygenated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Wheeler, K.T.

    1994-01-01

    Detection and quantification of hypoxic cells in solid tumors is important for many experimental and clinical situations. Several laboratories, including ours, have suggested that assays which measure radiation-induced DNA strand breaks and DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) might be used to detect or quantify hypoxic cells in tumors and normal tissues. Recently, we demonstrated the feasibility of using an alkaline elution assay that measures strand breaks and DPCs to detect and/or quantify hypoxic cells in tissues. For this approach to be valid, DPCs must not be formed to any great extent in irradiated oxygenated cells, and the formation and repair of strand breaks and DPCs in oxygenated cells must not be modified appreciably by physiological factors (e.g., temperature, pH and nutrient depletion) that are often found in solid tumors. To address these issues, two sets of experiments were performed. In one set of experiments, oxygenated 9L cells in tissue culture, subcutaneous 9L tumors and rat cerebella were irradiated with doses of 15 or 50 Gy and allowed to repair until the residual strand break damage was low enough to detect DPCs. In another set of experiments, oxygenated exponentially growing or plateau-phase 9L cells in tissue culture were irradiated with a dose of 15 Gy at 37 or 20 degrees C, while the cells were maintained at a pH of either 6.6 or 7.3. DNA-protein crosslinks were formed in oxygenated cells about 100 times less efficiently than in hypoxic cells. In addition, temperature, pH, nutrient depletion and growth phase did not appreciably alter the formation and repair of strand breaks or the formation of DPCs in oxygenated 9L cells. These results support the use of this DNA damage assay for the detection and quantification of hypoxic cells in solid tumors. 27 refs., 5 tabs

  12. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of Bio-Gen with biocollagen compared with Bio-Gen with connective tissue in the treatment of class II furcation defects: a randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    JENABIAN, Niloofar; HAGHANIFAR, Sina; MABOUDI, Avideh; BIJANI, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective Treatment of furcation defects are thought to be challenging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic parameters of Bio-Gen with Biocollagen compared with Bio-Gen with connective tissue in the treatment of Class II furcation defects. Material and Methods In this clinical trial, 24 patients with Class II furcation defect on a buccal or lingual mandibular molar were recruited. After oral hygiene instruction, scaling and root planing and achievement of acceptable plaque control, the patients were randomly chosen to receive either connective tissue and Bio-Gen (case group) or Biocollagen and Bio-Gen (control group). The following parameters were recorded before the first and re-entry surgery (six months later): vertical clinical attachment level (VCAL), gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), horizontal probing depth (HPD), vertical probing depth (VPD), gingival recession (GR), furcation vertical component (FVC), furcation to alveolar crest (FAC), fornix to base of defect (FBD), and furcation horizontal component (FHC) were calculated at the time of first surgery and during re-entry. A digital periapical radiograph was taken in parallel before first surgery and re-entry. The radiographs were then analyzed by digital subtraction. The differences with p value <0.05 were considered significant. Results Only the mean changes of FAC, FHC, mean of FHC, FBD in re-entry revealed statistically significant differences between the two groups. HPD, VPD, FBD, FAC, and FHC showed statistically significant differences after 6 months in the case group. However, in the control group, statistically significant differences were found in GR and HPD. We did not observe any significant difference in radiographic changes among the two groups. Conclusion The results of this trial indicate that better clinical outcomes can be obtained with connective tissue grafts in combination with bone material compared with a resorbable barrier with bone material

  13. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of Bio-Gen with biocollagen compared with Bio-Gen with connective tissue in the treatment of class II furcation defects: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Jenabian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Treatment of furcation defects are thought to be challenging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic parameters of Bio-Gen with Biocollagen compared with Bio-Gen with connective tissue in the treatment of Class II furcation defects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this clinical trial, 24 patients with Class II furcation defect on a buccal or lingual mandibular molar were recruited. After oral hygiene instruction, scaling and root planing and achievement of acceptable plaque control, the patients were randomly chosen to receive either connective tissue and Bio-Gen (case group or Biocollagen and Bio-Gen (control group. The following parameters were recorded before the first and re-entry surgery (six months later: vertical clinical attachment level (VCAL, gingival index (GI, plaque index (PI, horizontal probing depth (HPD, vertical probing depth (VPD, gingival recession (GR, furcation vertical component (FVC, furcation to alveolar crest (FAC, fornix to base of defect (FBD, and furcation horizontal component (FHC were calculated at the time of first surgery and during re-entry. A digital periapical radiograph was taken in parallel before first surgery and re-entry. The radiographs were then analyzed by digital subtraction. The differences with p value <0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: Only the mean changes of FAC, FHC, mean of FHC, FBD in re-entry revealed statistically significant differences between the two groups. HPD, VPD, FBD, FAC, and FHC showed statistically significant differences after 6 months in the case group. However, in the control group, statistically significant differences were found in GR and HPD. We did not observe any significant difference in radiographic changes among the two groups. CONCLUSION: The results of this trial indicate that better clinical outcomes can be obtained with connective tissue grafts in combination with bone material compared with a resorbable barrier with bone

  14. Aspects of User Experience in Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Boesen

    in human factors related to Augmented Reality. This is investigated partly as how Augmented Reality applications are used in unsupervised settings, and partly in specific evaluations related to user performance in supervised settings. The thesis starts by introducing Augmented Reality to the reader......, followed by a presentation of the technical areas related to the field, and different human factor areas. As a contribution to the research area, this thesis presents five separate, but sequential, papers within the area of Augmented Reality.......In Augmented Reality applications, the real environment is annotated or enhanced with computer-generated graphics. This is a topic that has been researched in the recent decades, but for many people this is a brand new and never heard of topic. The main focus of this thesis is investigations...

  15. Novel Augmentation Strategies in Major Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Hypothesis The hypotheses of all the four included studies share the common idea that it is possible to augment the effect of antidepressant drug treatment by applying different interventions and with each intervention attain a clinically meaningful better effect compared to a control condition...... and randomised to augmentation with either active or placebo matching pindolol tablets. In the PEMF study patients were continued on ongoing medication and randomised to augmentation with active or inactive (sham) 30 minutes daily PEMF treatment on weekdays. In the Chronos study all patients were treated...... The results from the Pindolol study showed that pindolol did not augment the effect of venlafaxine for the whole sample. However, for those patients classified as slow metabolizers, based on their O-desmethylvenlafaxine/venlafaxine ratio (ODV/V), pindolol did augment the antidepressant effect. For patients...

  16. Performance of a self-augmented railgun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, R.L.; Witherspoon, F.D.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    The accelerating force of a railgun 1/2L'I 2 a can be increased by augmenting the self-induced magnetic field created by the armature current. Augmentation fields can be produced by external current coils or, as is done here, by shorting the railgun muzzle, and using the gun rails as the augmentation coil. Experimental results are presented for a 3.6-m railgun operated in this self-augmented mode, and effective inductance gradients are achieved which are as much as 9.3 times that of the unaugmented gun. A circuit model is presented which explains features of the measured shunt current and voltage. It is concluded that self-augmentation is an effective way to reduce ohmic heating in the armature of a railgun

  17. Histological evaluation of healing after transalveolar maxillary sinus augmentation with bioglass and autogenous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavropoulos, Andreas; Sima, Catalin; Sima, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    the transalveolar osteotomy by means of a trephine bur and non-decalcified sections through the long axis of the cylinder were produced. After a strict selection process, taking into account the presurgical residual bone height and biopsy length, 8 and 15 biopsies representing the new tissues formed inside......OBJECTIVES: The aim was to evaluate histologically the outcome of a bioglass and autogenous bone (at 1 : 1 ratio) composite implantation for transalveolar sinus augmentation. METHODS: In 31 patients, during implant installation ca. 4 months after sinus augmentation, biopsies were harvested through...... the sinus and the transalveolar osteotomy, respectively, qualified for analysis. The tissue fractions occupied by newly formed bone (mineralized tissue+bone marrow), soft connective tissue, residual biomaterial+empty spaces, and debris inside the sinus cavity or the transalveolar osteotomy were estimated...

  18. Chemical, physical, and histologic studies on four commercial apatites used for alveolar ridge augmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Ruyter, I E; Haanaes, H R

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate four commercial apatite products. Subperiosteal alveolar ridge augmentation was performed on the maxilla of rats by implantation of granules of two dense products and of two porous products, and the tissue response was compared with the material character...

  19. Hepatocyte Growth Factor Inhibits Apoptosis by the Profibrotic Factor Angiotensin II via Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase 1/2 in Endothelial Cells and Tissue Explants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    1 mM sodium fluoride, 0.1 mM sodium orthovanadate, 1 mM tetrasodium pyrophosphate, 2 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, 10 g/ml leupeptin, and 10 g...buffer [50 mM Tris-HCl, 1 mM EGTA, 1% (wt/vol) CHAPS, 10% glycerol, 50 mM sodium fluoride, 1 mM sodium orthovanadate, 2 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride...nucleus, nucleolin can be phosphorylated on serine res- idues by the cell cycle-regulated kinases casein kinase II and cell division cycle 2 protein

  20. Mouse glutamate carboxypeptidaseII (GCPII) has a similar enzyme activity and inhibition profile but a different tissue distribution to human GCPII

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knedlík, Tomáš; Vorlová, Barbora; Navrátil, Václav; Tykvart, Jan; Sedlák, František; Vaculín, Š.; Franěk, M.; Šácha, Pavel; Konvalinka, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 9 (2017), s. 1362-1378 ISSN 2211-5463 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02938S; GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : glutamate carboxypeptidase II * mouse animal model * neuronal disorders * prostate cancer * prostate-specific membrane antigen Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 2.143, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2211-5463.12276/full

  1. Towards neuroimmunotherapy for cancer: the neurotransmitters glutamate, dopamine and GnRH-II augment substantially the ability of T cells of few head and neck cancer patients to perform spontaneous migration, chemotactic migration and migration towards the autologous tumor, and also elevate markedly the expression of CD3zeta and CD3epsilon TCR-associated chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saussez, Sven; Laumbacher, Barbara; Chantrain, Gilbert; Rodriguez, Alexandra; Gu, Songhai; Wank, Rudolf; Levite, Mia

    2014-08-01

    In previous studies we found that several Neurotransmitters and Neuropeptides among them: Glutamate, Dopamine, Gonadotropin-releasing-hormone (GnRH) I and II, Somatostatin, CGRP and Neuropeptide Y, can each by itself, at low physiological concentration (~10 nM) bind its receptors in human T cells and trigger several key T cell functions. These findings showed that the nervous system, via Neurotransmitters and Neuropeptides, can 'talk' directly to the immune system, and stimulate what we coined 'Nerve-Driven Immunity': immune responses dictated by the nervous system. In various human cancers, the immune system of the patients, and their T cells in particular, are not functioning well enough against the cancer due to several reasons, among them the suppressive effects on the immune system induced by: (1) the cancer itself, (2) the chemotherapy and radiotherapy, (3) the ongoing/chronic stress, anxiety, depression and pain felt by the cancer patients. In Head and Neck Cancer (HNC), 5-year survival rate remains below 50%, primarily because of local recurrences or second primary tumors. Two-thirds of HNC patients are diagnosed at advanced clinical stage and have significantly poorer prognosis. Most HNC patients have multiple severe immunological defects especially in their T cells. A major defect in T cells of patients with HNC or other types of cancer is low CD3zeta expression that correlates with poor prognosis, decreased proliferation, apoptotic profile, abnormal cytokine secretion and poor abilities of destructing cancer cells. T cells of cancer patients are often also unable to migrate properly towards the tumor. In this study we asked if Glutamate, Dopamine or GnRH-II can augment the spontaneous migration, chemotactic migration and towards autologous HNC migration, and also increase CD3zeta and CD3epsilon expression, of peripheral T cells purified from the blood of five HNC patients. These HNC patients had either primary tumor or recurrence, and have been already

  2. Advances in bone augmentation to enable dental implant placement: Consensus Report of the Sixth European Workshop on Periodontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonetti, Maurizio S; Hämmerle, Christoph H F

    2008-09-01

    Bone augmentation procedures to enable dental implant placement are frequently performed in practice. In this session the European Workshop on Periodontology discussed the evidence in support of the procedures and examined both adverse events and implant performance in the augmented bone. While the available evidence improved both in quantity and quality since previous workshops the conclusions that could be drawn were limited by elements of design and/or reporting that are amenable to improvement. With regards to lateral bone augmentation, a sizable body of evidence supports its use to enable dental implant placement. The group recognized the potential for vertical ridge augmentation procedures to allow implant placement in clinical practice but questioned the applicability of these data to a wider array of operators and clinical settings. With regards to sinus floor augmentation, perforation of the sinus membrane, graft infection and graft loss resulting in inability of implant placement were the major reported adverse events. In cases with dental implants placed in pristine sites. The consensus emphasized the research need to answer questions on: (i) long-term performance of dental implants placed in augmented bone; (ii) the clinical performance of dental implants placed in augmented or pristine sites; and (iii) the clinical benefits of bone augmentation with respect to alternative treatments.

  3. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Department of Chemistry Bayero University, P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria. E-mail: hnuhu2000@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and .... water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in acetone. The molar conductance measurement [Table 3] of the complex compounds in.

  4. Digital Augmented Reality Audio Headset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Rämö

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality audio (ARA combines virtual sound sources with the real sonic environment of the user. An ARA system can be realized with a headset containing binaural microphones. Ideally, the ARA headset should be acoustically transparent, that is, it should not cause audible modification to the surrounding sound. A practical implementation of an ARA mixer requires a low-latency headphone reproduction system with additional equalization to compensate for the attenuation and the modified ear canal resonances caused by the headphones. This paper proposes digital IIR filters to realize the required equalization and evaluates a real-time prototype ARA system. Measurements show that the throughput latency of the digital prototype ARA system can be less than 1.4 ms, which is sufficiently small in practice. When the direct and processed sounds are combined in the ear, a comb filtering effect is brought about and appears as notches in the frequency response. The comb filter effect in speech and music signals was studied in a listening test and it was found to be inaudible when the attenuation is 20 dB. Insert ARA headphones have a sufficient attenuation at frequencies above about 1 kHz. The proposed digital ARA system enables several immersive audio applications, such as a virtual audio tourist guide and audio teleconferencing.

  5. Augmented reality for personalized nanomedicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yugyung; Lee, Chi H

    As our understanding of onset and progress of diseases at the genetic and molecular level rapidly progresses, the potential of advanced technologies, such as 3D-printing, Socially-Assistive Robots (SARs) or augmented reality (AR), that are applied to personalized nanomedicines (PNMs) to alleviate pathological conditions, has become more prominent. Among advanced technologies, AR in particular has the greatest potential to address those challenges and facilitate the translation of PNMs into formidable clinical application of personalized therapy. As AR is about to adapt additional new methods, such as speech, voice recognition, eye tracing and motion tracking, to enable interaction with host response or biological systems in 3-D space, a combination of multiple approaches to accommodate varying environmental conditions, such as public noise and atmosphere brightness, will be explored to improve its therapeutic outcomes in clinical applications. For instance, AR glasses still being developed by Facebook or Microsoft will serve as new platform that can provide people with the health information they are interested in or various measures through which they can interact with medical services. This review has addressed the current progress and impact of AR on PNMs and its application to the biomedical field. Special emphasis is placed on the application of AR based PNMs to the treatment strategies against senior care, drug addiction and medication adherence. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Display technologies for augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoungho; Lee, Seungjae; Jang, Changwon; Hong, Jong-Young; Li, Gang

    2018-02-01

    With the virtue of rapid progress in optics, sensors, and computer science, we are witnessing that commercial products or prototypes for augmented reality (AR) are penetrating into the consumer markets. AR is spotlighted as expected to provide much more immersive and realistic experience than ordinary displays. However, there are several barriers to be overcome for successful commercialization of AR. Here, we explore challenging and important topics for AR such as image combiners, enhancement of display performance, and focus cue reproduction. Image combiners are essential to integrate virtual images with real-world. Display performance (e.g. field of view and resolution) is important for more immersive experience and focus cue reproduction may mitigate visual fatigue caused by vergence-accommodation conflict. We also demonstrate emerging technologies to overcome these issues: index-matched anisotropic crystal lens (IMACL), retinal projection displays, and 3D display with focus cues. For image combiners, a novel optical element called IMACL provides relatively wide field of view. Retinal projection displays may enhance field of view and resolution of AR displays. Focus cues could be reconstructed via multi-layer displays and holographic displays. Experimental results of our prototypes are explained.

  7. Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereaux, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    Initiated in January, 1997, under NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, the Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP) is a means to leverage recent advances in communications, displays, imaging sensors, biosensors, voice recognition and microelectronics to develop a hands-free, tetherless system capable of real-time personal display and control of computer system resources. Using WARP, an astronaut may efficiently operate and monitor any computer-controllable activity inside or outside the vehicle or station. The WARP concept is a lightweight, unobtrusive heads-up display with a wireless wearable control unit. Connectivity to the external system is achieved through a high-rate radio link from the WARP personal unit to a base station unit installed into any system PC. The radio link has been specially engineered to operate within the high- interference, high-multipath environment of a space shuttle or space station module. Through this virtual terminal, the astronaut will be able to view and manipulate imagery, text or video, using voice commands to control the terminal operations. WARP's hands-free access to computer-based instruction texts, diagrams and checklists replaces juggling manuals and clipboards, and tetherless computer system access allows free motion throughout a cabin while monitoring and operating equipment.

  8. Long-term stability of contour augmentation in the esthetic zone: histologic and histomorphometric evaluation of 12 human biopsies 14 to 80 months after augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Simon S; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Gruber, Reinhard; Buser, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Contour augmentation around early-placed implants (Type 2 placement) using autogenous bone chips combined with deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) and a collagen barrier membrane has been documented to predictably provide esthetically satisfactory clinical outcomes. In addition, recent data from cone beam computed tomography studies have shown the augmented volume to be stable long-term. However, no human histologic data are available to document the tissue reactions to this bone augmentation procedure. Over an 8-year period, 12 biopsies were harvested 14 to 80 months after implant placement with simultaneous contour augmentation in 10 patients. The biopsies were subjected to histologic and histomorphometric analysis. The biopsies consisted of 32.0% ± 9.6% DBBM particles and 40.6% ± 14.6% mature bone. 70.3% ± 14.5% of the DBBM particle surfaces were covered with bone. On the remaining surface, multinucleated giant cells with varying intensity of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining were regularly present. No signs of inflammation were visible, and no tendency toward a decreasing volume fraction of DBBM over time was observed. The present study confirms previous findings that osseointegrated DBBM particles do not tend to undergo substitution over time. This low substitution rate may be the reason behind the clinically and radiographically documented long-term stability of contour augmentation using a combination of autogenous bone chips, DBBM particles, and a collagen membrane.

  9. MR imaging of the augmented and reconstructed breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.; Kirova, G.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Various diagnostic methods are used to assess the changes in both the integrity of the implant, and the fibrous capsule of breast parenchyma. MRI has advantages over other diagnostic methods providing high tissue contrast, multi-faceted imaging and lack of ionizing radiation. What you will learn: MRI evaluation of breast augmentation approaches and their complications, MRI assessment of disease with malignant and benign characteristics in patients with breast implants, MRI assessment of breast reconstruction with autologous tissue. Discussion: Mammography after augmentation and reconstructive mammoplasty is hampered by the deformation of the breast parenchyma of the implant and the reduced compression. Postoperative scarring is also difficult to assess. MRI evaluation of implant rupture is accurate using the findings specific to it - linguine sign, teardrop sign or siliconomas. According to Gorczyca et al. MRI has a sensitivity 94% and specificity 97% in the evaluation of rupture. MRI mammography is highly sensitive - between 90 and 95%, in the detection of malignant, but it has limited specificity, which is its disadvantage. Malignant lesions can be represented as fibroadenomas, postoperative and inflammatory changes. Conclusion: Difficulties in the diagnosis of rupture of the implant, the primary and recurrent carcinoma based on clinical examination and inconclusive data from mammography and ultrasound imaging make MRI the method of choice in the evaluation of patients with breast implants

  10. Augmented Reality: Daily Prayers for Preschooler Student

    OpenAIRE

    Hendra Pradibta

    2018-01-01

    Education is one of the aspects that many synthesized with technology. Yet, this is contrary to the fact that where most of the learning materials are still based on text. This research aims to develop an alternative learning media by implementing Augmented Reality Technology for Preschooler students. Augmented Reality (AR) is an application that can combine the virtual object as text, pictures and animation into the real world. Development of Augmented Reality application uses Web Aurasma Ba...

  11. Determination of student opinions in augmented reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Bicen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of the new technology has changed classroom teaching methods and tools in a positive way. This study investigated the classroom learning with augmented reality and the impact of student opinions. 97 volunteer undergraduate students took part in this study. Results included data in the form of frequencies, percentages and descriptive statistics. The results show that, with gamification methods, augmented reality content affected students’ opinions in a positive way. When QR codes are used in the classroom, students feel independent from classroom materials and can access various resources. Moreover, students think that, when augmented reality in the classroom is used, education is more enjoyable.

  12. Concomitant radiation therapy and doxorubicin by continuous Infusion in advanced malignancies - A phase I-II study - evidence of synergistic effect in Soft tissue sarcomas and hepatomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, C.J.; Bhutiani, I.; Rotman, M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper attempts to establish the dose and the duration of administration of doxorubicin infusion having the best therapeutic index and to determine the dose of radiation which in combination with the optimal dose of doxorubicin administered by continuous infusion would have the best therapeutic index. The authors attempt to find the nature and the incidence of side effects of these combined modalities of therapy. The therapeutic effect of the optimal doxorubicin infusion dose in combination with concomitant radiotherapy is assessed in a preliminary study and it was found to have a significant enhancing effect in a few cases of hepatomas and in most of the cases of recurrent and metastatic soft tissue sarcomas

  13. A mixture theory model of fluid and solute transport in the microvasculature of normal and malignant tissues. II: Factor sensitivity analysis, calibration, and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuff, M M; Gore, J P; Nauman, E A

    2013-12-01

    The treatment of cancerous tumors is dependent upon the delivery of therapeutics through the blood by means of the microcirculation. Differences in the vasculature of normal and malignant tissues have been recognized, but it is not fully understood how these differences affect transport and the applicability of existing mathematical models has been questioned at the microscale due to the complex rheology of blood and fluid exchange with the tissue. In addition to determining an appropriate set of governing equations it is necessary to specify appropriate model parameters based on physiological data. To this end, a two stage sensitivity analysis is described which makes it possible to determine the set of parameters most important to the model's calibration. In the first stage, the fluid flow equations are examined and a sensitivity analysis is used to evaluate the importance of 11 different model parameters. Of these, only four substantially influence the intravascular axial flow providing a tractable set that could be calibrated using red blood cell velocity data from the literature. The second stage also utilizes a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the importance of 14 model parameters on extravascular flux. Of these, six exhibit high sensitivity and are integrated into the model calibration using a response surface methodology and experimental intra- and extravascular accumulation data from the literature (Dreher et al. in J Natl Cancer Inst 98(5):335-344, 2006). The model exhibits good agreement with the experimental results for both the mean extravascular concentration and the penetration depth as a function of time for inert dextran over a wide range of molecular weights.

  14. [Morphological substrate and pathogenetic mechanisms of pelvic pain syndrome in endometriosis. Part II. Peripheral nerve tissue remodeling in the foci of endometriosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, E A; Ovakimyan, A S; Paramonova, N B; Faizullina, N M; Kazachenko, I F; Adamyan, L V

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis (EM) is morphologically characterized by the development of extrauterine endometrioid heterotopies, the major clinical symptoms of which is chronic pelvic pain, which is a serious problem not only in modern gynecology, but also in public health as a whole. to investigate neurogenic markers in the foci of EM of various sites and histological structure in women with and without pain syndrome. The investigation was performed using the operative material (resected segments of the intestine, bladder, rectovaginal septum, and small pelvic peritoneum) obtained from 52 women with an intraoperative and morphologically verified diagnosis of EM and (Group 1) and without (Group 2) pain syndrome. Immunohistochemical examination was made on paraffin-embedded tissue sections in accordance with the standard protocols, by using the antibodies: 1) anti-PGP 9.5 polyclonal rabbit antibodies; 2) mouse anti-human neurofilament (NF) protein monoclonal antibodies (Clone 2F1); 3) mouse anti-nerve growth factor (NGF) monoclonal antibodies; 4) monoclonal mouse anti-human NGF receptor p75 (NGFRp75) antibodies (Dako, Denmark). Our findings demonstrate differences in the expression of PGP 9.5, NFs, NGF, and NGFRp75 in the foci and adjacent tissue in painful and painless EM irrespective of the locations of heterotopies. The found molecular features are a manifestation of the remodeling of nerve fibers and nerve endings in the foci of EM and PGP9.5, NGF, and NGFRp75 give rise to nerve fiber neoformation and pain syndrome in EM. At the same time, the immunohistochemical phenotype of EM foci does not depend on their site and reflects the presence or absence of pain syndrome.

  15. Applied Augmented Reality for High Precision Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Clark

    Augmented Reality had a major consumer breakthrough this year with Pokemon Go. The underlying technologies that made that app a success with gamers can be applied to improve the efficiency and efficacy of workers. This session will explore some of the use cases for augmented reality in an industrial environment. In doing so, the environmental impacts and human factors that must be considered will be explored. Additionally, the sensors, algorithms, and visualization techniques used to realize augmented reality will be discussed. The benefits of augmented reality solutions in industrial environments include automated data recording, improved quality assurance, reduction in training costs and improved mean-time-to-resolution. As technology continues to follow Moore's law, more applications will become feasible as performance-per-dollar increases across all system components.

