WorldWideScience

Sample records for tire crumb infill

  1. Federal Research Action Plan on Recycled Tire Crumb Used ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past several years, parents, athletes, schools, and communities have raised concerns about the safety of recycled tire crumb rubber used as infill for playing fields and playgrounds in the United States. The public has expressed concerns that the use of these fields could potentially be related to certain health effects. Studies to date have not shown an elevated health risk from playing on fields with tire crumb rubber, but these studies have limitations and do not comprehensively evaluate the concerns about health risks from exposure to tire crumb rubber. This status report provides a summary of activities to date, including: (1) stakeholder outreach, (2) the tire crumb rubber manufacturing industry, (3) the final peer-reviewed Literature Review/Gaps Analysis (LRGA), (4) progress on the research activities, and (5) next steps and a timeline for completion of the final report. The status report does not include research findings.

  2. A multi-site recycled tire crumb rubber characterization study: recruitment strategy and field sampling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, concerns have been raised by the public about the safety of tire crumb rubber infill used in synthetic turf fields. In response, the 2016 Federal Research Action Plan on Recycled Tire Crumb Used on Playing Fields and Playgrounds (FRAP) was developed to examine key envir...

  3. Chemical and Physical Analysis Methods for Characterizing Tire Crumb Rubber Used in Synthetic Turf Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tire crumb rubber from recycled tires is widely used as infill material in synthetic turf fields in the United States. Recycled crumb rubber is a complex and potentially variable matrix with many metal, VOC, and SVOC constituents, presenting challenges for characterization and ex...

  4. Zinc Leaching from Tire Crumb Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, E. P.; Ren, J.; Mays, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    Recent estimates indicate that more than 2 billion scrap tires are currently stockpiled in the United States and approximately 280 million more tires are added annually. Various engineering applications utilize recycled tires in the form of shredded tire crumb rubber. However, the use of tire crumb rubber may have negative environmental impacts, especially when the rubber comes into contact with water. A review of the literature indicates that leaching of zinc from tire crumb rubber is the most significant water quality concern associated with using this material. Zinc is generally used in tire manufacturing, representing approximately 1.3% of the final product by mass. This study will report results from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure, batch leaching tests, and column leaching tests performed to quantify the process by which zinc leaches from tire crumb rubber into water. Results are interpreted with a first-order kinetic attachment/detachment model, implemented with the U.S. Agricultural Research Service software HYDRUS-1D, in order to determine the circumstances when zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber would be expected to comply with the applicable discharge limits. One potential application for recycled tires is replacing sand with tire crumb rubber in granular media filters used for stormwater pollution control. For this to be a viable application, the total zinc in the stormwater discharge must be below the EPA’s benchmark value of 0.117 mg/L.

  5. Tire Crumb Research Study Literature Review / Gap ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to more fully understand data gaps in human exposure and toxicity to tire crumb materials, ATSDR, CPSC and EPA undertook a collaborative effort in the form of a scientific literature review and subsequent gaps analysis. The first objective of the Literature Review and Gap Analysis (LRGA) collaboration was to identify the existing body of literature related specifically to human exposure to tire crumb materials through the use of synthetic turf athletic fields and playgrounds. The second objective was to characterize and summarize the relevant data from the scientific literature. The final objective was to review the summary information and identify data gaps to build on the current understanding of the state-of-the-science and inform the development of specific research efforts that would be most impactful in the near-term. Because of the need for additional information, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) launched a multi-agency action plan to study key environmental human health questions. The Federal Research Action Plan includes numerous activities, including research studies (U.S. EPA, 2016). A key objective of the Action Plan is to identify key knowledge gaps.

  6. USE OF CRUMB RUBBER FROM USED CAR TIRES IN MINERAL ASPHALT MIXES

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Plewa

    2014-01-01

    With the development of the automotive industry the disposal of used tires is constantly growing problem. Storage of waste rubber is associated with a very long period of decomposition of rubber in the natural conditions. Simultaneously new technologies are developed every year, which in the future may significantly promote recycling of this type of materials. The crumb rubbery modification of the road bitumen is the one of the environmentally safe solutions of rubbery decomposition. Improvem...

  7. Marshall properties of asphalt concrete using crumb rubber modified of motorcycle tire waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, Henri; Supriyanto, Bambang; Pranoto, Chandra, Pria Rizky; Hakim, Arief Rahman

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to explain the effect of Crumb Rubber Modified (CRM) of motorcycle tire waste on Marshall properties of asphalt mix. Two types of aggregate gradation, asphalt concrete wearing course (ACWC) and asphalt concrete base (ACB), and CRM passing #50 sieve size were used. Seven levels of CRM content were investigated in this study, namely 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 3%, 4.5%, and 6% by weight of aggregate. Marshall test is conducted on Marshall specimens. The specimens are tested in their optimum binder content (OBC). The results indicate that CRM addition of motorcycle tire waste increases the Marshall stability of the both mix, ACWC and ACB. In addition, 1% CRM addition of motorcycle tire waste of the total mix weight is the best mix.

  8. USE OF CRUMB RUBBER FROM USED CAR TIRES IN MINERAL ASPHALT MIXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Plewa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the automotive industry the disposal of used tires is constantly growing problem. Storage of waste rubber is associated with a very long period of decomposition of rubber in the natural conditions. Simultaneously new technologies are developed every year, which in the future may significantly promote recycling of this type of materials. The crumb rubbery modification of the road bitumen is the one of the environmentally safe solutions of rubbery decomposition. Improvement of resistance of the crumb rubbery modification of the road asphalt mixtures is the very important ecological aspect of the future. The article presents the results of research on the fatigue life resistance of asphalt concretes AC16P and AC22P with asphalt-rubber binders. The above analyses have been based on the results of tests of fatigue life of mineral-rubber-asphalt mixes determined by the method of prismatic four-point bending (4PB-PR. Mineral-rubber -asphalt mixes have been diversified according to the amount of the additive of rubber fines in asphalt-rubber binder. On the basis of the test results have been proven improvements functional properties mineral-rubber-asphalt mixes compared with mineral-asphalt mixes with unmodified asphalt.

  9. Crumb waste tire rubber surface modification by plasma polymerization of ethanol and its application on oil-well cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaowei, Cheng [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); Sheng, Huang [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); School of Oil and Natural Gas Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); Xiaoyang, Guo, E-mail: guoxiaoyangswpi@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); School of Oil and Natural Gas Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); Wenhui, Duan, E-mail: wenhui.duan@monash.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Melbourne 3800 (Australia)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • The crumb waste tire rubber (WTR) was modified by plasma polymerization of ethanol. • Hydrophilic groups were introduced onto WTR surface and improved its hydrophilia. • The functionalized crumb WTR was applied in oil-well cement. • The mechanical properties of modified oil-well cement were intensively enhanced. - Abstract: Crumb waste tire rubber (WTR) was pretreated by oxygen low temperature plasma (LTP) and modified by LTP polymerization process of ethanol monomer to improve the adhesion property with oil-well cement matrix and the mechanical properties of cement. The surface properties of modified crumb WTR and the mechanical properties and structures of modified oil-well cement were investigated by means of contact angle measurement, dispersion test, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), mechanics performance tests, permeability test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was demonstrated that LTP treatment changed both the surface composition and roughness. The contact angle of pretreated crumb WTR dramatically fell from 122° to 34°, and sample with ethanol LPT polymer film decreased even further to 11°. The ATR-FTIR and XPS analysis results demonstrated that hydrophilic groups, such as –COOH, C–OH, and –CHO, were introduced on the WTR surface. The oxygen atomic percent increased from 8.11% to 14.50% and 24.83%. The mechanical properties, porosity and permeability of raw cement were compared to samples modified by untreated crumb WTR, pretreated crumb WTR and ethanol LTP polymerization treated crumb WTR. It was found that after 28 days, the compressive strength of the samples with the untreated crumb WTR decreased to 80% with respect to raw cement. The tensile strength and flexural strength also had a slight reduction compared with the raw cement. On the contrary, after 28 days, the tensile strength of cement modified by LTP polymerization

  10. Crumb waste tire rubber surface modification by plasma polymerization of ethanol and its application on oil-well cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaowei, Cheng; Sheng, Huang; Xiaoyang, Guo; Wenhui, Duan

    2017-07-01

    Crumb waste tire rubber (WTR) was pretreated by oxygen low temperature plasma (LTP) and modified by LTP polymerization process of ethanol monomer to improve the adhesion property with oil-well cement matrix and the mechanical properties of cement. The surface properties of modified crumb WTR and the mechanical properties and structures of modified oil-well cement were investigated by means of contact angle measurement, dispersion test, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), mechanics performance tests, permeability test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was demonstrated that LTP treatment changed both the surface composition and roughness. The contact angle of pretreated crumb WTR dramatically fell from 122° to 34°, and sample with ethanol LPT polymer film decreased even further to 11°. The ATR-FTIR and XPS analysis results demonstrated that hydrophilic groups, such as -COOH, C-OH, and -CHO, were introduced on the WTR surface. The oxygen atomic percent increased from 8.11% to 14.50% and 24.83%. The mechanical properties, porosity and permeability of raw cement were compared to samples modified by untreated crumb WTR, pretreated crumb WTR and ethanol LTP polymerization treated crumb WTR. It was found that after 28 days, the compressive strength of the samples with the untreated crumb WTR decreased to 80% with respect to raw cement. The tensile strength and flexural strength also had a slight reduction compared with the raw cement. On the contrary, after 28 days, the tensile strength of cement modified by LTP polymerization treated WTR increased 11.03% and 13.36%, and the flexural strength increased 9.65% and 7.31%, respectively. A decrease in the compressive strength also occurred but was inconspicuous. A tight interface bonding for ethanol LTP polymerization treated WTR with cement matrix was observed via an SEM image.

  11. Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-15

    pressures, and exhibit sufficient runflat ability to evacuate from dangerous conditions. Tires are the only vehicle components that make contact with the...contact area is captured for each test condition using inked tire prints. Figure 8 shows a typical tire print. General descriptions of the contact...8. Typical ink print of tire contact area. c. Additional tread descriptors (per DOT HS-810 56130) are shown in Figure 9. TOP 02-2-704A 15

  12. The response of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and soil microbes to the crumb rubber material used in artificial turf fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochron, Sharon T; Fiorenza, Andrew; Sperl, Cassandra; Ledda, Brianne; Lawrence Patterson, Charles; Tucker, Clara C; Tucker, Wade; Ho, Yuwan Lisa; Panico, Nicholas

    2017-04-01

    Municipalities have been replacing grass fields with artificial turf, which uses crumb rubber infill made from recycled tires. Crumb rubber contains hydrocarbons, organic compounds, and heavy metals. Water runoff from crumb rubber fields contains heavy metals. These components can damage the environment. We contaminated topsoil with new crumb rubber and measured its impact on earthworms and soil microbes. Specifically, we compared soil microbe activity and earthworm health, survivorship, and longevity in heat and light stress under two soil regimes: clean topsoil and clean topsoil contaminated with crumb rubber. We then characterized levels of metals, nutrients, and micronutrients of both soil treatments and compared those to published New York soil background levels and to levels set by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) as remediation goals. We found that: 1) contaminated soil did not inhibit microbial respiration rates, 2) earthworm survivorship was not impacted by exposure to contaminated soil, 3) earthworms' ability to cope with heat and light stress remained unchanged after living in contaminated soil, but 4) earthworms living in contaminated soil gained 14% less body weight than did earthworms living in uncontaminated soil. We also found that, with the exception of zinc, heavy metals in our contaminated soil did not exceed the background levels found throughout New York State or the remediation targets set by the DEC. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Experimental Investigation of the Mechanical and Durability Properties of Crumb Rubber Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbing Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recycling waste tire rubber by incorporating it into concrete has become the preferred solution to dispose of waste tires. In this study, the effect of the volume content of crumb rubber and pretreatment methods on the performances of concrete was evaluated. Firstly, the fine aggregate and mixture were partly replaced by crumb rubber to produce crumb rubber concrete. Secondly, the mechanical and durability properties of crumb rubber concrete with different replacement forms and volume contents had been investigated. Finally, the crumb rubber after pretreatment by six modifiers was introduced into the concrete mixture. Corresponding tests were conducted to verify the effectiveness of pretreatment methods as compared to the concrete containing untreated crumb rubber. It was observed that the mechanical strength of crumb rubber concrete was reduced, while durability was improved with the increasing of crumb rubber content. 20% replacement of fine aggregate and 5% replacement of the total mixture exhibited acceptable properties for practical applications. In addition, the results indicated that the modifiers had a positive impact on the mechanical and durability properties of crumb rubber concrete. It avoided the disadvantage of crumb rubber concrete having lower strength and provides a reference for the production of modified crumb rubber concrete.

  14. Experimental Investigation of the Mechanical and Durability Properties of Crumb Rubber Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanbing; Wang, Xianqiang; Jiao, Yubo; Sha, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Recycling waste tire rubber by incorporating it into concrete has become the preferred solution to dispose of waste tires. In this study, the effect of the volume content of crumb rubber and pretreatment methods on the performances of concrete was evaluated. Firstly, the fine aggregate and mixture were partly replaced by crumb rubber to produce crumb rubber concrete. Secondly, the mechanical and durability properties of crumb rubber concrete with different replacement forms and volume contents had been investigated. Finally, the crumb rubber after pretreatment by six modifiers was introduced into the concrete mixture. Corresponding tests were conducted to verify the effectiveness of pretreatment methods as compared to the concrete containing untreated crumb rubber. It was observed that the mechanical strength of crumb rubber concrete was reduced, while durability was improved with the increasing of crumb rubber content. 20% replacement of fine aggregate and 5% replacement of the total mixture exhibited acceptable properties for practical applications. In addition, the results indicated that the modifiers had a positive impact on the mechanical and durability properties of crumb rubber concrete. It avoided the disadvantage of crumb rubber concrete having lower strength and provides a reference for the production of modified crumb rubber concrete. PMID:28773298

  15. Experimental Investigation of the Mechanical and Durability Properties of Crumb Rubber Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanbing; Wang, Xianqiang; Jiao, Yubo; Sha, Tao

    2016-03-07

    Recycling waste tire rubber by incorporating it into concrete has become the preferred solution to dispose of waste tires. In this study, the effect of the volume content of crumb rubber and pretreatment methods on the performances of concrete was evaluated. Firstly, the fine aggregate and mixture were partly replaced by crumb rubber to produce crumb rubber concrete. Secondly, the mechanical and durability properties of crumb rubber concrete with different replacement forms and volume contents had been investigated. Finally, the crumb rubber after pretreatment by six modifiers was introduced into the concrete mixture. Corresponding tests were conducted to verify the effectiveness of pretreatment methods as compared to the concrete containing untreated crumb rubber. It was observed that the mechanical strength of crumb rubber concrete was reduced, while durability was improved with the increasing of crumb rubber content. 20% replacement of fine aggregate and 5% replacement of the total mixture exhibited acceptable properties for practical applications. In addition, the results indicated that the modifiers had a positive impact on the mechanical and durability properties of crumb rubber concrete. It avoided the disadvantage of crumb rubber concrete having lower strength and provides a reference for the production of modified crumb rubber concrete.

  16. Promoting the use of crumb rubber concrete in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batayneh, Malek K; Marie, Iqbal; Asi, Ibrahim

    2008-11-01

    The use of accumulated waste materials in third world countries is still in its early phases. It will take courage for contractors and others in the construction industry to recycle selected types of waste materials in the concrete mixes. This paper addresses the recycling of rubber tires accumulated every year in Jordan to be used in concrete mixes. The main objectives of this research were to provide more scientific evidence to support the use of legislation or incentive-based schemes to promote the reuse of accumulated waste tires. This research focused on using crumb tires as a replacement for a percentage of the local fine aggregates used in the concrete mixes in Jordan. Different concrete specimens were prepared and tested in terms of uniaxial compression and splitting tension. The main variable in the mixture was the volumetric percentage of crumb tires used in the mix. The test results showed that even though the compressive strength is reduced when using the crumb tires, it can meet the strength requirements of light weight concrete. In addition, test results and observations indicated that the addition of crumb rubber to the mix has a limited effect toward reducing the workability of the mixtures. The mechanical test results demonstrated that the tested specimens of the crumb rubber concrete remained relatively intact after failure compared to the conventional concrete specimens. It is also concluded that modified concrete would contribute to the disposal of the non-decaying scrap tires, since the amount being accumulated in third world countries is creating a challenge for proper disposal. Thus, obliging authorities to invest in facilitating the use of waste tires in concrete, a fundamental material to the booming construction industry in theses countries, serves two purposes.

  17. Cumulative Effect of Crumb Rubber and Steel Fiber on the Flexural Toughness of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Abu Bakar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Concrete properties, such as toughness and ductility, are enhanced to resist different impacts or blast loads. Rubberized concrete, which could be considered a green material, is produced from recycled waste tires grinded into different crumb rubber particle sizes and mixed with concrete. In this study, the behavior of rubberized steel fiber-reinforced concrete is investigated. Flexural performance of concrete beams (400×100×100 mm manufactured from plain, steel fiber, crumb rubber and combination crumb rubber and steel fiber are also evaluated. Similarly, concrete slabs (500×500×50 mm are also tested under flexural loading. Flexural performance of the SFRRC mixtures was significantly enhanced. The toughness and maximum deflection of specimens with rubber were considerably improved. Steel fiber/crumb rubber-reinforced concrete can be used for practical application, which requires further studies.

  18. BREAD CRUMBS TEXTURE OF SPELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Korczyk – Szabó

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Texture analysis is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of bread crumb is important not only for quality assurance in the bakeries, but also for assessing the effects of changes in dough ingredients and processing condition and also for describing the changes in bread crumb during storage. Crumb cellular structure is an important quality criterion used in commercial baking and research laboratories to judge bread quality alongside taste, crumb colour and crumb physical texture. In the framework of our research during the years 2010 – 2011 were analyzed selected indicators of bread crumb for texture quality of three Triticum spelta L. cultivars – Altgold, Rubiota and Ostro grown in an ecological system. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus (Stable Micro Systems, Surrey, UK, following the AACC (74-09 standard and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness (N.mm-1 and relative elasticity (%. Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was achieved in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Altgold and Ostro were the most firm and stiff. Correlation analysis showed strong negative correlation between relative elasticity and bread crumb firmness as well as bread stiffness (-0.65++, -0.66++. The spelt wheat bread crumb texture need further investigation as it can be a reliable quality parameter.

  19. Assessment of geotechnical properties of uncemented/cemented clayey soil incorporated with waste crumb rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JITENDRA SINGH YADAV

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Discarded waste tires are becoming a serious threat to health, environment, and ecological systems worldwide if it is not disposed of properly. Every year 1000 million of waste tires are discarded. This number may grow up to 1200 million by the year 2030. On the other hand, construction of civil engineering structures such as buildings, dams, highways, etc. are at high risk of differential settlement, especially in the case of weak or soft clay, which is due to its low shear strength and high compressibility. The paper aims to assess geotechnical properties of uncemented/cemented clayey soil incorporated with waste crumb rubber. Compaction parameters, unconfined compressive strength, split tensile strength, toughness index, CBR values and swelling pressure of rubberized uncemented/cemented clayey soil (3%, and 6% cement and different percentage of crumb rubber have been obtained. After rigorous extensive study, it has been concluded that unconfined compressive strength and split tensile strength of rubberized cemented clayey soil decreases with the increase of the percentage of crumb rubber whereas the axial, and diametral strain are found to be increased with the addition of crumb rubber up to 5% after that it starts to decrease. The CBR values, swelling pressure, and toughness index of uncemented/cemented clayey soil was significantly affected by incorporation of crumb rubber. SEM studies have also been incorporated in this investigation.

  20. Spring Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.

    2011-01-01

    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  1. Evaluation of crumb rubber as aggregate for automated manufacturing of rubberized long hollow blocks and bricks

    OpenAIRE

    Sodupe-Ortega, E.; Fraile-Garcia, E.; Ferreiro-Cabello, J.; Sanz-Garcia, A.

    2016-01-01

    Waste tire rubber is a promising lightweight aggregate for building products that enhances their thermal and acoustic properties. Even the environmental benefits of its use are evident, higher cost and significant changes in compressive strength and workability hinder its widespread adoption. This article examines the use of crumb rubber (CR) as aggregate in dry-mix mortars to produce rubberized long hollow blocks and bricks using automated brick machines. CR was incorporated over a range of ...

  2. Tire Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  3. Contributions crumb rubber in hot mix asphalt to the resilient modulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyapijati, Raden Hendra; Hadiwardoyo, Sigit Pranowo; Sumabrata, R. Jachrizal

    2017-06-01

    Pavement on the structure of the surface layer receives direct load from the vehicles. Road surfaces are designed to withstand the wear from vehicle loads. Therefore, we need a way to improve the durability of the pavement. Road damage may reduce the life of roads and increase the maintenance costs. The retention rate of road surface material is affected by the environmental conditions, one of them is temperature. To overcome the issues related to temperature, material additives are added to the asphalt mixture. These additive materials would change the binding properties of bitumen and the characteristics of strain and stress before the damage due to repeated traffic loading. Crumb rubber (CR) is a type of polymer additives and thermoplastic elastomers are obtained from scrap tires and rubber waste that is utilized in order to preserve the environment. This study investigated the contribution of the crumb rubber in terms of the value of resilient modulus and resistance to deformation. Hot mix asphalt used was asphalt Pen 60/70, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate and filler. Crumb rubber was made from scrap tire rubber, in the form of fine powder with sieve no. 30 (0.6 mm). CR additive was added to the base asphalt at several rates of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% at a temperature of 177° C. The test data used the indirect tensile test with a tool UMATTA at temperatures of 25°, 35°, and 45° C. The test results showed that the levels of crumb rubber on the asphalt decreased the penetration rate, increased the bitumen softening point, and improved the resistance to permanent deformation. The addition of additive materials was evidenced to improve the penetration index, reduce the temperature sensitivity, and increase the viscosity. Subsequently, it can extend the temperature range of viscoelasticity. The contributions of crumb rubber in hot mix asphalt included the increase of the recoverable deformation and the decrease of the value of resilient modulus. This study

  4. Aroma of Wheat Bread Crumb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Anja Niehues

    and VII. The longest fermentation times were generally found for doughs fermented with all baker’s yeasts at 5°C and the lowest yeast concentration (2.88•1014 CFU/kg flour). In Paper II, III and V wheat breads were produced for volatile analysis. The dough samples were fermented to equal height and baked......Understanding how the dough fermentation conditions influence the wheat bread production time and the bread aroma is important for the bread industry. The overall purpose of this PhD project is to investigate the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature...... on dough expansion and aroma in bread crumb. In Paper I the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature on dough expansion were investigated. Wheat doughs were fermented by seven commercial baker’s yeasts (baker’s yeast I to VII) at different yeast concentrations (2...

  5. Aroma of Wheat Bread Crumb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Anja Niehues

    Understanding how the dough fermentation conditions influence the wheat bread production time and the bread aroma is important for the bread industry. The overall purpose of this PhD project is to investigate the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature...... on dough expansion and aroma in bread crumb. In Paper I the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature on dough expansion were investigated. Wheat doughs were fermented by seven commercial baker’s yeasts (baker’s yeast I to VII) at different yeast concentrations (2....... The highest kinetic rate constants corresponding to the shortest fermentation times were found for doughs fermented at 25°C and the highest yeast concentration. Doughs fermented with commercial baker’s yeast I, II, III and V had shorter fermentation times compared to fermentation with baker’s yeast IV, VI...

  6. Leaching of DOC, DN, and inorganic constituents from scrap tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbes, Meric; Yilmaz, Ozge; Khan, Abdul A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-11-01

    One concern for recycle and reuse of scrap tires is the leaching of tire constituents (organic and inorganic) with time, and their subsequent potential harmful impacts in environment. The main objective of this study was to examine the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved nitrogen (DN), and selected inorganic constituents from scrap tires. Different sizes of tire chips and crumb rubber were exposed to leaching solutions with pH's ranging from 3.0 to 10.0 for 28days. The leaching of DOC and DN were found to be higher for smaller size tire chips; however, the leaching of inorganic constituents was independent of the size. In general, basic pH conditions increased the leaching of DOC and DN, whereas acidic pH conditions led to elevated concentrations of metals. Leaching was minimal around the neutral pH values for all the monitored parameters. Analysis of the leaching rates showed that components associated with the rubbery portion of the tires (DOC, DN, zinc, calcium, magnesium, etc.) exhibited an initial rapid followed by a slow release. On the other hand, a constant rate of leaching was observed for iron and manganese, which are attributed to the metal wires present inside the tires. Although the total amounts that leached varied, the observed leaching rates were similar for all tire chip sizes and leaching solutions. Operation under neutral pH conditions, use of larger size tire chips, prewashing of tires, and removal of metal wires prior to application will reduce the impact of tire recycle and reuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of crumb rubber on asphaltic binder chemistry and rheology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Cicero de S.; Tome, Luisa G.A.; Sant' ana, Hosiberto B.; Soares, Jorge B.; Soares, Sandra A. [University Federal of Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The use of the crumb rubber (CR) from scraps tires to modify asphalt binders (AB) at high temperature can improve significantly the performance grade, but the storage stability can be influenced after the mix of AB and CR or polymer. The major concern of asphalt binder with polymer and CR blends is their lack of stability during prolonged storage at high temperatures. The tendency to phase separation under quiescent conditions appears as an important limitation for the practical use of these blends. After the RTFOT and PAV process, the binder conventional and modified was analyzed in a Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer (FTIR) for chemical characterization. After aging in RTFOT, the AB presented a larger degradation compared to the CR of RABC and RABC commercial. So, the crumb rubber contributed to the binder stability, acting as an antioxidant in the aging process. The dynamic mechanical properties of CR modify asphalts binder before and after graft has been characterized by use of dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) or advances rheology expanded system (ARES) of Rheometric Scientific. The difference in the viscoelastic parameters between the top and the bottom sections of the tube was measured. It has been found that the added content of CR has great effect on the rheological properties of the AB and its high temperature performance. It also has been confirmed that the RABC sample showed larger storage stability compared to the sample RABC commercial observed with viscoelastic parameters. As a consequence, the use CR and aromatic oil can be considered a suitable alternative for modification of binder in pavement. (author)

  8. Investigation on dynamic performance of concrete column crumb rubber steel and fiber concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siti Nurul Nureda, M. Z.; Mariyana, A. K.; Khiyon, M. Iqbal; Rahman, M. S. Abdul; Nurizaty, Z.

    2017-11-01

    In general the Normal Concrete (NC) are by quasi-brittle failure, where, the nearly complete loss of loading capacity, once failure is initiated especially under dynamic loadings. The significance of this study is to improve the damping properties of concrete structure by utilization of the recycled materials from waste tires to be used in concrete as structural materials that improve seismic performance. In this study, the concrete containing 10% of fine crumb rubber and 1 % volume fraction of steel fiber from waste tires is use to investigate the dynamic performance (natural frequency and damping ratio).A small scale column were fabricated from Treated Crumb Rubber and Steel Fiber Concrete (TCRSFC) and NC were cast and cured for 28 days to investigate the dynamic performance. Based on analysis, dynamic modulus, damping ratio and natural frequency of TCRSFC has improved considerably by 5.18%, 109% and 10.94% when compared with NC. The TCRSFC producing concrete with the desired properties as well as to introduce the huge potential as dynamic resistance structure from severe damage especially prevention on catastrophic failure.

  9. Mechanical properties of concrete containing a high volume of tire-rubber particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaloo, Ali R; Dehestani, M; Rahmatabadi, P

    2008-12-01

    Due to the increasingly serious environmental problems presented by waste tires, the feasibility of using elastic and flexible tire-rubber particles as aggregate in concrete is investigated in this study. Tire-rubber particles composed of tire chips, crumb rubber, and a combination of tire chips and crumb rubber, were used to replace mineral aggregates in concrete. These particles were used to replace 12.5%, 25%, 37.5%, and 50% of the total mineral aggregate's volume in concrete. Cylindrical shape concrete specimens 15 cm in diameter and 30 cm in height were fabricated and cured. The fresh rubberized concrete exhibited lower unit weight and acceptable workability compared to plain concrete. The results of a uniaxial compressive strain control test conducted on hardened concrete specimens indicate large reductions in the strength and tangential modulus of elasticity. A significant decrease in the brittle behavior of concrete with increasing rubber content is also demonstrated using nonlinearity indices. The maximum toughness index, indicating the post failure strength of concrete, occurs in concretes with 25% rubber content. Unlike plain concrete, the failure state in rubberized concrete occurs gently and uniformly, and does not cause any separation in the specimen. Crack width and its propagation velocity in rubberized concrete are lower than those of plain concrete. Ultrasonic analysis reveals large reductions in the ultrasonic modulus and high sound absorption for tire-rubber concrete.

  10. Masonry infill performance during the Northridge earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, R.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bennett, R.M.; Fischer, W.L. [Univ. of Tennesee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Adham, S.A. [Agbabian Associates, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1996-03-08

    The response of masonry infills during the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake is described in terms of three categories: (1) lowrise and midrise structures experiencing large near field seismic excitations, (2) lowrise and midrise structures experiencing moderate far field excitation, and (3) highrise structures experiencing moderate far field excitation. In general, the infills provided a positive beneficial effect on the performance of the buildings, even those experiencing large peak accelerations near the epicenter. Varying types of masonry infills, structural frames, design conditions, and construction deficiencies were observed and their performance during the earthquake indicated. A summary of observations of the performance of infills in other recent earthquakes is given. Comparison with the Northridge earthquake is made and expected response of infill structures in lower seismic regions of the central and eastern United States is discussed.

  11. Land Vehicle Tire Qualification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    RETREADING RETREADING ISSUES 22 UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED CATL REQUALIFICATION • Once a tire manufacturers particular model/retreading process of...qualification was extended based on the qualification of the original tire model. REQUALIFICATION 23 UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED QUALIFICATION PROCESS

  12. Infill sampling criteria to locate extremes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Watson, AG

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available Three problem-dependent meanings for engineering ''extremes'' are motivated, established, and translated into formal geostatistical (model-based) criteria for designing infill sample networks. (I) Locate an area within the domain of interest where a...

  13. Investigation On The Properties Of Concrete Tactile Paving Blocks Made With Recycled Tire Rubber

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva; Fabiana Maria; Barbosa; Luisa Andreia Gachet; Lintz; Rosa Cristina Cecche; Jacintho; Ana Elisabete P. G. A.

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increasing demand for buildings that meet accessibility standards and give access to all users, without restriction to people with a disability or reduced mobility, it arises the search for efficient and quality products. Aiming to develop a concrete paving block that contributes to sustainability in building and to accessibility in the built environment, in this paper recycled tire rubber (crumb rubber) was used as aggregate in concrete to produce tactile paving block. The replace...

  14. The use of Crumb Rubber as Substitute of Fine Aggregate for Hot Asphalt Mixture using Polymer Modified Bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, A.; Nugroho, S. K.; Irsyad, A. M.; Mutaqo, H. F.; Ramadhan, P.; Sumarsono, A.; Pramesti, F. P.

    2018-03-01

    The development of road pavement to fulfilled the need of modern life is not only focused on heavy duty road, but also a light duty road for the convenience of road users according to its function. For example the use of pavement on the jogging track, rail crossing, playground and so on. Due to the need of an alternative and the innovation of a comfortable pavement layer, but sufficiently strong in holding the load on the layer. The alternative innovation that can be used for the respective requirement is the utilization of waste old tires as substitute material in pavement construction. In this case the use of crumb rubber made from old tire rubber as an 100% fine aggregate substitute on the asphalt mixtures is investigated. To improve the strength and durability of the mixtures, the addition of polymer modified bitumen was incorporated. The two types of asphalt mixture selected in this study by using a continuous gradation of asphalt concrete and a gap gradation of hot roll asphalt. Testing to be implemented in this research is volumetric characteristics, Marshall characteristics, resistance to abrasion and impact and permeability. Replacement of fine aggregate with crumb rubber on asphalt concrete mixture with 60/70 penetration grade bitumen and polymer modified asphalt SBS E-55 in this research are expected to be an alternative in improving the quality of pavement and overcoming the environmental problems by reuse the waste materials.

  15. Nonlinear pushover analysis of infilled concrete frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao Hsun; Tuan, Yungting Alex; Hsu, Ruo Yun

    2006-12-01

    Six reinforced concrete frames with or without masonry infills were constructed and tested under horizontal cyclic loads. All six frames had identical details in which the transverse reinforcement in columns was provided by rectangular hoops that did not meet current ACI specifications for ductile frames. For comparison purposes, the columns in three of these frames were jacketed by carbon-fiber-reinforced-polymer (CFRP) sheets to avoid possible shear failure. A nonlinear pushover analysis, in which the force-deformation relationships of individual elements were developed based on ACI 318, FEMA 356, and Chen’s model, was carried out for these frames and compared to test results. Both the failure mechanisms and impact of infills on the behaviors of these frames were examined in the study. Conclusions from the present analysis provide structural engineers with valuable information for evaluation and design of infilled concrete frame building structures.

  16. A Review on the Effect of Crumb Rubber Addition to the Rheology of Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rasdan Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Crumb rubber modification has been proven to enhance the properties of pure bitumen. This paper looks at some of the international standards for producing crumb rubber modified bitumen (CRMB and reviews the effect of crumb rubber to the rheology of crumb rubber modified bitumen. The review shows that the rheology of CRMB depends on internal factors such as crumb rubber quantity, particle size, and pure bitumen composition, and external factors such as the mixing time, temperature, and also the modification technique. These factors govern the swelling process of crumb rubber particles that lead to the increase of viscosity of the modified bitumen. However, the mixing temperature and duration can cause rubber particles to depolymerize and subsequently cause loss of viscosity. Crumb rubber modification also improves the properties of bitumen by increasing the storage and loss modulus and enhancing the high and low temperature susceptibility. The effect of crumb rubber to aging properties of CRMB is also discussed. Finally several techniques of chemical modification to terminal blends of CRMB and the subsequent improvement to the settling property of CRMB are explained.

  17. Fabrication and Assessment of Crumb-Rubber-Modified Coatings with Anticorrosive Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Al-Aqeeli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrap tires continue to be a major source of waste due to the lack of valuable and effective disposal routes. A viable solution to this problem is to recycle crumb rubber (CR—a granulated material derived from scrap tires—and use it to develop other valuable products. Herein we report the fabrication and characterization of CR-modified coatings with anticorrosive properties on metal substrates. By varying the particle size and concentration of CR, we have determined the coating composition that offers the highest level of erosion protection. Images from a scanning electron microscope (SEM reveal that CR is homogenously dispersed in the coating, especially when fine particles are used. As the concentration of CR increases, the hardness of the coating decreases as a result of the elastic properties of CR. More importantly, the erosion rate of the coating decreases due to increased ductility. Following Potentiodynamic tests, the utilization of these coatings proved to be beneficial as they showed good protection against aqueous corrosion when tested in 0.5 M NaCl solution. Our newly developed coatings offer an incentive to recycling CR and open up a safe and sustainable route to the disposal of scrap tires.

  18. Noise Reduction Properties of an Experimental Bituminous Slurry with Crumb Rubber Incorporated by the Dry Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Bueno

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, cold technology for asphalt pavement in the field of road construction is considered as an alternative solution to conventional procedures from both an economic and environmental point of view. Among these techniques, bituminous slurry surfacing is obtaining an important role due to the properties of the obtained wearing course. The functional performance of this type of surfaces is directly related to its rough texture. Nevertheless, this parameter has a significant influence on the tire/road noise generation. To reduce this undesirable effect on the sound performance, new designs of elastic bituminous slurries have been developed. Within the FENIX project, this work presents the acoustical characterization of an experimental bituminous slurry with crumb rubber from wasted automobile tires incorporated by the dry process. The obtained results show that, under controlled operational parameters, the close proximity sound levels associated to the experimental slurry are considerably lower than those emitted by a conventional slurry wearing course. However, after one year of supporting traffic loads and different weather conditions, the evaluated bituminous slurry, although it conserves the original noise reduction properties in relation to the conventional one, noticeably increases the generated sound emission. Therefore, it is required to continue improving the design of experimental surfaces in order to enhance its long-term performance.

  19. The processing technology of bread crumbs sterilization by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiating; Li Zhengkui; Zhao Yongfu; Zhang Weidong; Jin Jie; Wu Lei; Wang Xinghai

    2003-01-01

    The processing technology of bread crumbs sterilization by irradiation was studied. The results demonstrated that dose heterogeneity had osculatory connection with pile height and turning, sterilization effect had positive correlation with the irradiation dose and negative correlation with colour. Compared with the CK, the content of crud protein, fat, carbohydrate, microelement and amino acid in irradiated bread crumbs had no obvious change. It is recommended that the range of best sterilization dose be 6-10 kGy and the shelf time of bread crumbs be extended to one year

  20. Application of extrusion technology to prepare bread crumb, a comparison with oven method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasha, I.; Asim, M.

    2015-01-01

    The current research project was designed to conclude the upshot of extrusion cooking temperature on the properties and acceptability of bread crumb. Bread crumbs were obtained by drying the bread, maintaining moisture up to 3-8% and then broken down using hammer mill or crusher which breaks the bread into bread crumbs. Significantly highest moisture contents 7.26% was observed in oven baked bread crumb as compared to 6.25% in bread crumb prepared by extrusion cooking method. The highest bulk density (28.13 g/100 L) was observed in extruded bread crumb whereas, the oven baked bread crumbs showed lower bulk density (7.03 g/100 L). The fat uptake of extruded and oven baked bread crumbs were found 0.516 mg/g and 0.493 mg/g, respectively. The extruded bread crumb showed higher water binding capacity as 34.76 g H/sub 2/O/kg as compared to oven baked bread crumb which showed 27.92 g H/sub 2/O/kg. Sensory evaluation of extruded and oven baked bread crumbs depicted that bread crumbs prepared from extrusion cooking methods got significantly higher scores for taste, flavour and over all acceptability as compared to those prepared by oven baked method. As far as crispiness is concerned oven baked bread crumbs got comparatively higher scores. Moreover, it was concluded that the treatment T2 of extruded bread crumbs got more sensory scores than oven baked bread crumbs. (author)

  1. Land Vehicle Tire Qualification: DSCC Annual Tire Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    UNCLASSIFIED 32 CATL REQUALIFICATION • Once a tire manufacturers particular model/retreading process of tire has been qualified, it shall remain...the original tire model. REQUALIFICATION UNCLASSIFIED 33 QUALIFICATION PROCESS Tires defined by Product Description (ZZ-T-391, ZZ-T-410, ZZ-T-1619

  2. Directions for material recovery of used tires and their use in the production of new products intended for the industry of civil construction and pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulei, C.; Todor, M. P.; Heput, T.; Kiss, I.

    2018-01-01

    The management of waste from used tires is one of the major principles of recycling and reuse, which involves encouraging a high level of material recovery components, preferably by recycling. Given the current pressure on natural resources on a global scale we must fully take into account the waste in a broader framework defined by the flow of raw materials and their sustainable use. Thus, the opportunity to use various waste from used tires as raw material in order to support economic activities becomes a priority. The recycling of raw materials from waste products and their use in new production processes for their material capitalization is becoming a sustainable approach. Used tire recycling, is the process of recycling waste tires that are no longer suitable for use on vehicles due to wear or irreparable damage. These tires are a problematic source of waste, due to the large volume produced, the durability of the tires, and the components in the tire that are ecologically problematic. Although tires are usually burnt, not recycled, efforts are continuing to find value. Tires can be recycled into, among other things, typically as crumb rubber modifier in recycled pavement. The paper presents aspects of the product resulting from crushing of used tires (powder), which can be used properly valued in the street furniture field or building materials containing rubber.

  3. Laboratory Evaluation of Ground Tire Rubber in Stone Mastic Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Muniandy

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Stone mastic asphalt (SMA is a gap-graded mix whereby stiffer asphalt cement is required to bind the stone matrix or arrangement of stones together. Although various asphalt additives are traditionally available, the use of rubber crumbs in SMA is still a new rresearch endeavor. Many countries around the world are facing serious problems on what to do with reject or discarded tires. In the present study, commercial truck tires, containing 70% natural rubber, were ground and pre-blended in 80-100 penetration asphalt for use in SMA mixtures. An assessment was made of the laboratory performance of rubberized SMA in terms of stability, resilent modulus, dynamic creep and tensile strength ratio. It was observed that the performance of SMA with ground tire rubber was for superior as compared to SMA mix with unmodified asphalt. Sulfur and Styrene Butadeline Rubber (SBR were used in rubberized SMA mixes as additives to test the sensitivity of SMA mixtures. As standard practice a 0.3% newly developed cellulose oil palm fiber was used in SMA to minimize the asphalt drain-down effects.

  4. Wireless Monitoring of Automobile Tires for Intelligent Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Todoroki

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses key technologies of intelligent tires focusing on sensors and wireless data transmission. Intelligent automobile tires, which monitor their pressure, deformation, wheel loading, friction, or tread wear, are expected to improve the reliability of tires and tire control systems. However, in installing sensors in a tire, many problems have to be considered, such as compatibility of the sensors with tire rubber, wireless transmission, and battery installments. As regards sensing, this review discusses indirect methods using existing sensors, such as that for wheel speed, and direct methods, such as surface acoustic wave sensors and piezoelectric sensors. For wireless transmission, passive wireless methods and energy harvesting are also discussed.

  5. Shear rheology of molten crumb chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J E; Van Damme, I; Johns, M L; Routh, A F; Wilson, D I

    2009-03-01

    The shear rheology of fresh molten chocolate produced from crumb was studied over 5 decades of shear rate using controlled stress devices. The Carreau model was found to be a more accurate description than the traditional Casson model, especially at shear rates between 0.1 and 1 s(-1). At shear rates around 0.1 s(-1) (shear stress approximately 7 Pa) the material exhibited a transition to a solid regime, similar to the behavior reported by Coussot (2005) for other granular suspensions. The nature of the suspension was explored by investigating the effect of solids concentration (0.20 chocolate was then compared with the rheology of (1) a synthetic chocolate, which contained sunflower oil in place of cocoa butter, and (2) a suspension of sugar of a similar size distribution (volume mean 15 mum) in cocoa butter and emulsifier. The chocolate and synthetic chocolate showed very similar rheological profiles under both steady shear and oscillatory shear. The chocolate and the sugar suspension showed similar Krieger-Dougherty dependency on volume fraction, and a noticeable transition to a stiff state at solids volume fractions above approximately 0.5. Similar behavior has been reported by Citerne and others (2001) for a smooth peanut butter, which had a similar particle size distribution and solids loading to chocolate. The results indicate that the melt rheology of the chocolate is dominated by hydrodynamic interactions, although at high solids volume fractions the emulsifier may contribute to the departure of the apparent viscosity from the predicted trend.

  6. The impact of baking time and bread storage temperature on bread crumb properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Geertrui M; Lagrain, Bert; Fierens, Ellen; Delcour, Jan A

    2013-12-15

    Two baking times (9 and 24 min) and storage temperatures (4 and 25 °C) were used to explore the impact of heat exposure during bread baking and subsequent storage on amylopectin retrogradation, water mobility, and bread crumb firming. Shorter baking resulted in less retrogradation, a less extended starch network and smaller changes in crumb firmness and elasticity. A lower storage temperature resulted in faster retrogradation, a more rigid starch network with more water inclusion and larger changes in crumb firmness and elasticity. Crumb to crust moisture migration was lower for breads baked shorter and stored at lower temperature, resulting in better plasticized biopolymer networks in crumb. Network stiffening, therefore, contributed less to crumb firmness. A negative relation was found between proton mobilities of water and biopolymers in the crumb gel network and crumb firmness. The slope of this linear function was indicative for the strength of the starch network. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Seismic performance of masonry-infilled RC frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Bârnaure

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The masonry infill of RC frames structures is generally considered as non-structural. The design of the concrete frames is often made by ignoring the influence of the masonry infill, which is only accounted for its mass. The experience on buildings submitted to earthquakes shows that masonry infill walls completely change the behaviour of bare frames due to increased initial stiffness and low deformability. The way in which masonry infills affect the RC frames members is difficult to predict, as different failure modes can occur either in the masonry or in the surrounding frame. In addition to local effects, the position of the masonry infills at different levels can lead to structural irregularity, with a strong influence on the global seismic response of the building. Less infilled stories, also called soft stories, have a particularly unfavourable behaviour under seismic loads, as frame members at these levels are more susceptible to failure. This paper analyses the differences in the behaviour of bare and infilled frames through numerical modelling. Nonlinear push-over analyses of infilled frames are carried out under in-plane vertical and lateral loading. The infill panels are modelled as equivalent single diagonal struts. Several force-displacements laws are considered for these diagonals.

  8. Analytical modeling of masonry infilled steel frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, R.D.; Jones, W.D.; Bennett, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive program is underway at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to evaluate the seismic capacity of unreinforced hollow clay tile infilled steel frames. This program has three major parts. First, preliminary numerical analyses are conducted to predict behavior, initial cracking loads, ultimate capacity loads, and to identify important parameters. Second, in-situ and laboratory tests are performed to obtain constitutive parameters and confirm predicted behavior. Finally, the analytical techniques are refined based on experimental results. This paper summarizes the findings of the preliminary numerical analyses. A review of current analytical methods was conducted and a subset of these methods was applied to known experimental results. Parametric studies were used to find the sensitivity of the behavior to various parameters. Both in-plane and out-of-plane loads were examined. Two types of out-of-plane behavior were examined, the inertial forces resulting from the mass of the infill panel and the out-of-plane forces resulting from interstory drift. Cracking loads were estimated using linear elastic analysis and an elliptical failure criterion. Calculated natural frequencies were correlated with low amplitude vibration testing. Ultimate behavior under inertial loads was estimated using a modified yield line procedure accounting for membrane stresses. The initial stiffness and ultimate capacity under in-plane loadings were predicted using finite element analyses. Results were compared to experimental data and to failure loads obtained using plastic collapse theory

  9. 40 CFR 428.30 - Applicability; description of the solution crumb rubber subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... solution crumb rubber subcategory. 428.30 Section 428.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Solution Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.30 Applicability; description of the solution crumb rubber subcategory...

  10. Analysis Of Masonry Infilled RC Frame Structures Under Lateral Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnaure Mircea

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Partition walls are often made of masonry in Romania. Although they are usually considered non-structural elements in the case of reinforced concrete framed structures, the infill panels contribute significantly to the seismic behaviour of the building. Their impact is difficult to assess, mainly because the interaction between the bounding frame and the infill is an intricate issue. This paper analyses the structural behaviour of a masonry infilled reinforced concrete frame system subjected to in - plane loading. Three numerical models are proposed and their results are compared in terms of stiffness and strength of the structure. The role of the openings in the infill panel on the behaviour is analysed and discussed. The effect of gaps between the frame and the infill on the structural behaviour is also investigated. Comparisons are made with the in-force Romanian and European regulations provisions.

  11. Rezension: Kafka von David Zane Mairowitz u. Robert Crumb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Lenhart

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Die inzwischen schon fast als Klassiker gehandelte Comicadaption von Franz Kafkas Leben und Werk wird zwanzig Jahre nach Erscheinen neu aufgelegt. Johanna Lenhart rezensierte für die MEDIENIMPULSE die visuelle Einführung des Autorenduos Crumb/Mairowitz in Kafkas Welt.

  12. 14 CFR 23.733 - Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.733 Tires. (a) Each landing gear wheel must have a tire whose approved tire ratings (static and... identification marking of the proper tire. (c) Each tire installed on a retractable landing gear system must, at...

  13. Engineered cementitious composites for strengthening masonry infilled reinforced concrete frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehghani, Ayoub; Nateghi-Alahi, Fariborz; Fischer, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    The results of the second part of a comprehensive experimental program, aimed at investigating the behavior of masonry infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frames strengthened with fiber reinforced engineered cementitious composites (ECC) used as an overlay on the masonry wall, are presented...... in this paper. The proposed strengthening technique aims at increasing the lateral strength of infilled RC frames and maintaining the integrity of masonry infills during loading, which is an important seismic parameter for these elements. Material tests were conducted first for ECC in order to assess its...

  14. Tire deflation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Stacey G [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-01-05

    A tire deflation device includes (1) a component having a plurality of bores, (2) a plurality of spikes removably insertable into the plurality of bores and (3) a keeper within each among the plurality of bores, the keeper being configured to contact a sidewall surface of a spike among the plurality of spikes and to exert force upon the sidewall surface. In an embodiment, the tire deflation device includes (a) a component including a bore in a material, the bore including a receiving region, a sidewall surface and a base surface, (b) a channel extending from the sidewall surface into the material, (c) a keeper having a first section housed within the channel and a second section which extends past the sidewall surface into the receiving region, and (d) a spike removably insertable into the bore.

  15. No-infill 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao-Ran; Zhang, Yu-He; Geng, Guo-Hua

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we examined how printing the hollow objects without infill via fused deposition modeling, one of the most widely used 3D-printing technologies, by partitioning the objects to shell parts. More specifically, we linked the partition to the exact cover problem. Given an input watertight mesh shape S, we developed region growing schemes to derive a set of surfaces that had inside surfaces that were printable without support on the mesh for the candidate parts. We then employed Monte Carlo tree search over the candidate parts to obtain the optimal set cover. All possible candidate subsets of exact cover from the optimal set cover were then obtained and the bounded tree was used to search the optimal exact cover. We oriented each shell part to the optimal position to guarantee the inside surface was printed without support, while the outside surface was printed with minimum support. Our solution can be applied to a variety of models, closed-hollowed or semi-closed, with or without holes, as evidenced by experiments and performance evaluation on our proposed algorithm.

  16. Measuring the Air Quality and Transportation Impacts of Infill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes three case studies. The analysis shows how standard forecasting tools can be modified to capture at least some of the transportation and air quality benefits of brownfield and infill development.

  17. Innovative retrofitting materials for brick masonry infill walls

    OpenAIRE

    Mora Gómez, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Structural Analysis of Monuments and Historical Constructions Last seismic events in Southern Europe have highlighted the vulnerability in the most usual constructive typology in contemporary architecture: framed structures with masonry infills. Contemporary structures have a good capacity to withstand these actions, given that they were considered for their design according to modern codes. Nonetheless, nonstructural elements as masonry infills show ...

  18. Investigating the effect of heterogeneity on infill wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Bagheri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, improving oil recovery (IOR has become an important subject for the petroleum industry. One IOR method is infill drilling, which improves hydrocarbon recovery from virgin zones of the reservoir. Determining the appropriate location for the infill wells is very challenging and greatly depends on different factors such as the reservoir heterogeneity. This study aims to investigate the effect of reservoir heterogeneity on the location of infill well. In order to characterize the effect of heterogeneity on infill well locations, some geostatistical methods, e.g., sequential gaussian simulation, have been applied to generate various heterogeneity models. In particular, different correlation ranges (R were used to observe the effect of heterogeneity. Results revealed that an increase in correlation ranges will lead to (1 a higher field oil production total, and (2 a faster expansion of the drainage radius which consequently reduced the need for infill wells. The results of this study will help engineers to appropriately design infill drilling schemes.

  19. The Impact of Parbaking on the Crumb Firming Mechanism of Fully Baked Tin Wheat Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivelle, Mieke A; Bosmans, Geertrui M; Delcour, Jan A

    2017-11-22

    The impact of parbaking on the quality and shelf life of large tin bread baked from 270 g of wheat flour was investigated using a proton nuclear magnetic resonance method combined with techniques that measure at different length scales. With increasing partial baking time, the resilience of fresh partially baked crumb increased because of its more extended amylose and gluten networks. During subsequent storage, the crumb became more firm due to an increased extent of amylopectin retrogradation and moisture redistribution. Although only amylopectin retrogradation was reversed during final baking, a fresh fully baked (FB) bread with reversed crumb softness was obtained. Furthermore, the rate of crumb firming during final storage of FB bread was not higher than that of conventionally baked bread. This was attributed to the high crumb to crust ratio of large tin bread which caused the crumb moisture content to remain sufficiently high despite nonreversible moisture redistribution during intermediate storage.

  20. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans' waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans' waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city's limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city's waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city's ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  1. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans` waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans` waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city`s limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city`s waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city`s ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  2. Crumb Rubber Recycling in Enhancing Damping Properties of Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugapriya, P.; Ramkrishnan, R.

    2018-02-01

    Damping plays a major role in the design of roadside structures that gets affected due to vibrations transmitted from moving traffic. In this study, fine aggregates were partially replaced with crumb rubber in concrete, at varying percentages of 5, 10, 15 and 20% by weight. Three different sets of concrete, mixed with crumb rubber were prepared using raw rubber, treated rubber and treated rubber with partial replacement of cement. Cement was partially replaced with Ultra-Fine Ground Granulated Blast furnace Slag (UFGGBS) for this study. Samples were cast, cured and tested for various properties on the 7th and 28th day. The damping ratio and frequency of the peak value from a number of waves in rubber incorporated beams were found out using a FFT Analyser along with its Strength, Damping and Sorptivity characteristics. SEM analysis was conducted to analyse the micro structural bonding between rubber and concrete. The mode shapes of pavement slabs were modelled and analysed using a FEM tool, ANSYS. From the results, the behaviour of the three sets of rubberized concrete were compared and analysed, and an optimum percentage for crumb rubber and UFGGBS was proposed to achieve best possible damping without compromising the strength properties.

