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Sample records for tisane lowers blood

  1. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. tea (tisane) lowers blood pressure in prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Diane L; Chen, C-Y Oliver; Saltzman, Edward; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2010-02-01

    In vitro studies show Hibiscus sabdariffa L., an ingredient found in many herbal tea blends and other beverages, has antioxidant properties, and, in animal models, extracts of its calyces have demonstrated hypocholesterolemic and antihypertensive properties. Our objective in this study was to examine the antihypertensive effects of H. sabdariffa tisane (hibiscus tea) consumption in humans. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 65 pre- and mildly hypertensive adults, age 30-70 y, not taking blood pressure (BP)-lowering medications, with either 3 240-mL servings/d of brewed hibiscus tea or placebo beverage for 6 wk. A standardized method was used to measure BP at baseline and weekly intervals. At 6 wk, hibiscus tea lowered systolic BP (SBP) compared with placebo (-7.2 +/- 11.4 vs. -1.3 +/- 10.0 mm Hg; P = 0.030). Diastolic BP was also lower, although this change did not differ from placebo (-3.1 +/- 7.0 vs. -0.5 +/- 7.5 mm Hg; P = 0.160). The change in mean arterial pressure was of borderline significance compared with placebo (-4.5 +/- 7.7 vs. -0.8 +/- 7.4 mm Hg; P = 0.054). Participants with higher SBP at baseline showed a greater response to hibiscus treatment (r = -0.421 for SBP change; P = 0.010). No effects were observed with regard to age, gender, or dietary supplement use. These results suggest daily consumption of hibiscus tea, in an amount readily incorporated into the diet, lowers BP in pre- and mildly hypertensive adults and may prove an effective component of the dietary changes recommended for people with these conditions.

  2. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. tea (tisane) lowers blood pressure in prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: In vitro studies have shown Hibiscus sabdariffa L., an ingredient found in many herbal tea blends and other beverages, has antioxidant properties, and, in animal models, extracts of its calyces have demonstrated hypocholesterolemic and anti-hypertensive properties. Objective: To exa...

  3. DASH diet to lower high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000770.htm DASH diet to lower high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... Hypertension. The DASH diet can help lower high blood pressure and cholesterol and other fats in your blood. ...

  4. Can hibiscus tea lower blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibiscus sabdariffa is a common ingredient found in blended herbal teas, and beverages made from the dried calyces of this plant are popular worldwide. In vitro studies have shown that H. sabdariffa has antioxidant properties and, in animal models of hypertension, extracts of this plant lower blood ...

  5. Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content in Olive Leaf Tisane as Affected by Boiling Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathia AOUIDI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effect of preparation method on the quality of olive leaf tisane. Secondly, it aimed at evaluating and understanding the effect of boiling treatment on phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of an aqueous extract of olive leaves. The Phenolic content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by ABTS+ method. The Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity depended on extraction procedure of olive leaf tisane. It was found that boiling leads to a decrease in the phenolic content and a rise of antioxidant capacity of aqueous extract from olive leaves. The mass molecular distribution of the polymeric aromatic fraction was analyzed by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G50. Results suggested the hydrolysis of phenolic polymers following boiling. Moreover, HPLC analyses showed an increase in rutin, oleuropein and caffeic acid levels in treated sample. As a conclusion, thermal processing could be useful for enhancing the antioxidant capacity and the extractability of phenolic compounds in olive leaf tisane.

  6. Can Whole-Grain Foods Lower Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eating more whole-grain foods help lower my blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. It might. Eating ... might help reduce your chance of developing high blood pressure (hypertension). Whole grains are grains that include the ...

  7. Chronic Tea Consumption Lowers Blood Pressure in Rats: Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic Tea Consumption Lowers Blood Pressure in Rats: Some Associated Mechanisms. ... Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences ... In experiment 5, group 9 (kept on NF and indomethacin solution) also had similar BP as group 10 (kept on ... KEY WORDS: Blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), rats, tea.

  8. Saving Blood and Reducing Costs: Updating Blood Transfusion Practice in Lower Limb Arthroplasty

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fenelon, C

    2018-04-01

    Our aim was to quantify blood transfusion rates in lower limb arthroplasty following the introduction of a multimodal enhanced recovery programme (ERP). We then sought to update the maximum surgical blood ordering schedule (MSBOS) and calculate cost savings achieved.

  9. Adequacy and validation of an analytical method for the quantification of lead in chamomile tisanes produced in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Barrantes, Jeimy

    2014-01-01

    An analytical methodology is developed and validated to quantify lead in chamomile tisanes. Lead is quantified by utilizing the technique of flame atomic absorption spectroscopy in three brands of chamomile tisanes sold in Costa Rica to determine its safety and quality based on international standards. A method of sample preparation is established through a comparison of different forms of extraction. The acid digestion extraction method has been the procedure utilized, reaching an average recovery percentage of 97,1%, with a standard deviation of 2,3%. The optimization of the chosen analytical procedure and complete validation is performed. The results obtained in the validation of the analytical procedure have shown that the interval where is generated the best calibration curve in terms of the correlation coefficient and the value of the statistically significant intercept equal to zero, have been the comprised between (0,2-3,2) μg/mL (r 2 =0,9996), corresponding to a range between 20% to 320% of the maximum allowed limit. In addition, the procedure has been adequate in terms of accuracy (average recovery percentage 101,1%) and precision under repeatability and intermediate precision (RSD max. 9,3%) and limit of quantification (0,2551 μg/mL). The safety criterion of World Health Organization (WHO) is determined with respect to the concentration of lead in the analyzed products. The 9 analyzed samples of products to prepare chamomile tisanes have stayed without evidencing concentrations of lead above the limit value of 10 μg/g suggested for medicinal herbs by WHO [es

  10. Some central nervous system and blood pressure lowering effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol extract of the leaves of Spondias mombin (SP) was evaluated for some central nervous system and blood pressure lowering effect in albino wistar rats and mice. The extract was administered to pre-weighed mice (20-35 g), divided into five groups of five mice each at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for the ...

  11. Blood Pressure-Lowering Aspects of Lipid-Lowering and Anti-Diabetic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Nilsson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that blood pressure can be lowered by the use of drugs that are not traditional antihypertensive drugs. This might be of clinical importance when many risk patients are treated by combination drug therapy in order to prevent cardiovascular disease by way of improving the cardiovascular risk factor profile.

  12. Maximum surgical blood ordering schedules for revision lower limb arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Devendra; Challand, Christopher; Clarke, Andrew; Keenan, Jonathan

    2011-05-01

    Effective utilisation of blood products is fundamental. The introduction of maximum surgical blood ordering schedules (MSBOS) for operations has been shown to improve transfusion services. A retrospective analysis was undertaken to establish an evidence-based MSBOS for revision total hip replacement (THR) and total knee revision (TKR). The impact of this schedule on blood conservation was analysed. A retrospective analysis was undertaken on 397 patients who underwent revision THR and TKR over a 4-year period. The cross-match-to-transfusion ratio (CTR) and transfusion index (TI) were calculated. A MSBOS protocol was created based on the TIs and its' impact on transfusion services was assessed prospectively on 125 patients by comparing CTRs. In revision THR, TI was 1.19 for elective cases, 1.55 for emergency cases and 2.35 for infected cases. There was no difference in TI for revisions of cemented and uncemented components. Single component THR revision required less transfusion. In revision TKR, TI was 0.31 for elective cases, 2.0 for emergency cases and 1.23 for cases with infection. The introduction of the MSBOS protocol had resulted in a considerable improvement in blood ordering. Reductions in the CTR were seen for all types of revision surgery, but most evident in elective revision THR (3.24-2.18) and elective revision TKR (7.95-1.2). Analysis confirmed that excessive cross-matching occurred for revision lower limb arthroplasty. The introduction of our MSBOS protocol promoted blood conservation and compliance with established national guidelines.

  13. Potential synergy between lipid-lowering and blood-pressure-lowering in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sever, Peter; Dahlöf, Björn; Poulter, Neil

    2006-01-01

    A prespecified objective of the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial (ASCOT) was to assess whether any synergistic effects were apparent between the lipid-lowering and blood-pressure-lowering regimens in preventing cardiovascular events....

  14. Blood Pressure-Lowering Mechanisms of the DASH Dietary Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Hwa Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potential blood pressure- (BP- lowering mechanisms of the DASH dietary pattern were measured in 20 unmedicated hypertensive adults in a controlled feeding study. At screening, participants averaged 44.3±7.8 years, BMI 33.9±6.6 Kg/m2, and BP 144.2±9.38/88.5±6.03 mmHg. All consumed a control diet for one week, then were randomized to control or DASH for another two weeks (week one and two. With DASH, but not controls, SBP fell by 10.65±12.89 (=0.023 and 9.60±11.23 (=0.039 mmHg and DBP by 5.95±8.01 (=0.069 and 8.60±9.13 mmHg (=0.011 at the end of week one and two, respectively. Univariate regressions showed that changes in urinary sodium/potassium ratio (=1.99 and plasma renin activity (=−15.78 and percent change in plasma nitrite after hyperemia were associated with SBP changes at week one (all <0.05. Plasma nitrite following hyperemia showed a treatment effect (=0.014 and increased at week two (=0.001. Pulse wave velocity decreased over time with DASH (trend =0.019, and reached significance at week two (=0.026. This response may be mediated by an improvement in upregulation of nitric oxide bioavailability. Early natriuresis and reductions in oxidative stress cannot be ruled out. Future studies are needed to verify these findings, assess the possibility of earlier effects, and examine other potential mediators.

  15. Blood pressure lowering effect of Tylophora hirsuta wall | Ahmad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude hydromethanolic extract of Tylophora hirsuta (Th.Cr) was studied in spontaneous hypertensive Wistar rats for possible effects on high blood pressure and heart rate. In the absence of atropine, fall in arterial blood pressure was 64±7 mmHg at the dose of 100 mg/kg while in the presence of atropine, there was no effect ...

  16. Multidisciplinary Treatment of the Metabolic Syndrome Lowers Blood Pressure Variability Independent of Blood Pressure Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Yonit; Segev, Elad; Shefer, Gabi; Sack, Jessica; Tal, Brurya; Yaron, Marianna; Carmeli, Eli; Shefer, Lili; Margaliot, Miri; Limor, Rona; Gilad, Suzan; Sofer, Yael; Stern, Naftali

    2016-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) variability (BPV) contributes to target organ damage independent of BP. The authors examined the effect of a 1-year multidisciplinary intervention on BPV in patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) as defined by criteria from the Third Report of the Adult Treatment Panel. Forty-four nondiabetic patients underwent clinical and biochemical profiling, 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM), body composition, carotid intima-media thickness, and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). The intervention targeted all MetS components. BPV was assessed by the standard deviation of daytime systolic BP derived from ABPM. Patients with low and high BPV (lower or higher than the median daytime standard deviation of 11.6 mm Hg) did not differ in regards to systolic and diastolic BP, age, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and body mass index, but the high-variability group had higher values of low-density lipoprotein and leg fat. The 1-year intervention resulted in weight reduction but not BP-lowering. BPV declined in the high-variability group in association with lowering of PWV, C-reactive protein, glycated hemoglobin, alanine aminotransferase, asymmetric dimethylarginine, and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. A multidisciplinary intervention independent of BP-lowering normalized BPV, lowered PWV, and enhanced metabolic control. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Blood glucose lowering effect of aqueous extract of Graptophyllum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 10 mg/kg body weight metformin, a well known hypoglycemic drug, while group 5 served as control and received the vehicle of administration (distilled water). The fasting blood glucose level (FBGL) of the rats was checked before commencement of treatment and weekly during the drug administration period using Roche ...

  18. Intracolonic hydrogen sulfide lowers blood pressure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasova, Lenka; Dobrowolski, Leszek; Jurkowska, Halina; Wróbel, Maria; Huc, Tomasz; Ondrias, Karol; Ostaszewski, Ryszard; Ufnal, Marcin

    2016-11-30

    Research suggests that hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is an important biological mediator involved in various physiological processes including the regulation of arterial blood pressure (BP). Although H 2 S is abundant in the colon, the effects of gut-derived H 2 S on the circulatory system have not yet been investigated. We studied the effects of intracolonic administration of Na 2 S, a H 2 S donor, on systemic hemodynamics. Hemodynamics were recorded in anesthetized, normotensive Wistar Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats at baseline and after intracolonic injection of either saline (controls) or Na 2 S·9H 2 O saline solution at a dose range of 10-300 mg/kg of BW. The H 2 S donor produced a significant, dose-dependent decrease in mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), which lasted several times longer than previously reported after parenteral infusions (>90 min). The effect was more pronounced in hypertensive than in normotensive rats. The Na 2 S-induced decrease in MABP was reduced by pretreatment with glibenclamide, an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive potassium-channels. Na 2 S did not affect mesenteric vein blood flow. Rats treated with Na 2 S showed increased portal blood levels of thiosulfate and sulfane sulfur, products of H 2 S oxidation. In contrast, rats treated with neomycin, an antibiotic, showed significantly decreased levels of thiosulfate and sulfane sulfur, and a tendency for greater hypotensive response to Na 2 S. The H 2 S donor decreased heart rate but did not affect ECG morphology and QTc interval. In conclusion the gut-derived H 2 S may contribute to the control of BP and may be one of the links between gut microbiota and hypertension. Furthermore, gut-derived H 2 S may be a therapeutic target in hypertension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joven, Jorge; March, Isabel; Espinel, Eugenia; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Aragonès, Gerard; Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Rios, Lidia; Martin-Paredero, Vicente; Menendez, Javier A; Micol, Vicente; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Camps, Jordi

    2014-06-01

    Polyphenols from Hibiscus sabdariffa calices were administered to patients with metabolic syndrome (125 mg/kg/day for 4 wk, n = 31) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (125 or 60 mg/kg in a single dose or daily for 1 wk, n = 8 for each experimental group). The H. sabdariffa extract improved metabolism, displayed potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, and significantly reduced blood pressure in both humans and rats. Diuresis and inhibition of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme were found to be less important mechanisms than those related to the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and endothelium-dependent effects to explain the beneficial actions. Notably, polyphenols induced a favorable endothelial response that should be considered in the management of metabolic cardiovascular risks. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. [Blood pressure targets : The lower the better does not suit all].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, U

    2018-04-01

    The systolic blood pressure intervention trial (SPRINT) published in 2015 has opened up new discussions on whether a lower blood pressure target as recommended by the current guidelines would be better for some patient groups. To review patient groups in which lower blood pressure targets would not be better. The results of SPRINT, its post-hoc and subgroup analyses, other studies and newer studies, as well as metaanalyses on the topic of blood pressure targets are reviewed and discussed. Studies with patients excluded from the SPRINT study were also analysed. The current international guidelines and recommendations of the Deutsche Hochdruckliga e. V. DHL® are included. Blood pressure monitoring methods differed considerably in the previously published studies. The low blood pressure value in SPRINT was mainly achieved due to the unusual method of blood pressure monitoring used and, as such, cannot be compared with blood pressure values in other studies. Based on current evidence, "the lower the better" should not be recommended in the following patient groups: older patients, in particular infirm older patients, patients with diabetes, patients without coronary heart disease or with low cardiovascular risk. When determining a blood pressure target, the method of blood pressure monitoring should be defined. A lower blood pressure target has been shown to be better in some well defined patient groups. However, adverse events due to antihypertensive medications should always be taken into account. Given the multiple exclusion criteria in trials and the results of many studies, "new" lower blood pressure targets could not be recommended in a large population of patients.

  1. Slower lower limb blood pooling in young women with orthostatic intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenberger, Marcus; Länne, Toste

    2015-01-01

    What is the central question of this study? Orthostatic stress is mostly caused by venous blood pooling in the lower limbs. Venous distension elicits sympathetic responses, and increased distension speed enhances the cardiovascular response. We examine whether lower limb blood pooling rate during lower body negative pressure is linked to orthostatic intolerance. What is the main finding and its importance? A similar amount of blood was pooled in the lower limb, but at a slower rate in women who developed signs of orthostatic intolerance. The difference in blood pooling rate increased with orthostatic stress and was most prominent at a presyncope-inducing level of lower body negative pressure. The findings have implications for the pathophysiology as well as treatment of orthostatic intolerance. Vasovagal syncope is common in young women, but its aetiology remains elusive. Orthostatic stress-induced lower limb blood pooling is linked with central hypovolaemia and baroreceptor unloading. Venous distension in the arm elicits a sympathetic response, which is enhanced with more rapid distension. Our aim was to study both the amount and the speed of lower limb pooling during orthostatic stress and its effects on compensatory mechanisms to maintain cardiovascular homeostasis in women with orthostatic intolerance. Twenty-seven healthy women, aged 20-27 years, were subjected to a lower body negative pressure (LBNP) of 11-44 mmHg. Five women developed symptoms of vasovagal syncope (orthostatic intolerant) and were compared with the remaining women, who tolerated LBNP well (orthostatic tolerant). Lower limb blood pooling, blood flow and compensatory mobilization of venous capacitance blood were measured. Lower body negative pressure induced equal lower limb blood pooling in both groups, but at a slower rate in orthostatic intolerant women (e.g. time to 50% of total blood pooling, orthostatic intolerant 44 ± 7 s and orthostatic tolerant 26 ± 2 s; P intolerant women (P = 0

  2. [Blood pressure lowering therapy for mild hypertensive patients with a history of stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Eiichi; Ibayashi, Setsuro

    2008-08-01

    Hypertension is the primary and one of the major risk factors for stroke. Many hypertensive patients with a history of stroke might have mild to moderate hypertension at the same time. In order to prevent recurrence of cardiovascular diseases including stroke, we should lower their blood pressure levels, carefully and slowly below less than 140/90 mmHg or much lower. Additionally, the patients having any occlusion or stenoses in their carotid and/or intracranial arteries, or even in old-old patients with atherosclerosis, might need further consideration for the cerebral blood flow insufficiency in the course of blood pressure lowering therapy. Although the advantages of inhibitors of renin-angiotensin system are lionized these days (advertisement based medicine: ABM), we should never forget to select more favorable antihypertensive drugs for each patient in case by case (individual based medicine: IBM), to get the definite blood pressure lowering effects without worsening any complications. We also need further gathering of many evidences in a net-work-meta-analysis way, on blood pressure lowering therapy in those hypertensive patients with a history of stroke (evidence based medicine: EBM).

  3. Diurnal variations in lower leg subcutaneous blood flow rate in patients with chronic venous leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Kristensen, J K

    1991-01-01

    The blood flow rate in subcutaneous adipose tissue was measured on the lower legs of 11 patients with chronic lower-leg venous insufficiency and ulceration and in eight age-matched control subjects for 12-20 h, under ambulatory conditions, using the 133Xe wash-out technique with portable Cadmium...... telluride (CdTe(Cl)) detectors. In both groups, the change from an upright to a supine position at the beginning of the night period elicited an instantaneous increment in the blood flow rate of 30-40% with a decrease in the central and local postural sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity. After...... approximately 1 h of sleep, a considerable increase in blood flow rate was seen in both patient and control groups which persisted for nearly 100 min. In the patient group, the mean increase was 137% compared to a mean increase of 68% in the control group (P less than 0.01). The blood flow then returned...

  4. Social Inclusion Predicts Lower Blood Glucose and Low-Density Lipoproteins in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Kory; Veksler, Alice E; McEwan, Bree; Hesse, Colin; Boren, Justin P; Dinsmore, Dana R; Pavlich, Corey A

    2017-08-01

    Loneliness has been shown to have direct effects on one's personal well-being. Specifically, a greater feeling of loneliness is associated with negative mental health outcomes, negative health behaviors, and an increased likelihood of premature mortality. Using the neuroendocrine hypothesis, we expected social inclusion to predict decreases in both blood glucose levels and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and increases in high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Fifty-two healthy adults provided self-report data for social inclusion and blood samples for hematological tests. Results indicated that higher social inclusion predicted lower levels of blood glucose and LDL, but had no effect on HDL. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  5. Differential effects of lower body negative pressure and upright tilt on splanchnic blood volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Indu; Moran, Christopher; Medow, Marvin S.; Glover, June L.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Stewart, Julian M.

    2015-01-01

    Upright posture and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) both induce reductions in central blood volume. However, regional circulatory responses to postural changes and LBNP may differ. Therefore, we studied regional blood flow and blood volume changes in 10 healthy subjects undergoing graded lower-body negative pressure (−10 to −50 mmHg) and 8 subjects undergoing incremental head-up tilt (HUT; 20°, 40°, and 70°) on separate days. We continuously measured blood pressure (BP), heart rate, and regional blood volumes and blood flows in the thoracic, splanchnic, pelvic, and leg segments by impedance plethysmography and calculated regional arterial resistances. Neither LBNP nor HUT altered systolic BP, whereas pulse pressure decreased significantly. Blood flow decreased in all segments, whereas peripheral resistances uniformly and significantly increased with both HUT and LBNP. Thoracic volume decreased while pelvic and leg volumes increased with HUT and LBNP. However, splanchnic volume changes were directionally opposite with stepwise decreases in splanchnic volume with LBNP and stepwise increases in splanchnic volume during HUT. Splanchnic emptying in LBNP models regional vascular changes during hemorrhage. Splanchnic filling may limit the ability of the splanchnic bed to respond to thoracic hypovolemia during upright posture. PMID:17085534

  6. Jugular venous pooling during lowering of the head affects blood pressure of the anesthetized giraffe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum, E.; Hasenkam, John Michael; Secher, Niels H.

    2009-01-01

    How blood flow and pressure to the giraffe's brain are regulated when drinking remains debated. We measured simultaneous blood flow, pressure, and cross-sectional area in the carotid artery and jugular vein of five anesthetized and spontaneously breathing giraffes. The giraffes were suspended...... veins collapsed and blood was returned to the central circulation, and CVP and cardiac output were restored. The results demonstrate that in the upright-positioned, anesthetized giraffe cerebral blood flow is governed by arterial pressure without support of a siphon mechanism and that when the head...... in the upright position so that we could lower the head. In the upright position, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was 193 +/- 11 mmHg (mean +/- SE), carotid flow was 0.7 +/- 0.2 l/min, and carotid cross-sectional area was 0.85 +/- 0.04 cm(2). Central venous pressure (CVP) was 4 +/- 2 mmHg, jugular flow was 0...

  7. HIV, HCV, HBV and syphilis rate of positive donations among blood donations in Mali: lower rates among volunteer blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarra, A; Kouriba, B; Baby, M; Murphy, E; Lefrere, J-J

    2009-01-01

    Good data on background seroprevalence of major transfusion transmitted infections is lacking in Mali. We gathered data on the rate of positive donations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and syphilis among blood donations in Mali for calendar year 2007. Donations with repeatedly reactive results on screening enzyme immunoassay (EIA) were considered to be seropositive. Rate of positive donations per blood unit collected was 2.6% for HIV, 3.3% for HCV, 13.9% for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 0.3% for syphilis. For HIV, HBsAg and syphilis, rate of positive donations was significantly (pdonations from replacement donors than those from volunteer donors, while HCV rate of positive donations was similar in the two groups. Rate of positive donations was also significantly (p<0.0001) lower in blood units from regular than from first-time donors. These data reinforce WHO recommendations for increasing the number of regular, volunteer blood donors in Africa.

  8. Jugular venous pooling during lowering of the head affects blood pressure of the anesthetized giraffe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brøndum, E; Hasenkam, J M; Secher, N H; Bertelsen, M F; Grøndahl, C; Petersen, K K; Buhl, R; Aalkjaer, C; Baandrup, U; Nygaard, H; Smerup, M; Stegmann, F; Sloth, E; Ostergaard, K H; Nissen, P; Runge, M; Pitsillides, K; Wang, T

    2009-10-01

    How blood flow and pressure to the giraffe's brain are regulated when drinking remains debated. We measured simultaneous blood flow, pressure, and cross-sectional area in the carotid artery and jugular vein of five anesthetized and spontaneously breathing giraffes. The giraffes were suspended in the upright position so that we could lower the head. In the upright position, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was 193 +/- 11 mmHg (mean +/- SE), carotid flow was 0.7 +/- 0.2 l/min, and carotid cross-sectional area was 0.85 +/- 0.04 cm(2). Central venous pressure (CVP) was 4 +/- 2 mmHg, jugular flow was 0.7 +/- 0.2 l/min, and jugular cross-sectional area was 0.14 +/- 0.04 cm(2) (n = 4). Carotid arterial and jugular venous pressures at head level were 118 +/- 9 and -7 +/- 4 mmHg, respectively. When the head was lowered, MAP decreased to 131 +/- 13 mmHg, while carotid cross-sectional area and flow remained unchanged. Cardiac output was reduced by 30%, CVP decreased to -1 +/- 2 mmHg (P blood in the veins. When the head was raised, the jugular veins collapsed and blood was returned to the central circulation, and CVP and cardiac output were restored. The results demonstrate that in the upright-positioned, anesthetized giraffe cerebral blood flow is governed by arterial pressure without support of a siphon mechanism and that when the head is lowered, blood accumulates in the vein, affecting MAP.

  9. Blood pressure-lowering treatment based on cardiovascular risk : a meta-analysis of individual patient data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundström, Johan; Arima, Hisatomi; Woodward, Mark; Jackson, Rod; Karmali, Kunal; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Baigent, Colin; Emberson, Jonathan; Rahimi, Kazem; MacMahon, Stephen; Patel, Anushka; Perkovic, Vlado; Turnbull, Fiona; Neal, Bruce; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate whether the benefits of blood pressure-lowering drugs are proportional to baseline cardiovascular risk, to establish whether absolute risk could be used to inform treatment decisions for blood pressure-lowering therapy, as is recommended for lipid-lowering

  10. Orthostatic changes in the blood volumes of the lower extremities in practically healthy humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frolov, V K; Koshkin, V M; Karalkin, A V [Vtoroj Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Meditsinskij Inst. (USSR)

    1979-07-01

    The method and the results of measuring the blood volumes in the lower extremities in the horizontal and vertical position of the body are given. A combination of a single-sensor counter of the whole body and a gamma-chamber with the use of two nondiffuse active radioindicators, erythrocytes labelled with /sup 51/Cr and albumin-sup(99m)Tc in certain sequence, is found to be the most optimal for quantitative evaluation of the regional volumes of the blood. To raise the informativeness of the studies the authors recommend distinguishing ''rapid'' and ''slow'' fractions of the blood volume progressive growth in the crus since the correlation of these fractions reflect the specific features of an individual orthostatic reaction for each examinee.

  11. Twenty weeks of isometric handgrip home training to lower blood pressure in hypertensive older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Grønbech; Ryg, Jesper; Danielsen, Mathias Aalkjær Brix

    2018-01-01

    (IHG) training was superior to traditional endurance and strength training in lowering resting systolic blood pressure (SBP). The average length of previous IHG training studies is approximately 7.5 weeks with the longest being 10 weeks. Therefore, presently it is unknown if it is possible to further...... lower blood pressure levels beyond the 10-week mark. Recently, we developed a novel method for monitoring handgrip intensity using a standard Nintendo Wii Board (Wii). The primary aim of this study is to explore the effects of a 20-week IHG home training facilitated by a Wii in hypertensive older adults...... on previous evidence, we calculated that 50 hypertensive (SBP between 140 and 179 mmHg), older adults (50 + years of age) are needed to achieve a power of 80% or more. Participants will be randomly assigned to either an intervention >group (IHG home training + hypertension guidelines on lifestyle changes...

  12. Lower percentage of CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood of patients with sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingji; Xu, Yaqin; An, Lin; Jiang, Jinlan; Zhang, Xu; Jiang, Rihua

    2016-07-01

    To characterize the peripheral immunity and immunity response of patients with sporotrichosis, in this study we determined the lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood of Chinese patients with sporotrichosis. In this retrospective study, peripheral blood was collected from 69 sporotrichosis patients (37, fixed cutaneous form; 32 lymphocutaneous) and 66 healthy controls. Lymphocyte subsets were analyzed using flow cytometry. Compared to controls, the percentage of CD8+ T cells was lower in sporotrichosis patients. The percentage of CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood tended to become lower with disease duration and disease severity, although the difference was not statistically significant for either acute, subacute and chronic patients or fixed cutaneous and lymphocutaneous patients. Our data indicate that the decrease of CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood of patients with sporotrichosis is associated with disease severity, although the difference was not statistically significant for either duration or clinical forms of the disease. Combining antifungal agents and immunomodulators in patients with long disease duration and lymphocutaneous may be more beneficial than antifungal monotherapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Mobile clinic in Massachusetts associated with cost savings from lowering blood pressure and emergency department use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zirui; Hill, Caterina; Bennet, Jennifer; Vavasis, Anthony; Oriol, Nancy E

    2013-01-01

    Mobile health clinics are in increasingly wide use, but evidence of their clinical impact or cost-effectiveness is limited. Using a unique data set of 5,900 patients who made a total of 10,509 visits in 2010-12 to the Family Van, an urban mobile health clinic in Massachusetts, we examined the effect of screenings and counseling provided by the clinic on blood pressure. Patients who presented with high blood pressure during their initial visit experienced average reductions of 10.7 mmHg and 6.2 mmHg in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, during their follow-up visits. These changes were associated with 32.2 percent and 44.6 percent reductions in the relative risk of myocardial infarction and stroke, respectively, which we converted into savings using estimates of the incidence and costs of these conditions over thirty months. The savings from this reduction in blood pressure and patient-reported avoided emergency department visits produced a positive lower bound for the clinic's return on investment of 1.3. All other services of the clinic-those aimed at diabetes, obesity, and maternal health, for example-were excluded from this lower-bound estimate. Policy makers should consider mobile clinics as a delivery model for underserved communities with poor health status and high use of emergency departments.

  14. Benzodiazepine Consumption Is Associated With Lower Blood Pressure in Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM): Retrospective Analysis of 4938 ABPMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Nitsan; Gontmacher, Bella; Vodonos, Allina; Novack, Victor; Abu-AjAj, Muhammad; Wolak, Arik; Shalev, Haddar; Wolak, Talya

    2018-03-10

    The effect of chronic benzodiazepine use on blood pressure has not been documented. We aimed to evaluate whether regular benzodiazepine use can be associated to the results of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). A retrospective analysis of the ABPM database between 2009 and 2015 was performed. The study groups were divided according to benzodiazepine treatment at least 3 months before ABPM. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) model analysis was conducted to estimate the association between benzodiazepine treatment and ABPM test measurements. Multivariable COX regression survival analysis model for mortality and cardiovascular (CV) events was performed. A total of 4,938 ABPM studies were included in final analysis, 670 ABPMs of benzodiazepine-treated patients, and 4,268 of untreated patients. The benzodiazepine-treated group was significantly older, with a predominance of female patients, comprised more diabetic patients and consumed more antihypertensive medications. Adjustment for age, gender, diabetes mellitus, and number of antihypertensive medications, showed an association between benzodiazepine treatment and significantly lower ABPM measurements. When the analysis was split into those ≥60 years old and the other ABPM measurements only among ≥60 years old. Multivariable Cox regression survival analysis showed that regular benzodiazepine consumption was not associated with increased mortality or CV events (mean follow-up period of 42.4 ± 19.8 and 42.1 ± 20.0 months, respectively). Long-term use of benzodiazepines by ≥60 years old was independently associated with lower diastolic and systolic blood pressure in all parameters of ABPM, but not among younger patients.

  15. Dynamic Infrared Thermography Study of Blood Flow Relative to Lower Limp Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, I.; Skouroliakou, K.; Michail, C.; Valais, I.

    2015-09-01

    Thermography is an established method for studying skin temperature distribution. Temperature distribution on body surface is influenced by a variety of physiological mechanisms and has been proven a reliable indicator of various physiological disorders. Blood flow is an important factor that influences body heat diffusion and skin temperature. In an attempt to validate and further elucidate thermal models characterizing the human skin, dynamic thermography of the lower limp in horizontal and vertical position was performed, using a FLIR T460 thermographic camera. Temporal variation of temperature was recorded on five distinct points of the limp. Specific points were initially cooled by the means of an ice cube and measurements of the skin temperature were obtained every 30 seconds as the skin temperature was locally reduced and afterwards restored at its initial value. The return to thermal balance followed roughly the same pattern for all points of measurement, although the heating rate was faster when the foot was in horizontal position. Thermal balance was achieved faster at the spots that were positioned on a vein passage. Our results confirm the influence of blood flow on the thermal regulation of the skin. Spots located over veins exhibit different thermal behaviour due to thermal convection through blood flow. Changing the position of the foot from vertical to horizontal, effectively affects blood perfusion as in the vertical position blood circulation is opposed by gravity.

  16. Low-pressure sequential compression of lower limbs enhances forearm skin blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amah, Guy; Voicu, Sebastian; Bonnin, Philippe; Kubis, Nathalie

    2016-12-01

    We investigated whether forearm skin blood flow could be improved when a multilayer pulsatile inflatable suit was applied at a low pressure to the lower limbs and abdomen. We hypothesized that a non-invasive purely mechanical stimulation of the lower limbs could induce remote forearm blood flow modifications. The pulsatile suit induced a sequential compartmentalized low compression (65 mmHg), which was synchronized with each diastole of the cardiac cycle with each phase evolving centripetally (lower limbs to abdomen). Modifications of the forearm skin blood flow were continuously recorded by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) at baseline and during the pulsatile suit application. Endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilations of the forearm skin microcirculation were measured by LDF in response to a local transdermal iontophoretic application of acetylcholine (ACh-test) and to hyperthermia (hyperT- test). Twenty-four healthy volunteers, 12 men and 12 women (43±14 years) were included in the study. LDF responses increased 1) under pulsatile suit (97±106%, p.

  17. Twenty weeks of isometric handgrip home training to lower blood pressure in hypertensive older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Grønbech; Ryg, Jesper; Danielsen, Mathias Brix

    2018-01-01

    lower blood pressure levels beyond the 10-week mark. Recently, we developed a novel method for monitoring handgrip intensity using a standard Nintendo Wii Board (Wii). The primary aim of this study is to explore the effects of a 20-week IHG home training facilitated by a Wii in hypertensive older adults......) or to a control group (hypertension guidelines on lifestyle changes). Participants in the intervention group will perform IHG home training (30% of maximum grip strength for a total of 8 min per day per hand) three times a week for 20 weeks. Resting blood pressure and maximal handgrip strength will be obtained......BACKGROUND: Hypertension markedly increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases and overall mortality. Lifestyle modifications, such as increased levels of physical activity, are recommended as the first line of anti-hypertensive treatment. A recent systematic review showed that isometric handgrip...

  18. Higher Physical Activity Is Associated With Lower Aortic Stiffness but Not With Central Blood Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anne Sofie Dam; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Wiinberg, Niels

    2015-01-01

    .47; -0.03). Associations with central systolic blood pressure and central pulse pressure were not statistically significant. We observed no difference in central hemodynamics when substituting 1 hour sedentary behavior with 1 hour light or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. In this relatively...... was assessed by applanation tonometry, as aortic pulse wave velocity, and central blood pressure was estimated from radial waveforms. Associations between physical activity energy expenditure and central hemodynamics were examined by linear regression. Furthermore, the consequence of substituting 1 hour...... sedentary behavior with 1 hour light or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on central hemodynamics was examined. Median physical activity energy expenditure was 28.0 kJ/kg/d (IQR: 19.8; 38.7). A 10 kJ/kg/d higher energy expenditure was associated with 0.75% lower aortic pulse wave velocity (CI: -1...

  19. Lower white blood cell counts in elite athletes training for highly aerobic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, P L; Pyne, D B; Hopkins, W G; Barnes, C J

    2010-11-01

    White cell counts at rest might be lower in athletes participating in selected endurance-type sports. Here, we analysed blood tests of elite athletes collected over a 10-year period. Reference ranges were established for 14 female and 14 male sports involving 3,679 samples from 937 females and 4,654 samples from 1,310 males. Total white blood cell counts and counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were quantified. Each sport was scaled (1-5) for its perceived metabolic stress (aerobic-anaerobic) and mechanical stress (concentric-eccentric) by 13 sports physiologists. Substantially lower total white cell and neutrophil counts were observed in aerobic sports of cycling and triathlon (~16% of test results below the normal reference range) compared with team or skill-based sports such as water polo, cricket and volleyball. Mechanical stress of sports had less effect on the distribution of cell counts. The lower white cell counts in athletes in aerobic sports probably represent an adaptive response, not underlying pathology.

  20. Prenatal caffeine exposure induced a lower level of fetal blood leptin mainly via placental mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yi-meng; Luo, Han-wen; Kou, Hao; Wen, Yin-xian; Shen, Lang; Pei, Ling-guo; Zhou, Jin; Zhang, Yuan-zhen; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    It's known that blood leptin level is reduced in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) fetus, and placental leptin is the major source of fetal blood leptin. This study aimed to investigate the decreased fetal blood leptin level by prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) and its underlying placental mechanisms. Pregnant Wistar rats were intragastrically administered caffeine (30–120 mg/kg day) from gestational day 9 to 20. The level of fetal serum leptin and the expression of placental leptin-related genes were analyzed. Furthermore, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the reduced placental leptin's expression by treatment with caffeine (0.8–20 μM) in the BeWo cells. In vivo, PCE significantly decreased fetal serum leptin level in caffeine dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, placental mRNA expression of adenosine A2a receptor (Adora2a), cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), a short-type leptin receptor (Ob-Ra) and leptin was reduced in the PCE groups. In vitro, caffeine significantly decreased the mRNA expression of leptin, CREB and ADORA2A in concentration and time-dependent manners. The addition of ADORA2A agonist or adenylyl cyclase (AC) agonist reversed the inhibition of leptin expression induced by caffeine. PCE induced a lower level of fetal blood leptin, which the primary mechanism is that caffeine inhibited antagonized Adora2a and AC activities to decreased cAMP synthesis, thus inhibited the expression of the transcription factor CREB and target gene leptin in the placenta. Meantime, the reduced transportation of maternal leptin by placental Ob-Ra also contributed to the reduced fetal blood leptin. Together, PCE decreased fetal blood leptin mainly via reducing the expression and transportation of leptin in the placenta. - Highlights: • Caffeine reduced fetal blood leptin level. • Caffeine inhibited placental leptin production and transport. • Caffeine down-regulated placental leptin expression via antagonizing ADORA2.

  1. Prenatal caffeine exposure induced a lower level of fetal blood leptin mainly via placental mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yi-meng [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Luo, Han-wen [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Kou, Hao [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wen, Yin-xian [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Shen, Lang; Pei, Ling-guo; Zhou, Jin [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhang, Yuan-zhen [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2015-11-15

    It's known that blood leptin level is reduced in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) fetus, and placental leptin is the major source of fetal blood leptin. This study aimed to investigate the decreased fetal blood leptin level by prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) and its underlying placental mechanisms. Pregnant Wistar rats were intragastrically administered caffeine (30–120 mg/kg day) from gestational day 9 to 20. The level of fetal serum leptin and the expression of placental leptin-related genes were analyzed. Furthermore, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the reduced placental leptin's expression by treatment with caffeine (0.8–20 μM) in the BeWo cells. In vivo, PCE significantly decreased fetal serum leptin level in caffeine dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, placental mRNA expression of adenosine A2a receptor (Adora2a), cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), a short-type leptin receptor (Ob-Ra) and leptin was reduced in the PCE groups. In vitro, caffeine significantly decreased the mRNA expression of leptin, CREB and ADORA2A in concentration and time-dependent manners. The addition of ADORA2A agonist or adenylyl cyclase (AC) agonist reversed the inhibition of leptin expression induced by caffeine. PCE induced a lower level of fetal blood leptin, which the primary mechanism is that caffeine inhibited antagonized Adora2a and AC activities to decreased cAMP synthesis, thus inhibited the expression of the transcription factor CREB and target gene leptin in the placenta. Meantime, the reduced transportation of maternal leptin by placental Ob-Ra also contributed to the reduced fetal blood leptin. Together, PCE decreased fetal blood leptin mainly via reducing the expression and transportation of leptin in the placenta. - Highlights: • Caffeine reduced fetal blood leptin level. • Caffeine inhibited placental leptin production and transport. • Caffeine down-regulated placental leptin expression via antagonizing ADORA2.

  2. Garlic intake lowers fasting blood glucose: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Li-qiong; Liu, Yun-hui; Zhang, Yi-yi

    2015-01-01

    Garlic is a common spicy flavouring agent also used for certain therapeutic purposes. Garlic's effects on blood glucose have been the subject of many clinical and animal studies, however, studies reporting hypoglycemic effects of garlic in humans are conflicting. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify relevant trials of garlic or garlic extracts on markers of glycemic control [fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial glucose (PPG), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c)]. A meta-analysis of the effect of garlic intake on human was done to assess garlic's effectiveness in lowering glucose levels. Two reviewers extracted data from each of the identified studies. Seven eligible randomized controlled trials with 513 subjects were identified. Pooled analyses showed that garlic intake results in a statistically significant lowering in FBG [SMD=-1.67; 95% CI (-2.80, -0.55), p=0.004]. Our pooled analyses did not include PPG control and HbA1c outcomes. Because only 1 study included in the meta-analysis reported PPG variables and only 2 studies reported HbA1c variables. In conclusion, the current meta-analysis showed that the administration of garlic resulted in a significant reduction in FBG concentrations. More trials are needed to investigate the effectiveness of garlic on HbA1c and PPG.

  3. Complementary and alternative medicine for lowering blood lipid levels: A systematic review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadzki, Paul; AlBedah, Abdullah M N; Khalil, Mohamed M K; AlQaed, Meshari S

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this article is to summarize and critically evaluate the evidence from systematic reviews (SRs) of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for lowering blood lipid levels (BLL). Eight electronic databases were searched until March 2016. Additionally, all the retrieved references were inspected manually for further relevant papers. Systematic reviews were considered eligible, if they included patients of any age and/or gender with elevated blood lipid levels using any type of CAM. We used the Oxman and AMSTAR criteria to critically appraise the methodological quality of the included SRs. Twenty-seven SRs were included in the analyses. The majority of the SRs were of high methodological quality (mean Oxman score=4.81, SD=4.88; and the mean AMSTAR score=7.22, SD=3.38). The majority of SRs (56%) arrived at equivocal conclusions (of these 8 were of high quality); 7 SRs (37%) arrived at positive conclusions (of these 6 were of high quality), and 2 (7%) arrived at negative conclusions (both were of high quality). There was conflicting evidence regarding the effectiveness of garlic; and promising evidence for yoga. To conclude, the evidence from SRs evaluating the effectiveness of CAM in lowering BLL is predominantly equivocal and confusing. Several limitations exist, such as variety of doses and preparations, confounding effects of diets and lifestyle factors, or heterogeneity of the primary trials among others. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Potential of garlic (Allium sativum in lowering high blood pressure: mechanisms of action and clinical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ried K

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Karin Ried, Peter Fakler National Institute of Integrative Medicine, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Garlic supplements have shown promise in the treatment of uncontrolled hypertension, lowering blood pressure (BP by about 10 mmHg systolic and 8 mmHg diastolic, similar to standard BP medication. Aged garlic extract, which contains S-allylcysteine as the bioactive sulfur compound, in particular is standardizable and highly tolerable, with little or no known harmful interaction when taken with other BP-reducing or blood-thinning medication. Here we describe biologically plausible mechanisms of garlic's BP-lowering effect. Garlic-derived polysulfides stimulate the production of the vascular gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S and enhance the regulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO, which induce smooth muscle cell relaxation, vasodilation, and BP reduction. Several dietary and genetic factors influence the efficiency of the H2S and NO signaling pathways and may contribute to the development of hypertension. Sulfur deficiency might play a part in the etiology of hypertension, and could be alleviated with supplementation of organosulfur compounds derived from garlic. Keywords: garlic, S-allylcysteine, hydrogen sulfide (H2S, nitric oxide (NO, redox signaling, hypertension

  5. Nocturnal variations in lower-leg subcutaneous blood flow in paraplegic men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Wroblewski, H; Kastrup, J

    1992-01-01

    1. Lower-leg subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rates were measured over 12-20 h under ambulatory conditions by means of the 133Xe-washout technique in nine paraplegic men, all with complete spinal cord lesions at or below the Th 6 level, and in nine age-matched healthy men. Portable Cd......Te(Cl) detectors and data-storage units were used. 2. The central and local sympathetic vasoconstrictive activity at the lower leg was measured under laboratory conditions by means of the 133Xe-washout technique and a stationary NaI(Tl) detector system. 3. The paraplegic men were found to have intact central...... the paraplegic men suffered from complete lower-leg somaesthetic denervation. 5. A significant correlation was found between the time of going to bed and the nightly hyperaemic response in the right and left lower legs (P less than 0.01). 6. It is concluded that the present data are in accordance...

  6. Glucuronidated quercetin lowers blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats via deconjugation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Galindo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic oral quercetin reduces blood pressure and restores endothelial dysfunction in hypertensive animals. However, quercetin (aglycone is usually not present in plasma, because it is rapidly metabolized into conjugated, mostly inactive, metabolites. The aim of the study is to analyze whether deconjugation of these metabolites is involved in the blood pressure lowering effect of quercetin. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have analyzed the effects on blood pressure and vascular function in vitro of the conjugated metabolites of quercetin (quercetin-3-glucuronide, Q3GA; isorhamnetin-3-glucuronide, I3GA; and quercetin-3'-sulfate, Q3'S in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Q3GA and I3GA (1 mg/kg i.v., but not Q3'S, progressively reduced mean blood pressure (MBP, measured in conscious SHR. The hypotensive effect of Q3GA was abolished in SHR treated with the specific inhibitor of β-glucuronidase, saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (SAL, 10 mg/ml. In mesenteric arteries, unlike quercetin, Q3GA had no inhibitory effect in the contractile response to phenylephrine after 30 min of incubation. However, after 1 hour of incubation Q3GA strongly reduced this contractile response and this effect was prevented by SAL. Oral administration of quercetin (10 mg/Kg induced a progressive decrease in MBP, which was also suppressed by SAL. CONCLUSIONS: Conjugated metabolites are involved in the in vivo antihypertensive effect of quercetin, acting as molecules for the plasmatic transport of quercetin to the target tissues. Quercetin released from its glucuronidated metabolites could be responsible for its vasorelaxant and hypotensive effect.

  7. Blood lead level association with lower body weight in NHANES 1999–2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scinicariello, Franco; Buser, Melanie C.; Mevissen, Meike; Portier, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lead exposure is associated with low birth-weight. The objective of this study is to determine whether lead exposure is associated with lower body weight in children, adolescents and adults. Methods: We analyzed data from NHANES 1999–2006 for participants aged ≥ 3 using multiple logistic and multivariate linear regression. Using age- and sex-standardized BMI Z-scores, overweight and obese children (ages 3–19) were classified by BMI ≥ 85th and ≥ 95th percentiles, respectively. The adult population (age ≥ 20) was classified as overweight and obese with BMI measures of 25–29.9 and ≥ 30, respectively. Blood lead level (BLL) was categorized by weighted quartiles. Results: Multivariate linear regressions revealed a lower BMI Z-score in children and adolescents when the highest lead quartile was compared to the lowest lead quartile (β (SE) = − 0.33 (0.07), p < 0.001), and a decreased BMI in adults (β (SE) = − 2.58 (0.25), p < 0.001). Multiple logistic analyses in children and adolescents found a negative association between BLL and the percentage of obese and overweight with BLL in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartile (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.30–0.59; and OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.88, respectively). Adults in the highest lead quartile were less likely to be obese (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.35–0.50) compared to those in the lowest lead quartile. Further analyses with blood lead as restricted cubic splines, confirmed the dose-relationship between blood lead and body weight outcomes. Conclusions: BLLs are associated with lower body mass index and obesity in children, adolescents and adults. - Highlights: • NHANES analysis of BLL and body weight outcomes • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in children and adolescent • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in adults

  8. Blood lead level association with lower body weight in NHANES 1999–2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scinicariello, Franco, E-mail: fes6@cdc.gov [Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Buser, Melanie C. [Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Mevissen, Meike [Division of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Portier, Christopher J. [National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH)/ATSDR, CDC, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Background: Lead exposure is associated with low birth-weight. The objective of this study is to determine whether lead exposure is associated with lower body weight in children, adolescents and adults. Methods: We analyzed data from NHANES 1999–2006 for participants aged ≥ 3 using multiple logistic and multivariate linear regression. Using age- and sex-standardized BMI Z-scores, overweight and obese children (ages 3–19) were classified by BMI ≥ 85th and ≥ 95th percentiles, respectively. The adult population (age ≥ 20) was classified as overweight and obese with BMI measures of 25–29.9 and ≥ 30, respectively. Blood lead level (BLL) was categorized by weighted quartiles. Results: Multivariate linear regressions revealed a lower BMI Z-score in children and adolescents when the highest lead quartile was compared to the lowest lead quartile (β (SE) = − 0.33 (0.07), p < 0.001), and a decreased BMI in adults (β (SE) = − 2.58 (0.25), p < 0.001). Multiple logistic analyses in children and adolescents found a negative association between BLL and the percentage of obese and overweight with BLL in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartile (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.30–0.59; and OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.88, respectively). Adults in the highest lead quartile were less likely to be obese (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.35–0.50) compared to those in the lowest lead quartile. Further analyses with blood lead as restricted cubic splines, confirmed the dose-relationship between blood lead and body weight outcomes. Conclusions: BLLs are associated with lower body mass index and obesity in children, adolescents and adults. - Highlights: • NHANES analysis of BLL and body weight outcomes • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in children and adolescent • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in adults.

  9. Blood glucose lowering effects of brown rice in normal and diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panlasigui, Leonora N; Thompson, Lilian U

    2006-01-01

    Carbohydrate foods, which produce low glycemic responses, have been shown to be beneficial in the dietary management of chronic diseases such as diabetes and hyperlipidemia. This study determined the starch digestion rate in vitro and, in a randomised crossover design, the postprandial blood glucose response of 10 healthy and nine type 2 diabetic volunteers to brown rice compared to milled rice from the same batch and variety. The total sugar released in vitro was 23.7% lower in brown rice than in milled rice. In healthy volunteers, the glycemic area and glycemic index were, respectively, 19.8% and 12.1% lower (p brown rice than milled rice, while in diabetics, the respective values were 35.2% and 35.6% lower. The effect was partly due to the higher amounts of phytic acid, polyphenols, dietary fiber and oil in brown compared to milled rice and the difference in some physicochemical properties of the rice samples such as minimum cooking time and degree of gelatinisation. In conclusion, brown rice is a more health beneficial food for diabetics and hyperglycemic individuals than milled rice.