  16. Augmented Reality Simulations on Handheld Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Kurt; Klopfer, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Advancements in handheld computing, particularly its portability, social interactivity, context sensitivity, connectivity, and individuality, open new opportunities for immersive learning environments. This article articulates the pedagogical potential of augmented reality simulations in environmental engineering education by immersing students in…

  17. Affordances in Mobile Augmented Reality Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor Gjøsæter

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the affordances of augmented reality content in a mobile augmented reality application. A user study was conducted by performing a multi-camera video recording of seven think aloud sessions. The think aloud sessions consisted of individual users performing tasks, exploring and experiencing a mobile augmented reality (MAR application we developed for the iOS platform named ARad. We discuss the instrumental affordances we observed when users interacted with augmented reality content, as well as more complex affordances rising from conventions from media content, AR and the traditional WIMP paradigm. We find that remediation of traditional newspaper content through the MAR medium can provide engaging, pleasing and exciting user experiences. However, the some of the content still suffers from being shoveled onto the MAR platform without adapting it properly. Finally, we discuss what content was most successfully mediated to the user and how the content impacts the user experience.

  18. Muzzle shunt augmentation of conventional railguns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.V.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on augmentation which is a technique for reducing the armature current and hence the armature power dissipation in a plasma armature railgun. In spite of the advantages, no large augmented railguns have been built, primarily due to the mechanical and electrical complexity introduced by the extra conductors required. it is possible to achieve some of the benefits of augmentation in a conventional railgun by diverting a fraction φ of the input current through a shunt path at the muzzle of the railgun. In particular, the relation between force and armature current is the same as that obtained in an n-turn, series-connected augmented railgun with n = 1/(1 - φ). The price of this simplification is a reduction in electrical efficiency and some additional complexity in the external electrical system

  19. Augmenting the Web through Open Hypermedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvin, N.O.

    2003-01-01

    Based on an overview of Web augmentation and detailing the three basic approaches to extend the hypermedia functionality of the Web, the author presents a general open hypermedia framework (the Arakne framework) to augment the Web. The aim is to provide users with the ability to link, annotate, a......, and otherwise structure Web pages, as they see fit. The paper further discusses the possibilities of the concept through the description of various experiments performed with an implementation of the framework, the Arakne Environment......Based on an overview of Web augmentation and detailing the three basic approaches to extend the hypermedia functionality of the Web, the author presents a general open hypermedia framework (the Arakne framework) to augment the Web. The aim is to provide users with the ability to link, annotate...

  20. Global Navigation Satellite System and Augmentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    aircraft-based augmentation system (ABAS). ... segment, the ground segment (or) control segment and the user segment ... control station (MCS), and ground antennas. ... repeatability, multipath rejection, size, profile, and environmental.

  1. Improved diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, K.M.; Gilbert, B.L.

    A diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine having means for energizing the boundary layer at several locations along the diffuser walls is improved by the addition of a short collar extending radially outward from the outlet of the diffuser.

  2. Fiber Optic Augmented Reality System (FOARS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovation: Fiber Optics Augmented Reality System. This system in form of a mobile app interacts real time with the actual FOSS(Fiber Optics Sensing System) data and...

  3. Preferential elevation of Prx I and Trx expression in lung cancer cells following hypoxia and in human lung cancer tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H J; Chae, H Z; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y H; Hwangs, T S; Park, E M; Park, Y M

    2003-10-01

    Transient/chronic microenvironmental hypoxia that exists within a majority of solid tumors has been suggested to have a profound influence on tumor growth and therapeutic outcome. Since the functions of novel antioxidant proteins, peroxiredoxin I (Prx I) and II, have been implicated in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, it was of our special interest to probe a possible role of Prx I and II in the context of hypoxic tumor microenvironment. Since both Prx I and II use thioredoxin (Trx) as an electron donor and Trx is a substrate for thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), we investigated the regulation of Trx and TrxR as well as Prx expression following hypoxia. Here we show a dynamic change of glutathione homeostasis in lung cancer A549 cells and an up-regulation of Prx I and Trx following hypoxia. Western blot analysis of 10 human lung cancer and paired normal lung tissues also revealed an elevated expression of Prx I and Trx proteins in lung cancer tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis of the lung cancer tissues confirmed an augmented Prx I and Trx expression in cancer cells with respect to the parenchymal cells in adjacent normal lung tissue. Based on these results, we suggest that the redox changes in lung tumor microenvironment could have acted as a trigger for the up-regulation of Prx I and Trx in lung cancer cells. Although the clinical significance of our finding awaits more rigorous future study, preferential augmentation of the Prx I and Trx in lung cancer cells may well represent an attempt of cancer cells to manipulate a dynamic redox change in tumor microenvironment in a manner that is beneficial for their proliferation and malignant progression.

  4. Filler migration and extensive lesions after lip augmentation: Adverse effects of polydimethylsiloxane filler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh; Faghihi, Gita; Shahmoradi, Zabihollah; Saffaei, Ali

    2018-01-07

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), also called liquid silicone, belongs to a group of polymeric compounds that are commonly referred to as silicones. These filling agents have been used as injectable filler for soft tissue augmentation. There are limited experiences about management of the severe complications related to filler migration associated with PDMS injection. We present a 35-year-old female with severe erythema, edema over her cheeks and neck, and multiple irregularities following cosmetic lip augmentation with PDMS. Further studies are required for management of this complicated case of PDMS injection. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Thrust augmentation for a small turbojet engine

    OpenAIRE

    Hackaday, Gary L.

    1999-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A Sophia J450 (nine pounds of thrust) gas turbine engine was used first to examine the thrust augmentation generated using an ejector shroud. Experimental results obtained with and without the ejector were compared with performance predicted using an engine code and a one-dimensional ejector analysis. The engine code was revised to incorporate a radial turbine and the correct compressor map. Thrust augmentation of 3-10% was measured an...

  6. Breaking the Barriers to True Augmented Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Sandor, Christian; Fuchs, Martin; Cassinelli, Alvaro; Li, Hao; Newcombe, Richard; Yamamoto, Goshiro; Feiner, Steven

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) have gained considerable commercial traction, with Facebook acquiring Oculus VR for \\$2 billion, Magic Leap attracting more than \\$500 million of funding, and Microsoft announcing their HoloLens head-worn computer. Where is humanity headed: a brave new dystopia-or a paradise come true? In this article, we present discussions, which started at the symposium "Making Augmented Reality Real", held at Nara Institute of Science and Te...

  7. Integrating Hypermedia Techniques with Augmented Reality Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Sinclair, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Augmented Reality systems, which overlay virtual information over the real world, can benefit greatly from the techniques established by the Open Hypermedia research field. Storing information and links separately from a document can be advantageous for augmented reality applications and can enable the adaption of content to suit users’ preferences. This thesis explores how Open Hypermedia systems might be used as the information systems behind AR environments. This provides benefits to augme...

  8. A comparative evaluation of freeze-dried bone allograft with and without bioabsorbable guided tissue regeneration membrane Healiguide® in the treatment of Grade II furcation defects: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deept Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Furcation defects represent one of the most demanding therapeutic challenges for periodontal therapy. Various treatment modalities have been tried with different success rates. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA with and without bioabsorbable guided tissue regeneration (GTR membrane Healiguide® in the treatment of Grade II furcation defects. Materials and Methods: Ten patients with bilateral Grade II furcation defects were selected for the study. After phase I therapy, subjects were divided into two arms and treated in a split-mouth design. Ten defects were treated with FDBA alone in the control arm. Ten defects were treated with FDBA in conjunction with bioabsorbable GTR membrane Healiguide® in test arm. Clinical parameters like plaque index, gingival index, vertical probing depth, horizontal probing depth, and relative attachment level (RAL were assessed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months postoperatively. Results: At 6 months, clinical improvement was seen in both the arms with mean pocket depth reduction of 1.2 ± 1.032 mm and 1.7 ± 0.948 mm and mean horizontal probing depth reduction being 2.1 ± 1.969 mm and 1.6 ± 1.264 mm in control and test arm, respectively. Both surgical procedures resulted in a statistically significant reduction in vertical and horizontal probing depths. Conclusion: Both the arms demonstrated a significant improvement in the probing depth, horizontal furcation depth, and RAL at 6 months postsurgery in the treatment of Grade II furcation defects. However, on the intergroup comparison, there was no statistically significant difference in the results achieved between two arms.

  9. Augmented reality implementation methods in mainstream applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Procházka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality has became an useful tool in many areas from space exploration to military applications. Although used theoretical principles are well known for almost a decade, the augmented reality is almost exclusively used in high budget solutions with a special hardware. However, in last few years we could see rising popularity of many projects focused on deployment of the augmented reality on dif­ferent mobile devices. Our article is aimed on developers who consider development of an augmented reality application for the mainstream market. Such developers will be forced to keep the application price, therefore also the development price, at reasonable level. Usage of existing image processing software library could bring a significant cut-down of the development costs. In the theoretical part of the article is presented an overview of the augmented reality application structure. Further, an approach for selection appropriate library as well as the review of the existing software libraries focused in this area is described. The last part of the article out­lines our implementation of key parts of the augmented reality application using the OpenCV library.

  10. Empirical evaluation of augmented prototyping effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Koubek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality is a scientific field well known for more than twenty years. Although there is a huge number of projects that present promising results, the real usage of augmented reality applications for fulfilling common tasks is almost negligible. We believe that one of the principal reasons is insufficient usability of these applications. The situation is analogous to the desktop, mobile or cloud application development or even to the web pages design. The first phase of a technology adoption is the exploration of its potential. As soon as the technical problems are overcome and the technology is widely accepted, the usability is a principal issue. The usability is utmost important also from the business point of view. The cost of augmented reality implementation into the production process is substantial, therefore, the usability that is directly responsible for the implemented solution effectiveness must be appropriately tested. Consequently, the benefit of the implemented solution can be measured.This article briefly outlines common techniques used for usability evaluation. Discussed techniques were designed especially for evaluation of desktop applications, mobile solutions and web pages. In spite of this drawback, their application on augmented reality products is usually possible. Further, a review of existing augmented reality project evaluations is presented.Based on this review, a usability evaluation method for our augmented prototyping application is proposed. This method must overcome the fact that the design is a creative process. Therefore, it is not possible to take into account common criteria such as time consumption.

  11. Construction of collagen II/hyaluronate/chondroitin-6-sulfate tri-copolymer scaffold for nucleus pulposus tissue engineering and preliminary analysis of its physico-chemical properties and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang-Qing; Huang, Bo; Luo, Gang; Zhang, Chuan-Zhi; Zhuang, Ying; Zhou, Yue

    2010-02-01

    To construct a novel scaffold for nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue engineering, The porous type II collagen (CII)/hyaluronate (HyA)-chondroitin-6-sulfate (6-CS) scaffold was prepared using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) cross-linking system. The physico-chemical properties and biocompatibility of CII/HyA-CS scaffolds were evaluated. The results suggested CII/HyA-CS scaffolds have a highly porous structure (porosity: 94.8 +/- 1.5%), high water-binding capacity (79.2 +/- 2.8%) and significantly improved mechanical stability by EDC/NHS crosslinking (denaturation temperature: 74.6 +/- 1.8 and 58.1 +/- 2.6 degrees C, respectively, for the crosslinked scaffolds and the non-crosslinked; collagenase degradation rate: 39.5 +/- 3.4 and 63.5 +/- 2.0%, respectively, for the crosslinked scaffolds and the non-crosslinked). The CII/HyA-CS scaffolds also showed satisfactory cytocompatibility and histocompatibility as well as low immunogenicity. These results indicate CII/HyA-CS scaffolds may be an alternative material for NP tissue engineering due to the similarity of its composition and physico-chemical properties to those of the extracellular matrices (ECM) of native NP.

  12. Toward a unified model of passive drug permeation II: the physiochemical determinants of unbound tissue distribution with applications to the design of hepatoselective glucokinase activators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Avijit; Maurer, Tristan S; Litchfield, John; Varma, Manthema V; Rotter, Charles; Scialis, Renato; Feng, Bo; Tu, Meihua; Guimaraes, Cris R W; Scott, Dennis O

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we leverage a mathematical model of the underlying physiochemical properties of tissues and physicochemical properties of molecules to support the development of hepatoselective glucokinase activators. Passive distribution is modeled via a Fick-Nernst-Planck approach, using in vitro experimental data to estimate the permeability of both ionized and neutral species. The model accounts for pH and electrochemical potential across cellular membranes, ionization according to Henderson-Hasselbalch, passive permeation of the neutral species using Fick's law, and passive permeation of the ionized species using the Nernst-Planck equation. The mathematical model of the physiochemical system allows derivation of a single set of parameters governing the distribution of drug molecules across multiple conditions both in vitro and in vivo. A case study using this approach in the development of hepatoselective glucokinase activators via organic anion-transporting polypeptide-mediated hepatic uptake and impaired passive distribution to the pancreas is described. The results for these molecules indicate the permeability penalty of the ionized form is offset by its relative abundance, leading to passive pancreatic exclusion according to the Nernst-Planck extension of Fickian passive permeation. Generally, this model serves as a useful construct for drug discovery scientists to understand subcellular exposure of acids or bases using specific physiochemical properties. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  13. Biological alterations resulting from chronic lung irradiation. II. Connective tissue alterations following inhalation of 144Ce fused clay aerosol in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickrell, J.A.; Harris, D.V.; Pfleger, R.C.; Benjamin, S.A.; Belasich, J.J.; Jones, R.K.; McClellan, R.O.

    1975-01-01

    Beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to an aerosol of 144 Ce clay to quantitate the relationship between pulmonary radiation dose and induced fibrosis. Collagen, elastin, glucosamine, and the ratios of elastin/collagen, hydroxyproline/hydroxylysine, and hydroxyproline/proline were determined to indicate changes in connective tissue constituents. Total lung collagen was partitioned into native collagen, soluble collagen, and ultrafilterable hydroxyproline peptides. Increased total lung collagen correlated best with increasing cumulative radiation dose and increasing time after inhalation exposure. The increase in total lung collagen was not seen until more than 4 mo after exposure and a cumulative dose of about 40,000 rad. Soluble collagen and low molecular weight hydroxyproline peptide quantities both increased at 2 mo after exposure and cumulative doses of 20,000 to 27,000 rad. A variable elastin response apparently was not related to either increasing time or increasing radiation dose after exposure. These results indicate that collagen accumulation is an important factor in pulmonary fibrosis. Although collagen synthesis and breakdown were both activated at a relatively early time after inhalation, a significant increase in native collagen (scarring) occurred only when the metabolic balance was altered by protracted time or irradiation after exposure. The interrelationships observed in this study provide insight into the mechanism of fibrosis induced by chronic pulmonary injury. (U.S.)

  14. Authentication of Chinese Materia Medica decoction dregs. Part II: comparison before and after decoction of four Chinese Materia Medica that mainly comprise storage tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lailai; Liang, Zhitao; Chen, Hubiao; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2012-02-01

    Authentication of Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) decoction dregs is important for ensuring the efficacy and safety of CMM when they are used in decoction. If someone got worse or poisoned after taking a decoction while the formula is appropriate, the authentication of CMM dregs is the effective method to explore the reasons. Therefore, a systematic study on the authentication of CMM dregs was carried out. In this study, two pairs of easily confused CMM dregs, Fenge (Puerariae Thomsonii Radix) and Shanyao (Dioscoreae Rhizoma), Dihuang (Rehmanniae Radix) and Huangjing (Polygonati Rhizoma), which mostly comprise storage tissues, were investigated by comparing the morphological and microscopic characteristics. Fenge and Shanyao contain abundant starch granules. After decoction their dregs were hard, nonstarchy and horn-like. Fully gelatinized starch granules were found in the powder of Fenge dregs while incompletely gelatinized starch granules were occasionally found in the Shanyao dregs. In contrast, Dihuang and Huangjing contain water-soluble sugars. After decoction, their dregs were hard and brittle. Their parenchymatous cells were shrunken and unknown crystals were found under microscope. Hence, the morphological and microscopic characteristics of CMM before and after decoction were different, and different changes in the CMM dregs can be illustrated by the different nature of their ergastic substance. These differences could be used to authenticate CMM dregs. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Assimilate unloading from maize (Zea mays L.) pedicel tissues. II. Effects of chemical agents on sugar, amino acid, and 14C-assimilate unloading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, G.A.; Knievel, D.P.; Shannon, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Sugar, amino acid, and 14 C-assimilate release from attached maize (Zea mays L.) pedicels was studied following treatment with several chemical inhibitors. In the absence of these agents, sugar release was nearly linear over a 7-hour period. At least 13 amino acids were released with glutamine comprising over 30% of the total. Release was not affected by potassium concentration, 10-minute pretreatments with p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid (PCMBS) or dithiothreitol, and low concentrations of CaCl 2 . Three hours or more exposure to PCMBS, dinitrophenol, N-ethylmaleimide, or 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid strongly inhibited 14 C-assimilate, sugar, and amino acid release from the pedicel. These treatments also reduced 14 C-assimilate movement into the kernel bases. It is, therefore, likely that reduced unloading, caused by these relatively long-term exposures to chemical inhibitors, was related to reduced translocation of assimilates into treated kernels. Whether this effect is due to disruption of kernel metabolism and sieve element function or reduced assimilate unloading and subsequent accumulation of unlabeled assimilates within the pedicel tissues cannot be determined at this time

  16. Calcium transport in sealed vesicles from red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) storage tissue. II. Characterization of 45Ca2+ uptake into plasma membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannini, J.L.; Ruiz-Cristin, J.; Briskin, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Calcium uptake was examined in sealed plasma membrane vesicles isolated from red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) storage tissue using 45 Ca 2+ . Uptake of 45 Ca 2+ by the vesicles was ATP-dependent and radiotracer accumulated by the vesicles could be released by the addition of the calcium ionophore A23187. The uptake was stimulated by gramicidin D but slightly inhibited by carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Although the latter result might suggest some degree of indirect coupling of 45 Ca 2+ uptake to ATP utilization via ΔμH + , no evidence for a secondary H + /Ca 2+ antiport in this vesicle system could be found. Following the imposition of an acid-interior pH gradient, proton efflux from the vesicle was not enhanced by the addition of Ca 2+ and an imposed pH gradient could not drive 45 Ca 2+ uptake. Optimal uptake of 45 Ca 2+ occurred broadly between pH 7.0 and 7.5 and the transport was inhibited by orthovanadate, N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, and diethylstilbestrol but insensitive to nitrate and azide. The dependence of 45 Ca 2+ uptake on both calcium and Mg:ATP concentration demonstrated saturation kinetics with K/sub m/ values of 6 micromolar and 0.37 millimolar, respectively. While ATP was the preferred substrate for driving 45 Ca 2+ uptake, GTP could drive transport at about 50% of the level observed for ATP. The results of this study demonstrate the presence of a unique primary calcium transport system associated with the plasma membrane which could drive calcium efflux from the plant cell

  17. Augmenting digital displays with computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing

    As we inevitably step deeper and deeper into a world connected via the Internet, more and more information will be exchanged digitally. Displays are the interface between digital information and each individual. Naturally, one fundamental goal of displays is to reproduce information as realistically as possible since humans still care a lot about what happens in the real world. Human eyes are the receiving end of such information exchange; therefore it is impossible to study displays without studying the human visual system. In fact, the design of displays is rather closely coupled with what human eyes are capable of perceiving. For example, we are less interested in building displays that emit light in the invisible spectrum. This dissertation explores how we can augment displays with computation, which takes both display hardware and the human visual system into consideration. Four novel projects on display technologies are included in this dissertation: First, we propose a software-based approach to driving multiview autostereoscopic displays. Our display algorithm can dynamically assign views to hardware display zones based on multiple observers' current head positions, substantially reducing crosstalk and stereo inversion. Second, we present a dense projector array that creates a seamless 3D viewing experience for multiple viewers. We smoothly interpolate the set of viewer heights and distances on a per-vertex basis across the arrays field of view, reducing image distortion, crosstalk, and artifacts from tracking errors. Third, we propose a method for high dynamic range display calibration that takes into account the variation of the chrominance error over luminance. We propose a data structure for enabling efficient representation and querying of the calibration function, which also allows user-guided balancing between memory consumption and the amount of computation. Fourth, we present user studies that demonstrate that the ˜ 60 Hz critical flicker fusion

  18. Adverse reactions to injectable soft tissue fillers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Requena, Luis; Requena, Celia; Christensen, Lise

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, injections with filler agents are often used for wrinkle-treatment and soft tissue augmentation by dermatologists and plastic surgeons. Unfortunately, the ideal filler has not yet been discovered and all of them may induce adverse reactions. Quickly biodegradable or resorbable ag...

  19. Augmented Robotics Dialog System for Enhancing Human–Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Martín, Fernando; Castro-González, Aívaro; de Gorostiza Luengo, Francisco Javier Fernandez; Salichs, Miguel Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Augmented reality, augmented television and second screen are cutting edge technologies that provide end users extra and enhanced information related to certain events in real time. This enriched information helps users better understand such events, at the same time providing a more satisfactory experience. In the present paper, we apply this main idea to human–robot interaction (HRI), to how users and robots interchange information. The ultimate goal of this paper is to improve the quality of HRI, developing a new dialog manager system that incorporates enriched information from the semantic web. This work presents the augmented robotic dialog system (ARDS), which uses natural language understanding mechanisms to provide two features: (i) a non-grammar multimodal input (verbal and/or written) text; and (ii) a contextualization of the information conveyed in the interaction. This contextualization is achieved by information enrichment techniques that link the extracted information from the dialog with extra information about the world available in semantic knowledge bases. This enriched or contextualized information (information enrichment, semantic enhancement or contextualized information are used interchangeably in the rest of this paper) offers many possibilities in terms of HRI. For instance, it can enhance the robot's pro-activeness during a human–robot dialog (the enriched information can be used to propose new topics during the dialog, while ensuring a coherent interaction). Another possibility is to display additional multimedia content related to the enriched information on a visual device. This paper describes the ARDS and shows a proof of concept of its applications. PMID:26151202

  20. Non-randomised phase II trial of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in patients with chronic arm lymphoedema and tissue fibrosis after radiotherapy for early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gothard, Lone; Stanton, Anthony; MacLaren, Julie; Lawrence, David; Hall, Emma; Mortimer, Peter; Parkin, Eileen; Pritchard, Joyce; Risdall, Jane; Sawyer, Robert; Woods, Mary; Yarnold, John

    2004-01-01

    Background: Radiation-induced arm lymphoedema is a common and distressing complication of curative treatment for early breast cancer. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO 2 ) therapy promotes healing in bone rendered ischaemic by radiotherapy, and may help some soft-tissue injuries too, but is untested in arm lymphoedema. Methods: Twenty-one eligible research volunteers with a minimum 30% increase in arm volume in the years after axillary/supraclavicular radiotherapy (axillary surgery in 18/21 cases) were treated with HBO 2 . The volunteers breathed 100% oxygen at 2.4 ATA for 100 min in a multiplace hyperbaric chamber on 30 occasions over a period of 6 weeks. The volume of the ipsilateral limb, measured opto-electronically by a perometer and expressed as a percentage of contralateral limb volume, was selected as the primary endpoint. A secondary endpoint was local lymph drainage expressed as fractional removal rate of radioisotopic tracer, measured using lymphoscintigraphy. Results: Three out of 19 evaluable patients experienced >20% reduction in arm volume at 12 months. Six out of 13 evaluable patients experienced a >25% improvement in 99 Tc-nanocolloid clearance rate from the ipsilateral forearm measured by quantitative lymphoscintigraphy at 12 months. Overall, there was a statistically significant, but clinically modest, reduction in ipsilateral arm volume at 12 months follow-up compared with baseline (P=0.005). The mean percentage reduction in arm volume from baseline at 12 months was 7.51. Moderate or marked lessening of induration in the irradiated breast, pectoral fold and/or supraclavicular fossa was recorded clinically in 8/15 evaluable patients. Twelve out of 19 evaluable patients volunteered that their arms felt softer, and six reported improvements in shoulder mobility at 12 months. No significant improvements were noted in patient self-assessments of quality of life. Conclusion: Interpretation is limited by the absence of a control group. However, measurement of

  1. Sinus Floor Elevation and Augmentation Using Synthetic Nanocrystalline and Nanoporous Hydroxyapatite Bone Substitute Materials: Preliminary Histologic Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belouka, Sofia-Maria; Strietzel, Frank Peter

    To compare the tissue composition of augmented sites after using two different synthetic bone substitute materials, nanocrystalline and nanoporous hydroxyapatite (HA), for sinus floor elevation and augmentation. Forty-four patients received 88 titanium screw implants (Camlog Promote plus) of 4.3-mm diameter and 11- or 13-mm length, placed simultaneously during sinus floor elevation and augmentation. Nanocrystalline (Ostim) or nanoporous (NanoBone) HA were used exclusively. Bone substitute materials and implant lengths were allocated by randomization. Bone biopsy specimens were obtained from the former area of the lateral access window at implant exposure during healing abutment placement after 6 months. Biopsy specimens were prepared and examined histologically and histomorphometrically. All implants were osseointegrated at the time of exposure. Clinically and histologically, no signs of inflammation in the augmented sites were present. The histomorphometric analysis of 44 biopsy specimens revealed 31.8% ± 11.6% newly formed bone for sites augmented with nanocrystalline HA and 34.6% ± 9.2% for nanoporous HA (P = .467). The proportion of remaining bone substitute material was 28.4% ± 18.6% and 30% ± 13%, respectively (P = .453). The proportion of soft tissue within the biopsy specimens was 39.9% ± 11.1% and 35.4% ± 6.8%, respectively (P = .064). No significant differences were found between the area fractions of bone, bone substitute material, and soft tissue concerning the bone substitute material utilized. Within the present study, both synthetic bone substitute materials, nanocrystalline and nanoporous HA, were found to support bone formation in sinus floor elevation and augmentation procedures by osteoconductivity. They were not completely resorbed after 6 months. The amounts of newly formed bone, soft tissue, and bone substitute material remnants were found to be similar, indicating that both materials are likewise suitable for sinus floor elevation and

  2. Augmented Fotonovelas: A Visual Methodology for Community Engaged Research

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo, LeighAnna Grace

    2014-01-01

    Augmented Fotonovelas draw upon the aesthetic of traditional fotonovelas, but incorporate new technologies--such as video interviews, interactive mapping, smart phone technology, and Augmented Reality (AR). Augmented Fotonovelas also make the most of the classic form, utilizing photographs, text, and bubble captions. Through this methodology, new and old come together to produce Augmented Scholarship. I define Augmented Scholarship as knowledge production bridging the gap between communities ...