  3. AP-2-complex-mediated endocytosis of Drosophila Crumbs regulates polarity by antagonizing Stardust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ya-Huei; Currinn, Heather; Pocha, Shirin Meher; Rothnie, Alice; Wassmer, Thomas; Knust, Elisabeth

    2015-12-15

    Maintenance of epithelial polarity depends on the correct localization and levels of polarity determinants. The evolutionarily conserved transmembrane protein Crumbs is crucial for the size and identity of the apical membrane, yet little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling the amount of Crumbs at the surface. Here, we show that Crumbs levels on the apical membrane depend on a well-balanced state of endocytosis and stabilization. The adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) complex binds to a motif in the cytoplasmic tail of Crumbs that overlaps with the binding site of Stardust, a protein known to stabilize Crumbs on the surface. Preventing endocytosis by mutation of AP-2 causes expansion of the Crumbs-positive plasma membrane domain and polarity defects, which can be partially rescued by removing one copy of crumbs. Strikingly, knocking down both AP-2 and Stardust leads to the retention of Crumbs on the membrane. This study provides evidence for a molecular mechanism, based on stabilization and endocytosis, to adjust surface levels of Crumbs, which are essential for maintaining epithelial polarity. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. 49 CFR 574.7 - Information requirements-new tire manufacturers, new tire brand name owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information requirements-new tire manufacturers, new tire brand name owners. 574.7 Section 574.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to..., new tire brand name owners. (a)(1) Each new tire manufacturer and each new tire brand name owner...

  5. 14 CFR 25.733 - Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 25.733 Tires. (a) When a landing gear axle is fitted with a single wheel and tire assembly, the wheel must be fitted with a... reaction. This nose tire load may not exceed 1.5 times the load rating of the tire. (c) When a landing gear...

  6. Intelligent tires for improved tire safety based on strain measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Todoroki, Akira

    2009-03-01

    Intelligent tires, equipped with sensors for monitoring applied strain, are effective in improving reliability and control systems such as anti-lock braking systems (ABSs). However, since a conventional foil strain gage has high stiffness, it causes the analyzed region to behave unnaturally. The present study proposes a novel rubber-based strain sensor fabricated using photolithography. The rubber base has the same mechanical properties as the tire surface; thereby the sensor does not interfere with the tire deformation and can accurately monitor the behavior of the tire. We also investigate the application of strain data for an optimized braking control and road condition warning system. Finally, we suggested the possibility of optimized braking control and road condition warning systems. Optimized braking control can be achieved by keeping the slip ratio constant. The road condition warning would be actuated if the recorded friction coefficient at a certain slip ratio is lower than a 'safe' reference value.

  7. Distinct functions of Crumbs regulating slit diaphragms and endocytosis in Drosophila nephrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochapfel, Florian; Denk, Lucia; Mendl, Gudrun; Schulze, Ulf; Maaßen, Christine; Zaytseva, Yulia; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Weide, Thomas; Rachel, Reinhard; Witzgall, Ralph; Krahn, Michael P

    2017-12-01

    Mammalian podocytes, the key determinants of the kidney's filtration barrier, differentiate from columnar epithelial cells and several key determinants of apical-basal polarity in the conventional epithelia have been shown to regulate podocyte morphogenesis and function. However, little is known about the role of Crumbs, a conserved polarity regulator in many epithelia, for slit-diaphragm formation and podocyte function. In this study, we used Drosophila nephrocytes as model system for mammalian podocytes and identified a conserved function of Crumbs proteins for cellular morphogenesis, nephrocyte diaphragm assembly/maintenance, and endocytosis. Nephrocyte-specific knock-down of Crumbs results in disturbed nephrocyte diaphragm assembly/maintenance and decreased endocytosis, which can be rescued by Drosophila Crumbs as well as human Crumbs2 and Crumbs3, which were both expressed in human podocytes. In contrast to the extracellular domain, which facilitates nephrocyte diaphragm assembly/maintenance, the intracellular FERM-interaction motif of Crumbs is essential for regulating endocytosis. Moreover, Moesin, which binds to the FERM-binding domain of Crumbs, is essential for efficient endocytosis. Thus, we describe here a new mechanism of nephrocyte development and function, which is likely to be conserved in mammalian podocytes.

  8. The C. elegans Crumbs family contains a CRB3 homolog and is not essential for viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Waaijers

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Crumbs proteins are important regulators of epithelial polarity. In C. elegans, no essential role for the two described Crumbs homologs has been uncovered. Here, we identify and characterize an additional Crumbs family member in C. elegans, which we termed CRB-3 based on its similarity in size and sequence to mammalian CRB3. We visualized CRB-3 subcellular localization by expressing a translational GFP fusion. CRB-3::GFP was expressed in several polarized tissues in the embryo and larval stages, and showed apical localization in the intestine and pharynx. To identify the function of the Crumbs family in C. elegans development, we generated a triple Crumbs deletion mutant by sequentially removing the entire coding sequence for each crumbs homolog using a CRISPR/Cas9-based approach. Remarkably, animals lacking all three Crumbs homologs are viable and show normal epithelial polarity. Thus, the three C. elegans Crumbs family members do not appear to play an essential role in epithelial polarity establishment.

  9. Intelligent Tires Based on Measurement of Tire Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Todoroki, Akira

    From a traffic safety point-of-view, there is an urgent need for intelligent tires as a warning system for road conditions, for optimized braking control on poor road surfaces and as a tire fault detection system. Intelligent tires, equipped with sensors for monitoring applied strain, are effective in improving reliability and control systems such as anti-lock braking systems (ABSs). In previous studies, we developed a direct tire deformation or strain measurement system with sufficiently low stiffness and high elongation for practical use, and a wireless communication system between tires and vehicle that operates without a battery. The present study investigates the application of strain data for an optimized braking control and road condition warning system. The relationships between strain sensor outputs and tire mechanical parameters, including braking torque, effective radius and contact patch length, are calculated using finite element analysis. Finally, we suggested the possibility of optimized braking control and road condition warning systems. Optimized braking control can be achieved by keeping the slip ratio constant. The road condition warning would be actuated if the recorded friction coefficient at a certain slip ratio is lower than a ‘safe’ reference value.

  10. Intelligent tires for improved tire safety using wireless strain measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Todoroki, Akira

    2008-03-01

    From a traffic safety point-of-view, there is an urgent need for intelligent tires as a warning system for road conditions, for optimized braking control on poor road surfaces and as a tire fault detection system. Intelligent tires, equipped with sensors for monitoring applied strain, are effective in improving reliability and control systems such as anti-lock braking systems (ABSs). In previous studies, we developed a direct tire deformation or strain measurement system with sufficiently low stiffness and high elongation for practical use, and a wireless communication system between tires and vehicle that operates without a battery. The present study investigates the application of strain data for an optimized braking control and road condition warning system. The relationships between strain sensor outputs and tire mechanical parameters, including braking torque, effective radius and contact patch length, are calculated using finite element analysis. Finally, we suggested the possibility of optimized braking control and road condition warning systems. Optimized braking control can be achieved by keeping the slip ratio constant. The road condition warning would be actuated if the recorded friction coefficient at a certain slip ratio is lower than a 'safe' reference value.

  11. Caltrans use of scrap tires in asphalt rubber products: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping Zhou

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans has been using scrap tire rubber in asphalt pavements since the 1970s in chip seals and the 1980s in rubberized hot mix asphalt(RHMA. Both the wet (field blend and dry processes were used in early trials. Caltrans has also used rubber modified binders containing both crumb rubber modifier and polymer modifier that could be manufactured at a refinery facility, a terminal blend wet process. Since the beginning of this century, Caltrans increased the use of scrap tire rubber in paving projects and invested considerable resources in developing technically sound, cost effective, and environmentally friendly strategies for using scrap tire rubber in roadway applications. By the end of year 2010, approximately 31%of all hot mix asphalt (HMA placed by Caltrans was rubberized HMA, roughly 1.2 million tons. Caltrans efforts in using asphalt rubber products were also demonstrated in its research and technology development. These included the construction of two full-scale field experiments, five warranty projects, and an accelerated pavement study using a heavy vehicle simulator. Additionally, terminal blend asphalt rubber and rubberized warm mix asphalts began to be experimented on trial basis. This paper provides a comprehensive review of Caltrans experience over four decades with asphalt rubber products. Current practices and future outlook are also discussed.

  12. Method and apparatus for inspecting tires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.L.T.

    1975-01-01

    A method and apparatus for inspecting tires by the use of x-rays is disclosed in which a tire is advanced to an inspection station, engaged along opposite bead rims and inflated to axially spread the bead rims and side walls. An x-ray source is advanced axially into the tire and the tire is eccentrically rotated relative to the x-ray source to enable radial positioning of the source relative to the tire near the tire bead rim diameter without requiring radial movement of the x-ray source. The x-ray source produces an x-ray beam which sweeps about the interior of the expanded tire from bead rim to bead rim while the tire is rotated about its centerline. An x-ray detection system detects x-rays which have penetrated the wall and produces inspection information concerning the tire construction. (Patent Office Record)

  13. Mathematical and field analysis of longitudinal reservoir infill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, W. T.; Capart, H.

    2016-12-01

    In reservoirs, severe problems are caused by infilled sediment deposits. In long term, the sediment accumulation reduces the capacity of reservoir storage and flood control benefits. In the short term, the sediment deposits influence the intakes of water-supply and hydroelectricity generation. For the management of reservoir, it is important to understand the deposition process and then to predict the sedimentation in reservoir. To investigate the behaviors of sediment deposits, we propose a one-dimensional simplified theory derived by the Exner equation to predict the longitudinal sedimentation distribution in idealized reservoirs. The theory models the reservoir infill geomorphic actions for three scenarios: delta progradation, near-dam bottom deposition, and final infill. These yield three kinds of self-similar analytical solutions for the reservoir bed profiles, under different boundary conditions. Three analytical solutions are composed by error function, complementary error function, and imaginary error function, respectively. The theory is also computed by finite volume method to test the analytical solutions. The theoretical and numerical predictions are in good agreement with one-dimensional small-scale laboratory experiment. As the theory is simple to apply with analytical solutions and numerical computation, we propose some applications to simulate the long-profile evolution of field reservoirs and focus on the infill sediment deposit volume resulting the uplift of near-dam bottom elevation. These field reservoirs introduced here are Wushe Reservoir, Tsengwen Reservoir, Mudan Reservoir in Taiwan, Lago Dos Bocas in Puerto Rico, and Sakuma Dam in Japan.

  14. Structural aspects of vaults constructed with infill elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamerling, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes for the Fusée Ceramique vaults the effect of the time dependent deformations concerning the load transfer. Especially the creep and shrinkage of concrete will change the distribution of the loads acting on a Fusée Ceramique vault considerately. Recommendations for infill

  15. 2009 tire inflation and attitudinal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    This tire study was conducted to determine the current attitudes and knowledge levels of Canadian consumers in relation to tire inflation and tire maintenance. The aim of the study was to determine if Canadians have improved their tire inflation habits since 2003, when a study was conducted to set the benchmark for the level of tire inflation across Canada. The study was designed to replicate the earlier study in order to provide an accurate comparison with results obtained in 2003. The survey was conducted by engineering faculty and students trained by an automotive consultant to measure tire pressure and tire tread depth. Data on tire care attitudes and habits were obtained. Results of the study showed that in 2009, underinflated tires were approximately 3 PSI below recommended levels as opposed to the average of 4 PSI observed in 2003. The proportion of cars with at least 1 problem tire significantly decreased in 2009 when compared with results from the 2003 survey. Front tires tended to be more overinflated than rear tires. A slight improvement among overinflated tires was seen in 2009 when compared with results obtained in 2003. tabs., figs.

  16. Multiple regions of Crumbs3 are required for tight junction formation in MCF10A cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogg, Vanessa C; Liu, Chia-Jen; Margolis, Ben

    2005-07-01

    The formation and maintenance of tight junctions is essential for the development of epithelial cell polarity. Recently, a number of conserved polarity-regulating proteins have been shown to localize to epithelial tight junctions, and to play a role in the regulation of tight junction formation. The Crumbs3/PALS1/PATJ protein complex localizes at epithelial tight junctions and interacts with the polarity-regulating protein complex of Par6/Par3/aPKC. Overexpression of Crumbs3 in MDCKII cells leads to a delay in tight junction formation in these cells, suggesting a role in the regulation of tight junction development. Here we report new evidence that Crumbs3 indeed plays an essential role in tight junction formation. Mammary MCF10A cells express little endogenous Crumbs3 and fail to form tight junctions when grown under standard tissue culture conditions. The staining pattern of ZO-1, a tight junction marker, is fragmented, and other tight junction markers show either fragmented junctional expression or diffuse cytoplasmic staining. Expression of exogenous Crumbs3 induces the formation of tight junction structures marked by smooth, continuous ZO-1 staining at apical cell-cell junctions. A number of other tight junction markers, including claudin-1 and occludin, are also recruited to these junctions. Analysis by transmission electron microscopy and measurements of the transepithelial electrical resistance confirm that these structures are functional tight junctions. Mutations in either the Crumbs3 PDZ binding motif or the putative FERM binding motif lead to defects in the ability of Crumbs3 to promote tight junction development. Our results suggest that Crumbs3 plays an important role in epithelial tight junction formation, and also provide the first known functional role for the mammalian Crumbs FERM binding domain.

  17. Evaluation of moisture damage in asphalt concrete with CRM motorcycle tire waste passing #50 sieve size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, Henri; Supriyanto, Bambang; Pranoto, Pranoto; Chandra, Pria Rizky; Hakim, Arief Rahman

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this experimental research is to evaluate moisture damage in Asphalt Concrete (AC) with Crumb Rubber Modified (CRM) motorcycle tire waste passing #50 and retaining #100 sieve size. Two gradations were used in this research, the first gradation is usual for asphalt concrete base (ACB) and the second gradation is for asphalt concrete wearing course (ACWC). Marshall testing apparatus was used for testing the Marshall specimens. Seven levels of CRM content were used, namely 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 3%, 4.5% and 6% by weight of mixtures. Retained stability represent the level of moisture damage of AC pavement. The result indicates that addition CRM to the AC mixture increases their the stability to a maximum value and subsequent addition decrease the stability. The addition CRM to AC decreases their moisture damage susceptibility. AC with 1% CRM is the best asphalt-CRM mix.

  18. IMAGE ANALYSIS OF BREAD CRUMB STRUCTURE IN RELATION TO GLUTEN STRENGTH OF WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Magdić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine bread slice medium part properties in relation to quality parameters with a focus on gluten strength. Since sensory evaluation of bread is time consuming, expensive and subjective in nature, computerized image analysis was applied as objective method of bread crumb quality evaluation. Gluten Index method was applied as fast and reliable tool for defining gluten strength of wheat. Significant (P90 Ana, Demetra, Klara, Srpanjka and Divana have shown trend to give unequal and bigger crumb grains while cultivars Golubica, Barbara, Žitarka, Kata and Sana with optimal gluten strength (GI= 60-90 have shown finer and uniform crumb grain.

  19. Occupational dermatitis from IPPD in tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancona, A; Monroy, F; Fernández-Diez, J

    1982-03-01

    A tire assembler developed contact dermatitis from IPPD, a rubber antioxidant. The lichenoid clinical pattern corresponded histologically to lichenified dermatitis. Tire assemblers appear to acquire contact dermatitis to this aromatic amine more frequently than any other workers in the tire manufacturing industry. Possible adjuvant factors and preventive measures are discussed.

  20. Anisotropy of Crumbs and aPKC drives myosin cable assembly during tube formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röper, Katja

    2012-11-13

    The formation of tubular structures from epithelial sheets is a key process of organ formation in all animals, but the cytoskeletal rearrangements that cause the cell shape changes that drive tubulogenesis are not well understood. Using live imaging and super-resolution microscopy to analyze the tubulogenesis of the Drosophila salivary glands, I find that an anisotropic plasma membrane distribution of the protein Crumbs, mediated by its large extracellular domain, determines the subcellular localization of a supracellular actomyosin cable in the cells at the placode border, with myosin II accumulating at edges where Crumbs is lowest. Laser ablation shows that the cable is under increased tension, implying an active involvement in the invagination process. Crumbs anisotropy leads to anisotropic distribution of aPKC, which in turn can negatively regulate Rok, thus preventing the formation of a cable where Crumbs and aPKC are localized. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Robust, functional nanocrystal solids by infilling with atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Gibbs, Markelle; Perkins, Craig L; Tolentino, Jason; Zarghami, Mohammad H; Bustamante, Jorge; Law, Matt

    2011-12-14

    Thin films of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) are inherently metatstable materials prone to oxidative and photothermal degradation driven by their large surface-to-volume ratios and high surface energies. (1) The fabrication of practical electronic devices based on NC solids hinges on preventing oxidation, surface diffusion, ripening, sintering, and other unwanted physicochemical changes that can plague these materials. Here we use low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) to infill conductive PbSe NC solids with metal oxides to produce inorganic nanocomposites in which the NCs are locked in place and protected against oxidative and photothermal damage. Infilling NC field-effect transistors and solar cells with amorphous alumina yields devices that operate with enhanced and stable performance for at least months in air. Furthermore, ALD infilling with ZnO lowers the height of the inter-NC tunnel barrier for electron transport, yielding PbSe NC films with electron mobilities of 1 cm2 V(-1) s(-1). Our ALD technique is a versatile means to fabricate robust NC solids for optoelectronic devices.

  2. Effect of crumb rubber on the mechanical properties of crushed recycled pavement materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Saberian, Mohammad; Nguyen, Bao Thach

    2018-04-20

    The low-carbon footprint of using recycled construction and demolition (C&D) aggregates in civil engineering infrastructure applications has been considered to be a significant solution for the replacement of conventional pavement aggregates. Investigations regarding the use of crumb rubber in the base and subbase layers of pavement have been well documented. However, information on the effects of crumb rubber and its size within C&D aggregates as the base/subbase layers is still very limited. In this study, crumb rubber with particle sizes ranging from 400 to 600 μm (fine) to 10-15 mm (coarse), 20 mm recycled crushed concrete (RCC), and 20 mm crushed rock (CR) were used. The crumb rubber was added to the two groups of C&D aggregates at 0.5, 1 and 2% by weight percentages of the aggregates. The effect of crumb rubber on the mechanical properties (such as California bearing ratio, unconfined compressive strength, aggregate crushing value, dynamic lightweight cone penetrometer, Clegg impact value, Los Angeles abrasion values, and resilient modulus) of the C&D aggregates was then examined. Based on the experimental test results, it was found that crumb rubber can be recycled as a waste material for the base and subbase layers in the pavement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pengaruh pupuk organik limbah padat industri crumb rubber terhadap pertumbuhan tanaman cabe (Capsicum frutescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supraptiningsih

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The research about the influence of organic fertilizer of crumb rubber solid waste industry on chili plants (capsicum frutescens growth had been done. The aim of the research was to evaluate the vegetative growth of chili plants treated with organic fertilizer that was made from crumb rubber solid waste industry and it was compared with chili plants treated was commercial organic fertilizer (SP -36. The organic fertilizer was made by mixing of soil, crumb rubber solid waste, cow fieces, talc, saw dust, and hull rices, using and aerab system. The variation of the amount of solid waste was 0%; 10%, 20%; 30%; and 40%, respectively. Fertilizing of chili plants was done by dasage variation i.e.1:1,5; and 2 kg/10m2 and control (without fertilizer respectively. The observation was done on fourth month on vegetative growth including high plants, leaf length, and leaf width. The results showed that crumb rubber solid waste could be used as organic fertilizer for chili plants. The best growth of plants especially high was treated with 20% crumb rubber solid waste at dosage of 2 kg /10m2 is 38.2 cm, while the best growth of leaf length and leaf width was chili plant treated with 40% crumb rubber solid waste at dosage of 2 kg/10m2 was 10.0 cm and 6.2 cm.

  4. High Value Scrap Tire Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, B. D.

    2003-02-01

    The objectives of this project were to further develop and scale-up a novel technology for reuse of scrap tire rubber, to identify and develop end uses for the technology (products), and to characterize the technology's energy savings and environmental impact.

  5. Evaluation and analysis of the performance of masonary infills during the Northridge earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, R.M.; Fischer, W.L. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Flanagan, R.D.; Tenbus, M.A. [Lockheed Martin, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-02-01

    Observations were made of the behavior of masonry infills in structural frames during the Northridge earthquake, and an analytical technique was developed for analyzing infilled frame structures. Infills near the epicenter suffered significant damage, but in several cases contributed to the seismic resistance and life safety performance. Older infill buildings in downtown Los Angeles experienced intensity of shaking similar to that expected in central/eastern United States earthquakes. The infills experienced some cracking, but otherwise complemented the lateral resistance of the weak building frames. This suggests infill frame buildings in moderate seismic zones may provide at least life safety functions without the need for expensive retrofit. A developed analytical technique was used to analyze two buildings for which the observed behavior and records from the Northridge earthquake were available. The analytical technique was based on using a piecewise linear equivalent strut for the infill. Parameters for the strut were obtained by examining the results of a wide variety of experimental infill tests. The strut method is easy to incorporate in standard linear analyses, and converges quite rapidly. The strut method was applied to two structures that had records from the Northridge earthquake. Very favorable comparisons between the analytical method and observed response were obtained. Recommendations were made concerning evaluation of the vulnerability of infills to earthquakes, and the construction of infills.

  6. Tire inspection machine presenting an X-ray image of the entire width of the tire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    An X-ray machine for production line inspection of tires places each tire in turn with one sector of the tire inside of a U-shaped arrangement of three fluorescent screens so that one screen faces the tread and the other two face the sides of the tire. An X-ray source inside the bead circle of the tire produces X-ray shadow pictures on the screens, which are separately viewed by a video camera, with an image of the picture on each screen transferred to a third of the target of a storage tube, so that a composite image of the entire width of the tire sector can be displayed on a picture tube. The tire is rotated step-wise for display of still pictures of every sector of the tire. (Auth.)

  7. Research and application of online measurement system of tire tread profile in automobile tire production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengyao; Chen, Xiangguang; Yang, Kai; Liu, Xuejiao

    2017-01-01

    To improve the measuring efficiency of width and thickness of tire tread in the process of automobile tire production, the actual condition for the tire production process is analyzed, and a fast online measurement system based on moving tire tread of tire specifications is established in this paper. The coordinate data of tire tread profile is acquired by 3D laser sensor, and we use C# language for programming which is an object-oriented programming language to complete the development of client program. The system with laser sensor can provide real-time display of tire tread profile and the data to require in the process of tire production. Experimental results demonstrate that the measuring precision of the system is <= 1mm, it can meet the measurement requirements of the production process, and the system has the characteristics of convenient installation and testing, system stable operation.

  8. Rheological properties of crumb rubber modified bitumen containing antioxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A. A; Omar, Husaini; Hamzah, M.O; Ismail, H.

    2009-01-01

    Rheology has become a useful tool in the characterization of the bitumen performance on the pavement. Visco-elastic properties of crumb rubber modified bitumen with antioxidants (CR30) were determined by the means of rheological measurement. This measurement led to a better knowledge of bitumen behavior that occurs when subjected to different thermal and mechanical conditions, as seen during road construction and services in the field. Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) was used to characterize the rheology of the binders before and after oven aging. The binders were aged for 3 and 9 days. Results of a compatibility test showed that the addition of CR30 modified bitumen is compatible with the base bitumen. The results of unaged samples indicated that the addition of 1% CR30 and 5% CR30 modified binders caused an increase in G value as a result of the rheological changes. Results showed that aging has significant influence on bitumen rheology, by increasing complex modulus and decreasing phase angle. (author)

  9. Functional conservation study of polarity protein Crumbs intracellular domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qi-ping; Cao, Hao-wei; Xu, Rui; Zhang, Dan-dan; Huang, Juan

    2017-01-20

    The transmembrane protein Crumbs (Crb) plays key roles in the establishing and maintaining cell apical-basal polarity in epithelial cells by determining the apical plasma membrane identity. Although its intracellular domain contains only 37 amino acids, it is absolutely essential for its function. In Drosophila, mutations in this intracellular domain result in severe defects in epithelial polarity and abnormal embryonic development. The intracellular domain of Crb shows high homology across species from Drosophila to Mus musculus and Homo sapiens. However, the intracellular domains of the two Crb proteins in C. elegans are rather divergent from those of Drosophila and mammals, raising the question on whether the function of the intracellular domain of the Crb protein is conserved in C. elegans. Using genomic engineering approach, we replaced the intracellular domain of the Drosophila Crb with that of C. elegans Crb2 (CeCrb2), which has extremely low homology with those from the Crb proteins of Drosophila and mammals. Surprisingly, substituting the intracellular domain of Drosophila Crb with that of CeCrb2 did not cause any abnormalities in development of the Drosophila embryo, in terms of expression and localization of Crb and other polarity proteins and apical-basal polarity in embryonic epithelial cells. Our results support the notion that despite their extensive sequence variations, all functionally critical amino acid residues and motifs of the intercellular domain of Crb proteins are fully conserved between Drosophila and C. elegans.

  10. Role of masonry infill in seismic resistant resistance of RC structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taher, Salah El-Din F.; Afefy, Hamdy Mohy El-Din

    2008-01-01

    The influence of partial masonry infilling on the seismic lateral behavior of low, medium and high rise buildings is addressed. The most simple equivalent frame system with reduced degrees of freedom is proposed for handling multi-story multi-bay infilled frames. The system is composed of a homogenized continuum for the reinforced concrete members braced with unilateral diagonal struts for each bay, which are only activated in compression. Identification of the equivalent characteristics and nonlinear material properties is accomplished from the concepts of inverse analysis, along with statistical tests of the hypotheses, employed to establish the appropriate filtering scheme and the proper accuracy tolerance. The suggested system allows for nonlinear finite element static and dynamic analysis of sophisticated infilled reinforced concrete frames. Sensitivity analysis is undertaken to check the suitability of the proposed system to manipulate various structural applications. The effect of number of stories, number of bays, infill proportioning and infill locations are investigated. Geometric and material nonlinearity of both infill panel and reinforced concrete frame are considered in the nonlinear finite element analysis. Energy consideration using modified Rayleigh's method is employed to figure out the response parameters under lateral dynamic excitations. The results reflect the significance of infill in increasing the strength, stiffness and frequency of the entire system depending on the position and amount of infilling. Lower infilling is noted to provide more stiffness for the system as compared with upper locations. (author)

  11. An alternative method based on enzymatic fat hydrolysis to quantify volatile compounds in wheat bread crumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pico, Joana; Nozal, María Jesús; Gómez, Manuel; Bernal, José Luis

    2016-09-01

    An alternative method to quantify 40 volatile compounds in wheat bread crumb is proposed. It consists of a Soxhlet extraction with a mixture of dichloromethane and diethyl ether containing lipases and a subsequent concentration with Vigreux column. It is the first time that lipases are added to transform the fat into free fatty acids and glycerol, which elute at the end of the chromatogram after the analytes, avoiding problems in the chromatography due to fat residues, such as dirtiness in the injector, column clogging or overlapping peaks. The extract is most easily analysed by GC/MS, using a standard addition method to correct matrix effect. The method was fully validated, with extraction efficiencies between 70% and 100% and precision RSD lower than 15%. The method was applied to a commercial crumb, with acetoin, phenylethyl alcohol and acetic acid as highly abundant compounds, which are considered main volatiles in crumb. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Tuning of a cavity in a silicon photonic crystal by thermal expansion of an elastomeric infill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erdamar, A.K.; Van Leest, M.M.; Picken, S.J.; Caro, J.

    2011-01-01

    We use an elastomer as infill material for a photonic crystal. As a result of the thermal-expansion-induced strongly negative thermal optical coefficient, this material is highly suitable for thermal tuning of the transmission of a cavity. This is demonstrated by global infilling of a hole-type

  13. Minimum compliance topology optimization of shell–infill composites for additive manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, J.; Clausen, Anders; Sigmund, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Additively manufactured parts are often composed of two sub-structures, a solid shell forming their exterior and a porous infill occupying the interior. To account for this feature this paper presents a novel method for generating simultaneously optimized shell and infill in the context of

  14. Effect of crumb rubber gradation on a rubberized cold recycled mixture for road pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettinari, Matteo; Simone, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    asphalt design. The mix design represents a key phase of the cold mix production. The study of workability and compactability properties combined with a deep laboratory investigation is required. The idea of introducing crumb rubber in the cold mixtures was developed based on the concept of maximizing...... the valorization of recycled materials together with the goal of achieving high performance. In the present research project, two different gradations of crumb rubber, processed with the traditional grading method, have been adopted for the production of a cold recycled mixture stabilized with bitumen emulsion...

  15. Tire recycling technologies: What is the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; van Hoek, Johannes Wilhelmus; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Blume, Anke; Heideman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Recycling is a heavily discussed topic nowadays, and recycled tire material to be re-used for the same application is one of the spear points of current R&D activities. Regarding the immense amount of used tires, more than just one outlet for the recycled material is needed. Besides the commonly

  16. 14 CFR 29.733 - Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 29.733 Tires. Each landing gear wheel must have a tire— (a) That is a proper fit on the rim of the wheel; and (b) Of a rating that... applied only at wheels with brakes. (c) Each tire installed on a retractable landing gear system must, at...

  17. 14 CFR 27.733 - Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 27.733 Tires. (a) Each landing gear wheel must have a tire— (1) That is a proper fit on the rim of the wheel; and (2) Of the proper... gravity. (c) Each tire installed on a retractable landing gear system must, at the maximum size of the...

  18. Free and Forced Vibration Analysis of an Infilled Steel Frame: Experimental, Numerical, and Analytical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Hariri-Ardebili

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural frames with masonry infill panels make up a significant portion of the buildings constructed in earthquake-prone areas prior to the developing of the seismic design standards. In this paper, the effects of masonry panels on the vibration response of an infilled steel-frame building are investigated. Various ambient and steady state forced vibration tests are carried out to realize the dynamic characteristics of the system. 3D finite element models of the building with and without infill panels are provided based on marcomodeling theorem. A set of analytical approximate formulas are also derived to estimate the vibrational period. The natural frequencies of the building are computed using numerical, analytical, and experimental methods. The results show that neglecting the effect of infill panels leads to considerable error. Moreover, it is shown that there is good agreement among the results obtained by the three methods considering the effect of infill panels.

  19. Strengthening masonry infill panels using engineered cementitious composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehghani, Ayoub; Fischer, Gregor; Nateghi Alahi, Fariborz

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive experimental study aims at investigating the behavior of masonry infill panels strengthened by fiber reinforced engineered cementitious composites (ECC). The experimental program included testing of materials, masonry elements and panels. Material tests were carried out first...... for ECC in order to assess its distinctive mechanical properties such as tensile stress–strain behavior and multiple cracking. To investigate the influence of a thin layer of ECC on plain masonry in terms of changes in stiffness, strength, and deformability, small scale tests have been conducted...... on masonry elements. Finally, a total of 10 brick panels including two control specimens and eight specimens with different ECC-strengthening configuration were selected. The specimens were subjected to diagonal compression loading under displacement control to evaluate their in-plane deformation...

  20. Self-supporting rhombic infill structures for additive manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jun; Wang, Charlie C.L.; Zhang, Xiaoting

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that the interior material layout of a 3D model can be designed to make a fabricated replica satisfy application-specific demands on its physical properties, such as resistance to external loads. A widely used practice to fabricate such models is by layer-based additive...... techniques an objective function can be improved by adaptively subdividing the rhombic grid and thus adding more walls in cells. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method for generating interior designs in the applications of improving mechanical stiffness and static stability....... manufacturing (AM), which however suffers from the problem of adding and removing interior supporting structures. In this paper, we present a novel method for generating application-specific infill structures on rhombic cells so that the resultant structures can automatically satisfy manufacturing requirements...

  1. Durability of Geopolymer Lightweight Concrete Infilled LECA in Seawater Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, R. A.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.; Yahya, Z.; Hamid, M. S. A.

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes a development of lightweight concrete using lightweight expanded clay aggregate (LECA) in fly ash (FA) based geopolymer immersed in seawater. The objective of this research is to compare the performance of geopolymer concrete (GPC) with ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete infilled lightweight expanded clay aggregate (LECA) in seawater exposure. Geopolymer concrete is produced by using alkaline activator to activate the raw material, FA. The highest compressive strength of this study is 42.0 MPa at 28 days and 49.8 MPa at 60 days. The density for this concrete is in the range of 1580 kg/m3 to 1660 kg/m3. The result for water absorption is in the range of 6.82% to 14.72%. However, the test results of weight loss is in the range between 0.30% to 0.43%.

  2. Dynamics and Stability of Rolling Viscoelastic Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Trevor [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-30

    Current steady state rolling tire calculations often do not include treads because treads destroy the rotational symmetry of the tire. We describe two methodologies to compute time periodic solutions of a two-dimensional viscoelastic tire with treads: solving a minimization problem and solving a system of equations. We also expand on work by Oden and Lin on free spinning rolling elastic tires in which they disovered a hierachy of N-peak steady state standing wave solutions. In addition to discovering a two-dimensional hierarchy of standing wave solutions that includes their N-peak hiearchy, we consider the eects of viscoelasticity on the standing wave solutions. Finally, a commonplace model of viscoelasticity used in our numerical experiments led to non-physical elastic energy growth for large tire speeds. We show that a viscoelastic model of Govindjee and Reese remedies the problem.

  3. ANSYS tools in modeling tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ashraf; Lovell, Michael

    1995-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the capabilities in the ANSYS program that relate to the computational modeling of tires. The power and the difficulties associated with modeling nearly incompressible rubber-like materials using hyperelastic constitutive relationships are highlighted from a developer's point of view. The topics covered include a hyperelastic material constitutive model for rubber-like materials, a general overview of contact-friction capabilities, and the acoustic fluid-structure interaction problem for noise prediction. Brief theoretical development and example problems are presented for each topic.

  4. Experimental review on interior tire-road noise models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekke, Dirk; Bekke, D.A.; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; de Boer, Andries; Sas, P

    2010-01-01

    Exterior and interior tire-road noise is a common problem for car and tire manufactures. Exterior tire-road noise is bounded by UN-ECE R117 and EC R661/2009. Interior tire-road noise on the other hand is determined by market requirements. Since the beginning of the last century different model

  5. Design and Properties of Thin Surfacing Hot Mix Asphalt Containing Crumb Rubber as Partial Aggregate Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, Ary; Febrianto, Nugroho; Sarwono, Djoko

    2017-07-01

    Road damage caused as a result of the traffic load and environment. One method to improve the road condition is from an overlay. But the new layer on the top of the pavement structure is thick enough and elevate the surface of the pavement, so it will cause some impact on the user safety and engineering. The use of a thin layer of hot mix asphalt is an alternative to anticipate the thickness problem. Crumb rubber is a waste material that has a flexible nature, these materials are used as an aggregate replacement in the hot mix asphalt thin layer. The research was conducted to find the optimum bitumen content and optimum crumb rubber content on asphalt mixtures by the Marshall procedure. Finally, it was concluded that the addition of crumb rubber in a thin layer of hot mix asphalt indicates the better the interlocking between aggregates so that gave the better Marshall stability, the higher the flow rate, the lower the marshall quotient, reduce the void ratio. The results show that the addition of crumb rubber content as an aggregate replacement leads to the use of less optimum bitumen content.

  6. Effect Of Crumb Rubber On Compressive Strength Of Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi Ahmad Azrem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the effect of different percentage of crumb rubber on compressive strength of fly ash based geopolymer concrete. This research attempted to produce rubberized geopolymer concrete as an environmentally friendly, lightweight and durable product. Crumb rubber with ranged size from 73 μm to 375 μm was used in order to replace fine aggregates in geopolymer concrete. The replacements of crumb rubber were 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% in the fly ash based geopolymer concrete. The ratio of fly ash to alkaline activator was 2.5 and the ratio of Na2SiO3 to NaOH was fixed at 2.0. After the curing process, the strengths of the samples were tested on days 7 and 28. The results show that there is a reduction in all compressive strength for crumb rubber mixture, but still higher than normal rubberized concrete. Rubberized geopolymer concrete is a suitable solution in some non structural applications.

  7. Grade determination of crumb rubber-modified performance graded asphalt binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Due to particulates common in crumb rubber-modified asphalt binders, conventional PG grading using the Dynamic : Shear Rheometer (DSR) with a gap height of 1.0 mm may not be valid and in accordance with current specifications. : Asphalt binder testin...

  8. Physical Modeling of Shear Behavior of Infilled Rock Joints Under CNL and CNS Boundary Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Amit Kumar; Rao, K. Seshagiri

    2018-01-01

    Despite their frequent natural occurrence, filled discontinuities under constant normal stiffness (CNS) boundary conditions have been studied much less systematically, perhaps because of the difficulties arising from the increased number of variable parameters. Because of the lack of reliable and realistic theoretical or empirical relations and the difficulties in obtaining and testing representative samples, engineers rely on judgment and often consider the shear strength of the infilled material itself as shear strength of rock joints. This assumption leads to uneconomical and also sometimes the unsafe design of underground structures, slopes, rock-socketed piles and foundations. To study the effect of infill on the shear behavior of rock joints, tests were performed on the modeled infilled rock joint having different joint roughness under constant normal load (CNL) and CNS boundary conditions at various initial normal stress and varying thickness of the infilled material. The test results indicate that shear strength decreases with an increase in t/ a ratio for both CNL and CNS conditions, but the reduction in shear strength is more for CNL than for CNS condition for a given initial normal stress. The detailed account of the effect of thickness of infilled material on shear and deformation behavior of infilled rock joint is discussed in this paper, and a model is proposed to predict shear strength of infilled rock joint.

  9. Structural pounding of concrete frame structure with masonry infill wall under seismic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Rozaina; Hasnan, Mohd Hafizudin; Shamsudin, Nurhanis

    2017-10-01

    Structural pounding is additional problem than the other harmful damage that may occurs due to the earthquake vibrations. A lot of study has been made by past researcher but most of them did not include the walls. The infill masonry walls are rarely involved analysis of structural systems but it does contribute to earthquake response of the structures. In this research, a comparison between adjacent building of 10-storey and 7-storey concrete frame structure without of masonry infill walls and the same dynamic properties of buildings. The diagonal strut approach is adopted for modeling masonry infill walls. This research also focused on finding critical building separation in order to prevent the adjacent structures from pounding. LUSAS FEA v14.03 software has been used for modeling analyzing the behavior of structures due to seismic loading and the displacement each floor of the building has been taken in order to determine the critical separation distance between the buildings. From the analysis that has been done, it is found that masonry infill walls do affect the structures behavior under seismic load. Structures without masonry infill walls needs more distance between the structures to prevent structural pounding due to higher displacement of the buildings when it sways under seismic load compared to structures with masonry infill walls. This shows that contribution of masonry infill walls to the analysis of structures cannot be neglected.

  10. An Experimental Investigation on the Ultimate Strength of Partially Infilled: Braced Steel Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Shailendra Kumar Damodar; Kute, Sunil Y.

    2017-12-01

    Infilled walls are usually, considered as non-structural elements. However, these walls are effective in carrying lateral loads. In this regard, an experimental investigation was planned and conducted to study the effect of braced and partially infilled steel frames with cement mortar and concrete in comparison to the bare frames. All these frames were tested up to collapse and subjected only to horizontal loads to obtain an effective and possible solution for soft storey which are generally not infilled. In comparison to bare steel frames, partially infilled frames have an increase of lateral load capacity by 45-60%. Central bracing is more effective than that of the corner bracing. For the same load partially infilled frames have significantly less deflection than that of the bare frames. A reduced load factor is suggested for the design of soft storey columns with the partial infills. A mathematical model has been proposed to calculate the theoretical ultimate load for the braced, cement mortar and concrete partial infilled frames.

  11. Multi-infill strategy for kriging models used in variable fidelity optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao SONG

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a computationally efficient optimization method for aerodynamic design has been developed. The low-fidelity model and the multi-infill strategy are utilized in this approach. Low-fidelity data is employed to provide a good global trend for model prediction, and multiple sample points chosen by different infill criteria in each updating cycle are used to enhance the exploitation and exploration ability of the optimization approach. Take the advantages of low-fidelity model and the multi-infill strategy, and no initial sample for the high-fidelity model is needed. This approach is applied to an airfoil design case and a high-dimensional wing design case. It saves a large number of high-fidelity function evaluations for initial model construction. What’s more, faster reduction of an aerodynamic function is achieved, when compared to ordinary kriging using the multi-infill strategy and variable-fidelity model using single infill criterion. The results indicate that the developed approach has a promising application to efficient aerodynamic design when high-fidelity analyses are involved. Keywords: Aerodynamics, Infill criteria, Kriging models, Multi-infill, Optimization

  12. Effect of Friction Model and Tire Maneuvering on Tire-Pavement Contact Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichao Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to simulate the effects of different friction models on tire braking. A truck radial tire (295/80R22.5 was modeled and the model was validated with tire deflection. An exponential decay friction model that considers the effect of sliding velocity on friction coefficients was adopted for analyzing braking performance. The result shows that the exponential decay friction model used for evaluating braking ability meets design requirements of antilock braking system (ABS. The tire-pavement contact stress characteristics at various driving conditions (static, free rolling, braking, camber, and cornering were analyzed. It is found that the change of driving conditions has direct influence on tire-pavement contact stress distribution. The results provide the guidance for tire braking performance evaluation.

  13. Implementasi Corporate Sosial Responsibility PT Riau Crumb Rubber Factory terhadap Masyarakat Kelurahan Sri Meranti Kota Pekanbaru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Shandy Utama

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A company that carries out its business activities in the field and/or related to natural resources is obliged to carry out its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. This research was conducted at PT Riau Crumb Rubber Factory which is located in Sri Meranti Village. Raw rubber production activities into semi-finished rubbers have been routinely generating pollution for the environment and society, such as air pollution and water pollution. The problem is how the implementation of CSR PT Riau Crumb Rubber Factory to the community of Sri Meranti Village in Pekanbaru City? What are the obstacles and the legal effort based on Riau Province Regional Regulation Number 6 Year 2012? This research is a sociological law research. Source of data used in this research is primary data and secondary data. Data collection techniques used in this study are observation, interview, and literature study. Data analysis technique used in this research is qualitative analysis. The result of this research is PT Riau Crumb Rubber Factory has implemented CSR, but has not fulfilled the expectation the community of Sri Meranti Village because it is not comparable with the pollution and environmental damage caused by the company's operational activities. The obstacle from the company side is the limited budget of CSR funds owned by PT Riau Crumb Rubber Factory to be able to meet all the needs of the community, while from the community side is the lack of legal knowledge of the community of Sri Meranti Village about CSR. The legal effort is that if PT Riau Crumb Rubber Factory does not implement CSR, the community of Sri Meranti Village can convey their aspirations to the DPRD of Riau Province for the company to be recommended to get administrative sanction from the government, such as the suspension of operational license of the company.

  14. Effect of infill wall on the ductility and behavior of high strength reinforced concrete frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Sayed Ahmed Tawfik Essa

    2014-12-01

    From the representation and the analysis of the obtained results, the main conclusions are pointed out; the lateral load resistance for infilled frames F2, F3 and F4 with infill wall (red bricks thickness 12, 6 cm and cement bricks 12 cm, respectively was greater than the bare frame (F1 by about 184%, 61% and 99%, respectively. The ductility factor for infilled frames F2, F3 and F4 was less than the bare frame (F1 by about 57%, 51% and 46%, respectively.

  15. Minimum Compliance Topology Optimization of Shell-Infill Composites for Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jun; Clausen, Anders; Sigmund, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Additively manufactured parts are often composed of two sub-structures, a solid shell forming their exterior and a porous infill occupying the interior. To account for this feature this paper presents a novel method for generating simultaneously optimized shell and infill in the context of minimum...... interpolation model into a physical density field, upon which the compliance is minimized. Enhanced by an adapted robust formulation for controlling the minimum length scale of the base, our method generates optimized shell-infill composites suitable for additive manufacturing. We demonstrate the effectiveness...

  16. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Canova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  17. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido Canova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  18. Preventing Undesirable Seismic Behaviour of Infill Walls in Design Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Noorifard

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dividing walls are usually considered as non-structural elements, but experiences of past earthquakes show that some buildings designed and constructed by engineers have been damaged during earthquakes because of disregarding the negative effects of walls. Apart from the poor quality of construction and materials, inattention in design process is the main reason for undesirable seismic behaviour of walls.The main aim of this paper is to investigate the measures taken in different stages of architectural and structural design for improving the seismic behaviour of infilled concrete structures. As a general principle, with the further progress of project from basic architectural design to detailed structural design, there is a need to reduce designer authority and increase obligation, furthermore the cost of project increases too. The conclusion of this study implies that, in order to achieve the desirable seismic behaviour of walls, close collaboration between architects and structural engineers is required from the early stages of design. The results of this study are presented in a check list for designing reinforced concrete (RC moment resisting frame and RC shear wall.

  19. Alteration, fracture infills and weathering of the Strath Halladale granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storey, B.C.; Lintern, B.C.

    1981-12-01

    The Strath Halladale Granite has undergone a complex history of faulting, alteration and weathering. The alteration varies from thin ramifying veins and irregular diffuse areas within fresh rock to alteration zones in which all the major phases have been partially or completely replaced. Initial reactions were associated with magmatic fluids which formed pegmatites and aplites within extensional fractures. Introduction of meteoric waters resulted in the formation of a convecting hydrothermal system driven by a magmatic heat energy source. The migrating fluids formed secondary dioctahedral micas and chlorite within the granite, and calcite, siderite, iron sulphide, iron oxides, smectites and quartz within the brittle fractures. Many fractures are shear zones which are infilled by granulated quartz, feldspar and mica. The presence of montmorillonite, the lowest temperature mineral phase, and a preliminary study of stable isotopes indicate temperatures in excess of 100 deg C for migrating alkali-rich fluids. In an assessment of the feasibility of the disposal of high level radioactive waste the ubiquitous presence of montmorillonite, which has a high sorption capacity, is important. (author)

  20. Trip-generation rates for urban infill land uses in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    This report presents the results of the second phase of a two phase research project undertaken by the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) to study travel characteristics of infill development in Californias metropolitan areas. This...

  1. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-01-01

    Infill drilling if wells on a uniform spacing without regard to reservoir performance and characterization foes not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations.

  2. Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Frames In-Filled with Lightweight Materials Under Seismic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iswandi Imran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental and analytical research conducted to study the in-plane behavior of reinforced concrete (R/C frames in-filled with lightweight materials. The tests were performed on two single bay, single story in-filled frame specimens with ½ scale models. One of the test specimens was in-filled with lightweight materials, i.e. autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC blocks, and the other, used as the comparison, was in-filled with clay brick materials. The loading used in the tests was in the form of cyclic in-plane lateral loads, simulating earthquake forces. Behavior of the frame structures was evaluated through the observed strength and deformation characteristics, the measured hysteretic energy dissipation capacity and the measured ductility. The experimental results show that the R/C frame in-filled with AAC blocks exhibited better performance under in-plane lateral loads than that in-filled with conventional clay bricks. In the analytical work, the performance of some analytical models available in the literature was evaluated in simulating the experimental results

  3. Tire-road noise: an experimental study of tire and road design parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekke, Dirk; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; Weegerink, Thijs; de Boer, Andries

    2013-01-01

    It is widely known that road traffic noise has negative influences on human health. Hence, as tire-road noise is considered to be the most dominant cause of road traffic noise above 30-50 km/h, a lot of research is performed by the two involving industries: road authorities/manufacturers and tire

  4. Evaluation of the tire pressure influence on the lateral forces that occur between tire and road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoş, N.; Todoruţ, A.; Barabás, I.

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of the paper is to capture the behavior of a vehicle on a race circuit, depending on the different inflation pressures of the tires (underpressure and overpressure). Taking into account that in the cornering the forces and the moments of inertia rise due the vehicle mass, and an inertial force decomposes in two components, one in the longitudinal plane and one in the transverse plane, the work aims the assessing the lateral forces that appear, to the contact between the tires and the tread, depending on the inflation pressure. The results have a graphic interpretation, enabling a comparative study of them. Results have been obtained regarding the lateral tire forces that occur between the tire and the road. The differences between these forces were particularly noticeable in cornering, and the differences between these forces were interpreted according to the tire inflation pressure.

  5. The effect of Cryogenic Crumb Rubber in cold recycled mixes for road pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettinari, Matteo; Dondi, Giulio; Sangiorgi, Cesare

    2014-01-01

    of cold recycled mixes for road bases is considerable. Furthermore, new products are continuously being introduced or developed for recycling purposes. The objective of this research project was to test the effects, both mechanically and environmentally, of crumb rubber included in 100% Reclaimed Asphalt...... in Italy, is also moving in this direction, lowering the manufacturing temperatures of bituminous mixes and reducing or ultimately eliminating the use of virgin raw materials. Currently, a wide range of materials are used and, consequently, the number of variables to be considered in the mix-design process...... Pavement cold mixes for road bases, bound with bitumen emulsion and cement. The crumb rubber is produced cryogenically with granulometric selection, which together with the bitumen, the cement and the fine fractions of the mix forms a resilient mastic capable of imparting significant fatigue resistance...

  6. Performance Evaluation of Crumb Rubber Modified Stone Mastic Asphalt Pavement in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Salim Mashaan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To prevent pavement distresses there are various solutions such as adopting new mix designs or utilisation of asphalt additives. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adding crumb tyre rubber as an additive to SMA mixture performance properties. This study investigated the essential aspects of modified asphalt mixtures in order to better understand the influence of CRM modifiers on volumetric, mechanical, and stiffness properties of SMA mixture. In this study, virgin bitumen 80/100 penetration grade was used, modified with crumb rubber (CRM at five different modification levels, namely, 6%, 12%, 16%, and 20%, respectively, by weight of the bitumen. The appropriate amount of the added CRM was found to be 12% by weight of bitumen. This percentage results in the maximum level of stability. The resilient modulus (Mr of modified SMA samples including different percentages of CRM was obviously higher in comparison with that of unmodified samples.

  7. 49 CFR 575.106 - Tire fuel efficiency consumer information program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... section: Brand name owner means a person, other than a tire manufacturer, who owns or has the right to... manufacturer bearing the licensor's brand name. CT means a pneumatic tire with an inverted flange tire and rim... program. (a) Scope. This section requires tire manufacturers, tire brand name owners, and tire retailers...

  8. Experimental investigation of the seismic performance of the R/C frames with reinforced masonry infills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanjung, Jafril; Maidiawati, Nugroho, Fajar

    2017-10-01

    Intensive studies regarding the investigation of seismic performance of reinforced concrete (R/C) frames which are infilled with brick masonry walls have been carried out by several researchers within the last three-decades. According to authors' field and experimentally experiences conclude that the unreinforced brick masonry infills significantly contributes to increase the seismic performance of the R/C frame structure. Unfortunately, the presence of brick masonry infill walls causes several undesirable effects such as short column, soft-storey, torsion and out of plane collapse. In this study, a strengthening technique for the brick masonry infills were experimentally investigated to improve the seismic performance of the R/C frame structures. For this purpose, four experimental specimens have been prepared, i.e. one of bare R/C frame (BF), one of R/C frame infilled with unreinforced brick-masonry wall (IFUM) and two of R/C frames were infilled with reinforced brick-masonry wall (IFRM-1 and IFRM-2). The bare frame and R/C frame infilled with unreinforced brick-masonry wall represents the typical R/C buildings' construction in Indonesia assuming the brick-masonry wall as the non-structural elements. The brick-masonry wall infills in specimens IFRM-1 and IFRM-2 were strengthened by using embedded ϕ4 plain steel bar on their diagonal and center of brick-masonry wall, respectively. All specimens were laterally pushed-over. The lateral loading and its lateral displacement, failure mechanism and their crack pattern were recorded during experimental works. Comparison of the experimental results of these four specimens conclude that the strengthening of the brick-masonry infills wall gave the significantly increasing of the seismic performance of the R/C frame. The seismic performance was evaluated based on the lateral strength of the R/C specimen. The embedded plain steel bar on brick-masonry also reduces the diagonal crack on the brick-masonry wall. It seems that

  9. Investigating the rheological properties of crumb rubber modified bitumen and its correlation with temperature susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Salim Mashaan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence on the advantages of using crumb rubber in enhancing conventional bitumen properties, gaining environmental protection and boosting industrial-economical benefits. Thus, the use of this ingenious additive in bitumen modification through sustainable technology is highly advocated.The main objective of this research is to investigate the effects of different blending conditions (of time and temperature and various crumb rubber contents on the properties of bitumen binders. Testing was conducted using the Dynamic shear rheometer (DSR test and softening point test. The results showed that differing crumb rubber contents and blending temperature have significant effects on modified binder properties whereas the blending time showed an insignificant effect. Higher blending temperature and crumb rubber content were found to influence the interaction of bitumen-rubber blends and also increased the swelling rate of rubber particles, resulting in an increase in complex shear modulus (G*, storage modulus (G', loss modulus (G" and softening point as well as a decrease in phase angle (δ. Thus, the modified bitumen became less susceptible to deformation after stress removals. The study also presented a considerable relationship between rheological parameters (G*, G', G' and δ and softening point in terms of predicting physical-mechanical properties regardless of blending conditions. Thus, in terms of elasticity for the softening point data, the storage modulus and phase angle were found to be good indicators of binder elasticity. When softening point is made available, a prediction about binder ability to recover its original shape after stress removals can be done.