  10. Stakeholder perceptions of lowering the blood alcohol concentration standard in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Lisa J; Eby, David W; Kostyniuk, Lidia P; St Louis, Renée M; Zanier, Nicole

    2017-12-01

    This study sought to better understand the past change in the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) standard from 0.10% to 0.08% in the United States, as well as explore stakeholder perceptions about potential health and other impacts of further lowering the standard below 0.08%. In-depth interviews were conducted with representatives of 20 organizations considered to have an interest and investment in the potential impacts of strategies to decrease alcohol-impaired related crashes and injuries. Interviews were conducted by a trained moderator, using a structured guide. Themes from the interviews are presented for several discussion topics explored for both the earlier change in the legal BAC limit from 0.10% to 0.08% and a potential lowering of the limit below 0.08%. Topics included arguments for and against change; organizational position on the change; stakeholders on both sides of the issue; strategies to support or oppose the change; health and economic impacts; and enforcement and adjudication challenges. Collectively, results suggest that moving the BAC standard below the current level will require considerable effort and time. There was strong, but not complete, agreement that it will be difficult, and maybe infeasible in the short-term, for states to implement a BAC standard lower than 0.08%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cord blood vitamin D and the risk of acute lower respiratory infection in Indigenous infants in the Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Michael J; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi C; Marsh, Robyn; Chang, Anne B; Andrews, Ross M

    2016-04-04

    To assess vitamin D status in Indigenous mothers and infants in the Northern Territory, and to determine whether cord blood vitamin D levels are correlated with the risk of infant hospitalisation for acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI). Within a nested cohort of 109 Indigenous mother-infant pairs recruited between 2006 and 2011, we used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure vitamin D (25(OH)D3) levels in maternal blood during pregnancy (n = 33; median gestation, 32 weeks [range, 28-36 weeks]) and at birth (n = 106; median gestation, 39 weeks [range, 34-41 weeks]), in cord blood (n = 84; median gestation, 39 weeks [range, 36-41 weeks]), and in infant blood at age 7 months (n = 37; median age, 7.1 months [range, 6.6-8.1 months]). ALRI hospitalisations during the first 12 months of infancy, identified using International Classification of Diseases coding (J09-J22, A37-A37.9). Compared with mean 25(OH)D3 levels in maternal blood during pregnancy (104 nmol/L), mean levels were 23% lower in maternal blood at birth (80 nmol/L) and 48% lower in cord blood samples (54 nmol/L). The mean cord blood 25(OH)D3 concentration in seven infants subsequently hospitalised for an ALRI was 37 nmol/L (95% CI, 25-48 nmol/L), lower than the 56 nmol/L (95% CI, 51-61 nmol/L) in the 77 infants who were not hospitalised with an ALRI (P = 0.025). Cord blood 25(OH)D3 concentrations were about half those in maternal blood during the third trimester of pregnancy (about 7 weeks earlier). Most cord blood levels (80%) were classified as vitamin D insufficient (L) by existing guidelines, and were lower among infants who were subsequently hospitalised with an ALRI.

  12. 10-20-30 training increases performance and lowers blood pressure and VEGF in runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliemann, Lasse; Gunnarsson, Thomas P; Hellsten, Ylva; Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-10-01

    The present study examined the effect of training by the 10-20-30 concept on performance, blood pressure (BP), and skeletal muscle angiogenesis as well as the feasibility of completing high-intensity interval training in local running communities. One hundred sixty recreational runners were divided into either a control group (CON; n = 28), or a 10-20-30 training group (10-20-30; n = 132) replacing two of three weekly training sessions with 10-20-30 training for 8 weeks and performance of a 5-km run (5-K) and BP was measured. VO2max was measured and resting muscle biopsies were taken in a subgroup of runners (n = 18). 10-20-30 improved 5-K time (38 s) and lowered systolic BP (2 ± 1 mmHg). For hypertensive subjects in 10-20-30 (n = 30), systolic and diastolic BP was lowered by 5 ± 4 and 3 ± 2 mmHg, respectively, which was a greater reduction than in the non-hypertensive subjects (n = 102). 10-20-30 increased VO2max but did not influence muscle fiber area, distribution or capillarization, whereas the expression of the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was lowered by 22%. No changes were observed in CON. These results suggest that 10-20-30 training is an effective and easily implemented training intervention improving endurance performance, VO2max and lowering BP in recreational runners, but does not affect muscle morphology and reduces muscle VEGF. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. EFFECTIVENESS OF LAVENDER AROMATHERAPY AND CLASSICAL MUSIC THERAPY IN LOWERING BLOOD PRESSURE IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH HYPERTENSION

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Maisi; Suryono; Melyana Nurul Widyawati; Ari Suwondo; Suryati Kusworowulan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hypertension during pregnancy remains high in Indonesia. It is a major cause of maternal death. Aromatherapy lavender and classical music therapy are considered effective in lowering blood pressure in hypertension. Objective: To examine the effect of lavender aromatherapy and classical music therapy in lowering blood pressure in pregnant women with hypertension. Methods: A quasy experimental study with pretest-posttest control group design. There were 52 pregnant women with ...

  14. Red Wine Polyphenols Do Not Lower Peripheral or Central Blood Pressure in High Normal Blood Pressure and Hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botden, Ilse P. G.; Draijer, Richard; Westerhof, Berend E.; Rutten, Joost H. W.; Langendonk, Janneke G.; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Danser, A. H. Jan; Zock, Peter L.; van den Meiracker, Anton H.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Epidemiological data suggest that modest red wine consumption may reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Red wine polyphenols improved human endothelial vascular function and reduced blood pressure (BP) in animal studies, but the results of human intervention studies investigating the effect

  15. Blood glucose lowering effect of ophiopogonis tuber extract and mechanism of anti-insulin-resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng NING

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To study the hypoglycemic effect and insulin sensitization mechanism of ophiopogonis tuber extracts on the 3T3-L1-induced adipocytes, and also in rats with reproduction of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods  3T3-L1 cells were induced and differentiated into adipocytes. After the intervention with ophiopogonpolysaccharide (OPSR and ophiopogonin (OPG, glucose consuming rate was detected for screening the extracts which may have effective hypoglycemic effects. The insulin resistance (IR adipocyte model was established by dexamethasone induction, and then it was treated with OPSR. The protein expression levels of leptin, adiponectin and resistin were detected by Western blotting. The T2DM rat model was reproduced and then treated with OPSR for 4 weeks. Body weight (BW, triglyeride (TG, fasting blood glucose (FBG and fasting insulin (FINs of the rats were measured respectively. Results  OPSR in dosage of 0.5-50mg/L promoted glucose consumption of adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner, the glucose consumption ratios were 32.27%, 75.14% and 90.47% respectively. OPG of 50mg/L showed very weak activity with glucose consumption ratio of only 8.49%. OPSR could significantly promote the protein expression of leptin and adiponectin, and showed an inhibitory effect on the protein expression of resistin (P<0.05. After treatment with OPSR for 4 weeks, the BW of rats increased obviously, while TG, FBG and HOMA-IR decreased significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01. Conclusions  OPSR may promote glucose transport and utilization of adipocytes, decrease the level of FBG and TG, and improve the condition of IR in T2DM rats. The mechanism of blood glucose lowering effect may be attributed to secretion of adipokines, such as leptin, adiponectin and resistin by IR adipocytes.

  16. Presence of blood-pressure lowering and spasmolytic constituents in Buddleja crispa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Anwarul H; Bukhari, Ishfaq A; Khan, Rafeeq A; Shah, Abdul J; Ahmad, Ijaz; Malik, Abdul

    2009-04-01

    This aim of this study was to investigate the crude extract of Buddleja crispa (Bc.Cr) and its active constituent(s) for their antihypertensive and antispasmodic activities. The Bc.Cr caused a dose-dependent (3-10 mg/kg) fall in mean arterial pressure in rats under anesthesia. In rabbit aorta preparations, Bc.Cr (0.03-1 mg/mL) caused inhibition of high K(+) (80 mM) precontractions. The Bc.Cr (0.03-1 mg/mL) also inhibited spontaneous and high K(+) precontractions in rabbit jejunum preparations, suggestive of calcium channel blocking (CCB) activity. CCB activity was further confirmed when pretreatment of the tissues with Bc.Cr (0.03-0.10 mg/mL) caused a rightward shift in Ca(++) concentration response curves, similar to verapamil. Among the pure compounds, BdI-H3 was more potent against the high K(+) than spontaneous contractions and was around eight times more potent than Bc.Cr against the spontaneous contractions while the other two compounds, BdI-2 and BH-3 were inactive. Activity-directed fractionation revealed that the hexane fraction was more potent against K(+) precontractions. These data indicate that Bc.Cr possesses a blood-pressure lowering effect, mediated possibly through CCB, though additional mechanism(s) cannot be ruled out. Among the pure compounds, Bdl-H3 is likely to be the active compound involved in the spasmolytic and possibly BP lowering effect of the parent crude extract. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. 10-20-30 training increases performance and lowers blood pressure and VEGF in runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gliemann, Lasse; Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Hellsten, Ylva

    2015-01-01

    into either a control group (CON; n = 28), or a 10-20-30 training group (10-20-30; n = 132) replacing two of three weekly training sessions with 10-20-30 training for 8 weeks and performance of a 5-km run (5-K) and BP was measured. VO2max was measured and resting muscle biopsies were taken in a subgroup......The present study examined the effect of training by the 10-20-30 concept on performance, blood pressure (BP), and skeletal muscle angiogenesis as well as the feasibility of completing high-intensity interval training in local running communities. One hundred sixty recreational runners were divided......-20-30 increased VO2max but did not influence muscle fiber area, distribution or capillarization, whereas the expression of the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was lowered by 22%. No changes were observed in CON. These results suggest that 10-20-30 training is an effective and easily...

  18. Folic Acid and Creatine as Therapeutic Approaches to Lower Blood Arsenic: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brandilyn A; Hall, Megan N; Liu, Xinhua; Parvez, Faruque; Sanchez, Tiffany R; van Geen, Alexander; Mey, Jacob L; Siddique, Abu B; Shahriar, Hasan; Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Islam, Tariqul; Balac, Olgica; Ilievski, Vesna; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Graziano, Joseph H; Gamble, Mary V

    2015-12-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that > 140 million people worldwide are exposed to arsenic (As)-contaminated drinking water. As undergoes biologic methylation, which facilitates renal As elimination. In folate-deficient individuals, this process is augmented by folic acid (FA) supplementation, thereby lowering blood As (bAs). Creatinine concentrations in urine are a robust predictor of As methylation patterns. Although the reasons for this are unclear, creatine synthesis is a major consumer of methyl donors, and this synthesis is down-regulated by dietary/supplemental creatine. Our aim was to determine whether 400 or 800 μg FA and/or creatine supplementation lowers bAs in an As-exposed Bangladeshi population. We conducted a clinical trial in which 622 participants were randomized to receive 400 μg FA, 800 μg FA, 3 g creatine, 3 g creatine+400 μg FA, or placebo daily. All participants received an As-removal filter on enrollment, and were followed for 24 weeks. After the 12th week, half of the two FA groups were switched to placebo to evaluate post-treatment bAs patterns. Linear models with repeated measures indicated that the decline in ln(bAs) from baseline in the 800-μg FA group exceeded that of the placebo group (weeks 1-12: β= -0.09, 95% CI: -0.18, -0.01; weeks 13-24: FA continued: β= -0.12, 95% CI: -0.24, -0.00; FA switched to placebo: β= -0.14, 95% CI: -0.26, -0.02). There was no rebound in bAs related to cessation of FA supplementation. Declines in bAs observed in the remaining treatment arms were not significantly different from those of the placebo group. In this mixed folate-deficient/replete study population, 12- and 24-week treatment with 800 μg (but not 400 μg) FA lowered bAs to a greater extent than placebo; this was sustained 12 weeks after FA cessation. In future studies, we will evaluate whether FA and/or creatine altered As methylation profiles.

  19. Effect of homocysteine-lowering nutrients on blood lipids: results from four randomised, placebo-controlled studies in healthy humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreet R Olthof

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Betaine (trimethylglycine lowers plasma homocysteine, a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, studies in renal patients and in obese individuals who are on a weight-loss diet suggest that betaine supplementation raises blood cholesterol; data in healthy individuals are lacking. Such an effect on cholesterol would counteract any favourable effect on homocysteine. We therefore investigated the effect of betaine, of its precursor choline in the form of phosphatidylcholine, and of the classical homocysteine-lowering vitamin folic acid on blood lipid concentrations in healthy humans. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We measured blood lipids in four placebo-controlled, randomised intervention studies that examined the effect of betaine (three studies, n = 151, folic acid (two studies, n = 75, and phosphatidylcholine (one study, n = 26 on plasma homocysteine concentrations. We combined blood lipid data from the individual studies and calculated a weighted mean change in blood lipid concentrations relative to placebo. Betaine supplementation (6 g/d for 6 wk increased blood LDL cholesterol concentrations by 0.36 mmol/l (95% confidence interval: 0.25-0.46, and triacylglycerol concentrations by 0.14 mmol/l (0.04-0.23 relative to placebo. The ratio of total to HDL cholesterol increased by 0.23 (0.14-0.32. Concentrations of HDL cholesterol were not affected. Doses of betaine lower than 6 g/d also raised LDL cholesterol, but these changes were not statistically significant. Further, the effect of betaine on LDL cholesterol was already evident after 2 wk of intervention. Phosphatidylcholine supplementation (providing approximately 2.6 g/d of choline for 2 wk increased triacylglycerol concentrations by 0.14 mmol/l (0.06-0.21, but did not affect cholesterol concentrations. Folic acid supplementation (0.8 mg/d had no effect on lipid concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Betaine supplementation increased blood LDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol

  20. A Paleolithic diet confers higher insulin sensitivity, lower C-reactive protein and lower blood pressure than a cereal-based diet in domestic pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugander Martin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A Paleolithic diet has been suggested to be more in concordance with human evolutionary legacy than a cereal based diet. This might explain the lower incidence among hunter-gatherers of diseases of affluence such as type 2 diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to experimentally study the long-term effect of a Paleolithic diet on risk factors for these diseases in domestic pigs. We examined glucose tolerance, post-challenge insulin response, plasma C-reactive protein and blood pressure after 15 months on Paleolithic diet in comparison with a cereal based swine feed. Methods Upon weaning twenty-four piglets were randomly allocated either to cereal based swine feed (Cereal group or cereal free Paleolithic diet consisting of vegetables, fruit, meat and a small amount of tubers (Paleolithic group. At 17 months of age an intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed and pancreas specimens were collected for immunohistochemistry. Group comparisons of continuous variables were made by use of the t-test. P Results At the end of the study the Paleolithic group weighed 22% less and had 43% lower subcutaneous fat thickness at mid sternum. No significant difference was seen in fasting glucose between groups. Dynamic insulin sensitivity was significantly higher (p = 0.004 and the insulin response was significantly lower in the Paleolithic group (p = 0.001. The geometric mean of C-reactive protein was 82% lower (p = 0.0007 and intra-arterial diastolic blood pressure was 13% lower in the Paleolithic group (p = 0.007. In evaluations of multivariate correlations, diet emerged as the strongest explanatory variable for the variations in dynamic insulin sensitivity, insulin response, C-reactive protein and diastolic blood pressure when compared to other relevant variables such as weight and subcutaneous fat thickness at mid sternum. There was no obvious immunohistochemical difference in pancreatic islets

  1. Blood pressure-lowering treatment based on cardiovascular risk: a meta-analysis of individual patient data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-16

    We aimed to investigate whether the benefits of blood pressure-lowering drugs are proportional to baseline cardiovascular risk, to establish whether absolute risk could be used to inform treatment decisions for blood pressure-lowering therapy, as is recommended for lipid-lowering therapy. This meta-analysis included individual participant data from trials that randomly assigned patients to either blood pressure-lowering drugs or placebo, or to more intensive or less intensive blood pressure-lowering regimens. The primary outcome was total major cardiovascular events, consisting of stroke, heart attack, heart failure, or cardiovascular death. Participants were separated into four categories of baseline 5-year major cardiovascular risk using a risk prediction equation developed from the placebo groups of the included trials (21%). 11 trials and 26 randomised groups met the inclusion criteria, and included 67,475 individuals, of whom 51,917 had available data for the calculation of the risk equations. 4167 (8%) had a cardiovascular event during a median of 4·0 years (IQR 3·4-4·4) of follow-up. The mean estimated baseline levels of 5-year cardiovascular risk for each of the four risk groups were 6·0% (SD 2·0), 12·1% (1·5), 17·7% (1·7), and 26·8% (5·4). In each consecutive higher risk group, blood pressure-lowering treatment reduced the risk of cardiovascular events relatively by 18% (95% CI 7-27), 15% (4-25), 13% (2-22), and 15% (5-24), respectively (p=0·30 for trend). However, in absolute terms, treating 1000 patients in each group with blood pressure-lowering treatment for 5 years would prevent 14 (95% CI 8-21), 20 (8-31), 24 (8-40), and 38 (16-61) cardiovascular events, respectively (p=0·04 for trend). Lowering blood pressure provides similar relative protection at all levels of baseline cardiovascular risk, but progressively greater absolute risk reductions as baseline risk increases. These results support the use of predicted baseline cardiovascular

  2. Insulin resistance is associated with lower arterial blood flow and reduced cortical perfusion in cognitively asymptomatic middle-aged adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoscheidt, Siobhan M; Kellawan, J Mikhail; Berman, Sara E; Rivera-Rivera, Leonardo A; Krause, Rachel A; Oh, Jennifer M; Beeri, Michal S; Rowley, Howard A; Wieben, Oliver; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Asthana, Sanjay; Johnson, Sterling C; Schrage, William G

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is associated with poor cerebrovascular health and increased risk for dementia. Little is known about the unique effect of IR on both micro- and macrovascular flow particularly in midlife when interventions against dementia may be most effective. We examined the effect of IR as indexed by the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) on cerebral blood flow in macro- and microvessels utilizing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) among cognitively asymptomatic middle-aged individuals. We hypothesized that higher HOMA-IR would be associated with reduced flow in macrovessels and lower cortical perfusion. One hundred and twenty cognitively asymptomatic middle-aged adults (57 ± 5 yrs) underwent fasting blood draw, phase contrast-vastly undersampled isotropic projection reconstruction (PC VIPR) MRI, and arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion. Higher HOMA-IR was associated with lower arterial blood flow, particularly within the internal carotid arteries (ICAs), and lower cerebral perfusion in several brain regions including frontal and temporal lobe regions. Higher blood flow in bilateral ICAs predicted greater cortical perfusion in individuals with lower HOMA-IR, a relationship not observed among those with higher HOMA-IR. Findings provide novel evidence for an uncoupling of macrovascular blood flow and microvascular perfusion among individuals with higher IR in midlife. PMID:27488909

  3. Exercise: A Drug-Free Approach to Lowering High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your blood pressure low, you need to keep exercising on a regular basis. It takes about one to three months for regular exercise to have an impact on your blood pressure. The benefits last only as long as you continue to ...

  4. Blood flow response to electrically induced twitch and tetanic lower-limb muscle contractions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, T.W.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the effect of electric stimulation (ES)-induced twitch with tetanic leg muscle contractions on blood flow responses and to assess blood flow responses in the contralateral inactive leg. DESIGN: Intervention with within-subject comparisons. SETTING: University research

  5. Chemical profiling of infusions and decoctions of Helichrysum italicum subsp. picardii by UHPLC-PDA-MS and in vitro biological activities comparatively with green tea (Camellia sinensis) and rooibos tisane (Aspalathus linearis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Catarina Guerreiro; Barreira, Luísa; Bijttebier, Sebastiaan; Pieters, Luc; Neves, Vanessa; Rodrigues, Maria João; Rivas, Ricardo; Varela, João; Custódio, Luísa

    2017-10-25

    Several medicinal plants are currently used by the food industry as functional additives, for example botanical extracts in herbal drinks. Moreover, the scientific community has recently begun focusing on halophytes as sources of functional beverages. Helichrysum italicum subsp. picardii (everlasting) is an aromatic halophyte common in southern Europe frequently used as spice and in traditional medicine. In this context, this work explored for the first time H. italicum subsp. picardii as a potential source of innovative herbal beverages with potential health promoting properties. For that purpose, infusions and decoctions were prepared from roots, vegetative aerial-organs (stems and leaves) and flowers and evaluated for in vitro antioxidant and anti-diabetic activities. Samples were also assessed for toxicity in different mammalian cell lines and chemically characterized by spectrophotometric methods and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-mass-spectrometry (UHPLC-PDA-MS). Results were expressed relating to 'a cup-of-tea' and compared with those obtained with green tea (Camellia sinensis) and rooibos tisane (Aspalathus linearis). Tisanes from the everlasting's above-ground organs, particularly flowers, have high polyphenolic content and several phenolics were identified; the main compounds were chlorogenic and quinic acids, dicaffeoylquinic-acid isomers and gnaphaliin-A. The antioxidant activity of beverages from the everlasting's above-ground organs matched or surpassed that of green tea and rooibos. Its anti-diabetic activity was moderate and toxicity low. Overall, our results suggest that the everlasting is a potential source of innovative and functional herbal beverages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Blood pressure-lowering effect of Shinrin-yoku (Forest bathing): a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideno, Yuki; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Abe, Yukina; Ueda, Kayo; Iso, Hiroyasu; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Lee, Jung-Su; Suzuki, Shosuke

    2017-08-16

    Shinrin-yoku (experiencing the forest atmosphere or forest bathing) has received increasing attention from the perspective of preventive medicine in recent years. Some studies have reported that the forest environment decreases blood pressure. However, little is known about the possibility of anti-hypertensive applications of Shinrin-yoku. This study aimed to evaluate preventive or therapeutic effects of the forest environment on blood pressure. We systematically reviewed the medical literature and performed a meta-analysis.Four electronic databases were systematically searched for the period before May 2016 with language restriction of English and Japanese. The review considered all published, randomized, controlled trials, cohort studies, and comparative studies that evaluated the effects of the forest environment on changes in systolic blood pressure. A subsequent meta-analysis was performed. Twenty trials involving 732 participants were reviewed. Systolic blood pressure of the forest environment was significantly lower than that of the non-forest environment. Additionally, diastolic blood pressure of the forest environment was significantly lower than that of the non-forest environment. This systematic review shows a significant effect of Shinrin-yoku on reduction of blood pressure.

  7. Prunus mume leaf extract lowers blood glucose level in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Woo; Kwon, Jung Eun; Lee, Young-Jong; Jeong, Yong Joon; Kim, Inhye; Cho, Young Mi; Kim, Yong-Min; Kang, Se Chan

    2016-10-01

    Context Diabetes is a common metabolic disease with long-term complications. Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. (Rosaceae) fruits have shown to ameliorate glucose intolerance. However, the antidiabetic effects of P. mume leaves have not been investigated. Objective This study evaluated the effects of P. mume leaf 70% ethanol extract (PMLE) on alleviating diabetes in vivo and in vitro. Materials and methods PMLE was fractionated into n-hexane, dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol (BuOH) and water. Polyphenol and flavonoid contents in PMLE fractions were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the aluminium chloride colorimetric method, respectively. We evaluated α-glucosidase inhibition using a microplate reader at 400 nm. Adipocyte differentiation by lipid accumulation was measured using Nile Red staining. Male imprinting control region (ICR) mice were injected with streptozotocin (STZ, 100 mg/kg, i.p.). High-fat diets were provided for three weeks prior to PMLE treatments to induce type 2 diabetes. PMLE (0, 5, 25 or 50 mg/kg) was administrated for four weeks with high-fat diets. Results The EtOAc fraction of PMLE inhibited α-glucosidase activity (IC50 = 68.2 μg/mL) and contained 883.5 ± 14.9 mg/g of polyphenols and 820.1 ± 7.7 mg/g of flavonoids. The 50 mg/kg PMLE supplement reduced 40% of blood glucose level compared to obese/diabetes mice. Obese/diabetic mice treated with 50 mg/kg PMLE showed a lower level of triacylglycerol (320.7 ± 20.73 mg/dL) compared to obese/diabetes mice (494.9 ± 14.80 mg/dL). Conclusion The data demonstrate that P. mume leaves exert antidiabetic effects that may be attributable to high concentrations of polyphenols and flavonoids.

  8. Chronic renin inhibition lowers blood pressure and reduces upright muscle sympathetic nerve activity in hypertensive seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yoshiyuki; Jarvis, Sara S; Best, Stuart A; Bivens, Tiffany B; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk remains high in patients with hypertension even with adequate blood pressure (BP) control. One possible mechanism may be sympathetic activation via the baroreflex. We tested the hypothesis that chronic inhibition of renin reduces BP without sympathetic activation, but diuresis augments sympathetic activity in elderly hypertensives. Fourteen patients with stage-I hypertension (66 ± 5 (SD) years) were treated with a direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren (n= 7), or a diuretic, hydrochlorothiazide (n= 7), for 6 months. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), BP, direct renin and aldosterone were measured during supine and a graded head-up tilt (HUT; 5 min 30° and 20 min 60°), before and after treatment. Sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was assessed. Both groups had similar BP reductions after treatment (all P < 0.01), while MSNA responses were different between hydrochlorothiazide and aliskiren (P= 0.006 pre/post × drug). Both supine and upright MSNA became greater after hydrochlorothiazide treatment (supine, 72 ± 18 post vs. 64 ± 15 bursts (100 beats)−1 pre; 60° HUT, 83 ± 10 vs. 78 ± 13 bursts (100 beats)−1; P= 0.002). After aliskiren treatment, supine MSNA remained unchanged (69 ± 13 vs. 64 ± 8 bursts (100 beats)−1), but upright MSNA was lower (74 ± 15 vs. 85 ± 10 bursts (100 beats)−1; P= 0.012 for pre/post × posture). Direct renin was greater after both treatments (both P < 0.05), while upright aldosterone was greater after hydrochlorothiazide only (P= 0.002). The change in upright MSNA by the treatment was correlated with the change of aldosterone (r= 0.74, P= 0.002). Upright sympathetic BRS remained unchanged after either treatment. Thus, chronic renin inhibition may reduce upright MSNA through suppressed renin activity, while diuresis may evoke sympathetic activation via the upregulated renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, without changing intrinsic sympathetic baroreflex function in elderly hypertensive

  9. Lowering blood glucose during hip surgery does not influence coagulation activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolein K. Sechterberger

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Although the human GLP-1 analogue liraglutide moderately reduced post-operative blood glucose levels in non-diabetic and prediabetic obese patients undergoing elective hip surgery, no changes were observed with respect to coagulation activation.

  10. The Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial: blood pressure-lowering limb: effects in patients with type II diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergren, Jan; Poulter, Neil R; Sever, Peter S

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of two antihypertensive treatment strategies for the prevention of coronary heart disease and other cardiovascular events in the large subpopulation (n=5137) with diabetes mellitus in the blood pressure-lowering arm of the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial...... nonsignificantly by 8% (hazard ratio 0.92, confidence interval 0.74-1.15). CONCLUSION: In the large diabetic subgroup in the blood pressure-lowering arm of the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial, the benefits of amlodipine-based treatment, compared with atenolol-based treatment, on the incidence of total...... with addition of thiazide as required (atenolol-based). Therapy was titrated to achieve a target blood pressure of less than 130/80 mmHg. RESULTS: The trial was terminated early due to significant benefits on mortality and stroke associated with the amlodipine-based regimen. In patients with diabetes mellitus...

  11. Perioperative clopidogrel is associated with increased bleeding and blood transfusion at the time of lower extremity bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Douglas W; Schermerhorn, Marc L; Brooke, Benjamin S; Conrad, Mark F; Goodney, Philip P; Wyers, Mark C; Stone, David H

    2017-06-01

    Controversy persists surrounding the perceived bleeding risk associated with perioperative clopidogrel use in patients undergoing lower extremity bypass (LEB). The purpose of this study was to examine the LEB bleeding risk and clinical sequelae associated with clopidogrel. All LEBs in the Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) from 2008 to 2014 were studied. The exposure was perioperative clopidogrel. Primary outcomes were blood transfusion, estimated blood loss ≥500 mL, and reoperation for bleeding. Secondary outcomes included mean operative time, major cardiac events, respiratory complications, infectious complications, and in-hospital mortality. Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to analyze patients on the basis of clopidogrel use and its association with outcomes. Nonparametric test for trend and Mantel-Haenszel methods were used to analyze association of clopidogrel use with blood transfusion and secondary outcomes. Among the LEB cohort (N = 9179), 28% (n = 2544) were taking clopidogrel and 72% (n = 6635) were not. Patients taking clopidogrel were more likely to have coronary disease, prior coronary intervention, abnormal findings on stress test, and aspirin use (P blood transfusion (38% vs 24%; P blood loss ≥500 mL (21% vs 12%; P blood transfusion (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-2.1; P 2-unit blood transfusion (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.7-2.5; P blood transfusion amount revealed no remaining effect of clopidogrel on major cardiac events (OR, 1.1; P = .4) or respiratory complications (OR, 1.0; P = .8). Perioperative clopidogrel use in LEB surgery is associated with increased blood loss and blood transfusion. Associated clinical sequelae include increased cardiac and pulmonary complications. Accordingly, surgeons should consider discontinuation of perioperative clopidogrel when it is clinically appropriate unless it is strongly indicated at the time of LEB. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by

  12. EFFECTIVENESS OF LAVENDER AROMATHERAPY AND CLASSICAL MUSIC THERAPY IN LOWERING BLOOD PRESSURE IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Maisi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension during pregnancy remains high in Indonesia. It is a major cause of maternal death. Aromatherapy lavender and classical music therapy are considered effective in lowering blood pressure in hypertension. Objective: To examine the effect of lavender aromatherapy and classical music therapy in lowering blood pressure in pregnant women with hypertension. Methods: A quasy experimental study with pretest-posttest control group design. There were 52 pregnant women with the inclusion criteria selected as samples using simple random sampling, divided into lavender aromatherapy group, classical music group, combination of aromatherapy and music group, and control group. Sphygmomanometer was used to measure blood pressure. Mann Whitney and Post Hoc test were used for data analysis. Results: Results showed that four groups have a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure after given intervention with p-value <0.05. The mean decrease of systolic blood pressure among four groups was: lavender group (5.77 mmHg, music group (7.23 mmHg, combination group (9.54 mmHg, and control group (3.67 mmHg; and the mean decrease of diastolic blood pressure was: the lavender group (2.77 mmHg, music group (0.61 mmHg, combination group (8.23 mmHg, and control group (3.42 mmHg. Conclusion: there was a significant effect of lavender aromatherapy and classical music therapy in lowering blood pressure in pregnant women with hypertension. However, the combination of both interventions was more effective than lavender aromatherapy or music therapy alone.

  13. Blood pressure-lowering treatment strategies based on cardiovascular risk versus blood pressure: A meta-analysis of individual participant data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmali, Kunal N; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; van der Leeuw, Joep; Goff, David C; Yusuf, Salim; Zanchetti, Alberto; Glasziou, Paul; Jackson, Rodney; Woodward, Mark; Rodgers, Anthony; Neal, Bruce C; Berge, Eivind; Teo, Koon; Davis, Barry R; Chalmers, John; Pepine, Carl; Rahimi, Kazem; Sundström, Johan

    2018-03-01

    Clinical practice guidelines have traditionally recommended blood pressure treatment based primarily on blood pressure thresholds. In contrast, using predicted cardiovascular risk has been advocated as a more effective strategy to guide treatment decisions for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. We aimed to compare outcomes from a blood pressure-lowering treatment strategy based on predicted cardiovascular risk with one based on systolic blood pressure (SBP) level. We used individual participant data from the Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration (BPLTTC) from 1995 to 2013. Trials randomly assigned participants to either blood pressure-lowering drugs versus placebo or more intensive versus less intensive blood pressure-lowering regimens. We estimated 5-y risk of CVD events using a multivariable Weibull model previously developed in this dataset. We compared the two strategies at specific SBP thresholds and across the spectrum of risk and blood pressure levels studied in BPLTTC trials. The primary outcome was number of CVD events avoided per persons treated. We included data from 11 trials (47,872 participants). During a median of 4.0 y of follow-up, 3,566 participants (7.5%) experienced a major cardiovascular event. Areas under the curve comparing the two treatment strategies throughout the range of possible thresholds for CVD risk and SBP demonstrated that, on average, a greater number of CVD events would be avoided for a given number of persons treated with the CVD risk strategy compared with the SBP strategy (area under the curve 0.71 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-0.72] for the CVD risk strategy versus 0.54 [95% CI 0.53-0.55] for the SBP strategy). Compared with treating everyone with SBP ≥ 150 mmHg, a CVD risk strategy would require treatment of 29% (95% CI 26%-31%) fewer persons to prevent the same number of events or would prevent 16% (95% CI 14%-18%) more events for the same number of persons treated. Compared with treating

  14. Blood pressure-lowering treatment strategies based on cardiovascular risk versus blood pressure: A meta-analysis of individual participant data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal N Karmali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical practice guidelines have traditionally recommended blood pressure treatment based primarily on blood pressure thresholds. In contrast, using predicted cardiovascular risk has been advocated as a more effective strategy to guide treatment decisions for cardiovascular disease (CVD prevention. We aimed to compare outcomes from a blood pressure-lowering treatment strategy based on predicted cardiovascular risk with one based on systolic blood pressure (SBP level.We used individual participant data from the Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration (BPLTTC from 1995 to 2013. Trials randomly assigned participants to either blood pressure-lowering drugs versus placebo or more intensive versus less intensive blood pressure-lowering regimens. We estimated 5-y risk of CVD events using a multivariable Weibull model previously developed in this dataset. We compared the two strategies at specific SBP thresholds and across the spectrum of risk and blood pressure levels studied in BPLTTC trials. The primary outcome was number of CVD events avoided per persons treated. We included data from 11 trials (47,872 participants. During a median of 4.0 y of follow-up, 3,566 participants (7.5% experienced a major cardiovascular event. Areas under the curve comparing the two treatment strategies throughout the range of possible thresholds for CVD risk and SBP demonstrated that, on average, a greater number of CVD events would be avoided for a given number of persons treated with the CVD risk strategy compared with the SBP strategy (area under the curve 0.71 [95% confidence interval (CI 0.70-0.72] for the CVD risk strategy versus 0.54 [95% CI 0.53-0.55] for the SBP strategy. Compared with treating everyone with SBP ≥ 150 mmHg, a CVD risk strategy would require treatment of 29% (95% CI 26%-31% fewer persons to prevent the same number of events or would prevent 16% (95% CI 14%-18% more events for the same number of persons treated. Compared with

  15. Does a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine antagonist (ICI 169, 369) lower blood pressure in hypertensive patients?

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, A K; Roy-Chaudhury, P; Webster, J; Petrie, J C

    1989-01-01

    1. The effect of single doses (10, 30 and 50 mg) of a selective 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, ICI 169, 369, on blood pressure, heart rate and the electrocardiogram was studied using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within subject design in hypertensive patients. 2. ICI 169, 369 did not reduce blood pressure or increase QT interval as has been reported with ketanserin. This suggests that it is the other properties of ketanserin which are responsible for its antihypertensive effect. 3. Plasma c...

  16. Does blood pressure lowering treatment prevents dementia or cognitive decline in patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigin, Valery; Ratnasabapathy, Yogini; Anderson, Craig

    2005-03-15

    There is increasing evidence that both hypertension and stroke play important roles in the development of cognitive decline and dementia. Despite five high-quality randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in this area to date, there remains uncertainty about the role of blood pressure lowering therapy in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia. It appears that lack of definitive results from these trials can be explained on the basis of (a) insufficient power to detect modest treatment effects; (b) measurement error in the diagnosis of dementia; (c) variations in the treatment effects between different types of antihypertensive agents; and (d) bias due to missing data, variation in baseline factors such as levels of blood pressure, and the inclusion of patients with cognitive impairment at entry. Preliminary meta-analysis of RCTs supports the hypothesis that blood pressure lowering may prevent dementia in high-risk patients, that is those with vascular disease. However, a meta-analysis of individual patient data (IPD) from these, and other relevant trials in patients with vascular disease, would provide much more reliable data. If the hypothesis were confirmed, it would certainly be of considerable importance not only in terms of our understanding of the aetiology of dementia, but also in promoting blood pressure lowering strategies for broader public health good.

  17. Dorsalis pedis arterial pressure is lower than noninvasive arm blood pressure in normotensive patients under sevoflurane anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Wang, Enqin; Zhu, Yuan; Li, Yongshuai; Lu, Kaizhi

    2016-02-01

    It is widely known that blood pressure (BP) in the lower extremity is higher than in the upper extremity. However, whether this phenomenon remains the same during general anesthesia is still unclear. This study aims to investigate the difference between invasive dorsalis pedis artery (DPA) pressure and the most commonly used noninvasive arm pressure during sevoflurane anesthesia. A total of 50 normotensive Chinese patients were enrolled in this observational study. Invasive DPA pressure, noninvasive arm pressure, and systemic vascular resistance index were assessed simultaneously. BP data during the entire surgery were analyzed through a Bland-Altman plot for repeated measures. The concordance of BP variation in the DPA and the arm was analyzed using four-quadrant plots and linear regression. The time-dependent changes in BP and the systemic vascular resistance index were also evaluated. Data from 46 effective cases were analyzed. Bias (95% limits of agreement) was -7.40 mmHg (-20.36 to +5.57 mmHg) for mean blood pressure, +3.54 mmHg (-20.32 to +27.41 mmHg) for systolic blood pressure, and -10.20 mmHg (-23.66 to +3.26 mmHg) for diastolic blood pressure, respectively. The concordance of BP variation at the two measurement sites was clinically acceptable. DPA pressure and vascular resistance in the lower limb decreased gradually during surgery. DPA pressure tends to be lower than arm pressure under sevoflurane anesthesia, especially the mean blood pressure and the diastolic blood pressure. Hence, noninvasive arm BP monitoring is recommend to be retained when invasive BP is measured at the DPA, so as to allow clinicians to comprehensively evaluate the BP condition of the patients and make appropriate therapeutic decisions.

  18. Nocturnal variations in subcutaneous blood flow rate in lower leg of normal human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Jørgensen, B

    1991-01-01

    in central and local postural sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity. During sleep, characteristic variations in subcutaneous blood flow were disclosed. The 133Xe washout curve could be divided into three segments with significantly different slopes. Approximately 90 min after the subject went to sleep...

  19. Regional variations in nocturnal fluctuations in subcutaneous blood flow rate in the lower leg of man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Jørgensen, B

    1991-01-01

    was observed in both series concerning the duration of the period from going to bed until the hyperaemia phase (P less than 0.001). The mechanisms involved in the nightly subcutaneous hyperaemia are at present unknown. The sudden, synchronized increase in nocturnal subcutaneous blood flow points to a central...... nervous or humoral elicitation, although local metabolic factors might participate as well....

  20. LVV-hemorphin-7 lowers blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats: radiotelemetry study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejka, Jakub; Železná, Blanka; Velek, Jiří; Zicha, Josef; Kuneš, Jaroslav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 6 (2004), s. 603-607 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/03/0769; GA MŠk LN00A069 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : hemorphin * blood pressure * heart rate Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2004

  1. Effect of blood pressure lowering on markers of kidney disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Suneel M; Koyner, Jay L

    2009-10-01

    Hypertension remains a common comorbidity and cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). As the number of patients with CKD grows, so does the need to identify modifiable risk factors for CKD progression. Data on slowing progression of CKD or preventing end-stage renal disease with aggressive blood pressure control have not yielded definitive conclusions regarding ideal blood pressure targets. Shifting the focus of antihypertensive therapy to alternative markers of end-organ damage, specifically proteinuria, has yielded some promise in preventing the progression of CKD. Nevertheless, proteinuria and decline in estimated GFR may represent an irreversible degree of injury to the kidney that limits the impact of any therapy. The identification and use of novel markers of kidney injury to assess the impact of antihyper-tensive therapy may yield clearer direction with regard to optimal management of hypertension in the setting of CKD.

  2. Anxiety and depression lowers blood pressure: 22-year follow-up of the population based HUNT study, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romild Ulla

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For decades, symptoms of anxiety and depression have been included among psychological factors associated with development of hypertension. Although this has been questioned in recent studies, most findings have been based on a single assessment of mental distress at baseline. We examined these associations using repeated assessments of anxiety, depression and blood pressure. Methods Data on 17,410 men and women aged 20 to 67 participating in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT in Norway in 1984-86 were re-examined 11 and 22 years later. The main outcome was change in mean blood pressure (mm Hg during follow-up. Results We found that a high symptom level score (≥80th percentile of combined anxiety and depression at baseline, as compared to a lower symptom level, was associated with lower mean systolic (-0.67 mm Hg, p = 0.044 and diastolic (-0.25 mm Hg, p = 0.201 blood pressure at year 22. A high symptom level present at all three examinations was associated with a stronger decrease in mean systolic (-1.59 mm Hg, p = 0.004 and diastolic (-0.78 mm Hg, p = 0.019 blood pressure and with a 20% (p = 0.001 lower risk of developing hypertension (BP ≥140/90 mm Hg at year 22. The associations were only slightly attenuated in multivariate analyses, with no evidence of a mediating effect of alteration in heart rate. Conclusions This study do not support previous hypothesis that emotional stress may be a cause of hypertension. Our findings indicate that symptoms of anxiety and depression are associated with decrease in blood pressure, particularly when a high symptom level can be detected over decades.

  3. The Effect of Medicine Knowledge on the Methods Applied for Lowering Blood Pressure in Patients with Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Belguzar Kara; Senay Uzun; Mehmet Yokusoglu; Mehmet Uzun

    2009-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of medicine knowledge on the methods applied for lowering blood pressure among patients with hypertension. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted between February 1 and April 30, 2006. The sample of the study was constituted by 77 patients who had admitted to Gulhane Military Medical Academy Cardiology Outpatient Clinic with the diagnosis of hypertension. The data were collected by using a questionnaire designed by the investig...

  4. Altered blood-brain barrier permeability in rats with prehepatic portal hypertension turns to normal when portal pressure is lowered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eizayaga, Francisco; Scorticati, Camila; Prestifilippo, Juan P; Romay, Salvador; Fernandez, Maria A; Castro, José L; Lemberg, Abraham; Perazzo, Juan C

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the blood-brain barrier integrity in prehepatic portal hypertensive rats induced by partial portal vein ligation, at 14 and 40 d after ligation when portal pressure is spontaneously normalized. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Group I: Sham14d , sham operated; Group II: PH14d , portal vein stenosis; (both groups were used 14 days after surgery); Group III: Sham40d, Sham operated and Group IV: PH40d Portal vein stenosis (Groups II and IV used 40 d after surgery). Plasma ammonia, plasma and cerebrospinal fluid protein and liver enzymes concentrations were determined. Trypan and Evans blue dyes, systemically injected, were investigated in hippocampus to study blood-brain barrier integrity. Portal pressure was periodically recorded. RESULTS: Forty days after stricture, portal pressure was normalized, plasma ammonia was moderately high, and both dyes were absent in central nervous system parenchyma. All other parameters were reestablished. When portal pressure was normalized and ammonia level was lowered, but not normal, the altered integrity of blood-brain barrier becomes reestablished. CONCLUSION: The impairment of blood-brain barrier and subsequent normalization could be a mechanism involved in hepatic encephalopathy reversibility. Hemodynamic changes and ammonia could trigger blood-brain barrier alterations and its reestablishment. PMID:16552803

  5. Preventive effect of aggressive blood pressure lowering on hematoma enlargement in patients with ultra-acute intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Tomofumi; Ueba, Tetsuya; Kajiwara, Motohiro; Iwata, Ryoichi; Yamashita, Kohsuke; Miyamatsu, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    The preventive effect of aggressive blood pressure lowering on hematoma enlargement was investigated in patients with ultra-acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Retrospective review of 248 patients (145 males, 103 females) with spontaneous ICH treated in our hospital between 2005 and 2008 identified patients with ultra-acute ICH who were directly taken to our institute by ambulance within 3 hours after onset. Patients who could not be assessed twice by computed tomography (CT) within 24 hours after arrival were excluded. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was aggressively controlled in all patients using intravenous nicardipine to below 140 mmHg as soon as possible after diagnosis of ICH with CT. Hematoma enlargement was defined as increase in volume of more than 33% or more than 12.5 ml in the first 24 hours. Hematoma enlargement was observed in 11 of the 73 patients (15.0%). The time course of SBP change was not significantly different in patients with and without hematoma enlargement. The incidence of hematoma enlargement in patients with ultra-acute ICH in this study was 15.0%, which was lower than that in other series in which blood pressure was not reduced aggressively. This finding suggests that aggressive SBP lowering to below 140 mmHg has a preventive effect on hematoma enlargement in patients with ultra-acute ICH. (author)

  6. [Effectiveness of a nutritional education program in lowering blood cholesterol levels in a public health center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, M; Yamaguchi, T

    1993-06-01

    An educational program for persons found to have high blood cholesterol during health examinations at the Nerima Public Health Center was begun in April, 1989. This program was differed from the usual program in two areas. First, new educational material was developed consisting of a check list of 30 items to assess eating patterns. By checking these items, participants could gain an understanding of what they should change in their eating behavior. Secondly, the table of restricted foods was not used. Participants were advised to achieve healthy eating patterns and followed up with a nutritional consultation that was held after three months, at which time they were interviewed regarding compliance and had their blood cholesterol levels measured. The effectiveness of the new educational program and the relationship between achievement of healthy eating patterns and reduction in blood cholesterol levels were analyzed. The main results were as follows: 1) In subjects (n = 79) who received the new education program in 1989-1990, serum cholesterol levels showed significant reduction, as compared with controls (n = 38) who received the usual education program in 1988-1989. 2) Subjects were divided into three groups according to their changes in serum cholesterol levels,--normalized, improved and unimproved--and the number of items complied with were counted for analysis. The mean score of compliance was highest in the normalized group with significant difference between the normalized and the unimproved groups. 3) The items of the high compliance score in the normalized group were in order of high score "to decrease high-fat meats", "to decrease cakes", "to choose lean meats and poultry without skin" and "to eat vegetables at every meal".

  7. Perivascular radiofrequency renal denervation lowers blood pressure and ameliorates cardiorenal fibrosis in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Su, Linan; Zhang, Yunrong; Wang, Qiang; Yang, Dachun; Li, De; Yang, Yongjian; Ma, Shuangtao

    2017-01-01

    Background Catheter-based renal denervation (RDN) is a promising approach to treat hypertension, but innervation patterns limit the response to endovascular RDN and the post-procedural renal artery narrowing or stenosis questions the endovascular ablation strategy. This study was performed to investigate the anti-hypertensive and target organ protective effects of perivascular RDN in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods SHR and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were divided into sham group (n = 10), radiofrequency ablation group (n = 20) in which rats received bilateral perivascular ablation with radiofrequency energy (2 watts), and chemical (10% phenol in 95% ethanol) ablation group (n = 12). The tail-cuff blood pressure was measured before the ablation and on day 14 and day 28 after the procedure. The plasma levels of creatinine, urea nitrogen, and catecholamines, urinary excretion of electrolytes and protein, and myocardial and glomerular fibrosis were analyzed and compared among the groups on day 28 after the procedure. Results We identified that 2-watt is the optimal radiofrequency power for perivascular RDN in rats. Perivascular radiofrequency and chemical ablation achieved roughly comparable blood pressure reduction in SHR but not in WKY on day 14 and day 28 following the procedure. Radiofrequency-mediated ablation substantially destroyed the renal nerves surrounding the renal arteries of both SHR and WKY without damaging the renal arteries and diminished the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, the enzyme marker for postganglionic sympathetic nerves. Additionally, perivascular radiofrequency ablation also decreased the plasma catecholamines of SHR. Interestingly, both radiofrequency and chemical ablation decreased the myocardial and glomerular fibrosis of SHR, while neither increased the plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen nor affected the urinary excretion of electrolytes and protein when compared to sham group. Conclusions Radiofrequency

  8. Glucose, cholesterol, and blood pressure: is lower always better for type 2 diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugliano, Dario; Maiorino, Maria Ida; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Esposito, Katherine

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, the excess risk of death may vary substantially in subgroups of patients with type 2 diabetes, being highest in those younger than 55 years of age. A HbA1c value of 7.0 % or less is recommended for most patients with type 2 diabetes to reduce the incidence of microvascular disease, although individualized approaches that balance the benefits of glycemic control against the harms of hypoglycemia are encouraged. The selection of antidiabetic medications is of paramount importance, as the drug should not aggravate, and ideally even improve cardiovascular risk factors, with the hope to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Patients with diabetes mellitus between 40 and 75 years of age with LDL-C between 70 and 189 mg/dL should be treated with a moderate-intensity statin. Implicit in this recommendation is the aim to reduce further LDL-C level in diabetes, in order to improve the cardiovascular outlook. The new PCSK9 inhibitors (evolocumab and arilocumab) are very promising, but, at present, their cost-effectiveness ratios exceed commonly accepted thresholds. For many people with diabetes mellitus and hypertension blood pressure should be blood pressure target for all patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ultimately, in the face of uncertainty in medicine, the final decision regarding a specific patient is best left to the clinician.

  9. Effect of lower limb compression on blood flow and performance in elite wheelchair rugby athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaile, Joanna; Stefanovic, Brad; Askew, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of compression socks worn during exercise on performance and physiological responses in elite wheelchair rugby athletes. In a non-blinded randomized crossover design, participants completed two exercise trials (4 × 8 min bouts of submaximal exercise, each finishing with a timed maximal sprint) separated by 24 hr, with or without compression socks. National Sports Training Centre, Queensland, Australia. Ten national representative male wheelchair rugby athletes with cervical spinal cord injuries volunteered to participate. Participants wore medical grade compression socks on both legs during the exercise task (COMP), and during the control trial no compression was worn (CON). The efficacy of the compression socks was determined by assessments of limb blood flow, core body temperature, heart rate, and ratings of perceived exertion, perceived thermal strain, and physical performance. While no significant differences between conditions were observed for maximal sprint time, average lap time was better maintained in COMP compared to CON (Pbenefit may be associated with an augmentation of upper limb blood flow.

