WorldWideScience

Sample records for tire noise generation

  1. Loading Effect on Tire Noise Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Rui; Bolton, J Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Noise radiated by tires is a prominent noise pollution source and it is affected by many different parameters. Here, the effect of static load on tire noise radiation in a laboratory environment was investigated. The measurement was conducted by using the Tire Pavement Testing Apparatus (TPTA), on which a loaded tire can be run at speeds up to 50 km/hr; the tire noise was measured using a nearfield microphone method. The tire loading was varied from 500 to 900 pounds, and several different co...

  2. The prediction of airborne and structure-borne noise potential for a tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Nicholas Y.

    Tire/pavement interaction noise is a major component of both exterior pass-by noise and vehicle interior noise. The current testing methods for ranking tires from loud to quiet require expensive equipment, multiple tires, and/or long experimental set-up and run times. If a laboratory based off-vehicle test could be used to identify the airborne and structure-borne potential of a tire from its dynamic characteristics, a relative ranking of a large group of tires could be performed at relatively modest expense. This would provide a smaller sample set of tires for follow-up testing and thus save expense for automobile OEMs. The focus of this research was identifying key noise features from a tire/pavement experiment. These results were compared against a stationary tire test in which the natural response of the tire to a forced input was measured. Since speed was identified as having some effect on the noise, an input function was also developed to allow the tires to be ranked at an appropriate speed. A relative noise model was used on a second sample set of tires to verify if the ranking could be used against interior vehicle measurements. While overall level analysis of the specified spectrum had mixed success, important noise generating features were identified, and the methods used could be improved to develop a standard off-vehicle test to predict a tire's noise potential.

  3. Tire-road noise: an experimental study of tire and road design parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Bekke, Dirk; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; Weegerink, Thijs; de Boer, Andries

    2013-01-01

    It is widely known that road traffic noise has negative influences on human health. Hence, as tire-road noise is considered to be the most dominant cause of road traffic noise above 30-50 km/h, a lot of research is performed by the two involving industries: road authorities/manufacturers and tire manufacturers. Usually, the parameters influencing exterior tire-road noise are often examined separately, whereas it is the tire-road interaction which obviously causes the actual noise. An integral...

  4. Tire-road noise: an experimental study of tire and road design parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekke, Dirk; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; Weegerink, Thijs; de Boer, Andries

    2013-01-01

    It is widely known that road traffic noise has negative influences on human health. Hence, as tire-road noise is considered to be the most dominant cause of road traffic noise above 30-50 km/h, a lot of research is performed by the two involving industries: road authorities/manufacturers and tire

  5. Evaluation of substitution monopole models for tire noise sound synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berckmans, D.; Kindt, P.; Sas, P.; Desmet, W.

    2010-01-01

    Due to the considerable efforts in engine noise reduction, tire noise has become one of the major sources of passenger car noise nowadays and the demand for accurate prediction models is high. A rolling tire is therefore experimentally characterized by means of the substitution monopole technique, suiting a general sound synthesis approach with a focus on perceived sound quality. The running tire is substituted by a monopole distribution covering the static tire. All monopoles have mutual phase relationships and a well-defined volume velocity distribution which is derived by means of the airborne source quantification technique; i.e. by combining static transfer function measurements with operating indicator pressure measurements close to the rolling tire. Models with varying numbers/locations of monopoles are discussed and the application of different regularization techniques is evaluated.

  6. The prediction of airborne and structure-borne noise potential for a tire

    OpenAIRE

    Sakamoto, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Tire/pavement interaction noise is a major component of both exterior pass-by noise and vehicle interior noise. The current testing methods for ranking tires from loud to quiet require expensive equipment, multiple tires, and/or long experimental set-up and run times. If a laboratory based off-vehicle test could be used to identify the airborne and structure-borne potential of a tire from its dynamic characteristics, a relative ranking of a large group of tires could be performed at relativel...

  7. On-board sound intensity tire-pavement noise study in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    "This research investigated tire-pavement noise on various types of pavements across North Carolina by using On- : Board Sound Intensity (OBSI) method. To mitigate traffic noise, quieter pavement may provide advantages that : noise barriers cannot. T...

  8. Exterior Noise Due to Interaction of Tire-Thermoplastic Transverse Rumble Strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haron Zaiton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transverse rumble strips (TRS are a common choice to reduce vehicle speed and increase driver alertness on roadways. However, there is a potential trade-off using them on rural roadway due to the noise problem created when vehicles go over the strips. The present study investigated the noise level, spectral analysis and the possible noise generation mechanism when the TRS hit by a vehicle. Ten-raised-rumbler (RR and three-layer-overlapped (TLO were selected in this study as they have received complaints from the public. Results showed that RR generated relatively higher noise and impulse at low speed, and increased sound level in each octave band. Based on these results, RR may irritate human ears even when the vehicle travels at low speed. It was found that RR increased all noise generation mechanism of tire-pavement interaction whilst for the TLO increased structural resonance, sidewall and surface texture vibration.

  9. Surface Aging Effect on Tire/Pavement Noise Medium-Term Evolution in a Medium-Size City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor F. Vázquez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the geo-referenced acoustical results obtained throughout the close proximity noise (CPX technique carried out on different urban sections included within the 2017 strategic noise mapping (Directive 2002/49/CE in Ciudad Real, a Spanish medium-sized city. The employed methodology quantifies the tire/pavement noise generated in the contact between the tire and the surface of the studied sections. Measurements were carried out in different research campaigns between 2008 and 2015 (medium-term evolution. They give valuable information about the pavement-aging effect on its surface characteristics. Throughout these years, the acoustic situation of these sections has worsened mainly due to surface damage and higher mean profile depth (MPD values, although the performance does not follow the same pattern in every section. The relationships between measured tire/pavement noise and theoretical environmental noise, just due to the geometric spreading of sound energy, is also studied in order to elaborate a simple rolling noise mapping and to assess the environmental noise evolution. Traffic noise plays the main role in the noise registered within the assessed sections, therefore, CPX assessment could be used by local authorities to take decisions regarding urban planning and traffic management, with the aim of reducing noise exposure from traffic.

  10. Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-15

    measure heat from the casing. Tread surface temperature. Tread (surface) infrared temperature can be inconsistent since the measurements are...have any adverse effect on rubber products. b. Avoid areas that are wet, humid, oily, greasy, or in direct sunlight. Do not store tires in the...used, from sticking to the tire. Do not let soapstone accumulate in the tire. Inspect and clean the tire beads to remove corrosion or residual rubber

  11. Literature review of models on tire-pavement interaction noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tan; Burdisso, Ricardo; Sandu, Corina

    2018-04-01

    Tire-pavement interaction noise (TPIN) becomes dominant at speeds above 40 km/h for passenger vehicles and 70 km/h for trucks. Several models have been developed to describe and predict the TPIN. However, these models do not fully reveal the physical mechanisms or predict TPIN accurately. It is well known that all the models have both strengths and weaknesses, and different models fit different investigation purposes or conditions. The numerous papers that present these models are widely scattered among thousands of journals, and it is difficult to get the complete picture of the status of research in this area. This review article aims at presenting the history and current state of TPIN models systematically, making it easier to identify and distribute the key knowledge and opinions, and providing insight into the future research trend in this field. In this work, over 2000 references related to TPIN were collected, and 74 models were reviewed from nearly 200 selected references; these were categorized into deterministic models (37), statistical models (18), and hybrid models (19). The sections explaining the models are self-contained with key principles, equations, and illustrations included. The deterministic models were divided into three sub-categories: conventional physics models, finite element and boundary element models, and computational fluid dynamics models; the statistical models were divided into three sub-categories: traditional regression models, principal component analysis models, and fuzzy curve-fitting models; the hybrid models were divided into three sub-categories: tire-pavement interface models, mechanism separation models, and noise propagation models. At the end of each category of models, a summary table is presented to compare these models with the key information extracted. Readers may refer to these tables to find models of their interest. The strengths and weaknesses of the models in different categories were then analyzed. Finally

  12. State-of-the-Art Review on Sustainable Design and Construction of Quieter Pavements—Part 2: Factors Affecting Tire-Pavement Noise and Prediction Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Sirin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Traffic noise is a combination of noises produced from a number of sources. Of all the traffic noise sources, tire-pavement noise, which is emitted as a result of the interaction of rolling, slipping, or dragging tires and the pavement surface, is the dominant contributor of overall noise, particularly when vehicles are moving at higher speeds. Therefore, a number of research studies have been conducted to identify and analyze the factors affecting the generation of tire-pavement interaction noise. This helps in identifying and selecting appropriate noise mitigation techniques. In this paper, an extensive literature survey on the factors affecting tire-pavement noise is presented, and different views on the impact of each individual factor are discussed. From the literature survey, it is also evident that there is a potential correlation between pavement’s material characteristics and tire-pavement noise. A comprehensive discussion about this correlation is presented in the paper. In addition, this paper discusses various mathematical models for predicting pavement noise, and their advantages and shortcomings.

  13. NOISE AS AN INDIRECT CRITERION FOR EVALUATING THE CRITICAL SPEED OF VEHICLE TIRE AT HYDROPLANING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Karpenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An alternative method for determining the critical rolling speed of automobile tires with various tread patterns during hydroplaning is considered. The critical speed of the car at which the hydroplaning process takes place is determined. This method is based on recording the tire noise emission when driving on a wet road pavement.

  14. Tyre noise predictions from computed road surface texture induced contact pressure; Romen no outotsu ni kiinsuru sesshoku atsuryoku ni yoru tire soon no suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikami, T. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    A method for tire/road noise prediction is studied based on the result of road surface profile measurement (horizontal direction measurement interval 3mm, horizontal direction measurement accuracy 8{mu}m, distance measured 1655m, using a laser-aided profile meter). The obtained road surface profile is used for the calculation of contact pressure that occurs between the tire tread and road surface (using the 2-dimensional calculation model of Clapp et al.). For the examination of the relationship between the contact pressure and generated noise, tire noise is measured using a microphone array provided near the tire circumference. The frequency spectral ratio between the generated noise and contact pressure is determined as a transmission function. It may be said that the transmission function is unique to the tire, not dependent on the road surface profile. The road surface profile is determined by use of the transmission function, and this enables the prediction of the noise from the tire. Noises were measured on several kinds of road surfaces different in coarseness for a passenger car and truck, and the values from these actual measurements are compared with the predicted values, and then it is found that the prediction model is valid. (NEDO)

  15. Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzing, II, James Alfred (Inventor); Kish, James Christopher (Inventor); Asnani, Vivake Manohar (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A tire includes a plurality of helical springs. Each helical spring includes a first end portion, a second end portion, and an arching middle portion. Each helical spring is interlaced with at least one other helical spring thereby forming a laced toroidal structure extending about an entire circumference of the tire.

  16. Development of tire road noise chassis-dynamometer simulator. Effect of ISO surface replica model pad on tire road noise; Shisakushita tire romen soon shiken`yo jissha daijo simulator ni tsuite. ISO romen mogi pad wo sochakushita koka ni kansuru kisoteki kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T; Murakami, T; Ogata, S; Sakamoto, I [Traffic Safety and Nuisance Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    As a new test facility to clarify noise reduction method of tire road noise, Tire Road Noise Chassis-Dynamometer Simulator was developed. ISO surface replica pads made by copying the texture of ISO surface were attached on the roller surface of this system to simulate tire road noise. This paper described the specifications and characteristics of this system, and the effects of ISO surface replica pads on tire noise measurement by comparing the sound intensity in horizontal plane of tire noise measured in this system with that measured in a single drum tester with safety walk surface. 4 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Influence of changes in surface layer properties on tire/pavement noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, M.; Van Keulen, W.; Ceylan, H.; Van de Ven, M.F.C.; Molenaar, A.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates changes in tire/pavement noise caused by variations in the road surface characteristics. This research is based on the analysis of noise and surface characteristics collected from sections with 25 mm thickness thin layer surfacings in the Netherlands. Investigations are first

  18. A molecular noise generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Ting; Ferry, Michael; Hasty, Jeff; Weiss, Ron

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that intracellular variations in the rate of gene expression are of fundamental importance to cellular function and development. While such 'noise' is often considered detrimental in the context of perturbing genetic systems, it can be beneficial in processes such as species diversification and facilitation of evolution. A major difficulty in exploring such effects is that the magnitude and spectral properties of the induced variations arise from some intrinsic cellular process that is difficult to manipulate. Here, we present two designs of a molecular noise generator that allow for the flexible modulation of the noise profile of a target gene. The first design uses a dual-signal mechanism that enables independent tuning of the mean and variability of an output protein. This is achieved through the combinatorial control of two signals that regulate transcription and translation separately. We then extend the design to allow for DNA copy-number regulation, which leads to a wider tuning spectrum for the output molecule. To gain a deeper understanding of the circuit's functionality in a realistic environment, we introduce variability in the input signals in order to ascertain the degree of noise induced by the control process itself. We conclude by illustrating potential applications of the noise generator, demonstrating how it could be used to ascertain the robust or fragile properties of a genetic circuit

  19. The noise control prioritizing index in a tire manufacturing company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostam Golmohammadi

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion; the results of the present study indicated that using an index resulted from a combination of various parameters affecting the noise pollution, we would be able to prioritize units for implementing noise pollution control confidently. The results of the present study are applicable to all similar industrial settings.

  20. Modeling speed and width parameters of vehicle tires for prediction of the reduction in vehicle noise pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Esmael Forouhid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Safe driving requires the ability of the driver to receive the messages and complying with them. The most significant consequences of noise pollution are on the human auditory system. Disorders in the auditory system can have harmful side effects for human health. By reducing this kind of pollution in large cities, the quality of life, which is one of the biggest goals of the governments, can be considerably increased. Hence, in the present research, some parameters of vehicle tires were examined as a source of noise pollution, and the results can be taken into consideration in noise pollution reduction. Material and Method: Several vehicles with different tire width were selected for measuring sound level. The sound levels were measured for moving vehicles with the use of the Statistical Pass By Method (SPB, ISO 11819-1. Following sound level measurements for moving vehicles and by considering tire width, mathematical model of noise level was predicted on the basis of the obtained information and by usage of SPSS program and considering vehicle tire parameters. Result: The result of this study showed that the vehicle speed and tire width can affect different sound levels emitted by moving tire on road surface. The average speed of vehicles can play an important role in the noise pollution. By increasing speed, rotation of the the tires on the asphalt is increased, as it is a known factors for noise pollution. Moreover, changing the speed of vehicles is accompanied with abnormal sounds of vehicle engine. According to regression model analysis, the obtained value of R2 for the model is 0.8367 which represents the coefficient of determination. Conclusion: The results suggest the main role of the vehicle speed and tire width in increasing the noise reaches to the drivers and consequent noise pollution, which demonstrates the necessity for noise control measures. According to the obtained model, it is understood that changes in noise

  1. Investigation of the impact of noise exposure on blood pressure in tire manufacturing workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Baneshi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available    BACKGROUND: Noise can cause serious health problems. Regular use of personal health equipments can reduce such problems. This study has been designed to compare the blood pressure of tire manufacturing workers, who were exposed to noise (> 85 db and used personal health equipment, with a control group without noise exposure.    METHODS: In this case-control study, 70 workers who were exposed to noise (case group and 220 workers who were not (control group were recruited. Regular use of personal health equipment was compulsory. LEQ was calculated for both groups. To analyse the data, chi-square test and t-test were implemented. Finally multivariate regression model was developed.    RESULTS: No difference was seen between the groups in terms of basic characteristics (age, years of working, and BMI. Mean systolic blood pressure in case and control groups was 116.6 and 117.5, respectively; giving a P-value of 0.50. Mean diastolic blood pressure in case and control groups was 76.7 and 77.4, respectively; giving a P-value of 0.47. Results indicate no significant difference between blood pressure of cases and control groups.    CONCLUSION: We did not see any significant difference between the blood pressure of those exposed to noise, and regularly using personal health equipment, and those in the control group without noise exposure. Therefore, we strongly recommend use of such equipments.       Keywords: Tires Factory, Blood Pressure, Noise Exposure

  2. Truck Rollover Characterization for Class-8 Tractor-Trailers Utilizing Standard Dual Tires and New-Generation Single Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capps, Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center; Knee, Bill [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center; Franzese, Oscar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center; Pollock, Paul [Dana Corporation, Kalamazoo, MI (United States). Commercial Vehicle Systems Division; Coleman, Daniel [Dana Corporation, Kalamazoo, MI (United States). Commercial Vehicle Systems Division; Janajreh, Ibrahim [Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States); Haas, Steven [Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States); Frey, Norm [Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States); Law, Harry [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building; Johnson, Eric [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building; Lawson, Robert [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building; Petrolino, Joe [National Transportation Research Center, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Rice, Dave [National Transportation Research Center, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2005-07-30

    The Heavy Truck Rollover Characterization Project is a major research effort conducted by the National Transportation Research Center, Inc. (NTRCI) in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Dana Corporation (Dana), Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation (Michelin) and Clemson University (Clemson), under the NTRCIs Heavy Vehicle Safety Research Center (HVSRC) for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). ORNL provided the day-to-day management of the project. The expertise mix of this team coupled with complementary research needs and interests, and a positive can-do attitude provided an extremely positive experimental research opportunity for all involved. Furthermore, this team supplied significant and valuable resources that provided a strong positive benchmark regarding the ability to conduct research within a public-private partnership. The work conducted by this team focused on initial efforts to generate data and information on heavy truck rollover not currently available in the industry. It reflects efforts within Phases 1 and 2 of a longer-term four-phase research program. A 1999 Peterbilt 379 class-8 tractor and 2004 Wabash dry freight van trailer were the test vehicles utilized in this effort. Both were instrumented with a number of sensors to capture the dynamics of the tractor and trailer as it engaged in various testing maneuvers that included: an evasive maneuver, swept sine, constant radius, and a run-off-the-road maneuver. The run-off-the-road maneuver was discontinued because the test track could not safety accommodate such a maneuver. These maneuvers were carried out utilizing both standard dual tires and new-generation dual tires in six test series. Two test series also included the use of a wider-slider suspension. Outriggers were placed on the test vehicle to assure that an actual rollover would not occur, however, the tests were designed to generate lift-off of tires during the tests. One of the main objectives

  3. Aerodynamic Noise Generated by Shinkansen Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    KITAGAWA, T.; NAGAKURA, K.

    2000-03-01

    The noise value (A -weighted sound pressure level, SLOW) generated by Shinkansen trains, now running at 220-300 km/h, should be less than 75 dB(A) at the trackside. Shinkansen noise, such as rolling noise, concrete support structure noise, and aerodynamic noise are generated by various parts of Shinkansen trains. Among these aerodynamic noise is important because it is the major contribution to the noise generated by the coaches running at high speed. In order to reduce the aerodynamic noise, a number of improvements to coaches have been made. As a result, the aerodynamic noise has been reduced, but it still remains significant. In addition, some aerodynamic noise generated from the lower parts of cars remains. In order to investigate the contributions of these noises, a method of analyzing Shinkansen noise has been developed and applied to the measured data of Shinkansen noise at speeds between 120 and 315 km/h. As a result, the following conclusions have been drawn: (1) Aerodynamic noise generated from the upper parts of cars was reduced considerably by smoothing car surfaces. (2) Aerodynamic noise generated from the lower parts of cars has a major influence upon the wayside noise.

  4. How wear affects road surface texture and its impact on tire/road noise

    OpenAIRE

    Siebert, Doreen

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical pavement wear in the Nordic countries is essentially influenced by the use of studded tires during long winter seasons. The abrasive effect of the studded tires is the cause of significant damage on the pavement and a contributor to rutting. In addition, the mechanical aggregate removal due to the studded tires is the reason for significant changes in the road surface texture. At traditional dense asphalt pavements, the mechanical wear is initiated by the abrasion of the mortar, wh...

  5. Technical assessment of discarded tires gasification as alternative technology for electricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, Einara Blanco; Pedroso, Daniel Travieso; de Carvalho, João Andrade

    2017-10-01

    Concern about contamination associated with the disposal of tires has led to the search for technologies to reuse discarded tires, which include the use of Tire Derived Fuel (TDF) as fuel in advanced thermal-conversion processes, this allows the energy use of these wastes at affordable costs and reduces the environmental impact on scrap tires disposal. A theoretical assessment of the technical viability of TDF gasification for electric and thermal power generation, from the producer gas combustion in an internal combustion engine and in a gas turbine, was performed. The combustion of producer gas derived from the gasification of TDF in an internal combustion engine driving a generator (ICE-G) appears as the more efficient route for electricity generation when compared with the efficiency obtained with the use of gas turbine (GT-G). A higher global efficiency, considering the electric and thermal generation efficiency can be expected with the use of TDF producer gas in GT-G, where is expected an overall efficiency of 77.49%. The assessment shows that is possible produces up to 7.67MJ and 10.62MJ of electric and thermal energy per kilogram of TDF gasified using an ICE-G and up to 6.06MJ and 13.03MJ of electric and thermal energy respectively per kilogram of gasified TDF using a GT-G. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Piezoelectric power generation for sensor applications: design of a battery-less wireless tire pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makki, Noaman; Pop-Iliev, Remon

    2011-06-01

    An in-wheel wireless and battery-less piezo-powered tire pressure sensor is developed. Where conventional battery powered Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS) are marred by the limited battery life, TPMS based on power harvesting modules provide virtually unlimited sensor life. Furthermore, the elimination of a permanent energy reservoir simplifies the overall sensor design through the exclusion of extra circuitry required to sense vehicle motion and conserve precious battery capacity during vehicle idling periods. In this paper, two design solutions are presented, 1) with very low cost highly flexible piezoceramic (PZT) bender elements bonded directly to the tire to generate power required to run the sensor and, 2) a novel rim mounted PZT harvesting unit that can be used to power pressure sensors incorporated into the valve stem requiring minimal change to the presently used sensors. While both the designs eliminate the use of environmentally unfriendly battery from the TPMS design, they offer advantages of being very low cost, service free and easily replaceable during tire repair and replacement.

  7. Underwater noise generated by offshore pile driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsouvalas, A.

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise emission in the marine environment has always been an environmental issue of serious concern. In particular, the noise generated during the installation of foundation piles is considered to be one of the most significant sources of underwater noise pollution. This is mainly

  8. High level white noise generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, C.J.; Blalock, T.V.

    1979-01-01

    A wide band, stable, random noise source with a high and well-defined output power spectral density is provided which may be used for accurate calibration of Johnson Noise Power Thermometers (JNPT) and other applications requiring a stable, wide band, well-defined noise power spectral density. The noise source is based on the fact that the open-circuit thermal noise voltage of a feedback resistor, connecting the output to the input of a special inverting amplifier, is available at the amplifier output from an equivalent low output impedance caused by the feedback mechanism. The noise power spectral density level at the noise source output is equivalent to the density of the open-circuit thermal noise or a 100 ohm resistor at a temperature of approximately 64,000 Kelvins. The noise source has an output power spectral density that is flat to within 0.1% (0.0043 db) in the frequency range of from 1 KHz to 100 KHz which brackets typical passbands of the signal-processing channels of JNPT's. Two embodiments, one of higher accuracy that is suitable for use as a standards instrument and another that is particularly adapted for ambient temperature operation, are illustrated in this application

  9. High level white noise generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Casimer J.; Blalock, Theron V.

    1979-01-01

    A wide band, stable, random noise source with a high and well-defined output power spectral density is provided which may be used for accurate calibration of Johnson Noise Power Thermometers (JNPT) and other applications requiring a stable, wide band, well-defined noise power spectral density. The noise source is based on the fact that the open-circuit thermal noise voltage of a feedback resistor, connecting the output to the input of a special inverting amplifier, is available at the amplifier output from an equivalent low output impedance caused by the feedback mechanism. The noise power spectral density level at the noise source output is equivalent to the density of the open-circuit thermal noise or a 100 ohm resistor at a temperature of approximately 64,000 Kelvins. The noise source has an output power spectral density that is flat to within 0.1% (0.0043 db) in the frequency range of from 1 KHz to 100 KHz which brackets typical passbands of the signal-processing channels of JNPT's. Two embodiments, one of higher accuracy that is suitable for use as a standards instrument and another that is particularly adapted for ambient temperature operation, are illustrated in this application.

  10. On Noise Generation and Dynamic Transmission Error of Gears

    OpenAIRE

    Henriksson, Mats

    2009-01-01

    Noise from heavy trucks is an important environmental issue. Several sources contribute to the total noise level of a vehicle, such as the engine, gearbox, tires, etc. The tonal noise from the gearbox can be very disturbing for the driver, even if the noise level from the gearbox is lower than the total noise level. The human ear has a remarkable way of detecting pure tones of which the noise from loaded gears consists of. To be allowed to sell a heavy truck within the European Union, the so ...

  11. A high speed digital noise generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, J.; Gaffney, B.; Liu, B.

    In testing of digital signal processing hardware, a high speed pseudo-random noise generator is often required to simulate an input noise source to the hardware. This allows the hardware to be exercised in a manner analogous to actual operating conditions. In certain radar and communication environments, a noise generator operating at speeds in excess of 60 MHz may be required. In this paper, a method of generating high speed pseudo-random numbers from an arbitrarily specified distribution (Gaussian, Log-Normal, etc.) using a transformation from a uniform noise source is described. A noise generator operating at 80 MHz has been constructed. Different distributions can be readily obtained by simply changing the ROM set. The hardware and test results will be described. Using this approach, the generation of pseudo-random sequences with arbitrary distributions at word rates in excess of 200 MHz can be readily achieved.

  12. Calibration of an audio frequency noise generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, Joseph M.

    1966-01-01

    a noise bandwidth Bn = π/2 × (3dB bandwidth). To apply this method to low audio frequencies, the noise bandwidth of the low Q parallel resonant circuit has been found, including the effects of both series and parallel damping. The method has been used to calibrate a General Radio 1390-B noise generator...... it is used for measurement purposes. The spectral density of a noise source may be found by measuring its rms output over a known noise bandwidth. Such a bandwidth may be provided by a passive filter using accurately known elements. For example, the parallel resonant circuit with purely parallel damping has...

  13. Using Crumb Rubber from Waste Tires to Reduce Road Traffic Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolova Olga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of measurements of sound pressure levels on an experimental road section (road pavement with addition of crumb rubber from waste tires in Mala Ida village (Kosice region, Slovakia and on a road with stone mastic asphalt in Haniska village (Presov region, Slovakia are presented in the paper. The results obtained using statistical pass-by methods were compared and they confirmed that road surface with addition of crumb rubber from waste tires produced quieter pavement than stone mastic asphalt road pavement alone.

  14. Viability Analysis of Waste Tires as Material for Rail Vibration and Noise Control in Modern Tram Track Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiyou Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research study focused on the effect of using damping chamber elements made from waste tires on railway noise reduction. First, the energy absorption characteristics of damping chamber elements with various gradation combinations and compaction indices were measured in the laboratory using compression testing. The laboratory compression results demonstrated that the optimal gradation combination of damping chamber elements is as follows: the content of fine rubber particles is 10%, the content of coarse granules is 90%, and the optimal compaction index is 0.98. Next, the findings from the laboratory compression-test studies were used to produce damping chamber elements that were applied to a full-scale modern track model in the laboratory. The measurements of the dynamic properties indicated that the damping chamber elements could significantly reduce the vibration levels of the rail head. Finally, the damping chamber elements, which had been proven effective through laboratory dynamic tests, were widely applied to test rail sections in the field. The field tests demonstrated that damping chamber elements can significantly increase the track vibration decay rate in the frequency range of 200–10000 Hz. Therefore, damping chamber elements made from waste tires are able to control rail vibration and noise in modern tram track systems.

  15. Tire Log™

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2013-01-01

    The Tire Log™ is a patented innovation made from waste tires with a unique and energy efficient approach to recycling tires. Re-Tread Products (RTP) process takes full advantage of the embedded energy in tires that is wasted in conventional tire recycling that primarily involves the grinding, burying or burning of waste tires.

  16. Wind turbines - generating noise or electricity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, Eric

    1999-01-01

    Wind turbine technology has made great strides in the past few years. Annual energy output is up by two orders of magnitude and nacelle weight and noise has been halved. Computational fluid dynamics has paid a part in advancing knowledge of air flow and turbulence around wind generators. Current research is focused on how to increase turbine size and improve efficiency. A problem is that while larger wind turbines will produce cheaper electricity, the noise problem will mean that the number of acceptable sites will decrease. The biggest wind generators will need about 800 m clearance from the nearest house. (UK)

  17. Tire wear particles in the aquatic environment - A review on generation, analysis, occurrence, fate and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Stephan; Hüffer, Thorsten; Klöckner, Philipp; Wehrhahn, Maren; Hofmann, Thilo; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2018-08-01

    Tire wear particles (TWP), generated from tire material during use on roads have gained increasing attention as part of organic particulate contaminants, such as microplastic, in aquatic environments. The available information on properties and generation of TWP, analytical techniques to determine TWP, emissions, occurrence and behavior and ecotoxicological effects of TWP are reviewed with a focus on surface water as a potential receptor. TWP emissions are traffic related and contribute 5-30% to non-exhaust emissions from traffic. The mass of TWP generated is estimated at 1,327,000 t/a for the European Union, 1,120,000 t/a for the United States and 133,000 t/a for Germany. For Germany, this is equivalent to four times the amount of pesticides used. The mass of TWP ultimately entering the aquatic environment strongly depends on the extent of collection and treatment of road runoff, which is highly variable. For the German highways it is estimated that up to 11,000 t/a of TWP reach surface waters. Data on TWP concentrations in the environment, including surface waters are fragmentary, which is also due to the lack of suitable analytical methods for their determination. Information on TWP properties such as density and size distribution are missing; this hampers assessing the fate of TWP in the aquatic environment. Effects in the aquatic environment may stem from TWP itself or from compounds released from TWP. It is concluded that reliable knowledge on transport mechanism to surface waters, concentrations in surface waters and sediments, effects of aging, environmental half-lives of TWP as well as effects on aquatic organisms are missing. These aspects need to be addressed to allow for the assessment of risk of TWP in an aquatic environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The noise generated by wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    Sound propagation damps down with distance and varies according to different parameters like wind direction and temperature. This article begins by recalling the basic physics of sound wave propagation and gives a list of common noises and corresponding decibels. The habitual noise of wind turbines 500 m away is 35 decibels which ranks it between a quiet bedroom (30 decibels) and a calm office (40 decibels). The question about whether wind turbines are a noise nuisance is all the more difficult as the feeling of a nuisance is so objective and personal. Any project of wind turbines requires a thorough study of its estimated acoustic impact. This study is a 3 step approach: first the initial noise environment is measured, secondly the propagation of the sound generated by the wind turbine farm is modelled and adequate mitigation measures are proposed to comply the law. The law stipulates that the increase of noise must be less than 5 db during daylight and less than 3 db during night. (A.C.)

  19. Turbofan noise generation. Volume 1: Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventres, C. S.; Theobald, M. A.; Mark, W. D.

    1982-01-01

    Computer programs were developed which calculate the in-duct acoustic modes excited by a fan/stator stae operating at subsonic tip speed. Three noise source mechanisms are included: (1) sound generated by the rotor blades interacting with turbulence ingested into, or generated within, the inlet duct; (2) sound generated by the stator vanes interacting with the turbulent wakes of the rotors blades; and (3) sound generated by the stator vanes interacting with the mean velocity deficit wakes of the rotor blades. The fan/stator stage is modeled as an ensemble of blades and vanes of zero camber and thickness enclosed within an infinite hard-walled annular duct. Turbulence drawn into or generated within the inlet duct is modeled as nonhomogeneous and anisotropic random fluid motion, superimposed upon a uniform axial mean flow, and convected with that flow. Equations for the duct mode amplitudes, or expected values of the amplitudes, are derived.

  20. Using Tire/Pavement Interface Noise Results to Define Statistically Similar Bituminous Pavements in Massachusetts

    OpenAIRE

    Hencken, John; Haas, Edwin; Bennert, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In October 2010, the Center for Advanced Infrastructure and Transportation (CAIT) utilized the On-Board Sound Intensity Method in Massachusetts to evaluate seven Open-Graded Friction Courses (OGFC) and eight Asphalt Rubber Gap Graded (ARGG) pavements for MassDOT. Since major concerns regarding pavement selection in the northeast revolve around winter conditions and winter maintenance, if noise level similarities could be found between ARGG and OGFC pavements, pavement engineers would be able ...

  1. Spring Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.

    2011-01-01

    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  2. Indirect Combustion Noise: Noise Generation by Accelerated Vorticity in a Nozzle Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Kings

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The noise generation by accelerated vorticity waves in a nozzle flow was investigated in a model experiment. This noise generation mechanism belongs, besides entropy noise, to the indirect combustion noise phenomena. Vorticity as well as entropy fluctuations, originating from the highly turbulent combustion zone, are convected with the flow and produce noise during their acceleration in the outlet nozzle of the combustion chamber. In the model experiment, noise generation of accelerated vorticity fluctuations was achieved. The vorticity fluctuations in the tube flow were produced by injecting temporally additional air into the mean flow. As the next step, a parametric study was conducted to determine the major dependencies of the so called vortex noise. A quadratic dependency of the vortex noise on the injected air amount was found. In order to visualise and classify the artificially generated vorticity structures, planar velocity measurements have been conducted applying Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV.

  3. Pavement noise measurements in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zofka, Ewa; Zofka, Adam; Mechowski, Tomasz

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the On-Board Sound Intensity (OBSI) system to measure tire-pavement noise in Poland. In general, sources of noise emitted by the modern vehicles are the propulsion noise, aerodynamic resistance and noise generated at the tire-pavement interface. In order to capture tire-pavement noise, the OBSI system uses a noise intensity probe installed in the close proximity of that interface. In this study, OBSI measurements were performed at different types of pavement surfaces such as stone mastic asphalt (SMA), regular asphalt concrete (HMA) as well as Portland cement concrete (PCC). The influence of several necessary OBSI measurement conditions were recognized as: testing speed, air temperature, tire pressure and tire type. The results of this study demonstrate that the OBSI system is a viable and robust tool that can be used for the quality evaluation of newly built asphalt pavements in Poland. It can be also applied to generate reliable input parameters for the noise propagation models that are used to assess the environmental impact of new and existing highway corridors.

  4. Generation of broadband noise in the magnetotail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusenbery, P.B.; Lyons, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    The generation of electrostatic noise in the geomagnetic tail by ion beams is evaluated, assuming a stationary plasma-sheet electron distribution and streaming-ion distributions. Both warm ion streams, as observed within the plasma-sheet boundary layer, and cold ion streams, as expected from upward flowing ionospheric ions, are considered. Warm ion streams by themselves are found to be stable, whereas a cold ion stream by itself is unstable to the beam acoustic mode. However, wave growth is increased if both cold and warm streams are simultaneously present. These results suggest that the interaction between the warm and cold ion streams is responsible for the peak in electrostatic-wave intensities observed within the plasma-sheet boundary layer. For cold and warm ions streaming in the same direction, wave-growth peaks are found for wave normal angles theta = 0 deg and wave frequencies about 0.1 times the electron plasma frequency. However, for antiparallel streaming cold and warm ions, wave growth peaks near theta = 90 deg and wave frequencies are an order of magnitude smaller. 16 references

  5. Aerodynamical noise from wind turbine generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobsen, J.; Andersen, B.

    1993-06-01

    Two extensive measurement series of noise from wind turbines have been made during different modifications of their rotors. One series focused on the influence from the tip shape on the noise, while the other series dealt with the influence from the trailing edge. The experimental layout for the two investigations was identical. The total A-weighted noise from the wind turbine was measured in 1/3 octave bands from 50 Hz to 10 kHz in 1-minute periods simultaneously with wind speed measurements. The microphone was mounted on a hard board on the ground about 40 m directly downwind of the wind turbine, and the wind speed meter was placed at the same distance upwind of the wind turbine 10 m above ground. Regression analysis was made between noise and wind speed in each 1/3 octave band to determine the spectrum at 8 m/s. During the measurements care was taken to avoid influence from background noise, and the influence from machinery noise was minimized and corrected for. Thus the results display the aerodynamic rotor noise from the wind turbines. By use of this measurement technique, the uncertainty has been reduced to 1.5 - 2 dB per 1/3 octave band in the relevant frequency range and to about 1 dB on the total A-weighted levels. (au) (10 refs.)

  6. LOAD DISTRIBUTION ON SOIL PROFILE AS GENERATED BY FARM MACHINERY TIRES/COMPACTAÇÃO DO SOLO GERADOS POR PNEUS DE MÁQUINAS AGRÍCOLAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel ALBIERO

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTSoil compaction is considered as a major agricultural problem which is close associated to agricultural productivity. This way, the sources of soil compaction should be identified and conveniently studied, so the interacting factors can be considered to propose a future mathematical model. Great part of Brazilian tractors is equipped with tires, which are recognized to generate soil compaction. This research work proposes the application of the shadow Moiré technique to mapstrain distribution on soil profile as well as density increase due to the action of loads generated by tractor tires. Iso-strain curves generated from more fringes.KEYWORDS: Tires, Moiré, Soil Compaction.

  7. Model/data comparison of typhoon-generated noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jing-Yan; Li Feng-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Ocean noise recorded during a typhoon can be used to monitor the typhoon and investigate the mechanism of the wind-generated noise. An analytical expression for the typhoon-generated noise intensity is derived as a function of wind speed. A “bi-peak” structure was observed in an experiment during which typhoon-generated noise was recorded. Wind speed dependence and frequency dependence were also observed in the frequency range of 100 Hz–1000 Hz. The model/data comparison shows that results of the present model of 500 Hz and 1000 Hz are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data, and the typhoon-generated noise intensity has a dependence on frequency and a power-law dependence on wind speed. (special topic)

  8. Possible mechanism of solar noise storm generation in meter wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genkin, L.G.; Erukhimov, L.M.; Levin, B.N.

    1989-01-01

    Fluctuation plasma mechanism of noise storm generation is proposed. The sporadic formation of density irregularities in plasma (Langmuir) turbulence region is shown to be the result of thermal stratification of plasma. The noise storm type 1 bursts in their typical parameters are like radio emission due to plasma turbulence conversion on this structures

  9. Predictive modelling of noise level generated during sawing of rocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents an experimental and statistical study on noise level generated during of rock sawing by circular diamond sawblades. Influence of the operating variables and rock properties on the noise level are investigated and analysed. Statistical analyses are then employed and models are built for the prediction of ...

  10. Current Research in Aircraft Tire Design and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J. A.; Mccarthy, J. L.; Clark, S. K.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the tire research programs which address the various needs identified by landing gear designers and airplane users is presented. The experimental programs are designed to increase tire tread lifetimes, relate static and dynamic tire properties, establish the tire hydroplaning spin up speed, study gear response to tire failures, and define tire temperature profiles during taxi, braking, and cornering operations. The analytical programs are aimed at providing insights into the mechanisms of heat generation in rolling tires and developing the tools necessary to streamline the tire design process and to aid in the analysis of landing gear problems.

  11. Predictive modelling of noise level generated during sawing of rocks ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents an experimental and statistical study on noise level generated .... hardness were determined according to related ISRM (1981) suggested methods. Thin section ..... tistical Package for the Social Sciences). Additionally, the ...

  12. An Ultra Low Noise Self-Starting Pulse Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasri, J.; Bilenca, A.; Dahan, D.

    2002-01-01

    We describe a self-starting optical pulse source generating 10 GHz, 15 ps pulses with an average jitter of 43 fs and a o.15% amplitude noise over a frequency range of 500 Hz - 1 MHz.......We describe a self-starting optical pulse source generating 10 GHz, 15 ps pulses with an average jitter of 43 fs and a o.15% amplitude noise over a frequency range of 500 Hz - 1 MHz....

  13. Tire Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  14. Effect of flow parameters on flare stack generator noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinn, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    The SoundPLAN Computer Noise Model was used to determine the general effect of flare noise in a community adjacent to a petrochemical plant. Tests were conducted to determine the effect of process flow conditions and the pulsating flame on the flare stack generator noise from both a refinery flare and process flare. Flaring under normal plant operations, the flaring of fuel gas and the flaring of hydrogen were the three conditions that were tested. It was shown that the steam flow rate was the determining factor in the flare stack generated noise. Variations in the water seal level in the flare line surge tank increased or decreased the gas flowrate, which resulted in a pulsating flame. The period and amplitude of the pulsating noise from the flare stacks was determined by measuring several parameters. Flare stack noise oscillations were found to be greater for the process flare than for the refinery flare stack. It was suggested that minimizing the amount of steam fed to the flare and improving the burner design would minimize noise. 2 tabs., 6 figs

  15. Zinc isotopic composition of particulate matter generated during the combustion of coal and coal + tire-derived fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrok, D.M.; Gieré, R.; Ren, M.; Landa, E.R.

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric Zn emissions from the burning of coal and tire-derived fuel (TDF) for power generation can be considerable. In an effort to lay the foundation for tracking these contributions, we evaluated the Zn isotopes of coal, a mixture of 95 wt % coal + 5 wt % TDF, and the particulate matter (PM) derived from their combustion in a power-generating plant. The average Zn concentrations and δ(66)Zn were 36 mg/kg and 183 mg/kg and +0.24‰ and +0.13‰ for the coal and coal + TDF, respectively. The δ(66)Zn of the PM sequestered in the cyclone-type mechanical separator was the lightest measured, -0.48‰ for coal and -0.81‰ for coal+TDF. The δ(66)Zn of the PM from the electrostatic precipitator showed a slight enrichment in the heavier Zn isotopes relative to the starting material. PM collected from the stack had the heaviest δ(66)Zn in the system, +0.63‰ and +0.50‰ for the coal and coal + TDF, respectively. Initial fractionation during the generation of a Zn-rich vapor is followed by temperature-dependent fractionation as Zn condenses onto the PM. The isotopic changes of the two fuel types are similar, suggesting that their inherent chemical differences have only a secondary impact on the isotopic fractionation process.

  16. Airfoil Trailing Edge Noise Generation and Its Surface Pressure Fluctuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of turbulent flows over a NACA 0015 airfoil is performed. The purpose of such numerical study is to relate the aerodynamic surface pressure with the noise generation. The results from LES are validated against detailed surface pressure measurements...... where the time history pressure data are recorded by the surface pressure microphones. After the flow-field is stabilized, the generated noise from the airfoil Trailing Edge (TE) is predicted using the acoustic analogy solver, where the results from LES are the input. It is found that there is a strong...

  17. Survivability Enhanced Run-Flat Variable Footprint Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    with tire tread . By varying the thickness and geometry of the polyurethane soft layer, this unique tire -wheel assembly can generate a wide array of...carcass severely damaged/punctured, provide the same dynamic deflection as the normal pneumatic tire , and provide similar tread life. Could a tire be...be for an optimized shape. Fig 8 shows the actual process applied to a current tire . The carbon fiber was added by removing the tread , cutting

  18. Evaluation of long-term pavement performance and noise characteristics of open-graded friction courses : project 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This report describes the second of three experimental installations of open-graded friction course (OGFC) quieter pavements designed to reduce the noise generated at the tire/pavement interface. Experimental sections of OGFC were built using a...

  19. Propagation of Partial Discharge and Noise Pulses in Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Mogens; Stone, G. C.; Kurtz, M.

    1986-01-01

    Changes with time in the partial discharge (PD) activity originating in a generator stator's insulation system provide information about the electrical integrity of the stator winding. It is desirable to measure PD during normal service to minimize costs. To do this successfully, the influence...... of electrical interference must be reduced. Tests are reported which characterize the nature of discharge and noise pulses when using capacitive couplers mounted on each of the phase leads and an RF current transformer mounted on the neutral lead for signal detection. Significant differences between PD...... and electrical noise have been observed....

  20. DESIGNING AND OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2004-06-01

    During the period July 1, 2000-March 31, 2004, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) conducted an extensive demonstration of woody biomass cofiring at its Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. This demonstration, cofunded by USDOE and Allegheny, and supported by the Biomass Interest Group (BIG) of EPRI, evaluated the impacts of sawdust cofiring in both cyclone boilers and tangentially-fired pulverized coal boilers. The cofiring in the cyclone boiler--Willow Island Generating Station Unit No.2--evaluated the impacts of sawdust alone, and sawdust blended with tire-derived fuel. The biomass was blended with the coal on its way to the combustion system. The cofiring in the pulverized coal boiler--Albright Generating Station--evaluated the impact of cofiring on emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) when the sawdust was injected separately into the furnace. The demonstration of woody biomass cofiring involved design, construction, and testing at each site. The results addressed impacts associated with operational issues--capacity, efficiency, and operability--as well as formation and control of airborne emissions such as NO{sub x}, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}2), opacity, and mercury. The results of this extensive program are detailed in this report.

  1. A compact, multichannel, and low noise arbitrary waveform generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govorkov, S; Ivanov, B I; Il'ichev, E; Meyer, H-G

    2014-05-01

    A new type of high functionality, fast, compact, and easy programmable arbitrary waveform generator for low noise physical measurements is presented. The generator provides 7 fast differential waveform channels with a maximum bandwidth up to 200 MHz frequency. There are 6 fast pulse generators on the generator board with 78 ps time resolution in both duration and delay, 3 of them with amplitude control. The arbitrary waveform generator is additionally equipped with two auxiliary slow 16 bit analog-to-digital converters and four 16 bit digital-to-analog converters for low frequency applications. Electromagnetic shields are introduced to the power supply, digital, and analog compartments and with a proper filter design perform more than 110 dB digital noise isolation to the output signals. All the output channels of the board have 50 Ω SubMiniature version A termination. The generator board is suitable for use as a part of a high sensitive physical equipment, e.g., fast read out and manipulation of nuclear magnetic resonance or superconducting quantum systems and any other application, which requires electromagnetic interference free fast pulse and arbitrary waveform generation.

  2. A compact, multichannel, and low noise arbitrary waveform generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govorkov, S.; Ivanov, B. I.; Il'ichev, E.; Meyer, H.-G.