  10. Investigating the rheological properties of crumb rubber modified bitumen and its correlation with temperature susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Salim Mashaan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence on the advantages of using crumb rubber in enhancing conventional bitumen properties, gaining environmental protection and boosting industrial-economical benefits. Thus, the use of this ingenious additive in bitumen modification through sustainable technology is highly advocated.The main objective of this research is to investigate the effects of different blending conditions (of time and temperature and various crumb rubber contents on the properties of bitumen binders. Testing was conducted using the Dynamic shear rheometer (DSR test and softening point test. The results showed that differing crumb rubber contents and blending temperature have significant effects on modified binder properties whereas the blending time showed an insignificant effect. Higher blending temperature and crumb rubber content were found to influence the interaction of bitumen-rubber blends and also increased the swelling rate of rubber particles, resulting in an increase in complex shear modulus (G*, storage modulus (G', loss modulus (G" and softening point as well as a decrease in phase angle (δ. Thus, the modified bitumen became less susceptible to deformation after stress removals. The study also presented a considerable relationship between rheological parameters (G*, G', G' and δ and softening point in terms of predicting physical-mechanical properties regardless of blending conditions. Thus, in terms of elasticity for the softening point data, the storage modulus and phase angle were found to be good indicators of binder elasticity. When softening point is made available, a prediction about binder ability to recover its original shape after stress removals can be done.

  11. Neural network classification technique and machine vision for bread crumb grain evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayas, Inna Y.; Chung, O. K.; Caley, M.

    1995-10-01

    Bread crumb grain was studied to develop a model for pattern recognition of bread baked at Hard Winter Wheat Quality Laboratory (HWWQL), Grain Marketing and Production Research Center (GMPRC). Images of bread slices were acquired with a scanner in a 512 multiplied by 512 format. Subimages in the central part of the slices were evaluated by several features such as mean, determinant, eigen values, shape of a slice and other crumb features. Derived features were used to describe slices and loaves. Neural network programs of MATLAB package were used for data analysis. Learning vector quantization method and multivariate discriminant analysis were applied to bread slices from what of different sources. A training and test sets of different bread crumb texture classes were obtained. The ranking of subimages was well correlated with visual judgement. The performance of different models on slice recognition rate was studied to choose the best model. The recognition of classes created according to human judgement with image features was low. Recognition of arbitrarily created classes, according to porosity patterns, with several feature patterns was approximately 90%. Correlation coefficient was approximately 0.7 between slice shape features and loaf volume.

  12. Implications of hydration depletion in the in vitro starch digestibility of white bread crumb and crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Mario M; Román, Laura; Gómez, Manuel

    2018-01-15

    The objective of this study was to provide understanding about the efficacy of decreasing dough hydration to slow down starch digestibility in white bread. Breads were made with 45 (low hydration bread, LHB), 60 (intermediate hydration bread, IHB) and 75% (high hydration bread, HHB) water (flour basis). A hydration depletion down to 45%, which is close to the minimum hydration found in commercially available white bread, did not prevent the starch in the crumb from complete gelatinization. However, LHB and IHB crumbs were more resistant to physical breakdown during in vitro digestion than HHB crumbs, resulting in a 96.81% increase of slowly digestible starch (SDS) from 75 to 45% dough hydration. The degree of gelatinization in crust samples was significantly reduced with a depletion in the dough hydration, ranging from 29.90 to 44.36%, which led to an increase of SDS from 7.41 in HHB to 13.78% in LHB (bread basis). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of Crumb-Rubber in the Mechanical Response of Modified Portland Cement Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Retama

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of crumb-rubber on the mechanical properties of Portland cement concrete (PCC is studied by experimental tests and numerical simulations. The main hypothesis of the study is that replacing part of the stone aggregate with crumb-rubber in the mix modifies the energy dissipation during the cracking process and affects the concrete behaviour under monotonically increasing loads. The experimental research program characterizes the mechanical properties of PCC for three different types of concrete with a variable content of crumb-rubber. The experimental results showed that fracture energy and other properties are directly related to the rubber fineness used in the mixture. The material properties derived for these laboratory tests are used to study, by numerical models, its response through its damage evolution. The numerical model used to simulate the damage evolution of the concrete is the Embedded Discontinuity Method (EDM. One characteristic of the EDM is that it does not need to modify the mesh topology to propagate the damage through the continuum solid. For this study, the Disk-Shaped Compact Tension specimen geometry, normed by the D7313-13 of the ASTM, is used. Results showed that the numerical methods provide good approximation of the experimental curve in the elastic and softening branches.

  14. Research Protocol: Collections Related to Synthetic Turf ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The “Federal Research Action Plan on Recycled Tire Crumb Used on Playing Fields and Playgrounds” (referred to subsequently as the Federal Research Action Plan or FRAP) was finalized in February 2016. The U.S. EPA and CDC/ATSDR, in collaboration with CPSC, have prepared this research protocol to implement portions of the research activities outlined under the FRAP. Specifically, this research protocol is designed to implement three of the research elements described in the Federal Research Action Plan: Conduct a literature review and data gaps analysis; Perform tire crumb rubber characterization research; Perform human exposure characterization research. Concerns have been raised by the public about the safety of recycled tire crumb rubber used in synthetic turf fields and playgrounds in the United States. Several studies have been identified that examine exposure to tire crumb rubber infill in these settings. While, in general, these studies have not provided evidence for these health concerns, the existing studies do not comprehensively evaluate all aspects of exposure associated with these use scenarios. Additional research is needed to help fill important data gaps that will lead to improved exposure assessment and risk evaluation for children and adults using synthetic turf fields and playgrounds with tire crumb rubber. In response, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Agency for Toxic Su

  15. A Synthesis on the Evolution of the Studded Tire

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Angerinos, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Ever since studded tires were flrst introduced, the advantages, disadvantages, and effects of studded tires on vehicles, drivers and pavement systems has been the center of research and controversy...

  16. Effect of friction on rolling tire-pavement interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    In this research, a three-dimensional (3-D) tire-pavement interaction model is developed using FEM to analyze the tire-pavement contact stress distributions at various rolling conditions (free rolling, braking/accelerating, and cornering). In additio...

  17. Recycled tires as coarse aggregate in concrete pavement mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The reuse potential of tire chips as coarse aggregates in pavement concrete was examined in this research by : investigating the effects of low- and high-volume tire chips on fresh and hardened concrete properties. One concrete : control mixture was ...

  18. Investigating the influence of infill percentage on the mechanical properties of fused deposition modelled ABS parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Álvarez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing is a manufacturing process that is usually used for modeling and prototyping. One of the most popular printing techniques is fused deposition modeling (FDM, which is based on adding melted material layer by layer. Although FDM has several advantages with respect to other manufacturing materials, there are several problems that have to be faced. When setting the printing options, several parameters have to be taken into account, such as temperature, speed, infill percentage, etc. Selecting these parameters is often a great challenge for the user, and is generally solved by experience without considering the influence of variations in the parameters on the mechanical properties of the printed parts.This article analyzes the influence of the infill percentage on the mechanical properties of ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene printed parts. In order to characterize this influence, test specimens for tensile strength and Charpy tests were printed with a Makerbot Replicator 2X printer, in which the infill percentage was varied but the rest of the printing parameters were kept constant. Three different results were analyzed for these tests: tensile strength, impact resistance, and effective printing time. Results showed that the maximum tensile force (1438N and tensile stress (34,57MPa were obtained by using 100% infill. The maximum impact resistance, 1,55J, was also obtained with 100% infill. In terms of effective printing time, results showed that printing with an infill range between 50% and 98% is not recommended, since the effective printing time is higher than with a 100% infill and the tensile strength and impact resistance are smaller. In addition, in comparing the results of our analysis with results from other authors, it can be concluded that the printer type and plastic roll significantly influence the mechanical properties of ABS parts.

  19. Materials Approach to Fuel Efficient Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Votruba-Drzal, Peter [PPG Industries, Monroeville, PA (United States); Kornish, Brian [PPG Industries, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The objective of this project was to design, develop, and demonstrate fuel efficient and safety regulation compliant tire filler and barrier coating technologies that will improve overall fuel efficiency by at least 2%. The program developed and validated two complementary approaches to improving fuel efficiency through tire improvements. The first technology was a modified silica-based product that is 15% lower in cost and/or enables a 10% improvement in tread wear while maintaining the already demonstrated minimum of 2% improvement in average fuel efficiency. The second technology was a barrier coating with reduced oxygen transmission rate compared to the state-of-the-art halobutyl rubber inner liners that will provide extended placarded tire pressure retention at significantly reduced material usage. A lower-permeance, thinner inner liner coating which retains tire pressure was expected to deliver the additional 2% reduction in fleet fuel consumption. From the 2006 Transportation Research Board Report1, a 10 percent reduction in rolling resistance can reduce consumer fuel expenditures by 1 to 2 percent for typical vehicles. This savings is equivalent to 6 to 12 gallons per year. A 1 psi drop in inflation pressure increases the tire's rolling resistance by about 1.4 percent.

  20. Photocatalytic Desulfurization of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napida Hinchiranan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste tire pyrolysis oil has high potential to replace conventional fossil liquid fuels due to its high calorific heating value. However, the large amounts of sulfurous compounds in this oil hinders its application. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate the possibility to apply the photo-assisted oxidation catalyzed by titanium dioxide (TiO2, Degussa P-25 to partially remove sulfurous compounds in the waste tire pyrolysis oil under milder reaction conditions without hydrogen consumption. A waste tire pyrolysis oil with 0.84% (w/w of sulfurous content containing suspended TiO2 was irradiated by using a high-pressure mercury lamp for 7 h. The oxidized sulfur compounds were then migrated into the solvent-extraction phase. A maximum % sulfur removal of 43.6% was achieved when 7 g/L of TiO2 was loaded into a 1/4 (v/v mixture of pyrolysis waste tire oil/acetonitrile at 50 °C in the presence of air. Chromatographic analysis confirmed that the photo-oxidized sulfurous compounds presented in the waste tire pyrolysis oil had higher polarity, which were readily dissolved and separated in distilled water. The properties of the photoxidized product were also reported and compared to those of crude oil.

  1. Energy conservation from systematic tire pressure regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Joshua M. [Department of Physics, 106 Peirce Science Center, Clarion University of Pennsylvania, Clarion 16214, PA (United States)]. E-mail: jpearce@clarion.edu; Hanlon, Jason T. [Department of Physics, 106 Peirce Science Center, Clarion University of Pennsylvania, Clarion 16214, PA (United States)

    2007-04-15

    The majority of US drivers do not consistently monitor the tire pressures in their vehicles. The 2000 TREAD Act, which requires automakers to gradually provide tire pressure monitoring systems for vehicles sold in the US will correct this problem for new vehicles. This law does not impact the problem in previously deployed vehicles, which have a turnover time of {approx}20 years. A solution is provided here to address under-inflated tires on the current 220 million vehicles and the concomitant wasted energy due to increased rolling resistance in the US automobile fleet. This communication reports on a preliminary study of tire pressures in randomly chosen vehicles, which were undergoing oil changes at a combined retail/auto-care facility. The study indicates that substantial benefits would accrue if car care facilities systematically offered complimentary tire pressure checks with oil changes including: (i) increased safety by decreasing all crashes and saving more than 100 lives per year, (ii) reduced petroleum consumption by over a billion gallons/year, which would (iia) provide over $4 billion in economic savings for US consumers that could in part be recouped in retail/auto-care facilities, (iib) reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 13.5 million tons and automobile pollution and (iic) enhance national security.

  2. Effect of operating conditions on scrap tire pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rombaldo,Carla Fabiana Scatolim; Lisbôa,Antonio Carlos Luz; Méndez,Manoel Orlando Alvarez; Coutinho,Aparecido dos Reis

    2008-01-01

    The ever growing focus on environmental issues has raised concerns about scrap tires, whose major component - vulcanized rubber - does not degrade easily. When burned, tires release toxic gases containing substantial amounts of sulfur and ammonia in addition to other pollutants. Dumped on empty city lots, tires are also a breeding ground for mosquitoes. Many proposals have been put forward to handle the disposal of scrap tires, but none of them have proved to offer a definitive solution. The ...

  3. EVALUATION OF TIRE RUBBER DISPOSAL IN CONCRETE FOR PAVEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Cristina Cecche Lintz; Maria Rachel Russo Seydell

    2009-01-01

    The production of waste by the tire industry has been a growing problem, indicating the need for its reuse. More than thirty million tires are discharged per year in Brazil, where regulation for the environment states that for each four new tires, five unusable ones must be adequately disposed by manufacturers and importers. Paving consumes an extremely large quantity of materials, which can be the source of rational application of waste and rejected materials. Research shows that tire rubber...

  4. Fracture calcites at Olkiluoto. Evidence from quaternary infills for palaeohydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehoer, S.; Kaerki, A.; Taikina-aho, O.; Karhu, J.; Loefman, J.; Pitkaenen, P.; Ruotsalainen, P.

    2002-02-01

    Recently formed secondary minerals, predominantly calcite, occur in varying amounts as fracture infills, and the calcite types, their chemical compositions and isotope ratios reflect the compositions and physicochemical factors of the groundwater system in which they were formed. Fluid inclusions trapped in calcites give direct evidence of trapping temperatures and past salinities and of the chemical compositions of the palaeo fluids. A wide range of mineralogical and geochemical examinations were carried out within the EQUIP project to examine features of this kind. The fracture calcites at the Olkiluoto site are of various origins and represent several textural types. The exact number of calcite-producing events is unknown, but the duration of the period that was appropriate for the precipitation of low temperature calcite is estimated to have exceeded 1000 Ma. Thus the number of genetically related calcite units is assumed to be considerable. This study was focused on the petrogenesis of calcites crystallized in fractures of high water conductivity during the latest stages of geological evolution. The majority of these late stage calcites form physically homogeneous, scaly layers, and in a few cases thin layers composed of idiomorphic crystals. Chemically these are almost stoichiometric calcites (CaCO 3 ). The MnO content may exceed 1%, while the amounts of other elements present are minor, although the trace element concentrations, particularly those of large ionic trace elements, can be used as distinguishing features for the recognition of individual precipitates representing different calcite generations. Evidence from fluid inclusions, or more correctly from the absence of these in the late stage calcites, can be interpreted as an indication of slow rates of crystallization under cool conditions. Many chemical variables, e.g. oxygen isotope ratios, demonstrate an equilibrium between the latest calcites and water similar to the present groundwater. Older

  5. Fracture calcites at Olkiluoto. Evidence from quaternary infills for palaeohydrogeology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehoer, S.; Kaerki, A.; Taikina-aho, O. [Kivitieto Oy (Finland); Karhu, J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland); Loefman, J. [VTT Processes, Espoo (Finland); Pitkaenen, P. [VTT Building and Transport, Espoo (Finland); Ruotsalainen, P. [TUKES, Helsinki (Finland)

    2002-02-01

    Recently formed secondary minerals, predominantly calcite, occur in varying amounts as fracture infills, and the calcite types, their chemical compositions and isotope ratios reflect the compositions and physicochemical factors of the groundwater system in which they were formed. Fluid inclusions trapped in calcites give direct evidence of trapping temperatures and past salinities and of the chemical compositions of the palaeo fluids. A wide range of mineralogical and geochemical examinations were carried out within the EQUIP project to examine features of this kind. The fracture calcites at the Olkiluoto site are of various origins and represent several textural types. The exact number of calcite-producing events is unknown, but the duration of the period that was appropriate for the precipitation of low temperature calcite is estimated to have exceeded 1000 Ma. Thus the number of genetically related calcite units is assumed to be considerable. This study was focused on the petrogenesis of calcites crystallized in fractures of high water conductivity during the latest stages of geological evolution. The majority of these late stage calcites form physically homogeneous, scaly layers, and in a few cases thin layers composed of idiomorphic crystals. Chemically these are almost stoichiometric calcites (CaCO{sub 3}). The MnO content may exceed 1%, while the amounts of other elements present are minor, although the trace element concentrations, particularly those of large ionic trace elements, can be used as distinguishing features for the recognition of individual precipitates representing different calcite generations. Evidence from fluid inclusions, or more correctly from the absence of these in the late stage calcites, can be interpreted as an indication of slow rates of crystallization under cool conditions. Many chemical variables, e.g. oxygen isotope ratios, demonstrate an equilibrium between the latest calcites and water similar to the present groundwater. Older

  6. 76 FR 79114 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... for the TFECIP is to provide consumers with a database that allows cross-comparisons of tire brands... includes the manufacturer's name, the brand name owner (if different than the manufacturer), the tire line... is often used to represent the finite element or mathematical model of a tire, rather than the name a...

  7. 77 FR 3726 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... information program for replacement tires (74 FR 29542; Docket No. NHTSA-2008- 0121). The new consumer... efficiency rating system and consumer education program for replacement tires. The program would inform... test machine(s) for the TFECIP. This would allow tire manufacturers to know the identity of the machine...

  8. 77 FR 52203 - Airworthiness Directives; Goodyear Aviation Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA-2012... Airworthiness Directives; Goodyear Aviation Tires AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... Goodyear Aviation Tires, part number 299K63-1 (Brazilian made new tires only), installed on various...

  9. 75 FR 15893 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... how much the proposed consumer information program would affect consumer tire purchasing behavior and... 575 Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No... 2127-AK45 Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety...

  10. Application of granulating of tires; Aplicaciones de granulado de NFUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Justicia, A.

    2001-07-01

    At present, used tires are mainly used as fuel, retreading and granulating of tires. In this article. I will focus on the last option, talking about some of the multiple applications and going into detail of the making process of the granulation of used tires in a recycling plant. (Author)

  11. Scrap tire ashes in portland cement production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Adriana Trezza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrap tires are not considered harmful waste, but their stocking and disposal are a potential health and environmental risk. Properly controlled calcinations at high temperatures make tire combustion an interesting alternative due to its high calorific power, comparable to that of fuel-oil. Consequently, using them as an alternative combustible material in cement kilns makes it possible to give it a valuable use. However, it remains to be assured whether the impurities added to the clinker through these fuels do not affect its structure or properties.This paper shows the studies carried out on different clinkers under laboratory conditions with different levels of addition of scrap tire ashes, added by partially replacing traditional fuel in cement kilns.

  12. Passive tire pressure sensor and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Williams, Robert Leslie; Waldschmidt, Robert Lee; Morgan, Catherine Hook

    2007-09-04

    A surface acoustic wave device includes a micro-machined pressure transducer for monitoring tire pressure. The device is configured having a micro-machined cavity that is sealed with a flexible conductive membrane. When an external tire pressure equivalent to the cavity pressure is detected, the membrane makes contact with ridges on the backside of the surface acoustic wave device. The ridges are electrically connected to conductive fingers of the device. When the detected pressure is correct, selected fingers on the device will be grounded producing patterned acoustic reflections to an impulse RF signal. When the external tire pressure is less than the cavity reference pressure, a reduced reflected signal to the receiver results. The sensor may further be constructed so as to identify itself by a unique reflected identification pulse series.

  13. Tire Development for Effective Transportation and Utilization of Used Tires, CRADA 01-N044, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Maley

    2004-03-31

    Scrap tires represent a significant disposal and recycling challenge for the United States. Over 280 million tires are generated on an annual basis, and several states have large stockpiles or abandoned tire piles that are slated for remediation. While most states have programs to address the accumulation and generation of scrap tires, most of these states struggle with creating and sustaining recycling or beneficial end use markets. One of the major issues with market development has been the costs associated with transporting and processing the tires into material for recycling or disposal. According to a report by the Rubber Manufactures Association tire-derived fuel (TDF) represents the largest market for scrap tires, and approximately 115 million tires were consumed in 2001 as TDF (U.S. Scrap Tire Markets, 2001, December 2002, www.rma.org/scraptires). This market is supported primarily by cement kilns, followed by various industries including companies that operate utility and industrial boilers. However the use of TDF has not increased and the amount of TDF used by boiler operators has declined. The work completed through this cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) has shown the potential of a mobile tire shredding unit to economically produce TDF and to provide an alterative low cost fuel to suitable coal-fired power systems. This novel system addresses the economic barriers by processing the tires at the retailer, thereby eliminating the costs associated with hauling whole tires. The equipment incorporated into the design allow for small 1-inch chunks of TDF to be produced in a timely fashion. The TDF can then be co-fired with coal in suitable combustion systems, such as a fluidized bed. Proper use of TDF has been shown to boost efficiency and reduce emissions from power generation systems, which is beneficial to coal utilization in existing power plants. Since the original scope of work outlined in the CRADA could not be completed because

  14. Hybrid Soft Soil Tire Model (HSSTM). Part 1: Tire Material and Structure Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-28

    results and experimental data . Natural Freq. (Hz) Damping % Modes ABAQUS Test Error ABAQUS Test Error T0 47.54 47.20 0.72 0.023 0.021 9.52 T1 55.85...terrains (such as sandy loam) and tire force and moments, soil sinkage, and tire deformation data were collected for various case studies based on a...design of experiment matrix. This data , in addition to modal analysis data were used to validate the tire model. Furthermore, to study the validity

  15. Indirect Tire Monitoring System - Machine Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, O.; Thelin, S.; Byttner, S.; Fan, Y.

    2017-10-01

    The heavy vehicle industry has today no requirement to provide a tire pressure monitoring system by law. This has created issues surrounding unknown tire pressure and thread depth during active service. There is also no standardization for these kind of systems which means that different manufacturers and third party solutions work after their own principles and it can be hard to know what works for a given vehicle type. The objective is to create an indirect tire monitoring system that can generalize a method that detect both incorrect tire pressure and thread depth for different type of vehicles within a fleet without the need for additional physical sensors or vehicle specific parameters. The existing sensors that are connected communicate through CAN and are interpreted by the Drivec Bridge hardware that exist in the fleet. By using supervised machine learning a classifier was created for each axle where the main focus was the front axle which had the most issues. The classifier will classify the vehicles tires condition and will be implemented in Drivecs cloud service where it will receive its data. The resulting classifier is a random forest implemented in Python. The result from the front axle with a data set consisting of 9767 samples of buses with correct tire condition and 1909 samples of buses with incorrect tire condition it has an accuracy of 90.54% (0.96%). The data sets are created from 34 unique measurements from buses between January and May 2017. This classifier has been exported and is used inside a Node.js module created for Drivecs cloud service which is the result of the whole implementation. The developed solution is called Indirect Tire Monitoring System (ITMS) and is seen as a process. This process will predict bad classes in the cloud which will lead to warnings. The warnings are defined as incidents. They contain only the information needed and the bandwidth of the incidents are also controlled so incidents are created within an

  16. Activating Carrier Multiplication in PbSe Quantum Dot Solids by Infilling with Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Cate, Sybren; Liu, Yao; Suchand Sandeep, C S; Kinge, Sachin; Houtepen, Arjan J; Savenije, Tom J; Schins, Juleon M; Law, Matt; Siebbeles, Laurens D A

    2013-06-06

    Carrier multiplication-the generation of multiple electron-hole pairs by a single photon-is currently of great interest for the development of highly efficient photovoltaics. We study the effects of infilling PbSe quantum-dot solids with metal oxides by atomic layer deposition on carrier multiplication. Using time-resolved microwave conductivity measurements, we find, for the first time, that carrier multiplication occurs in 1,2-ethanedithiol-linked PbSe quantum-dot solids infilled with Al2O3 or Al2O3/ZnO, while it is negligible or absent in noninfilled films. The carrier-multiplication efficiency of the infilled quantum-dot solids is close to that of solution-dispersed PbSe quantum dots, and not significantly limited by Auger recombination.

  17. A Novel Strain-Based Method to Estimate Tire Conditions Using Fuzzy Logic for Intelligent Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Pozuelo, Daniel; Olatunbosun, Oluremi; Yunta, Jorge; Yang, Xiaoguang; Diaz, Vicente

    2017-02-10

    The so-called intelligent tires are one of the most promising research fields for automotive engineers. These tires are equipped with sensors which provide information about vehicle dynamics. Up to now, the commercial intelligent tires only provide information about inflation pressure and their contribution to stability control systems is currently very limited. Nowadays one of the major problems for intelligent tire development is how to embed feasible and low cost sensors to obtain reliable information such as inflation pressure, vertical load or rolling speed. These parameters provide key information for vehicle dynamics characterization. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm based on fuzzy logic to estimate the mentioned parameters by means of a single strain-based system. Experimental tests have been carried out in order to prove the suitability and durability of the proposed on-board strain sensor system, as well as its low cost advantages, and the accuracy of the obtained estimations by means of fuzzy logic.

  18. Infill architecture: Design approaches for in-between buildings and 'bond' as integrative element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfirević Đorđe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to draw attention to the view that the two key elements in achieving good quality of architecture infill in immediate, current surroundings, are the selection of optimal creative method of infill architecture and adequate application of 'the bond' as integrative element, The success of achievement and the quality of architectural infill mainly depend on the assessment of various circumstances, but also on the professionalism, creativity, sensibility, and finally innovativeness of the architect, In order for the infill procedure to be carried out adequately, it is necessary to carry out the assessment of quality of the current surroundings that the object will be integrated into, and then to choose the creative approach that will allow the object to establish an optimal dialogue with its surroundings, On a wider scale, both theory and the practice differentiate thee main creative approaches to infill objects: amimetic approach (mimesis, bassociative approach and ccontrasting approach, Which of the stated approaches will be chosen depends primarily on the fact whether the existing physical structure into which the object is being infilled is 'distinct', 'specific' or 'indistinct', but it also depends on the inclination of the designer, 'The bond' is a term which in architecture denotes an element or zone of one object, but in some instances it can refer to the whole object which has been articulated in a specific way, with an aim of reaching the solution for the visual conflict as is often the case in situations when there is a clash between the existing objects and the newly designed or reconstructed object, This paper provides in-depth analysis of different types of bonds, such as 'direction as bond', 'cornice as bond', 'structure as bond', 'texture as bond' and 'material as bond', which indicate complexity and multiple layers of the designing process of object interpolation.

  19. Tires and Tracks. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on tires and tracks servicing is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids on operation, diagnosis and repair of automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. The…

  20. Monitoring Temperatures of Tires Using Luminescent Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencic, Timothy J

    2006-01-01

    A method of noncontact, optical monitoring of the surface temperature of a tire has been devised to enable the use of local temperature rise as an indication of potential or impending failures. The method involves the use of temperature-sensitive paint (or filler): Temperature-sensitive luminescent dye molecules or other luminescent particles are incorporated into a thin, flexible material coating the tire surface of interest. (Alternatively, in principle, the luminescent material could be incorporated directly into the tire rubber, though this approach has not yet been tested.) The coated surface is illuminated with shorter-wavelength light to excite longer-wavelength luminescence, which is observed by use of a charge-coupled-device camera or a photodetector (see Figure 1). If temporally constant illumination is used, then the temperature can be deduced from the known temperature dependence of the intensity response of the luminescence. If pulsed illumination is used, then the temperature can be deduced from the known temperature dependence of the time or frequency response of the luminescence. If sinusoidally varying illumination is used, then the temperature can be deduced from the known temperature dependence of the phase response of the luminescence. Unlike a prior method of monitoring the temperature at a fixed spot on a tire by use of a thermocouple, this method is not restricted to one spot and can, therefore, yield information on the spatial distribution of temperature: in particular, it enables the discovery of newly forming hot spots where damage may be starting. Also unlike in the thermocouple method, the measurements in this method are not vulnerable to breakage of wires in repeated flexing of the tire. Moreover, unlike in another method in which infrared radiation is monitored as an indication of surface temperature, the luminescence measurements in this method are not significantly affected by changes in infrared emissivity. This method has been

  1. The Usage of Crumb Rubber Filtration and UV Radiation for Ballast Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trika Pitana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to build ship’s ballast water treatment prototipe that used to inactivate microbial water patogen in ballast water to produce unpolluted ballast water that can be standardised by IMO Ballast Water Management Convention. A simple concept that used in the development of this prototype is by draining ballast water with capacity at 5 lpm, 10 lpm and 20 lpm into alternative filtration crumb rubber and UV reactor. In the filtration process using crumb rubber, ballast water will be filtered with the precision filtration up to 50 micron, while in the UV reactor ballast water will be illuminated by UV-C with maksimum dose 16,58 mW/cm2. Finally,the study shows the performance of alternative filtration of crumb rubber and UV-C irradiation on microbial water phatogen, and at what UV-C dose ballast water treatment prototipe can inactivate  microbial water phatogens, which are complying with IMO Ballast Water Management Convention ANNEX D. This research is aimed to build ship’s ballast water treatment prototipe that used to inactivate microbial water patogen in ballast water to produce unpolluted ballast water that can be standardised by IMO Ballast Water Management Convention. A simple concept that used in the development of this prototype is by draining ballast water with capacity at 5 lpm, 10 lpm and 20 lpm into alternative filtration crumb rubber and UV reactor. In the filtration process using crumb rubber, ballast water will be filtered with the precision filtration up to 50 micron, while in the UV reactor ballast water will be illuminated by UV-C with maksimum dose 16,58 mW/cm2. Finally,the study shows the performance of alternative filtration of crumb rubber and UV-C irradiation on microbial water phatogen, and at what UV-C dose ballast water treatment prototipe can inactivate  microbial water phatogens, which are complying with IMO Ballast Water Management Convention ANNEX D. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X

  2. Time-transgressive tunnel valley formation indicated by infill sediment structure, North Sea - the role of glaciohydraulic supercooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Bojer; Piotrowski, Jan; Huuse, Mads

    2008-01-01

    Structure and lithology of the infill sediments from 16 subglacial buried tunnel valleys of Pleistocene age in the North Sea were analyzed using 3D seismic data and geophysical log data from five hydrocarbon exploration wells. The infill sediments are characterized by three seismic facies: Facies I...

  3. A study of crumb rubber modified bitumen used in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mturi, GAJ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available and Pavement Design, 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14680629.2014.910130 A study of crumb rubber modified bitumen used in South Africa Georges A.J. Mturi (a), Johan O’Connell (a), Salah E. Zoorob (b) and Morris De Beer (a) (a)Transport Infrastructure... Engineering, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; (b)Department of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, 31750 Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia (Received 3 December 2013; accepted 25 March 2014...

  4. An Analytical Tire Model with Flexible Carcass for Combined Slips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tire mechanical characteristics under combined cornering and braking/driving situations have significant effects on vehicle directional controls. The objective of this paper is to present an analytical tire model with flexible carcass for combined slip situations, which can describe tire behavior well and can also be used for studying vehicle dynamics. The tire forces and moments come mainly from the shear stress and sliding friction at the tread-road interface. In order to describe complicated tire characteristics and tire-road friction, some key factors are considered in this model: arbitrary pressure distribution; translational, bending, and twisting compliance of the carcass; dynamic friction coefficient; anisotropic stiffness properties. The analytical tire model can describe tire forces and moments accurately under combined slip conditions. Some important properties induced by flexible carcass can also be reflected. The structural parameters of a tire can be identified from tire measurements and the computational results using the analytical model show good agreement with test data.

  5. Prediction of the Fundamental Period of Infilled RC Frame Structures Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis G. Asteris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental period is one of the most critical parameters for the seismic design of structures. There are several literature approaches for its estimation which often conflict with each other, making their use questionable. Furthermore, the majority of these approaches do not take into account the presence of infill walls into the structure despite the fact that infill walls increase the stiffness and mass of structure leading to significant changes in the fundamental period. In the present paper, artificial neural networks (ANNs are used to predict the fundamental period of infilled reinforced concrete (RC structures. For the training and the validation of the ANN, a large data set is used based on a detailed investigation of the parameters that affect the fundamental period of RC structures. The comparison of the predicted values with analytical ones indicates the potential of using ANNs for the prediction of the fundamental period of infilled RC frame structures taking into account the crucial parameters that influence its value.

  6. Influence of masonry infill walls on longitudinal forces in columns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper the result of conducted numerical studies based on space calculation models are presented. It presents the results of a conducted numerical assessment of the influence of masonry infill walls on variation and redistribution of efforts arising in columns of a cast-in-situ framed building. The quantitative data of the ...

  7. Leaching of zinc from rubber infill on artificial turf (football pitches)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschoor AJ; LER

    2007-01-01

    Many artificial football pitches are treated with a rubber infill made of recycled tyres. From this material zinc leaches to the soil, groundwater and surface water. [This can present significant environmental risks, particularly for aquatic life.] Human health risks posed by leaching of zinc are

  8. High Resolution Seismic Study of the Holocene Infill of the Elkhorn Slough, Central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seismic analysis of the sedimentary infill of the Elkhorn Slough, central California, reveals a succession of three main seismic units: U1, U2, U3, with their correspondent discontinuities d2, d3. These units are deposited over a paleorelief representing the channel location ...

  9. Behaviour of Steel Tubular Stub and Slender Columns in-filled with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, an attempt was made with steel tubular columns in-filled with recycled aggregate concrete instead of normal conventional concrete so as to utilize the construction and demolition debris for effective recycling in construction works. The behaviour of circular and square concrete-filled steel tubular sections ...

  10. Thermal tuning of a silicon photonic crystal cavity infilled with an elastomer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erdamar, A.K.; Van Leest, M.M.; Picken, S.J.; Caro, J.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal tuning of the transmission of an elastomer infilled photonic crystal cavity is studied. An elastomer has a thermal expansion-induced negative thermo-optic coefficient that leads to a strong decrease of the refractive index upon heating. This property makes elastomer highly suitable for

  11. PAR-Complex and Crumbs Function During Photoreceptor Morphogenesis and Retinal Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichaud, Franck

    2018-01-01

    The fly photoreceptor has long been used as a model to study sensory neuron morphogenesis and retinal degeneration. In particular, elucidating how these cells are built continues to help further our understanding of the mechanisms of polarized cell morphogenesis, intracellular trafficking and the causes of human retinal pathologies. The conserved PAR complex, which in flies consists of Cdc42-PAR6-aPKC-Bazooka, and the transmembrane protein Crumbs (Crb) are key players during photoreceptor morphogenesis. While the PAR complex regulates polarity in many cell types, Crb function in polarity is relatively specific to epithelial cells. Together Cdc42-PAR6-aPKC-Bazooka and Crb orchestrate the differentiation of the photoreceptor apical membrane (AM) and zonula adherens (ZA) , thus allowing these cells to assemble into a neuro-epithelial lattice. In addition to its function in epithelial polarity, Crb has also been shown to protect fly photoreceptors from light-induced degeneration, a process linked to Rhodopsin expression and trafficking. Remarkably, mutations in the human Crumbs1 (CRB1) gene lead to retinal degeneration, making the fly photoreceptor a powerful disease model system.

  12. PAR-Complex and Crumbs Function During Photoreceptor Morphogenesis and Retinal Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Pichaud

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The fly photoreceptor has long been used as a model to study sensory neuron morphogenesis and retinal degeneration. In particular, elucidating how these cells are built continues to help further our understanding of the mechanisms of polarized cell morphogenesis, intracellular trafficking and the causes of human retinal pathologies. The conserved PAR complex, which in flies consists of Cdc42-PAR6-aPKC-Bazooka, and the transmembrane protein Crumbs (Crb are key players during photoreceptor morphogenesis. While the PAR complex regulates polarity in many cell types, Crb function in polarity is relatively specific to epithelial cells. Together Cdc42-PAR6-aPKC-Bazooka and Crb orchestrate the differentiation of the photoreceptor apical membrane (AM and zonula adherens (ZA, thus allowing these cells to assemble into a neuro-epithelial lattice. In addition to its function in epithelial polarity, Crb has also been shown to protect fly photoreceptors from light-induced degeneration, a process linked to Rhodopsin expression and trafficking. Remarkably, mutations in the human Crumbs1 (CRB1 gene lead to retinal degeneration, making the fly photoreceptor a powerful disease model system.

  13. Crumb evaluation of bread with hemp products addition by means of image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Švec

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemp flour composition (20–30% proteins, 7–13% fat and more than 40% saccharides is a precondition for its usage into non-traditional cereal products. Corresponding to the fact, that hemp proteins are represented mostly by edestin, a low-molecular globulin, technological behaviour of composites containing 5–20% of hemp flour is basically different. The effect was clearly reflected in specific bread volume decrease, comparing standard wheat bread vs. wheat-hemp one. Sensorial profile of such fortified product depends on hemp sample origin, the better one was observed for dehulled wholemeal hemp flour addition. Image analysis of black-white bread cut prints revealed increasing pore densities (up to about 74% at reversely diminishing mean cell areas (up to about 31% for bread altered by hulled wholemeal hemp flour. Comparing to wheat standard W2, crumb appearance of bread enhanced by 5% and 20% of dehulled hemp wholemeal was described by conversely lower cell density (11 and 9 vs. 13 pores per cm2 with verifiably larger cells (3.13 a 4.25 mm2 against 2.35 mm2. Specific bread volume and crumb penetration were significantly correlated to both cell density (r −0.69 and −0.65, respectively; P = 99.9 % and to cell mean area (0.79 and 0.69, respectively; P = 99.9 %.

  14. 75 FR 17827 - Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company (Goodyear), has determined that... recycling industries must also be considered. Although tire construction affects the strength and durability...

  15. Quasi-Static Viscoelasticity Loading Measurements of an Aircraft Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Angela J.; Tanner, John A.; Johnson, Arthur R.

    1997-01-01

    Stair-step loading, cyclic loading, and long-term relaxation tests were performed on an aircraft tire to observe the quasi-static viscoelastic response of the tire. The data indicate that the tire continues to respond viscoelastically even after it has been softened by deformation. Load relaxation data from the stair-step test at the 15,000-lb loading was fit to a monotonically decreasing Prony series.

  16. Oxidative desulfurization of tire pyrolysis oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shahzad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low cost method for the purification of oils obtained from the pyrolysis of used tires. Oxidative desulfurization is a promising route for purification of tire pyrolysis oils as hydro-desulfurization may not be affordable for small scale industries. Different additives and acids have been employed for the enhancement of properties of pyrolytic oils. The experimental conditions were kept identical throughout, i.e. atmospheric pressure and 50°C temperature for comparison of performance of various additives. The use of hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid mixture (10 wt.% was found more economical and effective in desulfurization and improvement of fuel properties of sample oils. The contribution of sulfuric acid in desulfurization and decreasing viscosity was also satisfactory but due to high price of concentrated sulfuric acid its use may not be economical. Calcium oxide and Fuller’s earth was not found to be effective in desulfurization. Results indicate that oxidative desulfurization could render tire pyrolysis oils suitable for blending as heating fuel.

  17. Performance of Used Tire Cushion Layer under Rockfall Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhu Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rock shed is widely used in traffic lines against rockfall. In order to cushion rockfall impact and dissipate impact energy, cushion layer is usually adopted in rock shed. Used tire cushion layer is proposed in this paper and it can cushion rockfall impact utilizing large radial deformation of tire. Reinforced concrete structure model is built with used tire cushion layer and artificial rockfall test is carried out. Twelve tests are divided into 4 sets with different rockfall mass, rockfall height, and tire filling material. Simplified calculation model with spring-damper is derived from radial repeated compression test of used tire, which improves the calculation efficiency. Test and numerical simulation show that application of used tire cushion layer in rock shed can cushion rockfall impact and effectively reduce peak acceleration and the maximum impact force. Filling sand and gravel in tire can improve tire stiffness and energy absorption capacity but will decrease cushion effect due to its large density. With the same impact energy, light rockfall is more destructive than weight rockfall for used tire cushion layer.

  18. Analysis of Tire Contact Parameters Using Visual Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Ivanov

    2010-01-01

    The first part of this paper presents the results of experimental estimation of the contact patch area depending on the normal wheel load and inflation pressure for different car tires. The data were obtained for test bench conditions on the basis of the visual processing of tread footprint. Further, the contact length in the cohesion area during wheel rolling for single points on the tire profile has been chosen as a benchmark criterion. This paper has analyzed the influence of the wheel normal load and tire inflation pressure on the contact length with small rolling velocities. The results of the investigations are given for winter and racing tires with different grades of wear.

  19. Laboratory Investigation on the Effects of Natural Fine Aggregates and Recycled Waste Tire Rubber in Pervious Concrete to Develop More Sustainable Pavement Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonicelli, Alessandra; Fuentes, Luis G.; Khalil Dawd Bermejo, Ibrahim

    2017-10-01

    Pervious concrete pavement is a recognized sustainable solution for urban roads. To enhance mechanical properties of pervious concrete material, in order to allow wider use of this technology, a lot of studies are going on all over the world. The use of a little percentage of fine aggregates is proven to increase the material resistance without an excessive reduction of permeability. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of replacing the fine virgin aggregates with r cycled tire rubber. 14 different mixes were analysed in terms of indirect tensile strength resistance, void content and density. Two different dimensions of crumb rubber were studied, as well as two different dosages, which were applied to different no-fine control mixes. All results were compared with the same control mixes containing natural fine aggregate. The mixes had a fixed granulometric curve but varied in water/cement ratio; this in order to evaluate the effect of recycled rubber depending to w/c ratio of the mix. An image analysis was also conducted to verify the rubber distribution in the mixture and the cracking surfaces. The experimental analysis showed that a correct proportioning of fine sand significantly increased the strength of the material. Moreover, the use of recycled waste tire rubber, gave interesting improvements respect to the no-fine control mixes, even though the developed resistance was lower respect to mixes containing mineral sand. This result was expected because of the cementing property of mineral sand. Although, the important result was that it was possible to use waste tire rubber in pervious concrete, with an appropriate dosage and granular dimension, for increasing the performance of traditional mix design, in order to achieve pavement materials more and more sustainable.

  20. Intelligent tires for identifying coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces using three-axis accelerometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Kamai, Kazuto; Seki, Ryosuke

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent tires equipped with sensors as well as the monitoring of the tire/road contact conditions are in demand for improving vehicle control and safety. With the aim of identifying the coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces during driving, including during cornering, we develop an identification scheme for the coefficient of friction that involves estimation of the slip angle and applied force by using a single lightweight three-axis accelerometer attached on the inner surface of the tire. To validate the developed scheme, we conduct tire-rolling tests using an accelerometer-equipped tire with various slip angles on various types of road surfaces, including dry and wet surfaces. The results of these tests confirm that the estimated slip angle and applied force are reasonable. Furthermore, the identified coefficient of friction by the developed scheme agreed with that measured by standardized tests. (paper)

  1. Evaluation of the fatigue macro-cracking behavior of crumb rubber modified bituminous mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno-Navarro, F.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of crumb rubber modified bitumen (CRMB in asphalt mixes is a road engineering technology that has become increasingly important in recent years. Given the many economic and environmental benefits of this type of binder, the goal is to give CRMB the same level of performance as conventional polymer-modified bitumen. The appearance and propagation of cracks due to fatigue phenomena is one of the most common distresses affecting road pavements. Since crumb rubber enhances the mechanical properties of asphalt mixes, it can provide a viable solution for fatigue cracking. This paper presents the results of a comparative analysis of the fatigue-cracking behavior of asphalt mixtures manufactured with crumb rubber modified bitumen and polymer-modified bitumen.El empleo de betunes modificados con polvo de neumático usado en la fabricación de mezclas bituminosas es una de las técnicas que mayor auge está teniendo en los últimos años en la ingeniería de carreteras. Dadas sus grandes ventajas económicas y ambientales, este tipo de ligantes pretende conseguir prestaciones similares a la de los betunes modificados con polímeros utilizados habitualmente. La aparición de fisuras debido a fenómenos de fatiga es una de las patologías más comunes en firmes de carretera. Debido a las mejoras de las propiedades mecánicas del betún aportadas tras la incorporación de polvo de neumático, las mezclas fabricadas con estos ligantes se postulan como una posible solución a dicho problema. En este artículo se lleva a cabo un análisis comparativo del comportamiento a fisuración por fatiga realizado sobre mezclas bituminosas fabricadas con betún modificado con polvo de neumático y con polímeros.

  2. The FP4026 Research Database on the fundamental period of RC infilled frame structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asteris, Panagiotis G

    2016-12-01

    The fundamental period of vibration appears to be one of the most critical parameters for the seismic design of buildings because it strongly affects the destructive impact of the seismic forces. In this article, important research data (entitled FP4026 Research Database (Fundamental Period-4026 cases of infilled frames) based on a detailed and in-depth analytical research on the fundamental period of reinforced concrete structures is presented. In particular, the values of the fundamental period which have been analytically determined are presented, taking into account the majority of the involved parameters. This database can be extremely valuable for the development of new code proposals for the estimation of the fundamental period of reinforced concrete structures fully or partially infilled with masonry walls.

  3. The FP4026 Research Database on the fundamental period of RC infilled frame structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis G. Asteris

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental period of vibration appears to be one of the most critical parameters for the seismic design of buildings because it strongly affects the destructive impact of the seismic forces. In this article, important research data (entitled FP4026 Research Database (Fundamental Period-4026 cases of infilled frames based on a detailed and in-depth analytical research on the fundamental period of reinforced concrete structures is presented. In particular, the values of the fundamental period which have been analytically determined are presented, taking into account the majority of the involved parameters. This database can be extremely valuable for the development of new code proposals for the estimation of the fundamental period of reinforced concrete structures fully or partially infilled with masonry walls.

  4. An experimental investigation on the ultimate strength of epoxy repaired braced partial infilled RC frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Shailendra Kumar Damodar; Kute, Sunil

    2014-09-01

    Due to earthquake, buildings are damaged partially or completely. Particularly structures with soft storey are mostly affected. In general, such damaged structures are repaired and reused. In this regard, an experimental investigation was planned and conducted on models of single-bay, single-storey of partial concrete infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frames up to collapse with corner, central and diagonal steel bracings. Such collapsed frames were repaired with epoxy resin and retested. The initiative was to identify the behaviour, extent of restored ultimate strength and deflection of epoxy-retrofitted frames in comparison to the braced RC frames. The performance of such frames has been considered only for lateral loads. In comparison to bare RC frames, epoxy repaired partial infilled frames have significant increase in the lateral load capacity. Central bracing is more effective than corner and diagonal bracing. For the same load, epoxy repaired frames have comparable deflection than similar braced frames.

  5. Exploiting Additive Manufacturing Infill in Topology Optimization for Improved Buckling Load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Aage, Niels; Sigmund, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) permits the fabrication of functionally optimized components with high geometrical complexity. The opportunity of using porous infill as an integrated part of the manufacturing process is an example of a unique AM feature. Automated design methods are still incapable...... addresses an important inadequacy of the standard minimum compliance topology optimization approach, in which buckling is rarely accounted for; rather, a satisfactory buckling load is usually assured through a post-processing step that may lead to sub-optimal components. The present work compares...... the standard and coating approaches to topology optimization for the MBB beam benchmark case. The optimized structures are additively manufactured using a filamentary technique. This experimental study validates the numerical model used in the coating approach. Depending on the properties of the infill...

  6. Experimental evaluation of the prevention methods for the interface between masonry infill walls and concrete columns

    OpenAIRE

    Tramontin,A. P.; Moreno Junior,A. L.; Oliveira,C. R

    2013-01-01

    Cracks that form at the interfaces between masonry structures are common uncontrolled occurrences in buildings. Numerous methods have been proposed by the construction industry to address this problem. Cracks continuously form in the joints between concrete columns and masonry infill walls. In this study, the most common methods for preventing these types of cracks were evaluated in laboratory experiments. Column masonry models were constructed using different types of joints between concrete...

  7. INFIL1D: a quasi-analytical model for simulating one-dimensional, constant flux infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.S.; McKeon, T.J.

    1984-04-01

    The program INFIL1D is designed to calculate approximate wetting-front advance into an unsaturated, uniformly moist, homogeneous soil profile, under constant surface-flux conditions. The code is based on a quasi-analytical method, which utilizes an assumed invariant functional relationship between reduced (normalized) flux and water content. The code uses general hydraulic property data in tabular form to simulate constant surface-flux infiltration. 10 references, 4 figures

  8. Crumb rubber impact to the mechanical performance of concrete based at round gravel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaka, Wafa; Kriker, Abdelouahed

    2017-02-01

    Today the concrete is used more than any other construction material, with almost four (4) billion cubic meters used worldwide [1]. Throughout history, mankind has used concrete in construction. Concrete has not only been used in the construction of buildings such as dwelling areas but also in bridges, roads, tunnels, airports and water dams. It is a heterogeneous composite resulting from cement, aggregates, water and a limited quantity of adjuvant. The round gravel is an existing traditional material within the formulation of concrete. It is high in resistance to fragmentation and widely spread out in grand quantity in the Saharian regions. However, its utilization remains rare in different types of construction. The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast the use of local materials (Round gravel) with polymer industrial products (Crumb Rubber). This one is used to enhance the density, homogeneity, malleability and strength of the construction material.

  9. 76 FR 28502 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ...) is a replacement equipment manufacturer incorporated in the state of Delaware. Pursuant to 49 U.S.C..., requests an agency decision to exempt Cooper as a replacement equipment manufacturer from the notification... car replacement tires manufactured between January 23, 2011 and March 26, 2011, do not fully comply...

  10. Impact of tire loading and tire pressure on measured 3D contact stresses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hernandez, JA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ) (26.6, 35.5, 44.4, 62.1, and 79.9 kN) and four tire inflation pressures (s0) (552, 690, 758, and 862 kPa). The equipment used for measuring the 3D-contact stresses is described along with the testing procedure and the methodology followed during data...

  11. A Novel Strain-Based Method to Estimate Tire Conditions Using Fuzzy Logic for Intelligent Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Garcia-Pozuelo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The so-called intelligent tires are one of the most promising research fields for automotive engineers. These tires are equipped with sensors which provide information about vehicle dynamics. Up to now, the commercial intelligent tires only provide information about inflation pressure and their contribution to stability control systems is currently very limited. Nowadays one of the major problems for intelligent tire development is how to embed feasible and low cost sensors to obtain reliable information such as inflation pressure, vertical load or rolling speed. These parameters provide key information for vehicle dynamics characterization. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm based on fuzzy logic to estimate the mentioned parameters by means of a single strain-based system. Experimental tests have been carried out in order to prove the suitability and durability of the proposed on-board strain sensor system, as well as its low cost advantages, and the accuracy of the obtained estimations by means of fuzzy logic.

  12. Infilling Monthly Rain Gauge Data Gaps with Satellite Estimates for ASAL of Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Githungo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Design and operation of water resources management systems in sub-Saharan Africa suffer from inadequate observation data. Long running uninterrupted time series of data are often not available for water resource planning. Incomplete datasets with missing gaps is a challenge for users of the data. Inadequate data compromise results of analyses leading to wrong inference and conclusions of scientific assessments and research. Infilling of missing sections of data is necessary prior to the practical use of hydrometeorological time series. This paper proposes the use of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite data as a viable alternate source of infill for missing rain gauge records. The least square regression method, using satellite-based estimates of rainfall was tested to fill in the missing data for 153 data points at nine rain gauge stations in Machakos, Makueni and the Kitui region of Kenya. Results suggest that the satellite rainfall estimates can be used as an alternative data source for rainfall series where the missing data gaps are large. The infilled data series were used in the development of monitoring, forecasting and drought early warning for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASAL in Kenya.

  13. Exploiting Additive Manufacturing Infill in Topology Optimization for Improved Buckling Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Clausen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing (AM permits the fabrication of functionally optimized components with high geometrical complexity. The opportunity of using porous infill as an integrated part of the manufacturing process is an example of a unique AM feature. Automated design methods are still incapable of fully exploiting this design freedom. In this work, we show how the so-called coating approach to topology optimization provides a means for designing infill-based components that possess a strongly improved buckling load and, as a result, improved structural stability. The suggested approach thereby addresses an important inadequacy of the standard minimum compliance topology optimization approach, in which buckling is rarely accounted for; rather, a satisfactory buckling load is usually assured through a post-processing step that may lead to sub-optimal components. The present work compares the standard and coating approaches to topology optimization for the MBB beam benchmark case. The optimized structures are additively manufactured using a filamentary technique. This experimental study validates the numerical model used in the coating approach. Depending on the properties of the infill material, the buckling load may be more than four times higher than that of solid structures optimized under the same conditions.