  3. Nanostructures: A Platform for Brain Repair and Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra eVidu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanoscale structures have been at the core of research efforts dealing with integration of nanotechnology into novel electronic devices for the last decade. For instance, the unique electrical and optical properties of nanowires, nanotubes and nanocables with vertical orientation, assembled in nanoscale arrays, have been used in many device applications such as sensors that hold the potential to augment brain functions. However, the challenge in creating nanowires/nanotubes or nanocables arrays based sensors lies in making individual electrical connections fitting both the features of the brain and of the nanostructures. This review discusses two of the most important applications of nanostructures in neuroscience. First, the current approaches to create nanowires and nanocable structures are reviewed to critically evaluate their potential of developing unique nanostructure based sensors to improve recording and device performance to reduce noise and the detrimental effect of the interface on the tissue. Second, the implementation of nanomaterials in neurobiological and medical applications will be considered from the brain augmentation perspective. Because the size of nanomaterials is of the same order of magnitude with that of biomolecules, these materials are valuable tools for nanoscale manipulation in a broad range of neurobiological systems. Novel applications for diagnosis and treatment of brain diseases such as multiple sclerosis, meningitis, stroke, epilepsy, Alzheimer disease, schizophrenia, and autism will be considered. Because the blood brain barrier (BBB has a defensive mechanism in preventing nanomaterials arrival to the brain, various strategies to help them to passing through the BBB will be discussed. The nanostructures at the interface between nanotechnology and neuroscience will play a pivotal role not only in addressing the multitude of brain disorders but also to repair/augment brain functions.

  4. ARSC: Augmented Reality Student Card--An Augmented Reality Solution for the Education Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Neven A. M.; Zayed, Hala H.; Sharawy, Mohamed I.

    2011-01-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is the technology of adding virtual objects to real scenes through enabling the addition of missing information in real life. As the lack of resources is a problem that can be solved through AR, this paper presents and explains the usage of AR technology we introduce Augmented Reality Student Card (ARSC) as an application of…

  5. Augmented “Ouch!”. : How to create intersubjective augmented objects into which we can bump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liberati, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to provide the elements to design an intersubjective augmented reality in order to make the augmented objects part of our everyday world. This work will analyse intersubjectivity from a phenomenological point of view using the works by Husserl and Schutz. Thanks to these two

  6. Augmented reality and ubiquitous computing : The hidden potentialities of augmented reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liberati, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to highlight the augmented reality’s potentialities, depicting its main characteristics and focusing attention on what its goal should be in order to have a new technology completely different from those that already exist. From a technological point of view, augmented

  7. Augment-type two stage accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, Mutsuo; Azuma, Kingo.

    1995-01-01

    When a flying body accelerated by a gas gun at a first stage enters into an augment rail passing through an introduction tube, an ignition capacitor for initial plasmas is turned ON to apply a voltage between the augment rails. Subsequently, the accelerating gas present behind the flying body is formed into plasmas by a laser, to flow electric current from one of the inner augment rails → plasma armature → the other of the inner augment rails, and additionally accelerate the flying body by Lorentz force formed in this case. Since the plasmas are maintained in a state of higher density than the plasmas obtained by using all of the augment rails, the ignition capacitor for initial plasmas in switched to a power source. As a result, it is possible to flow the maximum current before the plasmas expand, and a large accelerating force and a high magnetic flux density are attained, to improve acceleration performance of the flying body. (N.H.)

  8. Potential costs of breast augmentation mammaplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, William P; Eichhorn, Mitchell G; Ford, Ronald D

    2016-01-01

    Augmentation mammaplasty is one of the most common surgical procedures performed by plastic surgeons. The aim of this study was to estimate the cost of the initial procedure and its subsequent complications, as well as project the cost of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-recommended surveillance imaging. The potential costs to the individual patient and society were calculated. Local plastic surgeons provided billing data for the initial primary silicone augmentation and reoperative procedures. Complication rates used for the cost analysis were obtained from the Allergen Core study on silicone implants. Imaging surveillance costs were considered in the estimations. The average baseline initial cost of silicone augmentation mammaplasty was calculated at $6335. The average total cost of primary breast augmentation over the first decade for an individual patient, including complications requiring reoperation and other ancillary costs, was calculated at $8226. Each decade thereafter cost an additional $1891. Costs may exceed $15,000 over an averaged lifetime, and the recommended implant surveillance could cost an additional $33,750. The potential cost of a breast augmentation, which includes the costs of complications and imaging, is significantly higher than the initial cost of the procedure. Level III, economic and decision analysis study. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Augmented Reality: Daily Prayers for Preschooler Student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Pradibta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Education is one of the aspects that many synthesized with technology. Yet, this is contrary to the fact that where most of the learning materials are still based on text. This research aims to develop an alternative learning media by implementing Augmented Reality Technology for Preschooler students. Augmented Reality (AR is an application that can combine the virtual object as text, pictures and animation into the real world. Development of Augmented Reality application uses Web Aurasma Based Studio, with learning materials of daily prayer for preschool student. The development of the characters and the animations were using Adobe Illustrator and Adobe After Effects. The results of the study showed that technology Augmented Reality can be used as an alternative learning media especially in the learning process in Preschool Al Furqon. This is because the content Augmented Reality in the form of animation can gives more understanding and attention for preschool student to follow the learning process

  10. Biomechanics of Polyhydroxyalkanoate Mesh-Augmented Single-Row Rotator Cuff Repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashjian, Robert Z; Kolz, Christopher W; Suter, Thomas; Henninger, Heath B

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) mesh is a bioresorbable scaffold used to reinforce the suture-tendon interface in rotator cuff repairs (RCRs). We conducted a study of cyclic and ultimate failure properties of PHA mesh-augmented single-row RCRs and nonaugmented RCRs. Eight pairs of fresh-frozen cadaver humeri (6 male, 2 female) were tested. Mean (SD) age was 61 (9) years. The supraspinatus tendon was resected and reattached in a single-row configuration using 2 triple-loaded suture anchors and 6 simple stitches. The opposite humerus underwent RCR augmented with 2 strips of 13-mm × 23-mm PHA mesh. Humeri were mounted in an Instron load frame, cycled 1000 times to 1.0 MPa of effective stress, and loaded to failure. Construct gapping and ultimate failure loads/displacements were recorded. Paired t tests compared augmented and nonaugmented RCRs (P ≤ .05 was significant). There was no difference in gapping over 1000 cycles (P = .879). Mean (SD) failure load was higher for PHA mesh-augmented RCRs, 571 (173) N, than for nonaugmented (control) RCRs, 472 (120) N (P = .042), and failures were consistent within pairs because of tissue failure at the knots or anchor pullout. This technique for arthroscopic augmentation can be used to improve initial biomechanical repair strength in tears at risk for failure.

  11. Sinus Augmentation by Platelet-Rich Fibrin Alone: A Report of Two Cases with Histological Examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naofumi Aoki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In sinus floor augmentation of an atrophic posterior maxilla, platelet-rich fibrin (PRF has been used as a graft material. We herein report two cases with histological evaluations of PRF after the surgery. The first case was a 28-year-old female with an atrophic right posterior maxilla who was treated with sinus floor augmentation and simultaneous implant placement using PRF as the sole graft material in our hospital. Twenty-four months after surgery, the implant was unfortunately removed because of occlusal overloading by parafunctional habits. During implant replacement, a tissue sample was obtained from the site of augmentation with PRF and was evaluated histologically. The second case was a 58-year-old man with severe alveolar atrophy of the right maxilla who underwent lateral sinus augmentation using only PRF in a two-stage procedure in our hospital. Samples were obtained at the second-stage surgery and histological examinations were performed. As a result, new bone formation was confirmed histologically in both cases. Our findings show that the use of PRF as a graft material during sinus floor augmentation induces natural bone regeneration.

  12. Preconditioned augmented Lagrangian formulation for nearly incompressible cardiac mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Joventino Oliveira; Dos Santos, Rodrigo Weber; Sundnes, Joakim; Rocha, Bernardo Martins

    2018-04-01

    Computational modeling of the heart is a subject of substantial medical and scientific interest, which may contribute to increase the understanding of several phenomena associated with cardiac physiological and pathological states. Modeling the mechanics of the heart have led to considerable insights, but it still represents a complex and a demanding computational problem, especially in a strongly coupled electromechanical setting. Passive cardiac tissue is commonly modeled as hyperelastic and is characterized by quasi-incompressible, orthotropic, and nonlinear material behavior. These factors are known to be very challenging for the numerical solution of the model. The near-incompressibility is known to cause numerical issues such as the well-known locking phenomenon and ill-conditioning of the stiffness matrix. In this work, the augmented Lagrangian method is used to handle the nearly incompressible condition. This approach can potentially improve computational performance by reducing the condition number of the stiffness matrix and thereby improving the convergence of iterative solvers. We also improve the performance of iterative solvers by the use of an algebraic multigrid preconditioner. Numerical results of the augmented Lagrangian method combined with a preconditioned iterative solver for a cardiac mechanics benchmark suite are presented to show its improved performance. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Orthobiologics in the augmentation of osteoporotic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J Tracy; Nicolaou, Daemeon A

    2015-02-01

    Many orthobiologic adjuvants are available and widely utilized for general skeletal restoration. Their use for the specific task of osteoporotic fracture augmentation is less well recognized. Common conductive materials are reviewed for their value in this patient population including the large group of allograft adjuvants categorically known as the demineralized bone matrices (DBMs). Another large group of alloplastic materials is also examined-the calcium phosphate and sulfate ceramics. Both of these materials, when used for the proper indications, demonstrate efficacy for these patients. The inductive properties of bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and platelet concentrates show no clear advantages for this group of patients. Systemic agents including bisphosphonates, receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ ligand (RANKL) inhibitors, and parathyroid hormone augmentation all demonstrate positive effects with this fracture cohort. Newer modalities, such as trace ion bioceramic augmentation, are also reviewed for their positive effects on osteoporotic fracture healing.

  14. Cognitive Cost of Using Augmented Reality Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, James; Ssin, Seung Youb; ElSayed, Neven A M; Dorrian, Jillian; Webb, David P; Walsh, James A; Simon, Timothy M; Irlitti, Andrew; Smith, Ross T; Kohler, Mark; Thomas, Bruce H

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the results of two cognitive load studies comparing three augmented reality display technologies: spatial augmented reality, the optical see-through Microsoft HoloLens, and the video see-through Samsung Gear VR. In particular, the two experiments focused on isolating the cognitive load cost of receiving instructions for a button-pressing procedural task. The studies employed a self-assessment cognitive load methodology, as well as an additional dual-task cognitive load methodology. The results showed that spatial augmented reality led to increased performance and reduced cognitive load. Additionally, it was discovered that a limited field of view can introduce increased cognitive load requirements. The findings suggest that some of the inherent restrictions of head-mounted displays materialize as increased user cognitive load.

  15. Augmented reality-assisted skull base surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrilo, I; Sarrafzadeh, A; Bijlenga, P; Landis, B N; Schaller, K

    2014-12-01

    Neuronavigation is widely considered as a valuable tool during skull base surgery. Advances in neuronavigation technology, with the integration of augmented reality, present advantages over traditional point-based neuronavigation. However, this development has not yet made its way into routine surgical practice, possibly due to a lack of acquaintance with these systems. In this report, we illustrate the usefulness and easy application of augmented reality-based neuronavigation through a case example of a patient with a clivus chordoma. We also demonstrate how augmented reality can help throughout all phases of a skull base procedure, from the verification of neuronavigation accuracy to intraoperative image-guidance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel Augmentation Strategies in Major Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    open psychiatric wards. Only a few patients were re-cruited through advertisements (in the PEMF and Chronos studies). Inclusion criteria Inclusion criteria were major depression according to the DSM-IV, including a depressive episode as part of a bipolar disorder. For the PEMF study, treatment...... The results from the Pindolol study showed that pindolol did not augment the effect of venlafaxine for the whole sample. However, for those patients classified as slow metabolizers, based on their O-desmethylvenlafaxine/venlafaxine ratio (ODV/V), pindolol did augment the antidepressant effect. For patients...... classified as fast metabolizers, pindolol worsened the outcome. This interaction between ODV/V ratio and treatment group was statistically significant (p = 0.01). Results from the PEMF study The results from the PEMF Study showed that treatment with active versus sham PEMF augmented the effect of the ongoing...

  17. Handling Occlusions for Robust Augmented Reality Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maidi Madjid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Augmented Reality applications, the human perception is enhanced with computer-generated graphics. These graphics must be exactly registered to real objects in the scene and this requires an effective Augmented Reality system to track the user's viewpoint. In this paper, a robust tracking algorithm based on coded fiducials is presented. Square targets are identified and pose parameters are computed using a hybrid approach based on a direct method combined with the Kalman filter. An important factor for providing a robust Augmented Reality system is the correct handling of targets occlusions by real scene elements. To overcome tracking failure due to occlusions, we extend our method using an optical flow approach to track visible points and maintain virtual graphics overlaying when targets are not identified. Our proposed real-time algorithm is tested with different camera viewpoints under various image conditions and shows to be accurate and robust.

  18. Pemanfaatan Augmented Reality Pada Permainan Othello

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendy Layman Aguston

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan teknologi telah mengubah cara pengerjaan suatu pekerjaan dari cara konvensional menjadi cara yang lebih praktis. Dengan hadirnya teknologi Augmented Reality, cara bermain yang menggunakan pion dan membalikkan pion musuh secara manual menjadi lebih mudah dalam memainkan permainan selain juga dapat berinteraksi langsung. Pembuatan permainan Othello menggunakan program Unity dengan framework Vuforia untuk mewujudkan Augmented Reality pada permainan Othello. Untuk menerapkan Augmented Reality dengan baik, dibutuhkan papan permainan sebagai image target yang sesuai dengan kriteria, jenis kamera yang digunakan, jarak kamera terhadap papan permainan, intensitas cahaya yang ditangkap kamera, serta tingkat sensitivitas tombol virtual. Pada permainan Othello ini tersedia fitur komputer yang menggunakan algoritma Alpha Beta Pruning dengan 3 level kedalaman yang menggunakan perhitungan fungsi evaluasi berupa mobility, potential mobility dan penguasaan corner yang menghasilkan kemenangan mencapai 73,33% dari 15 kali uji coba terhadap aplikasi Othello serupa dan 78,34% dari 37 kali uji coba terhadap user.

  19. Heating Augmentation for Short Hypersonic Protuberances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Ali R.; Wood, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Computational aeroheating analyses of the Space Shuttle Orbiter plug repair models are validated against data collected in the Calspan University of Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC) 48 inch shock tunnel. The comparison shows that the average difference between computed heat transfer results and the data is about 9.5%. Using CFD and Wind Tunnel (WT) data, an empirical correlation for estimating heating augmentation on short hypersonic protuberances (k/delta less than 0.3) is proposed. This proposed correlation is compared with several computed flight simulation cases and good agreement is achieved. Accordingly, this correlation is proposed for further investigation on other short hypersonic protuberances for estimating heating augmentation.

  20. Medical imaging and augmented reality. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohi, Takeyoshi; Sakuma, Ichiro; Liao, Hongen

    2008-01-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Medical Imaging and Augmented Reality, MIAR 2008, held in Tokyo, Japan, in August 2008. The 44 revised full papers presented together with 3 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 90 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on surgical planning and simulation, medical image computing, image analysis, shape modeling and morphometry, image-guided robotics, image-guided intervention, interventional imaging, image registration, augmented reality, and image segmentation. (orig.)

  1. Augmented Reality for Maintenance and Repair (ARMAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    implementations by leveraging more robust vision algorithms or by using fiducials. 57 Fi gu re 2 3. A ug m en te d co nt ro ls st at e di ag ra m 58...34 Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality (VR 󈧇), Washington, DC, 2003, p. 199. [18] W. Friedrich , "ARVIKA-Augmented Reality for...and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 󈧊), Santa Barbara , CA, 2006, pp. 105-108. [33] S. G. Rao, S. J. Schmugge

  2. The augmentation algorithm and molecular phylogenetic trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmquist, R.

    1978-01-01

    Moore's (1977) augmentation procedure is discussed, and it is concluded that the procedure is valid for obtaining estimates of the total number of fixed nucleotide substitutions both theoretically and in practice, for both simulated and real data, and in agreement, for experimentally dense data sets, with stochastic estimates of the divergence, provided the restrictions on codon mutability resulting from natural selection are explicitly allowed for. Tateno and Nei's (1978) critique that the augmentation procedure has a systematic bias toward overestimation of the total number of nucleotide replacements is disputed, and a data analysis suggests that ancestral sequences inferred by the method of parsimony contain a large number of incorrectly assigned nucleotides.

  3. Introducing Augmented Reality in Cultural Heritage Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Villarejo, Luis; González-Reverté, Francesc; Miralbell, Oriol; Gomis, Joan Miquel

    2014-01-01

    Augmented Reality is a technology that allows overlaid digital content into our view of the real world through the camera of a Smartphone or a tablet. Video, audio, 2D and 3D images, web and text are just some examples of the type of content that can be overlaid on our perception of the real world. This content can be associated with real world elements by means of geolocation or image recognition. Such technology has great engagement potential and is used in many fields to augment the users’...

  4. Towards Wearable Gaze Supported Augmented Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toshiaki Kurauchi, Andrew; Hitoshi Morimoto, Carlos; Mardanbeigi, Diako

    Augmented cognition applications must deal with the problem of how to exhibit information in an orderly, understandable, and timely fashion. Though context have been suggested to control the kind, amount, and timing of the information delivered, we argue that gaze can be a fundamental tool...... by the wearable computing community to develop a gaze supported augmented cognition application with three interaction modes. The application provides information of the person being looked at. The continuous mode updates information every time the user looks at a different face. The key activated discrete mode...

  5. Medical imaging and augmented reality. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohi, Takeyoshi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mechano-Informatics; Sakuma, Ichiro [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Precision Engineering; Liao, Hongen (eds.) [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Bioengineering

    2008-07-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Medical Imaging and Augmented Reality, MIAR 2008, held in Tokyo, Japan, in August 2008. The 44 revised full papers presented together with 3 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 90 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on surgical planning and simulation, medical image computing, image analysis, shape modeling and morphometry, image-guided robotics, image-guided intervention, interventional imaging, image registration, augmented reality, and image segmentation. (orig.)

  6. Biology and augmentation of tendon-bone insertion repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lui PPY

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Surgical reattachment of tendon and bone such as in rotator cuff repair, patellar-patella tendon repair and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction often fails due to the failure of regeneration of the specialized tissue ("enthesis" which connects tendon to bone. Tendon-to-bone healing taking place between inhomogenous tissues is a slow process compared to healing within homogenous tissue, such as tendon to tendon or bone to bone healing. Therefore special attention must be paid to augment tendon to bone insertion (TBI healing. Apart from surgical fixation, biological and biophysical interventions have been studied aiming at regeneration of TBI healing complex, especially the regeneration of interpositioned fibrocartilage and new bone at the healing junction. This paper described the biology and the factors influencing TBI healing using patella-patellar tendon (PPT healing and tendon graft to bone tunnel healing in ACL reconstruction as examples. Recent development in the improvement of TBI healing and directions for future studies were also reviewed and discussed.

  7. Tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, John P; Bronzino, Joseph D

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly viewed as the future of medicine, the field of tissue engineering is still in its infancy. As evidenced in both the scientific and popular press, there exists considerable excitement surrounding the strategy of regenerative medicine. To achieve its highest potential, a series of technological advances must be made. Putting the numerous breakthroughs made in this field into a broad context, Tissue Engineering disseminates current thinking on the development of engineered tissues. Divided into three sections, the book covers the fundamentals of tissue engineering, enabling technologies, and tissue engineering applications. It examines the properties of stem cells, primary cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix as well as their impact on the development of tissue engineered devices. Contributions focus on those strategies typically incorporated into tissue engineered devices or utilized in their development, including scaffolds, nanocomposites, bioreactors, drug delivery systems, and gene t...

  8. A Clinical phase I/II trial to investigate preoperative dose-escalated intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT and intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT in patients with retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roeder Falk

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local control rates in patients with retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma (RSTS remain disappointing even after gross total resection, mainly because wide margins are not achievable in the majority of patients. In contrast to extremity sarcoma, postoperative radiation therapy (RT has shown limited efficacy due to its limitations in achievable dose and coverage. Although Intraoperative Radiation Therapy (IORT has been introduced in some centers to overcome the dose limitations and resulted in increased outcome, local failure rates are still high even if considerable treatment related toxicity is accepted. As postoperative administration of RT has some general disadvantages, neoadjuvant approaches could offer benefits in terms of dose escalation, target coverage and reduction of toxicity, especially if highly conformal techniques like intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT are considered. Methods/design The trial is a prospective, one armed, single center phase I/II study investigating a combination of neoadjuvant dose-escalated IMRT (50–56 Gy followed by surgery and IORT (10–12 Gy in patients with at least marginally resectable RSTS. The primary objective is the local control rate after five years. Secondary endpoints are progression-free and overall survival, acute and late toxicity, surgical resectability and patterns of failure. The aim of accrual is 37 patients in the per-protocol population. Discussion The present study evaluates combined neoadjuvant dose-escalated IMRT followed by surgery and IORT concerning its value for improved local control without markedly increased toxicity. Trial registration NCT01566123

  9. A Clinical phase I/II trial to investigate preoperative dose-escalated intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) in patients with retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeder, Falk; Hensley, Frank W; Buechler, Markus W; Debus, Juergen; Koch, Moritz; Weitz, Juergen; Bischof, Marc; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela; Nikoghosyan, Anna V; Huber, Peter E; Edler, Lutz; Habl, Gregor; Krempien, Robert; Oertel, Susanne; Saleh-Ebrahimi, Ladan

    2012-01-01

    Local control rates in patients with retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma (RSTS) remain disappointing even after gross total resection, mainly because wide margins are not achievable in the majority of patients. In contrast to extremity sarcoma, postoperative radiation therapy (RT) has shown limited efficacy due to its limitations in achievable dose and coverage. Although Intraoperative Radiation Therapy (IORT) has been introduced in some centers to overcome the dose limitations and resulted in increased outcome, local failure rates are still high even if considerable treatment related toxicity is accepted. As postoperative administration of RT has some general disadvantages, neoadjuvant approaches could offer benefits in terms of dose escalation, target coverage and reduction of toxicity, especially if highly conformal techniques like intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) are considered. The trial is a prospective, one armed, single center phase I/II study investigating a combination of neoadjuvant dose-escalated IMRT (50–56 Gy) followed by surgery and IORT (10–12 Gy) in patients with at least marginally resectable RSTS. The primary objective is the local control rate after five years. Secondary endpoints are progression-free and overall survival, acute and late toxicity, surgical resectability and patterns of failure. The aim of accrual is 37 patients in the per-protocol population. The present study evaluates combined neoadjuvant dose-escalated IMRT followed by surgery and IORT concerning its value for improved local control without markedly increased toxicity. NCT01566123

  10. Collecting and Storing Tissue, Blood, and Bone Marrow Samples From Patients With Rhabdomyosarcoma or Other Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-11

    Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Childhood Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Chordoma; Desmoid Tumor; Metastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Nonmetastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Previously Treated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Previously Untreated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  11. Temporal Coherence Strategies for Augmented Reality Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Boesen; Tatzgern, Markus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2016-01-01

    Temporal coherence of annotations is an important factor in augmented reality user interfaces and for information visualization. In this paper, we empirically evaluate four different techniques for annotation. Based on these findings, we follow up with subjective evaluations in a second experiment...