    2014-01-01

    A new type of high functionality, fast, compact, and easy programmable arbitrary waveform generator for low noise physical measurements is presented. The generator provides 7 fast differential waveform channels with a maximum bandwidth up to 200 MHz frequency. There are 6 fast pulse generators on the generator board with 78 ps time resolution in both duration and delay, 3 of them with amplitude control. The arbitrary waveform generator is additionally equipped with two auxiliary slow 16 bit analog-to-digital converters and four 16 bit digital-to-analog converters for low frequency applications. Electromagnetic shields are introduced to the power supply, digital, and analog compartments and with a proper filter design perform more than 110 dB digital noise isolation to the output signals. All the output channels of the board have 50 Ω SubMiniature version A termination. The generator board is suitable for use as a part of a high sensitive physical equipment, e.g., fast read out and manipulation of nuclear magnetic resonance or superconducting quantum systems and any other application, which requires electromagnetic interference free fast pulse and arbitrary waveform generation

  3. Perceptual learning of acoustic noise generates memory-evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrillon, Thomas; Kouider, Sid; Agus, Trevor; Pressnitzer, Daniel

    2015-11-02

    Experience continuously imprints on the brain at all stages of life. The traces it leaves behind can produce perceptual learning [1], which drives adaptive behavior to previously encountered stimuli. Recently, it has been shown that even random noise, a type of sound devoid of acoustic structure, can trigger fast and robust perceptual learning after repeated exposure [2]. Here, by combining psychophysics, electroencephalography (EEG), and modeling, we show that the perceptual learning of noise is associated with evoked potentials, without any salient physical discontinuity or obvious acoustic landmark in the sound. Rather, the potentials appeared whenever a memory trace was observed behaviorally. Such memory-evoked potentials were characterized by early latencies and auditory topographies, consistent with a sensory origin. Furthermore, they were generated even on conditions of diverted attention. The EEG waveforms could be modeled as standard evoked responses to auditory events (N1-P2) [3], triggered by idiosyncratic perceptual features acquired through learning. Thus, we argue that the learning of noise is accompanied by the rapid formation of sharp neural selectivity to arbitrary and complex acoustic patterns, within sensory regions. Such a mechanism bridges the gap between the short-term and longer-term plasticity observed in the learning of noise [2, 4-6]. It could also be key to the processing of natural sounds within auditory cortices [7], suggesting that the neural code for sound source identification will be shaped by experience as well as by acoustics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of automotive tire construction. Jidosha tire no kozo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, K. (Toyo Tire and Rubber Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1993-06-15

    This paper introduces features and trends of analyzing performance and construction of automotive tires. Tires are demanded of high durability, high motion performance, good comfort performance for vibration and noise, and low fuel consumption performance. A feature of analyzing the construction is to execute a modelling assuming that a tire has air-rigid flexible structure and rubber materials show hyperelastic behavior, hypothesizing a strain energy density function. In addition, a tire is highly incompressible. Visco elasticity and anti-friction performance are also important points. Rubber and cord layers have elastic characteristic of three-dimensional perpendicular anisotropy as well as non-linearity with which characteristics change according to transformation. A structural analysis must cover from static analysis to steady dynamic analysis, non-steady dynamic analysis, and eigenvalue analysis. Thermal analysis of tires simulates phenomena by combining dynamical analysis with thermal analysis. Super-computers have now come to be used for formulating equilibrium equations using finite element methods, developing finite elements, and performing heat or visco elasticity analysis and applied analysis. 35 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Secure Image Encryption Based On a Chua Chaotic Noise Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Andreatos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a secure image cryptography telecom system based on a Chua's circuit chaotic noise generator. A chaotic system based on synchronised Master–Slave Chua's circuits has been used as a chaotic true random number generator (CTRNG. Chaotic systems present unpredictable and complex behaviour. This characteristic, together with the dependence on the initial conditions as well as the tolerance of the circuit components, make CTRNGs ideal for cryptography. In the proposed system, the transmitter mixes an input image with chaotic noise produced by a CTRNG. Using thresholding techniques, the chaotic signal is converted to a true random bit sequence. The receiver must be able to reproduce exactly the same chaotic noise in order to subtract it from the received signal. This becomes possible with synchronisation between the two Chua's circuits: through the use of specific techniques, the trajectory of the Slave chaotic system can be bound to that of the Master circuit producing (almost identical behaviour. Additional blocks have been used in order to make the system highly parameterisable and robust against common attacks. The whole system is simulated in Matlab. Simulation results demonstrate satisfactory performance, as well as, robustness against cryptanalysis. The system works with both greyscale and colour jpg images.

  6. Generation of broadband electrostatic noise by electron acoustic solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubouloz, N.; Pottelette, R.; Malingre, M.; Treumann, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Broadband electrostatic noise (BEN) bursts whose amplitude sometimes reaches about 100 mV m -1 have been observed by the Viking satellite in the dayside auroral zone. These emissions have been shown to be greatly influenced by nonlinear effects and to occur simultaneously with the observation of particle distributions favouring the destabilization of the electron acoustic mode. It is shown that electron acoustic solitons passing by the satellite would generate spectra that can explain the high-frequency part of BEN, above the electron plasma frequency

  7. 76 FR 79114 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... car tires. The final rule also established reporting requirements for the generated performance... aspects of tire performance: rolling resistance, wet traction, and treadwear life.\\3\\ The final rule also... provide information indicating the relative performance of passenger car tires in the areas of treadwear...

  8. Ground tire rubber as a stabilizer for subgrade soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Over 250 million scrap tires are generated annually in the U.S. Historically, a significant portion of these tires : have been processed into finely ground tire rubber (GTR), or crumb rubber, for use as an additive in hot mix asphalt : (HMA) pavement...

  9. Ground tire rubber as a stabilizer for subgrade soils : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Over 250 million scrap tires are generated : annually in the U.S. Historically, a significant : portion of these tires have been processed into : finely ground tire rubber (GTR), or crumb rubber, : for use as an additive in hot mix asphalt (HMA) : pa...

  10. Simple Models for the Dynamic Modeling of Rotating Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Delamotte

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Large Finite Element (FE models of tires are currently used to predict low frequency behavior and to obtain dynamic model coefficients used in multi-body models for riding and comfort. However, to predict higher frequency behavior, which may explain irregular wear, critical rotating speeds and noise radiation, FE models are not practical. Detailed FE models are not adequate for optimization and uncertainty predictions either, as in such applications the dynamic solution must be computed a number of times. Therefore, there is a need for simpler models that can capture the physics of the tire and be used to compute the dynamic response with a low computational cost. In this paper, the spectral (or continuous element approach is used to derive such a model. A circular beam spectral element that takes into account the string effect is derived, and a method to simulate the response to a rotating force is implemented in the frequency domain. The behavior of a circular ring under different internal pressures is investigated using modal and frequency/wavenumber representations. Experimental results obtained with a real untreaded truck tire are presented and qualitatively compared with the simple model predictions with good agreement. No attempt is made to obtain equivalent parameters for the simple model from the real tire results. On the other hand, the simple model fails to represent the correct variation of the quotient of the natural frequency by the number of circumferential wavelengths with the mode count. Nevertheless, some important features of the real tire dynamic behavior, such as the generation of standing waves and part of the frequency/wavenumber behavior, can be investigated using the proposed simplified model.

  11. A methodology for assessment of wind turbine noise generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, N. D.; Hemphill, R. R.; McKenna, H. E.

    1982-05-01

    An investigation of the sources of impulsive noise generated by the operation of the Mod 1 2 MW wind turbine was performed to establish criteria for assessing the noise-producing potential of other large wind turbines. Unsteady loading of the rotors was determined to be the cause of the sound pressure, which was generally below 100 Hz. Complaints originated from people in dwellings with a room with a window facing the machine. Indoor monitoring revealed pressure traces in the 31.5 Hz band with energy densities exceeding background by about 30 dB. It was concluded that the sound pressure was conveyed by the walls acting as a diaphragm. The induced vibration coupled with human body fundamental modes to produce a feeling of whole-body vibration. Spectral analyses were made of the vibration fields of the Mod 2, a 17 m Darrieus, and a Mod OA to allow comparison with the nuisance points of the Mod 1. Sound pressure levels were found at certain frequencies which would eliminate the occurrence of acoustic pollution.

  12. Combustion of used tires for energy recovery. Yozumi taiya shokyaku ni suru netsuriyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizawa, N. (Toyo Tire and Rubber Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1993-03-15

    The recycled automobile tires in 1991 amounts to 87%, and the tires are used most effectively for heat generation. The utilization of tires for heat in Japan and in other countries are outlined, and a detailed report is made on the use of used tires as fuel at coal cogeneration plants in tire manufacturing plants. The 'utilization percent for heat' is steadily increasing among the recycling applications of used tires. Energy recovery by dry distillation method and by direct combustion method is discussed. The states of used tire utilization in America, West Germany, and Britain are introduced. A concrete example of utilization for heat of used tires at a tire manufacturing plant is shown. Used tires are chopped into chips, mixed and burned in a coal boiler, the generated steam is used as the heat source for private power generation, and the power is used as the power source for the plant. 15 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Flow-induced noise around the a-pillar of an idealized car greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snellen, M.; Lier, L.J. van; Rops, C.; Janssens, M.H.A.; Heck, J. van; Strumolo, G.S.

    2002-01-01

    Due to the successes in reducing motor and tire noise as perceived inside cars and trucks, aerodynamically generated noise becomes more and more important. Some time ago the study of aero-acoustics in and around these vehicles was mainly done by wind tunnel test. Nowadays, computational methods

  14. Enhanced friction modeling for steady-state rolling tires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der R.

    2010-01-01

    Tire modeling is nowadays a necessary tool in the tire industry. Car manufacturers, governments and consumers demand better traction under all circumstances, less wear and more recently less noise and a lower rolling resistance. Therefore finite element analysis is adopted in the design process of

  15. Digital Generation of Noise-Signals with Arbitrary Constant or Time-Varying Spectra (A noise generation software package and its application)

    CERN Document Server

    Tückmantel, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Artificial creation of arbitrary noise signals is used in accelerator physics to reproduce a measured perturbation spectrum for simulations but also to generate real-time shaped noise spectra for controlled emittance blow-up giving tailored properties to the final bunch shape. It is demonstrated here how one can produce numerically what is, for all practical purposes, an unlimited quantity of non-periodic noise data having any predefined spectral density. This spectral density may be constant or varying with time. The noise output never repeats and has excellent statistical properties, important for very long-term applications. It is difficult to obtain such flexibility and spectral cleanliness using analogue techniques. This algorithm was applied both in computer simulations of bunch behaviour in the presence of RF noise in the PS, SPS and LHC and also to generate real-time noise, tracking the synchrotron frequency change during the energy ramp of the SPS and producing controlled longitudinal emittance blow-...

  16. SMORN-1: thermoelectrically generated noise in sheathed thermocouples and in other low level instrumentation cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, F.; Meier, R.; Soenen, M.; Delcon, M.; Nysten, C.

    Starting from the fact that thermoelectric emfs of thermocouples are generated in the thermal gradients and not at the hot junction, it is shown how thermoelectric heterogeneity in conjunction with natural and forced convection phenomena gives rise to unwanted noise called: ''thermoelectric noise'' in the technological sense. A distinction is made between four different types of noise--i.e. uncorrelated noise, correlated noise, spectral noise and thermoelectric noise in the physical sense--each of which has its own characteristics. The experimental results presented reveal that noise amplitudes may be quite embarrassing when dealing with problems of quantitative signal fluctuation analysis. It is however emphasized that thermoelectric noise may also convey useful information which, without noise, might be lost

  17. 1/fα fractal noise generation from Gruenwald-Letnikov formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Eduardo; Echeverria, Juan Carlos; Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose

    2009-01-01

    This communication presents a recursive algorithm for generating streams of 1/f α fractal noise, by means of fractional integration/differentiation of a white noise signal. The quality of correlated and anticorrelated noise obtained by this approach is evaluated by applying detrended fluctuation analysis.

  18. Vessel generator noise as a settlement cue for marine biofouling species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, J I; Wilkens, S L; Stanley, J A; Jeffs, A G

    2014-01-01

    Underwater noise is increasing globally, largely due to increased vessel numbers and international ocean trade. Vessels are also a major vector for translocation of non-indigenous marine species which can have serious implications for biosecurity. The possibility that underwater noise from fishing vessels may promote settlement of biofouling on hulls was investigated for the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Spatial differences in biofouling appear to be correlated with spatial differences in the intensity and frequency of the noise emitted by the vessel's generator. This correlation was confirmed in laboratory experiments where C. intestinalis larvae showed significantly faster settlement and metamorphosis when exposed to the underwater noise produced by the vessel generator. Larval survival rates were also significantly higher in treatments exposed to vessel generator noise. Enhanced settlement attributable to vessel generator noise may indicate that vessels not only provide a suitable fouling substratum, but vessels running generators may be attracting larvae and enhancing their survival and growth.

  19. Experimental Investigation of Aerodynamic Noise Generated by a Train-Car Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizushima, Fumio; Takakura, Hiroyuki; Kurita, Takeshi; Kato, Chisachi; Iida, Akiyoshi

    To investigate the mechanism of noise generation by a train-car gap, which is one of a major source of noise in Shinkansen trains, experiments were carried out in a wind tunnel using a 1/5-scale model train. We measured velocity profiles of the boundary layer that approaches the gap and confirmed that the boundary layer is turbulent. We also measured the power spectrum of noise and surface pressure fluctuations around the train-car gap. Peak noise and broadband noise were observed. It is found that strong peak noise is generated when the vortex shedding frequency corresponds to the acoustic resonance frequency determined by the geometrical shape of the gap, and that broadband noise is generated at the downstream edge of the gap where vortexes collide. It is estimated that the convection velocity of the vortices in the gap is approximately 45% of the uniform flow velocity.

  20. Hot and cold body reference noise generators from 0 to 40 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbostel, D. H.

    1974-01-01

    This article describes the design, development, and analysis of exceptionally accurate radiometric noise generators from 0-40 GHz to serve as standard references. Size, weight, power, and reliability are optimized to meet the requirements of NASA air- and space-borne radiometers. The radiometric noise temperature of these noise generators is, unavoidably, calculated from measured values rather than measured directly. The absolute accuracy and stability are equal to or better than those of reliable standards available for comparison. A noise generator has been developed whose measurable properties (VSWR, line loss, thermometric temperatures) have been optimized in order to minimize the effects of the uncertainty in the calculated radiometric noise temperatures. Each measurable property is evaluated and analyzed to determine the effects of the uncertainty of the measured value. Unmeasurable properties (primarily temperature gradients) are analyzed, and reasonable precautions are designed into the noise generator to guarantee that the uncertainty of the value remains within tolerable limits.

  1. A Tire Air Maintenance Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Improperly inflated car tires can reduce gas mileage and car performance, speed up tire wear, and even cause a tire to blow out. The AAA auto club recommends that someone check the air pressure of one's car's tires at least once a month. Wouldn't it be nice, though, if someone came up with a tire pressure-monitoring system that automatically kept…

  2. Comparative study of the noise generated by the moto-compressor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fundamental aim of this study is to compare between the noise generated by the moto-compressor and the noise generated by the turbo-compressor operating 24H/24H on the continuous function mode; these two machines make part of the equipment of the GP1Z, a factory of hydrocarbon treatment. To attain the ...

  3. Measuring the background acoustic noise in the BN-600 steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yugaj, V.S.; Zhukovets, V.N.; Ivannikov, V.I.; Vylomov, V.V.; Ryabinin, F.; Chernykh, P.G.; Flejsher, Yu.V.

    1987-01-01

    Acoustic noises in the lower chambers of evaporation and intermediate overheating moduli of the BN-600 reactor steam generator are measured. Bachground noises are registered in the whole range of frequencies studied, from 0.63 to 160 kHz. The comparison of noise spectra in evaporator and overheater has revealed a certain difference. However the general tendency is the reduction of the noise level at high frequencies > 8 kHz. The increase of the noise level at low steam content is observed only in a narrow of frequency range of 3-6 kHz

  4. Tire safety : everything rides on it

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This booklet presents a comprehensive overview of tire safety, including information on the following topics: basic tire maintenance; Uniform Tire Quality Grading System; fundamental characteristics of tires; and tire safety tips.

  5. Stereo Vision Inside Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-21

    1 Stereo Vision Inside Tire P.S. Els C.M. Becker University of Pretoria W911NF-14-1-0590 Final...Stereo Vision Inside Tire 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911NF-14-1-0590 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Prof PS Els CM...on the development of a stereo vision system that can be mounted inside a rolling tire , known as T2-CAM for Tire -Terrain CAMera. The T2-CAM system

  6. Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noise is all around you, from televisions and radios to lawn mowers and washing machines. Normally, you ... sensitive structures of the inner ear and cause noise-induced hearing loss. More than 30 million Americans ...

  7. Teledyne H1RG, H2RG, and H4RG Noise Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the near-infrared detector system noise generator (NG) that we wrote for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec). NG simulates many important noise components including; (1) white "read noise", (2) residual bias drifts, (3) pink 1/f noise, (4) alternating column noise, and (5) picture frame noise. By adjusting the input parameters, NG can simulate noise for Teledyne's H1RG, H2RG, and H4RG detectors with and without Teledyne's SIDECAR ASIC IR array controller. NG can be used as a starting point for simulating astronomical scenes by adding dark current, scattered light, and astronomical sources into the results from NG. NG is written in Python-3.4.

  8. Influence of ice accretion on the noise generated by an airfoil section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szasz, Robert-Zoltan; Ronnfors, Matilda; Revstedt, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The noise generated by ice accreted airfoils is investigated using a hybrid approach. • The roughness of the ice surface is found to have an important effect on the radiated noise. • Ice was found to damp lower frequencies and amplify higher ones. - Abstract: We investigate the noise generated by an airfoil section. Three cases are considered, one with a clean airfoil and two cases with airfoils with ice accretion. The amount of ice is the same in the two cases with ice accretion, but the surface of the accreted ice layer is smoother in one of them. The noise is computed using a hybrid approach. First the flow and the acoustic sources are computed. Second, the noise propagation is predicted by solving an inhomogeneous wave equation. The results indicate that in this case the accreted ice layer leads to a decrease of the radiated noise levels, especially in the lower frequency range.

  9. Enhancement of high-order harmonic generation in the presence of noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavuz, I; Altun, Z [Department of Physics, Marmara University, 34722 Ziverbey, Istanbul (Turkey); Topcu, T, E-mail: ilhan.yavuz@marmara.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Auburn University, AL 36849-5311 (United States)

    2011-07-14

    We report on our simulations of the generation of high-order harmonics from atoms driven by an intense femtosecond laser field in the presence of noise. We numerically solve the non-perturbative stochastic time-dependent Schroedinger equation and observe how varying noise levels affect the frequency components of the high harmonic spectrum. Our calculations show that when an optimum amount of noise is present in the driving laser field, roughly a factor of 45 net enhancement can be achieved in high-order harmonic yield, especially, around the cut-off region. We observe that, for a relatively weak noise, the enhancement mechanism is sensitive to the carrier-envelope phase. We also investigate the possibility of generating ultra-short intense attosecond pulses by combining the laser field and noise and observe that a roughly four orders of magnitude enhanced isolated attosecond burst can be generated.

  10. Enhancement of high-order harmonic generation in the presence of noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, I; Altun, Z; Topcu, T

    2011-01-01

    We report on our simulations of the generation of high-order harmonics from atoms driven by an intense femtosecond laser field in the presence of noise. We numerically solve the non-perturbative stochastic time-dependent Schroedinger equation and observe how varying noise levels affect the frequency components of the high harmonic spectrum. Our calculations show that when an optimum amount of noise is present in the driving laser field, roughly a factor of 45 net enhancement can be achieved in high-order harmonic yield, especially, around the cut-off region. We observe that, for a relatively weak noise, the enhancement mechanism is sensitive to the carrier-envelope phase. We also investigate the possibility of generating ultra-short intense attosecond pulses by combining the laser field and noise and observe that a roughly four orders of magnitude enhanced isolated attosecond burst can be generated.

  11. Dynamic tire pressure sensor for measuring ground vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; McDaniel, James Gregory; Wang, Ming L

    2012-11-07

    This work presents a convenient and non-contact acoustic sensing approach for measuring ground vibration. This approach, which uses an instantaneous dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS), possesses the capability to replace the accelerometer or directional microphone currently being used for inspecting pavement conditions. By measuring dynamic pressure changes inside the tire, ground vibration can be amplified and isolated from environmental noise. In this work, verifications of the DTPS concept of sensing inside the tire have been carried out. In addition, comparisons between a DTPS, ground-mounted accelerometer, and directional microphone are made. A data analysis algorithm has been developed and optimized to reconstruct ground acceleration from DTPS data. Numerical and experimental studies of this DTPS reveal a strong potential for measuring ground vibration caused by a moving vehicle. A calibration of transfer function between dynamic tire pressure change and ground acceleration may be needed for different tire system or for more accurate application.

  12. Investigation into the Dependence of Noise Generated By Standing Cars on the Engine Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Gineika

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ambient noise harms a number of citizens in Europe. The major sources of environmental noise are that generated by cars in streets, parking lots, railway lines and airports as well as noise from local sources (fans, transformers. According to the methodology for noise measurement, engine testing has been carried out. The conducted analysis has been focused on engine capacity and the distance between vehicles and equipment. Equivalent, maximum and minimum sound levels at different frequencies have been measured accepting that errors may range up to 2 %. Maximum sound level has been reached using the engine of 2000 cm3 petrol capacity. At a half-meter distance, the equivalent sound level reaches 89 dB(A, whereas the noise level decreases moving away from the car. The obtained results of tested cars disclose that according to engine capacity, the majority of the investigated cars are technically faulty and therefore significantly exceed noise levels.Article in Lithuanian

  13. Assessment of noise levels generated by music shops in an urban city in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebare, M N; Omuemu, V O; Isah, E C

    2011-09-01

    To assess the level of noise generated by music shops in an urban city in Nigeria. Cross-sectional, descriptive study. The study involved music shops in three out of eight identified clusters of market areas in Benin City. A semi-structured, researcher-administered questionnaire was also used to collect data from music shop owners. Noise levels generated by speakers in the music shops were measured using a sound level meter, and blood pressure measurements were taken with a mercury sphygmomanometer. Of the 250 music shops studied, more than 90.0% generated noise levels >85 dB, and 54.8% had a continuous pattern of noise. Longer duration of working years was significantly associated with decreased hearing (P = 0.01), shouting when talking (P = 0.04) and high blood pressure (P = 0.003). The position of music dealers in relation to the speakers was significantly associated with shouting when talking (P = 0.000). A significant association was found between higher levels of noise and high blood pressure (P = 0.004). This study found very high levels of noise in music shops, which could be a source of occupational noise exposure among music dealers. Enlightenment campaigns on the hazards of exposure to loud noise and periodic audiometry examinations are recommended for this occupational group. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Tire Development for Effective Transportation and Utilization of Used Tires, CRADA 01-N044, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Maley

    2004-03-31

    Scrap tires represent a significant disposal and recycling challenge for the United States. Over 280 million tires are generated on an annual basis, and several states have large stockpiles or abandoned tire piles that are slated for remediation. While most states have programs to address the accumulation and generation of scrap tires, most of these states struggle with creating and sustaining recycling or beneficial end use markets. One of the major issues with market development has been the costs associated with transporting and processing the tires into material for recycling or disposal. According to a report by the Rubber Manufactures Association tire-derived fuel (TDF) represents the largest market for scrap tires, and approximately 115 million tires were consumed in 2001 as TDF (U.S. Scrap Tire Markets, 2001, December 2002, www.rma.org/scraptires). This market is supported primarily by cement kilns, followed by various industries including companies that operate utility and industrial boilers. However the use of TDF has not increased and the amount of TDF used by boiler operators has declined. The work completed through this cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) has shown the potential of a mobile tire shredding unit to economically produce TDF and to provide an alterative low cost fuel to suitable coal-fired power systems. This novel system addresses the economic barriers by processing the tires at the retailer, thereby eliminating the costs associated with hauling whole tires. The equipment incorporated into the design allow for small 1-inch chunks of TDF to be produced in a timely fashion. The TDF can then be co-fired with coal in suitable combustion systems, such as a fluidized bed. Proper use of TDF has been shown to boost efficiency and reduce emissions from power generation systems, which is beneficial to coal utilization in existing power plants. Since the original scope of work outlined in the CRADA could not be completed because

  15. Microwave Absorption Characteristics of Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhe; Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Peng, Zhiwei; Andriese, Matthew; Li, Bowen; Huang, Xiaodi; Wang, Xinli

    The recycling of waste tires has been a big environmental problem. About 280 million waste tires are produced annually in the United States and more than 2 billion tires are stockpiled, which cause fire hazards and health issues. Tire rubbers are insoluble elastic high polymer materials. They are not biodegradable and may take hundreds of years to decompose in the natural environment. Microwave irradiation can be a thermal processing method for the decomposition of tire rubbers. In this study, the microwave absorption properties of waste tire at various temperatures are characterized to determine the conditions favorable for the microwave heating of waste tires.

  16. Study on electromagnetic noise reduction in building spaces. Propagation of electromagnetic noise generated by an elevator and its countermeasurement; Kenchiku kukan no denjiha noise hogyo no kenkyu. Elevator kara hasseisuru denjiha noise no denpa jokyo to taisaku ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Zama, A. [Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-08-10

    With the progress of power-electronics, a inverter has been generally applied to building facility equipment. This equipment go by chapping a current in high frequency, so secondarily generates electromagnetic noise. The characteristics and propagation of electromagnetic noise generated by an elevator machine were measured. From this, it was recognized that high-level spectrum was included in the frequencies under 100kHz, and electromagnetic noise was scattered a wide area on the roof and the highest floor of the building. By intercepting the conductive noise on the motor main distribution line, the area influenced by the noise was restricted to only a small area around the elevator machine room. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Acoustic noises of the BOR-60 reactor steam generators when simulating leaks with argon and steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, V.M.; Golushko, V.V.; Afanas'ev, V.A.; Grebenkin, Yu.P.; Muralev, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    Background acoustic noises of stea generators in different operational regimes and noises of argon and steam small leads (about 0.1 g/s) are studied to determine the possibility of designing the acoustic system for leak detection in sodium-water steamgenerators. Investigations are carried out at the 30 MW micromodule steam generator being in operation at the BOR-60 reactor as well as at the 20 MW tank type steam generator. Immersed ransduceres made of lithium niobate 6 mm in-diameter and waveguide transducers made of a stainless steel in the form of rods 10 mm in-diameter and 500 mm long are used as acoustic monitors. It is shown that the leak noise is more wide-band than the background noise of the steam generator and both high and low frequencies appear in the spectrum. The use of monitors of different types results in similar conslusions inrelation to the character of background noises and leak signals (spectral density, signal to-noise ratio) in the ase of similar bandroidths of the transduceres. A conclusion is made that the change of operational regimes leads to changes of background noise level, which can be close to the reaction of

  18. In vitro comparison of noise levels produced by different CPAP generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Lieselotte; Wald, Martin; Jeitler, Valerie; Pollak, Arnold

    2012-01-01

    Minimization of noise exposure is an important aim of modern neonatal intensive care medicine. Binasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) generators are among the most important sources of continuous noise in neonatal wards. The aim of this study was to find out which CPAP generator creates the least noise. In an experimental setup, two jet CPAP generators (Infant Flow® generator and MediJet®) and two conventional CPAP generators (Bubble CPAP® and Baby Flow®) were compared. Noise production was measured in decibels in an A-weighted scale [dB(A)] in a closed incubator at 2 mm lateral distance from the end of the nasal prongs. Reproduction of constant airway pressure and air leak was achieved by closure of the nasal prongs with a type of adhesive tape that is semipermeable to air. The noise levels produced by the four generators were significantly different (p CPAP® and 55 dB(A) for the Baby Flow®. Conventional CPAP generators work more quietly than the currently available jet CPAP generators. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Noise generator for tinnitus treatment based on look-up tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriz, Alejandro J.; Agüero, Pablo; Tulli, Juan C.; Castiñeira Moreira, Jorge; González, Esteban; Hidalgo, Roberto; Casadei, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Treatment of tinnitus by means of masking sounds allows to obtain a significant improve of the quality of life of the individual that suffer that condition. In view of that, it is possible to develop noise synthesizers based on random number generators in digital signal processors (DSP), which are used in almost any digital hearing aid devices. DSP architecture have limitations to implement a pseudo random number generator, due to it, the noise statistics can be not as good as expectations. In this paper, a technique to generate additive white gaussian noise (AWGN) or other types of filtered noise using coefficients stored in program memory of the DSP is proposed. Also, an implementation of the technique is carried out on a dsPIC from Microchip®. Objective experiments and experimental measurements are performed to analyze the proposed technique.

  20. Nonlinear unitary quantum collapse model with self-generated noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geszti, Tamás

    2018-04-01

    Collapse models including some external noise of unknown origin are routinely used to describe phenomena on the quantum-classical border; in particular, quantum measurement. Although containing nonlinear dynamics and thereby exposed to the possibility of superluminal signaling in individual events, such models are widely accepted on the basis of fully reproducing the non-signaling statistical predictions of quantum mechanics. Here we present a deterministic nonlinear model without any external noise, in which randomness—instead of being universally present—emerges in the measurement process, from deterministic irregular dynamics of the detectors. The treatment is based on a minimally nonlinear von Neumann equation for a Stern–Gerlach or Bell-type measuring setup, containing coordinate and momentum operators in a self-adjoint skew-symmetric, split scalar product structure over the configuration space. The microscopic states of the detectors act as a nonlocal set of hidden parameters, controlling individual outcomes. The model is shown to display pumping of weights between setup-defined basis states, with a single winner randomly selected and the rest collapsing to zero. Environmental decoherence has no role in the scenario. Through stochastic modelling, based on Pearle’s ‘gambler’s ruin’ scheme, outcome probabilities are shown to obey Born’s rule under a no-drift or ‘fair-game’ condition. This fully reproduces quantum statistical predictions, implying that the proposed non-linear deterministic model satisfies the non-signaling requirement. Our treatment is still vulnerable to hidden signaling in individual events, which remains to be handled by future research.

  1. Method of sections in analytical calculations of pneumatic tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, V. N.; Boyarkina, I. V.

    2018-01-01

    Analytical calculations in the pneumatic tire theory are more preferable in comparison with experimental methods. The method of section of a pneumatic tire shell allows to obtain equations of intensities of internal forces in carcass elements and bead rings. Analytical dependencies of intensity of distributed forces have been obtained in tire equator points, on side walls (poles) and pneumatic tire bead rings. Along with planes in the capacity of secant surfaces cylindrical surfaces are used for the first time together with secant planes. The tire capacity equation has been obtained using the method of section, by means of which a contact body is cut off from the tire carcass along the contact perimeter by the surface which is normal to the bearing surface. It has been established that the Laplace equation for the solution of tasks of this class of pneumatic tires contains two unknown values that requires the generation of additional equations. The developed computational schemes of pneumatic tire sections and new equations allow to accelerate the pneumatic tire structure improvement process during engineering.

  2. DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2001-01-01

    During the period October 1, 2000 - December 31, 2000, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) executed a Cooperative Agreement with the National Energy Technology Laboratory to implement a major cofiring demonstration at the Willow Island Generating Station Boiler No.2. Willow Island Boiler No.2 is a cyclone boiler. Allegheny also will demonstrate separate injection cofiring at the Albright Generating Station Boiler No.3, a tangentially fired boiler. The Allegheny team includes Foster Wheeler as its primary subcontractor. Additional subcontractors are Cofiring Alternatives and N.S. Harding and Associates. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. The second quarter of the project involved completing the designs for each location. Further, geotechnical investigations proceeded at each site. Preparations were made to perform demolition on two small buildings at the Willow Island site. Fuels strategies were initiated for each site. Test planning commenced for each site. A groundbreaking ceremony was held at the Willow Island site on October 18, with Governor C. Underwood being the featured speaker

  3. Studless Winter Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company developed a material for Johnson Space Center used as parachute shrouds to soft land the Vikings through the tenuous Martian atmosphere and has been adapted to new radial tire five times stronger than steel. Fiber has a chain-like molecular structure that gives it incredible strength in proportion to its weight. Material is expected to increase tread life by 10,000 miles.

  4. Low-noise, transformer-coupled resonant photodetector for squeezed state generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chaoyong; Shi, Shaoping; Zheng, Yaohui

    2017-10-01

    In an actual setup of squeezed state generation, the stability of a squeezing factor is mainly limited by the performance of the servo-control system, which is mainly influenced by the shot noise and gain of a photodetector. We present a unique transformer-coupled LC resonant amplifier as a photodetector circuit to reduce the electronic noise and increase the gain of the photodetector. As a result, we obtain a low-noise, high gain photodetector with the gain of more than 1.8×10 5 V/A, and the input current noise of less than 4.7 pA/Hz. By adjusting the parameters of the transformer, the quality factor Q of the resonant circuit is close to 100 in the frequency range of more than 100 MHz, which meets the requirement for weak power detection in the application of squeezed state generation.

  5. Preliminary measurements on heat balance in pneumatic tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybakken, G. H.; Collart, D. Y.; Staples, R. J.; Lackey, J. I.; Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    A variety of tests was undertaken to determine the nature of heat generation associated with a pneumatic tire operating under various conditions. Tests were conducted to determine the magnitude and distribution of internally generated heat caused by hysteresis in the rubber and ply fabric in an automobile tire operating under conditions of load, pressure, and velocity representative of normal operating conditions. These included tests at various yaw angles and tests with braking applied. In other tests, temperature sensors were mounted on a road to measure the effect of a tire rolling over and an attempt was made to deduce the magnitude and nature of interfacial friction from the resulting information. In addition, tests were performed using the scratch plate technique to determine the nature of the motion between the tire and road. Finally, a model tire was tested on a roadwheel, the surface covering which could be changed, and an optical pyrometer was used to measure rubber surface temperatures.

  6. Super fast physical-random number generation using laser diode frequency noises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushiki, Tetsuro; Doi, Kohei; Maehara, Shinya; Sato, Takashi; Ohkawa, Masashi; Ohdaira, Yasuo

    2011-02-01

    Random numbers can be classified as either pseudo- or physical-random in character. Pseudo-random numbers' periodicity renders them inappropriate for use in cryptographic applications, but naturally-generated physical-random numbers have no calculable periodicity, thereby making them ideally-suited to the task. The laser diode naturally produces a wideband "noise" signal that is believed to have tremendous capacity and great promise, for the rapid generation of physical-random numbers for use in cryptographic applications. We measured a laser diode's output, at a fast photo detector and generated physical-random numbers from frequency noises. We then identified and evaluated the binary-number-line's statistical properties. The result shows that physical-random number generation, at speeds as high as 40Gbps, is obtainable, using the laser diode's frequency noise characteristic.

  7. A study on the fatigue life prediction of tire belt-layers using probabilistic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Woo; Park, Jong Sang; Lee, Tae Won; Kim, Seong Rae; Sung, Ki Deug; Huh, Sun Chul

    2013-01-01

    Tire belt separation failure is occurred by internal cracks generated in *1 and *2 belt layers and by its growth. And belt failure seriously affects tire endurance. Therefore, to improve the tire endurance, it is necessary to analyze tire crack growth behavior and predict fatigue life. Generally, the prediction of tire endurance is performed by the experimental method using tire test machine. But it takes much cost and time to perform experiment. In this paper, to predict tire fatigue life, we applied deterministic fracture mechanics approach, based on finite element analysis. Also, probabilistic analysis method based on statistics using Monte Carlo simulation is presented. Above mentioned two methods include a global-local finite element analysis to provide the detail necessary to model explicitly an internal crack and calculate the J-integral for tire life prediction.

  8. Evaluation of Tire/Surfacing/Base Contact Stresses and Texture Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J.vdM. Steyn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tire rolling resistance has a major impact on vehicle fuel consumption. Rolling resistance is the loss of energy due to the interaction between the tire and the pavement surface. This interaction is a complicated combination of stresses and strains which depend on both tire and pavement related factors. These include vehicle speed, vehicle weight, tire material and type, road camber, tire inflation pressure, pavement surfacing texture etc. In this paper the relationship between pavement surface texture depth and tire/surfacing contact stress and area is investigated. Texture depth and tire/surfacing contact stress were measured for a range of tire inflation pressures on five different pavement surfaces. In the analysis the relationship between texture and the generated contact stresses as well as the contact stress between the surfacing and base layer are presented and discussed, and the anticipated effect of these relationships on the rolling resistance of vehicles on the surfacings, and subsequent vehicle fuel economy discussed.

  9. Generation of maps of noise (industrial from geographic information systems. An approach from the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Acero Calderón

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In all kinds of productive activities, the occupational noise represents a menace and it has not been truly assessed in its real dimension. The people involved have not determined the urgency to manage noise control programs. Therefore, economic losses resulting from medical treatments and absenteeism, represented in the health care and social services, causing hidden costs that affect directly the gross domestic product in any country. Method: This article compiles different case studies worldwide. The studies were divided into general studies about the effects of occupational noise and then, according to the industrial noise effects on workers’ health. At a control level, the evaluation and measurement of noise is defined by using tools such as noise maps and their derivations, in addition to spatial databases. Results: According to gathering and analysis information, in the medium term, economies will be reduced in a significant percentage due to the consequences generated by exposure to noise. Conclusions: The data provided by the case studies indicate that Colombia, a country that is not distant to this phenomenon, and additionally has the great disadvantage of lacking of significant studies in noise analysis; must build studies based on spatial data as measurement and control mechanism.

  10. Noise Enhances Action Potential Generation in Mouse Sensory Neurons via Stochastic Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorato, Irene; D'Alessandro, Giuseppina; Di Castro, Maria Amalia; Renzi, Massimiliano; Dobrowolny, Gabriella; Musarò, Antonio; Salvetti, Marco; Limatola, Cristina; Crisanti, Andrea; Grassi, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Noise can enhance perception of tactile and proprioceptive stimuli by stochastic resonance processes. However, the mechanisms underlying this general phenomenon remain to be characterized. Here we studied how externally applied noise influences action potential firing in mouse primary sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia, modelling a basic process in sensory perception. Since noisy mechanical stimuli may cause stochastic fluctuations in receptor potential, we examined the effects of sub-threshold depolarizing current steps with superimposed random fluctuations. We performed whole cell patch clamp recordings in cultured neurons of mouse dorsal root ganglia. Noise was added either before and during the step, or during the depolarizing step only, to focus onto the specific effects of external noise on action potential generation. In both cases, step + noise stimuli triggered significantly more action potentials than steps alone. The normalized power norm had a clear peak at intermediate noise levels, demonstrating that the phenomenon is driven by stochastic resonance. Spikes evoked in step + noise trials occur earlier and show faster rise time as compared to the occasional ones elicited by steps alone. These data suggest that external noise enhances, via stochastic resonance, the recruitment of transient voltage-gated Na channels, responsible for action potential firing in response to rapid step-wise depolarizing currents.

  11. Role of plasma-induced defects in the generation of 1/f noise in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultrera, Alessandro; Callegaro, Luca; Marzano, Martina; Ortolano, Massimo; Amato, Giampiero

    2018-02-01

    It has already been reported that 1/f noise in graphene can be dominated by fluctuations of charge carrier mobility. We show here that the increasing damage induced by oxygen plasma on graphene samples result in two trends: at low doses, the magnitude of the 1/f noise increases with the dose; and at high doses, it decreases with the dose. This behaviour is interpreted in the framework of 1/f noise generated by carrier mobility fluctuations where the concentration of mobility fluctuation centers and the mean free path of the carriers are competing factors.

  12. Removing Eddy-current probe wobble noise from steam generator tubes testing using wavelet transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Luiz Antonio Negro Martin; Ting, Daniel Kao Sun; Upadhyaya, Belle R.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most import nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applied to steam generator tubes inspection is the electromagnetic Eddy-Current testing (ECT). The signals generated in this NDE, in general, contain many noises which make difficult the interpretation and analysis of ECT signals. One of the noises present in the signals is the probe wobble noise, which is caused by the existing slack between the probe and the tube. In this work, Wavelet Transform (WT) is used in the probe wobble de-noising. WT is a relatively recent mathematical tool, which allows local analysis of non stationary signals such as ECT signals. This is a great advantage of WT when compared with other analysis tools such as Fourier Transform. However, using WT involves wavelets and coefficients selection as well as choosing the number of decomposition level needed. This work presents a probe wobble de-noising method when used in conjunction with the traditional ECT evaluation. Comparative results using several WT applied do Eddy-Current signals are presented in a reliable way, in other words, without loss of inherent defect information. A stainless steel tube, with 2 artificial defects generated by electro-erosion, was inspected by a ZETEC MIZ-17ET ECT equipment. The signals were de-noised through several different WT and the results are presented. The method offer good results and is a promising method because allows for the removal of Eddy-Current signals probe wobble effect without loss of essential signal information. (author)

  13. Union Gas assessment protocol for power generator air and noise emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complin, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlined a procedure for obtaining data to facilitate air and noise compliance assessments for emergency and other fuel-fired power generators. Facilities with the generators may contain additional sources of nitrogen oxides (NO x ). The assessments are required for each new or modified generator in order to ensure that regulatory requirements in the Air Pollution Local Air Quality Regulation and the Noise Pollution Control documents are met. The air emission assessments follow the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) report. The paper included a screening process to screen out generators with negligible emissions. A maximum power rating was calculated using AP-2 emission factors and a conservative heat rating assumption. Maximum power ratings for various types of generators were presented. The information requirements included a description of the type of engine used; sound power level data; octave band insertion loss data; and plan and section drawings of the generator room. 2 tabs.

  14. Systematic assessment of noise amplitude generated by toys intended for young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Hossein; Oliaei, Sepehr; Badran, Karam W; Ziai, Kasra; Chang, Janice; Zardouz, Shawn; Shahriari, Shawn; Djalilian, Hamid R

    2013-06-01

    To systematically evaluate the noise generated by toys targeted for children and to compare the results over the course of 4 consecutive holiday shopping seasons. Experimental study. Academic medical center. During 2008-2011, more than 200 toys marketed for children older than 6 months were screened for loudness. The toys with sound output of more than 80 dBA at speaker level were retested in a soundproof audiometry booth. The generated sound amplitude of each toy was measured at speaker level and at 30 cm away from the speaker. Ninety different toys were analyzed. The mean (SD) noise amplitude was 100 (8) dBA (range, 80-121 dBA) at the speaker level and 80 (11) dBA (range, 60-109 dBA) at 30 cm away from the speaker. Eighty-eight (98%) had more than an 85-dBA noise amplitude at speaker level, whereas 19 (26%) had more than an 85-dBA noise amplitude at a 30-cm distance. Only the mean noise amplitude at 30 cm significantly declined during the studied period (P toys specified for different age groups. Our findings demonstrate the persistence of extremely loud toys marketed for very young children. Acoustic trauma from toys remains a potential risk factor for noise-induced hearing loss in this age group, warranting promotion of public awareness and regulatory considerations for manufacture and marketing of toys.

  15. Potential health effects of standing waves generated by low frequency noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Ziaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim is to present the available updated knowledge regarding the potential health effects of standing waves generated by low frequency noise (LFN from an open window in a moving car where the negative effects of LFN induced by heating components and/or heating, ventilation and air-conditioning are assessed. Furthermore, the assessment of noise in chosen enclosed spaces, such as rooms, offices, and classrooms, or other LFN sources and their effect on the human being were investigated. These types of noise are responsible for disturbance during relaxation, sleep, mental work, education, and concentration, which may reflect negatively on the comfort and health of the population and on the mental state of people such as scientific staff and students. The assessment points out the most exposed areas, and analyzes the conditions of standing wave generation in these rooms caused by outdoor and/or indoor sources. Measurements were made for three different enclosed spaces (office, flat, and passenger car and sources (traffic specific noise at intersections, noise induced by pipe vibration, and aerodynamic noise and their operating conditions. For the detection of LFN, the A-weighted sound pressure level and vibration were measured and a fast Fourier transform analysis was used. The LFN sources are specified and the direct effects on the human are reported. Finally, this paper suggests the possibilities for the assessment of LFN and some possible measures that can be taken to prevent or reduce them.

  16. Direct Numerical Simulation of Acoustic Noise Generation from the Nozzle Wall of a Hypersonic Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junji; Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan; Missouri Univ of Sci; Tech Team; NASA Langley Research Center Team

    2017-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to examine the acoustic noise generation from the turbulent boundary layer on the nozzle wall of a Mach 6 Ludwieg Tube. The emphasis is on characterizing the freestream acoustic pressure disturbances radiated from the nozzle-wall turbulent boundary layer and comparing it with acoustic noise generated from a single, flat wall in an unconfined setting at a similar freestream Mach number to assess the effects of noise reverberation. In particular, the numerical database is used to provide insights into the pressure disturbance spectrum and amplitude scaling with respect to the boundary-layer parameters as well as to understand the acoustic source mechanisms. Such information is important for characterizing the freestream disturbance environment in conventional (i.e., noisy) hypersonic wind tunnels. Air Force Office of Scientific Research Award No. FA9550-14-1-0170.

  17. Numerical Investigation on Vortex-Structure Interaction Generating Aerodynamic Noises for Rod-Airfoil Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FeiFei Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In past several decades, vortex-structure interaction generated aerodynamic noise became one of the main concerns in aircraft design. In order to understand the mechanism, the acoustic analogy method combined with the RANS-based nonlinear acoustics solver (NLAS is investigated. The numerical method is firstly evaluated by the experiment data of the classic rod-airfoil model. Compared with the traditional analogy methods, the RANS/NLAS can capture the nonlinear aerodynamic noise more accurately with lower gird requirements. Then different rod-airfoil configurations were simulated to investigate the aeroacoustic interaction effects. The numerical results are in good agreement with those of the earlier experimental research. It is found that the vortex-shedding crash to the airfoil is the main reason for the noise generation which is dependent on the configurations, distance, and flow conditions.

  18. Generative Adversarial Networks for Noise Reduction in Low-Dose CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolterink, Jelmer M; Leiner, Tim; Viergever, Max A; Isgum, Ivana

    2017-12-01

    Noise is inherent to low-dose CT acquisition. We propose to train a convolutional neural network (CNN) jointly with an adversarial CNN to estimate routine-dose CT images from low-dose CT images and hence reduce noise. A generator CNN was trained to transform low-dose CT images into routine-dose CT images using voxelwise loss minimization. An adversarial discriminator CNN was simultaneously trained to distinguish the output of the generator from routine-dose CT images. The performance of this discriminator was used as an adversarial loss for the generator. Experiments were performed using CT images of an anthropomorphic phantom containing calcium inserts, as well as patient non-contrast-enhanced cardiac CT images. The phantom and patients were scanned at 20% and 100% routine clinical dose. Three training strategies were compared: the first used only voxelwise loss, the second combined voxelwise loss and adversarial loss, and the third used only adversarial loss. The results showed that training with only voxelwise loss resulted in the highest peak signal-to-noise ratio with respect to reference routine-dose images. However, CNNs trained with adversarial loss captured image statistics of routine-dose images better. Noise reduction improved quantification of low-density calcified inserts in phantom CT images and allowed coronary calcium scoring in low-dose patient CT images with high noise levels. Testing took less than 10 s per CT volume. CNN-based low-dose CT noise reduction in the image domain is feasible. Training with an adversarial network improves the CNNs ability to generate images with an appearance similar to that of reference routine-dose CT images.

  19. Haul truck tire dynamics due to tire condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzabi, R Vaghar; Nobes, D S; Lipsett, M G

    2012-01-01

    Pneumatic tires are costly components on large off-road haul trucks used in surface mining operations. Tires are prone to damage during operation, and these events can lead to injuries to personnel, loss of equipment, and reduced productivity. Damage rates have significant variability, due to operating conditions and a range of tire fault modes. Currently, monitoring of tire condition is done by physical inspection; and the mean time between inspections is often longer than the mean time between incipient failure and functional failure of the tire. Options for new condition monitoring methods include off-board thermal imaging and camera-based optical methods for detecting abnormal deformation and surface features, as well as on-board sensors to detect tire faults during vehicle operation. Physics-based modeling of tire dynamics can provide a good understanding of the tire behavior, and give insight into observability requirements for improved monitoring systems. This paper describes a model to simulate the dynamics of haul truck tires when a fault is present to determine the effects of physical parameter changes that relate to faults. To simulate the dynamics, a lumped mass 'quarter-vehicle' model has been used to determine the response of the system to a road profile when a failure changes the original properties of the tire. The result is a model of tire vertical displacement that can be used to detect a fault, which will be tested under field conditions in time-varying conditions.

  20. Haul truck tire dynamics due to tire condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghar Anzabi, R.; Nobes, D. S.; Lipsett, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Pneumatic tires are costly components on large off-road haul trucks used in surface mining operations. Tires are prone to damage during operation, and these events can lead to injuries to personnel, loss of equipment, and reduced productivity. Damage rates have significant variability, due to operating conditions and a range of tire fault modes. Currently, monitoring of tire condition is done by physical inspection; and the mean time between inspections is often longer than the mean time between incipient failure and functional failure of the tire. Options for new condition monitoring methods include off-board thermal imaging and camera-based optical methods for detecting abnormal deformation and surface features, as well as on-board sensors to detect tire faults during vehicle operation. Physics-based modeling of tire dynamics can provide a good understanding of the tire behavior, and give insight into observability requirements for improved monitoring systems. This paper describes a model to simulate the dynamics of haul truck tires when a fault is present to determine the effects of physical parameter changes that relate to faults. To simulate the dynamics, a lumped mass 'quarter-vehicle' model has been used to determine the response of the system to a road profile when a failure changes the original properties of the tire. The result is a model of tire vertical displacement that can be used to detect a fault, which will be tested under field conditions in time-varying conditions.