  14. Experimental evaluation of the prevention methods for the interface between masonry infill walls and concrete columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Tramontin

    Full Text Available Cracks that form at the interfaces between masonry structures are common uncontrolled occurrences in buildings. Numerous methods have been proposed by the construction industry to address this problem. Cracks continuously form in the joints between concrete columns and masonry infill walls. In this study, the most common methods for preventing these types of cracks were evaluated in laboratory experiments. Column masonry models were constructed using different types of joints between concrete columns and masonry infill walls, such as steel bars and steel mesh. The efficiency of each type of joint method was evaluated by performing direct tensile tests (pullout tests on the models and monitoring the evolution of the crack opening in the joint between the column and wall, as a function of load applied to the model. The results from this study indicate that the model composed of "electrowelded wire mesh without steel angles" is the best model for controlling cracking in the joints between concrete columns and masonry infill walls.

  15. Infill Walls Contribution on the Progressive Collapse Resistance of a Typical Mid-rise RC Framed Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besoiu, Teodora; Popa, Anca

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the effect of the autoclaved aerated concrete infill walls on the progressive collapse resistance of a typical RC framed structure. The 13-storey building located in Brăila (a zone with high seismic risk in Romania) was designed according to the former Romanian seismic code P13-70 (1970). Two models of the structure are generated in the Extreme Loading® for Structures computer software: a model with infill walls and a model without infill walls. Following GSA (2003) Guidelines, a nonlinear dynamic procedure is used to determine the progressive collapse risk of the building when a first-storey corner column is suddenly removed. It was found that, the structure is not expected to fail under the standard GSA loading: DL+0.25LL. Moreover, if the infill walls are introduced in the model, the maximum vertical displacement of the node above the removed column is reduced by about 48%.

  16. 78 FR 66655 - Consumer Information; Uniform Tire Quality Grading Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... methods: Online: Go to http://www.regulations.gov . Follow the instructions for submitting comments on the...)(F). \\2\\ See http://www.safercar.gov/Vehicle+Shoppers/Tires/Tires+Rating/Treadwear . To ensure the... time and there is an immediate need for testing, the agency is adding an alternate test course route...

  17. Final Scientific Report - "Improved Fuel Efficiency from Nanocomposite Tire Tread"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Andrew Myers

    2005-12-30

    Rolling resistance, a measure of the energy lost as a tire rotates while moving, is a significant source of power and fuel loss. Recently, low rolling resistant tires have been formulated by adding silica to tire tread. These "Green Tires" (so named from the environmental advantages of lower emissions and improved fuel economy) have seen some commercial success in Europe, where high fuel prices and performance drive tire selection. Unfortunately, the higher costs of the silica and a more complicated manufacturing process have prevented significant commercialization - and the resulting fuel savings - in the U.S. In this project, TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) prepared an inexpensive alternative to silica that leads to tire components with lower rolling resistance. These new tire composite materials were processed with traditional rubber processing equipment. We prepared specially designed nanoparticle additives, based on a high purity, inorganic mineral whose surface can be easily modified for compatibility with tire tread formulations. Our nanocomposites decreased energy losses to hysteresis, the loss of energy from the compression and relaxation of an elastic material, by nearly 20% compared to a blank SBR sample. We also demonstrated better performance than a leading silica product, with easier production of our final rubber nanocomposite.

  18. Passive wireless strain monitoring of tire using capacitance change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Todoroki, Akira

    2004-07-01

    In-service strain monitoring of tires of automobile is quite effective for improving the reliability of tires and Anti-lock Braking System (ABS). Since conventional strain gages have high stiffness and require lead wires, the conventional strain gages are cumbersome for the strain measurements of the tires. In a previous study, the authors proposed a new wireless strain monitoring method that adopts the tire itself as a sensor, with an oscillating circuit. This method is very simple and useful, but it requires a battery to activate the oscillating circuit. In the present study, the previous method for wireless tire monitoring is improved to produce a passive wireless sensor. A specimen made from a commercially available tire is connected to a tuning circuit comprising an inductance and a capacitance as a condenser. The capacitance change of tire causes change of the tuning frequency. This change of the tuned radio wave enables us to measure the applied strain of the specimen wirelessly, without any power supply from outside. This new passive wireless method is applied to a specimen and the static applied strain is measured. As a result, the method is experimentally shown to be effective as a passive wireless strain monitoring of tires.

  19. Tire Production and Pollution Control. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    This unit was developed to introduce secondary students to the many facets of a typical, large manufacturing plant - the Topeka Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company - in an effort to increase awareness of sound environmental practices in industry. Its five major foci include the production of tires and quality control procedures; applications of…

  20. Effect of operating conditions on scrap tire pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Fabiana Scatolim Rombaldo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The ever growing focus on environmental issues has raised concerns about scrap tires, whose major component - vulcanized rubber - does not degrade easily. When burned, tires release toxic gases containing substantial amounts of sulfur and ammonia in addition to other pollutants. Dumped on empty city lots, tires are also a breeding ground for mosquitoes. Many proposals have been put forward to handle the disposal of scrap tires, but none of them have proved to offer a definitive solution. The study reported here investigated the production of fuel oil and activated carbon from the pyrolysis of scrap tires. The initial mass of rubber yielded approximately 46% of oil, 40% of activated carbon and 14% of gases. The resulting activated carbon displayed a specific surface area of 200 m².g-1.

  1. Distribution of sulphur into products from waste tire pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susa, D.; Haydary, J.; Markos, J.

    2012-01-01

    Tire pyrolysis is getting growing attention as an effective waste tire disposal method in comparison to environmentally less friendly methods like dumping or incineration. But the scrap tire sulphur content can be a potential obstacle to scrap tire utilization as a fuel. In this paper the distribution of sulphur into tire pyrolysis yields, solid (char) and liquid (tar), was investigated. The pyrolysis experiments were carried out under different conditions to determine the partitioning of sulphur into pyrolysis products. The influence of different temperatures and reaction times was investigated in a laboratory flow reactor under nitrogen atmosphere. Solid and liquid residues were collected and analyzed by elemental analysis. The sulphur content in residual char and tar was determined using an elemental analyzer and the sulphur forms in tar were characterized by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). (Authors)

  2. Stability Control of Vehicle Emergency Braking with Tire Blowout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the stability control and slowing down the vehicle to a safe speed after tire failure, an emergency automatic braking system with independent intellectual property is developed. After the system has received a signal of tire blowout, the automatic braking mode of the vehicle is determined according to the position of the failure tire and the motion state of vehicle, and a control strategy for resisting tire blowout additional yaw torque and deceleration is designed to slow down vehicle to a safe speed in an expected trajectory. The simulating test system is also designed, and the testing results show that the vehicle can be quickly stabilized and kept in the original track after tire blowout with the emergency braking system described in the paper.

  3. Pneumatic tire-based piezoelectric power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makki, Noaman; Pop-Iliev, Remon

    2011-03-01

    Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) and Extended Range Electric Vehicles (EREVs) currently mainly rely on Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) utilizing conventional fuels to recharge batteries in order to extend their range. Even though Piezo-based power generation devices have surfaced in recent years harvesting vibration energy, their output has only been sufficient to power up sensors and other such smaller devices. The permanent need for a cleaner power generation technique still remains. This paper investigates the possibility of using piezoceramics for power generation within the vehicle's wheel assembly by exploiting the rotational motion of the wheel and the continuously variable contact point between the pneumatic tire and the road.

  4. Tire track geometry: variations on a theme

    OpenAIRE

    Tabachnikov, Serge

    2004-01-01

    We study closed smooth convex plane curves $\\Gamma$ enjoying the following property: a pair of points $x,y$ can traverse $\\Gamma$ so that the distances between $x$ and $y$ along the curve and in the ambient plane do not change; such curves are called {\\it bicycle curves}. Motivation for this study comes from the problem how to determine the direction of the bicycle motion by the tire tracks of the bicycle wheels; bicycle curves arise in the (rare) situation when one cannot determine which way...

  5. Serviceability limit state related to excessive lateral deformations to account for infill walls in the structural model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. S. ALVA

    Full Text Available Brazilian Codes NBR 6118 and NBR 15575 provide practical values for interstory drift limits applied to conventional modeling in order to prevent negative effects in masonry infill walls caused by excessive lateral deformability, however these codes do not account for infill walls in the structural model. The inclusion of infill walls in the proposed model allows for a quantitative evaluation of structural stresses in these walls and an assessment of cracking in these elements (sliding shear diagonal tension and diagonal compression cracking. This paper presents the results of simulations of single-story one-bay infilled R/C frames. The main objective is to show how to check the serviceability limit states under lateral loads when the infill walls are included in the modeling. The results of numerical simulations allowed for an evaluation of stresses and the probable cracking pattern in infill walls. The results also allowed an identification of some advantages and limitations of the NBR 6118 practical procedure based on interstory drift limits.

  6. Something black in the American Psyche: formal innovation and Freudian imagery in the comics of Winsor McCay and Robert Crumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Winsor McCay’s Little Nemo in Slumberland anticipates Robert Crumb’s work. McCay’s innocent dreamscapes seem antithetical to the sexually explicit work of anti-capitalist Crumb, but Nemo looks forward to Crumb in subject and form. Nemo’s presentation of class, gender, and race, and its pre-Freudian sensibility are ironic counterpoints to Crumb’s political, Freudian comix.

  7. Visualization of tire vibration and sound radiation and modeling of tire vibration with an emphasis on wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    It is now known that tire/road interaction noise is the major contributor to exterior automobile noise and establishes the background noise level in many environments. Thus, the reduction of tire/road noise is a major environmental noise issue today....

  8. Geotechnical Investigation of the Potential Use of Shredded Scrap Tires in Soil Stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Silt-tire and clay-tire mixtures, containing 0% to 100% shredded tire material by weight, with tire chips ranging in size from 7mm-13mm, 13mm-25mm, and 25mm-38mm, were tested for a series of engineering properties including compaction characteristics...

  9. 49 CFR 571.109 - Standard No. 109; New pneumatic and certain specialty tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... less than 90° to the centerline of the tread. Carcass means the tire structure, except tread and... following organizations: The Tire and Rim Association The European Tyre and Rim Technical Organisation Japan... Tire and Rim Association, the European Tyre and Rim Technical Organisation, the Japan Automobile Tire...

  10. 49 CFR 579.26 - Reporting requirements for manufacturers of tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... owner) who has manufactured for sale, sold, offered for sale, introduced or delivered for introduction... tires, tires with nominal rim diameters of 12 inches or less, or are not passenger car tires, light... similar to a tire that the manufacturer has offered for sale in the United States. The report shall be...

  11. 49 CFR 571.139 - Standard No. 139; New pneumatic radial tires for light vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Cord separation means the parting of cords from adjacent rubber compounds. Cracking means any parting.... ER28NO08.009 S5.5.1Tire identification number. (a) Tires manufactured before September 1, 2009. Each tire must be labeled with the tire identification number required by 49 CFR part 574 on a sidewall of the...

  12. Research of dynamics of tire wear of trucks and prognostication of their service life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander KRAVCHENKO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependences of tire wear on the tire life are determined on the basis of the system measurements of residual tread depth in the actual operating conditions; the factors which influence the critical tire wear are analyzed. The prediction technique of the operation life and the tire changing is devised.

  13. Fecal excretion of Maillard reaction products and the gut microbiota composition of rats fed with bread crust or bread crumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, C; Anton, P M; Niquet-Léridon, C; Spatz, M; Tessier, F J; Gadonna-Widehem, P

    2017-08-01

    A comparison between the impacts of advanced (N ε -carboxymethyllysine - CML) and terminal (melanoidins) Maillard reaction products from bread on gut microbiota was carried out in this study. Gut microbiota composition as well as fecal excretion of CML from both bread crust and bread crumb, and of melanoidins from bread crust were assessed on a rodent model. Rats were fed with pellets supplemented or not with 13% of bread crust, bread crumb, a fiber-free bread crust model (glucose, starch and gluten heated together) or a fiber-free-melanoidin-free bread model (glucose-starch and gluten heated separately) for four weeks. These model systems were developed to limit the presence of wheat-native dietary fibers such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. CML and melanoidins in pellets and feces were evaluated by LC/MS-MS and HPLC/fluorescence respectively, and gut microbiota composition was determined by cultivation and molecular approaches. Diets supplemented with crumb or the fiber-free-melanoidin-free model contained respectively 17% and 64% less melanoidins than their respective controls. A higher excretion of melanoidins was observed for rats fed with crust or bread crust model compared to their controls, confirming that melanoidins are in contact with gut microbiota. No impact of diets was observed on Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and lactic flora. A decrease of enterobacteria was only observed for rats fed with the diet supplemented with the fiber-free bread crust model. Moreover, a significant increase of bifidobacteria numbers in the presence of crust, crumb and both bread models was observed, showing that this bifidogenic effect of bread is not due to the presence of melanoidins or wheat-native dietary fibers.

  14. Chemical Analysis of Tire Traces in Traffic Accidents Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Gueissaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the forensic investigation of traffic accidents is to help establish the nature and/or the circumstances of the event. This might be done with the purpose of determining the legal responsibilities of each person involved or to provide families, with a reconstruction of the events, to help understand why their relatives were injured or killed. A methodology for the comparison of chemical profiles of tire traces and tire tread samples obtained by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry has been developed. Chemical profiles are represented by relative abundances of 86 compounds. The variability of the tread within and between 12 tires was assessed. Considering the level of the source as "brand and model" the intra-variability was found to be smaller than the inter-variability, leading to the complete discrimination of the 12 tires of the sample set. Braking tests were carried out on a racetrack in order to produce tire traces which origin was known. The results obtained with a supervised classification method showed that more than 94% of the replicates of the traces were correctly assigned to the class membership (i.e., brand and model of the tire at their origin. These results support that the chemical profile of one trace does not differ from the chemical profile of the tire at its origin but differs generally from the other chemical profiles of the sample set.

  15. Thermal depolymerisation of waste tires by heavy oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audibert, F.; Beaufils, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The French Institute of Petroleum has developed a process of valorisation of waste tires into fuels. The process consists in treating the whole tires with heavy hydrocarbons which transfer the heat for reaching the required temperature and dissolve the oligomers resulting from devulcanisation and depolymerisation reactions. The tire is converted into moderate amount of gas and gasoline and mainly into heavy oil loaded with finely dispersed carbon black. Results have been obtained on a large size pilot plant making the process directly appliable to the industrial scale.

  16. Incidence, Mechanisms, and Severity of Game-Related High School Football Injuries across Artificial Turf Systems of Various Infill Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Michael Clinton

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Today’s new generations of artificial turf are increasingly being installed to duplicate or exceed playing characteristics of natural grass. Rather than playing on the polyethylene turf fibers, shoe: surface interaction actually occurs between the cleat and the various proprietary sand/rubber infill composites of varying weight. At this time, the influence of surface infill weight on football trauma is unknown. Therefore, this study was conducted to quantify incidence, mechanisms, and severity of game-related high school football trauma across artificial turf systems of various infill weight. Methods: Artificial turf systems were divided into four sand/rubber infill weight groups based on lbs per square foot: (A) > 9.0, (B) 6.0 - 8.9, (C) 3.1 - 5.9 and, (D) 0.0 - 3.0. A total of 52 high schools participating across four states over 5 competitive seasons were evaluated for injury incidence, injury category, time of injury, injury time loss, player position, injury mechanism and situation, primary type of injury, injury grade and anatomical location, field location at time of injury, injury severity, head, shoulder, and lower extremity trauma, elective imaging and surgical procedures, cleat design, turf age, and environmental factors. Results: Of the 1,467 high school games documented, 494 games (33.7%) were played on infill (A), 404 (27.5%) on infill (B), 379 (25.8%) on infill (C), and 190 (13.0%) on infill (D). A total of 3,741 injuries were documented, with significantly lower total injury incidence rates (IIR), [18.4 (95% CI, 18.0-18.7) vs 27.5 (26.8-27.9) vs 33.5 (32.7-34.0) and 23.7 (22.7-24.4)], substantial IIRs [3.4 (95% CI, 3.0-3.8) vs 6.6 (6.2-7.1), 8.5 (8.2-8.9) and 6.5 (5.8-7.1)], trauma from shoe: surface interaction during contact [4.6 (95% CI, 4.1-5.0) vs 7.5 (7.0-7.9), 6.4 (5.9-6.9) and 6.9 (6.2-7.5)], playing surface impact trauma [2.4 (95% CI, 2.1-2.8) vs 4.9 (4.4-5.4), 6.1 (5.6-6.6) and 4.4 (3.7-5.1)], and less total elective imaging

  17. An evaluation of string theory for the prediction of dynamic tire properties using scale model aircraft tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.; Nybakken, G. H.

    1972-01-01

    The string theory was evaluated for predicting lateral tire dynamic properties as obtained from scaled model tests. The experimental data and string theory predictions are in generally good agreement using lateral stiffness and relaxation length values obtained from the static or slowly rolling tire. The results indicate that lateral forces and self-aligning torques are linearly proportional to tire lateral stiffness and to the amplitude of either steer or lateral displacement. In addition, the results show that the ratio of input excitation frequency to road speed is the proper independent variable by which frequency should be measured.

  18. Experimental Tests on Bending Behavior of Profiled Steel Sheeting Dry Board Composite Floor with Geopolymer Concrete Infill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Isa Jaffar

    Full Text Available Abstract Profiled Steel Sheet Dry Board (PSSDB system is a lightweight composite structure comprises Profiled Steel Sheeting and Dry Board connected by self-drilling and self-tapping screws. This study introduced geopolymer concrete, an eco-friendly material without cement content as an infill material in the PSSDB floor system to highlight its effect onto the PSSDB (with full and half-size dry boards floor system's stiffness and strength. Experimental tests on various full scale PSSDB floor specimens were conducted under uniformly distributed transverse loads. Results illustrate that the rigidity of the panel with geopolymer concrete infill with half-size dry board (HBGPC increases by 43% relative to that of the panel with normal concrete infill with full-size dry board (FBNC. The developed finite-element modeling (FEM successfully predicts the behavior of FBGPC model with 94.8% accuracy. Geopolymer concrete infill and dry board size influence the strength panel, infill contact stiffness, and mid-span deflection of the profiled steel sheeting/dry board (PSSDB flooring system.

  19. Develop metrics of tire debris on Texas highways : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This research effort estimated the amount, characteristics, costs, and safety implications of tire debris on Texas highways. The metrics developed by this research are based on several sources of data, including a statewide survey of debris removal p...

  20. Investigation of temperature correction for tire/pavement noise measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The Volpe Center Acoustics Facility, in support of the Federal Highway Administration, : investigated the influence of temperature on tire/pavement noise in order to provide guidance on correcting for temperature variations in measured sound levels. ...

  1. A dual role of the extracellular domain of Drosophila Crumbs for morphogenesis of the embryonic neuroectoderm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shradha Das

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelia are highly polarised tissues and several highly conserved polarity protein complexes serve to establish and maintain polarity. The transmembrane protein Crumbs (Crb, the central component of the Crb protein complex, is required, among others, for the maintenance of polarity in most epithelia in the Drosophila embryo. However, different epithelia exhibit different phenotypic severity upon loss of crb. Using a transgenomic approach allowed us to more accurately define the role of crb in different epithelia. In particular, we provide evidence that the loss of epithelial tissue integrity in the ventral epidermis of crb mutant embryos is due to impaired actomyosin activity and an excess number of neuroblasts. We demonstrate that the intracellular domain of Crb could only partially rescue this phenotype, while it is able to completely restore tissue integrity in other epithelia. Based on these results we suggest a dual role of the extracellular domain of Crb in the ventral neuroectoderm. First, it is required for apical enrichment of the Crb protein, which in turn regulates actomyosin activity and thereby ensures tissue integrity; and second, the extracellular domain of Crb stabilises the Notch receptor and thereby ensures proper Notch signalling and specification of the correct number of neuroblasts.

  2. Characterization of crumb rubber from end-of-life tyres for paving applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, M C; Fiore, S; Ruffino, B; Santagata, E; Dalmazzo, D; Lanotte, M

    2015-11-01

    Crumb rubber (CR) derived from grinding of end-of-life tyres (ELTs) may be successfully used as a bitumen modifier or as a supplementary component in the production of bituminous mixtures employed for the construction and maintenance of road pavements. However, CRs deriving from different sources and production processes yield effects on performance of corresponding paving mixtures under traffic loading and on gaseous emissions produced during laying on site which may change considerably depending upon their physical and chemical properties. In order to quantitatively assess the possible variability of CR characteristics, 16 samples were taken from 9 Italian and 2 foreign ELT processing plants. Investigation activities included field surveys, during which plants were examined in detail, and laboratory tests, which focused on physical and chemical characterization of CR. Based on the analysis of available technical information and experimental data, it was possible to find relationships between the peculiar characteristics of treatment cycles and corresponding CR properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Strain-Based Method to Detect Tires' Loss of Grip and Estimate Lateral Friction Coefficient from Experimental Data by Fuzzy Logic for Intelligent Tire Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunta, Jorge; Garcia-Pozuelo, Daniel; Diaz, Vicente; Olatunbosun, Oluremi

    2018-02-06

    Tires are a key sub-system of vehicles that have a big responsibility for comfort, fuel consumption and traffic safety. However, current tires are just passive rubber elements which do not contribute actively to improve the driving experience or vehicle safety. The lack of information from the tire during driving gives cause for developing an intelligent tire. Therefore, the aim of the intelligent tire is to monitor tire working conditions in real-time, providing useful information to other systems and becoming an active system. In this paper, tire tread deformation is measured to provide a strong experimental base with different experiments and test results by means of a tire fitted with sensors. Tests under different working conditions such as vertical load or slip angle have been carried out with an indoor tire test rig. The experimental data analysis shows the strong relation that exists between lateral force and the maximum tensile and compressive strain peaks when the tire is not working at the limit of grip. In the last section, an estimation system from experimental data has been developed and implemented in Simulink to show the potential of strain sensors for developing intelligent tire systems, obtaining as major results a signal to detect tire's loss of grip and estimations of the lateral friction coefficient.

  4. A Planar Quasi-Static Constraint Mode Tire Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-10

    Users’ Conference, Berlin, Germany. [9] Zegelaar, P.W.A.P., H. B., The In-plane Dynamics of Tyres on Uneven Roads. Vehicle System Dynamics, 1996: p...describe the distributed stiffness equation, Equation (9), and they are not affected by the number of tire segments chosen to discretize the system ...throughout this work. REFERENCES [1] Willumeit, H.-P, and Boehm F., 1995, “Wheel Vibrations and Transient Tire Forces”, Vehicle System Dynamics, 24, pp.525

  5. Evaluating road surface conditions using dynamic tire pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yubo; Wu, H. Felix; McDaniel, J. Gregory; Wang, Ming L.

    2014-03-01

    In order to best prioritize road maintenance, the level of deterioration must be known for all roads in a city's network. Pavement Condition Index (PCI) and International Roughness Index (IRI) are two standard methods for obtaining this information. However, IRI is substantially easier to measure. Significant time and money could be saved if a method were developed to estimate PCI from IRI. This research introduces a new method to estimate IRI and correlate IRI with PCI. A vehicle-mounted dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS) system is used. The DTPS measures the signals generated from the tire/road interaction while driving. The tire/road interaction excites surface waves that travel through the road. DTPS, which is mounted on the tire's valve stem, measures tire/road interaction by analyzing the pressure change inside the tire due to the road vibration, road geometry and tire wall vibration. The road conditions are sensible to sensors in a similar way to human beings in a car. When driving on a smooth road, tire pressure stays almost constant and there are minimal changes in the DTPS data. When driving on a rough road, DTPS data changes drastically. IRI is estimated from the reconstructed road profile using DTPS data. In order to correlate IRI with PCI, field tests were conducted on roads with known PCI values in the city of Brockton, MA. Results show a high correlation between the estimated IRI values and the known PCI values, which suggests that DTPS-based IRI can provide accurate predictions of PCI.

  6. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This project has used a multi-disciplinary approach employing geology, geophysics, and engineering to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and management activities to design and implement an optimized infill drilling program at the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit in Gaines County, Texas. The activities during the first Budget Period consisted of developing an integrated reservoir description from geological, engineering, and geostatistical studies, and using this description for reservoir flow simulation. Specific reservoir management activities were identified and tested. The geologically targeted infill drilling program currently being implemented is a result of this work. A significant contribution of this project is to demonstrate the use of cost-effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability shallow-shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs. The techniques that are outlined for the formulation of an integrated reservoir description apply to all oil and gas reservoirs, but are specifically tailored for use in the heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs of West Texas.

  7. Structural behavior of lightweight bamboo reinforced concrete slab with EPS infill panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Ari; Wijatmiko, Indradi; Nainggolan, Christin Remayanti

    2017-09-01

    Eco-friendly, green, and natural materials have become increasingly important issues in supporting sustainable development, for the substitution of nonrenewable materials such as steel. Bamboo has been considered in many studies to replace steel in reinforced concrete elements. Further investigation has been carried out to obtain lightweight and eco-friendly reinforced concrete slabs by using bamboo bars as reinforcement and recycled materials such as EPS (expanded polystyrene) as infill panel. The flexural loading test on full scale one-way slabs test has been conducted. The results showed that the flexural strength of specimens decreased marginally of about 6% but with the weight advantage of 27% less compared with those of steel rebar reinforced concrete slab with the same dimension. Two type shear-connectors comprising of concrete and bamboo studs were also investigated which showed that the bamboo stud provided better ductility compared to that of slab with concrete as shear connector. Overall, the reinforced concrete slab with bamboo reinforcement and EPS infill panel showed reasonably good performance compared to slabs with steel rebar.

  8. Utilization of waste tire rubber in manufacture of oriented strandboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrilmis, Nadir; Buyuksari, Umit; Avci, Erkan

    2009-09-01

    Some physical and mechanical properties of oriented strandboards (OSBs) containing waste tire rubber at various addition levels based on the oven-dry strand weight, using the same method as that used in the manufacture of OSB. Two resin types, phenol-formaldehyde (PF) and polyisocyanate, were used in the experiments. The manufacturing parameters were: a specific gravity of 0.65 and waste tire rubber content (10/90, 20/80 and 30/70 by wt.% of waste tire rubber/wood strand). Average internal bond values of PF-bonded OSB panels with rubber chips were between 17.6% and 48.5% lower than the average of the control samples while polyisocyanate bonded OSBs were 16.5-50.6%. However, water resistance and mechanical properties of OSBs made using polyisocyanate resin were found to comply with general-purpose OSB minimum property requirements of EN 300 Type 1 (1997) values for use in dry conditions at the lowest tire rubber loading level (10%) based on the oven-dry panel weight. The tire rubber improved water resistance of the OSB panel due to its almost hydrophobic property. Based on the findings obtained from this study, we concluded that waste tire rubber could be used for general-purpose OSB manufacturing up to 10% ratio based on the oven-dry panel weight.

  9. Tire demand planning based on reliability and operating environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nouri Qarahasanlou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tires represent a critical spare part in mines. There is a shortage of medium and large tires. In addition, with increased mining activities and the creation of new mines, the demand for tires has increased significantly. Thus, it is particularly important for mining engineers to identify tire characteristics and correctly manage the spare part inventory. Spare parts management is critical from an operational perspective, especially in asset intensive industries, such as mining, as well as in organizations owning and operating costly assets. A knowledge of the tires’ behavior (historical data must be considered together with the operating environment conditions (covariates. This study uses multiple regression analysis based on Cox’s regression model to incorporate machine operating environment information into systems reliability analysis to estimate spare parts. It considers a proportional hazard model and a stratified Cox regression model for time independent and dependent covariates. Based on the results, the study develops a mathematical model for spare parts estimation at the component level for non-repairable parts (tires. It validates the outcomes using a case study of loader tires in Sungun mine in Iran. There is a significant difference in the results of spare parts forecasting and inventory management when considering and not considering covariates.

  10. EVALUATION OF TIRE RUBBER DISPOSAL IN CONCRETE FOR PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Cristina Cecche Lintz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of waste by the tire industry has been a growing problem, indicating the need for its reuse. More than thirty million tires are discharged per year in Brazil, where regulation for the environment states that for each four new tires, five unusable ones must be adequately disposed by manufacturers and importers. Paving consumes an extremely large quantity of materials, which can be the source of rational application of waste and rejected materials. Research shows that tire rubber can be added to asphalt, which increases its durability and improves pavement quality and safety conditions by absorbing the rubber elastic properties, and also be used for architectural applications, among others. This study deals with the addition of rubber fibers from tire crushing in concrete for roadway pavements in order to provide proper indication about the alternative material disposal through an evaluation of the mechanical behavior of the modified concrete. Different concrete mixes were produced, within which, part of fine aggregates were substituted by tire rubber and mechanical experiment tests were performed, which show that, due to great resistance losses, the disposal of this alternative material in concrete should be considered for light traffic pavements, with the addition of rubber ranging up to 10% in mass.

  11. EVALUATION OF TIRE RUBBER DISPOSAL IN CONCRETE FOR PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Cristina Cecche Lintz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of waste by the tire industry has been a growing problem, indicating the need for its reuse. More than thirty million tires are discharged per year in Brazil, where regulation for the environment states that for each four new tires, five unusable ones must be adequately disposed by manufacturers and importers. Paving consumes an extremely large quantity of materials, which can be the source of rational application of waste and rejected materials. Research shows that tire rubber can be added to asphalt, which increases its durability and improves pavement quality and safety conditions by absorbing the rubber elastic properties, and also be used for architectural applications, among others. This study deals with the addition of rubber fibers from tire crushing in concrete for roadway pavements in order to provide proper indication about the alternative material disposal through an evaluation of the mechanical behavior of the modified concrete. Different concrete mixes were produced, within which, part of fine aggregates were substituted by tire rubber and mechanical experiment tests were performed, which show that, due to great resistance losses, the disposal of this alternative material in concrete should be considered for light traffic pavements, with the addition of rubber ranging up to 10% in mass.

  12. Mechanical characterization and force-displacement hysteretic curves from in-plane cyclic tests on strong masonry infills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Paolo; Hak, Sanja; Magenes, Guido

    2018-02-01

    This article contains information related to a recent study "Performance-based interpretation of in-plane cyclic tests on RC frames with strong masonry infills" (Morandi et al., 2017 [1]). Motivated by the necessity to improve the knowledge of the in-plane seismic response of rigid strong masonry infills, a wide experimental campaign based on in-plane cyclic tests on full-scale RC infilled frame specimens, supplemented with a complete characterization of the materials, has been conducted at the laboratory of the Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture of the University of Pavia. The masonry is constituted by vertically perforated 35 cm thick clay units with tongue and groove and dry head-joints and general-purpose mortar bed-joints. The paper reports the results of the mechanical characterization and of the force-displacement hysteretic curves from the in-plane cyclic tests.

  13. Sedimentary infilling of bedrock-controlled palaeo-embayments off Cape Trafalgar, Strait of Gibraltar (Gulf of Cadiz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Sandra; Lobo, Francisco J.

    2018-02-01

    This study investigates two bedrock-controlled palaeo-coastal embayments on the Barbate Platform off Cape Trafalgar near the Strait of Gibraltar (Gulf of Cadiz shelf, SW Iberian Peninsula), aiming to reveal their infilling dynamics and the influence of rocky outcrops on shallow-water hydrodynamics and sediment transport. The approach relies on detailed multibeam bathymetric data, high-resolution seismic profiles and tidal current simulations. Elongated rocky outcrops formed a palaeo-coast when sea level was approximately 35 to 20 m below that of the present day, and bound a relatively flat area. However, the seismic profiles enabled to distinguish two main troughs (A and B) that were infilled following a distinctive evolution during the last transgression. Five seismic units were identified (I to V, from base to top). Deposit A is composed of seismic units II to V and is interpreted as a marine embayment infill, here termed the Barbate palaeo-embayment (BPE). Deposit B is composed of seismic units I to IV and is interpreted as a palaeo-valley infill, here termed the Barbate palaeo-valley (BPV). The complex internal stratigraphic architecture depicts an overall evolution from tidal/fluvial deposits to shallow-water marine deposits. Most significant is the occurrence of coupled tidal flats/estuarine sand bars constituting the infilling of the BPE; this suggests the persistence of a high-energy current in a shallow, confined embayment, which was amplified by the rocky outcrop constrictions and possibly facilitated by the episodic movement of a normal fault. In contrast to this active setting, the nearby straight and narrow BPV was subjected to lower-energy infilling dynamics during its initial flooding phases. There, tidal activity was possibly reduced by the straight morphology of the valley and the occurrence of a topographic constriction (i.e. the Barbate Passage) at the mouth of the valley.

  14. EFISIENSI PEMANFAATAN LAHAN PERKOTAAN MELALUI PENGEMBANGAN PENGISIAN DI YOGYAKARTA (Urban Land Use Efficiency through Infill Housing Development in Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suradi Suradi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Perkembangan perkotaan di lndonesia pada umumnya dicirikan dengan pengembangan perumahan di wilayah pinggiran kota yang berpola sprawl yang menciptakan efek negative antara lain: menjauhkan penduduk dari tempat kerja. polusi. dan konversi lahan pertanian di pinggiran. Pola pengembangan yang baru sangat diperlukan untuk mengarahkan perkembangan kota yang lebih efisien termasuk juga melalui cara infill development. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendokumentasikan dan mengevaluasi pembangunan perumahan melalui model pengisian di Kota Yogyakarta, khususnya menyangkut pola perkembangannya. motivasi pengembangannya. dan pengaruhnya pada perkembangan kota. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa infill development di Yogyakarta mempunyai karakteristik sebagai berikut (1 merupakan perumahan untuk kelas menengah dan mewah. (2 umumnya merupakan rumah dengan 1-2 lantai, (3 berkepadatan sedang.(4 sebagian besar lahan yang dipakai adalah lahan kosong. Penelitian ini menengarai bahwa pemerintah kota tidak secara sadar mendukung model pengembangan ini karena tidak mengetahui manfaatnya. Dengan kata lain, infill development, yang terjadi di lapangan merupakan respon pasar terhadap kebutuhan rurnah. Model ini membawa beberapa manfaat positip antara lain (1 effisiensi lahan. (2 perkembangan kota yang lebih kompak. (3 meningkatkan suplai perumahan, dan (4 meningkatkan aktivitas ekonomi pada wilayah tersebut.   ABSTRACT Urban growth in Indonesia is generally characterized by suburban housing development in a sprawling pattern creating negative impacts such as: inefficient use of land, land speculation, conversation of agricultural land, inefficient infrastructures, and travel cost. New pattern of urban growth is needed to direct urban development in a more sustainable ways. In the West, infill development is considered as an alternative  for a more efficient urban development which in turn facilitate sustainable city. This paper documents and evaluates infill

  15. Temporal and spatial distribution of the sediment rates of the infilling into an old landslide scar, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Fumitoshi; Sidle, Roy C.; Togari-Ohta, Asako; Shimamura, Makoto

    2010-05-01

    Both the trigger (i.e., rainfall and earthquakes) and the predisposition (i.e., development of soil mantles with low shear strength) are needed for initiation of landslides that sometimes cause severe sediment disasters. Therefore, understanding the rates of sediment infilling into old landslide scars is needed for prediction of the reoccurrence of landslides. Rate of sediment infilling (e.g., soil creep, dry ravel) varies in time and space affected by the climate and the hillslope topography. However, field data related to spatial and temporal changes in the sediment rate of infilling is scarce. Thus, we observed the sediment infilling in and around the Kumanodaira landslide, central Japan, using strain probes, sediment traps, and surveying instruments. The Kumanodaira landslide, which was elongated several times after the initial failure in 1910, killed fifty people during a heavy rainfall event in 1950. We also investigated temperature (air and ground temperature) and precipitation at the landslide to clarify factors affecting types and rates of the sediment infilling. Our five-year observations revealed that both chronic and episodic infillings occur in and around the landslide scar. Both the velociy of piles installed on the slope surface and the volume of sediment captured by sediment traps correlate with number of times that the air temperature up and down zero degree. Therefore, soil creep and dry ravel caused by the freeze-thaw in winter are the predominant chronic infilling in the Kumanodaira landslide. Observation by the strain probes revealed that these chronic possesses are active in the shallower soil layer (depth affected by the location relative to the scar. Soil creep is active around upper slope of the head scar, while sediment is stable around lateral ridge of the landslide. Relationship between slope gradient and sediment rate was poor outside of landslide. Our study implies that longitudinal profile of the slope, including relative location to

  16. The Effect of Size and Crumb Rubber Composition as a Filler with Compatibilizer Pp-G-Ma in Polypropylene Blends and Sir-20 Compound on Mechanical and Thermal Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Frida

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Having been researched the development of thermoplastic elastomer material of polypropylene and natural rubber SIR-20 compound with Crumb Rubber as the filler. Reinforced polypropylene with size 60 mesh with 1 mm, and the composition of the Crumb rubber (30, 40, and 50 wt%. Observed mechanical properties are tensile strength, fracture elongation, Young's modulus, tear strength and impact strength. Thermal properties are analyzed by DSC and DTA/TGA. It is acquired that for the size of 60 mesh crumb rubber tensile strength, fracture elongation, Young’s modulus, tear strength and impact strength are bigger than 1mm size. The addition of 60 mesh crumb rubber increases but it decreases by adding of 50 weight%. While for crumb rubber 1 mm tensile strength, fracture elongation, tear strength and impact strength decreas. Based on analysis of DSC that the addition of crumb rubber does not make a difference boiling point significantly between samples containing crumb rubber and polypropylene Analysis TGA/DTA to an increase in enthalpy and decomposition temperature with the addition of crumb rubber used and thermal stability.

  17. Numerical Study on the In-Plane and Out-of-Plane Resistance of Brick Masonry Infill Panels in Steel Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Bahreini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Masonry infill walls are one of the main forms of interior partitions and exterior walls in many parts of the world. Nevertheless, serious damage and loss of stability of many masonry infill walls had been reported during recent earthquakes. To improve their performance, the interaction between these infill walls and the bounding frames needs to be properly investigated. Such interaction can dramatically increase the stiffness of the frame in the in-plane direction. To avoid the negative aspects of inappropriate interactions between the frame and infill wall, some kind of isolation needs to be introduced. In this paper, three different configurations have been evaluated by using the general finite element software, ABAQUS. Nonlinear pushover and time history analyses have been conducted for each of the three configurations. Results showed that isolation of the infill from the frame has a significant effect on the in-plane response of infilled frames. Furthermore, adequate out-of-plane stability of the infill wall has been achieved. The results show that masonry infill walls that have full contact at the top of the wall but isolated from columns have shown acceptable performance.

  18. Role of kinesin heavy chain in Crumbs localization along the rhabdomere elongation in Drosophila photoreceptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett P League

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crumbs (Crb, a cell polarity gene, has been shown to provide a positional cue for the extension of the apical membrane domain, adherens junction (AJ, and rhabdomere along the growing proximal-distal axis during Drosophila photoreceptor morphogenesis. In developing Drosophila photoreceptors, a stabilized microtubule structure was discovered and its presence was linked to polarity protein localization. It was therefore hypothesized that the microtubules may provide trafficking routes for the polarity proteins during photoreceptor morphogenesis. This study has examined whether Kinesin heavy chain (Khc, a subunit of the microtubule-based motor Kinesin-1, is essential in polarity protein localization in developing photoreceptors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Because a genetic interaction was found between crb and khc, Crb localization was examined in the developing photoreceptors of khc mutants. khc was dispensable during early eye differentiation and development. However, khc mutant photoreceptors showed a range of abnormalities in the apical membrane domain depending on the position along the proximal-distal axis in pupal photoreceptors. The khc mutant showed a progressive mislocalization in the apical domain along the distal-proximal axis during rhabdomere elongation. The khc mutation also led to a similar progressive defect in the stabilized microtubule structures, strongly suggesting that Khc is essential for microtubule structure and Crb localization during distal to proximal rhabdomere elongation in pupal morphogenesis. This role of Khc in apical domain control was further supported by khc's gain-of-function phenotype. Khc overexpression in photoreceptors caused disruption of the apical membrane domain and the stabilized microtubules in the developing photoreceptors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In summary, we examined the role of khc in the regulation of the apical Crb domain in developing photoreceptors. Since the rhabdomeres in

  19. Volume digital image correlation to assess displacement field in compression loaded bread crumb under X-ray microtomography

    KAUST Repository

    Moussawi, Ali

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we present an original approach to assess structural changes during bread crumb compression using a mechanical testing bench coupled to 3D X-ray microtomography. X-ray images taken at different levels of compression of the bread crumb are processed using image analysis. A subset-based digital volume correlation method is used to achieve the 3D displacement field. Within the limit of the approach, deterministic search strategy is implemented for solving subset displacement in each deformed image with regards to the undeformed one. The predicted displacement field in the transverse directions shows differences that depend on local cell arrangement as confirmed by finite element analysis. The displacement component in the loading direction is affected by the magnitude of imposed displacement and shows more regular change. Large displacement levels in the compression direction are in good agreement with the imposed experimental displacement. The results presented here are promising in a sense of possible identification of local foam properties. New insights are expected to achieve better understanding of structural heterogeneities in the overall perception of the product. Industrial relevance: Texture evaluation of cereal product is an important aspect for testing consumer acceptability of new designed products. Mechanical evaluation of backed products is a systemic route for determining texture of cereal based product. From the industrial viewpoint, mechanical evaluation allows saving both time and cost compared to panel evaluation. We demonstrate that better understanding of structural changes during texture evaluation can be achieved in addition to texture evaluation. Sensing structural changes during bread crumb compression is achievable by combining novel imaging technique and processing based on image analysis. We present thus an efficient way to predict displacements during compression of freshly baked product. This method can be used in different

  20. Transient thermal behaviour of crumb rubber-modified concrete and implications for thermal response and energy efficiency in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Matthew R.; Najim, Khalid B.; Hopfe, Christina J.

    2012-01-01

    Experimental data is presented for the dry and saturated steady state thermo-physical properties, and also the dynamic thermal properties, of 180, 120 and 65 mm target slump mix designs for Plain Rubberised Concrete (PRC) with varying %wt rubber substitution and aggregate replacement types (fine, coarse, and mixed). The composites had significantly lower density and thermal conductivity than plain concrete, and there was an inverse relationship between thermal admittance and (a) mix design target slump, and (b) %wt crumb rubber substitution. The thermal decrement remained almost constant, and yet the associated time lag can be increased significantly. Parametric analysis of the effects of crumb rubber substitution for a heavyweight PassivHaus standard dwelling (in non-mechanical ventilation mode) was conducted using building performance simulation. For a London (warmer) or Glasgow (cooler) climate, PRC can be used at up to 30%wt addition and all replacement types as a substitute for plain concrete without causing any significant difference in Dry Resultant Temperature (DRT) fluctuation, if used in conjunction with passive ventilation for night time cooling. However, for the same material there was a general tendency to increase the number of overheating hours in this construction type due to its greater ability to retain any stored heat energy. - Highlights: ► PRC has significantly lower density and thermal conductivity than plain concrete. ► Inverse relationship between thermal admittance and %wt crumb rubber substitution. ► Thermal decrement almost constant but associated time lag increased significantly. ► Up to 30%wt rubber used without significant difference in DRT fluctuation.

  1. Comparison of the effect of recycled crumb rubber and polymer concentration on the performance of binders for asphalt mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez del Barco-Carrión, A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Crumb rubber modified binders are environmental-friendly alternatives to polymer modified bitumens in asphalt mixtures. This paper compares the performance of both types of binders with different modifier contents. Six binders were characterised by conventional tests and analysed using the UCL method. This method evaluates different properties of binders regarding their role in asphalt mixtures (cohesion, water and thermal sensitivity and resistance to ageing. Results showed that i crumb rubber concentration has to be higher than that of SBS-polymers in order to obtain a similar performance to that of SBS-polymer modified bitumen; ii crumb rubber modified binders are more stable than SBS-polymer modified binders in terms of modifier concentration; iii crumb rubber modified binders exhibited less water sensitivity and similar thermal and ageing susceptibility to SBS-polymer modified binders; iv linear relationships have been found between modifier concentration and the properties studied for both kind of binders.Los betunes modificados con polvo de neumático (PN son alternativas ambientalmente sostenibles a los betunes modificados con polímeros. Este artículo compara el comportamiento de ambos tipos de betunes con varios contenidos de modificador. Para ello, se caracterizaron seis betunes mediante ensayos convencionales y método UCL. Este método evalúa propiedades de ligantes para su uso en mezclas bituminosas (cohesión, sensibilidad al agua, térmica y al envejecimiento. Los resultados muestran que i la concentración de PN ha de ser más elevada que la de polímeros para obtener comportamiento semejante; ii los betunes con PN son más estables ante cambios en la concentración de modificador que los betunes con polímeros; iii los betunes con PN presentan menor sensibilidad al agua y equivalente susceptibilidad térmica y al envejecimiento que los betunes con polímeros; iv se encontraron buenos ajustes lineales entre la concentraci

  2. Repeated catastrophic valley infill following medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Anne; Stolle, Amelie; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R; Andermann, Christoff; Tofelde, Stefanie; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-01-08

    Geomorphic footprints of past large Himalayan earthquakes are elusive, although they are urgently needed for gauging and predicting recovery times of seismically perturbed mountain landscapes. We present evidence of catastrophic valley infill following at least three medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya. Radiocarbon dates from peat beds, plant macrofossils, and humic silts in fine-grained tributary sediments near Pokhara, Nepal's second-largest city, match the timing of nearby M > 8 earthquakes in ~1100, 1255, and 1344 C.E. The upstream dip of tributary valley fills and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry of their provenance rule out local sources. Instead, geomorphic and sedimentary evidence is consistent with catastrophic fluvial aggradation and debris flows that had plugged several tributaries with tens of meters of calcareous sediment from a Higher Himalayan source >60 kilometers away. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Fast Formation of Conductive Material by Simultaneous Chemical Process for Infilling Through-Silicon Via

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakita, Jin; Chikyow, Toyohiro

    2012-06-01

    It is necessary to develop a fast and inexpensive fabrication process of vertical electric wiring by through-silicon via (TSV) technology for advanced three-dimensional semiconductor devices. In this research, a fast-forming conductive composite was successfully developed by simultaneous deposition of conductive organic polymer (polypyrrole) and metal (silver) from the liquid phase, accelerated by photoirradiation. The growth rate of the composite was 38 nm·s-1, which is more than 10 times higher than that of copper by conventional plating. The electric conductivity of the composite was 2.1×104 Ω-1·cm-1, which is on the same level as general metal conductors. In addition, the effects of reaction conditions on the growth rate and the conductivity of the composites were revealed. From these results, the infilling time of the TSV was expected to shorten from the present 2-10 h to 5-10 m.

  4. Repeated catastrophic valley infill following medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Anne; Stolle, Amelie; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Andermann, Christoff; Tofelde, Stefanie; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Geomorphic footprints of past large Himalayan earthquakes are elusive, although they are urgently needed for gauging and predicting recovery times of seismically perturbed mountain landscapes. We present evidence of catastrophic valley infill following at least three medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya. Radiocarbon dates from peat beds, plant macrofossils, and humic silts in fine-grained tributary sediments near Pokhara, Nepal’s second-largest city, match the timing of nearby M > 8 earthquakes in ~1100, 1255, and 1344 C.E. The upstream dip of tributary valley fills and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry of their provenance rule out local sources. Instead, geomorphic and sedimentary evidence is consistent with catastrophic fluvial aggradation and debris flows that had plugged several tributaries with tens of meters of calcareous sediment from a Higher Himalayan source >60 kilometers away.

  5. Infill Optimization for Additive Manufacturing-Approaching Bone-Like Porous Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Aage, Niels; Westermann, Rudiger; Sigmund, Ole

    2018-02-01

    Porous structures such as trabecular bone are widely seen in nature. These structures are lightweight and exhibit strong mechanical properties. In this paper, we present a method to generate bone-like porous structures as lightweight infill for additive manufacturing. Our method builds upon and extends voxel-wise topology optimization. In particular, for the purpose of generating sparse yet stable structures distributed in the interior of a given shape, we propose upper bounds on the localized material volume in the proximity of each voxel in the design domain. We then aggregate the local per-voxel constraints by their p-norm into an equivalent global constraint, in order to facilitate an efficient optimization process. Implemented on a high-resolution topology optimization framework, our results demonstrate mechanically optimized, detailed porous structures which mimic those found in nature. We further show variants of the optimized structures subject to different design specifications, and we analyze the optimality and robustness of the obtained structures.

  6. Infill Optimization for Additive Manufacturing - Approaching Bone-like Porous Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jun; Aage, Niels; Westermann, Ruediger

    2018-01-01

    Porous structures such as trabecular bone are widely seen in nature. These structures exhibit superior mechanical properties whilst being lightweight. In this paper, we present a method to generate bone-like porous structures asl ightweight infill for additive manufacturing. Our method builds upon...... and extends voxel-wise topology optimization. In particular, for the purpose of generating sparse yet stable structures distributed in the interior of a given shape, we propose upper bounds on the localized material volume in the proximity of each voxel in the design domain. We then aggregate the local per......-voxel constraints by their p-norm into an equivalent global constraint, in order to facilitate an efficient optimization process. Implemented on a high-resolution topology optimization framework, our results demonstrate mechanically optimized, detailed porous structures which mimic those found innature. We further...

  7. Sediment yield model implementation based on check dam infill stratigraphy in a semiarid Mediterranean catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bussi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil loss and sediment transport in Mediterranean areas are driven by complex non-linear processes which have been only partially understood. Distributed models can be very helpful tools for understanding the catchment-scale phenomena which lead to soil erosion and sediment transport. In this study, a modelling approach is proposed to reproduce and evaluate erosion and sediment yield processes in a Mediterranean catchment (Rambla del Poyo, Valencia, Spain. Due to the lack of sediment transport records for model calibration and validation, a detailed description of the alluvial stratigraphy infilling a check dam that drains a 12.9 km2 sub-catchment was used as indirect information of sediment yield data. These dam infill sediments showed evidences of at least 15 depositional events (floods over the time period 1990–2009. The TETIS model, a distributed conceptual hydrological and sediment model, was coupled to the Sediment Trap Efficiency for Small Ponds (STEP model for reproducing reservoir retention, and it was calibrated and validated using the sedimentation volume estimated for the depositional units associated with discrete runoff events. The results show relatively low net erosion rates compared to other Mediterranean catchments (0.136 Mg ha−1 yr−1, probably due to the extensive outcrops of limestone bedrock, thin soils and rather homogeneous vegetation cover. The simulated sediment production and transport rates offer model satisfactory results, further supported by in-site palaeohydrological evidences and spatial validation using additional check dams, showing the great potential of the presented data assimilation methodology for the quantitative analysis of sediment dynamics in ungauged Mediterranean basins.

  8. Quantifying Sediment Characteristics and Infilling Rate within a Ship Shoal Dredge Borrow Area, Offshore Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Z.; Wilson, C.; Bentley, S. J.; Xu, K.; Liu, H.; Li, C.; Miner, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Barrier islands provide protection to interior wetlands and maintain estuarine gradients. Mississippi River delta plain barrier islands are undergoing rapid disintegration due to high rates of subsidence and a deficit in the coastal sand supply. To mitigate for barrier island land loss, Louisiana has implemented a restoration program that intends to supplement coastal sand deficits by introducing sand from outside of the active coastal system. Inner-shelf shoals offshore Louisiana are one of the only sand resource options containing large volumes of restoration quality sand. Ship Shoal is one of these inner-shelf shoals that was produced by marine reworking of former Mississippi River Delta barrier island sediments during late Holocene time. Though indirect effects to protected areas or infrastructure adjacent to excavations have been considered, there is a paucity of observational data on their evolution. Caminada borrow area, dredged in 2013-2016 for the Caminada Headland Restoration Project, provides a valuable opportunity to validate and improve predictive models for how borrow areas evolve. In July 2017, a subbottom and bathymetric geophysical survey was conducted and sediment cores were collected to test the hypothesis that sedimentation within the excavation is affected by lateral bedload transport after initial rapid infill as slopes equilibrate. Preliminary results show the sediment within the excavation is predominantly very fine sand with isolated mud drapes. These sediments overlay older delta complex muddy strata. This contrasts strongly with other dredge pits outside of shoal areas and closer to shore, which have been infilled largely by advection of fine suspended sediments of fluvial origin. Laboratory work on cores will include laser grain size, x-ray analyses of sedimentary structures, and radiochemistry analyses for rates and age of deposition. With the knowledge of stratigraphy and sediment dynamics surrounding the dredge pit, we can quantify

  9. Crater relaxation on Titan aided by low thermal conductivity sand infill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurmeier, Lauren R.; Dombard, Andrew J.

    2018-05-01

    Titan's few impact craters are currently many hundreds of meters shallower than the depths expected. Assuming these craters initially had depths equal to that of similar-size fresh craters on Ganymede and Callisto (moons of similar size, composition, and target lithology), then some process has shallowed them over time. Since nearly all of Titan's recognized craters are located within the arid equatorial sand seas of organic-rich dunes, where rain is infrequent, and atmospheric sedimentation is expected to be low, it has been suggested that aeolian infill plays a major role in shallowing the craters. Topographic relaxation at Titan's current heat flow was previously assumed to be an unimportant process on Titan due to its low surface temperature (94 K). However, our estimate of the thermal conductivity of Titan's organic-rich sand is remarkably low (0.025 W m-1 K-1), and when in thick deposits, will result in a thermal blanketing effect that can aid relaxation. Here, we simulate the relaxation of Titan's craters Afekan, Soi, and Sinlap including thermal effects of various amounts of sand inside and around Titan's craters. We find that the combination of aeolian infill and subsequent relaxation can produce the current crater depths in a geologically reasonable period of time using Titan's current heat flow. Instead of needing to fill completely the missing volume with 100% sand, only ∼62%, ∼71%, and ∼97%, of the volume need be sand at the current basal heat flux for Afekan, Soi, and Sinlap, respectively. We conclude that both processes are likely at work shallowing these craters, and this finding contributes to why Titan overall lacks impact craters in the arid equatorial regions.

