Sample records for tipov pochv sssr

  1. Grain preservation in SSSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trisviatski, L.A.


    First the importance of cereals collected in the S.S.S.R., the reason why the government had to put in practice a storage chain, composed of large capacity store houses (200 000 metric tonnes, or more) is reminded. When climatic conditions result in wet harvested grains, cereals are dried either in state enterprise dryers (32 to 50 tonnes/hour) or in kolkhozes' dryers (2 to 16 tonnes/hour). A new type of drying with recycling, has been developped, economizing 10 to 15 p. 100. Then the possibilities offered by the technique of partial drying of very wet grains are studied and the preservation processes using fresh ventilation, or hot ventilation with drying effect are described. The question of silage of wet grains destined to animal consumption is then examined as well as preservation by sodium pyrosulfide; the use of propionic acid, little developped in SSSR, is studied now, just as storage with inert gas. The struggle technics against insects, either with chemical agents, or with irradiation are described. Finally the modalities of technicians formation, specialized in preservation, are discussed [fr

  2. Tip-over Prevention: Adaptive Control Development (United States)


    Tip-over Prevention: Adaptive Control Development Leah Kelley Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA 02139 Email: Kurt...Papadopoulos and D. Rey, Proc. IEEE ICRA, vol.4, 1996, pp. 3111. [7] S. Ali, A. Moosavian, and K. Alipour, Robotics, Automation and Mechatronics , 2006 IEEE Conf...on, 2006, pp. 1–6. [8] K. Talke, L. Kelley, P. Longhini, and G. Catron, Proc. SPIE 9084, Unmanned Systems Technology XVI, June 2014, pp. 90 840L–11

  3. Tip-over prevention through heuristic reactive behaviors for unmanned ground vehicles (United States)

    Talke, Kurt; Kelley, Leah; Longhini, Patrick; Catron, Garret


    Skid-steer teleoperated robots are commonly used by military and civilian crews to perform high-risk, dangerous and critical tasks such as bomb disposal. Their missions are often performed in unstructured environments with irregular terrain, such as inside collapsed buildings or on rough terrain covered with a variety of media, such as sand, brush, mud, rocks and debris. During such missions, it is often impractical if not impossible to send another robot or a human operator to right a toppled robot. As a consequence, a robot tip-over event usually results in mission failure. To make matters more complicated, such robots are often equipped with heavy payloads that raise their centers of mass and hence increase their instability. Should the robot be equipped with a manipulator arm or flippers, it may have a way to self-right. The majority of manipulator arms are not designed for and are likely to be damaged during self-righting procedures, however, which typically have a low success rate. Furthermore, those robots not equipped with manipulator arms or flippers have no self-righting capabilities. Additionally, due to the on-board camera frame of reference, the video feed may cause the robot to appear to be on at level ground, when it actually may be on a slope nearing tip-over. Finally, robot operators are often so focused on the mission at hand they are oblivious to their surroundings, similar to a kid playing a video game. While this may not be an issue in the living room, it is not a good scenario to experience on the battlefield. Our research seeks to remove tip-over monitoring from the already large list of tasks an operator must perform. An autonomous tip-over prevention behavior for a mobile robot with a static payload has been developed, implemented and experimentally validated on two different teleoperated robotic platforms. Suitable for use with both teleoperated and autonomous robots, the prevention behavior uses the force-angle stability measure

  4. Television tip-overs: the Starship Children's Hospital experience and literature review. (United States)

    Marnewick, Jacques; Dansey, Rangi; Morreau, Philip; Hamill, James


    Injuries sustained from television (TV) sets tipping over onto children are uncommon when compared to other forms of trauma, but because of the weight of some TVs relative to the size of small children, severe and sometimes fatal injuries can result. The international literature is limited in describing this form of trauma and none is available for the Australasian region. The aims of the present paper are to describe the characteristics and immediate outcomes of children admitted to Starship Children's Hospital following TV tip-overs and review the international literature on this topic. Patients admitted to Starship Hospital were identified retrospectively from the Paediatric Trauma database, and the case notes reviewed. Structured telephone interviews were then conducted with each of the families involved. Over the 28-month period (June 2006-October 2008) reviewed, 13 children under 15 years of age were identified, with an almost even sex distribution. 5 required admission to the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). 9/13 sustained head injuries and 1 patient died from their injuries. Mechanism of injury was in keeping with behaviour to be expected of toddlers. Parents and caregivers were unaware of the dangers posed by TV sets and no precautions had been taken to prevent injury. The injuries sustained by children from TV tip-overs are often serious and most commonly involve the head and upper body. This is a common finding in all papers reviewed, but numbers of patients studied are still limited. There is a need for both education of families and improvement in the design of TV sets, to prevent this form of trauma in the paediatric population. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Outcome and Patterns of Traumatic Brain Injury in the Paediatric Population of a Developing Country Secondary to TV Trolley Tip-Over. (United States)

    Waqas, Muhammad; Javed, Gohar; Nathani, Karim Rizwan; Ujjan, Badar; Quadri, Syed A; Tahir, Muhammad Zubair


    Television (TV) trolley tip-over incidences are common and can cause significant morbidity and mortality in children. This study was aimed at analyzing the pattern and outcomes of head injuries resulting from TV trolley tip-over. We conducted a medical chart review of children with TV trolley tip-over head injuries from January 2009 to April 2016. We collected data on demographics, the mechanism of injury, clinical and radiological features of the injury, and outcomes. Outcomes were measured by means of the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) at 6 months (except in 1 case). A descriptive analysis was carried out using SPSS v19. Twenty-two children were included in the study (median age 23.5 months). Sixteen children were male. Most of the children (n = 16) were aged 12-35 months. The median Glasgow Coma Scale score on admission was 15. The median Rotterdam Score for the patients was 2.0. Common symptoms upon admission were vomiting, irritability, scalp laceration, and bruises. Median length of hospital stay was 3 days. Skull bone fractures were present in 12 children. Other CT findings included contusions, extradural and subdural haematomas, intraventricular haemorrhage, and pneumocranium. Surgical intervention was required in 4 cases. Although most of the patients made a good recovery (GOS = 5), 1 patient developed a mild disability and another died in hospital. TV trolley tip-over is most common in toddlers and can lead to significant head injury and mortality. This can be avoided by parental supervision and adjustments in the household. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Natsional-radikalõ reklamirujut SSSR

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Isamaaliidu esimehe Tõnis Lukase hinnangul võib spordipoodides Adidas nõukogude sümboolikaga "CCCP" sportsärkide müümist pidada Eesti vastaseks tegevuseks. Isamaaliidu esimehe osalemisest Rahvusvahelise Demokraatliku Liidu erakondade juhtide koosolekul USA-s

  7. Radioactive Metrology Methods in the USSR; Methodes de metrologie de la radioactivite en URSS; Metody metrologii radioaktivnosti v SSSR; Metodos de Metrologia de la Radiactividad Aplicados en la Union de Republicas Socialistas Sovieticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aglintsev, K K; Bochkarev, V V; Grablevskij, V N; Karavaev, F M


    actividad de estos patrones son 10{sup -11} y 5 equivalentes gramo del Ra, respectivamente . Las fuentes {gamma} de control se preparan partiendo de los mismos radionuclidos que las fuentes y modelo. Sus actividades abarcan un intervalo muy amplio y las fuentes presentan formas y dimensiones sumamente diversas. Por ultimo, se utilizan dos clases de fuentes neutronicas modelo Ra-{alpha}-Be (con un contenido de 1 a 1000 mg de Ra) y Pu-{alpha}-Be (conteniendo de 0.01 a 15 g de Pu). Las fuentes Ra-{alpha}-Be consisten en una mezcla comprimida de RaBr{sub 2} y de Be en polvo, siendo la razon ponderal Ra/Be igual a 1/6. En cuanto a las fuentes Pu-{alpha}-Be, se preparan con una aleacion (PuBe{sub 13}) de estos dos metales. (author) [Russian] Avtory opisyvayut metody, primenyaemye v SSSR, i, v chastnosti, v institute metrologii im. Mendeleeva (Leningrad) dlya vosproizvodstv a pri pomoshchi standartnykh apparatov edinits izmereniya, ispol'zuemykh v radioaktivnosti (kyuri, gramm-ehkvivalen t radiya, rentgen, rad). Dlya radionuklido v v Sovetskom Soyuze proizvodyatsya istochnikiehtalony dvukh vidov: 1. Model'nye istochniki dlya sravnitel'nog o ehtalonirovani ya drugikh radioaktivnykh preparatov, a takzhe dlya kalibrovki radiometricheski kh priborov i kontrol'nykh priborov za izlucheniem; 2. Kontrol'nye istochniki, sluzhashchie isklyuchitel'n o dlya proverki raboty i kontrolya za vosproizvodimost' yu ukazanij izmeritel'ny kh priborov. Model'nye a-istochniki prigotovlyayuts ya pri pomoshchi ehlektrolitiche - skogo osazhdeniya na platine dolzhnym obrazom vybrannykh izluchatelej (estestvennyj uran, uran-233, plutonij-239, ameritsij-241). EHti istochniki mogut obespechivat' aktivnost' ot do 10{sup 6} raspadov v minutu. Kontrol'nye {alpha}-istochniki prigotovlyayuts ya putem ehlektroliticheskog o osazhdeniya plutoniya-239 v vide sloya s plotnost'yu ot 3 X 10-{sup 9} do 0,7 mg/em2, chto sootvetstvuet aktivnosti ot 10 do 10{sup 8} raspadov v minutu. Model'nye {beta

  8. New elements. [Translated from Vestnik Akademii Nauk SSSR, 6 (1974)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flerov, G


    The history is briefly described of the investigation of superheavy elements at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at Dubna. The significance of the investigation is assessed from the point of view of the nuclear structure study and major problems encountered in experimental efforts are indicated. Current experimental methods aiming at the discovery or the production of superheavy nuclei with Z approximately 114 are listed.

  9. Two New Types of Detector for X- or Gamma-Ray Cameras; Deux Nouveaux Types de Detecteurs pour Camera a Rayons X ou {gamma}; O dvukh novykh tipov detektorov dlya rentgenovskikh ili gamma-kamer; Dos Nuevos Tipos de Detector para Camaras de Rayos X o Gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellershohn, C.; Desgrez, A. [Departement de Biologie, Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot (France); Lansiart, A. [Departement d' Electronique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)


    pomoshh'ju fotoapparata, za t vork otorogo otkryt p ostojanno. Vtoroj tip d et ek tora predstavlja et soboj kristall C sJ (T1) prisoedinennyj k f otokatodu trubkoj Tomsona diametrom 2 0 sm s jelektrostaticheskoj fokusirovkoj. Izobrazheniena vtorichnom jekrane jetoj trubki peredaetsja opticheskim ustrojstvom na fotokatod trubki s parallel'nym jelektricheskim i magnitnym polem, proizvodimoj kompaniej ''Inglish jelektrik vjelv'' i igrajushhej rol' o b tjuratora. Chast' s veta, pronikajushhaja v opticheskoe ustrojstvo , prinimaetsja fotoumnozh it elem, kotoryj da et komandu k otkrytiju trubki o b tjuratora s pomoshh'ju amplitudnogo sel ek tora . Jeto prisposoblenie pozvoljaet otdeljat' svet ot signala i svet ot shuma v trubke T om son a. Lish' pervyj svet vyzyvaet otkrytie trubki o btjurat or a. Poskol'ku prodolzhitel'nost' takogo otkrytogo sostojanija chrezvychajno korotka, sootnoshenie signal/shum takogo detektora ves'ma zavysheno v celjah poluchenija i zo brazhenija s pomoshh'ju fotoapparata, postojanno otkrytogo na konechnyj jekran trubki obtjuratora . Obsuzhdajutsja harakteristiki jeti h dvuh tipov detektora i poluchennye predvaritel'nye re zul ' taty . (author)

  10. Developments of electron accelerators for national economy in the AN SSSR SO IYaF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auslender, V.L.; Salimov, R.A.


    Described is the work aimed at developing ELV-type electrostatic electron accelerators with electron energies ranging from 0.4 to 1.5 MeV and an average beam current of up to 100 mA, and the ILU-6 electron linear accelerator with the energy from 0.5 to 2 MeV and an average beam current of up to 40 mA. To provide an output of a linearly scanned beam a special titanium window with dimension of 75 x 980 mm which provides transit of a current of up to 80 mA has been developed. To irradiate articles having a cylindrical shape two types of devices with a circular beam scanning have been developed. A device has been worked out for the output of concentrated beams into the atmosphere, in which the electron beam leaves the vacuum through a system of four ports having different diameters. Principles of operation and results of tests of these devices are briefly outlined. Examples of their application are given. More than ten tons of tubes have been irradiated on the ILU-6 accelerator to obtain thermal shrinkage, and this accelerator also served as the basis for developing a radiation sewage treatment plant. An annual economical effect is estimated at 2 million roubles per an accelerator

  11. Utilization of hardwood as a chemical raw material in Latvian SSSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalnin' sh, A; Vedernikov, N


    A successful solution to the problem of complex utilization of hardwood is abused on differential chemical action on the main wood components. Furfural is obtained by a directed conversion of pentosans with a yield of 70 to 80% of the theoretical maximum, while preserving the cellulose for subsequent hydrolysis (less than 10% loss). A new method is described for the rapid hydrolysis of cellulose; the resultant sugar solution can be used for the isolation of glucose or the production of fodder yeast.

  12. Vztahy Kuba - SSSR 1959-1991: charakteristika a definice jednotlivých etap


    Čápková, Tereza


    Diploma thesis analyses mutual relations between Cuba and Soviet Union between 1959 (victory of the Cuban revolution led by Fidel Castro) and 1991 (the dissolution of Soviet Union). The thesis is divided into five chapters, first of which deals with the historical development of the island. The rest of the chapters describe circumstances leading to establishing, deepening, or worsening mutual relations and explains the causes of such development. Motivation factors leading both countries to c...

  13. On-line control system for the LIYaF AN SSSR synchrocyclotron beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrosimov, N.K.; Gerasimov, A.M.; Korovina, L.A.; Kryshen', L.M.; Mikheev, G.F.; Ryabov, G.A.


    During a number of years works on proton beamline reconstruction are conducted at the LIYaF synchrocyclotron. The reconstruction is aimed at on-line beam transport to the target. Resulting from the presented peculiarity analysis a traditional (for the system development period) structure of an on-line control system with a two-level hierarchy-the SM computer at the higher level and the ''Elektronika-60'' type computer-at the lower one, and the star-like configuration of the lower level computer connection to the higher one was accepted. Currently the following lower level subsystems are realized: a control subsystem for current stabilization in magnetic elements, beam shape measurement subsystem, collimator control subsystem, target device control subsystem. Radiation monitoring and magnetic measurement subsystems are being commissioned. Main trends in the further developing and increasing the system efficiency are enumerated

  14. Jižní Sachalin: Rusko, Japonsko, SSSR/Rusko

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolejka, Jaromír


    Roč. 127, č. 3 (2013), s. 1-5 ISSN 1214-083X Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Karafuto * history * economy * population * present state Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  15. Status report from USSR [Processing of Low-Grade Uranium Ores]; Doklad o sostoyanii voprosa v SSSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zefirov, A P [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet Po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moskva, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian Federation)


    The uranium industry for processing poor uranium ores in the USSR was established in recent years. As a result of research work institutions and enterprises in the development of this industry was provided by rapid technological advances that allowed dramatically increased productivity, reduced consumption of reagents, simplified process flow diagrams, and reduced production costs. At present, the basis for uranium industry, including and poor uranium ore deposits in the USSR are with different content valuable components (uranium, phosphorus, molybdenum, rare earth elements, thorium, iron, .. .)

  16. Water-saturated systems of the largest gas and gas-condensate deposits of the USSR. Vodonapornye sistemy krupneishikh gazovykh i gazokondensatnykh mestorozhdenii sssr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortsenshtein, V.N.


    A description is given of water-pressure systems in a number of the largest gas and gas-condensate fields of the Soviet Union, whose industrial reserves exceed 500 billion cubic meters. These include fields located in the concluding stage of development with sharply reduced recovery (Shebelinsk), fields that have just begun to operate and are characterized by increasing production (Vuktyl, Medved, Orenburg, Shatlyk, Urengoisk), and fields that are not yet developed (Yamburg and Zapolyar). Problems in the theory and practice of studying water-pressure systems of the largest gas and gas-condensate fields are analyzed primarily in connection with conditions required for their rational development which would provide for a maximum extraction of hydrocarbons from the interior. Importance is also given to the hydrogeological aspects of the formation of large hydrocarbon deposits and their distribution in the earth's crust. The most reliable factual materials on hydrogeology are utilized. The book is designed for personnel in the gas and oil industries, hydrogeologists, and scientists interested in problems of the formation, survey, and development of the largest hydrocarbon deposits. 92 references, 65 figures, 71 tables.

  17. Tipping Point

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  18. Tipping Point

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  19. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments. Number 15, January - March 1974 (United States)


    Radiofiz IV. SOURCE ABBREVIATIONS Acta phyeica polonica Akademiya nauk SSSR. Doklady Akademiya nauk SSSR. Izvestiya. Fizika atmosfery i...izobreteniya, promyshlennyye obraztsy, tovarnyye znaki Physica statue solidi Pribory i tekhnika eksperimenta Russian Book List Radiotekhnika i

  20. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments, Number 66, July-August 1983. (United States)


    Scientific Research Institute of Motion Pictures and Photography (NI kinofotoinstitut). 243. Radio Engineering Institute, AN SSSR (Radiotekhnicheskiy...Research Institute of Otolaryngology im Kolomiychenko (Kiyevskiy NIl otolaringologii im Kolomiychenko). 608. Mozyr State Pedagogical Institute (Mozyrskiy...756. Institute of Geology, Komi Branch, AN SSSR (Institut geologii Komi filiala AN SSSR). 757. Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of Tools and

  1. Komparativní analýza nacionalismu a ideových zdrojů krajně pravicových subjektů v Rusku a na Ukrajině po rozpadu SSSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Laryš


    Full Text Available This article presents a comparative analysis of Ukrainian and Russian forms of nationalism, deriving from the traditions of each country's history, its statehood traditions and processes of nation-building. In particular, the text compares far-right ideological tendencies in both countries. These subjects are analyzed and compared in terms of their deeper connection to the historical, political, social and economic specifics of Russia and the Ukraine.

  2. Developments in mechanization of operations of comprehensively mechanized longwalls in the USSR and abroad. Sovershenstvovanie sredstv mekhanizatsii kontsevykh operatsii v kompleksno-mekhanizirovannykh lavakh v SSSR i za rubezhom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodrunov, L D


    This paper discusses construction and introduction of equipment for mining at junctions of longwalls and roadways. Design and operation of a Soviet made narrow web shearer loader with chainless advance, enabling coal extraction by side cutting without the provision of stables in seams 2-4.1 m thick and up to 30 degrees inclination are described along with two types (520 mm and 630 mm high) of narrow web shearer loaders for extracting 0.7-0.95 m and 0.8-1.2 m thick seams with inclinations up to 35 degrees. Three types of machines constructed to operate in thin seams are presented. They are designed to extract coal from seams: 0.6-1.3 m thick with shear strength of 2.5 kN/cm, 0.65-1.2 m thick with shear strength up to 3.0 kN/cm and seams 0.8-1.8 m thick also with 3.0 kN/sm shear strength. Stableless extraction is also possible due to developments which have taken place in face scraper conveyors with shortened driving heads. Some of the new conveyors can be used in normal complexes to extract flat and inclined seams 1-2.5 m thick, whilst others are used to extract flat and inclined thin seams (0.7-1.2 m). The use of two shearer loaders has resulted in reduction in stable size or stableless extraction. Mechanization of supports at junctions of longwalls and mine roadways by means of metal supporting beams in conjunction with hydraulic or friction props is described. Mechanization of similar operations in foreign mines is also described, e.g. stableless extraction in the UK, where up to 80% of coal is extracted by the longwall system and 20% by the pillar system using the two shearer loader method. Machines produced by Anderson Strathclyde, Mining Supplies, and British Jeffrey Diamond and props manufactured by Dowty and Gullick Dobson are described. FRG coal extraction is carried out chiefly (95%) from inclined seams more than 4 m thick, using a pillar mining system (25%), longwall system (58%) and combined (17%).

  3. Repair and mechanical service of the Ministry of the Oil Refining and Petrochemical Industry of the USSR and the basic trends in its development. Remontno-mekhanicheskaya sluzhba ministerstva neftepererabatyvayushchey i neftekhimicheskoy promyshlennosti SSSR i osnovnyye napravleniya eye razvitiya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durov, V.S.; Tikhomirov, A.A.


    The review gives a characterization of the repair service in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, shows the achieved level of centralization and specialization in repair operations in conditions of intrafactory centralization, the creation of branch specialized contractor organizations, the improvements in the organization of planning for repair operations and the use of systems of low mechanization in repairs. The significance is shown of the system of technical reviews in the increase in the reliability of the operation of equipment, materials are correlated about corrosion and the problem of combatting it in the operation of equipment, the elimination of vibration of pipeline connections and modernization of piston compressors in order to shift them to operations without lubricants. The progressive role of the subbranch institutes in the issues of raising the effectiveness of repair and the directions in their operation and ways for further improving the repair service are examined.

  4. Tipping Point

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  5. Tipping Point (United States)

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  6. Tipping Point

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  7. Tipping Point

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  8. Tipping Point

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    Full Text Available ... and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The force of a large television falling from tipping furniture ... 50 lb. TV falls with about the same force as child falling from the third story of ...

  9. Tipping Point

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  10. Tipping Point

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  11. Area Handbook Series: Soviet Union: A Country Study (United States)


    893 Bibliography Chapter 1 Auty, Robert, and Dmitry Obolensky (eds.). An Introduction to Rus- sian History, 1: Companion to Russian Studies. Cambridge...Panchenko, Chudnovskiy. Edinaia transportnaia sistema . Moscow: Transport, 1987. Guzhenko, T.B. (ed.). Morskoi transport SSSR: K 60-letiiu otrasli. Moscow...Resources (The BAM). New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1977. 952 Bibliography Shafirkin, B.I. Edinaia transportnaia sistema SSSR i vzaimodeistvie. Moscow

  12. Impact design of reinforced concrete fuel storage structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickell, R.E.; Rashid, Y.R.; Williams, R.F.


    We characterize the loading experienced by reinforced concrete slabs, as the result of a drop or a tip-over of a dry storage cask, and we provide simple design charts and formulas by which the margin of safety of such slabs can be readily demonstrated. These charts are based on the calculation of crack patterns in the concrete and yielding in the reinforcement as the pad is loaded by the dropping or tip-over of a dry storage cask to a point of collapse. This ultimate-strength design approach is appropriate for unlikely loading events provided that adequate margin against slab collapse is maintained. (orig./HP)

  13. Same-sex sexual relationships in the national social life, health and aging project: making a case for data collection. (United States)

    Brown, Maria T; Grossman, Brian R


    This study describes the previously unexplored subsample of respondents who reported at least 1 same-sex sexual relationship (SSSR) in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP). The NSHAP collected data from 3,005 adults (aged 57-85). Approximately 4% (n = 102) of respondents reported at least one SSSR. These sexual minority elders were younger, more educated, were more likely to be working, had fewer social supports, and better physical health. Results may indicate crisis competence in sexual minority elders. Collecting sexual orientation and gender identity data in larger, US-based probability samples would inform the development of appropriate community-based services and supports.