  1. On the variances of generation-recombination noise in a three-level system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooge, F.N.; Ren, L.

    1994-01-01

    A statistical treatment is given of the generation-recombination noise in a semiconductor with a conduction band and two traps X and Y. The system is described in terms of x and y, where x is half the harmonic mean of the numbers of occupied and empty traps X. A corresponding definition is given for

  2. Fast random-number generation using a diode laser's frequency noise characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamori, Hiroki; Doi, Kohei; Maehara, Shinya; Kawakami, Kohei; Sato, Takashi; Ohkawa, Masashi; Ohdaira, Yasuo

    2012-02-01

    Random numbers can be classified as either pseudo- or physical-random, in character. Pseudo-random numbers are generated by definite periodicity, so, their usefulness in cryptographic applications is somewhat limited. On the other hand, naturally-generated physical-random numbers have no calculable periodicity, thereby making them ideal for the task. Diode lasers' considerable wideband noise gives them tremendous capacity for generating physical-random numbers, at a high rate of speed. We measured a diode laser's output with a fast photo detector, and evaluated the binary-numbers from the diode laser's frequency noise characteristics. We then identified and evaluated the binary-number-line's statistical properties. We also investigate the possibility that much faster physical-random number parallel-generation is possible, using separate outputs of different optical-path length and character, which we refer to as "coherence collapse".

  3. Methodology for experimental validation of a CFD model for predicting noise generation in centrifugal compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broatch, A.; Galindo, J.; Navarro, R.; García-Tíscar, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A DES of a turbocharger compressor working at peak pressure point is performed. • In-duct pressure signals are measured in a steady flow rig with 3-sensor arrays. • Pressure spectra comparison is performed as a validation for the numerical model. • A suitable comparison methodology is developed, relying on pressure decomposition. • Whoosh noise at outlet duct is detected in experimental and numerical spectra. - Abstract: Centrifugal compressors working in the surge side of the map generate a broadband noise in the range of 1–3 kHz, named as whoosh noise. This noise is perceived at strongly downsized engines operating at particular conditions (full load, tip-in and tip-out maneuvers). A 3-dimensional CFD model of a centrifugal compressor is built to analyze fluid phenomena related to whoosh noise. A detached eddy simulation is performed with the compressor operating at the peak pressure point of 160 krpm. A steady flow rig mounted on an anechoic chamber is used to obtain experimental measurements as a means of validation for the numerical model. In-duct pressure signals are obtained in addition to standard averaged global variables. The numerical simulation provides global variables showing excellent agreement with experimental measurements. Pressure spectra comparison is performed to assess noise prediction capability of numerical model. The influence of the type and position of the virtual pressure probes is evaluated. Pressure decomposition is required by the simulations to obtain meaningful spectra. Different techniques for obtaining pressure components are analyzed. At the simulated conditions, a broadband noise in 1–3 kHz frequency band is detected in the experimental measurements. This whoosh noise is also captured by the numerical model

  4. The Effect of Flywheel Unbalance on Gear Noise in the Hydraulic Power Plant Turbo-Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomeh Elias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Effect of Flywheel Unbalance on Gear Noise in the Hydraulic Power Plant Turbo-Generator. Hydraulic power plants are systems that produce electrical energy with high investment costs. In order to fulfil their goals, investments should create conditions for a safe production of energy in a long lasting and reliable way, and with the required power and quality. These goals are possible to reach by an optional control process linked to a systematic monitoring of the operating machinery state, using the method of vibration diagnostics. Lately, there has been an increase of noise level in the hydraulic power plants.

  5. Signal to noise ratio enhancement for Eddy Current testing of steam generator tubes in PWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgel, B.

    1985-01-01

    Noise reduction is a compulsory task when we try to recognize and characterize flaws. The signals we deal with come from Eddy Current testings of steam generator steel tubes. We point out the need for a spectral invariant in digital spectral analysis of 2 components signals. We make clear the pros and cons of classical passband filtering and suggest the use of a new noise cancellation method first discussed by Moriwaki and Tlusty. We generalize this tricky technique and prove it is a very special case of the well-known Wiener filter. In that sense the M-T method is shown to be optimal. 6 refs

  6. Scaling properties of the aerodynamic noise generated by low-speed fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canepa, Edward; Cattanei, Andrea; Mazzocut Zecchin, Fabio

    2017-11-01

    The spectral decomposition algorithm presented in the paper may be applied to selected parts of the SPL spectrum, i.e. to specific noise generating mechanisms. It yields the propagation and the generation functions, and indeed the Mach number scaling exponent associated with each mechanism as a function of the Strouhal number. The input data are SPL spectra obtained from measurements taken during speed ramps. Firstly, the basic theory and the implemented algorithm are described. Then, the behaviour of the new method is analysed with reference to numerically generated spectral data and the results are compared with the ones of an existing method based on the assumption that the scaling exponent is constant. Guidelines for the employment of both methods are provided. Finally, the method is applied to measurements taken on a cooling fan mounted on a test plenum designed following the ISO 10302 standards. The most common noise generating mechanisms are present and attention is focused on the low-frequency part of the spectrum, where the mechanisms are superposed. Generally, both propagation and generation functions are determined with better accuracy than the scaling exponent, whose values are usually consistent with expectations based on coherence and compactness of the acoustic sources. For periodic noise, the computed exponent is less accurate, as the related SPL data set has usually a limited size. The scaling exponent is very sensitive to the details of the experimental data, e.g. to slight inconsistencies or random errors.

  7. Filterless low-phase-noise frequency-quadrupled microwave generation based on a multimode optoelectronic oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yichao; Zhang, Pin; Zhang, Baofu; Chen, Yiwang

    2018-02-01

    A scheme to realize low-phase-noise frequency-quadrupled microwave generation without any filter is demonstrated. In this scheme, a multimode optoelectronic oscillator is mainly contributed by dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulators, fiber, photodetector, and microwave amplifier. The local source signal is modulated by a child MZM (MZMa), which is worked at maximum transmission point. Through properly adjusting the bias voltages of the other child MZM (MZMb) and the parent MZM (MZMc), optical carrier is effectively suppressed and second sidebands are retained, then the survived optical signal is fed back to the photodetector and MZMb to form an optoelectronic hybrid resonator and realize frequency-quadrupled signal generation. Due to the high Q-factor and mode selection effect of the optoelectronic hybrid resonator, compared with the source signal, the generated frequency-quadrupled signal has a lower phase noise. The approach has verified by experiments, and 18, 22, and 26 GHz frequency-quadrupled signal are generated by 4.5, 5.5, and 6.5 GHz local source signals. Compared with 4.5 GHz source signal, the phase noise of generated 18 GHz signal at 10 kHz frequency offset has 26.5 dB reduction.

  8. How additive noise generates a phantom attractor in a model with cubic nonlinearity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashkirtseva, Irina; Ryashko, Lev, E-mail: lev.ryashko@urfu.ru

    2016-10-07

    Two-dimensional nonlinear system forced by the additive noise is studied. We show that an increasing noise shifts random states and localizes them in a zone far from deterministic attractors. This phenomenon of the generation of the new “phantom” attractor is investigated on the base of probability density functions, mean values and variances of random states. We show that increasing noise results in the qualitative changes of the form of pdf, sharp shifts of mean values, and spikes of the variance. To clarify this phenomenon mathematically, we use the fast–slow decomposition and averaging over the fast variable. For the dynamics of the mean value of the slow variable, a deterministic equation is derived. It is shown that equilibria and the saddle-node bifurcation point of this deterministic equation well describe the stochastic phenomenon of “phantom” attractor in the initial two-dimensional stochastic system. - Highlights: • Two-dimensional nonlinear system with cubic nonlinearity is studied. • Additive noise generates a new phantom attractor. • By averaging over the fast variable one-dimensional equation is derived. • Phantom attractor appearance is analyzed by bifurcation analysis of this equation.

  9. Effect of Filters on the Noise Generated by Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Delivered via a Helmet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Hernández-Molina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the problems that the delivery of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP via a helmet poses is the generation of noise. The objective of our study was to assess the effect that the use of filter has on sound pressure levels generated by the delivery of positive airway pressure at different gas flow rates. Materials and Methods: Sound pressure levels generated by neonatal helmet CPAP delivery were measured at different gas flows (20, 30, and 40 l/min with and without a breathing filter. Noise intensity was measured by installing microphones in the inner ear of dummy heads wearing helmets. Results: The sound pressure level increased by 38% at a gas flow of 40 l/min, as compared to a gas flow of 20 l/min {74 dBA [interquartile range (IQR 2,2] vs 52 dBA (IQR 5,9, respectively}. Using the breathing filter as a diffuser has a variety of effects on sound pressure levels according to the gas flow rate. Conclusion: The intensity of the noise generated by helmet delivery of positive airway pressure depends on the type of helmet used, gas flow, and use or not of a diffuser filter. Breathing filters with gas flows over 30 l/min might not be recommended since they would not attenuate but will rather amplify sound pressure.

  10. RF Noise Generation in High-Pressure Short-Arc DC Xenon Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minayeva, Olga; Doughty, Douglas

    2007-10-01

    Continuous direct current xenon arcs will generate RF noise under certain circumstance, which can lead to excessive electro- magnetic interference in systems that use these arcs as light sources. Phenomenological observations are presented for xenon arcs having arc gaps ˜1 mm, cold fill pressures of ˜2.5 MPa, and currents up to 30 amps. Using a loop antenna in the vicinity of an operating lamp, it is observed that as the current to the arc is lowered there is a reproducible threshold at which the RF noise generation begins. This threshold is accompanied by a small abrupt drop in voltage (˜0.2 volts). The RF emission appears in pulses ˜150 nsec wide separated by ˜300 nec - the pulse interval decreases with decreasing current. The properties of the RF emission as a function of arc parameters (such as pressure, arc gap, electrode design) will be discussed and a semi-quantitative model presented.

  11. Tire deflation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Stacey G [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-01-05

    A tire deflation device includes (1) a component having a plurality of bores, (2) a plurality of spikes removably insertable into the plurality of bores and (3) a keeper within each among the plurality of bores, the keeper being configured to contact a sidewall surface of a spike among the plurality of spikes and to exert force upon the sidewall surface. In an embodiment, the tire deflation device includes (a) a component including a bore in a material, the bore including a receiving region, a sidewall surface and a base surface, (b) a channel extending from the sidewall surface into the material, (c) a keeper having a first section housed within the channel and a second section which extends past the sidewall surface into the receiving region, and (d) a spike removably insertable into the bore.

  12. USING THE SCRAP TIRES TO PRODUCE A FLEXIBLE COUPLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahsean A. Hussain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The scrap tires considered a problematic source of waste, the old rubber tires causes a big environmental problem that is need much money and effort to disposes it safely. In Iraq there are more than two million used tires disposed to the environment annually. one of the tire’s recycling methods is the use of tire layers to produce a new rubber parts used in the engineering and industrial purposes as the bridges and machines dampers, this trend of recycling doesn’t take a sufficient care comparing with the other uses. There are a lot of studies conducted in these field, these studies suggests many methods to manage the huge number of scrap tires, the current paper aims to use the old rubber tires in engineering purposes (especially as a coupler joins the motor or engines with the other equipment as electric dynamo or pumps, the study focusing on the mechanical properties of a strip from a used tires and comparing with one prepared in the lab., and suggesting a new method to use as an engineering parts (for example the coupler lays between the IC engine and the dynamo of an electric generator. One of the results obtained from the experiments, there is no significant difference between the mechanical properties of the old and the new strip, (in the tensile test, the breaking force of the -Lab. tensile specimen- is 137 N whereas the specimen of old tire have a breaking force 113.27 N, but they are same in the elongation. A computational example is suggested to estimate the dimensions of a flexible coupler use an old tire pieces.

  13. Michelin tire baby syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita V Vora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Michelin tire baby syndrome (MTBS, is a rare genodermatosis, characterized by generalized folding of excess skin and may be associated with various phenotypic abnormalities. The pathogenesis of this condition is unclear. Various congenital anomalies can be associated with it. It may be a clinical finding associated with various syndromes. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, and skin folds gradually diminish and disappear with age without any intervention. Here, we report a case of MTBS associated with convergent squint and hydrocephaly.

  14. Research highlights : study of the noise generated by heat pumps in residential areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, J.

    2000-01-01

    Rising energy costs and aggressive marketing played a major role in the substantial increase in the number of domestic heat pumps installed. As a rule, heat pumps are connected to the heating and ventilation systems on the outside of the house. Whether the heat pump is equipped with an integrated compressor or not, it creates noise. The noise is generated by the powerful fan designed to cool all the coils, and also by the compressor itself and the circulation of the refrigerant gas. Some municipalities received so many complaints on this topic that they are considering adopting noise bylaws. The first objective of the research undertaken by Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation on heat pumps in residential areas was to analyze the noise pollution mode of commonly used heat pumps. A study of a simple noise reduction device was performed, and the extent to which it should be used. Finally, there had to be no reduction of the thermal capacities of the pumps. Phase 1 of the study took place between May and August 1990, in the area of Quebec City. A total of 125 heat pumps were identified. The four major manufacturers were Trane, Carrier, York, and Lennox. Initial sound pressure levels measurements were made at one metre from the unit, for 80 such units, respecting the ratio by brands in the sample of 125. A detailed global noise measurement determined the sound power of each pump. A detailed muffler feasibility study was then conducted, using a Trane heat pump. The results of the study indicated that heat pumps were a major source of continuous noise in low and mid-density areas. It was discovered that a noise attenuation device could always be built around heat pumps, which needed to be installed as close as possible to the casing of the heat pump. It is not possible to design a device to fit each and every heat pump, the design is specific to the dimensions and characteristics of each model of heat pump. The thermal performance of the pumps will not be affected by

  15. Fan interaction noise reduction using a wake generator: experiments and computational aeroacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polacsek, C.; Desbois-Lavergne, F.

    2003-08-01

    A control grid (wake generator) aimed at reducing rotor-stator interaction modes in fan engines when mounted upstream of the rotor has been studied here. This device complements other active noise control systems currently proposed. The compressor model of the instrumented ONERA CERF-rig is used to simulate suitable conditions. The design of the grid is drafted out using semi-empirical models for wake and potential flow, and experimentally achieved. Cylindrical rods are able to generate a spinning mode of the same order and similar level as the interaction mode. Mounting the rods on a rotating ring allows for adjusting the phase of the control mode so that an 8 dB sound pressure level (SPL) reduction at the blade passing frequency is achieved when the two modes are out of phase. Experimental results are assessed by a numerical approach using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes 2-D solver, developed at ONERA, is used to provide the unsteady force components on blades and vanes required for acoustics. The loading noise source term of the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation is used to model the interaction noise between the sources, and an original coupling to a boundary element method (BEM) code is realized to take account of the inlet geometry effects on acoustic in-duct propagation. Calculations using the classical analytical the Green function of an infinite annular duct are also addressed. Simple formulations written in the frequency domain and expanded into modes are addressed and used to compute an in-duct interaction mode and to compare with the noise reduction obtained during the tests. A fairly good agreement between predicted and measured SPL is found when the inlet geometry effects are part of the solution (by coupling with the BEM). Furthermore, computed aerodynamic penalties due to the rods are found to be negligible. These results partly validate the computation chain and highlight the potential of the wake generator

  16. Phase Noise and Intensity Noise of the Pulse Train Generated from Mode-locked Lasers in the Demodulation Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Kan; Shum, Ping

    2010-01-01

    The phase noise and intensity noise of a pulse train are theoretically analyzed in the demodulation measurement. The effect of pulse asymmetry is discussed for the first time using Fourier series. Experimentally, photodetectors with different bandwidth and incident power levels are compared to achieve minimum pulse distortion.

  17. Computation of noise generation and propagation for free and confined turbulent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailly, C.; Lafon, P.; Candel, S.

    1996-09-01

    In this paper, a stochastic noise generation and propagation model based on the resolution of the linearized Euler equation is proposed to compute turbulent mixing noise for free and confined flows. Two problems must be solved in the framework of an acoustic analogy. First, a wave operator must be derived for sound waves travelling in any mean flow. An expression of the source term in then deduced by comparing the linearized form and the non linear form of the equations. Secondly, the knowledge of the turbulence velocity field is required to compute this source term. The radiated acoustic field is calculated numerically by solving the inhomogeneous acoustic wave equation. In this study, the wave operator is the system of the linearized Euler equations and the space-time turbulent velocity field is generated by a sum of random Fourier modes. This method is applied to the case of a confined flow in a two dimensional duct obstructed by a diaphragm. Numerical results are compared to experimental ones. For each aperture of the diaphragm, the radiated acoustic power is close to the experimental values and follows the U 4 law. The comparison of numerical and experimental spectrum is satisfactory too. Further investigation is needed in order to characterize precisely the influence of the mean flow on the radiated noise. (authors)

  18. Effect of a Background Noise on the Acoustic Leak Detection Methodology for a SFR Steam Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae-Joon; Jeong, Ji-Young; Kim, Jong-Man

    2007-01-01

    The protection of a water/steam leak into a sodium in the SFR SG at an early phase of a leak origin depends on a fast response and sensitivity of a leak detection system not to a response against the several kinds of noises. The subject in this study is to introduce a detection performance by using our developed acoustic leak detection methodology discriminated by a backpropagation neural network according to a preprocessing of the 1/6 Octave band analysis or 1/12 Octave band analysis and the x n method defined by us. It was used for the acoustic signals generated from the simulation works which are the noises of an artificial background such as a scratching, a hammering on a steel structure and so on. In a previous study, we showed that the performance of a LabVIEW tool embedded with the developed acoustic leak detection methodology detected the SWR leak signals

  19. Mechanism of tonal noise generation from circular cylinder with spiral fin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Ryo; Hayashi, Hidechito; Okumura, Tetsuya; Hamakawa, Hiromitsu

    2014-12-01

    The pitch of the spiral finned tube influences seriously to the acoustic resonance in the heat exchanger. In this research, the flow characteristics in relating to the aeolian tone from the finned cylinder are studied by the numerical simulation. It is observed that the tonal noise generated from the finned tube at two pitch spaces. The ratio of the fin pitch to the cylinder diameter is changed at 0.11 and 0.27. The tone level increases and the frequency decreases with the pitch shorter. The separation flow from the cylinder generates the span-wise vortices, Karman vortices, and the separation flow from the fin generates the stream-wise vortices. When the fin pitch ratio is small, the stream-wise vortices line up to span-wise and become weak rapidly. Only the Karman vortices are remained and integrate in span. So the Karman vortex became large. This causes the low frequency and the large aeolian tone.

  20. Passive acoustic measurement of bedload grain size distribution using self-generated noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Petrut

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring sediment transport processes in rivers is of particular interest to engineers and scientists to assess the stability of rivers and hydraulic structures. Various methods for sediment transport process description were proposed using conventional or surrogate measurement techniques. This paper addresses the topic of the passive acoustic monitoring of bedload transport in rivers and especially the estimation of the bedload grain size distribution from self-generated noise. It discusses the feasibility of linking the acoustic signal spectrum shape to bedload grain sizes involved in elastic impacts with the river bed treated as a massive slab. Bedload grain size distribution is estimated by a regularized algebraic inversion scheme fed with the power spectrum density of river noise estimated from one hydrophone. The inversion methodology relies upon a physical model that predicts the acoustic field generated by the collision between rigid bodies. Here we proposed an analytic model of the acoustic energy spectrum generated by the impacts between a sphere and a slab. The proposed model computes the power spectral density of bedload noise using a linear system of analytic energy spectra weighted by the grain size distribution. The algebraic system of equations is then solved by least square optimization and solution regularization methods. The result of inversion leads directly to the estimation of the bedload grain size distribution. The inversion method was applied to real acoustic data from passive acoustics experiments realized on the Isère River, in France. The inversion of in situ measured spectra reveals good estimations of grain size distribution, fairly close to what was estimated by physical sampling instruments. These results illustrate the potential of the hydrophone technique to be used as a standalone method that could ensure high spatial and temporal resolution measurements for sediment transport in rivers.

  1. Passive acoustic measurement of bedload grain size distribution using self-generated noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrut, Teodor; Geay, Thomas; Gervaise, Cédric; Belleudy, Philippe; Zanker, Sebastien

    2018-01-01

    Monitoring sediment transport processes in rivers is of particular interest to engineers and scientists to assess the stability of rivers and hydraulic structures. Various methods for sediment transport process description were proposed using conventional or surrogate measurement techniques. This paper addresses the topic of the passive acoustic monitoring of bedload transport in rivers and especially the estimation of the bedload grain size distribution from self-generated noise. It discusses the feasibility of linking the acoustic signal spectrum shape to bedload grain sizes involved in elastic impacts with the river bed treated as a massive slab. Bedload grain size distribution is estimated by a regularized algebraic inversion scheme fed with the power spectrum density of river noise estimated from one hydrophone. The inversion methodology relies upon a physical model that predicts the acoustic field generated by the collision between rigid bodies. Here we proposed an analytic model of the acoustic energy spectrum generated by the impacts between a sphere and a slab. The proposed model computes the power spectral density of bedload noise using a linear system of analytic energy spectra weighted by the grain size distribution. The algebraic system of equations is then solved by least square optimization and solution regularization methods. The result of inversion leads directly to the estimation of the bedload grain size distribution. The inversion method was applied to real acoustic data from passive acoustics experiments realized on the Isère River, in France. The inversion of in situ measured spectra reveals good estimations of grain size distribution, fairly close to what was estimated by physical sampling instruments. These results illustrate the potential of the hydrophone technique to be used as a standalone method that could ensure high spatial and temporal resolution measurements for sediment transport in rivers.

  2. Design of chaotic analog noise generators with logistic map and MOS QT circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Medina, R.; Diaz-Mendez, A.; Rio-Correa, J.L. del; Lopez-Hernandez, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a method to design chaotic analog noise generators using MOS transistors is presented. Two aspects are considered, the determination of operation regime of the MOS circuit and the statistical distribution of its output signal. The operation regime is related with the transconductance linear (TL: translinear) principle. For MOS transistors this principle was originally formulated in weak inversion regime; but, strong inversion regimen is used because in 1991, Seevinck and Wiegerink made the generalization for this principle. The statistical distribution of the output signal on the circuit, which should be a uniform distribution, is related with the parameter value that rules the transfer function of the circuit, the initial condition (seed) in the circuit and its operation as chaotic generator. To show these concepts, the MOS Quadratic Translinear circuit proposed by Wiegerink in 1993 was selected and it is related with the logistic map and its properties. This circuit will operate as noise generator if it works in strong inversion regime using current-mode approach when the parameter that rules the transfer function is higher than the onset chaos value (3.5699456...) for the logistic map.

  3. Speckle noise reduction for computer generated holograms of objects with diffuse surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeonidou, Athanasia; Blinder, David; Ahar, Ayyoub; Schretter, Colas; Munteanu, Adrian; Schelkens, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Digital holography is mainly used today for metrology and microscopic imaging and is emerging as an important potential technology for future holographic television. To generate the holographic content, computer-generated holography (CGH) techniques convert geometric descriptions of a 3D scene content. To model different surface types, an accurate model of light propagation has to be considered, including for example, specular and diffuse reflection. In previous work, we proposed a fast CGH method for point cloud data using multiple wavefront recording planes, look-up tables (LUTs) and occlusion processing. This work extends our method to account for diffuse reflections, enabling rendering of deep 3D scenes in high resolution with wide viewing angle support. This is achieved by modifying the spectral response of the light propagation kernels contained by the look-up tables. However, holograms encoding diffuse reflective surfaces depict significant amounts of speckle noise, a problem inherent to holography. Hence, techniques to improve the reduce speckle noise are evaluated in this paper. Moreover, we propose as well a technique to suppress the aperture diffraction during numerical, viewdependent rendering by apodizing the hologram. Results are compared visually and in terms of their respective computational efficiency. The experiments show that by modelling diffuse reflection in the LUTs, a more realistic yet computationally efficient framework for generating high-resolution CGH is achieved.

  4. 77 FR 10615 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... tread wear, temperature, and traction ratings, to assess performance capabilities of various tires. In...-0054; Notice 2] Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...: Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, (Cooper) \\1\\, has determined that approximately 6,964 passenger car...

  5. 49 CFR 574.7 - Information requirements-new tire manufacturers, new tire brand name owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information requirements-new tire manufacturers, new tire brand name owners. 574.7 Section 574.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to..., new tire brand name owners. (a)(1) Each new tire manufacturer and each new tire brand name owner...

  6. 76 FR 28502 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ...-0054; Notice 1] Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, (Cooper),\\1\\ has determined that approximately 6,964 passenger car replacement tires manufactured between January 23, 2011 and March 26, 2011, do not fully comply...

  7. Generation of synthetic Kinect depth images based on empirical noise model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Thorbjørn Mosekjær; Kraft, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    The development, training and evaluation of computer vision algorithms rely on the availability of a large number of images. The acquisition of these images can be time-consuming if they are recorded using real sensors. An alternative is to rely on synthetic images which can be rapidly generated....... This Letter describes a novel method for the simulation of Kinect v1 depth images. The method is based on an existing empirical noise model from the literature. The authors show that their relatively simple method is able to provide depth images which have a high similarity with real depth images....

  8. On the variances of generation-recombination noise in a three-level system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooge, F. N.; Ren, L.

    1994-01-01

    A statistical treatment is given of the generation-recombination noise in a semiconductor with a conduction band and two traps X and Y. The system is described in terms of x and y, where x is half the harmonic mean of the numbers of occupied and empty traps X. A corresponding definition is given for y. The use of x and y makes the formalism very transparent. Simple, explicit relations are easily found, which can be further simplified by approximations depending on the ratios between N, x and y. We consider correlations and Burgess' theorem; time dependence and spectra are not discussed.

  9. Assessment of noise level and noise propagation generated by light-lift helicopters in mountain natural environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigolato, Stefano; Mologni, Omar; Proto, Andrea Rosario; Zimbalatti, Giuseppe; Cavalli, Raffaele

    2018-01-20

    The use of helicopter rises discussion about environmental noise propagation especially when it operates in proximity of environmentally sensitive areas (ESAs) for an extended period because of its potential implications in wildlife behaviours. In order to support decisions on helicopter logging operation management in proximity of ESAs, this study focused on (i) analysing the noise spectrum of a light-lift helicopter during logging operations and on (ii) assessing the noise propagation in the surrounding environments. This study investigated a helicopter logging operation for wood fuel extraction in the eastern part of the Italian Alps. The potential disturbance area covered for the entire helicopter logging operation was evaluated by a specific GIS application according to hearing sensitivity of the most sensitive wildlife species in the study area (different strigiform species). The noise level at the ground appeared to be affected by the location regardless both the use of equivalent continuous sound pressures level dB(A) (LAeq) and the single-event level (SEL) noise metrics. The lowest values were recorded when the helicopter was flown over the sound meter level located under the forest canopy, while the highest was recorded when the helicopter was unhooking the loads at the landing. The GIS application highlighted the consistent of the exceeded noise area (weighted to strigiform hearing range and sensitivity) for the lower frequency bands (0.016-0.250 kHz). A more restricted exceeded noise area concerned instead the most sensitive frequency bands" for the strigiform (1-2 kHz). Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  10. 30 CFR 57.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tire repairs. 57.14104 Section 57.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and then...

  11. 30 CFR 56.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tire repairs. 56.14104 Section 56.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and then...

  12. Airplane tire inspection by image processing techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Jovancevic , Igor; Arafat , Al; Orteu , Jean-José; Sentenac , Thierry

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we propose a new approach to detect and inspect airplane tires. We use normalized correlation based template matching to detect tires and GrabCut segmentation method to extract them from the background. We inspect the tires condition by investigating the tire treads. Ridge based intensity profiling gives satisfying inspection results.

  13. Study of the characteristics of water into sodium leak acoustic noise in LMR steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Joon; Jeong, Kyung Chai; Jeong, Ji Young; Hur, Seop; Nam, Ho Yun

    2005-01-01

    A successful time for detecting a water/steam leak into sodium in the LMR SG (steam generator) at an early phase of a leak origin depends on the fast response and sensitivity of a leak detection system. It is considered, that the acoustic system is intended for a fast detecting of a water/steam into sodium leak of an intermediate flow rate, 1∼10 g/s. This intention of an acoustic system is stipulated by a key impossibility of a fast detecting of an intermediate leak by the present nominal systems on measuring the hydrogen in the sodium and in the cover gas concentration generated at a leak. During the self-wastage of a water/steam into sodium leak in a particular instant, it is usual in 30∼40 minutes from the moment of a leak origin, there is a modification of a leak flow out regime from bubble regime to the steam jet outflow. This evolution occurs as a jump function of the self-wastage of a leak and is escorted by an increase of a leak noise power and qualitative change of a leak noise spectrum. Subject of this study is by means of two experiments, one is an acoustic leak noise analysis of the water into sodium leak results in no damage to the LMR SG tube bundle, and another is for prediction of the frequency band under a high outflow leak condition. We experimented with the Argon gas injection considered with the phenomena of secondary leaks in real

  14. Mode-hopping mechanism generating colored noise in a magnetic tunnel junction based spin torque oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Raghav; Dürrenfeld, P.; Iacocca, E.; Heinonen, O. G.; Åkerman, J.; Muduli, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    The frequency noise spectrum of a magnetic tunnel junction based spin torque oscillator is examined where multiple modes and mode-hopping events are observed. The frequency noise spectrum is found to consist of both white noise and 1/f frequency noise. We find a systematic and similar dependence of both white noise and 1/f frequency noise on bias current and the relative angle between the reference and free layers, which changes the effective damping and hence the mode-hopping behavior in this system. The frequency at which the 1/f frequency noise changes to white noise increases as the free layer is aligned away from the anti-parallel orientation w.r.t the reference layer. These results indicate that the origin of 1/f frequency noise is related to mode-hopping, which produces both white noise as well as 1/f frequency noise similar to the case of ring lasers.

  15. Noise Analysis of Second-Harmonic Generation in Undoped and MgO-Doped Periodically Poled Lithium Niobate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise characteristics of second-harmonic generation (SHG in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN using the quasiphase matching (QPM technique are analyzed experimentally. In the experiment, a0.78 μm second-harmonic (SH wave was generated when a 1.56 μm fundamental wave passed through a PPLN crystal (bulk or waveguide. The time-domain and frequency-domain noise characteristics of the fundamental and SH waves were analyzed. By using the pump-probe method, the noise characteristics of SHG were further analyzed when a visible light (532 nm and an infrared light (1090 nm copropagated with the fundamental light, respectively. The noise characterizations were also investigated at different temperatures. It is found that for the bulk and waveguide PPLN crystals, the SH wave has a higher relative noise level than the corresponding fundamental wave. For the same fundamental wave, the SH wave has lower noise in a bulk crystal than in a waveguide, and in MgO-doped PPLN than in undoped PPLN. The 532 nm irradiation can lead to higher noise in PPLN than the 1090 nm irradiation. In addition, increasing temperature of device can alleviate the problem of noise in conjunction with the photorefractive effect incurred by the irradiation light. This is more significant in undoped PPLN than in MgO-doped one.

  16. A low noise clock generator for high-resolution time-to-digital convertors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prinzie, J.; Leroux, P.; Christiaensen, J.; Moreira, P.; Steyaert, M.

    2016-01-01

    A robust PLL clock generator has been designed for the harsh environment in high-energy physics applications. The PLL operates with a reference clock frequency of 40 MHz to 50 MHz and performs a multiplication by 64. An LC tank VCO with low internal phase noise can generate a frequency from 2.2 GHz up to 3.2 GHz with internal discrete bank switching. The PLL includes an automatic bank selection algorithm to correctly select the correct range of the oscillator. The PLL has been fabricated in a 65 nm CMOS technology and consumes less than 30 mW. The additive jitter of the PLL has been measured to be less than 400 fs RMS

  17. Improvement of wheel skidder tractive performance by tire inflation pressure and tire chains

    OpenAIRE

    Stoilov, Stanimir

    2007-01-01

    The motion resistance ratio, gross traction ratio and net traction ratio of a wheel cable skidder were determined and mathematical models derived for three tire inflation pressure values with or without tire chains on forest road in mountainous conditions. The motion resistance ratio increases with the increase of tire inflation pressure. On the contrary, the gross traction ratio increases with the decrease of tire inflation pressure. However, when the tires are equipped with tire chains t...

  18. Wheel/rail noise generated by a high-speed train investigated with a line array of microphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsikow, B.; King, W. F.; Pfizenmaier, E.

    1987-10-01

    Radiated noise generated by a high-speed electric train travelling at speeds up to 250 km/h has been measured with a line array of microphones mounted along the wayside in two different orientations. The test train comprised a 103 electric locomotive, four Intercity coaches, and a dynamo coach. Some of the wheels were fitted with experimental wheel-noise absorbers. By using the directional capabilities of the array, the locations of the dominant sources of wheel/rail radiated noise were identified on the wheels. For conventional wheels, these sources lie near or on the rim at an average height of about 0·2 m above the railhead. The effect of wheel-noise absorbers and freshly turned treads on radiated noise were also investigated.

  19. Utilização de um sistema de aquisição automática de dados para avaliação dos níveis de ruído de um trator agrícola de pneus Utilization of a data automatic acquisition system for noise level evaluation of an agricultural tractor with tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando dos Santos Filho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado na Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratinguetá (FEG-UNESP, SP, no Laboratório de Vibração e Acústica, e numa área experimental localizada no município de Guaratinguetá, com os objetivos de determinar os níveis de ruído emitidos por um trator agrícola executando a operação de gradagem em diferentes velocidades de trabalho e analisar o conforto do operador, comparando os níveis obtidos com os recomendados pelas principais normas vigentes. Na avaliação dos níveis de ruído, utilizaram-se um trator de pneus de 55,2 kW (75 cv e uma grade destorroadora-niveladora "off-set" de 28 discos. O sistema de aquisição de dados foi constituído por sensores de ruído, condicionadores e amplificadores e um conversor analógico-digital instalados em um microcomputador e embarcados no trator ensaiado. Posteriormente, os dados foram tratados pelo Programa ORIGIN 50. Com base nos resultados, concluiu-se que o sistema trator-implemento emitiu níveis de ruído acima dos limites estipulados pelas normas, em todas as velocidades testadas.A study was carried out at the Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratinguetá -FEG-UNESP, SP, in the acoustics and vibration laboratory as well as in an experimental area located in Guaratinguetá county. The objectives were to determine the noise levels emitted by an agricultural tire tractor during harrowing operation at different speeds and analyze the operator's comfort, by comparing the actual levels with the main effective norms. When evaluating noise levels, a 55.2 kW (75 hp tire tractor and an off-set 28-disk harrow were used. The data acquisition system consisted of some noise sensors, conditioners, amplifiers, and a digital-analogical converter plugged to a microcomputer and connected to the tractor tested. Later, the software ORIGIN 50 treated the data. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that the noise levels emitted by the tractor-implement system exceeded the limits

  20. Rubber friction and tire dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, B N J

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple rubber friction law, which can be used, for example, in models of tire (and vehicle) dynamics. The friction law is tested by comparing numerical results to the full rubber friction theory (Persson 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 7789). Good agreement is found between the two theories. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) tire model which combines the rubber friction model with a simple mass-spring description of the tire body. The tire model is very flexible and can be used to accurately calculate μ-slip curves (and the self-aligning torque) for braking and cornering or combined motion (e.g. braking during cornering). We present numerical results which illustrate the theory. Simulations of anti-blocking system (ABS) braking are performed using two simple control algorithms.

  1. Rubber friction and tire dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, B N J

    2011-01-12

    We propose a simple rubber friction law, which can be used, for example, in models of tire (and vehicle) dynamics. The friction law is tested by comparing numerical results to the full rubber friction theory (Persson 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 7789). Good agreement is found between the two theories. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) tire model which combines the rubber friction model with a simple mass-spring description of the tire body. The tire model is very flexible and can be used to accurately calculate μ-slip curves (and the self-aligning torque) for braking and cornering or combined motion (e.g. braking during cornering). We present numerical results which illustrate the theory. Simulations of anti-blocking system (ABS) braking are performed using two simple control algorithms.

  2. Exploring crosstalk noise generated in the N-port router used in the WDM-based ONoC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhendong; Xie, Yiyuan; Song, Tingting; He, Chao; Li, Jiachao; Liu, Yong

    2017-07-01

    Compared with optical network-on-chip (ONoC) with single wavelength, ONoC adopting wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technology possesses a very prominent advantage-higher bandwidth. Therefore, WDM-based ONoC has been considered one of the most promising ways to relieve the rapidly increasing traffic load in communication systems. A WDM-based router, as the core equipment of WDM-based ONoC, is influenced by crosstalk noise, especially the nonlinear crosstalk noise generated by the four-wave mixing effect. Thus, to explore the performance of the N-port nonblocking optical router using WDM, we propose a universal analytic model to analyze the transmission loss, crosstalk noise, optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR), and bit error ratio (BER). The research results show that crosstalk noise varies along with signals at different wavelengths in the same channel. For signals with the same wavelength, the noises generated in the different transmission paths are obviously different from each other. For research of transmission loss, OSNR, and BER, similar results can be obtained. Based on the eye diagrams, we can learn that crosstalk noise will cause signal distortion to a certain extent. With this model, capability of this kind of multiport optical router using WDM can be understood conveniently.

  3. A numerical model for ocean ultra-low frequency noise: wave-generated acoustic-gravity and Rayleigh modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardhuin, Fabrice; Lavanant, Thibaut; Obrebski, Mathias; Marié, Louis; Royer, Jean-Yves; d'Eu, Jean-François; Howe, Bruce M; Lukas, Roger; Aucan, Jerome

    2013-10-01

    The generation of ultra-low frequency acoustic noise (0.1 to 1 Hz) by the nonlinear interaction of ocean surface gravity waves is well established. More controversial are the quantitative theories that attempt to predict the recorded noise levels and their variability. Here a single theoretical framework is used to predict the noise level associated with propagating pseudo-Rayleigh modes and evanescent acoustic-gravity modes. The latter are dominant only within 200 m from the sea surface, in shallow or deep water. At depths larger than 500 m, the comparison of a numerical noise model with hydrophone records from two open-ocean sites near Hawaii and the Kerguelen islands reveal: (a) Deep ocean acoustic noise at frequencies 0.1 to 1 Hz is consistent with the Rayleigh wave theory, in which the presence of the ocean bottom amplifies the noise by 10 to 20 dB; (b) in agreement with previous results, the local maxima in the noise spectrum support the theoretical prediction for the vertical structure of acoustic modes; and (c) noise level and variability are well predicted for frequencies up to 0.4 Hz. Above 0.6 Hz, the model results are less accurate, probably due to the poor estimation of the directional properties of wind-waves with frequencies higher than 0.3 Hz.

  4. Automatic bearing fault diagnosis of permanent magnet synchronous generators in wind turbines subjected to noise interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun; Lu, Siliang; Zhai, Chao; He, Qingbo

    2018-02-01

    An automatic bearing fault diagnosis method is proposed for permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs), which are widely installed in wind turbines subjected to low rotating speeds, speed fluctuations, and electrical device noise interferences. The mechanical rotating angle curve is first extracted from the phase current of a PMSG by sequentially applying a series of algorithms. The synchronous sampled vibration signal of the fault bearing is then resampled in the angular domain according to the obtained rotating phase information. Considering that the resampled vibration signal is still overwhelmed by heavy background noise, an adaptive stochastic resonance filter is applied to the resampled signal to enhance the fault indicator and facilitate bearing fault identification. Two types of fault bearings with different fault sizes in a PMSG test rig are subjected to experiments to test the effectiveness of the proposed method. The proposed method is fully automated and thus shows potential for convenient, highly efficient and in situ bearing fault diagnosis for wind turbines subjected to harsh environments.

  5. Wind Turbine Generator System Acoustic Noise Test Report for the Gaia Wind 11-kW Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huskey, A.

    2011-11-01

    This report details the acoustic noise test conducted on the Gaia-Wind 11-kW wind turbine at the National Wind Technology Center. The test turbine is a two- bladed, downwind wind turbine with a rated power of 11 kW. The test turbine was tested in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission standard, IEC 61400-11 Ed 2.1 2006-11 Wind Turbine Generator Systems -- Part 11 Acoustic Noise Measurement Techniques.

  6. Method and apparatus for inspecting tires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.L.T.

    1975-01-01

    A method and apparatus for inspecting tires by the use of x-rays is disclosed in which a tire is advanced to an inspection station, engaged along opposite bead rims and inflated to axially spread the bead rims and side walls. An x-ray source is advanced axially into the tire and the tire is eccentrically rotated relative to the x-ray source to enable radial positioning of the source relative to the tire near the tire bead rim diameter without requiring radial movement of the x-ray source. The x-ray source produces an x-ray beam which sweeps about the interior of the expanded tire from bead rim to bead rim while the tire is rotated about its centerline. An x-ray detection system detects x-rays which have penetrated the wall and produces inspection information concerning the tire construction. (Patent Office Record)

  7. Properties of concrete containing scrap-tire rubber--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Rafat; Naik, Tarun R

    2004-01-01

    Solid waste management is one of the major environmental concerns in the United States. Over 5 billion tons of non-hazardous solid waste materials are generated in USA each year. Of these, more than 270 million scrap-tires (approximately 3.6 million tons) are generated each year. In addition to this, about 300 million scrap-tires have been stockpiled. Several studies have been carried out to reuse scrap-tires in a variety of rubber and plastic products, incineration for production of electricity, or as fuel for cement kilns, as well as in asphalt concrete. Studies show that workable rubberized concrete mixtures can be made with scrap-tire rubber. This paper presents an overview of some of the research published regarding the use of scrap-tires in portland cement concrete. The benefits of using magnesium oxychloride cement as a binder for rubberized concrete mixtures are also presented. The paper details the likely uses of rubberized concrete.

  8. Weak noise in neurons may powerfully inhibit the generation of repetitive spiking but not its propagation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry C Tuckwell

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Many neurons have epochs in which they fire action potentials in an approximately periodic fashion. To see what effects noise of relatively small amplitude has on such repetitive activity we recently examined the response of the Hodgkin-Huxley (HH space-clamped system to such noise as the mean and variance of the applied current vary, near the bifurcation to periodic firing. This article is concerned with a more realistic neuron model which includes spatial extent. Employing the Hodgkin-Huxley partial differential equation system, the deterministic component of the input current is restricted to a small segment whereas the stochastic component extends over a region which may or may not overlap the deterministic component. For mean values below, near and above the critical values for repetitive spiking, the effects of weak noise of increasing strength is ascertained by simulation. As in the point model, small amplitude noise near the critical value dampens the spiking activity and leads to a minimum as noise level increases. This was the case for both additive noise and conductance-based noise. Uniform noise along the whole neuron is only marginally more effective in silencing the cell than noise which occurs near the region of excitation. In fact it is found that if signal and noise overlap in spatial extent, then weak noise may inhibit spiking. If, however, signal and noise are applied on disjoint intervals, then the noise has no effect on the spiking activity, no matter how large its region of application, though the trajectories are naturally altered slightly by noise. Such effects could not be discerned in a point model and are important for real neuron behavior. Interference with the spike train does nevertheless occur when the noise amplitude is larger, even when noise and signal do not overlap, being due to the instigation of secondary noise-induced wave phenomena rather than switching the system from one attractor (firing regularly to

  9. Propagation characteristics of audible noise generated by single corona source under positive DC voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuebao Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The directivity and lateral profile of corona-generated audible noise (AN from a single corona source are measured through experiments carried out in the semi-anechoic laboratory. The experimental results show that the waveform of corona-generated AN consists of a series of random sound pressure pulses whose pulse amplitudes decrease with the increase of measurement distance. A single corona source can be regarded as a non-directional AN source, and the A-weighted SPL (sound pressure level decreases 6 dB(A as doubling the measurement distance. Then, qualitative explanations for the rationality of treating the single corona source as a point source are given on the basis of the Ingard’s theory for sound generation in corona discharge. Furthermore, we take into consideration of the ground reflection and the air attenuation to reconstruct the propagation features of AN from the single corona source. The calculated results agree with the measurement well, which validates the propagation model. Finally, the influence of the ground reflection on the SPL is presented in the paper.

  10. Distinguishing Computer-Generated Graphics from Natural Images Based on Sensor Pattern Noise and Deep Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Yao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Computer-generated graphics (CGs are images generated by computer software. The rapid development of computer graphics technologies has made it easier to generate photorealistic computer graphics, and these graphics are quite difficult to distinguish from natural images (NIs with the naked eye. In this paper, we propose a method based on sensor pattern noise (SPN and deep learning to distinguish CGs from NIs. Before being fed into our convolutional neural network (CNN-based model, these images—CGs and NIs—are clipped into image patches. Furthermore, three high-pass filters (HPFs are used to remove low-frequency signals, which represent the image content. These filters are also used to reveal the residual signal as well as SPN introduced by the digital camera device. Different from the traditional methods of distinguishing CGs from NIs, the proposed method utilizes a five-layer CNN to classify the input image patches. Based on the classification results of the image patches, we deploy a majority vote scheme to obtain the classification results for the full-size images. The experiments have demonstrated that (1 the proposed method with three HPFs can achieve better results than that with only one HPF or no HPF and that (2 the proposed method with three HPFs achieves 100% accuracy, although the NIs undergo a JPEG compression with a quality factor of 75.

  11. Pavement type and wear condition classification from tire cavity acoustic measurements with artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masino, Johannes; Foitzik, Michael-Jan; Frey, Michael; Gauterin, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Tire road noise is the major contributor to traffic noise, which leads to general annoyance, speech interference, and sleep disturbances. Standardized methods to measure tire road noise are expensive, sophisticated to use, and they cannot be applied comprehensively. This paper presents a method to automatically classify different types of pavement and the wear condition to identify noisy road surfaces. The methods are based on spectra of time series data of the tire cavity sound, acquired under normal vehicle operation. The classifier, an artificial neural network, correctly predicts three pavement types, whereas there are few bidirectional mis-classifications for two pavements, which have similar physical characteristics. The performance measures of the classifier to predict a new or worn out condition are over 94.6%. One could create a digital map with the output of the presented method. On the basis of these digital maps, road segments with a strong impact on tire road noise could be automatically identified. Furthermore, the method can estimate the road macro-texture, which has an impact on the tire road friction especially on wet conditions. Overall, this digital map would have a great benefit for civil engineering departments, road infrastructure operators, and for advanced driver assistance systems.

  12. Modulating optical rectification, second and third harmonic generation of doped quantum dots: Interplay between hydrostatic pressure, temperature and noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Jayanta; Saha, Surajit; Bera, Aindrila; Ghosh, Manas

    2016-10-01

    We examine the profiles of optical rectification (OR), second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) of impurity doped QDs under the combined influence of hydrostatic pressure (HP) and temperature (T) in presence and absence of Gaussian white noise. Noise has been incorporated to the system additively and multiplicatively. In order to study the above nonlinear optical (NLO) properties the doped dot has been subjected to a polarized monochromatic electromagnetic field. Effect of application of noise is nicely reflected through alteration of peak shift (blue/red) and variation of peak height (increase/decrease) of above NLO properties as temperature and pressure are varied. All such changes again sensitively depends on mode of application (additive/multiplicative) of noise. The remarkable influence of interplay between noise strength and its mode of application on the said profiles has also been addressed. The findings illuminate fascinating role played by noise in tuning above NLO properties of doped QD system under the active presence of both hydrostatic pressure and temperature.