  10. Reconstructing the formation and in-filling of Lake Manuherikia, Otago: Linking geodynamics and surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, P.; Duclaux, G.; Craw, D.; Salles, T. B.; Walcott, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Miocene geography of Central Otago, New Zealand was dominated by a long-lived region of subsidence culminating in an orogen-scale large lake complex that existed for at least 10 Ma. Subsidence was terminated by uplift of orogen-perpendicular ranges with orogen-parallel subsidiary ranges infilling of the lake and coincident major drainage reorientation. We used a combination of a 3D numerical model with geophysical and geological observations to show that the subsidence is a predictable consequence of the lithospheric structure and tectonic history of the region. A weak lower crust beneath Otago, bounded along strike by two stronger regions, subjected to dextral strike-slip tectonics produces characteristic topography including uplift to the north and subsidence to the south. Second-order features such as pre-existing faults influenced local topography and regional drainage reorientation. We then model the Pliocene in-filling of Lake Manuherikia using a surface dynamics code in which we constrain uplift rates, precipitation, underlying structure (pre-existing faults) and track Plio-Pleistocene sediments. As the Central Otago ranges shed coarse sediment into the lake eventually drowning it, the dominant river system shifted from draining southwest to draining to the east. Fault zones, cored by weak gouge zones, facilitated erosion through the uplifting ranges and allowed the Clutha River to incise a path from the Main Divide to the south-eastern Otago coast. To unravel the complex topographic evolution of the region since the early Miocene, it is essential to constrain our surface process models with information about the underlying lithosphere. In this situation, the rheology of the lower crust is important for the first order topographic development while the pre-existing structure controls second order features such as river incision and local topography.

  11. From incision to infill: What a Late Quaternary valley system records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselli, V.; Asioli, A.; Trincardi, F.; Ceregato, A.; Rizzetto, F.; Taviani, M.

    2014-12-01

    Erosional sequence boundaries and incised valleys buried in modern continental shelves represent the response of alluvial and coastal systems to Quaternary sea level oscillations. The study of the processes leading to valley incision reveals, at both regional and global scales, the influence of tectonics and eustatism on the evolution of fluvial landforms in coastal plains, while the sedimentary infill of the valley may represents one of the best archives to investigate past environmental changes. Although the time registered in the stratigraphic record represents only a small portion of the geological history, informations about the processes governing the evolution of past landscapes can be quantified by looking to erosional surfaces, where much of the time is condensed. The Manfredonia Incised Valley (southern Adriatic Sea), is a very interesting case of valley as it formed during a single episode of incision related to the last glacial sea level fall and was completely filled during the post-glacial sea level rise. The inverse-funnel shape of the incision, and its confinement toward the mid-inner shelf reveal the impact of the step-wise sea level fall on preexisting coastal morphologies, in particular during the MIS5-4 and MIS3-2 transitions. The 45 m thick sedimentary succession filling the valley recorded the post-glacial sea level rise, as revealed by the upward transition from fluvial to shallow-marine deposits, and the impact of base level and high-frequency climate change on river to coastal systems. The upper 15 m of infill, in particular, consist of multiple bayhead delta progradations occurred synchronously to the formation of sapropel S1, and represent the very-shallow water equivalent of the cm-thick sapropel layers accumulated offshore in the deeper southern Adriatic basin.

  12. Performance of Reinforced Concrete Beam with Differently Positioned Replacement Zones of Block Infill under Low Impact Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhatar Shahrul Niza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reveals a study performed on reinforced concrete with artificial aggregate concrete block infill composite beams to innovate a lightweight reinforced concrete utilizing polyethylene (PE waste materials, such as waste plastic bags. Six beam specimens of normal reinforced concrete (NRC and different block infill replacement zone positions RCAI (RZ1 beams containing 100% MAPEA with 50, 95, and 1,000 mm width, height, and length, respectively, were provided for the block infill, whereas RCAI (RZ2 with different block infill positions containing a 100% MAPEA with 50, 115, and 1000 mm width, height, and length were provided and tested under low impact load. The steel impactor with blunt nose dropped at 0.6 m height which equivalent to 3.5 m/s. The behaviors of the beams were studied relative to the impact force-time and displacement-time histories, the flexural/ bending cracks, and the impact failure. Results show that the overall failure modes of all the beam specimens were successfully recorded. In addition, the residual displacements of the RZ2 was almost same than those of the RZ1 and the significantly lower than those of the NRC. In the reinforced concrete beams, less stressed concrete near the neutral axis can be replaced by certain light weight material like waste plastic bags as modified artificial polyethylene aggregates to serve as an artificial aggregate.

  13. Optical strain measurement for fault detection in haul-truck tires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotchon, A; Nobes, D S; Lipsett, M G

    2012-01-01

    Tire condition is integral to the safe operation of heavy machinery, such as ultra-class haul trucks. A new approach to haul truck tire monitoring is being investigated based on optical strain measurement, which has the advantage of providing quantitative information from sensors that do not contact the tire. A laboratory-scale apparatus has been constructed to monitor a tire as it is subjected to various loads and pressures. Digital image correlation is used to calculate the deformation in the tire. Using this method, damage resulting from a horizontal and vertical cut created on the tire surface could be detected. A three-dimensional surface reconstruction of the tire was created to assist in the characterization of more complex damage types such as wear and fatigue. In addition to providing information for a possible industrial scale damage detection system, this apparatus will also further the understanding of damage mechanisms in tires.

  14. Static Footprint Local Forces, Areas, and Aspect Ratios for Three Type 7 Aircraft Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, William E.; Perez, Sharon E.; Vogler, William A.

    1991-01-01

    The National Tire Modeling Program (NTMP) is a joint NASA/industry effort to improve the understanding of tire mechanics and develop accurate analytical design tools. This effort includes fundamental analytical and experimental research on the structural mechanics of tires. Footprint local forces, areas, and aspect ratios were measured. Local footprint forces in the vertical, lateral, and drag directions were measured with a special footprint force transducer. Measurements of the local forces in the footprint were obtained by positioning the transducer at specified locations within the footprint and externally loading the tires. Three tires were tested: (1) one representative of those used on the main landing gear of B-737 and DC-9 commercial transport airplanes, (2) a nose landing gear tire for the Space Shuttle Orbiter, and (3) a main landing gear tire for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Data obtained for various inflation pressures and vertical loads are presented for two aircraft tires. The results are presented in graphical and tabulated forms.

  15. 77 FR 65050 - Continental Tire North America, LLC, Mootness of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... Continental brand Extremecontact DWS model passenger car tires manufactured from March 2009 to October 2009 at... size codes for this tire model to have the same meaning and that either the full TIN or the partial TIN...

  16. 49 CFR 571.117 - Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... tire shall have a size designation, recommended maximum load rating, or maximum permissible inflation... labeling. S6.1Each manufacturer of a retreaded tire shall certify that its product complies with this...

  17. Flexible and conductive waste tire-derived carbon/polymer composite paper as pseudocapacitive electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naskar, Amit K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Boota, Muhammad; Gogotsi, Yury

    2018-04-10

    A method of making a supercapacitor from waste tires, includes the steps of providing rubber pieces and contacting the rubber pieces with a sulfonation bath to produce sulfonated rubber; pyrolyzing the sulfonated rubber to produce a tire-derived carbon composite comprising carbon black embedded in rubber-derived carbon matrix comprising graphitized interface portions; activating the tire-derived carbon composite by contacting the tire-derived carbon composite with a specific surface area-increasing composition to increase the specific surface area of the carbon composite to provide an activated tire-derived carbon composite; and, mixing the activated tire-derived carbon composite with a monomer and polymerizing the monomer to produce a redox-active polymer coated, activated tire-derived carbon composite. The redox-active polymer coated, activated tire-derived carbon composite can be formed into a film. An electrode and a supercapacitor are also disclosed.

  18. 78 FR 78384 - Certain Tires and Products Containing Same; Commission Determination Not to Review an Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    .... of Dawang Town, Shangrao, China; MHT Luxury Alloys of Rancho Dominguez, California; Wheel Warehouse... Company, Inc., d/b/a Gateway Tire and Service of Batesville, Mississippi; Unicorn Tire Corp. of Memphis...

  19. Optimal tread design for agricultural lug tires determined through failure analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Seok Song

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural lug tires, commonly used in tractors, must provide safe and stable support for the body of the vehicle and bear any additional load while effectively traversing rough, poor-quality ground surfaces. Many agricultural lug tires fail unexpectedly. In this study, we optimised and validated a tread design for agricultural lug tires intended to increase their durability using failure analysis. Specifically, we identified tire failure modes using indoor driving tests and failure mode effects analysis. Next, we developed a threedimensional tire model using the Ogden material model and finite element method. Using sensitivity analysis and response surface methodology, we optimised the tread design. Finally, we evaluated the durability of the new design using a tire prototype and drum test equipment. Results indicated that the optimised tread design decreased the tire tread stress by 16% and increased its time until cracking by 38% compared to conventional agricultural lug tires.

  20. Evaluation of Tire/Surfacing/Base Contact Stresses and Texture Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J.vdM. Steyn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tire rolling resistance has a major impact on vehicle fuel consumption. Rolling resistance is the loss of energy due to the interaction between the tire and the pavement surface. This interaction is a complicated combination of stresses and strains which depend on both tire and pavement related factors. These include vehicle speed, vehicle weight, tire material and type, road camber, tire inflation pressure, pavement surfacing texture etc. In this paper the relationship between pavement surface texture depth and tire/surfacing contact stress and area is investigated. Texture depth and tire/surfacing contact stress were measured for a range of tire inflation pressures on five different pavement surfaces. In the analysis the relationship between texture and the generated contact stresses as well as the contact stress between the surfacing and base layer are presented and discussed, and the anticipated effect of these relationships on the rolling resistance of vehicles on the surfacings, and subsequent vehicle fuel economy discussed.

  1. Microwave induced fast pyrolysis of scrap rubber tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, Farid Nasir; Mat Nor, Nor Syarizan

    2012-06-01

    Pyrolysis is the thermal degradation of carbonaceous solid by heat in the absence of oxygen. The feedstocks, such as biomass or solid wastes are heated to a temperature between 400 and 600°C, without introducing oxygen to support the reaction. The reaction produces three products: gas, pyro-fuel oil and char. This paper presents the techniques of producing pyro-oil from waste tires, as well as investigation of the fuel properties suitable for diesel engine applications. In this study, microwave heating technique is employed to pyrolyse the used rubber tires into pyro-oil. Thermal treatment of as received used rubber tires is carried out in a modified domestic microwave heated fixed bed technology. It has been found that, rubber tires, previously used by various researchers, are poor microwave absorbers. Studies have shown that an appropriate microwave-absorbing material, such as biomass char or activated carbon, could be added to enhance the pyrolysis process; thus producing the pyro-oil. The characteristics of pyro-oil, as well as the effect of microwave absorber on its yield, are briefly described in this paper. The temperature profiles during the microwave heating process are also illustratively emphasized. The study provides a means of converting scrap tires into pyro-oil and pyrolytic carbon black production. The proposed microwave thermal conversion process therefore has the potentials of substantially saving time and energy.

  2. A Multisensing Setup for the Intelligent Tire Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Coppo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper offers the chance to experimentally measure, for the first time, the internal tire strain by optical fiber sensors during the tire rolling in real operating conditions. The phenomena that take place during the tire rolling are in fact far from being completely understood. Despite several models available in the technical literature, there is not a correspondently large set of experimental observations. The paper includes the detailed description of the new multi-sensing technology for an ongoing vehicle measurement, which the research group has developed in the context of the project OPTYRE. The experimental apparatus is mainly based on the use of optical fibers with embedded Fiber Bragg Gratings sensors for the acquisition of the circumferential tire strain. Other sensors are also installed on the tire, such as a phonic wheel, a uniaxial accelerometer, and a dynamic temperature sensor. The acquired information is used as input variables in dedicated algorithms that allow the identification of key parameters, such as the dynamic contact patch, instantaneous dissipation and instantaneous grip. The OPTYRE project brings a contribution into the field of experimental grip monitoring of wheeled vehicles, with implications both on passive and active safety characteristics of cars and motorbikes.

  3. A Multisensing Setup for the Intelligent Tire Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppo, Francesco; Pepe, Gianluca; Roveri, Nicola; Carcaterra, Antonio

    2017-03-12

    The present paper offers the chance to experimentally measure, for the first time, the internal tire strain by optical fiber sensors during the tire rolling in real operating conditions. The phenomena that take place during the tire rolling are in fact far from being completely understood. Despite several models available in the technical literature, there is not a correspondently large set of experimental observations. The paper includes the detailed description of the new multi-sensing technology for an ongoing vehicle measurement, which the research group has developed in the context of the project OPTYRE. The experimental apparatus is mainly based on the use of optical fibers with embedded Fiber Bragg Gratings sensors for the acquisition of the circumferential tire strain. Other sensors are also installed on the tire, such as a phonic wheel, a uniaxial accelerometer, and a dynamic temperature sensor. The acquired information is used as input variables in dedicated algorithms that allow the identification of key parameters, such as the dynamic contact patch, instantaneous dissipation and instantaneous grip. The OPTYRE project brings a contribution into the field of experimental grip monitoring of wheeled vehicles, with implications both on passive and active safety characteristics of cars and motorbikes.

  4. Development of Shear Deformable Laminated Shell Element and Its Application to ANCF Tire Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-24

    DEFORMABLE LAMINATED SHELL ELEMENT AND ITS APPLICATION TO ANCF TIRE MODEL Hiroki Yamashita Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering...for application to the modeling of fiber-reinforced rubber (FRR) structure of the physics-based ANCF tire model. The complex deformation coupling...cornering forces. Since a tire consists of layers of plies and steel belts embedded in rubber , the tire structure needs to be modeled by cord- rubber

  5. Traction and braking force on three surfaces of agricultural tire lug

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to determine the performance of an agricultural tractor drive tire on soil and in particular, to investigate performance aspects of tire lugs. A 160/85R14 radial-ply tractor drive tire was used. Pressure sensors were mounted in the leading lug side and the traili...

  6. 77 FR 71679 - Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... Bridgestone brand tires manufactured between June 19, 2011 and March 17, 2012, do not fully comply with... brand tires manufactured between June 19, 2011, and March 17, 2012. Only 97 of the affected tires are no... greater than 15 pages in length, although there is no limit to the length of necessary attachments to the...

  7. 78 FR 9775 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ...: Cooper Tire & Rubber Company (Cooper),\\1\\ has determined that certain Cooper brand tires manufactured... brand standard load tires manufactured in Mexico by Cooper's affiliate, Corporaci[oacute]n de Occidente... necessary attachments to the comments. If comments are submitted in hard copy form, please ensure that two...

  8. 77 FR 71678 - The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ...: The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company (GOODYEAR),\\1\\ has determined that certain Goodyear brand tires... LT 275/65R18 brand tires manufactured between April 8, 2012, and May 12, 2012 at its plant in Gadsden..., although there is no limit to the length of necessary attachments to the comments. If comments are...

  9. 75 FR 68855 - Pirelli Tire LLC, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... and Reports. \\1\\ Pirelli Tire LLC is a manufacturer and importer of replacement equipment that is... Scorpion Zero Asimmetrico replacement tires produced between September 1, 2007, and February 26, 2009, do... Zero Asimmetrico replacement tires produced between September 1, 2007, and February 26, 2009, in the...

  10. 78 FR 3843 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic and Certain Specialty Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... construction from conventional tires. * * * [with] a higher inflation pressure (60 psi), different dimensions... measure the tire's growth under inflated conditions and to determine if it is within allowable growth limits. If a tire exceeds allowable growth limits in the physical dimensions test, that indicates that...

  11. Experimental and numerical study of friction and braking characteristics of rolling tires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, R. van der; Lopez, I.; Nijmeijer, H.; Schmeitz, A.J.C.; Bruijn, B. de

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the tire industry, virtual testing has been widely adopted in the design process. Both static deformation and dynamic response of the tire rolling on the road must be accurately predicted to evaluate the handling performance of a tire. Unfortunately, experimental characterization of

  12. Co-gasification of tire and biomass for enhancement of tire-char reactivity in CO2 gasification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahijani, Pooya; Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Mohammadi, Maedeh

    2013-06-01

    In this investigation, palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and almond shell (AS) were implemented as two natural catalysts rich in alkali metals, especially potassium, to enhance the reactivity of tire-char through co-gasification process. Co-gasification experiments were conducted at several blending ratios using isothermal Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under CO2. The pronounced effect of inherent alkali content of biomass-chars on promoting the reactivity of tire-char was proven when acid-treated biomass-chars did not exert any catalytic effect on improving the reactivity of tire-char in co-gasification experiments. In kinetic studies of the co-gasified samples in chemically-controlled regime, modified random pore model (M-RPM) was adopted to describe the reactive behavior of the tire-char/biomass-char blends. By virtue of the catalytic effect of biomass, the activation energy for tire-char gasification was lowered from 250 kJ/mol in pure form 203 to 187 kJ/mol for AS-char and EFB-char co-gasified samples, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Adsorption of uranium on adsorbents produced from used tires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahramanlioglu, M.

    2003-01-01

    Potential use of adsorbents produced from used tires for the removal of uranium from aqueous solutions is investigated. Two different adsorbents were used including char and activated carbon produced from used tires. The surface area was larger on activated carbon. Adsorption experiments were carried out as a function of time, adsorbent concentration, pH and initial concentration of uranium. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the Lagergren equation. The rate constants of intraparticle diffusion and mass transfer coefficients were calculated. It was shown that the equilibrium data could be fitted by the Langmuir and Freundlich equations. The adsorption of uranium in the presence of different cations were also studied and the results were correlated with the ionic potential of the cations. It was demonstrated that the activated carbon produced from used tires can be considered as an adsorbent that has a commercial potential for uranium removal. (author)

  14. Improvement of road traffic safety with tire information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournet-Fayat, P. [Siemens VDO Automotive AG (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Pushed by the US NHTSA TREAD Act, the demand for tire pressure monitoring systems (TPMS) has been rapidly increasing for the past few years. However, the TPMS contribution to traffic safety improvement is not limited to the North American market, but also applies to the European market. 4 years after starting TPMS activities, Siemens VDO has become a market leader, offering scalable system solutions to OEMs all around the world and actively preparing the introduction of innovative functionalities linking the tires to chassis systems. This lecture will introduce: (a) the benefits and motivations for TPMS, (b) scalable solutions adapted to customer needs, (c) the market evolution towards the intelligent tire for better traffic safety. (orig.)

  15. Direct molding of pavement tiles made of ground tire rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrini, Fabrizio; Gagliardi, Donatella; Tedde, Giovanni Matteo; Santo, Loredana; Musacchi, Ettore

    2016-10-01

    Large rubber products can be molded by using only ground tire rubber (GTR) without any additive or binder due to a new technology called "direct molding". Rubber granules and powders from tire recycling are compression molded at elevated temperatures and pressures. The feasibility of this process was clearly shown in laboratory but the step to the industrial scale was missing. Thanks to an European Project (SMART "Sustainable Molding of Articles from Recycled Tires") this step has been made and some results are reported in this study. The press used for compression molding is described. Some tests were made to measure the energy consumption so as to evaluate costs for production in comparison with conventional technologies for GTR molding (by using binders). Results show that 1 m2 tiles can be easily molded with several thicknesses in a reasonable low time. Energy consumption is higher than conventional technologies but it is lower than the cost for binders.

  16. Feasibility of Energy Harvesting Using a Piezoelectric Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malotte, Christopher

    While the piezoelectric effect has been around for some time, it has only recently caught interest as a potential sustainable energy harvesting device. Piezoelectric energy harvesting has been developed for shoes and panels, but has yet to be integrated into a marketable bicycle tire. For this thesis, the development and feasibility of a piezoelectric tire was done. This includes the development of a circuit that incorporates piezoceramic elements, energy harvesting circuitry, and an energy storage device. A single phase circuit was designed using an ac-dc diode rectifier. An electrolytic capacitor was used as the energy storage device. A financial feasibility was also done to determine targets for manufacturing cost and sales price. These models take into account market trends for high performance tires, economies of scale, and the possibility of government subsidies. This research will help understand the potential for the marketability of a piezoelectric energy harvesting tire that can create electricity for remote use. This study found that there are many obstacles that must be addressed before a piezoelectric tire can be marketed to the general public. The power output of this device is minuscule compared to an alkaline battery. In order for this device to approach the power output of an alkaline battery the weight of the device would also become an issue. Additionally this device is very costly compared to the average bicycle tire. Lastly, this device is extreme fragile and easily broken. In order for this device to become marketable the issues of power output, cost, weight, and durability must all be successfully overcome.

  17. Preventing Tire Blowout Accidents: A Perspective on Factors Affecting Drivers’ Intention to Adopt Tire Pressure Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Ying Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore whether risk perception or anticipated regret is responsible for intensifying the participants’ intention to adopt a tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS to prevent a tire-related accident, and whether the optimism bias has a moderator effect between risk perception/anticipated regret and intention. With 274 valid questionnaires and PLS-SEM (partial least squares structural equation modeling analysis, the results indicate a significant positive relationship between risk perception and intention to adopt TPMS, but not between anticipated regret and intention. The moderator effect of optimism bias on risk perception and anticipated regret is not found in the model. The findings will prove useful for public service advertising campaigns by providing a basis for an understanding of the role of cognitive and emotional factors in tire-blowout accident prevention, thereby increasing the motivation for drivers in Taiwan to take advantage of the protection afforded them by using TPMS.

  18. Uncontacted tire explosion causing trauma to bilateral lower extremities: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yang Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is uncommon for tire explosion related injuries on the lower extremity. The bilateral lower extremities were injured by tire explosion when the patient was seated in a bus. She sustained an open fracture with partial bone loss in the right calcaneus (a comminuted fracture in the right ankle joint and a closed comminuted fracture in the left tibia and fibula. This damage was caused by uncontacted tire explosion, thanks to a thick floor between the exploded tire and the patient's feet. This type of injury on lower extremity caused by uncontacted tire explosion was uncommon.

  19. Studded and unstudded winter tires in fatal road accidents in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmivuo, Mikko; Luoma, Juha; Porthin, Markus

    2017-07-04

    The aim of the study was to compare the safety effects of studded and unstudded winter tires based on fatal road accidents. The data included 958 road accidents involving a passenger car or van that occurred in Finland from November to March between 1997 and 2012. Comparing the proportions of winter tire type in accidents and in general traffic showed that the overall effect of tire type on the number of accidents was not significant, although studded tires reduced fatal accidents by 10-15%. Compared to unstudded tires, studded tires reduced accidents significantly only on bald ice in 2005-2012. Drivers using unstudded tires were more experienced and their profession was more frequently related to driving. In addition, the vehicle age was lower for vehicles with unstudded tires. On the other hand, the state of repair was less pertinent for unstudded than for studded tires. These confounding factors offset their effects to some degree. The risk of fatal road accidents in winter between studded and unstudded tires does not differ significantly. However, the accident risk has recently been substantially higher on bald ice for unstudded than for studded tires. The magnitude of this risk difference is difficult to determine without specific information on exposure by road surface.

  20. A System to Measure Both Inner and Outer Car Tire Temperatures ``in situ''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koštial, P.; Mokryšová, M.; Šišáková, J.; Mošková, Z.; Rusnáková, S.

    2009-02-01

    In the paper, a system for the complex analysis of the internal and external tire temperatures and pressure of sporty tires is presented. Tests were performed on the test circuit of a tire producer. The CTPA 05 measuring system (complex temperature-pressure analyzer) enables simultaneous measurements of the internal temperature and pressure in a passenger or sports tire. The experimentalist determines that the CTPA 05 can be used to measure independently the external temperature of the overcoat on the front wheel driving tires at three points. Measurements of both the internal tire temperature and pressure, as well as of the external tire temperature, are collected together with GPS (global position system) data. The system of measurement is fully automatic and contactless. The obtained results are in very good agreement with those obtained by independent methods.

  1. Application of Novel Lateral Tire Force Sensors to Vehicle Parameter Estimation of Electric Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kanghyun

    2015-11-11

    This article presents methods for estimating lateral vehicle velocity and tire cornering stiffness, which are key parameters in vehicle dynamics control, using lateral tire force measurements. Lateral tire forces acting on each tire are directly measured by load-sensing hub bearings that were invented and further developed by NSK Ltd. For estimating the lateral vehicle velocity, tire force models considering lateral load transfer effects are used, and a recursive least square algorithm is adapted to identify the lateral vehicle velocity as an unknown parameter. Using the estimated lateral vehicle velocity, tire cornering stiffness, which is an important tire parameter dominating the vehicle's cornering responses, is estimated. For the practical implementation, the cornering stiffness estimation algorithm based on a simple bicycle model is developed and discussed. Finally, proposed estimation algorithms were evaluated using experimental test data.

  2. Vehicle Unsteady Dynamics Characteristics Based on Tire and Road Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During automotive related accidents, tire and road play an important role in vehicle unsteady dynamics as they have a significant impact on the sliding friction. The calculation of the rubber viscoelastic energy loss modulus and the true contact area model is improved based on the true contact area and the rubber viscoelastic theory. A 10 DOF full vehicle dynamic model in consideration of the kinetic sliding friction coefficient which has good accuracy and reality is developed. The stability test is carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the model, and the simulation test is done in MATLAB to analyze the impact of tire feature and road self-affine characteristics on the sport utility vehicle (SUV unsteady dynamics under different weights. The findings show that it is a great significance to analyze the SUV dynamics equipped with different tire on different roads, which may provide useful insights into solving the explicit-implicit features of tire prints in systematically and designing active safety systems.

  3. 16 CFR 1512.10 - Requirements for tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....10 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT... recommended inflation pressure shall be molded into or onto the sidewall of the tire in lettering no less than 3.2 mm (1/8 in.) in height. The statement of recommended inflation pressure shall be in the English...

  4. Simulation of Thermal Signature of Tires and Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    convection, and radiation, are taken into account. The geometry and meshing information are imported in the format of Nastran from Hypermesh. The...Unclassified Page 4 of 13 The three-dimensional (3D) tire geometry is created by Hypermesh, and then exported as Nastran format including

  5. Potential of waste tires as aggregates in concrete | Mutuku | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential use of this kind of concrete includes nonstructural purposes such as lightweight concrete walls and blocks, building facades and crash barriers. Keywords: concrete aggregates, rubber chips, rubberized concrete, used tires, waste recycling. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol. 3(1) 2006: 75-84 ...

  6. Perfect sound insulation property of reclaimed waste tire rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaidillah, Harjana, Yahya, Iwan; Kristiani, Restu; Muqowi, Eki; Mazlan, Saiful Amri

    2016-03-01

    This article reports an experimental investigation of sound insulation and absorption performance of a materials made of reclaimed ground tire rubber which is known as un-recyclable thermoset. The bulk waste tire is processed using single step recycling methods namely high-pressure high-temperature sintering (HPHTS). The bulk waste tire is simply placed into a mold and then a pressure load of 3 tons and a heating temperature of 200°C are applied to the mold. The HPHTS conducted for an hour and then it is cooled in room temperature. The resulted product is then evaluated the acoustical properties namely sound transmission loss (STL) and sound absorption coefficient using B&K Tube Kit Type 4206-T based on ISO 10534-2, ASTM E1050 and ASTM E2611. The sound absorption coefficient is found about 0.04 until 0.08 while STL value ranges between 50 to 60 dB. The sound absorption values are found to be very low (<0.1), while the average STL is higher than other elastomeric matrix found in previous work. The reclaimed tire rubber through HPHTS technique gives good soundproof characteristic.

  7. AN EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON THE WEAR OF TRUCK TIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosen IVANOV

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary. An experimental device and methodology for tire wear investigation are presented. An indirect method for wear evaluating is used. The experimental results in cases of straight motion with and without side slip are obtained. The distribution of wearing on tread pattern wide is evaluated in different running conditions.

  8. Rubber Tire Dozer Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This training outline for rubber tire dozer operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  9. Modern technologies of waste utilization from industrial tire production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimov, Yusuf; Gilmanshin, Iskander; Gilmanshina, Suriya

    2016-06-01

    The innovative technology of waste tire production recovery from JSC "Nizhnekamskshina", which determines the possibility of obtaining a new type of composite material in the form fiber filled rubber compound (FFRC) as the raw material, production of rubber products with high technical and operational characteristics.

  10. An abrupt backreef infilling in a Holocene reef, Paraoir, Northwestern Luzon, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Shou-Yeh; Wu, Tso-Ren; Siringan, Fernando P.; Lin, Ke; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2013-03-01

    We describe a sudden backreef infilling at the west coast of Luzon, Philippines, which occurred after 324 ± 12 yr ago (year BP, before 1950 AD). Results of 30 230Th-dated fossil corals from the surface and 5 cores, 17-29.1 m in length, recovered from a Holocene reef at Paraoir show that the reef flat developed in two stages. The reef margin is dated at 10,256 ± 50 (2 σ) yr BP at 23.9 m below mean sea level (MSL) and about 6,654 ± 29 yr BP at 3.7 m below MSL with ages increasing with depth. The reef flat was formed with sediments of 818-324 yr BP old, which do not follow an age-depth correlation. The evidence suggests that a backreef moat remained empty throughout the buildup of the reef for about 6 kyr and was filled abruptly with a 26-m-thick succession of rubble and bioclastics by an extreme wave event (EWE) after 324 ± 12 yr BP. Field evidence, historical records, and tsunami simulation suggest the EWE sedimentation was likely caused by a single severe tropical cyclone, although the possibility of tsunami is not ruled out. The Paraoir reef flat was built up in a mode different from previously reported cases of Holocene reefs.

  11. Mechanical characterization and force-displacement hysteretic curves from in-plane cyclic tests on strong masonry infills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Morandi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article contains information related to a recent study “Performance-based interpretation of in-plane cyclic tests on RC frames with strong masonry infills” (Morandi et al., 2017 [1]. Motivated by the necessity to improve the knowledge of the in-plane seismic response of rigid strong masonry infills, a wide experimental campaign based on in-plane cyclic tests on full-scale RC infilled frame specimens, supplemented with a complete characterization of the materials, has been conducted at the laboratory of the Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture of the University of Pavia. The masonry is constituted by vertically perforated 35 cm thick clay units with tongue and groove and dry head-joints and general-purpose mortar bed-joints. The paper reports the results of the mechanical characterization and of the force-displacement hysteretic curves from the in-plane cyclic tests.

  12. Development of infill drilling recovery models for carbonates reservoirs using neural networks and multivariate statistical as a novel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, R; Wu, Ch. H; Bubela, A M

    1999-01-01

    This work introduces a novel methodology to improve reservoir characterization models. In this methodology we integrated multivariate statistical analyses, and neural network models for forecasting the infill drilling ultimate oil recovery from reservoirs in San Andres and Clearfork carbonate formations in west Texas. Development of the oil recovery forecast models help us to understand the relative importance of dominant reservoir characteristics and operational variables, reproduce recoveries for units included in the database, forecast recoveries for possible new units in similar geological setting, and make operational (infill drilling) decisions. The variety of applications demands the creation of multiple recovery forecast models. We have developed intelligent software (Soto, 1998), oilfield intelligence (01), as an engineering tool to improve the characterization of oil and gas reservoirs. 01 integrates neural networks and multivariate statistical analysis. It is composed of five main subsystems: data input, preprocessing, architecture design, graphic design, and inference engine modules. One of the challenges in this research was to identify the dominant and the optimum number of independent variables. The variables include porosity, permeability, water saturation, depth, area, net thickness, gross thickness, formation volume factor, pressure, viscosity, API gravity, number of wells in initial water flooding, number of wells for primary recovery, number of infill wells over the initial water flooding, PRUR, IWUR, and IDUR. Multivariate principal component analysis is used to identify the dominant and the optimum number of independent variables. We compared the results from neural network models with the non-parametric approach. The advantage of the non-parametric regression is that it is easy to use. The disadvantage is that it retains a large variance of forecast results for a particular data set. We also used neural network concepts to develop recovery

  13. Simple Models for the Dynamic Modeling of Rotating Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Delamotte

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Large Finite Element (FE models of tires are currently used to predict low frequency behavior and to obtain dynamic model coefficients used in multi-body models for riding and comfort. However, to predict higher frequency behavior, which may explain irregular wear, critical rotating speeds and noise radiation, FE models are not practical. Detailed FE models are not adequate for optimization and uncertainty predictions either, as in such applications the dynamic solution must be computed a number of times. Therefore, there is a need for simpler models that can capture the physics of the tire and be used to compute the dynamic response with a low computational cost. In this paper, the spectral (or continuous element approach is used to derive such a model. A circular beam spectral element that takes into account the string effect is derived, and a method to simulate the response to a rotating force is implemented in the frequency domain. The behavior of a circular ring under different internal pressures is investigated using modal and frequency/wavenumber representations. Experimental results obtained with a real untreaded truck tire are presented and qualitatively compared with the simple model predictions with good agreement. No attempt is made to obtain equivalent parameters for the simple model from the real tire results. On the other hand, the simple model fails to represent the correct variation of the quotient of the natural frequency by the number of circumferential wavelengths with the mode count. Nevertheless, some important features of the real tire dynamic behavior, such as the generation of standing waves and part of the frequency/wavenumber behavior, can be investigated using the proposed simplified model.

  14. Assessing metal contamination from construction and demolition (C&D) waste used to infill wetlands: using Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, John A; Mc Donnell, Rory J; Gormally, Michael J; Williams, Chris D; Henry, Tiernan; Morrison, Liam

    2014-11-01

    Large quantities of construction and demolition waste (C&D) are produced globally every year, with little known about potential environmental impacts. In the present study, the slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Gastropoda) was used as the first biomonitor of metals (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Ti, Tl, V and Zn) on wetlands post infilling with construction and demolition (C&D) waste. The bioaccumulation of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Sb, Se and Tl were found to be significantly elevated in slugs collected on C&D waste when compared to unimproved pastures (control sites), while Mo, Se and Sr had significantly higher concentrations in slugs collected on C&D waste when compared to known contaminated sites (mining locations), indicating the potential hazardous nature of C&D waste to biota. Identifying exact sources for these metals within the waste can be problematic, due to its heterogenic nature. Biomonitors are a useful tool for future monitoring and impact studies, facilitating policy makers and regulations in other countries regarding C&D waste infill. In addition, improving separation of C&D waste to allow increased reuse and recycling is likely to be effective in reducing the volume of waste being used as infill, subsequently decreasing potential metal contamination.

  15. The impact of disulfide bond dynamics in wheat gluten protein on the development of fermented pastry crumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, Nand; Jansens, Koen J A; Pareyt, Bram; Reyniers, Stijn; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2018-03-01

    Gluten proteins functionality during pastry production was examined by including redox agents in the ingredient bill. Addition of reducing and oxidizing agents respectively increased and decreased dough height during fermentation. The presence of large gas bubbles in the samples with oxidizing agents may have caused a 'stacking'-effect and a more effective dough lift. During baking, the level of extractable proteins decreased to comparable values for all samples, except when potassium iodate (KIO 3 ) was used in the recipe. As a result of its use, a lower level of gliadin was incorporated into the gluten polymer and dough layers tended to 'slide' apart during baking, thereby causing collapse. Most likely, KIO 3 caused glutenin oxidation within each individual dough layer to such extent during the dough stage that insufficient thiol groups were available for forming dough layer interconnections during baking, after margarine melting. Furthermore, addition of redox agents impacted the product's crumb structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of Compaction Temperature on Resistance Under Monotonic Loading of Crumb-Rubber Modified Hot-Mix Asphalts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. Rondón-Quintana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of compaction temperature on resistance under mono-tonic loading (Marshall of Crumb-Rubber Modified (CRM Hot-Mix As-phalt (HMA was evaluated. The emphasis of this study was the applica-tion in Bogotá D.C. (Colombia. In this city the compaction temperature of HMA mixtures decreases, compared to the optimum, in about 30°C. Two asphalt cements (AC 60-70 and AC 80-100 were modified. Two particle sizes distribution curve were used. The compaction temperatures used were 120, 130, 140 and 150°C. The decrease of the compaction tempera-ture produces a small decrease in resistance under monotonic loading of the modified mixtures tested. Mixtures without CRM undergo a lineal decrease in its resistance of up to 34%.

  17. Upscaling of a Batch De-vulcanization Process for Ground Car Tire Rubber to a Continuous Process in a Twin Screw Extruder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; van Hoek, Johannes Wilhelmus; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Reuvekamp, Louis A.E.M.; Heideman, G.; Blume, Anke; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2016-01-01

    As a means to decrease the amount of waste tires and to re-use tire rubber for new tires, devulcanization of ground passenger car tires is a promising process. Being an established process for NR and EPDM, earlier work has shown that for ground passenger car tire rubber with a relatively high amount

  18. Effects of tire leachate on the invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus and the native congener Aedes triseriatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo C. Villena

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Discarded vehicle tire casings are an important artificial habitat for the developmental stages of numerous vector mosquitoes. Discarded vehicle tires degrade under ultraviolet light and leach numerous soluble metals (e.g., barium, cadmium, zinc and organic substances (e.g., benzothiazole and its derivatives [BZTs], polyaromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs] that could affect mosquito larvae that inhabit the tire casing. This study examined the relationship between soluble zinc, a common marker of tire leachate, on mosquito densities in tire habitats in the field, and tested the effects of tire leachate on the survival and development of newly hatched Aedes albopictus and Aedes triseriatus larvae in a controlled laboratory dose-response experiment. In the field, zinc concentrations were as high as 7.26 mg/L in a single tire and averaged as high as 2.39 (SE ± 1.17 mg/L among tires at a single site. Aedes albopictus (37/42 tires, 81.1% and A. triseriatus (23/42, 54.8% were the most widespread mosquito species, co-occurred in over half (22/42, 52.4% of all tires, and A. triseriatus was only collected without A. albopictus in one tire. Aedes triseriatus was more strongly negatively associated with zinc concentration than A. albopictus, and another common mosquito, C. pipiens, which was found in 17 tires. In the laboratory experiment, A. albopictus per capita rate of population change (λ′ was over 1.0, indicating positive population growth, from 0–8.9 mg/L zinc concentration (0–10,000 mg/L tire leachate, but steeply declined to zero from 44.50–89.00 mg/L zinc (50,000–100,000 mg/L tire leachate. In contrast, A. triseriatus λ′ declined at the lower concentration of 0.05 mg/L zinc (100 mg/L tire leachate, and was zero at 0.45, 8.90, 44.50, and 89.00 mg/L zinc (500, 10,000, 50,000 and 100,000 mg/L tire leachate. These results indicate that tire leachate can have severe negative effects on populations of container-utilizing mosquitoes at

  19. Tire traces - discrimination and classification of pyrolysis-GC/MS profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueissaz, Line; Massonnet, Geneviève

    2013-07-10

    Tire traces can be observed on several crime scenes as vehicles are often used by criminals. The tread abrasion on the road, while braking or skidding, leads to the production of small rubber particles which can be collected for comparison purposes. This research focused on the statistical comparison of Py-GC/MS profiles of tire traces and tire treads. The optimisation of the analytical method was carried out using experimental designs. The aim was to determine the best pyrolysis parameters regarding the repeatability of the results. Thus, the pyrolysis factor effect could also be calculated. The pyrolysis temperature was found to be five time more important than time. Finally, a pyrolysis at 650°C during 15s was selected. Ten tires of different manufacturers and models were used for this study. Several samples were collected on each tire, and several replicates were carried out to study the variability within each tire (intravariability). More than eighty compounds were integrated for each analysis and the variability study showed that more than 75% presented a relative standard deviation (RSD) below 5% for the ten tires, thus supporting a low intravariability. The variability between the ten tires (intervariability) presented higher values and the ten most variant compounds had a RSD value above 13%, supporting their high potential of discrimination between the tires tested. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was able to fully discriminate the ten tires with the help of the first three principal components. The ten tires were finally used to perform braking tests on a racetrack with a vehicle equipped with an anti-lock braking system. The resulting tire traces were adequately collected using sheets of white gelatine. As for tires, the intravariability for the traces was found to be lower than the intervariability. Clustering methods were carried out and the Ward's method based on the squared Euclidean distance was able to correctly group all of the tire traces

  20. U- and Th-series disequilibria in coastal infill sediments from Praia da Rocha (Algarve Region, Portugal): a contribution to the study of late Quaternary weathering and erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, H. M.; Plater, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    U- and Th-series disequilibria observed in a sequence of infill sediments from Praia da Rocha, southern Portugal, were used in combination with geochemical and particle size data to investigate sediment provenance with a view to resolving the late Quaternary weathering and erosion history of the Algarve region, and the stratigraphy of coastal karstic exposures of the Faro/Quarteira (FQ) formation. The red infill units can be distinguished from the brown and buff units on the basis of their lower residual U- and Th-concentrations, their differing post-depositional histories (as revealed by U- and Th-series disequilibria in sequentially extracted sediment phases), and their greater degree of sediment processing. Hence, the buff and brown infill units appear to be derived locally from weathering of the Miocene limestone whilst the red infill may be linked to large-scale mass movement of the FQ formation from further inland, but south of Silves, during the Late Pleistocene. This sequence of events confirms a close association between the formation of karst topography and infilling by gravitational slumping, debris flow and fluvial activity, and, hence, accounts for the complex (three-stage) sediment provenance of the infill material.

  1. Demonstration of improved vehicle fuel efficiency through innovative tire design, materials, and weight reduction technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donley, Tim [Cooper Tire & Rubber Company Incorporated, Findlay, OH (United States)

    2014-12-31

    Cooper completed an investigation into new tire technology using a novel approach to develop and demonstrate a new class of fuel efficient tires using innovative materials technology and tire design concepts. The objective of this work was to develop a new class of fuel efficient tires, focused on the “replacement market” that would improve overall passenger vehicle fuel efficiency by 3% while lowering the overall tire weight by 20%. A further goal of this project was to accomplish the objectives while maintaining the traction and wear performance of the control tire. This program was designed to build on what has already been accomplished in the tire industry for rolling resistance based on the knowledge and general principles developed over the past decades. Cooper’s CS4 (Figure #1) premium broadline tire was chosen as the control tire for this program. For Cooper to achieve the goals of this project, the development of multiple technologies was necessary. Six technologies were chosen that are not currently being used in the tire industry at any significant level, but that showed excellent prospects in preliminary research. This development was divided into two phases. Phase I investigated six different technologies as individual components. Phase II then took a holistic approach by combining all the technologies that showed positive results during phase one development.

  2. Numerical Study of Tire Hydroplaning Based on Power Spectrum of Asphalt Pavement and Kinetic Friction Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengze Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroplaning is a driving phenomenon threating vehicle’s control stability and safety. It happens when tire rolls on wet pavement with high speed that hydrodynamic force uplifts the tire. Accurate numerical simulation to reveal the mechanism of hydroplaning and evaluate the function of relevant factors in this process is significant. In order to describe the friction behaviors of tire-pavement interaction, kinetic friction coefficient curve of tire rubber and asphalt pavement was obtained by combining pavement surface power spectrum and complex modulus of tread rubber through Persson’s friction theory. Finite element model of tire-fluid-pavement was established in ABAQUS, which was composed of a 225-40-R18 radial tire and three types of asphalt pavement covered with water film. Mechanical responses and physical behaviors of tire-pavement interaction were observed and compared with NASA equation to validate the applicability and accuracy of this model. Then contact force at tire-pavement interface and critical hydroplaning speed influenced by tire inflation pressure, water film thickness, and pavement types were investigated. The results show higher tire inflation pressure, thinner water film, and more abundant macrotexture enhancing hydroplaning speed. The results could be applied to predict hydroplaning speed on different asphalt pavement and improve pavement skid resistance design.

  3. Silica-filled tire tread compounds: an investigation into the viscoelastic properties of the rubber compounds and their relation to tire performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maghami, S.

    2016-01-01

    With increasing the global concern for fossil fuel consumption, automotive industry moves toward more efficient vehicles. Tires are of great importance in this respect, as the tire compound material in contact with the road surface and under the cyclic deformation dissipates energy due to its

  4. Culturally induced range infilling of eastern redcedar: a problem in ecology, an ecological problem, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit Krug, Aubrey; Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Twidwell, Dirac

    2017-01-01

    The philosopher John Passmore distinguished between (1) “problems in ecology,” or what we might call problems in scientific understanding of ecological change, and (2) “ecological problems,” or what we might call problems faced by societies due to ecological change. The spread of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) and conversion of the central and southern Great Plains of North America to juniper woodland might be categorized as a problem in ecology, an ecological problem, or both. Here, we integrate and apply two interdisciplinary approaches to problem-solving—social-ecological systems thinking and ecocriticism—to understand the role of human culture in recognizing, driving, and responding to cedar’s changing geographic distribution. We interpret the spread of cedar as a process of culturally induced range infilling due to the ongoing social-ecological impacts of colonization, analyze poetic literary texts to clarify the concepts that have so far informed different cultural values related to cedar, and explore the usefulness of diverse interdisciplinary collaborations and knowledge for addressing social-ecological challenges like cedar spread in the midst of rapidly unfolding global change. Our examination suggests that it is not only possible, but preferable, to address cedar spread as both a scientific and a social problem. Great Plains landscapes are teetering between grassland and woodland, and contemporary human societies both influence and choose how to cope with transitions between these ecological states. We echo previous studies in suggesting that human cultural values about stability and disturbance, especially cultural concepts of fire, will be primary driving factors in determining future trajectories of change on the Great Plains. Although invasion-based descriptors of cedar spread may be useful in ecological research and management, language based on the value of restraint could provide a common vocabulary for effective cross

  5. Scrap tire recycling: Promising high value applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, B.D.; Leskovyansky, P.J.; Drela, H.

    1993-11-01

    Surface modification of scrap tire rubber (rubber particles treated with chlorine gas) show promise for ameliorating the scrap tire problem (the treated rubber can be used as a component in high- performance, expensive polymer systems). The process has been proven in Phase I. Phase II covers market/applications, process development (Forberg-design mixer reactor was chosen), plant design, capital cost estimate, economics environmental/safety/health, and energy impact. Almost of the small amount of chlorine is consumed. The capital costs for a rubber particle treatment facility are attractive, being at least two orders of magnitude less than that of facilities for making new polymer materials. Large volume markets using treated rubber are needed. The amount of scrap rubber available is small compared to the polymers available for replacement. 7 tabs, 16 figs.

  6. Polymer concrete reinforced with recycled-tire fibers: Mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Cruz, E; Martínez-López, M; Martínez-Barrera, G

    2013-01-01

    Polymer Concrete was reinforced with recycled-tire fibers in order to improve the compressive and flexural strength. Polymer concrete specimens were prepared with 70% of silicious sand, 30% of polyester resin and various fiber concentrations (0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 vol%). The results show increment of 50% in average of the compressive and flexural strength as well as on the deformation when adding 1.2 vol% of recycled-fibers.

  7. Soft Soil Tire Model Development and Experimental Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    ratio in this thesis is calculated using the SAE standard, which is defined by the equation below, UNCLASSIFIED Proceedings of the12th European...simulations pre- sented in this paper use the Bekker formula - tion. Grahn’s equation can be employed as soon as the missing parameters are experi- mentally...rigidized- suspension , quarter-car model made to extensively investigate tire dynamics when applied to a wide variety of terrains, as shown in Fig

  8. How wear affects road surface texture and its impact on tire/road noise

    OpenAIRE

    Siebert, Doreen

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical pavement wear in the Nordic countries is essentially influenced by the use of studded tires during long winter seasons. The abrasive effect of the studded tires is the cause of significant damage on the pavement and a contributor to rutting. In addition, the mechanical aggregate removal due to the studded tires is the reason for significant changes in the road surface texture. At traditional dense asphalt pavements, the mechanical wear is initiated by the abrasion of the mortar, wh...

  9. Off-Road Soft Soil Tire Model Development and Experimental Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    efficiency, accu- racy, resolution, and ease of parametrization. Fig. 1 illustrates the classification of tire mod- els based on the approach used...Blacksburg, VA, USA 3 This model, as well as Chan’s model, use a combined slip formulation. El -Gawwad et al. [12-13] developed a multi-spoke tire model...capture with a good resolution the tire dynam- ics of off-road simulations. Nakashima and Oido [12] discussed a method to combine Finite Element Analysis

  10. Trucks tires resource controlling by control of process of their wearing-out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander KRAVCHENKO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensity and form of wear of tire′s tread depends on the technical state of assemblies of car suspension. The database according to the information of control of the height of the protector picture is forming. On its basis on the developed system of maintenance of tires setting of norms, prognostication and optimization of resource of tires is made, necessary repair influences of tires and assemblies of suspension are appointed.

  11. The space shuttle program from challenge to achievement: Space exploration rolling on tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Transportation System is the first space program to employ the pneumatic tire as a part of space exploration. For aircraft tires, this program establishes new expectations as to what constitutes acceptable performance within a set of tough environmental and operational conditions. Tire design, stresses the usual low weight, high load, high speed, and excellent air retention features but at extremes well outside industry standards. Tires will continue to be an integral part of the Shuttle's landing phase in the immediate future since they afford a unique combination of directional control, braking traction, flotation and shock absorption not available by other systems.

  12. Vein-style air pumping tube and tire system and method of assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, Robert Leon; Gobinath, Thulasiram; Lin, Cheng-Hsiung; Lamgaday, Robin; Losey, Robert Allen; Griffoin, Jean-Claude Patrice Philippe

    2017-01-03

    An air pumping tube and tire system and method of assembling is provided in which a tire groove is formed to extend into a flexing region of a tire sidewall and a complementary air pumping tube inserts into the tire groove. In the green, uncured air pumping tube condition, one or more check valves are assembled into the air pumping tube through access shafts and align with an internal air passageway of the air pumping tube. Plug components of the system enclose the check valves in the air pumping tube and the check valve-containing green air pumping tube is then cured.

  13. Infill and mire evolution of a typical kettle hole: young ages at great depths (Jackenmoos, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Joachim; Salcher, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    Kettle holes are very common features in proglacial environments. Myriads of small, often circular shaped lakes are indicative of dead ice slowly melting out after the collapse of glaciers and subsequent burial of glaciofluvial sediments. Many of these lakes transformed into mires during the Postglacial and the Holocene. Still, little is known about the mechanisms leading to mire formation in such environments. We aim to analyse the shape and the postglacial history of infilling and peat accumulation of a typical dead ice kettle using 2D resistivity surveying, core-drilling, 14C dating and palynologic analyses. The kettle hole mire is located within a small kame delta deposit just south of the LGM extend of the Salzach Piedmont glacier (Austria/Germany). Today, the mire is a spot of exceptional high biodiversity and under protection. Sediment core samples extracted in the deepest (c. 10-14 m) and central part of the kettle directly overly lacustrine fine sediments and yielded young ages covering the subatlantic period only. Young ages are in agreement with palynologic results comprising e.g. pollen of secale (rye) and juglans (walnut). However, these deposits are situated beneath a massive water body (10 m), only covered by a thin floating mat. A second, more distally situated drill core indicates the thinning of this water body at the expense of peat deposits covering the Late Glacial to Middle Holocene. Multiple 2D resistivity data support drilling information and enabled us to reconstruct the shape of the basin. The transition from lacustrine sediments to the water body above is characterised by a sharp increase in resistivity. Furthermore, the resistivity pattern within the entire kettle indicates an increase towards the centre, most probably as a result of the changing nutrient content. The postglacial evolution of the mire is in agreement with the concept of "floating mat terrestrialisation", representing a horizontal growth of the floating mat from the edges

  14. Statical Experiments of Tire as Complex Long-Fibre Composite for Obtaining Material Parameters and Deformation Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krmela

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the statical experiments of tires for obtaining material parameters and deformation characteristics by tensile testing machine and also special statical testing tire machine. The tires consist of polymer matrix – rubber and long-filament reinforcement – cords, hence the tires are fall within as very complex long-fibre composite with specific deformation characteristics. These tire deformation characteristics have given geometry shape of tire and material parameters of component parts of tire-casing. Nowadays the computational modeling is used for tire solutions and experiments are subsidiary only. But the combination of computational modeling with experimental approach is necessary to use for prediction real states of tires. For computational modeling of tires the material parameters of each component part of tire-casing are necessary as material input data for computational models. These material parameters can be obtained by tensile test by statical testing machine. The geometry parameters of multi-layer test specimens of steel-cord belt with conditions of tensile tests are designed. The data from statical deformation characteristics are necessary for comparison of computational outputs with experimental data. The special testing tire machine called statical adhesor is used to obtain deformation characteristics and information about contact patches with pressure distribution in contact patches. The experimental results of chosen radial tire 245/40 R18 for passenger car are presented in this article. In this paper a new formula for calculating of value of radial stiffness is designed too.