  14. Tipping Point

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  15. Tipping Point

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  16. Quantitative comparison of U/Pu separation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrich, G.; Schmieder, H.


    A comparison of iron sulphamate, uranium (IV), hydroxy nitrate of ammonium and electroreduction processes is done by numeric simulation (VISCO). An SB model fuel and a model flow chart equally appropriate for all processes were selected. The accident condition 'tip-over of the B-extractor' was illustrated by the simulation of the transient profile development and described by figures. (DG) [de

  17. Tipping Point

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  18. USSR Report, Life Sciences, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences (United States)


    Neurosis (M. M. Khanashvili, et al.’ FIZIOLOGICHESKIY ZHURNAL SSSR IMENI I. M. SECHENOV, No 8, Aug 84) 41 Neurochemical Correlates of Therapeutic ...333-338 PUZANOVA, L. A., Kuban Agricultural Institute; North Caucasian Zonal Scientific Research Institute of Horticulture and Viniculture...P., KHOKHLOV, V. I. and LOBAZOV, A. F., Chair of Therapeutic Stomatology, Minsk Medical Institutes; Laser Systems Instruments Laboratory

  19. Poliitbüroo Moskva välispoliitika kujundajana / Tõnu Tannberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tannberg, Tõnu, 1961-


    Rets.: Ken, O., Rupasov, A. Politbjuro TsK VKP(b) i otnoshenija SSSR s zapadnõmi sosednimi gosudarstvami. Sankt-Peterburg, 2000. NSV Liidu 1920. aastate lõpu ja 1930. aastate alguse välispoliitika alane uurimus

  20. A Worker’s Way of War: The Red Army’s Doctrinal Debate, 1918 - 1924 (United States)


    century "modern" was going a bit too far. Trotsky had earlier claimed that the study of ancient, medieval , and Middle Age warfare may be disregarded...subject include Literatura i revoliutsiia and "Kultura i sotsializm." 3 Leon Trotsky, Chto takoe SSSR 1 kuda on idet (Paris: Facsimile of the

  1. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Science & Technology Policy (United States)


    holographic, X -ray diffraction, and met- allographic checking, are offered. Calculations of the mechanical behavior of materials and components in case of...Vstrechayushchikhsya v Arkticheskykh Rayo - nakh SSSR" [Arctic Flora of the USSR. Critical Review of Vascular Plants Found in the Arctic Regions of

  2. Oblici tradicijske arhitekture i kulture stanovanja u Baranji


    Puntarović-Vlahinić, Jadranka


    Obrađeni su i prikazani podaci prikupljeni za Etnološki atlas koji se odnose na tipove naselja, osnovne značajke kućišta, te na oblike stambenih zgrada u Baranji. Tome su dodani zabilježeni podaci o rasporedu prostorija, njihovoj funkciji, te o njihovu unutarnjem uređenju i opremi (namještaj, oprema kuhinje, pravljenje ognja, peći i grijanje, rasvjeta).



    Hartman, Klavdija


    V diplomski nalogi smo opravili floristično in funkcionalno primerjavo dveh tipov suhih travišč v hribovitem celinskem predelu Slovenije (asociacija Scabioso hladnikianae-Caricetum humilis, razred Festuco-Brometea in asociacija Homogyno alpinae-Nardetum, razred Calluno-Ulicetea), ki sta razvita na različni geološki podlagi (karbonatna oz. nekarbonatna silikatna). Analizirali smo 30 še neobjavljenih popisov asociacije Scabioso hladnikianae-Caricetum humilis in 32 objavljenih popisov asociaci...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Mastilovic


    The purpose of this analysis is to determine the structural response of a TRIGA Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) codisposal canister placed in a 5-Defense High Level Waste (DHLW) waste package (WP) and subjected to a tipover design basis event (DBE) dynamic load; the results will be reported in terms of displacements and stress magnitudes. This activity is associated with the WP design

  5. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments, Number 72, July - August 1984. (United States)


    automating experiments at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the USSR Academy of Sciences. CVSLAZAt, 8th. Tezisy dokladov. Part 2. IOF. Tomsk, 1984, 341...8217 4 w ~ ~ 1016. Vlokh , O.G. (LvGU). Electrodynamics in nonlinear optics . Elektrodinamika v nelineynoy optike. LvGU. L’vov, 1983, 83 p...Fizicheskiy institut im Lebedeva AN SSSR Physics Institute imeni Lebedev, Academy of Sciences USSR, Moscow FIANKuy Kuybyshevskiy filial Fizicheskogo instituta

  6. Estimated Ground Motions for a New Madrid Event (United States)


    Geophysics and Planetary Physics of the University of California, San Diego and the Instituto de Ingenieria at the Universidad National Autonoma de La Villita, or the horizontal accelerograms recorded at Caleta de Campos and La Union. 45. While one may justifiably comment on the appropriateness...Simulation of Fault Dynamics. Systems, Science and Software Final Report sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. SSS-R-80

  7. Piloting relationship education for female same-sex couples: Results of a small randomized waitlist-control trial. (United States)

    Whitton, Sarah W; Scott, Shelby B; Dyar, Christina; Weitbrecht, Eliza M; Hutsell, David W; Kuryluk, Amanda D


    Relationship education represents a promising, nonstigmatizing approach to promoting the health and stability of same-sex couples. A new culturally sensitive adaptation of relationship education was developed specifically for female same-sex couples (The Strengthening Same-Sex Relationships Program, Female version; SSSR-F). SSSR-F includes adaptations of evidence-based strategies to build core relationship skills (e.g., communication skills training) as well as new content to address unique challenges faced by this population (e.g., discrimination; low social support). A small randomized waitlist-control trial (N = 37 couples) was conducted to evaluate program feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy. Three proximal outcomes targeted by SSSR-F (communication, perceived stress, social support) and 3 distal outcomes (global relationship satisfaction, instability, and confidence) were assessed at pre- and posttreatment and 3-month follow-up. Results of multilevel models accounting for nonindependence in dyadic data indicated statistically significant program effects on positive and negative couple communication, relationship satisfaction, and relationship confidence and small, nonsignificant program effects on stress, social support, and relationship instability. Analyses of follow-up data suggest maintenance of effects on the proximal but not the distal outcomes. Ratings of program satisfaction were high. Overall, findings support the feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of SSSR-F, highlighting the potential value of culturally sensitive relationship education for same-sex couples. Continued efforts are needed to increase sustainability of program effects on global relationship quality over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Radiological Situation at the Bomb Test Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, V.


    An overview of radiological situation at the selected bomb test sites is presented. The report is based on the reports and measurements performed by IAEA while the author was a head of its Physics-Chemistry-Instrumentation Laboratory. Radiological conditions at Bikini Atoll (USA testing ground), Mururoa and Fangataufa Atolls (French testing ground) and Semipalatinsk (SSSR testing ground) have been discussed in some details. (author)

  9. [Book Review] Bykhovskaya-Pavllvskaya: Key to parasites of freshwater fish of the U.S.S.R (United States)

    Hoffman, G.L.


    Review of: Key to parasites of freshwater fish of the U.S.S.R. Opredelitel' parazitov presnovodnykh ryb SSSR. Compiled by I. E. Bykhovskaya-Pavlovskaya [and others] Assisted by L. F. Nagibina, E. V. Baikova, and Yu. A. Strelkov. Chief Editor: E. N. Pavlovskii. Translated from Russian [by A. Birron and Z.S. Cole] Published 1964 by Israel Program for Scientific Translations, [available from the Office of Technical Services, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Washington] in Jerusalem.

  10. Security region-based small signal stability analysis of power systems with FSIG based wind farm (United States)

    Qin, Chao; Zeng, Yuan; Yang, Yang; Cui, Xiaodan; Xu, Xialing; Li, Yong


    Based on the Security Region approach, the impact of fixed-speed induction generator based wind farm on the small signal stability of power systems is analyzed. Firstly, the key factors of wind farm on the small signal stability of power systems are analyzed and the parameter space for small signal stability region is formed. Secondly, the small signal stability region of power systems with wind power is established. Thirdly, the corresponding relation between the boundary of SSSR and the dominant oscillation mode is further studied. Results show that the integration of fixed-speed induction generator based wind farm will cause the low frequency oscillation stability of the power system deteriorate. When the output of wind power is high, the oscillation stability of the power system is mainly concerned with the inter-area oscillation mode caused by the integration of the wind farm. Both the active power output and the capacity of reactive power compensation of the wind farm have a significant influence on the SSSR. To improve the oscillation stability of power systems with wind power, it is suggested to reasonably set the reactive power compensation capacity for the wind farm through SSSR.

  11. ROCKING. A computer program for seismic response analysis of radioactive materials transport AND/OR storage casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, Takeshi


    The computer program ROCKING has been developed for seismic response analysis, which includes rocking and sliding behavior, of radioactive materials transport and/or storage casks. Main features of ROCKING are as follows; (1) Cask is treated as a rigid body. (2) Rocking and sliding behavior are considered. (3) Impact forces are represented by the spring dashpot model located at impact points. (4) Friction force is calculated at interface between a cask and a floor. (5) Forces of wire ropes against tip-over work only as tensile loads. In the paper, the calculation model, the calculation equations, validity calculations and user's manual are shown. (author)

  12. Forklift safety a practical guide to preventing powered industrial truck incidents and injuries

    CERN Document Server

    Swartz, George


    Written for the more than 1.5 million powered industrial truck operators and supervisors in general industry, as well as those in the construction and marine industries, this Second Edition provides an updated guide to training operators in safety and complying with OSHA's 1999 forklift standard. This edition of Forklift Safety includes a new chapter devoted to the new OSHA 1910.178 standard and new information regarding dock safety, narrow aisle trucks, off-dock incidents, tip-over safety, pallet safety, and carbon monoxide.

  13. Pose estimation-based path planning for a tracked mobile robot traversing uneven terrains


    Jun , Jae-Yun; Saut , Jean-Philippe; Benamar , Faïz


    International audience; A novel path-planning algorithm is proposed for a tracked mobile robot to traverse uneven terrains, which can efficiently search for stability sub-optimal paths. This algorithm consists of combining two RRT-like algorithms (the Transition-based RRT (T-RRT) and the Dynamic-Domain RRT (DD-RRT) algorithms) bidirectionally and of representing the robot-terrain interaction with the robot’s quasi-static tip-over stability measure (assuming that the robot traverses uneven ter...

  14. The influence of visual perspective on the somatosensory steady-state response during pain observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Linsey Canizales


    Full Text Available The observation and evaluation of other's pain activate part of the neuronal network involved in the actual experience of pain, including those regions subserving the sensori-discriminative dimension of pain. This was largely interpreted as evidence showing that part of the painful experience can be shared vicariously. Here, we investigated the effect of the visual perspective from which other people’s pain is seen on the cortical response to continuous 25 Hz non-painful somatosensory stimulation (somatosensory steady-state response: SSSR. Based on the shared representation framework, we expected first-person visual perspective (1PP to yield more changes in cortical activity than third-person visual perspective (3PP during pain observation. Twenty healthy adults were instructed to rate a series of pseudo-dynamic pictures depicting hands in either painful or non-painful scenarios, presented either in 1PP (0°-45° angle or 3PP (180° angle, while changes in brain activity was measured with a 128-electode EEG system. The ratings demonstrated that the same scenarios were rated on average as more painful when observed from the 1PP than from the 3PP. As expected from previous works, the SSSR response was decreased after stimulus onset over the left caudal part of the parieto-central cortex, contralateral to the stimulation side. Moreover, the difference between the SSSR was of greater amplitude when the painful situations were presented from the 1PP compared to the 3PP. Together, these results suggest that a visuospatial congruence between the viewer and the observed scenarios is associated with both a higher subjective evaluation of pain and an increased modulation in the somatosensory representation of observed pain. These findings are discussed with regards to the potential role of visual perspective in pain communication and empathy.

  15. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments, Number 49, September-October 1980 (United States)


    V.A. Fedorov, and I.V. Mochalov (13). New data on three-micron lasing from Ho3+ and Er3+ ions in aluminates with a perovskite structure. DAN SSSR, v...3039. 586. Osinskiy, V.I., S.A. Malyshev, I.I. Prikhod’ko, and M.P. Ryzhkov (0). Study on photoluminescence in graded-gap Al 1GalxAs under pulsed...0). Targets and parameters of laser devices for obtaining ignition and for hybrid reactors. ZhETF P, v. 32, no. 7, 1980, 457-460. 649. Babenko, S.M

  16. Edvard Beneš jako ministr zahraničních věcí


    Souček, Martin


    Bachelor thesis deals with person Edvard Beneš as the czechoslovak Foreign Minister during the period 1918-1935. His life, studies, resistance activity and the participation in Paris Peace Conference are captured in the first part of the thesis. The most important events in post-war Europe and relations with neighboring countries, Vatican, Italy, SSSR and allies in the twenties are outlined in the second part of the thesis. Third part is concetrated on Beneš's foreign policy in the period of ...

  17. Effects of Meso-Scale and Small-Scale Interactions on Global Climate. Volume I. Orographic Effects on Global Climate (United States)


    STATEMENT (ol Ih, »b.tfet »nftod in Block 30. II d/ ffa ,en( Irom Report) It. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19. KEY WORDS (Conllnue on rev«., «ij» (/ nee» fry...given by 3-29 a^M—. K^^M^^M— ■ - - ■ ■■■■ ’■^-•—- P?B«BWWI^WW™’W"W,SIW!«W5F«^IIW»! BPP ^!^^ ..’ i •’ SSS-R-75-2556 Res(T0) L(T" - WC

  18. GPS Measurements at Vandenberg, AFB (United States)


    friorov, S A Ahic Aia.. SSSR DoAf US9. Ill𔃺 1113 I Iughison. J I (ec O Clmate chirie The 07CC scientific Assessment (Cambridge ni~v Pressý 16 snez. MC... Change or Climate (Wolo~ng GrOAI Viii eHefta Comm’ents 14 Timerev A A & Egorov S A A4lereotof G&droi lo 7 50-56 e91e .r condied 13 A A TsonoS...Complex. might easily be recovering from the mainshock accelerations An examination of the station displacements indicates that Comparing the changing

  19. Neglected environmental health impacts of China's supply-side structural reform. (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Lei; Li, Ying; Tian, Yuling; Li, Xiaoran; Zhang, Xue; Mol, Arthur P J; Sonnenfeld, David A; Liu, Jianguo; Ping, Zeyu; Chen, Long


    "Supply-side structural reform" (SSSR) has been the most important ongoing economic reform in China since 2015, but its important environmental health effects have not been properly assessed. The present study addresses that gap by focusing on reduction of overcapacity in the coal, steel, and iron sectors, combined with reduction of emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxide (NO x ), and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), and projecting resultant effects on air quality and public health across cities and regions in China. Modeling results indicate that effects on air quality and public health are visible and distributed unevenly across the country. This assessment provides quantitative evidence supporting projections of the transregional distribution of such effects. Such uneven transregional distribution complicates management of air quality and health risks in China. The results challenge approaches that rely solely on cities to improve air quality. The article concludes with suggestions on how to integrate SSSR measures with cities' air quality improvement attainment planning and management performance evaluation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Origin, Nature, Disposal and Control of Radioactive Wastes Arising from the Use of Radioisotopes; Origine, Nature, Elimination et Controle des Dechets Radioactifs Decoulant de l'Emploi des Radioisotopes; 041f 0420 041e 0414 ; Origen, Naturaleza, Evacuacion y Control de los Desechos Radiactivos Producidos en la Utilizacion de Radioisotopos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, A. W. [Ministry of Housing and Local Government (United Kingdom)


    The paper describes the different types of radioactive waste arising from industrial, medical and scientific uses of radioisotopes. An outline is given of methods used for waste disposal, depending on the content of radioactivity. (author) [French] L'auteur decrit les differents types de dechets radioactifs decoulant de l'utilisation de radioisotopes dans l'industrie, en medecine et dans la science. Il donne un apercu des methodes employees pour l'elimination des dechets selon leur teneur en elements radioactifs. (author) [Spanish] En la memoria se describen los diferentes tipos de desechos radiactivos producidos por la utilizacion industrial, medica y cientifica de los radioisotopos y se hace una exposicion de los metodos empleados para la evacuacion de desechos segun su contenido radiactivo. (author) [Russian] V doklade daetsja opisanie razlichnyh tipov radioaktivnyh othodov, voznikajushhih v rezul'tate promyshlennogo, medicinskogo i nauchnogo ispol'zovanija radioizotopov. Osobo razbirajutsja metody, ispol'zuemye dlja udalenija radioaktivnyh othodov v zavisimosti ot ih radioaktivnosti. (author)

  1. Shopping cart injuries, entrapment, and childhood fatality. (United States)

    Jensen, Lisbeth; Charlwood, Cheryl; Byard, Roger W


    Shopping carts may be associated with a variety of injuries, particularly in toddlers and young children. These usually relate to falls from carts or to tip-overs. Injuries that are sustained include hematomas/contusions, abrasions, lacerations, fractures, and fingertip amputations. Fatal episodes are uncommon and are usually due to blunt craniocerebral trauma from falls. A case involving a 19-month-old girl is reported who became entrapped when she inserted her head through the side frame of a cart that had been removed from a supermarket and left at her home address. Death was caused by neck compression. Although rare, the potential for lethal entrapment during unsupervised play means that the presence of stray shopping carts at private residences and in public places, including playgrounds and parks, is of concern. Strategies, such as coin deposits, should be encouraged to assist in the return of such carts to supermarkets.

  2. Lázaro: Robot Móvil dotado de Brazo para Contacto con el Suelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. García


    Full Text Available Resumen: Este artículo tiene por objetivo describir a Lázaro, el cual es un pequeño robot móvil que posee un brazo diseñado especialmente para propiciar un punto adicional de contacto con el suelo que puede utilizarse para mejorar la estabilidad al vuelco y superar obstáculos. Específicamente, se aborda la descripción de la estructura mecánica así como los componentes electrónicos destinados a percepción, comunicación y control. Posteriormente, se revisan las características de funcionamiento de este robot, en cuanto a su cinemática, arquitectura de control, modos de operación e interface. Finalmente, se hace una descripción de algunas pruebas de funcionamiento. Abstract: This paper aims to describe Lázaro, which is a small mobile robot that has an arm designed especially to provide an additional contact point with the ground that can be used to improve the tipover stability and to overcome obstacles. Specifically, the description of the mechanical structure and electronic components for perception, communication and control is discussed. Subsequently, the operating characteristics of the robot are reviewed in terms of kinematics, control architecture, operating modes and interface. Finally, a description of some performance tests is presented. Palabras clave: Robots móviles, estabilidad al vuelco, control de movimiento, tele-operación, Keywords: Mobile robots, tipover stability, motion control, teleoperation

  3. Disposal of Low-Activity Waste and Accumulation in Cultivated Soils; Rejets d'Effluents Faiblement Radioactifs et Accumulation dans les Sols Cultives; 0416 0418 0414 ; Desechos y Efluentes de Baja Actividad: Su Acumulacion en los Terrenos Cultivados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbier, G. [Station Centrale d' Agronomie, Versailles (France); Michon, G. [Service d' Hygiene Atomique et de Radiopathologie, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay (France)


    The paper describes a method of accumulating long-lived radioisotopes in soils and calculating the maximum contamination they would cause in vegetables grown on these soils. The authors suggest a way of expressing this contamination and a formula by which the maximum contamination of one kilogramme of the harvested produce in relation to the tolerated contamination per litre of irrigation water could be calculated. (author) [French] L'article decrit une methode destinee a prevoir l'accumulation des radioelements de longue periode dans les sols et a chiffrer la contamination limite qui en resultera pour des legumes cultives sur ces sols. Les auteurs proposent un mode d'expression de cette contamination et une formule qui permettrait de calculer la contamination limite d'un kg de produit recolte par rapport a la contamination toleree d'un litre d'eau d'irrigation. (author) [Spanish] En la memoria se describe un metodo para evaluar la acumulacion de los radioelementos de periodo largo en los terrenos y para calcular la contaminacion limite resultante para las hortalizas cultivadas en dichos terrenos. Los autores proponen un metodo para expresar dicha contaminacion y una formula que permita determinar la contaminacion limite de un kilogramo de producto cosechado en funcion de la contaminacion admisible por litre de agua de riego. (author) [Russian] V stat'e opisyvaetsja metod, pozvoljajushhij predvidet' nakoplenie dolgozhivushhih radioaktivnyh izotopov v pochve i opredeljat' predel'nyj uroven' vytekajushhego iz jetogo zarazhenija dlja ovoshhej, vyrashhivaemyh na jetih zemljah. Avtory stat'i predlagajut metod vyrazhenija jetogo zarazhenija i formulu, pozvoljajushhuju vychislit' predel'nyj uroven' zarazhenija odnogo kilogramma ovoshhej po otnosheniju k dopustimomu urovnju zarazhenija odnogo litra oroshajushhej vody. (author)

  4. Nuclear power stations in August: information and commentary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogozhin, Yu.


    A summary of events at nuclear power stations in the USSR in August 1989 is given. There were 44 nuclear power units in service which had 9 unplanned shutdowns and 13 unsanctioned power reductions. Gosatomenergonadzor SSSR is also responsible for all research and marine reactors. It is reported that there are currently (1989) six nuclear vessels in the USSR and no major accidents or damage to nuclear steam-generating units on these were reported. On-site inspectors maintain a constant presence at nuclear power stations to supervise operation and make sure safety requirements are enforced. Glasnost is opening up previously forbidden areas to the public to enable it to obtain information to allow objective assessment to be made. (author)

  5. Association of Rorschach and MMPI psychosis indicators and schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses in a Russian clinical sample. (United States)

    Ritsher, Jennifer Boyd


    In this study, I investigated the relationships among psychological test variables and schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses in a Russian sample of 180 psychiatric patients. Schizophrenia is understood somewhat differently in Russia than in the West. Analyses compared Rorschach (SCZI, PTI; Exner, 2001) and MMPI (Berezin, Mitroshinkov, & Sokolova, 1994) psychosis indicators (Sc, Sc3, Sc6, and BIZ) and 3 diagnostic systems: (a) Russian traditional, (b) the Russian-modified International Classification of Diseases (9th ed. [ICD-9]; Ministerstvo Zdravokhraneniya SSSR, 1982), and (c) the nonmodified ICD-10 (World Health Organization, 1992; comparable to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [4th ed.], American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Results showed modest support for the SCZI and PTI but not the MMPI indicators. While the field awaits further evidence, psychologists should proceed with caution when using the Rorschach and MMPI to assess for psychosis among Russians.

  6. Optical orientation of atoms in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhitnikov, R


    The results are summed up of experimental work on the optical orientation of atoms in a plasma conducted by the Atomic Radiospectroscopy Group at the AN SSSR Physical Technology Institute. The main methods of forming and observing the optical orientation of atoms in a helium plasma and an alkali metal plasma are described in detail. A quantum mechanical explanation is given of all observed phenomena. The most significant results include the discovery of the effect of the optical orientation of atoms in a plasma on the plasma optical and electrical properties, such as electric conductivity, emitted light intensity, ionization degree, and electron density. The phenomenon applies generally and is inherent to plasmas of different chemical compositions, at the optical orientation of atoms of different elements. The methods are indicated of the practical application of the phenomenon in designing principally new precision quantum magnetometers.