  10. Changes of hemoglobin and hematocrit in elderly patients receiving lower joint arthroplasty without allogeneic blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi; Zhou, Yiqin; Wu, Haishan; Wu, Yuli; Qian, Qirong; Zhao, Hui; Zhu, Yunli; Fu, Peiliang

    2015-01-05

    It has rarely been reported about the changes of hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) in elderly patients receiving total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or total hip arthroplasty (THA). This study aimed to evaluate the changes of Hb and Hct after TKA or THA in elderly patients, and analyze its relationship with sex and type of arthroplasty. This is a prospective cohort study, including 107 patients receiving TKA or THA without allogeneic blood transfusion. There were 54 males and 53 females, with a mean age of 69.42 years. Levels of Hb and Hct were examined preoperatively and during the 6 months follow-up after operation. Levels of Hb and Hct decreased postoperatively and reached their minimum points on postoperative day 4. Thereafter, Hb and Hct recovered to their preoperative levels within 6-12 weeks. No significant differences in the levels of Hb and Hct were noticed between different sexes. THA patients showed significantly greater drop in Hb and Hct than TKA patients in the first 4 days postoperatively (P < 0.05). Levels of Hb and Hct decreased during the first 4 days after arthroplasty and gradually returned to their normal levels within 6-12 weeks postoperatively. THA may be associated with higher postoperative blood loss than TKA.

  11. The Effect of Medicine Knowledge on the Methods Applied for Lowering Blood Pressure in Patients with Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belguzar Kara

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of medicine knowledge on the methods applied for lowering blood pressure among patients with hypertension. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted between February 1 and April 30, 2006. The sample of the study was constituted by 77 patients who had admitted to Gulhane Military Medical Academy Cardiology Outpatient Clinic with the diagnosis of hypertension. The data were collected by using a questionnaire designed by the investigators. Descriptive statistics and chi-square test were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 54±13 years. Of the patients, 54.5% were female and %90.9 were married. The patients’ median duration of disease was 4 years and median duration of using antihypertensive drug was 4 years. Approximately 53% of the study group was educated about the antihypertensive drugs and 70.7% was educated by the physician. The methods applied for lowering blood pressure of patients were: 48.1% use of oral antihypertensive medicine; 40.2% use of traditional methods; %11.7 use of sublingual medicine. In this study, the methods used in case of blood pressure elevation was significantly associated with having been educated about the antihypertensive drugs and knowing the side effects of the drugs (χ²=16.378; p<0.001, χ²=13.467; p<0.01, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results of this study showed that the patients who had been educated about the antihypertensive drugs and their side effects were more frequently preferring to use antihypertensive drug to lower the elevated blood pressure. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(3.000: 231-238

  12. Garlic Lowers Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Individuals, Regulates Serum Cholesterol, and Stimulates Immunity: An Updated Meta-analysis and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, Karin

    2016-02-01

    Garlic has been shown to have cardiovascular protective and immunomodulatory properties. We updated a previous meta-analysis on the effect of garlic on blood pressure and reviewed the effect of garlic on cholesterol and immunity. We searched the Medline database for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 1955 and December 2013 on the effect of garlic preparations on blood pressure. In addition, we reviewed the effect of garlic on cholesterol and immunity. Our updated meta-analysis on the effect of garlic on blood pressure, which included 20 trials with 970 participants, showed a mean ± SE decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 5.1 ± 2.2 mm Hg (P garlic on blood lipids, which included 39 primary RCTs and 2300 adults treated for a minimum of 2 wk, suggested garlic to be effective in reducing total and LDL cholesterol by 10% if taken for >2 mo by individuals with slightly elevated concentrations [e.g., total cholesterol >200 mg/dL (>5.5 mmol/L)]. Garlic has immunomodulating effects by increasing macrophage activity, natural killer cells, and the production of T and B cells. Clinical trials have shown garlic to significantly reduce the number, duration, and severity of upper respiratory infections. Our review suggests that garlic supplements have the potential to lower blood pressure in hypertensive individuals, to regulate slightly elevated cholesterol concentrations, and to stimulate the immune system. Garlic supplements are highly tolerated and may be considered as a complementary treatment option for hypertension, slightly elevated cholesterol, and stimulation of immunity. Future long-term trials are needed to elucidate the effect of garlic on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. The effect of allopurinol on lowering blood pressure in hemodialysis patients with hyperuricemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Jalalzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperuricemia has been associated with the development of high blood pressure (BP. We studied the effects of allopurinol therapy in hyperuricemic hemodialysis (HD patients with high BP. Materials and Methods: This single-blind, randomized cross-over clinical study involved 55 HD patients with serum uric acid level > 6.5 (men and > 5.5 mg/dL (women. They were randomly divided in two groups, each of which went through two phases. Group-1 in phase-1 received 100 mg/day orally of allopurinol for three months; while Group-2 was given whatever medication they received prior to the study. After two months of washing period, the groups were crossed-over. The BP levels were measured before and after HD during the eight months study period. Results: Fifty-three patients completed the study (33 men and 20 women, with mean age of 55.8 years. Uric acid levels decreased significantly during the12 weeks of allopurinol therapy (7.71 ± 1.53 to 5.2 ± 1.2 P < 0.005. Overall, after the 12 weeks of allopurinol therapy, systolic and diastolic BP also significantly decreased in allopurinol group, 15.8% (139 to 117, P < 0.0005 and 8.6% (81 to 74, P < .0005, respectively. There were not significant changes in body mass index, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, albumin, cholesterol, triglyceride, hemoglobin, liver enzymes and serum electrolytes level after treatment. Patients treated with allopurinol had a significant increase in the quality of dialysis (KT/V (P: 0.043. Conclusions: In HD patients, allopurinol treatment reduced BP. The results indicate a new potential therapeutic approach for controlling BP in HD patients.

  14. Exercise lowers blood pressure in university professors during subsequent teaching and sleeping hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro F

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Fabiana Ribeiro1, Carmen S Grubert Campbell1, Gisele Mendes1, Gisela Arsa1,3, Sérgio R Moreira2, Francisco M da Silva1, Jonato Prestes1, Rafael da Costa Sotero1, Herbert Gustavo Simões1 1Graduate Program on Physical Education and Health, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasilia; 2Federal University of Vale do São Francisco, Petrolina, 3Graduate Program on Physical Education, Nine of July University, São Paulo SP, Brazil Background: University professors are subjected to psychological stress that contributes to blood pressure (BP reactivity and development of hypertension. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise on BP in university professors during teaching and sleeping hours. Methods: Twelve normotensive professors (42.2 ± 10.8 years, 74.2 ± 11.2 kg, 172.8 ± 10.4 cm, 20.1% ± 6.7% body fat randomly underwent control (CONT and exercise (EX30 sessions before initiating their daily activities. EX30 consisted of 30 minutes of cycling at 80%–85% of heart rate reserve. Ambulatory BP was monitored for 24 hours following both sessions. Results: BP increased in comparison with pre-session resting values during teaching after CONT (P < 0.05 but not after EX30. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial BP showed a more pronounced nocturnal dip following EX30 (approximately -14.7, -12.7, and -9.6 mmHg, respectively when compared with CONT (approximately -6, -5 and -3 mmHg. Conclusion: Exercise induced a BP reduction in university professors, with the main effects being observed during subsequent teaching and sleeping hours. Keywords: post-exercise blood pressure, aerobic exercise, activities of daily living

  15. Lower extremity weakness is associated with elevated blood and cerebrospinal fluid glucose levels following multibranched endovascular aortic aneurysm repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramoto, Jade S; Fernandez, Charlene; Gasper, Warren; Vartanian, Shant; Reilly, Linda; Chuter, Timothy

    2017-02-01

    Hyperglycemia is associated with worsened clinical outcomes after central nervous system injury. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between lower extremity weakness (LEW) and the glucose levels of blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients undergoing multibranched endovascular aneurysm repair (MBEVAR) of thoracoabdominal and pararenal aortic aneurysms. Blood and CSF samples were collected preoperatively, immediately after aneurysm repair, and on postoperative day 1 in 21 patients undergoing MBEVAR. Data on demographics, operative repair, complications, and outcomes were collected prospectively. There were 21 patients who underwent successful MBEVAR. Two patients had pre-existing paraplegia from prior open aortic surgery and were excluded from the current analysis. The mean age was 73 ± 8 years, and 15 of 19 (79%) were men. In the postoperative period, 7 of 19 (37%) patients developed LEW. This was temporary in 5 of 19 (26%) patients and permanent in 2 of 19 (11%) patients. The LEW group was older than the non-LEW group (77 ± 6 vs 70 ± 9 years, respectively; P = .10), had a lower preoperative glomerular filtration rate (58.6 ± 18.5 vs 71.4 ± 23.5 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 ; P = .24), and was more likely to be taking a statin (100% vs 67%, respectively; P = .13), but these did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease, lung disease, or peripheral artery disease between the LEW and non-LEW groups. There was also no difference in operative time, blood loss, contrast material volume, or fluoroscopy times between the two groups. Preoperative blood and CSF glucose levels were similar in those with and without LEW. During the postoperative period, glucose values in the blood and CSF were significantly higher in those patients who developed LEW compared with those who did not develop LEW. In all patients with LEW, the elevation

  16. Combined non-adaptive light and smell stimuli lowered blood pressure, reduced heart rate and reduced negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shan; Jacob, Tim J C

    2016-03-15

    Bright light therapy has been shown to have a positive impact on seasonal affective disorder (SAD), depression and anxiety. Smell has also has been shown to have effects on mood, stress, anxiety and depression. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the combination of light and smell in a non-adaptive cycle. Human subjects were given smell (lemon, lavender or peppermint) and light stimuli in a triangular wave (60scycle) for 15min. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored before and after each session for 5 consecutive days and a Profile of Mood States (POMS) test was administered before and after the sensory stimulation on days 1, 3 and 5. The light-smell stimulus lowered blood pressure, both systolic and diastolic, and reduced heart rate for all odours compared to control. Of the two sensory stimuli, the odour stimulus contributed most to this effect. The different aromas in the light-smell combinations could be distinguished by their different effects on the mood factors with lemon inducing the greatest mood changes in Dejection-Depression, Anger-Hostility, Tension-Anxiety. In conclusion, combined light and smell stimulation was effective in lowering blood pressure, reducing heart rate and improving mood. The combination was more effective than either smell or light stimuli alone, suggesting that a light-smell combination would be a more robust and efficacious alternative treatment for depression, anxiety and stress. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation of the Blood Glucose Lowering Potential of the Jamaican Momordica charantia (Cerasee) Fruit in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, A; McKoy, M-L; Singh, P

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Momordica charantia (MC) fruit has been documented to possess antidiabetic properties. However, these studies were not without controversy surrounding the blood glucose-lowering ability and the mechanism of action in diabetes therapy. In an effort to evaluate such claims in the Jamaican MC species known as cerasee, aqueous extracts of the unripe fruit were studied in normal and diabetic rats. Normal male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups (n = 6) orally administered distilled water, 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution, the aqueous extract (400 mg/kg body weight) and glibenclamide (15 mg/kg body weight), respectively prior to assessment of fasting blood glucose (FBG) concentration. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted in normoglycaemic rats orally administered distilled water, 10% DMSO solution, glibenclamide (15 mg/kg body weight) or aqueous extracts of the fruit (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight). Blood glucose concentration was also monitored in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats administered the aqueous extract (250 mg/kg body weight) or water vehicle after an overnight fast. The aqueous extracts showed no hypoglycaemic or antidiabetic activity. However, the administration of the aqueous extracts (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) resulted in significant improvement in glucose tolerance of glucose-primed normoglycaemic rats during the OGTT. These data suggest that the glucose-lowering mechanism of the Jamaican MC fruit species likely involves altered glucose absorption across the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26624580

  18. Alpha adrenergic receptor blockade increases capillarisation and fractional O2 extraction and lowers blood flow in contracting human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan P; Egginton, Stuart; Madsen, Mads

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of elevated basal shear stress on angiogenesis in humans, and the role of enhanced skeletal muscle capillarisation on blood flow and O2 extraction. METHODS: Limb haemodynamics and O2 extraction was measured at rest and during one-leg knee-extensor exercise (12 and 24W......) in 10 healthy untrained young men before and after 4 weeks treatment with an α1 receptor-antagonist (Terazosin, 1-2 mg day(-1) ). Corresponding biopsies were taken from the m. vastus lateralis. RESULTS: Resting leg blood flow was increased by 57% 6 hours following Terazosin treatment (P... basal capillary-to-fibre ratio was 1.69±0.08 and increased to 1.90±0.08 after treatment (Pblood flow and venous lactate levels lower (6-7%; P

  19. Novel selective PDE type 1 inhibitors cause vasodilatation and lower blood pressure in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Morten; Beck, Lilliana; Kehler, Jan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The PDE enzymes (PDE1-11) hydrolyse and thus inactivate cyclic nucleotides and are important in the regulation of the cardiovascular system. Here,we have investigated the effects on the cardiovascular system, of two novel selective PDE1 inhibitors, Lu AF41228 and Lu AF58027...... and Lu AF58027 inhibited PDE1A, PDE1B and PDE1C enzyme activity, while micromolar concentrations were required to observe inhibitory effects at other PDEs. RT-PCR revealed expression of PDE1A, PDE1B and PDE1C in rat brain, heart and aorta, but only PDE1A and PDE1B in mesenteric arteries. In rat isolated...... and Lu AF58027 dose-dependently lowered mean BP and increased heart rate. In conscious rats with telemetric pressure transducers, repeated dosing with Lu AF41228 lowered mean arterial BP 10-15 mmHg and increased heart rate. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These novel PDE1 inhibitors induce vasodilation...

  20. Blood Sugar Lowering Effect of Coccinia grandis (L. J. Voigt: Path for a New Drug for Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. A. K. Munasinghe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Role of herbs in the management and control of diabetes has emerged fast over the years. We assessed the efficacy of Coccinia grandis (locally known as Ken, Kovakka leaves as a hypoglycemic agent. Methods. Double-blind phase I clinical trial was conducted at the general hospital and a private hospital in Matara in August 2009. All the participants were given a common meal for dinner, and they maintained a 10-hour fasting period. Sixty-one healthy volunteers were given a meal containing 20 g of leaves of Coccinia grandis which was mixed with a measured amount of scraped coconut and table salt for breakfast, and other 61 were given the placebo meal which also contained scraped coconut and salt. Glucose tolerance test was performed blindly for the two groups. Mixed factorial design analysis of variance and student's t-test were applied. Results. Overall blood sugar levels of the experimental group were also significantly lower than those of the control group (F(1,117 5.56, <0.05. Increase in the blood sugar levels from fasting to one hour (F(1,117 6.77, <0.05 and two hours (F(1,117 5.28, <0.05 postprandially was statistically significant for participants who were in the control group than those of in the experimental group. The mean difference of postprandial blood sugar levels (mg/dL after one hour (20.2, 95% confidence interval, 4.81 to 35.5 and two hours (11.46, 95% confidence interval; 1.03 to 21.9 was statistically significant between the two groups. Conclusions. Coccinia grandis has a blood sugar lowering effect. However further studies are needed to validate our findings.

  1. Quantitative model for the blood pressure‐lowering interaction of valsartan and amlodipine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Young‐A; Holford, Nick; Kim, Yukyung; Son, Mijeong

    2016-01-01

    Aims The objective of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) model to quantitatively describe the antihypertensive effect of combined therapy with amlodipine and valsartan. Methods PK modelling was used with data collected from 48 healthy volunteers receiving a single dose of combined formulation of 10 mg amlodipine and 160 mg valsartan. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were recorded during combined administration. SBP and DBP data for each drug alone were gathered from the literature. PKPD models of each drug and for combined administration were built with NONMEM 7.3. Results A two‐compartment model with zero order absorption best described the PK data of both drugs. Amlodipine and valsartan monotherapy effects on SBP and DBP were best described by an I max model with an effect compartment delay. Combined therapy was described using a proportional interaction term as follows: (D1 + D2) +ALPHA×(D1 × D2). D1 and D2 are the predicted drug effects of amlodipine and valsartan monotherapy respectively. ALPHA is the interaction term for combined therapy. Quantitative estimates of ALPHA were −0.171 (95% CI: −0.218, −0.143) for SBP and −0.0312 (95% CI: −0.07739, −0.00283) for DBP. These infra‐additive interaction terms for both SBP and DBP were consistent with literature results for combined administration of drugs in these classes. Conclusion PKPD models for SBP and DBP successfully described the time course of the antihypertensive effects of amlodipine and valsartan. An infra‐additive interaction between amlodipine and valsartan when used in combined administration was confirmed and quantified. PMID:27504853

  2. [Blood pressure lowering efficacy of telmisartan and amlodipine taking on the morning or at bedtime: ABPM results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Gui-cheng; Wang, Yi-fang; Xiao, Yong; Chen, Jian-fu; Yang, Yu; Ye, Yu-liang; Sai, Shuang-qiao; Huang, Jin-xiang

    2013-06-01

    To observe the blood lowering effect of telmisartan and amlodipine taking on the morning or at bedtime in hypertensive patients. A total of 108 individuals with hypertension (grade 2 or above) were randomized to receive telmisartan and amlodipine in one of the following four therapeutic schemes: Group A (26 cases): both medications taken on the morning; Group B (28 cases): both medication taken at bedtime; Group C (27 cases): telmisartan on the morning and amlodipine at bedtime; or Group D (27 cases): amlodipine on the morning and telmisartan at bedtime. ABPM was performed before and after 8 weeks treatment. BP was significantly reduced in 4 groups and the value of 24 hours SBP/DBP decline for each group after treatment was 29.94/16.32, 31.37/18.35, 29.49/17.30 and 25.80/15.51 mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa) respectively (P 0.05). The night-time BP decline and the distributive difference of dipper, non-dipper, extreme dipper and reverse dipper pattern were similar among groups at both baseline and after various treatment regimens (all P > 0.05) . Morning blood pressure surge (MBPS) after treatment in group B declined more significantly than other groups (P < 0.05). Telmisartan/amlodipine administered either on the morning or at bedtime can effectively reduce blood pressure. The efficacy of BP lowering is independent of the drug taking time. There is a trend both in better BP lowering and less BP variability when two medications are administered at bedtime.

  3. Enhanced muscle blood flow with intermittent pneumatic compression of the lower leg during plantar flexion exercise and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuj, K A; Prince, C N; Hughson, R L; Peterson, S D

    2018-02-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that intermittent compression of the lower limb would increase blood flow during exercise and postexercise recovery. Data were collected from 12 healthy individuals (8 men) who performed 3 min of standing plantar flexion exercise. The following three conditions were tested: no applied compression (NoComp), compression during the exercise period only (ExComp), and compression during 2 min of standing postexercise recovery. Doppler ultrasound was used to determine superficial femoral artery (SFA) blood flow responses. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cardiac stroke volume (SV) were assessed using finger photoplethysmography, with vascular conductance (VC) calculated as VC = SFA flow/MAP. Compared with the NoComp condition, compression resulted in increased MAP during exercise [+3.5 ± 4.1 mmHg (mean ± SD)] but not during postexercise recovery (+1.6 ± 5.9 mmHg). SV increased with compression during both exercise (+4.8 ± 5.1 ml) and recovery (+8.0 ± 6.6 ml) compared with NoComp. There was a greater increase in SFA flow with compression during exercise (+52.1 ± 57.2 ml/min) and during recovery (+58.6 ± 56.7 ml/min). VC immediately following exercise was also significantly greater in the ExComp condition compared with the NoComp condition (+0.57 ± 0.42 ml·min -1 ·mmHg -1 ), suggesting the observed increase in blood flow during exercise was in part because of changes in VC. Results from this study support the hypothesis that intermittent compression applied during exercise and recovery from exercise results in increased limb blood flow, potentially contributing to changes in exercise performance and recovery. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Blood flow to working skeletal muscle is achieved in part through the rhythmic actions of the skeletal muscle pump. This study demonstrated that the application of intermittent pneumatic compression during the diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle, to mimic the mechanical

  4. Availability and affordability of blood pressure-lowering medicines and the effect on blood pressure control in high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries: an analysis of the PURE study data.

    OpenAIRE

    Attaei, MW; Khatib, R; McKee, M; Lear, S; Dagenais, G; Igumbor, EU; AlHabib, KF; Kaur, M; Kruger, L; Teo, K; Lanas, F; Yusoff, K; Oguz, A; Gupta, R; Yusufali, AM

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is considered the most important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, but its control is poor worldwide. We aimed to assess the availability and affordability of blood pressure-lowering medicines, and the association with use of these medicines and blood pressure control in countries at varying levels of economic development. We analysed the availability, costs, and affordability of blood pressure-lowering medicines with data recorded from 626 communities in 20 countries part...

  5. Medication persistence and the use of generic and brand-name blood pressure-lowering agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrao, Giovanni; Soranna, Davide; La Vecchia, Carlo; Catapano, Alberico; Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico; Gensini, Gianfranco; Merlino, Luca; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    Because of their lower cost, healthcare systems recommend physicians to prefer generic products, rather than brand-name medicaments. There is then considerable interest and debate concerning safety and effectiveness of generic products. Few studies have compared patients treated with brand-name and generic drugs for adherence to treatment, with somewhat inconsistent results. The primary objective of this study was to compare the risk of discontinuing antihypertensive drug therapy in patients treated with generic or brand-name agents. The 101,618 beneficiaries of the Healthcare system of Lombardy, Italy, aged 18 years or older who were newly treated on monotherapy with antihypertensive generic or brand-name drugs during 2008, were followed until the earliest date among those of the occurrence of treatment discontinuation to whatever antihypertensive drug therapy (outcome), or censoring (death, emigration, 12 months after treatment initiation). Hazard ratios of discontinuation associated with starting on generic or brand-name products (intention-to-treat analysis), and incidence rate ratio of discontinuation during periods on generic and brand-name products (as-treated analysis) were respectively estimated from a cohort and self-controlled case series analyses. Patients who started on generics did not experience a different risk of discontinuation compared with those starting on brand-name agents (hazard ratio: 1.00; 95% confidence interval 0.98-1.02). Discontinuation did not occur with different rates during periods covered by generics or brand-name agents (incidence rate ratio: 1.01; 95% confidence interval 0.96-1.11) within the same individuals. A number of sensitivity and subgroup analyses confirmed the robustness of these findings. Generic products are not responsible for the high rate of discontinuation from antihypertensive drug therapy. Assuming therapeutic equivalence, clinical implication is of prescribing generic drug therapies.

  6. Nitrate-Rich Vegetables Increase Plasma Nitrate and Nitrite Concentrations and Lower Blood Pressure in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonvik, Kristin L; Nyakayiru, Jean; Pinckaers, Philippe Jm; Senden, Joan Mg; van Loon, Luc Jc; Verdijk, Lex B

    2016-05-01

    Dietary nitrate is receiving increased attention due to its reported ergogenic and cardioprotective properties. The extent to which ingestion of various nitrate-rich vegetables increases postprandial plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and lowers blood pressure is currently unknown. We aimed to assess the impact of ingesting different nitrate-rich vegetables on subsequent plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and resting blood pressure in healthy normotensive individuals. With the use of a semirandomized crossover design, 11 men and 7 women [mean ± SEM age: 28 ± 1 y; mean ± SEM body mass index (BMI, in kg/m(2)): 23 ± 1; exercise: 1-10 h/wk] ingested 4 different beverages, each containing 800 mg (∼12.9 mmol) nitrate: sodium nitrate (NaNO3), concentrated beetroot juice, a rocket salad beverage, and a spinach beverage. Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and blood pressure were determined before and up to 300 min after beverage ingestion. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA. Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations increased after ingestion of all 4 beverages (P nitrate concentrations were similar for all treatments (all values presented as means ± SEMs: NaNO3: 583 ± 29 μmol/L; beetroot juice: 597 ± 23 μmol/L; rocket salad beverage: 584 ± 24 μmol/L; spinach beverage: 584 ± 23 μmol/L). Peak plasma nitrite concentrations were different between treatments (NaNO3: 580 ± 58 nmol/L; beetroot juice: 557 ± 57 nmol/L; rocket salad beverage: 643 ± 63 nmol/L; spinach beverage: 980 ± 160 nmol/L; P = 0.016). When compared with baseline, systolic blood pressure declined 150 min after ingestion of beetroot juice (from 118 ± 2 to 113 ± 2 mm Hg; P nitrate-rich beetroot juice, rocket salad beverage, and spinach beverage effectively increases plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and lowers blood pressure to a greater extent than sodium nitrate. These findings show that nitrate-rich vegetables can be used as dietary nitrate

  7. Repeatability of popliteal blood flow and lower limb vascular conductance at rest and exercise during body tilt using Doppler ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, R; Hughson, R L

    2013-01-01

    We tested the data repeatability for popliteal blood flow velocity (PBV), popliteal arterial diameter (AD pop ), popliteal blood flow (PBF) and lower limb vascular conductance (VC) at rest and exercise in three body positions, two work rates and two inspired oxygen fractions. Fifteen, eleven and ten healthy volunteers participated in the three phases of the studies. Resting protocols were performed in horizontal (HOR), 35° head-down tilt (HDT) and 45° head-up tilt (HUT) for 5 min in each body position. Participants also exercised at lower and higher power outputs (repeated plantar flexion contractions at 20% and 30% maximal voluntary contraction, respectively) in HOR, HDT and HUT and in normoxia (21%O 2 ) and hypoxia (14%O 2 ) with the same work rates and body positions. PBV and AD pop were measured by ultrasound to determine PBF, and VC was estimated by dividing PBF by muscle perfusion pressure (MPP). PBV, AD pop , PBF and VC were not different, demonstrated good agreement and consistency between the two days of testing during both rest and exercise conditions regardless of body position. Therefore, these data support the utilization of Doppler and echo Doppler ultrasound as a reproducible method to measure PBV and AD pop and consequently estimate PBF and VC responses in such conditions. (paper)

  8. Modeling of the blood flow in the lower extremities for dynamic diffuse optical tomography of peripheral artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marone, A.; Hoi, J. W.; Khalil, M. A.; Kim, H. K.; Shrikhande, G.; Dayal, R.; Hielscher, A. H.

    2015-07-01

    Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) is caused by a reduction of the internal diameters of the arteries in the upper or lower extremities mainly due to atherosclerosis. If not treated, its worsening may led to a complete occlusion, causing the death of the cells lacking proper blood supply, followed by gangrene that may require chirurgical amputation. We have recently performed a clinical study in which good sensitivities and specificities were achieved with dynamic diffuse optical tomography. To gain a better understanding of the physiological foundations of many of the observed effects, we started to develop a mathematical model for PAD. The model presented in this work is based on a multi-compartment Windkessel model, where the vasculature in the leg and foot is represented by resistors and capacitors, the blood pressure with a voltage drop, and the blood flow with a current. Unlike existing models, the dynamics induced by a thigh-pressure-cuff inflation and deflation during the measurements are taken into consideration. This is achieved by dynamically varying the resistances of the large veins and arteries. By including the effects of the thigh-pressure cuff, we were able to explain many of the effects observed during our dynamic DOT measurements, including the hemodynamics of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration changes. The model was implemented in MATLAB and the simulations were normalized and compared with the blood perfusion obtained from healthy, PAD and diabetic patients. Our preliminary results show that in unhealthy patients the total system resistance is sensibly higher than in healthy patients.

  9. A tripeptide Diapin effectively lowers blood glucose levels in male type 2 diabetes mice by increasing blood levels of insulin and GLP-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifeng Zhang

    Full Text Available The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D is rapidly increasing worldwide. Effective therapies, such as insulin and Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, require injections, which are costly and result in less patient compliance. Here, we report the identification of a tripeptide with significant potential to treat T2D. The peptide, referred to as Diapin, is comprised of three natural L-amino acids, GlyGlyLeu. Glucose tolerance tests showed that oral administration of Diapin effectively lowered blood glucose after oral glucose loading in both normal C57BL/6J mice and T2D mouse models, including KKay, db/db, ob/ob mice, and high fat diet-induced obesity/T2D mice. In addition, Diapin treatment significantly reduced casual blood glucose in KKay diabetic mice in a time-dependent manner without causing hypoglycemia. Furthermore, we found that plasma GLP-1 and insulin levels in diabetic models were significantly increased with Diapin treatment compared to that in the controls. In summary, our findings establish that a peptide with minimum of three amino acids can improve glucose homeostasis and Diapin shows promise as a novel pharmaceutical agent to treat patients with T2D through its dual effects on GLP-1 and insulin secretion.

  10. Lowering blood pressure effect of Apium graviolens (seledri and Orthosipleon stamineus benth (kumis kucing in mild and moderate hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Supari

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia Apium graviolens and Orthosiphon stamineus benth have been used to as traditional medicines to lower blood pressure. Since at present time is avaiLable as a combination of those phytopharmaca in the market, therefore, it is necessary to conduct a study to evaLtnte the ffictivity and side effects of those phytopharmaca toward hypertensive subjects. A randomized double blind conftolled trial was conducted at area of Monica - Jakarta in South of Jalarta from July-untiL 29 October 2001 toward mild and moderate hypertensive subjects. The first group (72 subjects received phytophanmaca (Tensigard® /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} which contains Apium graviolens and Orthosiphon stamineus benth 3 x 250 mg, whiLe the second grottp (70 subjects had Amlodipine I x 5 mg. Obseruation were conducted for 12 weelcs, and the parameter observed wère systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, plasma lipid, blood glucose before and after treatment, and electrolyte with nvo week intervals. The Resuhs revealed that the phytopharmaca treatment for 12 weellowered SBP and DBP equivalent to Amlodipine (SBP 24.72 t 1.63 mm4g vs 26.27 + 2.18 mmHg; P > 0,05; DBP 10.00 t0.96 mmHg vs 9.49 t 1.37 ntmHg; P> 0.05. Phytopharmaca treatment for 12

  11. Renal Denervation Attenuates Progression of Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E–Deficient Mice Independent of Blood Pressure Lowering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Wang, Jintao; Guo, Chiao; Luo, Wei; Kleiman, Kyle; Eitzman, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    The renal autonomic nervous system may contribute to hypertension and vascular disease. Although the effects of renal artery denervation on blood pressure lowering are controversial, there may be other beneficial vascular effects independent of blood pressure lowering. Bilateral renal denervation (RDN) or sham operation (SO) was performed in 14-week-old male apolipoprotein E–deficient mice on a Western diet starting at 10 weeks of age. Efficacy of RDN was confirmed by reduction of renal norepinephrine levels (SO: 3.8±0.1 versus RDN: 1.7±0.3 ng/mL; P<0.01) at 6 weeks after procedure. Compared with SO, RDN had no effect on blood pressure (SO: 101.0±2.4 versus RDN: 97.5±1.6 mm Hg; P=0.25), total cholesterol (SO: 536.7±28.5 versus RDN: 535.7±62.9 mg/dL; P=0.99), or triglycerides (SO: 83.7±3.5 versus RDN: 86.9±10.2 mg/dL; P=0.78). Quantification of atherosclerosis at 20 weeks of age demonstrated reduced atherosclerosis in mice receiving RDN compared with SO (arterial tree oil-red-O surface staining RDN: 4.2±0.5% versus SO: 6.3±0.7%; P<0.05). Reduced atherosclerosis was associated with increased smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques (RDN: 13.3±2.1 versus SO: 8.1±0.6%; P<0.05). Serum levels of aldosterone, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and 8-isoprostane were lower in mice that received RDN compared with sham-operated mice (aldosterone; RDN: 206.8±33.2 versus SO: 405.5±59.4 pg/mL, P<0.05; monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; RDN: 51.7±7.9 versus SO: 91.71±4.6 pg/mL, P<0.05; 8-isoprostane; RDN: 331.9±38.2 versus SO: 468.5±42.0 pg/mL, P<0.05). RDN reduces progression of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E–deficient mice. These changes are associated with reduced aldosterone levels, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and markers of oxidative stress. PMID:25646301

  12. Packed red blood cell transfusion causes greater hemoglobin rise at a lower starting hemoglobin in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidech, Andrew M; Kahn, Marc J; Soong, Wayne; Green, David; Batjer, H Hunt; Bleck, Thomas P

    2008-01-01

    Each unit of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) is expected to raise circulating hemoglobin (HGB) by approximately 1 g/dL. There are few data on modifiers of this relationship other than gender and body mass index (BMI). We recorded HGB before and after PRBC transfusion in a retrospective cohort of 103 patients and a prospective cohort of 93 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In the retrospective cohort, 48 of 103 patients were transfused, and in the prospective cohort, 56 of 93 patients were transfused. In both groups, lower pre-transfusion HGB was associated with a larger increase in HGB (P rise in HGB (P < 0.001) after correction for number of units of PRBCs given, gender, and BMI in repeated measures analysis. Pre-transfusion HGB explained an additional 12% of variance in the data (P < 0.001). In both cohorts, the magnitude of the effect was similar. In patients with SAH, transfusion at lower HGB leads to a greater increase in HGB. Transfusion at lower HGB may be relatively more cost-effective, and this should be balanced against any potential benefit from higher HGB in SAH. One rather than 2 units of PRBCs are likely to be sufficient for most HGB targets after SAH, especially in patients with more severe anemia.

  13. Blood pressure-lowering effects of beetroot juice and novel beetroot-enriched bread products in normotensive male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Ditte A; Kaffa, Nedi; George, Trevor W; Methven, Lisa; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2012-12-14

    A number of vegetables have a high nitrate content which after ingestion can be reduced to nitrite by oral bacteria, and further to vasoprotective NO endogenously. In the present study, two separate randomly controlled, single-blind, cross-over, postprandial studies were performed in normotensive volunteers. Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) was measured over a 24 h period following consumption of either four doses of beetroot juice (BJ), 0, 100, 250 and 500 g (n 18), or three bread products, control bread (0 g beetroot), red beetroot- and white beetroot-enriched breads (n 14). Total urinary nitrate/nitrite (NO(x)) was measured at baseline, and at 2, 4 and 24 h post-ingestion. BJ consumption significantly, and in a near dose-dependent manner, lowered systolic BP (SBP, P bread products enriched with 100 g red or white beetroot lowered SBP and DBP over a period of 24 h (red beetroot-enriched bread, P varieties. Total urinary NO(x) significantly increased following the consumption of 100 g (P bread ingestion (P bread compared with the no-beetroot condition. These studies demonstrated significant hypotensive effects of a low dose (100 g) of beetroot which was unaffected by processing or the presence of betacyanins. These data strengthen the evidence for cardioprotective BP-lowering effects of dietary nitrate-rich vegetables.

  14. Does attenuated skin blood flow lower sweat rate and the critical environmental limit for heat balance during severe heat exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Matthew N; Gagnon, Daniel; Crandall, Craig G; Jay, Ollie

    2017-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does attenuated skin blood flow diminish sweating and reduce the critical environmental limit for heat balance, which indicates maximal heat loss potential, during severe heat stress? What is the main finding and its importance? Isosmotic hypovolaemia attenuated skin blood flow by ∼20% but did not result in different sweating rates, mean skin temperatures or critical environmental limits for heat balance compared with control and volume-infusion treatments, suggesting that the lower levels of skin blood flow commonly observed in aged and diseased populations may not diminish maximal whole-body heat dissipation. Attenuated skin blood flow (SkBF) is often assumed to impair core temperature (T c ) regulation. Profound pharmacologically induced reductions in SkBF (∼85%) lead to impaired sweating, but whether the smaller attenuations in SkBF (∼20%) more often associated with ageing and certain diseases lead to decrements in sweating and maximal heat loss potential is unknown. Seven healthy men (28 ± 4 years old) completed a 30 min equilibration period at 41°C and a vapour pressure (P a ) of 2.57 kPa followed by incremental steps in P a of 0.17 kPa every 6 min to 5.95 kPa. Differences in heat loss potential were assessed by identifying the critical vapour pressure (P crit ) at which an upward inflection in T c occurred. The following three separate treatments elicited changes in plasma volume to achieve three distinct levels of SkBF: control (CON); diuretic-induced isosmotic dehydration to lower SkBF (DEH); and continuous saline infusion to maintain SkBF (SAL). The T c , mean skin temperature (T sk ), heart rate, mean laser-Doppler flux (forearm and thigh; LDF mean ), mean local sweat rate (forearm and thigh; LSR mean ) and metabolic rate were measured. In DEH, a 14.2 ± 5.7% lower plasma volume resulted in a ∼20% lower LDF mean in perfusion units (PU) (DEH, 139 ± 23 PU; CON, 176 ± 22 PU; and SAL

  15. The effect of blood volume loss on cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure using a mathematical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, E. H.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Charles, J. B.; Fortney, S. M.

    1994-01-01

    Different mathematical models of varying complexity have been proposed in recent years to study the cardiovascular (CV) system. However, only a few of them specifically address the response to lower body negative pressure (LBNP), a stress that can be applied in weightlessness to predict changes in orthostatic tolerance. Also, the simulated results produced by these models agree only partially with experimental observations. In contrast, the model proposed by Melchior et al., and modified by Karam et al. is a simple representation of the CV system capable of accurately reproducing observed LBNP responses up to presyncopal levels. There are significant changes in LBNP response due to a loss of blood volume and other alterations that occur in weightlessness and related one-g conditions such as bedrest. A few days of bedrest can cause up to 15% blood volume loss (BVL), with consequent decreases in both stroke volume and cardiac output, and increases in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and total peripheral resistance. These changes are more pronounced at higher levels of LBNP. This paper presents the results of a simulation study using our CV model to examine the effect of BVL on LBNP response.

  16. Effect of lowering blood pressure on cardiovascular events and mortality in patients on dialysis : a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerspink, HiddoJ Lambers; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Zoungas, Sophia; de Zeeuw, Dick; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Jardine, Meg J.; Gallagher, Martin; Roberts, Matthew A.; Cass, Alan; Neal, Bruce; Perkovic, Vlado

    2009-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing dialysis have a substantially increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Although several trials have shown the cardiovascular benefits of lowering blood pressure in the general population, there is uncertainty about the efficacy and tolerability of

  17. Consumption of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol lowering foods improves blood lipids without affecting concentrations of fat soluble compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasath, Vanu R; Jenkins, David J A; Lamarche, Benoit; Kendall, Cyril W C; Faulkner, Dorothea; Cermakova, Luba; Couture, Patrick; Ireland, Chris; Abdulnour, Shahad; Patel, Darshna; Bashyam, Balachandran; Srichaikul, Korbua; de Souza, Russell J; Vidgen, Edward; Josse, Robert G; Leiter, Lawrence A; Connelly, Philip W; Frohlich, Jiri; Jones, Peter J H

    2014-10-18

    Consumption of a cholesterol lowering dietary portfolio including plant sterols (PS), viscous fibre, soy proteins and nuts for 6 months improves blood lipid profile. Plant sterols reduce blood cholesterol by inhibiting intestinal cholesterol absorption and concerns have been raised whether PS consumption reduces fat soluble vitamin absorption. The objective was to determine effects of consumption of a cholesterol lowering dietary portfolio on circulating concentrations of PS and fat soluble vitamins. Using a parallel design study, 351 hyperlipidemic participants from 4 centres across Canada were randomized to 1 of 3 groups. Participants followed dietary advice with control or portfolio diet. Participants on routine and intensive portfolio involved 2 and 7 clinic visits, respectively, over 6 months. No changes in plasma concentrations of α and γ tocopherol, lutein, lycopene and retinol, but decreased β-carotene concentrations were observed with intensive (week 12: p = 0.045; week 24: p = 0.039) and routine (week 12: p = 0.031; week 24: p = 0.078) portfolio groups compared to control. However, cholesterol adjusted β-carotene and fat soluble compound concentrations were not different compared to control. Plasma PS concentrations were increased with intensive (campesterol:p = 0.012; β-sitosterol:p = 0.035) and routine (campesterol: p = 0.034; β-sitosterol: p = 0.080) portfolio groups compared to control. Plasma cholesterol-adjusted campesterol and β-sitosterol concentrations were negatively correlated (p portfolio diet reduces serum total and LDL-C levels while increasing PS values, without altering fat soluble compounds concentrations. The extent of increments of PS with the current study are not deleterious and also maintaining optimum levels of fat soluble vitamins are of paramount necessity to maintain overall metabolism and health. Results indicate portfolio diet as one of the best options for CVD risk reduction

  18. CLA supplementation and aerobic exercise lower blood triacylglycerol, but have no effect on peak oxygen uptake or cardiorespiratory fatigue thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Buckner, Samuel L; Cochrane, Kristen C; Bergstrom, Haley C; Goldsmith, Jacob A; Weir, Joseph P; Housh, Terry J; Cramer, Joel T

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the effects of 6 weeks of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation and moderate aerobic exercise on peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), the gas exchange threshold (GET), the respiratory compensation point (RCP), and serum concentrations of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and glucose in humans. Thirty-four untrained to moderately trained men (mean ± SD; age = 21.5 ± 2.8 years; mass = 77.2 ± 9.5 kg) completed this double-blind, placebo controlled study and were randomly assigned to either a CLA (Clarinol A-80; n = 18) or placebo (PLA; sunflower oil; n = 16) group. Prior to and following 6 weeks of aerobic training (50% VO2 peak for 30 min, twice per week) and supplementation (5.63 g of total CLA isomers [of which 2.67 g was c9, t11 and 2.67 g was t10, c12] or 7.35 g high oleic sunflower oil per day), each participant completed an incremental cycle ergometer test to exhaustion to determine their [Formula: see text] peak, GET, and RCP and fasted blood draws were performed to measure serum concentrations of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and glucose. Serum triacylglycerol concentrations were lower (p interactions (p 0.05) between the CLA and PLA groups. GET and RCP increased (p < 0.05) from pre- to post-training for both the CLA and PLA groups. Overall, these data suggested that CLA and aerobic exercise may have synergistic, blood triacylglycerol lowering effects, although CLA may be ineffective for enhancing aerobic exercise performance in conjunction with a 6-week aerobic exercise training program in college-age men.

  19. Effectiveness of Acupressure on the Taichong Acupoint in Lowering Blood Pressure in Patients with Hypertension: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan-Hon Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of acupressure on the Taichong acupoint in lowering systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP in hypertensive patients. Methods. Eighty patients with hypertension attending a cardiology outpatient department in central Taiwan were included in this randomized clinical trial. Acupressure was applied to the Taichong acupoint in the experimental group (n=40 and to the first metatarsal (sham acupoint in the control group (n=40. Blood pressure was measured by electronic monitoring before and immediately 15 min and 30 min after acupressure. Results. The average age of the experimental and control participants was 59.3 ± 9.2 years and 62.7 ± 8.4 years, respectively. The two groups were similar for demographics and antihypertensive drug use. Mean systolic and diastolic BP in the experimental group decreased at 0, 15, and 30 min after acupressure (165.0/96.3, 150.4/92.7, 145.7/90.8, and 142.9/88.6 mmHg; no significant changes occurred in the control group. There was a significant difference in systolic and diastolic BP between the experimental and control groups immediately and 15 and 30 min after acupressure (p<0.05. Conclusion. Acupressure on the Taichong acupoint can lower BP in hypertensive patients and may be included in the nursing care plan for hypertension. However, additional studies are needed to determine the optimal dosage, frequency, and long-term effects of this therapy.

  20. Clinical Trials of Blood Pressure Lowering and Antihypertensive Medication: is Cognitive Measurement State-Of-The-Art?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Merrill F; Torres, Rachael V; Davey, Adam

    2018-02-22

    Randomized controlled trials of blood pressure (BP) lowering and antihypertensive medication use on cognitive outcomes have often been disappointing, reporting mixed findings and small effect sizes. We evaluate the extent to which cognitive assessment protocols used in these trials approach state-of-the-art. Overall, we find that a primary focus on cognition and the systematic selection of cognitive outcomes across trials take a backseat to other trial goals. Twelve trials investigating change in cognitive functioning were examined and none met criteria for state-of-the-art assessment, including use of at least 4 tests indexing 2 cognitive domains. Four trials investigating incident dementia were also examined. Each trial used state-of-the-art diagnostic criteria to assess dementia, although follow-up periods were relatively short, with only 2 trials lasting for at least 3 years. Weaknesses in each trial may act to obscure or weaken the positive effects of BP lowering on cognitive functioning. Improving trial designs in terms of cognitive outcomes selected and length of follow-up periods employed could lead to more promising findings. We offer logical steps to achieve state-of-the-art assessment protocols, with examples, in hopes of improving future trials.

  1. Summer does not always mean lower: seasonality of 24 h, daytime, and night-time blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedecostante, Massimiliano; Barbatelli, Paolo; Guerra, Federico; Espinosa, Emma; Dessì-Fulgheri, Paolo; Sarzani, Riccardo

    2012-07-01

    Evaluation of seasonal influences on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) values in a very large population living in a mild-climate geographic area. Among patients referred to our Hypertension Center between September 2002 and January 2011 with a reliable ABPM, we considered those in the two hottest (July and August) vs. those in the two coldest (January and February) months. Seven hundred and forty-two men (53.2%) and 653 women (46.8%) were studied; 1245 (89.3%) were hypertensive patients of which 795 (63.9%) were drug-treated. In winter, mean daytime SBP and DBP were higher (P = 0.001 and P hottest summer months are associated with lower daytime BP and also lower 24-h DBP. However, we found an inverse relationship regarding night-time BP, dipping pattern, and INH that were higher or more common in summer. These findings were even more evident in treated patients, especially when not at target. Different sleeping behaviors or improper dose reduction of drug therapy in summer may explain the findings.

  2. Anatomical and procedural determinants of ambulatory blood pressure lowering following catheter-based renal denervation using radiofrequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, Lucas; Ewen, Sebastian; Tzafriri, Abraham R; Edelman, Elazer R; Cremers, Bodo; Kulenthiran, Saarraaken; Ukena, Christian; Linz, Dominik; Kindermann, Ingrid; Tsioufis, Costas; Scheller, Bruno; Böhm, Michael; Mahfoud, Felix

    2018-03-02

    Catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) has been introduced to lower blood pressure (BP) and sympathetic activity in patients with uncontrolled hypertension with at best equivocal results. It has been postulated that anatomic and procedural elements introduce unaccounted variability and yet little is known of the impact of renal anatomy and procedural parameters on BP response to RDN. Anatomical parameters such as length and diameter were analyzed by quantitative vascular analysis and the prevalence of accessory renal arteries and renal artery disease were documented in 150 patients with resistant hypertension undergoing bilateral RDN using a mono-electrode radiofrequency catheter (Symplicity Flex, Medtronic). Accessory renal arteries and renal artery disease were present in 56 (37%) and 14 patients (9%), respectively. At 6-months, 24 h-ambulatory BP was reduced by 11/6 mm Hg (p renal arteries (p = 0.543) or renal artery disease (p = 0.598). Patients with at least one main renal artery diameter ≤ 4 mm had a more pronounced reduction of 24 h-ambulatory SBP compared to patients where both arteries were >4 mm (-19 vs. -10 mmHg; p = 0.038). Neither the length of the renal artery nor the number of RF ablations influenced 24 h-ambulatory BP reduction at 6 months. 24 h-ambulatory BP lowering was most pronounced in patients with smaller renal artery diameter but not related to renal artery length, accessory arteries or renal artery disease. Further, there was no dose-response relationship observed with increasing number of ablations. Because little is known of the impact of renal anatomy and procedural parameters on blood pressure (BP) response to renal denervation (RDN), anatomical and procedural data were analyzed in 150 patients undergoing bilateral RDN. BP lowering was most pronounced in patients with smaller renal artery diameter but not related to renal artery length, the presence of renal artery disease or accessory renal

  3. One year B-vitamins increases serum and whole blood folate forms and lowers plasma homocysteine in older Germans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Susanne H; Herrmann, Wolfgang; Kruse, Vera; Eckert, Rudolf; Gräber, Stefan; Geisel, Jürgen; Obeid, Rima

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to study the effect of long-term supplementation of B-vitamins on folate forms in serum and whole blood (WB) in elderly German subjects. 59 participants (mean age 67 years) were randomized to daily receive either vitamin D3 (1200 IU), folic acid (500 μg), vitamin B12 (500 μg), vitamin B6 (50 mg), and calcium carbonate (456 mg) or vitamin D3 plus calcium carbonate. Serum and WB folate forms were measured before and after 6 and 12 months. B-vitamins supplementation for 6 months led to higher concentrations of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF) in serum (mean 49.1 vs. 19.6 nmol/L) and WB (1332 vs. 616 nmol/L). Also non-methyl-folate concentrations in serum and WB were higher after 6 months with B-vitamins supplementation. Unmetabolized folic acid (UFA) increased after supplementation. tHcy concentration was lowered after 1 year of B-vitamin supplementation (mean 13.1 vs. 9.6 μmol/L). A stronger reduction of tHcy after 1 year was found in participants who had baseline level >12.5 μmol/L (mean 17.0 vs. 11.9 μmol/L) compared to those with baseline tHcy lower than this limit (mean 9.1 vs. 7.4 μmol/L). In contrast, the increases in serum and WB 5-methylTHF were comparable between the two groups. One year B-vitamins supplementation increased the levels of 5-methylTHF and non-methyl-folate in serum and WB, normalized tHcy, but caused an increase in the number of cases with detectable UFA in serum. Lowering of tHcy was predicted by baseline tHcy, but not by baseline serum or WB 5-methylTHF.

  4. Heart rate and blood pressure interactions during attempts to consciously raise or lower heart rate and blood pressure in normotensive subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdon, Peter; Murray, Alan; Langley, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the interaction between heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) during conscious control under visual biofeedback and background noise conditions. Normotensive volunteers were instructed to (i) decrease and (ii) increase HR (group A, n = 16) or BP (group B, n = 16). After instructions to lower HR or BP there was no significant change in HR or BP for either group. After instructions to raise HR, HR increased significantly (13.8 ± 1.3 beats min −1 , P < 0.0001) and BP did not change. However, following instructions to raise BP, both HR and BP increased significantly: systolic BP (5.2 ± 1.5 mmHg, P < 0.001), diastolic BP (3.5 ± 0.9 mmHg, P < 0.001) and HR (8.6 ± 1.3 beats min −1 , P < 0.0001). Biofeedback and background noise did not alter the relative change in HR or BP. In conclusion, normotensive subjects were unable to reduce BP or HR under conscious control. Subjects were able to increase both HR and BP, and voluntary increases in HR did not alter BP, while voluntary increases in BP also increased HR indicating distinct HR/BP interactions during conscious control

  5. Role of blood pressure and other variables in the differential cardiovascular event rates noted in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Blood Pressure Lowering Arm (ASCOT-BPLA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulter, Neil R; Wedel, Hans; Dahlöf, Björn

    2005-01-01

    Results of the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Blood Pressure Lowering Arm (ASCOT-BPLA) show significantly lower rates of coronary and stroke events in individuals allocated an amlodipine-based combination drug regimen than in those allocated an atenolol-based combination drug regimen (HR...... 0.86 and 0.77, respectively). Our aim was to assess to what extent these differences were due to significant differences in blood pressures and in other variables noted after randomisation....