  15. Holocene evolution of the Tonle Sap Lake: valley network infill and rates of sedimentation in Cambodia's Great Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, J.; Darby, S. E.; Langdon, P. G.; Hackney, C. R.; Leyland, J.; Parsons, D. R.; Aalto, R. E.; Marti, M.

    2017-12-01

    Tonle Sap Lake, the largest freshwater lake in SE Asia (c. 120km long and 35 km wide), is a vital ecosystem that provides 40-60% of the protein for the population of Cambodia. The lake is fed by flow from the Mekong River that causes the lake rise in level by c. 8m during monsoonal and cyclone-related floods, with drainage of the lake following the monsoon. Hydropower dam construction on the Mekong River has raised concerns as to the fragility of the Tonle Sap habitat due to any changing water levels and sedimentation rates within the lake. This paper details results of sub-bottom profiling surveys of Tonle Sap Lake in October 2014 that detailed the stratigraphy of the lake and assessed rates of infill. An Innomar Parametric Echo Sounder (PES) was used to obtain c. 250 km of sub-bottom profiles, with penetration up to 15m below the lake bed at a vertical resolution of c. 0.20m. These PES profiles were linked to cores from the north of the lake and previous literature. The PES profiles reveal a network of valleys, likely LGM, with relief up to c. 15-20m, that have been infilled by a suite of Holocene sediments. The valley surface is picked out as a strong reflector throughout the lake, and displays a series of valleys that are up to c. 15m deep and commonly 50-200m wide, although some of the largest valleys are 1.2km in width. Modelling of channel network incision during LGM conditions generates landscapes consistent with our field observations. The Tonle Sap valley network is infilled by sediments that show firstly fluvial and/or subaerial slope sedimentation, and then by extensive, parallel-bedded, lacustrine sedimentation. Lastly, the top c. 1m of sedimentation is marked by a distinct basal erosional surface that can be traced over much of the Tonle Sap Lake, and that is overlain by a series of parallel PES reflections. This upper sediment layer is interpreted to represent sedimentation in the Tonle Sap lake due to sediment suspension settling but after a period

  16. Time-transgressive tunnel-valley infill revealed by a three- dimensional sedimentary model, Hamburg, north-west Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janszen, Adriaan; Moreau, Julien; Moscariello, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    highly intricate and therefore difficult to predict. This study intends to improve the comprehension of the sedimentology and to establish a conceptual model of tunnel-valley infill, which can be used as a predictive tool. To this end, the densely sampled, Pleistocene tunnel valleys in Hamburg (north...... succession filling the Hamburg area tunnel valleys can be subdivided into three distinct units, which are distinguished by their inferred depositional proximity to the ice margin. The overall trend of the succession shows a progressive decrease in transport energy and glacial influence through time. The rate...

  17. Detection of tire tread particles using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prochazka, David, E-mail: prochazka.d@fme.vutbr.cz [Brno University of Technology, Institute of Physical Engineering, Technická 2, 616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Brno University of Technology, Central European Institute of Technology, Technická 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Bilík, Martin [Brno University of Technology, Institute of Forensic Engineering, Údolní 244/53, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Prochazková, Petra [Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Kamenice 735/5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Klus, Jakub; Pořízka, Pavel; Novotný, Jan [Brno University of Technology, Central European Institute of Technology, Technická 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Novotný, Karel [Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Kamenice 735/5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Brno University of Technology, Central European Institute of Technology, Technická 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Ticová, Barbora [Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Kamenice 735/5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Bradáč, Albert; Semela, Marek [Brno University of Technology, Institute of Forensic Engineering, Údolní 244/53, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this paper is a study of the potential of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for detection of tire tread particles. Tire tread particles may represent pollutants; simultaneously, it is potentially possible to exploit detection of tire tread particles for identification of optically imperceptible braking tracks at locations of road accidents. The paper describes the general composition of tire treads and selection of an element suitable for detection using the LIBS method. Subsequently, the applicable spectral line is selected considering interferences with lines of elements that might be present together with the detected particles, and optimization of measurement parameters such as incident laser energy, gate delay and gate width is performed. In order to eliminate the matrix effect, measurements were performed using 4 types of tires manufactured by 3 different producers. An adhesive tape was used as a sample carrier. The most suitable adhesive tape was selected from 5 commonly available tapes, on the basis of their respective LIBS spectra. Calibration standards, i.e. an adhesive tape with different area content of tire tread particles, were prepared for the selected tire. A calibration line was created on the basis of the aforementioned calibration standards. The linear section of this line was used for determination of the detection limit value applicable to the selected tire. Considering the insignificant influence of matrix of various types of tires, it is possible to make a simple recalculation of the detection limit value on the basis of zinc content in a specific tire. - Highlights: • LIBS experimental measurement parameters for tire tread particles were optimize. • Calibration curve was prepared. • Limit of detection was determined.

  18. Novel neuroprotective function of apical-basal polarity gene crumbs in amyloid beta 42 (aβ42 mediated neurodegeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Steffensmeier

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD, OMIM: 104300, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with no cure to date, is caused by the generation of amyloid-beta-42 (Aβ42 aggregates that trigger neuronal cell death by unknown mechanism(s. We have developed a transgenic Drosophila eye model where misexpression of human Aβ42 results in AD-like neuropathology in the neural retina. We have identified an apical-basal polarity gene crumbs (crb as a genetic modifier of Aβ42-mediated-neuropathology. Misexpression of Aβ42 caused upregulation of Crb expression, whereas downregulation of Crb either by RNAi or null allele approach rescued the Aβ42-mediated-neurodegeneration. Co-expression of full length Crb with Aβ42 increased severity of Aβ42-mediated-neurodegeneration, due to three fold induction of cell death in comparison to the wild type. Higher Crb levels affect axonal targeting from the retina to the brain. The structure function analysis identified intracellular domain of Crb to be required for Aβ42-mediated-neurodegeneration. We demonstrate a novel neuroprotective role of Crb in Aβ42-mediated-neurodegeneration.

  19. Olefin-maleic-anhydride copolymer based additives: a novel approach for compatibilizing blends of waste polyethylene and crumb rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Balázs; Varga, Csilla; Bartha, László

    2015-04-01

    In our work processing conditions and mechanical properties of waste polyethylene (PE)/crumb rubber (CR) blends have been improved by new types of compatibilizing additives synthesized from experimental olefin-maleic-anhydride copolymers at our laboratory. Compatibilizing additives have been introduced into the PE/CR blends in 0.2 wt% while CR concentration has been varied between 10 and 50 wt%. For comparison of the effects commercially available MA-g-PO type compatibilizing additives have also been applied. Tensile and Charpy impact tests of the compression moulded samples have been carried out. Several experimental additives have enhanced properties of the PE/CR blends either from the point of view of tensile or Charpy impact strength while commercial additives have had improving effects only on one of the abovementioned mechanical properties but not for both of them simultaneously. Since good mechanical properties could be achieved by our experimental compatibilizers good adhesion in the waste PE/CR samples have been considered and was proven by SEM graphs either. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigation of Low-Temperature Behavior of Stone Mastic Asphalt Mixtures Modified with Paraffin and Crumb Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baha Vural KÖK

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In hot mix asphalts at low temperatures, cracks occur due to thermal tension and these cracks cause water to leak inside the pavement and the pavement gets deformed sooner than expected. In order to improve the properties of bituminous mixtures, mostly polymer type additives are used in the modification of the bitumen. These types of improvements usually have positive effects on the high-temperature behavior of the mixture. In this study, semi-circular bending test, which is the most commonly used method in the literature to investigate the low-temperature behavior of bituminous mixtures, was performed. In the study, the resistance of stone mastic asphalt mixtures, which were prepared with modified bitumen with a constant 3% of paraffin and various amounts of crumb rubber, to crack formation and its movement was identified. As a result, it was concluded that the effects of additives on crack formation and its movement is varied and the relation between the fractured aggregate surface areas and the fracture toughness of the mixture can be determined by the image processing method.

  1. Following the trail of crumbs: A bibliometric study on consumer behavior in the Food Science and Technology field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia-Gabriela C. Kasemodel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper was to conduct an exploratory study regarding consumer preference in the field of the Food Science and Technology. Two questions guided this study: Is it possible to identify a trail of crumbs concerning consumer behavior in the Food Science and Technology field? And, if that trail exists, where is it leading academia in terms of research trends of interest? A bibliometric study was conducted using an analysis software called CiteSpace. The use of this methodology ensured the impartiality of the literature review of the topic of interest. A survey of all articles indexed in Web of Science between 1993 and 2013 regarding consumer behaviour was carried out. In total, 1,786 articles were analyzed. The recent increased concern regarding consumer behavior was evident.  With the USA and Spain having a significant  role in driving the trail. Eight other countries  that exhibited similar influences are: Italy, England, Australia, Germany, Denmark, France, Netherlands and Brazil. The research trends observed were grouped into seven major hot topics: sensory, health, safety, willingness to pay, packaging, ethics, and lifestyle/convenience. However, the development of publishing trends depended on where the research was carried out. A final suggestive finding, demonstrated that scientific knowledge does not occur in a vacuum.

  2. Comparison of the volatile profiles of the crumb of gluten-free breads by DHE-GC/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pico, Joana; Hansen, Åse Solvej; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2017-01-01

    The aroma of gluten-free bread has been considered of lower quality than that of the common wheat bread. With the aim of improving the aroma of gluten-free bread, the volatile profiles of the crumb of gluten-free breads made from rice, teff, buckwheat, amaranth and quinoa flours as well as corn....... Rice bread was characterised by the highest levels in nonanal and 2,4-decadienal and corn starch bread by 2,3-pentanedione and 2-furaldehyde. Teff presented the highest abundance of ethyl hexanoate and ethyl nonanoate, but also of alcohols and aldehydes from lipid oxidation. Quinoa and amaranth were...... classified by the highest content in Strecker and Ehrlich aldehydes as well as 1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol or 3-hydroxy-2-butanone from fermentation. Corn starch bread was the closest to wheat bread in the PCA due to the highest content mainly in 2,3-butanedione and furfural as well...

  3. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Annual report, June 13, 1994--June 12, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pande, P.K.

    1996-11-01

    This project has used a multi-disciplinary approach employing geology, geophysics, and engineering to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and management activities to design and implement an optimized infill drilling program at the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit in Gaines County, Texas. The activities during the first Budget Period have consisted of developing an integrated reservoir description from geological, engineering, and geostatistical studies, and using this description for reservoir flow simulation. Specific reservoir management activities are being identified and tested. The geologically targeted infill drilling program will be implemented using the results of this work. A significant contribution of this project is to demonstrate the use of cost-effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability shallow-shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs. The techniques that are outlined for the formulation of an integrated reservoir description apply to all oil and gas reservoirs, but are specifically tailored for use in the heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs of West Texas.

  4. Application of the local-to-global approach to the study of infilled frame structures under seismic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combescure, D.

    2000-01-01

    The seismic performance of civil engineering structures may be estimated by using two levels of modelling. At the local level, each constituent has its own constitutive law and geometric finite element support. The main phenomena such as the cracking and the crushing of concrete and masonry could be reproduced by using the continuous damage or plasticity theories. However the cost of the computations does not allow extensive or dynamic studies and thus the global level - where the constitutive laws based on empirical rules reproduce the behaviour of the structural elements - represents the unique strategy for the analysis of complete civil engineering structures under seismic loading. The present paper aims at presenting the application of these two modelling levels in order to assess the seismic performance of masonry infilled R/C frame structures. The one-bay masonry infilled frames tested at Lisbon under cyclic loading and the four-storey building tested at ELSA have been used for the validation of the modelling approach. (orig.)

  5. Feasibility of High-Resolution Pulse-Echo Techniques for Automobile Tire Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-06-01

    The report presents ultrasonic A-scan reflection oscillograms and B-scan one-dimensional scanning displays for small sections of automobile tires, and for tire-like rubber and cord composite structures, using impulse excitation of 1-MHz and 5-MHz tra...

  6. 49 CFR 571.138 - Standard No. 138; Tire pressure monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... system that meets the requirements specified in S4 under the test conditions specified in S5 and the test... inflation pressure in one or more of the vehicle's tires, up to a total of four tires, is equal to or less... pressure, or the pressure specified in the 3rd column of Table 1 of this standard for the corresponding...

  7. Influence of oligomeric resins on traction and rolling resistance of silica tire treads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugels, N.; Pille-Wolf, W.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study concerns the silica-reinforcement of synthetic rubber compounds for passenger tire treads with the objective to gain insight into the beneficial effects of oligomeric resins, derived from natural and synthetic monomers, on the major tire performance factors: rolling resistance and (wet)

  8. Influence of oligomeric resins on traction and rolling resistance of silica tire treads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugels, N.; Pille-Wolf, W.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study concerns the silica-reinforcement of synthetic rubber compounds for passenger tire treads with the objective to gain insight into the beneficial effects of oligomeric resins, derived from natural and synthetic monomers, on the major tire performance factors: Rolling Resistance and (Wet)

  9. Understanding the Influence of oligomeric resins on traction and rolling resistance of silica tire treads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugels, N.; Pille-Wolf, W.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study concerns the silica reinforcement of styrene–butadiene rubber compounds for passenger car tire treads, with the objective of gaining greater insight into the beneficial effects of oligomeric resins. The major tire performance factors predicted are rolling resistance and (wet) skid

  10. 75 FR 32536 - Foreign Tire Sales, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Noncompliance Foreign Tire Sales, Inc. (FTS) \\1\\, as importer of record for ProMeter brand medium truck radial... and drive) ProMeter brand medium truck radial tires manufactured during the period between the 15th..., although there is no limit to the length of necessary attachments to the comments. If comments are...

  11. Tire wear emissions for asphalt rubber and Portland cement concrete pavement surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    Since 1990, it has been the policy of the State of Arizona that the recycling and reuse of : waste tires are the highest priority. The Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) : has long supported the use of recycled waste tire rubber in asphalt r...

  12. 76 FR 15045 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    .... \\1\\ Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company (Goodyear) is a replacement equipment manufacturer incorporated... replacement equipment manufacturer from the notification and recall responsibilities of 49 CFR part 573 for 26... Assurance ComforTred Touring passenger replacement car tires manufactured between January 4, 2010 and...

  13. 77 FR 2775 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ...). \\1\\ Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company (Goodyear) is a replacement equipment manufacturer incorporated... under 49 CFR part 556, requests an agency decision to exempt Goodyear as a replacement equipment... Assurance ComforTred Touring passenger replacement car tires manufactured between January 4, 2010 and...

  14. 75 FR 28319 - Yokohama Tire Corporation, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... Reports. \\1\\ Yokohama Tire Corporation (YTC) a replacement equipment manufacturer is incorporated in the... 49 CFR Part 556, requests an agency decision to exempt YTC as replacement equipment manufacturer from... 93H AVID H4S passenger car replacement tires, manufactured between December 2, 2007, and September 19...

  15. 49 CFR 571.129 - Standard No. 129; New non-pneumatic tires for passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... means the breaking away of pieces of the carcass or tread. Cracking means any parting within the carcass... be mounted on a vehicle. Non-pneumatic tire identification code means an alphanumeric code that is... its non-pneumatic tire identification code designation in a listing in accordance with section S4.4...

  16. 41 CFR 101-25.110-3 - Tires accompanying new motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 101-25.110-3 Section 101-25.110-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.110-3 Tires accompanying new motor vehicles. The tire identifications and recordkeeping regulations issued by the Department of Transportation require each motor...

  17. Stress-based viscoelastic master curve construction of model tire tread compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maghami, S.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Tolpekina, T.V.; Schultz, S.; Gögelein, C.; Wrana, C.; Asier, Alonso

    2013-01-01

    One of the important aspects in the development of new tire compounds is the correlation between the dynamic mechanical properties of the rubber, measured on laboratory scale, and the actual tire performance. In order to predict wet traction, the viscoelastic behavior of the rubber materials at high

  18. NOISE AS AN INDIRECT CRITERION FOR EVALUATING THE CRITICAL SPEED OF VEHICLE TIRE AT HYDROPLANING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Karpenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An alternative method for determining the critical rolling speed of automobile tires with various tread patterns during hydroplaning is considered. The critical speed of the car at which the hydroplaning process takes place is determined. This method is based on recording the tire noise emission when driving on a wet road pavement.

  19. Tire-Pavement Friction Characteristics with Elastic Properties of Asphalt Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Yu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The skid-resisting performance of pavement is a critical factor in traffic safety. Recent studies primarily analyze this behavior by examining the macro or micro texture of the pavement. It is inevitable that skid-resistance declines with time because the texture of pavement deteriorates throughout its service life. The primary objective of this paper is to evaluate the use of different asphalt pavements, varying in resilience, to optimize braking performance on pavement. Based on the systematic dynamics of tire-pavement contact, and analysis of the tire-road coupled friction mechanism and the effect of enlarging the tire-pavement contact area, road skid resistance was investigated by altering the elastic modulus of asphalt pavement. First, this research constructed the kinetic contact model to simulate tire-pavement friction. Next, the following aspects of contact behaviors were studied when braking: tread deformation in the tangential pavement interface, actual tire-pavement contact in the course, and the frictional braking force transmitted from the pavement to the tires. It was observed that with improvements in pavement elasticity, the actual tire-pavement contact area increased, which gives us the ability to effectively strengthen the frictional adhesion of the tire to the pavement. It should not be overlooked that the improvement in skid resistance was caused by an increase in pavement elasticity. This research approach provides a theoretical basis and design reference for the anti-skid research of asphalt pavements.

  20. 49 CFR 574.8 - Information requirements-tire distributors and dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (a)(1)(iii) with respect to a sale or lease shall include a statement to that effect on the invoice for that sale or lease and provide the invoice to the tire purchaser. (b) Other distributors and... the tire manufacturer, secure electronic means, the information specified in § 574.7(a)(4) to the...

  1. 41 CFR 101-25.110-2 - Tires obtained through Federal Supply Schedules or regional term contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Tires obtained through Federal Supply Schedules or regional term contracts. 101-25.110-2 Section 101-25.110-2 Public Contracts... Federal Supply Schedules or regional term contracts. When tire manufacturers ship tires direct against...

  2. 49 CFR 571.110 - Tire selection and rims and motor home/recreation vehicle trailer load carrying capacity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... weight (in excess of those standard items which may be replaced) of automatic transmission, power... use in place of one of the pneumatic tires and rims that are fitted to a passenger car in compliance... specified in the third column of Table I. Passenger car tire means a tire intended for use on passenger cars...

  3. Stormwater Infrastructure at Risk: Predicting the Impacts of Increased Imperviousness due to Infill Development in a Semi-arid Urban Neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, T. S.; Panos, C.; McCray, J. E.; Gilliom, R.

    2017-12-01

    This research investigates the impacts of infill development (or "redevelopment") on urban stormwater runoff and explores avenues for re-inventing stormwater management strategies for the City of Denver, Colorado. As a rapidly developing city, Denver is facing a cycle of increasing population and redevelopment in the form of infill (where under-utilized parcels within the City are redeveloped into high-density residential land uses). Infill development increases stormwater runoff by introducing more impervious surfaces, including roofs and driveways, which produce more runoff (additional stormwater). However, there is debate on the impact of infill patterns on runoff behavior, peak flows, and flood frequency events. We used a calibrated, high-resolution PCSWMM model to simulate three redevelopment scenarios within the 1000-acre Berkeley neighborhood of northwest Denver. The scenarios utilized future predictions of redevelopment to simulate increases in imperviousness by 1.1, 4.5, and 8.7 percent by 2024, 2034, and 2044, respectively, for a range of design storms. Results predict that, on average, for each 1% increase in impervious area due to infill development, surface runoff volume will increase by 1.28% in the Berkeley neighborhood. Results demonstrate the limitations of the existing storm sewer network as pipes throughout the catchment reach capacity for events larger than the 2-yr storm for all three scenarios. Spatial maps of the catchment pinpoint subcatchments and sewer nodes of concern, namely surrounding a rapidly growing business corridor and the local Interstate. Overall, results indicate the infrastructure of the Berkeley neighborhood may be at risk, and that current stormwater capture policies may need to be revisited to accommodate both future infill development and climate change. This research provides a quantitative basis for implementing potential changes as well as examining the possibility of using the additional stormwater from redevelopment

  4. Influence of system controls on the Late Quaternary geomorphic evolution of a rapidly-infilled incised-valley system: The lower Manawatu valley, North Island New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Alastair J. H.; Fuller, Ian C.

    2018-02-01

    The Manawatu incised-valley estuary was rapidly infilled between 12,000-4700 cal. yr BP. A combination of empirical measurements of sedimentation rates, a reconstruction of relative sea-level (RSL) change, and digital elevation models of key surfaces within the Holocene sedimentary fill of the valley were integrated to produce a numerical model to investigate the influence of the system controls of sea-level change, sediment flux, and accommodation space on the rapid infilling history of the palaeo-estuary. The numerical model indicates that sediment flux into the palaeo-estuary was greatest during the Holocene marine transgression between 12,000-8000 years BP. The average rate of sediment deposition in the estuary during this period was 1.0 M m3 yr- 1. This rapid rate of sedimentation was controlled by the rate of accommodation space creation, as regulated by the rate of sea-level rise and the antecedent configuration of the valley. By the time sea levels stabilised c. 7500 cal. yr BP, the palaeo-estuary had been substantively infilled. Limited accommodation space resulted in rapid infilling of the central basin, though sediment flux into the estuary between 7100 and 4500 cal. yr BP was at a lower rate of 234,000 m3 yr- 1. The limited accommodation space also influenced hydrodynamic conditions in the estuarine central basin, driving export of fine-grained sediment from the estuary. Once the accommodation space of the estuarine basin was infilled sediment bypassed the system, with a consequent reduction in the sedimentation rate in the valley. More accurate partitioning of the sources of sediment driving the infilling is necessary to quantify sediment bypassing. Post-depositional lowering of RSL index points from the valley is driven by neotectonics and sediment compaction.

  5. Properties of concrete containing scrap-tire rubber--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Rafat; Naik, Tarun R

    2004-01-01

    Solid waste management is one of the major environmental concerns in the United States. Over 5 billion tons of non-hazardous solid waste materials are generated in USA each year. Of these, more than 270 million scrap-tires (approximately 3.6 million tons) are generated each year. In addition to this, about 300 million scrap-tires have been stockpiled. Several studies have been carried out to reuse scrap-tires in a variety of rubber and plastic products, incineration for production of electricity, or as fuel for cement kilns, as well as in asphalt concrete. Studies show that workable rubberized concrete mixtures can be made with scrap-tire rubber. This paper presents an overview of some of the research published regarding the use of scrap-tires in portland cement concrete. The benefits of using magnesium oxychloride cement as a binder for rubberized concrete mixtures are also presented. The paper details the likely uses of rubberized concrete.

  6. Proceedings of Two Symposia on Nondestructive Testing of Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    is calibrated by a precision calibration load kit including electronic load cell and matched elec- tronics which are delivered as a unit traceable ...development of infrared night vision devices at the Army’s Corps of Engineers RfiD Laboratories, Ft. Belvoir, Virginia. He is a 1951 graduate of the...On Vehicles, Preparation for Storage Of VaUdated Nov 74 USER-MC REV-SM MIL-T46755A AT Tires, Pneumatic, Agricultural ZZ-T-1619B t CHANGE 1 06

  7. Utilization of waste tires as alternative fuel in cement plant

    OpenAIRE

    Pezdirc, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    Cement industry is regulated by legislation in which various measures are specified for prevention and reduction of air pollution as well as protection of human health, due to atmospheric emissions, which occur during cement production. Legislation also holds emission limit values for co-incineration of wastes i.e. alternative fuels. Waste tires as an alternative fuel can be co-incinerated i.e. co-processed in cement plants, where the high calorific value of the rubber is used to substitute f...

  8. Proceedings of Four Symposia on Nondestructive Testing of Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-25

    have other types of outings for our general mem- bership. We have a family night in the fall which is a sports type of evening, where we in- vite...i > I *-*imm m 14 «•!JI*1NR. ivwn I4P I «- VMR . ) -.01 1 >.MITLa»M 1« IS 1 I A.ltHR...and a leader in many civic activities involving youth sports and scouting. NEUHAUS, TED G., at the time of the symposium was Tire Systems Manager

  9. [Occupational exposure to chemicals in the manufacture of rubber tires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szadkowska-Stańczyk, I; Wilczyńska, U; Sobala, W; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N

    2001-01-01

    The work environment of the rubber industry company, producing various types of tires, was assessed and the workers of the plant were included in a cohort study of mortality. Concentrations of twenty chemical substances at 137 workposts were measured by employees of the plant laboratory and the sanitary and epidemiological station in 1981-1996. The mean values and concentration ranges were determined by departments and workposts. The excess of threshold limit values was analyzed. The workposts with exposure to agents possibly carcinogenic to humans were identified. The analysis performed will render it possible to calculate doses of cumulative exposure to given compounds among workers covered by the epidemiological study.

  10. Three Three-Axis IEPE Accelerometers on the Inner Liner of a Tire for Finding the Tire-Road Friction Potential Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Niskanen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Direct tire-road contact friction estimation is essential for future autonomous cars and active safety systems. Friction estimation methods have been proposed earlier for driving conditions in the presence of a slip angle or slip ratio. However, the estimation of the friction from a freely-rolling tire is still an unsolved topic. Knowing the existing friction potential would be beneficial since vehicle control systems could be adjusted before any remarkable tire force has been produced. Since accelerometers are well-known and robust, and thus a promising sensor type for intelligent tires, this study uses three three-axis IEPE accelerometers on the inner liner of a tire to detect friction potential indicators on two equally smooth surfaces with different friction levels. The equal roughness was chosen for both surfaces in order to study the friction phenomena by neglecting the effect of surface texture on vibrations. The acceleration data before the contact is used to differentiate the two friction levels between the tire and the road. In addition, the contact lengths from the three accelerometers are used to validate the acceleration data. A method to differentiate the friction levels on the basis of the acceleration signal is also introduced.

  11. Three Three-Axis IEPE Accelerometers on the Inner Liner of a Tire for Finding the Tire-Road Friction Potential Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskanen, Arto; Tuononen, Ari J

    2015-08-05

    Direct tire-road contact friction estimation is essential for future autonomous cars and active safety systems. Friction estimation methods have been proposed earlier for driving conditions in the presence of a slip angle or slip ratio. However, the estimation of the friction from a freely-rolling tire is still an unsolved topic. Knowing the existing friction potential would be beneficial since vehicle control systems could be adjusted before any remarkable tire force has been produced. Since accelerometers are well-known and robust, and thus a promising sensor type for intelligent tires, this study uses three three-axis IEPE accelerometers on the inner liner of a tire to detect friction potential indicators on two equally smooth surfaces with different friction levels. The equal roughness was chosen for both surfaces in order to study the friction phenomena by neglecting the effect of surface texture on vibrations. The acceleration data before the contact is used to differentiate the two friction levels between the tire and the road. In addition, the contact lengths from the three accelerometers are used to validate the acceleration data. A method to differentiate the friction levels on the basis of the acceleration signal is also introduced.

  12. Anthropogenic infilling of a Bermudian sinkhole and its impact on sedimentation and benthic foraminifera in the adjacent anchialine cave environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelyn N. Cresswell

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the mid-20th century, an inland brackish pond from Bermuda, known as Eve’s Pond, was filled with marine sediment from an adjacent coastal lagoon. At this time, an eyewitness reported “…sediment billowing out of the Green Bay Cave for days…”, which is a marine-dominated anchialine cave located proximal to the former location of Eve’s Pond (~200 m. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential impact of this infilling event on cave sedimentation and benthic meiofaunal communities, as proxied by the unicellular protists foraminifera that remain preserved in the sediment record. Eight sediment cores were collected from an underwater passage in Green Bay Cave in a transect towards the location where Eve’s Pond was surveyed in 1901 CE. The sediment cores were analyzed for visual and density changes (photography, X-radiography, textural variability, benthic foraminifera fauna and diversity, and radiocarbon dating. The recovered sediment cores mostly sampled a late Holocene carbonate mud facies that had been described during previous research in the cave, with benthic foraminiferal assemblages post-dating the onset of seawater circulating between the saline groundwater flooding the cave and the adjacent Harrington Sound ~1,900 years ago. However, two cores located further into the cave (cores 13 and 17 contain a carbonate sand layer with lagoon foraminifera that is anomalous with respect to the Holocene depositional history of the cave and is most likely related to the mid-20th century infilling of Eve’s Pond. Examination of these two cores showed that after the infilling event, the community of benthic foraminifera rapidly reverted to pre-impact assemblages with foraminiferal stygophiles (e.g., Spirophthalmidium emaciatum, Sigmoilina tenuis, which were not displaced by new colonizers introduced into the cave by the dredge spoils. We caution that the results cannot be extrapolated to the pelagic crustacean community, but the

  13. The Effects of Silica/Carbon Black Ratio on the Dynamic Properties of the Tread compounds in Truck Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Zafarmehrabian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available NR is the major constituent in the rubber compound used for the tread on the truck tires. A general compound formulation of the tire tread includes NR and BR as polymer base and carbon black as the reinforcing filler, and curative components. In this paper the effects of dual filler system (carbon black and precipitated silica on the dynamic properties of tire treat has been studied. The results show by increasing of precipitated silica, significant improvement was observed in fatigue resistance, rolling resistance and heat buildup of the tire. Tensile strength and modulus and wet grip of tire tread decrease with increasing of silica in rubber compound formulation.

  14. Deformability of Oxide Inclusions in Tire Cord Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lifeng; Guo, Changbo; Yang, Wen; Ren, Ying; Ling, Haitao

    2018-04-01

    The deformation of oxide inclusions in tire cord steels during hot rolling was analyzed, and the factors influencing their deformability at high and low temperatures were evaluated and discussed. The aspect ratio of oxide inclusions decreased with the increasing reduction ratio of the steel during hot rolling owing to the fracture of the inclusions. The aspect ratio obtained after the first hot-rolling process was used to characterize the high-temperature deformability of the inclusions. The deformation first increased and then decreased with the increasing (MgO + Al2O3)/(SiO2 + MnO) ratio of the inclusions. It also increased with the decreasing melting temperatures of the inclusions. Young's modulus was used to evaluate the low-temperature deformability of the inclusions. An empirical formula was fitted to calculate the Young's moduli of the oxides using the mean atomic volume. The moduli values of the inclusions causing wire fracture were significantly greater than the average. To reduce fracture in tire cord steel wires during cold drawing, it is proposed that inclusions be controlled to those with high SiO2 content and extremely low Al2O3 content. This proposal is based on the hypothesis that the deformabilities of oxides during cold drawing are inversely proportional to their Young's moduli. The future study thus proposed includes an experimental confirmation for the abovementioned predictions.

  15. A new recycling technique for the waste tires reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshan, Zahra; Ghaneian, Mohammad Taghi; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Oliveri Conti, Gea; Faramarzian, Mohammad; Dehghani, Mansooreh; Ferrante, Margherita

    2017-10-01

    In this series of laboratory experiments, the feasibility of using fixed bed biofilm carriers (FBBC) manufactured from existing reclaimed waste tires (RWTs) for wastewater treatment was evaluated. To assess polyamide yarn waste tires as a media, the fixed bed sequence batch reactor (FBSBR) was evaluated under different organic loading rate (OLRs). An experimental model was used to study the kinetics of substrate consumption in biofilm. Removal efficiency of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) ranged by 76-98% for the FBSBR compared to 71-96% in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Removal efficiency of FBBC was significantly increased by inoculating these RWTs carriers. The results revealed that the sludge production yield (Y obs ) was significantly less in the FBSBR compared to the SBR (p 99%) in a FBSBR. Results from this study suggest that RWTs to support biological activity for a variety of wastewater treatment applications as a biofilm carrier have high potential that better performance as COD and TSS removal and sludge settling properties and effluent quality supported these findings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Use of recycled tires in non-structural concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Rawahi Zamzam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research addresses the issue of tire waste management and natural aggregate resource depletion. It investigates use of commercially produced recycled tire rubber as replacement for fine and coarse aggregate in non-structural concrete. Two replacement levels of 10% and 20% were considered for fine aggregate with 0% or 10% of coarse aggregate. The study employed a mix proportion of 1:5:4 (cement: fine aggregate: coarse aggregate with a water-to-cement ratio of 0.25, which is normally utilized in concrete block manufacturing in Oman. The mixes were tested for their thermal conductivity, water absorption and compressive strength. The behavior of mixes exposed to 100 and 200°C was also studied and the samples were later tested for compressive strength. The results showed improvements in compressive strength after exposure to heat. Thermal conductivity was reduced as the percentage replacement increased for both fine and coarse aggregate. During heat exposure, the temperature rise was faster in rubberized mixes, and the compressive strength of all mixes improved after the exposure to heat. Water absorption and void content increased with increase in replacement percentage. The compressive strength did not show a clear trend with the replacement and this is due to the sensitivity of the stiff mix used in the study and its inherent lean nature. The results indicate that the lean nature of the mix makes it insensitive to small replacement investigated in this research.

  17. Friction characteristics of 20 x 4.4, type 7, aircraft tires constructed with different tread rubber compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, R. C.; Yager, T. J.

    1976-01-01

    A test program was conducted at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility to evaluate the friction characteristics of 20 x 4.4, type, aircraft tires constructed with experimental cut-resistant, tread rubber compounds. These compounds consisted of different blends of natural rubber (NR) and an alfin catalyzed styrene-butadiene copolymer rubber (SBR). One tire having a blend of 30 SBR and 70 NR and another having a blend of 60 SBR and 40 NR in the tread were tested together with a standard production tire with no SBR content in the tread rubber. The results of this investigation indicated that the test tires constructed with the special cut-resistant tread rubber compositions did not suffer any significant degradation in tire friction capability when compared with the standard tire. In general, tire friction capability decreased with increasing speed and surface wetness condition. As yaw angle increased, tire braking capability decreased while tire cornering capability increased. Tread-wear data based on number of brake cycles, however, suggested that the tires with alfin SBR blends experienced significantly greater wear than the standard production tire.

  18. Chemometric Analysis of High Molecular Mass Glutenin Subunits and Image Data of Bread Crumb Structure from Croatian Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Jurković

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate functional relationships among wheat properties, high molecular mass (weight (HMW glutenin subunits and bread quality produced from eleven Croatian wheat cultivars by chemometric analysis. HMW glutenin subunits were fractionated by sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and subsequently analysed by scanning densitometry in order to quantify HMW glutenin fractions. Wheat properties are characterised by four variables: protein content, sedimentation value, wet gluten and gluten index. Bread quality is assessed by the standard measurement of loaf volume, and visual quality of bread slice is quantified by 8 parameters by the use of computer image analysis. The data matrix with 21 columns (measured variables and 11 rows (cultivars is analysed for determination of number of latent variables. It was found that the first two latent variables account for 92, 85 and 87 % of variance of wheat quality properties, HMW glutenin fractions, and the bread quality parameters, respectively. Classification and functional relationships are discussed from the case data (cultivars and variable projections to the planes of the first two latent variables. Between Glu-D1y proportion and the bread quality parameters (standard parameter loaf volume and bread crumb cell area fraction determined by image analysis the strongest positive correlations are found r = 0.651 and r = 0.885, respectively. Between Glu-B1x proportion and the bread quality parameters the strongest negative correlations are found r =-0.535 and r = –0.841, respectively. The results are discussed in view of possible development of new and improvement of existing wheat cultivars and optimisation of bread production.

  19. Development of tire road noise chassis-dynamometer simulator. Effect of ISO surface replica model pad on tire road noise; Shisakushita tire romen soon shiken`yo jissha daijo simulator ni tsuite. ISO romen mogi pad wo sochakushita koka ni kansuru kisoteki kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T.; Murakami, T.; Ogata, S.; Sakamoto, I. [Traffic Safety and Nuisance Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    As a new test facility to clarify noise reduction method of tire road noise, Tire Road Noise Chassis-Dynamometer Simulator was developed. ISO surface replica pads made by copying the texture of ISO surface were attached on the roller surface of this system to simulate tire road noise. This paper described the specifications and characteristics of this system, and the effects of ISO surface replica pads on tire noise measurement by comparing the sound intensity in horizontal plane of tire noise measured in this system with that measured in a single drum tester with safety walk surface. 4 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Field Demonstration of Horizontal Infill Drilling Using Cost-effective Integrated Reservoir Modeling--Mississippian Carbonates, Central Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saibal Bhattacharya

    2005-08-31

    Mississippian carbonate reservoirs have produced in excess of 1 billion barrels of oil in Kansas accounting for over 16% of the state's production. With declining production from other age reservoirs, the contribution of Mississippian reservoirs to Kansas's oil production has risen to 43% as of 2004. However, solution-enhanced features such as vertical shale intervals extending from the karst erosional surface at the top introduce complexities/compartmentalizations in Mississippian carbonate reservoirs. Coupled with this, strong water drives charge many of these reservoirs resulting in limited drainage from vertical wells due to high water cuts after an initial period of low water production. Moreover, most of these fields are operated by small independent operators without access to the knowledge bank of modern research in field characterization and exploitation/development practices. Thus, despite increasing importance of Mississippian fields to Kansas production, these fields are beset with low recovery factors and high abandonment rates leaving significant resources in the ground. Worldwide, horizontal infill wells have been successful in draining compartmentalized reservoirs with limited pressure depletion. The intent of this project was to demonstrate the application of horizontal wells to successfully exploit the remaining potential in mature Mississippian fields of the mid-continent. However, it is of critical importance that for horizontal wells to be economically successful, they must be selectively targeted. This project demonstrated the application of initial and secondary screening methods, based on publicly available data, to quickly shortlist fields in a target area for detailed studies to evaluate their potential to infill horizontal well applications. Advanced decline curve analyses were used to estimate missing well-level production data and to verify if the well produced under unchanging bottom-hole conditions--two commonly occurring

  1. A Tire-Sulfur Hybrid Adsorption Denitrification (T-SHAD) process for decentralized wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayzelova, Lucie; Lynn, Thomas J; Banihani, Qais; Bartacek, Jan; Jenicek, Pavel; Ergas, Sarina J

    2014-09-15

    Nitrogen discharges from decentralized wastewater treatment (DWT) systems contribute to surface and groundwater contamination. However, the high variability in loading rates, long idle periods and lack of regular maintenance presents a challenge for biological nitrogen removal in DWT. A Tire-Sulfur Hybrid Adsorption Denitrification (T-SHAD) process was developed that combines nitrate (NO3(-)) adsorption to scrap tire chips with sulfur-oxidizing denitrification. This allows the tire chips to adsorb NO3(-) when the influent loading exceeds the denitrification capacity of the biofilm and release it when NO3(-) loading rates are low (e.g. at night). Three waste products, scrap tire chips, elemental sulfur pellets and crushed oyster shells, were used as a medium in adsorption, leaching, microcosm and up-flow packed bed bioreactor studies of NO3(-) removal from synthetic nitrified DWT wastewater. Adsorption isotherms showed that scrap tire chips have an adsorption capacity of 0.66 g NO3(-)-N kg(-1) of scrap tires. Leaching and microcosm studies showed that scrap tires leach bioavailable organic carbon that can support mixotrophic metabolism, resulting in lower effluent SO4(2-) concentrations than sulfur oxidizing denitrification alone. In column studies, the T-SHAD process achieved high NO3(-)-N removal efficiencies under steady state (90%), variable flow (89%) and variable concentration (94%) conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A hierarchical estimator development for estimation of tire-road friction coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xudong; Göhlich, Dietmar

    2017-01-01

    The effect of vehicle active safety systems is subject to the friction force arising from the contact of tires and the road surface. Therefore, an adequate knowledge of the tire-road friction coefficient is of great importance to achieve a good performance of these control systems. This paper presents a tire-road friction coefficient estimation method for an advanced vehicle configuration, four-motorized-wheel electric vehicles, in which the longitudinal tire force is easily obtained. A hierarchical structure is adopted for the proposed estimation design. An upper estimator is developed based on unscented Kalman filter to estimate vehicle state information, while a hybrid estimation method is applied as the lower estimator to identify the tire-road friction coefficient using general regression neural network (GRNN) and Bayes' theorem. GRNN aims at detecting road friction coefficient under small excitations, which are the most common situations in daily driving. GRNN is able to accurately create a mapping from input parameters to the friction coefficient, avoiding storing an entire complex tire model. As for large excitations, the estimation algorithm is based on Bayes' theorem and a simplified "magic formula" tire model. The integrated estimation method is established by the combination of the above-mentioned estimators. Finally, the simulations based on a high-fidelity CarSim vehicle model are carried out on different road surfaces and driving maneuvers to verify the effectiveness of the proposed estimation method.

  3. Evaluation of Ash Toxicity Generated From the Thermal Plasma Pyrolysis of Used Automobile Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J. S.; Novog, D. R.; Jamal, S.

    1996-10-01

    The disposal of used tires represents a severe environmental problem. As the heat content of the rubber tires is even higher than that of coal it should be considered as a future source of alternate fuel for power generation. There have been attempts to burn old tires directly in cofired boilers for production of electricity. However, there are several environmental concerns since the combustion flue gas may contain a significant concentration heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cd, As, etc.). One technique currently being developed is the pyrolyzation of rubber tires by a thermal plasma to produce combustible gases. In this work, ashes generated during the plasma pyrolysis of used automobile tires using a DC Argon thermal plasma were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and produced syngas composition was analyzed by FT-IR.. The gas analysis indicates a significant quantity of combustible gases (CH4, C2H2, C2H4, CO, H2 etc..) was produced from the thermal plasma pyrolysis of used tires. The results also indicate that a majority of the heavy metals present in used tires were concentrated in the ashes deposited in reaction chamber wall and in the two-stage filtering system. Furthermore the heavy metal concentration decreases significantly with increasing distance from the plasma torch. Toxic components such as Zn, As and Cl were also collected in the filtering process.

  4. Influence of Tire Characteristics of Interurban Taxis on Exposure Level to Drivers Whole-Body Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Derakhshanjazari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Taxi drivers’ exposure to repeat whole-body vibrations can cause back pain and digestive disorders. Since this type of vibration depends on the car components, this study was carried out to determine the influence of tire characteristics on the amount of whole-body vibrations transmitted to the Peugeot 405 taxi drivers. Methods: In this experimental study, vibration characteristics were measured according to the ISO2631-1 with each of the statuses: tubeless tires fixed and fluid in it (normal air or nitrogen and also the fluid in the tires fixed with tubes or tubeless on asphalt-paved road. Other variables including tire pressure, engine speed, road gradient, number of passengers, springs, and shock absorbers were kept constant. Then the effect of changes was analyzed using an appropriate statistical test. Results: After changing nitrogen to normal air and tubeless tires to tube, the average of RMS in Z-axis, eight-hour equivalent acceleration A(8 and crest factor were reduced (P 0.9 m/s2 to caution zone (0.45-0.9 m/s2 with a value of 0.8 m/s2. Conclusions: The amount of vibration transmitted to the whole body is sensitive to existence of tubes and tires inflation so that we can reduce the amount of whole-body vibration to lower than the upper limit of the health risk by changing the characteristics of the tire

  5. Optimization of an Optical Test Bench for Tire Properties Measurement and Tread Defects Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús Castillo Aguilar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tire characteristics and behavior are of great importance in vehicle dynamics since the forces transmitted in the tire-road contact are the main contributors to global vehicle performance. Several research groups have focused on the study and modeling of tires. Some of the most important factors that need to be known are tread characteristics and pressure distribution in the tire-ground contact patch. In this work, a test bench has been used to adequately determine the aforementioned factors. The measurement principle of the test bench is the frustration of total internal reflection (FTIR of light. It makes use of a laterally illuminated glass on which the tire leans. An interposed plastic interface between them causes the reflection of light. Finally, a video camera captures the bright image formed through the glass. The brightness level in each pixel of the image is related to existing normal pressure. A study of the parameters that affect the test bench calibration such as type of interface material used, diffuse light, hysteresis, creep and transverse light absorption is performed. Experimental tests are conducted to relate tire inflation pressure and camber angle to the pressure distribution. Furthermore, the test bench is used to detect and evaluate the influence of defects in the tire on the contact pressures.

  6. A hierarchical estimator development for estimation of tire-road friction coefficient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Zhang

    Full Text Available The effect of vehicle active safety systems is subject to the friction force arising from the contact of tires and the road surface. Therefore, an adequate knowledge of the tire-road friction coefficient is of great importance to achieve a good performance of these control systems. This paper presents a tire-road friction coefficient estimation method for an advanced vehicle configuration, four-motorized-wheel electric vehicles, in which the longitudinal tire force is easily obtained. A hierarchical structure is adopted for the proposed estimation design. An upper estimator is developed based on unscented Kalman filter to estimate vehicle state information, while a hybrid estimation method is applied as the lower estimator to identify the tire-road friction coefficient using general regression neural network (GRNN and Bayes' theorem. GRNN aims at detecting road friction coefficient under small excitations, which are the most common situations in daily driving. GRNN is able to accurately create a mapping from input parameters to the friction coefficient, avoiding storing an entire complex tire model. As for large excitations, the estimation algorithm is based on Bayes' theorem and a simplified "magic formula" tire model. The integrated estimation method is established by the combination of the above-mentioned estimators. Finally, the simulations based on a high-fidelity CarSim vehicle model are carried out on different road surfaces and driving maneuvers to verify the effectiveness of the proposed estimation method.

  7. Automobile tires--a potential source of highly carcinogenic dibenzopyrenes to the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiktsis, Ioannis; Bergvall, Christoffer; Johansson, Christer; Westerholm, Roger

    2012-03-20

    Eight tires were analyzed for 15 high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), using pressurized fluid extraction. The variability of the PAH concentrations determined between different tires was large; a factor of 22.6 between the lowest and the highest. The relative abundance of the analytes was quite similar regardless of tire. Almost all (92.3%) of the total extractable PAH content was attributed to five PAHs: benzo[ghi]perylene, coronene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene. The difference in the measured PAH content between summer and winter tires varied substantially across manufacturers, making estimates of total vehicle fleet emissions very uncertain. However, when comparing different types of tires from the same manufacturer they had significantly (p = 0.05) different PAH content. Previously, there have been no data available for carcinogenic dibenzopyrene isomers in automobile tires. In this study, the four dibenzopyrene isomers dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene constituted automobile tires may be a potential previously unknown source of carcinogenic dibenzopyrenes to the environment.

  8. An environmental reconstruction of the sediment infill of the Bogota basin (Columbia) during the last 3 million years from abiotic and biotic proxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres, V.; Vandenberghe, J.; Hooghiemstra, H.

    2005-01-01

    The lacustrine sediments of the intramontane basin of Bogotá (4°N, 2550 m altitude) were collected in a 586-m deep core Funza-2. Absolute datings show sediment infill started c. 3.2 Ma and continued almost without interruptions as a result of the balance between tectonic subsidence and sediment

  9. Analysis of an infill scenario for Rotterdam. Traffic noise, air pollution, and public health in relation to urban density and traffic of cars and bicycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaminée, S.; Rietveld, E.; Salomons, E.; Kluizenaar, Y. de; Borsboom, J.; Borst, H.; Guit, M.

    2012-01-01

    An analysis is presented of various elements of an infill scenario for the center of Rotterdam in the year 2030, corresponding to a population increase from about 30,000 to 60,000 inhabitants. We have implemented detailed future building designs in our software instrument Urban Strategy, and

  10. Increased efficiency in the second-hand tire trade provides opportunity for dengue control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliego Pliego, Emilene; Velázquez-Castro, Jorge; Eichhorn, Markus P; Fraguela Collar, Andrés

    2018-01-21

    Dengue fever is increasing in geographical range, spread by invasion of its vector mosquitoes. The trade in second-hand tires has been implicated as a factor in this process because they act as mobile reservoirs of mosquito eggs and larvae. Regional transportation of tires can create linkages between rural areas with dengue and disease-free urban areas, potentially giving rise to outbreaks even in areas with strong local control measures. In this work we sought to model the dynamics of mosquito transportation via the tire trade, in particular to predict its role in causing unexpected dengue outbreaks through vertical transmission of the virus across generations of mosquitoes. We also aimed to identify strategies for regulating the trade in second-hand tires, improving disease control. We created a mathematical model which captures the dynamics of dengue between rural and urban areas, taking into account the movement and storage time of tires, and mosquito diapause. We simulate a series of scenarios in which a mosquito population is introduced to a dengue-free area via movement of tires, either as single or multiple events, increasing the likelihood of a dengue outbreak. A persistent disease state can be induced regardless of whether urban conditions for an outbreak are met, and an existing endemic state can be enhanced by vector input. Finally we assess the potential for regulation of tire processing as a means of reducing the transmission of dengue fever using a specific case study from Puerto Rico. Our work demonstrates the importance of the second-hand tire trade in modulating the spread of dengue fever across regions, in particular its role in introducing dengue to disease-free areas. We propose that reduction of tire storage time and control of their movement can play a crucial role in containing dengue outbreaks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Truck Rollover Characterization for Class-8 Tractor-Trailers Utilizing Standard Dual Tires and New-Generation Single Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capps, Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center; Knee, Bill [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center; Franzese, Oscar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center; Pollock, Paul [Dana Corporation, Kalamazoo, MI (United States). Commercial Vehicle Systems Division; Coleman, Daniel [Dana Corporation, Kalamazoo, MI (United States). Commercial Vehicle Systems Division; Janajreh, Ibrahim [Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States); Haas, Steven [Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States); Frey, Norm [Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States); Law, Harry [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building; Johnson, Eric [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building; Lawson, Robert [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building; Petrolino, Joe [National Transportation Research Center, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Rice, Dave [National Transportation Research Center, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2005-07-30

    The Heavy Truck Rollover Characterization Project is a major research effort conducted by the National Transportation Research Center, Inc. (NTRCI) in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Dana Corporation (Dana), Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation (Michelin) and Clemson University (Clemson), under the NTRCIs Heavy Vehicle Safety Research Center (HVSRC) for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). ORNL provided the day-to-day management of the project. The expertise mix of this team coupled with complementary research needs and interests, and a positive can-do attitude provided an extremely positive experimental research opportunity for all involved. Furthermore, this team supplied significant and valuable resources that provided a strong positive benchmark regarding the ability to conduct research within a public-private partnership. The work conducted by this team focused on initial efforts to generate data and information on heavy truck rollover not currently available in the industry. It reflects efforts within Phases 1 and 2 of a longer-term four-phase research program. A 1999 Peterbilt 379 class-8 tractor and 2004 Wabash dry freight van trailer were the test vehicles utilized in this effort. Both were instrumented with a number of sensors to capture the dynamics of the tractor and trailer as it engaged in various testing maneuvers that included: an evasive maneuver, swept sine, constant radius, and a run-off-the-road maneuver. The run-off-the-road maneuver was discontinued because the test track could not safety accommodate such a maneuver. These maneuvers were carried out utilizing both standard dual tires and new-generation dual tires in six test series. Two test series also included the use of a wider-slider suspension. Outriggers were placed on the test vehicle to assure that an actual rollover would not occur, however, the tests were designed to generate lift-off of tires during the tests. One of the main objectives

  12. A Tire Model for Off-Highway Vehicle Simulation on Short Wave Irregular Terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Thomas Heegaard; Kristensen, Lars B; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.

    2010-01-01

    Manufacturers of construction machinery are challenged in several ways concerning dynamic loads. Considering off-highway dump trucks that travel through high amplitude short wave irregular terrain with considerable speed two aspects concerning dynamics are important. The first is the legal...... the tire ground interaction for big off-road tires on short wave irregular terrain. In this paper a simple tire model combining the well known slip theory and a displaced volume approach is presented. A non-gradient optimization routine is applied for parameter identification by minimizing the difference...

  13. Chemi-microbial processing of waste tire rubber: A project overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romine, R.A.; Snowden-Swan, L.

    1993-12-01

    PNL is developing a method to use thiophillic microorganisms to devulcanize (biodesulfurize) the surface of ground rubber particles, which will improve the bonding and adhesion of the ground tire rubber into the virgin tire rubber matrix. The Chemi-microbial processing approach, introduced in this paper, is targeted at alleviating the waste tire problem in an environmentally conscious manner; it may also be applied to improve asphaltic materials and rubber and polymeric wastes to facilite their recycling. This paper outlines the logic and technical methods that will be used

  14. Tire-tread and bitumen particle concentrations in aerosol and soil samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Tjell, Jens Christian; Mosbæk, Hans

    2002-01-01

    % of the mass of airborne particulate tire debris have aerodynamic diameters smaller than 1 mum. The mean aerodynamic diameter is about I gm for the bitumen particles. This size range enables the possibility for far range transport and inhalation by humans. Soil concentrations in the vicinity of a highway...... indicate an approximate exponential decrease with increasing distance from the road. Constant values are reached after about 5 m for the tire particles and 10 m for the bitumen particles. Concentrations in soil that has not been touched for at least 30 years show a decrease in tire concentration...