  7. Optical orientation of atoms in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhitnikov, R.


    The results are summed up of experimental work on the optical orientation of atoms in a plasma conducted by the Atomic Radiospectroscopy Group at the AN SSSR Physical Technology Institute. The main methods of forming and observing the optical orientation of atoms in a helium plasma and an alkali metal plasma are described in detail. A quantum mechanical explanation is given of all observed phenomena. The most significant results include the discovery of the effect of the optical orientation of atoms in a plasma on the plasma optical and electrical properties, such as electric conductivity, emitted light intensity, ionization degree, and electron density. The phenomenon applies generally and is inherent to plasmas of different chemical compositions, at the optical orientation of atoms of different elements. The methods are indicated of the practical application of the phenomenon in designing principally new precision quantum magnetometers. (J.U.)

  8. «СССР на стройке» la vetrina europea di Stalin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Valeri


    Full Text Available The magazine “SSSR na stroike” (“USSR in Construction” published in Russia, Germany, France, England was born in the early 1930s from an idea of Maksim Gorky. It was conceived as the successor of another well-known issue, “Nashi dostizhenia” to let the whole Europe know about the progress and successes of the First Five-Year Plan and of the related Soviet system. Beyond the propaganda, “SSSR na stroike” had another main task: opposing the negative image the Russians émigrés gave of their native country abroad. Official portraitists by the Soviet élite, photographers, intellectuals and artists with whose works USSR celebrated and created their own myths were chosen to realize this project. That way, new Soviet idols became the peasants from the series “24 hours at the Filippov’s” and the workers of “The Giant and the Builder”. The circulation of the magazine abroad could count on the help of foreign estimators of the Soviet model, who personally acted to spread these images, while in Russia the editor Pjatakov and valuable artists, such as A. Rodchenko, assured success and the quality of the content. So far research has focused on the graphic and artistic aspects of the magazine, mainly thanks to the studies of Erika Wolf, Professor of Art and Visual Culture at the University of Otago, while the historical, cultural and political importance of the magazine was marginally analyzed. It will be interesting to highlight language choices and editorial strategies used for such an issue, which should offer the internal élite a window on a changing country, while it should be a real shop window for estimators, foreign investors, simple spectators and also those who oppose the realization of the Soviet utopia in USSR.

  9. Possible Utilization of Nitronitrosylruthenium Complexes as Tracers in Hydrology; Note sur l'utilisation eventuelle des complexes de nitronitrosylruthenium comme traceurs en hydrologie; O vozmozhnom ispol'zovanii kompleksa nitronitrozilruteniya v kachestve indikatorov v gidrologii; Nota sobre el posible empleo de los complejos de nitronitrosilrutenio como indicadores en hidrologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gailledreau, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (France)


    kolonnakh vodonosnogo peska i na sil'no glinistoj pochve. (author)

  10. Study of the Fixation and Migration of Radioactive Cations in a Natural Ion Exchanger; Etude de la Fixation et de la Migration de Cations Radioactifs dans un Echangeur d'Ions Naturel; 0418 0417 0423 0427 0415 0414 ; Estudio de la Fijacion y de la Migracion de Cationes Radiactivos en un Cambiador Natural de Iones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baetsle, L. [Centre d' Etudes de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium)


    investigando por separado cada uno de los equilibrios ionicos componentes. (author) [Russian] V celjah ispol'zovanija burogo uglja v kachestve estestvennogo ionoobmennika pri obrabotke zhidkih radioaktivnyh othodov, izuchalis' ego fizicheskie i fiziko-himicheskie svojstva, svjazannye s obmenom ionov. Prezhde vsego bylo izucheno raspredelenie ionov stroncija-90 i cezija-137 v prisutstvii Ca, Na i N, i raschitany konstanty ravnovesija. Zatem byla izuchena kinetika fiksacii ionov i ustanovleno neskol'ko parametrov, neobhodimyh dlja rascheta lozha ionoobmennikov. Izuchenie slozhnogo javlenija migracii radioaktivnyh ionov v pochve provodilos' putem razdel'nogo issledovanija kazhdoj sostavnoj ionnyh ravnovesij. (author)

  11. The Effect of Terrain Inclination on Performance and the Stability Region of Two-Wheeled Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zareena Kausar


    Full Text Available Two-wheeled mobile robots (TWMRs have a capability of avoiding the tip-over problem on inclined terrain by adjusting the centre of mass position of the robot body. The effects of terrain inclination on the robot performance are studied to exploit this capability. Prior to the real-time implementation of position control, an estimation of the stability region of the TWMR is essential for safe operation. A numerical method to estimate the stability region is applied and the effects of inclined surfaces on the performance and stability region of the robot are investigated. The dynamics of a TWMR is modelled on a general uneven terrain and reduced for cases of inclined and horizontal flat terrain. A full state feedback (FSFB controller is designed based on optimal gains with speed tracking on a horizontal flat terrain. The performance and stability regions are simulated for the robot on a horizontal flat and inclined terrain with the same controller. The results endorse a variation in equilibrium points and a reduction in stability region for robot motion on inclined terrain.

  12. Bacterial Diseases of Bananas and Enset: Current State of Knowledge and Integrated Approaches Toward Sustainable Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Blomme


    Full Text Available Bacterial diseases of bananas and enset have not received, until recently, an equal amount of attention compared to other major threats to banana production such as the fungal diseases black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis and Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. However, bacteria cause significant impacts on bananas globally and management practices are not always well known or adopted by farmers. Bacterial diseases in bananas and enset can be divided into three groups: (1 Ralstonia-associated diseases (Moko/Bugtok disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and banana blood disease caused by R. syzygii subsp. celebesensis; (2 Xanthomonas wilt of banana and enset, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum and (3 Erwinia-associated diseases (bacterial head rot or tip-over disease Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora and E. chrysanthemi, bacterial rhizome and pseudostem wet rot (Dickeya paradisiaca formerly E. chrysanthemi pv. paradisiaca. Other bacterial diseases of less widespread importance include: bacterial wilt of abaca, Javanese vascular wilt and bacterial fingertip rot (probably caused by Ralstonia spp., unconfirmed. This review describes global distribution, symptoms, pathogenic diversity, epidemiology and the state of the art for sustainable disease management of the major bacterial wilts currently affecting banana and enset.

  13. Naval Waste Package Design Sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Schmitt


    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to varying inner cavity dimensions when subjected to a comer drop and tip-over from elevated surface. This calculation will also determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to the upper bound of the naval canister masses. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of through-wall stress intensities in the outer corrosion barrier. This calculation is intended for use in support of the preliminary design activities for the license application design of the Naval waste package. It examines the effects of small changes between the naval canister and the inner vessel, and in these dimensions, the Naval Long waste package and Naval Short waste package are similar. Therefore, only the Naval Long waste package is used in this calculation and is based on the proposed potential designs presented by the drawings and sketches in References 2.1.10 to 2.1.17 and 2.1.20. All conclusions are valid for both the Naval Long and Naval Short waste packages

  14. Comparison of nuclear reactor types of the next generation; Komparativni prikaz novih tipova reaktorskih komercijalnih postrojenja slijedece generacije

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlovic, Z; Kastelan, M [NPP Krsko (Slovenia)


    The paper presents a comparison for a selected relevant set of parameters for different commercial nuclear reactor types at the next generation. This parameters overview could serve as the base for the semi-quantitative decision bases for the selection of the future nuclear strategy. The number of advanced reactor designs of the LWR, HWR, GCR and LMR type are presented. Even currently many of them are still on the drawing boards, the concepts and designs should be assessed in the sense of sensible approach for planning the possible future nuclear strategy. (author) Clanek predstavlja usporedbu odabranih bitnih parametara karakteristicnih za razlicite tipove energetskih nuklearnih postrojenja slijedece generacije. Prikazani pregled parametara omogucava osnov za polu kvantitativnu osnovu za odlucivanje u svrhu donosenja odluke oko odrednica buduce strategije uporabe nuklearne energije. Brojni koncepti naprednih nuklearnih reaktora tipa LWR, HWR, GCR i LMR su prezentirani. S obzirom na cinjenicu da se mnogi of prezentiranih nalaze jos uvijek na crtacim daskama projektanata, koncepti i projekti koji su iz njih proizasli zahtijevaju analizu u smislu kvalitativnog pristupa planiranja moguce buduce nuklearne startegije. (author)

  15. Technical realisation of the VISA-II project, phase I, part IV, IZ-165-o268-1962; Tehnicka realizacija projekta VISA-II, I faza (I-V), IV deo, IZ-165-o268-1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavicevic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)


    Project VISA-II is described in IX chapters as follows: introduction, definition of experiments and possibilities of performance; VISA-II channel, new experimental space in the RA reactor; hydraulic tests in the VISA-II channel; measurement of fast neutron and gamma flux in VISA-II channels; measurement of water flow through different VISA-2 irradiation capsules; fabrication of VISA-II capsules; corrosion and heavy water purity problems; safety problems of experiment VISA-2; experimental operation of VISA-II. This chapter VI includes documentation for each type of capsule, review about each experiment within the VISA-II project, the objective and purpose of the experiment as well as experimental device. [Serbo-Croat] Projekat VISA-2 opisan je u sledecih IX poglavlja: uvod, definicija eksperimenta VISA-2 i mogucnost njegovog izvodjenja; kanal VISA-2 novi eksperimentalni prostor u reaktoru RA; hidraulicna ispitivanja na tehnoloskom kanalu VISA-2; Realizacija merenja fluksa brzih neutrona i gama zracenja u kanalima VISA-2; merenje protoka vode kroz razne tipove kapsula VISA-2; Kapsule VISA-2 i njihova realizacija; problemi korozije i cistoce teske vode u projektu VISA-2; problemi sigurnosti eksperimenta VISA-2; probni pogon eksperimenta VISA-2. Ova VI glava elaborata sadrzi dokumentaciju za svaku vrstu kapsula, preglednu sliku o svakom eksperimentu u okviru projekta VISA-2, o njegovom cilju i nameni kao i o eksperimentalnom uredjaju.

  16. Results of search for the point superhigh-energy gamma ray sources carried out in the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory in the years 1969-1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanyan, A.A.; Vladimirskij, B.M.; Neshpor, Yu.I.; Fomin, V.P.


    Astrophysical objects possessing high density of ultrahigh energy γ-particles are observed. The observations have been carried out in the Crimean astrophysical observatory of the AN SSSR for the period of 1969-1973. 43 celestial objects have been chosen for observation, among them are both the supposed and well-known sources of hard electromaanetic radiation (x-ray or γ-radiation with the energy of quanta up to 10 -8 eV). Regular observations of celestial bodies are followed by recording Cherenkov bursts by method of scanning with two groups of detectors, each consisting of two parallel-directed light detectors switched on to coincidences. Criteria for selecting the material are described. Paricular attention is paid to stability of the equipment parameters, permanent atmospheric transparency, presence of such atmospheric phenomena as meteors, summer lightings, and so on. As the objects under observation the authors involve x-ray sources, pulsars, supernovae, novae, supernovae remnants, radiogalaxies, point γ-sources. The data obtained and also those of other authors are summarized in a catalog including 72 objects from the Northern part of the celestial sphere

  17. Statistical universalities in fragmentation under scaling symmetry with a constant frequency of fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorokhovski, M A; Saveliev, V L


    This paper analyses statistical universalities that arise over time during constant frequency fragmentation under scaling symmetry. The explicit expression of particle-size distribution obtained from the evolution kinetic equation shows that, with increasing time, the initial distribution tends to the ultimate steady-state delta function through at least two intermediate universal asymptotics. The earlier asymptotic is the well-known log-normal distribution of Kolmogorov (1941 Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR 31 99-101). This distribution is the first universality and has two parameters: the first and the second logarithmic moments of the fragmentation intensity spectrum. The later asymptotic is a power function (stronger universality) with a single parameter that is given by the ratio of the first two logarithmic moments. At large times, the first universality implies that the evolution equation can be reduced exactly to the Fokker-Planck equation instead of making the widely used but inconsistent assumption about the smallness of higher than second order moments. At even larger times, the second universality shows evolution towards a fractal state with dimension identified as a measure of the fracture resistance of the medium

  18. Vyacheslav (Slava) Klimov (1945-2017): A scientist par excellence, a great human being, a friend, and a Renaissance man. (United States)

    Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I; Zharmukhamedov, Sergey K; Rodionova, Margarita V; Shuvalov, Vladimir A; Dismukes, Charles; Shen, Jian-Ren; Barber, James; Samuelsson, Göran; Govindjee


    Vyacheslav Vasilevich (V.V.) Klimov (or Slava, as most of us called him) was born on January 12, 1945 and passed away on May 9, 2017. He began his scientific career at the Bach Institute of Biochemistry of the USSR Academy of Sciences (Akademy Nauk (AN) SSSR), Moscow, Russia, and then, he was associated with the Institute of Photosynthesis, Pushchino, Moscow Region, for about 50 years. He worked in the field of biochemistry and biophysics of photosynthesis. He is known for his studies on the molecular organization of photosystem II (PSII). He was an eminent scientist in the field of photobiology, a well-respected professor, and, above all, an outstanding researcher. Further, he was one of the founding members of the Institute of Photosynthesis in Pushchino, Russia. To most, Slava Klimov was a great human being. He was one of the pioneers of research on the understanding of the mechanism of light energy conversion and of water oxidation in photosynthesis. Slava had many collaborations all over the world, and he is (and will be) very much missed by the scientific community and friends in Russia as well as around the World. We present here a brief biography and some comments on his research in photosynthesis. We remember him as a friendly and enthusiastic person who had an unflagging curiosity and energy to conduct outstanding research in many aspects of photosynthesis, especially that related to PSII.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condrea DRĂGĂNESCU


    Full Text Available In 17 gubernyias of the former Russian Empire of 1740-1812-1918 years, was identified (1912-1924 some 7 breeds of the Romanian Walachian phyletic group, of sheep breeds and in some gubernyias the Romanian Tsigai breed. It seems that from the present Moldavian Republic to the rivers Bug and Dnieper the sheep production was of sedentary type, connected with some local Romanian inhabitants. It see also that over the Dnieper the breed presence was connected also with the transhumance practiced up to 1918 by the Transylvanian Romanian transhumance shepherds, some of them organizers after 1918 Romanian of sheep breeds association in Crimea and North Caucasus area. The official statistics from 1925 year registered in the former SSSR (without Bassarabia some 259,324 Romanians. Different historical sources estimated a higher number (1.2 million, 600,000 just in Siberia A possible explanation of founded sheep and man presence in this area can be the fact that it was the antique borderland between Thraco-Dacia and Scythia border, and the Walachian (=Romanian sheep were the sheep of Thraco-Geto-Dacs, Romanian ancestors. Transylvanian transhumance and Romanian from SE Romania introduced later Tsigai in North Pontic, this breed being introduced later by Roman in Carpathian bend.

  20. Problems to be Expected in Disposing of Fission Products from a Possible Nuclear Power Programme; Problemes Eventuels d'Elimination des Produits de Fission dans les Futures Centrales Nucleaires; 0412 0415 0420 041e 042f 0414 ; Problemas que Puede Plantear la Evacuacion de Productos de Fision Resultantes de la Ejecucion de un Programa de Produccion de Energia de Origen Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, G. K. [Cenral Technical Services, Engineering and Development Group, United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Risley (United Kingdom)


    menos precisos cuando se trata de un futuro mas lejano. Los procesos quimicos que sera necesario emplear para los combustibles irradiados dependeran del tipo de combustible, de su grado de combustion, etc. por lo que se supone que cambiaran durante el periodo en cuestion. Por lo tanto, se estudian las cantidades de productos de fision e isotopos pesados que puedan producirse, las formas en que puedan salir de los diversos procesos de elaboracion, y los metodos de que se dispone para manejarlos con garantias de seguridad, bien almacenandolos o evacuandolos. (author) [Russian] V dokumente rassmatrivaetsja tipichnaja programma po atomnoj jenergetike Velikobritanii na posledujushhie neskol'ko desjatiletij. V nem daetsja dostatochno horoshaja ocenka podlezhashhih stroitel'stvu tipov atomnyh reaktorov i tipov gorjuchego, kotoroe budet pervonachal'no ispol'zovat'sja v nih, hotja jetot vopros i javljaetsja menee opredelennym dlja posledujushhego vremeni. Himicheskaja obrabotka, kotoroj neobhodimo podvergnut' obluchennoe gorjuchee, budet zaviset' ot vida gorjuchego, ego vygoranija i t.d. i podvergnetsja izmeneniju vo vremja rassmatrivaemogo perioda vremeni. Pojetomu v dokumente udeljaetsja vnimanie voprosu o kolichestve deljashhihsja materialov i tjazhelyh izotopov, kotorye mogut byt' proizvedeny, o formah, v kotoryh oni okazyvajutsja posle himicheskoj obrabotki, a takzhe voprosu o dostupnyh metodah bezopasnogo obrashhenija s nimi kak posredstvom hranenija v cisternah, tak i posredstvom udalenija. (author)

  1. Določitev območij poselitve v Sloveniji po vodnogospodarskih vidikih

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Gosar


    Full Text Available Uveljavitev pravnega reda Evropske unije prinaša obsežno strokovno delo tudi v vodno gospodarstvo. Na vodilno, Okvirno direktivo o vodah (WFD se navezujejo številne druge. Izpolnjevanje določil Direktive o ravnanju z odpadnimi komunalnimi vodami (UWWTD in Direktive o celovitem preprečevanju in omejevanju onesnaževanja (IPPCD bo tudi v Sloveniji zahtevalo znatne investicije. Področje komunalnih voda na operativni ravni ureja občina, država pa mora izpolnjevati prevzete državne obveznosti do EU. Pravočasno doseganje ciljev zahteva koordinacijo aktivnosti, temelječo na strokovnih podlagah. V UWWTD je eden osnovnih parametrov aglomeracija kot zaokroženo območje tako zgoščene poselitve, da zanj veljajo posebna določila in dinamika iz direktive. Merilo zgoščenosti je število prebivalcev na hektar. Za Slovenijo so bili izdelani najprimernejša mreža eno-hektarskih kvadratnih celic in trije tipi celic poselitve. Območje posamezne aglomeracije sestavljajo celice dveh najgostejših tipov poselitve, ki se stikajo. Površina aglomeracij je mnogo manjša od površine naselij iz RPE, zato so skupne slovenske obveznosti iz direktiv manjše, kar pokaže tudi strokovna podlaga za nacionalni program zbiranja in čiščenja odpadnih komunalnih in padavinskih voda. Izdelane aglomeracije so osnovni element načrtovanja in ukrepanja tudi za druga vodnogospodarska načrtovanja (npr. proti poplavni ukrepi, lahko pa si bi jih uporabilo tudi za programe komunalnega opremljanja in druga razvojna načrtovanja v prostoru.

  2. Development of concrete cask storage technology for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, Toshiari; Shirai, Koji; Takeda, Hirofumi


    Need of spent fuel storage in Japan is estimated as 10,000 to 25,000 t by 2050 depending on reprocessing. Concrete cask storage is expected due to its economy and risk hedge for procurement. The CRIEPI executed verification tests using full-scale concrete casks. Heat removal performances in normal and accidental conditions were verified and analytical method for the normal condition was established. Shielding performance focus on radiation streaming through the air outlet was tested and confirmed to meet the design requirements. Structural integrity was verified in terms of fracture toughness of stainless steel canister for the cask of accidental drop tests. Cracking of cylindrical concrete container due to thermal stress was confirmed to maintain its integrity. Seismic tests of concrete cask without tie-down using scale and full-scale model casks were carried out to confirm that the casks do not tip-over and the spent fuel assembly keeps its integrity under severe earthquake conditions. Long-term integrity of concrete cask for 40 to 60 years is required. It was confirmed using a real concrete cask storing real spent fuel for 15 years. Stress corrosion cracking is serious issue for concrete cask storage in the salty air environment. The material factor was improved by using highly corrosion resistant stainless steel. The environmental factor was mitigated by the development of salt reduction technology. Estimate of surface salt concentration as a function of time became possible. Monitoring technology to detect accidental loss of containment of the canister by the stress corrosion cracking was developed. Spent fuel integrity during storage was evaluated in terms of hydrogen movement using spent fuel claddings stored for 20 years. The effect of hydrogen on the integrity of the cladding was found negligible. With these results, information necessary for real service of concrete cask was almost prepared. Remaining subject is to develop more economical and rational

  3. Summary and evaluation of low-velocity impact tests of solid steel billet onto concrete pads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witte, M.C.; Hovingh, W.J.; Mok, G.C.; Murty, S.S.; Chen, T.F.; Fischer, L.E.


    Spent fuel storage casks intended for use at independent spent fuel storage installations are evaluated during the application and review process for low-velocity impacts representative of possible handling accidents. In the past, the analyses involved in these evaluations have assumed that the casks dropped or tipped onto an unyielding surface - a conservative and simplifying assumption. Since 10 CFR Part 72, the regulation imposed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), does not require this assumption, applicants are currently seeking a more realistic model for the analyses to predict the effect of a cask dropping onto a reinforced concrete pad, including energy absorbing aspects such as cracking and flexure. To develop data suitable for benchmarking these analyses, the NRC has conducted several series of drop-test studies of a solid steel billet and of a near-full-scale empty cask. This report contains a summary and evaluation of all steel billet testing conducted by Sandia National Laboratories and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A series of finite element analyses of the billet testing is described and benchmarked against the test data. A method to apply the benchmarked finite element model of the soil and concrete pad to an analysis of a full-size storage cask is provided. In addition, an application to a open-quotes genericclose quotes full-size cask is presented for side and end drops, and tipover events. The primary purpose of this report is to provide applicants for an NRC license under 10 CFR Part 72 with a method for evaluating storage casks for low-velocity impact conditions

  4. Recent trends in television tip over-related injuries among children aged 0-9 years. (United States)

    Murray, K J; Griffin, R; Rue, L W; McGwin, G


    To describe recent trends in television tip over-related injuries among children aged 0-9 years, and to compare injury rates with sales of newer digital televisions. Digital television sales data were obtained from marketing data provided by the Television Bureau of Advertising. Data regarding television tip over-related injuries among children aged 0-9 years were obtained from the 1998-2007 National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. A Wald chi(2) test, estimated from logistic analysis, was used to determine whether the distribution of injury types differed by age group. Pearson's correlation was used to estimate the association between digital television sales and television tip over-related injuries. An estimated 42 122 (95% CI 35 199 to 49 122) injuries from television tip-overs were treated in US emergency departments from 1998 to 2007. The injury rate was highest for children aged 1-4 years (18.6/100 000). A majority of injuries (63.9%) involved the head and neck for children under 1 year of age, while a higher proportion of injuries among children aged 1-4 involved the hip and lower extremity (42.9% and 31.0%, respectively), and shoulder and upper extremity (16.8%) for children aged 5-9. A strong, positive correlation was observed between television sales and annual injury rates (r = 0.89, pdigital television sales were strongly correlated with increased injury rates, the lack of information regarding the type of television involved prevents inference regarding causation.