  6. Blood Alcohol Concentration-Related Lower Performance in Immediate Visual Memory and Working Memory in Adolescent Binge Drinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción Vinader-Caerols

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The binge drinking (BD pattern of alcohol consumption is prevalent during adolescence, a period characterized by critical changes to the structural and functional development of brain areas related with memory and cognition. There is considerable evidence of the cognitive dysfunctions caused by the neurotoxic effects of BD in the not-yet-adult brain. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different blood alcohol concentrations (BAC on memory during late adolescence (18–19 years old in males and females with a history of BD. The sample consisted of 154 adolescents (67 males and 87 females that were classified as refrainers if they had never previously drunk alcoholic drinks and as binge drinkers if they had drunk six or more standard drink units in a row for men or five or more for women at a minimum frequency of three occasions in a month, throughout the previous 12 months. After intake of a high acute dose of alcohol by binge drinkers or a control refreshment by refrainers and binge drinkers, subjects were distributed into four groups for each gender according to their BAC: BAC0-R (0 g/L, in refrainers, BAC0-BD (0 g/L, in binge drinkers, BAC1 (0.3 – 0.5 g/L, in binge drinkers or BAC2 (0.54 – 1.1 g/L, in binge drinkers. The subjects’ immediate visual memory and working memory were then measured according to the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III. The BAC1 group showed lower scores of immediate visual memory but not of working memory, while lower performance in both memories were found in the BAC2 group. Therefore, the brain of binge drinkers with moderate BAC could be employing compensatory mechanisms from additional brain areas to perform a working memory task adequately, but these resources would be undermined when BAC is higher (>0.5 g/L. No gender differences were found in BAC-related lower performance in immediate visual memory and working memory. In conclusion, immediate visual memory is more sensitive than

  7. Blood Alcohol Concentration-Related Lower Performance in Immediate Visual Memory and Working Memory in Adolescent Binge Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinader-Caerols, Concepción; Duque, Aránzazu; Montañés, Adriana; Monleón, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    The binge drinking (BD) pattern of alcohol consumption is prevalent during adolescence, a period characterized by critical changes to the structural and functional development of brain areas related with memory and cognition. There is considerable evidence of the cognitive dysfunctions caused by the neurotoxic effects of BD in the not-yet-adult brain. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) on memory during late adolescence (18-19 years old) in males and females with a history of BD. The sample consisted of 154 adolescents (67 males and 87 females) that were classified as refrainers if they had never previously drunk alcoholic drinks and as binge drinkers if they had drunk six or more standard drink units in a row for men or five or more for women at a minimum frequency of three occasions in a month, throughout the previous 12 months. After intake of a high acute dose of alcohol by binge drinkers or a control refreshment by refrainers and binge drinkers, subjects were distributed into four groups for each gender according to their BAC: BAC0-R (0 g/L, in refrainers), BAC0-BD (0 g/L, in binge drinkers), BAC1 (0.3 - 0.5 g/L, in binge drinkers) or BAC2 (0.54 - 1.1 g/L, in binge drinkers). The subjects' immediate visual memory and working memory were then measured according to the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III). The BAC1 group showed lower scores of immediate visual memory but not of working memory, while lower performance in both memories were found in the BAC2 group. Therefore, the brain of binge drinkers with moderate BAC could be employing compensatory mechanisms from additional brain areas to perform a working memory task adequately, but these resources would be undermined when BAC is higher (>0.5 g/L). No gender differences were found in BAC-related lower performance in immediate visual memory and working memory. In conclusion, immediate visual memory is more sensitive than working memory to

  8. Systolic blood pressure target in systemic arterial hypertension: Is lower ever better? Results from a community-based Caucasian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nora, Concetta; Cioffi, Giovanni; Iorio, Annamaria; Rivetti, Luigi; Poli, Stefano; Zambon, Elena; Barbati, Giulia; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Di Lenarda, Andrea

    2018-02-01

    Extensive evidence exists about the prognostic role of systolic blood pressure (SBP) reduction ≤140mmHg. Recently, the SPRINT trial successfully tested the strategy of lowering SBP<120mmHg in patients with arterial hypertension (AH). To assess whether the SPRINT results are reproducible in a real world community population. Cross-sectional, population-based study analyzing data of 24,537 Caucasian people with AH from the Trieste Observatory of CV disease, 2010 to 2015. We selected and divided 2306 subjects with AH according to the SPRINT trial criteria; similarly, SPRINT clinical outcomes were considered. Study patients median age was 75±8years, two third male, one third had ischemic heart disease. They were older, with lower body mass index, higher SBP and Framingham CV risk score than the SPRINT patients. Three-hundred-sixty-eight patients (16%) had SBP<120mmHg. During 48 [36-60] months of follow-up, 751 patients (32%) experienced a major adverse cardiac event (MACE). The SBP <120mmHg group had higher incidence of MACE, CV deaths and all-cause death than SBP≥120mmHg group (37% vs 31%; 10% vs 4%; 19% vs 10%, all p<0.05). The condition of SBP<120mmHg was an independent predictor of MACE in multivariate Cox analysis together with older age, male gender, higher Charlson score. In our experience, the SBP<120mmHg condition is associated with worse clinical outcomes, suggesting the SPRINT results are not reproducible tout court in Caucasian community populations. These differences should be taken as a warning against aggressive reducing of SBP<120mmHg. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. IPP-rich milk protein hydrolysate lowers blood pressure in subjects with stage 1 hypertension, a randomized controlled trial

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    Kloek Joris

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Milk derived peptides have been identified as potential antihypertensive agents. The primary objective was to investigate the effectiveness of IPP-rich milk protein hydrolysates (MPH on reducing blood pressure (BP as well as to investigate safety parameters and tolerability. The secondary objective was to confirm or falsify ACE inhibition as the mechanism underlying BP reductions by measuring plasma renin activity and angiotensin I and II. Methods We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover study including 70 Caucasian subjects with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension. Study treatments consisted of daily consumption of two capsules MPH1 (each containing 7.5 mg Isoleucine-Proline-Proline; IPP, MPH2 (each containing 6.6 mg Methionine-Alanine-Proline, 2.3 mg Leucine-Proline-Proline, 1.8 mg IPP, or placebo (containing cellulose for 4 weeks. Results In subjects with stage 1 hypertension, MPH1 lowered systolic BP by 3.8 mm Hg (P = 0.0080 and diastolic BP by 2.3 mm Hg (P = 0.0065 compared with placebo. In prehypertensive subjects, the differences in BP between MPH1 and placebo were not significant. MPH2 did not change BP significantly compared with placebo in stage I hypertensive or prehypertensive subjects. Intake of MPHs was well tolerated and safe. No treatment differences in hematology, clinical laboratory parameters or adverse effects were observed. No significant differences between MPHs and placebo were found in plasma renin activity, or angiotensin I and II. Conclusions MPH1, containing IPP and no minerals, exerts clinically relevant BP lowering effects in subjects with stage 1 hypertension. It may be included in lifestyle changes aiming to prevent or reduce high BP. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00471263

  10. Acupuncture lowering blood pressure for secondary prevention of stroke: a study protocol for a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yu-Zheng; Gao, Xin-Xin; Wang, Cheng-Ting; Zheng, Hai-Zhen; Lei, Yun; Wu, Meng-Han; Shi, Xue-Min; Ban, Hai-Peng; Gu, Wen-Long; Meng, Xiang-Gang; Wei, Mao-Ti; Hu, Chun-Xiao

    2017-09-15

    Stroke is the prime cause of morbidity and mortality in the general population, and hypertension will increase the recurrence and mortality of stroke. We report a protocol of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial (RCT) using blood pressure (BP)-lowering acupuncture add-on treatment to treat patients with hypertension and stroke. This is a large-scale, multicenter, subject-, assessor- and analyst-blinded, pragmatic RCT. A total of 480 patients with hypertension and ischemic stroke will be randomly assigned to two groups: an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group will receive "HuoXueSanFeng" acupuncture combined with one antihypertensive medication in addition to routine ischemic stroke treatment. The control group will only receive one antihypertensive medication and basic treatments for ischemic stroke. HuoXueSanFeng acupuncture will be given for six sessions weekly for the first 6 weeks and three times weekly for the next 6 weeks. A 9-month follow-up will, thereafter, be conducted. Antihypertensive medication will be adjusted based on BP levels. The primary outcome will be the recurrence of stroke. The secondary outcomes including 24-h ambulatory BP, the TCM syndrome score, the Short Form 36-item Health Survey (SF-36), the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), as well as the Barthel Index (BI) scale will be assessed at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks post initiating treatments; cardiac ultrasound, carotid artery ultrasound, transcranial Doppler, and lower extremity ultrasound will be evaluated at baseline and 12 weeks after treatment. The safety of acupuncture will also be assessed. We aim to determine the clinical effects of controlling BP for secondary prevention of stroke with acupuncture add-on treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02967484 . Registered on 13 February 2017; last updated on 27 June 2017.

  11. The use of traditional medicines to lower blood pressure: A survey in rural areas in Yogyakarta province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Rahmawati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite common usage of traditional medicines in rural populations, the data of their uses along with hypertension medications are limited. Aims To quantify the use of traditional medicines and to identify factors associated with its use among people with hypertension in a low-resource setting. Methods Data were collected using a researcher-administered questionnaire from people with hypertension in rural underdeveloped villages in Indonesia. Results Two hundred sixty-three of 384 participants (68.5 per cent used traditional medicines intended to lower blood pressure; about half (n=134 used only traditional medicines, whereas the others (n=129 also took antihypertensive medications. Seventy-four (19.2 per cent participants took only anti-hypertensive medications, and 47 (12.2 per cent did not use traditional medicines or antihypertensive medications. Herbal medicines were the most frequent products used, mainly in the form of herbs and herbal materials, which were obtained from traditional markets (n=169, 44 per cent, family members (n=100, 26 per cent or their own garden (n=88, 23 per cent. The use of traditional medicines was not associated with any sociodemographic variables. However, among traditional medicines users, participants with a lower formal educational level were twice as likely to not take antihypertensive medications compared with those with a higher educational level. Conclusion To treat their hypertension, these rural villagers used traditional medicines more often than anti-hypertensive medications. Health professionals in rural areas should be aware of how the use of traditional medicine might affect hypertension management.

  12. Mice from lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running exhibit lower blood pressure during withdrawal from wheel access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Erik M; Kelly, Scott A; Garland, Theodore

    2013-03-15

    Exercise is known to be rewarding and have positive effects on mental and physical health. Excessive exercise, however, can be the result of an underlying behavioral/physiological addiction. Both humans who exercise regularly and rodent models of exercise addiction sometimes display behavioral withdrawal symptoms, including depression and anxiety, when exercise is denied. However, few studies have examined the physiological state that occurs during this withdrawal period. Alterations in blood pressure (BP) are common physiological indicators of withdrawal in a variety of addictions. In this study, we examined exercise withdrawal in four replicate lines of mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running (HR lines). Mice from the HR lines run almost 3-fold greater distances on wheels than those from non-selected control lines, and have altered brain activity as well as increased behavioral despair when wheel access is removed. We tested the hypothesis that male HR mice have an altered cardiovascular response (heart rate, systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure [MAP]) during exercise withdrawal. Measurements using an occlusion tail-cuff system were taken during 8 days of baseline, 6 days of wheel access, and 2 days of withdrawal (wheel access blocked). During withdrawal, HR mice had significantly lower systolic BP, diastolic BP, and MAP than controls, potentially indicating a differential dependence on voluntary wheel running in HR mice. This is the first characterization of a cardiovascular withdrawal response in an animal model of high voluntary exercise. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Consumption of a Polyphenol-Rich Grape-Wine Extract Lowers Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Mildly Hypertensive Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draijer, Richard; de Graaf, Young; Slettenaar, Marieke; de Groot, Eric; Wright, Chris I.

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenols in grape and wine have been suggested to contribute to the cardiovascular health benefits of the Mediterranean lifestyle. The reported effects of grape products on blood pressure (BP) remain, however, equivocal. In a double-blind placebo controlled crossover study, the effect of two grape extracts on BP and vascular function was assessed in 60 untreated, mildly hypertensive subjects after four weeks intervention. Both extracts (grape-red wine and grape alone) had high concentrations of anthocyanins and flavonols, but the grape alone was relatively poor in catechins and procyanidins. Parameters measured included ambulatory and office BP, flow-mediated vasodilation, arterial distensibility, platelet function and plasma lipoproteins. Results showed that 24-hour ambulatory systolic/diastolic BPs were significantly lower in the grape-wine extract intervention (135.9 ± 1.3/84.7 ± 0.8 mmHg; mean ± SEM) compared to placebo (138.9 ± 1.3/86.6 ± 1.2 mmHg), predominantly during daytime. Plasma concentrations of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 decreased by 10%, but other measures of vascular function were not affected. Grape juice extract alone had no effect on BP or any measures of vascular function. Polyphenol-rich food products, and may be specifically catechins and procyanidins, may thus help sustain a healthy BP and contribute to the healthy Mediterranean lifestyle. PMID:25942487

  14. Consumption of a Polyphenol-Rich Grape-Wine Extract Lowers Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Mildly Hypertensive Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Draijer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols in grape and wine have been suggested to contribute to the cardiovascular health benefits of the Mediterranean lifestyle. The reported effects of grape products on blood pressure (BP remain, however, equivocal. In a double-blind placebo controlled crossover study, the effect of two grape extracts on BP and vascular function was assessed in 60 untreated, mildly hypertensive subjects after four weeks intervention. Both extracts (grape-red wine and grape alone had high concentrations of anthocyanins and flavonols, but the grape alone was relatively poor in catechins and procyanidins. Parameters measured included ambulatory and office BP, flow-mediated vasodilation, arterial distensibility, platelet function and plasma lipoproteins. Results showed that 24-hour ambulatory systolic/diastolic BPs were significantly lower in the grape-wine extract intervention (135.9 ± 1.3/84.7 ± 0.8 mmHg; mean ± SEM compared to placebo (138.9 ± 1.3/86.6 ± 1.2 mmHg, predominantly during daytime. Plasma concentrations of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 decreased by 10%, but other measures of vascular function were not affected. Grape juice extract alone had no effect on BP or any measures of vascular function. Polyphenol-rich food products, and may be specifically catechins and procyanidins, may thus help sustain a healthy BP and contribute to the healthy Mediterranean lifestyle.

  15. Black Tea Lowers Blood Pressure and Wave Reflections in Fasted and Postprandial Conditions in Hypertensive Patients: A Randomised Study

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    Davide Grassi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension and arterial stiffening are independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. Flavonoids may exert some vascular protection. We investigated the effects of black tea on blood pressure (BP and wave reflections before and after fat load in hypertensives. According to a randomized, double-blind, controlled, cross-over design, 19 patients were assigned to consume black tea (129 mg flavonoids or placebo twice a day for eight days (13 day wash-out period. Digital volume pulse and BP were measured before and 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after tea consumption. Measurements were performed in a fasted state and after a fat load. Compared to placebo, reflection index and stiffness index decreased after tea consumption (p < 0.0001. Fat challenge increased wave reflection, which was counteracted by tea consumption (p < 0.0001. Black tea decreased systolic and diastolic BP (−3.2 mmHg, p < 0.005 and −2.6 mmHg, p < 0.0001; respectively and prevented BP increase after a fat load (p < 0.0001. Black tea consumption lowers wave reflections and BP in the fasting state, and during the challenging haemodynamic conditions after a fat load in hypertensives. Considering lipemia-induced impairment of arterial function may occur frequently during the day, our findings suggest regular consumption of black tea may be relevant for cardiovascular protection.

  16. Role of blood pressure and other variables in the differential cardiovascular event rates noted in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Blood Pressure Lowering Arm (ASCOT-BPLA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulter, Neil R; Wedel, Hans; Dahlöf, Björn

    2005-01-01

    Results of the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Blood Pressure Lowering Arm (ASCOT-BPLA) show significantly lower rates of coronary and stroke events in individuals allocated an amlodipine-based combination drug regimen than in those allocated an atenolol-based combination drug regimen (HR...

  17. Blood glucose control for individuals with type-2 diabetes: acute effects of resistance exercise of lower cardiovascular-metabolic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Sérgio R; Simões, Graziela C; Moraes, José Fernando V N; Motta, Daisy F; Campbell, Carmen S G; Simões, Herbert G

    2012-10-01

    This study compared the effects of resistance exercise (RE) intensities on blood glucose (GLUC) of individuals without (ND) and with type-2 diabetes (T2D). Nine individuals with T2D and 10 ND performed: (a) RE circuit at 23% of 1 maximal repetition (1RM) (RE_L); (b) RE circuit at 43% 1RM (RE_M); and (c) control (CON) session. Blood lactate (LAC) and GLUC were measured before, during, and postinterventions. Double product (DP) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. The area under the curve (AUC) revealed the effects of RE circuits in reducing GLUC in individuals with T2D (RE_L: 12,556 ± 3,269 vs. RE_M: 13,433 ± 3,054 vs. CON: 14,576 ± 3,922 mg.dl(-1).145 minutes; p AUC of GLUC in RE_L in comparison to RE_M. Similarly, for ND the RE_L reduced the AUC of GLUC when compared with RE_M and CON (RE_L: 10,943 ± 956 vs. RE_M: 12,156 ± 1,062 vs. CON: 11,498 ± 882 mg.dl(-1).145 minutes; p AUC of GLUC was higher for T2D compared with ND on CON condition (p = 0.02). However, after RE circuits the difference between groups for AUC of GLUC was abolished. The RE_M for T2D was more stressful when compared with RE_L for LAC (CON: 1.3 ± 0.5 vs. RE_L: 5.5 ± 1.5 vs. RE_M: 6.8 ± 1.3 mmol·L(-1); p < 0.05), DP (CON: 8,415 ± 1,223 vs. RE_L: 15,980 ± 2,007 vs. RE_M: 18,047 ± 3,693 mmHg.bpm(-1); p < 0.05), and RPE (RE_L: 11 ± 2 vs. RE_M: 13 ± 2 Borg Scale; p < 0.05). We concluded that RE_L and RE_M were effective in reducing GLUC for individuals with T2D, with lower cardiovascular-metabolic and perceptual stress being observed for RE_L. These data suggest that acute RE sessions at light or moderate intensities are effective for controlling GLUC in individuals with T2D.

  18. DIETARY FIBER AND SERUM 16α-HYDROXYESTRONE, AN ESTROGEN METABOLITE ASSOCIATED WITH LOWER SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shawn; Hawkley, Louise C.; Cacioppo, John T.; Masi, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We recently identified an inverse relationship between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and serum 16α-hydroxyestrone, a metabolite of 17β-estradiol, in postmenopausal women. Formation of 16α-hydroxyestrone is catalyzed primarily by CYP1A2, a cytochrome P450 enzyme. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationships between known modifiers of CYP1A2 activity and serum 16α-hydroxyestrone in postmenopausal women. We hypothesized that fruits, vegetables, and grains, which contain more soluble fiber (a known inducer of CYP1A2) as a proportion of total fiber, would be more positively associated with serum 16α-hydroxyestrone than legumes, which contain less soluble fiber as a proportion of total fiber. Materials and Methods Serum from a population-based sample of 42 postmenopausal women aged 55–69 living in Cook County, Illinois, was assayed for 16α-hydroxyestrone using mass spectrometry. Ordinal logistic regression was used to evaluate the cross-sectional relationship between dietary fiber and serum 16α-hydroxyestrone after adjusting for multiple covariates. Results Relative to dietary fiber from legumes, dietary fiber from fruits and vegetables was associated with a greater log odds (B = 0.201, p = 0.036) of having higher serum concentrations of 16α-hydroxyestrone. The log odds of having higher serum concentrations of 16α-hydroxyestrone was also lower among African-American women (B = −2.300, p = .030) compared to white women. Conclusion These results are consistent with previous studies demonstrating a negative relationship between SBP and dietary fruits and vegetables and a positive relationship between African-American race and SBP. Further research is needed regarding dietary factors that may influence the serum concentration of 16α-hydroxyestrone. PMID:21035306

  19. Taurine Supplementation Lowers Blood Pressure and Improves Vascular Function in Prehypertension: Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qianqian; Wang, Bin; Li, Yingsha; Sun, Fang; Li, Peng; Xia, Weijie; Zhou, Xunmei; Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaojing; Chen, Jing; Zeng, Xiangru; Zhao, Zhigang; He, Hongbo; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming

    2016-03-01

    Taurine, the most abundant, semiessential, sulfur-containing amino acid, is well known to lower blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive animal models. However, no rigorous clinical trial has validated whether this beneficial effect of taurine occurs in human hypertension or prehypertension, a key stage in the development of hypertension. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we assessed the effects of taurine intervention on BP and vascular function in prehypertension. We randomly assigned 120 eligible prehypertensive individuals to receive either taurine supplementation (1.6 g per day) or a placebo for 12 weeks. Taurine supplementation significantly decreased the clinic and 24-hour ambulatory BPs, especially in those with high-normal BP. Mean clinic systolic BP reduction for taurine/placebo was 7.2/2.6 mm Hg, and diastolic BP was 4.7/1.3 mm Hg. Mean ambulatory systolic BP reduction for taurine/placebo was 3.8/0.3 mm Hg, and diastolic BP was 3.5/0.6 mm Hg. In addition, taurine supplementation significantly improved endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation and increased plasma H2S and taurine concentrations. Furthermore, changes in BP were negatively correlated with both the plasma H2S and taurine levels in taurine-treated prehypertensive individuals. To further elucidate the hypotensive mechanism, experimental studies were performed both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that taurine treatment upregulated the expression of hydrogen sulfide-synthesizing enzymes and reduced agonist-induced vascular reactivity through the inhibition of transient receptor potential channel subtype 3-mediated calcium influx in human and mouse mesenteric arteries. In conclusion, the antihypertensive effect of chronic taurine supplementation shows promise in the treatment of prehypertension through improvement of vascular function. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. An Acute Bout of a Controlled Breathing Frequency Lowers Sympathetic Neural Outflow but not Blood Pressure in Healthy Normotensive Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    MCCLAIN, SHANNON L.; BROOKS, ALEXA M.; JARVIS, SARA S.

    2017-01-01

    Controlled or paced breathing is often used as a stress reduction technique but the impact on blood pressure (BP) and sympathetic outflow have not been consistently reported. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a controlled breathing (12 breaths/min, CB) rate would be similar to an individual’s spontaneous breathing (SB) rate. Secondly, would a CB rate of 12 breaths/min alter heart rate (HR), BP, and indices of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). Twenty-one subjects (10 women, 11 men) performed two trials: SB, where the subject chose a comfortable breathing rate; and CB, where the subject breathed at a pace of 12 breaths/min. Each trial was 6 min during which respiratory waveforms, HR, BP (systolic, SBP; diastolic, DBP), and MSNA were recorded. During CB, the 6 min average breathing frequency (14±4 vs 12±1 breaths/min, P<0.05 for SB and CB, respectively), MSNA burst frequency (18±12 vs 14±10 bursts/min, P<0.01) and MSNA burst incidence (28±19 vs 21± 6 bursts/100 heart beats, P<0.01) were significantly lower than during SB. HR (66±9 vs 67±9 beats/min, P<0.05) was higher during CB. SBP (120±13 vs 121±15 mmHg, P=0.741), DBP (56±8 vs 57±9 mmHg, P=0.768), and MSNA total activity (166±94 vs 145±102 a.u./min, P=0.145) were not different between the breathing conditions. In conclusion, an acute reduction in breathing frequency such as that observed during CB elicited a decrease in indices of MSNA (burst frequency and incidence) with no change in BP. PMID:28344733

  1. Intragastric administration of leucine or isoleucine lowers the blood glucose response to a mixed-nutrient drink by different mechanisms in healthy, lean volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Sina S; Fitzgerald, Penelope Ce; Schober, Gudrun; Steinert, Robert E; Horowitz, Michael; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2016-11-01

    The branched-chain amino acids leucine and isoleucine lower blood glucose after oral glucose ingestion, and the intraduodenal infusion of leucine decreases energy intake in healthy, lean men. We investigated the effects of the intragastric administration of leucine and isoleucine on the gastric emptying of, and blood glucose responses to, a physiologic mixed-macronutrient drink and subsequent energy intake. In 2 separate studies, 12 healthy, lean subjects received on 3 separate occasions an intragastric infusion of 5 g leucine (leucine-5g) or an intragastric infusion of 10 g leucine (leucine-10g), an intragastric infusion of 5 g isoleucine (isoleucine-5g) or an intragastric infusion of 10 g isoleucine (isoleucine-10g), or a control. Fifteen minutes later, subjects consumed a mixed-nutrient drink (400 kcal, 56 g carbohydrates, 15 g protein, and 12 g fat), and gastric emptying ( 13 C-acetate breath test) and blood glucose, plasma insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and cholecystokinin (leucine study only) were measured for 60 min. Immediately afterward, energy intake from a cold, buffet-style meal was assessed. Compared with the control, leucine-10g decreased the blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) (P blood glucose (P = 0.07), whereas effects of leucine-5g were NS. Leucine-10g, but not leucine-5g, increased plasma insulin and C-peptide AUCs (P blood glucose AUC and peak blood glucose (P blood glucose AUC. Isoleucine did not affect energy intake. In healthy subjects, both leucine and isoleucine reduced blood glucose in response to a mixed-nutrient drink but did not affect subsequent energy intake. The mechanisms underlying glucose lowering appear to differ; leucine stimulated insulin, whereas isoleucine acted insulin independently. These trials were registered at www.anzctr.org.au as 12613000899741 and 12614000837628. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. A novel Alaska pollack-derived peptide, which increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells, lowers the blood glucose level in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayabe, Tatsuhiro; Mizushige, Takafumi; Ota, Wakana; Kawabata, Fuminori; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Han, Li; Tsuji, Tomoko; Kanamoto, Ryuhei; Ohinata, Kousaku

    2015-08-01

    We found that the tryptic digest of Alaska pollack protein exhibits a glucose-lowering effect in KK-Ay mice, a type II diabetic model. We then searched for glucose-lowering peptides in the digest. Ala-Asn-Gly-Glu-Val-Ala-Gln-Trp-Arg (ANGEVAQWR) was identified from a peak of the HPLC fraction selected based on the glucose-lowering activity in an insulin resistance test using ddY mice. ANGEVAQWR (3 mg kg(-1)) decreased the blood glucose level after intraperitoneal administration. Among its fragment peptides, the C-terminal tripeptide, Gln-Trp-Arg (QWR, 1 mg kg(-1)), lowered the blood glucose level, suggesting that the C-terminal is critical for glucose-lowering activity. QWR also enhanced glucose uptake into C2C12, a mouse skeletal muscle cell line. QWR did not induce the phosphorylation of serine/threonine protein kinase B (Akt) and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We also demonstrated that QWR lowered the blood glucose level in NSY and KK-Ay, type II diabetic models.

  3. Overweight is associated with lower serum leptin in Peruvian Indian than in Caucasian women: A dissociation contributing to low blood pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgärde, F; Söderberg, S; Olsson, T; Ercilla, M B; Correa, L R; Ahrén, B

    2001-03-01

    We tested whether plasma levels of leptin and insulin are associated with the lower blood pressure in women of Peruvian Indian heritage compared with Caucasian women. A total of 181 women from Peru and 85 from Sweden, aged 20 to 60 years, with normal plasma glucose levels participated in the study. Measurements of anthropometry, blood pressure, and blood tests were performed after overnight fasting. Compared with women from Umeå in Sweden, women from Lima, Peru had higher body mass index (BMI) (26.2 +/- 4.9 v 24.4 +/- 3.8 kg/m(2)), waist circumference (85 +/- 11 v 79 +/- 10 cm), lower systolic blood pressure (99 +/- 15 v 114 +/- 14 mm; P <.001) and diastolic blood pressure (67 +/- 7 v 74 +/- 10 mm; P <.001). In addition, they had a reduction of the ratio of plasma leptin to BMI (0.52 +/- 0.22 v 0.61 +/- 0.36; P <.001), greater plasma insulin (80 +/- 42 v 41 +/- 21 pmol/L), but lower plasma glucose (4.2 +/- 0.5 v 5.1 +/- 0.5 mmol/L; P <.001). Furthermore, the 181 women from Lima had higher plasma triglyceride levels (1.5 +/- 0.8 v 1.3 +/- 0.7; P =.039), but lower plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (1.0 +/- 0.2 v 1.5 +/- 0.4 mmol/L; P <.001) and total plasma cholesterol (5.0 +/- 1.1 v 5.9 +/- 1.3 mmol/L; P <.001) levels. Plasma leptin correlated with blood pressure and BMI in both populations (P <.001). In multiple regression analysis, BMI, but not log leptin, emerged as the determinant for systolic blood pressure. We concluded that women living in Lima have significant lower blood pressure levels in association with elevated plasma insulin concentrations, but lower plasma leptin values adjusted for BMI in comparison with women from northern Sweden. This may suggest that the concept of metabolic syndrome is different among women with Peruvian Indian heritage in comparison to a Caucasian population. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company

  4. Intrauterine growth-restricted piglets have similar gastric emptying rates but lower rectal temperatures and altered blood values when compared with normal-weight piglets at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Charlotte Amdi; Klarlund, M. V.; Pedersen, Janni Hales

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) piglets have lower survival rates and are more likely to have empty stomachs 24 h after birth than normal piglets. Although hypoglycemia may result from low colostrum intake per se, it is not known if slow gastric emptying may be an additional risk factor...... that the gastric emptying rate and blood glucose would be lower in IUGR piglets. We investigated gastric emptying rates in normal and IUGR piglets and blood glucose and rectal temperatures at birth and after 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. In addition, blood parameters relevant for metabolism were studied. Forty......-eight piglets (24 normal and 24 IUGR) were classified at birth as either normal or IUGR on the basis of head morphology. Piglets were removed from the sow at birth before suckling, and birth weight was recorded. Pooled porcine colostrum was tube-fed to all piglets at 12 mL/kg BW as soon as possible after birth...

  5. Blood pressure-lowering effects of sulodexide depend on albuminuria severity: post hoc analysis of the sulodexide microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Engberink, Rik H. G.; Heerspink, Hiddo J. L.; de Zeeuw, Dick; Vogt, Liffert

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that sulodexide is able to lower blood pressure (BP). This may be attributed to its ability to restore the endothelial surface layer (ESL). As ESL perturbation is known to be related to the degree of kidney damage, we investigated whether albuminuria, reflecting ESL status,

  6. Blood pressure-lowering effects of sulodexide depend on albuminuria severity : post hoc analysis of the sulodexide microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberink, Rik H. G. Olde; Heerspink, Hiddo J. L.; de Zeeuw, Dick; Vogt, Liffert

    AIMS: It has been suggested that sulodexide is able to lower blood pressure (BP). This may be attributed to its ability to restore the endothelial surface layer (ESL). As ESL perturbation is known to be related to the degree of kidney damage, we investigated whether albuminuria, reflecting ESL

  7. Impact of positive chest X-ray findings and blood cultures on adverse outcomes following hospitalized pneumococcal lower respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Marlene; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Benfield, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the clinical presentation and outcome of pneumococcal lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) without positive chest X-ray findings and blood cultures. We investigated the prognostic impact of a pulmonary infiltrate and bacteraemia on the clinical course of hospitalized...

  8. THE EFFECTIVENES OF ETANOL EXTRACT, PARTITION N-HEKSANA, AND CROMATHOGRAPHY FRACTION OF MOMORDICA CHARANTIA L. TO LOWER BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Putu Kusuma Clara Dewinda

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the ethanol extract, partition n-hexane, and chromatography fractions Momordica charantia L. in lowering blood glucose levels in experimental diabetic male rats.  This study used 25 male rats were divided into five treatment groups P0 (negative control, P1 (positive control, P2 (ethanol extract, P3 (partition n-hexane, and P4 (chromatographic fraction the variable observed glucose levels blood for 21 days. Blood glucose levels were analyzed on days -1, 0, 4, 11, 18. The bill, which is used in the form of a completely randomized design (CRD. The data obtained and analyzed by using Split in Time. The results showed of giving chromatographic fractions bitter melon 50 mg / kg body weight can reduce blood glucose levels in hyperglycemic rats better than the ethanol extract 200 mg / kg body weight and partition n-hexane 50 mg / kg body weight.

  9. Higher blood harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) concentrations correlate with lower olfactory scores in essential tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D; Rios, Eileen; Pellegrino, Kathryn M; Jiang, Wendy; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Zheng, Wei

    2008-05-01

    Harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole), a neurotoxin, may be an environmental risk factor for essential tremor (ET). Harmane and related chemicals are toxic to the cerebellum. Whether it is through this mechanism (cerebellar toxicity) that harmane leads to ET is unknown. Impaired olfaction may be a feature of cerebellar disease. To determine whether blood harmane concentrations correlate with olfactory test scores in patients with ET. Blood harmane concentrations were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Odor identification testing was performed with the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). In 83 ET cases, higher log blood harmane concentration was correlated with lower UPSIT score (rho=-0.46, p<0.001). 25/40 (62.5%) cases with high log blood harmane concentration (based on a median split) had low UPSIT scores (based on a median split) vs. 12/43 (27.9%) ET cases with low log blood harmane concentration (adjusted odd ratios (OR) 4.04, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.42-11.50, p=0.009). When compared with the low log blood harmane tertile, the odds of olfactory dysfunction were 2.64 times higher in cases in the middle tertile and 10.95 times higher in cases in the high tertile. In 69 control subjects, higher log blood harmane concentration was not correlated with lower UPSIT score (rho=0.12, p=0.32). Blood harmane concentrations were correlated with UPSIT scores in ET cases but not controls. These analyses set the stage for postmortem studies to further explore the role of harmane as a cerebellar toxin in ET.

  10. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a reduced production of red blood cells, including: Iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and ... inflammatory bowel disease are especially likely to have iron deficiency anemia. Anemia due to chronic disease. People with chronic ...

  11. Pulse pressure and diabetes treatments: Blood pressure and pulse pressure difference among glucose lowering modality groups in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemi, Hamid; Khaloo, Pegah; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Rabizadeh, Soghra; Salehi, Salome Sadat; Mirmiranpour, Hossein; Meftah, Neda; Esteghamati, Alireza; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr

    2018-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with higher pulse pressure. In this study, we assessed and compared effects of classic diabetes treatments on pulse pressure (PP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in patients with type 2 diabetes.In a retrospective cohort study, 718 non-hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes were selected and divided into 4 groups including metformin, insulin, glibenclamide+metformin, and metformin+insulin. They were followed for 4 consecutive visits lasting about 45.5 months. Effects of drug regimens on pulse and blood pressure over time were assessed separately and compared in regression models with generalized estimating equation method and were adjusted for age, duration of diabetes, sex, smoking, and body mass index (BMI).Studied groups had no significant change in PP, SBP, and DBP over time. No significant difference in PP and DBP among studied groups was observed (PP:P = 0.090; DBP:P = 0.063). Pairwise comparisons of PP, SBP, and DBP showed no statistically significant contrast between any 2 studied groups. Interactions of time and treatment were not different among groups.Our results demonstrate patients using metformin got higher PP and SBP over time. Averagely, pulse and blood pressure among groups were not different. Trends of variation in pulse and blood pressure were not different among studied diabetes treatments.

  12. Cilnidipine lowered psychological stress-induced increase in blood pressure in a hypertensive man: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuji Sadatoshi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In some hypertensive patients, psychological stress makes blood pressure difficult to control and causes physical symptoms such as headache or dizziness. We report the case of a hypertensive man whose psychological stress-induced increase in blood pressure was attenuated by cilnidipine. Case Presentation The patient (a 72-year-old man had hypertension and was on antihypertensive therapy. When mentally concentrating, he experienced occipital headaches and dizziness, and despite thorough testing, no abnormality was found. He was subsequently referred to our department. The mirror drawing test (MDT, a psychological stress test, increased blood pressure by about 40 mmHg, and the patient described occipital headache. Plasma noradrenaline level also increased from 212 to 548 pg/ml. We therefore switched the patient from nifedipine, an L-type calcium (Ca channel blocker, to cilnidipine, an L-type/N-type Ca channel blocker with suppressive effects on sympathetic activity. Cilnipidine attenuated MDT-induced an increase in blood pressure and plasma noradrenaline level and prevented the development of headache during testing. Conclusion These findings suggest that cilnidipine is a useful antihypertensive agent for hypertensive patients in whom psychological stress causes marked fluctuations in blood pressure.

  13. Consumption of a polyphenol-rich grape-wine extract lowers ambulatory blood pressure in mildly hypertensive subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draijer, Richard; de Graaf, Young; Slettenaar, Marieke; de Groot, Eric; Wright, Chris I.

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenols in grape and wine have been suggested to contribute to the cardiovascular health benefits of the Mediterranean lifestyle. The reported effects of grape products on blood pressure (BP) remain, however, equivocal. In a double-blind placebo controlled crossover study, the effect of two

  14. Diagnostic thresholds for ambulatory blood pressure moving lower: a review based on a meta-analysis-clinical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T.W.; Kikuya, M.; Thijs, L.

    2008-01-01

    Upper limits of normal ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) have been a matter of debate in recent years. Current diagnostic thresholds for ABP rely mainly on statistical parameters derived from reference populations. Recent findings from the International Database of Ambulatory Blood Pressure...... in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcome (IDACO) provide outcome-driven thresholds for ABP. Rounded systolic/diastolic thresholds for optimal ABP were found to be 115/75 mm Hg for 24 hours, 120/80 mm Hg for daytime, and 100/65 mm Hg for nighttime. The corresponding rounded thresholds for normal ABP were 125...... database is therefore being updated with additional population cohorts to enable the construction of multifactorial risk score charts, which also include ABP Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5...

  15. Androgenic alopecia is associated with less dietary soy, lower [corrected] blood vanadium and rs1160312 1 polymorphism in Taiwanese communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Huang Lai

    Full Text Available Although the genetic basis of androgenic alopecia has been clearly established, little is known about its non-genetic causes, such as environmental and lifestyle factors.This study investigated blood and urine heavy metals concentrations, environmental exposure factors, personal behaviors, dietary intakes and the genotypes of related susceptibility genes in patients with androgenic alopecia (AGA.Age, AGA level, residence area, work hours, sleep patterns, cigarette usage, alcohol consumption, betel nut usage, hair treatments, eating habits, body heavy metals concentrations and rs1998076, rs913063, rs1160312 and rs201571 SNP genotype data were collected from 354 men. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine whether any of the factors displayed odds ratios (ORs indicating association with moderate to severe AGA (≥ IV. Subsequently, Hosmer-Lemeshow, Nagelkerke R(2 and accuracy tests were conducted to help establish an optimal model.Moderate to severe AGA was associated with the AA genotype of rs1160312 (22.50, 95% CI 3.99-126.83, blood vanadium concentration (0.02, 95% CI 0.01-0.04, and regular consumption of soy bean drinks (0.23, 95% CI 0.06-0.85, after adjustment for age. The results were corroborated by the Hosmer-Lemeshow test (P = 0.73, Nagelkerke R(2 (0.59, accuracy test (0.816 and area under the curve (AUC; 0.90, 0.847-0.951 analysis.Blood vanadium and frequent soy bean drink consumption may provide protect effects against AGA. Accordingly, blood vanadium concentrations, the AA genotype of rs1160312 and frequent consumption of soy bean drinks are associated with AGA.

  16. Androgenic alopecia is associated with less dietary soy, lower [corrected] blood vanadium and rs1160312 1 polymorphism in Taiwanese communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-Huang; Chu, Nain-Feng; Chang, Chi-Wen; Wang, Shu-Li; Yang, Hsin-Chou; Chu, Chi-Ming; Chang, Chu-Ting; Lin, Ming-Huang; Chien, Wu-Chien; Su, Sui-Lung; Chou, Yu-Ching; Chen, Kang-Hua; Wang, Wei-Ming; Liou, Saou-Hsing

    2013-01-01

    Although the genetic basis of androgenic alopecia has been clearly established, little is known about its non-genetic causes, such as environmental and lifestyle factors. This study investigated blood and urine heavy metals concentrations, environmental exposure factors, personal behaviors, dietary intakes and the genotypes of related susceptibility genes in patients with androgenic alopecia (AGA). Age, AGA level, residence area, work hours, sleep patterns, cigarette usage, alcohol consumption, betel nut usage, hair treatments, eating habits, body heavy metals concentrations and rs1998076, rs913063, rs1160312 and rs201571 SNP genotype data were collected from 354 men. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine whether any of the factors displayed odds ratios (ORs) indicating association with moderate to severe AGA (≥ IV). Subsequently, Hosmer-Lemeshow, Nagelkerke R(2) and accuracy tests were conducted to help establish an optimal model. Moderate to severe AGA was associated with the AA genotype of rs1160312 (22.50, 95% CI 3.99-126.83), blood vanadium concentration (0.02, 95% CI 0.01-0.04), and regular consumption of soy bean drinks (0.23, 95% CI 0.06-0.85), after adjustment for age. The results were corroborated by the Hosmer-Lemeshow test (P = 0.73), Nagelkerke R(2) (0.59), accuracy test (0.816) and area under the curve (AUC; 0.90, 0.847-0.951) analysis. Blood vanadium and frequent soy bean drink consumption may provide protect effects against AGA. Accordingly, blood vanadium concentrations, the AA genotype of rs1160312 and frequent consumption of soy bean drinks are associated with AGA.

  17. Creation of an iliac arteriovenous shunt lowers blood pressure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with hypertension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Faul, John

    2014-01-28

    Vasodilators are used with caution in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We have developed a device for percutaneous arteriovenous shunt creation in the iliac region to increase cardiac output and oxygen delivery for patients with COPD. Although this device does not cause significant blood pressure changes in normotensive patients with COPD, we hypothesized that arteriovenous shunt creation might cause vasodilator effects in hypertensive patients because of a reduction in vascular resistance.

  18. Prevention of Decline in Cognition after Stroke Trial (PODCAST): a study protocol for a factorial randomised controlled trial of intensive versus guideline lowering of blood pressure and lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Stroke is a common cause of cognitive impairment and dementia. However, effective strategies for reducing the risk of post-stroke dementia remain undefined. Potential strategies include intensive lowering of blood pressure and/or lipids. Methods/Design Design: multi-centre prospective randomised open-label blinded-endpoint controlled partial-factorial phase IV trial in secondary and primary care. Participants: 100 participants from 30 UK Stroke Research Network sites who are post- ischemic stroke or intracerebral haemorrhage by three to seven months. Interventions - all patients (1:1): intensive versus guideline blood pressure lowering (target systolic cognitive decline and dementia in people with ischemic stroke; and does ‘intensive’ blood pressure lowering therapy reduce cognitive decline and dementia in patients with hemorrhagic stroke. Primary outcome: Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised. Secondary outcomes: feasibility of recruitment and retention of participants, tolerability and safety of the interventions, achieving and maintaining the blood pressure and lipid targets, maintaining differences in systolic blood pressure (> 10 mmHg) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (> 1 mmol/l) between the treatment groups, and performing clinic and telephone follow-up of cognition measures. Randomisation: using stratification, minimization and simple randomization. Blinding: participants receive open-label management. Cognition is assessed both unblinded (in clinic) and blinded (by telephone) to treatment. Adjudication of events (dementia, vascular, serious adverse events) is blinded to management. Discussion The PODCAST trial is ongoing with 78 patients recruited to date from 22 sites. Outcomes of cognitive impairment and dementia are accruing. Trial registration ISRCTN85562386 PMID:24266960

  19. Rapid Blood Pressure Lowering According to Recovery at Different Time Intervals after Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Pooled Analysis of the INTERACT Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Arima, Hisatomi; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Woodward, Mark; Heeley, Emma; Stapf, Christian; Lavados, Pablo M; Robinson, Thompson; Huang, Yining; Wang, Jiguang; Delcourt, Candice; Anderson, Craig S

    2015-01-01

    Early intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering has been shown to improve functional outcome in acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), but the treatment effect is modest and without a clearly defined underlying explanatory mechanism. We aimed at more reliably quantifying the benefits of this treatment according to different time periods in the recovery of participants in the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial (INTERACT) studies. Pooled analysis of the pilot INTERACT1 (n = 404) and main INTERACT2 (n = 2,839) involving patients with spontaneous ICH (patient characteristic subgroups, with trends favoring those randomized early, and with higher SBP and milder neurological severity at baseline. Intensive BP lowering provides beneficial effects on physical functioning that manifests consistently through the early and later phases of recovery from ICH. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. The calorically restricted low-fat nutrient-dense diet in Biosphere 2 significantly lowers blood glucose, total leukocyte count, cholesterol, and blood pressure in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walford, R L; Harris, S B; Gunion, M W

    1992-12-01

    Biosphere 2 is a 3.15-acre space containing an ecosystem that is energetically open (sunlight, electric power, and heat) but materially closed, with air, water, and organic material being recycled. Since September 1991, eight subjects (four women and four men) have been sealed inside, living on food crops grown within. Their diet, low in calories (average, 1780 kcal/day; 1 kcal = 4.184 kJ), low in fat (10% of calories), and nutrient-dense, conforms to that which in numerous animal experiments has promoted health, retarded aging, and extended maximum life span. We report here medical data on the eight subjects, comparing preclosure data with data through 6 months of closure. Significant changes included: (i) weight, 74 to 62 kg (men) and 61 to 54 kg (women); (ii) mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure (eight subjects), 109/74 to 89/58 mmHg (1 mmHg = 133 Pa); (iii) total serum cholesterol, from 191 +/- 11 to 123 +/- 9 mg/dl (mean +/- SD; 36% mean reduction), and high density lipoprotein, from 62 +/- 8 to 38 +/- 5 (risk ratio unchanged); (iv) triglyceride, 139 to 96 mg/dl (men) and 78 to 114 mg/dl (women); (v) fasting glucose, 92 to 74 mg/dl; (vi) leukocyte count, 6.7 to 4.7 x 10(9) cells per liter. We conclude that drastic reductions in cholesterol and blood pressure may be instituted in normal individuals in Western countries by application of a carefully chosen diet and that a low-calorie nutrient-dense regime shows physiologic features in humans similar to those in other animal species.

  1. A difference in systolic blood pressure between arms and between lower limbs is a novel risk marker for diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Hiroshi; Fukui, Michiaki; Tanaka, Muhei; Matsumoto, Shinobu; Mineoka, Yusuke; Nakanishi, Naoko; Asano, Mai; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that a difference in systolic blood pressure (SBP) between arms is associated with both vascular disease and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between a difference in SBP between arms and between lower limbs and the degree of albuminuria, which is an established marker for cardiovascular disease and diabetic nephropathy in patients with Type 2 diabetes. We measured blood pressure in the arms and lower limbs of 314 consecutive patients with Type 2 diabetes, and we calculated a difference in SBP between arms and between lower limbs. We then evaluated the relationship of the difference in SBP between arms and between lower limbs to the degree of urinary albumin excretion (UAE). The average difference in SBP between arms and between lower limbs was 3.52±3.94 and 9.66±14.1 mm Hg, respectively. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that a difference in SBP between arms (β=0.172, P=0.0239) and between lower limbs (β=0.238, P=0.0033) independently correlated with the logarithm of the UAE. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that a difference in SBP of 10 mm Hg between arms (odds ratio 12.23 (95% CI 1.130-132.35), Pdifference in SBP of 15 mm Hg between lower limbs (odds ratio 4.291 (95% CI 1.403-13.123), Pdifference in SBP between arms and between lower limbs, therefore, could be a novel risk marker for diabetic nephropathy in patients with Type 2 diabetes.