  15. Thermal depolymerisation of waste tires by heavy oils. Conversion into fuels. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audibert, F.; Beaufils, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The French Institute of Petroleum has developed a process of valorization of waste tires into fuels. The process consists in treating the whole tires with heavy hydrocarbons which transfer the heat for reaching the required temperature and dissolve the oligomers resulting from devulcanization and depolymerization reactions. The tire is converted into moderate amount of gas and gasoline and mainly into heavy oil loaded with finely dispersed carbon black. Results have been obtained on a large size pilot plant making the process directly applicable on the industrial scale.

  16. Utilization of surface-treated rubber particles from waste tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.]|[Environmental Technologies Alternatives, Inc., Lima, OH (United States)

    1994-12-01

    During a 12-month program, the author successfully demonstrated commercial applications for surface-treated rubber particles in two major markets: footwear (shoe soles and components) and urethane-foam carpet underlay (padding). In these markets, he has clearly demonstrated the ease of using R-4080 and R-4030 surface-treated rubber particles in existing manufacturing plants and processes and have shown that the material meets or exceeds existing standards for performance, quality, and cost-effectiveness. To produce R-4080 and R-4030, vulcanized rubber, whole-tire material is finely ground to particles of nominal 80 and mesh size respectively. Surface treatment is achieved by reacting these rubber particles with chlorine gas. In this report, the author describes the actual test and evaluations of the participant companies, and identifies other potential end uses.

  17. Are you tired? Overcoming leadership styles that create leader fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, Karlene M

    2013-01-01

    Part of the culture of nursing is convincing everyone you are perpetually overworked and overwhelmed. The leadership style the leader chooses will determine whether he or she will be energized or overwhelmed. When the leader is unable and unwilling to surround him or herself with people who are more knowledgeable and astute, the level of stress and worry becomes unbearable. Relationships thrive when a structure is present. Your staff will be energized and empowered, and will reach incredible levels of productivity and the highest level of achievement possible. Doing "nothing" allows your staff to grow as people and as a team, and you will be free to do the work of the leader, and not be tired.

  18. Literature review of models on tire-pavement interaction noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tan; Burdisso, Ricardo; Sandu, Corina

    2018-04-01

    Tire-pavement interaction noise (TPIN) becomes dominant at speeds above 40 km/h for passenger vehicles and 70 km/h for trucks. Several models have been developed to describe and predict the TPIN. However, these models do not fully reveal the physical mechanisms or predict TPIN accurately. It is well known that all the models have both strengths and weaknesses, and different models fit different investigation purposes or conditions. The numerous papers that present these models are widely scattered among thousands of journals, and it is difficult to get the complete picture of the status of research in this area. This review article aims at presenting the history and current state of TPIN models systematically, making it easier to identify and distribute the key knowledge and opinions, and providing insight into the future research trend in this field. In this work, over 2000 references related to TPIN were collected, and 74 models were reviewed from nearly 200 selected references; these were categorized into deterministic models (37), statistical models (18), and hybrid models (19). The sections explaining the models are self-contained with key principles, equations, and illustrations included. The deterministic models were divided into three sub-categories: conventional physics models, finite element and boundary element models, and computational fluid dynamics models; the statistical models were divided into three sub-categories: traditional regression models, principal component analysis models, and fuzzy curve-fitting models; the hybrid models were divided into three sub-categories: tire-pavement interface models, mechanism separation models, and noise propagation models. At the end of each category of models, a summary table is presented to compare these models with the key information extracted. Readers may refer to these tables to find models of their interest. The strengths and weaknesses of the models in different categories were then analyzed. Finally

  19. Vacuum pyrolysis of waste tires with basic additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xinghua; Wang Tiejun; Ma Longlong; Chang Jie

    2008-01-01

    Granules of waste tires were pyrolyzed under vacuum (3.5-10 kPa) conditions, and the effects of temperature and basic additives (Na 2 CO 3 , NaOH) on the properties of pyrolysis were thoroughly investigated. It was obvious that with or without basic additives, pyrolysis oil yield increased gradually to a maximum and subsequently decreased with a temperature increase from 450 deg. C to 600 deg. C, irrespective of the addition of basic additives to the reactor. The addition of NaOH facilitated pyrolysis dramatically, as a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 48 wt% was achieved at 550 deg. C without the addition of basic additives, while a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 50 wt% was achieved at 480 deg. C by adding 3 wt% (w/w, powder/waste tire granules) of NaOH powder. The composition analysis of pyrolytic naphtha (i.b.p. (initial boiling point) ∼205 deg. C) distilled from pyrolysis oil showed that more dl-limonene was obtained with basic additives and the maximal content of dl-limonene in pyrolysis oil was 12.39 wt%, which is a valuable and widely-used fine chemical. However, no improvement in pyrolysis was observed with Na 2 CO 3 addition. Pyrolysis gas was mainly composed of H 2 , CO, CH 4 , CO 2 , C 2 H 4 and C 2 H 6 . Pyrolytic char had a surface area comparable to commercial carbon black, but its proportion of ash (above 11.5 wt%) was much higher

  20. Influence of the surface treatment of tire rubber residues added in mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Marques

    Full Text Available In this work it was evaluated the influence tire rubber addition in mortars in order to replace part of the sand (12% by volume. It was also intended to verify if the tire rubber treatment with NaOH saturated aqueous solution causes interference on the mechanical properties of the mixture. Compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, water absorption, modulus of elasticity, and flow test were made in specimens of 5cmx10cm and the tests were carried out to 7, 28, 56, 90, and 180 days. The results show reduction on mechanical properties values after addition of tire rubber and decrease of the workability. It was also observed that the tire rubber treatment does not cause any alteration on the results compared to the rubber without treatment.

  1. 75 FR 36472 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Goodyear brand Arizonian Silver Edition Plus model passenger car tires manufactured between August of 2007... than 15 pages in length, although there is no limit to the length of necessary attachments to the...

  2. On Methods for Estimating the Friction between the Tire and Tread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Opritescu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the tire-road friction coefficient is studied in the work for the avoidance of collisions of traffic taking part vehicles. The part of the road surface state is made evident.

  3. On-board sound intensity tire-pavement noise study in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    "This research investigated tire-pavement noise on various types of pavements across North Carolina by using On- : Board Sound Intensity (OBSI) method. To mitigate traffic noise, quieter pavement may provide advantages that : noise barriers cannot. T...

  4. 77 FR 69541 - Technical Report Evaluating the Effectiveness of Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS) in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ...-0167] Technical Report Evaluating the Effectiveness of Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS) in...), Department of Transportation. ACTION: Request for comments on technical report. SUMMARY: This notice announces NHTSA's publication of a Technical Report reviewing and evaluating its existing Safety Standard...

  5. Toward using tire-road contact stresses in pavement design and analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of road pavement design, especially towards the surface of the pavement, requires a more rational approach to modeling of truck tire-road contact stresses. Various road surfacing failures are given in this paper as examples...

  6. Towards using tire-road contact stresses in pavement design and analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of road pavement design, especially towards the surface of the pavement, requires a more rational approach to modeling of truck tire-road contact stresses. Various road surfacing failures are given in this paper as examples...

  7. 26 CFR 48.4071-4 - Original equipment tires on imported articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... respect to tires and inner tubes if the imported article is an automobile bus chassis or an automobile bus... manufacturer or importer considered a sale) do not apply in cases where an individual imports an article having...

  8. Transient tire force and its modeling. Part 2. Camber angle input; Katoteki tire hasseiryoku to sono modeling. 2. Camber kaku nyuryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, A. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan); Pacejka, H.

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the transient force and moment characteristics of tires involving side slip and camber and to develop the tire model which is capable of describing those characteristics. Some particular characteristics are found such as non-lagging part in side force response and an apparent peak in aligning torque response to a stepwise camber change. Some aspects on the analogy of turn slip to camber are also discussed. The tire model combines a dynamic part based on the physical aspect using the relaxation length concept, and a steady state part. In combined situations of side slip and camber, an estimation method to determine the transient slip quantities is introduced. 12 refs., 14 figs.

  9. Prediction of properties of polymer concrete composite with tire rubber using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaconescu, Rodica-Mariana; Barbuta, Marinela; Harja, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Using waste a new composite material was obtained with specific characteristics. ► The objective was to maximize tire powder content with the minimum resin content. ► By direct modeling, the maximum compressive strength was obtained for 30% tire powder. ► Inverse neural modeling was used for obtaining maximum values of strengths. -- Abstract: The neural network method was used to investigate the influence of filler and resin content on the mechanical properties of polymer concrete with powdered tire waste. The mechanical strengths of 10 experimentally determined combinations using mixed epoxy resin, aggregates and tire powder as filler were optimized using direct neural modeling and inverse neural modeling, by imposing a minimum cost (content in resin). Direct neural modeling gave the optimum composition for obtaining maximum values for compressive strength, flexural strength and split tensile strength. Inverse neural modeling analyzed the possibility of obtaining maximum values of mechanical properties by variations in the dosages of the epoxy resin and tire powder. Neural network modeling generated the mixes with the lowest cost and maximum strength. The modeling method has shown that two mechanical properties can be simultaneously optimized in the investigation domain. From direct modeling, the maximum compressive strength was obtained for a composition with 0.215 (fraction weight) epoxy resin and 0.3 (fraction weight) tire powder. Maximum flexural strength was obtained for experimental values of 0.23 epoxy resin and 0.17 tire powder with a severe reduction noted for smaller resin dosages. The maximum split tensile strength was obtained for a resin dosage of 0.24 and tire powder dosage of 0.17

  10. Modal analysis of a loaded tire with non-contact measurements and piezoelectric excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferhat, Ipar; Tarazaga, Pablo A.

    2017-04-01

    The complex nature of tires requires very precise test data to model the structure accurately. The highly damped characteristics, geometric features and operational conditions of tires cause various testing difficulties that affect the reliability of the modal testing. One of the biggest challenges of tire testing is exciting the whole tire at once. Conventionally, impact hammers, shakers, and cleats are used as an excitation input. The shortcomings of these excitation methods are the directional and force inconsistency of hammer impacts, coupled dynamics of shakers and speed limitations of cleat excitation. Other challenges of modal testing of tires are the effect of added mass due to sensor placements and difficulty of vibration measurement of a rotating tire with accelerometers. In order to remedy these problems, we conduct experimental modal analysis (EMA) using a non-contact measurement technique and piezoelectric excitation. For non-contact measurement, a 3-D scanning laser doppler vibrometer (SLDV) is used. For the piezoelectric excitation, Micro Fiber Composite (MFC) patches are used due to their flexible nature and power capacity. This excitation method can also be crucial to the excitation of rotating tires since the cleat excitation is not adequate for low-speed measurements. Furthermore, the piezoelectric actuation could be used as sensors as well as noise controllers in operating conditions. For this work, we run experiments for a loaded tire in non-rotating condition. Experiments are carried out for the frequency bandwidth up to 500Hz to capture the structural behavior under high-frequency excitations and its potential coupled behavior to airborne noise.

  11. Recording of the Holocene sediment infilling in a confined tide-dominated estuary: the bay of Brest (Britanny, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, Gwendoline; Le Roy, Pascal; Ehrhold, Axel; Jouet, Gwenael; Garlan, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    Modern estuaries constitute key areas for the preservation of sedimentary deposits related to the Holocene period. Several previous studies using stratigraphic reconstructions in such environments allowed to characterise the major parameters controlling the Holocene transgressive sequence and to decipher their respective role in the sedimentary infill: (1) the evolution of main hydrologic factors (wave or tide-dominated environment), (2) the sea level fluctuation and (3) the morphologies of the bedrock and the coastline. Nevertheless, the timing of the transgressive deposits and the detailed facies need to be precise in regard to the stratigraphic schemes. The Bay of Brest (Western Brittany, France) offers the opportunity to examine these points and to compare with previous studies. It constitutes an original tide-dominated estuary that communicates to the open sea (Iroise Sea) by a narrow strait. Two main rivers (Aulne and Elorn) are connected to a submerged paleovalleys network that was incised in the Paleozoic basement during lowstands and still preserved in the present morphology. It delineates the central basin surrounded by tidal flat located in sheltered area. The analysis of high and very-high resolution seismic lines recorded through the whole bay combined with sediment cores (up to 4.5 m long) and radiocarbon dating allow to precise the architecture and the timing of the thick Holocene coastal wedge. It is preserved from the valley network to the shore and presents a longitudinal variability (downstream-upstream evolution). The infill is divided into two successive stages (corresponding to the transgressive and highstand system tracts) which laterally evolve from the paleo-valley to the coast. Two units constitute the transgressive system tract. The oldest, dated from 8200 to 7000 cal B.P. is composed of fine-grained, organic-rich tidal flat deposits located in the sheltered area and organised in levees on the terrace bordering the paleo-valley. A tidal

  12. Basement depth and sedimentary infill from deep seismic reflection data at the western tip of the offshore Corinth Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Arnaud; Tripsanas, Efthymios; Hubert-Ferrari, Aurélia; Beck, Christian; Sakellariou, Dimitris

    2015-04-01

    The Corinth rift is a young continental rift located in central Greece. The active part of the rift forms an E-W striking depression - the Gulf of Corinth - that is the deepest in its central part. Extensive seismic surveys have imaged the basin's basement and allowed to estimate the total extension across most of the Gulf except its western tip. Extension is high in the central part and decreases westward and eastward, as reflected in the present-day bathymetry. Two decades of GPS measurements have shown that the extension rate increases westwards from ~5 to 10-15 mm yr-1, but this is not consistent with the long term pattern. However, no data allowed so far to estimate the basement depth at the western tip of the Gulf, where the geodetic extension rate is the largest. Such data would allow to check the apparent inconsistency between the present rate and the long-term estimates of crustal extension. We present here an unpublished multichannel seismic line dating from 1979 and crossing the western tip of the Gulf of Corinth. The line is 22 km long and strikes WNW-ESE, from the Mornos delta to the West-Channel fault. A Maxipulse source has been used, allowing to image the basement below the synrift sedimentary infill. To the east, a ~1.6 km deep basin is imaged between the southern margin of the Gulf and an inactive south-dipping fault located between the Aigion and the Trizonia faults. The sedimentary infill consists in an alternation between basin-focused bodies made of incoherent reflections and more extensive high-amplitude reflectors. Attributing this alternation to eustatic variations give an age of 300-350 ka to the oldest well imaged deposits. Northwest of the Trizonia fault, the basement is imaged at shallower depth, i.e. ~450 m. The western tip of the seismic line reaches the Mornos delta, close to the northern shoreline. There, the depth to the basement is larger, reaching ~1.2 km. The infill is made of 3 units : on the basement lies a thin unit of

  13. Biological control of mosquitoes in scrap tires in Brownsville, Texas, USA and Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uejio, Christopher K; Hayden, Mary H; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Lopez, Jose Luis Robles; Barrera, Roberto; Amador, Manuel; Thompson, Gregory; Waterman, Stephen H

    2014-06-01

    Dengue periodically circulates in southern Texas and neighboring Tamaulipas, Mexico; thus, a closer examination of human and vector ecology at the northern limits of North American transmission may improve prevention activities. Scrap tires produce large mosquito populations and increase the risk of dengue transmission. Some households choose not to pay tire disposal fees, and many tires are illegally dumped in residential areas. Biological control may provide low-cost and environmentally friendly mosquito control. This pilot study evaluated the ability of Mesocyclops longisetus to reduce mosquito populations in existing residential scrap tire piles. Mosquito populations were measured by the number of all mosquito pupae within tires or adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus near piles. Mesocyclops longisetus treated piles did not significantly reduce total mosquito pupae (P = 0.07) in Matamoros, Mexico. The study also evaluated the efficacy of native Toxorhynchites moctezuma which preferentially colonized tire piles under vegetation cover in Brownsville, TX. Toxorhynchites moctezuma larvae significantly reduced total mosquito pupae, but the strength of control diminished over time.

  14. Chromium removal from water by activated carbon developed from waste rubber tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Ali, Imran; Saleh, Tawfik A; Siddiqui, M N; Agarwal, Shilpi

    2013-03-01

    Because of the continuous production of large amount of waste tires, the disposal of waste tires represents a major environmental issue throughout the world. This paper reports the utilization of waste tires (hard-to-dispose waste) as a precursor in the production of activated carbons (pollution-cleaning adsorbent). In the preparation of activated carbon (AC), waste rubber tire (WRT) was thermally treated and activated. The tire-derived activated carbon was characterized by means of scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, FTIR spectrophotometer, and X-ray diffraction. In the IR spectrum, a number of bands centred at about 3409, 2350, 1710, 1650, and 1300-1000 cm(-1) prove the present of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups on the surface of AC in addition to C═C double bonds. The developed AC was tested and evaluated as potential adsorbent removal of chromium (III). Experimental parameters, such as contact time, initial concentration, adsorbent dosage and pH were optimized. A rapid uptake of chromium ions was observed and the equilibrium is achieved in 1 h. It was also found that the adsorption process is pH dependent. This work adds to the global discussion of the cost-effective utilization of waste rubber tires for waste water treatment.

  15. Impediments and constraints in the uptake of water sensitive urban design measures in greenfield and infill developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashok K; Cook, Stephen; Tjandraatmadja, Grace; Gregory, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Water sensitive urban developments are designed with integrated urban water management concepts and water sensitive urban design measures. The initiatives that may be included are the substitution of imported drinking water with alternative sources using a fit-for-purpose approach and structural and non-structural measures for the source control of stormwater. A water sensitive approach to urban development can help in achieving sustainability objectives by minimising disturbance to ecological and hydrological processes, and also relieve stress on conventional water systems. Water sensitive urban developments remain novel in comparison with conventional approaches, so the understanding and knowledge of the systems in regards to their planning; design; implementation; operation and maintenance; health impacts and environmental impacts is still developing and thus the mainstream uptake of these approaches faces many challenges. A study has been conducted to understand these challenges through a detailed literature review, investigating a large number of local greenfield and infill developments, and conducting extensive consultation with water professionals. This research has identified the social, economic, political, institutional and technological challenges faced in implementing water sensitive urban design in greenfield and infill developments. The research found in particular that there is the need for long-term monitoring studies of water sensitive urban developments. This monitoring is important to validate the performance of novel approaches implemented and improve associated guidelines, standards, and regulatory and governance frameworks, which can lead to mainstream acceptance of water sensitive urban development approaches. The dissemination of this research will help generate awareness among water professionals, water utilities, developers, planners and regulators of the research challenges to be addressed in order to achieve more mainstream acceptance of

  16. Concurrent Monitoring of In-plane Strain and Out-of-plane Displacement of Tire Using Digital Image Correlation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Naoki; Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Todoroki, Akira

    In order to improve performance of anti lock brake system (ABS) and detect condition of road surface, intelligent tires that monitor strain of interior surface and rolling radius of tire are demanded. However, the high stiffness of an attached sensor like a strain gauge causes debonding of sensors from tire rubber. In the present study, noncontact concurrent monitoring method is proposed using digital image correlation method (DICM) and spotlight projection. In-plane strain and out-of-plane displacement (rolling radius) are calculated by using image processing with an image of interior surface of tire that is taken with a single CCD camera fixed on wheel rim. New monitoring system is applied to Al beam and commercially available radial tire. As a result, this monitoring system is proved to be able to measure in-plane strain and out-of-plane displacement with high accuracy, and confirmed to be effective for concurrent monitoring of tires.

  17. Finite Element Modeling with Embed Rebar Elements and Steady State Rolling Analysis for Rolling Resistance Test of Pneumatic Tire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvanjumrat Chakrit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element model of tire rolling resistance test on the drum was developed using 3D steady state rolling analysis coupling with pre-inflation of 2D axisymmetric tire analysis. The complex components of the radial tires composing tread, sidewall, ply layers, steel belts, and lead wires were modeled using rebar elements which were embed into the rubber element using the tying equation. The Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic constitutive model was employed to describe the large deformation behavior of tread and sidewall, while other components such as plies, steel belts and bead wires were assigned the linear isotropic material. The tire rolling resistance system was modeled by inflation of slick tire and compression on the drum for the footprint analysis regarding the rolling resistance test. The tire’s steady state characteristics such as footprint contact pressure, rolling resistance force, and time response characteristic of tires were predicted instead the experiment of the prototype.

  18. Aragonite infill in overgrown conceptacles of coralline Lithothamnion spp. (Hapalidiaceae, Hapalidiales, Rhodophyta): new insights in biomineralization and phylomineralogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayesky-Self, Sherry; Richards, Joseph L; Rahmatian, Mansour; Fredericq, Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    New empirical and quantitative data in the study of calcium carbonate biomineralization and an expanded coralline psbA framework for phylomineralogy are provided for crustose coralline red algae. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) pinpointed the exact location of calcium carbonate crystals within overgrown reproductive conceptacles in rhodolith-forming Lithothamnion species from the Gulf of Mexico and Pacific Panama. SEM-EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the elemental composition of these calcium carbonate crystals to be aragonite. After spore release, reproductive conceptacles apparently became overgrown by new vegetative growth, a strategy that may aid in sealing the empty conceptacle chamber, hence influencing the chemistry of the microenvironment and in turn promoting aragonite crystal growth. The possible relevance of various types of calcium carbonate polymorphs present in the complex internal structure and skeleton of crustose corallines is discussed. This is the first study to link SEM, SEM-EDS, XRD, Microtomography and X-ray microscopy data of aragonite infill in coralline algae with phylomineralogy. The study contributes to the growing body of literature characterizing and speculating about how the relative abundances of carbonate biominerals in corallines may vary in response to changes in atmospheric pCO2 , ocean acidification, and global warming. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  19. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drillings. Annual technical progress report, June 13, 1996 to June 12, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevans, Jerry W.; Blasingame, Tom; Doublet, Louis; Kelkar, Mohan; Freeman, George; Callard, Jeff; Moore, David; Davies, David; Vessell, Richard; Pregger, Brian; Dixon, Bill

    1999-04-27

    Infill drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to reservoir performance and characterization, does not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations. Other technologies, such as inter-well injection tracers and magnetic flow conditioners, can also aid in the efficient evaluation and operation of both injection and producing wells. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate useful and cost effective methods of exploitation of the shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs of the Permian Basin located in West Texas.

  20. A Procedure for Determining Tire-Road Friction Characteristics Using a Modification of the Magic Formula Based on Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Javier; Velasco, Juan M.; Guerra, Antonio J.; Hernández, Pedro

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge of tire-road friction characteristics is essential for the proper performance of most relevant vehicle active safety systems. Therefore, its determination is necessary to improve the effectiveness of these systems and to avoid or reduce the consequences of traffic accidents. For this reason, there is a great deal of literature concerning methods and devices for measuring and modeling tire-road friction. Most of these methods have focused on determining the road friction resistance, taking only road composition and making measurements in wet conditions into account. However, friction forces are also dependent on the tire type, since the contact is established between the tire and the road in real driving conditions. Thus, the type and characteristics of the tire have to be considered in the study of the interaction between the vehicle and the road. The aim of this work is to unify the study of the friction coefficient, taking into consideration the two existing bodies involved in the contact, i.e., the tire and road and the main factors that influence the forces in the contact. To this end, a modification of the Pacejka Magic Formula is proposed to include the effects of the main parameters that influence the contact, such as road composition and its state, tire type, vehicle speed, and slip between the tire and the road. To do so, real tests have been conducted on several roads and with different operating conditions. As a result, a more accurate tire-road friction model has been obtained. PMID:29562623

  1. A Procedure for Determining Tire-Road Friction Characteristics Using a Modification of the Magic Formula Based on Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Cabrera

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of tire-road friction characteristics is essential for the proper performance of most relevant vehicle active safety systems. Therefore, its determination is necessary to improve the effectiveness of these systems and to avoid or reduce the consequences of traffic accidents. For this reason, there is a great deal of literature concerning methods and devices for measuring and modeling tire-road friction. Most of these methods have focused on determining the road friction resistance, taking only road composition and making measurements in wet conditions into account. However, friction forces are also dependent on the tire type, since the contact is established between the tire and the road in real driving conditions. Thus, the type and characteristics of the tire have to be considered in the study of the interaction between the vehicle and the road. The aim of this work is to unify the study of the friction coefficient, taking into consideration the two existing bodies involved in the contact, i.e., the tire and road and the main factors that influence the forces in the contact. To this end, a modification of the Pacejka Magic Formula is proposed to include the effects of the main parameters that influence the contact, such as road composition and its state, tire type, vehicle speed, and slip between the tire and the road. To do so, real tests have been conducted on several roads and with different operating conditions. As a result, a more accurate tire-road friction model has been obtained.

  2. A Procedure for Determining Tire-Road Friction Characteristics Using a Modification of the Magic Formula Based on Experimental Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Juan A; Castillo, Juan J; Pérez, Javier; Velasco, Juan M; Guerra, Antonio J; Hernández, Pedro

    2018-03-17

    Knowledge of tire-road friction characteristics is essential for the proper performance of most relevant vehicle active safety systems. Therefore, its determination is necessary to improve the effectiveness of these systems and to avoid or reduce the consequences of traffic accidents. For this reason, there is a great deal of literature concerning methods and devices for measuring and modeling tire-road friction. Most of these methods have focused on determining the road friction resistance, taking only road composition and making measurements in wet conditions into account. However, friction forces are also dependent on the tire type, since the contact is established between the tire and the road in real driving conditions. Thus, the type and characteristics of the tire have to be considered in the study of the interaction between the vehicle and the road. The aim of this work is to unify the study of the friction coefficient, taking into consideration the two existing bodies involved in the contact, i.e., the tire and road and the main factors that influence the forces in the contact. To this end, a modification of the Pacejka Magic Formula is proposed to include the effects of the main parameters that influence the contact, such as road composition and its state, tire type, vehicle speed, and slip between the tire and the road. To do so, real tests have been conducted on several roads and with different operating conditions. As a result, a more accurate tire-road friction model has been obtained.

  3. Finite Element Analysis and Footprint Determination of a Bias Truck Tire under Vertical Static Load Using Global/Local Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H.R. Ghoreishy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Afinite element model of a bias truck tire under static vertical load using a global/local technique is designed in two parts. In the first part a previously created model for radial tires is developed to take the constructional variables of bias tires into account. It is shown that the technique can successfully be used for bias tires. The main challenge here is the selection of the initial layout of the tire, which due to the use of nylon fibers in bias tires undergo considerable variation in shapes on being released from mold. Therefore, the selection of the tire lay out in the mold as the initial starting point for finite element calculations leads to significant errors in the final results. In the second part, a highly refined mesh has been created from contacting region of the tire tread pattern as a local model. This model is analyzed using the results of the first (global model as the boundary condition. It is also shown that the developed method is capable of precisely predicting the geometry of the footprint area without any extra computational cost and efforts needed in finite element calculations of full tire models.

  4. Reinterpretation of the Quaternary sedimentary infill of the Ría de Vigo, NW Iberian Peninsula, as a compound incised valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Carreño, N.; García-Gil, S.

    2017-10-01

    Seismic data have been used to investigate the stratigraphy of the Galician rias for more than two decades. Here, we present a new interpretation of the sedimentary infill of an incised valley (Ría de Vigo, NW Iberian Peninsula), based on high-resolution seismic profiles, core sediment analysis, and radiocarbon 14C data. The new data indicate that the stratigraphic architecture of the Galician rias result from multiple incision/infill phases and, therefore, they are reclassified as compound rather than simple incised valleys. Seven seismic units were identified: one of Tertiary age (U1), four of Pleistocene age (U2-U5) which are interpreted as 4th-order sequences deposited between MIS 11 and MIS 2, and Late Pleistocene (U6) and Holocene (U7) units corresponding with post-glacial sedimentation. The sedimentary infill overlies a highly faulted irregular granitic and metamorphic basement; the inherited morphology is shown to be important for controlling the pathway and evolution of the fluvial network as well as preservation of the sedimentary deposits during several glacial/interglacial cycles. The presence of a rocky barrier at the mouth of the ria is a distinctive feature that conditions sedimentation and exchange of sediment between the ria and the adjacent shelf. For the first time, faults and tilted blocks affecting Late Pleistocene (MIS 3) deposits have been identified. The new data presented here provide the opportunity to reconstruct the evolution of the sedimentary infill of a ria, with especially high-resolution during the last post-glacial transgression.

  5. Demonstration of the waste tire pyrolysis process on pilot scale in a continuous auger reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez, Juan Daniel, E-mail: juand.martinez@upb.edu.co [Instituto de Carboquímica, ICB-CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castán 4, 50018, Zaragoza (Spain); Grupo de Investigaciones Ambientales, Instituto de Energía, Materiales y Medio Ambiente, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Circular 1 N°70-01, Bloque 11, piso 2, Medellín (Colombia); Murillo, Ramón; García, Tomás; Veses, Alberto [Instituto de Carboquímica, ICB-CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castán 4, 50018, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The continuous pyrolysis of waste tire has been demonstrated at pilot scale in an auger reactor. • More than 500 kg of waste tires were processed in 100 operational hours. • The yields and characteristics of the pyrolysis products remained constant. • Mass and energy balances for an industrial scale plant are provided. • The reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis was determined. -- Abstract: This work shows the technical feasibility for valorizing waste tires by pyrolysis using a pilot scale facility with a nominal capacity of 150 kW{sub th}. A continuous auger reactor was operated to perform thirteen independent experiments that conducted to the processing of more than 500 kg of shredded waste tires in 100 h of operation. The reaction temperature was 550 °C and the pressure was 1 bar in all the runs. Under these conditions, yields to solid, liquid and gas were 40.5 ± 0.3, 42.6 ± 0.1 and 16.9 ± 0.3 wt.% respectively. Ultimate and proximate analyses as well as heating value analysis were conducted for both the solid and liquid fraction. pH, water content, total acid number (TAN), viscosity and density were also assessed for the liquid and compared to the specifications of marine fuels (standard ISO 8217). Gas chromatography was used to calculate the composition of the gaseous fraction. It was observed that all these properties remained practically invariable along the experiments without any significant technical problem. In addition, the reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis process (907.1 ± 40.0 kJ/kg) was determined from the combustion and formation enthalpies of waste tire and conversion products. Finally, a mass balance closure was performed showing an excellent reliability of the data obtained from the experimental campaign.

  6. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXV, I--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM D-8 AND 824 MODELS, II--TIRES AND TIRE HARDWARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM AND TO PROVIDE A DESCRIPTION OF HEAVY TIRES AND WHEELS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) THEORY OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, (2) COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS, (3) MAINTENANCE TIPS (COOLING SYSTEM), (4)…

  7. Polyethylene-waste tire dust composites via in situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes A, Y. K.; Narro C, R. I.; Ramos A, M. E.; Neira V, M. G.; Diaz E, J.; Enriquez M, F.; Valencia L, L. A.; Saade C, H.; Diaz de L, R.

    2014-01-01

    Polyethylene/waste tire dust (WTD) composites were obtained by an in situ polymerization technique. The surface of the WTD was modified with deposition of polyethylene by using plasma polymerization. Ethylene polymerization was carried out using bis(cyclopentadienyl) titanium dichloride (Cp 2 TiCl 2 ) as homogeneous metallocenes catalyst, while diethylaluminum chloride (DEAC), ethyl aluminum sesquichloride (EASC) and methyl alumino xane (Mao) were used as co-catalysts at two different [Al]/[Ti] molar ratio. The main characteristics of the obtained polyethylenes were determined by size exclusion chromatography, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray diffraction. The results showed that by using EASC and Mao the highest catalytic activities were presented at a [Al]/[Ti] molar ratio of 9.17 and 18.33 respectively. Even though it was possible to obtain polyethylene using WTD (modified or unmodified) the catalytic activity was lower than in the case in which no WTD was added in ethylene polymerization. Scanning transmission electronic microscopy images evidenced that the original morphology of the polyethylenes was not modified by the presence of WTD. (Author)

  8. Polyethylene-waste tire dust composites via in situ polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes A, Y. K.; Narro C, R. I.; Ramos A, M. E. [Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Blvd. Venustiano Carranza s/n, 25280 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico); Neira V, M. G.; Diaz E, J.; Enriquez M, F.; Valencia L, L. A.; Saade C, H.; Diaz de L, R., E-mail: ramon.diazdeleon@ciqa.edu.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada, Blvd. Enrique Reyna Hermosillo No. 40, Col. San Jose de los Cerritos, 25293 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2014-10-01

    Polyethylene/waste tire dust (WTD) composites were obtained by an in situ polymerization technique. The surface of the WTD was modified with deposition of polyethylene by using plasma polymerization. Ethylene polymerization was carried out using bis(cyclopentadienyl) titanium dichloride (Cp{sub 2}TiCl{sub 2}) as homogeneous metallocenes catalyst, while diethylaluminum chloride (DEAC), ethyl aluminum sesquichloride (EASC) and methyl alumino xane (Mao) were used as co-catalysts at two different [Al]/[Ti] molar ratio. The main characteristics of the obtained polyethylenes were determined by size exclusion chromatography, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray diffraction. The results showed that by using EASC and Mao the highest catalytic activities were presented at a [Al]/[Ti] molar ratio of 9.17 and 18.33 respectively. Even though it was possible to obtain polyethylene using WTD (modified or unmodified) the catalytic activity was lower than in the case in which no WTD was added in ethylene polymerization. Scanning transmission electronic microscopy images evidenced that the original morphology of the polyethylenes was not modified by the presence of WTD. (Author)

  9. [The tired adolescent: Evaluation and management in the family practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas Villamil, J P; Cavanzo Ramírez, A I; García Manrique, J G

    2017-05-13

    The narrative review is used as a methodological tool for the presentation of this article. A search was made in the PubMed, Elsevier, Ebsco, and Medline databases using temporal limits (publications from 2005 to 2016), in the Spanish, English, and Portuguese language, and by the type of persons analysed in the study (adolescents), along with the keywords in English: Adolescent/teen, tiredness, fatigue, sleepiness, drowsiness. A total of 33 articles of relevance were obtained for the diagnostic and therapeutic approach of the tired adolescent in Primary Care. It was found that the main cause of excessive daytime sleepiness and drowsiness in adolescents is insufficient or inadequate sleep. For this reason, a sleep assessment should be a routine component of the clinical evaluation of adolescents, and as the initial approach to dismiss secondary causes. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. The Use of Deconstructed Tires as Elastic Elements in Railway Tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Sol-Sánchez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Elastic elements such as rail pads, under sleeper pads and under ballast mats are railway components that allow for a reduction in track deterioration and vibrations. And they are furthermore commonly used to obtain an optimal vertical stiffness of the infrastructure. However, the use of elastomeric materials can increase construction costs and the consumption of raw materials. Thus, the utilization of used tire layers offers an alternative to reuse an abundant waste reducing the cost of elastic elements. In addition, an innovator technique allows deconstructing tire layers without grinding up the material, reducing production costs at the same time that tire properties are remained. This research is focused on the study of the viability of developing elastic components from used tire layers by evaluating the influence of thickness, the resistance capacity of the elements and their behavior in a ballast box. Results indicate the ability of tire pads to manufacture elastic elements (rail pads, under sleeper pads and under ballast mats to be used in railway tracks.

  11. Investigation of the Effect of Dimple Bionic Nonsmooth Surface on Tire Antihydroplaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichao Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the idea that bionic nonsmooth surfaces (BNSS reduce fluid adhesion and resistance, the effect of dimple bionic nonsmooth structure arranged in tire circumferential grooves surface on antihydroplaning performance was investigated by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. The physical model of the object (model of dimple bionic nonsmooth surface distribution, hydroplaning model and SST k-ω turbulence model are established for numerical analysis of tire hydroplaning. By virtue of the orthogonal table L16(45, the parameters of dimple bionic nonsmooth structure design compared to the smooth structure were analyzed, and the priority level of the experimental factors as well as the best combination within the scope of the experiment was obtained. The simulation results show that dimple bionic nonsmooth structure can reduce water flow resistance by disturbing the eddy movement in boundary layers. Then, optimal type of dimple bionic nonsmooth structure is arranged on the bottom of tire circumferential grooves for hydroplaning performance analysis. The results show that the dimple bionic nonsmooth structure effectively decreases the tread hydrodynamic pressure when driving on water film and increases the tire hydroplaning velocity, thus improving tire antihydroplaning performance.

  12. Vibration Analysis of a Tire in Ground Contact under Varied Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karakus Murat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three different factors, which are inflation pressure, vertical load and coefficient of friction on the natural frequencies of a tire (175/70 R13 has been studied. A three dimensional tire model is constructed, using four different material properties and parts in the tire. Mechanical properties of the composite parts are evaluated. After investigating the free vibration, contact analysis is carried out. A concrete block and the tire are modelled together, using three different coefficients of friction. Experiments are run under certain conditions to check the accuracy of the numerical model. The natural frequencies are measured to describe free vibration and vibration of the tire contacted by ground, using a damping monitoring method. It is seen, that experimental and numerical results are in good agreement. On the other hand, investigating the impact of three different factors together is quite difficult on the natural frequencies. When some of these factors are assumed to be constant and the variables are taken one by one, it is easier to assess the effects.

  13. Pavement type and wear condition classification from tire cavity acoustic measurements with artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masino, Johannes; Foitzik, Michael-Jan; Frey, Michael; Gauterin, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Tire road noise is the major contributor to traffic noise, which leads to general annoyance, speech interference, and sleep disturbances. Standardized methods to measure tire road noise are expensive, sophisticated to use, and they cannot be applied comprehensively. This paper presents a method to automatically classify different types of pavement and the wear condition to identify noisy road surfaces. The methods are based on spectra of time series data of the tire cavity sound, acquired under normal vehicle operation. The classifier, an artificial neural network, correctly predicts three pavement types, whereas there are few bidirectional mis-classifications for two pavements, which have similar physical characteristics. The performance measures of the classifier to predict a new or worn out condition are over 94.6%. One could create a digital map with the output of the presented method. On the basis of these digital maps, road segments with a strong impact on tire road noise could be automatically identified. Furthermore, the method can estimate the road macro-texture, which has an impact on the tire road friction especially on wet conditions. Overall, this digital map would have a great benefit for civil engineering departments, road infrastructure operators, and for advanced driver assistance systems.

  14. The Use of Deconstructed Tires as Elastic Elements in Railway Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sol-Sánchez, Miguel; Moreno-Navarro, Fernando; Rubio-Gámez, Mª Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Elastic elements such as rail pads, under sleeper pads and under ballast mats are railway components that allow for a reduction in track deterioration and vibrations. And they are furthermore commonly used to obtain an optimal vertical stiffness of the infrastructure. However, the use of elastomeric materials can increase construction costs and the consumption of raw materials. Thus, the utilization of used tire layers offers an alternative to reuse an abundant waste reducing the cost of elastic elements. In addition, an innovator technique allows deconstructing tire layers without grinding up the material, reducing production costs at the same time that tire properties are remained. This research is focused on the study of the viability of developing elastic components from used tire layers by evaluating the influence of thickness, the resistance capacity of the elements and their behavior in a ballast box. Results indicate the ability of tire pads to manufacture elastic elements (rail pads, under sleeper pads and under ballast mats) to be used in railway tracks. PMID:28788168

  15. Defect Detection in Tire X-Ray Images Using Weighted Texture Dissimilarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic defect detection is an important and challenging problem in industrial quality inspection. This paper proposes an efficient defect detection method for tire quality assurance, which takes advantage of the feature similarity of tire images to capture the anomalies. The proposed detection algorithm mainly consists of three steps. Firstly, the local kernel regression descriptor is exploited to derive a set of feature vectors of an inspected tire image. These feature vectors are used to evaluate the feature dissimilarity of pixels. Next, the texture distortion degree of each pixel is estimated by weighted averaging of the dissimilarity between one pixel and its neighbors, which results in an anomaly map of the inspected image. Finally, the defects are located by segmenting this anomaly map with a simple thresholding process. Different from some existing detection algorithms that fail to work for tire tread images, the proposed detection algorithm works well not only for sidewall images but also for tread images. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can accurately locate the defects of tire images and outperforms the traditional defect detection algorithms in terms of various quantitative metrics.

  16. Tissue repair genes: the TiRe database and its implication for skin wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Hagai; Budovsky, Arie; Tacutu, Robi; Barzilay, Thomer; Abramovich, Amir; Ziesche, Rolf; Fraifeld, Vadim E

    2016-04-19

    Wound healing is an inherent feature of any multicellular organism and recent years have brought about a huge amount of data regarding regular and abnormal tissue repair. Despite the accumulated knowledge, modulation of wound healing is still a major biomedical challenge, especially in advanced ages. In order to collect and systematically organize what we know about the key players in wound healing, we created the TiRe (Tissue Repair) database, an online collection of genes and proteins that were shown to directly affect skin wound healing. To date, TiRe contains 397 entries for four organisms: Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Sus domesticus, and Homo sapiens. Analysis of the TiRe dataset of skin wound healing-associated genes showed that skin wound healing genes are (i) over-conserved among vertebrates, but are under-conserved in invertebrates; (ii) enriched in extracellular and immuno-inflammatory genes; and display (iii) high interconnectivity and connectivity to other proteins. The latter may provide potential therapeutic targets. In addition, a slower or faster skin wound healing is indicative of an aging or longevity phenotype only when assessed in advanced ages, but not in the young. In the long run, we aim for TiRe to be a one-station resource that provides researchers and clinicians with the essential data needed for a better understanding of the mechanisms of wound healing, designing new experiments, and the development of new therapeutic strategies. TiRe is freely available online at http://www.tiredb.org.

  17. Determining the concentration of individual eruptive events of the CAMP: Distinguishing interflow hiatuses from subterranean alteration and void infilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, P. E.; Kent, D. V.; Et-Touhami, M.

    2012-04-01

    More important than the total volume of eruptives in a LIP is the concentration in time of individual eruptions with timescales relevant for environmental change. In CAMP lavas, interflow sedimentary and reddened levels are interpreted as evidence of significant time between flows of hundreds to thousands of years allowing soil development and sediment deposition. Additionally, cross-cutting or enclosed sediment bodies, and basalt and sediment mixtures are interpreted as clastic intrusions and phreatic mixing (peperites). Here we show that most such occurrences are more consistent with post-emplacement alteration and void infill by sediment. Criteria for recognizing void fillings in cross-cutting, enclosed or mixed basalt include: 1) paleo-horizontal sediment stratification independent of basalt clasts or void walls - i.e., geopedal; 2) presence of clasts alien to underlying units such as lithic clasts or bones, the latter analogous to karst occurrences; 3) presence of current structures such as ripples; 4) lack of basalt chill margins; and 5) preserved stratigraphy related to overlying units. Criteria for recognizing flow-contact-parallel sediment bodies and reddened and altered contacts as post-emplacement alteration and void infill include: 1) reddening and alteration of both the upper surface of the older flow AND the lower surface of the overlying flow (caused by post-emplacement ground-water-flow); 2) presence of clasts derived from the bottom of the overlying flow; 3) location of tabular sediment bodies within blisters and paleosurface-parallel crack-sheets of the older flow, rather than at the contact between flows; and 4) physical connection between paleosurface-parallel sediment bodies and sediment bodies that cross-cutting the younger flow exhibiting post-emplacement features described above. Features that might be indicative of deposition at the land surface but are not include: 1) roots, which can penetrate for tens of meters through sediment

  18. 49 CFR 571.120 - Tire selection and rims and motor home/recreation vehicle trailer load carrying capacity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Industrie Norm. (5) “B” indicates British Standards Institution. (6) “S” indicates Scandinavian Tire and Rim... tire, the information specified in S5.3.3, in the English language, lettered in block capitals and... Information. The owner's manual of the vehicle shall contain, in writing in the English language and in not...

  19. 75 FR 56991 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status Michelin North America, Inc. (Tire Distribution and Wheel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... Distribution and Wheel Assembly) Baltimore, MD Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of... special- purpose subzone at the warehouse/distribution and wheel assembly facility of Michelin North... for activity related to tire and tire accessories warehousing and distribution and wheel assembly at...

  20. 75 FR 46917 - New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... Zhongce Rubber Co., Ltd.; Hebei Starbright Tire Co., Ltd. (``Starbright''); Innova Rubber Co., Ltd... (collectively ``KS Ltd.''); Laizhou Xiongying Rubber Industry Co., Ltd.; Qingdao Taifa Group Co., Ltd... Group (``Wanda''); Tianjin United Tire &Rubber International Co., Ltd. (``TUTRIC''); and Weihai Zhongwei...

  1. 76 FR 14919 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... of OTR tire exports from the following entities: (1) Hangzhou Zhongce Rubber Co., Ltd. (``Hangzhou... Limited (``KS Holding''), (4) Laizhou Xiongying Rubber Industry Co., Ltd. (``Laizhou Xiongying''), (5) Qingdao Taifa Group Co., Ltd. (``Qingdao Taifa''), (6) Tianjin United Tire & Rubber International Co., Ltd...

  2. 78 FR 77101 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... deadlines in this segment of the proceeding have been extended by 16 days. \\4\\ See Memorandum for the Record.../producers (percent) Guizhou Tire Co., Ltd 2.52 Hebei Starbright Co., Ltd 35.13 Tianjin United Tire and... parties subject to administrative protective order (APO) of their responsibility concerning the return or...

  3. Finite Element Modeling of an Aircraft Tire Rolling on a Steel Drum: Experimental Investigations and Numerical Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Rosu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the thermal evolution of an aircraft tire rolling at high velocities up to take off values. As this kind of experiment is difficult to realize on a real runway, experimental tests were realized on aircraft tires rolling on a steel drum. The rotating drum facility allows to apply variable velocities beyond the take off limits, at fixed skidding angles and loadings. The rolling conditions, vertical loading, velocity and cornering conditions were adopted to correspond to the real conditions of an aircraft tire running or skidding on a flat runway. In the experimental part, the influence of skidding angle, velocity and loading on the thermal evolution of the tire tread were investigated. The thermo-mechanical finite element analysis of a pneumatic radial tire structure was performed taking into account the hyper-viscoelastic rubber behavior, with heating mechanisms developed by the inelastic deformation and by friction. Three-dimensional finite element simulations of an aircraft tire rolling on a steel drum were carried out using Abaqus/Standard finite element solver. The comparison of the temperature distribution on the tire tread between numerical results and the experimental data shows the same overall tendencies. The good correlation between numerical and experimental data shows that numerical simulation could predict the thermal evolution of the tire in critical situations. The authors would like to mention that for confidentiality reason, certain numerical data could not be revealed.

  4. 26 CFR 48.4071-3 - Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered to manufacturer's retail outlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to manufacturer's retail outlet. 48.4071-3 Section 48.4071-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... § 48.4071-3 Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered to manufacturer's retail outlet. (a) General... a retail outlet of the manufacturer, the manufacturer is liable for tax in respect of the tire or...

  5. Standards for tire-bale erosion control and bank stabilization projects: validation of existing practice and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    In an effort to promote the use of increasing stockpiles of waste tires and a growing demand for adequate : backfill material in highway construction, NMDOT has embarked on a move to use compressed tire-bales : as a means to reduce cost of constructi...

  6. 78 FR 2236 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a GVWR of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a GVWR of More Than 4,536 Kilograms (10,000 Pounds... and replace a missing footnote in Table II. FMVSS No. 119 was amended in a final rule published on... Standard (FMVSS) No. 119, New pneumatic tires for motor vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR...

  7. An Enhanced Tire Model for Dynamic Simulation based on Geometrically Exact Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roller Michael

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a tire model is derived based on geometrically exact shells. The discretization is done with the help of isoparametric quadrilateral finite elements. The interpolation is performed with bilinear Lagrangian polynomials for the mid-surface as well as for the director field. As time stepping method for the resulting differential algebraic equation a backward differentiation formula is chosen. A multilayer material model for geometrically exact shells is introduced, to describe the anisotropic behavior of the tire material. To handle the interaction with a rigid road surface, a unilateral frictional contact formulation is introduced. Therein a special surface to surface contact element is developed, which rebuilds the shape of the tire.

  8. Characterization of the properties of thermoplastic elastomers containing waste rubber tire powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu Ling; Xin, Zhen Xiang; Zhang, Zhen Xiu; Kim, Jin Kuk

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this research was to recycle waste rubber tires by using powdering technology and treating the waste rubber tire powder with bitumen. It has been proven that the elongation at break, thermal stability and processing flowability of composites of polypropylene (PP), waste rubber tire powder (WRT) and bitumen composites are better than those of PP/WRT composite. A comparative study has been made to evaluate the influence of bitumen content and different compatibilizers on the properties of PP/WRT/bitumen composites, using a universal testing machine (UTM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and a capillary rheometer. The results suggested that the properties of PP/WRT/bitumen composites were dependent on the bitumen content and the kind of compatibilizer used.

  9. Worker exposures to chemical agents in the manufacture of rubber tires: solvent vapor studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ert, M D; Arp, E W; Harris, R L; Symons, M J; Williams, T M

    1980-03-01

    Environmental sampling surveys have been conducted in ten large tire manufacturing plants across the U.S. to characterize the nature and intensity of current exposure to solvent vapors. These plants were chosen to represent a cross-section of the industry and include both old and new plants, plants of four different companies and plants with wide geographic distributions. A variety of organic solvents is used in the manufacture of tires and tubes; accordingly solvent vapors comprise one category of exposure for workers in specific Occupational Title Groups (OTGs). Approximately 1000 determinations of various solvent vapor components in air samples have been made with special emphasis on pentane, hexane, heptane, benzene and toluene vapor levels. Exposures stem from the widespread use of bulk materials including petroleum naphthas, gasoline and aliphatic and rubber solvents in various tire manufacturing operations.

  10. Adsorption of Pb(II by Activated Pyrolytic Char from Used Tire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Ping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a renewable resource, the pyrolytic char derived from used tire has promising adsorption capacities owing to its similar structure and properties with active carbon. The purification and activation of the pyrolytic char from used tire, as well as the application of this material in the adsorption of Pb(II in water is conducted. The influences on the adsorption capacity by temperature and pH value are investigated and discussed; the adsorption thermodynamics and kinetics are also studied. The results show that the pyrolytic char from used tire has remarkable adsorption capacity for Pb(II, and the adsorption is an endothermic process complying with the Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption kinetics is a pseudo second-order reaction.

  11. Devolatilization and Combustion of Tire Rubber and Pine Wood in a Pilot Scale Rotary Kiln

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders R.; Larsen, Morten B.; Glarborg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    of tire rubber and pine wood were found to be bulk oxygen concentration, mass transfer rate of oxygen, raw material fill degree, raw material characteristics, and temperature. Kiln rotational speed only had a minor effect on the char oxidation when the raw material bed was in a rolling motion. Initial....... Investigated temperatures varied from 700 to 1000 °C, and oxygen concentrations varied from 5% v/v O2 to 21% v/v O2. The devolatilization time of tire rubber and pine wood were found to mainly depend on temperature and particle size and were within 40 to 170 s. Rate limiting parameters for char oxidation...... of industrial waste. In this study, devolatilization and combustion of large particles of tire rubber and pine wood with equivalent diameters of 10 mm to 26 mm are investigated in a pilot scale rotary kiln able to simulate the process conditions present in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns...

  12. Job stress in the staff of a tire factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    marzieh torshizi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Occupational stress is a major problem in industrial societies. Its relationship with various diseases is increasing ,but it probably has vast socio-economic consequences manifested in the form of absenteeism, labour turnover, loss of productivity and disability pension costs. The present study aimed at determining stress in the staff of a tyre factory.   Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was done on 196 members of staff from various sections of a tire factory in 2008 through proportional classification and randomized sampling .Data was collected by means of Coudron two questionnaires "demographic" and "standardized job stress" . The obtained data was analyzed using SPSS software (v: 11.5, chi-square test, and Pearson's correlation coefficient (P ≤ 0.05.   Results: It was found that 49.5% of the staff had severe job stress .Severe job stress was 55.8% in the production unit (No. =53, 50% in the administrative unit (No. =16 and 40.6% supporting the backing unit (No=28.   There was a significant relationship between variables income and adequate sleep on one hand and level of job stress on the other (P < 0.001.However, no significant relationship was observed between job stress and age, marital status, education, working record ,and exercise.   Conclusion: Based on the results of the current study, more than half of the employees suffered from job stress. Compared with employees in other industrialized countries, Iranian employees appeared to have much higher prevalence of stress. Therefore, more studies are required in order to reduce the amount of stress and its consequences.

  13. Aspectos morfológicos dos autotransplantes de tireóide da rata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Nunes Mota

    Full Text Available Foram operadas cinqüenta ratas Wistar, adultas, separadas em seis grupos: 1, 2, 3, grupos isotado 1 e 2 e um grupo piloto. O lobo esquerdo da tireóide da rata foi dividido em três fragmentos similares e implantados no músculo esternoclidomastóideo, na raiz do mesentério e no ovário. Os tecidos implantados foram examinados histologicamente após dez, vinte e trinta dias. No grupo isolado I, depois de trinta dias a porção restante da tireóide in situ foi removida, passando a viver somente com os implantes. Para verificar aspectos funcionais, foram implantados três fragmentos da tireóide em um grupo isolado na raiz do mesentério. T3 T4 e TSH foram dosados no soro antes e após a retirada da tireóide. O exame histológico mostrou que o tecido tireóideo implantado sofria inicialmente discreta hipotrofia, retomando em seguida para os limites da normalidade. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com o implante no mesentério. Os valores de T 3 e T 4 eram baixos e os de TSH altos. Apoiado nos resultados histológicos e hormonais, concluiu-se que no período estudado, a tireóide autotransplantada manteve sua arquitetura folicular, cumprindo a função de produzir os hormônios.