  5. Cobalt-60 and Caesium-137 Gamma Sources; Sources de rayonnement gamma au cobalt-60 et au cesium-137; Gamma-istochniki iz kobal'ta-605 i tseziya-137; Fuentes gamma de cobalto-60 y de cesio-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulish, E E; Fradkin, G M [Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow, Union of Soviet Socialits Republics (Russian Federation)


    cobalto-60 y cesio-137 producidas en la Union Sovietica y se examinan algunos problemas de orden tecnologico planteados por su fabricacion. En el informe figuran una serie de datos sobre las propiedades de las radiaciones emitidas por las fuentes de {sup 60}Co y {sup 137}Cs y del material con que estas se fabrican. Se facilitan informaciones sobre la influencia que la magnitud del flujo neutronico y las caracteristicas geometricas de la muestra ejercen sobre la actividad de la fuente; el informe tambien contiene datos sobre el rendimiento de los distintos isotopos de cesio obtenidos por fision de los nucleos de uranio. Se examinan los procedimientos para encerrar hermeticament e las fuentes y se facilita una lista completa de las fuentes utilizadas en la Union Sovietica, con indicacion de sus caracteristicas geometricas y de su actividad. Por ultimo, se hace un estudio comparativo de las fuentes de {sup 60}Co y {sup 137}Cs. (author) [Russian] V doklade privodyatsya osnovnye tekhnicheskie kharakteristiki vypuska- emykh v SSSR gamma-istochnikov na osnove kobal'ta-60 i tseziya-137, a takzhe rassmatrivayutsya nekotorye voprosy tekhnologii ikh proizvodstva. Doklad soderzhit svedeniya o sostave izlucheniya izotopov Co{sup 60} i Cs{sup 137} i syr'ya, iz kotorogo oni izgotavlivayutsya . Privodyatsya dannye o zavisimosti aktivnosti kobal'tovykh istochnikov ot velichiny potoka nejtronov i geometricheskikh razmerov obraztsa, a takzhe dannye o velichine vykhoda izotopov tseziya pri delenii yader urana. Dalee rassmatrivaetsya vopros o germetizatsii istochnikov i privoditsya polnaya nomenklatura vypuskaemykh v SSSR istochnikov s ukazaniem ikh geometricheskikh razmerov i velichiny aktivnosti. V kontse provoditsya nekotoroe sravnenie istochnikov Co{sup 60} i Cs{sup 137}. (author)

  6. Nuclear Reactor RA Safety Report, Vol. 1, Introduction; Izvestaj o sigurnosti nuklearnog reaktora RA, Knjiga 1, Uvod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Based on the agreement between governments of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and USSR of January 28 1956, a contract was signed about construction of RA research reactor in the Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences. Building of the RA reactor started in 1956, and has reached criticality in 1959. Since then it has been in almost permanent operation, except for five longer shutdown periods: in 1963 because of heavy water and primary coolant system contamination with cobalt; in 1970 because of transporting the heavy water to France for isotopic regeneration; in 1979/1980 and 1983 because of aluminium oxyhydrate deposition on the fuel element cladding in reactor active region; in 1985/1986 because of ventilation system reconstruction and construction of emergency core cooling system. RA reactor is a heavy water cooled and heavy water moderated research reactor. Since the beginning of its operation, 2% enriched metal uranium fuel was used. From 1976, 80% enriched uranium oxide fuel elements were used partially in some core regions and since 1981 the complete core was filled with this highly enriched fuel. RA reactor was designed to operate under normal conditions at 6.5 MW power and at 10 MW power under forced regime. As a powerful neutron source the reactor was meant to be used for research in the field of reactor and neutron physics, solid state physics, radiation chemistry, biology and radioactive isotopes production. RA reactor was build by Yugoslav companies based on USSR basic design project. Main components of the systems were produced in USSR. [Serbo-Croat] Na osnovu Sporazuma izmedju vlada SFRJ i SSSR od 28. januara 1956. godine, sklopljen je ugovor o izgradnji istrazivackog reaktora RA u Institutu za nuklearne nauke Boris Kidric u Vinci. Reaktor RA je poceo da se gradi 1956. godine, a kriticnost je postigao 1959. godine. Od tada je takoreci neprekidno bio u radu, izuzev u pet slucajeva duzeg stajanja: 1963. godine - zbog kontaminacije teske vode

  7. Carving Executive Control At Its Joints: Working Memory Capacity Predicts Stimulus-Stimulus, But Not Stimulus-Response, Conflict (United States)

    Meier, Matt E.; Kane, Michael J.


    Three experiments examined the relation between working memory capacity (WMC) and two different forms of cognitive conflict: stimulus-stimulus (S-S) and stimulus-response (SR) interference. Our goal was to test whether WMC’s relation to conflict-task performance is mediated by stimulus-identification processes (captured by S-S conflict), response-selection processes (captured by S-R conflict), or both. In Experiment 1, subjects completed a single task presenting both S-S and S-R conflict trials, plus trials that combined the two conflict types. We limited ostensible goal-maintenance contributions to performance by requiring the same goal for all trial types and by presenting frequent conflict trials that reinforced the goal. WMC predicted resolution of S-S conflict as expected: Higher-WMC subjects showed reduced response time interference. Although WMC also predicted S-R interference, here, higher-WMC subjects showed increased error interference. Experiment 2A replicated these results in a version of the conflict task without combined S-S/S-R trials. Experiment 2B increased the proportion of congruent (non-conflict) trials to promote reliance on goal-maintenance processes. Here, higher-WMC subjects resolved both S-S and S-R conflict more successfully than did lower-WMC subjects. The results were consistent with Kane and Engle’s (2003) two-factor theory of cognitive control, according to which WMC predicts executive-task performance through goal-maintenance and conflict-resolution processes. However, the present results add specificity to the account by suggesting that higher-WMC subjects better resolve cognitive conflict because they more efficiently select relevant stimulus features against irrelevant, distracting ones. PMID:26120774

  8. Nuclear Reactor RA Safety Report, Vol. 9, Radiation protection; Izvestaj o sigurnosti nuklearnog reaktora RA, Knjiga 9, Zastita od zracenja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Instrumentation for Radiation protection existing at the RA reactor is dating mostly from the period 1957-1959 when the reactor has been built. With some minor exception it was produced in USSR. Radiation protection system was constructed based on specific design project, somewhat modified original USSR project which has been indispensable because of some modification of the building design. During the past 27 years no renewal of the instrumentation was done, only maintenance was performed. Instrumentation consists of old electronic devices which caused difficulties and even prevented regular maintenance because of lack of spare parts. Instrumentation for radiation protection at the RA reactor is classified as follows: centralized dosimetry system; stationary dosimetry instrumentation, movable and personal dosimetry systems. Apart from the scheme of dosimetry instrumentation this volume includes description of radiation protection procedures; protection devices; radiation doses and dose limit data; program for environmental radioactivity control; medical control procedures. [Serbo-Croat] Instrumentacija za zastitu od zracenja koja danas postoji na reaktoru RA najvecim delom potice iz perioda 1957-1959 kada je reaktor gradjen. Sa malim izuzetcima instrumentacija je proizvedena u SSSR. Sistem za zastitu izveden je na osnovu posebnog projekta koji predstavlja modifikaciju originalnog projekta koja je bila neophodna usled modifikovanog gradjevinskog projekta. U proteklom periodu od 27 godina instrumentacija nije obnavljana vec je vrseno samo odrzavanje. Instrumentacija je izradjena u danas prevazidjenoh tehnoligiji (elektronske cevi) sto je otezavalo i skoro onemogucavalo normalno odrzavanje. Instrumentacija za zastitu od zracenja na reaktoru RA moze se podeliti na tri dela: centralizovani dozimetrijski sistem; stacionarna dozimetrijska instrumentacija; prenosna i licna dozimetrijska instrumentacija. Pored seme sistema dozimetrijske kontrole ova knjiga sadrzi opis

  9. The geological processes time scale of the Ingozersky block TTG complex (Kola Peninsula) (United States)

    Nitkina, Elena


    complex rocks, the following age-formation stages are determined: protolith of the biotite gneisses - 3149±46 Ma; metamorphism, deformation of rocks, foliation - 2727±5 - 2725±2 - 2697±9 - 2667±7 Ma, granite bodies formation - 2615±8 Ma and biotite gneisses migmatization - 2549±30 Ma, formation of different pegmatite and granite veins -1644±7 Ma. Author are grateful to Akad. Mitrofanov F.P. and Bayanova T.B. for the consultations. The work is supported by RFBR 12-05-31063, 11-05-00570. 1.Batieva I.D., Belkov I.V. Granitoidnie formacii Kolskogo poluostrova. // Ocgerki po petrologiy, mineralogiy i metallogeniy Kolskogo poluostrova. L.: Nauka. 1968. p. 5-143. (in russian) 2. Belkov I.V., Zagorodny V.G., Predovsky A.A. et al. Stratigraficheskoe raschlenenie i korrelyacia dokembria severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita. L.: Nauka. 1971. p. 141-150. (in russian) 3. Docembriskaya tektonica severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita (Ob'asnitelnaya zapiska k tektonicheskoi karte severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita 1:500000) / ed.: F.P.Mitrofanov. Apatity: KFAN SSSR. 1992. 112 P. (in russian) 4. Zagorodny V.G., Radchenko A.T. Tectonika i glubinnoe stroenie severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita. Apatity: KFA SSSR. 1978. p. 3-12. (in russian) 5. Kozlov N.E., Sorohtin N.O., Glaznev V.N. et al. Geologia Arhea Baltiskogo shita. S.Pb.: Nauka. 2006. 329 p. (in russian) 6. Mitrofanov F.P. Sovremennie problemy i nekotorie resheniya dokembriskoy geologii kratonov. (2001) Litosphera.2001. V 1. P. 5-14. (in russian) 7. Ob'asnitelnaya zapiska k geologicheskoy karte severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita 1:500000 / ed.: F.P.Mitrofanov. Apatity: KFAN SSSR. 1994. 95 P. (in russian) 8. Haritonov L.Y. Structura i stratigraphia karelid vostoka Baltiskogo shita. M.: Nedra. 1966. 354 P. (in russian)

  10. Establishment of the Processes of Absorption and Diffusion of Systemic Insecticides in Populus Euramericana Dode Guinier ''Robusta''; L'etablissement des processus d'absorption et diffusion des insecticides systemiques au Populus x Euramericana Dode Guinier ''Robista; Opredelenie protsessov pogloshcheniya i diffuzii somaticheskikh insektitsidov u Populus x Euramerican a Dode Guinier ''Robusta''; Determinacion de los procesos de absorcion y difusion de los insecticidas sistemicos en el Populus x Euramericana Dope Guinier ''Robusta''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catrina, I.; Popa, A.; Constantinesco, V.; Constantinesco, O.; Constantinesco, El.; Hulula, C. [Institut de Recherches Forestieres de Bucarest, Bucharest (Romania)


    observado que en el suelo queda gran cantidad de insecticida, los autores consideran que en la lucha contra los insectos que atacan a las especies lenosas es preferible verter en el suelo las soluciones de insecticidas de accion indirecta. (author) [Russian] Fosforoorganicheskie insektitsidy s somaticheskimi svojstvami, svyazannymi s ikh sposobnost'yu pronikat' v sok rastenij, vozdejstvuyut na nasekomykh, kotorye provodyat chast' svoej zhizni libo v kambial'noj zone mekhdu drevesinoj i koroj, libo v drevesine. Do poyavleniya ehtikh insektitsidov khimicheskaya bor'ba protiv ksilofagovykh nasekomykh, nakhodyashchikhsya v stvole rastenij, byla pochti nevozmozhnoj. Dlya izucheniya mekhanizma pogloshcheniya, diffuzii i lokalizatsii somaticheskikh insektitsidov u topolya i ivy, kotorye chasto podvergayutsya napadeniyu ksilofagovykh nasekomykh, byli provedeny issledovaniya s primeneniem mechenogo ''Dipterex'' na topole Robusta R-20. Mechenie insektitsida bylo proizvedeno v reaktore s ispol'zovaniem v kachestve misheni ''Dipterex'' v poroshke ( 1,5 g) pri potoke v {Phi} = 10{sup 11} n/cm{sup 2} sek i pri temperature v 30 - 40{sup o}C. Ehto prodolzhalos' do polucheniya absolyutnoj aktivnosti misheni {approx_equal} 1 mc. Chast' opytov provodilas' v laboratoriyakh, gde ispol'zovalis' rasteniya, vyrashchennye v vegetatsionnykh sosudakh. Drugaya chast' opytov provodilas' na pochve, v pitomnikakh, s ispol'zovaniem odnoletnikh i dvukhletnikh rastenij. V techenie 1 - 2 mesyatsev posle vvedeniya rastvorov mechenogo insektitsida rasteniya podvergalis' radiometricheskomu analizu. Pri provedenii opytov v laboratornykh usloviyakh insektitsid nakaplivalsya v znachitel'nykh kolichestvakh v listve i v neznachitel'nykh kolichestvakh - v drevesine. Pri provedenii opytov kak v laboratornykh usloviyakh, tak i na pochve insektitsid nakaplivalsya v bol'shem protsentnom otnoshenii v listve. Vmeste s tem otmechaetsya znachitel'nyj rost nakoplenij insektitsida v vetvyakh i v drevesine stvola, osobenno v

  11. Ars saturae: misli o satiri in njenih obrazih. Uvodnik v tematski sklop „o satiri“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Golob


    Evropski in slovenski okvir – izkušnje niso tako vsaksebi, da ne bi prepoznali večnih in vesoljnih zakonov človekovega dejanja in nehanja. Vendar: ali se še kdaj spomnimo na Pudelbal Feliksa Antona Deva (1732–1786, kjer je prek pustnega, maškeradnega plesa na pahljačo vseh mogočih tipov prižebljal ljubljansko »purgarijo« v literarni ringaraja, tako da je začetno lahkotno šopirjenje izzvenelo v nelahkotni antitezi o sprenevedanju, večnem laganju in podobnih značajskih odličnostih. Obolos baročnemu času je jezikovno bogastvo, kopičenje satirično-parodičnih oznak, ki jih je Dev nalepil paradirajočim osebkom na odru, iz katerih dehti moralna sprijenost. To je satira o malih dušah. In še brezkončni izvir, namreč briljantno pletenje Ivana Cankarja in mnogoobraznih satiričnih motivov, v dobršni meri izvirajočih iz politične odvisnosti in narodno-zavedne neurejenosti, tako da je v resnici »kostanj posebne sorte«, ki so se mu v različnih tonalitetah pridružila najboljša peresa prve polovice 20. stoletja. Cankarjevo satiropisje je veljalo »zlasti farizeju, hlapcu, dogmatiku, renegatu,« pravi Franc Zadravec, »maske snema z vsakršnih duhovnih in moralnih spak nekdanjih in sedanjih časov.«7 Satirik je po definiciji svojega početja brezkompromisni opazovalec človekovih dejanj. Izhodišče za tematske prispevke v tej številki Ars et humanitas je dalo polju satire, satiričnega, satirikov itd. odprte poti. Kakršno koli je že naše vsakdanje delo, vsi smo se s temi temami srečavali v raznih konceptualnih in oblikovnih izrazih in pri razrešitvi vprašanja največkrat ni zadoščal pogled samo ene stroke. To povezovanje disciplin je temeljna lastnost te revije, ki goji načelo medkulturnih in interdisciplinarnih perspektiv, zato so bili prispevki dolžni spoštovati le nosilno besedo »satira«.

  12. Golden rule kinetics of transfer reactions in condensed phase: The microscopic model of electron transfer reactions in disordered solid matrices (United States)

    Basilevsky, M. V.; Odinokov, A. V.; Titov, S. V.; Mitina, E. A.


    present approach to the Marcus ET theory and to the quantum-statistical reaction rate theory [V. G. Levich and R. R. Dogonadze, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Fiz. Khim. 124, 213 (1959); J. Ulstrup, Charge Transfer in Condensed Media (Springer, Berlin, 1979); M. Bixon and J. Jortner, Adv. Chem. Phys. 106, 35 (1999)] underlying it is discussed and illustrated by the results of computations for practically important target systems.

  13. Multichannel time-analyser with an electrostatic memory tube; Analyseur en temps a plusieurs canaux, avec memoire a potentioscopes; Mnogokanal'nye vremennye analizatory s pamyat'yu na potentsialoskopakh; Analizador multicanal de tiempo con tubo de memoria electrostatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignat' ev, K G; Kirpichnikov, I V; Sukhoruchkin, S I


    forma de graficos y de datos numericos en fichas perforadas. (author) [Russian] V ITEHF AN SSSR byli so z d a ny dva mnogokanal'nykh vremennykh analizatora impul'sov s ''pamyat'yu'' na potentsialoskopakh JIH-4. V nastoyashchee vremya oni ISPOL'ZUYUTSYA V razlichnykh izmereniyakh i imeyut sleduyushchie kharakteristiki: chislo kanalov - 1024 i 2048; vremennaya shirina kanalov ot 0,2 mksek. i bol'she; emkost' kanalov - 4096 imp i 1024 imp; chastota zapuska analizatoroa do 1000 raz v sek; velichina zagruzki do 1000 imp/sek. Rezul'taty izmerenij vydayutsya analizatorami v vide grafikov i chislovykh dannykh na perfokartakh. (author)

  14. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.F. Wertheim


    Full Text Available - W.A.L. Stokhof, N.F. Alieva, Grammatika Indonezijskogo jazyka [Grammar of the Indonesian Language]. Akademija Nauk SSSR, Institut Vostokovedenija [USR Academy of Sciences, Institute of Oriental Studies]. Moskva 1972, 463 pp., V.D. Arakin, A.K. Ogloblin (eds. - J. Ensink, C. Hooykaas, Balinese Bauddha Brahmans. North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, London 1973. Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, afd. Letterkunde. Nieuwe Reeks, deel 80. 8*, 251 pp., 8 photographs, 73 pp. of drawings, 2 folding tables. - R. Roolvink, Ernst Ulrich Kratz, Peringatan sejarah negeri Johor, Eine malaiische Quelle zur Geschichte Johors im 18. Jahrhundert. Veröffentlichungen des Ostasiatischen Seminars der Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe Universität, Fraknfurt/Main. Reihe A: Südostasienkunde, Band 3. Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1973. VIII, 171 pp. 2 Maps. - A. Teeuw, Abdullah Hassan, The morphology of Malay. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, Kuala Lumpur, 1974, XIX, 242 pp. - C.H. van Nieuwenhuijsen-Riedeman, J. Boelaars, Mandobo’s tussen de Digoel en de Kao. Bijdragen tot een etnografie. Van Gorcum & Comp., Assen 1970. 260 p. - Anton Ploeg, S. Hylkema, Mannen in het draagnet. Mens- en wereldbeeld van de Nalum (Sterrengebergte. Introduced by J. van Baal. Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, no 67. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, 1974. xvi + 479 pp., maps, plates, indexes. - Hetty Nooy-Palm, Garrett Solyom, Textiles of the Indonesian Archipelago. Asian Studies at Hawaii; no 10. The University Press of Hawaii, Honolulu 1973, IX and 51 pp., map, 32 plates in colour and black and white., Bronwen Solyom (eds. - A. Veldhuisen-Djajasoebrata, Amin Sweeney, The Ramayana and the Malay Shadow-Play. The National University of Malaysia Press, Kuala Lumpur, 1972. 464 pp. Figs. - Michael van Langenberg, Oey Hong Lee, Indonesian Government and press during guided democracy. Hull Monographs on South-East Asia, No. 4

  15. Analytical chemistry in nuclear science and technology: a scientometric mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kademani, B.S.; Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Vijai


    This paper attempts to analyse quantitatively the growth and development of Analytical Chemistry research in Nuclear Science and Technology in terms of publication output as reflected in International Nuclear Information System (INIS) database (1970-2005). During 1970-2005 a total of 8224 papers were published. There were only seven papers published in 1970. Thereafter, a tremendous explosion of literature was observed in this area. The highest number of papers (636) were published in 1985. The average number of publications published per year was 228.44. United States topped the list with 1811 publications followed by USSR with 1688 publications, Germany with 777 publications, India with 730 publications and Hungary with 519 publications. Authorship and collaboration trend was towards multi-authored papers as 80.3 percent of the papers were collaborative is indicative of the multidisciplinary nature of research activity. The most prolific authors were: B. F. Myasoedov, AN SSSR Moscow Inst. Geokhimii I Analitisheskoi Khimii, Russian Federation with 84 publications, M. Sudersanan, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India with 67 publications, P.Vanura and V. Jedinakova Krizova both from Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Czech Republic with 54 publications each, S. Gangadharan, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India with 47 publications, V.M. Ivanova , M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russian Federation with 45 publications and Yu. A Zolotov Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russian Federation with 40 publications. The journals most preferred by the scientists for publication of papers were : Zhurnal Analiticheskoj Khimii with 713 papers, Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry with 409 papers, Analytical Chemistry Washington with 364 papers, Fresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry with 324 papers, Indian Journal of Chemistry, Section A with 251 papers, and Journal of Analytical Chemistry of the USSR with 145 papers. The high

  16. Autoradiography of Sectioned Soil Cores; Autoradiographie de Carottes de Sol; Radioavtografiya otrezkov prob pochvy; Autorradiografia de Cortes de Testigos de Suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, E. E.; Gessel, S. P.; Matson, L. J.; Billings, R. F. [University of Washington, Seattle (United States)


    de grano extrafino. Con placas nucleares o con cubreobjetos previamente sumergidos en emulsion nuclear se puede efectuar un examen microscopico y distinguir entre emisores alfa y beta. Por estos metodos se han localizado en suelos de las islas Marshall radionuclidos emisores alfa, beta y gamma procedentes de precipitaciones radiactivas. Las partes radiactivas de los testigos se pueden separar y analizar por espectroscopia gamma o analisis radioquimicos, determinando asi translocaciones selectivas y la adsorcion de ciertos radionuclidos en el sistema suelo-raices. Los principales radionuclidos estudiados en suelos por esta tecnica comprenden el {sup 54}Mn, {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sb, {sup 125} Sb, {sup 1}'3{sup 7}Cs, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 155}Eu, {sup 239}Pu. (author) [Russian] Opisyvajutsja metody opredelenija otdel'nyh radioizotopov, svjazannyh s opredelennymi komponentami pochvy i kornjami rastenij v probah pochv. Pri pomoshhi stal'nyh trub iz pochvy v polevyh uslovijah brali proby diametrom do 10 sm i dlinoju 30 sm. Vysushennye v pechi proby zapolnjali plasticheskoj massoj; za iskljucheniem periferii, nikakih vidimyh narushenij pochvy na protjazhenii vsej proby ne nabljudalos'. Proby raspilivali pri pomoshhi almaznoj pily na seriju otrezkov, poverhnost' kotoryh poluchaetsja dostatochno gladkoj dlja radioavtografii. Dlja radioavtogramm so slabym razresheniem ispol'zovali bezjekrannuju rentgenovskuju plenku s otnositel'no korotkim vremenem vyderzhki. Pri nalichii dostatochnoj radioaktivnosti mozhno poluchat' bolee tochnye rezul'taty na osoboj melkozernistoj rentgenovskoj plenke, no dlja jetogo trebuetsja bol'shaja vyderzhka. Plastinki dlja proslezhivanija jadernyh sledov ili pogruzhennye v jemul'siju, soderzhashhuju sledy jader, zashhitnye stekla delajut vozmozhnym mikroskopicheskoe issledovanie i pozvoljajut obnaruzhivat' razlichie mezhdu al'fa- i beta-izluchateljami. Jeti metody pozvolili lokalizirovat' al'fa-, beta- i gamma-izluchajushhie izotopy radioaktivnyh osadkov