  12. Design Principles for Augmented Reality Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunleavy, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Augmented reality is an emerging technology that utilizes mobile, context-aware devices (e.g., smartphones, tablets) that enable participants to interact with digital information embedded within the physical environment. This overview of design principles focuses on specific strategies that instructional designers can use to develop AR learning…

  13. The Educational Possibilities of Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabero, Julio; Barroso, Julio

    2016-01-01

    A large number of emergent technologies have been acquiring a strong impulse in recent years. One of these emergent technologies is Augmented Reality (RA), which will surely have a high level of penetration into all our educational centers, including universities, in the next 3 to 5 years, as a number of different reports have already highlighted.…

  14. Personalized augmented reality for anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Meng; Fallavollita, Pascal; Seelbach, Ina; Von Der Heide, Anna Maria; Euler, Ekkehard; Waschke, Jens; Navab, Nassir

    2016-05-01

    Anatomy education is a challenging but vital element in forming future medical professionals. In this work, a personalized and interactive augmented reality system is developed to facilitate education. This system behaves as a "magic mirror" which allows personalized in-situ visualization of anatomy on the user's body. Real-time volume visualization of a CT dataset creates the illusion that the user can look inside their body. The system comprises a RGB-D sensor as a real-time tracking device to detect the user moving in front of a display. In addition, the magic mirror system shows text information, medical images, and 3D models of organs that the user can interact with. Through the participation of 7 clinicians and 72 students, two user studies were designed to respectively assess the precision and acceptability of the magic mirror system for education. The results of the first study demonstrated that the average precision of the augmented reality overlay on the user body was 0.96 cm, while the results of the second study indicate 86.1% approval for the educational value of the magic mirror, and 91.7% approval for the augmented reality capability of displaying organs in three dimensions. The usefulness of this unique type of personalized augmented reality technology has been demonstrated in this paper. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Determination of Student Opinions in Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicen, Huseyin; Bal, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of the new technology has changed classroom teaching methods and tools in a positive way. This study investigated the classroom learning with augmented reality and the impact of student opinions. 97 volunteer undergraduate students took part in this study. Results included data in the form of frequencies, percentages and…

  16. Intelligent Augmented Reality Training for Motherboard Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerfield, Giles; Mitrovic, Antonija; Billinghurst, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the combination of Augmented Reality (AR) with Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) to assist with training for manual assembly tasks. Our approach combines AR graphics with adaptive guidance from the ITS to provide a more effective learning experience. We have developed a modular software framework for intelligent AR training…

  17. Augmentation of board games using smartphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulsinskas, Arturas; Balan, Catalin; Egede Bukdahl, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains details about research into the effect of digital augmentation on social presence in board games. A case study of the board game Tobago was performed during the project and a prototype application for smartphones was developed in order to compare the players’ social presence...

  18. Augmented reality for Android application development

    CERN Document Server

    Grubert, Jens

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step tutorial-based guide aimed at giving you hands-on practical experience to develop AR applications for Android.Augmented Reality for Android Application Development is for Android mobile application developers who are familiar with Android Development Tools and deployment, JMonkeyEngine, and the Vuforia SDK.

  19. CARE: Creating Augmented Reality in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Farzana

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores how Augmented Reality using mobile phones can enhance teaching and learning in education. It specifically examines its application in two cases, where it is identified that the agility of mobile devices and the ability to overlay context specific resources offers opportunities to enhance learning that would not otherwise exist.…

  20. Aloqa and layar augmented reality feeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ternier, Stefaan

    2010-01-01

    Aloqa is a service that proactively notifies the user of Point Of Interests (POIs). It runs on iPhone, blackberry and android. With this tool you can easily get directions to events, places, buildings or other places of interests. Layar builds on the same principle, but has a browser that augments

  1. Facial skeletal augmentation using hydroxyapatite cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, M L; Costantino, P D; Friedman, C D; Chow, L C

    1993-02-01

    This study investigates the use of a new calcium phosphate cement, which sets to solid, microporous hydroxyapatite, for facial bone augmentation. In six dogs, the supraorbital ridges were augmented bilaterally with this hydroxyapatite cement. On one side, the hydroxyapatite cement was placed directly onto the bone within a subperiosteal pocket. On the opposite side, the cement was contained within a collagen membrane tubule and then inserted into a subperiosteal pocket. The use of collagen tubules facilitated easy, precise placement of the cement. All implants maintained their original augmented height throughout the duration of the study. They were well tolerated without extrusion or migration, and there was no significant sustained inflammatory response. Histologic studies, performed at 3, 6, and 9 months revealed that when the cement was placed directly onto bone, progressive replacement of the implant by bone (osseointegration of the hydroxyapatite with the underlying bone) without a loss of volume was observed. In contrast, when the cement-collagen tubule combination was inserted, primarily a fibrous union was noted. Despite such fibrous union, the hydroxyapatite-collagen implant solidly bonded to the underlying bone, and no implant resorption was observed. Hydroxyapatite cement can be used successfully for the experimental augmentation of the craniofacial skeleton and may be applicable for such uses in humans.

  2. (Re-)Examination of Multimodal Augmented Reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosa, N.E.; Werkhoven, P.J.; Hürst, W.O.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of augmented reality (AR) research has been concerned with visual perception, however the move towards multimodality is imminent. At the same time, there is no clear vision of what multimodal AR is. The purpose of this position paper is to consider possible ways of examining AR other

  3. Accurate overlaying for mobile augmented reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W; van der Schaaf, A; Lagendijk, RL; Jansen, F.W.

    1999-01-01

    Mobile augmented reality requires accurate alignment of virtual information with objects visible in the real world. We describe a system for mobile communications to be developed to meet these strict alignment criteria using a combination of computer vision. inertial tracking and low-latency

  4. Alveolar ridge augmentation by osteoinduction in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Bang, G; Haanaes, H R

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate bone substitutes for alveolar ridge augmentation by osteoinduction. Allogenic, demineralized, and lyophilized dentin and bone was tested for osteoinductive properties in order to establish an experimental model for further studies. Implantations were perf...

  5. Augmentative Communication Services in the Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Sarah W.

    1989-01-01

    The article considers current issues concerning service delivery systems and practices concerning augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) services in U.S. schools. Concerns in AAC program development are noted and service delivery models (center-based, community-based, or collaborative) are compared. (DB)

  6. Augmented Reality in Sports: Today and Tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer BOZYER

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The rapid change experienced in the field of Information Technologies makes the informati cs more tangible in daily life. Today, it became possible to encounter with the informatics applications almost all the disciplines. As a matter of course, many informatics applications are put into the practice regarding the sports discipline. Because of the condition that the power of information processing has increased and the studies on wearable technol ogies in addition to the expert system design, augmented reality (AR has become a topic which gains imp ortance in the field of sports. There are many studies that are conducted with the aim of increasing the efficiency of physical activities done in many sports branches, ensuring a more fair management of competitions and providing the opportunity for spectators to watch the competitions in a more comfortable and efficient way. In this study; the information about the current augmented reality practices th at are used in various sports branches has been given and the mobile and interactive augmented reality practices which are possible to be seen in future have been mentioned. In addition, there is an augmented reality practice which is designed with the aim of ensuring that the shoots of sports people who are interested in archery, are more stable and of ensuring that the trainings and exercises are more efficient by stating to the sports people whether he or she is in the right position for shoot which is c alled as T shape seen at the time of releasing the arrow.

  7. Location-Based Learning through Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Te-Lien; Chanlin, Lih-Juan

    2014-01-01

    A context-aware and mixed-reality exploring tool cannot only effectively provide an information-rich environment to users, but also allows them to quickly utilize useful resources and enhance environment awareness. This study integrates Augmented Reality (AR) technology into smartphones to create a stimulating learning experience at a university…

  8. Volumetric, dashboard-mounted augmented display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, David; Grabowski, Christopher

    2017-11-01

    The optical design of a compact volumetric display for drivers is presented. The system displays a true volume image with realistic physical depth cues, such as focal accommodation, parallax and convergence. A large eyebox is achieved with a pupil expander. The windshield is used as the augmented reality combiner. A freeform windshield corrector is placed at the dashboard.

  9. Get Real: Augmented Reality for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca; DeBay, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Kids love augmented reality (AR) simulations because they are like real-life video games. AR simulations allow students to learn content while collaborating face to face and interacting with a multimedia-enhanced version of the world around them. Although the technology may seem advanced, AR software makes it easy to develop content-based…

  10. Understanding the Conics through Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Patricia; Pulido, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the production of a digital environment to foster the learning of conics through augmented reality. The name conic refers to curves obtained by the intersection of a plane with a right circular conical surface. The environment gives students the opportunity to interact with the cone and the plane as virtual objects in real…

  11. Alveolar ridge augmentation in rats by combined hydroxylapatite and osteoinductive material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Bang, G; Haanaes, H R

    1991-01-01

    , lyophilized dentin or bone and implanted subperiosteally for alveolar ridge augmentation purposes and heterotopically in the abdominal muscles in rats. Light microscopic evaluation revealed that HA was surrounded by fibrous connective tissue containing foreign body giant cells and it had neither...... an osteoinductive nor an osteoconductive effect. The newly formed bone induced from the implanted allogenic, demineralized, lyophilized dentin or bone was never found in close contact with the HA and did not incorporate the implant....

  12. The role of imaging in pediatric bladder augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, Micheal; Chow, Jeanne S. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Phelps, Andrew [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Estrada, Carlos [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Urology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Bladder augmentation (also called augmentation cystoplasty) refers to a number of surgical methods that increase the capacity and compliance of the urinary bladder. Imaging has an important role in the postoperative evaluation of bladder augmentation. The most common augmentation procedures utilize enteric segments to augment the bladder. The various types of bladder augmentation have characteristic appearances on different imaging modalities. Spontaneous bladder perforation is a complication that is seen in both early and late post-operative periods and it is one of the most important complications for radiologists to be aware of as it is life-threatening. We review the indications for bladder augmentation in children, the surgical techniques employed, the normal postoperative appearances on imaging studies and the role of imaging complications of bladder augmentation including delayed spontaneous bladder rupture, which is life-threatening. (orig.)

  13. Techniques used by United Kingdom consultant plastic surgeons to select implant size for primary breast augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, W J M; Timmons, M J; Kauser, S

    2015-10-01

    Techniques used to estimate implant size for primary breast augmentation have evolved since the 1970s. Currently no consensus exists on the optimal method to select implant size for primary breast augmentation. In 2013 we asked United Kingdom consultant plastic surgeons who were full members of BAPRAS or BAAPS what was their technique for implant size selection for primary aesthetic breast augmentation. We also asked what was the range of implant sizes they commonly used. The answers to question one were grouped into four categories: experience, measurements, pre-operative external sizers and intra-operative sizers. The response rate was 46% (164/358). Overall, 95% (153/159) of all respondents performed some form of pre-operative assessment, the others relied on "experience" only. The most common technique for pre-operative assessment was by external sizers (74%). Measurements were used by 57% of respondents and 3% used intra-operative sizers only. A combination of measurements and sizers was used by 34% of respondents. The most common measurements were breast base (68%), breast tissue compliance (19%), breast height (15%), and chest diameter (9%). The median implant size commonly used in primary breast augmentation was 300cc. Pre-operative external sizers are the most common technique used by UK consultant plastic surgeons to select implant size for primary breast augmentation. We discuss the above findings in relation to the evolution of pre-operative planning techniques for breast augmentation. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analysis of human maxillary sinus-floor augmentation using porous β-tricalcium phosphate for dental implant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Shinji; Shinmyouzu, Kouhei; Miyamoto, Ikuya; Takeshita, Kenji; Terada, Toshihisa; Takahashi, Tetsu

    2013-08-01

    This study utilized the constitution and expression of Runx2/Cbfa1 to conduct 6-month-post-operation histomorphometrical and histochemical analysis of osteocalcin in bone regeneration following sinus-floor augmentation procedures using β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and autogenous cortical bone. Thirteen sinuses of nine patients were treated with sinus-floor augmentation using 50% β-TCP and 50% autogenous cancellous bone harvested from the ramus of the mandible. Biopsies of augmented sinuses were taken at 6 months for histomorphometric and immunohistochemical measurements. Runx2/Cbfa1- and osteocalcin-positive cells were found around TCP particles and on the bone surface. Approximately 60% of cells found around TCP particles stained positive for Runx2/Cbfa1. Fewer cells stained positive for osteocalcin. These positive cells decreased apically with increasing vertical distance from the maxillary bone surface. Histomorphometric analysis showed that the augmented site close to residual bone and periosteum contained approximately 42% bony tissue and 42% soft connective tissue, and the remaining 16% consisted of TCP particles. On the other hand, the augmented bone far from residual bone and periosteum contained 35% bony tissue and 50% soft connective tissue. Our data suggest that TCP particles attract osteoprogenitor cells that migrate into the interconnecting micropores of the bone-substitute material by 6 months. The augmented site close to residual bone contained a higher proportion of bony tissue and a lower proportion of soft connective tissue than did the augmented site far from residual bone. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Tissue types (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports ... binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). Epithelial tissue provides a covering (skin, the linings of the ...

  16. Alternative realities : from augmented reality to mobile mixed reality

    OpenAIRE

    Claydon, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This thesis provides an overview of (mobile) augmented and mixed reality by clarifying the different concepts of reality, briefly covering the technology behind mobile augmented and mixed reality systems, conducting a concise survey of existing and emerging mobile augmented and mixed reality applications and devices. Based on the previous analysis and the survey, this work will next attempt to assess what mobile augmented and mixed reality could make possible, and what related applications an...

  17. Initial Model of Social Acceptability for Human Augmentation Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eghtebas, Chloe; Pay, Yun Suen; Väänänen, Kaisa; Pfeiffer, Ties; Meyer, Joachim; Lukosch, S.G.

    2017-01-01

    Academia and industry engage in major efforts to develop technologies for augmenting human senses and activities. Many of these technologies, such as augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) head mounted displays (HMD), haptic augmentation systems, and exoskeletons can be applied in numerous

  18. Augmented reality: dé nieuwe dimensie in de sport?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slender, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Volgens trendwatcher Justien Marseille de trend van 2010: augmented reality. Augmented reality is een techniek om met de computer gemaakte beelden toe te voegen aan de realiteit. Het Nederlandse Layar (layar.com) presenteerde zich vorig jaar vol trots als een unieke augmented reality browser, met

  19. Dynamic augmentation restores anterior tibial translation in ACL suture repair: a biomechanical comparison of non-, static and dynamic augmentation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogeslag, Roy A G; Brouwer, Reinoud W; Huis In 't Veld, Rianne; Stephen, Joanna M; Amis, Andrew A

    2018-02-03

    There is a lack of objective evidence investigating how previous non-augmented ACL suture repair techniques and contemporary augmentation techniques in ACL suture repair restrain anterior tibial translation (ATT) across the arc of flexion, and after cyclic loading of the knee. The purpose of this work was to test the null hypotheses that there would be no statistically significant difference in ATT after non-, static- and dynamic-augmented ACL suture repair, and they will not restore ATT to normal values across the arc of flexion of the knee after cyclic loading. Eleven human cadaveric knees were mounted in a test rig, and knee kinematics from 0° to 90° of flexion were recorded by use of an optical tracking system. Measurements were recorded without load and with 89-N tibial anterior force. The knees were tested in the following states: ACL-intact, ACL-deficient, non-augmented suture repair, static tape augmentation and dynamic augmentation after 10 and 300 loading cycles. Only static tape augmentation and dynamic augmentation restored ATT to values similar to the ACL-intact state directly postoperation, and maintained this after cyclic loading. However, contrary to dynamic augmentation, the ATT after static tape augmentation failed to remain statistically less than for the ACL-deficient state after cyclic loading. Moreover, after cyclic loading, ATT was significantly less with dynamic augmentation when compared to static tape augmentation. In contrast to non-augmented ACL suture repair and static tape augmentation, only dynamic augmentation resulted in restoration of ATT values similar to the ACL-intact knee and decreased ATT values when compared to the ACL-deficient knee immediately post-operation and also after cyclic loading, across the arc of flexion, thus allowing the null hypotheses to be rejected. This may assist healing of the ruptured ACL. Therefore, this study would support further clinical evaluation of dynamic augmentation of ACL repair.

  20. Moojenactivase, a novel pro-coagulant PIIId metalloprotease isolated from Bothrops moojeni snake venom, activates coagulation factors II and X and induces tissue factor up-regulation in leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartim, Marco A; Costa, Tassia R; Laure, Helen J; Espíndola, Milena S; Frantz, Fabiani G; Sorgi, Carlos A; Cintra, Adélia C O; Arantes, Eliane C; Faccioli, Lucia H; Rosa, José C; Sampaio, Suely V

    2016-05-01

    Coagulopathies following snakebite are triggered by pro-coagulant venom toxins, in which metalloproteases play a major role in envenomation-induced coagulation disorders by acting on coagulation cascade, platelet function and fibrinolysis. Considering this relevance, here we describe the isolation and biochemical characterization of moojenactivase (MooA), a metalloprotease from Bothrops moojeni snake venom, and investigate its involvement in hemostasis in vitro. MooA is a glycoprotein of 85,746.22 Da, member of the PIIId group of snake venom metalloproteases, composed of three linked disulfide-bonded chains: an N-glycosylated heavy chain, and two light chains. The venom protease induced human plasma clotting in vitro by activating on both blood coagulation factors II (prothrombin) and X, which in turn generated α-thrombin and factor Xa, respectively. Additionally, MooA induced expression of tissue factor (TF) on the membrane surface of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), which led these cells to adopt pro-coagulant characteristics. MooA was also shown to be involved with production of the inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-8 and MCP-1, suggesting an association between MooA pro-inflammatory stimulation of PBMC and TF up-regulation. We also observed aggregation of washed platelets when in presence of MooA; however, the protease had no effect on fibrinolysis. Our findings show that MooA is a novel hemostatically active metalloprotease, which may lead to the development of coagulopathies during B. moojeni envenomation. Moreover, the metalloprotease may contribute to the development of new diagnostic tools and pharmacological approaches applied to hemostatic disorders.

  1. Augmenting Probabilistic Risk Assesment with Malevolent Initiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Curtis; Schwieder, David

    2011-01-01

    As commonly practiced, the use of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in nuclear power plants only considers accident initiators such as natural hazards, equipment failures, and human error. Malevolent initiators are ignored in PRA, but are considered the domain of physical security, which uses vulnerability assessment based on an officially specified threat (design basis threat). This paper explores the implications of augmenting and extending existing PRA models by considering new and modified scenarios resulting from malevolent initiators. Teaming the augmented PRA models with conventional vulnerability assessments can cost-effectively enhance security of a nuclear power plant. This methodology is useful for operating plants, as well as in the design of new plants. For the methodology, we have proposed an approach that builds on and extends the practice of PRA for nuclear power plants for security-related issues. Rather than only considering 'random' failures, we demonstrated a framework that is able to represent and model malevolent initiating events and associated plant impacts.

  2. Interactive learning environments in augmented reality technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Wojciechowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of creation of learning environments based on augmented reality (AR is considered. The concept of AR is presented as a tool for safe and cheap experimental learning. In AR learning environments students may acquire knowledge by personally carrying out experiments on virtual objects by manipulating real objects located in real environments. In the paper, a new approach to creation of interactive educational scenarios, called Augmented Reality Interactive Scenario Modeling (ARISM, is mentioned. In this approach, the process of building learning environments is divided into three stages, each of them performed by users with different technical and domain knowledge. The ARISM approach enables teachers who are not computer science experts to create AR learning environments adapted to the needs of their students.

  3. Camera Based Navigation System with Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marcu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays smart mobile devices have enough processing power, memory, storage and always connected wireless communication bandwidth that makes them available for any type of application. Augmented reality (AR proposes a new type of applications that tries to enhance the real world by superimposing or combining virtual objects or computer generated information with it. In this paper we present a camera based navigation system with augmented reality integration. The proposed system aims to the following: the user points the camera of the smartphone towards a point of interest, like a building or any other place, and the application searches for relevant information about that specific place and superimposes the data over the video feed on the display. When the user moves the camera away, changing its orientation, the data changes as well, in real-time, with the proper information about the place that is now in the camera view.

  4. Survey on Urban Warfare Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong You

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban warfare has become one of the main forms of modern combat in the twenty-first century. The main reason why urban warfare results in hundreds of casualties is that the situational information of the combatant is insufficient. Accessing information via an Augmented Reality system can elevate combatants’ situational awareness to effectively improve the efficiency of decision-making and reduce the injuries. This paper begins with the concept of Urban Warfare Augmented Reality (UWAR and illuminates the objectives of developing UWAR, i.e., transparent battlefield, intuitional perception and natural interaction. Real-time outdoor registration, information presentation and natural interaction are presented as key technologies of a practical UWAR system. Then, the history and current research state of these technologies are summarized and their future developments are highlighted from three perspectives, i.e., (1 Better integration with Geographic Information System and Virtual Geographic Environment; (2 More intelligent software; (3 More powerful hardware.

  5. MARCS: Mobile Augmented Reality for Cybersecurity

    OpenAIRE

    Mattina, Brendan Casey

    2017-01-01

    Network analysts have long used two-dimensional security visualizations to make sense of network data. As networks grow larger and more complex, two-dimensional visualizations become more convoluted, potentially compromising user situational awareness of cyber threats. To combat this problem, augmented reality (AR) can be employed to visualize data within a cyber-physical context to restore user perception and improve comprehension; thereby, enhancing cyber situational awareness. Multiple gen...

  6. Facade Proposals for Urban Augmented Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Fond , Antoine; Berger , Marie-Odile; Simon , Gilles

    2017-01-01

    International audience; We introduce a novel object proposals method specific to building facades. We define new image cues that measure typical facadecharacteristics such as semantic, symmetry and repetitions. They are combined to generate a few facade candidates in urban environments fast. We show that our method outperforms state-of-the-art object proposals techniques for this task on the 1000 images of the Zurich Building Database. We demonstrate the interest of this procedure for augment...

  7. Lifelong Augmentation of Multimodal Streaming Autobiographical Memories

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, Maxime; Fischer, Tobias; Demiris, Yiannis

    2016-01-01

    Robot systems that interact with humans over extended periods of time will benefit from storing and recalling large amounts of accumulated sensorimotor and interaction data. We provide a principled framework for the cumulative organisation of streaming autobiographical data so that data can be continuously processed and augmented as the processing and reasoning abilities of the agent develop and further interactions with humans take place. As an example, we show how a kinematic structure lear...

  8. Augmented reality to training spatial skills

    OpenAIRE

    Martin-Gutierrez, Jorge; Contero, Manuel; Alcañiz Raya, Mariano Luis

    2015-01-01

    La Laguna University has been offering courses for the development of spatial skills since 2004. Each year since that time spatial ability of engineering students has been measured before and after the courses to check progress after each training session. We have developed a spatial skills training course based on augmented reality and graphic engineering contents, and designed the AR_Dehaes tool, which is based on its own library the uses computer vision techniques for incorporating vis...

  9. Augmentation Mammaplasty Using Implants: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Takayanagi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the techniques for augmentation mammaplasty is the procedure using implants. Even though this technique has been used for many years, there are still several controversial issues to be discussed and overcome for patient safety. In this review article, capsular contracture, leak or rupture of the implants, possible systemic disease, relation with breast cancer, and recent problems with Poly Implant Prothese implants are described and discussed.

  10. Augmentation Mammaplasty Using Implants: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Takayanagi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the techniques for augmentation mammaplasty is the procedure using implants. Eventhough this technique has been used for many years, there are still several controversial issuesto be discussed and overcome for patient safety. In this review article, capsular contracture,leak or rupture of the implants, possible systemic disease, relation with breast cancer, andrecent problems with Poly Implant Prothese implants are described and discussed.

  11. CIRSE Guidelines on Percutaneous Vertebral Augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsoumakidou, Georgia, E-mail: gtsoumakidou@yahoo.com; Too, Chow Wei, E-mail: spyder55@gmail.com; Koch, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.koch@gmail.com; Caudrelier, Jean, E-mail: jean.caudrelier@chru-strasbourg.fr; Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail: gigicazzato@hotmail.it; Garnon, Julien, E-mail: juliengarnon@gmail.com; Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: gangi@unistra.fr [Strasbourg University Hospital, Interventional Radiology Department (France)

    2017-03-15

    Vertebral compression fracture (VCF) is an important cause of severe debilitating back pain, adversely affecting quality of life, physical function, psychosocial performance, mental health and survival. Different vertebral augmentation procedures (VAPs) are used in order to consolidate the VCFs, relief pain,and whenever posible achieve vertebral body height restoration. In the present review we give the indications, contraindications, safety profile and outcomes of the existing percutaneous VAPs.

  12. Autologous Fat Injection for Augmented Mammoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Eul Sik; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cho, Kyu Ran

    2008-01-01

    Autologous fat injection is one of the methods utilized for augmented mammoplasty methods. In this surgical procedure, the fat for transfer is obtained from the donor site of the patient's own body by liposuction and the fat is then injected into the breast. We report here cases of three patients who underwent autologous fat injection. Two of the patients had palpable masses that were present after surgery. The serial imaging findings and surgical method of autologous fat transfer are demonstrated

  13. Medical imaging and augmented reality. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guang-Zhong; Jiang Tianzi; Shen Dinggang; Gu Lixu; Yang Jie

    2006-01-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Medical Imaging and Augmented Reality, MIAR 2006, held in Shanghai, China, in August 2006. The 45 revised full papers presented together with 4 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 87 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on shape modeling and morphometry, patient specific modeling and quantification, surgical simulation and skills assessment, surgical guidance and navigation, image registration, PET image reconstruction, and image segmentation. (orig.)