  13. "Ladder" structure in tonal noise generated by laminar flow around an airfoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Tze Pei; Joseph, Phillip

    2012-06-01

    The presence of a "ladder" structure in the airfoil tonal noise was discovered in the 1970s, but its mechanism hitherto remains a subject of continual investigation in the research community. Based on the measured noise results and some numerical analysis presented in this letter, the variations of four types of airfoil tonal noise frequencies with the flow velocity were analyzed individually. The ladder structure is proposed to be caused by the acoustic/hydrodynamic frequency lag between the scattering of the boundary layer instability noise and the discrete noise produced by an aeroacoustic feedback loop.

  14. Background- and simulated leak-noise measurements on ASB-loop, KNK II- and SNR 300-steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, J.; Arnaoutis, N.; Foerster, K.; Moellerfeld, H.

    1990-01-01

    During several leak propagation experiments in the ASB sodium loop noise measurements were performed showing the acoustic behaviour of evoluting leaks in a tube bundle section under sodium. Effects like self evolution, secondary leaks and tube ruptures by overheating occurred during these tests and were reflected in the course of acoustic signals. In one of the KNK II steam generators simulated leak noise was detected against background noise throughout the operating power range. Experimental arrangements and results are described. In SNR 300 all of the SGUs are equipped with waveguides and some with accelerometers for background noise measurements. First measurement under isothermal conditions were performed in the past. A gas injection device for acoustic leak simulation is under construction. The design of the experimental acoustic system and first results are presented. (author). 1 ref., 21 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Hybrid Wing Body Shielding Studies Using an Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source Generating Simple Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Daniel, L.; Brown, Clifford, A.; Walker, Bruce, E.

    2012-01-01

    An Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source (UCFANS) was designed, built, and tested in support of the Langley Research Center s 14- by 22-Foot wind tunnel test of the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) full three-dimensional 5.8 percent scale model. The UCFANS is a 5.8 percent rapid prototype scale model of a high-bypass turbofan engine that can generate the tonal signature of candidate engines using artificial sources (no flow). The purpose of the test was to provide an estimate of the acoustic shielding benefits possible from mounting the engine on the upper surface of an HWB aircraft and to provide a database for shielding code validation. A range of frequencies, and a parametric study of modes were generated from exhaust and inlet nacelle configurations. Radiated acoustic data were acquired from a traversing linear array of 13 microphones, spanning 36 in. Two planes perpendicular to the axis of the nacelle (in its 0 orientation) and three planes parallel were acquired from the array sweep. In each plane the linear array traversed five sweeps, for a total span of 160 in. acquired. The resolution of the sweep is variable, so that points closer to the model are taken at a higher resolution. Contour plots of Sound Pressure Level, and integrated Power Levels are presented in this paper; as well as the in-duct modal structure.

  16. Tire-soil interaction model for turning (steered) tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karafiath, L. L.

    1985-07-01

    A review of the experimental information on the development of lateral forces on tires traveling at an angle to their center plane is presented and the usefulness of the consideration of the lateral forces for the development of an analytical model is evaluated. Major components of the lateral force have been identified as the forces required to balance the tractive force and the drawbar pull vectorially. These are the shear stresses developing in the contact area and the horizontal component of the normal stresses acting on the in-ground portion or the curved side walls of the tire. The tire-soil interaction model for steady state straight travel has been expanded to include the necessary algorithms for the calculation of these lateral forces. The pattern of tractive force-slip and longitudinal-lateral force relationships is in general agreement with experiments.

  17. AIR EMISSIONS FROM SCRAP TIRE COMBUSTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  18. A systematic experimental investigation of significant parameters affecting model tire hydroplaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, G. A.; Ehrlich, I. R.

    1973-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive parametric study of model and small pneumatic tires operating on a wet surface are presented. Hydroplaning inception (spin down) and rolling restoration (spin up) are discussed. Conclusions indicate that hydroplaning inception occurs at a speed significantly higher than the rolling restoration speed. Hydroplaning speed increases considerably with tread depth, surface roughness and tire inflation pressure of footprint pressure, and only moderately with increased load. Water film thickness affects spin down speed only slightly. Spin down speed varies inversely as approximately the one-sixth power of film thickness. Empirical equations relating tire inflation pressure, normal load, tire diameter and water film thickness have been generated for various tire tread and surface configurations.

  19. Low frequency noise and air vibration generated by a simple cycle gas turbine installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesbrecht, C.; Hertil, S. [ATCO Noise Management, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Low-frequency noise refers to infrasound whose frequency is lower than the minimum human audible frequency of about 20 Hz. Recently, there have been serious complaints on noise pollution in the frequency range of 1-100 Hz. This presentation outlined ASHRAE noise criteria regions and discussed human perceptions to vibration. It also presented methods that ATCO used for measuring noise at a simple gas turbine installation, inside the site at the administration buildings, at the paths of vibration and noise propagation, and at noise sensitive receptors. A 70 dBC at the closes noise-sensitive receptor was used as a noise limit to minimize annoyance. In addition, 96 dBC was measured at 400 feet. It was noted that reducing the C-weighted sound level depends on reducing the stack noise emissions in the 16 and 31.5 band levels. ATCO evaluated silencer designs and recommended reactive silencers to achieve a 10 dB reduction in noise emitted by the 3 exhaust stacks. 6 figs.

  20. Numerical prediction of car tire wear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupker, H.A.; Cheli, F.; Braghin, F.; Gelosa, E.; Keckman, A.

    2004-01-01

    Due to their many economic and ecological implications, the possibility to predict tire wear is of major importance to tire manufacturers, fleet owners and governments. Based on these observations, in 2000, a three-year project named TROWS (Tire and Road Wear and Slip assessment was started. One of

  1. Rubber tire leachates in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J J

    1997-01-01

    Tires have a deleterious effect on the environment. This review discusses the background of scrap tires discarded in the environment, including tire composition, adverse environmental effects, threats to public health and safety, and solid waste management. Despite the widespread use of scrap tires in environmental applications, both land-based and aquatic, data on the indicators of environmental degradation are extremely scarce. Indicators of environmental degradation include analysis of chemicals within the water and sediment, analysis of contaminants within organisms, and analysis of the biological effects of these compounds on plants, animals, microbes, and organelles. Although these indicators are most useful when used in parallel, a review of the available information on chemical characterization of tire leachate from tire storage facilities, manufacturing, usage in recycling applications, and toxicity exposure studies, of vegetation surveys from waste tire areas and reviews of mammalian tire product toxicity, and of toxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity of tire exposure in experimental aquatic animals, microbes, and organelles is presented. The major characteristics of these studies are discussed in specific sections. The "Discussion and Conclusions" section discusses and summarizes the biological effects and chemical characterization of tire leachates. A global environmental perspective is included to improve our understanding of the deficiency of the current knowledge of tire leachate toxicity from various sources and to encourage interdisciplinary studies to establish the pattern of pollution associated with waste tire management.

  2. Characterizing Tire Crumb Rubber for Exposure Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tire crumb rubber derived from recycled tires is widely used as infill material in synthetic turf fields in the United States. An estimated 95% of the over 12,000 installed fields in the U.S. use tire crumb rubber infill alone or mixed with sand or alternative materials. Concerns...

  3. Experimental study of exhaust noise generated by pulsating flow downstream of pipe end; Myakudoryu ni yori yukisareru kantanbu karyu ni okeru haiki soon no jikkenteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashiyama, J; Iwamoto, J [Tokyo Denki University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A experimental study was carried out for the emissoin of the exhaust noise from an open end of the pipe generated by the pulsating flow in the pipe. The pressure histories along the pipe, the exhaust noise and visualized the flow field downstream of the pipe end were obtained. And a characteristic of frequency for the exhaust noise was examined, using Wigner distribution (WD). A relation between the pulsating flow in the pipe and the exhaust noise was important for understanding the mechanism of the exhaust noise generation. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  4. STUDY ON NOISE LEVEL GENERATED BY HUMAN ACTIVITIES IN SIBIU CITY, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina STANCA-MOISE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I have proposed an analysis and monitoring of the noise sources in the open spaces of air traffic, rail and car in Sibiu. From centralizing data obtained from the analysis of the measurements performed with equipment noise levels, we concluded that the noise and vibration produced by means of Transportation (air, road, rail can affect human health if they exceed limits. Noise is present and part of our lives and always a source of pollution as any of modern man is not conscious.

  5. Theory of deep level trap effects on generation-recombination noise in HgCdTe photoconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iverson, A.E.; Smith, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    We present a theory of the effect of deep level centers on the generation-recombination (g-r) noise and responsivity of an intrinsic photoconductor. The deep level centers can influence the g-r noise and responsivity in three main ways: (i) they can shorten the bulk carrier lifetime by Shockley--Read--Hall recombination; (ii) for some values of the capture cross sections, deep level densities, and temperature, the deep levels can trap a significant fraction of the photogenerated minority carriers. This trapping reduces the effective minority carrier mobility and diffusivity and thus reduces the effect of carrier sweep out on both g-r noise and responsivity; (iii) the deep level centers add a new thermal noise source, which results from fluctuations between bound and free carriers. The strength of this new noise source decreases with decreasing temperature at a slower rate than band-to-band thermal g-r noise. Calculations have been performed for a X = 0.21, n-type Hg/sub 1-x/Cd/sub x/Te photoconductor using the parameters of a commonly occurring deep level center in this material. We find that for typical operating conditions photoconductive detector performance begins to degrade as the deep level density begins to exceed 10 16 cm -3

  6. Generation of interior cavity noise due to window vibration excited by turbulent flows past a generic side-view mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hua-Dong; Davidson, Lars

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the interior noise caused by turbulent flows past a generic side-view mirror. A rectangular glass window is placed downstream of the mirror. The window vibration is excited by the surface pressure fluctuations and emits the interior noise in a cuboid cavity. The turbulent flows are simulated using a compressible large eddy simulation method. The window vibration and interior noise are predicted with a finite element method. The wavenumber-frequency spectra of the surface pressure fluctuations are analyzed. The spectra are identified with some new features that cannot be explained by the Chase model for turbulent boundary layers. The spectra contain a minor hydrodynamic domain in addition to the hydrodynamic domain caused by the main convection of the turbulent boundary layer. The minor domain results from the local convection of the recirculating flow. These domains are formed in bent elliptic shapes. The spanwise expansion of the wake is found causing the bending. Based on the wavenumber-frequency relationships in the spectra, the surface pressure fluctuations are decomposed into hydrodynamic and acoustic components. The acoustic component is more efficient in the generation of the interior noise than the hydrodynamic component. However, the hydrodynamic component is still dominant at low frequencies below approximately 250 Hz since it has low transmission losses near the hydrodynamic critical frequency of the window. The structural modes of the window determine the low-frequency interior tonal noise. The combination of the mode shapes of the window and cavity greatly affects the magnitude distribution of the interior noise.

  7. Pneumatic Tire Performance on Ice

    OpenAIRE

    Kishore Bhoopalam, Anudeep

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of vehicle safety systems, from the earliest brakes to today's accident avoidance systems, has led vehicles to have very high passenger safety. Driving on ice, though, still happens to be one of the driving conditions of low safety. A multitude of factors were identified by various studies to contribute to the complex frictional mechanism at the tire-ice interface. The tire is only force transmitting element of the vehicle, to the surface. Thus it is very essential to have in de...

  8. Energy requirements of tire pulling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen, Per M; Mamen, Asgeir

    2017-10-01

    We have investigated the effect using walking poles and pulling tires at 4 and 6 km·h-1 (1.11 and 1.67 m·s-1) speeds on oxygen uptake (V̇O2) and heart rate. Eleven subjects, 6 males, with a mean (SD) age of 25.2 (6.9) years participated in field tests involving walking without poles, walking with poles and tire pulling with poles. Increasing the load caused the largest increases in energy demand, more than 4 MET. Speed increase also caused substantial energy increase, approximately 4 MET. Increasing the inclination only modestly increased the oxygen uptake, approximately 2 MET. In both level walking and uphill walking, using poles marginally increased oxygen uptake compared to working without poles. Pulling one tire (12.5 kg) required an oxygen uptake of 27 (4) mL·kg-1·min-1 at 4 km·h-1 and 0% inclination. Adding one more tire (6 kg) drove the oxygen uptake further up to 39 (4) mL·kg-1·min-1. This is close to the requirement of level running at 10.5 km·h-1. Pulling both tires at 6 km·h-1 and 5% inclination required a V̇O2 of 54 (6) mL·kg-1·min-1, equal to running uphill at 5% inclination and 12.5 km·h-1 speed. Heart rate rose comparably with oxygen uptake. At 4 km·h-1 and 0% inclination the increase was 29 bpm, from 134 (21) to 163 (22) bpm when going from pulling one tire to two tires. In the hardest exercise, 6 km·h-1 and 5% inclination, heart rate reached 174 (14) bpm. The study showed that tire pulling even at slow speeds has an energy requirement that is so large that the activity may be feasible as endurance training.

  9. Measurement of whole tire profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongyue; Jiao, Wenguang

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, a precision measuring device is developed for obtaining characteristic curve of tire profile and its geometric parameters. It consists of a laser displacement measurement unit, a closed-loop precision two-dimensional coordinate table, a step motor control system and a fast data acquisition and analysis system. Based on the laser trigonometry, a data map of tire profile and coordinate values of all points can be obtained through corresponding data transformation. This device has a compact structure, a convenient control, a simple hardware circuit design and a high measurement precision. Experimental results indicate that measurement precision can meet the customer accuracy requirement of +/-0.02 mm.

  10. Amiet theory extension to predict leading-edge generated noise in compact airfoils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Santana, Leandro Dantas; Schram, C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends the Amiet theory to frequencies where the airfoil can be considered a compact noise source. The original Amiet theory proposes to apply the Schwarzschild theorem in an iterative procedure, which generally leads to noise over-prediction at low-frequencies. To overcome this problem,

  11. Zinc Leaching from Tire Crumb Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, E. P.; Ren, J.; Mays, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    Recent estimates indicate that more than 2 billion scrap tires are currently stockpiled in the United States and approximately 280 million more tires are added annually. Various engineering applications utilize recycled tires in the form of shredded tire crumb rubber. However, the use of tire crumb rubber may have negative environmental impacts, especially when the rubber comes into contact with water. A review of the literature indicates that leaching of zinc from tire crumb rubber is the most significant water quality concern associated with using this material. Zinc is generally used in tire manufacturing, representing approximately 1.3% of the final product by mass. This study will report results from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure, batch leaching tests, and column leaching tests performed to quantify the process by which zinc leaches from tire crumb rubber into water. Results are interpreted with a first-order kinetic attachment/detachment model, implemented with the U.S. Agricultural Research Service software HYDRUS-1D, in order to determine the circumstances when zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber would be expected to comply with the applicable discharge limits. One potential application for recycled tires is replacing sand with tire crumb rubber in granular media filters used for stormwater pollution control. For this to be a viable application, the total zinc in the stormwater discharge must be below the EPA’s benchmark value of 0.117 mg/L.

  12. Effect of wheelchair mass, tire type and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Sonja; Vegter, Riemer J K; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of wheelchair mass, solid vs. pneumatic tires and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique. 11 Able-bodied participants performed 14 submaximal exercise blocks on a treadmill with a fixed speed (1.11 m/s) within 3 weeks to determine the effect of tire pressure (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% of the recommended value), wheelchair mass (0 kg, 5 kg, or 10 kg extra) and tire type (pneumatic vs. solid). All test conditions (except pneumatic vs. solid) were performed with and without instrumented measurement wheels. Outcome measures were power output (PO), physical strain (heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), gross mechanical efficiency (ME)) and propulsion technique (timing, force application). At 25% tire pressure PO and subsequently VO2 were higher compared to 100% tire pressure. Furthermore, a higher tire pressure led to a longer cycle time and contact angle and subsequently lower push frequency. Extra mass did not lead to an increase in PO, physical strain or propulsion technique. Solid tires led to a higher PO and physical strain. The solid tire effect was amplified by increased mass (tire × mass interaction). In contrast to extra mass, tire pressure and tire type have an effect on PO, physical strain or propulsion technique of steady-state wheelchair propulsion. As expected, it is important to optimize tire pressure and tire type. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. High Value Scrap Tire Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, B. D.

    2003-02-01

    The objectives of this project were to further develop and scale-up a novel technology for reuse of scrap tire rubber, to identify and develop end uses for the technology (products), and to characterize the technology's energy savings and environmental impact.

  14. Yesterday's noise - today's signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serdula, K.J.

    1978-01-01

    Plant performance can be improved by noise analysis. This paper describes noise characteristics, imposed noise and response functions, a case history of cost benefits derived from application of noise analysis techniques, areas for application of noise analysis techniques with special reference to the Gentilly-1 nuclear generating station, and the validity of noise measurement results. (E.C.B.)

  15. Instanton glass generated by noise in a Josephson-junction array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, E M

    2009-09-25

    We compute the correlation function of a superconducting order parameter in a continuous model of a two-dimensional Josephson-junction array in the presence of a weak Gaussian noise. When the Josephson coupling is large compared to the charging energy, the correlations in the Euclidian space decay exponentially at low temperatures regardless of the strength of the noise. We interpret such a state as a collective Cooper-pair insulator and argue that it resembles properties of disordered superconducting films.

  16. Comparison of Langevin and Markov channel noise models for neuronal signal generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, B; Laughlin, S B; Niven, J E

    2010-01-01

    The stochastic opening and closing of voltage-gated ion channels produce noise in neurons. The effect of this noise on the neuronal performance has been modeled using either an approximate or Langevin model based on stochastic differential equations or an exact model based on a Markov process model of channel gating. Yet whether the Langevin model accurately reproduces the channel noise produced by the Markov model remains unclear. Here we present a comparison between Langevin and Markov models of channel noise in neurons using single compartment Hodgkin-Huxley models containing either Na+ and K+, or only K+ voltage-gated ion channels. The performance of the Langevin and Markov models was quantified over a range of stimulus statistics, membrane areas, and channel numbers. We find that in comparison to the Markov model, the Langevin model underestimates the noise contributed by voltage-gated ion channels, overestimating information rates for both spiking and nonspiking membranes. Even with increasing numbers of channels, the difference between the two models persists. This suggests that the Langevin model may not be suitable for accurately simulating channel noise in neurons, even in simulations with large numbers of ion channels.

  17. 49 CFR 230.113 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... tires may not have a seam running lengthwise that is within 33/4 inches of the flange. (g) Worn flanges... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 230.113 Section 230.113... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.113 Wheels and tire defects. Steam locomotive and tender wheels or tires...

  18. Model-based state estimator for an intelligent tire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goos, J.; Teerhuis, A. P.; Schmeitz, A. J.C.; Besselink, I.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2017-01-01

    In this work a Tire State Estimator (TSE) is developed and validated using data from a tri-axial accelerometer, installed at the inner liner of the tire. The Flexible Ring Tire (FRT) model is proposed to calculate the tire deformation. For a rolling tire, this deformation is transformed into

  19. Model-based State Estimator for an Intelligent Tire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goos, J.; Teerhuis, A.P.; Schmeitz, A.J.C.; Besselink, I.J.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2016-01-01

    In this work a Tire State Estimator (TSE) is developed and validated using data from a tri-axial accelerometer, installed at the inner liner of the tire. The Flexible Ring Tire (FRT) model is proposed to calculate the tire deformation. For a rolling tire, this deformation is transformed into

  20. Economic and policy instrument analyses in support of the scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin

    2008-02-01

    Understanding the cost-effectiveness and the role of economic and policy instruments, such as the combined product tax-recycling subsidy scheme or a tradable permit, for scrap tire recycling has been of crucial importance in a market-oriented environmental management system. Promoting product (tire) stewardship on one hand and improving incentive-based recycling policy on the other hand requires a comprehensive analysis of the interfaces and interactions in the nexus of economic impacts, environmental management, environmental valuation, and cost-benefit analysis. This paper presents an assessment of the interfaces and interactions between the implementation of policy instruments and its associated economic evaluation for sustaining a scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan during the era of the strong economic growth of the late 1990s. It begins with an introduction of the management of the co-evolution between technology metrics of scrap tire recycling and organizational changes for meeting the managerial goals island-wide during the 1990s. The database collected and used for such analysis covers 17 major tire recycling firms and 10 major tire manufacturers at that time. With estimates of scrap tire generation and possible scale of subsidy with respect to differing tire recycling technologies applied, economic analysis eventually leads to identify the associated levels of product tax with respect to various sizes of new tires. It particularly demonstrates a broad perspective of how an integrated econometric and engineering economic analysis can be conducted to assist in implementing policy instruments for scrap tire management. Research findings indicate that different subsidy settings for collection, processing, and end use of scrap tires should be configured to ameliorate the overall managerial effectiveness. Removing the existing boundaries between designated service districts could strengthen the competitiveness of scrap tires recycling industry, helping to

  1. Tire inspection machine presenting an X-ray image of the entire width of the tire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    An X-ray machine for production line inspection of tires places each tire in turn with one sector of the tire inside of a U-shaped arrangement of three fluorescent screens so that one screen faces the tread and the other two face the sides of the tire. An X-ray source inside the bead circle of the tire produces X-ray shadow pictures on the screens, which are separately viewed by a video camera, with an image of the picture on each screen transferred to a third of the target of a storage tube, so that a composite image of the entire width of the tire sector can be displayed on a picture tube. The tire is rotated step-wise for display of still pictures of every sector of the tire. (Auth.)

  2. Research and application of online measurement system of tire tread profile in automobile tire production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengyao; Chen, Xiangguang; Yang, Kai; Liu, Xuejiao

    2017-01-01

    To improve the measuring efficiency of width and thickness of tire tread in the process of automobile tire production, the actual condition for the tire production process is analyzed, and a fast online measurement system based on moving tire tread of tire specifications is established in this paper. The coordinate data of tire tread profile is acquired by 3D laser sensor, and we use C# language for programming which is an object-oriented programming language to complete the development of client program. The system with laser sensor can provide real-time display of tire tread profile and the data to require in the process of tire production. Experimental results demonstrate that the measuring precision of the system is <= 1mm, it can meet the measurement requirements of the production process, and the system has the characteristics of convenient installation and testing, system stable operation.

  3. NACA0015 measurements in LM wind tunnel and turbulence generated noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertagnolio, Franck

    2008-11-15

    A NACA0015 airfoil section was instrumented with an array of highfrequency microphones mounted on its surface and measured in the wind tunnel at LM Glasfiber at various inflow speeds, angles of attack, and with different turbulent inflow conditions. The aim of this work is to analyze these measurement data, including the turbulent inflow characteristics. The airfoil surface pressure data are considered in the perspective of turbulent inflow noise in order to identify the potential for using these data to validate and possibly improve associated noise models from the literature. In addition, these data are further analyzed in the context of trailing edge noise modeling which is directly related to the surface pressure fluctuations in the vicinity of the trailing edge. (au)

  4. Wind Turbine Generator System Acoustic Noise Test Report for the ARE 442 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huskey, A.; van Dam, J.

    2010-11-01

    This test was conducted on the ARE 442 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. In total, five turbines are being tested at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of this project. Acoustic noise testing is one of up to five tests that may be performed on the turbines, including duration, safety and function, power performance, and power quality tests. The acoustic noise test was conducted to the IEC 61400-11 Edition 2.1.

  5. Generation and characterization of erbium-Raman noise-like pulses from a figure-eight fibre laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago-Hernandez, H; Pottiez, O; Paez-Aguirre, R; Ibarra-Villalon, H E; Tenorio-Torres, A; Duran-Sanchez, M; Ibarra-Escamilla, B; Kuzin, E A; Hernandez-Garcia, J C

    2015-01-01

    We report an experimental study of the noise-like pulses generated by a ∼300 m long passively mode-locked erbium-doped figure-eight fibre laser. Non-self-starting mode locking yields the formation of ns scale bunches of sub-ps pulses. Depending on birefringence adjustments, noise-like pulses with a variety of temporal profiles and optical spectra are obtained. In particular, for some adjustments the Raman-enhanced spectrum reaches a 10 dB bandwidth of ∼130 nm. For the first time to our knowledge, we extract information on the inner structure of the noise-like pulses, using a birefringent Sagnac interferometer as a spectral filter and a nonlinear optical loop mirror as an intensity filter. In particular we show that the different spectral components of the bunch are homogeneously distributed within the temporal envelope of the bunch, whereas the amplitude and/or the density of the sub-pulses present substantial variations along the envelope. In some cases, the analysis reveals the existence of an intermediate level of organization in the structure of the noise-like pulse, between the ns bunch and the sub-ps inner pulses, suggesting that these objects may be even more complex than previously recognized. (paper)

  6. Increased efficiency in the second-hand tire trade provides opportunity for dengue control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliego Pliego, Emilene; Velázquez-Castro, Jorge; Eichhorn, Markus P; Fraguela Collar, Andrés

    2018-01-21

    Dengue fever is increasing in geographical range, spread by invasion of its vector mosquitoes. The trade in second-hand tires has been implicated as a factor in this process because they act as mobile reservoirs of mosquito eggs and larvae. Regional transportation of tires can create linkages between rural areas with dengue and disease-free urban areas, potentially giving rise to outbreaks even in areas with strong local control measures. In this work we sought to model the dynamics of mosquito transportation via the tire trade, in particular to predict its role in causing unexpected dengue outbreaks through vertical transmission of the virus across generations of mosquitoes. We also aimed to identify strategies for regulating the trade in second-hand tires, improving disease control. We created a mathematical model which captures the dynamics of dengue between rural and urban areas, taking into account the movement and storage time of tires, and mosquito diapause. We simulate a series of scenarios in which a mosquito population is introduced to a dengue-free area via movement of tires, either as single or multiple events, increasing the likelihood of a dengue outbreak. A persistent disease state can be induced regardless of whether urban conditions for an outbreak are met, and an existing endemic state can be enhanced by vector input. Finally we assess the potential for regulation of tire processing as a means of reducing the transmission of dengue fever using a specific case study from Puerto Rico. Our work demonstrates the importance of the second-hand tire trade in modulating the spread of dengue fever across regions, in particular its role in introducing dengue to disease-free areas. We propose that reduction of tire storage time and control of their movement can play a crucial role in containing dengue outbreaks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of a piezoelectric energy harvesting system for implementing wireless sensors on the tires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaeyun; Choi, Bumkyoo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This study is focused on a stable energy source independent of vehicle speed. • It is ascertained that the use of a strain field is suitable for this purpose. • A piezo patch generates 380.2 μJ per revolution under 500 kgf load and 60 km/h. • A self-powered wireless sensor system is manufactured for application and tested during vehicle driving. • The system is applicable to intelligent tire sensor systems. - Abstract: The need for energy harvesting technology is steadily growing in the field of self-powered wireless sensor systems for intelligent tires. The purpose of this study is to mount an energy harvester inside the tire. In order to achieve this, we focus on a stable energy source almost independent of vehicle speed. It is ascertained that the use of a strain field is suitable for this purpose. In order to develop the energy harvester for the tire, modeling of tire behavior has been performed and verified through comparing with experimental results. From the results, a piezoelectric energy harvester generates 380.2 μJ per revolution under 500 kgf load and 60 km/h. A self-powered wireless sensor system is manufactured for application and tested during vehicle driving. The result of this study presents 1.37 μW/mm 3 of power generation from the performance of the energy harvester. This study concludes that the system is applicable to wireless tire sensor systems after making minor improvements

  8. Vehicle Tire and Wheel Creation in BRL-CAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Tire Tread Modeling 4  4.  Setting Tire Thickness 7  5.  Changing the Rim Width 9  6.  Changing the Radial Location of the... treaded or nontreaded model in the tire -model.c combination based on the analysis. 4. Setting Tire Thickness Tire thickness is manipulated via... tread is not modeled by default but can be added using options. • Fine-grained control of parameters such as tire thickness is available with

  9. Low frequency noise from wind turbines mechanisms of generation and its modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2010-01-01

    competitive designs compared with the upwind threebladed rotor. The simulation package comprises an aeroelastic time simulation code HAWC2 and an acoustic low frequency noise (LFN) prediction model. Computed time traces of rotor thrust and rotor torque from the aeroelastic model are input to the acoustic...

  10. Tire Models for Use in Braking Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Svendenius, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    The tire is a significant part for control of a vehicle. For a well-working brake system the contact properties between the tire and the ground is the limiting factor for a safe braking. To get optimal performance it is important that the system can utilize all friction resources. The brush tire model was a popular method in the 1960's and 1970's before the empirical approaches became dominating. The brush model gives an educational interpretation of the physics behind the tire behavi...

  11. The Global Seismographic Network (GSN): Deployment of Next Generation VBB Borehole Sensors and Improving Overall Network Noise Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, K.; Davis, P.; Wilson, D.; Sumy, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Global Seismographic Network (GSN) recently received delivery of the next generation Very Broadband (VBB) borehole sensors purchased through funding from the DOE. Deployment of these sensors will be underway during the end of summer and fall of 2017 and they will eventually replace the aging KS54000 sensors at approximately one-third of the GSN network stations. We will present the latest methods of deploying these sensors in the existing deep boreholes. To achieve lower noise performance at some sites, emplacement in shallow boreholes might result in lower noise performance for the existing site conditions. In some cases shallow borehole installations may be adapted to vault stations (which make up two thirds of the network), as a means of reducing tilt-induced signals on the horizontal components. The GSN is creating a prioritized list of equipment upgrades at selected stations with the ultimate goal of optimizing overall network data availability and noise performance. For an overview of the performance of the current GSN relative to selected set of metrics, we are utilizing data quality metrics and Probability Density Functions (PDFs)) generated by the IRIS Data Management Centers' (DMC) MUSTANG (Modular Utility for Statistical Knowledge Gathering) and LASSO (Latest Assessment of Seismic Station Observations) tools. We will present our metric analysis of GSN performance in 2016, and show the improvements at GSN sites resulting from recent instrumentation and infrastructure upgrades.

  12. High-power noise-like pulse generation using a 1.56-µm all-fiber laser system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Shian; Hwang, Sheng-Kwang; Liu, Jia-Ming

    2015-07-13

    We demonstrated an all-fiber, high-power noise-like pulse laser system at the 1.56-µm wavelength. A low-power noise-like pulse train generated by a ring oscillator was amplified using a two-stage amplifier, where the performance of the second-stage amplifier determined the final output power level. The optical intensity in the second-stage amplifier was managed well to avoid not only the excessive spectral broadening induced by nonlinearities but also any damage to the device. On the other hand, the power conversion efficiency of the amplifier was optimized through proper control of its pump wavelength. The pump wavelength determines the pump absorption and therefore the power conversion efficiency of the gain fiber. Through this approach, the average power of the noise-like pulse train was amplified considerably to an output of 13.1 W, resulting in a power conversion efficiency of 36.1% and a pulse energy of 0.85 µJ. To the best of our knowledge, these amplified pulses have the highest average power and pulse energy for noise-like pulses in the 1.56-µm wavelength region. As a result, the net gain in the cascaded amplifier reached 30 dB. With peak and pedestal widths of 168 fs and 61.3 ps, respectively, for the amplified pulses, the pedestal-to-peak intensity ratio of the autocorrelation trace remains at the value of 0.5 required for truly noise-like pulses.

  13. Pseudo-noise generator using UNMBER SIEVE''. Kazu furui wo mochiita giji ransu seiseiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyan, S.; Teruya, H. (University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan). College of Engineering)

    1992-09-01

    In data communications which require secrecy, the Vernam cipher method is often used because of its simple principle and high security. It is necessary for this method to generate key streams as random numbers. The conventional generating methods using linear feedback shift register (LFSR) or data encryption standard(DES) have some problems in and security and circuit complexity. This paper proposes a pseudo-noise generator of relatively simple structure using number sieve, and describes its structure and security. The pseudo-noise generator consists of the number sieve circuit combined With shift resistors of figures of 8 prime numbers from 2 to 19 and other resisters containing AND in feedback area. The total number of keys that can be selected is 3.8[times]10[sup 25], which is not readable from the aspect of calculation volume. Concerning a model of the number sieve circuit with shift resistors which are reduced to 4, linear complexity, which is part of evaluation standard for the security of pseudo-random numbers for cipher, and hamming distance for different keys are examined. 10 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Post-consumer tires back into new tires: de-vulcanization and re-utilization of passenger car tires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah

    2013-01-01

    Enabling recycling loops for used passenger car tires is a challenge and an opportunity. The challenge lies in the presence of SBR as the main elastomer in this type of tires, which makes this material difficult to reclaim due to the tendency of the elastomer chain fragments to re-combine. The

  15. Directed motion generated by heat bath nonlinearly driven by external noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, J Ray; Barik, D; Banik, S K

    2007-01-01

    Based on the heat bath system approach where the bath is nonlinearly modulated by an external Gaussian random force, we propose a new microscopic model to study directed motion in the overdamped limit for a nonequilibrium open system. Making use of the coupling between the heat bath and the external modulation as a small perturbation, we construct a Langevin equation with multiplicative noise- and space-dependent dissipation and the corresponding Fokker-Planck-Smoluchowski equation in the overdamped limit. We examine the thermodynamic consistency condition and explore the possibility of observing a phase-induced current as a consequence of state-dependent diffusion and, necessarily, nonlinear driving of the heat bath by the external noise

  16. Directed motion generated by heat bath nonlinearly driven by external noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, J Ray [Department of Physics, Katwa College, Katwa, Burdwan 713 130, West Bengal (India); Barik, D [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Banik, S K [Department of Physics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0435 (United States)

    2007-12-07

    Based on the heat bath system approach where the bath is nonlinearly modulated by an external Gaussian random force, we propose a new microscopic model to study directed motion in the overdamped limit for a nonequilibrium open system. Making use of the coupling between the heat bath and the external modulation as a small perturbation, we construct a Langevin equation with multiplicative noise- and space-dependent dissipation and the corresponding Fokker-Planck-Smoluchowski equation in the overdamped limit. We examine the thermodynamic consistency condition and explore the possibility of observing a phase-induced current as a consequence of state-dependent diffusion and, necessarily, nonlinear driving of the heat bath by the external noise.

  17. Research into Noise Generated by Domestic Appliances in the Anechoic Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnė Žukauskienė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Loud noise has a negative impact on the entire body, especially on listening. We can hear daily noise everywhere – in the street, at work or at home. The Department of Environmental Protection of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University has adjusted an anechoic chamber adapted for suppressing sound. Under the above introduced conditions, 15 appliances (5 vacuum cleaners, 5 hair dryers and 5 shaving machines have been tested. Equivalent sound pressure level of the vacuum cleaner has varied from 66 dBA to 83 dBA, that of the hair dryer has made from 64 dBA to 70 dBA and for the shaving machine – from 39 to 56 dBA.Article in Lithuanian

  18. Direct-reading dial for noise temperature and noise resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, J.M.

    1967-01-01

    An attenuator arrangement for a noise generator is described. The scheme permits direct reading of both noise resistance and noise temperature¿the latter with a choice of source resistance.......An attenuator arrangement for a noise generator is described. The scheme permits direct reading of both noise resistance and noise temperature¿the latter with a choice of source resistance....

  19. Tire recycling technologies: What is the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; van Hoek, Johannes Wilhelmus; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Blume, Anke; Heideman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Recycling is a heavily discussed topic nowadays, and recycled tire material to be re-used for the same application is one of the spear points of current R&D activities. Regarding the immense amount of used tires, more than just one outlet for the recycled material is needed. Besides the commonly

  20. Tire containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A tire, tire lining or inner tube, containing a polymer composite, made of at least one rubber and/or at least one elastomer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g.

  1. Numerical Research on Hydraulically Generated Vibration and Noise of a Centrifugal Pump Volute with Impeller Outlet Width Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houlin Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The impeller outlet width of centrifugal pumps is of significant importance for numbers of effects. In the paper, these effects including the performance, pressure pulsations, hydraulically generated vibration, and noise level are investigated. For the purpose, two approaches were used to predict the vibration and sound radiation of the volute under fluid excitation force. One approach is the combined CFD/FEM analysis for structure vibration, and then the structure response obtained from the FEM analysis is treated as the boundary condition for BEM analysis for sound radiation. The other is the combined CFD/FEM/BEM coupling method. Before the numerical methods were used, the simulation results were validated by the vibration acceleration of the monitoring points on the volute. The vibration and noise were analyzed and compared at three flow conditions. The analysis of the results shows that the influences of the sound pressure of centrifugal pumps on the structure appear insignificant. The relative outlet width b2* at nq(SI = 26.7 in this paper should be less than 0.06, based on an overall consideration of the pump characteristics, pressure pulsations, vibration and noise level.

  2. Dynamics and Stability of Rolling Viscoelastic Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Trevor [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-30

    Current steady state rolling tire calculations often do not include treads because treads destroy the rotational symmetry of the tire. We describe two methodologies to compute time periodic solutions of a two-dimensional viscoelastic tire with treads: solving a minimization problem and solving a system of equations. We also expand on work by Oden and Lin on free spinning rolling elastic tires in which they disovered a hierachy of N-peak steady state standing wave solutions. In addition to discovering a two-dimensional hierarchy of standing wave solutions that includes their N-peak hiearchy, we consider the eects of viscoelasticity on the standing wave solutions. Finally, a commonplace model of viscoelasticity used in our numerical experiments led to non-physical elastic energy growth for large tire speeds. We show that a viscoelastic model of Govindjee and Reese remedies the problem.

  3. Surface trapping phenomena in thermionic emission generating l/f noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanescu, A.

    1975-01-01

    A general expression of the power spectrum of''flicker noise'', involving stochastic trapping phenomena and calculated on the basis of a two parameter model, is applied in the case of thermoionic emission from cathode surface. The fluctuation of the work function over the cathode surface is interpreted as being due to a trapping process of foreign atoms by the cathode. Taking into account the very physical nature of the trapping mechanism, under self-consistent assumptions, a 1/f power spectrum is obtained in a certain range of frequency. The two parameter model removes some discrepancies involved in the preceding theories. (author)

  4. A measure of acoustic noise generated from transcranial magnetic stimulation coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamne, Sameer C; Kothare, Raveena S; Yu, Camilla; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsun; Anastasio, Elana M; Oberman, Lindsay; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Rotenberg, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The intensity of sound emanating from the discharge of magnetic coils used in repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can potentially cause acoustic trauma. Per Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards for safety of noise exposure, hearing protection is recommended beyond restricted levels of noise and time limits. We measured the sound pressure levels (SPLs) from four rTMS coils with the goal of assessing if the acoustic artifact levels are of sufficient amplitude to warrant protection from acoustic trauma per OSHA standards. We studied the SPLs at two frequencies (5 and 10 Hz), three machine outputs (MO) (60, 80 and 100%), and two distances from the coil (5 and 10 cm). We found that the SPLs were louder at closer proximity from the coil and directly dependent on the MO. We also found that in all studied conditions, SPLs were lower than the OSHA permissible thresholds for short (8 h) exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prediction of properties of polymer concrete composite with tire rubber using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaconescu, Rodica-Mariana; Barbuta, Marinela; Harja, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Using waste a new composite material was obtained with specific characteristics. ► The objective was to maximize tire powder content with the minimum resin content. ► By direct modeling, the maximum compressive strength was obtained for 30% tire powder. ► Inverse neural modeling was used for obtaining maximum values of strengths. -- Abstract: The neural network method was used to investigate the influence of filler and resin content on the mechanical properties of polymer concrete with powdered tire waste. The mechanical strengths of 10 experimentally determined combinations using mixed epoxy resin, aggregates and tire powder as filler were optimized using direct neural modeling and inverse neural modeling, by imposing a minimum cost (content in resin). Direct neural modeling gave the optimum composition for obtaining maximum values for compressive strength, flexural strength and split tensile strength. Inverse neural modeling analyzed the possibility of obtaining maximum values of mechanical properties by variations in the dosages of the epoxy resin and tire powder. Neural network modeling generated the mixes with the lowest cost and maximum strength. The modeling method has shown that two mechanical properties can be simultaneously optimized in the investigation domain. From direct modeling, the maximum compressive strength was obtained for a composition with 0.215 (fraction weight) epoxy resin and 0.3 (fraction weight) tire powder. Maximum flexural strength was obtained for experimental values of 0.23 epoxy resin and 0.17 tire powder with a severe reduction noted for smaller resin dosages. The maximum split tensile strength was obtained for a resin dosage of 0.24 and tire powder dosage of 0.17

  6. Usage of post-consumer tires as raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Vovk

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available  This article is devoted to the problem of post-consumer tires accumulation and recycling both in Europe and Ukraine. It describes general tires properties, their structure and composite elements which are valuable secondary resources. Also there are analyzed the most known methods of used tires treatment and final product of tires utilizations.

  7. 49 CFR 574.5 - Tire identification requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tire identification requirements. 574.5 Section... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) TIRE IDENTIFICATION AND RECORDKEEPING § 574.5 Tire identification requirements. Each tire manufacturer shall conspicuously label on one...

  8. 40 CFR 202.23 - Visual tire inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visual tire inspection. 202.23 Section... Visual tire inspection. No motor carrier subject to these regulations shall at any time operate any motor vehicle of a type to which this regulation is applicable on a tire or tires having a tread pattern which...

  9. Nonlinearity-tailored fiber laser technology for low-noise, ultra-wideband tunable femtosecond light generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Iegorov, Roman

    2017-01-01

    supercontinuum, taking advantage of a simpler fiber technology: a fixed-wavelength pump laser pulse is converted into a spectrally very broadband output, from which the required resulting wavelength is then optically filtered. Unfortunately, this process is associated with an inherently poor noise figure, which...... often precludes many realistic applications of such supercontinuum sources. Here, we show that by adding only one passive optical element—a tapered photonic crystal fiber—to a fixed-wavelength femtosecond laser, one can in a very simple manner resonantly convert the laser emission wavelength......The emission wavelength of a laser is physically predetermined by the gain medium used.Consequently,arbitrary wavelength generation is a fundamental challenge in the science of light. Present solutions include optical parametric generation, requiring complex optical setups and spectrally sliced...

  10. Post-consumer tires back into new tires: de-vulcanization and re-utilization of passenger car tires

    OpenAIRE

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah

    2013-01-01

    Enabling recycling loops for used passenger car tires is a challenge and an opportunity. The challenge lies in the presence of SBR as the main elastomer in this type of tires, which makes this material difficult to reclaim due to the tendency of the elastomer chain fragments to re-combine. The opportunity lies in the wide availability of the material and in the fact that passenger car tires form a huge potential market for recycled rubber. The aim of this study is to develop a de-vulcanizatio...

  11. Direct Numerical Simulation of Acoustic Noise Generation from the Nozzle Wall of a Hypersonic Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junji; Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan M.

    2017-01-01

    The acoustic radiation from the turbulent boundary layer on the nozzle wall of a Mach 6 Ludwieg Tube is simulated using Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS), with the flow conditions falling within the operational range of the Mach 6 Hypersonic Ludwieg Tube, Braunschweig (HLB). The mean and turbulence statistics of the nozzle-wall boundary layer show good agreement with those predicted by Pate's correlation and Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computations. The rms pressure fluctuation P'(rms)/T(w) plateaus in the freestream core of the nozzle. The intensity of the freestream noise within the nozzle is approximately 20% higher than that radiated from a single at pate with a similar freestream Mach number, potentially because of the contributions to the acoustic radiation from multiple azimuthal segments of the nozzle wall.

  12. The Generation, Radiation and Prediction of Supersonic Jet Noise. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    supersonic Jet noise, the U. S. Air Force and the U. S. Department of Transportation Jointly Initiated a series of research contracts directed toward this need...ofMeasurdUAiDigPNOLE Specta an PreictiosDBaedLo 9ih0eqec LiEDICTIEquation Solutos eimTmeaueJt TP 80.Mthd1 *7 60 .........em131 1 (a 6300 I dB 100 90j 80...C3 - -21 Vjm 2Ao/a, a 2 de C4 - 21 Z- Ao, C5 - - 2IH 2VIMM6, and C6 - iVAob/. The form of j, for r >r m may be found by substituting Equation (3-107

  13. State-of-the-Art Review on Sustainable Design and Construction of Quieter Pavements—Part 1: Traffic Noise Measurement and Abatement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD Ohiduzzaman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Noise pollution due to highway traffic has drawn the attention of transportation agencies worldwide. Noise pollution is an irritant to residents, especially in urban areas near roads with high traffic volume. In addition to its adverse effects on the quality of life, traffic noise can induce stress that could lead to sleep disturbance and anxiety. Traditionally, noise barrier walls have been used for highways to mitigate traffic noise. However, using barrier walls as a noise abatement measure has proven to be very expensive. In addition to the cost, noise barrier walls are not always effective because they must break the line of sight to work properly, which is not always possible in case of intersections or driveways. Therefore, researchers especially from Europe and USA have been very proactive to reduce the noise at source. A number of research studies show traffic noise can be reduced by using an alternative surface type or changing texture of the pavement while complying with other requirements of sustainability, i.e., safety, structural durability, construction and maintenance costs. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the research conducted on this subject. A review of the tire-pavement noise generation and amplification mechanism, various traffic noise measurement methods and correlation among these methods, in addition to the abatement techniques used by various agencies to reduce pavement noise, is also presented.

  14. Forestry Tire Tractive Performance: New, Worn, and with Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.R. Vechinski; C.R. Johnson; R.L. Raper; T.P. McDonald

    1999-01-01

    The tractive perfomance of a new tire, a worn tire, and a worn tire with forestry tire chains was measured in four soil types. Two of the soil types simulated forest-floor conditions with one soil type having a sulfate cover of pine straw and the other having a surface cover of sod. The two remaining soil types were bare. The worn tire with and without chains had...

  15. Effect of Friction Model and Tire Maneuvering on Tire-Pavement Contact Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichao Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to simulate the effects of different friction models on tire braking. A truck radial tire (295/80R22.5 was modeled and the model was validated with tire deflection. An exponential decay friction model that considers the effect of sliding velocity on friction coefficients was adopted for analyzing braking performance. The result shows that the exponential decay friction model used for evaluating braking ability meets design requirements of antilock braking system (ABS. The tire-pavement contact stress characteristics at various driving conditions (static, free rolling, braking, camber, and cornering were analyzed. It is found that the change of driving conditions has direct influence on tire-pavement contact stress distribution. The results provide the guidance for tire braking performance evaluation.

  16. NASA tire/runway friction projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    The paper reviews several aspects of NASA Langley Research Center's tire/runway friction evaluations directed towards improving the safety and economy of aircraft ground operations. The facilities and test equipment used in implementing different aircraft tire friction studies and other related aircraft ground performance investigations are described together with recent workshop activities at NASA Wallops Flight Facility. An overview of the pending Joint NASA/Transport Canada/FM Winter Runway Friction Program is given. Other NASA ongoing studies and on-site field tests are discussed including tire wear performance and new surface treatments. The paper concludes with a description of future research plans.

  17. Effect of Friction Model and Tire Maneuvering on Tire-Pavement Contact Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Haichao Zhou; Guolin Wang; Yangmin Ding; Jian Yang; Chen Liang; Jing Fu

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to simulate the effects of different friction models on tire braking. A truck radial tire (295/80R22.5) was modeled and the model was validated with tire deflection. An exponential decay friction model that considers the effect of sliding velocity on friction coefficients was adopted for analyzing braking performance. The result shows that the exponential decay friction model used for evaluating braking ability meets design requirements of antilock braking system (ABS). The ti...