  17. The Use of Ionizing Radiation as a Means of Processing Foodstuffs for Storage: Present Status and Future Prospects; Utilisation des Rayonnements Ionisants pour la Conservation de Produits Alimentaires: Situation Actuelle et Perspectives; Sostoyanie i perspektivy primeneniya ioniziruyushchikh izluchenij dlya obrabotki pishchevykh produktov v svyazi s ikh khraneniem; Estado Actual y Perspectivas del Empleo de las Radiaciones Ionizantes para la Conservacion de los Productos Alimenticios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogachev, V. I. [Vsesojuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Institut Konservnoj i Ovoshesushil' noj Promyshlennosti Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)


    produits figurent la viande et les preparations a base de viande (produits crus ou semi-prepares, charcuterie), volaille, divers fruits et legumes, pommes de terre, cereales, produits deshydrates (fruits et legumes seches, produits alimentaires secs concentres). Outre les methodes d'irradiation qui ont deja ete mises au point pour empecher la germination des pommes de terre et des oignons lors du stockage, il sera possible de recourir prochainement a l'irradiation pour la desinsection industrielle de produits alimentaires. (author) [Spanish] En la Union Sovietica se estudia el empleo de las radiaciones ionizantes para tratar los productos alimenticios con las siguientes finalidades: a) impedir la germinacion de las patatas y las cebollas: b) desinsectacion de los productos alimenticios; c) eliminacion de la actividad biologica de los microorganismos con miras a la esterilizacion o a la eliminacion parcial de la actividad biologica de la microflora para prolongar el tiempo de conservacion de diversos productos alimenticios; d) modificacion del tiempo de maduracion de los frutos y verduras despues de su recoleccion. En la memoria se expone el estado de los trabajos efectuados en la Union Sovietica en los ultimos anos y se examinan las perspectivas del empleo de las radiaciones para un cierto numero de productos. Entre estos figuran la carne y sus derivados (productos crudos y semipreparados, charcuteria), aves de corral, diversas frutas y verduras, patatas, cereales, productos deshidratados (frutas y verduras secas, productos alimenticios secos concentrados). Ademas de las tecnicas de irradiacion ya elaboradas para impedir la germinacion de las patatas y las cebollas durante su almacenamiento, podra recurrirse proximamente a la irradiacion para la desinsectacion industrial de productos alimenticios. (author) [Russian] Izuchenie primenenija ionizirujushhih izluchenij dlja obrabotki pishhevyh produktov provoditsja v SSSR v sledujushhih napravlenijah: a) predotvrashhenie

  18. Solid sources of krypton-85; Sources solides de krypton-85; Tverdye istochniki kriptona-85; Fuentes solidas de cripton-85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig, J R; Sandier, J [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)


    industria. Sin embargo, la preparacion de fuentes industriales de {sup 85}Kr plantea dificultades porque este elemento se presenta en forma gaseosa y no puede ser fijado quimicamente. En la presente memoria los autores exponen un metodo de fijacion del cripton en una matriz macromolecular obtenida por polimerizacion en masa de un monomero liquido que contiene al cripton, y describen la preparacion de dos tipos de fuentes obtenidas segun este principio - una a base de poliestireno y la otra a base de acetato de polivinilo. Estas fuentes dejan escapar parte del cripton, por lo que su actividad disminuye diariamente a razon de 8 % en el primer caso y de 3 % en el segundo. Estos decrecimientos aparentes permiten calcular los coeficientes de difusion del cripton en los polimeros. Al parecer, los enlaces de reticulacion del polimero impiden la difusion. (author) [Russian] Kripton-85, kotoryj yavlyaetsya dolgozhivushchim beta-izluchatelem i predstavlyaet soboj neznachitel'nuyu biologicheskuyu opasnost', daet vazhnye preimushchestva pri ego promyshlennom ispol'zovanii. No izgotovlenie ego istochnikov yavlyaetsya trudnym delom, tak kak ehtot ehlement nakhoditsya v gazoobraznom sostoyanii i ego nel'zya fiksirovat' khimicheskim putem. Avtory izlagayut metod fiksatsii kriptona v makromolekulyarnoj matritse, obrazovannoj polimerizatsiej zhidkogo monomera, soderzhashchego kripton, i opisyvayut izgotovlenie dvukh tipov istochnikov, prigotovlennykh po ehtomu printsipu: odin zaklyuchen v polistirol, a drugoj - v polivinilovyj atsetat. Poluchennye takim obrazom istochniki ispuskayut kripton, i ikh aktivnost' umen'shaetsya v den' na 8 % dlya pervogo i na 3 % dlya vtorogo. EHti zametnye umen'sheniya dayut vozmozhnost' vychislit' koehffitsienty diffuzii kriptona v ztikh polimerakh. EHtoj diffuzii, po-vidimomu, prepyatstvuyut poperechnye svyazi, sushchestvuyushchie v polimere. (author)

  19. Failure points in the PKI architecture / Точки отказа в PKI архитектуре / Tačke otkaza u PKI arhitekturi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomir I. Prodanović


    татьи, и так как речь идет о значительно сложных инфраструктурах, в данной работе представлен лишь общий обзор главных потенциальных точек отказа, без подробного объяснения характеристик по каждому отдельному виду внедрения архитектуры. В статье исследуются общие характеристики PKI архитектур, на основании которых трактуется значение возможных отказов и предлагаются мероприятия по предупреждению и преодолению данного рода проблемы. / Tokom poslednjih 20 godina PKI arhitektura našla je široku primenu, posebno u oblastima koje su zahtevale uspostavljanje sigurnosne infrastrukture. S obzirom na to da se koristi radi sigurnosti jasno je da je njen nesmetan rad jedan od osnovnix zahteva koji se postavlja pri njenoj implementaciji, a već samim uvidom u brojne tipove arhitektura i različite implementacije uviđa se njena kompleksnost. Zbog toga je razmatranje potencijalnih tačaka otkaza od velike važnosti. Kako se radi o vrlo složenim infrastrukturama, ovaj rad daće samo osnovni pregled tačaka koje mogu biti tačke otkaza, bez detalja koji su karakteristični za pojedine primene i tipove implementacija.Tražiće se zajedničke karakteristike PKI arhitektura i na njima objašnjavati značaj otkaza koji se mogu desiti, a tamo gde je moguće biće navedeni i predlozi za njihovo prevazilaženje.

  20. Sampling Devices for Water and Soil; Methodes de Prelevement d'Echantillons dans l'Eau et le Sol; 041f 0420 0414 ; Dispositivos para Tomar Muestras de Agua y de Suelos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merritt, W. F.; Parsons, P. J. [Environmental Research Branch, Division of Biology and Health Physics, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)


    gruntovyh vod. Rabotajushhij ot batarei schetchik Gejgera opuskaetsja po trube na provode. On mozhet ulavlivat' aktivnost' v 20-50 raspadov v minutu/millilitr Sr -90+U-90, rastvorennyh v gruntovoj vode. Special'no dlja jetogo razrabotan kompaktnyj gamma-spektrometr. Proby gruntovoj vody berutsja na opredelennyh glubinah s pomoshh'ju nakonechnikov Alunduma, soedinennyh s poverhnost'ju polijetilenovymi shlangami. Vzjatye proby vody perelivajutsja v kolbu, iz kotoroj otkachen vozduh. Neskol'ko takih nakonechnikov ili otbornikov mogut prisoedinjat'sja k sterzhnju, raspolozhennomu vnutri truby, pogruzhaemoj na trebuemuju glubinu, posle chego poslednjaja vynimaetsja, ostavljaja ih ukreplennymi v pochve. Esli grunt ne skalistyj, to poristye bronzovye p'ezometry mogut vdavlivat'sja ili vvodit'sja na ljubuju glubinu. Voda svobodno prohodit cherez takuju bronzu i sobiraetsja v kolbu, iz kotoroj otkachen vozduh. Iz odnoj skvazhiny mozhno s pomoshh'ju special'nyh ustrojstv dlja vzjatija prob, pomeshhennyh vnutr' svjazujushhej sekcii burovogo instrumenta, vzjat' po neskol'ku obrazcov pochvy s rjada predvaritel'no namechennyh glubin. Ustrojstvo dlja vzjatija prob predstavljaet polyj sterzhen' s bokovymi otverstijami, kotorye zakryty vo vremja burenija zaglushkami. Dlja vzjatija prob zaglushki slegka vytaskivajutsja, i sterzhen' povorachivaetsja. Zatem vytaskivaetsja vtoraja zaglushka, soedinennaja s pervoj, dlja togo chtoby zakryt' otverstie, i ustrojstva dlja vzjatija prob vytaskivajutsja iz skvazhiny. Proby peska, nahodjashhegosja nizhe gorizonta vody, berutsja s pomoshh'ju ustrojstva, snabzhennogo vozdushnym kolokolom, kotoryj pozvoljaet zabrat' probu v vozdushnuju polost' i uderzhivat' ee v trube pod davleniem vozduha poka vse ustrojstvo ne budet vynuto na poverhnost'. (author)

  1. Concerning evaluation of eco-geochemical background in remediation strategy (United States)

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey


    plants and animals (Kovalsky, 1974; Letunova, Kovalsky, 1978, Ermakov, 1999). Obtained zones of different eco-geochemical risk need particular strategy basing on maximum possible correspondence to the natural geochemical conditions. For example, the assessment of effects of the nuclear accident in any case needs taking into account the synergetic results of ionizing radiation in different eco-geochemical conditions. In this respect the most contaminated areas should be withdrawn from living but some spatial arable lands can be used for seeds or technical crops production. The less contaminated areas still used in agriculture need shifting to fodder or species giving non-contaminated products (e.g. oil). Wet meadows of superaqueous landscapes with a relatively high radionuclide transfer to the plants should be excluded from grazing but other areas with lower transfer to forage may be used. In all the cases the resultant remediation should achieve first of all the maximum decrease of the summary negative health effect for the residents or working personnel. References Vernadsky V.I., 1926. Biosphere. Leningrad, Nauch. khim.-tekhn. izd-vo, 147 p. Vernadsky V.I., 1960. Selected works, Vol. 5. Moscow, izd-vo AN SSSR, 422 p. Kovalsky V.V., 1974. Geochemical ecology. Moscow, Nauka, Letunova S.V., Kovalsky V.V., 1978. Geochemical ecology of microorganisms. Moscow, Nauka, 148 pp. Ermakov V.V., 1999.Geochemical ecology as a result of the system-based study of the biosphere. Problems of biogeochemistry and geochemical ecology. Transactions of the Biogeochem. Lab., 23, Moscow, Nauka, 152-182.

  2. Golden rule kinetics of transfer reactions in condensed phase: The microscopic model of electron transfer reactions in disordered solid matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basilevsky, M. V.; Mitina, E. A.; Odinokov, A. V.; Titov, S. V.


    existing theories of the ET. Our alternative dynamic ET model for local modes immersed in the continuum harmonic medium is formulated for both classical and quantum regimes, and accounts explicitly for the mode/medium interaction. The kinetics of the energy exchange between the local ET subsystem and the surrounding environment essentially determine the total ET rate. The efficient computer code for rate computations is elaborated on. The computations are available for a wide range of system parameters, such as the temperature, external field, local mode frequency, and characteristics of mode/medium interaction. The relation of the present approach to the Marcus ET theory and to the quantum-statistical reaction rate theory [V. G. Levich and R. R. Dogonadze, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Fiz. Khim. 124, 213 (1959); J. Ulstrup, Charge Transfer in Condensed Media (Springer, Berlin, 1979); M. Bixon and J. Jortner, Adv. Chem. Phys. 106, 35 (1999)] underlying it is discussed and illustrated by the results of computations for practically important target systems

  3. Golden rule kinetics of transfer reactions in condensed phase: The microscopic model of electron transfer reactions in disordered solid matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basilevsky, M. V.; Mitina, E. A. [Photochemistry Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, 7a, Novatorov ul., Moscow (Russian Federation); Odinokov, A. V. [Photochemistry Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, 7a, Novatorov ul., Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI,” 31, Kashirskoye shosse, Moscow (Russian Federation); Titov, S. V. [Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry, 3-1/12, Building 6, Obuha pereulok, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    kinetic regimes, which are usually postulated in the existing theories of the ET. Our alternative dynamic ET model for local modes immersed in the continuum harmonic medium is formulated for both classical and quantum regimes, and accounts explicitly for the mode/medium interaction. The kinetics of the energy exchange between the local ET subsystem and the surrounding environment essentially determine the total ET rate. The efficient computer code for rate computations is elaborated on. The computations are available for a wide range of system parameters, such as the temperature, external field, local mode frequency, and characteristics of mode/medium interaction. The relation of the present approach to the Marcus ET theory and to the quantum-statistical reaction rate theory [V. G. Levich and R. R. Dogonadze, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Fiz. Khim. 124, 213 (1959); J. Ulstrup, Charge Transfer in Condensed Media (Springer, Berlin, 1979); M. Bixon and J. Jortner, Adv. Chem. Phys. 106, 35 (1999)] underlying it is discussed and illustrated by the results of computations for practically important target systems.

  4. Data about operation and utilization of the RA in 1976 - Report, Annex I; Prilog I - Podaci o radu i iskoriscenosti reaktora RA u 1976. godini - Izvestaj -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanic, A [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)


    During 1976 there were significant discrepancies in RA reactor operation in comparison with the operating plan made at the end of 1975. Some discrepancies were planned but not all could be foreseen due to the following reasons: no possibility to estimate the precise schedule of aluminium tubes for fuel channels delivery from the; USSR; no means to estimate precise time for repairs that were never performed or were not done during previous 6 years; inability to estimate the time needed for experiments within the program of transfer to highly enriched fuel (which was successfully finished) since some of these experiments were never done before. Some repairs were not planned since unpredicted failures occurred. Six fuel exchanges were planned, but they were somewhat delayed. Detailed data about the planned and achieved reactor operation are shown in this annex as well as interruptions. There were 12 shorter interruptions and safety shutdowns which was in total for 64 hours. Reactor was operated at nominal power of 6.5 MW. There have been no significant accidents, but two cases could be characterised as accidental according to their occurrence not according to the effects. The first was break of the tube next to the heavy water pump, and the second was contamination of the reactor hall and corridor during preparation of the fuel exchange machine (spill of heavy water). This annex covers the data concerned with utilization of experimental facilities and reactor utilization. [Serbo-Croat] Reaktor RA je u toku 1976. godine radio sa znatnijim odstupanjima od plana rada za 1976. godinu, donetom krajem 1975. godine. Medjutim, ni ova procena mogucih odstupanja nije mogla biti korektna iz sledecih, razloga: nemogucnost da se predvidi tacan rok isporuke cevi od specijalne aluminijumske legure iz SSSR za izradu tehnoloskih kanala, nemogucnost da se predvidi tacno vreme potrebno za remonte kakvi ili nisu radjeni ranije ili su radjeni pre vise od 6 godina pod povoljnijim uslovima

  5. Golden rule kinetics of transfer reactions in condensed phase: the microscopic model of electron transfer reactions in disordered solid matrices. (United States)

    Basilevsky, M V; Odinokov, A V; Titov, S V; Mitina, E A


    modes immersed in the continuum harmonic medium is formulated for both classical and quantum regimes, and accounts explicitly for the mode∕medium interaction. The kinetics of the energy exchange between the local ET subsystem and the surrounding environment essentially determine the total ET rate. The efficient computer code for rate computations is elaborated on. The computations are available for a wide range of system parameters, such as the temperature, external field, local mode frequency, and characteristics of mode/medium interaction. The relation of the present approach to the Marcus ET theory and to the quantum-statistical reaction rate theory [V. G. Levich and R. R. Dogonadze, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Fiz. Khim. 124, 213 (1959); J. Ulstrup, Charge Transfer in Condensed Media (Springer, Berlin, 1979); M. Bixon and J. Jortner, Adv. Chem. Phys. 106, 35 (1999)] underlying it is discussed and illustrated by the results of computations for practically important target systems.

  6. Reactor Radiation Loops as Large Gamma Sources; Boucles d'irradiation des reacteurs nucleaires utilisees comme sources gamma intenses; Radiatsionnye kontury yadernykh reaktorov kak moshchnye gamma-istochniki; Empleo de circuitos de irradiacion de los reactores como fuentes gamma de gran intensidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryabukhina, Yu. S.


    primer lugar, se eligieron para la realizacion de esos circuitos las aleaciones de indio, metal liquido a temperatura ambiente. Se estudio el comportamiento de dos eutecticos de indio frente a algunos materiales de construccion y a principios de 1960 se construyo el primer circuito de prueba de indio-galio. Como iesultado de estudios ulteriores, se instalaron modelos de circuitos de indio-galio, con una actividad en el irradiador equivalente a unos 100 g de Ra, en el reactor IRT de la Academia de Ciencias de la Republica Socialista Sovietica de Georgia, asi'como un circuito de prueba de indio-galio-estafio in el canal del reactor IRT del Instituto de Energia Atomica de la Academia de Ciencias de la Union Sovietica. Por ultimo, en 1962, se instalo un circuito de trabajo de indio-galio-estano en el reactor IRT de la Academia de Ciencias de la Republica Socialista Sovietica de Latvia para efectuar irradiaciones en escala semiindustrial. La actividad maxima en el irradiador equivale a 30 000 g de Ra. La memoria consta de las siguientes partes: 1. ''Calculo de los circuitos de irradiacion''; en esta parte se resena la labor realizada en materia de metodos de calculo de los circuitos de irradiacion. 2. ''Modelo de un circuito de irradiacion deindio-galiodelreactor IRT de Tbilisi''; se describe el funcionamiento de este circuito. 3. ''Circuito de irradiacion de indio-galio-estano del reactor IRT de la Academia de Ciencias de la Republica Socialista Sovietica de Latvia'' ; se describe el funcionamiento de este circuito. 4. ''Perspectivas de desarrollo de los circuitos de irradiacion''; se describen los experimentos y circuitos y se presentan calculos que sugieren la posibilidad de construir circuitos de manganeso solido y circuitos con aleaciones liquidas de indio. (author) [Russian] Nachinaya s 1957 g. v SSSR provodilis' raboty po izucheniyu radiatsionnykh konturov. Byli razrabotany metody rascheta takikh sistem, izucheny vozmozhnosti razlichnykh gamma-nositelej. Vnachale byli

  7. Administrative Co-ordination of Fissile Material Management and Accounting in the U.K.A.E.A; Coordination Administrative de la Gestion et de la Comptabilite des Matieres Fissiles dans les Etabussements de l'Autorite de l'Energie Atomique du Royaume-Uni; Administrativnaya koordinatsiya kontrolya i ucheta delyashchikhsya materialov v upravlenii po atomnoj ehnergii soedinennogo korolevstva; Coordinacion Administrativa de la Gestion y la Contabilidad de Materiales Fisionables en la Comision de Energia Atomica del Reino Unido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hood, St. C.C. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, London (United Kingdom)


    , recuperacion de desechos, importacion - y todas las cantidades empleadas, incluidos los materiales agotados, las perdidas y las exportaciones; b) recomiendan la mejor manera de asignar cantidades determinadas de materiales para fines aprobados, teniendo en cuenta el conjunto de las necesidades, el volumen de las existencias y los aspectos economicos de la operacion; c) registran y controlan todas las asignaciones aprobadas; en relacion con los criterios y los objectivos establecidos, verifican la naturaleza de los materiales que se estan utilizando, sus cantidades, y los fines a que se les destina; d) registran y estudian todas las perdidas de material fisionable que se producen durante los procesos de elaboracion y tratamiento, asf como las medidas adoptadas para evitar dichas perdidas; e) contribuyen a establecer procedimientos y a crear incentivos para lograr que los materiales se empleen con economia y se devuelvan con rapidez. (author) [Russian] Kak postavshhik deljashhihsja materialov Upravlenie po atomnoj jenergii zanimaetsja ih proizvodstvom, raspredeleniem i pererabotkoj. Upravleniju, kak potrebitelju, deljashhiesja materialy nuzhny dlja ispol'zovanija v kachestve topliva v opytnyh jenergeticheskih reaktorah razlichnyh tipov, reaktorah dlja ispytanija materialov, issledovatel'skih reaktorah nulevoj moshhnosti, v rabotah po sozdaniju novyh tipov teplovydeljajushhih jelementov, a takzhe dlja provedenija laboratornyh jeksperimentov i issledovanij. Ispolnitel'nye funkcii po jetim vidam dejatel'nosti vozlozheny na chetyre strukturnyh podrazdelenija upravlenija (gruppy). Bylo najdeno poleznym derzhat' jeti vidy dejatel'nosti pod nabljudeniem special'nyh mezhgruppovyh komitetov s obshhim sekretariatom. Jeti komitety: a) zanimajutsja izucheniem vseh proektov ili predlozhenij otnositel'no rabot, svjazannyh so znachitel'nymi kolichestvami deljashhihsja materialov (plutonija i obogashhennogo urana pomimo prirodnogo urana ili obednennogo urana) v svete ozhidaemyh postavok za

  8. Low-Level {beta} and {gamma} Counting in the Region 0-10 Disintegrations Per Minute; Comptage {beta} et {gamma} d'echantillons de faible activite (0 a 10 desintegrations par minute); Izmerenie {beta}- i {gamma}-izlucheniya maloj moshchnosti (0-10 raspadov v minutu); Recuento {beta} y {gamma} de muestras de baja actividad (0 a 10 desintegraciones por minuto)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manov, George G [Tracerlab Inc. (United States)


    materiales, preferentemente de origen anterior a la segunda guerra mundial. Para el recuento de las radiaciones procedentes de muestras de baja actividad es condicion primordial la estabilidad del sistema electronico utilizado, especialmente a fin de evitar el recuento de impulsos parasitos. Se describe un procedimiento que consiste en alimentar el sistema electronico con impulsos generados a un ritmo determinado, que pasan por el amplificador y se des- cuentan del numero bruto de impulsos registrado. En general, los circuitos equipados con transistores, inclusive en los preamplificadore s y en las fuentes de tension, son mas satisfactorios que los dispositivos clasicos basados en el empleo de valvulas electronicas. (author) [Russian] Izmerenie radioaktivnost i na urovne v oblasti, soderzhashchej ot 0-10 raspadov v minutu, stanovitsya vse bolee poleznym pri standartizatsii radioaktivnykh izotopov, a takzhe v takikh drugikh otraslyakh nauki, kak geologiya i meditsina naprimer. CHasto poyavlyaetsya neobkhodimost' v podschete izluchenij maloj moshchnosti v oblasti biologii i pri issledovanii metodom mechenykh atomov, v chastnosti, v tekh sluchayakh, kogda ispol'zovanie radiatsii bol'shoj moshchnosti mozhet izmenyat' khod raboty apparata ili okazyvat' vliyanie na izuchaemyj protsess. CHasto takogo roda izmereniya dolzhny provodit'sya v usloviyakh, kogda obraztsy obladayut aktivnost'yu, prevyshayushchej obychnyj neehkranirovanny j fon radiatsii lish' na 1%. V drugikh sluchayakh poyavlyayutsya dopolnitel'ny e trebovaniya vsledstvie togo, chto radioaktivnye izotopy mogut imet' ochen' korotkij period poluraspada. Imeyutsya tri osnovnykh puti uvelicheniya nadezhnosti izmerenij radiatsii maloj moshchnosti: bolee sovershennye schetchiki, men'shie popravki na fon i bolee nadezhnye svobodnye ot pomekh ehlektronnye sistemy. V dannom dokumente opisyvayutsya sravnitel'ny e ehksperimenty svyazannye s izucheniem otnositel'ny kh kachestv trekh razlichnykh tipov zashchishchennykh schetchikov