  2. A Common Allele in FGF21 Associated with Sugar Intake Is Associated with Body Shape, Lower Total Body-Fat Percentage, and Higher Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M. Frayling

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is a hormone that has insulin-sensitizing properties. Some trials of FGF21 analogs show weight loss and lipid-lowering effects. Recent studies have shown that a common allele in the FGF21 gene alters the balance of macronutrients consumed, but there was little evidence of an effect on metabolic traits. We studied a common FGF21 allele (A:rs838133 in 451,099 people from the UK Biobank study, aiming to use the human allele to inform potential adverse and beneficial effects of targeting FGF21. We replicated the association between the A allele and higher percentage carbohydrate intake. We then showed that this allele is more strongly associated with higher blood pressure and waist-hip ratio, despite an association with lower total body-fat percentage, than it is with BMI or type 2 diabetes. These human phenotypes of variation in the FGF21 gene will inform research into FGF21’s mechanisms and therapeutic potential. : Drugs targeting the hormone FGF21 may have beneficial health effects. Variations in human DNA in the FGF21 gene provide an indication of what those effects may be. Here, we show that variation in the FGF21 gene is associated with higher blood pressure and altered body shape, despite lower total body-fat percentage. Keywords: FGF21, BMI, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, body fat, allele, genetic variant, UK Biobank

  3. Effect of beetroot juice on lowering blood pressure in free-living, disease-free adults: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coles Leah T

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The consumption of beetroot juice on a low nitrate diet may lower blood pressure (BP and therefore reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. However, it is unknown if its inclusion as part of a normal diet has a similar effect on BP. The aim of the study was to conduct a randomized controlled trial with free-living adults to investigate if consuming beetroot juice in addition to a normal diet produces a measureable reduction in BP. Method Fifteen women and fifteen men participated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Volunteers were randomized to receive 500 g of beetroot and apple juice (BJ or a placebo juice (PL. Volunteers had BP measured at baseline and at least hourly for 24-h following juice consumption using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor (ABPM. Volunteers remained at the clinic for 1-h before resuming normal non-strenuous daily activities. The identical procedure was repeated 2-wk later with the drink (BJ or PL not consumed on the first visit. Results Overall, there was a trend (P=0.064 to lower systolic blood pressure (SBP at 6-h after drinking BJ relative to PL. Analysis in men only (n=13 after adjustment for baseline differences demonstrated a significant (P Conclusions Beetroot juice will lower BP in men when consumed as part of a normal diet in free-living healthy adults. Trial registration anzctr.org.au ACTRN12612000445875

  4. Blood Pressure Lowering and Safety Improvements With Liver Angiotensinogen Inhibition in Models of Hypertension and Kidney Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullick, Adam E; Yeh, Steve T; Graham, Mark J; Engelhardt, Jeffery A; Prakash, Thazha P; Crooke, Rosanne M

    2017-09-01

    Uncontrolled hypertension is an important contributor to cardiovascular disease. Despite the armamentarium of antihypertensive treatments, there remains a need for novel agents effective in individuals who cannot reach acceptable blood pressure levels. Inhibitors targeting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) are widely used but may not optimally inhibit RAAS and demonstrate an acceptable safety profile. Experiments were conducted to characterize a series of AGT (angiotensinogen) antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) and compare their efficacy and tolerability to traditional RAAS blockade. AGT ASOs which target multiple systemic sites of AGT versus an N-acetylgalactosamine-conjugated AGT ASO that targets the liver were compared with captopril and losartan. Spontaneously hypertensive rats fed an 8% NaCl diet, a model of malignant hypertension resistant to standard RAAS inhibitors, demonstrated robust and durable blood pressure reductions with AGT ASO treatments, which was not observed with standard RAAS blockade. Studies in rat models of acute kidney injury produced by salt deprivation revealed kidney injury with ASO treatment that reduced kidney-expressed AGT, but not in animals treated with the N-acetylgalactosamine AGT ASO despite comparable plasma AGT reductions. Administration of either captopril or losartan also produced acute kidney injury during salt deprivation. Thus, intrarenal RAAS derived from kidney AGT, and inhibited by the standard of care, contributes to the maintenance of renal function during severe RAAS challenge. Such improvements in efficacy and tolerability by a liver-selective AGT inhibitor could be desirable in individuals not at their blood pressure goal with existing RAAS blockade. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. High-intensity interval training lowers blood pressure and improves apelin and NOx plasma levels in older treated hypertensive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Mohammad Reza; Ghardashi Afousi, Alireza; Asvadi Fard, Maryam; Babaee Bigi, Mohammad Ali

    2018-02-01

    Hypertension is the major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is one of the primary causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Apelin levels and NO bioavailability are impaired in older hypertensive patients. Exercise is an effective intervention for treating hypertension. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity interval training on blood pressure, apelin, and NOx plasma levels in older treated hypertensive individuals. Thirty treated hypertensive subjects (61.70 ± 5.78 years, 17 males, 13 females) were randomly divided into 6 weeks of high-intensity interval training (n = 15) and control (n = 15). The exercise training was conducted for three 35-min sessions a week (1.5-min interval at 85-90% of heart rate reserve [HRR] and 2 min active phase at 50-55% of HRR). Assessment of plasma apelin, nitrite/nitrate (NOx), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) was performed before and after the intervention. At the end of the study, apelin, and NOx plasma levels increased significantly in the high-intensity interval training (HIIT) group (P = 0.021, P = 0.003, respectively). Conversely, ET-1 plasma levels significantly decreased in the training group after the intervention (P = 0.015). Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the change of plasma apelin and change of plasma NOx (r = 0. 771, P = 0.0008). In addition, there was a negative correlation between the change of plasma ET-1, change of plasma apelin (r = - 0.595, P = 0.019), and variation of NOx (r = - 0.572, P = 0.025). This study indicates that, by increasing of apelin and NOx plasma levels, HIIT may be effective in reducing blood pressure.

  6. Review of human studies investigating the post-prandial blood-glucose lowering ability of oat and barley food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosh, S M

    2013-04-01

    Oat and barley foods have been shown to reduce human glycaemic response, compared to similar wheat foods or a glucose control. The strength of the evidence supporting the hypothesis that the soluble fibre, mixed linkage β-glucan, reduces glycaemic response was evaluated. A search of the literature was conducted to find clinical trials with acute glycaemic response as an end point using oat or barley products. Of the 76 human studies identified, 34 met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Dose response and ratio of β-glucan to available carbohydrate as predictors of glycaemic response were assessed. Meals provided 0.3-12.1 g oat or barley β-glucan, and reduced glycaemic response by an average of 48 ± 33 mmol · min/l compared to a suitable control. Regression analysis on 119 treatments indicated that change in glycaemic response (expressed as incremental area under the post-prandial blood-glucose curve) was greater for intact grains than for processed foods. For processed foods, glycaemic response was more strongly related to the β-glucan dose alone (r(2)=0.48, Pfoods containing 4 g of β-glucan, the linear model predicted a decrease in glycaemic response of 27 ± 3 mmol · min/l, and 76% of treatments significantly reduced glycaemic response. Thus, intact grains as well as a variety of processed oat and barley foods containing at least 4 g of β-glucan and 30-80 g available carbohydrate can significantly reduce post-prandial blood glucose.

  7. Analysis of the dynamics of venous blood flow in the context of lower limb temperature distribution and tissue composition in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skomudek A

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aleksandra Skomudek,1,2 Iwona Gilowska,1,3 Ryszard Jasiński,4 Krystyna Rożek-Piechura4 1Department of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, Opole University of Technology, Opolskie, 2Department of Clinical Physiotherapy, 3Department of Biochemistry and Physiology, 4Department of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy in Conservative and Interventional Medicine, University of Physical Education in Wroclaw, Wroclaw, Poland Objective: The elderly are particularly vulnerable to degenerative diseases, such as circulatory and respiratory system and vascular system diseases. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate the distribution of temperature and the dynamics of venous blood flow in the lower limbs (LLs and to assess the interdependence of these parameters in terms of the somatic components in males and females participating in activities at the University of the Third Age. Materials and methods: The study included 60 females (mean age 67.4 years and 40 males (mean age 67.5 years. A body composition assessment was performed using the bioimpedance technique – Tanita BC-418MA. The following parameters were examined: fat%, fat mass, fat-free mass, and total body water. The minimal, maximal, and mean temperature values and their distributions were examined using infrared thermographic camera VarioCAM Head. Measurements of the venous refilling time and the work of the LL venous pump were examined using a Rheo Dopplex II PPG. Results: In males, the mean value of the right LL temperature was 30.58 and the mean value of the left LL was 30.28; the P-value was 0.805769. In females, the mean value of the right LL temperature was 29.58 and the mean value of the left limb was 29.52; the P-value was 0.864773. In males, the right limb blood flow was 34.17 and the left limb blood flow was 34.67; the P-value was 0.359137. In females, the right limb blood flow was 26.89 and the left limb blood flow was 26.09; the P-value was 0.796348. Conclusion

  8. UBC-Nepal expedition: markedly lower cerebral blood flow in high-altitude Sherpa children compared with children residing at sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flück, Daniela; Morris, Laura E; Niroula, Shailesh; Tallon, Christine M; Sherpa, Kami T; Stembridge, Mike; Ainslie, Philip N; McManus, Ali M

    2017-10-01

    Developmental cerebral hemodynamic adaptations to chronic high-altitude exposure, such as in the Sherpa population, are largely unknown. To examine hemodynamic adaptations in the developing human brain, we assessed common carotid (CCA), internal carotid (ICA), and vertebral artery (VA) flow and middle cerebral artery (MCA) velocity in 25 (9.6 ± 1.0 yr old, 129 ± 9 cm, 27 ± 8 kg, 14 girls) Sherpa children (3,800 m, Nepal) and 25 (9.9 ± 0.7 yr old, 143 ± 7 cm, 34 ± 6 kg, 14 girls) age-matched sea level children (344 m, Canada) during supine rest. Resting gas exchange, blood pressure, oxygen saturation and heart rate were assessed. Despite comparable age, height and weight were lower (both P sea level children. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and ventilation were similar, whereas oxygen saturation (95 ± 2 vs. 99 ± 1%, P sea level children. This was reflected in a lower ICA flow (283 ± 108 vs. 333 ± 56 ml/min, P = 0.05), VA flow (78 ± 26 vs. 118 ± 35 ml/min, P sea level children (425 ± 92 vs. 441 ± 81 ml/min, P = 0.52). Scaling flow and oxygen uptake for differences in vessel diameter and body size, respectively, led to the same findings. A lower cerebral blood flow in Sherpa children may reflect specific cerebral hemodynamic adaptations to chronic hypoxia. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Cerebral blood flow is lower in Sherpa children compared with children residing at sea level; this may reflect a cerebral hemodynamic pattern, potentially due to adaptation to a hypoxic environment. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Reduced transcapillary escape of albumin during acute blood pressure-lowering in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Kastrup, J; Smidt, U M

    1985-01-01

    The effect of acute arterial blood pressure lowering upon albumin extravasation was studied in 10 patients with nephropathy and retinopathy due to long-standing Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. The following variables were measured: transcapillary escape rate of albumin (initial disappearance....... This may be due to elevated hydrostatic pressure in the microcirculation.......The effect of acute arterial blood pressure lowering upon albumin extravasation was studied in 10 patients with nephropathy and retinopathy due to long-standing Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. The following variables were measured: transcapillary escape rate of albumin (initial disappearance...... induced the following changes: arterial blood pressure decreased from 134/87 to 107/73 mmHg (p less than 0.01), transcapillary escape rate of albumin declined from 8.1 to 6.7% of the intravascular mass of albumin/h (p less than 0.01), albuminuria diminished from 1434 to 815 micrograms/min (p less than 0...

  10. Comparison of Doppler and oscillometric ankle blood pressure measurement in patients with angiographically documented lower extremity arterial occlusive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nukumizu, Yoshihito; Matsushita, Masahiro; Sakurai, Tsunehisa; Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Nishikimi, Naomichi; Komori, Kimihiro

    2007-01-01

    To assess the reliability of the oscillometric method in patients with peripheral vascular disease, ankle blood pressure measurement by Doppler and oscillometry was compared. This study represents a prospective, non-blinded examination of pressure measurements in 168 patients. Twenty-two patients were included who had abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) and 146 had peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). Patients with PAOD were divided into 2 groups according to angiography results: a crural artery occlusion group (CAO, n = 32), and a no crural artery occlusion group (NCAO, n = 114). All subjects underwent pressure measurement by both Doppler and oscillometry. The correlation coefficient was 0.928 in AAA patients and 0.922 in PAOD patients. In CAO patients, there were significantly fewer patients whose oscillometric pressure was equivalent to the Doppler pressure (DP), as compared to NCAO patients, because the oscillometric pressure (OP) was 10% higher than DP in 44% of CAO patients. A high correlation exists between Doppler and oscillometric ankle pressure measurements irrespective of the type of vascular disease. However, the oscillometric method could not be substituted for the Doppler method completely, because there were several patients whose OP was greater than DP especially in those with crural artery occlusive disease.

  11. Uncomplicated human type 2 diabetes is associated with meal-induced blood pressure lowering and cardiac output increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Mark M; Muskiet, Marcel H A; Tushuizen, Maarten E; Kwa, Kelly A A; Karemaker, John M; van Raalte, Daniël H; Diamant, Michaela

    2014-12-01

    Since many type 2 diabetes patients experience postprandial hypotension, the aim of this study was to unravel meal-related changes in systemic hemodynamics and autonomic nervous system (ANS)-balance. Forty-two age-matched males (15 type 2 diabetes; 12 metabolic syndrome; 15 controls) without overt autonomic neuropathy received a standardized high-fat mixed meal after an overnight fast. Hemodynamic variables were measured by finger plethysmography. Fourier analysis was used to calculate the low-/high-frequency (LF/HF)-ratio, a marker of autonomic nervous system-balance, and baroreceptor reflex sensitivity (BRS). Following the meal, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) decreased in type 2 diabetes patients only, paralleled by a significant decrement in systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and an increase in cardiac index. All groups showed an increase in postprandial heart rate. Controls, but not metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes patients, showed a meal-related increase in LF/HF-ratio. When combining all study subjects, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was inversely correlated with changes in DBP, SVR, LF/HF-ratio and BRS. Based on these data, we hypothesize that in patients with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance hampers adequate meal-induced sympathetic activation, leading to a decrease in SVR and resulting in a postprandial drop in DBP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Overexpression of ß-Arrestin1 in the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla Downregulates Angiotensin Receptor and Lowers Blood Pressure in Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jia-Cen; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Ru-Wen; Jiao, Pei-Lei; Tan, Xing; Wang, Yang-Kai; Wang, Wei-Zhong

    2018-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is characterized by sympathetic overactivity, which is associated with an enhancement in angiotensin receptor type I (AT1R) in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). β-arrestin1, a canonical scaffold protein, has been suggested to show a negative effect on G protein-coupled receptors via its internalization and desensitization and/or the biased signaling pathway. The major objectives of the present study were to observe the effect of β-arrestin1 overexpression in the RVLM on cardiovascular regulation in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and further determine the effect of β-arrestin1 on AT1R expression in the RVLM. Methods: The animal model of β-arrestin1 overexpression was induced by bilateral injection of adeno-associated virus containing Arrb1 gene (AAV-Arrb1) into the RVLM of WKY and SHR. Results: β-arrestin1 was expressed on the pre-sympathetic neurons in the RVLM, and its expression in the RVLM was significantly ( P Overexpression of β-arrestin1 in SHR significantly decreased baseline levels of blood pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity, and attenuated cardiovascular effects induced by RVLM injection of angiotensin II (100 pmol). Furthermore, β-arrestin1 overexpression in the RVLM significantly reduced the expression of AT1R by 65% and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation by 66% in SHR. It was confirmed that β-arrestin1 overexpression in the RVLM led to an enhancement of interaction between β-arrestin1 and IκB-α. Conclusion: Overexpression of β-arrestin1 in the RVLM reduces BP and sympathetic outflow in hypertension, which may be associated with NFκB-mediated AT1R downregulation.

  13. Overexpression of ß-Arrestin1 in the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla Downregulates Angiotensin Receptor and Lowers Blood Pressure in Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Cen Sun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is characterized by sympathetic overactivity, which is associated with an enhancement in angiotensin receptor type I (AT1R in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM. β-arrestin1, a canonical scaffold protein, has been suggested to show a negative effect on G protein-coupled receptors via its internalization and desensitization and/or the biased signaling pathway. The major objectives of the present study were to observe the effect of β-arrestin1 overexpression in the RVLM on cardiovascular regulation in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, and further determine the effect of β-arrestin1 on AT1R expression in the RVLM.Methods: The animal model of β-arrestin1 overexpression was induced by bilateral injection of adeno-associated virus containing Arrb1 gene (AAV-Arrb1 into the RVLM of WKY and SHR.Results: β-arrestin1 was expressed on the pre-sympathetic neurons in the RVLM, and its expression in the RVLM was significantly (P < 0.05 downregulated by an average of 64% in SHR than WKY. Overexpression of β-arrestin1 in SHR significantly decreased baseline levels of blood pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity, and attenuated cardiovascular effects induced by RVLM injection of angiotensin II (100 pmol. Furthermore, β-arrestin1 overexpression in the RVLM significantly reduced the expression of AT1R by 65% and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation by 66% in SHR. It was confirmed that β-arrestin1 overexpression in the RVLM led to an enhancement of interaction between β-arrestin1 and IκB-α.Conclusion: Overexpression of β-arrestin1 in the RVLM reduces BP and sympathetic outflow in hypertension, which may be associated with NFκB-mediated AT1R downregulation.

  14. The Aqueous Calyx Extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa Lowers Blood Pressure and Heart Rate via Sympathetic Nervous System Dependent Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, B; Oyeniyi, Y J; Mojiminiyi, F B O; Isezuo, S A; Alada, A R A

    2014-12-29

    The antihypertensive effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) has been validated in animals and man. This study tested the hypothesis that its hypotensive effect may be sympathetically mediated. The cold pressor test (CPT) and handgrip exercise (HGE) were performed in 20 healthy subjects before and after the oral administration of 15mg/Kg HS. The blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) responses were measured digitally. Mean arterial pressure (MAP; taken as representative BP) was calculated. Results are expressed as mean ±SEM. P<0.05 was considered significant. CPT without HS resulted in a significant rise in MAP and HR (111.1±2.1mmHg and 100.8±2.0/min) from the basal values (97.9±1.9mmHg and 87.8±2.1/min; P<0.0001 respectively). In the presence of HS, CPT-induced changes (ΔMAP=10.1±1.7mmHg; ΔHR= 8.4±1.0/min) were significantly reduced compared to its absence (ΔMAP= 13.2±1.2mmHg; ΔHR= 13.8±1.6/min; P<0.0001 respectively). The HGE done without HS also resulted in an increase in MAP and HR (116.3±2.1mmHg and 78.4±1.2/min) from the basal values (94.8±1.6mmHg and 76.1±1.0/min; p<0.0001 respectively). In the presence of HS the HGE-induced changes (ΔMAP= 11.5±1.0mmHg; ΔHR= 3.3±1.0/min) were significantly decreased compared to its absence (ΔMAP=21.4±1.2mmHg; ΔHR= 12.8±2.0/min; P<0.0001 respectively). The CPT and HGE -induced increases in BP and HR suggest Sympathetic nervous system activation. These increases were significantly dampened by HS suggesting, indirectly, that its hypotensive effect may be due to an attenuation of the discharge of the sympathetic nervous system.

  15. Sensory stimulation for lowering intraocular pressure, improving blood flow to the optic nerve and neuroprotection in primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Edith

    2013-12-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma is a group of optic neuropathies that can lead to irreversible blindness. Sensory stimulation in the form of acupuncture or ear acupressure may contribute to protecting patients from blindness when used as a complementary method to orthodox treatment in the form of drops, laser or surgery. The objective of this article is to provide a narrative overview of the available literature up to July 2012. It summarises reported evidence on the potential beneficial effects of sensory stimulation for glaucoma. Sensory stimulation appears to significantly enhance the pressure-lowering effect of orthodox treatments. Studies suggest that it may also improve blood flow to the eye and optic nerve head. Furthermore, it may play a role in neuroprotection through regulating nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and their receptors, thereby encouraging the survival pathway in contrast to the pathway to apoptosis. Blood flow and neuroprotection are areas that are not directly influenced by orthodox treatment modalities. Numerous different treatment protocols were used to investigate the effect of sensory stimulation on intraocular pressure, blood flow or neuroprotection of the retina and optic nerve in the animal model and human pilot studies. Objective outcomes were reported to have been evaluated with Goldmann tonometry, Doppler ultrasound techniques and electrophysiology (pattern electroretinography, visually evoked potentials), and supported with histological studies in the animal model. Taken together, reported evidence from these studies strongly suggests that sensory stimulation is worthy of further research.

  16. Twenty weeks of isometric handgrip home training to lower blood pressure in hypertensive older adults: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Martin Grønbech; Ryg, Jesper; Danielsen, Mathias Brix; Madeleine, Pascal; Andersen, Stig

    2018-02-09

    Hypertension markedly increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases and overall mortality. Lifestyle modifications, such as increased levels of physical activity, are recommended as the first line of anti-hypertensive treatment. A recent systematic review showed that isometric handgrip (IHG) training was superior to traditional endurance and strength training in lowering resting systolic blood pressure (SBP). The average length of previous IHG training studies is approximately 7.5 weeks with the longest being 10 weeks. Therefore, presently it is unknown if it is possible to further lower blood pressure levels beyond the 10-week mark. Recently, we developed a novel method for monitoring handgrip intensity using a standard Nintendo Wii Board (Wii). The primary aim of this study is to explore the effects of a 20-week IHG home training facilitated by a Wii in hypertensive older adults (50 + years of age) on lowering SBP compared to usual care. Secondary aims are to explore if/when a leveling-off effect on SBP will occur during the 20-week intervention period in the training group and to explore adherence and potential harms related to the IHG home training. Based on previous evidence, we calculated that 50 hypertensive (SBP between 140 and 179 mmHg), older adults (50 + years of age) are needed to achieve a power of 80% or more. Participants will be randomly assigned to either an intervention >group (IHG home training + hypertension guidelines on lifestyle changes) or to a control group (hypertension guidelines on lifestyle changes). Participants in the intervention group will perform IHG home training (30% of maximum grip strength for a total of 8 min per day per hand) three times a week for 20 weeks. Resting blood pressure and maximal handgrip strength will be obtained by a blinded outcome assessor in both groups at specific time points (baseline, follow-up at 5, 10, 15, and 20 weeks) throughout the study. This assessor-blinded, randomized controlled

  17. A comparison of whole body vibration and moist heat on lower extremity skin temperature and skin blood flow in healthy older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Everett B; Sackiriyas, Kanikkai Steni Balan; Bains, Gurinder S; Calandra, Giovanni; Lobo, Crystal; Nakhro, Daniel; Malthankar, Gauri; Paul, Sherwine

    2012-07-01

    Tissue healing is an intricate process that is regulated by circulation. Heat modalities have been shown to improve skin circulation. Recent research supports that passive vibration increases circulation without risk of burns. Study purpose is to compare and determine effects of short duration vibration, moist heat, and a combination of the two on skin blood flow (SBF) and skin temperature (ST) in elderly, non-diabetic individuals following short-term exposure. Ten subjects, 3 female and 7 male (55-73 years of age), received two interventions over three days: 1--Active vibration, 2--passive vibration, 3--moist heat, 4--moist heat combined with passive vibration (MHPV), 5--a commercial massaging heating pad, and 6--no intervention. SBF and ST were measured using a MOOR Laser Doppler before and after the intervention and the third measurement were taken 10 minutes following. Mean SBF following a ten-minute intervention were significantly different in the combination of moist heat and passive vibration from the control, active vibration, and the commercial massaging heating pad. Compared to baseline measurements, this resulted in mean SBF elevation to 450% (at conclusion of 10 minutes of intervention) and 379% (10 minutes post). MHPV (p=0.02) showed significant changes in ST from the commercial massaging heating pad, passive vibration, and active vibration interventions. SBF in the lower legs showed greatest increase with MHPV. Interventions should be selected that are low risk while increasing lower extremity skin blood flow.

  18. A pilot study on the usefulness of peripheral blood flow cytometry for the diagnosis of lower risk myelodysplastic syndromes: the "MDS thermometer".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires, Ana; Teixeira, Maria Dos Anjos; Lau, Catarina; Moreira, Cláudia; Spínola, Ana; Mota, Alexandra; Freitas, Inês; Coutinho, Jorge; Lima, Margarida

    2018-01-01

    Immunophenotypic analysis of the bone marrow (BM) cells has proven to be helpful in the diagnosis of Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS). However, the usefulness of flow cytometry (FCM) for the detection of myelodysplasia in the peripheral blood (PB) still needs to be investigated. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the value of FCM-based PB neutrophil and monocyte immunophenotyping for the diagnosis of lower risk MDS (LR-MDS). We evaluated by 8-color FCM the expression of multiple cell surface molecules (CD10, CD11b, CD11c, CD13, CD14, CD15, CD16, CD34, CD45, CD56, CD64 and HLA-DR) in PB neutrophils and monocytes from a series of 14 adult LR-MDS patients versus 14 normal individuals. Peripheral blood neutrophils from patients with LR-MDS frequently had low forward scatter (FSC) and side scatter (SSC) values and low levels of CD11b, CD11c, CD10, CD16, CD13 and CD45 expression, in that order, as compared to normal neutrophils. In addition, patients with LR-MDS commonly display a higher fraction of CD14 + CD56 + and a lower fraction of CD14 + CD16 + monocytes in the PB. Based on these results, we proposed an immunophenotyping score based on which PB samples from patients with LR-MDS could be distinguished from normal PB samples with a sensitivity 93% and a specificity of 100%. In addition, we used this score to construct the MDS Thermometer, a screening tool for detection and monitoring of MDS in the PB in clinical practice. Peripheral blood neutrophil and monocyte immunophenotyping provide useful information for the diagnosis of LR-MDS, as a complement to cytomorphology. If validated by subsequent studies in larger series of MDS patients and extended to non-MDS patients with cytopenias, our findings may improve the diagnostic assessment and avoid invasive procedures in selected groups of MDS patients.

  19. Prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide combined with pre- and postnatal high-fat diet result in lowered blood pressure and insulin resistance in offspring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xue-Qin; Du, Jing-Xia; Li, Yan; Li, Meng; Zhang, Shou-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Adult metabolic syndrome may in part have origins in fetal or early life. This study was designed to explore the effect of prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide and high-fat diet on metabolic syndrome in offspring rats. 32 pregnant rats were randomly divided into four groups, including Control group; LPS group (pregnant rats were injected with LPS 0.4 mg/kg intraperitoneally on the 8(th), 10(th) and 12(th) day of pregnancy); High-fat group (maternal rats had high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation period, and their pups also had high-fat diet up to the third month of life); LPS + High-fat group (rats were exposed to the identical experimental scheme with LPS group and High-fat group). Blood pressure elevated in LPS group and High-fat group, reduced in LPS+High-fat group, accompanied by the increase of serum leptin level in LPS and High-fat group and increase of serum IL-6, TNF-a in High-fat group; both serum insulin and cholesterol increased in High-fat and LPS+High-fat group, as well as insulin in LPS group. HOMA-IR value increased in LPS, High-fat and LPS+High-fat group, and QUICKI decreased in these groups; H-E staining showed morphologically pathological changes in thoracic aorta and liver tissue in the three groups. Increased serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferase suggest impaired liver function in LPS+High-fat group. Prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide combined with pre- and postnatal high-fat diet result in lowered blood pressure, insulin resistance and impaired liver function in three-month old offspring rats. The lowered blood pressure might benefit from the predictive adaptive response to prenatal inflammation.

  20. Analysis of the dynamics of venous blood flow in the context of lower limb temperature distribution and tissue composition in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skomudek, Aleksandra; Gilowska, Iwona; Jasiński, Ryszard; Rożek-Piechura, Krystyna

    2017-01-01

    The elderly are particularly vulnerable to degenerative diseases, such as circulatory and respiratory system and vascular system diseases. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate the distribution of temperature and the dynamics of venous blood flow in the lower limbs (LLs) and to assess the interdependence of these parameters in terms of the somatic components in males and females participating in activities at the University of the Third Age. The study included 60 females (mean age 67.4 years) and 40 males (mean age 67.5 years). A body composition assessment was performed using the bioimpedance technique - Tanita BC-418MA. The following parameters were examined: fat%, fat mass, fat-free mass, and total body water. The minimal, maximal, and mean temperature values and their distributions were examined using infrared thermographic camera VarioCAM Head. Measurements of the venous refilling time and the work of the LL venous pump were examined using a Rheo Dopplex II PPG. In males, the mean value of the right LL temperature was 30.58 and the mean value of the left LL was 30.28; the P -value was 0.805769. In females, the mean value of the right LL temperature was 29.58 and the mean value of the left limb was 29.52; the P -value was 0.864773. In males, the right limb blood flow was 34.17 and the left limb blood flow was 34.67; the P -value was 0.359137. In females, the right limb blood flow was 26.89 and the left limb blood flow was 26.09; the P -value was 0.796348. Research results showed that the temperature distribution and the dynamics of blood flow are not significantly different between the right and left extremities in both males and females. However, significant temperature differences were found between the gender groups. Significantly higher temperature values in both the right and left extremities were recorded in males than in females.

  1. Adherence to Antihypertensive Treatment and the Blood Pressure-Lowering Effects of Renal Denervation in the Renal Denervation for Hypertension (DENERHTN) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Michel; Pereira, Helena; Hamdidouche, Idir; Gosse, Philippe; Monge, Matthieu; Bobrie, Guillaume; Delsart, Pascal; Mounier-Véhier, Claire; Courand, Pierre-Yves; Lantelme, Pierre; Denolle, Thierry; Dourmap-Collas, Caroline; Girerd, Xavier; Michel Halimi, Jean; Zannad, Faiez; Ormezzano, Olivier; Vaïsse, Bernard; Herpin, Daniel; Ribstein, Jean; Chamontin, Bernard; Mourad, Jean-Jacques; Ferrari, Emile; Plouin, Pierre-François; Jullien, Vincent; Sapoval, Marc; Chatellier, Gilles

    2016-09-20

    The DENERHTN trial (Renal Denervation for Hypertension) confirmed the blood pressure-lowering efficacy of renal denervation added to a standardized stepped-care antihypertensive treatment for resistant hypertension at 6 months. We report the influence of adherence to antihypertensive treatment on blood pressure control. One hundred six patients with hypertension resistant to 4 weeks of treatment with indapamide 1.5 mg/d, ramipril 10 mg/d (or irbesartan 300 mg/d), and amlodipine 10 mg/d were randomly assigned to renal denervation plus standardized stepped-care antihypertensive treatment, or the same antihypertensive treatment alone. For standardized stepped-care antihypertensive treatment, spironolactone 25 mg/d, bisoprolol 10 mg/d, prazosin 5 mg/d, and rilmenidine 1 mg/d were sequentially added at monthly visits if home blood pressure was ≥135/85 mm Hg after randomization. We assessed adherence to antihypertensive treatment at 6 months by drug screening in urine/plasma samples from 85 patients. The numbers of fully adherent (20/40 versus 21/45), partially nonadherent (13/40 versus 20/45), or completely nonadherent patients (7/40 versus 4/45) to antihypertensive treatment were not different in the renal denervation and the control groups, respectively (P=0.3605). The difference in the change in daytime ambulatory systolic blood pressure from baseline to 6 months between the 2 groups was -6.7 mm Hg (P=0.0461) in fully adherent and -7.8 mm Hg (P=0.0996) in nonadherent (partially nonadherent plus completely nonadherent) patients. The between-patient variability of daytime ambulatory systolic blood pressure was greater for nonadherent than for fully adherent patients. In the DENERHTN trial, the prevalence of nonadherence to antihypertensive drugs at 6 months was high (≈50%) but not different in the renal denervation and control groups. Regardless of adherence to treatment, renal denervation plus standardized stepped-care antihypertensive treatment resulted in

  2. Effect of Nordic Walking and Water Aerobics Training on Body Composition and the Blood Flow in Lower Extremities in Elderly Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasiński Ryszard

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nordic walking and water aerobics are very popular forms of physical activity in the elderly population. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of regular health training on the venous blood flow in lower extremities and body composition in women over 50 years old. Twenty-four women of mean age 57.9 (± 3.43 years, randomly divided into three groups (Nordic walking, water aerobics, and non-training, participated in the study. The training lasted 8 weeks, with one-hour sessions twice a week. Dietary habits were not changed. Before and after training vein refilling time and the function of the venous pump of the lower extremities were measured by photoplethysmography. Body composition was determined by bioelectrical impedance. Eight weeks of Nordic walking training improved the venous blood flow in lower extremities and normalized body composition in the direction of reducing chronic venous disorder risk factors. The average values of the refilling time variable (p = 0.04, p = 0.02, respectively decreased in both the right and the left leg. After training a statistically significant increase in the venous pump function index was found only in the right leg (p = 0.04. A significant increase in fat-free mass, body cell mass and total body water was observed (p = 0.01, whereas body mass, the body mass index, and body fat decreased (p < 0.03. With regard to water aerobic training, no similar changes in the functions of the venous system or body composition were observed.

  3. Lower blood pressure and apathy coincide in older persons with poorer functional ability: the Discontinuation of Antihypertensive Treatment in Elderly People (DANTE) Study Leiden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonen, Justine E F; Bertens, Anne Suzanne; Foster-Dingley, Jessica C; Smit, Roelof A J; van der Grond, Jeroen; de Craen, Anton J M; de Ruijter, Wouter; van der Mast, Roos C

    2015-01-01

    To examine the association between blood pressure (BP) measures and symptoms of apathy and depression in older adults with various levels of functional ability. Cross-sectional study using baseline data from the Discontinuation of Antihypertensive Treatment in Elderly people (DANTE) Study Leiden. Primary care setting, the Netherlands. Community-dwelling individuals aged 75 and older (N = 430). Systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured during home visits. Symptoms of apathy and depression were assessed using the Apathy Scale and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), respectively. Stratified linear regression was performed in participants with better and worse functional ability according to the median of the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. In participants with lower functional ability, each 10-mmHg lower SBP, DBP, and MAP was associated with higher Apathy Scale scores (0.63, 0.92, and 0.94 points, respectively, all P < .005) but not with GDS-15 scores. In participants with higher functional ability, BP measures were not associated with Apathy Scale or GDS-15 scores. In older participants with poorer functional ability, lower BP was associated with more symptoms of apathy but not depression. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  4. A Single Dose of Beetroot Gel Rich in Nitrate Does Not Improve Performance but Lowers Blood Glucose in Physically Active Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Vasconcellos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Beetroot consumption has been proposed to improve exercise performance, since the nitrate content of this food is able to stimulate the synthesis of nitric oxide. Objective. The acute effect of 100 g of a beetroot gel containing ~10 mmol of nitrate was tested on the nitric oxide synthesis, on metabolic and biochemical parameters, and on performance in physically active individuals. Methods. Through a double blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study, 25 healthy runners ingested a single dose of beetroot and placebo gels. Participants performed an aerobic exercise protocol on a treadmill (3 min warm-up of 40% peak oxygen consumption, 4 min at 90% of gas exchange threshold I and 70% (Δ maximal end speed until volitional fatigue. Results. Urinary levels of nitrite and nitrate increased after 90 min of beetroot gel ingestion. Plasma glucose concentrations lowered after the exercise and the decrease was maintained for 20 min. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, serum cortisol, and blood lactate were not altered after the beetroot gel ingestion compared to a placebo gel. Conclusion. The single dose of beetroot gel provoked an increase of nitric oxide synthesis although no improvement on the physical performance of athletes during aerobic submaximal exercise was observed.

  5. Localization of the acute lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage in vivo-in vitro labeling of red blood cells with sup(99m)Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguera, E.; Mothe, G.; Wyse, E.

    1984-01-01

    For the detection and localization of acute lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage in vivo-in vitro labeling of red blood cells with sup(99m)Tc and sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid has been sugested. The procedure for labeling RBC with sup(99m)Tc consisted in injecting IV 1 mg of ClSn; 20 minutes after injection of tin 10 cc of blood were withdrawn in a syringe containing 20 mCi of sup(99m)Tc; this was incubated for 10 minutes and then injected IV. Scintigraphy of the abdominal cavity was done in supine position and performed with a large field gamma camera with a parallel hole-low energy colimator. Computer adquisition of images was started 5 minutes after RBC injection and made at the rate of one enery 5 minutes for 45 minutes. 14 patients were studied divided in: a) control: 6 patients. b) with active gastrointestinal hemorrhage: 4 patients had positive scintigraphy. The hemorrhage was documented with superior mesenteric arteriography, endoscopy and/or necropsy. The sensitivity was 100%. In 4 out of 14 patients scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc RBC compared with simultaneous sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid demonstrated that all patients with positive sup(99m)Tc RBC had also positive sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid scintigraphy. c) without active gastrointestinal hemorrhage: all of them had negative scintigraphy (specificity 100%). Abdominal scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc RBC or sulfur colloid are both sensitive for detection and localization of lower gastrointestinal bleeding and the negative study suggests the absence of active hemorrhage. It is suggested that the sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid scintigraphy should be the initial procedure to study these patients and abdominal arteriography should be performed only in patients with positive abdominal scintigraphy. (M.E.L.) [es

  6. Nutraceuticals with a clinically detectable blood pressure‐lowering effect: a review of available randomized clinical trials and their meta‐analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Arrigo F G

    2016-01-01

    AIMS The aim of the present study was to review and comment on the available evidence on nutraceuticals with a clinically demonstrable blood pressure (BP)‐lowering effect. METHODS We reviewed studies published in the English language from 1990 to 2015 on dietary supplements or nutraceuticals claiming to show an effect on human BP. An initial list of possibly effective agents and studies was obtained from the online reference, the Natural Medicine Comprehensive Database. Using PubMed, we searched agents identified from this list using the MeSH terms ‘hypertension’, ‘blood pressure’, ‘dietary supplement’ and ‘nutraceuticals’, alone and in combination. We then focused our attention on meta‐analyses and randomized clinical trials. RESULTS Beyond the well‐known effects on BP of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and the Mediterranean diet, a large number of studies have investigated the possible BP‐lowering effect of different dietary supplements and nutraceuticals, most of which are antioxidant agents with a high tolerability and safety profile. In particular, a relatively large body of evidence supports the use of potassium, magnesium, L‐arginine, vitamin C, cocoa flavonoids, beetroot juice, coenzyme Q10, controlled‐release melatonin and aged garlic extract. The antihypertensive effect of all these nutraceuticals seems to be dose related and the overall tolerability is good. CONCLUSION Some nutraceuticals might have a positive impact on BP in humans. Further clinical research is needed, to identify from the available active nutraceuticals those with the best cost‐effectiveness and risk–benefit ratio for widespread and long‐term use in the general population with a low‐added cardiovascular risk related to uncomplicated hypertension. PMID:26852373

  7. Nutraceuticals with a clinically detectable blood pressure-lowering effect: a review of available randomized clinical trials and their meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Claudio; Cicero, Arrigo F G

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to review and comment on the available evidence on nutraceuticals with a clinically demonstrable blood pressure (BP)-lowering effect. We reviewed studies published in the English language from 1990 to 2015 on dietary supplements or nutraceuticals claiming to show an effect on human BP. An initial list of possibly effective agents and studies was obtained from the online reference, the Natural Medicine Comprehensive Database. Using PubMed, we searched agents identified from this list using the MeSH terms 'hypertension', 'blood pressure', 'dietary supplement' and 'nutraceuticals', alone and in combination. We then focused our attention on meta-analyses and randomized clinical trials. Beyond the well-known effects on BP of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and the Mediterranean diet, a large number of studies have investigated the possible BP-lowering effect of different dietary supplements and nutraceuticals, most of which are antioxidant agents with a high tolerability and safety profile. In particular, a relatively large body of evidence supports the use of potassium, magnesium, L-arginine, vitamin C, cocoa flavonoids, beetroot juice, coenzyme Q10, controlled-release melatonin and aged garlic extract. The antihypertensive effect of all these nutraceuticals seems to be dose related and the overall tolerability is good. Some nutraceuticals might have a positive impact on BP in humans. Further clinical research is needed, to identify from the available active nutraceuticals those with the best cost-effectiveness and risk-benefit ratio for widespread and long-term use in the general population with a low-added cardiovascular risk related to uncomplicated hypertension. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Sucralose enhances GLP-1 release and lowers blood glucose in the presence of carbohydrate in healthy subjects but not in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temizkan, S; Deyneli, O; Yasar, M; Arpa, M; Gunes, M; Yazici, D; Sirikci, O; Haklar, G; Imeryuz, N; Yavuz, D G

    2015-02-01

    Artificial sweeteners were thought to be metabolically inactive, but after demonstrating that the gustatory mechanism was also localized in the small intestine, suspicions about the metabolic effects of artificial sweeteners have emerged. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of artificial sweeteners (aspartame and sucralose) on blood glucose, insulin, c-peptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels. Eight newly diagnosed drug-naive type 2 diabetic patients (mean age 51.5±9.2 years; F/M: 4/4) and eight healthy subjects (mean age 45.0±4.1 years; F/M: 4/4) underwent 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). During OGTT, glucose, insulin, c-peptide and GLP-1 were measured at 15- min intervals for 120 min. The OGTTs were performed at three settings on different days, where subjects were given 72 mg of aspartame and 24 mg of sucralose in 200 ml of water or 200 ml of water alone 15 min before OGTT in a single-blinded randomized order. In healthy subjects, the total area under the curve (AUC) of glucose was statistically significantly lower in the sucralose setting than in the water setting (P=0.002). There was no difference between the aspartame setting and the water setting (P=0.53). Total AUC of insulin and c-peptide was similar in aspartame, sucralose and water settings. Total AUC of GLP-1 was significantly higher in the sucralose setting than in the water setting (P=0.04). Total AUC values of glucose, insulin, c-peptide and GLP-1 were not statistically different in three settings in type 2 diabetic patients. Sucralose enhances GLP-1 release and lowers blood glucose in the presence of carbohydrate in healthy subjects but not in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients.

  9. Foot reflexology can increase vagal modulation, decrease sympathetic modulation, and lower blood pressure in healthy subjects and patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wan-An; Chen, Gau-Yang; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2011-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has long been used by people to postpone the aging process and to reverse disease progression. Reflexology is a CAM method that involves massage to reflex areas in the feet and hands. This study investigated the effect of foot reflexology (FR) on the autonomic nervous modulation in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) by using heart rate variability analysis. Seventeen people with angiographically patent coronary arteries and 20 patients with CAD scheduled for coronary artery bypass graft surgery were recruited as the control and CAD groups, respectively. The normalized high-frequency power (nHFP) was used as the index of vagal modulation and the normalized very low-frequency power (nVLFP) as the index of vagal withdrawal and renin-angiotensin modulation. In both control and CAD groups, the nHFP was increased significantly whereas the nVLFP was decreased significantly 30 and 60 minutes after FR, as compared with those before FR. The systolic, diastolic, mean arterial, and pulse pressures were significantly decreased after FR in both groups of participants. In the CAD group, the percentage change in heart rate 30 and 60 minutes after FR was smaller than that in the control, and the percentage change in nVLFP 60 minutes after FR was smaller than that in the control. In conclusion, a higher vagal modulation, lower sympathetic modulation, and lower blood pressure can be observed following 60 minutes of FR in both controls and CAD patients. The magnitude of change in the autonomic nervous modulation in CAD patients was slightly smaller than that in the controls. FR may be used as an efficient adjunct to the therapeutic regimen to increase the vagal modulation and decrease blood pressure in both healthy people and CAD patients.

  10. Ambulatory measurement of nocturnal fluctuations in subcutaneous blood flow rate in the lower leg of man during 12-h periods with the portable CdTe(Cl) detector. Methodological considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Jørgensen, B

    1991-01-01

    Possible sources of error during long-term measurements of subcutaneous blood flow rate with the portable CdTe(Cl) detector system were ruled out in the present study. Local blood flow rates were recorded in the lower legs of normal human subjects by means of the 133Xe wash-out technique. A good ...

  11. Impact of Statin Therapy on the Blood Pressure-Lowering Efficacy of a Single-Pill Perindopril/Amlodipine Combination in Hypertensive Patients with Hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirenko, Yuriy; Radchenko, Ganna

    2017-03-01

    Several lines of research indicate that statins can lower blood pressure (BP) independently of their lipid-lowering effects when used as monotherapy and in combination with antihypertensive agents. This short-term, open-label study examined whether statin therapy had a synergistic effect on the BP-lowering efficacy of perindopril/amlodipine in a subgroup of patients in the PERSPECTIVA study with concomitant hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, with or without statin at baseline. The PERSPECTIVA study recruited 732 adults with untreated or uncontrolled hypertension. This subgroup analysis of PERSPECTIVA included 587 patients with concomitant hypertension and hypercholesterolemia (mean age 56.7 years) of whom 226 were receiving a statin at baseline (statin [+] group) and 361 were not (statin [-] group). All patients received treatment with single-pill combination perindopril/amlodipine at a dose of 5/5, 10/5 or 10/10 mg/day. The study duration was 60 days with follow-up visits for BP monitoring at 7, 15, 30 and 60 days. At day 60, BP control (statin [+] vs statin [-] group: 73 vs 64% respectively (+14%, P statin [+] group, the single-pill perindopril/amlodipine combination significantly reduced BP in patients previously untreated (n = 18), or treated with monotherapy (n = 97), dual therapy (n = 93), or triple therapy (n = 18): -38.8/-20.0, -39.1/-20.1, -38.0/-19.4, -39.9/-18.3 mmHg respectively (P statin [+] group (0.9%) vs the statin [-] group (2.5%). BP control rates in patients with uncontrolled hypertension and concomitant hypercholesterolemia are significantly improved with a treatment regimen that combines perindopril/amlodipine with statin therapy, regardless of previous antihypertensive therapy. This subanalysis of the PERSPECTIVA study supports the synergistic BP-lowering effect of statins and perindopril/amlodipine.

  12. [The composition and antimicrobial resistance of isolates from lower respiratory tract and blood in hospitalized patients in respiratory ward: a multicenter national study in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X; Zhuo, C; Xu, Y C; Zhong, N S

    2018-04-12

    Objective: To investigate the species and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial pathogens isolated from hospitalized patients in respiratory ward in China. Methods: This was a multicenter retrospective study based on a national epidemiological network called China Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (CARSS). The non-repetitive strains isolated from lower respiratory tract and blood samples in 91 hospitals from seven geographic regions of CARSS were reviewed. The distribution of specimen type, hospital level (secondary and tertiary hospital), patient age group [geriatric (>65 years old), adult (15 to 65 years old), pediatric (28 days to 14 years old ) and newborn group (≤28 days)] and ward type (respiratory intensive care unit and general respiratory ward) were analyzed for MRSA, PRSP, CREC, CRKP, CRPA, CRAB, ESBL-EC and ESBL-KP. The categorical variables were analyzed by chi-square test using SPSS 16.0 statistical software. P respiratory tract (LRT), 2 649 isolates from blood and 5 017 isolates from other samples (urine and secretions)] from 48 752 inpatients (without illness type information) were enrolled in the study. 90.2% (45 491/50 417) isolates were obtained from 63 tertiary hospitals. According to patients' age, all cases were divided into 4 groups, i. e. geriatric(46.0%, 23 177/50 417), adult(29.9%, 15 092/50 417), pediatric(24.0%, 12 112/50 417) and newborn group(0.0%, 36/50 417). All isolates were obtained from respiratory intensive care unit (6.2%, 3 129/50 417) or general respiratory wards (93.8%, 47 288/50 417). The majority of bacterial pathogens were isolated from lower respiratory and blood culture samples, which accounted for 90.0% of all the samples (45 400/50 417). Sputum accounted for 81.6% (41 131/50 417) of samples, and the leading 4 isolates were K . pneumonia (18.9%, 7 784/41 131), P . aeruginosa (13.6%, 5 580/41 131), A . baumanni (11.3%, 4 644/41 131) and S . pneumonia (11.1%, 4 564/41 131). Blood samples accounted for 5.3% (2

  13. A Soxhlet Extract of Gongronema latifolium Retains Moderate Blood Glucose Lowering Effect and Produces Structural Recovery in the Pancreas of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassel Al-Hindi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gongronema latifolium Benth. (GL possesses considerable glucose lowering effects able to be utilized on a large-scale. This paper investigates the effects of a Soxhlet extract on hyperglycemia, Langerhans islets and glucose uptake by abdominal muscles. Methods: Ethanol and a Soxhlet apparatus were used to obtain GL ethanolic Soxhlet extract (GLES. It was then administered to randomly-segregated male Sprague-Dawley, normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats, using oral gavage to evaluate blood glucose levels (BGLs, serum lipid profile, insulin levels and the pancreas post-treatment. Results: GLES significantly (p < 0.05 decreased BGLs of normal rats in glucose tolerance testing at a dose of 2 g/kg b.w. but failed to do so in diabetic rats undergoing acute 7-h treatment. Given twice-daily, 1 g/kg b.w. of GLES moderately controlled diabetic BGLs starting from day 10. After 14 days of treatment, 1 g/kg and 0.5 g/kg b.w. of GLES caused 44% and 50% respective increases in the average area of Langerhans islets compared to DC. Using isolated rat abdominal muscle, GLES was found to be a mild insulin-sensitizer. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of the known glucose-lowering phytosterol, Sitostenone. Conclusion: Despite retaining moderate antidiabetic activity, Soxhlet extraction of Gongronema latifolium probably leads to the destruction of active heat-liable compounds.