  18. Statistical characteristic in time-domain of direct current corona-generated audible noise from conductor in corona cage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xuebao, E-mail: lxb08357x@ncepu.edu.cn; Cui, Xiang, E-mail: x.cui@ncepu.edu.cn; Ma, Wenzuo; Bian, Xingming; Wang, Donglai [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Lu, Tiebing, E-mail: tiebinglu@ncepu.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory of High Voltage and EMC, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Hiziroglu, Huseyin [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kettering University, Flint, Michigan 48504 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    The corona-generated audible noise (AN) has become one of decisive factors in the design of high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission lines. The AN from transmission lines can be attributed to sound pressure pulses which are generated by the multiple corona sources formed on the conductor, i.e., transmission lines. In this paper, a detailed time-domain characteristics of the sound pressure pulses, which are generated by the DC corona discharges formed over the surfaces of a stranded conductors, are investigated systematically in a laboratory settings using a corona cage structure. The amplitude of sound pressure pulse and its time intervals are extracted by observing a direct correlation between corona current pulses and corona-generated sound pressure pulses. Based on the statistical characteristics, a stochastic model is presented for simulating the sound pressure pulses due to DC corona discharges occurring on conductors. The proposed stochastic model is validated by comparing the calculated and measured A-weighted sound pressure level (SPL). The proposed model is then used to analyze the influence of the pulse amplitudes and pulse rate on the SPL. Furthermore, a mathematical relationship is found between the SPL and conductor diameter, electric field, and radial distance.

  19. Statistical characteristic in time-domain of direct current corona-generated audible noise from conductor in corona cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuebao; Cui, Xiang; Lu, Tiebing; Ma, Wenzuo; Bian, Xingming; Wang, Donglai; Hiziroglu, Huseyin

    2016-03-01

    The corona-generated audible noise (AN) has become one of decisive factors in the design of high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission lines. The AN from transmission lines can be attributed to sound pressure pulses which are generated by the multiple corona sources formed on the conductor, i.e., transmission lines. In this paper, a detailed time-domain characteristics of the sound pressure pulses, which are generated by the DC corona discharges formed over the surfaces of a stranded conductors, are investigated systematically in a laboratory settings using a corona cage structure. The amplitude of sound pressure pulse and its time intervals are extracted by observing a direct correlation between corona current pulses and corona-generated sound pressure pulses. Based on the statistical characteristics, a stochastic model is presented for simulating the sound pressure pulses due to DC corona discharges occurring on conductors. The proposed stochastic model is validated by comparing the calculated and measured A-weighted sound pressure level (SPL). The proposed model is then used to analyze the influence of the pulse amplitudes and pulse rate on the SPL. Furthermore, a mathematical relationship is found between the SPL and conductor diameter, electric field, and radial distance.

  20. Cetacean behavioral responses to noise exposure generated by seismic surveys: how to mitigate better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Monaco

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cetaceans use sound in many contexts, such as in social interactions, as well as to forage and to react in dangerous situations. Little information exists to describe how they respond physically and behaviorally to intense and long-term noise levels. Effects on cetaceans from seismic survey activities need to be understood in order to determine detailed acoustic exposure guidelines and to apply appropriated mitigation measures. This study examines direct behavioral responses of cetaceans in the southern Mediterranean Sea during seismic surveys with large airgun arrays (volume up to 5200 ci used in the TOMO-ETNA active seismic experiment of summer 2014. Wide Angle Seismic and Multi-Channel Seismic surveys had carried out with refraction and reflection seismic methods, producing about 25,800 air-gun shots. Visual monitoring undertaken in the 26 daylights of seismic exploration adopted the protocol of the Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Data recorded were analyzed to examine effects on cetaceans. Sighting rates, distance and orientation from the airguns were compared for different volume categories of the airgun arrays. Results show that cetaceans can be disturbed by seismic survey activities, especially during particularly events. Here we propose many integrated actions to further mitigate this exposure and implications for management.

  1. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Canova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  2. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido Canova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  3. Experimental rig to estimate the coefficient of friction between tire and surface in airplane touchdown simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengwei; Zhan, Liwei

    2015-08-01

    To estimate the coefficient of friction between tire and runway surface during airplane touchdowns, we designed an experimental rig to simulate such events and to record the impact and friction forces being executed. Because of noise in the measured signals, we developed a filtering method that is based on the ensemble empirical mode decomposition and the bandwidth of probability density function of each intrinsic mode function to extract friction and impact force signals. We can quantify the coefficient of friction by calculating the maximum values of the filtered force signals. Signal measurements are recorded for different drop heights and tire rotational speeds, and the corresponding coefficient of friction is calculated. The result shows that the values of the coefficient of friction change only slightly. The random noise and experimental artifact are the major reason of the change.

  4. Full-scale aircraft tire pressure tests

    OpenAIRE

    FABRE, C; BALAY, Jean Maurice; LERAT, P; MAZARS, A

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an outdoor full-scale test planned to improve experimental and theoretical knowledge related to the effects of aircraft internal tire inflation pressure on the behavior and damage of flexible pavement. Since modern aircraft can have tire pressures greater than 15 bar, the tests will focus on pressures from 15 bar to 17.5 bar. The experimental pavement located on the Toulouse-Blagnac airport in France will include up to seven al different test sections, representative of c...

  5. Full-scale aicraft tire pressure tests

    OpenAIRE

    FABRE, C; BALAY, Jean Maurice; LERAT, P; MAZARS, A

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an outdoor full-scale test planned to improve experimental and theoretical knowledge related to the effects of aircraft internal tire inflation pressure on the behavior and damage of flexible pavement. Since modern aircraft can have tire pressures greater than 15 bar, the tests focus on pressures from 15 to 17.5 bar. The experimental pavement located on the Toulouse-Blagnac airport in France will include up to seven al different test sections, representative of current ai...

  6. Oxidative desulfurization of tire pyrolysis oil

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Shahzad; Ahmad Muhammad Imran; Naeem Khawar; Humayun Muhammad; Sebt-E-Zaeem; Faheem Farrukh

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a low cost method for the purification of oils obtained from the pyrolysis of used tires. Oxidative desulfurization is a promising route for purification of tire pyrolysis oils as hydro-desulfurization may not be affordable for small scale industries. Different additives and acids have been employed for the enhancement of properties of pyrolytic oils. The experimental conditions were kept identical throughout, i.e. atmospheric pressure a...

  7. Processing Satellite Imagery To Detect Waste Tire Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiles, Joseph; Schmidt, Cynthia; Wuinlan, Becky; Huybrechts, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    A methodology for processing commercially available satellite spectral imagery has been developed to enable identification and mapping of waste tire piles in California. The California Integrated Waste Management Board initiated the project and provided funding for the method s development. The methodology includes the use of a combination of previously commercially available image-processing and georeferencing software used to develop a model that specifically distinguishes between tire piles and other objects. The methodology reduces the time that must be spent to initially survey a region for tire sites, thereby increasing inspectors and managers time available for remediation of the sites. Remediation is needed because millions of used tires are discarded every year, waste tire piles pose fire hazards, and mosquitoes often breed in water trapped in tires. It should be possible to adapt the methodology to regions outside California by modifying some of the algorithms implemented in the software to account for geographic differences in spectral characteristics associated with terrain and climate. The task of identifying tire piles in satellite imagery is uniquely challenging because of their low reflectance levels: Tires tend to be spectrally confused with shadows and deep water, both of which reflect little light to satellite-borne imaging systems. In this methodology, the challenge is met, in part, by use of software that implements the Tire Identification from Reflectance (TIRe) model. The development of the TIRe model included incorporation of lessons learned in previous research on the detection and mapping of tire piles by use of manual/ visual and/or computational analysis of aerial and satellite imagery. The TIRe model is a computational model for identifying tire piles and discriminating between tire piles and other objects. The input to the TIRe model is the georeferenced but otherwise raw satellite spectral images of a geographic region to be surveyed

  8. Nonlinear Analysis and Modeling of Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the study was to develop efficient modeling techniques and computational strategies for: (1) predicting the nonlinear response of tires subjected to inflation pressure, mechanical and thermal loads; (2) determining the footprint region, and analyzing the tire pavement contact problem, including the effect of friction; and (3) determining the sensitivity of the tire response (displacements, stresses, strain energy, contact pressures and contact area) to variations in the different material and geometric parameters. Two computational strategies were developed. In the first strategy the tire was modeled by using either a two-dimensional shear flexible mixed shell finite elements or a quasi-three-dimensional solid model. The contact conditions were incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach. A number of model reduction techniques were applied to substantially reduce the number of degrees of freedom used in describing the response outside the contact region. The second strategy exploited the axial symmetry of the undeformed tire, and uses cylindrical coordinates in the development of three-dimensional elements for modeling each of the different parts of the tire cross section. Model reduction techniques are also used with this strategy.

  9. Wheels and Tires: Understanding the Numbers on the Sides of Tires Might Lead to Longer Life Tires and Improved Driving Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Automotive wheels and tires require knowledge to understand their specifications and use. While the durability and useful life of tires have increased substantially over the last several decades, in all probability consumers will purchase a number of vehicle tires over their lifetime. Knowing how they are made and what the numbers mean will assist…

  10. Parametric Processes for Generation and Low Noise Detection of Infrared Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgstedt, Lasse

    This thesis describes an experimentally based, and application oriented investigation of sum- and difference frequency generation for photon conversion,from one spectral domain to another. The applications in focus are coherent gas spectroscopy in the near- and mid-infrared regimes. The investiga......This thesis describes an experimentally based, and application oriented investigation of sum- and difference frequency generation for photon conversion,from one spectral domain to another. The applications in focus are coherent gas spectroscopy in the near- and mid-infrared regimes...... upconversion modules are tested as part of a detection system in two different applications for spectroscopic gas measurements. The first test was done at Lund University together with the Combustion Physics Group, where the detection level of acetylene gas in a four-wave mixing setup was improved a factor...... of 500 compared to previous measurements. The second test was performed at the Atmospheric Physics Department at the German Aerospace Center in Oberpfaffenhofen. Here the upconversion detector was tested as an alternative to an InGaAs detector in a differential absorption lidar setup for long range...

  11. Effect of wheelchair mass, tire type and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Sonja; Vegter, Riemer J. K.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of wheelchair mass, solid vs. pneumatic tires and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique. 11 Able-bodied participants performed 14 submaximal exercise blocks on a treadmill with a fixed speed (1.11 m/s) within 3 weeks

  12. Evaluation of the tire pressure influence on the lateral forces that occur between tire and road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoş, N.; Todoruţ, A.; Barabás, I.

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of the paper is to capture the behavior of a vehicle on a race circuit, depending on the different inflation pressures of the tires (underpressure and overpressure). Taking into account that in the cornering the forces and the moments of inertia rise due the vehicle mass, and an inertial force decomposes in two components, one in the longitudinal plane and one in the transverse plane, the work aims the assessing the lateral forces that appear, to the contact between the tires and the tread, depending on the inflation pressure. The results have a graphic interpretation, enabling a comparative study of them. Results have been obtained regarding the lateral tire forces that occur between the tire and the road. The differences between these forces were particularly noticeable in cornering, and the differences between these forces were interpreted according to the tire inflation pressure.

  13. Noise suppression by noise

    OpenAIRE

    Vilar, J. M. G. (José M. G.), 1972-; Rubí Capaceti, José Miguel

    2001-01-01

    We have analyzed the interplay between an externally added noise and the intrinsic noise of systems that relax fast towards a stationary state, and found that increasing the intensity of the external noise can reduce the total noise of the system. We have established a general criterion for the appearance of this phenomenon and discussed two examples in detail.

  14. New developments in tire derived fuels (TDF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, G. [Portland Cement Association, Skokie, IL (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Portland cement is a mixture of finely ground raw materials that are processed in a rotary kiln heated to 1500 degrees C by various fuels. Cooled clinker from the kiln is ground into portland cement. This presentation provided an overview of the role that tire-derived fuels is now playing in cement manufacturing. Data on the extent of TDF use in cement manufacturing processes were presented, as well as the results of air emissions monitoring programs conducted to assess the environmental impacts of TDF. During the cement manufacturing process, shredded and chipped tires are blown into the kiln to provide fuel, while whole tires are placed in the midpoint of long dry or wet kilns. For preheater and precalciner kilns, whole tires are added to raw material entering the kiln. The kiln's controlled combustion environment ensures the complete destruction of scrap tires. Approximately 130 million scrap tires were recycled in Portland cement plants in 2003. Forty-four portland cement plants are currently using TDF in North America. The United States Department of Energy has estimated that TDF produces less carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) per unit of energy than coal. Monitoring programs at Portland cement plants have indicated that the use of TDF in place of coal has resulted in moderate reductions of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions, slightly lower sulfuric oxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions and moderate reductions in carbon monoxide (CO). Some plants have reported slight reductions in particulate matter (PM) emissions. It was concluded that the use of scrap tires as a fuel reduces a waste stream and contributes to energy and raw material requirements. Moreover, plant air emissions are either reduced or are not impacted by TDF use. refs., tabs., figs.

  15. An assessment of the use of tires as an alternative fuel : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegg, M.J.; Amyotte, P.R.; Fels, M.; Cumming, C.R.R.; Poushay, J.C. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. of Process Engineering and Applied Science

    2007-04-15

    This study examined the benefits of using scrap tires as tire-derived fuel (TDF) in industrial applications. The study was comprised of a literature review of emissions from TDF in cement plants; risk management frameworks for TDF applications; and a review of potential applications. The aim of the study was to consider a program for recycling waste tires in the province of Nova Scotia. In Canada, approximately 20 per cent of waste tires are used as TDF. The majority of TDF in Canada is used as a supplemental fuel in cement kilns. The fuel now has a number of potential industrial applications within the province of Nova Scotia in the pulp and paper industry as well as in generating stations. A review of reported emissions showed decreases in nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) when tires were used as a supplementary fuel in industrial applications. However, carbon monoxide (CO) levels are typically higher when TDF fuels are used. Emission levels of dioxins and furans show wide variability. The study provided recommendations for future studies on dioxin and furan emissions, as well as a comprehensive testing program at a cement plant to determine stack emissions and off-site ground pollutant concentrations. Dispersion modelling and risk management assessments were also recommended. 59 refs., 19 tabs., 15 figs.

  16. An assessment of the use of tires as an alternative fuel : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegg, M.J.; Amyotte, P.R.; Fels, M.; Cumming, C.R.R.; Poushay, J.C.

    2007-04-01

    This study examined the benefits of using scrap tires as tire-derived fuel (TDF) in industrial applications. The study was comprised of a literature review of emissions from TDF in cement plants; risk management frameworks for TDF applications; and a review of potential applications. The aim of the study was to consider a program for recycling waste tires in the province of Nova Scotia. In Canada, approximately 20 per cent of waste tires are used as TDF. The majority of TDF in Canada is used as a supplemental fuel in cement kilns. The fuel now has a number of potential industrial applications within the province of Nova Scotia in the pulp and paper industry as well as in generating stations. A review of reported emissions showed decreases in nitrogen oxides (NO x ) when tires were used as a supplementary fuel in industrial applications. However, carbon monoxide (CO) levels are typically higher when TDF fuels are used. Emission levels of dioxins and furans show wide variability. The study provided recommendations for future studies on dioxin and furan emissions, as well as a comprehensive testing program at a cement plant to determine stack emissions and off-site ground pollutant concentrations. Dispersion modelling and risk management assessments were also recommended. 59 refs., 19 tabs., 15 figs

  17. Ultra Low Noise Poroelastic Road Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy A. Ejsmont

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Noise is one of the most important environmental problems related to road traffic. During the last decades, the noise emitted by the engines and powertrains of vehicles was greatly reduced and tires became a clearly dominant noise source. The article describes the concept of low noise poroelastic road surfaces that are composed of mineral and rubber aggregate bound by polyurethane resin. Those surfaces have a porous structure and are much more flexible than standard asphalt or cement concrete pavements due to high content of rubber aggregate and elastic binder. Measurements performed in several European countries indicate that such surfaces decrease tire/road noise between 7 dB and 12 dB with respect to reference surfaces such as dense asphalt concrete or stone matrix asphalt. Furthermore, poroelastic road surfaces ascertain the rolling resistance of car tires, which is comparable to classic pavements. One of the unforeseen properties of the poroelastic road surfaces is their ability to decrease the risks related to car fires with fuel spills. The article presents the road and laboratory results of noise, rolling resistance, and fire tests performed on a few types of poroelastic road surfaces.

  18. A Synthesis on the Evolution of the Studded Tire

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Angerinos, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Ever since studded tires were flrst introduced, the advantages, disadvantages, and effects of studded tires on vehicles, drivers and pavement systems has been the center of research and controversy...

  19. Recycled tires as coarse aggregate in concrete pavement mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The reuse potential of tire chips as coarse aggregates in pavement concrete was examined in this research by : investigating the effects of low- and high-volume tire chips on fresh and hardened concrete properties. One concrete : control mixture was ...

  20. Federal Research on Recycled Tire Crumb Used on Playing Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground rubber is recovered from scrap tires or from the tire retreading process. It is used in road construction and in athletic and recreational applications,like ground cover under playground equipment, running track material, and as a soil additive.

  1. Photocatalytic Desulfurization of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napida Hinchiranan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste tire pyrolysis oil has high potential to replace conventional fossil liquid fuels due to its high calorific heating value. However, the large amounts of sulfurous compounds in this oil hinders its application. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate the possibility to apply the photo-assisted oxidation catalyzed by titanium dioxide (TiO2, Degussa P-25 to partially remove sulfurous compounds in the waste tire pyrolysis oil under milder reaction conditions without hydrogen consumption. A waste tire pyrolysis oil with 0.84% (w/w of sulfurous content containing suspended TiO2 was irradiated by using a high-pressure mercury lamp for 7 h. The oxidized sulfur compounds were then migrated into the solvent-extraction phase. A maximum % sulfur removal of 43.6% was achieved when 7 g/L of TiO2 was loaded into a 1/4 (v/v mixture of pyrolysis waste tire oil/acetonitrile at 50 °C in the presence of air. Chromatographic analysis confirmed that the photo-oxidized sulfurous compounds presented in the waste tire pyrolysis oil had higher polarity, which were readily dissolved and separated in distilled water. The properties of the photoxidized product were also reported and compared to those of crude oil.

  2. Materials Approach to Fuel Efficient Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Votruba-Drzal, Peter [PPG Industries, Monroeville, PA (United States); Kornish, Brian [PPG Industries, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The objective of this project was to design, develop, and demonstrate fuel efficient and safety regulation compliant tire filler and barrier coating technologies that will improve overall fuel efficiency by at least 2%. The program developed and validated two complementary approaches to improving fuel efficiency through tire improvements. The first technology was a modified silica-based product that is 15% lower in cost and/or enables a 10% improvement in tread wear while maintaining the already demonstrated minimum of 2% improvement in average fuel efficiency. The second technology was a barrier coating with reduced oxygen transmission rate compared to the state-of-the-art halobutyl rubber inner liners that will provide extended placarded tire pressure retention at significantly reduced material usage. A lower-permeance, thinner inner liner coating which retains tire pressure was expected to deliver the additional 2% reduction in fleet fuel consumption. From the 2006 Transportation Research Board Report1, a 10 percent reduction in rolling resistance can reduce consumer fuel expenditures by 1 to 2 percent for typical vehicles. This savings is equivalent to 6 to 12 gallons per year. A 1 psi drop in inflation pressure increases the tire's rolling resistance by about 1.4 percent.

  3. Rubber - application of radiation to tire manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.D.; Alliger, G.

    1979-01-01

    Since the advent of commercial accelerators during the last several years capable of producing controllable electron beams of high energy, Firestone has devoted a considerable effort to the better understanding of the possible applications of such radiation to the production of tires or tire components. A number of chemical reactions can occur when elastomeric compounds are exposed to high energy waves, but crosslinking and degradation are the most important. The degree to which the crosslinking reaction predominates depends upon the nature of the rubber, compounding ingredients and the dosage. In general then, the effects achieved by the radiation of a rubber are quite similar to those resulting from heat. However, radiation cure or precure of compounds offers the advantage that the degree of crosslinking can be better controlled. Uniform crosslinking is possible since the high speed electrons penetrate uniformly throughout the sample. Curing with heat on the other hand may result in a greater degree of crosslinking on the surface of the sample than the center because of low heat conductivity. In general, radiation can be used to advantage to crosslink partially rubber tire components so that they retain better their shape and dimension during tire assembly and final cure or vulcanization. Added advantages of radiation precure include: a reduction of material usage, substitution of synthetic for natural rubber without loss in strength and the fact that partially crosslinked components will not thin out or become displaced during construction and vulcanization of the tire. (author)

  4. Stability Control of Vehicle Emergency Braking with Tire Blowout

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qingzhang; Liu, Youhua; Li, Xuezhi

    2014-01-01

    For the stability control and slowing down the vehicle to a safe speed after tire failure, an emergency automatic braking system with independent intellectual property is developed. After the system has received a signal of tire blowout, the automatic braking mode of the vehicle is determined according to the position of the failure tire and the motion state of vehicle, and a control strategy for resisting tire blowout additional yaw torque and deceleration is designed to slow down vehicle to...

  5. Simulation of Thermal Signature of Tires and Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    the body-ply is a linear elastic material. To facilitate the analysis, the tire was divided into Tread and Sidewall by the dash line as shown in...only one element is assigned through the thickness of the tire . Therefore, the thickness of the element is the same as the thickness of the tire ...to the whole part of the 3D full tire in the thermal analysis. The average strain energy density for each part ( tread or sidewall) in the cross

  6. Proceedings of Two Symposia on Nondestructive Testing of Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    understanding of this tire inspection area. But this better technical understanding will not guar - antee the success of either the industry or...control. Tires with very dark sur- face may be sprayed with talcum powder to improve their reflectance. Depending upon tire type and the required tire...products there has been a tendency to use some natural or synthetic cross-linking polymer gums which under extended heat conditions have tended to

  7. Modelling noise in second generation sequencing forensic genetics STR data using a one-inflated (zero-truncated) negative binomial model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsen, Søren B.; Tvedebrink, Torben; Mogensen, Helle Smidt

    2015-01-01

    We present a model fitting the distribution of non-systematic errors in STR second generation sequencing, SGS, analysis. The model fits the distribution of non-systematic errors, i.e. the noise, using a one-inflated, zero-truncated, negative binomial model. The model is a two component model...

  8. A self-starting hybrid optoelectronic oscillator generating ultra low jitter 10-GHz optical pulses and low phase noise electrical signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasri, J.; Bilenca, A.; Dahan, D.

    2002-01-01

    In this letter, we describe a self-starting optical pulse source generating ultra low noise 15-ps-wide pulses at 10 GHz. It is based on a hybrid optoelectronic oscillator comprising a fiber extended cavity mode-locked diode laser which injection locks a self-oscillating heterojunction bipolar...

  9. Alliances as a way to expand the collection of waste tires; Aliancas como forma de ampliar a coleta de pneus inserviveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Lauro Oliveira [Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This job search to answer to the question: the alliances contribute with the process of reverse logistics of Tires? For development of the theme it is necessary discourse about tires, reverse logistics and strategic alliances. The hypothesis that orientates the job is that the alliances enlarge the potential of collect of useless tires. The job aims at to identify like the partnerships influence in the process of reverse logistics of useless tires, and specifically: to indicate the potential generated by the alliances for the process of reverse logistics of useless tires. In this exploratory work, the bibliography turns on tires and reverse logistics, while the collection of information through on interviews structured with entrepreneurs of the branch of tires and the public service of collection of residues seeks to perfect the understanding of the business alliances on the logistics process. The results indicate that the hypothesis is confirmed amid the great number of useless tires collected by the public service, less among resellers and transporters that establish partnerships. (author)

  10. Characterization and simulation of noise in PET images reconstructed with OSEM: Development of a method for the generation of synthetic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, P; Huerga, C; Chamorro, P; Garayoa, J; Roch, M; Pérez, L

    2018-04-17

    The goals of the study are to characterize imaging properties in 2D PET images reconstructed with the iterative algorithm ordered-subset expectation maximization (OSEM) and to propose a new method for the generation of synthetic images. The noise is analyzed in terms of its magnitude, spatial correlation, and spectral distribution through standard deviation, autocorrelation function, and noise power spectrum (NPS), respectively. Their variations with position and activity level are also analyzed. This noise analysis is based on phantom images acquired from 18 F uniform distributions. Experimental recovery coefficients of hot spheres in different backgrounds are employed to study the spatial resolution of the system through point spread function (PSF). The NPS and PSF functions provide the baseline for the proposed simulation method: convolution with PSF as kernel and noise addition from NPS. The noise spectral analysis shows that the main contribution is of random nature. It is also proven that attenuation correction does not alter noise texture but it modifies its magnitude. Finally, synthetic images of 2 phantoms, one of them an anatomical brain, are quantitatively compared with experimental images showing a good agreement in terms of pixel values and pixel correlations. Thus, the contrast to noise ratio for the biggest sphere in the NEMA IEC phantom is 10.7 for the synthetic image and 8.8 for the experimental image. The properties of the analyzed OSEM-PET images can be described by NPS and PSF functions. Synthetic images, even anatomical ones, are successfully generated by the proposed method based on the NPS and PSF. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. A dual-band LO generation system using a 40GHz VCO with a phase noise of -106.8dBc/Hz at 1-MHz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Pei, Y.; Leenaerts, D.M.W.; Hanock, T.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a dual-band LO generation system using a low phase noise single-band 40GHz VCO as the signal source. The LO generation system has two outputs: single-band LO1 at 20GHz and dual-band LO2 switchable between 10GHz and 15GHz. Implemented in 0.25-µm SiGe:C BiCMOS, the VCO achieves

  12. 49 CFR 229.75 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 229.75 Section 229.75....75 Wheels and tire defects. Wheels and tires may not have any of the following conditions: (a) A... two adjoining spots that are each two or more inches in length. (e) A seam running lengthwise that is...

  13. 78 FR 66655 - Consumer Information; Uniform Tire Quality Grading Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... information indicating the relative performance of passenger car tires in the areas of treadwear, traction... [Docket No. NHTSA-2013-0120] RIN 2127-AL49 Consumer Information; Uniform Tire Quality Grading Standards...). ACTION: Interim final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Uniform Tire Quality Grading Standards...

  14. 49 CFR 230.112 - Wheels and tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... wheels mounted on the same axle shall not vary more than 1/4 inch. (d) Tire thickness. Wheels may not have tires with a minimum thickness less than that indicated in the table in this paragraph (d). When... the minimum thickness of tires may be as much below the limits specified earlier in this paragraph (d...

  15. Application of granulating of tires; Aplicaciones de granulado de NFUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Justicia, A.

    2001-07-01

    At present, used tires are mainly used as fuel, retreading and granulating of tires. In this article. I will focus on the last option, talking about some of the multiple applications and going into detail of the making process of the granulation of used tires in a recycling plant. (Author)

  16. 75 FR 15893 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... how much the proposed consumer information program would affect consumer tire purchasing behavior and... 575 Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No... 2127-AK45 Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety...

  17. A Third-Generation Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction Technique: Phantom Study of Image Noise, Spatial Resolution, Lesion Detectability, and Dose Reduction Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, André; Solomon, Justin; Marin, Daniele; Nelson, Rendon C; Samei, Ehsan

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess image noise, spatial resolution, lesion detectability, and the dose reduction potential of a proprietary third-generation adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR-V) technique. A phantom representing five different body sizes (12-37 cm) and a contrast-detail phantom containing lesions of five low-contrast levels (5-20 HU) and three sizes (2-6 mm) were deployed. Both phantoms were scanned on a 256-MDCT scanner at six different radiation doses (1.25-10 mGy). Images were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), ASIR-V with 50% blending with FBP (ASIR-V 50%), and ASIR-V without blending (ASIR-V 100%). In the first phantom, noise properties were assessed by noise power spectrum analysis. Spatial resolution properties were measured by use of task transfer functions for objects of different contrasts. Noise magnitude, noise texture, and resolution were compared between the three groups. In the second phantom, low-contrast detectability was assessed by nine human readers independently for each condition. The dose reduction potential of ASIR-V was estimated on the basis of a generalized linear statistical regression model. On average, image noise was reduced 37.3% with ASIR-V 50% and 71.5% with ASIR-V 100% compared with FBP. ASIR-V shifted the noise power spectrum toward lower frequencies compared with FBP. The spatial resolution of ASIR-V was equivalent or slightly superior to that of FBP, except for the low-contrast object, which had lower resolution. Lesion detection significantly increased with both ASIR-V levels (p = 0.001), with an estimated radiation dose reduction potential of 15% ± 5% (SD) for ASIR-V 50% and 31% ± 9% for ASIR-V 100%. ASIR-V reduced image noise and improved lesion detection compared with FBP and had potential for radiation dose reduction while preserving low-contrast detectability.

  18. Noise Reduction Properties of an Experimental Bituminous Slurry with Crumb Rubber Incorporated by the Dry Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Bueno

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, cold technology for asphalt pavement in the field of road construction is considered as an alternative solution to conventional procedures from both an economic and environmental point of view. Among these techniques, bituminous slurry surfacing is obtaining an important role due to the properties of the obtained wearing course. The functional performance of this type of surfaces is directly related to its rough texture. Nevertheless, this parameter has a significant influence on the tire/road noise generation. To reduce this undesirable effect on the sound performance, new designs of elastic bituminous slurries have been developed. Within the FENIX project, this work presents the acoustical characterization of an experimental bituminous slurry with crumb rubber from wasted automobile tires incorporated by the dry process. The obtained results show that, under controlled operational parameters, the close proximity sound levels associated to the experimental slurry are considerably lower than those emitted by a conventional slurry wearing course. However, after one year of supporting traffic loads and different weather conditions, the evaluated bituminous slurry, although it conserves the original noise reduction properties in relation to the conventional one, noticeably increases the generated sound emission. Therefore, it is required to continue improving the design of experimental surfaces in order to enhance its long-term performance.

  19. Shielding Characteristics Using an Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source to Generate Modes - Experimental Measurements and Analytical Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.; Walker, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    An Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source (UCFANS) was designed, built, and tested in support of the NASA Langley Research Center's 14x22 wind tunnel test of the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) full 3-D 5.8% scale model. The UCFANS is a 5.8% rapid prototype scale model of a high-bypass turbofan engine that can generate the tonal signature of proposed engines using artificial sources (no flow). The purpose of the program was to provide an estimate of the acoustic shielding benefits possible from mounting an engine on the upper surface of a wing; a flat plate model was used as the shielding surface. Simple analytical simulations were used to preview the radiation patterns - Fresnel knife-edge diffraction was coupled with a dense phased array of point sources to compute shielded and unshielded sound pressure distributions for potential test geometries and excitation modes. Contour plots of sound pressure levels, and integrated power levels, from nacelle alone and shielded configurations for both the experimental measurements and the analytical predictions are presented in this paper.

  20. Strength of mortar containing rubber tire particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, M. A.; Abdullah, S. R.; Adnan, S. H.

    2018-04-01

    The main focus in this investigation is to determine the strength consist compressive and tensile strength of mortar containing rubber tire particle. In fact, from the previous study, the strength of mortar containing waste rubber tire in mortar has a slightly decreases compare to normal mortar. In this study, rubber tire particle was replacing on volume of fine aggregate with 6%. 9% and 12%. The sample were indicated M0 (0%), M6 (6%), M9 (9%) and M12 (12%). In this study, two different size of sample used with cube 100mm x 100mm x 100mm for compressive strength and 40mm x 40mm x 160mm for flexural strength. Morphology test was conducted by using Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) were done after testing compressive strength test. The concrete sample were cured for day 3, 7 and 28 before testing. Results compressive strength and flexural strength of rubber mortar shown improved compare to normal mortar.

  1. The Cause of an Eddy Current Signal Noise from a Steam Generator Tube and its Effect on the Detectability of a Crack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Deok Hyun; Choi, Myung Sik; Hur, Do Haeng; Kim, Kyung Mo; Han, Jung Ho

    2008-01-01

    An eddy current inspection has been applied for a pre-service and in-service examination of a steam generator in nuclear power plants. The experience from the inspection of steam generators showed that many plants had an excessive number of tubes with eddy current noise signals over several hundreds, which originated from manufacturing anomalies. The plants in U.S suffered significant downstream inspection costs, history reviews, and diagnostic testing because some signals resembled flaws and others masked a flaw. These lessens learned resulted in issuing the guidelines for steam generator tubing specifications and repair, in order to reduce the number of anomalous signals in the tubes and also to provide the requirement of a signal to noise ratio by applying a field type examination with bobbin coil eddy current probes at a manufacturing process. Besides the noise signals of a bobbin coil eddy current probe from manufacturing anomalies, the excessive background noise of the rotating coil eddy current probe signal is frequently observed from a tube and it negatively affects the detection and sizing estimate of a defect. Since the inspection intervals are being extended up to 60 months for the more recent steam generator of corrosion resistant alloy 690TT tubing, the detection of an earlier crack and an accurate sizing are becoming more important in the activity of a non-destructive examination. In this study, the cause of an eddy current signal noise of a rotating coil probe from a steam generator tube was examined and its influence on the detectability of a crack was analyzed

  2. Hybrid Wing Body Shielding Studies Using an Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source Generating Typical Turbofan Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.; Brown, Cliff; Walker, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    An Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source (UCFANS) was designed, built, and tested in support of the NASA Langley Research Center's 14x22 wind tunnel test of the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) full 3-D 5.8% scale model. The UCFANS is a 5.8% rapid prototype scale model of a high-bypass turbofan engine that can generate the tonal signature of proposed engines using artificial sources (no flow). The purpose of the test was to provide an estimate of the acoustic shielding benefits possible from mounting the engine on the upper surface of an HWB aircraft using the projected signature of the engine currently proposed for the HWB. The modal structures at the rating points were generated from inlet and exhaust nacelle configurations - a flat plate model was used as the shielding surface and vertical control surfaces with correct plan form shapes were also tested to determine their additional impact on shielding. Radiated acoustic data were acquired from a traversing linear array of 13 microphones, spanning 36 inches. Two planes perpendicular, and two planes parallel, to the axis of the nacelle were acquired from the array sweep. In each plane the linear array traversed 4 sweeps, for a total span of 168 inches acquired. The resolution of the sweep is variable, so that points closer to the model are taken at a higher resolution. Contour plots of Sound Pressure Levels, and integrated Power Levels, from nacelle alone and shielded configurations are presented in this paper; as well as the in-duct mode power levels.

  3. Hybrid Wing Body Shielding Studies Using an Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source Generating Typical Turbofan Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Daniel l.; Brown, Clifford A.; Walker, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    An Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source (UCFANS) was designed, built, and tested in support of the NASA Langley Research Center's 14- by 22-ft wind tunnel test of the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) full 3-D 5.8 percent scale model. The UCFANS is a 5.8 percent rapid prototype scale model of a high-bypass turbofan engine that can generate the tonal signature of proposed engines using artificial sources (no flow). The purpose of the test was to provide an estimate of the acoustic shielding benefits possible from mounting the engine on the upper surface of an HWB aircraft using the projected signature of the engine currently proposed for the HWB. The modal structures at the rating points were generated from inlet and exhaust nacelle configurations--a flat plate model was used as the shielding surface and vertical control surfaces with correct plan form shapes were also tested to determine their additional impact on shielding. Radiated acoustic data were acquired from a traversing linear array of 13 microphones, spanning 36 in. Two planes perpendicular, and two planes parallel, to the axis of the nacelle were acquired from the array sweep. In each plane the linear array traversed four sweeps, for a total span of 168 in. acquired. The resolution of the sweep is variable, so that points closer to the model are taken at a higher resolution. Contour plots of Sound Pressure Levels, and integrated Power Levels, from nacelle alone and shielded configurations are presented in this paper; as well as the in-duct mode power levels

  4. Theoretical and experimental study of vibration, generated by monorail trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, Samuil A.; Makhortykh, Sergey A.; Kostarev, Stanislav A.

    2002-11-01

    Monorail transport as all other city transport vehicles is the source of high noise and vibration levels. It is less widespread than cars or underground transport but its influence in modern cities enhances. Now in Moscow the first monorail road with trains on tires is designed, therefore the problem of vibration and noise assessments and prediction of its impact on the residential region appears. To assess the levels of generated vibration a physical model of interaction in the system wagon-tire-road coating-viaduct-soil has been proposed and then numerically analyzed. The model is based on the known from publications facts of automobile transport vibration and our own practice concerning underground trains vibration generation. To verify computer simulation results and adjust model parameters the series of measurements of noise and vibration near experimental monorail road was carried out. In the report the results of calculations and measurements will be presented and some outcomes of possible acoustical ecologic situation near monorail roads will be proposed.

  5. Work environments and exposure to hazardous substances in korean tire manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Naroo; Lee, Byung-Kyu; Jeong, Sijeong; Yi, Gwang Yong; Shin, Jungah

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the tire manufacturing work environments extensively and to identify workers' exposure to hazardous substances in various work processes. Personal air sampling was conducted to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon disulfide, 1,3-butadiene, styrene, methyl isobutyl ketone, methylcyclohexane, formaldehyde, sulfur dioxide, and rubber fume in tire manufacturing plants using the National Institute for Occupational Safety Health Manual of Analytical Methods. Noise, carbon monoxide, and heat stress exposure were evaluated using direct reading instruments. Past concentrations of rubber fume were assessed using regression analysis of total particulate data from 2003 to 2007, after identifying the correlation between the concentration of total particulate and rubber fume. Workers were exposed to rubber fume that exceeded 0.6 mg/m(3), the maximum exposure limit of the UK, in curing and production management processes. Forty-seven percent of workers were exposed to noise levels exceeding 85 dBA. Workers in the production management process were exposed to 28.1℃ (wet bulb globe temperature value, WBGT value) even when the outdoor atmosphere was 2.7℃ (WBGT value). Exposures to other substances were below the limit of detection or under a tenth of the threshold limit values given by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. To better classify exposure groups and to improve work environments, examining closely at rubber fume components and temperature as risk indicators in tire manufacturing is recommended.

  6. Indirect Tire Monitoring System - Machine Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, O.; Thelin, S.; Byttner, S.; Fan, Y.

    2017-10-01

    The heavy vehicle industry has today no requirement to provide a tire pressure monitoring system by law. This has created issues surrounding unknown tire pressure and thread depth during active service. There is also no standardization for these kind of systems which means that different manufacturers and third party solutions work after their own principles and it can be hard to know what works for a given vehicle type. The objective is to create an indirect tire monitoring system that can generalize a method that detect both incorrect tire pressure and thread depth for different type of vehicles within a fleet without the need for additional physical sensors or vehicle specific parameters. The existing sensors that are connected communicate through CAN and are interpreted by the Drivec Bridge hardware that exist in the fleet. By using supervised machine learning a classifier was created for each axle where the main focus was the front axle which had the most issues. The classifier will classify the vehicles tires condition and will be implemented in Drivecs cloud service where it will receive its data. The resulting classifier is a random forest implemented in Python. The result from the front axle with a data set consisting of 9767 samples of buses with correct tire condition and 1909 samples of buses with incorrect tire condition it has an accuracy of 90.54% (0.96%). The data sets are created from 34 unique measurements from buses between January and May 2017. This classifier has been exported and is used inside a Node.js module created for Drivecs cloud service which is the result of the whole implementation. The developed solution is called Indirect Tire Monitoring System (ITMS) and is seen as a process. This process will predict bad classes in the cloud which will lead to warnings. The warnings are defined as incidents. They contain only the information needed and the bandwidth of the incidents are also controlled so incidents are created within an

  7. Potential to use waste tires as supplemental fuel in pulp and paper mill boilers, cement kilns and in road pavement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlaz, M.A.; Eleazer, W.E. II (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Whittle, D.J.

    1993-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the recycling potential of waste tires as an energy source and for use in road pavement. North Carolina, U.S.A., is used as a case study. Scrap tires may be burned for supplemental fuel in pulp and paper mill boilers and cement kilns. Five pulp and paper mill boilers in North Carolina could consume over 90% of the 6 million tires generated annually in the state. Cement kilns located within 400 km of North Carolina population centers could consume about 6.6 million tires annually. Based on the quantity of pavement laid in North Carolina, non-proprietary and proprietary versions of asphalt rubber concrete have the potential to consume 1.8 and 7.2 million tires, respectively. Rubber modified asphalt concrete has the potential to consume up to 16.5 million tires. However, technological and economic limitations suggest that large scale implementation is unlikely for the short term. Environmental considerations pertaining to each alternative are discussed. (author)

  8. Empirical Analysis of Pneumatic Tire Friction on Ice

    OpenAIRE

    Holley, Troy Nigel

    2010-01-01

    Pneumatic tire friction on ice is an under-researched area of tire mechanics. This study covers the design and analysis of a series of pneumatic tire tests on a flat-level ice road surface. The terramechanics rig of the Advanced Vehicle Dynamics Lab (AVDL) is a single-wheel test rig that allows for the experimental analysis of the forces and moments on a tire, providing directly the data for the drawbar pull of said tire, thus supporting the calculation of friction based on this data. This...

  9. A molecular dynamics (MD simulation on tire-aggregate friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyan Sun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The friction between tire and road surface is fundamentally depending on the molecular forces. In this paper, the nanoscale 3D contact model is employed to investigate the tire-aggregate friction mechanism. The tire and aggregate micro-structure are both constructed to evaluate the microscopic performance of tire-aggregate friction influence. Simulation results show for a high velocity, the energy dissipation of sliding on crystal structure is small, which results in a small friction coefficient; temperature will have influences on the friction coefficient, and with the increasing of velocity, the effect will gradually reduce. Keywords: Tire, Aggregate, Friction coefficient, Microscopic mechanism, MD simulation

  10. Measuring service life and evaluating the quality of solid tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charoenyut Dechwayukul

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to propose procedures for measuring service life and evaluating the quality of locallymade and used solid tires in Thailand. The solid tires were stressed and rotated until blowout on a drum-like test apparatuswhich is designed, constructed by the authors and equipped with laboratory instrumentation. Solid tires from five differentmanufacturers were selected for testing. We measured service life, length of time to tire failure, at three different loadingamplitudes and three different speeds on the testing drum. The service life of all specimens was studied and compared todetermine the possibility of using service life to evaluate the quality of a solid tire.

  11. Study on profile measurement of extruding tire tread by laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, LiangCai; Zhang, Wanping; Zhu, Weihu

    1996-10-01

    This paper presents a new 2D measuring system-profile measurement of extruding tire tread by laser. It includes the thickness measurement of extruding tire tread by laser and the width measurement of extruding tire tread using Moire Fringe. The system has been applied to process line of extruding tire tread. Two measuring results have been obtained. One is a standard profile picture of extruding tire tread including seven measuring values. Another one is a series of thickness and width values. When the scanning speed thickness range is thickness < +/- 0.1mm.

  12. Acoustic Behavior of Hollow Blocks and Bricks Made of Concrete Doped with Waste-Tire Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Fraile-Garcia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the acoustic behaviour of building elements made of concrete doped with waste-tire rubber. Three different mixtures were created, with 0%, 10%, and 20% rubber in their composition. Bricks, lattice joists, and hollow blocks were manufactured with each mixture, and three different cells were built and tested against aerial and impact noise. The values of the global acoustic isolation and the reduction of the sound pressure level of impacts were measured. Results proved that highly doped elements are an excellent option to isolate low frequency sounds, whereas intermediate and standard elements constitute a most interesting option to block middle and high frequency sounds. In both cases, the considerable amount of waste-tire rubber recycled could justify the employment of the doped materials for the sake of the environment.

  13. A simplified, improved method for making amplifier equivalent noise charge measurements using a new generation digitizing oscilloscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, T.

    1990-10-01

    Historically a variety of methods have been used to measure the equivalent noise charge (ENC) of amplifier/shaper systems for high energy physics. Some of these methods require several pieces of special test equipment and a fair amount of effort. The advent of digitizing oscilloscopes with statistics capabilities makes it possible to perform certain types of noise measurements accurately with very little effort. This paper describes the noise measurement method of a time invariant amplifier/shaper and of a time variant correlated sampling system, using a Tektronix DSA602 Digitizing Signal Analyzer. 4 figs

  14. Optoelectronic cross-injection locking of a dual-wavelength photonic integrated circuit for low-phase-noise millimeter-wave generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervella, Gaël; Van Dijk, Frederic; Pillet, Grégoire; Lamponi, Marco; Chtioui, Mourad; Morvan, Loïc; Alouini, Mehdi

    2015-08-01

    We report on the stabilization of a 90-GHz millimeter-wave signal generated from a fully integrated photonic circuit. The chip consists of two DFB single-mode lasers whose optical signals are combined on a fast photodiode to generate a largely tunable heterodyne beat note. We generate an optical comb from each laser with a microwave synthesizer, and by self-injecting the resulting signal, we mutually correlate the phase noise of each DFB and stabilize the beatnote on a multiple of the frequency delivered by the synthesizer. The performances achieved beat note linewidth below 30 Hz.

  15. Recovery and disposal of discarded tires in the Taiwan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J S; Roam, G D

    1994-12-01

    Urbanization and industrialization has resulted in a vast amount of artificial water containers in Taiwan, especially discarded automobile tires. 3.5 million automobile tires and several million motorcycle tires are discarded annually. The discarded tires contaminate the environment and also become a substantial number of breeding sites for the dengue vector mosquitoes. In order to establish a sound system for the recovery and disposal of discarded tires and to control dengue fever through source reduction, it has been emphasized that users must pay for their waste. It is necessary to recover and properly dispose of these discarded tired. The commercial firms which sell or manufacture tires are therefore advised to cooperate with the Environmental Protection Administration of the Executive Yuan, R.O.C. and follow the "Regulations of Recovery and Disposal of Discarded Tires". They are requested to establish foundations for the recovery of discarded tires. Those who are willing to join should prepay a deposit or related charge by the size of tire, which is imported or locally manufactured. The foundation utilizes the deposits for the recovery and disposal of discarded tires. From 1991 to 1993 the commercial tire firms had already achieved the 80% recovery rates declared by the authorities concerned. Some of the tires, after having been recovered, were recycled in the original form and the rest were cut into small pieces for recycling after physical treatment. It should be mentioned that the Department of Environmental Protection of Kaohsiung City has collected 80 thousand discarded automobile tires to be used as ocean jetty.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Harmonic filter design consideration for a tire-rubber factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebardast, A. [Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Abhar Branch]|[Sharif Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mokhtari, H. [Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Nonlinear loads and arc furnace loads are the main sources of harmonic currents in power distribution systems. Harmonic currents can cause reductions in system efficiency, and shorten the lifespan of transformers and capacitor banks. This paper provided details of a filter designed to attenuate harmonic currents at a tire company in Iran. The tire company was supplied by 3 distribution transformers and an emergency transformer. Main supply was through a 132 kV/20 kV transformer, which was connected to 2 A and B stations. The AC/DC drivers generated harmonics. Harmonic measurements were performed to determine the type and size of the required filters. A summary of site harmonic measurements was provided. A passive filter was placed at a medium voltage location. A sensitivity analysis was then performed in order to assess loading effects on filter performance. The analysis was performed on all possible configurations in the plant, including load change, capacitor bank step change, and transformer energization. Resonance conditions were also examined. Results showed that attention must be paid to the filter component rating in addition to potential resonant conditions. It was concluded that resonant conditions alter when system operating conditions change. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Report on inter-noise 99; Inter-noise 99 sanka hokok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, H. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Inter-Noise (International Congress on Noise Control Engineering) is a society on noise/vibration and the control technology. Inter-Noise 99 was held on December 6, 7 and 8, 1999, at Fort Lauderdale, Florida, the U.S. The theme was Noise Control in the New Millennium. The number of the participants registered was 555 (151 from the U.S., 89 from Japan, 248 from European countries, and 69 from Asian/other countries). Dr. Harold Marshall gave a keynote lecture titled Noise Control by Design in the 21st Century - An Architectural Acoustic Perspective. From a standpoint of architectural acoustics, he stated the perspective, subjects, and course of the technical development pertaining to technologies needed in the 21st century. The papers read are mostly from the following fields: measuring technology, military exercise noise, modeling, forecast and simulation, aerodynamic/underwater sound, etc. In the session on the tire noise where the author read a paper, 14 papers were read. The number of the papers read was more than that in 1998, probably influenced by the tire noise regulation in Europe and Japan. (translated by NEDO)

  18. Mechanical Properties Experimental Study of Engineering Vehicle Refurbished Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Wang; Xiaojie, Qi; Zhao, Yang; Yunlong, Wang; Guotian, Wang; Degang, Lv

    2018-05-01

    The vehicle refurbished tire test system was constructed, got load-deformation, load-stiffness, and load-compression ratio property laws of engineering vehicle refurbished tire under the working condition of static state and ground contact, and built radial direction loading deformation mathematics model of 26.5R25 engineering vehicle refurbished tire. The test results show that radial-direction and side-direction deformation value is a little less than that of the new tire. The radial-direction stiffness and compression ratio of engineering vehicle refurbished tire were greatly influenced by radial-direction load and air inflation pressure. When load was certain, radial-direction stiffness would increase with air inflation pressure increasing. When air inflation pressure was certain, compression ratio of engineering vehicle refurbished tire would enlarge with radial-direction load increasing, which was a little less than that of the new and the same type tire. Aging degree of old car-case would exert a great influence on deformation property of engineering vehicle refurbished tire, thus engineering vehicle refurbished tires are suitable to the working condition of low tire pressure and less load.