  9. Thermoluminescent Dosimeter as the Gamma Component of a Nuclear Accident Dosimeter; Utilisation du Dosimetre Thermoluminescent Comme Element Detecteur Gamma d'un Dosimetre pour les cas d'Accident Nucleaire; 0422 0415 0420 041c 0414 ; Los Detectores de Termoluminiscencia Como Elemento Gammametrico de un Dosimetro para Casos de Accidente Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handloser, J. S. [Edgerton, Germeshausen and Grier, Inc., Santa Barbara, CA (United States)


    diametro quetiueda hermeticamente cerrado, con el fosforo en su interior. Este dosimetro mide 0,8 mm de diametro y 6 mm de longitud. El autor ha disenado blindajes destinados a corregir la respuesta energetica de estos dos dosimetros. (author) [Russian] Ispol'zovalis' razlichnye tipy gamma-dozimetrov v kachestve komponenta avarijnyh dozimetrov, izmerjajushhih gamma-izluchenie. Oni vkljuchali razlichnye vidy stekljannyh, plenochnyh, himicheskih dozimetrov i dozimetrov polimerizacii. Termo- ljuminiscentnyj dozimetr obladaet znachitel'nymi preimushhestvami po sravneniju s dozimetrami drugih tipov. Shirokij diapazon termoljuminiscentnogo dozimetra daet vozmozhnost' ispol'zovat' ego v kachestve povsednevnogo kontrol'no-izmeritel'nogo pribora i v kachestve avarijnogo dozimetra. Pri jetom otpadaet nadobnost' v special'noj apparature dlja avarijnoj dozimetrii i sozdaetsja vozmozhnost' ispol'zovat' v avarijnoj dozimetricheskoj sisteme horosho kalibrovannye pribory povsednevnogo ispol'zovanija. Obychno diapazon, prisushhij termo- ljuminiscentnomu dozimetru, kolebletsja ot 5 mr do 100 000 r pri vosproizvodimosti {+-}10%. Byl sproektirovan i izgotovlen edinichnyj tip dozimetra s o ftoristym kal'ciem i s neobhodimym prisposobleniem dlja snjatija pokazanij, v diapazone ot 5 mr do 5000 r . Chtenie pokazanij dozimetra proizvoditsja putem nagreva fosfora i izmereniem vyhoda sveta. Imejutsja pribory dlja registracii pokazanij shesti porjadkov, i sproektirovany polnost'ju avtomatizirovannye sistemy. Ni odin iz priborov ne trebuet dlja opredelenija pokazanij bolee 20 sek na dozimetr. Drugoe preimushhestvo termoljuminiscentnogo dozimetra sostoit v maloj chuvstvitel'nosti k nejtronam. Ona kolebletsja v zavisimosti ot tipa kontejnera i tipa fosfora. Odin tip dozimetra s ftoristym kal'ciem obladaet nejtronnoj chuvstvitel'nost'ju, ravnoj 0,27 * 10{sup -9} r ad /n/cm{sup 2}. Rassmatrivajutsja dva termoljuminiscentnyh dozimetra razlichnyh fizicheskih form. Pervyj predstavljaet soboj nagrevaemyj

  10. Management of Waste from the Use of Radioisotopes; Divers Aspects Resultant de l'Utilisation des Isotopes Radioactifs; 0423 0414 0410 041b 0415 041d 0418 0415 041e 0422 0425 041e 0414 ; Diversos Aspectos Relacionados con los Desechos Procedentes del Empleo de Radioisotopos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Lester R. [Radiation Safety Branch, Division of Licensing and Regulation, United States Atomic Energy Commission (United States)


    atomnoj jenergii dlja hranenija ili zahoronenija; 5. Szhiganie othodov; i 6. Udalenie v morja othodov v kontejnerah. Budut rassmotreny kriterii i reglamentacionnye trebovanija, primenjaemye k kazhdomu metodu udalenija othodov dlja dostizhenija takogo polozhenija, chtoby predotvratit' popadanie opasnyh kolichestv radioaktivnosti v pishhu cheloveka ili neblagoprijatnoe vlijanie na ispol'zovanie chelovekom okruzhajushhej sredy. Budut obsuzhdeny ogranichenija tipov, kolichestv i metodov udalenija othodov, na kotorye chastnym koncernam neobhodimo imet' razreshenie v svjazi s dlitel'nym harakterom otvetstvennosti po soderzhaniju mest zahoronenija ili oborudovanija dlja hranenija radioaktivnyh othodov. (author)

  11. Measurement of the wear rate of cast grinding balls using radioactive tracers; Evaluation de l'usure des boulets pour concasseurs, au moyen des indicateurs radioactifs; Izmerenie skorosti iznosa litykh drobil'nykh sharov pri pomoshchi mechenykh atomov; Medicion de la velocidad de desgaste de bolas trituradoras de acero colado con ayuda de indicadores radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keys, J D; Eichholz, G G [Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, Ottawa, ON (Canada)


    'nykh sharov v razlichnykh rabochikh usloviyakh i dlya sopostavleniya rezul'tatov, poluchaemykh s sharami raznykh tipov ili raznogo sostava, byli uspeshno ispol'zovany mechenye atomy. Na protyazhenii neskol'kikh nedel' bylo provedeno nablyudenie za partiej mechenykh stal'nykh sharov v drobil'noj rabote i byli sobrany statisticheskie dannye otnositel'no iznosa i poteri vesa. V khode opytnykh tsiklov do otlivki sharov k rasplavlennomu metallu byl dobavlen kobal't-60 i posle ehtogo bylo provedeno nablyudenie nad litymi sharami v ikh rabote na razrabotkakh zheleznoj rudy. Partiya mechenykh radioizotopami sharov byla dobavlena k drobil'nym sharam drobilki s normal'noj emkost'yu zagruzki priblizitel'no v 75 tonn, H cherez kazhduyu nedelyu iz drobilki vybiralis' obraztsy zagruzki dlya iz{sup y}atiya mechenykh sharov. EHti shary proveryalis' i vzveshivalis' i podschityvalas' skorost' ikh iznosa. EHtot metod okazalsya praktichnym sposobom issledovaniya svojstv iznosa v rabochikh usloviyakh na ustanovke. (author)

  12. The Practice of Waste Disposal in the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority; Methodes Employees par l'Atomic Energy Authority du Royaume-Uni pour Eliminer les Dechets Radioactifs; 041f 041e 0420 042f 0414 041e 041a 0423 0414 ; Sistemas de Evacuacion de Desechos en la United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunster, H. J.; Wix, L. F.U. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Health and Safety Branch (United Kingdom)


    ou moyenne, sont enfouis dans des emplacements specialement choisis - ou ils n'ont aucune possibilite de contaminer les ressources en eau - ou noyes au fond de la mer. Le memoire donne un apercu des diverses methodes employees et indique quelles sont les quantites de dechets liquides et solides qui doivent etre eliminees, tous les ans, suivant chacune de ces methodes. (author) [Spanish] La United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority tiene en funcionamiento instalaciones situadas desde el sur de Inglaterra hasta la costa norte de Escocia. Las funciones de estas instalaciones incluyen la produccion y elaboracion de combustibles nucleares, la produccion de electricidad e isotopos con fines comerciales, el estudio de nuevos tipos de reactores y la investigacion en todos los campos afines. Por lo tanto, la Authority tiene que resolver el problema de la evacuacion de desechos muy variados que se producen en una gran cantidad de lugares distintos. Los' desechos principales de alto nivel radiactivo, tanto liquidos como solidos, son almacenados en tanques y recipientes especiales, mientras que los desechos liquidos de bajo nivel y de gran volumen son evacuados en cantidades exactamente controladas hacia el mar o los rios. Los desechos solidos de nivel medio o bajo son enterrados en zonas seleccionadas donde no podran entrar en contacto con los suministros de agua, o son hundidos en el fondo del mar. La memoria resume los diversos sistemas utilizados y da cantidades tipicas de los desechos liquidos y solidos que se producen anualmente y que son evacuados por dichos sistemas. (author) [Russian] Komissija po atomnoj jenergii Soedinennogo Korolevstva imeet predprijatija v razlichnyh rajonah strany ot juzhnogo poberezh'ja Anglii do severnyh beregov Shotlandii. Jeti predprijatija zanjaty proizvodstvom i pererabotkoj jadernogo topliva, proizvodstvom jelektrojenergii i izotopov dlja kommercheskih celej, razrabotkoj novyh tipov reaktorov i vedeniem nauchno-issledovatel'skoj raboty v

  13. Establishment and Study of Dose Fields for the Irradiation of Experimental Animals with High-Energy Protons; Creation et Etude de Champs de Rayonnements pour l'Irradiation d'Animaux de Grande Taille par des Protons de Haute Energie; Sozdanie i issledovanie doznykh polej dlya oblucheniya ehksperimental'nykh zhivotnykh protonami bol'shoj ehnergii; Produccion y Estudio de Campos Radia Torios para la Exposicion de Animales de Laboratorio a Protones de Elevada Energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afanas' ev, V. P.; Keirim-Markus, I. B.; Kuznecova, S. S.; Litvinova, Je. G.; Sokolova, I. K.; Stukina, L. E.


    zhivotnogo. Rassmotreny nekotorye voprosy dozimetrii protonov bol'shoj jenergii. Obosnovano primenenie rjada tipov dozimetrov v jetih celjah. Predlozhen metod opredelenija vklada kaskadnyh nejtronov v potok protonov s pomoshh'ju aktivacionnyh detektorov. (author)

  14. Control Rods in high-Flux Swimming-Pool Reactors; Les Barres de Controle dans les Piles Piscines a Haut Flux; Reguliruyushchie sterzhni dlya reaktorov bassejnovogo tipa s vysokoj plotnost'yu nejtronnogo potoka; Las Barras de Control en los Reactores Tipo Piscina de Flujo Elevado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ageroni, P.; Blum, P.; Denielou, G.; Denis, P.; Meunier, C. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble (France)


    etudes en cours sur les barres de controle des piles piscine a coeur ouvert fonctionnant dans la bande de 10 a 30 MW. (author) [Spanish] La memoria examina los problemas planteados por las barras de control en los reactores de investigacion de tipo piscina abierta, de alta potencia especifica y elevado flujo, basandose en calculos y experimentos efectuados durante la construccion del reactor SILOE. Expone asimismo la experiencia adquirida con las barras de control mientras el reactor funcionaba a 13 MW. Examina sucesivamente: a) Los balances de reactividad y los valores de esta para los diversos tipos de barras de control que se han ensayado (cadmio, B4C, tierras raras, y combinaciones de estas sustancias); b) los picos de flujo que la presencia de barras de control crea en el cuerpo del reactor, su influencia sobre la potencia especifica, los flujos rapidos que se pueden obtener y los medios para incrementarlos; c) los problemas tecnologicos planteados por la construccion de las barras; d) los problemas de refrigeracion, vibracion, deformacion y tiempo necesario para introducirlos en el reactor. Para terminar, describe someramente loe estudios que se estan realizando con las barras de control de reactores de tipo piscina de cuerpo abierto cuando funcionan en el intervalo de potencias comprendido entre 10 y 30 MW. (author) [Russian] 1. V svete raschetov i jeksperimentov, provedennyh pri postrojke reaktora STLOE , rassmatrivajutsja problemy, voznikajushhie v svjazi s regulirujushhimi sterzhnjami dlja issledovatel'skih reaktorov otkrytogo bassejnovogo tipa s bol'shoj udel'noj moshhnost'ju i s vysokoj plotnost'ju nejtronnogo potoka. Privodjatsja takzhe rezul'taty ispytanija jetogo reaktora pri .moshhnosti 13 mgvt v svjazi s razlichnymi regulirujushhimi sterzhnjami. 2. Posledov atel'no rassmatrivajutsja sledujushhie problemy: a) balans reaktivnosti i reaktivnaja sposobnost' podvergnutyh ispytanijam regulirujushhih sterzhnej razlichnyh tipov (kadmij, B{sub 4}C , redkie zemli

  15. Elements of a thermic method of preparing beta-sources with fused carriers, including strontium-90; Elements d'une methode thermique de preparation de sources beta avec des entraineurs fondus, y compris le strontium-90; Osnovy termicheskogo metoda prigotovleniya beta-istochnikov s plavlennymi nositelyami, vklyuchayushchimi strontsij-90; Bases de un metodo termico de preparacion de fuentes beta con portadores fundidos, incluido el estroncio-90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, N I; Zakharova, K P; Zimakov, P V; Kulichenko, V V


    avtomaticheskogo kontrolya i regulirovaniya proizvodstvennykh protsessov. Tekhnologicheskij protsess izgotovleniya istochnikov osnovan na obezvozhivanii smesi, sostoyashchej iz radioaktivnogo rastvora azotnokislogo strontsiya i komponentov tipa bornogo angidrida, okisi kremniya, okisi alyuminiya i dr. Termicheskaya obrabotka obezvozhennoj smesi pri vysokoj temperature privodit k obrazovaniyu legkopodvizhnogo rasplava, posle okhlazhdeniya kotorogo poluchaetsya steklovidnaya massa, vklyuchayushchaya v sebya neobkhodimye kolichestva radioizotopa Sr{sup 90}. Privodyatsya dannye i obsuzhdayutsya rezul'taty issledovaniya protsessa obezvozhivaniya sistemy SrO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} v intervale temperatur' 100 - 1000{sup o} i obosnovyvaetsya vybor osnovnykh parametrov tekhnologicheskogo protsessa. Izlagayutsya osnovy metoda naneseniya steklovidnogo preparata s neobkhodimym kolichestvom radioizotopa Sr{sup 90} na podlozhki razlichnykh form i razmerov iz stali, keramiki i drugikh materialov. Rassmatrivayutsya osnovnye parametry, kharakterizuyushchie nadezhnost' i bezopasnost' v ehkspluatatsii razlichnykh tipov istochnikov i privodyatsya dannye po istochnikam na osnove Sr{sup 90}, izgotavlivaemym termicheskim metodom. (author)

  16. Soft computing analysis of the possible correlation between temporal and energy release patterns in seismic activity (United States)

    Konstantaras, Anthony; Katsifarakis, Emmanouil; Artzouxaltzis, Xristos; Makris, John; Vallianatos, Filippos; Varley, Martin


    Ben-Zion Y.: ‘Techniques and parameters to analyze seismicity patterns associated with large earthquakes', Geophysics Res., vol. 102, pp. 17785-17795, 1997a [3] Habermann R. E.: ‘Precursory seismic quiescence: past, present and future', Pure Applied Geophysics, vol. 126, pp. 279-318, 1988 [4] Matthews M. V. and Reasenberg P. A.: ‘Statistical methods for investigating quiescence and other temporal seismicity patterns', Pure Applied Geophysics, vol. 126, pp. 357-372, 1988 [5] Zubkov S. I.: ‘The appearance times of earthquake precursors', Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Fiz. Zemli (Solid Earth), No. 5, pp. 87-91, 1987 [6] Dobrovolsky I. P., Zubkov S. I. and Miachkin V. I.: ‘Estimation of the size of earthquake preparation zones', Pageoph, vol. 117, pp. 1025-1044, 1979 [7] Dobrovolsky I. P., Gershenzon N. I. And Gokhberg M. B.: ‘Theory of electrokinetic effects occurring at the final stage in the preparation of a tectonic earthquake', Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, vol. 57, pp. 144-156, 1989 [8] Richter C. F.: ‘Elementary Seismology', W.H.Freeman and Co., San Francisco, 1958 [9] Choy G. L. and Boatwright J. L.: ‘Global patterns of radiated seismic energy and apparent stress', Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 84 (B5), pp. 2348-2350, 1995 [10] Haykin S.: ‘Neural Networks', 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall, 1999 [11] Jang J., Sun T. and Mizutany E.: ‘Neuro-fuzzy and soft computing', Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1997 [12] Konstantaras A., Varley M.R., Vallianatos F., Collins G. and Holifield P.: ‘Detection of weak seismo-electric signals upon the recordings of the electrotelluric field by means of neuron-fuzzy technology', IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 4 (1), 2007 [13] Konstantaras A., Varley M.R., Vallianatos F., Collins G. and Holifield P.: ‘Neuro-fuzzy prediction-based adaptive filtering applied to severely distorted magnetic field recordings', IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 3 (4), 2006 [14

  17. Image restoration for civil engineering structure monitoring using imaging system embedded on UAV (United States)

    Vozel, Benoit; Dumoulin, Jean; Chehdi, Kacem


    estimated blur kernel for performing the deconvolution of the acquired image. In the present work, different regularization methods, mainly based on the pseudo norm aforementioned Total Variation, are studied and analysed. The key point of their respective implementation, their properties and limits are investigated in this particular applicative context. References [1] J. Hadamard. Lectures on Cauchy's problem in linear partial differential equations. Yale University Press, 1923. [2] A. N. Tihonov. On the resolution of incorrectly posed problems and regularisation method (in Russian). Doklady A. N.SSSR, 151(3), 1963. [3] C. R. Vogel. Computational Methods for inverse problems, SIAM, 2002. [4] A. K. Katsaggelos, J. Biemond, R.W. Schafer, and R. M. Mersereau, "A regularized iterative image restoration algorithm," IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol.39, no. 4, pp. 914-929, 1991. [5] J. Biemond, R. L. Lagendijk, and R. M. Mersereau, "Iterative methods for image deblurring," Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 78, no. 5, pp. 856-883, 1990. [6] D. Kundur and D. Hatzinakos, "Blind image deconvolution," IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 43-64, 1996. [7] Y. L. You and M. Kaveh, "A regularization approach to joint blur identification and image restoration," IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 416-428, 1996. [8] T. F. Chan and C. K. Wong, "Total variation blind deconvolution," IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 370-375, 1998. [9] S. Chardon, B. Vozel, and K. Chehdi. Parametric Blur Estimation Using the GCV Criterion and a Smoothness Constraint on the Image. Multidimensional Systems and Signal Processing Journal, Kluwer Ed., 10:395-414, 1999 [10] B. Vozel, K. Chehdi, and J. Dumoulin. Myopic image restoration for civil structures inspection using UAV (in French). In GRETSI, 2005. [11] L. Bar, N. Sochen, and N. Kiryati. Semi-blind image restoration via Mumford-Shah regularization. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 15

  18. Liquid scintillators for radiocarbon dating in archaeology; Scintillateurs liquides pour l'evaluation de Page au moyen du radiocarbone en archeologie; Zhidkie stsintillyatory dlya radiouglerodnogo datirovaniya v arkheologii; Centelladores liquidos para la determinacion de edades con carbono-14 en arqueologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starik, I E; Rudenko, S I; Artem' ev, V V; Butomo, S V; Drozhzhin, V M; Romanova, E N


    do 12 g ugleroda obraztsa. Dlya 40 ml stsintillyatora skorost' scheta fona i sovremennogo ugleroda (bez fona) byla ravna 23,5 i 37 imp/min, a dlya 70 ml - 28 i 57 imp/min, sootvetstvenno. Statisticheskaya oshibka 48 chasovykh izmerenij obraztsov vozrasta 5,5 tysyach let sostavlyaet dlya 40 i 70 ml stsintillyatora 65 i 35 let. Proizvedeny izmereniya arkheologicheskikh obraztsov iz razlichnykh rajonov SSSR. (author)

  19. Difficulties and Successes in the Mass Rearing of Insects in the Laboratory, and the Possibility of Autocidal Control of some Harmful Species; Trudnosti i uspekhi massovogo razvedeniya nasekomykh v laboratorii i vozmozhnosti samoistrebleniya nekotorykh vrednykh vidov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumakov, E. M. [Rastenij, Vsesojuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Institut Zashhity Leningrad, SSSR (Russian Federation)


    ' vitaminov, svobodnyh aminokislot i sterinov. Vazhnejshee znachenie imeet pravil'noe kolichestvennoe sootnoshenie v pishhevoj srede kak ukazannyh veshhestv, tak i osnovnyh komponentov korma - belkov, zhirov i uglevodov. Trudoemkost' processov razmnozhenija nasekomyh opredeljaetsja sposobami sterilizacii posudy i osadkov, a takzhe metodami predohranenija pishhevyh sred ot zagnivanija. Primerom preodolenija jetih trudnostej javljaetsja sozdanie suhoj, poroshkoobraznoj sredy dlja pereletnoj saranchi, na kotoroj v SSSR jetot vid uspeshno vospityvaetsja. Dlja rjada vrednyh vidov Lepidoptera {sup p}okazana vozmozhnost' vyrashhivanija osobej v zakrytoj, germetizirovannoj posude. Pri jetom daetsja zapas pishhevoj sredy, obespechivajushhij razvitie osobej s momenta podsadki na srodu jaic ili gusenic do vyhoda imago novogo pokolenija. Takoj priem ves'ma uproshhaet ves' tehnologicheskij process poluchenija massovoj produkcii. Mnogie vidy nasekomyh mozhno vospityvat' na zerne i semenah rastenij , menee podverzhennyh zagnivaniju npvi dlitel'nom hrapenii. Vazhnejshim voprosom massovogo razvedenija javljaetsja razrabotka putej preodolenija diapauzy u laboratornoj populjacii, chto obespechivaet nepreryvnost' razvedenija. Ustranenie diapauzy dostigaetsja kak reaktivaciej temperaturnymi vozdejstvijami, tak i sozdaniem fotoperioda, predotvrashhajushhego vozniknovenie diapauzy . Vozmozhen eshhe odin put': podbor i skreshhivanie geneticheski razlichnyh ras dannogo vida, imejushhih diapauzu i lishennyh ee. Na primere rjada vidov Orthoptcra, imejushhih dostatochno bol'shie arealy, pokazana vozmozhnost' samoistreblenija vrednyh vidov putem podmeshivanija k prirodnoj populjacii, normal'no imejushhej diapauzu - osobej bezdiapauznoj populjacii iz drugih chastej areala togo zhe vida. Takie vozmozhnosti vyjavleny dlja sverchka Teleogryllus com- moclus Walk v Avstralii, i dlja podvidov Locusta migratoria L. na territorii Starogo Sveta. Razrabotka takogo puti samoistreblenija nasekomyh zasluzhivaet bol