  14. A Mixed-Methods Study on Acceptability, Tolerability, and Substitution of Brown Rice for White Rice to Lower Blood Glucose Levels among Nigerian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally N. Adebamowo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWhole-grain products such as brown rice have been associated with lower risk of metabolic disorders including diabetes. We examined the acceptability and tolerability of substituting brown rice for white rice and the feasibility of introducing brown rice into the diet through a long-term trial to lower the risk of type 2 diabetes.MethodsFifty-one adults residing in Abuja, Nigeria, participated in this study. Using purposeful sampling for focus group discussions (FGDs, participants were enrolled based on their age (19–25 vs. 40–60 years and body mass index (BMI (normal weight vs. overweight/obese. Participants tasted four meals with different constitution of brown and white rice (25:75%, 50:50%, 75:25%, and 100% brown rice. Twelve FGDs were conducted, six before and six after the food tasting. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose was measured after consumption of each rice meal.ResultsThe mean age of the participants was 39 (±14 years, their mean BMI was 25.6 (±5.2 and about half of them were male. Most of the participants (61% reported that rice was their main source of carbohydrate and 67% consumed rice at least five times/week. Before the food tasting, participants considered white polished rice superior to brown rice with regard to quality, taste, and nutritional value. After the food tasting, most of the participants (49% indicated a preference for the 100% brown rice, 19% preferred the 25% brown rice, 18% preferred the 50% brown rice, and 7% preferred the 75% brown rice meals. Factors that may affect the acceptability of brown rice include its appearance, longer cooking time, cost, limited availability, and poor appreciation of its nutritional value. In general, 2-h postprandial glucose levels were lower, after consumption of meals with higher proportion of brown rice.ConclusionThis study provides valuable insight into the acceptability of brown rice as a substitute for white rice in Nigeria. If confirmed in larger studies

  15. Reverse Trendelenburg position is a safer technique for lowering central venous pressure without decreasing blood pressure than clamping of the inferior vena cava below the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Godai; Katagiri, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2015-06-01

    anesthesia was not significantly lower than that during supine position (P = 0.9934). Mean systolic blood pressure was significantly decreased during inferior vena cava clamping (P = 0.0024), but not during reverse Trendelenburg position (P = 0.6344). Reverse Trendelenburg position decreased central venous pressure without significantly decreasing the systolic blood pressure, suggesting that it is possible to perform hepatectomy with reverse Trendelenburg position more safely than with inferior vena cava clamping. © 2015 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  16. Iron overload in lower international prognostic scoring system risk patients with myelodysplastic syndrome receiving red blood cell transfusions: Relation to infections and possible benefit of iron chelation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Colleen A C; Wong, Shannon A Y; Leitch, Heather A

    2018-04-01

    An increased incidence of infections and infectious mortality has been reported in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) patients receiving red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. We examined incidence of infections requiring antibiotics, antifungal or antiviral medications in transfused lower International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) risk MDS patients and whether this differed with iron chelation therapy (ICT). 138 transfused MDS patients were lower IPSS risk. 59 received ICT; median duration was 13 months. There was no significant difference between groups in neutrophil count at first RBC transfusion or first infection. Infections included: bacterial, n = 88; viral; fungal; and mycobacterial; n = 2 each. In ICT and non-ICT patients, respectively, infections were (number [%]): patients, 23 (40.0%) and 22 (27.8%); episodes (median [range]), 2 (1-6) and 2 (1-5); hospitalizations, 16 (27.1%) and 8 (10.1%); and deaths, 0 (0%) and 1 (1.3%), p = NS for all. Median overall survival (OS) from first RBC transfusion was superior in ICT patients, p = 0.01, and remained significant in a multivariate analysis (MVA), p = 0.003. Median time to first infection (TTI) was 27 and 7.8 months, respectively, p < 0.0001, and ICT remained significant for TTI in an MVA, p = 0.02, hazard ratio 0.3. For ICT patients with blast count <5%, TTI was significantly superior (p = 0.004). In this retrospective analysis, for lower IPSS risk MDS patients receiving RBC transfusions, though number and type of infections were similar between groups and despite similar neutrophil counts, time to first infection was significantly longer in ICT patients (p < 0.0001). These results should be confirmed in larger, prospective analyses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cranberry juice consumption lowers markers of cardiometabolic risk, including blood pressure and circulating C-reactive protein, triglyceride, and glucose concentrations in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Janet A; Baer, David J; Khoo, Christina; Gebauer, Sarah K; Charron, Craig S

    2015-06-01

    Cardiometabolic risk is the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, or stroke, which are leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of low-calorie cranberry juice (LCCJ) to lower cardiometabolic risk. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study was conducted with controlled diets. Thirty women and 26 men (mean baseline characteristics: 50 y; weight, 79 kg; body mass index, 28 kg/m(2)) completed an 8-wk intervention with LCCJ or a flavor/color/energy-matched placebo beverage. Twice daily volunteers consumed 240 mL of LCCJ or the placebo beverage, containing 173 or 62 mg of phenolic compounds and 6.5 or 7.5 g of total sugar per 240-mL serving, respectively. Fasting serum triglycerides (TGs) were lower after consuming LCCJ and demonstrated a treatment × baseline interaction such that the participants with higher baseline TG concentrations were more likely to experience a larger treatment effect (1.15 ± 0.04 mmol/L vs. 1.25 ± 0.04 mmol/L, respectively; P = 0.027). Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) was lower for individuals consuming LCCJ than for individuals consuming the placebo beverage [ln transformed values of 0.522 ± 0.115 ln(mg/L) vs. 0.997 ± 0.120 ln(mg/L), P = 0.0054, respectively, and equivalent to 1.69 mg/L vs. 2.71 mg/L back-transformed]. LCCJ lowered diastolic blood pressure (BP) compared with the placebo beverage (69.2 ± 0.8 mm Hg for LCCJ vs. 71.6 ± 0.8 mm Hg for placebo; P = 0.048). Fasting plasma glucose was lower (P = 0.03) in the LCCJ group (5.32 ± 0.03 mmol/L) than in the placebo group (5.42 ± 0.03 mmol/L), and LCCJ had a beneficial effect on homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance for participants with high baseline values (P = 0.035). LCCJ can improve several risk factors of CVD in adults, including circulating TGs, CRP, and glucose, insulin resistance, and diastolic BP. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01295684. © 2015

  18. Cord blood PRF1 methylation patterns and risk of lower respiratory tract infections in infants: findings from the Ulm Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgizouli, Magdeldin; Logan, Chad; Nieters, Alexandra; Brenner, Hermann; Rothenbacher, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are a major cause of morbidity in children. DNA methylation provides a mechanism for transmitting environmental effects on the genome, but its potential role in LRTIs is not well studied. We investigated the methylation pattern of an enhancer region of the immune effector gene perforin-1 (PRF1), which encodes a cytolytic molecule of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer cells (NK), in cord blood DNA of children recruited in a German birth cohort in association with LRTIs in the first year of life.Pyrosequencing was used to determine the methylation levels of target cytosine-phosphate-guanines (CpGs) in a 2-stage case-control design. Cases were identified as children who developed ≥2 episodes of physician-recorded LRTIs during the first year of life and controls as children who had none. Discovery (n = 87) and replication (n = 90) sets were arranged in trios of 1 case and 2 controls matched for sex and season of birth.Logistic regression analysis revealed higher levels of methylation at a CpG that corresponds to a signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) responsive enhancer in the discovery (odds ratio [OR] per 1% methylation difference 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.50) and replication (OR per 1% methylation difference 1.25, 95% CI 1.04-1.50) sets. Adjustment for having siblings blood PRF1 enhancer methylation patterns and subsequent risk of LRTIs in infants. Methylation levels at specific CpGs of the PRF1 enhancer varied according to maternal and family environmental factors suggesting a role for DNA methylation in mediating environmental influences on gene function.

  19. Natural honey lowers plasma glucose, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and blood lipids in healthy, diabetic, and hyperlipidemic subjects: comparison with dextrose and sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Waili, Noori S

    2004-01-01

    , artificial honey increased LDL-C, while honey decreased LDL-C. Honey decreased cholesterol (8%), LDL-C (11%), and CRP (75%) after 15 days. In diabetic patients, honey compared with dextrose caused a significantly lower rise of PGL. Elevation of PGL was greater after honey than after sucrose at 30 minutes, and was lower after honey than it was after sucrose at 60, 120, and 180 minutes. Honey caused greater elevation of insulin than sucrose did after 30, 120, and 180 minutes. Honey reduces blood lipids, homocysteine, and CRP in normal and hyperlipidemic subjects. Honey compared with dextrose and sucrose caused lower elevation of PGL in diabetics.

  20. Cord blood collection and banking from a population with highly diverse geographic origins increase HLA diversity in the registry and do not lower the proportion of validated cord blood units: experience of the Marseille Cord Blood Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoni, C; Magalon, J; Gilbertas, C; Gamerre, M; Le Coz, P; Berthomieu, M; Chabannon, C; Di Cristofaro, J; Picard, C

    2015-04-01

    Several Cord Blood (CB) Bank studies suggested that ethnicity impaired CB unit (CBU) qualification. The Bone Marrow Donors Worldwide registries present an over-representation of unrelated donors (UD) from Northwestern European descent. This raises the question of equality of access to hematopoietic stem cells transplant, especially in the Mediterranean zone, which has taken in many waves of immigration. The aim of our study is to address whether, in the Marseille CB Bank, CBU qualification rate is impaired by geographic origin. The study compared biological characteristics of 106 CBU disqualified for total nucleated cell (TNC) count (dCBU) and 136 qualified CBU in relation to registry enrichment and haplotype origin. A high proportion (>80%) of both dCBU and CBU had at least one non-European haplotype and enrich CB and UD registries to a higher extent than those with two European haplotypes (Pdiverse Mediterranean origins do not have an impact on the CBU qualification rate. Partnership with Mediterranean birth clinics with highly trained staff is a reasonable option to increase the HLA diversity of CB Bank inventories and to improve the representation of minorities.

  1. Extensive hemangiomatosis diagnosed by scintigraphy with 99mTc-labeled red blood cells in a patient with lower gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, D.S.F.; Ichiki, W.A.; Borges, A.C.; Coura Filho, G.B.; Vecchia, J.F.; Sapienza, M.T.; Ono, C.R.; Watanabe, T.; Costa, P.L.A.; Hironaka, F.; Cerri, G.G.; Buchpiguel, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: The gastrointestinal bleeding may be caused by vascular tumors and other lesions like inflammatory disorders, intestinal obstruction or vascular malformation. The Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome and blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome are hemangiomatosis diseases that may involve the gastrointestinal tract and cause recurrent hemorrhage. The signs and symptoms usually appear at childhood. Case report: male patient, 31 years old, presenting three days of gastrointestinal bleeding and an hemorrhage shock (Hb=3,9). Previous reports of small volume bleeding since childhood and schistossomosis. Dilated veins, hemorrhoid and port wine stain lesions were detected at physical examination in perineal region, penis and scrotum. Inferior limbs were symmetric at inspection. The upper endoscopy showed esophageal varices with no signs of active bleeding. The scintigraphy with 99m Tc-labeled red blood cells showed active hemorrhage at recto-sigmoid topography during the first hour of study. Extensive and heterogeneous uptake was seen in gluteus, posterior right thigh and scrotum at the second and fifth hours of study. Then the hypothesis of vascular tumor was considered. The magnetic resonance (MR) of pelvis demonstrated extensive hemangiomatosis at the regions described by the scintigraphy. The clinical and imaging findings suggested the diagnosis of Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. Discussion: The Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome is a rare disease characterized by congenital vascular and lymphatic malformations (port wine stain lesions, congenital varices) and bone growth and soft tissue disorder. Dilated veins may involve abdominal and pelvic structures, with rectal bleeding and haematuria occurring on average of 20%. The clinical investigation must approach the type, the extent and the severity of the malformation, since the morbidity and the mortality depends on the visceral involvement. The Doppler ultrasound, scanometry of lower extremities, MR, angiography and

  2. Extensive hemangiomatosis diagnosed by scintigraphy with 99mTc-labeled red blood cells in a patient with lower gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, D.S.F.; Ichiki, W.A.; Borges, A.C.; Coura Filho, G.B.; Vecchia, J.F.; Sapienza, M.T.; Ono, C.R.; Watanabe, T.; Costa, P.L.A.; Hironaka, F.; Cerri, G.G.; Buchpiguel, C.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Radiologia. Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: The gastrointestinal bleeding may be caused by vascular tumors and other lesions like inflammatory disorders, intestinal obstruction or vascular malformation. The Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome and blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome are hemangiomatosis diseases that may involve the gastrointestinal tract and cause recurrent hemorrhage. The signs and symptoms usually appear at childhood. Case report: male patient, 31 years old, presenting three days of gastrointestinal bleeding and an hemorrhage shock (Hb=3,9). Previous reports of small volume bleeding since childhood and schistossomosis. Dilated veins, hemorrhoid and port wine stain lesions were detected at physical examination in perineal region, penis and scrotum. Inferior limbs were symmetric at inspection. The upper endoscopy showed esophageal varices with no signs of active bleeding. The scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-labeled red blood cells showed active hemorrhage at recto-sigmoid topography during the first hour of study. Extensive and heterogeneous uptake was seen in gluteus, posterior right thigh and scrotum at the second and fifth hours of study. Then the hypothesis of vascular tumor was considered. The magnetic resonance (MR) of pelvis demonstrated extensive hemangiomatosis at the regions described by the scintigraphy. The clinical and imaging findings suggested the diagnosis of Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. Discussion: The Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome is a rare disease characterized by congenital vascular and lymphatic malformations (port wine stain lesions, congenital varices) and bone growth and soft tissue disorder. Dilated veins may involve abdominal and pelvic structures, with rectal bleeding and haematuria occurring on average of 20%. The clinical investigation must approach the type, the extent and the severity of the malformation, since the morbidity and the mortality depends on the visceral involvement. The Doppler ultrasound, scanometry of lower extremities, MR, angiography and

  3. Dietary nitrate provides sustained blood pressure lowering in hypertensive patients: a randomized, phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, Vikas; Khambata, Rayomand S; Robertson, Amy; Caulfield, Mark J; Ahluwalia, Amrita

    2015-02-01

    Single dose administration of dietary inorganic nitrate acutely reduces blood pressure (BP) in normotensive healthy volunteers, via bioconversion to the vasodilator nitric oxide. We assessed whether dietary nitrate might provide sustained BP lowering in patients with hypertension. We randomly assigned 68 patients with hypertension in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to receive daily dietary supplementation for 4 weeks with either dietary nitrate (250 mL daily, as beetroot juice) or a placebo (250 mL daily, as nitrate-free beetroot juice) after a 2-week run-in period and followed by a 2-week washout. We performed stratified randomization of drug-naive (n=34) and treated (n=34) patients with hypertension aged 18 to 85 years. The primary end point was change in clinic, ambulatory, and home BP compared with placebo. Daily supplementation with dietary nitrate was associated with reduction in BP measured by 3 different methods. Mean (95% confidence interval) reduction in clinic BP was 7.7/2.4 mm Hg (3.6-11.8/0.0-4.9, Pnitrate consumption with no change after placebo. The intervention was well tolerated. This is the first evidence of durable BP reduction with dietary nitrate supplementation in a relevant patient group. These findings suggest a role for dietary nitrate as an affordable, readily-available, adjunctive treatment in the management of patients with hypertension (funded by The British Heart Foundation). http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01405898. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Low Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a problem. Sometimes blood pressure that is too low can also cause problems. Blood pressure is the ... reading is 90/60 or lower, you have low blood pressure. Some people have low blood pressure ...

  5. Addition of a Nitric Oxide Donor to an Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blocker May Cancel Its Blood Pressure-Lowering Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahiro, Eiji; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Suematsu, Yasunori; Matsuo, Yoshino; Arimura, Tadaaki; Kuwano, Takashi; Imaizumi, Satoshi; Iwata, Atsushi; Uehara, Yoshinari; Saku, Keijiro

    2015-01-01

    While physiological levels of nitric oxide (NO) protect the endothelium and have vasodilatory effects, excessive NO has adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. Recently, new NO-releasing pharmacodynamic hybrids of angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 (AT1) receptor blockers (ARBs) have been developed.We analyzed whether olmesartan with NO-donor side chains (Olm-NO) was superior to olmesartan (Olm) for the control of blood pressure (BP). Although there was no significant difference in binding affinity to AT1 wild-type (WT) receptor between Olm and Olm-NO in a cell-based binding assay, the suppressive effect of Olm-NO on Ang II-induced inositol phosphate (IP) production was significantly weaker than that of Olm in AT1 WT receptor-expressing cells. While Olm had a strong inverse agonistic effect on IP production, Olm-NO did not. Next, we divided 18 C57BL mice into 3 groups: Ang II (infusion using an osmotic mini-pump) as a control group, Ang II (n = 6) + Olm, and Ang II (n = 6) + Olm-NO groups (n = 6). Olm-NO did not block Ang II-induced high BP after 10 days, whereas Olm significantly decreased BP. In addition, Olm, but not Olm-NO, significantly reduced the ratio of heart weight to body weight (HW/BW) with downregulation of the mRNA levels of atrial natriuretic peptide.An ARB with a NO-donor may cancel BP-lowering effects probably due to excessive NO and a weak blocking effect by Olm-NO toward AT1 receptor activation.

  6. Understanding the pathophysiology of intra-uterine growth retardation: the role of the 'lower limb reflex' in redistribution of blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akalin-Sel, T; Campbell, S

    1992-09-23

    Doppler ultrasound was used to investigate the circulatory redistribution and underlying reflex responses of fetal cardiovascular compensation in 30 small-for-gestational age (SGA) fetuses. The utero-placental bed, umbilical artery and vein, thoracic and abdominal aorta, internal and external cerebral arteries were evaluated. The values were compared to reference ranges constructed from 135 normal pregnancies, correlated to fetal blood gases obtained by cordocentesis and compared to the outcomes. In Group I (mortality and morbidity), all fetuses had loss of end-diastolic frequencies (L-EDF) in the abdominal aorta (100%), but only 20 (87%) and 13 (56%) had L-EDF in the thoracic aorta and umbilical artery respectively. High vascular resistance in the placental bed and low impedance in the middle cerebral and common carotid arteries was found in 14 (61%), 12 (52%) and 20 (87%) fetuses, respectively. In Group II (Healthy infants) two fetuses had high utero-placental vascular resistance and one had brain-sparing. Doppler indices did not always reflect fetal hypoxaemia demonstrating that redistribution in SGA fetuses may not be triggered by a fall in pO2, and that hypoxaemia is an associated pathology but may not be the underlying cause. It is postulated that redistribution in SGA fetuses is regulated by reflex mechanisms (the 'lower limb reflex') which result in severe vasoconstriction in the abdominal aorta, mesentery and carcass, favouring the brain and cardiac muscles. This mechanism explains the good predictive value of L-EDF in the abdominal aorta for poor neonatal outcome (sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value, all 100%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Effects of blood-pressure-lowering treatment on outcome incidence in hypertension: 10 - Should blood pressure management differ in hypertensive patients with and without diabetes mellitus? Overview and meta-analyses of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomopoulos, Costas; Parati, Gianfranco; Zanchetti, Alberto

    2017-05-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of hypertension, and cardiovascular and renal disease, and it has been recommended that management of hypertension should be more aggressive in presence than in absence of diabetes mellitus, but the matter is controversial at present. Meta-analysing all available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to compare the effects on cardiovascular and renal outcomes of blood pressure BP lowering to different systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) levels or by different drug classes in patients with and without diabetes mellitus. The database consisted of 72 BP-lowering RCTs (260 210 patients) and 50 head-to-head drug comparison RCTs (247 006). Among these two sets, RCTs or RCT subgroups separately reporting data from patients with and without diabetes mellitus were identified, and stratified by in-treatment achieved SBP and DBP, by drug class compared with placebo, and drug class compared with all other classes. Risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals, and absolute risk reductions of six fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular outcomes, all-cause death, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were calculated (random-effects model) separately for diabetes mellitus and no diabetes mellitus, and compared by interaction analysis. We identified 41 RCTs providing data on 61 772 patients with diabetes mellitus and 40 RCTs providing data on 191 353 patients without diabetes mellitus. For achieved SBP at least 140 mmHg, relative and absolute reductions of most cardiovascular outcomes were significantly greater in diabetes mellitus than no diabetes mellitus, whereas for achieved SBP below 130 mmHg, the difference disappeared or reversed (greater outcome reduction in no diabetes mellitus). Significant ESRD reduction was found only in diabetes mellitus, but it was greatest when achieved SBP was at least 140 mmHg, and no further effect was found at SBP below 140 mmHg. All antihypertensive drug classes reduced

  8. Systematic review and meta-analysis shows a specific micronutrient profile in people with Down Syndrome: Lower blood calcium, selenium and zinc, higher red blood cell copper and zinc, and higher salivary calcium and sodium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amene Saghazadeh

    Full Text Available Different metabolic profiles as well as comorbidities are common in people with Down Syndrome (DS. Therefore it is relevant to know whether micronutrient levels in people with DS are also different. This systematic review was designed to review the literature on micronutrient levels in people with DS compared to age and sex-matched controls without DS. We identified sixty nine studies from January 1967 to April 2016 through main electronic medical databases PubMed, Scopus, and Web of knowledge. We carried out meta-analysis of the data on four essential trace elements (Cu, Fe, Se, and Zn, six minerals (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na, and P, and five vitamins (vitamin A, B9, B12, D, and E. People with DS showed lower blood levels of Ca (standard mean difference (SMD = -0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI: -1.16 to -0.09, Se (SMD = -0.99; 95% CI: -1.55 to -0.43, and Zn (SMD = -1.30; 95% CI: -1.75 to -0.84, while red cell levels of Zn (SMD = 1.88; 95% CI: 0.48 to 3.28 and Cu (SMD = 2.77; 95% CI: 1.96 to 3.57 were higher. They had also higher salivary levels of Ca (SMD = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.38 to 1.33 and Na (SMD = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.39 to 1.69. Our findings that micronutrient levels are different in people with DS raise the question whether these differences are related to the different metabolic profiles, the common comorbidities or merely reflect DS.

  9. Blood Management Strategies to Reduce Transfusions After Elective Lower-Extremity Joint Arthroplasty Surgeries: One Tertiary Care Hospital's Early Experience With an Alternative Payment Model-a Total Joint "Bundle".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansagra, Ankit; Andrzejewski, Chester; Krushell, Robert; Lehman, Andrew; Greenbaum, Jordan; Visintainer, Paul; McGirr, Joan; Mahoney, Kathleen; Cloutier, Darlene; Ehresman, Alice; Stefan, Mihaela S

    Blood loss associated with lower-extremity total joint arthroplasty (TJA) often results in anemia and the need for red blood cell transfusions (RBCTs). This article reports on a quality improvement initiative aimed at improving blood management strategies in patients undergoing TJA. A multifaceted intervention (preoperative anemia assessment, use of tranexamic acid, discouragement of autologous preoperative blood collection, restrictive RBCT protocols) was implemented. The results were stratified into 3 intervention periods: 1, pre; 2, peri; and 3, post. Fractional logistic regression was used to describe differences between various intervention periods. During the study period, 2511 patients underwent TJA. Compared with the preintervention period, there was 81.8% decrease in total units of RBCT during the postintervention period. Using activity-based costing (~$1000/unit), the annualized saving in RBC expenditure was $480 000. A multidisciplinary approach can be successful and sustainable in reducing RBCT and its associated costs for patients undergoing TJA.

  10. Behaviour of perioperative values of haemoglobin, haematocrit and red blood cells in elderly patients undergoing lower limb arthroplasty: a retrospective cohort study on non-transfused patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, L; De Vecchi, E; Romano', C L; Vassena, C; Banfi, G

    2013-01-01

    Little is known on how elderly patients recover pre-operative haemoglobin, haematocrit and red blood cell levels after total hip and knee arthroplasties. In this study we aimed to evaluate blood loss and recovery blood levels in relation to gender, type of surgery and preoperative haemoglobin values. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on 187 patients over 65 years of age who underwent total knee or total hip arthroplasty between January 2008 and December 2009. Preoperative blood analysis was carried out within 40 days prior to intervention followed by a 15-day postoperative follow-up. Haemoglobin recovery values in anaemic patients versus healthy patients was also estimated. All tested values decreased significantly during the first 3-5 postoperative days. Haemoglobin levels decreased statistically significantly more in males than in females, while no significant differences were observed for haematocrit and erythrocytes. Recovery of haemoglobin values did not differ significantly between healthy patients and patients with preoperative haemoglobin below 120 g/L. Furthermore, our data showed a higher blood loss in total hip arthroplasty, whilst recovery rates showed to be higher after a total knee arthroplasty procedure. In conclusion, the type of intervention and gender played an important role in blood loss and recovery rates in total joint arthroplasty.

  11. Molecular Weight Dependent Glucose Lowering Effect of Low Molecular Weight Chitosan Oligosaccharide (GO2KA1 on Postprandial Blood Glucose Level in SD Rats Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Apostolidis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the effect of enzymatically digested low molecular weight (MW chitosan oligosaccharide on type 2 diabetes prevention. Three different chitosan oligosaccharide samples with varying MW were evaluated in vitro for inhibition of rat small intestinal α-glucosidase and porcine pancreatic α-amylase (GO2KA1; 10,000 Da. The in vitro results showed that all tested samples had similar rat α-glucosidase inhibitory and porcine α-amylase inhibitory activity. Based on these observations, we decided to further investigate the effect of all three samples at a dose of 0.1 g/kg, on reducing postprandial blood glucose levels in Sprague-Dawley (SD rat model after sucrose loading test. In the animal trial, all tested samples had postprandial blood glucose reduction effect, when compared to control, however GO2KA1 supplementation had the strongest effect. The glucose peak (Cmax for GO2KA1 and control was 152 mg/dL and 193 mg/dL, respectively. The area under the blood glucose-time curve (AUC for GO2KA1 and control was 262 h mg/dL and 305 h mg/dL, respectively. Furthermore, the time of peak plasma concentration of blood glucose (Tmax for GO2KA1 was significantly delayed (0.9 h compared to control (0.5 h. These results suggest that GO2KA1 could have a beneficial effect for blood glucose management relevant to diabetes prevention in normal and pre-diabetic individuals. The suggested mechanism of action is via inhibition of the carbohydrate hydrolysis enzyme α-glucosidase and since GO2KA1 (MW < 1000 Da had higher in vivo effect, we hypothesize that it is more readily absorbed and might exert further biological effect once it is absorbed in the blood stream, relevant to blood glucose management.

  12. Low Maternal Vitamin B12 Status Is Associated with Lower Cord Blood HDL Cholesterol in White Caucasians Living in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonysunil Adaikalakoteswari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Studies in South Asian population show that low maternal vitamin B12 associates with insulin resistance and small for gestational age in the offspring. Low vitamin B12 status is attributed to vegetarianism in these populations. It is not known whether low B12 status is associated with metabolic risk of the offspring in whites, where the childhood metabolic disorders are increasing rapidly. Here, we studied whether maternal B12 levels associate with metabolic risk of the offspring at birth. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 91 mother-infant pairs (n = 182, of white Caucasian origin living in the UK. Blood samples were collected from white pregnant women at delivery and their newborns (cord blood. Serum vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine as well as the relevant metabolic risk factors were measured. Results: The prevalence of low serum vitamin B12 (<191 ng/L and folate (<4.6 μg/L were 40% and 11%, respectively. Maternal B12 was inversely associated with offspring’s Homeostasis Model Assessment 2-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR, triglycerides, homocysteine and positively with HDL-cholesterol after adjusting for age and BMI. In regression analysis, after adjusting for likely confounders, maternal B12 is independently associated with neonatal HDL-cholesterol and homocysteine but not triglycerides or HOMA-IR. Conclusions: Our study shows that low B12 status is common in white women and is independently associated with adverse cord blood cholesterol.

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can often lower your blood glucose level by exercising. However, if your blood glucose is above 240 ... ketones. If you have ketones, do not exercise. Exercising when ketones are present may make your blood ...

  14. Are lower levels of red blood cell transfusion more cost-effective than liberal levels after cardiac surgery? Findings from the TITRe2 randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, E A; Wordsworth, S; Bargo, D; Pike, K; Rogers, C A; Brierley, R C M; Angelini, G D; Murphy, G J; Reeves, B C

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the incremental cost and cost-effectiveness of a restrictive versus a liberal red blood cell transfusion threshold after cardiac surgery. Design A within-trial cost-effectiveness analysis with a 3-month time horizon, based on a multicentre superiority randomised controlled trial from the perspective of the National Health Service (NHS) and personal social services in the UK. Setting 17 specialist cardiac surgery centres in UK NHS hospitals. Participants 2003 patients aged >16 years undergoing non-emergency cardiac surgery with a postoperative haemoglobin of threshold during hospitalisation after surgery. Main outcome measures Health-related quality of life measured using the EQ-5D-3L to calculate quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Results The total costs from surgery up to 3 months were £17 945 and £18 127 in the restrictive and liberal groups (mean difference is −£182, 95% CI −£1108 to £744). The cost difference was largely attributable to the difference in the cost of red blood cells. Mean QALYs to 3 months were 0.18 in both groups (restrictive minus liberal difference is 0.0004, 95% CI −0.0037 to 0.0045). The point estimate for the base-case cost-effectiveness analysis suggested that the restrictive group was slightly more effective and slightly less costly than the liberal group and, therefore, cost-effective. However, there is great uncertainty around these results partly due to the negligible differences in QALYs gained. Conclusions We conclude that there is no clear difference in the cost-effectiveness of restrictive and liberal thresholds for red blood cell transfusion after cardiac surgery. Trial registration number ISRCTN70923932; Results. PMID:27481621

  15. Water-insoluble fractions of botanical foods lower blood ethanol levels in rats by physically maintaining the ethanol solution after ethanol administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunji Oshima

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have analyzed the functions of foods and dietary constituents in the dynamics of alcohol metabolism. However, few studies have reported the function of dietary fibers in the dynamics of alcohol metabolism. Objective: We assessed the effects of botanical foods that contain dietary fibers on alcohol metabolism. Methods: The ability of the water-insoluble fraction (WIF of 18 kinds of botanical foods to maintain 15% (v/v ethanol solution was examined using easily handled filtration. A simple linear regression analysis was performed to examine the correlation between the filtered volumes and blood ethanol concentration (BEC in F344 rats 4 h after the ingestion of 4.0 g/kg of ethanol following dosage of 2.5% (w/v WIF of the experimental botanical foods. Furthermore, the supernatant (6.3 Brix; water-soluble fraction and precipitate (WIF of tomato, with a strong ethanol-maintaining ability, were obtained and BEC and the residual gastric ethanol in rats were determined 2 h after the administration of 4.0 g/kg of ethanol and the individuals fractions. Results: The filtered volumes of dropped ethanol solutions containing all the botanical foods tested except green peas were decreased compared with the ethanol solution without WIF (control. There was a significant correlation between the filtered volumes and blood ethanol concentration (BEC. There was no significant difference in the residual gastric ethanol between controls and the supernatant group; however, it was increased significantly in the WIF group than in controls or the supernatant group. Consistent with this, BEC reached a similar level in controls and the supernatant group but significantly decreased in the WIF group compared with controls or the supernatant group. Conclusions: These findings suggest that WIFs of botanical foods, which are mostly water-insoluble dietary fibers, possess the ability to absorb ethanol-containing solutions, and this ability correlates

  16. Pharmacological activation of KCa3.1/KCa2.3 channels produces endothelial hyperpolarization and lowers blood pressure in conscious dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjaer, Mads; Nielsen, Gorm; Bodendiek, Silke

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose.  In rodents, the endothelial KCa-channels, KCa3.1 and KCa2.3, have been shown to play a crucial role in initiating endothelium-derived hyperpolarising factor(EDHF) vasodilator responses. However, it is not known to which extent these channels are involved in blood pressure...... regulation in large mammals which also allow addressing safety issues. We therefore characterized canine endothelial KCa3.1 and KCa2.3 functions and evaluated the effect on blood pressure and heart rate of the KCa3.1/KCa2.3-activator SKA-31 in dogs. Experimental approach.  Canine endothelial KCa3.1/KCa2.......3 functions were studied by patch-clamp electrophysiology and wire-myography in mesenteric arteries. The systemic cardiovascular actions of acute SKA-31 administration were monitored in conscious, unstressed beagle dogs. Key results.  Mesenteric endothelial cells expressed functional KCa3.1 and KCa2...

  17. The Association of Peri-Procedural Blood Transfusion with Morbidity and Mortality in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Lower Extremity Vascular Interventions: Insights from BMC2 VIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Peter K; Park, Yeo Jung; Hans, Sachinder; Bove, Paul; Cuff, Robert; Kazmers, Andris; Schreiber, Theodore; Gurm, Hitinder S; Grossman, P Michael

    2016-01-01

    To determine the predictors of periprocedural blood transfusion and the association of transfusion on outcomes in high risk patients undergoing endoluminal percutaneous vascular interventions (PVI) for peripheral arterial disease. Between 2010-2014 at 47 hospitals participating in a statewide quality registry, 4.2% (n = 985) of 23,273 patients received a periprocedural blood transfusion. Transfusion rates varied from 0 to 15% amongst the hospitals in the registry. Using multiple logistic regression, factors associated with increased transfusion included female gender (OR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.6-2.1), low creatinine clearance (1.3; 1.1-1.6), pre-procedural anemia (4.7; 3.9-5.7), family history of CAD (1.2; 1.1-1.5), CHF (1.4; 1.2-1.6), COPD (1.2; 1.1-1.4), CVD or TIA (1.2; 1.1-1.4), renal failure CRD (1.5; 1.2-1.9), pre-procedural heparin use (1.8; 1.4-2.3), warfarin use (1.2; 1.0-1.5), critical limb ischemia (1.7; 1.5-2.1), aorta-iliac procedure (1.9; 1.5-2.5), below knee procedure (1.3; 1.1-1.5), urgent procedure (1.7; 1.3-2.2), and emergent procedure (8.3; 5.6-12.4). Using inverse weighted propensity matching to adjust for confounders, transfusion was a significant risk factor for death (15.4; 7.5-31), MI (67; 29-150), TIA/stroke (24; 8-73) and ARF (19; 6.2-57). A focused QI program was associated with a 28% decrease in administration of blood transfusion (p = 0.001) over 4 years. In a large statewide PVI registry, post procedure transfusion was highly correlated with a specific set of clinical risk factors, and with in-hospital major morbidity and mortality. However, using a focused QI program, a significant reduction in transfusion is possible.

  18. The effect of lowering salt intake on ambulatory blood pressure to reduce cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease (LowSALT CKD study: protocol of a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMahon Emma J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite evidence implicating dietary sodium in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD in chronic kidney disease (CKD, quality intervention trials in CKD patients are lacking. This study aims to investigate the effect of reducing sodium intake on blood pressure, risk factors for progression of CKD and other cardiovascular risk factors in CKD. Methods/design The LowSALT CKD study is a six week randomized-crossover trial assessing the effect of a moderate (180 mmol/day compared with a low (60 mmol/day sodium intake on cardiovascular risk factors and risk factors for kidney function decline in mild-moderate CKD (stage III-IV. The primary outcome of interest is 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, with secondary outcomes including arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity, proteinuria and fluid status. The randomized crossover trial (Phase 1 is supported by an ancillary trial (Phase 2 of longitudinal-observational design to assess the longer term effectiveness of sodium restriction. Phase 2 will continue measurement of outcomes as per Phase 1, with the addition of patient-centered outcomes, such as dietary adherence to sodium restriction (degree of adherence and barriers/enablers, quality of life and taste assessment. Discussion The LowSALT CKD study is an investigator-initiated study specifically designed to assess the proof-of-concept and efficacy of sodium restriction in patients with established CKD. Phase 2 will assess the longer term effectiveness of sodium restriction in the same participants, enhancing the translation of Phase 1 results into practice. This trial will provide much-needed insight into sodium restriction as a treatment option to reduce risk of CVD and CKD progression in CKD patients. Trial registration Universal Trial Number: U1111-1125-2149. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Number: ACTRN12611001097932

  19. Comprehensive MRA of the lower limbs including high-resolution extended-phase infra-inguinal imaging with gadobenate dimeglumine: Initial experience with inter-individual comparison to the blood-pool contrast agent gadofosveset trisodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christie, A.; Chandramohan, S.; Roditi, G.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To compare extended-phase imaging using an extracellular space contrast agent, gadobenate dimeglumine, to imaging with a blood-pool contrast agent, gadofosveset, for magnetic resonance angiography. Materials and methods: A lower-limb magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) protocol (dynamic crural, three-station bolus chase, and infra-inguinal high resolution) designed for blood-pool agent imaging was adapted for use with the extracellular agent, gadobenate dimeglumine, primarily by using a triphasic injection protocol. Ten patients scanned with gadofosveset were compared to 10 patients scanned with gadobenate. The dynamic, bolus chase, and high-resolution images were scored for quality on a Likert scale (from 1–5). Signal- and contrast-to-noise ratios were analysed, and Mann–Whitney U statistical analysis performed. Results: There was no significant difference for the dynamic imaging or the aorto-iliac station of the bolus chase. Infra-inguinal bolus chase images were higher quality (p < 0.05 Mann–Whitney U test) with gadobenate. Signal analysis confirmed lower signal and contrast for venous imaging on the high spatial resolution acquisitions with gadobenate; however, this allowed improved arterial conspicuity. Conclusion: Extended-phase imaging using an extracellular space contrast agent is feasible and provides image quality to equal imaging with a blood-pool contrast agent.

  20. Whey protein lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial function and lipid biomarkers in adults with prehypertension and mild hypertension: results from the chronic Whey2Go randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Ágnes A; Giromini, Carlotta; Chatzidiakou, Yianna; Givens, D Ian; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2016-12-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the greatest cause of death globally, and their reduction is a key public-health target. High blood pressure (BP) affects 1 in 3 people in the United Kingdom, and previous studies have shown that milk consumption is associated with lower BP. We investigated whether intact milk proteins lower 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (AMBP) and other risk markers of CVD. The trial was a double-blinded, randomized, 3-way-crossover, controlled intervention study. Forty-two participants were randomly assigned to consume 2 × 28 g whey protein/d, 2 × 28 g Ca caseinate/d, or 2 × 27 g maltodextrin (control)/d for 8 wk separated by a 4-wk washout. The effects of these interventions were examined with the use of a linear mixed-model ANOVA. Thirty-eight participants completed the study. Significant reductions in 24-h BP [for systolic blood pressure (SBP): -3.9 mm Hg; for diastolic blood pressure (DBP): -2.5 mm Hg; P = 0.050 for both)] were observed after whey-protein consumption compared with control intake. After whey-protein supplementation compared with control intake, peripheral and central systolic pressures [-5.7 mm Hg (P = 0.007) and -5.4 mm Hg (P = 0.012), respectively] and mean pressures [-3.7 mm Hg (P = 0.025) and -4.0 mm Hg (P = 0.019), respectively] were also lowered. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) increased significantly after both whey-protein and calcium-caseinate intakes compared with control intake [1.31% (P whey protein and calcium caseinate significantly lowered total cholesterol [-0.26 mmol/L (P = 0.013) and -0.20 mmol/L (P = 0.042), respectively], only whey protein decreased triacylglycerol (-0.23 mmol/L; P = 0.025) compared with the effect of the control. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 were reduced after whey protein consumption (P = 0.011) and after calcium-caseinate consumption (P = 0.039), respectively, compared with after control intake. The consumption of unhydrolyzed

  1. GLP-1 secretion is increased by inflammatory stimuli in an IL-6-dependent manner, leading to hyperinsulinemia and blood glucose lowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahles, Florian; Meyer, Christina; Möllmann, Julia; Diebold, Sebastian; Findeisen, Hannes M; Lebherz, Corinna; Trautwein, Christian; Koch, Alexander; Tacke, Frank; Marx, Nikolaus; Lehrke, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia are both predictors for adverse outcome in critically ill patients. Hyperinsulinemia is induced by inflammatory stimuli as a relevant mechanism for glucose lowering in the critically ill. The incretine hormone GLP-1 was currently found to be induced by endotoxin, leading to insulin secretion and glucose lowering under inflammatory conditions in mice. Here, we describe GLP-1 secretion to be increased by a variety of inflammatory stimuli, including endotoxin, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6. Although abrogation of IL-1 signaling proved insufficient to prevent endotoxin-dependent GLP-1 induction, this was abolished in the absence of IL-6 in respective knockout animals. Hence, we found endotoxin-dependent GLP-1 secretion to be mediated by an inflammatory cascade, with IL-6 being necessary and sufficient for GLP-1 induction. Functionally, augmentation of the GLP-1 system by pharmacological inhibition of DPP-4 caused hyperinsulinemia, suppression of glucagon release, and glucose lowering under endotoxic conditions, whereas inhibition of the GLP-1 receptor led to the opposite effect. Furthermore, total GLP-1 plasma levels were profoundly increased in 155 critically ill patients presenting to the intensive care unit (ICU) in comparison with 134 healthy control subjects. In the ICU cohort, GLP-1 plasma levels correlated with markers of inflammation and disease severity. Consequently, GLP-1 provides a novel link between the immune system and the gut with strong relevance for metabolic regulation in context of inflammation. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  2. Modest Salt Reduction Lowers Blood Pressure and Albumin Excretion in Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Double-Blind Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, Rebecca J; He, Feng J; Markandu, Nirmala D; MacGregor, Graham A

    2016-06-01

    The role of salt restriction in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus is controversial, with a lack of well controlled, longer term, modest salt reduction trials in this group of patients, in spite of the marked increase in cardiovascular risk. We carried out a 12-week randomized double-blind, crossover trial of salt restriction with salt or placebo tablets, each for 6 weeks, in 46 individuals with diet-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance and untreated normal or high normal blood pressure (BP). From salt to placebo, 24-hour urinary sodium was reduced by 49±9 mmol (2.9 g salt). This reduction in salt intake led to fall in clinic BP from 136/81±2/1 mm Hg to 131/80±2/1 mm Hg, (systolic BP; Pdiabetes mellitus with normal or mildly raised BP. The reduction in urinary albumin excretion may carry additional benefits in reducing cardiovascular disease above the effects on BP. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Add-on-Statin Extended Release Nicotinic Acid/Laropiprant but Not the Switch to High-Dose Rosuvastatin Lowers Blood Pressure: An Open-Label Randomized Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastazia Kei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nicotinic acid (NA and statins have been associated with reductions in blood pressure (BP. Patients and Methods. We recruited 68 normotensive and hypertensive dyslipidemic patients who were treated with a conventional statin dose and had not achieved lipid targets. Patients were randomized to switch to high-dose rosuvastatin (40 mg/day or to add-on current statin treatment with extended release (ER NA/laropiprant (1000/20 mg/day for the first 4 weeks followed by 2000/40 mg/day for the next 8 weeks for 3 months. Results. Switching to rosuvastatin 40 mg/day was not associated with significant BP alterations. In contrast, the addition of ER-NA/laropiprant to current statin treatment resulted in a 7% reduction of systolic BP (from 134±12 to 125±10 mmHg, <.001 versus baseline and =.01 versus rosuvastatin group and a 5% reduction of diastolic BP (from 81±9 to 77±6 mmHg, =.009 versus baseline and =.01 versus rosuvastatin group. These reductions were significant only in the subgroup of hypertensives and were independent of the hypolipidemic effects of ER-NA/laropiprant. Conclusions. Contrary to the switch to high-dose rosuvastatin, the addition of ER-NA/laropiprant to statin treatment was associated with significant reductions in both systolic and diastolic BP.

  4. Age-Associated ALU Element Instability in White Blood Cells Is Linked to Lower Survival in Elderly Adults: A Preliminary Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Garrett Morgan

    Full Text Available ALU element instability could contribute to gene function variance in aging, and may partly explain variation in human lifespan.To assess the role of ALU element instability in human aging and the potential efficacy of ALU element content as a marker of biological aging and survival.Preliminary cohort study.We measured two high frequency ALU element subfamilies, ALU-J and ALU-Sx, by a single qPCR assay and compared ALU-J/Sx content in white blood cell (WBCs and skeletal muscle cell (SMCs biopsies from twenty-three elderly adults with sixteen healthy sex-balanced young adults; all-cause survival rates of elderly adults predicted by ALU-J/Sx content in both tissues; and cardiovascular disease (CVD- and cancer-specific survival rates of elderly adults predicted by ALU-J/Sx content in both tissues, as planned subgroup analyses.We found greater ALU-J/Sx content variance in WBCs from elderly adults than young adults (P < 0.001 with no difference in SMCs (P = 0.94. Elderly adults with low WBC ALU-J/Sx content had worse four-year all-cause and CVD-associated survival than those with high ALU-J/Sx content (both P = 0.03 and hazard ratios (HR ≥ 3.40, while WBC ALU-J/Sx content had no influence on cancer-associated survival (P = 0.42 and HR = 0.74. SMC ALU-J/Sx content had no influence on all-cause, CVD- or cancer -associated survival (all P ≥ 0.26; HR ≤ 2.07.These initial findings demonstrate that ALU element instability occurs with advanced age in WBCs, but not SMCs, and imparts greater risk of all-cause mortality that is likely driven by an increased risk for CVD and not cancer.

  5. Lower Protein-to-Carbohydrate Ratio in Maternal Diet is Associated with Higher Childhood Systolic Blood Pressure up to Age Four Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L. Blumfield

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The prenatal environment can influence development of offspring blood pressure (BP, which tracks into adulthood. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether maternal pregnancy dietary intake is associated with the development of child BP up to age four years. Data are from 129 mother-child dyads enrolled in the Women and Their Children’s Health study. Maternal diet was assessed using a validated 74-item food frequency questionnaire at 18 to 24 weeks and 36 to 40 weeks, with a reference period of the previous three months. Child systolic and diastolic BP were measured at 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months, using an automated BP monitor. Using mixed-model regression analyses adjusted for childhood growth indices, pregnancy intakes of percentage of energy (E% polyunsaturated fat (β coefficient 0.73; 95% CI 0.003, 1.45; p = 0.045, E% omega-6 fatty acids (β coefficient 0.89; 95% CI 0.09, 1.69; p = 0.03 and protein-to-carbohydrate (P:C ratio (β coefficient −14.14; 95% CI −27.68, −0.60; p = 0.04 were associated with child systolic BP trajectory up to 4 years. Child systolic BP was greatest at low proportions of dietary protein (<16% of energy and high carbohydrate (>40% of energy intakes. There may be an ideal maternal macronutrient ratio associated with optimal infant BP. Maternal diet, which is potentially modifiable, may play an important role in influencing offspring risk of future hypertension.

  6. Effectiveness of a New Exercise Program after Lower Limb Arterial Blood Flow Surgery in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita Jakubsevičienė

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a supervised exercise program (SEP plus at home nonsupervised exercise therapy (non-SET on functional status, quality of life (QoL and hemodynamic response in post-lower-limb bypass surgery patients. Results: One hundred and seventeen patients were randomized to an intervention (n = 57 or a control group (n = 60. A new individual SEP was designed for patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD and applied to the studied subjects of the intervention group who also continued non-SET at home, whereas those assigned to the control group received just usual SEP according to a common cardiovascular program. The participants of the study were assessed by a 6-min walking test (6 MWT, an ankle-brachial index (ABI, and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36 of QoL at baseline, at 1 and 6 months after surgery. A significant improvement was observed in the walked distance in the intervention group after 6 months compared with the control group (p < 0.001. The intervention group had significantly higher QoL score in the physical and mental component of SF-36 (p < 0.05. Conclusions: A 6-month application of the new SEP and non-SET at home has yielded significantly better results in walking distance and QoL in the intervention group than in the controls.

  7. Oral delivery of bioencapsulated exendin-4 expressed in chloroplasts lowers blood glucose level in mice and stimulates insulin secretion in beta-TC6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kwang-Chul; Nityanandam, Ramya; New, James S; Daniell, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) increases insulin secretion but is rapidly degraded (half-life: 2 min in circulation). GLP-1 analogue, exenatide (Byetta) has a longer half-life (3.3-4 h) with potent insulinotropic effects but requires cold storage, daily abdominal injections with short shelf life. Because patients with diabetes take >60 000 injections in their life time, alternative delivery methods are highly desired. Exenatide is ideal for oral delivery because insulinotropism is glucose dependent, with reduced risk of hypoglycaemia even at higher doses. Therefore, exendin-4 (EX4) was expressed as a cholera toxin B subunit (CTB)-fusion protein in tobacco chloroplasts to facilitate bioencapsulation within plant cells and transmucosal delivery in the gut via GM1 receptors present in the intestinal epithelium. The transgene integration was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Expression level of CTB-EX4 reached up to 14.3% of total leaf protein (TLP). Lyophilization of leaf material increased therapeutic protein concentration by 12- to 24-fold, extended their shelf life up to 15 months when stored at room temperature and eliminated microbes present in fresh leaves. The pentameric structure, disulphide bonds and functionality of CTB-EX4 were well preserved in lyophilized materials. Chloroplast-derived CTB-EX4 showed increased insulin secretion similar to the commercial EX4 in beta-TC6, a mouse pancreatic cell line. Even when 5000-fold excess dose of CTB-EX4 was orally delivered, it stimulated insulin secretion similar to the intraperitoneal injection of commercial EX4 but did not cause hypoglycaemia in mice. Oral delivery of the bioencapsulated EX4 should eliminate injections, increase patient compliance/convenience and significantly lower their cost. © 2012 The Authors Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Intensive versus Guideline Blood Pressure and Lipid Lowering in Patients with Previous Stroke: Main Results from the Pilot 'Prevention of Decline in Cognition after Stroke Trial' (PODCAST Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M Bath

    Full Text Available Stroke is associated with the development of cognitive impairment and dementia. We assessed the effect of intensive blood pressure (BP and/or lipid lowering on cognitive outcomes in patients with recent stroke in a pilot trial.In a multicentre, partial-factorial trial, patients with recent stroke, absence of dementia, and systolic BP (SBP 125-170 mmHg were assigned randomly to at least 6 months of intensive (target SBP <125 mmHg or guideline (target SBP <140 mmHg BP lowering. The subset of patients with ischaemic stroke and total cholesterol 3.0-8.0 mmol/l were also assigned randomly to intensive (target LDL-cholesterol <1.3 mmol/l or guideline (target LDL-c <3.0 mmol/l lipid lowering. The primary outcome was the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R.We enrolled 83 patients, mean age 74.0 (6.8 years, and median 4.5 months after stroke. The median follow-up was 24 months (range 1-48. Mean BP was significantly reduced with intensive compared to guideline treatment (difference -10·6/-5·5 mmHg; p<0·01, as was total/LDL-cholesterol with intensive lipid lowering compared to guideline (difference -0·54/-0·44 mmol/l; p<0·01. The ACE-R score during treatment did not differ for either treatment comparison; mean difference for BP lowering -3.6 (95% CI -9.7 to 2.4, and lipid lowering 4.4 (95% CI -2.1 to 10.9. However, intensive lipid lowering therapy was significantly associated with improved scores for ACE-R at 6 months, trail making A, modified Rankin Scale and Euro-Qol Visual Analogue Scale. There was no difference in rates of dementia or serious adverse events for either comparison.In patients with recent stroke and normal cognition, intensive BP and lipid lowering were feasible and safe, but did not alter cognition over two years. The association between intensive lipid lowering and improved scores for some secondary outcomes suggests further trials are warranted.ISRCTN ISRCTN85562386.

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... how often you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ... I Treat Hyperglycemia? You can often lower your blood glucose level by exercising. However, if your blood glucose is ...