  14. Multiple Kernel Learning with Data Augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-22

    JMLR: Workshop and Conference Proceedings 63:49–64, 2016 ACML 2016 Multiple Kernel Learning with Data Augmentation Khanh Nguyen nkhanh@deakin.edu.au...University, Australia Editors: Robert J. Durrant and Kee-Eung Kim Abstract The motivations of multiple kernel learning (MKL) approach are to increase... kernel expres- siveness capacity and to avoid the expensive grid search over a wide spectrum of kernels . A large amount of work has been proposed to

  15. Developing augmented reality solutions through user involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Siltanen, Sanni

    2015-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) technology merges digital information into the real world. It is an effective visualization method; AR enhances user's spatial perception skills and helps to understand spatial dimensions and relationships. It is beneficial for many professional application areas such as assembly, maintenance and repair. AR visualization helps to concretize building and construction projects and interior design plans – also for non-technically oriented people, who might otherwise have d...

  16. Localized ridge defect augmentation using human pericardium membrane and demineralized bone matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyadharan, Arun Kumar; Ravindran, Anjana

    2014-01-01

    Patient wanted to restore her lost teeth with implants in the lower left first molar and second premolar region. Cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) revealed inadequate bone width and height around future implant sites. The extraction socket of second premolar area revealed inadequate socket healing with sparse bone fill after 4 months of extraction. To evaluate the clinical feasibility of using a collagen physical resorbable barrier made of human pericardium (HP) to augment localized alveolar ridge defects for the subsequent placement of dental implants. Ridge augmentation was done in the compromised area using Puros® demineralized bone matrix (DBM) Putty with chips and an HP allograft membrane. Horizontal (width) and vertical hard tissue measurements with CBCT were recorded on the day of ridge augmentation surgery, 4 month and 7 months follow-up. Intra oral periapical taken 1 year after implant installation showed minimal crestal bone loss. Bone volume achieved through guided bone regeneration was a gain of 4.8 mm horizontally (width) and 6.8 mm vertically in the deficient ridge within a period of 7 months following the procedure. The results suggested that HP Allograft membrane may be a suitable component for augmentation of localized alveolar ridge defects in conjunction with DBM with bone chips.

  17. The effect of patient age on bone formation using a fully synthetic nanocrystalline bone augmentation material in maxillary sinus grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Michael; Wurm, Alexander; Heinemann, Friedhelm; Gerber, Thomas; Reichert, Christoph; Jäger, Andreas; Götz, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Maxillary sinus floor augmentation is a treatment that has been proposed for patients in whom the alveolar bone height is insufficient. This procedure is commonly used in patients aged 40 to 70 years and older. However, little information exists whether the factor of age might influence the outcome of augmentation procedures. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the patient's age has an effect on bone formation and incorporation in maxillary sinus floor augmentation procedures. A fully synthetic nanocrystalline bone augmentation material (NanoBone, Artoss) was used for sinus floor augmentation in patients with a subantral vertical bone height of at least 3 mm and maximum of 7 mm. After 7 months healing time, biopsy specimens were taken and were divided into two groups according to the patient's age. Exclusion criteria were poor general health (eg, severe renal/and or liver disease), history of a radiotherapy in the head region, chemotherapy at the time of surgical procedure, noncompensated diabetes mellitus, symptoms of a maxillary sinus disease, active periodontal or systemic diseases, smoking, and poor oral hygiene. Histologic analyses with hematoxylin-eosin stain were performed. Multinucleated osteoclast-like cells were identified by histochemical staining (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase [TRAP]). Quantitative and age-dependent assessment of bone formation, residual bone grafting material, and soft tissue formation following sinus augmentation was performed using histomorphometric analysis and the Bonferroni adjustment of the Student t test. Twenty biopsy specimens from 17 patients were taken and divided into two groups according to age (group 1: 41 to 52 years; group 2: 66 to 71 years) containing 10 specimens each, which were analyzed in triplicate resulting in a total of 30 specimens per group. A regeneration process with varying amounts of newly formed bone surrounded by marrow-like tissue was present in all augmented regions. No signs of

  18. IMPLEMENTATION OF AERONAUTICAL LOCAL SATELLITE AUGMENTATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojce Ilcev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This paper introduces development and implementation of new Local Satellite AugmentationSystem as an integration component of the Regional Satellite Augmentation System (RSAS employingcurrent and new Satellite Communications, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS for improvement of the AirTraffic Control (ATC and Air Traffic Management (ATM and for enhancement safety systems includingtransport security and control of flights in all stages, airport approaching, landing, departures and allmovements over airport surface areas. The current first generation of the Global Navigation Satellite SystemGNSS-1 applications are represented by fundamental military solutions for Position, Velocity and Time ofthe satellite navigation and determination systems such as the US GPS and Russian GLONASS (Former-USSR requirements, respectively. The establishment of Aeronautical CNS is also discussed as a part ofGlobal Satellite Augmentation Systems of GPS and GLONASS systems integrated with existing and futureRSAS and LSAS in airports areas. Specific influence and factors related to the Comparison of the Currentand New Aeronautical CNS System including the Integration of RSAS and GNSS solutions are discussedand packet of facts is determined to maximize the new satellite Automatic Dependent Surveillance System(ADSS and Special Effects of the RSAS Networks. The possible future integration of RSAS and GNSS andthe common proposal of the satellite Surface Movement Guidance and Control are presented in thechangeless ways as of importance for future enfacements of ATC and ATM for any hypothetical airportinfrastructure.Keywords: ADSS, ATC, ATM, CNS, GSAS, LRAS, RSAS, SMGC, Special Effects of RSAS.

  19. Labor Augmentation with Oxytocin Decreases Glutathione Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Schneid-Kofman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare oxidative stress following spontaneous vaginal delivery with that induced by Oxytocin augmented delivery. Methods. 98 women recruited prior to labor. 57 delivered spontaneously, while 41 received Oxytocin for augmentation of labor. Complicated deliveries and high-risk pregnancies were excluded. Informed consent was documented. Arterial cord blood gases, levels of Hematocrit, Hemoglobin, and Bilirubin were studied. Glutathione (GSH concentration was measured by a spectroscopic method. Plasma and red blood cell (RBC levels of Malondialdehyde indicated lipid peroxidation. RBC uptake of phenol red denoted cell penetrability. SPSS data analysis was used. Results. Cord blood GSH was significantly lower in the Oxytocin group (2.3±0.55 mM versus 2.55±0.55 mM, =.01. No differences were found in plasma or RBC levels of MDA or in uptake of Phenol red between the groups. Conclusion. Lower GSH levels following Oxytocin augmentation indicate an oxidative stress, though selected measures of oxidative stress demonstrate no cell damage.

  20. A Mobile Augmented Reality Emulator for Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Munro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Augmented Reality (AR provides a fusion of the real and virtual worlds by superimposing virtual objects on real world scenery. The implementation of AR on mobile devices is known as Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR. MAR is in its infancy and MAR development software is in the process of maturing. Dating back to the origin of Computer Science as an independent field, software development tools have been an integral part of the process of software creation. MAR, being a relatively new technology, is still lacking such related software development tools. With the rapid progression of mobile devices, the development of MAR applications fusing advanced Computer Vision techniques with mobile device sensors have become increasingly feasible. However, testing and debugging of MAR applications present a new challenge in that they require the developer be at the location that is being augmented at some point during the development process. In this research study, a MAR recorder application was developed as well as emulation class libraries for Android devices that allows the recording and off-site playback of video, location and motion sensor data. The research objective was to provide a software emulator which provides debugging, testing and prototyping capabilities for a MAR application including the ability to emulate the combination of computer vision with locational and motion sensors using previously recorded data. The emulator was evaluated using different mobile technologies. The results indicate that this research could assist developers of MAR applications to implement applications more rapidly, without being at the location.

  1. Augmented spaces, a look beyond advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Andreea Căplescu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available From billboards to urban screens and now to media facades, the augmentation of our cities has expanded, changing social behaviours and public space consumption. Smart buildings are being developed and, much like the smartphones, these hybrids are not only in sci-fi movies anymore. One of the main promoters of media facades and media architecture has been the advertising industry. But artists and designers showed the potential of different approaches, experimenting with digitally augmented spaces both indoors and outdoors. Going beyond the commercial aspect of being an advertising and branding tool, these hybrids offer a variety of uses. Questions of how and where we use them and how they can improve our life quality are discussed here emphasizing that we developed a media behaviour, adjusting our relation to the physical and information environments. I examine some of the most notable experiments outside of the advertising sphere, offering a base for future development of augmented spaces and opening the discussion over the language of new media architecture.

  2. Application results for an augmented video tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Bill

    1991-08-01

    The Relay Mirror Experiment (RME) is a research program to determine the pointing accuracy and stability levels achieved when a laser beam is reflected by the RME satellite from one ground station to another. This paper reports the results of using a video tracker augmented with a quad cell signal to improve the RME ground station tracking system performance. The video tracker controls a mirror to acquire the RME satellite, and provides a robust low bandwidth tracking loop to remove line of sight (LOS) jitter. The high-passed, high-gain quad cell signal is added to the low bandwidth, low-gain video tracker signal to increase the effective tracking loop bandwidth, and significantly improves LOS disturbance rejection. The quad cell augmented video tracking system is analyzed, and the math model for the tracker is developed. A MATLAB model is then developed from this, and performance as a function of bandwidth and disturbances is given. Improvements in performance due to the addition of the video tracker and the augmentation with the quad cell are provided. Actual satellite test results are then presented and compared with the simulated results.

  3. Centers of Excellence Contribution to Knowledge Augmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignone, O.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Knowledge management is a key need of the nuclear industry to cope with the knowledge limited augmentation and the risks of knowledge loss due to a number of reasons, such as: staff attrition, organizational changes, upgraded technologies, new projects implementation, and the nuclear power evolution in recent years (i.e., post-Fukushima upgrades). This document describes the contribution of nuclear centers of excellence to knowledge augmentation. The effective implementation of nuclear centers of excellence is a key success factor for the knowledge management programme of nuclear organizations. This document, is based on a real example of operating organization approach in launching such initiative for staff knowledge augmentation and performance improvement. Eventually, any type of organizations in the nuclear sector could apply the proposed technique to reach better knowledge usage. The nuclear centers of excellence are a key knowledge management initiative for the learning organizations that are caring about organizational intellectual capital and striving for performance improvement. The nuclear centers of excellence can be realized as a forum to exchange ideas, knowledge, information, experiences; to collect lessons learned; and to identify areas for improvement where further organizational competence building is needed. Usual realization of this initiative is going through an active staff involvement in knowledge sharing in a form of different technical communities of practice focusing on specific knowledge domains. (author

  4. Cytochalasin B augments diacylglycerol levels in stimulated neutrophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honeycutt, P.J.; Niedel, J.

    1986-01-01

    Diacylglycerol (DG) has gained wide acceptance as an important second messenger and intracellular activator of protein kinase C, but few studies have directly measured DG levels in cells or tissues. The authors measured the mass of DG in lipid extracts from normal human neutrophils by quantitative conversion of DG to [ 32 P] phosphatidic acid using E. coli DG kinase. The chemotactic peptide N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) stimulated a transient 30% rise in DG that was maximal at 30 to 45 sec and returned to the basal level of 150 picomoles/10 7 cells by one min. This initial peak was followed by a slower, more prolonged 30% increase in DG that was maximal at 20 min. Cytochalasin B (CB) augments many biological responses of neutrophils to fMLP, including superoxide production and lysosomal enzyme release. CB alone caused no change in basal DG levels, but in the presence of CB, fMLP stimulated a rapid, large, and persistent DG response. DG levels increased to 290% of basal at 5 min with a t1/2 = 45 sec. The DG response to fMLP was maximal at 5 to 10 μm CB and 1 μM fMLP. The DG response to optimal fMLP and CB concentrations was decreased 40% by an fMLP antagonist, and no response was elicited by an inactive fMLP analog and CB. Protein kinase C has been implicated in fMLP-stimulated superoxide production and lysosomal enzyme release. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that CB may effect augmentation of biological responses by increasing DG levels

  5. Regenerate augmentation with bone marrow concentrate after traumatic bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Gessmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis after post-traumatic segmental bone loss of the tibia is a complex and time-consuming procedure that is often complicated due to prolonged consolidation or complete insufficiency of the regenerate. The aim of this feasibility study was to investigate the potential of bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC for percutaneous regenerate augmentation to accelerate bony consolidation of the regenerate. Eight patients (age 22-64 with an average posttraumatic bone defect of 82.4 mm and concomitant risk factors (nicotine abuse, soft-tissue defects, obesity and/or circulatory disorders were treated with a modified Ilizarov external frame using an intramedullary cable transportation system. At the end of the distraction phase, each patient was treated with a percutaneously injection of autologous BMAC into the centre of the regenerate. The concentration factor was analysed using flow cytometry. The mean follow up after frame removal was 10 (4-15 months. With a mean healing index (HI of 36.9 d/cm, bony consolidation of the regenerate was achieved in all eight cases. The mean concentration factor of the bone marrow aspirate was 4.6 (SD 1.23. No further operations concerning the regenerate were needed and no adverse effects were observed with the BMAC procedure. This procedure can be used for augmentation of the regenerate in cases of segmental bone transport. Further studies with a larger number of patients and control groups are needed to evaluate a possible higher success rate and accelerating effects on regenerate healing.

  6. Augmented healing process in female mice with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fangfei; Keimig, Thomas; He, Quan; Ding, Jennifer; Zhang, Zhenggang; Pourabdollah-Nejad, Siamak; Yang, Xiao-Ping

    2007-09-01

    It is well established that premenopausal women are protected from cardiovascular disease. This gender difference in favor of females is also demonstrated in animal studies. Our research group previously found that female mice had much lower incidence of cardiac rupture and mortality than did males during the acute phase of myocardial infarction (MI); however, the mechanisms responsible for such protection are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether the favorable cardiac effect observed in female mice with MI is due to an augmented healing process that includes less inflammation, reduced matrix degradation, and enhanced neovascularization. Twelve-week-old male and female C57BL/6J mice were subjected to MI by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery and then euthanized at 1, 4, 7, or 14 days post-MI. Inflammatory cell infiltration and myofibroblast transformation, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 activity, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-I expression, and neovascularization were examined by immunohistochemistry, zymography, Western blot, and laser scanning confocal microscopy, respectively. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography on day 14. We found that: (1) neutrophil infiltration during the early phase of MI (1-4 days) was much lower in females than in males and was associated with lower MMP-9 activity and higher TIMP-1 protein expression, indicating less-exaggerated inflammation and extracellular matrix degradation in females; (2) myofibroblast transformation, as indicated by expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, was significantly greater in females than in males at day 7 of MI (Pvascular area in the infarct border) was markedly increased in females, and was associated with better preserved cardiac function and less left ventricular dilatation. Our data suggest that less-exaggerated early inflammation and augmented reparative fibrotic response, indicated by enhanced myofibroblast

  7. Computational Modeling in Tissue Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    One of the major challenges in tissue engineering is the translation of biological knowledge on complex cell and tissue behavior into a predictive and robust engineering process. Mastering this complexity is an essential step towards clinical applications of tissue engineering. This volume discusses computational modeling tools that allow studying the biological complexity in a more quantitative way. More specifically, computational tools can help in:  (i) quantifying and optimizing the tissue engineering product, e.g. by adapting scaffold design to optimize micro-environmental signals or by adapting selection criteria to improve homogeneity of the selected cell population; (ii) quantifying and optimizing the tissue engineering process, e.g. by adapting bioreactor design to improve quality and quantity of the final product; and (iii) assessing the influence of the in vivo environment on the behavior of the tissue engineering product, e.g. by investigating vascular ingrowth. The book presents examples of each...

  8. Tissue Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leemput, Koen; Puonti, Oula

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain have seen tremendous advances in recent years. So-called tissue classification techniques, aimed at extracting the three main brain tissue classes (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid), are now...... well established. In their simplest form, these methods classify voxels independently based on their intensity alone, although much more sophisticated models are typically used in practice. This article aims to give an overview of often-used computational techniques for brain tissue classification...

  9. Copper (II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    Valine (2 - amino - 3 – methylbutanoic acid), is a chemical compound containing .... Stability constant (Kf). Gibb's free energy. ) (. 1. −. ∆. Mol. JG. [CuL2(H2O)2] ... synthesis and characterization of Co(ii), Ni(ii), Cu (II), and Zn(ii) complexes with ...

  10. Soft tissue engineering with micronized-gingival connective tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Sawako; Sumita, Yoshinori; Ohba, Seigo; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Asahina, Izumi

    2018-01-01

    The free gingival graft (FGG) and connective tissue graft (CTG) are currently considered to be the gold standards for keratinized gingival tissue reconstruction and augmentation. However, these procedures have some disadvantages in harvesting large grafts, such as donor-site morbidity as well as insufficient gingival width and thickness at the recipient site post-treatment. To solve these problems, we focused on an alternative strategy using micronized tissue transplantation (micro-graft). In this study, we first investigated whether transplantation of micronized gingival connective tissues (MGCTs) promotes skin wound healing. MGCTs (≤100 µm) were obtained by mincing a small piece (8 mm 3 ) of porcine keratinized gingiva using the RIGENERA system. The MGCTs were then transplanted to a full skin defect (5 mm in diameter) on the dorsal surface of immunodeficient mice after seeding to an atelocollagen matrix. Transplantations of atelocollagen matrixes with and without micronized dermis were employed as experimental controls. The results indicated that MGCTs markedly promote the vascularization and epithelialization of the defect area 14 days after transplantation compared to the experimental controls. After 21 days, complete wound closure with low contraction was obtained only in the MGCT grafts. Tracking analysis of transplanted MGCTs revealed that some mesenchymal cells derived from MGCTs can survive during healing and may function to assist in wound healing. We propose here that micro-grafting with MGCTs represents an alternative strategy for keratinized tissue reconstruction that is characterized by low morbidity and ready availability. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Metallothionein-I+II in neuroprotection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mie Ø; Jensen, Rikke; Pedersen, Dan S

    2009-01-01

    -I+II decrease inflammation and secondary tissue damage (oxidative stress, neurodegeneration, and apoptosis) and promote post-injury repair and regeneration (angiogenesis, neurogenesis, neuronal sprouting and tissue remodelling). Intracellularly the molecular MT-I+II actions involve metal ion control...... encephalomyelitis. (c) 2009 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc....

  12. An unusual delayed complication of paraffin self-injection for penile girth augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Siati, Mario; Selvaggio, Oscar; Di Fino, Giuseppe; Liuzzi, Giuseppe; Massenio, Paolo; Sanguedolce, Francesca; Carrieri, Giuseppe; Cormio, Luigi

    2013-12-01

    Penile self-injection of various oils is still carried out among Eastern Europe people for penile girth augmentation despite the potential destructive complications of this practice are well known. Penile reactions to such foreign bodies include scarring, abscess formation, ulceration, and even Fournier's gangrene; voiding problems due to mineral oil self-injection have been reported only once. To our knowledge, we describe the first case of paraffin self-injection for penile girth augmentation presenting with acute urinary retention. A 27-year-old Romanian man presented with severe penile pain and acute urinary retention five years after having practiced repeated penile self-injections of paraffin for penile girth augmentation. The penile shaft was massively enlarged, fibrotic and phymotic; urethral catheterization failed due to severe stricture of the proximal pendulum urethra. The patients refused placement of a suprapubic catheter and underwent immediate penile surgical exploration. The scarred tissue between dartos and Buck's fascia and a fibrotic ring occluding the urethra were removed and the penile skin reconstructed. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of paraffinoma. The patient resumed normal voiding immediately after catheter removal on second postoperative day; he was very pleased with cosmetic, sexual and voiding results at six weeks, six months and 1 year follow-up. The present report describes a novel complication of penile self-injection for penile girth augmentation. Because of the increasing number of patients seeking penile augmentation, physicians dealing with sexual medicine should pay more attention to such request to prevent the use of non medical treatments that can turn into medical disasters.

  13. Radiographic and Histologic Evaluation of a Bone Void that Formed After Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2-Mediated Sinus Graft Augmentation: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Joo; Jun, Choong-Man; Yun, Jeong-Ho

    2016-01-01

    In the present case report, the authors describe radiographic and histologic observations of a bone void that formed after a sinus augmentation using a graft material that contained recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and discuss clinical and histologic implications of their findings. Sinus augmentation was performed using a graft material comprising 1 g of hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate, which contained 1 mg of rhBMP-2. Radiographic evaluation was conducted with panoramic radiographs and computed tomography images of the augmented maxillary sinus, which were analyzed using a three-dimensional image-reconstruction program. Histologic evaluation was also performed on a biopsy specimen obtained 6 months after the sinus augmentation. The total augmented volume increased from 1,582.2 mm(3) immediately after the sinus augmentation to 3,344.9 mm3 at 6 months after the augmentation because of the formation of a bone void. Twenty-six months after the sinus augmentation, the bone void remained but had reduced in volume, with the total augmented volume reduced to 2,551.7 mm(3). Histologically, new bone was observed to be in contact with the grafted particles, and a fatty marrow-like tissue was present in the area of the bone void. This case report shows that the bone void that had formed after sinus augmentation resolved over time and seemed to be partially replaced with new bone. Furthermore, none of the implants failed, and clinical adverse events were not observed during the follow-up period.

  14. Repeated vertebral augmentation for new vertebral compression fractures of postvertebral augmentation patients: a nationwide cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang CL

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheng-Loong Liang,1 Hao-Kwan Wang,1 Fei-Kai Syu,2 Kuo-Wei Wang,1 Kang Lu,1 Po-Chou Liliang1 1Department of Neurosurgery, E-Da Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan; 2Department of Pharmacy, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan Purpose: Postvertebral augmentation vertebral compression fractures are common; repeated vertebral augmentation is usually performed for prompt pain relief. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of repeat vertebral augmentation.Methods: We performed a retrospective, nationwide, population-based longitudinal observation study, using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD of Taiwan. All patients who received vertebral augmentation for vertebral compression fractures were evaluated. The collected data included patient characteristics (demographics, comorbidities, and medication exposure and repeat vertebral augmentation. Kaplan–Meier and stratified Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed for analyses.Results: The overall incidence of repeat vertebral augmentation was 11.3% during the follow-up until 2010. Patients with the following characteristics were at greater risk for repeat vertebral augmentation: female sex (AOR=1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–2.36, advanced age (AOR=1.60; 95% CI: 1.32–2.08, diabetes mellitus (AOR=4.31; 95% CI: 4.05–5.88, cerebrovascular disease (AOR=4.09; 95% CI: 3.44–5.76, dementia (AOR=1.97; 95% CI: 1.69–2.33, blindness or low vision (AOR=3.72; 95% CI: 2.32–3.95, hypertension (AOR=2.58; 95% CI: 2.35–3.47, and hyperlipidemia (AOR=2.09; 95% CI: 1.67–2.22. Patients taking calcium/ vitamin D (AOR=2.98; 95% CI: 1.83–3.93, bisphosphonates (AOR=2.11; 95% CI: 1.26–2.61, or calcitonin (AOR=4.59; 95% CI: 3.40–5.77 were less likely to undergo repeat vertebral augmentation; however, those taking steroids (AOR=7.28; 95% CI: 6.32–8.08, acetaminophen (AOR=3.54; 95% CI: 2.75–4.83, or nonsteroidal

  15. Augmented Reality Edugame Senjata Tradisional Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Sudarmilah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Senjata tradisional merupakan sebuah produk yang berkaitan erat dengan budaya suatu masyarakat. Selain berfungsi sebagai senjata, senjata tradisional telah menjadi identitas suatu bangsa yang membantu memperkaya khasanah budaya nusantara. Pendidikan di Indonesia berpedoman pada kurikulum baru yang disebut kurikulum 2013. Salah satu materi kurikulum mengarahkan siswa untuk belajar tentang senjata tradisional bentuk senjata tradisional. Berdasarkan pada masalah yang timbul dari kurikulum 2013, peneliti menyiapkan metode pembelajaran dengan menggabungkan Augmented Reality (AR dengan permainan edukasi berbasis adventure game dalam menyajikan materi keanekaragaman budaya Indonesia, terutama untuk senjata tradisional sehingga siswa memiliki semangat dalam belajar tentang keanekaragaman budaya Indonesia khusunya senjata.

  16. Electromagnetic acceleration studies with augmented rails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruo, T.; Fujioka, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Okamoto, A.; Ikuta, K.; Nemoto, K.

    1991-01-01

    A comparative study of electromagnetic acceleration in the rail-type accelerators with two kinds of rail geometry was carried out experimentally. The accelerators were energized by 200kJ capacitor bank and the weight of loaded projectiles was about 1.3 grams with 10mm x 10mm square bore. The attained velocity was 4.3km/s in the augmented accelerator, while it was 3.8km/s in the classical device. In this paper these differences in attained velocity are briefly discussed. A theoretical understanding of the rail erosion is also described

  17. Terrain Simplification Research in Augmented Scene Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    environment. As one of the most important tasks in augmented scene modeling, terrain simplification research has gained more and more attention. In this paper, we mainly focus on point selection problem in terrain simplification using triangulated irregular network. Based on the analysis and comparison of traditional importance measures for each input point, we put forward a new importance measure based on local entropy. The results demonstrate that the local entropy criterion has a better performance than any traditional methods. In addition, it can effectively conquer the "short-sight" problem associated with the traditional methods.

  18. A Survey on Applications of Augmented Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Sanna; Federico Manuri

    2016-01-01

    The term Augmented Reality (AR) refers to a set of technologies and devices able to enhance and improve human perception, thus bridging the gap between real and virtual space. Physical and artificial objects are mixed together in a hybrid space where the user can move without constraints. This mediated reality is spread in our everyday life: work, study, training, relaxation, time spent traveling are just some of the moments in which you can use AR applications.This paper aims to provide an o...