  20. Some Applications of Surface Barrier Solid-State Detectors for Alpha-Activity Detection and Measurement; Quelques Applications des Detecteurs a Semi-Conducteurs a Barriere de Surface pour Deceler et Mesurer l'Activite Alpha; Nekotorye vidy primeneniya detektorov tverdogo sostoyaniya s poverkhnostnym bar'erom dlya izmereniya i obnaruzheniya al'fa-aktivnosti; Aplicaciones de los Detectores de Semiconductores de Barrera Superficial a la Deteccion y Medicion de Emisores Alfa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, K. E.G. [Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorset (United Kingdom)


    amplitudy impul'sov, privodjashhie v dejstvie dva reguliruemye mehanicheskie zapisyvajushhie ustrojstva, prichem uroven' diskriminacii reguliruetsja takim obrazom, chtoby zahvatit' pik al'fa-chastic, izluchaemyh plutoniem-239. Dlja analiza jenergij s ochen' bol'shim razresheniem (bolee 1%) proba izmerjaetsja v vakuume pri pomoshhi special'no podobrannogo detektora tverdogo sostojanija, a vyhod postupaet v mnogokanal'nyj analizator. Soobshhajutsja podrobnye svedenija otnositel'no jetogo oborudovanija i poluchennyh s ego pomoshh'ju rezul'tatov. Oborudovanie novoj konstrukcii dlja avtomaticheskogo opredelenija al'fa-izluchenij pri pomoshhi detektora tverdogo sostojanija primenjajutsja dlja dozimetricheskogo kontrolja nad bumazhnymi fil'trami, sobiraemymi iz individual'nyh priborov po otboru prob vozduha, nosimyh na sebe personalom, obrashhajushhimsja s plutoniem. Jeto oborudovanie avtomaticheski proschityvaet kazhdyj iz 12 bumazhnyh fil'trov, sobrannyh za ustanovlennyj promezhutok vremeni, i otpechatyvaet zaregistrirovannoe obshhee chislo schetov. Jeto oborudovanie snabzheno takzhe konturom dlja posledovatel'nogo analiza, kotoryj ochen' bystro daet ukazanie o tom, prevysila li aktivnost' proby zaranee ustanovlennyj uroven' ili net. Jetot zhe samyj metod mozhet byt' legko prisposoblen k izmereniju prob v shirokom diapazone pri dozimetricheskom obsledovanii. Detektory tverdogo sostojanija nahodjat takzhe shirokoe primenenie v zondah razlichnyh tipov dlja obshhego dozimetricheskogo kontrolja nad al'fa-izluchenijami; byli skonstruirovany zondy s chuvstvitel'noj poverhnost'ju ot 12 do 18 sm{sup 2}. Detektory s maloj poverhnost'ju polezny dlja obnaruzhenija pjaten zagrjaznenija na poverhnosti tela, t.k. prochnost', nechuvstvitel'nost' k svetu i prostota vspomogatel'nogo oborudovanija delaet ih bolee udobnymi po sravneniju s detektorami drugih tipov (naprimer, scintilljacionnye schetchiki). Eshhe odnoj vazhnoj privlekatel'noj chertoj detektorov tverdogo sostojanija javljaetsja to

  1. The Self-Correlation Function of Real Gases; Fonction d'Autocorrelation des Gaz Reels; 0424 0423 041d 041a 0426 0418 042f 0421 0410 041c 041e 041a 041e 0420 0420 0415 041b 042f 0426 0418 0418 0420 0415 0410 041b 042c 041d 042b 0425 0413 0410 0417 041e 0412 ; La Funcion de Autocorrelacion de los Gases Reales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigmar, D. J. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Technical University of Vienna Vienna (Austria)


    autocorrelacion {gamma}{sub s}(K, t) para tiempos breves, incluido el primer termino no gaussiano. El desarrollo en racimo cesa despues del primer termino de interaccion, de forma que los resultados solo son validos para densidades bajas. Pero aun asi aparecen en cada coeficiente muchos tipos diferentes de racimos que contienen hasta siete puntos. En cuanto al potencial, se admite la hipotesis de un nucleo rigido formado por dos particulas. Como han demostrado Singwi y sus col., el comportamiento a largo plazo de {gamma}{sub s} viene determinado por la integral, respecto del tiempo, de la autocorrelacion de la velocidad; {integral}{sup {infinity}}{sub 0} {sub T}dt. Con el fin de determinar el integrando correspondiente a cualquier tiempo, se puede recurrir al desarrollo en racimo cuando t es pequefio, y aceptar la teoria de la difusion de Langevin en los casos en que t es grande. Se estan realizando calculos numericos. (author) [Russian] V formal'noj teorii neuprugogo rassejanija nejtronov funkcija samokorreljacii vyvedena v sredne-statisticheskih proizvodnyh vzaimodejstvie-potencial N-tela rasseivatelja. V dannom doklade jeti srednie znachenija opredeljajutsja dlja real'nyh gazov razlozheniem na gruppy, svjazannym s metodom Majera-Ursellja. Jeto privodit k polucheniju nekotoryh nelinejnyh tipov grupp, kotorye izuchajutsja v otnoshenii topologii graf, ih mnogokratnosti (metodami kombinatornogo analiza) i ih kvadratury. Kak predpolagaetsja v svjazi s problemoj mnogih tel, nekotorye iz grupp nerazdelimy, i ih neobhodimo integrirovat' s pomosh'ju schetno-reshajushhih mashin. Takim putem rasschityvaetsja funkcija samokorreljacii {gamma}{sub s}(K, t) dlja korotkih promezhutkov vremeni, v tom chisle i pervyj negaussovskij chlen. Razlozhenie na gruppy preryvaetsja posle pervogo chlena, vyrazhajushhego vzaimodejstvie, tak chto rezul'taty spravedlivy tol'ko dlja nizkoj plotnosti. Jeto tem ne menee privodit k samym razlichnym tipam grupp, v kotoryh soderzhitsja do

  2. Pointing Out Main Factors from Design, Construction and Operating Experience of Existing Nuclear Plants for Assisting in Shaping Future Nuclear Power Programmes; Les principaux criteres degages de l'etude, de la construction et de l'exploitation des centrales nucleaires existantes et leur interet pour l'elaboration des futurs programmes d'energie d'origine nucleaire; Ukazanie osnovnykh faktorov proektirovaniya, stroitel'stva i opyta ehkspluatatsii sushchestvuyutsikh atomnykh ehlektrostantsij, chto dolzhno pomoch' pri sostavlenii budushchikh programm atomnoj ehnergetiki; Principales consideraciones relativas al diseno, construccion y explotacion de centrales nucleares, encaminadas a facilitar la preparacion de programas futuros de energia nucleoelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Volta, F. [Comitato Nazionale per l' Energia Nucleare, Rome (Italy)


    ehlektrostantsii mogut tselikom ili bol'shej chast'yu okupit'sya raskhody po razrabotke ochen' nadezhnykh obolochek. Rassmatrivaetsya sposobnost' oprobirovannykh tipov stantsij udovletvoryat' trebovaniya ehnergosistemy i ikh prigodnost' takzhe v svyazi s uvelichayushchejsya rol'yu yadernykh ehlektrostantsij. I,nakonets, podcherkivaetsya vazhnost' problemy sbora i interpretatsii dannykh o rabote trekh ehlektrostantsij, ehkspluatatsiya kotorykh nachinaetsya v Italii, chto dolzhno pomoch' pri proektirovanii novykh stantsij. (author)

  3. Catalytic Activity and Nuclear Radiation; L'activite catalytique et les rayonnements nucleaires; Kataliticheskaya aktivnost' i yadernoe izluchenie; La actividad catalitica y las radiaciones nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkevich, J.; Ikawa, T.; Nozaki, F.; Stamires, D. [Princeton University, N.J (United States)


    , soderzhavshikh razlichnoe kolichestvo dekationirovannykh tsentrov ot nulya do sta protsen- tov, schitaya na iskhodnoe soderzhanie natriya. Kataliticheskuyu aktivnost' ehtikh dvukh tipov katalizatorov opredelyali do i posle gamma-oblucheniya, issleduya kinetiku razlozheniya kumola v benzole i propilene, provodya izomerizatsiyu dvojnykh svyazej butena-1 v buten-2 i provodya reaktsii obmena mekhdu vodorodom i dejteriem. Chislo aktivnykh tsentrov opredelyali po vozrastavshemu otravleniyu, primenyaya khinolin, i takim obrazom kharakterizovali aktivnost', prikhodyashchuyusya na tsentr. Veshchestva izucheny takzhe putem izmereniya ehlektronno-spinovogo rezonansa adsorbirovannykh ehlektronno-perenosyashchikh agentov, kak, naprimer, trifenilamin, perilen i simmetrichnyj difenilehtilen. Bylo najdeno, chto sposobnost' k perenosu ehlektronov sootvetstvuet kataliticheskoj aktivnosti. Dlya vyyasneniya prirody aktivnykh tsentrov ispol'zovali protonnyj rezonans adsorbirovannoj vody. (author)

  4. Economic Aspects of Air and Gas Cleaning for Nuclear Energy Processes; Aspects Economiques de l'Epuration de l'Air et des Gaz au Cours des Operations Nucleaires; 042d 041a 041e 041d 041e 0414 0; Aspectos Economicos de la Depuracion del Aire y de los Gases en los Procesos de Obtencion de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, Leslie [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)


    rasprostranjat'sja kontrol' s umerennymi rashodami. ch Dovol'no podrobno opisyvajutsja faktory, svjazannye s kapital'nymi i jekspluatacionnymi rashodami oborudovanija po ochistke gaza, a takzhe primenjaemye v SShA metody. Udalenie gazov osushhestvljalos' i kontrolirovalos' pri pomoshhi neskol'kih tipov priborov. Odnako jeti meroprijatija provodilis' na sravnitel'noj osnove. Takim obrazom stalo bolee ili menee vozmozhnym sudit' ob jekspluatacionnyh harakteristikah na jekonomicheskoj osnove v sochetanii s takimi problemami, kak potreblenie jenergii, stoimost' adsorbentov, stoimost' pomeshhenij, korrozija i drugie jekspluatacionnye faktory. Komissija po atomnoj jenergii Soedinennyh Shtatov po kontraktu s laboratoriej po ochistke vozduha pri Garvardskom universitete razrabotala programmu ocenki; dlja jetogo Komissija vospol'zovalas' razlichnymi uslugami zavodov i podrjadchikov. V jetom issledovanii namecheny osnovnye faktory, neobhodimye dlja poluchenija dannyh o kolichestvennoj stoimosti; budut predstavleny nekotorye predvaritel'nye rezul'taty. V doklade takzhe daetsja obzor drugih jekonomicheskih issledovanij, kotorye provodjatsja v Soedinennyh Shtatah, v otnoshenii konkretnyh processov ili primenjaemogo oborudovanija. (author)

  5. Control Methods Used in the Department of Metallurgy for Structure and Fuel Elements; Methodes de Controle Utilisees au Departement de Metallurgie pour les Elements de Structure et les Elements Combustibles; Metody kontrolya struktury toplivnykh ehlementov v departamente metallurgii; Metodos de Control Utilizados en el Departamento de Metalurgia para los Elementos Estructurales y Combustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destribats, Marie-Therese; Allain, C.; Prot, A.; Thome, P. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)


    metodos se han desarrollado con miras a su utilizacion industrial. Algunos de ellos se aplican ya corrientemente durante la fabricacion; otros se utilizaran proximamente y el resto es susceptible de aplicacion a mas largo plazo. (author) [Russian] Nachatoe v KAJe izuchenie razlichnyh tipov reaktorov privelo k ispol'zovaniju i razrabotke mnogih metodov nedestruktivnogo kontrolja razlichnyh materialov, v chastnosti radiografii, gammagrafii, ul'trazvukovyh voln i metoda tokov Fuko. Nizhe govoritsja o kontrole v processe stroitel'stva reaktorov sistemy EDF (grafit- gaz), EL4 (tjazhelaja voda) i izgotovlenija sovmestno prokatannyh jelementov. Vydeleny nekotorye harakternee momenty jetih razlichnyh metodov, chast' kotoryh horosho izvestna. Sistema EDF: izmerenie tolshhiny stenok trub iz urana ili iz uranovogo splava ul'trazvukom; vyjavlenie polostej v jetih trubkah s pomosh'ju gammagrafii; kontrol' za termicheskoj obrabotkoj ul'trazvukom jetih trub; izuchenie defektov (vkraplenija, treshhiny) ul'trazvukom v slitkah i zagotovkah obolochek iz MgZr; kontrol' za germetichnost'ju toplivnyh jelementov s pomoshh'ju gelija. Sistema EL 4: izmerenie tolshiny stenok silovyh trub i napravljajushhih trub iz cirkal- loja s pomoshh'ju ul'trazvuka i tokov Fuko; proverka s pomoshh'ju ul'trazvuka trub iz cirkal- loja, rasschitannyh na davlenie, i trubchatogo pokrytija iz nerzhavejushhej stali; vakuumnaja radiografija obolochek iz Be; kontrol' germetichnosti sterzhnej s pomoshh'ju gelija. Sovmestno prokatannye jelementy: izmerenie tolshhiny pokrytija pul'sirujushhimi tokami Fuko; vyjavlenie polozhenija serdechnika po otnosheniju k trubam i plastinkam s pomoshh'ju radiografii, scheta gamma-chastic i pul'sirujushhih tokov Fuko; kontrol' za gomogennost'ju topliva metodom scheta gamma-chastic; obnaruzhenie treshhin v slitkah iz ZrU s pomoshh'ju ul'trazvuka i gammagrafii; vyjavlenie otsloennyh uchastkov plastinok s pomoshh'ju ul'trazvuka, pul'sirujushhih tokov Fuko, a takzhe izmerenie udel

  6. Planned Procedures for Fast Determination of Radiation Levels and Personnel Dosimetry in Connection with Radiological Accidents; Methodes de Dosimetrie Rapide du Personnel en Cas d'Accident Radiologique; 041f 041b 0410 041d 0414 ; Servicio Organizado de Determinacion Rapida de los Niveles de Radiacion y de Dosimetria del Personal en Caso de Accidente Radiologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edvardsson, K. -A.; Wahlberg, T. [AB Atomenergi, Studsvik (Sweden)


    'ju. Jeta organizacija imeet svoju shtab- kvartiru, v kotoroj hranitsja oborudovanie i kotoraja imeet razlichnye vidy vnutrennih i vneshnih kommunikacij. Dlja opredelenija stepeni obluchenija neobhodimo poluchit' kak mozhno skoree predvaritel'nye dannye o moshhnosti dozy vneshnego i vnutrennego obluchenija i dovol'no tochno izmerit' stepen' obluchenija kazhdogo cheloveka, imejushhego otnoshenie k avarij, v techenie priemlemogo sroka. Special'nye gruppy po opredeleniju doz obluchenija obsledujut mesto avarii, chtoby imet' obshhuju ocenku o razmerah opasnosti. Jeti gruppy nachinajut dejstvovat' srazu zhe posle poluchenija signala trevogi. Oni imejut pri sebe portativnye pribory i peredvigajutsja na mashinah po opredelennym dorogam v meste raspolozhenija ustanovki. Prakticheskaja proverka pokazala, chto shtab-kvartira poluchaet rezul'taty obsledovanija ot jetih grupp v techenie 10 - 15 minut posle signala o radiacionnoj opasnosti, i na osnove jetih rezul'tatov mozhno sostavit' horoshee predstavlenie ob urovnjah radiacii vnutri i snaruzhi razlichnyh zdanij. Portativnoe oborudovanie vkljuchaet ustrojstva dlja vzjatija prob vozduha s krajne neznachitel'nym vremenem otbora prob, kotorye dejstvujut na osnove principa vozdushnogo jezhektora. Individual'nye vneshnie dozy opredeljajutsja na osnove jekspozicij fotoplenki, dozimetra kritichnosti, aktivacii i analiza aktivnosti volos i krovi. Vnutrennee zagrjaznenie opredeljaetsja posredstvom izmerenija aktivnosti vsego tela i radiometricheskim analizom jekskrementov. S cel'ju opredelenija polej radiacii, sozdannyh v rezul'tate avarii, rjad ustanovlennyh kontrol'nyh postov osnashhaetsja dozimetrami razlichnyh tipov, kotorye takzhe zamerjajutsja srazu zhe posle gipoteticheskoj avarii. (author)

  7. Quantitative Studies of the Reactions of Hot Tritium Atoms with Hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbon Mixtures; Etudes Quantitatives des Reactions des Atomes Chauds de Tritium avec les Hydrocarbures et les Melanges d'Hydrocarbures; Kolichestvennoe issledovanie reaktsij goryachikh atomov tritiya s gidrouglerodami i smesyami gidrouglerodov; Estudio Cuantitativo de las Reacciones de Atomos de Tritio Calientes con Hidrocarburos y Mezclas de Hidrocarburos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urch, D. S.; Welch, M. J. [Department Of Chemistry, Queen Mary College. University of London, London (United Kingdom)


    zamedlitelem i bez nego; jetan i tetrametilmetan s gelievym zamedlitelem i bez nego. Vychisljajutsja velichiny a i I dlja treh reagirujushhih veshhestv iz jetih treh tipov sistemy i obsuzhdaetsja soglasie mezhdu rezul'tatami s tochki zrenija tochnosti modeli. Rezul'taty, poluchennye iz razlichnyh sistem, soglasujutsja v ramkah predelov jeksperimental'noj oshibki, i jeto pokazyvaet, chto model' kineticheskoj teorii mozhet primenjat'sja k sistemam gorjachih atomov s nekotoroj opredelennost'ju i chto sdelannye predpolozhenija pri rassmotrenii smesej javljajutsja razumnymi. Kojefficienty reaktivnosti gidrouglerodov v smesjah v otnoshenii reakcij zameshhenija ne javljajutsja temi zhe samymi, kak sootnoshenija chisla atomov vodoroda v gidrouglerodah. Poluchennye velichiny dlja jetih kojefficientov ob{sup j}asnjajutsja velichinami I i S (poperechnoe sechenie stolknovenija) dlja gidrouglerodov. (author)

  8. Effects of Monoenergetic Neutron Radiation on Human Cells in Tissue Culture; Effets des Neutrons Monoenergetiques sur des Cellules de Tissus Humains en Culture; Dejstvie oblucheniya monoehnergeticheskimi nejtronami na kletki kul'tury tkanej cheloveka; Efectos de la Radiacion Neutronica Monoenergetica sobre las Celulas Humanas en Cultivos de Tejidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broerse, J. J.; Barendsen, G. W. [Radiobiological Institute of the Organization for Health Research TNO, Rijswijk (Z.H.) (Netherlands)


    sharikov, pomeshhennyh sootvetstvenno mezhdu chashkami i trubkami. R a sche t dozy nejtronnogo potoka predstavljal rjad problem, kotorye obsuzhdajutsja. Poskol'ku ne sushhestvuet ravnomernogo obluchenija kletok, izuchajutsja rezul'tirujushhie netochnosti pri opredelenijah dozy. Privodjatsja krivye zavisimosti vyzhivanija ot dozy dlja oboih tipov nejtronov. Dlja nejtronov s jenergiej 3 Mjev otnositel'naja biologicheskaja jeffektivnost' sostavljala ot 6,5 pri malyh dozah do primerno 3,1 pri vysokih d o zah , v to vremja kak dlja nejtronov s jenergiej 15 Mjev velichiny OBJe ko lebalas' ot 1,9 do 1,6. Putem sravnenija jetih velichin OBJe s s o otnosheniem O B Je-LP Je , poluchennym v predydushhih jeksperimentah s dejtronami i al'f a - chasticami, mozhno opredelit' jeffektivnoe LPJe dlja nejtronov, ispol'zovannyh v jeksperimente. Dlja reshenija nekotoryh problem, svjazannyh so smert'ju jeksperimental'nyh zhivotnyh posle rentgenovskogo ili nejtronnogo obluchenija, byl razrabotan metod, s pomoshh'ju kotorogo kletki, soderzhashhiesja v nebol'shih trubkah, ispol'zujutsja dlja izmerenija jeffektivnoj dozy (t.e. dozy, dlja kotoroj vneseny popravki na OBJe) v uchastkah fantomov ili t el zhivotnyh, predstavljajushhih interes. (author)

  9. Distribution of Aerially Applied Malathion-S{sup 35} in a Forest Ecosystem; Distribution du malathion- {sup 35}S pulverise par avion dans un ensemble ecologique forestier; Raspredelenie malationa, mechennogo S35 i raspylyaemogo s vozdukha dlya izucheniya ehkologicheskoj sistemy lesnykh massivov; Distribucion en un sistema ecologico forestal de malation- 35S pulverizado desde el aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, Jr., R. H.; Peterle, T. J. [Ohio Co-Operative Wildlife Research Unit, Columbus, OH (United States)


    , mechennyj S{sup 35}, byl sintezirovan v Velikobritanii v Radiokhimicheskom tsentre EHmershem. Malation obshchej aktivnost'yu 1 kyuri byl raspylen na lesnom massive 20 akrov 15 i 20 maya 1962 goda. Spetsificheskaya aktivnost' sintezirovannogo malationa byla 17,5 millikyuri na millimol'. Izmeryalos' raspredelenie komponentov pri vozdushnom raspylenii v predelakh lesnogo massiva. S pomoshch'yu ehlektricheski upravlyaemykh probootbornikov vozdukha proizvodilas' otsenka granits zony raspyleniya; s pomoshch'yu napolnennykh geliem ballonov s okhlazhdaemymi steklyannymi diskami izmeryalos' osazhdenie nad kronoj; s pomoshch'yu vertikal'no ustanovlennykh steklyannykh diskov, a takzhe obraztsov kory izmeryalis' kolichestva osazhdayushchegosya malationa v razlichnykh gorizontal'nykh sloyakh lesa; s pomoshch'yu steklyannykh diskov i spetsial'noj bumagi s ehmalievym vkrapleniem mozhno bylo izmeryat' gorizontal'noe raspredelenie i proveryat' rabotu standartnogo ustrojstva dlya izucheniya raspredeleniya pri raspylenii. Izmerenie obraztsov pochv i markirovannykh vekh pozvolyalo izuchit' podpoverkhnostnoe raspredelenie. Po obraztsam vody, vzyatym iz ruch'ev, nasekomym, mlekopitayushchim, presmykayushchimsya i ptitsam mozhno bylo sudit' o pervonachal'nom i posleduyushchem raspredelenii insektitsida i ego produktov obmena v ehkologicheskoj sisteme. Izuchenie obitatelej lesa provodilos' v letnee vremya na protyazhenii 1961 - 1962 godov,i nekotoroe kolichestvo obzornykh dannykh budet polucheno letom 1963 goda. Predvaritel'nye rezul'taty ukazyvayut, chto kolichestvo nasekomykh vosstanovitsya do normal'nogo urovnya primerno cherez tri nedeli i chto ne nablyudaetsya zametnogo vozdejstviya na kolichestvo pozvonochnykh zhivotnykh, obitayushchikh v zonf raspyleniya. (author)

  10. Measurements of Caesium-137 in Finnish Lapps in 1962-1964 by a Mobile Whole-Body Counter; Dosages de Cesium 137 chez les Lapons de Finlande en 1962-1964, au Moyen d'un Anthro- Pogammametre Mobile; 0418 0417 041c 0415 0420 0414 ; Determinacion del Cesio-137 en Lapones Finlandeses, en 1962-1964, Mediante un Antropogammametro Movil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miettinen, J. K. [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Helsinki (Finland)