  10. Electroencephalography reveals lower regional blood perfusion and atrophy of the temporoparietal network associated with memory deficits and hippocampal volume reduction in mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moretti DV

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Davide Vito MorettiNational Institute for the research and cure of Alzheimer’s disease, S. John of God, Fatebenefratelli, Brescia, Italy Background: An increased electroencephalographic (EEG upper/lower alpha power ratio has been associated with less regional blood perfusion, atrophy of the temporoparietal region of the brain, and reduction of hippocampal volume in subjects affected by mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease as compared with subjects who do not develop the disease. Moreover, EEG theta frequency activity is quite different in these groups. This study investigated the correlation between biomarkers and memory performance.Methods: EEG α3/α2 power ratio and cortical thickness were computed in 74 adult subjects with prodromal Alzheimer’s disease. Twenty of these subjects also underwent assessment of blood perfusion by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT. Pearson’s r was used to assess the correlation between cortical thinning, brain perfusion, and memory impairment.Results: In the higher α3/α2 frequency power ratio group, greater cortical atrophy and lower regional perfusion in the temporoparietal cortex was correlated with an increase in EEG theta frequency. Memory impairment was more pronounced in the magnetic resonance imaging group and SPECT groups.Conclusion: A high EEG upper/low alpha power ratio was associated with cortical thinning and less perfusion in the temporoparietal area. Moreover, atrophy and less regional perfusion were significantly correlated with memory impairment in subjects with prodromal Alzheimer’s disease. The EEG upper/lower alpha frequency power ratio could be useful for identifying individuals at risk for progression to Alzheimer’s dementia and may be of value in the clinical context.Keywords: electroencephalography, perfusion, atrophy, temporoparietal network, memory deficits, hippocampal volume, mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease

  11. Intensive versus Guideline Blood Pressure and Lipid Lowering in Patients with Previous Stroke: Main Results from the Pilot ‘Prevention of Decline in Cognition after Stroke Trial’ (PODCAST) Randomised Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scutt, Polly; Blackburn, Daniel J.; Ankolekar, Sandeep; Krishnan, Kailash; Ballard, Clive; Burns, Alistair; Mant, Jonathan; Passmore, Peter; Pocock, Stuart; Reckless, John; Sprigg, Nikola; Stewart, Rob; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Ford, Gary A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Stroke is associated with the development of cognitive impairment and dementia. We assessed the effect of intensive blood pressure (BP) and/or lipid lowering on cognitive outcomes in patients with recent stroke in a pilot trial. Methods In a multicentre, partial-factorial trial, patients with recent stroke, absence of dementia, and systolic BP (SBP) 125–170 mmHg were assigned randomly to at least 6 months of intensive (target SBP Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R). Results We enrolled 83 patients, mean age 74.0 (6.8) years, and median 4.5 months after stroke. The median follow-up was 24 months (range 1–48). Mean BP was significantly reduced with intensive compared to guideline treatment (difference –10·6/–5·5 mmHg; pcognition, intensive BP and lipid lowering were feasible and safe, but did not alter cognition over two years. The association between intensive lipid lowering and improved scores for some secondary outcomes suggests further trials are warranted. Trial Registration ISRCTN ISRCTN85562386 PMID:28095412

  12. Design and rationale of the QUAZAR Lower-Risk MDS (AZA-MDS-003) trial: a randomized phase 3 study of CC-486 (oral azacitidine) plus best supportive care vs placebo plus best supportive care in patients with IPSS lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes and poor prognosis due to red blood cell transfusion-dependent anemia and thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Almeida, Antonio; Giagounidis, Aristoteles; Platzbecker, Uwe; Garcia, Regina; Voso, Maria Teresa; Larsen, Stephen R; Valcarcel, David; Silverman, Lewis R; Skikne, Barry; Santini, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    CC-486 is an oral formulation of the epigenetic modifier azacitidine. In an expanded phase 1 trial, CC-486 demonstrated clinical and biological activity in patients with International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) lower-risk (low- and intermediate-1-risk) myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) with poor prognostic features including anemia and/or thrombocytopenia who may have required red blood cell or platelet transfusions. The overall response rate was 40 %, including hematologic improvement in 28 % of patients and RBC transfusion independence sustained for 56 days in 47 % of patients with baseline transfusion dependence. Based on the results of this study, the randomized, placebo-controlled phase 3 QUAZAR Lower-Risk MDS trial (AZA-MDS-003) was initiated. The design and rationale for this trial comparing CC-486 with placebo for the treatment of patients with IPSS lower-risk MDS with poor prognostic features are described. Patients must have IPSS lower-risk MDS with red blood cell (RBC) transfusion-dependent anemia and thrombocytopenia. Eligible patients are randomized 1:1 to receive 300 mg of CC-486 or placebo once daily for the first 21 days of 28-day treatment cycles. Disease status assessments occur at the end of cycle 6 and patients may continue to receive treatment unless there is evidence of progressive disease, lack of efficacy, or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint is RBC transfusion independence for ≥ 84 days, assessed according to International Working Group 2006 criteria. Secondary endpoints include overall survival, hematologic response including platelet response and erythroid response, RBC transfusion independence for ≥ 56 days, duration of RBC transfusion independence, time to RBC transfusion independence, rate of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) progression, time to AML progression, clinically significant bleeding events, safety, health-related quality of life, and healthcare resource utilization. This study will provide data

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ...

  2. No-cost gym visits are associated with lower weight and blood pressure among non-Latino black and Latino participants with a diagnosis of hypertension in a multi-site demonstration project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal N. Shah

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Well documented, persistent racial/ethnic health disparities in obesity and hypertension in the US demonstrate the continued need for interventions that focus on people of color who may be at higher risk.We evaluated a demonstration project funded by the CDC's Racial/Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH program at four federally qualified health centers (FQHC and YMCA fitness and wellness centers in Boston. No-cost YMCA memberships were offered from June 2014 to June 2015 to non-Latino black and Latino adults with a diagnosis of hypertension. YMCA visit data were merged with health data for 224 participants (n = 1265 health center visits. We assessed associations between gym visit frequency and weight, body mass index (BMI, systolic blood pressure (SBP, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP using longitudinal time-varying linear fixed-effects models.The total number of gym visits over the entire program duration was 5.5, while the conditional total number of visits (after the first gym visit has been made was 17.3. Having visited the gym at least 10 times before an FQHC exam was, on average, associated with lower weight (1.19 kg, p = 0.01, lower BMI (0.43 kg/m2, p = 0.01 and reductions in SBP (−3.20 mm Hg, p = 0.01 and DBP (−2.06 mm Hg p = 0.01. Having visited the gym an average of 1.4 times per month (study average was associated with reductions in weight, BMI, and DBP.No-cost gym visits were associated with improved weight and blood pressure in hypertensive non-Latino black and Latino adults in this program. Additional evaluation is necessary to assess the sustainability of these effects. Keywords: Hypertension, Obesity, Exercise, Minority health, Health status disparities, Community health centers, Intersectoral collaboration

  3. Regression of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy or strain is associated with lower incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients independent of blood pressure reduction - A LIFE review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Casper N; Devereux, Richard B; Okin, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    Cornell product criteria, Sokolow-Lyon voltage criteria and electrocardiographic (ECG) strain (secondary ST-T abnormalities) are markers for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and adverse prognosis in population studies. However, the relationship of regression of ECG LVH and strain during antihypertensive therapy to cardiovascular (CV) risk was unclear before the Losartan Intervention for Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) study. We reviewed findings on ECG LVH regression and strain over time in 9193 hypertensive patients with ECG LVH at baseline enrolled in the LIFE study. The composite endpoint of CV death, nonfatal MI, or stroke occurred in 1096 patients during 4.8±0.9years follow-up. In Cox multivariable models adjusting for randomized treatment, known risk factors including in-treatment blood pressure, and for severity ECG LVH by Cornell product and Sokolow-Lyon voltage, baseline ECG strain was associated with a 33% higher risk of the LIFE composite endpoint (HR. 1.33, 95% CI [1.11-1.59]). Development of new ECG strain between baseline and year-1 was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of the composite endpoint (HR. 2.05, 95% CI [1.51-2.78]), whereas the risk associated with regression or persistence of ECG strain was attenuated and no longer statistically significant (both p>0.05). After controlling for treatment with losartan or atenolol, for baseline Framingham risk score, Cornell product, and Sokolow-Lyon voltage, and for baseline and in-treatment systolic and diastolic blood pressure, 1 standard deviation (SD) lower in-treatment Cornell product was associated with a 14.5% decrease in the composite endpoint (HR. 0.86, 95% CI [0.82-0.90]). In a parallel analysis, 1 SD lower in-treatment Sokolow-Lyon voltage was associated with a 16.6% decrease in the composite endpoint (HR. 0.83, 95% CI [0.78-0.88]). The LIFE study shows that evaluation of both baseline and in-study ECG LVH defined by Cornell product criteria, Sokolow-Lyon voltage criteria or

  4. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to 3 g/day plant sterols/stanols and lowering blood LDL-cholesterol and reduced risk of (coronary) heart disease pursuant to Article 19 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    /2010 (yellow fat spreads, dairy products, mayonnaise and salad dressings) have a similar efficacy on blood LDL-cholesterol lowering, that plant sterols and stanol esters at a daily intake of 3 g (range 2.6 g to 3.4 g) plant sterols/stanols in matrices approved by Regulation (EC) No 376/2010 lower LDL...

  5. Exploring the association between whole blood Omega-3 Index, DHA, EPA, DHA, AA and n-6 DPA, and depression and self-esteem in adolescents of lower general secondary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wurff, I S M; von Schacky, C; Bergeland, T; Leontjevas, R; Zeegers, M P; Kirschner, P A; de Groot, R H M

    2018-03-16

    Depression is common in adolescents and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are suggested to be associated with depression. However, research in adolescents is limited. Furthermore, self-esteem has never been studied in relation to LCPUFA. The objective here was to determine associations of depression and self-esteem with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), Omega-3 Index (O3I), n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (n-6 DPA, also called Osbond acid, ObA), n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and arachidonic acid (AA) concentrations in blood of adolescents attending lower general secondary education (LGSE). Baseline cross-sectional data from a krill oil supplementation trial in adolescents attending LGSE with an O3I ≤ 5% were analysed using regression models built with the BayesFactor package in R. Fatty acids and O3I were determined in blood. Participants filled out the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale (RSE). Scores indicative of depression (CES-D ≥ 16) were found in 29.4% of the respondents. Of all fatty acids, we found extreme evidence [Bayes factor (BF) > 100] for a weak negative association between ObA and depression score [- 0.16; 95% credible interval (CI) - 0.28 to - 0.04; BF 10  = 245], and substantial evidence for a weak positive association between ObA and self-esteem score (0.09; 95% CI, - 0.03 to 0.20; BF 10  = 4). When all fatty acids were put in one model as predictors of CES-D or RSE, all of the 95% CI contained 0, i.e., no significant association. No evidence was found for associations of DHA, EPA and O3I with depression or self-esteem scores in LGSE adolescents with O3I ≤ 5%. The associations of higher ObA status with lower depression and higher self-esteem scores warrant more research.

  6. Blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  7. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood, safe blood transfusions depend on careful blood typing and cross-matching. There are four major blood ... cause exceptions to the above patterns. ABO blood typing is not sufficient to prove or disprove paternity ...

  8. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the modification of the authorisation of a health claim related to plant sterol esters and lowering blood LDL-cholesterol; high blood LDL-cholesterol is a risk factor in the development of (coronary) heart disease pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006, following a request in accordance with Article 19 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2014-01-01

    such as margarine-type spreads, mayonnaise, salad dressings, and dairy products have been shown consistently to lower blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations in a large number of studies, the effective dose of plant sterols (as powder diluted in water) needed to achieve a given magnitude of effect in a given timeframe...

  9. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to 3 g/day plant stanols as plant stanol esters and lowering blood LDL-cholesterol and reduced risk of (coronary) heart disease pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    fat spreads, dairy products, mayonnaise and salad dressings) lowers LDL-cholesterol by 11.4 % (95% CI: 9.8 – 13.0), that the minimum duration required to achieve the maximum effect of plant stanol esters on LDL-cholesterol lowering is two to three weeks, and that while plant stanol esters added...... to foods such as margarine-type spreads, mayonnaise, salad dressings, and dairy products such as milk, yoghurts including low-fat yoghurts, and cheese have been shown consistently to lower blood LDL-cholesterol levels, the size of the cholesterol-lowering effect of plant stanols added to other food formats...

  10. [Alternatives to allogenous blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernea, Daniela; Vlădoianu, Alice; Stoica, Maria; Novac, M; Berteanu, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Blood transfusion is usually meant to lower morbidity and mortality rates. Allogenous blood transfusion implies certain risks that can be avoided by autologous blood transfusions techniques including: preoperatory autologous blood donation, acute normovolemic hemodilution, intraoperatory and postoperatory blood salvage. Preoperatory blood donation and acute normovolemic hemodilution are used for planned interventions with an estimated blood loss higher than 20% of blood volume. These methods imply Erythropoietin and iron treatment. Intraoperatory and postoperatory blood salvage is performed by personnel trained in blood donation, handling and storage. Autologous blood transfusions are used for certain surgical procedures that commonly require transfusions: orthopedic surgery, radical prostatectomy, cardiovascular surgery, organ transplantation. An alternative to allogenous blood transfusion is the use of artificial oxygen transporters: human or animal hemoglobin solutions or pefluorocarbonate solutions. These solutions do not require cross reactions, do not carry diseases and are generally well tolerated and easily stored in the operating room, ambulance and other transport means. They have however a slight degree of toxicity.

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims ...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ... Chat Closed engagement en -- Have Type 2 Diabetes? - 2017-03-lwt2d-en.html Have Type 2 Diabetes? ...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research & Practice Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics ...

  15. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The medical history includes questions that help blood bank staff decide if a person is healthy enough to donate blood. They'll ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates U.S. blood banks. All blood ... operating. Sometimes people who donate blood notice a few minor side ...

  16. Is the blood pressure of people from African origin adults in the UK higher or lower than that in European origin white people? A review of cross-sectional data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyemang, Charles; Bhopal, Raj

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to review published evidence on whether blood pressure (BP) levels and the prevalence of hypertension are higher in adult populations of African descent living in the UK as compared to the white population. A systematic literature review was carried out using MEDLINE

  17. Prevention of cardiovascular events with an antihypertensive regimen of amlodipine adding perindopril as required versus atenolol adding bendroflumethiazide as required, in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Blood Pressure Lowering Arm (ASCOT-BPLA): a multicentre randomised controlled

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlöf, Björn; Sever, Peter S; Poulter, Neil R

    2005-01-01

    The apparent shortfall in prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) noted in early hypertension trials has been attributed to disadvantages of the diuretics and beta blockers used. For a given reduction in blood pressure, some suggested that newer agents would confer advantages over diuretics...

  18. Greater expression of TLR2, TLR4, and IL6 due to negative energy balance is associated with lower expression of HLA-DRA and HLA-A in bovine blood neutrophils after intramammary mastitis challenge with Streptococcus uberis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey; Drackley, James K; Morin, Dawn E

    2010-01-01

    Our objectives were to compare gene expression profiles in blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) during a Streptococcus uberis intramammary challenge between lactating cows subjected to feed restriction to induce negative energy balance (NEB; n = 5) and cows fed ad libitum to maintain positive ener...

  19. The evolution of systolic blood pressure as a strong predictor of cardiovascular risk and the effectiveness of fixed-dose ARB/CCB combinations in lowering levels of this preferential target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Mourad

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Jacques MouradHypertension Unit, Avicenne Hospital – AP-HP and Paris XIII University Bobigny, FranceAbstract: Elevated blood pressure is an important cardiovascular risk factor. Although targets for both diastolic blood pressure (DBP and systolic blood pressure (SBP are defined by current guidelines, DBP has historically taken precedence in hypertension management. However, there is strong evidence that SBP is superior to DBP as a predictor of cardiovascular events. Moreover, achieving control of SBP is assuming greater importance amongst an aging population. In spite of the growing recognition of the importance of SBP in reducing cardiovascular risk and the emphasis by current guidelines on SBP control, a substantial proportion of patients still fail to achieve SBP targets, and SBP control is achieved much less frequently than DBP control. Thus, new approaches to the management of hypertension are required in order to control SBP and minimize cardiovascular risk. Fixed-dose combination (FDC therapy is an approach that offers the advantages of multiple drug administration and a reduction in regimen complexity that favors compliance. We have reviewed the latest evidence demonstrating the efficacy in targeting SBP of the most recent FDC products; combinations of the calcium channel blocker (CCB, amlodipine, with angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs, valsartan or olmesartan. In addition, results from studies with new classes of agent are outlined.Keywords: hypertension, systolic blood pressure, angiotensin receptor blocker, calcium channel blocker, combination therapy

  20. Mercury and drought along the Lower Carson River, Nevada: III. effects on blood and organ biochemistry and histopathology of snowy egrets and black-crowned night-herons on Lahontan Reservoir, 2002-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David J.; Henny, Charles J.; Hill, Elwood F.; Grove, Robert A.; Kaiser, James L.; Stebbins, Katherine R.

    2009-01-01

    A 10-year study (1997-2006) was conducted to evaluate reproduction and health of aquatic birds in the Carson River Basin of northwestern Nevada (on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Natural Priorities List) due to high mercury (Hg) concentrations from past mining activities. This part of the study evaluated physiological associations with blood Hg in young snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), and organ biochemistry and histopathological effects in snowy egrets on Lahontan Reservoir (LR) from the period 2002-2006. LR snowy egret geometric mean total Hg concentrations (μg/g ww) ranged from 1.5 to 4.8 for blood, 2.4 to 3.1 liver, 1.8 to 2.5 kidneys, 1.7 to 2.4 brain, and 20.5 to 36.4 feathers over these years. For night-herons, mean Hg for blood ranged from 1.6 to 7.4. Significant positive correlations were found between total Hg in blood and five plasma enzyme activities of snowy egrets suggesting hepatic stress. Histopathological findings revealed vacuolar changes in hepatocytes in LR snowy egrets as well as correlation of increased liver inflammation with increasing blood and tissue Hg. Hepatic oxidative effects were manifested by decreased hepatic total thiol concentration and glutathione reductase activity and elevated hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), a measure of lipid peroxidation. However, other hepatic changes indicated compensatory mechanisms in response to oxidative stress, including decreased oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentration and decreased ratio of GSSG to reduced glutathione. In young black-crowned night-herons, fewer correlations were apparent. In both species, positive correlations between blood total Hg and plasma uric acid and inorganic phosphorus were suggestive of renal stress, which was supported by histopathological findings. Both oxidative effects and adaptive responses to oxidative stress were apparent in kidneys and brain. Vacuolar change and inflammation in

  1. What's Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Body Make Blood? It's not made in a kitchen, but blood has ingredients, just like a recipe. ... these ingredients together and you have blood — an essential part of the circulatory system. Thanks to your ...

  2. Blood typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... detect these minor antigens. It is done before transfusions, except in emergency situations. Alternative Names Cross matching; Rh typing; ABO blood typing; Blood group; Anemia - immune hemolytic blood type; ...

  3. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smear URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003665.htm Blood smear To use the sharing features on this ... view of cellular parasites Malaria, photomicrograph of cellular parasites Red blood cells, sickle cells Red blood cells, sickle and ...

  4. Blood Culture (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Metabolic Panel (BMP) Blood Test: Complete Blood Count Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Getting a Blood Test (Video) Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel Blood ...

  5. Container for centrifuging blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narra, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    A container is described for use in drawing patient's blood, centrifuging the blood and then labelling the separated red cells with sup(99m)Tc. It consists of a tube with a central chamber and a lower portion provided with an aperture in which a weir is supported and extends into the central chamber. The weir has a central channel. A resilient plug seals the aperture. (author)

  6. Blood transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000431.htm Blood transfusions To use the sharing features on this page, ... There are many reasons you may need a blood transfusion: After knee or hip replacement surgery, or other ...

  7. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... positive or Rh-negative blood may be given to Rh-positive patients. The rules for plasma are the reverse: ... ethnic and racial groups have different frequency of the main blood types in their populations. Approximately ...

  8. Blood Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeremiah T; Ferraris, Victor A

    2015-01-01

    Patient blood management requires multi-modality and multidisciplinary collaboration to identify patients who are at increased risk of requiring blood transfusion and therefore decrease exposure to blood products. Transfusion is associated with poor postoperative outcomes, and guidelines exist to minimize transfusion requirements. This review highlights recent studies and efforts to apply patient blood management across disease processes and health care systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Overall survival in lower IPSS risk MDS by receipt of iron chelation therapy, adjusting for patient-related factors and measuring from time of first red blood cell transfusion dependence: an MDS-CAN analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, Heather A; Parmar, Ambica; Wells, Richard A; Chodirker, Lisa; Zhu, Nancy; Nevill, Thomas J; Yee, Karen W L; Leber, Brian; Keating, Mary-Margaret; Sabloff, Mitchell; St Hilaire, Eve; Kumar, Rajat; Delage, Robert; Geddes, Michelle; Storring, John M; Kew, Andrea; Shamy, April; Elemary, Mohamed; Lenis, Martha; Mamedov, Alexandre; Ivo, Jessica; Francis, Janika; Zhang, Liying; Buckstein, Rena

    2017-10-01

    Analyses suggest iron overload in red blood cell (RBC) transfusion-dependent (TD) patients with myleodysplastic syndrome (MDS) portends inferior overall survival (OS) that is attenuated by iron chelation therapy (ICT) but may be biassed by unbalanced patient-related factors. The Canadian MDS Registry prospectively measures frailty, comorbidity and disability. We analysed OS by receipt of ICT, adjusting for these patient-related factors. TD International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) low and intermediate-1 risk MDS, at RBC TD, were included. Predictive factors for OS were determined. A matched pair analysis considering age, revised IPSS, TD severity, time from MDS diagnosis to TD, and receipt of disease-modifying agents was conducted. Of 239 patients, 83 received ICT; frailty, comorbidity and disability did not differ from non-ICT patients. Median OS from TD was superior in ICT patients (5·2 vs. 2·1 years; P MDS, adjusting for age, frailty, comorbidity, disability, revised IPSS, TD severity, time to TD and receiving disease-modifying agents. This provides additional evidence that ICT may confer clinical benefit. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  11. Does Inflammation Mediate the Obesity and BPH Relationship? An Epidemiologic Analysis of Body Composition and Inflammatory Markers in Blood, Urine, and Prostate Tissue, and the Relationship with Prostate Enlargement and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowke, Jay H; Koyama, Tatsuki; Fadare, Oluwole; Clark, Peter E

    2016-01-01

    obesity, was associated with the severity of inflammatory regions in prostate tissue and with LUTS severity among men with inflammation. Our results suggest centralized obesity advances prostate tissue inflammation to increase LUTS severity. Clinically targeting centralized fat deposition may reduce LUTS severity. Mechanistically, the lack of a clear relationship between systemic inflammatory or oxidative stress markers in blood or urine with prostate size or LUTS suggests pathways other than systemic inflammatory signaling may link body adiposity to BPH outcomes.

  12. Blood flow and blood volume in a transplanted rat fibrosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozer, G.M.; Morris, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    Blood flow measurements following i.v. infusion of iodi-antipyrine labelled with 14 C ( 14 C-IAP) and blood volume measurements following i.v. injection of 125 I human serum albumin and 51 Cr-labelled red blood cells were made in a transplanted rat fibrosarcoma for comparison with various normal tissues. The tumour-blood partition co-efficient for 14 C-IAP w as found to be 0.79 ± 0.07 which is similar to most of the normal tissues studied. The solubility of 14 C-IAP in plasma was found to be higher than that in whole blood. Blood flow to tumours 3 was found to be 17.9 ± 4.0 ml blood 100 g tissue -1 xmin -1 . These values were considered to be primarily measurements of nutritive flow. Blood in the tumours was found to occupy around 1% of the tissue space which was similar to that found for normal muscle and skin. There was no direct correlation between % blood volume and blood flow for the different tissues studied. Th haematocrit of blood contained in tumour tissue was calculated to be significantly lower than that of blood contained in the normal tissues. It was suspected that permeability of tumour blood vessel walls to 125 I-HSA could have accounted for this difference. (author). 41 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My Community Advocacy Research & Practice Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home ... work with your doctor to find the safest way for you to lower your blood glucose ... down on the amount of food you eat might also help. Work with your ...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes ... Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims ...

  15. Blood irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandy, Mammen

    1998-01-01

    Viable lymphocytes are present in blood and cellular blood components used for transfusion. If the patient who receives a blood transfusion is immunocompetent these lymphocytes are destroyed immediately. However if the patient is immunodefficient or immunosuppressed the transfused lymphocytes survive, recognize the recipient as foreign and react producing a devastating and most often fatal syndrome of transfusion graft versus host disease [T-GVHD]. Even immunocompetent individuals can develop T-GVHD if the donor is a first degree relative since like the Trojan horse the transfused lymphocytes escape detection by the recipient's immune system, multiply and attack recipient tissues. T-GVHD can be prevented by irradiating the blood and different centers use doses ranging from 1.5 to 4.5 Gy. All transfusions where the donor is a first degree relative and transfusions to neonates, immunosuppressed patients and bone marrow transplant recipients need to be irradiated. Commercial irradiators specifically designed for irradiation of blood and cellular blood components are available: however they are expensive. India needs to have blood irradiation facilities available in all large tertiary institutions where immunosuppressed patients are treated. The Atomic Energy Commission of India needs to develop a blood irradiator which meets international standards for use in tertiary medical institutions in the country. (author)

  16. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Document Server

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  17. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  18. Acute lower extremity ischaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute lower extremity ischaemia. Acute lower limb ischaemia is a surgical emergency. ... is ~1.5 cases per 10 000 persons per year. Acute ischaemia ... Table 2. Clinical features discriminating embolic from thrombotic ALEXI. Clinical features.

  19. Osmolality - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... water loss Poisoning from harmful substances such as ethanol , methanol , or ethylene glycol Problems producing urine In ... may be due to: Diabetes insipidus High blood sugar level ( hyperglycemia ) High level of nitrogen waste products ...

  20. Tainted blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Ida; Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The existing literature on donor screening in transfusion medicine tends to distinguish between social concerns about discrimination and medical concerns about safety. In this article, we argue that the bifurcation into social and medical concerns is problematic. We build our case on a qualitative...... study of the historical rise and current workings of safety practices in the Danish blood system. Here, we identify a strong focus on contamination in order to avoid 'tainted blood', at the expense of working with risks that could be avoided through enhanced blood monitoring practices. Of further...... significance to this focus are the social dynamics found at the heart of safety practices aimed at avoiding contamination. We argue that such dynamics need more attention, in order to achieve good health outcomes in transfusion medicine. Thus, we conclude that, to ensure continuously safe blood systems, we...

  1. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sitting for long periods. If you travel by airplane, walk the aisle periodically. For long car trips, ... Your-Risk-for-Excessive-Blood-Clotting_UCM_448771_Article.jsp. Accessed April 18, 2016. What causes excessive ...

  2. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy Immobility (including prolonged inactivity, long trips by plane or car ) Smoking Oral contraceptives Certain cancers Trauma Certain surgeries Age (increased risk for people over age 60) A family history of blood clots Chronic inflammatory diseases Diabetes High ...

  3. Moving blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelis, K

    1997-01-01

    Our internationally acclaimed journalist Sanguinia has returned safely from her historic assignment. Travelling from Homeric Greece to British Romanticism, she was witness to blood drinking, letting, bathing, and transfusion. In this report, she explores connections between the symbolic and the sadistic; the mythic and the medical--all in an effort to appreciate the layered meanings our culture has given to the movement of blood between our bodies.

  4. The Aqueous Calyx Extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa Lowers Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Pressure and Heart Rate via Sympathetic Nervous System. Dependent ... discharge of the sympathetic nervous system. Keywords: Hibiscus ... The constituents of HS include protein, fat, ... Talata Mafara central market, Zamfara state, Nigeria.

  5. The Aqueous Calyx Extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa Lowers Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: The antihypertensive effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) has been validated in animals and man. This study tested the hypothesis that its hypotensive effect may be sympathetically mediated. The cold pressor test (CPT) and handgrip exercise (HGE) were performed in 20 healthy subjects before and after the oral ...

  6. Your Guide To Lowering Your Blood Pressure with DASH

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 4 tsp garlic, separated and peeled water red wine vinegar honey virgin olive oil black pepper 1. ... be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any ...

  7. Connexin 50 Mutation Lowers Blood Pressure in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šeda, Ondřej; Liška, F.; Pravenec, Michal; Vernerová, Z.; Kazdová, L.; Křenová, D.; Zídek, Václav; Šedová, Lucie; Krupková, M.; Křen, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 1 (2017), s. 15-28 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/12/0696 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 ; RVO:67985823 Keywords : Connexin * Hypertension * Transcriptome * Animal models * Insulin resistance Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Cardiac and Cardiovascular systems; Cardiac and Cardiovascular systems (FGU-C) Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  8. Biology of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... switch to the Professional version Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Resources In This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  9. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  10. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood ...

  11. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. VALIM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats. High blood pressure (hypertension is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure (HBP, smoking, abnormal blood lipid levels, obesity and diabetes are risk factors for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the US. Lifestyle modifications such as engaging in regular physical activity, quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet (limiting intake of saturated fat and sodium and increasing consumption of fiber, fruits and vegetables are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HBP. As multiple factors influence blood pressure, the effects of each factor are typically modest, particularly in normotensive subjects, yet the combined effects can be substantial. Nutrition plays an important role in influencing blood pressure. Orange juice should be included as part of any low sodium diet and/or any blood pressure reducing eating plan, as it is sodium free, fat-free and can help meet recommended levels of potassium intake that may contribute to lower BP.

  12. Managing your blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control; Blood glucose - managing ... sugar ( hypoglycemia ) Recognize and treat high blood sugar ( hyperglycemia ) Plan healthy meals Monitor your blood sugar (glucose) ...

  13. Higher Maternal Protein Intake during Pregnancy Is Associated with Lower Cord Blood Concentrations of Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF)-II, IGF Binding Protein 3, and Insulin, but Not IGF-I, in a Cohort of Women with High Protein Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switkowski, Karen M; Jacques, Paul F; Must, Aviva; Hivert, Marie-France; Fleisch, Abby; Gillman, Matthew W; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl; Oken, Emily

    2017-07-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to dietary protein may program growth-regulating hormones, consequently influencing early-life growth patterns and later risk of associated chronic diseases. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis is of particular interest in this context given its influence on pre- and postnatal growth and its sensitivity to the early nutritional environment. Objective: Our objective was to examine associations of maternal protein intake during pregnancy with cord blood concentrations of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), and insulin. Methods: We studied 938 mother-child pairs from early pregnancy through delivery in the Project Viva cohort. Using multivariable linear regression models adjusted for maternal race/ethnicity, education, income, smoking, parity, height, and gestational weight gain and for child sex, we examined associations of second-trimester maternal protein intake [grams per kilogram (weight before pregnancy) per day], as reported on a food frequency questionnaire, with IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3, and insulin concentrations in cord blood. We also examined how these associations may differ by child sex and parity. Results: Mothers were predominantly white (71%), college-educated (64%), and nonsmokers (67%). Mean ± SD protein intake was 1.35 ± 0.35 g ⋅ kg -1 ⋅ d -1 Each 1-SD increment in second-trimester protein intake corresponded to a change of -0.50 ng/mL (95% CI: -2.26, 1.26 ng/mL) in IGF-I and -0.91 μU/mL (95% CI: -1.45, -0.37 μU/mL) in insulin. Child sex and parity modified associations of maternal protein intake with IGF-II and IGFBP-3: protein intake was inversely associated with IGF-II in girls ( P -interaction = 0.04) and multiparous mothers ( P -interaction = 0.05), and with IGFBP-3 in multiparous mothers ( P -interaction = 0.04). Conclusions: In a cohort of pregnant women with relatively high mean protein intakes, higher intake was associated with lower concentrations of growth-promoting hormones in cord

  14. Lower Churchill project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, B. [Nalcor Energy, St. John' s, Newfoundland (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper discusses the Lower Churchill Hydroelectric Generation Project in Newfoundland Labrador. The project is of national interest as it creates jobs and benefits across Canada. It provides inter provincial electricity grid integration, provides significant contribution to lower emissions and enables development of other renewable generation.

  15. Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your immune system, which fights infections and diseases. Abnormal white blood cell levels may be a sign ... fall outside the normal range for many reasons. Abnormal results might be a sign of a disorder or disease. Other factors—such as diet, menstrual ...

  16. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & Pregnancy If you are pregnant, or you have just ... The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is increased by the following: Previous blood clots ...

  17. Special Blood Donation Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Products Special Blood Donation Procedures Precautions and Adverse Reactions During Blood Transfusion (See Overview of Blood Transfusion .) Plateletpheresis (platelet donation) In plateletpheresis, a donor gives only platelets rather than whole blood. Whole ...

  18. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Section Action Alerts Advocacy Toolkit Policy News Sickle Cell Disease Initiative Policy Statements Congressional Fellowship Testimony and ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ...

  19. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This Section Action Alerts Advocacy Toolkit Policy News Sickle Cell Disease Initiative Policy Statements Congressional Fellowship Testimony and ... all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting ...

  20. Selecting Lower Priced Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinert, Harold L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A program used to teach moderately to severely mentally handicapped students to select the lower priced items in actual shopping activities is described. Through a five-phase process, students are taught to compare prices themselves as well as take into consideration variations in the sizes of containers and varying product weights. (VW)

  1. Infection in the ischemic lower extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, D E; Marek, J M; Langsfeld, M

    1998-06-01

    Infections in the lower extremity of the patient with ischemia can cover a broad spectrum of different diseases. An understanding of the particular pathophysiologic circumstances in the ischemic extremity can be of great value in understanding the natural history of the disease and the potential complications that may occur. Optimizing blood flow to the extremity by using revascularization techniques is important for any patient with an ischemic lower extremity complicated by infection or ulceration. Infections in the ischemic lower extremity require local débridement and systemic antibiotics. For severe infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis or the fetid foot, more extensive local débridement and even amputation may be required. Fundamentals of managing prosthetic graft infection require removing the infected prosthesis, local wound débridement, and systemic antibiotics while attempting to preserve viability of the lower extremity using autogenous graft reconstruction.

  2. Gemfibrozil, stretching arms beyond lipid lowering

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Avik; Pahan, Kalipada

    2009-01-01

    Gemfibrozil is long known for its ability to reduce the level of triglycerides in the blood circulation and to decrease the risk of hyperlipidemia. However, a number of recent studies reveal that apart from its lipid-lowering effects, gemfibrozil can also regulate many other signaling pathways responsible for inflammation, switching of T-helper cells, cell-to-cell contact, migration, and oxidative stress. In this review, we have made an honest attempt to analyze various biological activities ...

  3. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of articles from the 2017 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A compendium of Blood articles updated ... Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood ...

  4. Blood Donation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drive Biomedical Services Hospital Partners Blood Products Blood Banking Resources Order Blood Products Invoice Central Case Reports ... Speed up your donation by completing a RapidPass® online or on the Blood Donor app on the ...

  5. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Schedule & Program Registration Receipts Abstracts View all meetings Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances ... reflect the most recent scientific research View all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding ...

  6. Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lowest at night and rises sharply on waking. Blood pressure: How low can you go? What's considered low ... low blood pressure. Medications that can cause low blood pressure Some medications can cause low blood pressure, including: ...

  7. Blood Pressure Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure monitors may have some limitations. Tracking your blood pressure readings It can be helpful in diagnosing or ... more Stage 2 high blood pressure (hypertension) Elevated blood pressure and stages 1 and 2 high blood pressure ( ...

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood articles updated to reflect the most recent scientific research View all publications For Patients Blood Basics ... help: Results of Clinical Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal of ASH, for the ...

  9. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scientific research View all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood ... that provide information. back to top ASH Foundation Support the mission of ASH and help move hematology ...

  10. Haptoglobin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    The haptoglobin blood test measures the level of haptoglobin in your blood. Haptoglobin is a protein produced by the liver. It attaches to a certain type of hemoglobin in the blood. Hemoglobin is a blood cell that carries oxygen.

  11. Porphyrins - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003372.htm Porphyrins blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... blood or the urine . This article discusses the blood test. How the Test is Performed A blood sample ...

  12. Platelet antibodies blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    This blood test shows if you have antibodies against platelets in your blood. Platelets are a part of the blood ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Platelet antibody - blood. In: Chernecky ... caused by platelet destruction, hypersplenism, or hemodilution. ...

  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood Disorder Fact Sheets ... that occurs when a DVT breaks off and travels to the blood vessels of the lungs. DVT ...

  14. Blood sugar test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sugar; Blood sugar level; Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test; Diabetic screening - blood sugar test; Diabetes - blood sugar test ... The test may be done in the following ways: After you have not eaten anything for at least 8 ...

  15. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Programs and Awards View all Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed ... Email Updates View all meetings Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, ...

  16. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Programs and Awards View all Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed ... Receipts Abstracts View all meetings Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, ...

  17. The Neanderthal lower arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groote, Isabelle

    2011-10-01

    Neanderthal forearms have been described as being very powerful. Different individual features in the lower arm bones have been described to distinguish Neanderthals from modern humans. In this study, the overall morphology of the radius and ulna is considered, and morphological differences among Neanderthals, Upper Paleolithic Homo sapiens and recent H. sapiens are described. Comparisons among populations were made using a combination of 3D geometric morphometrics and standard multivariate methods. Comparative material included all available complete radii and ulnae from Neanderthals, early H. sapiens and archaeological and recent human populations, representing a wide geographical and lifestyle range. There are few differences among the populations when features are considered individually. Neanderthals and early H. sapiens fell within the range of modern human variation. When the suite of measurements and shapes were analyzed, differences and similarities became apparent. The Neanderthal radius is more laterally curved, has a more medially placed radial tuberosity, a longer radial neck, a more antero-posteriorly ovoid head and a well-developed proximal interosseous crest. The Neanderthal ulna has a more anterior facing trochlear notch, a lower M. brachialis insertion, larger relative mid-shaft size and a more medio-lateral and antero-posterior sinusoidal shaft. The Neanderthal lower arm morphology reflects a strong cold-adapted short forearm. The forearms of H. sapiens are less powerful in pronation and supination. Many differences between Neanderthals and H. sapiens can be explained as a secondary consequence of the hyper-polar body proportions of the Neanderthals, but also as retentions of the primitive condition of other hominoids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Lower head failure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, J.L.; Thinnes, G.L.; Allison, C.M.; Cronenberg, A.W.

    1991-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a lower vessel head research program to investigate plausible modes of reactor vessel failure in order to determine (a) which modes have the greatest likelihood of occurrence during a severe accident and (b) the range of core debris and accident conditions that lead to these failures. This paper presents the methodology and preliminary results of an investigation of reactor designs and thermodynamic conditions using analytic closed-form approximations to assess the important governing parameters in non-dimensional form. Preliminary results illustrate the importance of vessel and tube geometrical parameters, material properties, and external boundary conditions on predicting vessel failure. Thermal analyses indicate that steady-state temperature distributions will occur in the vessel within several hours, although the exact time is dependent upon vessel thickness. In-vessel tube failure is governed by the tube-to-debris mass ratio within the lower head, where most penetrations are predicted to fail if surrounded by molten debris. Melt penetration distance is dependent upon the effective flow diameter of the tube. Molten debris is predicted to penetrate through tubes with a larger effective flow diameter, such as a boiling water reactor (BWR) drain nozzle. Ex-vessel tube failure for depressurized reactor vessels is predicted to be more likely for a BWR drain nozzle penetration because of its larger effective diameter. At high pressures (between ∼0.1 MPa and ∼12 MPa) ex-vessel tube rupture becomes a dominant failure mechanism, although tube ejection dominates control rod guide tube failure at lower temperatures. However, tube ejection and tube rupture predictions are sensitive to the vessel and tube radial gap size and material coefficients of thermal expansion

  19. Lower cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatos, Theodoros; Batra, Kiran; Blitz, Ari M; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2014-02-01

    Imaging evaluation of cranial neuropathies requires thorough knowledge of the anatomic, physiologic, and pathologic features of the cranial nerves, as well as detailed clinical information, which is necessary for tailoring the examinations, locating the abnormalities, and interpreting the imaging findings. This article provides clinical, anatomic, and radiological information on lower (7th to 12th) cranial nerves, along with high-resolution magnetic resonance images as a guide for optimal imaging technique, so as to improve the diagnosis of cranial neuropathy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of articles from the 2017 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A compendium of Blood articles updated to reflect the most recent scientific research View all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood ...

  1. Lower dimensional gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    This book addresses the subject of gravity theories in two and three spacetime dimensions. The prevailing philosophy is that lower dimensional models of gravity provide a useful arena for developing new ideas and insights, which are applicable to four dimensional gravity. The first chapter consists of a comprehensive introduction to both two and three dimensional gravity, including a discussion of their basic structures. In the second chapter, the asymptotic structure of three dimensional Einstein gravity with a negative cosmological constant is analyzed. The third chapter contains a treatment of the effects of matter sources in classical two dimensional gravity. The fourth chapter gives a complete analysis of particle pair creation by electric and gravitational fields in two dimensions, and the resulting effect on the cosmological constant

  2. Tevatron lower temperature operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theilacker, J.C.

    1994-07-01

    This year saw the completion of three accelerator improvement projects (AIP) and two capital equipment projects pertaining to the Tevatron cryogenic system. The projects result in the ability to operate the Tevatron at lower temperature, and thus higher energy. Each project improves a subsystem by expanding capabilities (refrigerator controls), ensuring reliability (valve box, subatmospheric hardware, and compressor D), or enhancing performance (cold compressors and coldbox II). In January of 1994, the Tevatron operated at an energy of 975 GeV for the first time. This was the culmination, of many years of R ampersand D, power testing in a sector (one sixth) of the Tevatron, and final system installation during the summer of 1993. Although this is a modest increase in energy, the discovery potential for the Top quark is considerably improved

  3. Vitiligo Lateral Lower Lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Antaryami

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo characteristically affecting the lateral lower lip (LLL is a common presentation in South Orissa. This type of lesion has rarely been described in literature. One hundred eighteen such cases were studied during the period from October 1999 to September, 2000. LLL vitiligo constituted 16.39% of all vitiligo patients. Both sexes were affected equally. The peak age of onset was in the 2nd decade, mean duration of illness 21.46 months. Fifty six patients had unilateral lesion (38 on the left and 18 on the right. Among the 62 patients having bilateral lesions, the onset was more frequent on the left (38 than either the right (8 or both sides together (16. All the patients were right handed. Association with local factors like infection, trauma, cheilitis, FDE etc were associated in 38.98% of cases, but systemic or autoimmune diseases were not associated. Positive family history was found in 22% of cases.

  4. Lower gastrointestinal malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minsky, Bruce D.

    1995-01-01

    Objective: This refresher course will review the current knowledge as well as ongoing and future research strategies in lower gastrointestinal malignancies. Radiation therapy has a significant role in the adjuvant treatment of lower gastrointestinal malignancies. Furthermore, there are data to suggest that radiation therapy is an integral component of the conservative management (organ preservation) of rectal and anal cancers. 1. Colon cancer. The standard adjuvant treatment for node positive or high risk transmural colon cancer is postoperative 5-FU and Levamisole. There are retrospective data to suggest that certain subsets of high risk patients may benefit from postoperative radiation therapy. 2. Rectal cancer. Randomized trials have revealed an advantage of postoperative radiation therapy plus chemotherapy in transmural and/or node positive rectal cancer. In the adjuvant setting the use of continuous infusion 5-FU may be more beneficial compared with bolus 5-FU. Despite the improvement in survival, postoperative therapies are associated with an approximately 35% incidence of grade 3+ toxicity. Recent data suggest that the use of preoperative combined modality therapy may be associated with less toxicity as well as increase the chance of sphincter preservation. New Intergroup trials addressing these issues will be presented. In patients with locally advanced unresectable rectal cancer, the addition of intraoperative radiation therapy may further improve local control. 3. Anal cancer. The use of combined 5-FU/Mitomycin-C and pelvic radiation therapy is effective in the treatment of anal carcinoma. The RTOG has recently completed a randomized trial addressing the question of the effectiveness and toxicity of Mitomycin-C. The replacement Intergroup Phase III trial will be presented

  5. Lower gastrointestinal malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minsky, Bruce D.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: This refresher course will review the current knowledge as well as ongoing and future research strategies in lower gastrointestinal malignancies. Radiation therapy has a significant role in the adjuvant treatment of lower gastrointestinal malignancies. Furthermore, there are data to suggest that radiation therapy is an integral component of the conservative management (organ preservation) of rectal and anal cancers. 1. Colon cancer. The standard adjuvant treatment for node positive or high risk transmural colon cancer is postoperative 5-FU and Levamisole. There are retrospective data to suggest that certain subsets of high risk patients may benefit from postoperative radiation therapy. 2. Rectal cancer. Randomized trials have revealed an advantage of postoperative radiation therapy plus chemotherapy in transmural and/or node positive rectal cancer. In the adjuvant setting the use of continuous infusion 5-FU may be more beneficial compared with bolus 5-FU. Despite the improvement in survival, postoperative therapies are associated with an approximately 35% incidence of grade 3+ toxicity. Recent data suggest that the use of preoperative combined modality therapy may be associated with less toxicity as well as increase the chance of sphincter preservation. New Intergroup trials addressing these issues will be presented. In patients with locally advanced unresectable rectal cancer, the addition of intraoperative radiation therapy may further improve local control. 3. Anal cancer. The use of combined 5-FU/Mitomycin-C and pelvic radiation therapy is effective in the treatment of anal carcinoma. The RTOG has recently completed a randomized trial addressing the question of the effectiveness and toxicity of Mitomycin-C. The replacement Intergroup Phase III trial will be presented

  6. Travoprost lowers intraocular pressure in healthy student volunteers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... African volunteers in a randomized double masked, placebo controlled, crossover, single centre study. Pulse rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and respiratory rate were also measured. Mean IOP was lower than baseline values up to 72 hours after instillation but the mean IOP was significantly lower in the eyes ...

  7. Exercises in Heavy Lowering

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Driving up to Point 5, one can't help but notice the impressively enormous red structure climbing up and over Building 3585. This unusual bridge-like construction is CMS'new crane, otherwise known as 'the gantry'. CMS'impressive "gantry" was recently installed at Building 3585. The 'gantry'was constructed by VSL, a Swiss company that is used to building such uniquely designed cranes used for major construction jobs, including lifting the roofs of various stadiums and the huge Airbus A380 assembly hall in Toulouse or bridge foundation caissons. CMS's crane was custom-built to sustain up to 2000 tonnes of machinery and detectors and slowly lower them down into the experimental cavern. The feature of two towers, one on either side of the building, each 24 m high, is the reason behind the nickname of this amazing crane. Two large beams, 28 m long and 3.4 m high, run along the width of the roof and four openings, each 5 m long, in the ceiling will allow the cables to pass through into the gallery. Unlike typic...

  8. Cord Blood and Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... donate their baby’s umbilical cord blood to a public cord blood bank. We have more than 249,000 cord blood ... stored as a cord blood unit at a public cord blood bank for future use. It can then be listed ...

  9. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Your Doctor Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & Pregnancy If you are pregnant, or you have just had a baby, you are at greater risk of developing a blood clot. Blood clots in pregnant women tend to form in the deep veins of ...

  10. Association of ABO and Rh Blood Groups to Blood-Borne Infections among Blood Donors in Tehran-Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadali, Fatemeh; Pourfathollah, Aliakbar

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV and syphilis infections in blood donors referred to Tehran Blood Transfusion Center (TBTC), and determine any association between blood groups and blood- borne infections between the years of 2005 and 2011. This was a retrospective study conducted at TBTC. All of the donor serum samples were screened for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis by using third generation ELISA kits and RPR test. Initial reactive samples were tested in duplicate. Confirmatory tests were performed on all repeatedly reactive donations. Blood group was determined by forward and reverse blood grouping. The results were subjected to chi square analysis for determination of statistical difference between the values among different categories according to SPSS program. Overall, 2031451 donor serum samples were collected in 2005-2011. Totally, 10451 were positive test for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis. The overall seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV, and syphilis was 0.39%, 0.11%, 0.005%, and 0.010%, respectively. Hepatitis B and HIV infections were significantly associated with blood group of donors (P blood group "A" and percentage of HBs Ag was lower in donors who had blood group O. There was no significant association between Hepatitis C and syphilis infections with ABO and Rh blood groups (P>0.05). Compared with neighboring countries and the international standards, prevalence of blood-borne infections is relatively low.

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased ... you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ...

  12. Blood in Semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Blood in semen By Mayo Clinic Staff Blood in semen (hematospermia) can be frightening, but the cause of this uncommon condition is usually benign. Typically, blood in semen goes away on its own. If you're ...

  13. Blood in the semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semen - bloody; Blood in ejaculation ... Most of the time, blood in the semen is caused by swelling or infection of the prostate or seminal vesicles. The problem may occur after a prostate biopsy . Blood in the ...

  14. Blood Type Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Presents a blood type puzzle that provides a visual, hands-on mechanism by which students can examine blood group reactions. Offers students an opportunity to construct their own knowledge about blood types. (JRH)

  15. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... these blood conditions and increase research on the causes, prevention, and treatment. Blood clots are also potentially ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  16. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... If you find that you are interested in learning more about blood diseases and disorders, here are ... article in Blood may obtain a copy by e-mailing a request to the Blood Publishing Office . ...

  17. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - home glucose testing; Diabetes - home blood sugar testing ... Usual times to test your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your provider may ask you to check your blood sugar 2 hours after a meal or ...

  18. Blood and Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drive Biomedical Services Hospital Partners Blood Products Blood Banking Resources Order Blood Products Invoice Central Case Reports ... app (over 1 million downloads and counting!) and online scheduler make it quick to set up your ...

  19. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that may be of some help: Results of Clinical Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal of ASH, for the results of the latest blood research. While recent articles generally require a subscriber login, ...

  20. Blood Transfusion and Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people in the United States receive life-saving blood transfusions. During a transfusion, you receive whole blood or ... have liver failure or a severe infection. Most blood transfusions go very smoothly. Some infectious agents, such as ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high blood glucose (blood sugar). High ... We Are Research Leaders We Support Your Doctor Student Resources Patient Access to Research Research Resources Practice ...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  3. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of articles from the 2017 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A compendium of Blood articles ... Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood Disorder Fact Sheets ...

  4. Types of Blood Donations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Red Cell Plasma Platelets Red Cells What blood donation type is best for me? **If you do ... type, a whole blood donation is recommended** Blood Donation Types: Volunteer Donations The standard or most common ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get ... the technical term for high blood glucose (blood sugar). High blood glucose happens when the body has ...

  6. Gastrin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peptic ulcer - gastrin blood test ... A blood sample is needed . ... in the stomach, gastrin is released into the blood. As the acid ... provider may order this test if you have signs or symptoms of a ...

  7. Catecholamine blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003561.htm Catecholamine blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measured with a urine test than with a blood test. How the Test is Performed A blood sample ...

  8. Phosphorus blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003478.htm Phosphorus blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The phosphorus blood test measures the amount of phosphate in the blood. ...

  9. Calcium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003477.htm Calcium blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The calcium blood test measures the level of calcium in the blood. ...

  10. Renin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003698.htm Renin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... renin test measures the level of renin in blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  11. Prolactin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003718.htm Prolactin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... test measures the amount of prolactin in the blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  12. Pyruvate kinase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003357.htm Pyruvate kinase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... energy when oxygen levels are low. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. In the laboratory, white blood ...

  13. Ammonia blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003506.htm Ammonia blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Encephalopathy - ammonia; Cirrhosis - ammonia; Liver failure - ammonia Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Ammonia (NH3) - blood ...

  14. Antithrombin III blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003661.htm Antithrombin III blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... a protein that helps control blood clotting. A blood test can determine the amount of AT III present ...

  15. Fibrinopeptide A blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003373.htm Fibrinopeptide A blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measure the level of this substance in your blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. How ...

  16. Cord blood testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood culture (if an infection is suspected) Blood gases (including oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH levels) Blood ... 2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM ...

  17. Ketones blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acetone bodies; Ketones - serum; Nitroprusside test; Ketone bodies - serum; Ketones - blood; Ketoacidosis - ketones blood test ... fat cells break down in the blood. This test is used to diagnose ketoacidosis . This is a ...