  19. An Analytical Tire Model with Flexible Carcass for Combined Slips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tire mechanical characteristics under combined cornering and braking/driving situations have significant effects on vehicle directional controls. The objective of this paper is to present an analytical tire model with flexible carcass for combined slip situations, which can describe tire behavior well and can also be used for studying vehicle dynamics. The tire forces and moments come mainly from the shear stress and sliding friction at the tread-road interface. In order to describe complicated tire characteristics and tire-road friction, some key factors are considered in this model: arbitrary pressure distribution; translational, bending, and twisting compliance of the carcass; dynamic friction coefficient; anisotropic stiffness properties. The analytical tire model can describe tire forces and moments accurately under combined slip conditions. Some important properties induced by flexible carcass can also be reflected. The structural parameters of a tire can be identified from tire measurements and the computational results using the analytical model show good agreement with test data.

  20. An analytically-based method for predicting the noise generated by the interaction between turbulence and a serrated leading edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, J. R.; Peake, N.

    2018-05-01

    This paper considers the interaction of turbulence with a serrated leading edge. We investigate the noise produced by an aerofoil moving through a turbulent perturbation to uniform flow by considering the scattered pressure from the leading edge. We model the aerofoil as an infinite half plane with a leading edge serration, and develop an analytical model using a Green's function based upon the work of Howe. This allows us to consider both deterministic eddies and synthetic turbulence interacting with the leading edge. We show that it is possible to reduce the noise by using a serrated leading edge compared with a straight edge, but the optimal noise-reducing choice of serration is hard to predict due to the complex interaction. We also consider the effect of angle of attack, and find that in general the serrations are less effective at higher angles of attack.

  1. Toxicity of tire wear particle leachate to the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Andrew, E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.u [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Rice, Lynsey [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Tire wear particles filed from the treads of end-of-life vehicle tires have been added to sea water to examine the release of Zn and the toxicity of the resulting leachate and dilutions thereof to the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca. Zinc release appeared to be diffusion-controlled, with a conditional rate constant of 5.4 {mu}g[L(h){sup 1/2}]{sup -1}, and about 1.6% of total Zn was released after 120 h incubation. Exposure to increasing concentrations of leachate resulted in a non-linear reduction in the efficiency of photochemical energy conversion of U. lactuca and, with the exception of the undiluted leachate, increasing accumulation of Zn. Phototoxicity was significantly lower on exposure to equivalent concentrations of Zn added as Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, suggesting that organic components of leachate are largely responsible for the overall toxicity to the alga. Given the ubiquity and abundance of TWP in urban coastal sediments, the generation, biogeochemistry and toxicity of tire leachate in the marine setting merit further attention. - Tire wear leachate is toxic to Ulva lactuca and zinc is a potential bioindicator of leachate contamination in urban marine systems.

  2. Automobile Tire Assessment: A Multi-Criteria Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ateekh-Ur-Rehman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In response to the present dynamic market, automobile manufacturing industries are constantly evaluating and improving their manufacturing strategies to stay competitive. It is also evident that they evaluate those strategies considering multiple criteria. In one such case, an automobile project manager has to ensure that the selected tire (among the available alternatives complies with the prospective automobile’s performance. This paper presents an approach for the assessment of alternative automobile tires taking into account multiple criteria, such as tire sustainability, tire road performance, environmental issues, tire purchase cost and tire road grip. The presented approach is quite helpful to any decision maker who is interested not only in ranking alternatives but also in establishing the superiority of an alternative over others. The approach also helps to specify the position of each alternative with respect to ideal solution. A case illustration is used to demonstrate an application of the approach.

  3. Development and Verification of the Tire/Road Friction Estimation Algorithm for Antilock Braking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Road friction information is very important for vehicle active braking control systems such as ABS, ASR, or ESP. It is not easy to estimate the tire/road friction forces and coefficient accurately because of the nonlinear system, parameters uncertainties, and signal noises. In this paper, a robust and effective tire/road friction estimation algorithm for ABS is proposed, and its performance is further discussed by simulation and experiment. The tire forces were observed by the discrete Kalman filter, and the road friction coefficient was estimated by the recursive least square method consequently. Then, the proposed algorithm was analysed and verified by simulation and road test. A sliding mode based ABS with smooth wheel slip ratio control and a threshold based ABS by pulse pressure control with significant fluctuations were used for the simulation. Finally, road tests were carried out in both winter and summer by the car equipped with the same threshold based ABS, and the algorithm was evaluated on different road surfaces. The results show that the proposed algorithm can identify the variation of road conditions with considerable accuracy and response speed.

  4. A new use for old tires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louie, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the Dreamcatcher oil spill technology developed by National Oilwell Varco Canada. The products and services using this technology can save recycled tires from the landfill, which makes the planet a greener place. The products and services in question are those used for remediating and preventing soil and water contamination. The technological products use rubber tires and degrade the rubber into two compounds. The first is the smart crumb, which is a fine rubber crumb used for oil spill adsorption on land. The second is the aqua fiber, a fiber/rubber compound that is used to adsorb oil spills on water. Both are oleophilic (oil attracting) and hydrophobic (water repelling). This allows them to filter hydrocarbons quickly from water. After the smart crumb adsorbs hydrocarbons, it is then used to make asphalt products and the aqua fiber is used to replace sand and gravel in residential and commercial concrete and asphalt respectively.

  5. A new use for old tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, Jacqueline

    2011-12-15

    This paper presents the Dreamcatcher oil spill technology developed by National Oilwell Varco Canada. The products and services using this technology can save recycled tires from the landfill, which makes the planet a greener place. The products and services in question are those used for remediating and preventing soil and water contamination. The technological products use rubber tires and degrade the rubber into two compounds. The first is the smart crumb, which is a fine rubber crumb used for oil spill adsorption on land. The second is the aqua fiber, a fiber/rubber compound that is used to adsorb oil spills on water. Both are oleophilic (oil attracting) and hydrophobic (water repelling). This allows them to filter hydrocarbons quickly from water. After the smart crumb adsorbs hydrocarbons, it is then used to make asphalt products and the aqua fiber is used to replace sand and gravel in residential and commercial concrete and asphalt respectively.

  6. Controlled Noise Seismology

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2015-08-19

    We use controlled noise seismology (CNS) to generate surface waves, where we continuously record seismic data while generating artificial noise along the profile line. To generate the CNS data we drove a vehicle around the geophone line and continuously recorded the generated noise. The recorded data set is then correlated over different time windows and the correlograms are stacked together to generate the surface waves. The virtual shot gathers reveal surface waves with moveout velocities that closely approximate those from active source shot gathers.

  7. Controlled Noise Seismology

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.; AlTheyab, Abdullah; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2015-01-01

    We use controlled noise seismology (CNS) to generate surface waves, where we continuously record seismic data while generating artificial noise along the profile line. To generate the CNS data we drove a vehicle around the geophone line and continuously recorded the generated noise. The recorded data set is then correlated over different time windows and the correlograms are stacked together to generate the surface waves. The virtual shot gathers reveal surface waves with moveout velocities that closely approximate those from active source shot gathers.

  8. A general procedure to generate models for urban environmental-noise pollution using feature selection and machine learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torija, Antonio J; Ruiz, Diego P

    2015-02-01

    The prediction of environmental noise in urban environments requires the solution of a complex and non-linear problem, since there are complex relationships among the multitude of variables involved in the characterization and modelling of environmental noise and environmental-noise magnitudes. Moreover, the inclusion of the great spatial heterogeneity characteristic of urban environments seems to be essential in order to achieve an accurate environmental-noise prediction in cities. This problem is addressed in this paper, where a procedure based on feature-selection techniques and machine-learning regression methods is proposed and applied to this environmental problem. Three machine-learning regression methods, which are considered very robust in solving non-linear problems, are used to estimate the energy-equivalent sound-pressure level descriptor (LAeq). These three methods are: (i) multilayer perceptron (MLP), (ii) sequential minimal optimisation (SMO), and (iii) Gaussian processes for regression (GPR). In addition, because of the high number of input variables involved in environmental-noise modelling and estimation in urban environments, which make LAeq prediction models quite complex and costly in terms of time and resources for application to real situations, three different techniques are used to approach feature selection or data reduction. The feature-selection techniques used are: (i) correlation-based feature-subset selection (CFS), (ii) wrapper for feature-subset selection (WFS), and the data reduction technique is principal-component analysis (PCA). The subsequent analysis leads to a proposal of different schemes, depending on the needs regarding data collection and accuracy. The use of WFS as the feature-selection technique with the implementation of SMO or GPR as regression algorithm provides the best LAeq estimation (R(2)=0.94 and mean absolute error (MAE)=1.14-1.16 dB(A)). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Planar Quasi-Static Constraint Mode Tire Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-10

    strikes a balance between simple tire models that lack the fidelity to make accurate chassis load predictions and computationally intensive models that...strikes a balance between heuristic tire models (such as a linear point-follower) that lack the fidelity to make accurate chassis load predictions...UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Cleared for public release A PLANAR QUASI-STATIC CONSTRAINT MODE TIRE MODEL Rui Maa John B. Ferris

  10. Performance of Used Tire Cushion Layer under Rockfall Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jianhu; Chu, Zhaojun; Liu, Yingfang; Luo, Weiming; Wang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Rock shed is widely used in traffic lines against rockfall. In order to cushion rockfall impact and dissipate impact energy, cushion layer is usually adopted in rock shed. Used tire cushion layer is proposed in this paper and it can cushion rockfall impact utilizing large radial deformation of tire. Reinforced concrete structure model is built with used tire cushion layer and artificial rockfall test is carried out. Twelve tests are divided into 4 sets with different rockfall mass, rockfall h...

  11. Tire Shred Backfill in Mechanically Stabilized Earth Wall Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Balunaini, Umashankar; Yoon, Sungmin; Prezzi, Monica; Salgado, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Tire shred-soil mixture backfill for use in mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls has several advantages over traditional backfill materials: 1) good drainage, 2) high shear strength, 3) low compacted unit weight and 4) low lateral pressure exerted on retaining structures. This work presents the results of laboratory tests performed on tire shred-sand mixtures focusing on determining the properties required for their use as backfill in MSE wall applications. Three sizes of tire shreds are...

  12. Deterministic and Stochastic Semi-Empirical Transient Tire Models

    OpenAIRE

    Umsrithong, Anake

    2012-01-01

    The tire is one of the most important components of the vehicle. It has many functions, such as supporting the load of the vehicle, transmitting the forces which drive, brake and guide the vehicle, and acting as the secondary suspension to absorb the effect of road irregularities before transmitting the forces to the vehicle suspension. A tire is a complex reinforced rubber composite air container. The structure of the tire is very complex. It consists of several layers of synthetic polymer, ...

  13. The design and improvement of radial tire molding machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenhao; Zhang, Tao

    2018-04-01

    This paper presented that the high accuracy semisteel meridian tire molding machine structure configurations, combining tyre high precision characteristics, the original structure and parameter optimization, technology improvement innovation design period of opening and closing machine rotary shaping drum institutions. This way out of the shaft from the structure to the push-pull type movable shaping drum of thinking limit, compared with the specifications and shaping drum can smaller contraction, is conducive to forming the tire and reduce the tire deformation.

  14. Oxidative desulfurization of tire pyrolysis oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shahzad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low cost method for the purification of oils obtained from the pyrolysis of used tires. Oxidative desulfurization is a promising route for purification of tire pyrolysis oils as hydro-desulfurization may not be affordable for small scale industries. Different additives and acids have been employed for the enhancement of properties of pyrolytic oils. The experimental conditions were kept identical throughout, i.e. atmospheric pressure and 50°C temperature for comparison of performance of various additives. The use of hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid mixture (10 wt.% was found more economical and effective in desulfurization and improvement of fuel properties of sample oils. The contribution of sulfuric acid in desulfurization and decreasing viscosity was also satisfactory but due to high price of concentrated sulfuric acid its use may not be economical. Calcium oxide and Fuller’s earth was not found to be effective in desulfurization. Results indicate that oxidative desulfurization could render tire pyrolysis oils suitable for blending as heating fuel.

  15. Experiments on Spray from a Rolling Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovich, Charles; Browand, Fred

    2010-11-01

    A novel laboratory apparatus has been built to understand the mechanisms and statistics of droplet production for spray emerging from a rolling tire. Using high-speed imaging, water passing through a single circumferential groove was observed to leave the tire contact patch in the form of a liquid sheet of non-uniform thickness. The sheet breaks into droplets as a result of several, organized instabilities. Measurements for the breakup length of the liquid sheet showed a dependence on Weber number proportional to We-1/6, for Weber numbers of 2700, 10900 and 24400. A technique to identify and size water droplets was developed and the distribution of droplet sizes was determined as a function of Weber number. At We = 2700, droplet sizes between 80 and 9000μm were detected, with a mean diameter near 800μm. Both the range of droplet sizes and the mean diameter were found to decrease with increasing Weber number as (approximately) We-1/2. Correlation Image Velocimetry (CIV) was used to estimate the distribution of droplet velocities as a function of droplet size. The spread of droplet velocities about the tire peripheral speed is strongly correlated with droplet size. The spread can be estimated by a simple physical model incorporating rigid droplets subject to gravity and drag.

  16. In-plane Tire Deformation Measurement Using a Multi-Laser Sensor System

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The interactions between tires and roads are basic mechanisms that alter the dynamic states of vehicles. A fundamental understanding of tire-road interactions is clearly demanded in tire design to achieve performance improvements. The emergence of various tire sensors provides an opportunity to make accurate measurement of the physical quantities that are involved in tire-road interactions.  This thesis aims to measure and analyze the in-plane deformation of rolling tires through its direc...

  17. Geotechnical Properties of Rubber Tires and Sediments Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sellaf

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An experimental work was undertaken to study the effect of rubber tires on the geotechnical properties of a dredged sediment, using a mixing ratio of large size. For comparison, two types of soil were studied (dredged sediment from Fergoug dam and Tizi Tuff from the north west of Algeria. Taking into account the high compressibility and the low water absorption of the rubber tires, grain size analysis, density, Atterberg limits analysis, chemical composition, direct shear tests, loading-unloading tests, modified Proctor and CBR tests are performed on the two soils and their mixtures with different scrap tire rubber (10, 20, 25 and 50%. The results show that liquid limits and plastic indexes decrease with the scrap tire rubber content and that the decrease is more significant for soil with high plasticity. Cohesion also decreases with scrap tire rubber content when the internal friction angle is vacillating. Compression and recompression indexes increase gradually with the scrap tire rubber content and the variation for compression index is more significant for the two soils. Compaction characteristics and CBR values decrease with scrap tire rubber content. The CBR values for W=3% are important compared to those with W=5% excepted for mixture with (75% tuff and 25% scrap tire rubber. The results show that the scrap tire rubber can be used as a reinforcement material for dredged soil, but with a content that should not highly affect the compressibility.

  18. Who benefited from the US tariffs on the Chinese tires?

    OpenAIRE

    Joonhyung, Lee

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the short-run effect of the tariffs on Chinese tires imposed by the US in September 2009. First, we investigated whether the tariffs were beneficial to the US domestic tire industry in terms of employment. Our empirical analysis found that there were no significant benefits to US employment in the tire industry. This result led us to the next question: Who benefited from the tariffs? We found that the tire imports to the US were significantly deviated ...

  19. Analysis of Tire Contact Parameters Using Visual Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Ivanov

    2010-01-01

    The first part of this paper presents the results of experimental estimation of the contact patch area depending on the normal wheel load and inflation pressure for different car tires. The data were obtained for test bench conditions on the basis of the visual processing of tread footprint. Further, the contact length in the cohesion area during wheel rolling for single points on the tire profile has been chosen as a benchmark criterion. This paper has analyzed the influence of the wheel normal load and tire inflation pressure on the contact length with small rolling velocities. The results of the investigations are given for winter and racing tires with different grades of wear.

  20. Environmental impact caused by incorrect discard of tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória Emanuella da Silva Alves

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tires are wastes that need special treatment, because when buried whole, its shape facilitates the accumulation of gases from the decomposition of other waste and in case of emerge surface provides shelter for diseases. Thus, this research aimed to provide information about the environmental impacts caused by the improper disposal of unserviceable tires and about some techniques for reusing and recycling them. We opted for the literature search using databases SCIELO, GOOGLE SCHOLAR, CAPES journals, resolutions of the MMA, the ANIP and regulations of IBAMA instructions. The consultation material comprises a period from 1992 to 2015 with the following descriptors: industrial waste; laws of tires; environmental impacts caused by improper disposal of tires and technological alternatives usable by tires and scrap therefore improper disposal of scrap tires can cause negative impacts such as floods, by reducing the flow capacity of water bodies and drains. In contrast, after use, the tire can undergo reform and be reused, but the wear out is completely characterized as waste tire and the correct disposal are the possible ways of recycling. Thus it is very important compliance of laws that deal with the proper disposal of tires.

  1. USING THE SCRAP TIRES TO PRODUCE A FLEXIBLE COUPLER

    OpenAIRE

    Tahsean A. Hussain

    2018-01-01

    The scrap tires considered a problematic source of waste, the old rubber tires causes a big environmental problem that is need much money and effort to disposes it safely. In Iraq there are more than two million used tires disposed to the environment annually. one of the tire’s recycling methods is the use of tire layers to produce a new rubber parts used in the engineering and industrial purposes as the bridges and machines dampers, this trend of recycling doesn’t take a sufficient care comp...

  2. Intelligent tires for identifying coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces using three-axis accelerometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Kamai, Kazuto; Seki, Ryosuke

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent tires equipped with sensors as well as the monitoring of the tire/road contact conditions are in demand for improving vehicle control and safety. With the aim of identifying the coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces during driving, including during cornering, we develop an identification scheme for the coefficient of friction that involves estimation of the slip angle and applied force by using a single lightweight three-axis accelerometer attached on the inner surface of the tire. To validate the developed scheme, we conduct tire-rolling tests using an accelerometer-equipped tire with various slip angles on various types of road surfaces, including dry and wet surfaces. The results of these tests confirm that the estimated slip angle and applied force are reasonable. Furthermore, the identified coefficient of friction by the developed scheme agreed with that measured by standardized tests. (paper)

  3. Integrated forward and reverse supply chain: A tire case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedram, Ali; Yusoff, Nukman Bin; Udoncy, Olugu Ezutah; Mahat, Abu Bakar; Pedram, Payam; Babalola, Ayo

    2017-02-01

    This paper attempts to integrate both a forward and reverse supply chain to design a closed-loop supply chain network (CLSC). The problem in the design of a CLSC network is uncertainty in demand, return products and the quality of return products. Scenario analyses are generated to overcome this uncertainty. In contrast to the existing supply chain network design models, a new application of a CLSC network was studied in this paper to reduce waste. A multi-product, multi-tier mixed integer linear model is developed for a CLSC network design. The main objective is to maximize profit and provide waste management decision support in order to minimize pollution. The result shows applicability of the model in the tire industry. The model determines the number and the locations of facilities and the material flows between these facilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimization of fuel recovery through the stepwise co-pyrolysis of palm shell and scrap tire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnisa, Faisal; Wan Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The co-pyrolysis of palm shell and scrap tire was studied. • The effect of stepwise co-pyrolysis temperature was investigated. • Co-pyrolysis successfully improved the quantity and quality of product yields. • Stepwise co-pyrolysis slightly increased oil and gas, and decreased char. • The co-pyrolysis of 50% biomass and 50% scrap tire is recommended. - Abstract: This study optimized the use of biomass waste to generate fuel through co-pyrolysis. In this paper, the effects of stepwise co-pyrolysis temperature and different ratios between palm shells and scrap tires in feedstock were studied to observe any improvements in the quantity and quality of the liquid yield and its byproduct. The ratio of palm shells and scrap tires varied at 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100. The experiment was conducted in a fixed-bed reactor. The study was divided into two scenarios. The first scenario was performed at the optimum temperature of 500 °C with a reaction time of 60 min. In the second scenario, the temperature was set at 500 °C for 60 min before the temperature was increased to 800 °C with a high heating rate. After the temperature reached 800 °C, the condition was maintained for approximately 45 min. Results showed that an increase in the liquid and gas yields was achieved when the temperature increased after optimum conditions. Increased yield was also obtained when the proportion of scrap tire was increased in the feedstock. Several other important findings are discussed in this paper, including the phases of pyrolysis oil, features of the liquid product, and characteristics of the byproducts. All products from both scenarios were analyzed by various methods to understand their fuel characteristics

  5. Combat aircraft noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgarbozza, M.; Depitre, A.

    1992-04-01

    A discussion of the characteristics and the noise levels of combat aircraft and of a transport aircraft in taking off and landing are presented. Some methods of noise reduction are discussed, including the following: operational anti-noise procedures; and concepts of future engines (silent post-combustion and variable cycle). Some measurement results concerning the noise generated in flight at great speeds and low altitude will also be examined. Finally, the protection of the environment of French air bases against noise will be described and the possibilities of regulation examined.

  6. Noise and vibration reduction technology in hybrid vehicle development; Hybrid sha kaihatsu ni okeru shindo soon teigen gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioa, T.; Sugita, H. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Accomplishing both environmental protection and good NVH performance has become a significant task in automotive development The first-in-the-world hybrid passenger car of mass production. 'Prius', has achieved superior NV performance compared with conventional vehicles with a 1.5-liter engine along with 50% reduction of fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. low HC, CO and NO{sub x} emissions. This paper describes NV reduction technology for solving problems peculiar to the hybrid vehicle such as engine start/stop vibration, drone noise at low engine speed and motor/generator noise and vibration. It also mentions application technology of low rolling resistance tires with light weight wheels and recycled material for sound proofing. (author)

  7. Development of an Intelligent Tire Based Tire - Vehicle State Estimator for Application to Global Chassis Control

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Kanwar Bharat

    2012-01-01

    The contact between the tire and the road is the key enabler of vehicle acceleration, deceleration and steering. However, under the circumstances of sudden changes to the road conditions, the driver`s ability to maintain control of the vehicle maybe at risk. In many cases, this requires intervention from the chassis control systems onboard the vehicle. Although these systems perform well in a variety of situations, their performance can be improved if a real-time estimate of the tire-road c...

  8. Riding on air: critical safety information for you and your tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This booklet is issued for public distribution by Transport Canada. It provides a few simple tips concerning automobile tire safety which, if followed, is expected to result in increased personal and vehicle safety, improved fuel economy, prolonged tire life, energy savings and reduced environmental pollution. The information provided include tips about tire pressure, tire inspection for damage and wear, rotation of tires for more even wear, replacing worn tires, the advantages of using snow tires in winter and an explanation of the meaning of the information found on the tire sidewall.

  9. Active Noise Control for Dishwasher noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nokhaeng; Park, Youngjin

    2016-09-01

    The dishwasher is a useful home appliance and continually used for automatically washing dishes. It's commonly placed in the kitchen with built-in style for practicality and better use of space. In this environment, people are easily exposed to dishwasher noise, so it is an important issue for the consumers, especially for the people living in open and narrow space. Recently, the sound power levels of the noise are about 40 - 50 dBA. It could be achieved by removal of noise sources and passive means of insulating acoustical path. For more reduction, such a quiet mode with the lower speed of cycle has been introduced, but this deteriorates the washing capacity. Under this background, we propose active noise control for dishwasher noise. It is observed that the noise is propagating mainly from the lower part of the front side. Control speakers are placed in the part for the collocation. Observation part of estimating sound field distribution and control part of generating the anti-noise are designed for active noise control. Simulation result shows proposed active noise control scheme could have a potential application for dishwasher noise reduction.

  10. Short-term association between road traffic noise and healthcare demand generated by Parkinson's disease in Madrid, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Julio; Martínez-Martín, Pablo; Rodríguez-Blázquez, Carmen; Vázquez, Blanca; Forjaz, Maria João; Ortiz, Cristina; Carmona, Rocío; Linares, Cristina

    2017-03-23

    To analyse whether there is a short-term association between road traffic noise in the city of Madrid and Parkinson's disease (PD)-related demand for healthcare. Time-series analysis (2008-2009) using variables of analysis linked to emergency and daily PD-related demand for healthcare (ICD-10: G20-G21), namely, PD-hospital admissions (HAs), PD-outpatient visits (OVs) and PD-emergency medical calls in Madrid. The noise pollution measurements used were Leqd, equivalent sound level for the daytime hours (from 8 a.m. to 10 p.m.), and Leqn, equivalent sound level for night time hours (from 10 p.m. to 8 a.m.) in dB(A). We controlled for temperature, pollution, trends and seasons, and used the Poisson regression model to calculate relative risk (RR). The association between Leqd and HAs was found to be linear. Leqd and Leqn at lag 0.1 and temperature at lags 1 and 5 were the only environmental variables associated with increased PD-related healthcare demand. The RR (lag 0) for Leqd and HA was 1.07 (1.04-1.09), the RR (lag 0) for Leqd and OV was 1.28 (1.12-1.45), and the RR (lags 0.1) for Leqn and emergency medical calls was 1.46 (1.06-2.01). The above results indicate that road traffic noise is a risk factor for PD exacerbation. Measures to reduce noise-exposure levels could result in a lower PD-related healthcare demand. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Leaching of DOC, DN, and inorganic constituents from scrap tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbes, Meric; Yilmaz, Ozge; Khan, Abdul A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-11-01

    One concern for recycle and reuse of scrap tires is the leaching of tire constituents (organic and inorganic) with time, and their subsequent potential harmful impacts in environment. The main objective of this study was to examine the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved nitrogen (DN), and selected inorganic constituents from scrap tires. Different sizes of tire chips and crumb rubber were exposed to leaching solutions with pH's ranging from 3.0 to 10.0 for 28days. The leaching of DOC and DN were found to be higher for smaller size tire chips; however, the leaching of inorganic constituents was independent of the size. In general, basic pH conditions increased the leaching of DOC and DN, whereas acidic pH conditions led to elevated concentrations of metals. Leaching was minimal around the neutral pH values for all the monitored parameters. Analysis of the leaching rates showed that components associated with the rubbery portion of the tires (DOC, DN, zinc, calcium, magnesium, etc.) exhibited an initial rapid followed by a slow release. On the other hand, a constant rate of leaching was observed for iron and manganese, which are attributed to the metal wires present inside the tires. Although the total amounts that leached varied, the observed leaching rates were similar for all tire chip sizes and leaching solutions. Operation under neutral pH conditions, use of larger size tire chips, prewashing of tires, and removal of metal wires prior to application will reduce the impact of tire recycle and reuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. PILOT-SCALE EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL FOR EMISSIONS OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FROM COMBUSTION OF TIRE-DERIVED FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were conducted in a 73kW (250,000 Btu/hr) rotary kiln incinerator simulator to examine and characterize emissions from incineration of scrap tire material. The purposes of this project are to: (1) generate a profile of target analytes for full-scale stack sampling eff...

  13. A method of multi-crack shape identification from eddy current testing signals of steam generator tubes including support plates as noise sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaya, Yoshiaki; Endo, Hisashi; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Uchimoto, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with identifying multiple cracks from eddy current testing (ECT) signals obtained in a steam generator tube with a support plate and deposits. Assume two-dimensionally scanned ECT signals to be a picture image, then the signal processing by a multi-frequency technique eliminates noise caused by the support plate and deposits. A template matching with help of genetic algorithms detects number and positions of cracks from the image after the signal processing. Inverse analysis estimates the crack profile based on the predicted position of cracks. The number and positions of the cracks are sufficiently well predicted. Crack shape reconstructions are achieved with a satisfactory degree of accuracy. (author)

  14. Assessment of noise reduction potential and image quality improvement of a new generation adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR-V) in chest CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui; Yu, Nan; Jia, Yongjun; Yu, Yong; Duan, Haifeng; Han, Dong; Ma, Guangming; Ren, Chenglong; He, Taiping

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the image quality improvement and noise reduction in routine dose, non-enhanced chest CT imaging by using a new generation adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR-V) in comparison with ASIR algorithm. 30 patients who underwent routine dose, non-enhanced chest CT using GE Discovery CT750HU (GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) were included. The scan parameters included tube voltage of 120 kVp, automatic tube current modulation to obtain a noise index of 14HU, rotation speed of 0.6 s, pitch of 1.375:1 and slice thickness of 5 mm. After scanning, all scans were reconstructed with the recommended level of 40%ASIR for comparison purpose and different percentages of ASIR-V from 10% to 100% in a 10% increment. The CT attenuation values and SD of the subcutaneous fat, back muscle and descending aorta were measured at the level of tracheal carina of all reconstructed images. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was calculated with SD representing image noise. The subjective image quality was independently evaluated by two experienced radiologists. For all ASIR-V images, the objective image noise (SD) of fat, muscle and aorta decreased and SNR increased along with increasing ASIR-V percentage. The SD of 30% ASIR-V to 100% ASIR-V was significantly lower than that of 40% ASIR (p ASIR-V reconstructions had good diagnostic acceptability. However, the 50% ASIR-V to 70% ASIR-V series showed significantly superior visibility of small structures when compared with the 40% ASIR and ASIR-V of other percentages (p ASIR-V was the best series of all ASIR-V images, with a highest subjective image quality. The image sharpness was significantly decreased in images reconstructed by 80% ASIR-V and higher. In routine dose, non-enhanced chest CT, ASIR-V shows greater potential in reducing image noise and artefacts and maintaining image sharpness when compared to the recommended level of 40%ASIR algorithm. Combining both the objective and subjective evaluation of images, non

  15. A Novel Strain-Based Method to Estimate Tire Conditions Using Fuzzy Logic for Intelligent Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Garcia-Pozuelo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The so-called intelligent tires are one of the most promising research fields for automotive engineers. These tires are equipped with sensors which provide information about vehicle dynamics. Up to now, the commercial intelligent tires only provide information about inflation pressure and their contribution to stability control systems is currently very limited. Nowadays one of the major problems for intelligent tire development is how to embed feasible and low cost sensors to obtain reliable information such as inflation pressure, vertical load or rolling speed. These parameters provide key information for vehicle dynamics characterization. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm based on fuzzy logic to estimate the mentioned parameters by means of a single strain-based system. Experimental tests have been carried out in order to prove the suitability and durability of the proposed on-board strain sensor system, as well as its low cost advantages, and the accuracy of the obtained estimations by means of fuzzy logic.

  16. Inverse Bremsstrahlung Stabilization of Noise in the Generation of Ultra-short Intense Pulses by Backward Raman Amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Richard L.; Clark, Daniel S.; Solodov, Andrei; Valeo, Ernest J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2003-01-01

    Inverse bremsstrahlung absorption of the pump laser beam in a backward Raman amplifier over the round-trip light transit time through the sub-critical density plasma can more than double the electron temperature of the plasma and produce time-varying axial temperature gradients. The resulting increased Landau damping of the plasma wave and detuning of the resonance can act to stabilize the pump against unwanted amplification of Langmuir noise without disrupting nonlinear amplification of the femtosecond seed pulse. Because the heating rate increases with the charge state Z, only low-Z plasmas (hydrogen, helium, or helium-hydrogen mixtures) will maintain a low enough temperature for efficient operation

  17. Final Scientific Report - "Improved Fuel Efficiency from Nanocomposite Tire Tread"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Andrew Myers

    2005-12-30

    Rolling resistance, a measure of the energy lost as a tire rotates while moving, is a significant source of power and fuel loss. Recently, low rolling resistant tires have been formulated by adding silica to tire tread. These "Green Tires" (so named from the environmental advantages of lower emissions and improved fuel economy) have seen some commercial success in Europe, where high fuel prices and performance drive tire selection. Unfortunately, the higher costs of the silica and a more complicated manufacturing process have prevented significant commercialization - and the resulting fuel savings - in the U.S. In this project, TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) prepared an inexpensive alternative to silica that leads to tire components with lower rolling resistance. These new tire composite materials were processed with traditional rubber processing equipment. We prepared specially designed nanoparticle additives, based on a high purity, inorganic mineral whose surface can be easily modified for compatibility with tire tread formulations. Our nanocomposites decreased energy losses to hysteresis, the loss of energy from the compression and relaxation of an elastic material, by nearly 20% compared to a blank SBR sample. We also demonstrated better performance than a leading silica product, with easier production of our final rubber nanocomposite.

  18. 14 CFR 27.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 27.475 Section 27.475 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 27.475 Tires and shock absorbers. Unless otherwise prescribed...

  19. 14 CFR 29.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 29.475 Section 29.475 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 29.475 Tires and shock absorbers. Unless otherwise...

  20. Loading Deformation Characteristic Simulation Study of Engineering Vehicle Refurbished Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Wang; Xiaojie, Qi; Zhao, Yang; Yunlong, Wang; Guotian, Wang; Degang, Lv

    2018-05-01

    The paper constructed engineering vehicle refurbished tire computer geometry model, mechanics model, contact model, finite element analysis model, did simulation study on load-deformation property of engineering vehicle refurbished tire by comparing with that of the new and the same type tire, got load-deformation of engineering vehicle refurbished tire under the working condition of static state and ground contact. The analysis result shows that change rules of radial-direction deformation and side-direction deformation of engineering vehicle refurbished tire are close to that of the new tire, radial-direction and side-direction deformation value is a little less than that of the new tire. When air inflation pressure was certain, radial-direction deformation linear rule of engineer vehicle refurbished tire would increase with load adding, however, side-direction deformation showed linear change rule, when air inflation pressure was low; and it would show increase of non-linear change rule, when air inflation pressure was very high.

  1. The experimental assessment of dynamic tire handling performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauwelussen, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Testing of steady state tire handling performance is nowadays common practice with slip angle sweeps and breaking being simulated in the laboratory with drum or flat belt, or on the road with a test trailer. In recent years, more emphasis is put on dynamic tire models, motivated by ride comfort

  2. Tire Production and Pollution Control. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    This unit was developed to introduce secondary students to the many facets of a typical, large manufacturing plant - the Topeka Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company - in an effort to increase awareness of sound environmental practices in industry. Its five major foci include the production of tires and quality control procedures; applications of…

  3. Influence of tip clearance on flow behavior and noise generation of centrifugal compressors in near-surge conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo, J.; Tiseira, A.; Navarro, R.; López, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Centrifugal compressor aeroacoustics sensitivity to tip clearance is investigated. • 3 different clearance ratios are set in accordance to expected operating values. • Pressure spectra do not depend on tip clearance ratio in near-surge conditions. • DES performs better than URANS in predicting compressor acoustic signature. • Flow field observation reveals that tip clearance is immersed in rotating backflow. - Abstract: CFD has become an essential tool for researchers to analyze centrifugal compressors. Tip leakage flow is usually considered one of the main mechanisms that dictate compressor flow field and stability. However, it is a common practice to rely on CAD tip clearance, even though the gap between blades and shroud changes when compressor is running. In this paper, sensitivity of centrifugal compressor flow field and noise prediction to tip clearance ratio is investigated. 3D CFD simulations are performed with three different tip clearance ratios in accordance to expected operating values, extracted from shaft motion measurements and FEM predictions of temperature and rotational deformation. Near-surge operating conditions are simulated with URANS and DES. DES shows superior performance for acoustic predictions. Cases with reduced tip clearance present higher pressure ratio and isentropic efficiency, but no significant changes in compressor acoustic signature are found when varying clearance. In this working point, tip clearance is immersed in a region of strongly swirling backflow. Therefore, tip leakage cannot establish any coherent noise source mechanism

  4. Microtomography of elastomers for tire manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsmuir, John H.; Dias, A. J.; Peiffer, D. G.; Kolb, R.; Jones, G.

    1999-09-01

    X-ray microtomography is used to image the internal structure of carbon black filled isobutylene-p-methylstyrene-p- bromomethylstyrene (PIB-PMS/BrPMS or ExxProTM) curing bladders before and after use-to-failure in the manufacture of automobile tires. Curing bladders operate under extreme conditions with extended mechanical cycling at high temperatures. Manufacturers typically do not run the bladders until failure but rather a pull policy is established which emphasizes the distribution of cyclic lifetimes. We examine the bladder elastomer structure at a resolution of about 10 microns with the objective of reducing the variability in performance. Using both edge crossing and absorption contrast we identify several types of heterogeneity including voids, foreign inclusions, and the distribution of curative agent from which we infer the uniformity of the cure. The results indicate several potential failure mechanisms. The small number of voids and foreign inclusions are mechanical defects that can initiate cracking. More widespread through the polymer matrix are small regions of polymer devoid of curative agent as shown by absorption edge imaging. These regions may be uncured polymer with poor mechanical and thermal properties that may lead to early failure. After several cure cycles the uncured regions are no longer present in the bladder tread area but they remain near the bead. At high cycles an approximately 500 micrometer thick zinc rich cap develops where the bladder contacts the inner tread area of the tire. This zinc rich cap may cause over-curing of the polymer resulting in crack initiation at the surface of the bladder that contacts the tire.

  5. Replacing coal by tire powder in ceramic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mothe, C.G. [Dept. de Processos Organicos, Escola de Quimica/CT/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mothe Filho, H.F. [Dept. de Geociencias, Inst. de Agronomia/UFRRJ, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Nowadays preserving nature, recycling or reusing materials are good policies. Around ten million tires are put out by year in Brazil, and it is not known for how long they will remain in environment till their complete degradation. This research used tires to replace coal in ceramic processing. In this way it helps to protect environment, to reduce the consumption of mineral deposits and to save money. Results show that tire powder can replace coal to obtain ceramic material, using one percent of tire. Experiments were carried out using TA instruments SDT 2960, in air or nitrogen atmospheres, at heating rate of 10 C/min., flow 120 ml/min. TG/DTA curves of tire and coal have exothermic events at close temperatures between 450-600 C. At range of temperatures clay have endothermic events. (orig.)

  6. Distribution of sulphur into products from waste tire pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susa, D.; Haydary, J.; Markos, J.

    2012-01-01

    Tire pyrolysis is getting growing attention as an effective waste tire disposal method in comparison to environmentally less friendly methods like dumping or incineration. But the scrap tire sulphur content can be a potential obstacle to scrap tire utilization as a fuel. In this paper the distribution of sulphur into tire pyrolysis yields, solid (char) and liquid (tar), was investigated. The pyrolysis experiments were carried out under different conditions to determine the partitioning of sulphur into pyrolysis products. The influence of different temperatures and reaction times was investigated in a laboratory flow reactor under nitrogen atmosphere. Solid and liquid residues were collected and analyzed by elemental analysis. The sulphur content in residual char and tar was determined using an elemental analyzer and the sulphur forms in tar were characterized by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). (Authors)

  7. A composite material based on recycled tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malers, L.; Plesuma, R.; Locmele, L.

    2009-01-01

    The present study is devoted to the elaboration and investigation of a composite material based on mechanically grinded recycled tires and a polymer binder. The correlation between the content of the binder, some technological parameters, and material properties of the composite was clarified. The apparent density, the compressive stress at a 10% strain, the compressive elastic modulus in static and cyclic loadings, and the insulating properties (acoustic and thermal) were the parameters of special interest of the present investigation. It is found that a purposeful variation of material composition and some technological parameters leads to multifunctional composite materials with different and predictable mechanical and insulation properties.

  8. Rubber-based carbon electrode materials derived from dumped tires for efficient sodium-ion storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen-Yue; Ma, Chao; Bai, Yu-Lin; Liu, Yu-Si; Wang, Shi-Feng; Wei, Xiao; Wang, Kai-Xue; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2018-04-03

    The development of sustainable and low cost electrode materials for sodium-ion batteries has attracted considerable attention. In this work, a carbon composite material decorated with in situ generated ZnS nanoparticles has been prepared via a simple pyrolysis of the rubber powder from dumped tires. Upon being used as an anode material for sodium-ion batteries, the carbon composite shows a high reversible capacity and rate capability. A capacity as high as 267 mA h g-1 is still retained after 100 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g-1. The well dispersed ZnS nanoparticles in carbon significantly enhance the electrochemical performance. The carbon composites derived from the rubber powder are proposed as promising electrode materials for low-cost, large-scale energy storage devices. This work provides a new and effective method for the reuse of dumped tires, contributing to the recycling of valuable waste resources.

  9. Reactor noise monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Hiroto.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns a reactor noise monitoring device by detecting abnormal sounds in background noises. Vibration sounds detected by accelerometers are applied to a loose parts detector. The detector generates high alarm if there are sudden impact sounds in the background noises and applies output signals to an accumulation device. If there is slight impact sounds in the vicinity of any of the accelerometers, the accumulation device accumulates the abnormal sounds assumed to be generated from an identical site while synchronizing the waveforms for all of the channels. Then, the device outputs signals in which the background noises are cancelled, as detection signals. Therefore, S/N ratio can be improved and the abnormal sounds contained in the background noises can be detected, to thereby improve the accuracy for estimating the position where the abnormal sounds are generated. (I.S.)

  10. Noise suppression in duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.; Barfeh, M.A.G.

    2001-01-01

    In air-conditioning system the noise generated by supply fan is carried by conditioned air through the ductwork. The noise created in ductwork run may be transmission, regenerative and ductborne. Transmission noise is fan noise, regenerative noise is due to turbulence in flow and ductborne noise is the noise radiating from duct to surroundings. Some noise is attenuated in ducts also but if noise level is high then it needs to be attenuated. A simple mitre bend can attenuate-noise. This principle is extended to V and M-shape ducts with inside lining of fibreglass, which gave maximum attenuation of 77 dB and 62 dB respectively corresponding to 8 kHz frequency as compared to mitre, bend giving maximum 18 dB attenuation. Sound level meter measured sound levels with octave band filter and tests were conducted in anechoic room. A V-shape attenuator can be used at fan outlet and high frequency noise can be minimized greatly. (author)

  11. 78 FR 54369 - The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Mootness of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... subject tires meet or exceed all applicable FMVSS performance standards for a tire labeled as either load...-0107; Notice 2] The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Mootness of Petition for Decision of... Petition Mootness. SUMMARY: The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company (Goodyear),\\1\\ has determined that certain...

  12. 75 FR 17830 - Continental Tire North America, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... safety as it ``does not affect the safety, performance and durability of the tire; the tires were built... requirements. Continental said that it performs ongoing compliance testing ``to assure tire performance'' and that ``all tires included in this petition will meet or exceed the performance requirements of FMVSS...

  13. 78 FR 9775 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... subject tires in fact have more tread plies than indicated and meet or exceed all performance requirements...-0109; Notice 1] Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...: Cooper Tire & Rubber Company (Cooper),\\1\\ has determined that certain Cooper brand tires manufactured...

  14. 77 FR 71679 - Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... noncompliant tires are mislabeled; the subject tires meet or exceed all performance requirements as required in...-0108; Notice 1] Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC, Receipt of Petition for Decision of... petition. SUMMARY: Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC (BRIDGESTONE),\\1\\ has determined that certain...

  15. 78 FR 47050 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ..., and tread wear, temperature, and traction ratings to assess performance capabilities of various tires...-0109; Notice 2] Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...: Cooper Tire & Rubber Company (Cooper) \\1\\ has determined that certain Cooper brand replacement tires...

  16. 77 FR 11189 - Yokohama Tire Corporation, Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ...-0056; Notice 2] Yokohama Tire Corporation, Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential... Inconsequential Noncompliance. SUMMARY: Yokohama Tire Corporation, (YTC),\\1\\ replacement tires for passenger cars... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 139, New Pneumatic Radial Tires for Light Vehicles. YTC...

  17. 41 CFR 101-25.110 - Tire identification/registration program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Tire identification...-General Policies § 101-25.110 Tire identification/registration program. The regulations issued by the Department of Transportation in 49 CFR part 574, Tire Identification and Recordkeeping, require that tire...

  18. Geotechnical Investigation of the Potential Use of Shredded Scrap Tires in Soil Stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Silt-tire and clay-tire mixtures, containing 0% to 100% shredded tire material by weight, with tire chips ranging in size from 7mm-13mm, 13mm-25mm, and 25mm-38mm, were tested for a series of engineering properties including compaction characteristics...

  19. 26 CFR 48.4071-4 - Original equipment tires on imported articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Original equipment tires on imported articles..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-4 Original equipment tires on... than bicycle tires and inner tubes) that are original equipment for an imported article upon which no...

  20. Application of tire chips to reduce the temperature of secondary geomembranes in municipal solid waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoor, Azadeh; Rowe, R Kerry

    2012-05-01

    Heat generated by the biodegradation of waste and other chemical processes in a landfill can potentially affect the long-term performance of landfill liner system, in particular that of a high-density polyethylene geomembrane. In a double liner system, the difference in leachate exposure and temperature might improve the long-term performance of the secondary geomembrane compared to that of the primary geomembrane. However, in some cases, the temperature is likely to be high enough to substantially reduce the service-life of the secondary geomembrane. This study explores the possible effectiveness of using tire chips as thermal insulation between primary and secondary liners to reduce the temperature of secondary geomembranes as compared to traditional soil materials. Heat and contaminant migration analyses are performed for cases with no insulation and for cases in which a layer of soil or tire chips has been used as thermal insulation between the primary and secondary liners. The effect of insulation on prolonging the service-life of a secondary geomembrane and, consequently, on contaminant transport through a liner system is examined for the case of a volatile organic compound (dichloromethane) found in landfill leachate. The study suggests that the use of tire chips warrants consideration, however there are other practical issues that require consideration in the detailed design and construction of landfill liners. Issues such as finite service-life, low working temperature, excessive settlement, ability to generate internal heat, leaching of tire chips and limitations in performing electrical resistivity leak detection tests are identified. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Tire Crumb Research Study Literature Review / Gap ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to more fully understand data gaps in human exposure and toxicity to tire crumb materials, ATSDR, CPSC and EPA undertook a collaborative effort in the form of a scientific literature review and subsequent gaps analysis. The first objective of the Literature Review and Gap Analysis (LRGA) collaboration was to identify the existing body of literature related specifically to human exposure to tire crumb materials through the use of synthetic turf athletic fields and playgrounds. The second objective was to characterize and summarize the relevant data from the scientific literature. The final objective was to review the summary information and identify data gaps to build on the current understanding of the state-of-the-science and inform the development of specific research efforts that would be most impactful in the near-term. Because of the need for additional information, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) launched a multi-agency action plan to study key environmental human health questions. The Federal Research Action Plan includes numerous activities, including research studies (U.S. EPA, 2016). A key objective of the Action Plan is to identify key knowledge gaps.