  19. Augmented Reality Sultan Deli Di Istana Maimun

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan P. L

    2016-01-01

    Augmented reality is a technology that can provide visualization of 3D models. Based from that technology, the modeling from a picture of Sultan Deli Istana Maimun can be applied to restore photos Sultan Deli into a three-dimensional model. This is due to Sultan Deli which is one of the important figures in the history of Medan city known less by the public. Submission of Deli Sultanate history only through such two-dimensional images and other archives. The photo shows the Sultan of Deli ev...

  20. The effects of weekly augmentation therapy in patients with PiZZ α1-antitrypsin deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid ST

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ST Schmid,1 J Koepke,1 M Dresel,1 A Hattesohl,1 E Frenzel,2 J Perez,3 DA Lomas,4 E Miranda,5 T Greulich,1 S Noeske,1 M Wencker,6 H Teschler,6 C Vogelmeier,1 S Janciauskiene,2,* AR Koczulla1,*1Department of Internal Medicine, Division for Pulmonary Diseases, University Hospital Marburg, Marburg, Germany; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany; 3Department of Cellular Biology, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain; 4Department of Medicine, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom; 5Department of Biology and Biotechnology, Istituto Pasteur – Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; 6Department of Pneumology, West German Lung Clinic, Essen University Hospital, Essen, Germany*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The major concept behind augmentation therapy with human α1-antitrypsin (AAT is to raise the levels of AAT in patients with protease inhibitor phenotype ZZ (Glu342Lys-inherited AAT deficiency and to protect lung tissues from proteolysis and progression of emphysema.Objective: To evaluate the short-term effects of augmentation therapy (Prolastin® on plasma levels of AAT, C-reactive protein, and chemokines/cytokines.Materials and methods: Serum and exhaled breath condensate were collected from individuals with protease inhibitor phenotype ZZ AAT deficiency-related emphysema (n = 12 on the first, third, and seventh day after the infusion of intravenous Prolastin. Concentrations of total and polymeric AAT, interleukin-8 (IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, vascular endothelial growth factor, and C-reactive protein were determined. Blood neutrophils and primary epithelial cells were also exposed to Prolastin (1 mg/mL.Results: There were significant fluctuations in serum (but not in exhaled breath condensate levels of AAT polymers, IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, IL

  1. Augmenting Your Own Reality: Student Authoring of Science-Based Augmented Reality Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfer, Eric; Sheldon, Josh

    2010-01-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) simulations superimpose a virtual overlay of data and interactions onto a real-world context. The simulation engine at the heart of this technology is built to afford elements of game play that support explorations and learning in students' natural context--their own community and surroundings. In one of the more recent…

  2. Augmented reality in bone tumour resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y. K.; Gupta, S.; Yoon, C.; Han, I.; Kim, H-S.; Choi, H.; Hong, J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We evaluated the accuracy of augmented reality (AR)-based navigation assistance through simulation of bone tumours in a pig femur model. Methods We developed an AR-based navigation system for bone tumour resection, which could be used on a tablet PC. To simulate a bone tumour in the pig femur, a cortical window was made in the diaphysis and bone cement was inserted. A total of 133 pig femurs were used and tumour resection was simulated with AR-assisted resection (164 resection in 82 femurs, half by an orthropaedic oncology expert and half by an orthopaedic resident) and resection with the conventional method (82 resection in 41 femurs). In the conventional group, resection was performed after measuring the distance from the edge of the condyle to the expected resection margin with a ruler as per routine clinical practice. Results The mean error of 164 resections in 82 femurs in the AR group was 1.71 mm (0 to 6). The mean error of 82 resections in 41 femurs in the conventional resection group was 2.64 mm (0 to 11) (p Augmented reality in bone tumour resection: An experimental study. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:137–143. PMID:28258117

  3. Augmented reality for the surgeon: Systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jang W; Chen, Robert E; Kim, Esther J; Akinduro, Oluwaseun O; Kerezoudis, Panagiotis; Han, Phillip K; Si, Phong; Freeman, William D; Diaz, Roberto J; Komotar, Ricardo J; Pirris, Stephen M; Brown, Benjamin L; Bydon, Mohamad; Wang, Michael Y; Wharen, Robert E; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2018-04-30

    Since the introduction of wearable head-up displays, there has been much interest in the surgical community adapting this technology into routine surgical practice. We used the keywords augmented reality OR wearable device OR head-up display AND surgery using PubMed, EBSCO, IEEE and SCOPUS databases. After exclusions, 74 published articles that evaluated the utility of wearable head-up displays in surgical settings were included in our review. Across all studies, the most common use of head-up displays was in cases of live streaming from surgical microscopes, navigation, monitoring of vital signs, and display of preoperative images. The most commonly used head-up display was Google Glass. Head-up displays enhanced surgeons' operating experience; common disadvantages include limited battery life, display size and discomfort. Due to ergonomic issues with dual-screen devices, augmented reality devices with the capacity to overlay images onto the surgical field will be key features of next-generation surgical head-up displays. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Boosting physics education through mobile augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crǎciun, Dana; Bunoiu, Mǎdǎlin

    2017-12-01

    The integration of collaborative applications, based on modern learning technologies and the Internet, of various visualization techniques and digital strategies in open, flexible modern learning environments which facilitate access to resources, represents a challenge for physics teachers in Romania in general, and for novice teachers in particular. Although large efforts have been made worldwide to invest in educational technologies, their impact on the students' learning outcomes is quite modest. In this paper, we describe and analyze various curricular and extracurricular activities specifically designed for and undertaken by pre-service physics teachers. These activities employ new educational technologies, mobile augmented reality (MAR) and are based on modern teaching and learning theories. MAR is an extension for mobile devices of augmented reality, an interactive and in real time combination, of real and virtual objects overlaid in the real environment. The obtained results show that pre-service physics teachers are confident in using MAR in their teaching and learning activities, and consider that the activities performed helped them develop the skills necessary for science teachers in a technology-based society and to reflect upon the role of technology in the current Romanian educational context.

  5. Flow interaction of diffuser augmented wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göltenbott, U.; Ohya, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Jamieson, P.

    2016-09-01

    Up-scaling of wind turbines has been a major trend in order to reduce the cost of energy generation from the wind. Recent studies however show that for a given technology, the cost always rises with upscaling, notably due to the increased mass of the system. To reach capacities beyond 10 MW, multi-rotor systems (MRS) have promising advantages. On the other hand, diffuser augmented wind turbines (DAWTs) can significantly increase the performance of the rotor. Up to now, diffuser augmentation has only been applied to single small wind turbines. In the present research, DAWTs are used in a multi-rotor system. In wind tunnel experiments, the aerodynamics of two and three DAWTs, spaced in close vicinity in the same plane normal to a uniform flow, have been analysed. Power increases of up to 5% and 9% for the two and three rotor configurations are respectively achieved in comparison to a stand-alone turbine. The physical dynamics of the flows are analysed on the basis of the results obtained with a stand-alone turbine.

  6. Mobile Augmented Note-taking to Support Operating Physical Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Liu , Can; Diehl , Jonathan; Huot , Stéphane; Borchers , Jan

    2011-01-01

    Mobile Augmented Reality: Design Issues and Opportunities - 1st Workshop on Mobile Augmented Reality, MobileHCI 2011; In this paper we propose an approach to assist operating physical devices with mobile augmented reality techniques. We propose ideas of interaction techniques, which allow users to put self-authored information as notes onto physical objects. We present the design of two example applications aiming at solving problems from different aspects of physical operations.

  7. Guidelines for user interactions in mobile augmented reality

    OpenAIRE

    Ortman, Erik; Swedlund, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Over the last couple of years the field of Augmented Reality has transformed from something mainly seen in academic researchinto several examples of big commercially successful products, and the widespread use of highly capable mobile devices has greatly helped accelerate this trend. The powerful sensors in modern handsets enable designers to bring Augmented Reality implementations to the hands ofthe users.This thesis examines how Augmented Reality can be implemented onmobile platforms, mainl...

  8. Augmented reality tools and learning practice in mobile-learning

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Mauro; Gomes, José; Gomes, Cristina; Lopes, João

    2014-01-01

    There are many augmented reality (AR) applications available that can be used to create educational contents for these mobile devices. This paper surveys the most popular augmented reality applications and we select AR eco-systems to be used in daily teaching activities which are user friendly, do not require programming skills and are free. Different augmented reality technologies are explored in this paper to create teaching activities with animations, videos and other information to be sho...

  9. Augmented reality mobile application for overlaying images on textiles

    OpenAIRE

    Brinza, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Augmented reality is one the relatively new and fast growing branches in modern informatics. It incorporates in simple people lives on a lot of different levels. It can be used everywhere starting from the simple checking of your email and ending up with a complex augmented reality video games or augmented reality learning. From the ancient times actors tried to immerse the spectators in world of the performance using decoration and costumed. In XVIII – XIX centuries pictures w...

  10. Towards an interactive medical system by augmented reality

    OpenAIRE

    Khawla Ben Abderrahim; Mohamed Kallel; M.S. Bouhlel

    2013-01-01

    Augmented reality is a computer field that progresses rapidly. Its principle is to mix the real world and the virtual world. Many applications already use augmented reality, particularly the medical field. Medical image allows doctors to make diagnosis of the patient. This diagnosis allows him to make the best decision without committing professional mistakes that can cause problems. Hence the idea of integrating augmented reality with medical image analysis to help the doctor to make the bes...

  11. Bone Augmentation in Rabbit Tibia Using Microfixed Cobalt-Chromium Membranes with Whole Blood and Platelet-Rich Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A. Decco

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone augmentation is a subject of intensive investigation in regenerative bone medicine and constitutes a clinical situation in which autogenous bone grafts or synthetic materials are used to aid new bone formation. Method: Based on a non-critical defect, Co-Cr barrier membranes were placed on six adult Fauve de Bourgogne rabbits, divided into two groups: whole blood and PRP. Three densitometric controls were performed during the experiment. The animals were euthanized at 30, 45, 60, and 110 days. The presence of newly formed bone was observed. Samples for histological studies were taken from the augmentation center. Results: External and internal bone tissue augmentation was observed in almost all cases. Significant differences between PRP- and whole blood–stimulated bone augmentation were not observed. At 60 days, bones with PRP presented higher angiogenesis, which may indicate more proliferation and cellular activity. Conclusion: PRP activates the bone regeneration process under optimized conditions by stimulation of osteoblast proliferation after six weeks, when a significant difference in cellular activity was observed. Membranes could stimulate bone augmentation at the site of placement and in the surrounding areas.

  12. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  13. Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides Augment Carbohydrate-Reactive Immune Responses in the Absence of Immune Pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennings, Leah; Artaud, Cecile; Jousheghany, Fariba; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Pashov, Anastas; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas, E-mail: tke@uams.edu [Winthrop P. Rockefeller Cancer Institute and Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2011-11-11

    Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs). To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs) that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- and disaccharides are also expressed on normal tissue. To support the development of CMPs for clinical trial testing, we demonstrate in preclinical safety assessment studies in mice that vaccination with CMPs can enhance responses to TACAs without mediating tissue damage to normal cells expressing TACA. BALB/c mice were immunized with CMPs that mimic TACAs reactive with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin 1 (GS-I), and tissue reactivity of serum antibodies were compared with the tissue staining profile of GS-I. Tissues from CMP immunized mice were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and Luxol-fast blue staining for myelination. Western blots of membranes from murine mammary 4T1 cells, syngeneic with BALB/c mice, were also compared using GS-I, immunized serum antibodies, and naive serum antibodies. CMP immunization enhanced glycan reactivities with no evidence of pathological autoimmunity in any immunized mice demonstrating that tissue damage is not an inevitable consequence of TACA reactive responses.

  14. Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides Augment Carbohydrate-Reactive Immune Responses in the Absence of Immune Pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennings, Leah; Artaud, Cecile; Jousheghany, Fariba; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Pashov, Anastas; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs). To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs) that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- and disaccharides are also expressed on normal tissue. To support the development of CMPs for clinical trial testing, we demonstrate in preclinical safety assessment studies in mice that vaccination with CMPs can enhance responses to TACAs without mediating tissue damage to normal cells expressing TACA. BALB/c mice were immunized with CMPs that mimic TACAs reactive with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin 1 (GS-I), and tissue reactivity of serum antibodies were compared with the tissue staining profile of GS-I. Tissues from CMP immunized mice were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and Luxol-fast blue staining for myelination. Western blots of membranes from murine mammary 4T1 cells, syngeneic with BALB/c mice, were also compared using GS-I, immunized serum antibodies, and naive serum antibodies. CMP immunization enhanced glycan reactivities with no evidence of pathological autoimmunity in any immunized mice demonstrating that tissue damage is not an inevitable consequence of TACA reactive responses

  15. Connective tissue grafts for thickening peri-implant tissues at implant placement. One-year results from an explanatory split-mouth randomised controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Günter; Esposito, Marco; Worthington, Helen; Schlee, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Nothing to declare. To evaluate whether connective tissue grafts performed at implant placement could be effective in augmenting peri-implant soft tissues. Ten partially edentulous patients requiring at least one single implant in the premolar or molar areas of both sides of the mandible were randomised to have one side augmented at implant placement with a connective soft tissue graft harvested from the palate or no augmentation. After 3 months of submerged healing, abutments were placed and within 1 month definitive crowns were permanently cemented. Outcome measures were implant success, any complications, peri-implant marginal bone level changes, patient satisfaction and preference, thickness of the soft tissues and aesthetics (pink aesthetic score) evaluated by an independent and blinded assessor 1 year after loading. One year after loading, no patients dropped out, no implants failed and no complications occurred. Both groups lost statistically significant amounts of peri-implant bone 1 year after loading (0.8 mm in the grafted group and 0.6 mm in the non-grafted group), but there was no statistically significant difference between groups. Soft tissues at augmented sites were 1.3 mm thicker (P Connective tissue grafts are effective in increasing soft tissue thickness, thus improving aesthetics. Longer follow-ups are needed to evaluate the stability of peri-implant tissues over time.

  16. Long-term follow-up of cadaveric breast augmentation: what can we learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarressi, Ali; Villard, Jean; Tille, Jean-Christophe; Pittet, Brigitte

    2015-05-01

    Breast augmentation with cadaveric fat graft has long been available to patients in Eastern European countries, primarily in the Soviet Union and Eastern Germany. Most such procedures were performed from the 1970s to the 1990s. Although only a few case reports have been published, all of which involved complications that appeared several years after the procedure, it appears that, surprisingly, this nonvascularized and incompatible immunologic tissue is relatively well tolerated. We present the case of a 45-year-old Russian woman who underwent breast explantation, due to breast hardness and pain, 15 years after breast augmentation with cadaveric fat grafting. Through genetic studies, we confirmed that the host and the graft were HLA incompatible. Moreover, results of analyses excluded the possibility of an acute or chronic immunologic rejection by the host. We suppose that the early complications that often occur in such cases might result from a nonspecific, inflammatory reaction induced by acute tissue ischemia and necrosis, and the late local complications that occur years later may relate more to chronic inflammation, due to nonvascularized tissue, than to immunologic rejection. Therefore, we propose that different mechanisms may explain how this allogenic fat tissue could have been tolerated by the patient's immune system. We particularly underline the immunomodulatory effect of mesenchymal stem cells, which are abundant in adipose tissues. This characteristic of fat tissue should be investigated further to assess its potential in treating autoimmune diseases or reducing the likelihood of allograft rejections. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Biomaterials in myocardial tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Lewis A.; Chiu, Loraine L. Y.; Feric, Nicole; Fu, Lara; Radisic, Milica

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the developed world, and as such there is a pressing need for treatment options. Cardiac tissue engineering emerged from the need to develop alternate sources and methods of replacing tissue damaged by cardiovascular diseases, as the ultimate treatment option for many who suffer from end-stage heart failure is a heart transplant. In this review we focus on biomaterial approaches to augment injured or impaired myocardium with specific emphasis on: the design criteria for these biomaterials; the types of scaffolds—composed of natural or synthetic biomaterials, or decellularized extracellular matrix—that have been used to develop cardiac patches and tissue models; methods to vascularize scaffolds and engineered tissue, and finally injectable biomaterials (hydrogels)designed for endogenous repair, exogenous repair or as bulking agents to maintain ventricular geometry post-infarct. The challenges facing the field and obstacles that must be overcome to develop truly clinically viable cardiac therapies are also discussed. PMID:25066525

  18. Chin and prejowl augmentation in the management of the aging jawline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Thomas; Yalamanchili, Haresh; Sclafani, Anthony P

    2005-02-01

    The effects of aging in the lower face and neck are reflected in the contour of the jawline. Soft tissue atrophy, the formation of jowls, and retrusion of the chin are all age-associated changes that contrast starkly with the smooth harmony of a young lower face. These soft tissue changes in the jawline are exacerbated by the effects of aging on the bony portion of the mandible. Bone resorption of the mandible seen with aging can lead to the development of a hypoplastic mentum and the formation of an anterior mandibular groove. Rhytidectomy serves to address the soft tissue changes from aging but cannot counter the effects of aging on the bony mandible itself. Understanding the effects of bone resorption on the aging mandible allows the facial plastic surgeon to augment the mandible appropriately to achieve a more effective rejuvenation of the lower face. The aging process in the mandible and the development of the prejowl sulcus are reviewed. The use of chin and prejowl augmentation as a valuable adjuvant to facelift surgery is discussed.

  19. Optical augmented reality assisted navigation system for neurosurgery teaching and planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui-Qun; Geng, Xing-Yun; Wang, Li; Zhang, Yuan-Peng; Jiang, Kui; Tang, Le-Min; Zhou, Guo-Min; Dong, Jian-Cheng

    2013-07-01

    This paper proposed a convenient navigation system for neurosurgeon's pre-operative planning and teaching with augmented reality (AR) technique, which maps the three-dimensional reconstructed virtual anatomy structures onto a skull model. This system included two parts, a virtual reality system and a skull model scence. In our experiment, a 73 year old right-handed man initially diagnosed with astrocytoma was selected as an example to vertify our system. His imaging data from different modalities were registered and the skull soft tissue, brain and inside vessels as well as tumor were reconstructed. Then the reconstructed models were overlayed on the real scence. Our findings showed that the reconstructed tissues were augmented into the real scence and the registration results were in good alignment. The reconstructed brain tissue was well distributed in the skull cavity. The probe was used by a neurosurgeon to explore the surgical pathway which could be directly posed into the tumor while not injuring important vessels. In this way, the learning cost for students and patients' education about surgical risks reduced. Therefore, this system could be a selective protocol for image guided surgery(IGS), and is promising for neurosurgeon's pre-operative planning and teaching.

  20. Digital Facial Augmentation for Interactive Entertainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Hieda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Digital projection technology allows for effective and entertaining spatial augmented reality applications. Leveraging the capabilities of reasonably accurate object tracking using commodity cameras and/or depth sensors to determine the 3D position and pose of objects in real time, it is possible to project dynamic graphical content on arbitrary surfaces, such as a person’s face. Coupling these capabilities with a simple drawing application, participants can have the experience of "painting" on someone’s face, or even on their own, by observing the projection in a mirror. Similarly, integrating 2D rigid-body, fluid and gravity simulation, one may interact with virtual objects projected on their own face or body.

  1. Augmented reality. Fundamentals and nuclear related applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Hirotake

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, Augmented Reality (AR) has attracted considerable interest from both academia and industry. Virtual Reality enables users to interact only with virtual objects in a virtual environment, but AR enables users to interact with both virtual objects and real objects in the real world. This feature supports application of AR to various fields such as education, driving, entertainment, and navigation. Especially, by application of AR to support workers in nuclear power plants, it is expected that working time and human error can be decreased. However, many problems remain unsolved to apply AR to real fields. In this lecture note, fundamental knowledge of AR is presented first including the overview of elemental technologies to realize AR. Then various AR applications to nuclear fields are described. Finally, future prospects are given. (author)

  2. Out of the Cube: Augmented Rubik's Cube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriel Bergig

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer gaming habits have a tendency to evolve with technology, the best being ones that immerse both our imagination and intellect. Here, we describe a new game platform, an Augmented Reality Rubik's cube. The cube acts simultaneously as both the controller and the game board. Gameplay is controlled by the cube, and game assets are rendered on top of it. Shuffling and tilting operations on the cube are mapped to game interaction. We discuss the game design decisions involved in developing a game for this platform, as well as the technological challenges in implementing it. Ultimately, we describe two games and discuss the conclusions of an informal user study based on those games.

  3. Augmented Reality: Advances in Diagnostic Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Douglas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, advances in medical imaging have provided opportunities for enhanced diagnosis and characterization of diseases including cancer. The improved spatial resolution provides outstanding detail of intricate anatomical structures, but has challenged physicians on how to effectively and efficiently review the extremely large datasets of over 1000 images. Standard volume rendering attempts to tackle this problem as it provides a display of 3D information on a flat 2D screen, but it lacks depth perception and has poor human–machine interface (HMI. Most recently, Augmented Reality/Virtual Reality (AR/VR with depth 3-dimensional (D3D imaging provides depth perception through binocular vision, head tracking for improved HMI and other key AR features. In this article, we will discuss current and future medical applications of AR including assessing breast cancer. We contend that leveraging AR technology may enhance diagnosis, save cost and improve patient care.

  4. A telescope with augmented reality functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qichao; Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Qiwei; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-10-01

    This study introduces a telescope with virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) functions. In this telescope, information on the micro-display screen is integrated to the reticule of telescope through a beam splitter and is then received by the observer. The design and analysis of telescope optical system with AR and VR ability is accomplished and the opto-mechanical structure is designed. Finally, a proof-of-concept prototype is fabricated and demonstrated. The telescope has an exit pupil diameter of 6 mm at an eye relief of 19 mm, 6° field of view, 5 to 8 times visual magnification , and a 30° field of view of the virtual image.

  5. Augmenting Satellite Precipitation Estimation with Lightning Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahrooghy, Majid [Mississippi State University (MSU); Anantharaj, Valentine G [ORNL; Younan, Nicolas H. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Petersen, Walter A. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL; Hsu, Kuo-Lin [University of California, Irvine; Behrangi, Ali [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA; Aanstoos, James [Mississippi State University (MSU)

    2013-01-01

    We have used lightning information to augment the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Imagery using an Artificial Neural Network - Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS). Co-located lightning data are used to segregate cloud patches, segmented from GOES-12 infrared data, into either electrified (EL) or non-electrified (NEL) patches. A set of features is extracted separately for the EL and NEL cloud patches. The features for the EL cloud patches include new features based on the lightning information. The cloud patches are classified and clustered using self-organizing maps (SOM). Then brightness temperature and rain rate (T-R) relationships are derived for the different clusters. Rain rates are estimated for the cloud patches based on their representative T-R relationship. The Equitable Threat Score (ETS) for daily precipitation estimates is improved by almost 12% for the winter season. In the summer, no significant improvements in ETS are noted.

  6. A ''quadratized'' augmented plane wave method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smrcka, L.

    1982-02-01

    The exact radial solution inside the muffin-tin sphere is replaced by its Taylor expansion with respect to the energy, truncated after the quadratic term. Making use of it the energy independent augmented plane waves are formed which lead to the secular equations linear in energy. The method resembles the currently used linearized APW method but yields higher accuracy. The analysis of solution inside one muffin-tin sphere shows that the eigenvalue error is proportional to (E-E 0 ) 6 as compared with (E-E 0 ) 4 for LAPW. The error of eigenfunctions is (E-E 0 ) 3 ((E-E 0 ) 2 for LAPW). These conclusions are confirmed by direct numerical calculation of band structure of Cu and Al. (author)

  7. Novel Augmentation Strategies in Major Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Hypothesis The hypotheses of all the four included studies share the common idea that it is possible to augment the effect of antidepressant drug treatment by applying different interventions and with each intervention attain a clinically meaningful better effect compared to a control condition......, and with minor side effects, thus improving the short- and medium-term outcome in major depression. Procedures Study design The basic study design has been the double blind randomised controlled trial (RCT). In the light therapy study, all patients were treated with sertraline for the whole of the study duration...... open psychiatric wards. Only a few patients were re-cruited through advertisements (in the PEMF and Chronos studies). Inclusion criteria Inclusion criteria were major depression according to the DSM-IV, including a depressive episode as part of a bipolar disorder. For the PEMF study, treatment...

  8. [Penile augmentation using acellular dermal matrix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-ming; Cui, Yong-yan; Pan, Shu-juan; Liang, Wei-qiang; Chen, Xiao-xuan

    2004-11-01

    Penile enhancement was performed using acellular dermal matrix. Multiple layers of acellular dermal matrix were placed underneath the penile skin to enlarge its girth. Since March 2002, penile augmentation has been performed on 12 cases using acellular dermal matrix. Postoperatively all the patients had a 1.3-3.1 cm (2.6 cm in average) increase in penile girth in a flaccid state. The penis had normal appearance and feeling without contour deformities. All patients gained sexual ability 3 months after the operation. One had a delayed wound healing due to tight dressing, which was repaired with a scrotal skin flap. Penile enlargement by implantation of multiple layers of acellular dermal matrix was a safe and effective operation. This method can be performed in an outpatient ambulatory setting. The advantages of the acellular dermal matrix over the autogenous dermal fat grafts are elimination of donor site injury and scar and significant shortening of operation time.