  18. Myoglobin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum myoglobin; Heart attack - myoglobin blood test; Myositis - myoglobin blood test; Rhabdomyolysis - myoglobin blood test ... too high, it can damage the kidneys. This test is ordered when your health care provider suspects ...

  19. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may be of some help: Results of Clinical Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal of ASH, for the results of the latest blood research. While recent articles generally require a subscriber login, ...

  20. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... back to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots are treated with ... you think you have one. If you are pregnant and have concerns about blood clots, talk with ...

  1. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood clots are treated with an anticoagulant, a medicine that prevents the blood from clotting. Certain anticoagulants are safe to use during pregnancy. back to top Are Blood Clots Preventable? There ...

  2. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... clot. Blood clots in pregnant women tend to form in the deep veins of the legs or ... potentially dangerous to your baby. Blood clots can form inside the placenta, cutting off blood flow and ...

  3. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... resource to help stay current with the latest advances in the field Hematology 2017 A collection of articles ... Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ...

  4. Symptoms of Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or immune system proteins can cause increased blood viscosity (thickening of the blood). Increased platelets or blood ... by anemia Pica (eating of ice, dirt, or clay) suggests iron deficiency anemia Drugs Mentioned In This ...

  5. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  6. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Top of Page CDC Fact Sheets Related to High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Pulmonary Hypertension Heart Disease Signs ...

  7. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Action on DVT and PE to raise public awareness of these blood conditions and increase research ... may be of some help: Results of Clinical Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal ...

  9. Regional cerebral blood flow in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, R.J.; Duncan, G.C.; Weinman, M.L.; Barr, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured via xenon133 inhalation technique in 23 patients with schizophrenia and 18 age- and sex-matched controls. The mean blood flow to both hemispheres was found to be lower for the patients. The patients and their controls did not differ on interhemispheric differences in blood flow. There were no differences in rCBF between medicated and unmedicated, subchronic and chronic, and paranoid and nonparanoid patients. Hallucinations were associated with reduced blood flow to several postcentral regions

  10. Regional cerebral blood flow in schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, R.J.; Duncan, G.C.; Weinman, M.L.; Barr, D.L.

    1982-10-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured via xenon133 inhalation technique in 23 patients with schizophrenia and 18 age- and sex-matched controls. The mean blood flow to both hemispheres was found to be lower for the patients. The patients and their controls did not differ on interhemispheric differences in blood flow. There were no differences in rCBF between medicated and unmedicated, subchronic and chronic, and paranoid and nonparanoid patients. Hallucinations were associated with reduced blood flow to several postcentral regions.

  11. Unit Advancement Flap for Lower Lip Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Akihiro; Onishi, Kiyoshi; Okada, Emi; Nakamichi, Miho

    2018-05-01

    Lower lip reconstruction requires consideration of esthetic and functional outcome in selecting a surgical procedure, and reconstruction with local tissue is useful. The authors reconstructed full-thickness defects with a unit advancement flap. Reconstruction was performed using this method in 4 patients with lower lip squamous cell carcinoma in whom tumor resection with preservation of the mouth angle was possible. The lower lip resection width was 30 to 45 mm, accounting for 50% to 68% of the entire width of the lower lip. The flap was prepared by lateral extension from above the mental unit and matched with the potential wrinkle line of the lower lip in order to design a unit morphology surrounded by the anterior margin of the depressor labii inferioris muscle. It was elevated as a full-thickness flap composed of the orbicularis oris muscle, skin, and mucosa of the residual lower lip from the bilateral sides, and advanced to the defect. Flap transfer was adjusted by small triangular resection of the skin on the lateral side of the mental unit. The postoperative scar was inconspicuous in all patients and there was no impairment of the mouth opening-closing or articulation functions. This was a relatively simple surgical procedure. A blood supply of the flap was stable, and continuity of the orbicularis oris muscle was reconstructed by transferred the residual lower lip advancement flap from the bilateral sides. The postoperative mouth opening-closing function was sufficient, and dentures could be placed from an early phase in elderly patients. The postoperative scar was consistent with the lip unit morphology, being esthetically superior. This procedure may be applicable for reconstruction of defects approximately 1/3 to 2/3 the width of the lower lip where the mouth angle is preserved.

  12. Complete Blood Count (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids Deal With Injections and Blood Tests Blood Culture Anemia Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Blood Test: Hemoglobin Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Word! Complete Blood Count (CBC) Medical Tests and Procedures ( ...

  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Workshop on Genome Editing Publications Blood Blood Advances The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ... Society of Hematology Support Opportunities | Privacy Policy | Terms of Service | Contact Us

  14. Gemfibrozil, stretching arms beyond lipid lowering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Avik; Pahan, Kalipada

    2009-01-01

    Gemfibrozil is long known for its ability to reduce the level of triglycerides in the blood circulation and to decrease the risk of hyperlipidemia. However, a number of recent studies reveal that apart from its lipid-lowering effects, gemfibrozil can also regulate many other signaling pathways responsible for inflammation, switching of T-helper cells, cell-to-cell contact, migration, and oxidative stress. In this review, we have made an honest attempt to analyze various biological activities of gemfibrozil and associated mechanisms that may help to consider this drug for different human disorders as primary or adjunct therapy. PMID:19694602

  15. Precautions and Adverse Reactions during Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Professional Version Blood Transfusion Overview of Blood Transfusion Blood Donation Process Blood Products Special Blood Donation Procedures ... CORTEF, SOLU-CORTEF Blood Transfusion Overview of Blood Transfusion Blood Donation Process Blood Products Special Blood Donation Procedures ...

  16. Blood conservation operations in pediatric cardiac patients: a paradigm shift of blood use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohsen; Florentino-Pineda, Ivan; Weatherred, Ted; Qadeer, Ahsan; Rosenberg, Carol Ann; Hudacko, Andrea; Ryu, Duchwan

    2013-03-01

    Red blood cell transfusion is associated with high morbidity in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac operations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effects and outcomes of blood conservation for our pediatric patients undergoing cardiac operations. We retrospectively analyzed a collected database of 168 pediatric patients who underwent biventricular (BV) and univentricular (UV) cardiac operations from 2006 to 2010. Patients were grouped into no blood conservation (n = 86 [BV = 74, UV = 12]) and blood conservation (n = 82 [BV = 68, UV = 14]) cohorts. There were no statistical differences in age, sex, weight, and preoperative or postoperative hemoglobin levels in the BV groups. Even though the blood conservation group had longer cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (p conservation group, there were no statistical differences in age, sex, weight, CPB and cross-clamp times, preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin levels, and red blood cell transfusions despite lower intraoperative hemoglobin levels (p conservation group. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between intraoperative blood transfusion and increased inotropic score, longer duration on the ventilator, and increased length of hospitalization. Blood conservation in pediatric cardiac operations is associated with fewer ventilator days, lower inotropic scores, and shorter lengths of stay. These findings, in addition to attendant risks and side effects of blood transfusion and the rising cost of safer blood products, justify blood conservation in pediatric cardiac operations. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Lower limb vascular dysfunction in cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Ayala Melo Di Alencar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sports-related vascular insufficiency affecting the lower limbs is uncommon, and early signs and symptoms can be confused with musculoskeletal injuries. This is also the case among professional cyclists, who are always at the threshold between endurance and excess training. The aim of this review was to analyze the occurrence of vascular disorders in the lower limbs of cyclists and to discuss possible etiologies. Eighty-five texts, including papers and books, published from 1950 to 2012, were used. According to the literature reviewed, some cyclists receive a late diagnosis of vascular dysfunction due to a lack of familiarity of the medical team with this type of dysfunction. Data revealed that a reduced blood flow in the external iliac artery, especially on the left, is much more common than in the femoral and popliteal arteries, and that vascular impairment is responsible for the occurrence of early fatigue and reduced performance in cycling.

  18. Radiolabelled cellular blood elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinzinger, H.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on radiolabelled cellular blood elements, covering new advances made during the past several years, in particular the use of Tc-99 as a tracer for blood elements. Coverage extends to several radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies that are specific for blood components and may label blood elements in vivo

  19. Blood Transfusion (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Transfusions KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Transfusions What's in this ... and help put your child at ease. About Blood Transfusions Blood is like the body's transportation system. As ...

  20. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth / For Teens / Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) What's ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  1. Prevention of cardiovascular events with an antihypertensive regimen of amlodipine adding perindopril as required versus atenolol adding bendroflumethiazide as required, in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Blood Pressure Lowering Arm (ASCOT-BPLA): a multicentre randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlöf, Björn; Sever, Peter S; Poulter, Neil R

    2005-01-01

    The apparent shortfall in prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) noted in early hypertension trials has been attributed to disadvantages of the diuretics and beta blockers used. For a given reduction in blood pressure, some suggested that newer agents would confer advantages over diuretics...

  2. Blood lead levels and chronic blood loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manci, E.A.; Cabaniss, M.L.; Boerth, R.C.; Blackburn, W.R.

    1986-03-01

    Over 90% of lead in blood is bound to the erythrocytes. This high affinity of lead for red cells may mean that chronic blood loss is a significant means for excretion of lead. This study sought correlations between blood lead levels and clinical conditions involving chronic blood loss. During May, June and July, 146 patients with normal hematocrits and red cell indices were identified from the hospital and clinic populations. For each patient, age, race, sex and medical history were noted, and a whole blood sample was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Age-and race-matched pairs showed a significant correlation of chronic blood loss with lead levels. Patients with the longest history of blood loss (menstruating women) had the lowest level (mean 6.13 ..mu..g/dl, range 3.6-10.3 ..mu..g/dl). Post-menopausal women had levels (7.29 ..mu..g/dl, 1.2-14 ..mu..g/dl) comparable to men with peptic ulcer disease, or colon carcinoma (7.31 ..mu..g/dl, 5.3-8.6 ..mu..g/dl). The highest levels were among men who had no history of bleeding problems (12.39 ..mu..g/dl, 2.08-39.35 ..mu..g/dl). Chronic blood loss may be a major factor responsible for sexual differences in blood lead levels. Since tissue deposition of environmental pollutants is implicated in diseases, menstruation may represent a survival advantage for women.

  3. The effects of endurance and resistance training on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, R S; Hirth, V A

    1995-10-01

    There now exists substantial clinical data supporting a blood pressure lowering effect of endurance training. Though the effect is modest (5-10 mmHg), epidemiologic studies indicate the possibility of protection against the development of hypertension and also indicate significantly reduced cardiovascular mortality and increased longevity associated with chronic endurance exercise. The data for blood pressure lowering effects of resistive training are much less compelling, and this area requires additional investigation. However, it appears that resistance training is not associated with chronic elevations in blood pressure. Future studies need to focus on: 1) the relative efficacy of low-, moderate- and high-intensity training on lowering blood pressure; 2) the effect of training on ambulatory blood pressure; 3) targeting of at risk and high responding populations; and 4) the importance of insulinemia, SNS tone and central adiposity in the mechanism of any blood pressure lowering effect of training.

  4. Diurnal blood pressure changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asayama, Kei; Satoh, Michihiro; Kikuya, Masahiro

    2018-05-23

    The definition of diurnal blood pressure changes varies widely, which can be confusing. Short-term blood pressure variability during a 24-h period and the dipping status of diurnal blood pressure can be captured by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and these metrics are reported to have prognostic significance for cardiovascular complications. Morning blood pressure surge also indicates this risk, but its effect may be limited to populations with specific conditions. Meanwhile, the combined use of conventional office blood pressure and out-of-office blood pressure allows us to identify people with white-coat and masked hypertension. Current home devices can measure nocturnal blood pressure during sleep more conveniently than ambulatory monitoring; however, we should pay attention to blood pressure measurement conditions regardless of whether they are in a home, ambulatory, or office setting. The relatively poor reproducibility of diurnal blood pressure changes, including the nocturnal fall of blood pressure, is another underestimated issue to be addressed. Although information on diurnal blood pressure changes is expected to be used more effectively in the future, we should also keep in mind that blood pressure levels have remained central to the primary and secondary prevention of blood pressure-related cardiovascular diseases in clinical practice.

  5. Red blood cell alloimmunization after blood transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Henk

    2008-01-01

    Current pretransfusion policy requires the patients’ serum to be tested for the presence of irregular red blood cell antibodies. In case of an antibody, red blood cells lacking the corresponding antigen are transfused after an antiglobulin crossmatch. The aim of the studies in this thesis is

  6. Blood-conservation techniques in craniofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meara, John G; Smith, Ebonie M; Harshbarger, Raymond J; Farlo, Joe N; Matar, Marla M; Levy, Mike L

    2005-05-01

    Attempts at reducing exposure to allogeneic transfusions, using blood conservation techniques such as controlled hypotension and normovolemic hemodilution, have met with mixed results and are not always practical in small infants. Recombinant human erythropoietin (RHE), a hormone that stimulates RBC production, increases the hematocrit when administered to infants. A retrospective chart review of all patients undergoing fronto-orbital advancement for craniosynostosis by the same plastic surgeon between January 2002 and December 2002 was conducted. A subgroup of patients (10/19) received RHE as a blood-conservation strategy. Transfusion requirements were lower in the RHE group (5/10) versus the control group (9/9). Total volume of blood products transfused was statistically lower in the RHE group (154 mL RHE group versus 421 mL control) (P conservation techniques was associated with a decreased need for blood transfusion, thus exposing the patient to fewer risks associated with allogeneic transfusion.

  7. Blood management in total hip replacement: an analysis of factors associated with allogenic blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Samuel; Tang, Howard; de Steiger, Richard

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to audit the blood transfusion practice throughout the Epworth Healthcare Hospitals for patients undergoing primary total hip replacement (THR). We determined if blood-saving techniques were having an impact on the risk of allogenic blood transfusion and which patients were at risk of receiving allogenic blood transfusion. This study uses a retrospective audit of 787 patients who had undergone primary THR surgery at three Melbourne hospitals: Epworth Richmond, Epworth Eastern and Epworth Freemasons in 2010. Patient demographics, transfusion requirements and blood-conserving techniques were recorded. One hundred and eighty (23%) patients received allogenic blood transfusion and 18 (2.3%) patients received autologous blood transfusion. On multivariate analysis, preoperative anaemia (odds ratio (OR) 4.7, P blood transfusion. Use of spinal anaesthetic was found to be associated with lower risk of transfusion (OR 0.6, P = 0.0180) compared with general anaesthetic alone. Cell saver, acute normovolaemic haemodilution and re-infusion drain tube usage did not have a significant impact on reducing the risk of allogenic blood transfusion. Identification of patients at risk of blood transfusion, correction of preoperative anaemia and a restrictive transfusion policy are important factors to consider in effective perioperative blood management. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  8. Nocturnal variations in peripheral blood flow, systemic blood pressure, and heart rate in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Christensen, H

    1991-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate, together with systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate under ambulatory conditions, was measured in the lower legs of 15 normal human subjects for 12-20 h. The 133Xe-washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage uni.......0001). The synchronism of the nocturnal subcutaneous hyperemia and the decrease in systemic mean arterial blood pressure point to a common, possibly central nervous or humoral, eliciting mechanism.......Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate, together with systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate under ambulatory conditions, was measured in the lower legs of 15 normal human subjects for 12-20 h. The 133Xe-washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage unit...

  9. Low blood sugar - newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007306.htm Low blood sugar - newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A low blood sugar level in newborn babies is also ...

  10. Blood donation before surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000367.htm Blood donation before surgery To use the sharing features on ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Blood Transfusion and Donation Surgery Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., ...

  11. Low blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a medical emergency. It can cause seizures and brain damage. Severe low blood sugar that causes you to become unconscious is called hypoglycemic or insulin shock. Even one episode of severe low blood ...

  12. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Jun 1,2018 What do your blood ... and Live Our Interactive Cardiovascular Library has detailed animations and illustrations to help you learn about conditions, ...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Enroll ...

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... known as venous thromboembolism, are highly preventable (see prevention tips below). The U.S. Surgeon General has issued ... blood conditions and increase research on the causes, prevention, and treatment. Blood clots are also potentially dangerous ...

  15. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emerging Immunotherapies Registration Schedule & Program Meeting on Lymphoma Biology Registration Schedule & Program Abstracts 60th ASH Annual Meeting & ... Malignancies Consultative Hematology Course ASH Meeting on Lymphoma Biology ASH Workshop on Genome Editing Publications Blood Blood ...

  16. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood ...

  17. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increased by the following: Previous blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e. ... Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your doctor knows about any history ...

  18. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your doctor knows about any history of blood clots or blood clotting disorders in ... Support Opportunities | Privacy Policy | Terms of Service | Contact Us

  19. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ASH Apps Share Your Idea Donate My Account Search Show Main Menu + About Awards Membership ASH Foundation ... help: Results of Clinical Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal of ASH, for the ...

  20. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... Hematologist Clinical Trials Talking with Your Doctor Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Disorders ... a request to the Blood Publishing Office . Patient Groups A list of Web links to patient groups ...

  1. [Prospects in blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouger, P

    2003-04-01

    What will be the evolution of blood transfusion in the next 10 years? What are the scientific and medical arguments to help the decision makers to propose the developments? Many scientific and clinical studies show that blood substitutes are not ready for use in man. So, for a long time, blood collection in man will still be a necessity to prepare cell concentrates (red blood cells and platelets) and fresh frozen plasma. During this period, blood safety will be based on development of testing technics and preparation processes of blood products. Another major point will be a better clinical use of blood derivates. Cellular therapy will be probably only a way of diversification in blood transfusion centers in partnership with hospitals.

  2. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In This Section Agenda for Hematology Research Precision Medicine Initiative Research Registry Research Recommendations Research Programs and ... blood clots are treated with an anticoagulant, a medicine that prevents the blood from clotting. Certain anticoagulants ...

  3. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnancy: Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your doctor knows about any ... blood clots or blood clotting disorders in your family. Remain active, with your doctor's approval. Be aware ...

  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer to curing diabetes and ... blood and then treating high blood glucose early will help you avoid problems associated with hyperglycemia. How ...

  5. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... harming your baby. Jump To: Am I at Risk? The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is ... prevent blood clots during pregnancy: Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your ...

  6. Blood Pressure Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    High blood pressure, also called hypertension, usually has no symptoms. But it can cause serious problems such as stroke, heart ... kidney failure. If you cannot control your high blood pressure through lifestyle changes such as losing weight and ...

  7. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are pregnant, or you have just had a baby, you are at greater risk of developing a ... Blood clots are also potentially dangerous to your baby. Blood clots can form inside the placenta, cutting ...

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots are treated with an ... 0544 | Fax 202-776-0545 ASH Store ASH Job Center ASH Apps Share Your Idea Donate Research ...

  9. Ethylene glycol blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003564.htm Ethylene glycol blood test To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. This test measures the level of ethylene glycol in the blood. Ethylene glycol is a ...

  10. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) ...

  11. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) ...

  12. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Action on DVT and PE to raise public awareness of these blood conditions and increase research on ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In This Section Agenda for Hematology Research Precision Medicine Initiative Research Registry Research Recommendations Research Programs and Awards View all Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed journal with a unique focus ...

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an immediate impact on your practice Summit on Emerging Immunotherapies Registration Schedule & Program Meeting on Lymphoma Biology ... blood clots are treated with an anticoagulant, a medicine that prevents the blood from clotting. Certain anticoagulants ...

  15. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increased by the following: Previous blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e. ... 2018 by American Society of Hematology Support Opportunities | Privacy Policy | Terms of Service | Contact Us

  16. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births ... treating blood conditions. back to top Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome: A Patient's Journey back to top Where Can ...

  17. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed journal with a unique focus on scholarly ... Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, online only, open access journal with a ...

  18. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) ... of practicing hematologists in your area. Learn more AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEMATOLOGY 2021 L Street NW, Suite ...

  19. Blood Test: Bilirubin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Bilirubin KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Bilirubin What's in ... liver or kidneys) is working. What Is a Bilirubin Test? A bilirubin test measures how much bilirubin ...

  20. Antidiuretic hormone blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003702.htm Antidiuretic hormone blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antidiuretic blood test measures the level of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in ...

  1. BUN - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003474.htm BUN - blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... for the Test Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you ...

  2. HCG blood test - qualitative

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003509.htm HCG blood test - qualitative To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A qualitative HCG blood test checks if there is a hormone called human ...

  3. ACE blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003567.htm ACE blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Alternative Names Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme; SACE Images Blood test References Carty RP, Pincus MR, Sarafraz-Yazdi E. ...

  4. LDH isoenzyme blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003499.htm LDH isoenzyme blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Names LD; LDH; Lactic (lactate) dehydrogenase isoenzymes Images Blood test References Carty RP, Pincus MR, Sarafraz-Yazdi E. ...

  5. CEA blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcinoembryonic antigen blood test ... doing so for a short time before the test. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel ... may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon goes away.

  6. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003565.htm Methylmalonic acid blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The methylmalonic acid blood test measures the amount of methylmalonic acid in the ...

  7. TBG - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003374.htm TBG - blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The TBG blood test measures the level of a protein that moves ...

  8. Calcitonin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003699.htm Calcitonin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The calcitonin blood test measures the level of the hormone calcitonin in ...

  9. Aldolase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003566.htm Aldolase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... risk any time the skin is broken) Images Blood test References Berridge BR, Van Vleet JF, Herman E. ...

  10. Glucagon blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003716.htm Glucagon blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A glucagon blood test measures the amount of a hormone called glucagon ...

  11. Leucine aminopeptidase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003559.htm Leucine aminopeptidase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Alternative Names Serum leucine aminopeptidase; LAP - serum Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) - ...

  12. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the field Hematology 2017 A collection of articles from the 2017 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A compendium of Blood articles updated to reflect the most recent scientific research ...

  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on Lymphoma Biology ASH Workshop on Genome Editing Publications Blood Blood Advances The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ASH Self-Assessment Program Hematology , ASH Education Program About Awards Membership ASH Foundation Global Initiatives ...

  14. Blood Sugar - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mass Health Promotion Clearinghouse Massachusetts Department of Public Health Fasting Blood Sugar Test - español (Spanish) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Ukrainian (українська ) Expand Section Fasting Blood ...

  15. Blood Test: Testosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Test: Estradiol Precocious Puberty Understanding Puberty Endocrine System Male Reproductive System Getting a Blood Test (Video) All About Puberty Blood Test (Video) Male Reproductive System View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial ...

  16. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... inside the placenta, cutting off blood flow and harming your baby. Jump To: Am I at Risk? ... Blood Advances The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ASH Self-Assessment Program Hematology , ASH Education Program About Awards ...

  17. High blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Names Hyperglycemia - self care; High blood glucose - self care; Diabetes - high blood sugar References American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2017: 4. Lifestyle management and 6. Glycemic targets. Diabetes Care . 2017;40( ...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your blood and then treating high blood glucose early will help you avoid problems associated with hyperglycemia. ... to detect hyperglycemia so you can treat it early — before it gets worse. If you're new ...

  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To ... Email: Sign Up Thank you for signing up ' + ' '); $('.survey-form').show(); }, success: function (data) { $('#survey-errors').remove(); $('. ...

  20. High blood pressure - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007696.htm High blood pressure - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  1. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... meal and snack options can help you avoid high blood pressure and its complications. Be sure to eat plenty ...

  2. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007329.htm High blood pressure - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  3. High blood pressure medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  4. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots are treated with an ... Image Bank Advocacy Action Alerts Policy News Advocacy Leadership Institute Policy Statements Testimony & Correspondence Meetings ASH Annual ...

  5. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... presentations, that can help you make an immediate impact on your practice Summit on Emerging Immunotherapies Registration ... blood clots are treated with an anticoagulant, a medicine that prevents the blood from clotting. Certain anticoagulants ...

  6. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots are treated with an ... of Web links to patient groups and other organizations that provide information. back to top ASH Foundation ...

  7. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Section Action Alerts Advocacy Toolkit Policy News Sickle Cell Disease Initiative Policy Statements Congressional Fellowship Testimony and ... Malignancies Consultative Hematology Course ASH Meeting on Lymphoma Biology ASH Workshop on Genome Editing Publications Blood Blood ...

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots are treated with an ... Programs and Awards ASH Agenda for Hematology Research Education For Clinicians For Trainees For Educators For Patients ...

  9. Higher Incision at Upper Part of Lower Segment Caesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Shao

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: An incision at the upper part of the lower segment reduces blood loss, enhances uterine retraction, predisposes to fewer complications, is easier to repair, precludes bladder adhesion to the suture line and reduces operation time. Keywords: caesarean section; higher incision technique; traditional uterine incision technique.

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type ... Checking Your Blood Glucose A1C and eAG Hypoglycemia (Low blood glucose) Hyperglycemia (High blood glucose) Dawn Phenomenon ...

  11. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... copy by e-mailing a request to the Blood Publishing Office . Patient Groups A list of Web links to patient groups and other organizations that provide information. back to top ASH ... Blood Blood Advances The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ASH ...

  12. THE WHITE BLOOD ANCESTOR?

    OpenAIRE

    M.Arulmani; V.R.Hema Latha

    2014-01-01

    This scientific research article focus that “Red colour blood” of human shall be considered as the 3rd generation Blood and the Human on origin shall be considered having white colour Blood. The white colour blood of human Ancestor shall be considered composed of only ions of Photon, Electron, Proton and free from Hydrogen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Ozone.

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page ... and-how-tos, . In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood ...

  14. Blood Glucose Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Nybo, Mads; Cadamuro, Janne

    2018-01-01

    The measurement of fasting plasma glucose may be biased by a time-dependent decrease of glucose in blood tubes, mainly attributable to blood cell metabolism when glycolysis is not rapidly inhibited or blood cells cannot be rapidly separated from plasma. Although glycolysis inhibitors such as sodium...

  15. Blood Transfusions (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Transfusions KidsHealth / For Teens / Blood Transfusions What's in this ... in his or her body. What Is a Blood Transfusion? A transfusion is a simple medical procedure that ...

  16. Modelling blood safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and application of methods and models to support decision making on safety measures aimed at preventing the transmission of infections by blood donors. Safety measures refer to screening tests for blood donors, quarantine periods for blood plasma, or methods for

  17. Right patient, Right blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selberg, Hanne; Madsen, Trine Stougaard

    2014-01-01

    Right patient, Right Blood Simulation based training in blood transfusion practice in nursing education Background: In spite of strict checking procedures to handling transfusion of blood severe adverse reactions are likely to happen and the major cause of morbidity occurs to be liable to human...

  18. Red blood cell production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone marrow of bones. Stem cells in the red bone marrow called hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming a cell called a proerythroblast, it will develop into a new red blood cell. The formation of a red blood ...

  19. Centrifugal blood pump 603

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Centrifugal blood pump 603 pressure obtained for real blood, as shown in figure 6, is a little higher than that for glycerin aqua Solution with the same viscosity as blood. This may indicate the effect of slight non-. Newtonian turbulent flow. The radial whirl motion of the impeller was observed by dual laser position sensors.

  20. Blood platelet inventory management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haijema, R.; van Dijk, N. M.; van der Wal, J.; Boucherie, Richard J.; van Dijk, Nico M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper illustrates how MDP or Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) can be used in practice for blood management at blood banks; both to set regular production quantities for perishable blood products (platelets) and how to do so in irregular periods (as holidays). The state space is too large to

  1. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Symbiosal® and lowering of blood pressure and reduced risk of hypertension pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Following an application from Han-Asiabiotech GmbH, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Germany, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion...... in blood pressure when Symbiosal® was consumed instead of table salt for eight weeks in the context of a salt-restricted diet, but that no other human studies in which these results have been replicated were provided, that the animal studies did not support the results of the human study...

  2. Arterial mapping of lower limbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acuna Allen, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    A bibliographic review is realized in the arterial mapping of lower limbs by ultrasonographic. The physical properties of the Doppler effect applied to diagnostic ultrasound are described. The anatomical characteristics of the general arterial system and specifically of the lower limbs arterial system are mentioned. Pathologies of the ischemic arterial disease of lower limbs are explained. The study characteristics of lower limbs arterial mapping are documented to determine its importance as appropriate method for the assessment of lower limb ischemia. An adequate arterial mapping of lower limbs is recognized in atherosclerotic ischemic disease as a reliable initial method alternative to arteriography. Arteriography is considered as reference pattern for therapeutic decision making in patients with critical ischemia of the lower limbs. Non-invasive methods to assess the arterial system of lower limbs has evidenced the advantages of the arterial mapping with Doppler, according to the consulted literature. The combination morphological and hemodynamic information has been possible and a map of the explored zone is made. The arterial mapping by ultrasonography has offered similar reliability to angiography [es

  3. Lower GI Series (Barium Enema)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses x-rays and a chalky liquid called barium to view your large intestine . The barium will make your large intestine more visible on ... single-contrast lower GI series, which uses only barium a double-contrast or air-contrast lower GI ...

  4. Comparison of oxidative/antioxidative status of penile corpus cavernosum blood and peripheral venous blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeni, E; Gulum, M; Selek, S; Erel, O; Unal, D; Verit, A; Savas, M

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine and to compare the oxidative and antioxidative status of penile corpus cavernosum and peripheral venous blood. A total of 28 adult healthy males were included in the study. Whole blood was simultaneously withdrawn from penile corpus cavernosum and the cubital vein and their plasma separated. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), vitamin C, total protein, albumin, uric acid, bilirubin and total peroxide (TP) levels of both plasma samples were measured and compared. While TAC, total protein, albumin, bilirubin and uric acid levels were higher, vitamin C levels were lower in cavernosal blood than that of peripheral blood. On the other hand, TP level was found to be higher in penile blood samples than that of peripheral blood. We thought that the normal erectile process of the penile cavernosal body leads to increased production of oxidants as in the mechanism of ischaemia-reperfusion; however, the increase of TAC can prevent development of oxidative injury.

  5. Effect of fenofibrate on blood pressure reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Lipatenkova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Реферат по материалам статей 1. Gilbert K, Nian H, Yu C, Luther JM, Brown NJ. Fenofibrate lowers blood pressure in salt-sensitive but not salt-resistant hypertension. J Hypertens. 2013 Apr;31(4:820-9. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e32835e8227. 2. Kwang K. K. Does Fenofibrate Lower Blood Pressure? Hypertension. 2013 Mar;61(3:e27. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.111.00792.

  6. BLOOD DOPING AND RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Vasić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Doping is the way in which athletes misuse of chemicals and other types of medical interventions (eg, blood replacement, try to get ahead in the results of other athletes or their performance at the expense of their own health. The aim of this work is the analysis of blood doping and the display of negative consequences that this way of increasing capabilities brings. Method: The methodological work is done descriptively. Results: Even in 1972 at the Stockholm Institute for gymnastics and sport, first Dr. Bjorn Ekblom started having blood doping. Taken from the blood, athletes through centifuge separating red blood cells from blood plasma, which is after a month of storage in the fridge, every athlete back into the bloodstream. Tests aerobic capacity thereafter showed that the concerned athletes can run longer on average for 25% of the treadmill than before. Discussion: Blood doping carries with it serious risks, excessive amount of red cells “thickens the blood,” increased hematocrit, which reduces the heart’s ability to pump blood to the periphery. All this makes it difficult for blood to flow through blood vessels, and there is a great danger that comes to a halt in the circulation, which can cause cardiac arrest, stroke, pulmonary edema, and other complications that can be fatal.

  7. A microfluidic chip for direct and rapid trapping of white blood cells from whole blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingdong; Chen, Di; Yuan, Tao; Xie, Yao; Chen, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Blood analysis plays a major role in medical and science applications and white blood cells (WBCs) are an important target of analysis. We proposed an integrated microfluidic chip for direct and rapid trapping WBCs from whole blood. The microfluidic chip consists of two basic functional units: a winding channel to mix and arrays of two-layer trapping structures to trap WBCs. Red blood cells (RBCs) were eliminated through moving the winding channel and then WBCs were trapped by the arrays of trapping structures. We fabricated the PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) chip using soft lithography and determined the critical flow velocities of tartrazine and brilliant blue water mixing and whole blood and red blood cell lysis buffer mixing in the winding channel. They are 0.25 μl/min and 0.05 μl/min, respectively. The critical flow velocity of the whole blood and red blood cell lysis buffer is lower due to larger volume of the RBCs and higher kinematic viscosity of the whole blood. The time taken for complete lysis of whole blood was about 85 s under the flow velocity 0.05 μl/min. The RBCs were lysed completely by mixing and the WBCs were trapped by the trapping structures. The chip trapped about 2.0 × 103 from 3.3 × 103 WBCs. PMID:24404026

  8. Improved Range Searching Lower Bounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green; Nguyen, Huy L.

    2012-01-01

    by constructing a hard input set and query set, and then invoking Chazelle and Rosenberg's [CGTA'96] general theorem on the complexity of navigation in the pointer machine. For the group model, we show that input sets and query sets that are hard for range reporting in the pointer machine (i.e. by Chazelle...... and Rosenberg's theorem), are also hard for dynamic range searching in the group model. This theorem allows us to reuse decades of research on range reporting lower bounds to immediately obtain a range of new group model lower bounds. Amongst others, this includes an improved lower bound for the fundamental...

  9. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure among Greenlanders and Danes: relationship to diet and lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Pedersen, M.B.; Siggaard, Cecilie

    2002-01-01

    Greenlanders have a lower rate of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity than Danes, possibly due to lower blood pressure. However, 24-h blood pressure has never been measured in Greenlanders. The aim of this study was to compare the 24-h blood pressure of Greenlanders and Danes, and to analyse t...

  10. TCGA_LowerGradeGliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    TCGA researchers analyzed nearly 300 cases of diffuse low- and intermediate-grade gliomas, which together comprise lower-grade gliomas. LGGs occur mainly in adults and include astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas.

  11. Computational Lower Bounds Using Diagonalization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 7. Computational Lower Bounds Using Diagonalization - Languages, Turing Machines and Complexity Classes. M V Panduranga Rao. General Article Volume 14 Issue 7 July 2009 pp 682-690 ...

  12. Lowering Salt in Your Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Lowering Salt in Your Diet Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Everyone needs some salt to function. Also known as sodium chloride, salt ...

  13. Reproductive hormones in menstrual blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J P; Fraser, I S; Caterson, I; Grivas, A; McCarron, G; Norman, T; Tan, K

    1989-08-01

    Menstrual and peripheral blood samples were collected from 19 regularly cycling women on days 1-3 of the menstrual cycle. Menstrual samples were collected with a soft silicone rubber menstrual cup. Hematocrit, PRL, LH, FSH, estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P4) were measured in all samples. Validation studies were carried out for RIAs of PRL, LH, and FSH in menstrual plasma. The menstrual plasma PRL level was significantly higher than its peripheral blood level on day 1 (63.3 +/- 14.7 and 12.1 +/- 2.9 micrograms/L, respectively; t = 3.331; P less than 0.01), and menstrual PRL was significantly higher on day 1 than on day 2 (t = 3.340; P less than 0.01). There was a strong negative correlation between log menstrual PRL concentration and time of onset of menstruation (r = -0.596; P less than 0.01). Menstrual plasma FSH levels were significantly lower than peripheral levels on each of days 1-3 (day 1:t = 4.787; P less than 0.001), and there was a significant positive correlation between menstrual and peripheral levels (r = 0.607; P less than 0.01). By contrast, menstrual plasma LH was significantly higher than the peripheral level on days 1 and 2 (day 1:t = 3.105; day 2:t = 3.180; P less than 0.01), with no correlation between menstrual and peripheral levels. Menstrual E2 was slightly lower than and significantly positively correlated with peripheral E2 (r = 0.646; P less than 0.01). Menstrual P4 was lower than but showed no correlation with peripheral levels. As expected, the menstrual blood hematocrit was less than 0.20 and highly significantly lower than that of peripheral venous blood. These results suggest that PRL is released in substantial amounts from secretory endometrium into the menstrual flow during the first day of menstrual breakdown. LH may also be released in small amounts from menstrual endometrium, while menstrual FSH, E2, and P4 probably arise entirely from the peripheral circulation.

  14. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease ... of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell count varies from one medical ...

  15. Play the Blood Typing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nobel's Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire The Blood Typing Game What happens if you get a blood ... learn about human blood types! Play the Blood Typing Game 28 September 2017 The mission based game ...

  16. Blood pressure in Afghan male immigrants to Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Ali; Bülow, Jens; Simonsen, Lene

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Immigration from a Third-World society to a Western society can be associated with higher blood pressure and salt sensitivity. We therefore tested whether immigrants from Afghanistan to Denmark compared with non-immigrant Danes exhibit a (i) higher 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (24-h ABP...... immigrants to Denmark exhibit a lower 24-h ABP than Danes. In young Afghans, PRA is less sensitive to changes in salt intake, while PNA is higher and may reflect their lower systolic blood pressure and/or arterial pulse pressure. Whether these hormonal differences can explain the lower 24-h ABP in Afghans...

  17. [Blood glucose self monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wascher, Thomas C; Stechemesser, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Self monitoring of blood glucose contributes to the integrated management of diabetes mellitus. It, thus, should be available for all patients with diabetes mellitus type-1 and type-2. Self monitoring of blood glucose improves patients safety, quality of life and glucose control. The current article represents the recommendations of the Austrian Diabetes Association for the use of blood glucose self monitoring according to current scientific evidence.

  18. Development of blood irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This project is designed to improve the techniques of blood irradiation through the development of improved and portable blood irradiators. A portable blood irradiator, consisting of a vitreous carbon body and thulium-170 radiation source, was attached to dogs via a carotid-jugular shunt, and its effects on the immune system measured. The device has demonstrated both significant suppression of circulating lymphocytes and prolonged retention of skin allografts

  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ...

  20. Sodium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicines that may affect the test. These include: Antibiotics Antidepressants Some high blood pressure medicines Lithium Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) Water pills (diuretics) DO NOT stop ...

  1. Microcoil Embolization for Acute Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Othee, Bertrand Janne; Surapaneni, Padmaja; Rabkin, Dmitry; Nasser, Imad; Clouse, Melvin

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. To assess outcomes after microcoil embolization for active lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Methods. We retrospectively studied all consecutive patients in whom microcoil embolization was attempted to treat acute lower GI bleeding over 88 months. Baseline, procedural, and outcome parameters were recorded following current Society of Interventional Radiology guidelines. Outcomes included technical success, clinical success (rebleeding within 30 days), delayed rebleeding (>30 days), and major and minor complication rates. Follow-up consisted of clinical, endoscopic, and pathologic data. Results. Nineteen patients (13 men, 6 women; mean age ± 95% confidence interval = 70 ± 6 years) requiring blood transfusion (10 ± 3 units) had angiography-proven bleeding distal to the marginal artery. Main comorbidities were malignancy (42%), coagulopathy (28%), and renal failure (26%). Bleeding was located in the small bowel (n = 5), colon (n 13) or rectum (n = 1). Technical success was obtained in 17 patients (89%); 2 patients could not be embolized due to vessel tortuosity and stenoses. Clinical follow-up length was 145 ± 75 days. Clinical success was complete in 13 (68%), partial in 3 (16%), and failed in 2 patients (11%). Delayed rebleeding (3 patients, 27%) was always due to a different lesion in another bowel segment (0 late rebleeding in embolized area). Two patients experienced colonic ischemia (11%) and underwent uneventful colectomy. Two minor complications were noted. Conclusion. Microcoil embolization for active lower GI bleeding is safe and effective in most patients, with high technical and clinical success rates, no procedure-related mortality, and a low risk of bowel ischemia and late rebleeding

  2. Establishment of reference values for complete blood count and blood gases in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAKAYAMA, Shunya; KOIE, Hiroshi; KANAYAMA, Kiichi; KATAKAI, Yuko; ITO-FUJISHIRO, Yasuyo; SANKAI, Tadashi; YASUTOMI, Yasuhiro; AGEYAMA, Naohide

    2017-01-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys are closely related to humans phylogenetically, and this has resulted in their widespread use as a preclinical model. Hematological data with regard to these monkeys are thus important. Although reference values for blood components and sex hormones have been established for cynomolgus monkeys, those for arterial blood gases have not. The arterial blood gases quickly reflect respiratory and circulatory dynamics, and are thus useful for animal management and safe general anesthesia and surgical operations. Furthermore, since O2 is transported by RBC, CBC and blood gases are closely related. The present study aimed to establish reference values for arterial blood gases and CBC in cynomolgus monkeys over a wide age range. Blood gases and CBC of arterial blood, collected from 41 female and 21 male anesthetized monkeys, were measured. Age correlated with RBC, HGB and HCT in the CBC. Values differed significantly between males and females in pCO2, CO2 concentration, MCV and MCH. The pH of blood was equivalent to that of humans and pCO2 was more stable, whereas MCV and MCH were lower than those in humans. Erythrocytes were smaller and less pigmented than in other Macaca species. Several relationships between gender and age, and blood gases and CBC were identified in cynomolgus monkeys. In conclusion, these reference values will be useful as markers for veterinary applications and in the care and maintenance of these animals. PMID:28381665

  3. Energy policy of Lower Saxony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirche, W.

    1988-01-01

    The government of the Land Lower Saxony in February 1988 submitted a new energy programme intended to define the energy-political boundary data for energy industry and energy consumers, and to bring about the broadest possible consensus for the implementation of this energy policy between politicians, the energy industry and the population. The Minister of Economy of Lower Saxony in his statement refers particularly to the topics nuclear energy and coal, renewable energies, structure of areas to be supplied with energy, and considerations relating to a revision of the antitrust laws. (orig.) [de

  4. Ethnic Variations in Blood Pressure and Hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.O. Agyemang (Charles)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of the study was to review published evidence on whether blood pressure levels and the prevalence of hypertension are higher or lower in South Asian adults living in the UK as compared to white populations. A systematic literature review was carried out using MEDLINE

  5. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Clinical Practice: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera, Anthony J.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2016-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring offers the ability to collect blood pressure readings several times an hour across a 24-hour period. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring facilitates the identification of white-coat hypertension, the phenomenon whereby certain individuals who are not on antihypertensive medication show elevated blood pressure in a clinical setting but show non-elevated blood pressure averages when assessed by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Additionally, readings can be segmented into time windows of particular interest, e.g., mean daytime and nighttime values. During sleep, blood pressure typically decreases, or dips, such that mean sleep blood pressure is lower than mean awake blood pressure. A non-dipping pattern and nocturnal hypertension are strongly associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Approximately 70% of individuals dip ≥10% at night, while 30% have non-dipping patterns, when blood pressure remains similar to daytime average, or occasionally rises above daytime average. The various blood pressure categorizations afforded by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring are valuable for clinical management of high blood pressure since they increase accuracy for diagnosis and the prediction of cardiovascular risk. PMID:25107387

  6. A comparison of blood pressure measurements in newborns.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Joyce

    2012-02-01

    Blood pressure monitoring is an essential component of neonatal intensive care. We compared invasive and noninvasive (Dinamap, Marquette, and Dash) recordings in newborns and also noninvasive values obtained from upper and lower limbs. Infants\\' blood pressure was recorded every 6 hours for 72 hours using three noninvasive devices and compared with invasive readings taken simultaneously. Twenty-five babies were enrolled in the study, with birth weights of 560 to 4500 g and gestation 24 + 1 to 40 + 5 weeks. Three hundred thirty-two recordings were obtained. Comparison between invasive and noninvasive readings revealed that all three noninvasive monitors overread mean blood pressure. There was no significant difference between the cuff recordings obtained from the upper or lower limbs. All three noninvasive devices overestimated mean blood pressure values compared with invasive monitoring. Clinicians may be falsely reassured by noninvasive monitoring. Mean blood pressure values obtained from the upper and lower limb are similar.

  7. Blood donation and blood donor mortality after adjustment for a healthy donor effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullum, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have repeatedly demonstrated that blood donors experience lower mortality than the general population. While this may suggest a beneficial effect of blood donation, it may also reflect the selection of healthy persons into the donor population. To overcome this bias, we...... investigated the relation between blood donation frequency and mortality within a large cohort of blood donors. In addition, our analyses also took into consideration the effects of presumed health differences linked to donation behavior. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the Scandinavian Donation...... and mortality. The magnitude of the association was reduced after adjustment for an estimate of self-selection in the donor population. Our observations indicate that repeated blood donation is not associated with premature death, but cannot be interpreted as conclusive evidence of a beneficial health effect....

  8. Rhinosinusitis and the lower airways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellings, Peter W.; Hens, Greet

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between upper and lower airway disease has been recognized for centuries, with recent studies showing a direct link between upper and airway inflammation in allergic patients. The mechanisms underlying the interaction between nasal and bronchial inflammation have primarily been

  9. Lowering the first ATLAS toroid

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS detector on the LHC at CERN will consist of eight toroid magnets, the first of which was lowered into the cavern in these images on 26 October 2004. The coils are supported on platforms where they will be attached to form a giant torus. The platforms will hold about 300 tonnes of ATLAS' muon chambers and will envelop the inner detectors.

  10. Adolescent Neuroblastoma of Lower Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshwari K

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma is an embryonic tumour of neural crest origin, commonly seen in children with upper abdomen involvement. Rarely neuroblastomas present in adolescents and adults involving lower limb. Histopathologically neuroblastoma of lower limb can be confused with other small round cell tumour especially with Ewing's sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma. A 16 year old male presented with 15x11cm swelling, pain and multiple discharging sinuses of right leg since 4 months. Routine haematological and biochemical analysis were within normal limits. Radiology of right leg showed large soft tissue swelling encompassing the pathological fracture of tibia and bowing of fibula. Fine needle aspiration of the swelling revealed malignant small round cell tumour. Histopathology revealed poorly differentiated neuroblastoma of lower limb. The immunohistochemistry of Synaptophysin and Chromogranin were positive and CD 99 was negative. Neuroblastoma diagnosed at unusual site with uncommon age has poor prognosis. Hence, one must keep in mind the differential diagnosis of neuroblastoma as one of the differential diagnosis in evaluating the soft tissue tumours of lower limb.

  11. Quantum lower bound for sorting

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yaoyun

    2000-01-01

    We prove that \\Omega(n log(n)) comparisons are necessary for any quantum algorithm that sorts n numbers with high success probability and uses only comparisons. If no error is allowed, at least 0.110nlog_2(n) - 0.067n + O(1) comparisons must be made. The previous known lower bound is \\Omega(n).

  12. Expected utility with lower probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendon, Ebbe; Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1994-01-01

    An uncertain and not just risky situation may be modeled using so-called belief functions assigning lower probabilities to subsets of outcomes. In this article we extend the von Neumann-Morgenstern expected utility theory from probability measures to belief functions. We use this theory...

  13. Nash equilibrium with lower probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes, Ebbe; Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1998-01-01

    We generalize the concept of Nash equilibrium in mixed strategies for strategic form games to allow for ambiguity in the players' expectations. In contrast to other contributions, we model ambiguity by means of so-called lower probability measures or belief functions, which makes it possible...

  14. Unconditional lower bounds against advice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhrman, H.; Fortnow, L.; Santhanam, R.

    2009-01-01

    We show several unconditional lower bounds for exponential time classes against polynomial time classes with advice, including: (1) For any constant c, NEXP not in P^{NP[n^c]} (2) For any constant c, MAEXP not in MA/n^c (3) BPEXP not in BPP/n^{o(1)}. It was previously unknown even whether NEXP in

  15. Cord blood buffy coat DNA methylation is comparable to whole cord blood methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, John; Schmidt, Rebecca J; Benke, Kelly S; Newschaffer, Craig; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Croen, Lisa A; Iosif, Ana-Maria; LaSalle, Janine M; Fallin, M Daniele; Bakulski, Kelly M

    2018-01-01

    Cord blood DNA methylation is associated with numerous health outcomes and environmental exposures. Whole cord blood DNA reflects all nucleated blood cell types, while centrifuging whole blood separates red blood cells, generating a white blood cell buffy coat. Both sample types are used in DNA methylation studies. Cell types have unique methylation patterns and processing can impact cell distributions, which may influence comparability. We evaluated differences in cell composition and DNA methylation between cord blood buffy coat and whole cord blood samples. Cord blood DNA methylation was measured with the Infinium EPIC BeadChip (Illumina) in eight individuals, each contributing buffy coat and whole blood samples. We analyzed principal components (PC) of methylation, performed hierarchical clustering, and computed correlations of mean-centered methylation between pairs. We conducted moderated t-tests on single sites and estimated cell composition. DNA methylation PCs were associated with individual (P PC1 = 1.4 × 10 -9 ; P PC2 = 2.9 × 10 -5 ; P PC3 = 3.8 × 10 -5 ; P PC4 = 4.2 × 10 -6 ; P PC5 = 9.9 × 10 -13 , P PC6 = 1.3 × 10 -11 ) and not with sample type (P PC1-6 >0.7). Samples hierarchically clustered by individual. Pearson correlations of mean-centered methylation between paired samples ranged from r = 0.66 to r = 0.87. No individual site significantly differed between buffy coat and whole cord blood when adjusting for multiple comparisons (five sites had unadjusted Pcoat and whole cord blood are much lower than inter-individual variation, demonstrating that both sample preparation types can be analytically combined and compared.

  16. Lower versus Higher Hemoglobin Threshold for Transfusion in Septic Shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Lars B; Haase, Nicolai; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood transfusions are frequently given to patients with septic shock. However, the benefits and harms of different hemoglobin thresholds for transfusion have not been established. METHODS: In this multicenter, parallel-group trial, we randomly assigned patients in the intensive care...... unit (ICU) who had septic shock and a hemoglobin concentration of 9 g per deciliter or less to receive 1 unit of leukoreduced red cells when the hemoglobin level was 7 g per deciliter or less (lower threshold) or when the level was 9 g per deciliter or less (higher threshold) during the ICU stay...... were similar in the two intervention groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with septic shock, mortality at 90 days and rates of ischemic events and use of life support were similar among those assigned to blood transfusion at a higher hemoglobin threshold and those assigned to blood transfusion...

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for ... is checking your blood glucose often. Ask your doctor how often you should ... associated with hyperglycemia. How Do I Treat Hyperglycemia? ...

  18. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are pregnant and have concerns about blood clots, talk with your doctor about your risks and prevention. Depending on your condition, your OB-GYN may refer you to a hematologist, a doctor who specializes in treating blood conditions. back to top ...

  19. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    Tuesday 19 March 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion sanguine of Geneva If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  20. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion Sanguine of Geneva will be held at CERN on Tuesday 13 March 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.