  2. Filter apparatus for actively reducing noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Nijsse, G.

    2010-01-01

    A filter apparatus for reducing noise from a primary noise source, comprising a secondary source signal connector for generating secondary noise to reduce said primary noise and a sensor connector for connecting to a sensor for measuring said primary and secondary noise as an error signal. A first

  3. A filter apparatus for actively reducing noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Nijsse, G.

    2006-01-01

    A filter apparatus for reducing noise from a primary noise source, comprising a secondary source signal connector for generating secondary noise to reduce said primary noise and a sensor connector for connecting to a sensor for measuring said primary and secondary noise as an error signal. A first

  4. Understanding jet noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabasov, S A

    2010-08-13

    Jets are one of the most fascinating topics in fluid mechanics. For aeronautics, turbulent jet-noise modelling is particularly challenging, not only because of the poor understanding of high Reynolds number turbulence, but also because of the extremely low acoustic efficiency of high-speed jets. Turbulent jet-noise models starting from the classical Lighthill acoustic analogy to state-of-the art models were considered. No attempt was made to present any complete overview of jet-noise theories. Instead, the aim was to emphasize the importance of sound generation and mean-flow propagation effects, as well as their interference, for the understanding and prediction of jet noise.

  5. Landing gear noise attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  6. Noise from wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fegeant, Olivier [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Building Sciences

    2002-02-01

    A rapid growth of installed wind power capacity is expected in the next few years. However, the siting of wind turbines on a large scale raises concerns about their environmental impact, notably with respect to noise. To this end, variable speed wind turbines offer a promising solution for applications in densely populated areas like the European countries, as this design would enable an efficient utilisation of the masking effect due to ambient noise. In rural and recreational areas where wind turbines are sited, the ambient noise originates from the action of wind on the vegetation and about the listener's ear (pseudo-noise). It shows a wind speed dependence similar to that of the noise from a variable speed wind turbine and can therefore mask the latter for a wide range of conditions. However, a problem inherent to the design of these machines is their proclivity to pure tone generation, because of the enhanced difficulty of avoiding structural resonances in the mechanical parts. Pure tones are deemed highly annoying and are severely regulated by most noise policies. In relation to this problem, the vibration transmission of structure-borne sound to the tower of the turbine is investigated, in particular when the tower is stiffened at its upper end. Furthermore, since noise annoyance due to wind turbine is mostly a masking issue, the wind-related sources of ambient noise are studied and their masking potentials assessed. With this aim, prediction models for wind-induced vegetation noise and pseudo-noise have been developed. Finally, closely related to the effect of masking, is the difficulty, regularly encountered by local authorities and wind farm developers, to measure noise immission from wind turbines. A new measurement technique has thus been developed in the course of this work. Through improving the signal-to-noise ratio between wind turbine noise and ambient noise, the new technique yields more accurate measurement results.

  7. A procedure for multi-objective optimization of tire design parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Nikola Korunović; Miloš Madić; Miroslav Trajanović; Miroslav Radovanović

    2015-01-01

    The identification of optimal tire design parameters for satisfying different requirements, i.e. tire performance characteristics, plays an essential role in tire design. In order to improve tire performance characteristics, formulation and solving of multi-objective optimization problem must be performed. This paper presents a multi-objective optimization procedure for determination of optimal tire design parameters for simultaneous minimization of strain energy density at two distinctive zo...

  8. Dielectric properties of various polymers (PVC, EVA, HDPE, and PP) reinforced with ground tire rubber (GTR)

    OpenAIRE

    Mujal Rosas, Ramón María; Marín Genescá, Marcos; Ballart Prunell, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Mass production of tires as well as its difficult storage or elimination is a real environmental problem. Various methods for recycling tires are currently used, such as mechanical crushing, which puts vulcanized rubber, steel, and fibers apart. The rubber may be used in several industrial applications such as flooring, insulations, and footwear. The present paper focuses on finding a new application for old used tires [ground tire rubber (GTR)]. To this end, tires dust has been mixed with va...

  9. Prediction of Turbulence-Generated Noise in Unheated Jets. Part 2; JeNo Users' Manual (Version 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavaran, Abbas; Wolter, John D.; Koch, L. Danielle

    2009-01-01

    JeNo (Version 1.0) is a Fortran90 computer code that calculates the far-field sound spectral density produced by axisymmetric, unheated jets at a user specified observer location and frequency range. The user must provide a structured computational grid and a mean flow solution from a Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) code as input. Turbulence kinetic energy and its dissipation rate from a k-epsilon or k-omega turbulence model must also be provided. JeNo is a research code, and as such, its development is ongoing. The goal is to create a code that is able to accurately compute far-field sound pressure levels for jets at all observer angles and all operating conditions. In order to achieve this goal, current theories must be combined with the best practices in numerical modeling, all of which must be validated by experiment. Since the acoustic predictions from JeNo are based on the mean flow solutions from a RANS code, quality predictions depend on accurate aerodynamic input.This is why acoustic source modeling, turbulence modeling, together with the development of advanced measurement systems are the leading areas of research in jet noise research at NASA Glenn Research Center.

  10. COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TRUCKS TIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Godzhaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Now improvement of technological design specification of trucks tires develops very much. In modern mechanical engineering polyamide and kapron cords for tires of line-haul trucks and buses are replaced with all-metal ones (AMC even more often. It was defined that at increase in AMC tires production their technical characteristics were investigated insufficiently. In this regard there were carried out bench tests to compare the main operational indicators of domestic (JSC Nizhnekamskshina production and foreign tires with an all-metal cord: 315/60R22.5 the NF-201 model with 315/60r22.5 the XZA2 ENERGY Michelin model (steering; 315/60R22.5 the NR-201 model with 315/60R22.5 the XDA2+ ENERGY Michelin model (drive; 315/80R22.5 the NF-201 model with 315/80R22.5 the 3D Michelin XZE X MultiWay model (steering; 315/80R22.5 the NR-201 model with 315/80R22.5 the 3D XDE X MultiWay model (drive. The laboratory researches were carried out for the purpose of an assessment of the universal, load, damping (hysteresis and other characteristics of tires with use of the universal functional SIB-1M test-bench. It was established that Michelin AMC tires of steering low-profile 315/60R22.5 XZA2 ENERGY models have the best indicators on power heterogeneity - 0.47-0.89 percent. The high-profile AMC tires of drive wheels 315/80R22.5 of the NR-201 model of JSC Nizhnekamskshina have the worst indicators. However, all the tested tires correspond to GOST 5513-97on this indicator. It was noted that Nizhnekamsk AMC tires of the size 315/60R22.5 are flush with AMC tires Michelin on set of operational indicators, except power heterogeneity, and last one of Michelin tires is lower than Nizhnekamsk ones by 2-3 times. It was suggested to conduct further researches on definition of optimum operational tires indicators because of an intensive use of KAMAZ trucks in agricultural production

  11. No immediate relief for large mining tire shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-05-15

    Inventories are low and they will not get better anytime soon, but mine operators do have a few options. The three main manufacturers supplying tires to the US mining industry, Bridgestone Firestone Off Road Tire Company, Goodyear and Michelin are struggling to keep up with demand, but are unlikely to restore inventories to manageable levels by 2009. Meanwhile Yokohama and Global Tyres have stepped in to help. The article reports plans for expansions to plant in Japan. In the meantime, mine operators need to plan accordingly and pay increased attention to tire maintenance. The larger the tyre, the less available it is. 3 photos.

  12. Hybrid Soft Soil Tire Model (HSSTM). Part 1: Tire Material and Structure Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-28

    Germany. p. 18. 2. Oertel, C., On Modeling Contact and Friction Calculation of Tyre Response on Uneven Roads . Vehicle System Dynamics, 1997. 27(S1): p...touching the ground. This massless tip acts as a sensor point and can be used to detect the tire- road contact . Also, using the direction and value of the...superiority of this model as compared to other lumped parameter models currently available. Keywords: Wheeled Vehicle, Terramechanics, Off- Road

  13. Cross-Modal Perception of Noise-in-Music: Audiences Generate Spiky Shapes in Response to Auditory Roughness in a Novel Electroacoustic Concert Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Kongmeng; Lindborg, PerMagnus; Rodrigues, Ruth; Styles, Suzy J

    2018-01-01

    Noise has become integral to electroacoustic music aesthetics. In this paper, we define noise as sound that is high in auditory roughness, and examine its effect on cross-modal mapping between sound and visual shape in participants. In order to preserve the ecological validity of contemporary music aesthetics, we developed Rama , a novel interface, for presenting experimentally controlled blocks of electronically generated sounds that varied systematically in roughness, and actively collected data from audience interaction. These sounds were then embedded as musical drones within the overall sound design of a multimedia performance with live musicians, Audience members listened to these sounds, and collectively voted to create the shape of a visual graphic, presented as part of the audio-visual performance. The results of the concert setting were replicated in a controlled laboratory environment to corroborate the findings. Results show a consistent effect of auditory roughness on shape design, with rougher sounds corresponding to spikier shapes. We discuss the implications, as well as evaluate the audience interface.

  14. Cross-Modal Perception of Noise-in-Music: Audiences Generate Spiky Shapes in Response to Auditory Roughness in a Novel Electroacoustic Concert Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongmeng Liew

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Noise has become integral to electroacoustic music aesthetics. In this paper, we define noise as sound that is high in auditory roughness, and examine its effect on cross-modal mapping between sound and visual shape in participants. In order to preserve the ecological validity of contemporary music aesthetics, we developed Rama, a novel interface, for presenting experimentally controlled blocks of electronically generated sounds that varied systematically in roughness, and actively collected data from audience interaction. These sounds were then embedded as musical drones within the overall sound design of a multimedia performance with live musicians, Audience members listened to these sounds, and collectively voted to create the shape of a visual graphic, presented as part of the audio–visual performance. The results of the concert setting were replicated in a controlled laboratory environment to corroborate the findings. Results show a consistent effect of auditory roughness on shape design, with rougher sounds corresponding to spikier shapes. We discuss the implications, as well as evaluate the audience interface.

  15. Use of shredded tire chips and tire crumbs as packing media in trickling filter systems for landfill leachate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, B; Warith, M A

    2008-08-01

    Scrap tire stockpiles are breeding grounds for pests, mosquitoes and west Nile viruses and, thereby, become a potential health risk. This experimental study was carried out in six stages to determine the suitability of shredded tire materials in a trickling filter system to treat landfill leachate. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH3-N removals were obtained in the range of 81 to 96%, 76 to 90% and 15 to 68%, respectively. The removal of organics appears to be largely related to total dissolved solids reduction in leachate. A sudden increase, from time to time, in organic content of effluent could be attributed to biomass sloughing and clogging in the trickling filters. However, tire crumbs exhibited more consistent organics removal throughout the experimental program. Due to the high surface area of shredded tire chips and crumbs, a layer of biomass, 1-2 mm thick, was attached to them and was sloughed off at an interval of 21 days. Apart from that, as shredded tires are comparatively cheaper than any other usable packing material, tire chips and tire crumbs appeared to be quite promising as packing media in trickling filters for landfill leachate treatment.

  16. An evaluation of string theory for the prediction of dynamic tire properties using scale model aircraft tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.; Nybakken, G. H.

    1972-01-01

    The string theory was evaluated for predicting lateral tire dynamic properties as obtained from scaled model tests. The experimental data and string theory predictions are in generally good agreement using lateral stiffness and relaxation length values obtained from the static or slowly rolling tire. The results indicate that lateral forces and self-aligning torques are linearly proportional to tire lateral stiffness and to the amplitude of either steer or lateral displacement. In addition, the results show that the ratio of input excitation frequency to road speed is the proper independent variable by which frequency should be measured.

  17. Energy Recovery from Scrap Tires: A Sustainable Option for Small Islands like Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie N. Laboy-Nieves

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Puerto Rico generates and disposes nearly five million/year scrap tires (ST, of which 4.2% is recycled and 80% is exported. The Island has one of the world highest electrical service tariff ($0.28 kWh, because of its dependency on fossil fuels for power generation. The Government has not considered ST for electricity production, despite more than 13,000 ST are generated daily, and paradoxically exported for that purpose. Theoretically, if ST recycling increases to 10% and assuming that the caloric value of ST be 33 MJ/kg, it was estimated that scrap tires processed with pyrolysis can supply annually about 379 MWh, a potential value that shall not be unnoticed. This paper is a literature review to describe the legal, technical, and economic framework for the viability of ST for power generation in Puerto Rico using pyrolysis, the most recommended process for ST energy recovery. Data of ST from Puerto Rico was used to model the potential of ST for pyrolytic energy conversion. The herein article is intended to invite other insular countries and territories, to join efforts with the academic and scientific community, and with the energy generation sector, to validate ST as a sustainable option for energy generation.

  18. The Implementation of Quality Function Deployment (QFD in Tire Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Abdul Hadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research had two main objectives. The first research objective was to make the right design of new product according to customer requirements with the implementation of Quality Function Deployment (QFD in the tire industry. The second research objective was to enhance competitiveness based on the renewal of marketing strategy and consumer needs, non-explosive prohibition, non-slip tires, no bulgy, and competitive prices. The research was carried out by using costumer satisfaction rating by comparing with the competitor companies. Based on calculation using QFD method, it shows that split liner has the highest percentage of technical requirement in tire industry about 30,57%. The second factor is pattern design about 25,98%. Then, the third factor is compound technology about 22,68%. Therefore, the researchers can recommend several strategies for the quality improvement based on customer needs for the tire industry.

  19. Blast overpressure after tire explosion: a fatal case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomara, Cristoforo; D'Errico, Stefano; Riezzo, Irene; Perilli, Gabriela; Volpe, Umberto; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2013-12-01

    Fatal blast injuries are generally reported in literature as a consequence of the detonation of explosives in war settings. The pattern of lesion depends on the position of the victim in relation to the explosion, on whether the blast tracks through air or water, and whether it happens in the open air or within an enclosed space and the distance from the explosion. Tire explosion-related injuries are rarely reported in literature. This study presents a fatal case of blast overpressure due to the accidental explosion of a truck tire occurring in a tire repair shop. A multidisciplinary approach to the fatality involving forensic pathologists and engineers revealed that the accidental explosion, which caused a series of primary and tertiary blast wave injuries, was due to tire deterioration.

  20. The Scrap Tire Problem: A Preliminary Economic Analysis (1985)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the study was to conduct a preliminary economic analysis of the social benefits of EPA action to require more appropriate disposal of scrap tires versus the social costs of such an action.

  1. Federal Research Action Plan on Recycled Tire Crumb Used ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past several years, parents, athletes, schools, and communities have raised concerns about the safety of recycled tire crumb rubber used as infill for playing fields and playgrounds in the United States. The public has expressed concerns that the use of these fields could potentially be related to certain health effects. Studies to date have not shown an elevated health risk from playing on fields with tire crumb rubber, but these studies have limitations and do not comprehensively evaluate the concerns about health risks from exposure to tire crumb rubber. This status report provides a summary of activities to date, including: (1) stakeholder outreach, (2) the tire crumb rubber manufacturing industry, (3) the final peer-reviewed Literature Review/Gaps Analysis (LRGA), (4) progress on the research activities, and (5) next steps and a timeline for completion of the final report. The status report does not include research findings.

  2. A Strain-Based Method to Detect Tires' Loss of Grip and Estimate Lateral Friction Coefficient from Experimental Data by Fuzzy Logic for Intelligent Tire Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunta, Jorge; Garcia-Pozuelo, Daniel; Diaz, Vicente; Olatunbosun, Oluremi

    2018-02-06

    Tires are a key sub-system of vehicles that have a big responsibility for comfort, fuel consumption and traffic safety. However, current tires are just passive rubber elements which do not contribute actively to improve the driving experience or vehicle safety. The lack of information from the tire during driving gives cause for developing an intelligent tire. Therefore, the aim of the intelligent tire is to monitor tire working conditions in real-time, providing useful information to other systems and becoming an active system. In this paper, tire tread deformation is measured to provide a strong experimental base with different experiments and test results by means of a tire fitted with sensors. Tests under different working conditions such as vertical load or slip angle have been carried out with an indoor tire test rig. The experimental data analysis shows the strong relation that exists between lateral force and the maximum tensile and compressive strain peaks when the tire is not working at the limit of grip. In the last section, an estimation system from experimental data has been developed and implemented in Simulink to show the potential of strain sensors for developing intelligent tire systems, obtaining as major results a signal to detect tire's loss of grip and estimations of the lateral friction coefficient.

  3. Effect of thin water film on tire/road friction

    OpenAIRE

    BEAUTRU, Yannick; KANE, Malal; CEREZO, Véronique; DO, Minh Tan

    2011-01-01

    Water film on pavement surfaces entails a decrease of friction between the tire and the road. Nevertheless, only effects of water films above 1mm depth were investigated until now, considering hydroplaning risk. From these investigations, formulae were derived to predict the so-called hydroplaning speed at which happen hazardous situations for the driver because there is no more contact between the tire and the road. However, a significant number of accidents occurs on very thin water film su...

  4. Effect of thin water film on tire/road friction

    OpenAIRE

    BEAUTRU, Yannick

    2011-01-01

    Water film on pavement surfaces entails a decrease of friction between the tire and the road. Nevertheless,only effects of water films above 1mm depth were investigated until now, considering hydroplaning risk. From these investigations, formulae were derived to predict the so-called hydroplaning speed at which happen hazardous situations for the driver because there is no more contact between the tire and the road. However, a significant number of accidents occurs on very thin water film suc...

  5. Upgrading pyrolytic residue from waste tires to commercial carbon black.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Li, Hengxiang; Cao, Qing; Jin, Li'e; Wang, Fumeng

    2018-05-01

    The managing and recycling of waste tires has become a worldwide environmental challenge. Among the different disposal methods for waste tires, pyrolysis is regarded as a promising route. How to effectively enhance the added value of pyrolytic residue (PR) from waste tires is a matter of great concern. In this study, the PRs were treated with hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids in turn under ultrasonic waves. The removal efficiency for the ash and sulfur was investigated. The pyrolytic carbon black (PCB) obtained after treating PR with acids was analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffractometry, laser Raman spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, and physisorption apparatus. The properties of PCB were compared with those of commercial carbon black (CCB) N326 and N339. Results showed PRs from waste tires were mainly composed of carbon, sulfur, and ash. The carbon in PCB was mainly from the CCB added during tire manufacture rather than from the pyrolysis of pure rubbers. The removal percentages for the ash and sulfur of PR are 98.33% (from 13.98 wt % down to 0.24 wt %) and 70.16% (from 1.81 wt % down to 0.54 wt %), respectively, in the entire process. The ash was mainly composed of metal oxides, sulfides, and silica. The surface properties, porosity, and morphology of the PCB were all close to those of N326. Therefore, PCB will be a potential alternative of N326 and reused in tire manufacture. This route successfully upgrades PR from waste tires to the high value-added CCB and greatly increases the overall efficiency of the waste tire pyrolysis industry.

  6. Tech Transfer Office discusses the finer points of tire recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's Technology Transfer Office at Stennis worked with a tire recycling company in St. Francisville, La., to help the company make better use of the cryogenics, or supercold fluids, in its recycling process. The process separates the rubber from the steel belts and other particles. The rubber is broken down into a material called crumb. Other parts of the tire particle removed is called fluff.

  7. Measurement of Noise in Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Szewczyk Arkadiusz

    2017-01-01

    A developed method and measurement setup for measurement of noise generated in a supercapacitor is presented. The requirements for noise data recording are considered and correlated with working modes of supercapacitors. An example of results of low-frequency noise measurements in commercially available supercapacitors are presented. The ability of flicker noise measurements suggests that they can be used to assess quality of tested supercapacitors.

  8. Measurement of Noise in Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szewczyk Arkadiusz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A developed method and measurement setup for measurement of noise generated in a supercapacitor is presented. The requirements for noise data recording are considered and correlated with working modes of supercapacitors. An example of results of low-frequency noise measurements in commercially available supercapacitors are presented. The ability of flicker noise measurements suggests that they can be used to assess quality of tested supercapacitors.

  9. Influence of different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires in embankment construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edincliler, Ayse; Baykal, Goekhan; Saygili, Altug

    2010-01-01

    Use of the processed used tires in embankment construction is becoming an accepted way of beneficially recycling scrap tires due to shortages of natural mineral resources and increasing waste disposal costs. Using these used tires in construction requires an awareness of the properties and the limitations associated with their use. The main objective of this paper is to assess the different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires-sand mixtures to improve the engineering properties of the available soil. In the first part, a literature study on the mechanical properties of the processed used tires such as tire shreds, tire chips, tire buffings and their mixtures with sand are summarized. In the second part, large-scale direct shear tests are performed to evaluate shear strength of tire crumb-sand mixtures where information is not readily available in the literature. The test results with tire crumb were compared with the other processed used tire-sand mixtures. Sand-used tire mixtures have higher shear strength than that of the sand alone and the shear strength parameters depend on the processing conditions of used tires. Three factors are found to significantly affect the mechanical properties: normal stress, processing techniques, and the used tire content.

  10. Influence of different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires in embankment construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinçliler, Ayşe; Baykal, Gökhan; Saygili, Altug

    2010-06-01

    Use of the processed used tires in embankment construction is becoming an accepted way of beneficially recycling scrap tires due to shortages of natural mineral resources and increasing waste disposal costs. Using these used tires in construction requires an awareness of the properties and the limitations associated with their use. The main objective of this paper is to assess the different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires-sand mixtures to improve the engineering properties of the available soil. In the first part, a literature study on the mechanical properties of the processed used tires such as tire shreds, tire chips, tire buffings and their mixtures with sand are summarized. In the second part, large-scale direct shear tests are performed to evaluate shear strength of tire crumb-sand mixtures where information is not readily available in the literature. The test results with tire crumb were compared with the other processed used tire-sand mixtures. Sand-used tire mixtures have higher shear strength than that of the sand alone and the shear strength parameters depend on the processing conditions of used tires. Three factors are found to significantly affect the mechanical properties: normal stress, processing techniques, and the used tire content. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. SIMULATION AND INVESTIGATION OF TIRE TREAD BLOCKS INTERACTION WITH ICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Ružinskas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The car tire is an essential subject analysing its interaction with the road. From tire’s tread condition, geometry and rubber compound depends grip and vehicle stability. This is especially relevant in winter time, when roads are covered with the layer of snow or ice. Generally, new tires are tested in real traffic conditions using vehicles. However, ensuring these conditions requires many resources and sometimes it could be a big challenge. For this reason, simulation of the tire interaction with the road becomes more important in nowadays tire researches. Since the tire is a complex engineering subject, the tire tread blocks could be separated for individual analysis. The interaction between the dry ice and the tread block with sipes was analysed using finite element analysis. The tread block was described using hyperelastic Mooney­Rivlin material model. The deformations, distribution of the contact pressure and shear stresses were obtained for the soft and hard rubber compounds with different vertical load conditions. Also a solid tread block interaction was analysed and it was found that values of contact pressure and shear stresses are much lower comparing to siped tread block.

  12. EVALUATION OF TIRE RUBBER DISPOSAL IN CONCRETE FOR PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Cristina Cecche Lintz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of waste by the tire industry has been a growing problem, indicating the need for its reuse. More than thirty million tires are discharged per year in Brazil, where regulation for the environment states that for each four new tires, five unusable ones must be adequately disposed by manufacturers and importers. Paving consumes an extremely large quantity of materials, which can be the source of rational application of waste and rejected materials. Research shows that tire rubber can be added to asphalt, which increases its durability and improves pavement quality and safety conditions by absorbing the rubber elastic properties, and also be used for architectural applications, among others. This study deals with the addition of rubber fibers from tire crushing in concrete for roadway pavements in order to provide proper indication about the alternative material disposal through an evaluation of the mechanical behavior of the modified concrete. Different concrete mixes were produced, within which, part of fine aggregates were substituted by tire rubber and mechanical experiment tests were performed, which show that, due to great resistance losses, the disposal of this alternative material in concrete should be considered for light traffic pavements, with the addition of rubber ranging up to 10% in mass.

  13. EVALUATION OF TIRE RUBBER DISPOSAL IN CONCRETE FOR PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Cristina Cecche Lintz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of waste by the tire industry has been a growing problem, indicating the need for its reuse. More than thirty million tires are discharged per year in Brazil, where regulation for the environment states that for each four new tires, five unusable ones must be adequately disposed by manufacturers and importers. Paving consumes an extremely large quantity of materials, which can be the source of rational application of waste and rejected materials. Research shows that tire rubber can be added to asphalt, which increases its durability and improves pavement quality and safety conditions by absorbing the rubber elastic properties, and also be used for architectural applications, among others. This study deals with the addition of rubber fibers from tire crushing in concrete for roadway pavements in order to provide proper indication about the alternative material disposal through an evaluation of the mechanical behavior of the modified concrete. Different concrete mixes were produced, within which, part of fine aggregates were substituted by tire rubber and mechanical experiment tests were performed, which show that, due to great resistance losses, the disposal of this alternative material in concrete should be considered for light traffic pavements, with the addition of rubber ranging up to 10% in mass.

  14. Spray From a Rolling Tire: Mechanics of Droplet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plocher, Dennis; Browand, Fred

    2010-11-01

    The spray pattern immediately behind a single-groove tire rolling on a wet surface is produced in the laboratory using a specially designed tire spray simulator. The spray development is examined using high speed video. Water from the groove forms a liquid sheet as the tire-tread lifts away from the surface. The sheet is not of uniform thickness, but it remains attached to the tread. The thinner portions of the sheet become even thinner as the tire rotates, and eventually break to produce holes near the tire surface. The holes grow as the sheet margins surrounding the holes retract into the thicker portions of the sheet which become roughly cylindrical "ligaments" aligned at right angles to the direction of spray motion. The ligaments break into large droplets via a Rayleigh instability. The smallest droplets form when the margins of two holes collide. As Weber number, We = ρU^2w/2σ , based on tire groove half width, w/2, varies by a factor of 25, the sheet-ligament structure persists, but ligaments become less organized, and more small droplets appear in the pattern.

  15. Utilization of waste tire rubber in manufacture of oriented strandboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrilmis, Nadir; Buyuksari, Umit; Avci, Erkan

    2009-09-01

    Some physical and mechanical properties of oriented strandboards (OSBs) containing waste tire rubber at various addition levels based on the oven-dry strand weight, using the same method as that used in the manufacture of OSB. Two resin types, phenol-formaldehyde (PF) and polyisocyanate, were used in the experiments. The manufacturing parameters were: a specific gravity of 0.65 and waste tire rubber content (10/90, 20/80 and 30/70 by wt.% of waste tire rubber/wood strand). Average internal bond values of PF-bonded OSB panels with rubber chips were between 17.6% and 48.5% lower than the average of the control samples while polyisocyanate bonded OSBs were 16.5-50.6%. However, water resistance and mechanical properties of OSBs made using polyisocyanate resin were found to comply with general-purpose OSB minimum property requirements of EN 300 Type 1 (1997) values for use in dry conditions at the lowest tire rubber loading level (10%) based on the oven-dry panel weight. The tire rubber improved water resistance of the OSB panel due to its almost hydrophobic property. Based on the findings obtained from this study, we concluded that waste tire rubber could be used for general-purpose OSB manufacturing up to 10% ratio based on the oven-dry panel weight.

  16. Noise Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regulated by EPA EPA or a designated Federal agency regulates noise sources, such as rail and motor carriers, low noise emission products, construction equipment, transport equipment, trucks, motorcycles, and the labeling of hearing ...

  17. Community noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragdon, C. R.

    Airport and community land use planning as they relate to airport noise reduction are discussed. Legislation, community relations, and the physiological effect of airport noise are considered. Noise at the Logan, Los Angeles, and Minneapolis/St. Paul airports is discussed.

  18. Static tests of constructive tires using hydraulic press on the soil

    OpenAIRE

    Machado,Thiago M.; Lanças,Kléber P.; Oliveira Junior,Mauro B. de; Artioli,José A.; Marasca,Indiamara

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The power consumption and load capacity of agricultural machines have grown and the effects of pressure on the soil by tires have been still little investigated. In concern with sustainable development, the relationship machine-tire-soil must be in balance to give more consistency on the best use of tires for a given load. This study aimed to evaluate four tires of two constructive types, the bias belted tires and radial tires, both with respective rim diameters of 22.5 and 26.5 inch...

  19. The in-plane deformation of a tire carcass: analysis and measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Yi; Tuononen, Ari

    2015-01-01

    The deformation of parts of a tire is the direct result of tire–road interactions, and therefore is of great interest in tire sensor development. This case study focuses on the analysis of the deformation of the tire carcass and investigates its potential for the estimation of the in-plane tire force. The deformation of the tire carcass due to applied steady-state in-plane forces is first analyzed with the flexible ring model and then validated through optical tire sensor measurements. Couple...

  20. Tire aging: a human factors analysis of failure to warn and inform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogalter, Michael S; Laughery, Kenneth R

    2012-01-01

    A scenario of an automotive accident caused by tire failure is given followed by a human factors analysis of the information available to consumers on tire aging. Consumers have not been told that the age of the tire is a safety concern. It is not easy to decode the date of manufacture on tires. More publicity and prominent warnings are needed to communicate the dangers of older tires. Also, better ways to present the date of manufacture so that consumers can more easily and accurately assess tire age are needed.

  1. 49 CFR 571.119 - Standard No. 119; New pneumatic tires for motor vehicles with a GVWR of more than 4,536 kilograms...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... without interruption. (e) Immediately after running the tire the required time, measure the tire inflation...) Immediately after running the tire the required time, measure the tire inflation pressure. Remove the tire... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 119; New pneumatic tires for motor...

  2. Visualization of the tire-soil interaction area by means of ObjectARX programming interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, W.; Gruszczyński, M.; Raba, B.; Lewicki, A.; Przybył, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Koszela, K.; Boniecki, P.

    2014-04-01

    The process of data visualization, important for their analysis, becomes problematic when large data sets generated via computer simulations are available. This problem concerns, among others, the models that describe the geometry of tire-soil interaction. For the purpose of a graphical representation of this area and implementation of various geometric calculations the authors have developed a plug-in application for AutoCAD, based on the latest technologies, including ObjectARX, LINQ and the use of Visual Studio platform. Selected programming tools offer a wide variety of IT structures that enable data visualization and data analysis and are important e.g. in model verification.

  3. Noise, buildings and people

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croome, D J

    1977-01-01

    This book covers the physics of acoustics necessary to understand the analytical aspects of acoustical design and noise control in buildings. The major part is devoted to the problems of noise and man, and other chapters cover features of noise control in and around buildings. In an introduction, building environmental engineering is dealth with in general terms of architecture, creativity, systms design, etc. Aspects of the acoustical environment, noise sources in buildings, control of airborne and structure-borne noise and acoustical design techniques are covered in Part II. Items include: comfort, physiological response to noise and vibrations, noise criteria, human performance, speech communication, landscaped offices, sound generation by air-conditioning and heating equipment, building structure and noise attenuation, acoustical design. Part III gives some fundamentals of acoustics; mechanical vibration, wave motion, propagation of sound, structure-borne sound, behavior of sound in rooms, transmission of sound through structure. References include lists of British standards and booklets on health and safety at work.

  4. Pavement noise research : modeling of quieter pavements in Florida, final report, October 19, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    The research on noise created by the tire/pavement interface, while relatively new, has seen considerable interest over the past few years because of the potential benefits and a general desire by the public for quieter highways. The Florida Departme...

  5. Optical strain measurement for fault detection in haul-truck tires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotchon, A; Nobes, D S; Lipsett, M G

    2012-01-01

    Tire condition is integral to the safe operation of heavy machinery, such as ultra-class haul trucks. A new approach to haul truck tire monitoring is being investigated based on optical strain measurement, which has the advantage of providing quantitative information from sensors that do not contact the tire. A laboratory-scale apparatus has been constructed to monitor a tire as it is subjected to various loads and pressures. Digital image correlation is used to calculate the deformation in the tire. Using this method, damage resulting from a horizontal and vertical cut created on the tire surface could be detected. A three-dimensional surface reconstruction of the tire was created to assist in the characterization of more complex damage types such as wear and fatigue. In addition to providing information for a possible industrial scale damage detection system, this apparatus will also further the understanding of damage mechanisms in tires.

  6. 78 FR 78384 - Certain Tires and Products Containing Same; Commission Determination Not to Review an Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ...; Shandong Linglong Tyre Co., Ltd. of Zhaoyuan City, China; Dunlap & Kyle Company, Inc., d/b/a Gateway Tire and Service of Batesville, Mississippi; Unicorn Tire Corp. of Memphis, Tennessee; West KY Customs, LLC...

  7. 78 FR 57882 - Certain Tires and Products Containing Same; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ..., China 265406 Dunlap & Kyle Company, Inc., d/b/a Gateway Tire and Service, Eureka St. Extended, Batesville, MS 38606 Unicorn Tire Corp., 4660 Distriplex Drive West, Memphis, TN 38118 West KY Customs, LLC...

  8. Flexible and conductive waste tire-derived carbon/polymer composite paper as pseudocapacitive electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskar, Amit K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Boota, Muhammad; Gogotsi, Yury

    2018-04-10

    A method of making a supercapacitor from waste tires, includes the steps of providing rubber pieces and contacting the rubber pieces with a sulfonation bath to produce sulfonated rubber; pyrolyzing the sulfonated rubber to produce a tire-derived carbon composite comprising carbon black embedded in rubber-derived carbon matrix comprising graphitized interface portions; activating the tire-derived carbon composite by contacting the tire-derived carbon composite with a specific surface area-increasing composition to increase the specific surface area of the carbon composite to provide an activated tire-derived carbon composite; and, mixing the activated tire-derived carbon composite with a monomer and polymerizing the monomer to produce a redox-active polymer coated, activated tire-derived carbon composite. The redox-active polymer coated, activated tire-derived carbon composite can be formed into a film. An electrode and a supercapacitor are also disclosed.

  9. Optimal tread design for agricultural lug tires determined through failure analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Seok Song

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural lug tires, commonly used in tractors, must provide safe and stable support for the body of the vehicle and bear any additional load while effectively traversing rough, poor-quality ground surfaces. Many agricultural lug tires fail unexpectedly. In this study, we optimised and validated a tread design for agricultural lug tires intended to increase their durability using failure analysis. Specifically, we identified tire failure modes using indoor driving tests and failure mode effects analysis. Next, we developed a threedimensional tire model using the Ogden material model and finite element method. Using sensitivity analysis and response surface methodology, we optimised the tread design. Finally, we evaluated the durability of the new design using a tire prototype and drum test equipment. Results indicated that the optimised tread design decreased the tire tread stress by 16% and increased its time until cracking by 38% compared to conventional agricultural lug tires.

  10. 49 CFR 571.129 - Standard No. 129; New non-pneumatic tires for passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... means the breaking away of pieces of the carcass or tread. Cracking means any parting within the carcass... some circumference of the tire, these measurements shall be taken at least six points around the tire...

  11. Acoustical Engineering Controls and Estimated Return on Investment for DoD Selected High Noise Sources: A Roadmap for Future Noise Control in Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    20K $4.4B $8.8B Active Noise Cancellation 7 dB $30K $60K $13.2B $26.4B Tire Tread Re-design 5 dB $0.8K $2K $0.3B $0.8B Distributed TVA’s 5 dB $10K...lbs Distributed vibration absorbers $10,000 to $20,000 4 inches tall 1000 lbs Tire Tread $200-500 Minimal impact Minimal impact Hydraulic Mounts...of vibration and changing the shape and thickness of covers can reduce vibration levels and reduce radiation efficiency. Other than separating

  12. Handbook for industrial noise control

    Science.gov (United States)

    The basic principles of sound, measuring techniques, and instrumentation associated with general purpose noise control are discussed. Means for identifying and characterizing a noise problem so that subsequent work may provide the most efficient and cost effective solution are outlined. A methodology for choosing appropriate noise control materials and the proper implementation of control procedures is detailed. The most significant NASA sponsored contributions to the state of the art development of optimum noise control technologies are described including cases in which aeroacoustics and related research have shed some light on ways of reducing noise generation at its source.

  13. Active control of the noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez V, Luis Alfonso; Lopez Q, Jose German

    2001-01-01

    The problems of acoustic noise are more and more preponderant in the measure in that the amount of equipment and industrial machinery is increased such as fans, transformers, compressors etc. the use of devices passive mechanics for the reduction of the noise is effective and very appreciated because its effects embrace a wide range of acoustic frequency. However, to low frequencies, such devices become too big and expensive besides that present a tendency to do not effective. The control of active noise, CAN, using the electronic generation anti-noise, constitutes an interesting solution to the problem because their operation principle allows achieving an appreciable reduction of the noise by means of the use of compact devices. The traditional techniques for the control of acoustic noise like barriers and silenced to attenuate it, are classified as passive and their works has been accepted as norm as for the treatment of problems of noise it refers. Such techniques are considered in general very effective in the attenuation of noise of wide band. However, for low frequency, the required passive structures are too big and expensive; also, their effectiveness diminishes flagrantly, that which makes them impractical in many applications. The active suppression is profiled like a practical alternative for the reduction of acoustic noise. The idea in the active treatment of the noise it contemplates the use of a device electro-acoustic, like a speaker for example that it cancels to the noise by the generation of sounds of Same width and of contrary phase (anti-noise). The cancellation phenomenon is carried out when the ant-noise combines acoustically with the noise, what is in the cancellation of both sounds. The effectiveness of the cancellation of the primary source of noise depends on the precision with which the width and the phase of the generated ant-noise are controlled. The active control of noise, ANC (activates noise control), it is being investigated for

  14. A Multisensing Setup for the Intelligent Tire Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppo, Francesco; Pepe, Gianluca; Roveri, Nicola; Carcaterra, Antonio

    2017-03-12

    The present paper offers the chance to experimentally measure, for the first time, the internal tire strain by optical fiber sensors during the tire rolling in real operating conditions. The phenomena that take place during the tire rolling are in fact far from being completely understood. Despite several models available in the technical literature, there is not a correspondently large set of experimental observations. The paper includes the detailed description of the new multi-sensing technology for an ongoing vehicle measurement, which the research group has developed in the context of the project OPTYRE. The experimental apparatus is mainly based on the use of optical fibers with embedded Fiber Bragg Gratings sensors for the acquisition of the circumferential tire strain. Other sensors are also installed on the tire, such as a phonic wheel, a uniaxial accelerometer, and a dynamic temperature sensor. The acquired information is used as input variables in dedicated algorithms that allow the identification of key parameters, such as the dynamic contact patch, instantaneous dissipation and instantaneous grip. The OPTYRE project brings a contribution into the field of experimental grip monitoring of wheeled vehicles, with implications both on passive and active safety characteristics of cars and motorbikes.

  15. A Multisensing Setup for the Intelligent Tire Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Coppo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper offers the chance to experimentally measure, for the first time, the internal tire strain by optical fiber sensors during the tire rolling in real operating conditions. The phenomena that take place during the tire rolling are in fact far from being completely understood. Despite several models available in the technical literature, there is not a correspondently large set of experimental observations. The paper includes the detailed description of the new multi-sensing technology for an ongoing vehicle measurement, which the research group has developed in the context of the project OPTYRE. The experimental apparatus is mainly based on the use of optical fibers with embedded Fiber Bragg Gratings sensors for the acquisition of the circumferential tire strain. Other sensors are also installed on the tire, such as a phonic wheel, a uniaxial accelerometer, and a dynamic temperature sensor. The acquired information is used as input variables in dedicated algorithms that allow the identification of key parameters, such as the dynamic contact patch, instantaneous dissipation and instantaneous grip. The OPTYRE project brings a contribution into the field of experimental grip monitoring of wheeled vehicles, with implications both on passive and active safety characteristics of cars and motorbikes.

  16. Grip Analysis of Road Surface and Tire Footprint Using FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, M.; Abda, S.

    2018-02-01

    Road grip involve a touch between road pavement and the tire tread pattern. The load bearing surface, which depends on pavement roughness and local pressures in the contact patch. This research conducted to develop a Finite element model for simulating the experimentally testing of asphalt in Jl. AH Nasution Medan, North Sumatera Indonesia base on the value of grip coefficient from various tire loads and the various speed of the vehicle during contact to the road. A tire model and road pavement are developed for the analyses the geometry of tire footprint. The results showed that the greater the mass of car will increase grip coefficient. The coefficient of grip on the road surface contact trough the tire footprint strongly influence the kinetic coefficient of friction at certain speeds. Experimentally show that Concrete road grip coefficient of more than 34% compared to the asphalt road at the same IRI parameters (6-8). Kinetic friction coefficient more than 0.33 was obtained in a asphalt path at a speed of 30-40 Km/hour.

  17. Defect induced intermittency in the transit time dynamics generates 1/f noise in a trimer described by the discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pando L, C.L.; Doedel, E.J.

    2006-08-01

    We investigate the nonlinear dynamics in a trimer, described by the one-dimensional discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation (DNLSE), with periodic boundary conditions in the presence of a single on-site defect. We make use of numerical continuation to study different families of stationary and periodic solutions, which allows us to consider suitable perturbations. Taking into account a Poincare section, we are able to study the dynamics in both a thin stochastic layer solution and a global stochasticity solution. We find that the time series of the transit times, the time intervals to traverse some suitable sets in phase space, generate 1/f noise for both stochastic solutions. In the case of the thin stochastic layer solution, we find that transport between two almost invariant sets along with intermittency in small and large time scales are relevant features of the dynamics. These results are reflected in the behaviour of the standard map with suitable parameters. In both chaotic solutions, the distribution of transit times has a maximum and a tail with exponential decay in spite of the presence of long-range correlations in the time series. We motivate our study by considering a ring of weakly-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) with attractive interactions, where inversion of populations between two spatially symmetric sites and phase locking take place in both chaotic solutions. (author)

  18. Vibration Analysis of a Tire in Ground Contact under Varied Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Karakus Murat; Cavus Aydin; Colakoglu Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    The effect of three different factors, which are inflation pressure, vertical load and coefficient of friction on the natural frequencies of a tire (175/70 R13) has been studied. A three dimensional tire model is constructed, using four different material properties and parts in the tire. Mechanical properties of the composite parts are evaluated. After investigating the free vibration, contact analysis is carried out. A concrete block and the tire are modelled together, using three different...

  19. Numerical Study of Tire Hydroplaning Based on Power Spectrum of Asphalt Pavement and Kinetic Friction Coefficient

    OpenAIRE

    Shengze Zhu; Xiuyu Liu; Qingqing Cao; Xiaoming Huang

    2017-01-01

    Hydroplaning is a driving phenomenon threating vehicle’s control stability and safety. It happens when tire rolls on wet pavement with high speed that hydrodynamic force uplifts the tire. Accurate numerical simulation to reveal the mechanism of hydroplaning and evaluate the function of relevant factors in this process is significant. In order to describe the friction behaviors of tire-pavement interaction, kinetic friction coefficient curve of tire rubber and asphalt pavement was obtained by ...

  20. Ontario tire recycling and economic development (OnTRED) plan : a market approach to eliminating tire stockpiles and promoting recycled rubber product manufacturing in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-05-15

    Details of the Ontario Tire Recycling and Economic Development (OnTRED) plan were presented. The plan was developed to address deficiencies in the Ontario Tire Stewardship's (OTS) Scrap Tire Diversion Program plan. The OTS promotes the burning of scrap tires contrary to the Waste Diversion Act, and transfers the financial responsibility for scrap tire management from manufacturers to retailers. The OnTRED plan will attempt to improve the current 87 per cent recovery rate for passenger scrap tires in Ontario, and prevent the formation of any new tire stockpiles. The aim of the OnTRED plan is to ensure reuse and recycling consistent with provisions in the Waste Diversion Act and enhance the existing workings of the tire and scrap tire market through the promotion of reuse and recycling. In addition, the plan aims to minimize administration and compliance costs. A program summary of the OnTRED plan was presented, as well as details of market development plans and buy-recycled rebates. Issues concerning collector registration and transaction tracking were presented, as well as details of brand-owner and first importer pay-in models. Stakeholder roles and responsibilities were reviewed. A budget scenario was presented, as well as a rebate and diversion scenario. It was concluded that Ontario's 87 per cent scrap tire diversion rate can be improved through a focus on patterns of reuse and recycling. 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  1. Experimental and numerical study of friction and braking characteristics of rolling tires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, R. van der; Lopez, I.; Nijmeijer, H.; Schmeitz, A.J.C.; Bruijn, B. de

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the tire industry, virtual testing has been widely adopted in the design process. Both static deformation and dynamic response of the tire rolling on the road must be accurately predicted to evaluate the handling performance of a tire. Unfortunately, experimental characterization of

  2. 75 FR 17827 - Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Motor Vehicle Safety performance standards. All of the markings related to tire service (load capacity..., and tread wear, temperature, and traction ratings, to assess performance capabilities of various tires...-0213; Notice 2] Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

  3. 77 FR 2775 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... tread wear, temperature, and traction ratings, to assess performance capabilities of various tires. In...-0033; Notice 2] Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential.... SUMMARY: Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company,(Goodyear),\\1\\ has determined that approximately 26,224 Goodyear...

  4. 75 FR 68855 - Pirelli Tire LLC, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... noncompliance has an inconsequential effect on tire performance and motor vehicle safety because all of the affected tires meet or exceed all of the minimum performance requirements of FMVSS No. 139. In addition... performance tires; their asymmetric tread design is one of the main features sought by consumers for the...

  5. 78 FR 27476 - Pirelli Tire LLC, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... performance and motor vehicle safety because all of the affected tires meet or exceed all of the [[Page 27477... are ultra high performance tires; their asymmetric tread design is one of the main features sought by... these performance characteristics, the customers seek to ensure that their tires are installed correctly...

  6. 77 FR 11190 - Yokohama Tire Company, Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ..., endurance and low inflation pressure performance. The tires also meet all of the physical dimension...-0115; Notice 2] Yokohama Tire Company, Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance...: Yokohama Tire Company (YTC),\\1\\ has determined that certain P215/60R15 93H AVID H4S passenger car...

  7. 78 FR 35357 - Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... safety since the actual performance of the subject tires will not be affected by the mismarking. Bridgestone supports this belief by stating that the tires met the performance requirements of FMVSS No. 139...-0025; Notice 2] Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC, Grant of Petition for Decision of...

  8. 49 CFR 575.106 - Tire fuel efficiency consumer information program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to provide information indicating the relative performance of replacement passenger car tires in the... achieve the level of performance represented by each rating. (A) Ratings. Each tire shall be rated with... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tire fuel efficiency consumer information program...

  9. 78 FR 47049 - Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... on the operational performance or safety of vehicles on which these tires are mounted. Bridgestone..., and tread wear, temperature, and traction ratings to assess performance capabilities of various tires...-0108; Notice 2] Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC, Grant of Petition for Decision of...

  10. 75 FR 51524 - Yokohama Tire Corporation, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... low inflation pressure performance. The tires also meet all of the physical dimension, resistance to...-0115; Notice 1] Yokohama Tire Corporation, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Yokohama Tire Corporation (YTC) \\1\\ has determined that certain P215/60R15 93H AVID H4S passenger...