  9. The robotic appendicovesicostomy and bladder augmentation: the next frontier in robotics, are we there?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Andrew J; Pariser, Joseph J; Anderson, Blake B; Pearce, Shane M; Gundeti, Mohan S

    2015-02-01

    There is growing interest in applying robotic-assisted laparoscopic techniques to complex reconstructive pelvic surgery owing to inherent benefits of precision, tissue handling, and articulating instruments for suturing. This review examines preliminary experiences with robotic-assisted laparoscopic augmentation ileocystoplasty and Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy (RALIMA) as either an isolated or combined procedure. These series suggest RALIMA is feasible, with the benefit of early recovery and improved cosmetic results in selected patients. The robotic approach incurs functional outcomes and complication rates similar to those of open techniques. Given the steep learning curve, only surgeons with extensive robotic experience are currently adopting this technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Augmented reality in neurosurgery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meola, Antonio; Cutolo, Fabrizio; Carbone, Marina; Cagnazzo, Federico; Ferrari, Mauro; Ferrari, Vincenzo

    2017-10-01

    Neuronavigation has become an essential neurosurgical tool in pursuing minimal invasiveness and maximal safety, even though it has several technical limitations. Augmented reality (AR) neuronavigation is a significant advance, providing a real-time updated 3D virtual model of anatomical details, overlaid on the real surgical field. Currently, only a few AR systems have been tested in a clinical setting. The aim is to review such devices. We performed a PubMed search of reports restricted to human studies of in vivo applications of AR in any neurosurgical procedure using the search terms "Augmented reality" and "Neurosurgery." Eligibility assessment was performed independently by two reviewers in an unblinded standardized manner. The systems were qualitatively evaluated on the basis of the following: neurosurgical subspecialty of application, pathology of treated lesions and lesion locations, real data source, virtual data source, tracking modality, registration technique, visualization processing, display type, and perception location. Eighteen studies were included during the period 1996 to September 30, 2015. The AR systems were grouped by the real data source: microscope (8), hand- or head-held cameras (4), direct patient view (2), endoscope (1), and X-ray fluoroscopy (1) head-mounted display (1). A total of 195 lesions were treated: 75 (38.46 %) were neoplastic, 77 (39.48 %) neurovascular, and 1 (0.51 %) hydrocephalus, and 42 (21.53 %) were undetermined. Current literature confirms that AR is a reliable and versatile tool when performing minimally invasive approaches in a wide range of neurosurgical diseases, although prospective randomized studies are not yet available and technical improvements are needed.

  11. Augmented reality in a tumor resection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvet, Pauline; Collins, Toby; Debize, Clement; Novais-Gameiro, Lorraine; Pereira, Bruno; Bartoli, Adrien; Canis, Michel; Bourdel, Nicolas

    2018-03-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) guidance is a technology that allows a surgeon to see sub-surface structures, by overlaying pre-operative imaging data on a live laparoscopic video. Our objectives were to evaluate a state-of-the-art AR guidance system in a tumor surgical resection model, comparing the accuracy of the resection with and without the system. Our system has three phases. Phase 1: using the MRI images, the kidney's and pseudotumor's surfaces are segmented to construct a 3D model. Phase 2: the intra-operative 3D model of the kidney is computed. Phase 3: the pre-operative and intra-operative models are registered, and the laparoscopic view is augmented with the pre-operative data. We performed a prospective experimental study on ex vivo porcine kidneys. Alginate was injected into the parenchyma to create pseudotumors measuring 4-10 mm. The kidneys were then analyzed by MRI. Next, the kidneys were placed into pelvictrainers, and the pseudotumors were laparoscopically resected. The AR guidance system allows the surgeon to see tumors and margins using classical laparoscopic instruments, and a classical screen. The resection margins were measured microscopically to evaluate the accuracy of resection. Ninety tumors were segmented: 28 were used to optimize the AR software, and 62 were used to randomly compare surgical resection: 29 tumors were resected using AR and 33 without AR. The analysis of our pathological results showed 4 failures (tumor with positive margins) (13.8%) in the AR group, and 10 (30.3%) in the Non-AR group. There was no complete miss in the AR group, while there were 4 complete misses in the non-AR group. In total, 14 (42.4%) tumors were completely missed or had a positive margin in the non-AR group. Our AR system enhances the accuracy of surgical resection, particularly for small tumors. Crucial information such as resection margins and vascularization could also be displayed.

  12. Googles Augmented-Reality-Game "Ingress"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl H. Stingeder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Das an das "Geocoaching"-Spielprinzip erinnernde Augmented-­Reality-Game "Ingress" ist auf allen mit Android-Betriebssystem ausgestatteten Smartphones spielbar. Das Alleinstellungsmerkmal des Spiels ist gleich­zeitig auch das beste Patent-Rezept für bzw. gegen notorisches "Couch-Potato-ing": Das Game-Design des "Draußenspiels" erfordert jedoch stets die physische Anwesenheit der SpielerInnen am realen Ort des Geschehens, meist touristisch attraktive Sehenswürdigkeiten und architektonisch markante Plätze. Sobald "Ingress" per App am Smart­phone gestartet wird, stehen Interaktionen und Machtverhältnisse auf dem Handy-Display im Dreh- und Angelpunkt des Geschehens. Die Spielgrafik ist auf das Wesentliche reduziert und erinnert an die Optik von Videospielen der 80er Jahre. "Ingress" im Allgemeinen sowie "Magnus13", die erste von Google organisierte Fan-Veranstaltung Österreichs mit mehreren Hundert TeilnehmerInnen und ist mit einer "digitalen Schnitzeljagd" vergleichbar: Gemeinsam ist der klassischen "Schnitzeljagd" und dem digitalen "Schere-Schein-Papier" Prinzip von "Ingress" die tragende Rolle des im Spiel entstehenden Gemeinschaftsgefühls, welche in einer hohen Langzeitmotivation mündet. Trotz aller Euphorie, ob des unkonventionellen Augmented-Reality-Spielkonzepts und des in Folge der sozialen Dynamik außergewöhnlichen Sucht­potentials, ist angesichts von Edward Snowden und vielfältiger NSA-Abhörmaßnahmen, eine gesunde Portion Skepsis angebracht: Welchen Zweck erfüllt "Ingress"? Gibt es ein verhülltes "Mittel zum Zweck"? Welche Gefahren bestehen mit einer systematischen Auswertung des umfangreichen, ortsrelevanten Daten-Sammelsuriums? "Ingress" verdeutlicht trotz aller Risiken den soziokulturellen Bedeutungswandel des digitalen Spiels: Spiele per se und das Spiel als soziale Interaktion sind aktuell dabei, alle Bereiche unseres Lebens zu erfassen.

  13. Caffeine Sodium Benzoate for Electroconvulsive Therapy Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozymski, Kevin M; Potter, Teresa G; Venkatachalam, Vasu; Pandurangi, Ananda K; Crouse, Ericka L

    2018-05-15

    Because of an ongoing manufacturer shortage of injectable caffeine sodium benzoate (CSB), patients at our health system were given CSB compounded in-house to increase seizure response during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Therefore, we aimed to evaluate its effectiveness and safety as an ECT augmentation agent. Medical records of patients who received compounded CSB at Virginia Commonwealth University Health System were reviewed to identify adults receiving it as part of an index ECT treatment course between June 2012 and December 2016. The primary outcome was change in electroencephalogram seizure duration from pre-caffeine session to initial caffeine session. Data were also collected on demographics, motor seizure duration, maximum heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and concurrent medication use for these sessions and the last caffeine session. Seven-one patients were included in the study, predominantly white females with a mean age of 58.6 years. The most common indication for ECT was major depressive disorder resistant to pharmacotherapy (71.8%), followed by catatonia associated with another mental disorder (19.7%). Electroencephalogram seizure duration increased by 24.1 seconds on average with first CSB use (P < 0.0001), allowing 24 more patients overall to achieve goal of at least 30 seconds (P < 0.0001). No clinically significant changes in maximum heart rate or mean arterial pressure were observed, nor did any patients require an abortive agent for prolonged seizure. Five patients (7%) discontinued CSB prematurely: 4 related to adverse effects and 1 secondary to ineffectiveness. We confirm results of prior studies of the utility of CSB and add that compounded CSB is effective for ECT augmentation, maintaining effectiveness throughout the index course with minimal safety concerns.

  14. Performance of a solar augmented heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, A. F. G.; Tomlinson, J. J.; Reid, R. L.; Chaffin, D. J.

    Performance of a residential size solar augmented heat pump is reported for the 1979-1980 heating season. The facility located in Knoxville, Tennessee, has a measured heat load coefficient of 339.5 watt/C (644 BTU/hr- F). The solar augmented heat pump system consists of 7.4 cu m of one inch diameter crushed limestone. The heat pump is a nominal 8.8 KW (2 1/2 ton) high efficiency unit. The system includes electric resistance heaters to give the option of adding thermal energy to the pebble bed storage during utility off-peak periods, thus offering considerable load management capability. A 15 KW electric resistance duct heater is used to add thermal energy to the pebble bin as required during off-peak periods. Hourly thermal performance and on site weather data was taken for the period November 1, 1979, to April 13, 1980. Thermal performance data consists of heat flow summations for all modes of the system, pebble bed temperatures, and space temperature. Weather data consists of dry bulb temperature, dew point temperature, total global insolation (in the plane of the collector), and wind speed and direction. An error analysis was performed and the least accurate of the measurements was determined to be the heat flow at 5%. Solar system thermal performance factor was measured to be 8.77. The heat pump thermal performance factor was 1.64. Total system seasonal performance factor was measured to be 1.66. Using a modified version of TRNSYS, the thermal performance of this system was simulated. When simulation results were compared with data collected onsite, the predicted heat flow and power consumption generally were within experimental accuracy.

  15. A Case Report of Ridge Augmentation using Onlay Interpositional Graft: An Approach to Improve Prosthetic Prognosis of a Deficit Ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanand Shetty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal therapy has developed beyond the scope of the treatment of periodontal pathoses. Periodontal plastic surgery consists of the reconstructive procedures designed to enhance the both function and esthetics. Deficient ridges pose a severe problem to the restorative dentist in restoring the natural form, function and esthetics of the prosthesis replacing the natural dentition. Depending upon the severity, location of these defects and the prosthetic option chosen, hard and soft tissue ridge augmentation or non-surgical approach or a combination may help to address them. The present clinical report describes a soft tissue ridge augmentation of a localized ridge defect in maxillary aesthetic region using onlay interpositional graft followed by fixed partial denture.

  16. A portrait of tissue phosphoprotein stability in the clinical tissue procurement process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espina, Virginia; Edmiston, Kirsten H; Heiby, Michael; Pierobon, Mariaelena; Sciro, Manuela; Merritt, Barbara; Banks, Stacey; Deng, Jianghong; VanMeter, Amy J; Geho, David H; Pastore, Lucia; Sennesh, Joel; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Liotta, Lance A

    2008-10-01

    Little is known about the preanalytical fluctuations of phosphoproteins during tissue procurement for molecular profiling. This information is crucial to establish guidelines for the reliable measurement of these analytes. To develop phosphoprotein profiles of tissue subjected to the trauma of excision, we measured the fidelity of 53 signal pathway phosphoproteins over time in tissue specimens procured in a community clinical practice. This information provides strategies for potential surrogate markers of stability and the design of phosphoprotein preservative/fixation solutions. Eleven different specimen collection time course experiments revealed augmentation (+/-20% from the time 0 sample) of signal pathway phosphoprotein levels as well as decreases over time independent of tissue type, post-translational modification, and protein subcellular location (tissues included breast, colon, lung, ovary, and uterus (endometrium/myometrium) and metastatic melanoma). Comparison across tissue specimens showed an >20% decrease of protein kinase B (AKT) Ser-473 (p 20% increases within 90-min postprocurement. Endothelial nitric-oxide synthase Ser-1177 did not change over the time period evaluated with breast or leiomyoma tissue. Treatment with phosphatase or kinase inhibitors alone revealed that tissue kinase pathways are active ex vivo. Combinations of kinase and phosphatase inhibitors appeared to stabilize proteins that exhibited increases in the presence of phosphatase inhibitors alone (ATF-2 Thr-71, SAPK/JNK Thr-183/Tyr-185, STAT1 Tyr-701, JAK1 Tyr-1022/1023, and PAK1/PAK2 Ser-199/204/192/197). This time course study 1) establishes the dynamic nature of specific phosphoproteins in excised tissue, 2) demonstrates augmented phosphorylation in the presence of phosphatase inhibitors, 3) shows that kinase inhibitors block the upsurge in phosphorylation of phosphoproteins, 4) provides a rational strategy for room temperature preservation of proteins, and 5) constitutes a

  17. Esthetic evaluation of single-tooth implants in the anterior maxilla following autologous bone augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hof, M; Pommer, B; Strbac, G D; Sütö, D; Watzek, G; Zechner, W

    2013-08-01

    Autologous bone augmentation to rebuild compromised alveolar ridge contour prior to implant placement allows for favorable three-dimensional implant positioning to achieve optimum implant esthetics. The aim of the present study was to evaluate peri-implant soft tissue conditions around single-tooth implants following bone grafts in the esthetic zone of the maxilla. Sixty patients underwent autologous bone augmentation of deficient maxillary sites prior to placement of 85 implants in the esthetic zone. In case of multiple implants per patient, one implant was randomly selected. Objective evaluation of 60 single-tooth implants was performed using the Pink-Esthetic-Score (PES) and Papilla Index (PI) and supplemented by subjective patient evaluation, as well as clinical and radiologic examination. Objective ratings of implant esthetics were satisfactory (median PES: 11, median PI: 2) and significantly correlated with high patient satisfaction (mean VAS score: 80%). Both esthetic indices demonstrated respectable levels of inter- as well as intra-observer agreement. Poor implant esthetics (low PES and PI ratings) were significantly associated with increased anatomic crown height, while no influence of horizontal implant-tooth distance could be found. The present investigation indicates that favorable esthetic results may be achieved in the augmented anterior maxilla. However, bony reconstruction of compromised alveolar ridges does not guarantee optimum implant esthetics. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Augmenting a Child's Reality: Using Educational Tablet Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Patricia; Karas, Carly; Schofield, Damian

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the classroom integration of an innovative technology, augmented reality. Although the process of adding new technologies into a classroom setting can be daunting, the concept of augmented reality has demonstrated the ability to educate students and to assist with their comprehension of a procedural task. One half of the…

  19. Potential Use of Augmented Reality in LIS Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The subject of this article is the use of augmented reality technology in library and information science education. The aim is to determine the scope and potential uses of augmented reality in the education of information professionals. In order to determine the scope and forms of potential use of AR technology in LIS education a two-step…

  20. Augmented Reality Learning Experiences: Survey of Prototype Design and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marc Ericson C.; Chen, Angie; Taketomi, Takafumi; Yamamoto, Goshiro; Miyazaki, Jun; Kato, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) technology is mature for creating learning experiences for K-12 (pre-school, grade school, and high school) educational settings. We reviewed the applications intended to complement traditional curriculum materials for K-12. We found 87 research articles on augmented reality learning experiences (ARLEs) in the IEEE Xplore…

  1. The Local Games Lab ABQ: Homegrown Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Experiments in the use of augmented reality games formerly required extensive material resources and expertise to implement above and beyond what might be possible within the usual educational contexts. Currently, the more common availability of hardware in these contexts and the existence of easy-to-use, general purpose augmented reality design…

  2. Routine sensor-augmented pump therapy in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Kirsten; Scaramuzza, Andrea; Bratina, Natasa

    2013-01-01

    Sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy can improve glycemic control, compared with multiple daily insulin injections or with insulin pump therapy alone, without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia.......Sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy can improve glycemic control, compared with multiple daily insulin injections or with insulin pump therapy alone, without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia....

  3. Augmented Reality, the Future of Contextual Mobile Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungkur, Roopesh Kevin; Panchoo, Akshay; Bhoyroo, Nitisha Kirtee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to show the relevance of augmented reality (AR) in mobile learning for the 21st century. With AR, any real-world environment can be augmented by providing users with accurate digital overlays. AR is a promising technology that has the potential to encourage learners to explore learning materials from a totally new…

  4. Sensor-augmented pump therapy at 36 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Signe; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    This follow-up study investigates the metabolic and psychosocial effects of sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy in adults with type 1 diabetes 36 months after therapy start.......This follow-up study investigates the metabolic and psychosocial effects of sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy in adults with type 1 diabetes 36 months after therapy start....

  5. AUGMENTED REALITY - STATE OF KNOWLEDGE, USE AND EXPERIMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Filofteia TUTUNEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Technologies for augmenting reality have been consolidated during the last decades, extending their applicability to more and more socio-economic areas. The rapid evolution of mobile technologies and virtualization of the digital environment have created auspicious conditions for massive extension and implementation of solutions for augmenting reality at global level. Experience has already shown that augmented reality, alongside virtual reality can offer very important support solutions in modeling the real world with the aim of extending the human capabilities of perception, allowing the opening of a new phase in the world’s socio-economic development. Starting from the evident tendencies that have manifested at global level in the development and implementation of augmented reality technologies, the paper begins with the presentation of the most important aspects related to augmented reality technologies, highlighting their main areas of application, and presents the study realized for identifying the level of knowledge, use and effective experimentation of augmented reality applications by mobile device users. The results of this study could be very useful to the socio-economic environment, starting with the field of research, continuing with developers and providers of augmented reality solutions, manufacturers and providers of hardware infrastructure support for augmented reality solutions and systems, final users of these solutions, both individuals and businesses, and experimenting digital communities.

  6. Pose estimation for mobile devices and augmented reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we introduce the reader to the field of Augmented Reality (AR) and describe aspects of an AR system. We show the current uses in treatment of phobias, games, sports and industry. We present the challenges for Optical See-Through Augmented Reality in which the real world is perceived

  7. Augmentative biological control of arthropods in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenteren, van J.C.; Bueno, V.H.P.

    2003-01-01

    Augmentative forms of biological control, where natural enemies are periodically introduced, are applied over large areas in various cropping systems in Latin America. About 25% of the world area under augmentative control is situated in this region. Well-known examples are the use of species of the

  8. International workshop on multimodal virtual and augmented reality (workshop summary)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hürst, W.O.; Iwai, Daisuke; Balakrishnan, Prabhakaran

    2016-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) are expected by many to become the next wave of computing with significant impacts on our daily lives. Motivated by this, we organized a workshop on “Multimodal Virtual and Augmented Reality (MVAR)” at the 18th ACM International Conference on

  9. Operational Data Augmentation in Classifying Single Aerial Images of Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okafor, Emmanuel; Smit, Rik; Schomaker, Lambertus; Wiering, Marco

    2017-01-01

    In deep learning, data augmentation is important to increase the amount of training images to obtain higher classification accuracies. Most data-augmentation methods adopt the use of the following techniques: cropping, mirroring, color casting, scaling and rotation for creating additional training

  10. A Systematic Review of Pliance, Tracking, and Augmenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissi, Ama; Hughes, Sean; Mertens, Gaëtan; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; De Houwer, Jan; Crombez, Geert

    Within relational frame theory, a distinction has been made between three types of rule-governed behavior known as pliance, tracking, and augmenting. This review examined whether there is support for the concepts of pliance, tracking, and augmenting in the experimental analysis of behavior; whether

  11. Augmentation of Cognition and Perception Through Advanced Synthetic Vision Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, Jarvis J.; Williams, Steve P.; McNabb, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic Vision System technology augments reality and creates a virtual visual meteorological condition that extends a pilot's cognitive and perceptual capabilities during flight operations when outside visibility is restricted. The paper describes the NASA Synthetic Vision System for commercial aviation with an emphasis on how the technology achieves Augmented Cognition objectives.

  12. Buspirone is an effective augmenting agent of serotonin selective re ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results. Patients had previously failed mUltiple trials of antidepressants, often including lithium and/or thyroid augmentation, as well as, in 12 cases, electroconvulsive therapy. However, augmentation of an SSRI With buspirone led to a rapid and significant improvement in depression in. 6 of 14 (43%) patients. Conclusion.

  13. Foreign Body Giant Cell-Related Encapsulation of a Synthetic Material Three Years After Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Jonas; Barbeck, Mike; Sader, Robert A; Kirkpatrick, Charles J; Russe, Philippe; Choukroun, Joseph; Ghanaati, Shahram

    2016-06-01

    Bone substitute materials of different origin and chemical compositions are frequently used in augmentation procedures to enlarge the local bone amount. However, relatively little data exist on the long-term tissue reactions. The presented case reports for the first time histological and histomorphometrical analyses of a nanocrystaline hydroxyapatite-based bone substitute material implanted in the human sinus cavity after an integration period of 3 years. The extracted biopsy was analyzed histologically and histomorphometrically with focus on the tissue reactions, vascularization, new bone formation, and the induction of a foreign body reaction. A comparably high rate of connective tissue (48.25%) surrounding the remaining bone substitute granules (42.13%) was observed. Accordingly, the amount of bone tissue (9.62%) built the smallest fraction within the biopsy. Further, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive and -negative multinucleated giant cells (4.35 and 3.93 cells/mm(2), respectively) were detected on the material-tissue interfaces. The implantation bed showed a mild vascularization of 10.03 vessels/mm(2) and 0.78%. The present case report shows that after 3 years, a comparable small amount of bone tissue was observable. Thus, the foreign body response to the bone substitute seems to be folded without further degradation or regeneration.

  14. Developmental engineering: a new paradigm for the design and manufacturing of cell-based products. Part II: from genes to networks: tissue engineering from the viewpoint of systems biology and network science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenas, Petros; Moos, Malcolm; Luyten, Frank P

    2009-12-01

    The field of tissue engineering is moving toward a new concept of "in vitro biomimetics of in vivo tissue development." In Part I of this series, we proposed a theoretical framework integrating the concepts of developmental biology with those of process design to provide the rules for the design of biomimetic processes. We named this methodology "developmental engineering" to emphasize that it is not the tissue but the process of in vitro tissue development that has to be engineered. To formulate the process design rules in a rigorous way that will allow a computational design, we should refer to mathematical methods to model the biological process taking place in vitro. Tissue functions cannot be attributed to individual molecules but rather to complex interactions between the numerous components of a cell and interactions between cells in a tissue that form a network. For tissue engineering to advance to the level of a technologically driven discipline amenable to well-established principles of process engineering, a scientifically rigorous formulation is needed of the general design rules so that the behavior of networks of genes, proteins, or cells that govern the unfolding of developmental processes could be related to the design parameters. Now that sufficient experimental data exist to construct plausible mathematical models of many biological control circuits, explicit hypotheses can be evaluated using computational approaches to facilitate process design. Recent progress in systems biology has shown that the empirical concepts of developmental biology that we used in Part I to extract the rules of biomimetic process design can be expressed in rigorous mathematical terms. This allows the accurate characterization of manufacturing processes in tissue engineering as well as the properties of the artificial tissues themselves. In addition, network science has recently shown that the behavior of biological networks strongly depends on their topology and has

  15. Clinical applications of cell-based approaches in alveolar bone augmentation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanbhag, Siddharth; Shanbhag, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Cell-based approaches, utilizing adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), are reported to overcome the limitations of conventional bone augmentation procedures. The study aims to systematically review the available evidence on the characteristics and clinical effectiveness of cell-based ridge augmentation, socket preservation, and sinus-floor augmentation, compared to current evidence-based methods in human adult patients. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases were searched for related literature. Both observational and experimental studies reporting outcomes of "tissue engineered" or "cell-based" augmentation in ≥5 adult patients alone, or in comparison with non-cell-based (conventional) augmentation methods, were eligible for inclusion. Primary outcome was histomorphometric analysis of new bone formation. Effectiveness of cell-based augmentation was evaluated based on outcomes of controlled studies. Twenty-seven eligible studies were identified. Of these, 15 included a control group (8 randomized controlled trials [RCTs]), and were judged to be at a moderate-to-high risk of bias. Most studies reported the combined use of cultured autologous MSCs with an osteoconductive bone substitute (BS) scaffold. Iliac bone marrow and mandibular periosteum were frequently reported sources of MSCs. In vitro culture of MSCs took between 12 days and 1.5 months. A range of autogenous, allogeneic, xenogeneic, and alloplastic scaffolds was identified. Bovine bone mineral scaffold was frequently reported with favorable outcomes, while polylactic-polyglycolic acid copolymer (PLGA) scaffold resulted in graft failure in three studies. The combination of MSCs and BS resulted in outcomes similar to autogenous bone (AB) and BS. Three RCTs and one controlled trial reported significantly greater bone formation in cell-based than conventionally grafted sites after 3 to 8 months. Based on limited controlled evidence at a moderate-to-high risk of bias, cell-based approaches are comparable, if

  16. Applying Augmented Reality in practical classes for engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazarov, S. E.; Kholodilin, I. Yu; Nesterov, A. S.; Sokhina, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    In this article the Augmented Reality application for teaching engineering students of electrical and technological specialties is introduced. In order to increase the motivation for learning and the independence of students, new practical guidelines on Augmented Reality were developed in the application to practical classes. During the application development, the authors used software such as Unity 3D and Vuforia. The Augmented Reality content consists of 3D-models, images and animations, which are superimposed on real objects, helping students to study specific tasks. A user who has a smartphone, a tablet PC, or Augmented Reality glasses can visualize on-screen virtual objects added to a real environment. Having analyzed the current situation in higher education: the learner’s interest in studying, their satisfaction with the educational process, and the impact of the Augmented Reality application on students, a questionnaire was developed and offered to students; the study involved 24 learners.