  14. Perfil dos pacientes com câncer de tireóide submetidos à radioiodoterapia

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro, Elke Annegret Kretzschmar; Martini, Jussara Gue

    2013-01-01

    Estudo descritivo com abordagem quantitativa, que objetivou descrever o perfil de 650 pacientes com câncer de tireóide e tireoidectomizados, submetidos à terapia por radioisótopos num Serviço Público da grande Florianópolis, que passaram pela consulta de enfermagem no período de 2004 a 2009. Para alcance dos objetivos foram pesquisadas as seguintes variáveis: gênero, idade, profissão, estado civil, procedência, e detecção de alterações na tireóide. Constatou-se que 88% são mulheres. Dos pacie...

  15. Surface treated carbon catalysts produced from waste tires for fatty acids to biofuel conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hood, Zachary D.; Adhikari, Shiba P.; Wright, Marcus W.; Lachgar, Abdessadek; Li, Yunchao; Naskar, Amit K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans

    2018-02-06

    A method of making solid acid catalysts includes the step of sulfonating waste tire pieces in a first sulfonation step. The sulfonated waste tire pieces are pyrolyzed to produce carbon composite pieces having a pore size less than 10 nm. The carbon composite pieces are then ground to produce carbon composite powders having a size less than 50 .mu.m. The carbon composite particles are sulfonated in a second sulfonation step to produce sulfonated solid acid catalysts. A method of making biofuels and solid acid catalysts are also disclosed.

  16. Development of puncture resistance tire tube; Nirinsha no taipankusei kojo cube no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagiwa, T.; Nakayama, K.; Kiyota, S.; Tanaka, A. [Honda R and D Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Makisaka, N.

    1997-10-01

    A new tire tube with a puncture resistance function was developed. The tube is a two-chamber structure having an air chamber and a liquid chamber, and the liquid chamber at the crown-side half of the tube is filled with an anti-puncture sealant during a manufacturing process. In a market test, it was confirmed that the number of puncture cases were reduced by 90 % in comparison with conventional tire tubes by using the newly developed tube. This paper describes the structure of the tube and the characteristics of the tube rubber, and the manufacturing process and durability of the tube. 3 refs., 17 figs.

  17. National Innovation System and Disruptive Innovations in Synthetic Rubber and Tire Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray R. Gehani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current models of National Innovation Systems (NIS are based on interactions and learning across three institutions: government, university and industry. This empirical study of the evolution of innovations in rubber and tire technologies such as the collaborative innovative suppliers (of raw materials and human capital and disruptive rival innovators to the traditional tri-helical model of National Innovation System. This was empirically examined for the evolution of rubber and tire technology and the rise and decline of its innovative region: the Rubber Capital of the World in Akron, Ohio.

  18. The Growth Prospects for the World Tire Market in the Short and Medium-Term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florela Stoian

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the main aspects of the short and medium-term developments in the world market for motor vehicles tires, an industry which is related to the machine building industry, with the latter being seen as a barometer for the health of an economy. It analyzes the main trends in motor vehicles production worldwide during the years 2011-2014, and highlights the ranking of the ten largest tire manufacturing companies, as well as the outlook until 2025. The article contains also forecasts on the growth of this industry by regions.

  19. Determination of bitumen and rubber content in bituminous mixes containing crumb tyre rubber; Determinacion del contenido de betum y de caucho en las mezclas bituminosas que incorporan plvo de caucho procedente de neumaticos fuera de uso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio Guzamn, B.; Jimenez Saez, R.

    2009-07-01

    In recent years the use of crumb rubber from scrap tyres as a component of hot bituminous mixes for road construction, has been officially promoted by the Public Administration in Spain, by issuing several publications of both informative and normative nature, aimed to spread knowledge and experiences on the subject and also to specify the requirement and regulate the working applications for this material. However, it also seems necessary to develop new test methods which, allows control of the rubber content in crumb rubber-added mixes, regardless of the process (wet or dry) followed for the mix production. This article describes a procedure reliable enough to determine both the soluble bituminous binder and the rubber contents in bituminous mixes based on two combined, previously standardized test methods: binder extraction with solvent and ignition. (Author) 7 refs.

  20. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Quarterly technical progress report, September 13--December 12, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The eighteen 10-acre infill wells which were drilled as part of the field demonstration portion of the project are all currently in service with no operational problems. These wells consist of fourteen producing wells and four injection wells. The producing wells are currently producing a total of approximately 450 bopd, down from a peak rate of 900 bopd. Unit production is currently averaging approximately 2,700 bopd, 12,000 bwpd and 18,000 bwipd. The paper describes progress on hydraulic fracture design, reservoir surveillance, data analysis procedures, and deterministic modeling and simulation.

  1. A Strain-Based Method to Detect Tires’ Loss of Grip and Estimate Lateral Friction Coefficient from Experimental Data by Fuzzy Logic for Intelligent Tire Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Yunta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tires are a key sub-system of vehicles that have a big responsibility for comfort, fuel consumption and traffic safety. However, current tires are just passive rubber elements which do not contribute actively to improve the driving experience or vehicle safety. The lack of information from the tire during driving gives cause for developing an intelligent tire. Therefore, the aim of the intelligent tire is to monitor tire working conditions in real-time, providing useful information to other systems and becoming an active system. In this paper, tire tread deformation is measured to provide a strong experimental base with different experiments and test results by means of a tire fitted with sensors. Tests under different working conditions such as vertical load or slip angle have been carried out with an indoor tire test rig. The experimental data analysis shows the strong relation that exists between lateral force and the maximum tensile and compressive strain peaks when the tire is not working at the limit of grip. In the last section, an estimation system from experimental data has been developed and implemented in Simulink to show the potential of strain sensors for developing intelligent tire systems, obtaining as major results a signal to detect tire’s loss of grip and estimations of the lateral friction coefficient.

  2. Braking, steering, and wear performance of radial-belted and bias-ply aircraft tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Davis, Pamela A.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; Martinson, Veloria J.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary steering, braking, and tread wear performance results from testing of radial-belted and bias-ply aircraft tires at NASA Langley are described. An overview of the joint NASA/FAA/industry START program is presented. Attention is given to the Langley Test Facility, equipment and future activities.

  3. A source path contribution analysis on tire noise using particle velocity sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bree, H.E.; de Bree, H.E.; Bekke, Dirk; de Vries, J.H.; Boone, M.

    2009-01-01

    Road tire noise is an important topic of research where acoustic particle velocity based testing techniques can be expected to bring new insights. Modal analysis can be carried out using non contact particle velocity sensors, and PU sound probes can be used to measure the radiated sound without a

  4. Direct strain energy harvesting in automobile tires using piezoelectric PZT-polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van den; Wiel, H.J. van de; Groen, W.A.; Zwaag, S. van der

    2012-01-01

    Direct piezoelectric strain energy harvesting can be used to power wireless autonomous sensors in environments where low frequency, high strains are present, such as in automobile tires during operation. However, these high strains place stringent demands on the materials with respect to mechanical

  5. Direct strain energy harvesting in automobile tires using piezoelectric PZT–polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.A.; Van de Wiel, H.J.; Groen, W.A.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2011-01-01

    Direct piezoelectric strain energy harvesting can be used to power wireless autonomous sensors in environments where low frequency, high strains are present, such as in automobile tires during operation. However, these high strains place stringent demands on the materials with respect to mechanical

  6. Road load simulation using the MF-Swift tire and OpenCRG road model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmeitz, A.J.C.; Versteden, W.D.; Eguchi, T.

    2011-01-01

    On one hand automotive manufacturers are trying to reduce product development times, while on the other hand they are aiming to bring more products to the market. Since safely and reliability must always be guaranteed, they use CAE to achieve this. For calculating road loads accurately, the tire and

  7. Toxicity of tire wear particle leachate to the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Andrew, E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.u [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Rice, Lynsey [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Tire wear particles filed from the treads of end-of-life vehicle tires have been added to sea water to examine the release of Zn and the toxicity of the resulting leachate and dilutions thereof to the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca. Zinc release appeared to be diffusion-controlled, with a conditional rate constant of 5.4 {mu}g[L(h){sup 1/2}]{sup -1}, and about 1.6% of total Zn was released after 120 h incubation. Exposure to increasing concentrations of leachate resulted in a non-linear reduction in the efficiency of photochemical energy conversion of U. lactuca and, with the exception of the undiluted leachate, increasing accumulation of Zn. Phototoxicity was significantly lower on exposure to equivalent concentrations of Zn added as Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, suggesting that organic components of leachate are largely responsible for the overall toxicity to the alga. Given the ubiquity and abundance of TWP in urban coastal sediments, the generation, biogeochemistry and toxicity of tire leachate in the marine setting merit further attention. - Tire wear leachate is toxic to Ulva lactuca and zinc is a potential bioindicator of leachate contamination in urban marine systems.

  8. Comparative investigation of the de-vulcanization parameters of tire rubbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2012-01-01

    The optimal process conditions for a high ratio of de-vulcanization to polymer degradation have been investigated for tire rubbers: SBR, BR, NR and CIIR. These polymers all show their own particular breakdown characteristics. The temperature dependence of the breakdown mechanism was investigated by

  9. 77 FR 20482 - Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... that manufactures and imports replacement equipment. Pursuant to 49 U.S.C. 30118(d) and 30120(h) (see... replacement equipment manufacturer from the notification and recall responsibilities of 49 CFR Part 573 for... Firestone Transforce AT, size LT265/70R17, light truck replacement tires manufactured between November 20...

  10. 75 FR 73159 - Continental Tire North America, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... replacement equipment manufacturer and importer that is incorporated in the State of Ohio. Pursuant to 49 U.S... decision to exempt Continental as a replacement equipment manufacturer from the notification and recall... passenger car replacement tires manufactured in 2009 do not fully comply with paragraph S5.5(b) of Federal...

  11. Investigation of the recycling of tires to elastomeric requirements by techniques of thermal compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal Gisbert, Antonio V.

    In this work is investigated the recycling of tires to elastomeric requirements by thermal compression. The production of recycled products is carried out starting from the powder, of elastomeric nature, coming from the grinding of used tires denominated GTR (Ground Tire Rubber) of different grain size, although the fundamental objective is the recycling of powder of 0,2mm grain size. The process of forming used for obtaining the recycled product is thermal compression, due to its simplicity and low cost. The composition of the powder has been analyzed and also the influence, on the elastomeric characteristics of the recycled product, of different parameters: Grain size, compact pressure, temperature, time, thickness of the recycled product and combination of sizes. At last we give an hypothesis that justifies the mechanism that gives cohesion to the powder GTR and allows their recycling. We also have carried out an analysis of the investigation lines, at the present, on the recycling of tires in general and an economic study of the viability of the recycled product in front of present products in the market, agglomerated with polyurethane, that have their application in using it in different types of floors.

  12. Influence of changes in surface layer properties on tire/pavement noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, M.; Van Keulen, W.; Ceylan, H.; Van de Ven, M.F.C.; Molenaar, A.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates changes in tire/pavement noise caused by variations in the road surface characteristics. This research is based on the analysis of noise and surface characteristics collected from sections with 25 mm thickness thin layer surfacings in the Netherlands. Investigations are first

  13. Influence of silica-polymer bond microstructure on tire-performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cichomski, E.M.; Tolpekina, T.V.; Schultz, S.; Blume, Anke; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the coupling agent structure in a silica-silane filler system lead to alterations of the microstructure of the silica-polymer interface and determine the dynamic properties, thus wet skid resistance (WSR) and rolling resistance (RR) of a tire tread. Silanes with one ethoxy-group instead

  14. Numerical Simulation of Tire Reinforced Sand behind Retaining Wall Under Earthquake Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lazizi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the numerical simulations of retaining walls supporting tire reinforced sand subjected to El Centro earthquake excitation using finite element analysis. For this, four cases are studied: cantilever retaining wall supporting sand under static and dynamical excitation, and cantilever retaining wall supporting waste tire reinforced sand under static and dynamical excitation. Analytical external stability analyses of the selected retaining wall show that, for all four cases, the factors of safety for base sliding and overturning are less than default minimum values. Numerical analyses show that there are no large differences between the case of wall supporting waste tire reinforced sand and the case of wall supporting sand for static loading. Under seismic excitation, the higher value of Von Mises stress for the case of retaining wall supporting waste tire reinforced sand is 3.46 times lower compared to the case of retaining wall supporting sand. The variation of horizontal displacement (U1 and vertical displacement (U2 near the retaining wall, with depth, are also presented.

  15. 77 FR 11189 - Yokohama Tire Corporation, Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ..., among other things, required that the TIN be placed on a sidewall of the tire and a full or partial TIN... difficulty and inconvenience of obtaining the TIN by consumers reduces the number of people who respond to a... sidewall and a full or partial TIN on the other sidewall. For these reasons, FMVSS No. 139 now requires TIN...

  16. 77 FR 11190 - Yokohama Tire Company, Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ..., NHTSA published a final rule that, among other things, required that the TIN be placed on a sidewall of... of obtaining the TIN by consumers reduces the number of people who respond to a tire recall campaign... on the other sidewall. For these reasons, FMVSS No. 139 now requires TIN markings on both sidewalls...

  17. Structure and parameterization of MF-swift, a magic formula-based rigid ring tire model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmeitz, A.J.C.; Versteden, W.D.

    2009-01-01

    Vehicle dynamic simulations require accurate, fast, reliable, and easy-to- parameterize tire models. For this purpose, TNO developed MF-Swift in close cooperation with the technical universities of Delft and Eindhoven. MF-Swift is based on the well-known magic formula model of Pacejka but extending

  18. Optimization of mixing conditions for silica-reinforced natural rubber tire tread compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaewsakul, Wisut; Sahakaro, Kannika; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2011-01-01

    The dump temperature and mixing interval between rubber, silica and silane coupling agent for silica-filled natural rubber (NR) tire tread compounds using bis-triethoxysilylpropyl tetrasulfide (TESPT) as silane were optimized. The dump temperature turns out to be the key parameter governing the

  19. Optimization of mixing conditions for silica-reinforced natural rubber tire tread compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaewsakul, Wisut; Sahakaro, Kannika; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2012-01-01

    The dump temperature and mixing interval between rubber, silica, and silane coupling agent for silica-filled natural rubber (NR) tire tread compounds using bis-triethoxysilylpropyl tetrasulfide (TESPT) as silane were optimized. The dump temperature turns out to be the key parameter governing the

  20. Vehicle Sliding Mode Control with Adaptive Upper Bounds: Static versus Dynamic Allocation to Saturated Tire Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tavasoli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear vehicle control allocation is achieved through distributing the task of vehicle control among individual tire forces, which are constrained to nonlinear saturation conditions. A high-level sliding mode control with adaptive upper bounds is considered to assess the body yaw moment and lateral force for the vehicle motion. The proposed controller only requires the online adaptation of control gains without acquiring the knowledge of upper bounds on system uncertainties. Static and dynamic control allocation approaches have been formulated to distribute high-level control objectives among the system inputs. For static control allocation, the interior-point method is applied to solve the formulated nonlinear optimization problem. Based on the dynamic control allocation method, a dynamic update law is derived to allocate vehicle control to tire forces. The allocated tire forces are fed into a low-level control module, where the applied torque and active steering angle at each wheel are determined through a slip-ratio controller and an inverse tire model. Computer simulations are used to prove the significant effects of the proposed control allocation methods on improving the stability and handling performance. The advantages and limitations of each method have been discussed, and conclusions have been derived.

  1. Technical assessment of discarded tires gasification as alternative technology for electricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, Einara Blanco; Pedroso, Daniel Travieso; de Carvalho, João Andrade

    2017-10-01

    Concern about contamination associated with the disposal of tires has led to the search for technologies to reuse discarded tires, which include the use of Tire Derived Fuel (TDF) as fuel in advanced thermal-conversion processes, this allows the energy use of these wastes at affordable costs and reduces the environmental impact on scrap tires disposal. A theoretical assessment of the technical viability of TDF gasification for electric and thermal power generation, from the producer gas combustion in an internal combustion engine and in a gas turbine, was performed. The combustion of producer gas derived from the gasification of TDF in an internal combustion engine driving a generator (ICE-G) appears as the more efficient route for electricity generation when compared with the efficiency obtained with the use of gas turbine (GT-G). A higher global efficiency, considering the electric and thermal generation efficiency can be expected with the use of TDF producer gas in GT-G, where is expected an overall efficiency of 77.49%. The assessment shows that is possible produces up to 7.67MJ and 10.62MJ of electric and thermal energy per kilogram of TDF gasified using an ICE-G and up to 6.06MJ and 13.03MJ of electric and thermal energy respectively per kilogram of gasified TDF using a GT-G. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adsorbed natural gas storage with activated carbons made from Illinois coals and scrap tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jielun; Brady, T.A.; Rood, M.J.; Lehmann, C.M.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Activated carbons for natural gas storage were produced from Illinois bituminous coals (IBC-102 and IBC-106) and scrap tires by physical activation with steam or CO2 and by chemical activation with KOH, H3PO4, or ZnCl2. The products were characterized for N2-BET area, micropore volume, bulk density, pore size distribution, and volumetric methane storage capacity (Vm/Vs). Vm/Vs values for Illinois coal-derived carbons ranged from 54 to 83 cm3/cm3, which are 35-55% of a target value of 150 cm3/cm3. Both granular and pelletized carbons made with preoxidized Illinois coal gave higher micropore volumes and larger Vm/Vs values than those made without preoxidation. This confirmed that preoxidation is a desirable step in the production of carbons from caking materials. Pelletization of preoxidized IBC-106 coal, followed by steam activation, resulted in the highest Vm/Vs value. With roughly the same micropore volume, pelletization alone increased Vm/Vs of coal carbon by 10%. Tire-derived carbons had Vm/Vs values ranging from 44 to 53 cm3/cm3, lower than those of coal carbons due to their lower bulk densities. Pelletization of the tire carbons increased bulk density up to 160%. However, this increase was offset by a decrease in micropore volume of the pelletized materials, presumably due to the pellet binder. As a result, Vm/Vs values were about the same for granular and pelletized tire carbons. Compared with coal carbons, tire carbons had a higher percentage of mesopores and macropores.

  3. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Quarterly progress report, June 13, 1996--September 12, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-12

    At this time, eighteen (18) 10-acre infill wells have been drilled as part of the Field Demonstration phase of the project. Of the fourteen producing wells drilled to date, twelve are currently on production, and ten are pumped-off and producing at stable rates. Current Unit production is approximately 3,600-3,700 STBO/D, and approximately 850 STBO/D incremental production has been added to date. The remaining producing well and four injection wells are currently being completed. A change in the Statement of Work has been approved so that we can drill additional 10-acre infill wells during the next quarter as budget constraints allow. Production flowlines are laid for each new producing well as they are put on production. Injection lines are being laid for the injection wells as they are completed. All data required for the validation of the Budget Period I Reservoir Characterization, Reservoir Management, and Reservoir Simulation Studies are being acquired and analyzed during the Field Demonstration Period.

  4. Estimating environmental value losses from earth materials excavation and infilling for large-scale airport construction: a case of Dalian Offshore Airport, Dalian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hua-Kun; Wang, Nuo; Wu, Nuan; Song, Nan-Qi; Zhu, Dao-Li

    2017-09-01

    Large-scale airport construction removes large quantities of earth materials, resulting in serious environmental pollution and ecosystem damage. However, studies of environmental concerns caused by the materials used in airport construction are still preliminary, and those case studies on the impacts of large-scale offshore airport development are very limited. China's Dalian Offshore Airport is considered here to study the environmental value loss from 240 million m 3 of materials excavations and 21 km 2 of artificial island infillings. The findings show that the calculated annual environmental value loss for the development of the Dalian Offshore Airport is approximately US$7.75 million, including US$1.81 million and US$1.47 million of direct economic loss of timber resources and marine biology resources, respectively, and US$1.53 million and US$2.79 million value losses of forest and marine ecosystem services damaged caused by materials excavation and infilling, respectively. The conclusions of this study provide an important foundation to quantitatively analyse the environmental impact of the Dalian Offshore Airport's development and can be used as a reference for similar engineering and environment impact assessment programs.

  5. How do how internal and external processes affect the behaviors of coupled marsh mudflat systems; infill, stabilize, retreat, or drown?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, J. A.; Mariotti, G.; Wiberg, P.; Fagherazzi, S.; McGlathery, K.

    2013-12-01

    an eventual lateral equilibrium are possible only with large allochthonous sediment supply. Once marshes expanded, marsh retreat can be prevented by a sediment supply smaller than the one that filled the basin. At the GCE, the Altamaha River allows for enhanced allochthonous supply directly to the salt marsh platform, reducing the importance of waves on the tidal flat. As a result, infilling or retreat become the prevalent behaviors. For the VCR, the presence of seagrass decreases near bed shear stresses and sediment flux to the salt marsh platform, however, seagrass also reduces the wave energy acting on the boundary of the marsh reducing boundary erosion. Results indicate that the reduction in wave power allows for seagrass to provide a strong stabilizing affect on the coupled salt marsh tidal flat system, but as external sediment supply increases and light conditions decline the system reverts to that of a bare tidal flat. Across all systems and with current rates of sea level rise, retreat is a more likely marsh loss modality than drowning.

  6. Staling of white wheat bread crumb and effect of maltogenic α-amylases. Part 1: Spatial distribution and kinetic modeling of hardness and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigo, José Manuel; Del Olmo Alvarez, Arantxa; Engelsen, Merete Møller; Lundkvist, Henrik; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2016-10-01

    Bread staling is one of the most costly food deterioration processes. This study presents an in-depth, multivariate, statistical assessment of the differences in the staling process of white wheat bread as a function of storage time, usage of maltogenic α-amylases and spatial position in the loaf by texture measurements and non-linear fitting (Avrami). This study demonstrates the effects of anti-staling enzymes upon bread staling, where significant changes in the spatial staling kinetics occur. While the spatial development of staling is reduced in the outer crumb by anti-staling enzymes, the staling is retarded in the middle. The Avrami model suggests that this happens by two different competing mechanisms: one which increases the initial staling rate, and one which slows the convergence towards the limiting hardness. The two enzyme treated breads differed widely in early and ultimate resilience, despite the fact that they were adjusted to provide the same ultimate hardness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Modeling speed and width parameters of vehicle tires for prediction of the reduction in vehicle noise pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Esmael Forouhid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Safe driving requires the ability of the driver to receive the messages and complying with them. The most significant consequences of noise pollution are on the human auditory system. Disorders in the auditory system can have harmful side effects for human health. By reducing this kind of pollution in large cities, the quality of life, which is one of the biggest goals of the governments, can be considerably increased. Hence, in the present research, some parameters of vehicle tires were examined as a source of noise pollution, and the results can be taken into consideration in noise pollution reduction. Material and Method: Several vehicles with different tire width were selected for measuring sound level. The sound levels were measured for moving vehicles with the use of the Statistical Pass By Method (SPB, ISO 11819-1. Following sound level measurements for moving vehicles and by considering tire width, mathematical model of noise level was predicted on the basis of the obtained information and by usage of SPSS program and considering vehicle tire parameters. Result: The result of this study showed that the vehicle speed and tire width can affect different sound levels emitted by moving tire on road surface. The average speed of vehicles can play an important role in the noise pollution. By increasing speed, rotation of the the tires on the asphalt is increased, as it is a known factors for noise pollution. Moreover, changing the speed of vehicles is accompanied with abnormal sounds of vehicle engine. According to regression model analysis, the obtained value of R2 for the model is 0.8367 which represents the coefficient of determination. Conclusion: The results suggest the main role of the vehicle speed and tire width in increasing the noise reaches to the drivers and consequent noise pollution, which demonstrates the necessity for noise control measures. According to the obtained model, it is understood that changes in noise

  8. Equilibrium analysis of hydrogen production using the steam-plasma gasification process of the used car tires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V A; Kumkova, I I; Lerner, A S; Popov, V E

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with the treatment of used car tires. The method of used tires plasma gasification is proposed. The investigation of the syngas composition was carried out according to the temperature and plasma flow rate variation. The method of the steam catalytic conversion of CO, which is a part of the syngas, and CaO usage are suggested. The results of the calculation modeling at various temperatures, pressures, and steam flow rates are presented.

  9. Application of adsorption process by activated carbon derived from scrap tires for Pb+2 removal from aqueous solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Edris Hoseinzadeh; Ali Reza Rahmani; Ghorban Asgari; Mohamad Taghi Samadi; Ghodratollah Roshanaei; Mohammad Reza Zare

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Heavy metals have been recognized as very poisonous elements and their discharge into water sources can cause damaging effects on human and environmental health. The present study aimed at producing activated carbon from scrap tires and using it in removing Pb+2 from synthetic aqueous solutions. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, activated carbon powder was derived from scrap tires under laboratory conditions. The effect of Pb (II) ions wi...

  10. Feasibility of energy harvesting from a rotating tire based on the theory of stochastic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y; Zheng, R; Nakano, K

    2014-01-01

    Recently the use of nonlinear bi-stable micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) to achieve automobile tire vibration power generation has made some progress. However, the theory of stochastic resonance has not been successfully applied to automobile tires, which can produce a larger vibrational response than for a typical resonance while inputting a weak periodic force and noise excitation into a nonlinear bi-stable system. Hence, in this paper, in view of the principle of stochastic resonance, a new model is derived by positioning a magnetic end mass attached to a cantilever beam and another permanent magnet with the same polarity on the frame. Due to the road noise excitation along with the periodic force inputted to the mechanism, whether the phenomenon of stochastic resonance can happen will be discussed. Meanwhile, on the basis of Kramers rate and duffing equations the preliminary experimental device is also designed

  11. Acoustic Behavior of Hollow Blocks and Bricks Made of Concrete Doped with Waste-Tire Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Fraile-Garcia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the acoustic behaviour of building elements made of concrete doped with waste-tire rubber. Three different mixtures were created, with 0%, 10%, and 20% rubber in their composition. Bricks, lattice joists, and hollow blocks were manufactured with each mixture, and three different cells were built and tested against aerial and impact noise. The values of the global acoustic isolation and the reduction of the sound pressure level of impacts were measured. Results proved that highly doped elements are an excellent option to isolate low frequency sounds, whereas intermediate and standard elements constitute a most interesting option to block middle and high frequency sounds. In both cases, the considerable amount of waste-tire rubber recycled could justify the employment of the doped materials for the sake of the environment.

  12. Experimental rig to estimate the coefficient of friction between tire and surface in airplane touchdown simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengwei; Zhan, Liwei

    2015-08-01

    To estimate the coefficient of friction between tire and runway surface during airplane touchdowns, we designed an experimental rig to simulate such events and to record the impact and friction forces being executed. Because of noise in the measured signals, we developed a filtering method that is based on the ensemble empirical mode decomposition and the bandwidth of probability density function of each intrinsic mode function to extract friction and impact force signals. We can quantify the coefficient of friction by calculating the maximum values of the filtered force signals. Signal measurements are recorded for different drop heights and tire rotational speeds, and the corresponding coefficient of friction is calculated. The result shows that the values of the coefficient of friction change only slightly. The random noise and experimental artifact are the major reason of the change.

  13. Experimental and Numerical Studies on Tire Tread Block Friction Characteristics Based on a New Test Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new device was developed for tire tread block slip friction tests. Then the friction characteristics were investigated under different loads and contact roads. Based on this, a friction model for contact between tire tread block and different road surfaces was developed. A finite element slip friction model of rubber block was developed for studying the tread contact stress, stiffness under different pattern slope angles, and ditch radius. Results indicate that friction coefficient between tread and ice road increases when the temperature decreases; different tread patterns have a certain influence on the friction coefficient; its average difference was less than 10%. Different roads impact the coefficient of friction more significantly; the greater the pattern slope, the greater the radial stiffness.

  14. Acoustic Behavior of Hollow Blocks and Bricks Made of Concrete Doped with Waste-Tire Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraile-Garcia, Esteban; Ferreiro-Cabello, Javier; Defez, Beatriz; Peris-Fajanes, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the acoustic behaviour of building elements made of concrete doped with waste-tire rubber. Three different mixtures were created, with 0%, 10%, and 20% rubber in their composition. Bricks, lattice joists, and hollow blocks were manufactured with each mixture, and three different cells were built and tested against aerial and impact noise. The values of the global acoustic isolation and the reduction of the sound pressure level of impacts were measured. Results proved that highly doped elements are an excellent option to isolate low frequency sounds, whereas intermediate and standard elements constitute a most interesting option to block middle and high frequency sounds. In both cases, the considerable amount of waste-tire rubber recycled could justify the employment of the doped materials for the sake of the environment. PMID:28774084

  15. Is the Universe expanding? Fritz Zwicky and the early tired-light hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh, Helge

    2017-04-01

    The recognition that the Universe is in a state of expansion is a milestone in modern astronomy and cosmology. The discovery dates from the early 1930s but was not unanimously accepted by either astronomers or physicists. The relativistic theory of the expanding Universe rested empirically on the redshift-distance law established by Edwin Hubble in 1929. However, although the theory offered a natural explanation of the observed galactic redshifts, these could be explained also on the assumption of a Static Universe. This was what Fritz Zwicky did when he introduced the idea of "tired light" in the fall of 1929. Hypotheses of a similar kind were proposed by several other scientists but their impact on mainstream astronomy and cosmology was limited. The paper offers a survey of tired-light hypotheses in the 1930s and briefly alludes to the later development.

  16. Improvement in electrochemical capacitance of activated carbon from scrap tires by nitric acid treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yan; Zhao, Ping-Ping; Dong, Xiao-Ting; Zhang, Cui; Liu, Shuang-Xi

    2014-12-01

    Activated carbon (AC) obtained from the industrial pyrolytic tire char is treated by concentrated nitric acid (AC-HNO3) and then used as the electrode material for supercapacitors. Surface properties and electrochemical capacitances of AC and ACHNO3 are studied. It is found that the morphology and the porous texture for AC and AC-HNO3 have little difference, while the oxygen content increases and functional groups change after the acid treatment. Electrochemical results demonstrate that the AC-HNO3 electrode displays higher specific capacitance, better stability and cycling performance, and lower equivalent series resistance, indicating that AC obtained from the industrial pyrolytic tire char treated by concentrated nitric acid is applicable for supercapacitors.

  17. Using simulation-based optimization to improve performance at a tire manufacturing company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Darayi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a simulation optimization-based decision support tool has been developed to study the capacity enhancement scenarios in a tire manufacturing company located in Iran. This company is experiencing challenges in synchronizing production output with customer demand causing an unbalanced work-in-process (WIP inventory distribution throughout the tire manufacturing process. However, a new opportunity to increase the supplying of raw materials by fifty percent and increase the expected growth in market demand, necessitate this study of the current company situation. This research supported by the company, is to analyze whether the ongoing production logistics system can respond to the increased market demand, considering the raw material expansion. Implementation of a proposed hybrid push/pull production control strategy, together with the facility capacity enhancement options in bottleneck stations and/or heterogeneous lines within the plant, are investigated by the proposed simulation optimization methodology.

  18. Tire Changes, Fresh Air, and Yellow Flags: Challenges in Predictive Analytics for Professional Racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulabandhula, Theja; Rudin, Cynthia

    2014-06-01

    Our goal is to design a prediction and decision system for real-time use during a professional car race. In designing a knowledge discovery process for racing, we faced several challenges that were overcome only when domain knowledge of racing was carefully infused within statistical modeling techniques. In this article, we describe how we leveraged expert knowledge of the domain to produce a real-time decision system for tire changes within a race. Our forecasts have the potential to impact how racing teams can optimize strategy by making tire-change decisions to benefit their rank position. Our work significantly expands previous research on sports analytics, as it is the only work on analytical methods for within-race prediction and decision making for professional car racing.

  19. On the 3D normal tire/off-road vibro-contact problem with friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteanu, Ligia; Chiroiu, Veturia; Brişan, Cornel; Dumitriu, Dan; Sireteanu, Tudor; Petre, Simona

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a virtual experiment concerning driving on off-roads is investigated via 3D normal vibro-contact problem with friction. The dynamic road concept is introduced in order to characterize a particular stretch of road by total longitudinal, lateral, and normal forces and their geometric distributions in the contact patches. The off-road profiles are built by image sonification technique. The cross-sectional curves of off-roads before and after deformation, the contact between the tire and the road, the distribution of contact and friction forces in the contact domain, the natural frequencies and modes when the tire is in ground contact, are estimated. The approach is exercised on two particular problems and results compare favorably to existing analytical and numerical solutions. The feasibility of image sonification technique is useful to build a low-cost virtual reality environment with an increased degree of realism for driving simulators and higher user flexibility.

  20. In-filled reservoirs serving as sediment archives to analyse soil organic carbon erosion – Taking a closer look at the Karoo rangelands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenz, Juliane; Greenwood, Philip; Kuhn, Brigitte

    for varying physicochemical parameters, in order to analyse erosional and depositional patterns. A sharp decrease in total carbon content with decreasing depth suggests that land degradation during and after the post-European settlement most likely triggered erosion of the relatively fertile surface soils...... which presumably in-filled the reservoirs. It is assumed that the carbon-rich bottom layers of the dam deposits originate from these eroded surface soils. A combination of erosion modelling and sediment analysis will be used to determine the source areas of the depositional material and might clarify...... or to facilitate irrigation during dry periods. Most of these dams are now filled with sediment and many have become breached, revealing sediment archives that can be used to analyse land use changes as well as carbon erosion and deposition during the last ca. 100 years. In this ongoing project, a combination...

  1. Application of tire chips to reduce the temperature of secondary geomembranes in municipal solid waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoor, Azadeh; Rowe, R Kerry

    2012-05-01

    Heat generated by the biodegradation of waste and other chemical processes in a landfill can potentially affect the long-term performance of landfill liner system, in particular that of a high-density polyethylene geomembrane. In a double liner system, the difference in leachate exposure and temperature might improve the long-term performance of the secondary geomembrane compared to that of the primary geomembrane. However, in some cases, the temperature is likely to be high enough to substantially reduce the service-life of the secondary geomembrane. This study explores the possible effectiveness of using tire chips as thermal insulation between primary and secondary liners to reduce the temperature of secondary geomembranes as compared to traditional soil materials. Heat and contaminant migration analyses are performed for cases with no insulation and for cases in which a layer of soil or tire chips has been used as thermal insulation between the primary and secondary liners. The effect of insulation on prolonging the service-life of a secondary geomembrane and, consequently, on contaminant transport through a liner system is examined for the case of a volatile organic compound (dichloromethane) found in landfill leachate. The study suggests that the use of tire chips warrants consideration, however there are other practical issues that require consideration in the detailed design and construction of landfill liners. Issues such as finite service-life, low working temperature, excessive settlement, ability to generate internal heat, leaching of tire chips and limitations in performing electrical resistivity leak detection tests are identified. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Acoustic Behavior of Hollow Blocks and Bricks Made of Concrete Doped with Waste-Tire Rubber

    OpenAIRE

    Fraile-Garcia, Esteban; Ferreiro-Cabello, Javier; Defez, Beatriz; Peris-Fajanes, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the acoustic behaviour of building elements made of concrete doped with waste-tire rubber. Three different mixtures were created, with 0%, 10%, and 20% rubber in their composition. Bricks, lattice joists, and hollow blocks were manufactured with each mixture, and three different cells were built and tested against aerial and impact noise. The values of the global acoustic isolation and the reduction of the sound pressure level of impacts were measured. Results pr...

  3. Spinosad: a biorational mosquito larvicide for use in car tires in southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Carlos F

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Car tires are important habitats for mosquito development because of the high density populations they can harbor and their presence in urban settings. Water in experimental tires was treated with one of three insecticides or an untreated control. Aquatic invertebrates were sampled at weekly intervals. Eggs, larval and pupal samples were laboratory-reared to estimate seasonal fluctuations in Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus abundance. Results Spinosad treatments at 1 or 5 ppm (mg a.i./liter provided 6–8 weeks of effective control of Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Culex quinquefasiatus and Cx. coronator larvae, both in the dry season and the rainy season when mosquito populations increased markedly in southern Mexico. Spinosad continued to provide partial control of larvae for several weeks after initial recolonization of treated tires. The larvicidal performance of VectoBac 12AS (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis was relatively poor with one week of complete control of Aedes spp. larvae and no discernible control of Culex spp., whereas the duration of larvicidal activity of 1% temephos mineral-based granules was intermediate between those of VectoBac and spinosad treatments. Populations of chironomids, ostracods and Toxorhynchites theobaldi were generally reduced in spinosad and temephos treatments, but were similar in control and VectoBac treatments. Conclusion The present study is the first to report spinosad as an effective larvicide against Cx. coronator, which is currently invading the southern United States. These results substantiate the use of spinosad as a highly effective mosquito larvicide, even in habitats such as unused car tires that can represent prolific sources of adult mosquitoes.

  4. Rotary kiln and batch pyrolysis of waste tire to produce gasoline and diesel like fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayanoğlu, Abdulkadir; Yumrutaş, Recep

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste Tire Oil (WTO) is produced from waste tire at rotary kiln reactor. • Physical and chemical properties of WTO and fuel samples are analyzed. • Gasoline like fuel (GLF) and diesel like fuel (DLF) are produced from the WTO-10 wt% CaO mixture at fixed bed reactor. • Physical and chemical properties of the GLF and DLF are compared with the standard fuels. - Abstract: In this study, waste tire is pyrolyzed in a rotary kiln reactor to obtain more gas, light liquid, heavy liquid, wax products, and less carbon black at their maximum yields as, 20%, 12%, 25%, 8% and 35% of the total weight (4 tones), respectively. Then, the heavy and light oils are reacted with additives such as natural zeolite (NZ) and lime (CaO) at different mass ratio as 2, 6, and 10 wt%, respectively, in the batch reactor to produce liquids similar to standard petroleum fuels. The heavy and light oils mixture samples are distillated to observe their optimum graphics which are similar to gasoline and diesel like fuel. Consequently, the best results are obtained from the CaO sample with 10 wt% in comparison to the ones from the gasoline and diesel fuels. The 10 wt% CaO light liquid mixture resembles to gasoline named as gasoline like fuel (GLF) and the 10 wt% CaO heavy liquid mixture is similar to diesel called as diesel like fuel (DLF). The chemical and physical features of the waste tire, light oil, heavy oil, GLF, and DLF are analyzed by TG (thermogravimetric)/dTG (derivative thermogravimetric), proximate, ultimate, higher heating value (HHV), fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), sulfur, density, viscosity, gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS), flash point, moisture, and distillation tests. The test results are turned out to be very close to the standard petroleum fuel.

  5. Preparation of Activated Carbon from Waste Tires and its application in Gasoline Removal from Water

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Baghapour; Babak jahed; Gholam Hossein Joshani

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Increasing waste tiers production has made the recycling of this solid waste a critical issue in the world. On the other hand, it seems contamination of groundwater to the petroleum pollutant like gasoline is a great threat to the health of societies in developing countries. The main objective of this study was gasoline removal from aquatic environment by waste tire derived activated carbon. Materials and Methods: In this study for preparation of activated carbon...

  6. Preliminary studies of the rubber from unserviceable tires irradiated by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Clecia M.; Silva, Leonardo G. Andrade e

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays there is a growth in the developing processes for modification of polymers with ionizing radiation (gamma rays, electron beam) for several industrial applications. An option is ionizing radiation process due to their capacity of inducing crosslinking and scission on a wide range of polymeric materials without initiators or chemicals products. This method has significant advantages on economical and ecological fields, when compared to chemical, thermal and mechanical process. The rubber recycling has been extensively discussed, mainly related to tire. There are reports with data about production and consumption of rubber and unserviceable tire. There is very few information about the destination of others rubber items, incineration and landfill are the main methods for elimination of unserviceable tire, however those methods are not environmentally friendly. It is necessary to study better and effective methods to recycle and to give value to rubber residue. This work is about the use of ionizing radiation for the recovery and/or reuse and processing rubber of unserviceable tire. The samples were irradiated with 200, 400 and 600 kGy radiation dose, 22.39 kGy/s dose rates, at room temperature and in the presence of air using an 1.5 MeV electron beam accelerator. The irradiated and non-irradiated samples were studied by thermogravimetry (TG). The analyses were performed from room temperature up to 600 deg C, heating rate of 10 deg C/min in the presence of nitrogen (N 2 ) and air. By this technique it was possible to observe the effects of the radiation dose on the weight loss. (author)

  7. Influences of thermal aging on properties and pyrolysis products of tire tread compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jitkarnka, Sirirat; Chusaksri, Boonrudee; Supaphol, Pitt; Magaraphan, Rathanawan [The Petroleum and Petrochemical College, Chulalongkorn University, Soi Chula 12, Phyathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2007-08-15

    Due to variation on waste tires as raw materials for pyrolysis process in terms of mileage leading to varied extents of degradation, the effects of time-governed thermal aging were investigated on two properties of tire, and on pyrolysis product yields and product distribution. Samples of a tire tread compound originally cured to 90% crosslink were aged in an environment-controlled oven for 0-4 weeks. Pyrolysis was performed on all samples. It was found that aging time had the influence over the crosslink density and hardness in steps during the course of aging due to the different response of the rubber constituents toward aging as well as changes on the tire molecules occurring in different stages upon aging. These affected the product yields and component distribution of products obtained from pyrolysis process. At the earlier stage of aging for 1-3 weeks, gas yield decreased with the aging time in accordance with the increase in liquid yield. The gas component distribution and carbon number distribution in liquid products insignificantly altered. However, the amount of gas oil in liquid products slightly decreased with aging time while the other commercial fractions remained practically constant. After 4 weeks of aging, sudden changes in opposite direction on the pyrolysis products occurred. The gas product rapidly increased along with the abrupt decrease in the liquid yield. The carbon number distribution in liquid product shifted to lower numbers, and the shape was narrower. The gas oil amount suddenly increased after reaching the lowest value at about 3 weeks of aging. An aging model was finally proposed in order to explain the observations. (author)

  8. Nonapplicability of linear finite element programs to the stress analysis of tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, M.; Jankovich, E.

    1972-01-01

    A static finite element stress analysis of an inflated radial car tire was carried out. The deformed shape of the sidewall presents outward bulging. The analysis of a homogeneous isotropic toroidal shell shows that the problem is common to all solids of this type. The study suggests that the geometric stiffness due to the inflation pressure has to be taken into account. Also, the resulting large displacements make it necessary for the geometry to be updated at each load step.

  9. Tissue repair genes: the TiRe database and its implication for skin wound healing

    OpenAIRE

    Yanai, Hagai; Budovsky, Arie; Tacutu, Robi; Barzilay, Thomer; Abramovich, Amir; Ziesche, Rolf; Fraifeld, Vadim E.

    2016-01-01

    Wound healing is an inherent feature of any multicellular organism and recent years have brought about a huge amount of data regarding regular and abnormal tissue repair. Despite the accumulated knowledge, modulation of wound healing is still a major biomedical challenge, especially in advanced ages. In order to collect and systematically organize what we know about the key players in wound healing, we created the TiRe (Tissue Repair) database, an online collection of genes and proteins that ...

  10. Vertical Force-deflection Characteristics of a Pair of 56-inch-diameter Aircraft Tires from Static and Drop Tests with and Without Prerotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley, Robert F; Horne, Walter B

    1957-01-01

    The vertical force-deflection characteristics were experimentally determined for a pair of 56-inch-diameter tires under static and drop-test conditions with and without prerotation. For increasing force, the tires were found to be least stiff for static tests, almost the same as for the static case for prerotation drop tests as long as the tires remain rotating, and appreciably stiffer for drop tests without prerotation.

  11. Producing Activated Carbon from Scrap Tires by Thermo-Chemical Method and Evaluation its Efficiency at Removal Racid Black1 Dye

    OpenAIRE

    A.R Rahmani; E Hoseinzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The disposal of waste tires has become an increasingly important issue worldwide in recent years. Tires not only take up large amounts of valuable landfill space, but also create fire hazards and provide a refuge for disease- carrying creatures. The goal of this study was to produce activated carbon from scrap tires .Adsorption of Acid Black1 (AB1) in aqueous solution as a pollutant by the activated carbon was also investigated.Materials and Methods: Activated carbo...

  12. Static mechanical properties of 30 x 11.5-14.5, type VII, aircraft tires of bias-ply and radial-belted design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Pamela A.; Lopez, Mercedes C.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the static mechanical characteristics of 30 x 115-14.5 bias-ply and radial aircraft tires. The tires were subjected to vertical and lateral loads and mass moment of inertia tests were conducted. Static load deflection curves, spring rates, hysteresis losses, and inertia data are presented along with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of one tire over the other.

  13. Static mechanical properties of 30 x 11.5 - 14.5, type 8 aircraft tires of bias-ply and radial-belted design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Pamela A.; Lopez, Mercedes C.

    1988-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the static mechanical properties of a 30 x 11.5 to 14.5, Type 8, bias-ply and radial-belted aircraft tire. The properties measured were the spring rate and damping characteristics of each tire from vertical- and lateral-loading hysteresis loops. Mass moment of inertia tests were also conducted. The results of the study are presented along with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each type of tire.

  14. Waste Tire Particles and Gamma Radiation as Modifiers of the Mechanical Properties of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sadot Herrera-Sosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In polymer reinforced concrete, the Young’s modulus of both polymers and cement matrix is responsible for the detrimental properties of the concrete, including compressive and tensile strength, as well as stiffness. A novel methodology for solving such problems is based on use of ionizing radiation, which has proven to be a good tool for improvement on physical and chemical properties of several materials including polymers, ceramics, and composites. In this work, particles of 0.85 mm and 2.80 mm obtained from waste tire were submitted at 250 kGy of gamma radiation in order to modify their physicochemical properties and then used as reinforcement in Portland cement concrete for improving mechanical properties. The results show diminution on mechanical properties in both kinds of concrete without (or with irradiated tire particles with respect to plain concrete. Nevertheless such diminutions (from 2 to 16% are compensated with the use of high concentration of waste tire particles (30%, which ensures that the concrete will not significantly increase the cost.

  15. Behavior of granular rubber waste tire reinforced soil for application in geosynthetic reinforced soil wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. D. RAMIREZ

    Full Text Available AbstractLarge quantities of waste tires are released to the environment in an undesirable way. The potential use of this waste material in geotechnical applications can contribute to reducing the tire disposal problem and to improve strength and deformation characteristics of soils. This paper presents a laboratory study on the effect of granular rubber waste tire on the physical properties of a clayey soil. Compaction tests using standard effort and consolidated-drained triaxial tests were run on soil and mixtures. The results conveyed an improvement in the cohesion and the angle of internal friction the clayey soil-granular rubber mixture, depending on the level of confining stress. These mixtures can be used like backfill material in soil retaining walls replacing the clayey soil due to its better strength and shear behavior and low unit weight. A numerical simulation was conducted for geosynthetic reinforced soil wall using the clayey soil and mixture like backfill material to analyzing the influence in this structure.

  16. Braking Distance Prediction by Hydroplaning Analysis of 3-D Patterned Tire Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin-Rae; Choi, Joo-Hyoung; Lee, Hong-Woo; Woo, Jong-Shik; Yoo, Wan-Suk

    In this paper, we present a wet-road braking distance estimate for the vehicles equipped with ABS (Anti-lock Brake System). In order to effectively compute the interval-wise braking times and the resulting total braking distance, we divide the entire speed interval at braking into finite number of uniform sub-intervals and apply the energy conservation law to individual sub-intervals. The proposed method is based on a numerical-analytical approach such that the frictional energy loss of the patterned tire is computed by 3-D hydroplaning analysis while the other at the disc pad is analytically derived. The hydroplaning simulation is performed by generally coupling an Eulerian finite volume method and an explicit Lagrangian finite element method. The operation of ABS is numerically implemented by controlling the tire angular velocity such that the preset tire slip ratio on the wet road is maintained. Numerical results are presented to illustrative and verify the the proposed numerical estimate.

  17. Study on Dynamics of Polygonal Wear of Automotive Tire Caused by Self-Excited Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuguang Zuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the underlying reason of tire polygonal wear, a unified mechanical tire model is developed to analyze the different vibration properties between the driving wheel and follower wheel. And the LuGre dynamic friction model is applied to determine the frictional forces between the wheel with a slip angel and the road. Through the stability analysis with Lyapunov theory, it is found that tread self-excited vibration is periodic oscillation caused by Hopf bifurcation. The analysis of the lateral vibration of driving wheel shows that the tread vibration system loses its stability and self-excited vibration occurs when the wheel is rolling at a high speed, is over-loaded, is having a large toe-in angle, or is under a low tire pressure. On this basis, the dynamic behaviors of the driving and follower wheels are distinguished with different slip rates by the numerical simulation. Compared with the dynamic behaviors of the follower wheel under the same condition, the self-excited vibration occurs on the driving wheel with more limited parameter scope, lower oscillation energy, and lower occurrence, which explains why the polygonal wear is less likely to occur on the driving wheel.

  18. Work Environments and Exposure to Hazardous Substances in Korean Tire Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-kyu; Jeong, Sijeong; Yi, Gwang Yong; Shin, Jungah

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to evaluate the tire manufacturing work environments extensively and to identify workers' exposure to hazardous substances in various work processes. Methods Personal air sampling was conducted to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon disulfide, 1,3-butadiene, styrene, methyl isobutyl ketone, methylcyclohexane, formaldehyde, sulfur dioxide, and rubber fume in tire manufacturing plants using the National Institute for Occupational Safety Health Manual of Analytical Methods. Noise, carbon monoxide, and heat stress exposure were evaluated using direct reading instruments. Past concentrations of rubber fume were assessed using regression analysis of total particulate data from 2003 to 2007, after identifying the correlation between the concentration of total particulate and rubber fume. Results Workers were exposed to rubber fume that exceeded 0.6 mg/m3, the maximum exposure limit of the UK, in curing and production management processes. Forty-seven percent of workers were exposed to noise levels exceeding 85 dBA. Workers in the production management process were exposed to 28.1℃ (wet bulb globe temperature value, WBGT value) even when the outdoor atmosphere was 2.7℃ (WBGT value). Exposures to other substances were below the limit of detection or under a tenth of the threshold limit values given by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Conclusion To better classify exposure groups and to improve work environments, examining closely at rubber fume components and temperature as risk indicators in tire manufacturing is recommended. PMID:22993718

  19. Development and Verification of the Tire/Road Friction Estimation Algorithm for Antilock Braking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Road friction information is very important for vehicle active braking control systems such as ABS, ASR, or ESP. It is not easy to estimate the tire/road friction forces and coefficient accurately because of the nonlinear system, parameters uncertainties, and signal noises. In this paper, a robust and effective tire/road friction estimation algorithm for ABS is proposed, and its performance is further discussed by simulation and experiment. The tire forces were observed by the discrete Kalman filter, and the road friction coefficient was estimated by the recursive least square method consequently. Then, the proposed algorithm was analysed and verified by simulation and road test. A sliding mode based ABS with smooth wheel slip ratio control and a threshold based ABS by pulse pressure control with significant fluctuations were used for the simulation. Finally, road tests were carried out in both winter and summer by the car equipped with the same threshold based ABS, and the algorithm was evaluated on different road surfaces. The results show that the proposed algorithm can identify the variation of road conditions with considerable accuracy and response speed.

  20. Steady State Analysis and Prediction of Rolling Resistance for a Moving Radial Tire Using Hyper-Viscoelastic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Hamid Reza Ghoreishy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A 185/65R15 steel belted radial tire was analyzed for the prediction of its rolling resistance using finite element method. The Abaqus code was used for this purpose. A two-dimensional axisymmetric model was first designed to form the tire layout in the mold. After analyzing for rim mounting, an internal pressure was applied to the tire. Having rotated the tire cross-section about rolling axis, a three-dimensional model was then created and used for the analyses under static vertical load and steady state rolling conditions. Owing to the use of arbitrary Lagrangian/Eulerian framework, a constant linear velocity was assumed and the analysis was performed for a range of angular velocity of the tire. An in-house developed user subroutine was employed and linked to the Abaqus for the accurate determination of the free rolling rotational speed (angular velocity of the tire based on zero force/torque. Two sets of analyses were performed. In the first set, it was assumed that the mechanical behaviors of the rubbery parts could be described by the well-known Ogden hyperelastic model. In the second set, hyper-viscoelastic behaviors were assumed in which the Ogden model was combined with the Prony series to take the material history and time effect into consideration. The difference between the calculated longitudinal forces in rolling state using the mentioned models was attributed to the rolling resistance of the tire. In order to check the accuracy of the proposed method, the predicted rolling resistance force was compared with that of experimentally obtained data which confirmed the applicability and robustness of the model. The contact pressure distributions have been presented and discussed in relation to different types of material model.