  11. 75 FR 28319 - Yokohama Tire Corporation, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... concludes in part that ``the actual tire performance is not inconsequential as it relates to motor vehicle safety because the actual tire performance is not affected by this noncompliance, and in the unlikely...-0056; Notice 1] Yokohama Tire Corporation, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

  12. 77 FR 20482 - Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... performance of the subject tires will not be affected by the mismarking. Bridgestone supports this belief by stating that the tires met the performance requirements of FMVSS No. 139 for endurance and high speed when...-0025; Notice 1] Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC, Receipt of Petition for Decision of...

  13. 76 FR 73007 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... tread wear, temperature, and traction ratings, to assess performance capabilities of various tires. In...-0080; Notice 2] Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential... Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance. SUMMARY: Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, (Goodyear),\\1\\ has...

  14. 75 FR 81712 - The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ..., all of the tires included in this petition meet or exceed the performance requirements of FMVSS No...-0174; Notice 1] The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company (Goodyear) \\1\\ has determined that certain Goodyear commercial...

  15. 49 CFR 579.26 - Reporting requirements for manufacturers of tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... imported is less than 15,000, or are deep tread, winter-type snow tires, space-saver or temporary use spare... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting requirements for manufacturers of tires... requirements for manufacturers of tires. For each reporting period, a manufacturer (including a brand name...

  16. 77 FR 71678 - The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ...: The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company (GOODYEAR),\\1\\ has determined that certain Goodyear brand tires... LT 275/65R18 brand tires manufactured between April 8, 2012, and May 12, 2012 at its plant in Gadsden.... Electronically: By logging onto the Federal Docket Management System (FDMS) Web site at http://www.regulations...

  17. 78 FR 71032 - Foreign Tire Sales, Inc., Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ...-0063; Notice 2] Foreign Tire Sales, Inc., Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...). ACTION: Denial of Petition. SUMMARY: Foreign Tire Sales, Inc. (FTS), as importer for ProMeter brand medium truck radial replacement tires manufactured by Shandlong Linglong Rubber Company Limited, has...

  18. 75 FR 36472 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ...-0080; Notice 1] Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, (Goodyear),\\1\\ has determined that approximately 14,826 passenger car tires manufactured between August of 2007 and May of 2009, do not fully comply with paragraph...

  19. 78 FR 15920 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Tire Selection and Rims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2013-0030] RIN 2127-AL24 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Tire Selection and Rims... Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 110 to make it clear that special trailer (ST) tires are permitted to be... also proposes to exclude these trailers from a vehicle testing requirement that a tire must be retained...

  20. 75 FR 32536 - Foreign Tire Sales, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ...-0063; Notice 1] Foreign Tire Sales, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Foreign Tire Sales, Inc. (FTS) \\1\\, as importer of record for ProMeter brand medium truck radial replacement tires manufactured by Shandlong Linglong Rubber Company Limited has determined that certain...

  1. 76 FR 15045 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ...-0033; Notice 1] Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, (Goodyear),\\1\\ has determined that approximately 26,224 Goodyear Assurance ComforTred Touring passenger replacement car tires manufactured between January 4, 2010 and...

  2. 75 FR 73159 - Continental Tire North America, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ...-0153; Notice 1] Continental Tire North America, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Continental Tire North America, Inc., (Continental),\\1\\ has determined that certain passenger car replacement tires manufactured in 2009 do not fully comply with paragraph S5.5(b) of Federal...

  3. Co-gasification of tire and biomass for enhancement of tire-char reactivity in CO2 gasification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahijani, Pooya; Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Mohammadi, Maedeh

    2013-06-01

    In this investigation, palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and almond shell (AS) were implemented as two natural catalysts rich in alkali metals, especially potassium, to enhance the reactivity of tire-char through co-gasification process. Co-gasification experiments were conducted at several blending ratios using isothermal Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under CO2. The pronounced effect of inherent alkali content of biomass-chars on promoting the reactivity of tire-char was proven when acid-treated biomass-chars did not exert any catalytic effect on improving the reactivity of tire-char in co-gasification experiments. In kinetic studies of the co-gasified samples in chemically-controlled regime, modified random pore model (M-RPM) was adopted to describe the reactive behavior of the tire-char/biomass-char blends. By virtue of the catalytic effect of biomass, the activation energy for tire-char gasification was lowered from 250 kJ/mol in pure form 203 to 187 kJ/mol for AS-char and EFB-char co-gasified samples, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pavement system with rubber tire chips in subgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashtakala, B.; Hoque, A.K.M.M. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-12-31

    A pavement design method was developed in which shredded rubber tire chips mixed with sand were used as a material for pavement subgrade. Rubber tire chips are highly compressible and produce both elastic and plastic deformations under the application of loads. Sand was added to fill the void between the tire chips and make the mixture a strong material. The design method considered the vertical compressive strain produced by the design life traffic load 18k (80 KN) repetitions. The equivalent thicknesses of the layers above the subgrade corresponding to this vertical compressive strain were determined using contour charts. From this equivalent thickness, the thicknesses for asphalt pavement, base, and sub-base were determined by Odemark`s method. 3 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  5. Longitudinal tire force estimation based on sliding mode observer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hadri, A.; Cadiou, J.C.; M' Sirdi, N.K. [Versailles Univ., Paris (France). Lab. de Robotique; Beurier, G.; Delanne, Y. [Lab. Central des Ponts, Centre de Nantes (France)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents an estimation method for vehicle longitudinal dynamics, particularly the tractive/braking force. The estimation can be used to detect a critical driving situation to improve security. It can be used also in several vehicle control systems. The main characteristics of the vehicle longitudinal dynamics were taken into account in the model used to design an observer and computer simulations. The state variables are the angular wheel velocity, vehicle velocity and the longitudinal tire force. The proposed differential equation of the tractive/braking force is derived using the concept of relaxation length. The observer designed is based on the sliding mode approach using only the angular wheel velocity measurement. The proposed method of estimation is verified through a one-wheel simulation model with a ''Magic formula'' tire model. Simulations results show an excellent reconstruction of the tire force. (orig.)

  6. Direct molding of pavement tiles made of ground tire rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrini, Fabrizio; Gagliardi, Donatella; Tedde, Giovanni Matteo; Santo, Loredana; Musacchi, Ettore

    2016-10-01

    Large rubber products can be molded by using only ground tire rubber (GTR) without any additive or binder due to a new technology called "direct molding". Rubber granules and powders from tire recycling are compression molded at elevated temperatures and pressures. The feasibility of this process was clearly shown in laboratory but the step to the industrial scale was missing. Thanks to an European Project (SMART "Sustainable Molding of Articles from Recycled Tires") this step has been made and some results are reported in this study. The press used for compression molding is described. Some tests were made to measure the energy consumption so as to evaluate costs for production in comparison with conventional technologies for GTR molding (by using binders). Results show that 1 m2 tiles can be easily molded with several thicknesses in a reasonable low time. Energy consumption is higher than conventional technologies but it is lower than the cost for binders.

  7. Adsorption of uranium on adsorbents produced from used tires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahramanlioglu, M.

    2003-01-01

    Potential use of adsorbents produced from used tires for the removal of uranium from aqueous solutions is investigated. Two different adsorbents were used including char and activated carbon produced from used tires. The surface area was larger on activated carbon. Adsorption experiments were carried out as a function of time, adsorbent concentration, pH and initial concentration of uranium. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the Lagergren equation. The rate constants of intraparticle diffusion and mass transfer coefficients were calculated. It was shown that the equilibrium data could be fitted by the Langmuir and Freundlich equations. The adsorption of uranium in the presence of different cations were also studied and the results were correlated with the ionic potential of the cations. It was demonstrated that the activated carbon produced from used tires can be considered as an adsorbent that has a commercial potential for uranium removal. (author)

  8. Feasibility of Energy Harvesting Using a Piezoelectric Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malotte, Christopher

    While the piezoelectric effect has been around for some time, it has only recently caught interest as a potential sustainable energy harvesting device. Piezoelectric energy harvesting has been developed for shoes and panels, but has yet to be integrated into a marketable bicycle tire. For this thesis, the development and feasibility of a piezoelectric tire was done. This includes the development of a circuit that incorporates piezoceramic elements, energy harvesting circuitry, and an energy storage device. A single phase circuit was designed using an ac-dc diode rectifier. An electrolytic capacitor was used as the energy storage device. A financial feasibility was also done to determine targets for manufacturing cost and sales price. These models take into account market trends for high performance tires, economies of scale, and the possibility of government subsidies. This research will help understand the potential for the marketability of a piezoelectric energy harvesting tire that can create electricity for remote use. This study found that there are many obstacles that must be addressed before a piezoelectric tire can be marketed to the general public. The power output of this device is minuscule compared to an alkaline battery. In order for this device to approach the power output of an alkaline battery the weight of the device would also become an issue. Additionally this device is very costly compared to the average bicycle tire. Lastly, this device is extreme fragile and easily broken. In order for this device to become marketable the issues of power output, cost, weight, and durability must all be successfully overcome.

  9. Noise canceling in-situ detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David O.

    2014-08-26

    Technologies applicable to noise canceling in-situ NMR detection and imaging are disclosed. An example noise canceling in-situ NMR detection apparatus may comprise one or more of a static magnetic field generator, an alternating magnetic field generator, an in-situ NMR detection device, an auxiliary noise detection device, and a computer.

  10. Evaluation of noise pollution in oil extracting region of Lavan and the effect of noise enclosure on noise abatement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Golbabaei

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Overexposure to industrial noise pollution induce hearing loss workers. Occupational hearing loss may cause interference whit oral communication, so it may  increase the risk of occupational accidents in workplace as well as affects whit social activities.  This study was conducted on Lavan Island, are of oil extracting regions in the south of Iran. The  object of this study was to evaluate noise pollution and determining the effect of noise enclosure  on noise abatement.   Methods   The noise sources were recognized and noise pressure level was measured by CEL- 440. Noise dose of the exposed workers in high level noise area were measured by CEL 272.   Results   Major noise sources were gas turbines, diesel generators, compressors, fans and gas containing pips, noise contour map revealers that noise level were higher than the recommended national exposure limit. The results of workers noise dose show that their noise exposure were  higher than the recommended value, (p<0.001. Finally, by using the results of noise frequency  analysis of different noise sources, the noise pressure level of each sources was determined in   terms of enclosing them.   Conclusion   By enclosing the noise sources, noise pressure levels can be lowered douse to  acceptable levels but limitation of applying enclosure should be regarded.  

  11. Tire inspection system with shielded x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisner, D.N.; Palermo, A. Jr.; Loyer, P.K.

    1976-01-01

    An automated tire inspection system is described which employs a penetrative radiation, such as x-radiation, to inspect the integrity of portions of tires fed sequentially along a feed path through a centering station and into a shielded enclosure where an inspection station is defined. Features of the system include a continuously operating x-ray source movable between inspection and retracted positions, and an x-ray shield for covering the source when it is retracted to permit the doors of the shielded enclosure to be opened without danger from escaping radiation. 19 Claims, 38 Drawing Figures

  12. Release of Waste Tire Comprehensive Utilization Industry Access Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On July 31, 2012, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology released the Tire Retread- ing lndustry Access Conditions and Waste Tire Comprehensive Utilization Industry Access Condi- tions with the No. 32 announcement of 2012. The state will lay a foundation for realizing the green, safe, efficient, eco-friendly and energy saving tar- gets in the "12th Five-year Plan" of the industry by raising access conditions, regulating industrial development order, strengthening environmental protection, promoting corporate optimizing and up- grading, improving resources comprehensive utiliza- tion technology and management level and guiding the "harmless recycling and eco-friendly utiliza- tion" of the industry.

  13. Noise mapping inside a car cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Kim; Sjøj, Sidsel Marie Nørholm; Jacobsen, Finn

    The mapping of noise is of considerable interest in the car industry where a good noise mapping can make it much easier to identify the sources that generate the noise and eventually reduce the individual contributions to the noise. The methods used for this purpose include delay-and-sum beamform......The mapping of noise is of considerable interest in the car industry where a good noise mapping can make it much easier to identify the sources that generate the noise and eventually reduce the individual contributions to the noise. The methods used for this purpose include delay......-and-sum beamforming and spherical harmonics beamforming. These methods have a poor spatial esolution at low frequencies, and since much noise generated in cars is dominated by low frequencies the methods are not optimal. In the present paper the mapping is done by solving an inverse problem with a transfer matrix...

  14. Design optimization under uncertainty and speed variability for a piezoelectric energy harvester powering a tire pressure monitoring sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toghi Eshghi, Amin; Lee, Soobum; Kazem Sadoughi, Mohammad; Hu, Chao; Kim, Young-Cheol; Seo, Jong-Ho

    2017-10-01

    Energy harvesting (EH) technologies to power small sized electronic devices are attracting great attention. Wasted energy in a vehicle’s rotating tire has a great potential to enable self-powered tire pressure monitoring sensors (TPMS). Piezoelectric type energy harvesters can be used to collect vibrational energy and power such systems. Due to the presence of harsh acceleration in a rotating tire, a design tradeoff needs to be studied to prolong the harvester’s fatigue life as well as to ensure sufficient power generation. However, the design by traditional deterministic design optimization (DDO) does not show reliable performance due to the lack of consideration of various uncertainty factors (e.g., manufacturing tolerances, material properties, and loading conditions). In this study, we address a new EH design formulation that considers the uncertainty in car speed, dimensional tolerances and material properties, and solve this design problem using reliability-based design optimization (RBDO). The RBDO problem is formulated to maximize compactness and minimize weight of a TPMS harvester while satisfying power and durability requirements. A transient analysis has been done to measure the time varying response of EH such as power generation, dynamic strain, and stress. A conservative design formulation is proposed to consider the expected power from varied speed and stress at higher speed. When compared to the DDO, the RBDO results show that the reliability of EH is increased significantly by scarifying the objective function. Finally, experimental test has been conducted to demonstrate the merits of RBDO design over DDO.

  15. Preventing Tire Blowout Accidents: A Perspective on Factors Affecting Drivers’ Intention to Adopt Tire Pressure Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Ying Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore whether risk perception or anticipated regret is responsible for intensifying the participants’ intention to adopt a tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS to prevent a tire-related accident, and whether the optimism bias has a moderator effect between risk perception/anticipated regret and intention. With 274 valid questionnaires and PLS-SEM (partial least squares structural equation modeling analysis, the results indicate a significant positive relationship between risk perception and intention to adopt TPMS, but not between anticipated regret and intention. The moderator effect of optimism bias on risk perception and anticipated regret is not found in the model. The findings will prove useful for public service advertising campaigns by providing a basis for an understanding of the role of cognitive and emotional factors in tire-blowout accident prevention, thereby increasing the motivation for drivers in Taiwan to take advantage of the protection afforded them by using TPMS.

  16. Acute aquatic toxicity of tire and road wear particles to alga, daphnid, and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwood, Christopher; McAtee, Britt; Kreider, Marisa; Ogle, R Scott; Finley, Brent; Sweet, Len; Panko, Julie

    2011-11-01

    Previous studies have indicated that tire tread particles are toxic to aquatic species, but few studies have evaluated the toxicity of such particles using sediment, the likely reservoir of tire wear particles in the environment. In this study, the acute toxicity of tire and road wear particles (TRWP) was assessed in Pseudokirchneriella subcapita, Daphnia magna, and Pimephales promelas using a sediment elutriate (100, 500, 1000 or 10000 mg/l TRWP). Under standard test temperature conditions, no concentration response was observed and EC/LC(50) values were greater than 10,000 mg/l. Additional tests using D. magna were performed both with and without sediment in elutriates collected under heated conditions designed to promote the release of chemicals from the rubber matrix to understand what environmental factors may influence the toxicity of TRWP. Toxicity was only observed for elutriates generated from TRWP leached under high-temperature conditions and the lowest EC/LC(50) value was 5,000 mg/l. In an effort to identify potential toxic chemical constituent(s) in the heated leachates, toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies and chemical analysis of the leachate were conducted. The TIE coupled with chemical analysis (liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry [LC/MS/MS] and inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry [ICP/MS]) of the leachate identified zinc and aniline as candidate toxicants. However, based on the high EC/LC(50) values and the limited conditions under which toxicity was observed, TRWP should be considered a low risk to aquatic ecosystems under acute exposure scenarios.

  17. 75 FR 60036 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a GVWR of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... evaluates resistance to heat buildup when the tire is run at stepped-up loads at or near its rated load... that involves a tire running on the roadwheel under specified conditions to allow for tire growth. The... [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0132] RIN 2127-AK17 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for...

  18. 40 CFR 63.5996 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5996 Section 63.5996 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5996 How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire...

  19. 40 CFR 63.6004 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.6004 Section 63.6004 Protection... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Continuous Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.6004 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire production...

  20. 40 CFR 63.6006 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire cord production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance with the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.6006 Section 63.6006... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Continuous Compliance Requirements for Tire Cord... tire cord production affected sources? (a) You must demonstrate continuous compliance with each...

  1. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources? You must use...

  2. 40 CFR 63.5999 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire cord production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5999 Section 63.5999 Protection... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5999 How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire cord...

  3. Forensic analysis of tire rubbers based on their sulfur chemical states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funatsuki, Atsushi; Shiota, Kenji; Takaoka, Masaki; Tamenori, Yusuke

    2015-05-01

    The chemical states of sulfur in 11 tires were analyzed using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) in order to discriminate between various tire rubbers. All tires had peaks around 2471.5 and 2480.5eV, and the shapes and heights of these peaks differed among tires, suggesting that the sulfur chemical state could be used for discrimination between tire rubbers. Based on t-tests on the results of XANES, 43 of 55 combinations were different at a significance level of 5%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Self-generation and positivity effects following transcranial random noise stimulation in medial prefrontal cortex: A reality monitoring task in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, Nicola; Di Domenico, Alberto; Palumbo, Rocco; Fairfield, Beth

    2017-06-01

    Activation of medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC) has been typically found during reality monitoring tasks (i.e., distinguishing between internal self-generated vs external information). No study, however, has yet investigated whether transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS) over the mPFC leads to a reduction in reality-monitoring misattributions in aging. In particular, stimulating mPFC should increase the number of cognitive operations engaged while encoding and this distinctive information may help older adults to discriminate between internal and external sources better. In addition, given that older adults are more sensitive to positively-charged information compared to younger adults and that mPFC is typically recruited during encoding of positive stimuli with reference to themselves, activation of mPFC should further sustain source retrieval in older adults. In this double-blind, sham-controlled study, we examined whether tRNS over the mPFC of healthy younger and older adults during encoding enhances subsequent reality monitoring for seen versus imagined emotionally-charged words. Our findings show that tRNS enhances reality monitoring for positively-charged imagined words in the older adult group alone, highlighting the role that mPFC plays in their memory for positive information. In line with the control-based account of positivity effects, our results add evidence about the neurocognitive processes involved in reality monitoring when older adults face emotionally-charged events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimate of water inleakage into sodium in the steam generator of an atomic electric power plant that is stable with respect to industrial noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veselova, G.P.; Egorov, A.F.; Kulabukhov, Yu.S.; Yugai, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    A characteristic feature of acoustic leakage detection systems is that they operate under conditions of high-level industrial noise, which cannot be eliminated by simple means at the measurement stage. The development of algorithms which would yield estimates stable with regard to noise constitutes a pressing problem. There exists another feature of acoustic systems for leakage detection based on statistical methods -- the necessity of processing prolonged implementations of random processes to obtain a satisfactory statistical accuracy. It would be of interest to devise estimates involving small error over a small implementation length, which would reduce the time of leakage detection. The aim of this work was to develop methods of obtaining noiseproof, rapid estimates. Discussions are included on providing an estimate insensitive to additive noise and on obtaining estimates insensitive to multiplicative noise. 2 refs., 4 figs

  6. Studded and unstudded winter tires in fatal road accidents in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmivuo, Mikko; Luoma, Juha; Porthin, Markus

    2017-07-04

    The aim of the study was to compare the safety effects of studded and unstudded winter tires based on fatal road accidents. The data included 958 road accidents involving a passenger car or van that occurred in Finland from November to March between 1997 and 2012. Comparing the proportions of winter tire type in accidents and in general traffic showed that the overall effect of tire type on the number of accidents was not significant, although studded tires reduced fatal accidents by 10-15%. Compared to unstudded tires, studded tires reduced accidents significantly only on bald ice in 2005-2012. Drivers using unstudded tires were more experienced and their profession was more frequently related to driving. In addition, the vehicle age was lower for vehicles with unstudded tires. On the other hand, the state of repair was less pertinent for unstudded than for studded tires. These confounding factors offset their effects to some degree. The risk of fatal road accidents in winter between studded and unstudded tires does not differ significantly. However, the accident risk has recently been substantially higher on bald ice for unstudded than for studded tires. The magnitude of this risk difference is difficult to determine without specific information on exposure by road surface.

  7. The influence of the tire inflation on pull properties of agriculture tractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Katrenčík

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural tractors are robust and versatile machines, which must comply with the basic requirements of users under various conditions. The main requirements include economical and reliable operation and high performance. Fuel economy could be improved using multiple methods, for example a well trained operator, adequate farming conditions and optimal tire inflation. Tractor tires transmit engine power to the surface and as such they are crucial to tractor operation. In the first part of the field measurement, all tires were inflated to 180kPa, while in the second part of the field measurements the tire pressure was set to 75kPa in front tires and to 65 kPa in rear tires. The results of the field measurement of the John Deere 6920S tractor with different tire inflation shows that pull performance increased by 9.9% and wheel slip decreased by 9.7%.

  8. A novel wireless piezoelectric tire sensor for the estimation of slip angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogan, G; Alexander, L; Rajamani, R

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a simple approach for the analysis of tire deformation and proposes a new piezoelectric tire sensor for physically meaningful measurements of tire deformations. Tire deformation measurements in the contact patch can be used for the estimation of slip angle, tire forces, slip ratio and tire–road friction coefficient. The specific case of a wireless tire deformation sensor for the estimation of slip angle is taken up in this paper. A sensor in which lateral sidewall deformation can be decoupled from radial deformation is designed. The slope of the lateral deflection curve in the contact patch is used to calculate slip angle. A specially constructed tire test rig is used to experimentally evaluate the performance of the developed sensor. Results show that the developed sensor can accurately estimate slip angles up to values of 5°

  9. Application of Novel Lateral Tire Force Sensors to Vehicle Parameter Estimation of Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanghyun Nam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents methods for estimating lateral vehicle velocity and tire cornering stiffness, which are key parameters in vehicle dynamics control, using lateral tire force measurements. Lateral tire forces acting on each tire are directly measured by load-sensing hub bearings that were invented and further developed by NSK Ltd. For estimating the lateral vehicle velocity, tire force models considering lateral load transfer effects are used, and a recursive least square algorithm is adapted to identify the lateral vehicle velocity as an unknown parameter. Using the estimated lateral vehicle velocity, tire cornering stiffness, which is an important tire parameter dominating the vehicle’s cornering responses, is estimated. For the practical implementation, the cornering stiffness estimation algorithm based on a simple bicycle model is developed and discussed. Finally, proposed estimation algorithms were evaluated using experimental test data.

  10. Application of Novel Lateral Tire Force Sensors to Vehicle Parameter Estimation of Electric Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kanghyun

    2015-11-11

    This article presents methods for estimating lateral vehicle velocity and tire cornering stiffness, which are key parameters in vehicle dynamics control, using lateral tire force measurements. Lateral tire forces acting on each tire are directly measured by load-sensing hub bearings that were invented and further developed by NSK Ltd. For estimating the lateral vehicle velocity, tire force models considering lateral load transfer effects are used, and a recursive least square algorithm is adapted to identify the lateral vehicle velocity as an unknown parameter. Using the estimated lateral vehicle velocity, tire cornering stiffness, which is an important tire parameter dominating the vehicle's cornering responses, is estimated. For the practical implementation, the cornering stiffness estimation algorithm based on a simple bicycle model is developed and discussed. Finally, proposed estimation algorithms were evaluated using experimental test data.

  11. Vehicle Unsteady Dynamics Characteristics Based on Tire and Road Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During automotive related accidents, tire and road play an important role in vehicle unsteady dynamics as they have a significant impact on the sliding friction. The calculation of the rubber viscoelastic energy loss modulus and the true contact area model is improved based on the true contact area and the rubber viscoelastic theory. A 10 DOF full vehicle dynamic model in consideration of the kinetic sliding friction coefficient which has good accuracy and reality is developed. The stability test is carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the model, and the simulation test is done in MATLAB to analyze the impact of tire feature and road self-affine characteristics on the sport utility vehicle (SUV unsteady dynamics under different weights. The findings show that it is a great significance to analyze the SUV dynamics equipped with different tire on different roads, which may provide useful insights into solving the explicit-implicit features of tire prints in systematically and designing active safety systems.

  12. Research of Sustainable Use of Tire Shreds in Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Bazienė

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies are on-going to establish the suitability of tire shreds in the landfill bottom drainage layer, to minimize clogging. Four experimental columns were constructed in which were 500 mm long and 200 mm in diameter. They were filled with different fillers and with a different amount of tire shreds. The most important problem with drainage filler in landfills is clogging. Over long periods of time in landfill operation, the drainage layer clogs (the pores of the layer become smaller and the porosity of the layer becomes smaller. The experiment was carried out for 365 days. Although the landfill for this period represents only one-fiftieth or less of the operation time, the laboratory tests found that the drainage layer bandwidth of reduction in one year can have a negative impact in the long run over time. The main elements that influence the decrease of conductivity are the total suspended solids and calcium and iron compounds. The change of these compounds was observed during the column study, where the concentration of each month in all the columns was decreasing. The results showed that the waste of rubber (tire shreds used for creating fillers in columns provided greater porosity of the layer. It is a beneficial reason to use a rubble and tire shreds waste mix for forming the drainage layer in landfills.

  13. Rubber Tire Dozer Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This training outline for rubber tire dozer operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  14. 77 FR 3726 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... test machine(s) for the TFECIP. This would allow tire manufacturers to know the identity of the machine... the ISO 28580 procedure. 4. Future Production. To assist with estimating the potential benefits of the... will I have to speak at the public workshop? Once NHTSA learns how many people have registered to speak...

  15. Perfect sound insulation property of reclaimed waste tire rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaidillah, Harjana, Yahya, Iwan; Kristiani, Restu; Muqowi, Eki; Mazlan, Saiful Amri

    2016-03-01

    This article reports an experimental investigation of sound insulation and absorption performance of a materials made of reclaimed ground tire rubber which is known as un-recyclable thermoset. The bulk waste tire is processed using single step recycling methods namely high-pressure high-temperature sintering (HPHTS). The bulk waste tire is simply placed into a mold and then a pressure load of 3 tons and a heating temperature of 200°C are applied to the mold. The HPHTS conducted for an hour and then it is cooled in room temperature. The resulted product is then evaluated the acoustical properties namely sound transmission loss (STL) and sound absorption coefficient using B&K Tube Kit Type 4206-T based on ISO 10534-2, ASTM E1050 and ASTM E2611. The sound absorption coefficient is found about 0.04 until 0.08 while STL value ranges between 50 to 60 dB. The sound absorption values are found to be very low (<0.1), while the average STL is higher than other elastomeric matrix found in previous work. The reclaimed tire rubber through HPHTS technique gives good soundproof characteristic.

  16. Potential of waste tires as aggregates in concrete | Mutuku | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential use of this kind of concrete includes nonstructural purposes such as lightweight concrete walls and blocks, building facades and crash barriers. Keywords: concrete aggregates, rubber chips, rubberized concrete, used tires, waste recycling. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol. 3(1) 2006: 75-84 ...

  17. Sustained Release of a Watermgoluble tiring from Directly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustained Release of a Watermgoluble tiring from Directly Compressed Okra Gum Matrix. Tablets. Val). Mill, MA. Gilllllbll'ifl'l' AND KT. ... in near noromorder release of aspirin from the matrix tablets. The results indicate that okra gum is .... porous structure including alteration of the shape and size distribution of the pores.

  18. A Hybrid Soft Soil Tire Model (HSSTM) For Vehicle Mobility And Deterministic Performance Analysis In Terramechanics Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Taheri, Shahyar

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and efficient tire models for deformable terrain operations are essential for performing vehicle simulations. Assessment of the forces and moments that occur at the tire-terrain interface, and the effect of the tire motion on properties of the terrain are crucial in understanding the performance of a vehicle. In order to model the dynamic behavior of the tire on different terrains, a lumped mass discretized tire model using Kelvin-Voigt elements is developed. To optimize the computat...

  19. Active noise control primer

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Scott D

    2000-01-01

    Active noise control - the reduction of noise by generating an acoustic signal that actively interferes with the noise - has become an active area of basic research and engineering applications. The aim of this book is to present all of the basic knowledge one needs for assessing how useful active noise control will be for a given problem and then to provide some guidance for designing, setting up, and tuning an active noise-control system. Written for students who have no prior knowledge of acoustics, signal processing, or noise control but who do have a reasonable grasp of basic physics and mathematics, the book is short and descriptive. It leaves for more advanced texts or research monographs all mathematical details and proofs concerning vibrations, signal processing and the like. The book can thus be used in independent study, in a classroom with laboratories, or in conjunction with a kit for experiment or demonstration. Topics covered include: basic acoustics; human perception and sound; sound intensity...

  20. Noise from wind power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljunggren, S.

    2001-12-01

    First, the generation of noise at wind power plants and the character of the sound is described. The propagation of the sound and its dependence on the structure of the ground and on wind and temperature is treated next. Models for calculation of the noise emission are reviewed and examples of applications are given. Different means for reducing the disturbances are described

  1. Six-sigma application in tire-manufacturing company: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vikash; Jain, Rahul; Meena, M. L.; Dangayach, G. S.

    2017-09-01

    Globalization, advancement of technologies, and increment in the demand of the customer change the way of doing business in the companies. To overcome these barriers, the six-sigma define-measure-analyze-improve-control (DMAIC) method is most popular and useful. This method helps to trim down the wastes and generating the potential ways of improvement in the process as well as service industries. In the current research, the DMAIC method was used for decreasing the process variations of bead splice causing wastage of material. This six-sigma DMAIC research was initiated by problem identification through voice of customer in the define step. The subsequent step constitutes of gathering the specification data of existing tire bead. This step was followed by the analysis and improvement steps, where the six-sigma quality tools such as cause-effect diagram, statistical process control, and substantial analysis of existing system were implemented for root cause identification and reduction in process variation. The process control charts were used for systematic observation and control the process. Utilizing DMAIC methodology, the standard deviation was decreased from 2.17 to 1.69. The process capability index (C p) value was enhanced from 1.65 to 2.95 and the process performance capability index (C pk) value was enhanced from 0.94 to 2.66. A DMAIC methodology was established that can play a key role for reducing defects in the tire-manufacturing process in India.

  2. Development and applicability estimation of the tire contact pressure measurement system; Tire secchiatsukei no kaihatsu to oyosei hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizutani, Y.; Amago, T.; Takahashi, T.; Sakuma, S.; Mori, N. [Toyota Central R and D Laboratories, Inc., Aichi (Japan); Nagae, A. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan); Yasuoka, M. [Toyo Tire and Rubber Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1995-04-20

    A pressure sensor more reliable than the conventional types and a tire pressure measurement system using a plurality of sensors of the said reliable type have been developed. The sensor is an inverted T in shape, the upper surface of the vertical beam thereof receives the pressure, and the two ends of the horizontal beam are fixed. The load per unit area imposed on the pressure receiving surface is separated into three components, the X and Y components in the tangential direction are sensed by the vertical beam while the Z component in the vertical direction is sensed by a distortion gauge attached to the horizontal beam. For the measurement of the contact pressure distribution for the entire contact surface, a measuring device was developed, comprising a multiple point contact pressure gauge with 30 sensors of the reliable type discussed here embedded therein, a tire rolling tester, and a data processing unit. A tire wear estimation test was conducted using this pressure sensor and a contact probe type slip sensor, and it was found that a tire of a greater friction energy ratio is easier to experience abnormal abrasion and that the new pressure sensor is useful in estimating abnormal abrasion. Further, it was indicated that the present measuring device is applicable to the analysis of the mechanism wherein shaft force results from contact pressure on the soil. 3 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Upscaling of a Batch De-vulcanization Process for Ground Car Tire Rubber to a Continuous Process in a Twin Screw Extruder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; van Hoek, Johannes Wilhelmus; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Reuvekamp, Louis A.E.M.; Heideman, G.; Blume, Anke; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2016-01-01

    As a means to decrease the amount of waste tires and to re-use tire rubber for new tires, devulcanization of ground passenger car tires is a promising process. Being an established process for NR and EPDM, earlier work has shown that for ground passenger car tire rubber with a relatively high amount

  4. Effects of tire leachate on the invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus and the native congener Aedes triseriatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo C. Villena

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Discarded vehicle tire casings are an important artificial habitat for the developmental stages of numerous vector mosquitoes. Discarded vehicle tires degrade under ultraviolet light and leach numerous soluble metals (e.g., barium, cadmium, zinc and organic substances (e.g., benzothiazole and its derivatives [BZTs], polyaromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs] that could affect mosquito larvae that inhabit the tire casing. This study examined the relationship between soluble zinc, a common marker of tire leachate, on mosquito densities in tire habitats in the field, and tested the effects of tire leachate on the survival and development of newly hatched Aedes albopictus and Aedes triseriatus larvae in a controlled laboratory dose-response experiment. In the field, zinc concentrations were as high as 7.26 mg/L in a single tire and averaged as high as 2.39 (SE ± 1.17 mg/L among tires at a single site. Aedes albopictus (37/42 tires, 81.1% and A. triseriatus (23/42, 54.8% were the most widespread mosquito species, co-occurred in over half (22/42, 52.4% of all tires, and A. triseriatus was only collected without A. albopictus in one tire. Aedes triseriatus was more strongly negatively associated with zinc concentration than A. albopictus, and another common mosquito, C. pipiens, which was found in 17 tires. In the laboratory experiment, A. albopictus per capita rate of population change (λ′ was over 1.0, indicating positive population growth, from 0–8.9 mg/L zinc concentration (0–10,000 mg/L tire leachate, but steeply declined to zero from 44.50–89.00 mg/L zinc (50,000–100,000 mg/L tire leachate. In contrast, A. triseriatus λ′ declined at the lower concentration of 0.05 mg/L zinc (100 mg/L tire leachate, and was zero at 0.45, 8.90, 44.50, and 89.00 mg/L zinc (500, 10,000, 50,000 and 100,000 mg/L tire leachate. These results indicate that tire leachate can have severe negative effects on populations of container-utilizing mosquitoes at

  5. Tire traces - discrimination and classification of pyrolysis-GC/MS profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueissaz, Line; Massonnet, Geneviève

    2013-07-10

    Tire traces can be observed on several crime scenes as vehicles are often used by criminals. The tread abrasion on the road, while braking or skidding, leads to the production of small rubber particles which can be collected for comparison purposes. This research focused on the statistical comparison of Py-GC/MS profiles of tire traces and tire treads. The optimisation of the analytical method was carried out using experimental designs. The aim was to determine the best pyrolysis parameters regarding the repeatability of the results. Thus, the pyrolysis factor effect could also be calculated. The pyrolysis temperature was found to be five time more important than time. Finally, a pyrolysis at 650°C during 15s was selected. Ten tires of different manufacturers and models were used for this study. Several samples were collected on each tire, and several replicates were carried out to study the variability within each tire (intravariability). More than eighty compounds were integrated for each analysis and the variability study showed that more than 75% presented a relative standard deviation (RSD) below 5% for the ten tires, thus supporting a low intravariability. The variability between the ten tires (intervariability) presented higher values and the ten most variant compounds had a RSD value above 13%, supporting their high potential of discrimination between the tires tested. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was able to fully discriminate the ten tires with the help of the first three principal components. The ten tires were finally used to perform braking tests on a racetrack with a vehicle equipped with an anti-lock braking system. The resulting tire traces were adequately collected using sheets of white gelatine. As for tires, the intravariability for the traces was found to be lower than the intervariability. Clustering methods were carried out and the Ward's method based on the squared Euclidean distance was able to correctly group all of the tire traces

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, elemental and organic carbon emissions from tire-wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aatmeeyata; Sharma, Mukesh

    2010-09-15

    Tire-wear is an important source of PAHs, elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC). The emissions of these pollutants have been studied in an experimental set-up, simulating a realistic road-tire interaction (summer tire-concrete road). The large particle non-exhaust emissions (LPNE; diameter greater than 10 microm) have been evaluated over 14,500 km run of the tire. An increasing linear trend with cumulative km run was observed for emissions of PAHs and carbon. Amongst PAHs in LPNE, pyrene has been observed to be the highest (30+/-4 mg kg(-1)) followed by benzo[ghi]perylene (17+/-2 mg kg(-1)). Different fractions of EC-OC for tire-wear have been analyzed, and unlike exhaust emissions, EC1 was observed to be 99% of EC whereas more than 70% of the OC was the high temperature carbon (OC3 and OC4). The overall emission factors (mass tire(-1) km(-1)) for PAHs, EC and OC from tire-wear are 378 ng tire(-1) km(-1), 1.46 mg tire(-1) km(-1) and 2.37 mg tire(-1) km(-1) for small cars. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Demonstration of improved vehicle fuel efficiency through innovative tire design, materials, and weight reduction technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donley, Tim [Cooper Tire & Rubber Company Incorporated, Findlay, OH (United States)

    2014-12-31

    Cooper completed an investigation into new tire technology using a novel approach to develop and demonstrate a new class of fuel efficient tires using innovative materials technology and tire design concepts. The objective of this work was to develop a new class of fuel efficient tires, focused on the “replacement market” that would improve overall passenger vehicle fuel efficiency by 3% while lowering the overall tire weight by 20%. A further goal of this project was to accomplish the objectives while maintaining the traction and wear performance of the control tire. This program was designed to build on what has already been accomplished in the tire industry for rolling resistance based on the knowledge and general principles developed over the past decades. Cooper’s CS4 (Figure #1) premium broadline tire was chosen as the control tire for this program. For Cooper to achieve the goals of this project, the development of multiple technologies was necessary. Six technologies were chosen that are not currently being used in the tire industry at any significant level, but that showed excellent prospects in preliminary research. This development was divided into two phases. Phase I investigated six different technologies as individual components. Phase II then took a holistic approach by combining all the technologies that showed positive results during phase one development.

  8. Numerical Study of Tire Hydroplaning Based on Power Spectrum of Asphalt Pavement and Kinetic Friction Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengze Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroplaning is a driving phenomenon threating vehicle’s control stability and safety. It happens when tire rolls on wet pavement with high speed that hydrodynamic force uplifts the tire. Accurate numerical simulation to reveal the mechanism of hydroplaning and evaluate the function of relevant factors in this process is significant. In order to describe the friction behaviors of tire-pavement interaction, kinetic friction coefficient curve of tire rubber and asphalt pavement was obtained by combining pavement surface power spectrum and complex modulus of tread rubber through Persson’s friction theory. Finite element model of tire-fluid-pavement was established in ABAQUS, which was composed of a 225-40-R18 radial tire and three types of asphalt pavement covered with water film. Mechanical responses and physical behaviors of tire-pavement interaction were observed and compared with NASA equation to validate the applicability and accuracy of this model. Then contact force at tire-pavement interface and critical hydroplaning speed influenced by tire inflation pressure, water film thickness, and pavement types were investigated. The results show higher tire inflation pressure, thinner water film, and more abundant macrotexture enhancing hydroplaning speed. The results could be applied to predict hydroplaning speed on different asphalt pavement and improve pavement skid resistance design.

  9. Construction of a test embankment using a sand-tire shred mixture as fill material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sungmin; Prezzi, Monica; Siddiki, Nayyar Zia; Kim, Bumjoo

    2006-01-01

    Use of tire shreds in construction projects, such as highway embankments, is becoming an accepted way of beneficially recycling scrap tires. However, in the last decade there was a decline in the use of pure tire shreds as fill materials in embankment construction, as they are susceptible to fire hazards due to the development of exothermic reactions. Tire shred-sand mixtures, on the other hand, were found to be effective in inhibiting exothermic reactions. When compared with pure tire shreds, tire shred-sand mixtures are less compressible and have higher shear strength. However, the literature contains limited information on the use of tire shred-soil mixtures as a fill material. The objectives of this paper are to discuss and evaluate the feasibility of using tire shred-sand mixtures as a fill material in embankment construction. A test embankment constructed using a 50/50 mixture, by volume, of tire shreds and sand was instrumented and monitored to: (a) determine total and differential settlements; (b) evaluate the environmental impact of the embankment construction on the groundwater quality due to leaching of fill material; and (c) study the temperature variation inside the embankment. The findings in this research indicate that mixtures of tire shreds and sand are viable materials for embankment construction.

  10. Drone noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinney, Charles; Sirohi, Jayant; University of Texas at Austin Team

    2017-11-01

    A basic understanding of the noise produced by single and multirotor drones operating at static thrust conditions is presented. This work acts as an extension to previous efforts conducted at The University of Texas at Austin (Tinney et al. 2017, AHS Forum 73). Propeller diameters ranging from 8 inch to 12 inch are examined for configurations comprising an isolated rotor, a quadcopter configuration and a hexacopter configuration, and with a constant drone pitch of 2.25. An azimuthal array of half-inch microphones, placed between 2 and 3 hub-center diameters from the drone center, are used to assess the acoustic near-field. Thrust levels, acquired using a six degree-of-freedom load cell, are then used to correlate acoustic noise levels to aerodynamic performance for each drone configuration. The findings reveal a nearly logarithmic increase in noise with increasing thrust. However, for the same thrust condition, considerable noise reduction is achieved by increasing the number of propeller blades thereby reducing the blade passage frequency and both the thickness and loading noise sources that accompany it.

  11. Measurement noise of a point autofocus surface topography instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Xiaobing; Quagliotti, Danilo; Maculotti, Giacomo

    Optical instruments for areal topography measurement can be especially sensitive to noise when scanning is required. Such noise has different sources, including those internally generated and external sources from the environment.......Optical instruments for areal topography measurement can be especially sensitive to noise when scanning is required. Such noise has different sources, including those internally generated and external sources from the environment....

  12. Silica-filled tire tread compounds: an investigation into the viscoelastic properties of the rubber compounds and their relation to tire performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maghami, S.

    2016-01-01

    With increasing the global concern for fossil fuel consumption, automotive industry moves toward more efficient vehicles. Tires are of great importance in this respect, as the tire compound material in contact with the road surface and under the cyclic deformation dissipates energy due to its

  13. Wind noise under a pine tree canopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspet, Richard; Webster, Jeremy

    2015-02-01

    It is well known that infrasonic wind noise levels are lower for arrays placed in forests and under vegetation than for those in open areas. In this research, the wind noise levels, turbulence spectra, and wind velocity profiles are measured in a pine forest. A prediction of the wind noise spectra from the measured meteorological parameters is developed based on recent research on wind noise above a flat plane. The resulting wind noise spectrum is the sum of the low frequency wind noise generated by the turbulence-shear interaction near and above the tops of the trees and higher frequency wind noise generated by the turbulence-turbulence interaction near the ground within the tree layer. The convection velocity of the low frequency wind noise corresponds to the wind speed above the trees while the measurements showed that the wind noise generated by the turbulence-turbulence interaction is near stationary and is generated by the slow moving turbulence adjacent to the ground. Comparison of the predicted wind noise spectrum with the measured wind noise spectrum shows good agreement for four measurement sets. The prediction can be applied to meteorological estimates to predict the wind noise under other pine forests.

  14. A Novel Electromotance Noise Mitigation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rocket propulsion environments generate electromotance effects that often introduce undesirable noise within the instrumentation systems. These effects are also...

  15. Analysis of Tire Tractive Performance on Deformable Terrain by Finite Element-Discrete Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Hiroshi; Takatsu, Yuzuru

    The goal of this study is to develop a practical and fast simulation tool for soil-tire interaction analysis, where finite element method (FEM) and discrete element method (DEM) are coupled together, and which can be realized on a desktop PC. We have extended our formerly proposed dynamic FE-DE method (FE-DEM) to include practical soil-tire system interaction, where not only the vertical sinkage of a tire, but also the travel of a driven tire was considered. Numerical simulation by FE-DEM is stable, and the relationships between variables, such as load-sinkage and sinkage-travel distance, and the gross tractive effort and running resistance characteristics, are obtained. Moreover, the simulation result is accurate enough to predict the maximum drawbar pull for a given tire, once the appropriate parameter values are provided. Therefore, the developed FE-DEM program can be applied with sufficient accuracy to interaction problems in soil-tire systems.

  16. Laser cleaning of the contaminations on the surface of tire mould

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yayun; Jia, Baoshen; Chen, Jing; Jiang, Yilan; Tang, Hongping; Wang, Haijun; Luan, Xiaoyu; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Chuanchao; Yao, Caizhen

    2017-07-01

    During the manufacturing of tires, surface pollutants on tire mould will lead to the production of unqualified tires. Tire moulds need to be regularly cleaned. Laser cleaning is recognized as a non-destructive, effective, precise and environmental friendly method. In this paper, laser cleaning was used to remove contaminants on tire mould surface. First, laser induced damage experiments were performed. The results showed that the roughness and hardness of the cast steel sample surface seldom changed under the energy range of 140.1-580.2 mJ laser irradiation 1 pulse and the energy range of 44.7-168.9 mJ laser irradiation 100 pulses. In the laser cleaning experiments, the cleaning thresholds and the optimal cleaning parameters were obtained. Results indicated that laser cleaning was safe and effective for tire mould contamination removal.

  17. World's largest off-road tires to be recycled

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-07-01

    Suncor Energy is the first company in Canada to use a new technology designed uniquely for tire recycling at oil sand facilities. The technology is owned by CuttingEdge Tire Recycling, a partnership between Denesoline Environmental Limited Partnership and Beaver Environmental Rubber Technologies Limited. Suncor has supported the development of this Aboriginal-owned and operated business by offering land, electricity, diesel fuel and stockpiles of used truck tires from its oil sand mining activities. These tires are the largest off-road tires in the world. In this new technology, tires that are worn-out through oil sand mining are shredded in a portable shredder before being recycled for subsequent use by the Alberta Recycling Management Association. 1 fig.

  18. Improving mechanical grip on winter tires. Finite element analysis on pressure profile of airless tire compared to conventional tire using ANSYS workbench

    OpenAIRE

    Ludvigsen, Sondre

    2017-01-01

    The harsh climate of the arctic has always been one of the most difficult areas to drive cars in. The severe loss in traction due to snow and icing on the roads, has led to an increased risk of collisions. The winter tires for cars has developed through the years after their introduction in the 1930’s. There have been three revolutionary changes made since then; implement of studs, changing in tread pattern and optimizing rubber characteristics. The implementation of studs is being shied away...

  19. A comparative study of natural rubber modified with ground tire rubber of truck

    OpenAIRE

    Binti Haridan, Ili Liyana

    2016-01-01

    The recycling of waste rubber has considerable significance in term of environmental protection and energy conservation. Considering that most of the relevant literature is concerned with tire recycling, the aim of this work was to develop and characterize the elastomeric samples of natural rubber (NR) composites filled with ground tire rubber of truck (GTR) devulcanized by microwave (DGTR). The tire rubber was ground under ambient conditions and subjected to microwave exposure for 3, 5 and ...

  20. 26 x 6.6 radial-belted aircraft tire performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Pamela A.; Martinson, Veloria J.; Yager, Thomas J.; Stubbs, Sandy M.

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary results from testing of 26 x 6.6 radial-belted and bias-ply aircraft tires at NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) are reviewed. The 26 x 6.6 tire size evaluation includes cornering performance tests throughout the aircraft ground operational speed range for both dry and wet runway surfaces. Static test results to define 26 x 6.6 tire vertical stiffness properties are also presented and discussed.