  17. Augmented Reality as a Countermeasure for Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, James; Dorrlan, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan; Chatburn, Alex; Smith, Ross T; Carskadon, Mary A; Lushington, Kurt; Thomas, Bruce H

    2016-04-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to have serious deleterious effects on executive functioning and job performance. Augmented reality has an ability to place pertinent information at the fore, guiding visual focus and reducing instructional complexity. This paper presents a study to explore how spatial augmented reality instructions impact procedural task performance on sleep deprived users. The user study was conducted to examine performance on a procedural task at six time points over the course of a night of total sleep deprivation. Tasks were provided either by spatial augmented reality-based projections or on an adjacent monitor. The results indicate that participant errors significantly increased with the monitor condition when sleep deprived. The augmented reality condition exhibited a positive influence with participant errors and completion time having no significant increase when sleep deprived. The results of our study show that spatial augmented reality is an effective sleep deprivation countermeasure under laboratory conditions.

  18. Augmented Reality in Tourism - Research and Applications Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabel L. Kečkeš

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality is a complex interdisciplinary field utilizing information technologies in diverse areas such as medicine, education, architecture, industry, tourism and others, augmenting the real-time, real-world view with additional superimposed information in chosen format(s. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of both research and application aspects of using augmented reality technologies in tourism domain. While most research, and especially applications, are dealing with and developing visual-based augmented reality systems, there is a relevant amount of research discussing the utilization of other human senses such as tactioception and audioception, both being discussed within this work. A comprehensive literature analysis within this paper resulted with the identification, compilation and categorization of the key factors having the most relevant impact on the success of utilization of augmented technology in tourism domain.

  19. Augmented Reality-Guided Lumbar Facet Joint Injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agten, Christoph A; Dennler, Cyrill; Rosskopf, Andrea B; Jaberg, Laurenz; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Farshad, Mazda

    2018-05-08

    The aim of this study was to assess feasibility and accuracy of augmented reality-guided lumbar facet joint injections. A spine phantom completely embedded in hardened opaque agar with 3 ring markers was built. A 3-dimensional model of the phantom was uploaded to an augmented reality headset (Microsoft HoloLens). Two radiologists independently performed 20 augmented reality-guided and 20 computed tomography (CT)-guided facet joint injections each: for each augmented reality-guided injection, the hologram was manually aligned with the phantom container using the ring markers. The radiologists targeted the virtual facet joint and tried to place the needle tip in the holographic joint space. Computed tomography was performed after each needle placement to document final needle tip position. Time needed from grabbing the needle to final needle placement was measured for each simulated injection. An independent radiologist rated images of all needle placements in a randomized order blinded to modality (augmented reality vs CT) and performer as perfect, acceptable, incorrect, or unsafe. Accuracy and time to place needles were compared between augmented reality-guided and CT-guided facet joint injections. In total, 39/40 (97.5%) of augmented reality-guided needle placements were either perfect or acceptable compared with 40/40 (100%) CT-guided needle placements (P = 0.5). One augmented reality-guided injection missed the facet joint space by 2 mm. No unsafe needle placements occurred. Time to final needle placement was substantially faster with augmented reality guidance (mean 14 ± 6 seconds vs 39 ± 15 seconds, P Augmented reality-guided facet joint injections are feasible and accurate without potentially harmful needle placement in an experimental setting.

  20. The rotator cuff: from bench to bedside. Developments in tissue engineering, surgical techniques and pathogenetic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Longo, U.G.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis originates from the difficulties in the management of patients with rotator cuff tears. Since tendon healing rate is relatively slow compared with other connective tissues, we reviewed the available literature on tissue engineered biological augmentation for tendon healing, including

  1. Deformable three-dimensional model architecture for interactive augmented reality in minimally invasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemuri, Anant S; Wu, Jungle Chi-Hsiang; Liu, Kai-Che; Wu, Hurng-Sheng

    2012-12-01

    Surgical procedures have undergone considerable advancement during the last few decades. More recently, the availability of some imaging methods intraoperatively has added a new dimension to minimally invasive techniques. Augmented reality in surgery has been a topic of intense interest and research. Augmented reality involves usage of computer vision algorithms on video from endoscopic cameras or cameras mounted in the operating room to provide the surgeon additional information that he or she otherwise would have to recognize intuitively. One of the techniques combines a virtual preoperative model of the patient with the endoscope camera using natural or artificial landmarks to provide an augmented reality view in the operating room. The authors' approach is to provide this with the least number of changes to the operating room. Software architecture is presented to provide interactive adjustment in the registration of a three-dimensional (3D) model and endoscope video. Augmented reality including adrenalectomy, ureteropelvic junction obstruction, and retrocaval ureter and pancreas was used to perform 12 surgeries. The general feedback from the surgeons has been very positive not only in terms of deciding the positions for inserting points but also in knowing the least change in anatomy. The approach involves providing a deformable 3D model architecture and its application to the operating room. A 3D model with a deformable structure is needed to show the shape change of soft tissue during the surgery. The software architecture to provide interactive adjustment in registration of the 3D model and endoscope video with adjustability of every 3D model is presented.

  2. Calcium phosphate barrier for augmentation of bone in noncontained periodontal osseous defects: a novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Aditi; Sivaraman, Karthik; Awataramaney, Tarun K

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this technique is to augment bone in non-contained osseous deformities using a unique self-sustaining calcium phosphate barrier. Bone has the inherent ability to regenerate completely if it is provided with a fracture space or an undisturbed enclosed scaffold. A secluded environment is essential as it provides a secured, sterile and stable wound system that regenerates lost bone by a process of osteopromotion. Reconstructive techniques using bone grafts and barrier membranes utilize this principle for augmentation of deficient bony sites by providing a closed environment that promotes clot stability, graft retention, and facilitates correct cell repopulation. However, in noncontained bone defects like one walled infrabony periodontal defect or sites with horizontal bone loss, regeneration of bone still remains an unrealistic situation since osseous topography at such sites does not favor membrane stability or bone grafts retention. This case report presents a promising technique to augment bone in areas with horizontal loss. Augmentation of bone in the interdental area with horizontal bone loss was accomplished by building a contained defect using a unique self sustaining calcium phosphate cement formulation. The calcium phosphate barrier stimulates the lost cortical plates and promotes graft retention and clot stability. At 6 months, there was a significant bone fill and trabecular formation in the interdental area and reduction in tooth mobility. This promising technique could prove to be a good alternative to the conventional approaches for treating osseous deformities. Calcium phosphate is a promising barrier graft for repair of noncontained periodontal osseous defect. This technique cues both the clinicians and manufacturers to develop moldable tissue engineered constructs for osseous repair.

  3. Soft tissue grafting to improve implant esthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moawia M Kassab

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Moawia M KassabDivision of Periodontics, Marquette University, School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI, USAAbstract: Dental implants are becoming the treatment of choice to replace missing teeth, especially if the adjacent teeth are free of restorations. When minimal bone width is present, implant placement becomes a challenge and often resulting in recession and dehiscence around the implant that leads to subsequent gingival recession. To correct such defect, the author turned to soft tissue autografting and allografting to correct a buccal dehiscence around tooth #24 after a malpositioned implant placed by a different surgeon. A 25-year-old woman presented with the chief complaint of gingival recession and exposure of implant threads around tooth #24. The patient received three soft tissue grafting procedures to augment the gingival tissue. The first surgery included a connective tissue graft to increase the width of the keratinized gingival tissue. The second surgery included the use of autografting (connective tissue graft to coronally position the soft tissue and achieve implant coverage. The third and final surgery included the use of allografting material Alloderm to increase and mask the implant from showing through the gingiva. Healing period was uneventful for the patient. After three surgical procedures, it appears that soft tissue grafting has increased the width and height of the gingiva surrounding the implant. The accomplished thickness of gingival tissue appeared to mask the showing of implant threads through the gingival tissue and allowed for achieving the desired esthetic that the patient desired. The aim of the study is to present a clinical case with soft tissue grafting procedures.Keywords: case report, connective tissue, dental implants, allograft, coronally positioned flap

  4. Tissue irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in-vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood-carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170

  5. Augmented reality usage for prototyping speed up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Šťastný

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The integral part of production process in many companies is prototyping. Although, these companies commonly have high quality visualization tools (large screen projections, virtual reality, prototyping was never abandoned. There is a number of reasons. The most important is the possibility of model observation from any angle without any physical constraints and its haptic feedback. The interactivity of model adjustments is important as well. The direct work with the model allows the designers to focus on the creative process more than work with a computer. There is still a problem with a difficult adjustability of the model. More significant changes demand completely new prototype or at least longer time for its realization.The first part of the article describes our approach for solution of this problem by means of Augmented Reality. The merging of the real world model and digital objects allows streamline the work with the model and speed up the whole production phase significantly. The main advantage of augmented reality is the possibility of direct manipulation with the scene using a portable digital camera. Also adding digital objects into the scene could be done using identification markers placed on the surface of the model. Therefore it is not necessary to work with special input devices and lose the contact with the real world model. Adjustments are done directly on the model. The key problem of outlined solution is the ability of identification of an object within the camera picture and its replacement with the digital object. The second part of the article is focused especially on the identification of exact position and orientation of the marker within the picture. The identification marker is generalized into the triple of points which represents a general plane in space. There is discussed the space identification of these points and the description of representation of their position and orientation be means of transformation

  6. Decellularization of Human Nasal Septal Cartilage for the Novel Filler Material of Vocal Fold Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dae-Woon; Shin, Sung-Chan; Jang, Jeon-Yeob; Park, Hee-Young; Lee, Jin-Choon; Wang, Soo-Geun; Lee, Byung-Joo

    2017-01-01

    The clinical application of allogenic and/or xenogenic cartilage for vocal fold augmentation requires to remove the antigenic cellular component. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of cartilage decellularization and determine the change in immunogenicity after detergent treatment in human nasal septal cartilage flakes made by the freezing and grinding method. Human nasal septal cartilages were obtained from surgical cases. The harvested cartilages were treated by the freezing and grinding technique. The obtained cartilage flakes were treated with 1% Triton X-100 or 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) for decellularization of the cartilage flakes. Hematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E stain), surface electric microscopy, immunohistochemical stain for major histocompatibility complex I and II, and ELISA for DNA contents were performed to assess the effect of cartilage decellularization after detergent treatment. A total of 10 nasal septal cartilages were obtained from surgical cases. After detergent treatment, the average size of the cartilage flakes was significantly decreased. With H&E staining, the cell nuclei of decellularized cartilage flakes were not observed. The expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I and II antigens was not identified in the decellularized cartilage flakes after treatment with detergent. DNA content was removed almost entirely from the decellularized cartilage flakes. Treatment with 2% SDS or 1% Triton X-100 for 1 hour appears to be a promising method for decellularization of human nasal septal cartilage for vocal fold augmentation. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhanced escape of non-esterified fatty acids from tissue uptake : its role in impaired insulin-induced lowering of total rate of appearance in obesity and Type II diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemens, SC; Sluiter, WJ; Dullaart, RPF

    Aims/hypothesis. To estimate non-esterified fatty acids kinetics in patients with Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and obese subjects in the postabsorptive state and during hyperinsulinaemia using non-equlibrium tracer conditions. Methods. We evaluated the effect of

  8. Gradient augmented level set method for phase change simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumolu, Lakshman; Trujillo, Mario F.

    2018-01-01

    A numerical method for the simulation of two-phase flow with phase change based on the Gradient-Augmented-Level-set (GALS) strategy is presented. Sharp capturing of the vaporization process is enabled by: i) identification of the vapor-liquid interface, Γ (t), at the subgrid level, ii) discontinuous treatment of thermal physical properties (except for μ), and iii) enforcement of mass, momentum, and energy jump conditions, where the gradients of the dependent variables are obtained at Γ (t) and are consistent with their analytical expression, i.e. no local averaging is applied. Treatment of the jump in velocity and pressure at Γ (t) is achieved using the Ghost Fluid Method. The solution of the energy equation employs the sub-grid knowledge of Γ (t) to discretize the temperature Laplacian using second-order one-sided differences, i.e. the numerical stencil completely resides within each respective phase. To carefully evaluate the benefits or disadvantages of the GALS approach, the standard level set method is implemented and compared against the GALS predictions. The results show the expected trend that interface identification and transport are predicted noticeably better with GALS over the standard level set. This benefit carries over to the prediction of the Laplacian and temperature gradients in the neighborhood of the interface, which are directly linked to the calculation of the vaporization rate. However, when combining the calculation of interface transport and reinitialization with two-phase momentum and energy, the benefits of GALS are to some extent neutralized, and the causes for this behavior are identified and analyzed. Overall the additional computational costs associated with GALS are almost the same as those using the standard level set technique.

  9. Recent Development of Augmented Reality in Surgery: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vávra, P.; Zonča, P.; Ihnát, P.; El-Gendi, A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The development augmented reality devices allow physicians to incorporate data visualization into diagnostic and treatment procedures to improve work efficiency, safety, and cost and to enhance surgical training. However, the awareness of possibilities of augmented reality is generally low. This review evaluates whether augmented reality can presently improve the results of surgical procedures. Methods We performed a review of available literature dating from 2010 to November 2016 by searching PubMed and Scopus using the terms “augmented reality” and “surgery.” Results. The initial search yielded 808 studies. After removing duplicates and including only journal articles, a total of 417 studies were identified. By reading of abstracts, 91 relevant studies were chosen to be included. 11 references were gathered by cross-referencing. A total of 102 studies were included in this review. Conclusions The present literature suggest an increasing interest of surgeons regarding employing augmented reality into surgery leading to improved safety and efficacy of surgical procedures. Many studies showed that the performance of newly devised augmented reality systems is comparable to traditional techniques. However, several problems need to be addressed before augmented reality is implemented into the routine practice. PMID:29065604

  10. Recent Development of Augmented Reality in Surgery: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vávra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The development augmented reality devices allow physicians to incorporate data visualization into diagnostic and treatment procedures to improve work efficiency, safety, and cost and to enhance surgical training. However, the awareness of possibilities of augmented reality is generally low. This review evaluates whether augmented reality can presently improve the results of surgical procedures. Methods. We performed a review of available literature dating from 2010 to November 2016 by searching PubMed and Scopus using the terms “augmented reality” and “surgery.” Results. The initial search yielded 808 studies. After removing duplicates and including only journal articles, a total of 417 studies were identified. By reading of abstracts, 91 relevant studies were chosen to be included. 11 references were gathered by cross-referencing. A total of 102 studies were included in this review. Conclusions. The present literature suggest an increasing interest of surgeons regarding employing augmented reality into surgery leading to improved safety and efficacy of surgical procedures. Many studies showed that the performance of newly devised augmented reality systems is comparable to traditional techniques. However, several problems need to be addressed before augmented reality is implemented into the routine practice.

  11. Hybrid-augmented intelligence:collaboration and cognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan-ning ZHENG; Zi-yi LIU; Peng-ju REN; Yong-qiang MA; Shi-tao CHEN; Si-yu YU; Jian-ru XUE

    2017-01-01

    The long-term goal of artificial intelligence (AI) is to make machines learn and think like human beings. Due to the high levels of uncertainty and vulnerability in human life and the open-ended nature of problems that humans are facing, no matter how intelligent machines are, they are unable to completely replace humans. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce human cognitive capabilities or human-like cognitive models into AI systems to develop a new form of AI, that is, hybrid-augmented intelligence. This form of AI or machine intelligence is a feasible and important developing model. Hybrid-augmented intelligence can be divided into two basic models:one is human-in-the-loop augmented intelligence with human-computer collaboration, and the other is cognitive computing based augmented intelligence, in which a cognitive model is embedded in the machine learning system. This survey describes a basic framework for human-computer collaborative hybrid-augmented intelligence, and the basic elements of hybrid-augmented intelligence based on cognitive computing. These elements include intuitive reasoning, causal models, evolution of memory and knowledge, especially the role and basic principles of intuitive reasoning for complex problem solving, and the cognitive learning framework for visual scene understanding based on memory and reasoning. Several typical applications of hybrid-augmented intelligence in related fields are given.

  12. Adaptive multimodal interaction in mobile augmented reality: A conceptual framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Rimaniza Zainal; Arshad, Haslina; Shukri, Saidatul A'isyah Ahmad

    2017-10-01

    Recently, Augmented Reality (AR) is an emerging technology in many mobile applications. Mobile AR was defined as a medium for displaying information merged with the real world environment mapped with augmented reality surrounding in a single view. There are four main types of mobile augmented reality interfaces and one of them are multimodal interfaces. Multimodal interface processes two or more combined user input modes (such as speech, pen, touch, manual gesture, gaze, and head and body movements) in a coordinated manner with multimedia system output. In multimodal interface, many frameworks have been proposed to guide the designer to develop a multimodal applications including in augmented reality environment but there has been little work reviewing the framework of adaptive multimodal interface in mobile augmented reality. The main goal of this study is to propose a conceptual framework to illustrate the adaptive multimodal interface in mobile augmented reality. We reviewed several frameworks that have been proposed in the field of multimodal interfaces, adaptive interface and augmented reality. We analyzed the components in the previous frameworks and measure which can be applied in mobile devices. Our framework can be used as a guide for designers and developer to develop a mobile AR application with an adaptive multimodal interfaces.

  13. L-Arginine metabolism in cardiovascular and renal tissue from hyper- and hypothyroid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Isabel; Moliz, Juan N; Quesada, Andrés; Montoro-Molina, Sebastian; Vargas-Tendero, Pablo; Osuna, Antonio; Wangensteen, Rosemary; Vargas, Félix

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the effects of thyroid hormones on the enzymes involved in l-arginine metabolism and the metabolites generated by the different metabolic pathways. Compounds of l-arginine metabolism were measured in the kidney, heart, aorta, and liver of euthyroid, hyperthyroid, and hypothyroid rats after 6 weeks of treatment. Enzymes studied were NOS isoforms (neuronal [nNOS], inducible [iNOS], and endothelial [eNOS]), arginases I and II, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), ornithine aminotransferase (OAT), and l-arginine decarboxylase (ADC). Metabolites studied were l-arginine, l-citrulline, spermidine, spermine, and l-proline. Kidney heart and aorta levels of eNOS and iNOS were augmented and reduced (P hyperthyroid rats and was decreased in kidney and aorta of hypothyroid rats (P hyperthyroid rats and remained unchanged in all organs of hypothyroid rats. The substrate for these enzymes, l-arginine, was reduced (P hyperthyroid rats. Levels of ODC and spermidine, its product, were increased and decreased (P metabolic pathways. The changes recorded in the abundance of eNOS, arginases I and II, and ADC protein in renal and cardiovascular tissues may play a role in the hemodynamic and renal manifestations observed in thyroid disorders. Furthermore, the changes in ODC and spermidine might contribute to the changes in cardiac and renal mass observed in thyroid disorders. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  14. Suppression of IL-6 Gene by shRNA Augments Gemcitabine Chemosensitization in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Bo Xing

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic adenocarcinoma has an exceedingly poor prognosis, accounting for five-year survival of less than 5%. Presently, improving the efficacy of pancreatic adenocarcinoma treatment has been the focus of medical researchers worldwide. Recently, it has been suggested that deregulation of interleukin- (IL- 6 is caused by a key gene involved in the beginning and development of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Herein, we investigated whether suppression of IL-6 could augment gemcitabine sensitivity in the PANC-1 cells. We found considerably higher expression of IL-6 in pancreatic adenocarcinoma tissues than that in the adjacent nontumorous tissues. Suppression of IL-6 by shRNA resulted in apoptosis as well as inhibition of cell proliferation and tumorigenicity. In addition, suppression of IL-6 remarkably promoted antitumor effect of gemcitabine, indicating that the combination of shRNA targeting IL-6 with gemcitabine may provide a potential clinical approach for pancreatic cancer therapy.

  15. Piezosurgery in Bone Augmentation Procedures Previous to Dental Implant Surgery: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrin, Gabriel Leonardo; Sigua-Rodriguez, Eder Alberto; Goulart, Douglas Rangel; Asprino, Luciana

    2015-01-01

    The piezosurgery has been used with increasing frequency and applicability by health professionals, especially those who deal with dental implants. The concept of piezoelectricity has emerged in the nineteenth century, but it was applied in oral surgery from 1988 by Tomaso Vercellotti. It consists of an ultrasonic device able to cut mineralized bone tissue, without injuring the adjacent soft tissue. It also has several advantages when compared to conventional techniques with drills and saws, such as the production of a precise, clean and low bleed bone cut that shows positive biological results. In dental implants surgery, it has been used for maxillary sinus lifting, removal of bone blocks, distraction osteogenesis, lateralization of the inferior alveolar nerve, split crest of alveolar ridge and even for dental implants placement. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the use of piezosurgery in bone augmentation procedures used previously to dental implants placement. PMID:26966469

  16. Augmenting painted architectures for communicating cultural heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Sdegno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a research under development at the University of Trieste to analyze a painted architecture by Paolo Veronese and to present the results using AR systems (Augmented Reality Systems. The canvas was painted in 1573 and it is now at the Gallerie dell’Accademia Museum in Venice. The aim of the research was to transform a two-dimensional work of art in a three dimensional one, allowing all the visitors of a museum to enter the space of the representation and perceive it in a more direct way. After the geometrical analysis of the picture, we started the digital restitution of the perspective references and proceed to model the virtual scene using Boolean primitives and applying all the textures to render the scene in a very realistic way. The further step was to convert the model into a dynamic form with AR algorithms and associate it with spatial references to allow users to do a virtual experience of it.

  17. Escape route simulator utilizing augmented reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Karen Salazar Ribeiro de; Mó, Antônio Carlos de A.; Santo, André Cotelli do E.; Silva, Marcio Henrique, E-mail: karensalazar.1190@gmail.com [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Centro Universitário Carioca (UniCarioca), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Due to increasing demand and interest in the interaction of technology platforms and integration of different types of systems and technologies, some tools are already providing practical ways to develop integrated applications. The tools explored by this article are Unity, a platform for game development, and Vuforia, an SDK, software development kit, for augmented reality creation. The coalition proposal of these resources is to create an intuitive escape route that can be used for the evacuation of buildings or open spaces in view of imminent danger, such as radiation leakage, and that can be accessed from a target available at the institution. It has also the intention of simulating situations that involve training of personnel in order to obtain methods that allow to save financial resources, and even to avoid that those who are involved are exposed to risks unnecessarily. The simulator is expected to help design, test, and improve ways to maintain the physical integrity of the facility and provide end users with a better sense of immersion and attractiveness. (author)

  18. Escape route simulator utilizing augmented reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattos, Karen Salazar Ribeiro de; Mó, Antônio Carlos de A.; Santo, André Cotelli do E.; Silva, Marcio Henrique

    2017-01-01

    Due to increasing demand and interest in the interaction of technology platforms and integration of different types of systems and technologies, some tools are already providing practical ways to develop integrated applications. The tools explored by this article are Unity, a platform for game development, and Vuforia, an SDK, software development kit, for augmented reality creation. The coalition proposal of these resources is to create an intuitive escape route that can be used for the evacuation of buildings or open spaces in view of imminent danger, such as radiation leakage, and that can be accessed from a target available at the institution. It has also the intention of simulating situations that involve training of personnel in order to obtain methods that allow to save financial resources, and even to avoid that those who are involved are exposed to risks unnecessarily. The simulator is expected to help design, test, and improve ways to maintain the physical integrity of the facility and provide end users with a better sense of immersion and attractiveness. (author)

  19. Invisible marker based augmented reality system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanhoon; Park, Jong-Il

    2005-07-01

    Augmented reality (AR) has recently gained significant attention. The previous AR techniques usually need a fiducial marker with known geometry or objects of which the structure can be easily estimated such as cube. Placing a marker in the workspace of the user can be intrusive. To overcome this limitation, we present an AR system using invisible markers which are created/drawn with an infrared (IR) fluorescent pen. Two cameras are used: an IR camera and a visible camera, which are positioned in each side of a cold mirror so that their optical centers coincide with each other. We track the invisible markers using IR camera and visualize AR in the view of visible camera. Additional algorithms are employed for the system to have a reliable performance in the cluttered background. Experimental results are given to demonstrate the viability of the proposed system. As an application of the proposed system, the invisible marker can act as a Vision-Based Identity and Geometry (VBIG) tag, which can significantly extend the functionality of RFID. The invisible tag is the same as RFID in that it is not perceivable while more powerful in that the tag information can be presented to the user by direct projection using a mobile projector or by visualizing AR on the screen of mobile PDA.

  20. Spacecraft 3D Augmented Reality Mobile App

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Kevin J.; Doronila, Paul R.; Kumanchik, Brian E.; Chan, Evan G.; Ellison, Douglas J.; Boeck, Andrea; Moore, Justin M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spacecraft 3D application allows users to learn about and interact with iconic NASA missions in a new and immersive way using common mobile devices. Using Augmented Reality (AR) techniques to project 3D renditions of the mission spacecraft into real-world surroundings, users can interact with and learn about Curiosity, GRAIL, Cassini, and Voyager. Additional updates on future missions, animations, and information will be ongoing. Using a printed AR Target and camera on a mobile device, users can get up close with these robotic explorers, see how some move, and learn about these engineering feats, which are used to expand knowledge and understanding about space. The software receives input from the mobile device's camera to recognize the presence of an AR marker in the camera's field of view. It then displays a 3D rendition of the selected spacecraft in the user's physical surroundings, on the mobile device's screen, while it tracks the device's movement in relation to the physical position of the spacecraft's 3D image on the AR marker.