    ), kristall NaJ(Tl ) (12,5 h 7,5 sm) zashhishhen vo vseh napravlenijah, krome kamery, sloem svinca tolshhinoj 8sm. Oborudovanie sostoit iz 512-kanal'nogo analizatora, kopiroval'nogo apparata, h,u-registratora i stabilizatora, kotorye vo vremja transportirovki pomeshhajutsja v protivoudarnye i pylenepronicaemye jashhiki. Gruzovik snabzhen termostaticheskoj obogrevatel'noj sistemoj i soderzhit dva sanitarnyh otseka. Kalibrovka sistemy proizvodilas' po ceziju-137 dvumja sposobami: 1. Putem dachi vnutr' razlichnym obsleduemym tochno izvestnogo kolichestva (200 - ZOOmmkkjuri) cezija-137 i po'sledujushhego opredelenija jeffektivnosti scheta v techenie 3 - 6 dnej. Vydeljajushhijsja cezij-137 opredeljali ,-pu tem sbora i analiza mochi i jekskrementov. 2. Putem podscheta na plastmassovom fantome, zapolnennom 70 kg rastvora, soderzhashhego 1552 mmkkjuri cezija-137. Jeffektivnost' pervogo metoda na 4,6% vyshe vtorogo. Byla prinjata jeffektivnost' pervogo metoda, kak naibolee pravil'naja. Jeto bylo provereno s pomoshh'ju trojnoj vzaimnoj kalibrovki s dvumja drugimi laboratorijami dlja opredelenija radioaktivnosti vsego organizma. Polucheno horoshee sootvetstvie (v predelah 1-4%). Dlja kalija predvaritel't naja kalibrovka proizvodilas' s pomoshh'ju fantoma. Jeffektivnost' sostavljala 2,51 otsch /min/mmkkjuri Cs{sup 137} (0,60 - 0,72 Mjev, 20 kanalov) i 0,145 otsch/min/g kalija (1,38 - 1,55 Mjev, 30 kanalov). Kogda gruzovik ustanovlen na skale, sootvetstvujushhie velichiny scheta fona na fantome vesom 70 kg (sahar) sostavljajut 77 otsch/min i 58 otsch/min sootvetstvenno. Na peschanoj pochve fon sostavljaet polovinu jetoj velichiny. S pomoshh'ju jetogo peredvizhnogo schetchika byli provedeny tri polevyh obsledovanija v finskoj Laplandii. V mae 1962 goda byli obsledovany 218 loparej, statisticheski predstavljajushhih gruppy iz treh okrugov finskoj Laplandii, Inari, Karesuanto i Utsioki. Pri jetom proizvodilis' dijeticheskie i medicinskie issledrvanija. V sentjabre 1962 goda i marte 1963 goda

  11. Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications (United States)

    Cencini, Massimo; Ginelli, Francesco


    structures playing a prominent role in the studies, both theoretical and applied, of transport, stirring and mixing properties in fluid flows. This section contains two contributions, one more theoretical in nature and a second with biological applications, where Lagrangian coherent structures and their effect on transport and mixing are analyzed through finite-size Lyapunov exponents. While this special issue, in its very nature, cannot be fully exhaustive, we hope that it will provide a clear and up-to-date picture of the theory and applications of Lyapunov analysis, further stimulating fruitful debate across a number of related research fields. Acknowledgments We would like to acknowledge the Journal of Physics A editorial staff, in particular A Haywood, R Gillan and E O'Callaghan for their continuous assistance which made this special issue possible. References [1] Lorenz E 1993 The Essence of Chaos (Seattle, WA: University of Washington) [2] Poincaré H 1890 Acta Math. 13 1 [3] Poincaré H 1892 Les méthods nouvelles de la mécanique céleste vol 1 (Paris: Gauthier-Villars) Poincaré H 1893 Les méthods nouvelles de la mécanique céleste vol 2 (Paris: Gauthier-Villars) Poincaré H 1899 Les méthods nouvelles de la mécanique céleste vol 3 (Paris: Gauthier-Villars) Poincaré H 1992 New Methods of Celestial Mechanics (New York: American Institute of Physics) (Engl. transl.) [4] Hadamard J 1898 J. Math. Pures Appl. 4 27 [5] van der Pol B 1927 Phil. Mag. 3 65 [6] Fermi E, Pasta J and Ulam S 1955 Studies of nonlinear problems Technical Report LA-1940 (Los Alamos, NM: Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory) [7] Lorenz E N 1963 J. Atmos. Sci. 20 130 [8] Hénon M and Heiles C 1964 Astron. J. 69 73 [9] Kolmogorov A N 1958 Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 119 861 [10] Kolmogorov A 1959 Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 124 754 [11] Chirikov B 1959 At. Energ. 6 630 [12] Smale S 1967 Bull. Am. Math. Soc. 73 747 [13] Ruelle D and Takens F 1971 Commun. Math. Phys. 20 167 [14] Li T Y and Yorke J A 1975 Am. Math

  12. The Role of Non-Destructive Testing in the Los Alamos Reactor Programme; Role des Essais Non Destructifs dans le Programme de Reacteurs de los Alamos; Rol' nedestruktivnykh ispytanij materialov v Los-Alamosskoj reaktornoj programme; Papel de los Metodos de Ensayo No Destructivo en el Programa de Reactores de Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenney, G. H. [University of California, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    encerrado en capsulas de tantalo, y durante la fabricacion de estas se aplicaron nuevos metodos de ensayo no destructivo para verificar la integridad del metal basico y de las soldaduras. Tambien se aplicaron esos metodos durante los ensayos de fusion y enfriado y despues de estos. En un experimento realizado con una bomba mecanica de plutonio fundido, se utilizaron procedimientos radiograficos, entre ellos un circuito de television industrial de rayos gamma. Para el programa UHTREX (Ultra High Temperature Reactor Experiment) actualmente en curso de ejecucion, se efectuaron estudios microrradiograficos y al microscopio electronico de las perlas de carburo de uranio revestidas de carbono pirolftico, de 150 {mu}m de diametro, con el fin de evaluar la migracion del uranio en funcion de la temperatura. La masa y la uniformidad de la carga de uranio en los elementos de grafito del programa UHTREX se .determinan mediante contadores de centelleo especiales. (author) [Russian] Los-Alamosskaja nauchnaja laboratorija, rukovodstvo kotoroj osushhestvljaet Kalifornijskij universitet dlja Komissii po atomnoj jenergii SShA, v techenie bolee dvadcati let aktivno zanimaetsja razrabotkoj, proektirovaniem i stroitel'stvom jadernyh reaktorov chetyreh obshhih tipov: issledovatel'skih, jenergeticheskih, reaktorov dlja raketnyh dvigatelej i kriticheskih sborok. Gruppa nedestruktivnyh ispytanij materialov okazyvaet uslugi na praktike vsem vidam dejatel'nosti i proektam laboratorii; v jetom doklade opisyvajutsja nekotorye iz unikal'nyh metodov ispytanij bez razrushenija i priemov, razrabotannyh dlja reaktornoj programmy i ispol'zuemyh v nej. LAJeRJe (Los-Alamosskij jenergeticheskij reaktornyj jeksperiment) osnovan na ispol'zovanii rastvora fosfata urana pri vysokoj temperature. Jetot rastvor javljaetsja ochen' korrozijnym, pojetomu vse chasti, nahodjashhiesja v kontakte s nim. byli pokryty zolotom. Special'nye radiograficheskie metody pozvoljali kontrolirovat' zoloto vo vremja processa proizvodstva

  13. Transfer of heat and speed of plasma particles to powder particles in the plasma spray process at atmospheric pressure / Передача тепла и скорости частиц плазмы частицам порошка в процессе плазменного напыления при атмосферном давлении / Prenos toplote i brzine čestica plazme na čestice praha u plazma-sprej procesu na atmosferskom pritisku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailo R. Mrdak


    brzine čestica plazme (jona i elektrona na čestice praha, kao i temperatura i brzina istopljenih čestica praha pre sudara sa podlogom. Za svaki tip praha, u zavisnosti od raspodele granulacije čestica (µm i gustine (kg/m3, neophodno je odrediti količinu dotura praha (g/min u plazmi za definisane protoke gasova (l/min, tipove plazma gasova (Ar, He, H2, N2 ili njihove mešavine i nivoe snage (kW. Da bi došlo do prenosa toplote i brzine čestica plazme na čestice praha, mora doći do interakcije između jona i elektrona iz plazme i čestica praha. Za poznate brzine i temperature mlaza plazme na atmosferskom pritisku mogu se izračunati putanje pojedinih čestica primenom jednačine kretanja, uzimajući u obzir viskozno trenje i inerciju. U radu je prikazana veza između brzine injektiranja praha Al2O3 i brzine pojedinih čestica praha Al2O3 u plazmi u zavisnosti od odstojanja otvora anode, kao i veza granulacije praha i temperature površine čestica praha u zavisnosti od injektiranja praha i nivoa snage napajanja plazma pištolja na atmosferskom pritisku.

  14. In Vivo and Air Dosimetry of Fission-Spectrum Neutrons; Dosimetrie In Vivo et dans l'Air du Spectre des Neutrons de Fission; Dozimetriya v vozdukhe i dozimetriya In Vivo nejtronov spektra deleniya; Dosimetria In Vivo y en el Aire de Neutrones de un Espectro de Fision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobley, T. S.; Engel, R. E.; Godden, W. R. [Kirtland Airforce Base, New Mexico (United States); Penikas, V. T. [AFIT, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, with Duty Station at University of Rochester, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY (United States)


    bornogo sharika, soderzhashhego kadmij i pokrytogo fol'goj poroga delenija (Pu, Np, U), sernoj tabletki i treh tipov dozimetrov, primenjavshihsja v podkozhnom detektore. Dozimetricheskij pribor pomeshali v brjushnoj polosti podopytnyh zhivotnyh za vosemnadcat' chasov do obluchenija, prikrepljaja e go k perednej storone rubcevogo otdela zheludka. Opisyvaetsja metod rassechenija rubcevogo otdela zheludka. Doza nejtronov izmerjalas' s pomoshh'ju porogovyh izmerenij fol'gi. Zoloto i zoloto, pokrytoe kadmiem, ispol'zovalis' dlja opredelenija integrirovannogo potoka teplovyh nejtronov; plutonij-239, neptunij-237, uran-238 i sera-32 - dlja opredelenija integrirovannyh potokov bystryh nejtronov; radiofotoljuminiscentnye stekljannye sterzhni - dlja opredelenija dozy gamma-luchej. Ovcu podvergali oblucheniju sboku na rasstojanii (po srednej linii) 200 cm, ili 175 sm ot centra kriticheskoj sborki. Doza nejtronov v radah, izmerennaja v vozduhe na rasstojanii 200 sm sostavljala 161 {+-}5,5 rada; na rasstojanii 175 sm - 242 {+-} 16,6 rada. Doza gamma-luchej na sootvetstvujushhih rasstojanijah so stavljala 3 3 {+-}2 ,4 i 4 2 {+-}2 ,5 rentgena. Dozy na vhode i vyhode, a takzhe doza vo vnutrennem detektore kolebalas' v svjazi s vnezapnym pod{sup e}mom temperatury, uvelicheniem rasstojanija ot reaktora, polozheniem fol'gi v otnoshenii reaktora i zavisela ot tolshhiny i sostava oslabljajushhih dozu tkanej. (author)

  15. Some Applications of Radioisotopes of Short Half-Life in the French Gas Industry; Quelques Applications des Radioelements a Periode Courte dans l'Industrie Gazoere Francaise; НЕКОТОРЫЕ ВИДЫ ПРИМЕНЕНИЯ КОРОТКОЖИВУЩИХ РАДИОЭЛЕМЕНТОВ ВО ФРАНЦУЗСКОЙ ГАЗОВОЙ ПРОМЫШЛЕННОСТИ; Algunas Aplicaciones de los Radioelementos de Periqdo Corto en la Industria Francesa del Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellier, C. [Gaz de France, Paris (France); Courtois, G.; Gasnier, M. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay (France)


    jetoj apparatury. Poluchennaja posle rasshifrovki diagramma pokazyvaet dovol'no zametnyj maksimum dlja kazhdogo sluchaja utechki, kotoraja opredeljaetsja priblizitel'no v 2 m. Dlja provedenija dostovernogo obnaruzhenija neobhodimo, chtoby s utechkoj uhodilo do 20 mkkjuri. Dlja obnaruzhenija utechki gaza v raspredelitel'nyh trubah ispol'zovali mechennyj bromom-62 bromistyj metil, prigotovlennyj na meste iz Br{sup 82}NH{sub 4}. Posle vpryskivanija radioaktivnyj gaz gomogenizirovalsja putem cirkuljacii. Obnaruzhenie proizvodilos' na urovne zemli pri pomoshhi portativnyh scintilljacionnyh schetchikov. Ispytanija, kotorye eshhe prodolzhajutsja, uzhe pozvolili opredelit' neobhodimuju dlja primenenija aktivnost' i naibolee blagoprijatnye uslovija dlja obnaruzhenija razlichnyh tipov utechki. (author)

  16. Automatic Sample and Data Processing in Studies of Calcium Metabolism in Rats; Traitement Automatique des Echantillons et des Donnees dans l'Etude du Metabolisme Calcique chez le Rat; Avtomaticheskaya obrabotka obraztsov i dannykh pri izuchenii obmena kal'tsiya u krysy; Tratamiento Automatico de las Muestras y de los Datos en el Estudio del Metabousmo del Calcio en la Rata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onkelinx, C.; Richelle, L. J.; Debras, J. [Universite de Liege (Belgium)


    , s odnoj storony, izuchenija jevoljucii indikatornoj dozy kal'cija-45, vvedennoj vnutrivenno, a s drugoj -izmerenija himicheskogo i radiohimicheskogo balansa. Sochetanie jetih dvuh tipov informacii i ih matematicheskaja obrabotka vedet k resheniju voprosa o sozdanii obshhej modeli obmena kal'cija, chto daet vozmozhnost' znat' kolichestvo obmenivaemyh kletok i velichinu razlichnyh faktorov, takih kak pogloshhenie v kishechnike, vydelenie iz pochek i kishechnika, otlozhenie kal'cija v kostjah i vyhod kal'cija iz kostej. Nashi raboty byli oblegcheny primeneniem avtomaticheskih metodov izmerenija obrazcov i obrabotki dannyh, kotorye i sostavljajut predmet nastojashhego doklada. Obrabotka obrazcov. Izmerenija radioaktivnosti proizvodili na obrazcah plazmy nebol'shogo ob'ema (20 - 40 {lambda}), kotorye brali povtorno iz prob mochi i fekalij, vzjatyh v opredelennoe vremja. Izmerenie aktivnosti provodili na schetchike antisovpadenij so olabym fonovym shumom, vkljuchajushhim avtomaticheskoe ustrojstvo dlja otbora prob i jelektronnuju ustanovku, izmerenija kotoroj registrirovalis' pechatajushhim ustrojstvom. Obsuzhdajutsja original'nye metody podgotovki obrazcov i ih izmerenija, v chastnosti statisticheskie uslovija scheta, vyverennye na vychislitel'noj mashine pri kazhdom izmerenii. Obrabotka dannyh. Proizvoditsja na jelektronnoj vychislitel'noj mashine IBM 7040, kotoroj zadajut raschetnuju programmu i ispol'zujut nabor neobrabotannyh dannyh ob jeksperimente v vide perforirovannyh kartochek na kazhdoe zhivotnoe otdel'no. Dannye obrabatyvajutsja v tri jetapa: 1) preobrazovanie neobrabotannyh dannyh i raschet standartnogo otklonenija izmerenij kazhdogo obrazca; 2) analiz krivoj udel'noj radioaktivnosti plazmy v zavisimosti ot vremeni i raschet ego matjomaticheskogo vyrazhenija; vyverka na tochnost' teoreticheskoj krivoj s pomoshh'ju jeksperimental'nyh izmerenij; 3) reshenie polnoj modeli po raschetu razlichnyh parametrov. Poluchennye rezul'taty byli otpechatany obychnym

  17. Materials Control in the Fabrication of Enriched Uranium Fuels; Controle des Matieres au Cours de la Fabrication des Combustibles a Base d'Uranium Enrichi; Uchet materialov pri izgotovlenii topliva na obogashchennom urane; Control de Materiales en la Elaboracion de Combustibles de Uranio Enriquecido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardwell, Jr., R. G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    densidad. La manipulacion de la chatarra tuvo una importante influencia en el balance de los materiales que confirmo el contenido de combustible y aseguro una buena contabilizacion. Los procedimientos de manipulacion y registro, y en particular los metodos de determinacion de las partidas y de marcacion fisica, se formularon de tal manera que constituyeron una buena ayuda para el fabricante en lo que respecta al control de la criticidad. (author) [Russian] Usilennaja dejatel'nost' v oblasti tehnologii teplovydeljajushhih jelementov, provodivshajasja v Okridzhskoj nacional'noj laboratorii na protjazhenii poslednih 15 let, privela k vyrabotke racional'nyh tehnologicheskih processov i metodov ucheta obogashhennyh materialov, kotorye sejchas shiroko primenjajutsja pri izgotovlenii teplovydeljajushhih jelementov v promyshlennom masshtabe. V hode proektirovanija i izgotovlenija prototipov teplovydeljajushhih jelementov dlja zapuska reaktora dlja ispytanija materialov, reaktora s massovoj zashhitoj ili {sup b}assejnovogo tipa{sup ,} kompaktnogo jenergeticheskogo reaktora voennogo obrazca, reaktora s bashennoj zashhitoj, pokazatel'nogo reaktora dlja Zhenevskoj konferencii, izotopnogo reaktora s potokom bol'shoj intensivnosti i jeksperimentol'nogo reaktora s gazovym ohlazhdeniem byli vyrabotany i prinjaty v kachestve ustanovlennyh norm nadezhnye metody obrashhenija s obogashhennym toplivom v vide splavov, suspenzii ili okisej. Nakoplennyj opyt posluzhil osnovoj dlja dannogo doklada, v kotorom podcherkivajutsja problemy ucheta materialov i ih razreshenie pri izgotovlenii razlichnyh sostavnyh chastej teplovydeljajushhih jelementov razlichnyh tipov na obogashhennom urane. Osnovnymi zadachami pri vyrabotke horoshej sistemy ucheta materialov javljajutsja: 1) sokrashhenie chisla edinic podotchetnogo materiala; 2) vyrabotka otdel'nyh uchetnyh dokumentov dlja kazhdoj vazhnoj stadii izgotovlenija i sostavlenie ih svodki sposobom, pozvoljajushhim s naimen'shej zatratoj truda vyjavljat' mesta

  18. The Role of Exponential and PCTR Experiments at Hanford in the Design of Large Power Reactors; Roles Respectifs des Experiences Exponentielles et du Reacteur d'Etude des Constantes Physiques de Hanford dans les Etudes de Grands Reacteurs de Puissance; Znachenie ehksponentsial'nykh opytov i opytov na reaktore PCTR pri proektirovanii bol'shikh ehnergeticheskikh reaktorov v khehnforde; Papel de los Experimentos Exponenciales y del Reactor PCTR de Hanford en el Proyecto de Grandes Reactores de Potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heineman, R. E. [General Electric Company, Richland, WA (United States)


    - metrov reaktora dlja razlichnyh tipov razmnozhajushhej sredy. Jeksponencial'nye reaktory primenjalis' posle togo, kak byl postroen reaktor PCTR, dazhe nesmotrja na to, chto polnost'ju dostigalis' preimushhestva, neobhodimye dlja reaktora PCTR. Rassmatrivajutsja i sopostav- ljajutsja harakternye dannye dlja jetih dvuh ustanovok na predmet ispol'zovanija pri proekti- rovanii jenergeticheskih reaktorov i modernizacii sushhestvujushhih issledovatel'skih reakto- rov i ustanovok dlja podgotovki specialistov. Sravnivajutsja rashody, svjazannye s postroj- koj i jekspluataciej reaktora v posledujushhee vremja. Namechaetsja napravlenie razvitija no- vyh jeksperimental'nyh metodov ispol'zovanija ustanovok i ukazyvajutsja potrebnosti v bolee shirokih jeksperimental'nyh dannyh. Takie dannye neobhodimy dlja togo, chtoby jasnee predopredelit' potrebnosti i budushhie tendencii v dele konkretnogo primenenija dvuh usta- novok dlja okazanija pomoshhi pri proektirovanii jenergeticheskih reaktorov. Daetsja kratkoe opisanie vysokotemperaturnogo reaktora dlja ispytanija reshetok i ego predpologaemogo ispol'zovanija v svete rassmatrivaemyh napravlenij. (author)

  19. Study of Fluidized-Bed Control Rods; Etude de Barres de Controle Fluidisees; Izuchenie reguliruyushchej sistemy, ispol'zuyushchej suspenziyu pogloshchayushchikh chastits; Estudio Sobre Barras de Control de Lecho Fluidificado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, D. J. [General Nuclear Engineering Corporation, Dunedin, FL (United States); Driscoll, M. J.; Dalton, G. R.; Parkinson, T. F. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)


    sistemu trub podobno sistemam upravlenija, razrabatyvaemym dlja reaktorov s suspenziej topliva. Nekotorye iz vozmozhnyh preimushhestv koncepcii SPCh: 1) ustranjaetsja bol'shinstvo vvodov v verhnjuju chast' korpusa i uproshhaetsja process peregruzki topliva; 2) pri vozniknovenij avarii v rezul'tate poteri potoka proishodit avtomaticheskaja bystraja ostanovka reaktora; 3) osevoe raspredelenie moshhnosti mozhet izmenjat'sja v rezul'tate primenenija special'nyh kanalov ili chastic peremennoj velichiny; 4) rezkoe vozrastanie potoka v vodjanom zazore mozhet byt' umen'sheno dlja chastichno izvlechennogo upravljajushhego sterzhnja; 5) mozhno umen'shit' temperaturnyj ''zapas'' reaktivnosti,esli sistema imeet otricatel'nyj temperaturnyj kojefficient; 6) rashody po izgotovleniju znachitel'no nizhe, chem dlja jelektromehanicheskih sistem. Provedena ocenka koncepcii SMCh, v tom chisle bylo osushhestvleno stroitel'stvo pro- totipnyh modelej i proverka gidravlicheskih i jadernyh harakteristik. Izuchalis' dva tipa: propuskajushhie ''sterzhni'' (tolshhina 2 srednih svbbodnyh probega) i otrazhajushhie ''sterzhni'' (tolshhina 4 srednih svobodnyh probega). Dlja oboih tipov mozhno poluchit' priemlimye gidravlicheskie i jadernye harakteristiki. Obosnovana vozmozhnost' upravlenija reaktorami nizkoj moshhnosti s pomoshh'ju propuskajushhih ili otrazhajushhih upravljajushhih ' sterzhnej''. Dalee bylo pokazano, chto SPCh obladajut horoshimi regulirujushhimi svojstvami, kotorye mozhno rasschitat' standartnymi metodami. V sluchae bol'shoj moshhnosti i vysokoj temperatury neobhodima dopolnitel'naja informacija otnositel'no harakteristik materiala chastic. Bol'shoe preimushhestvo SPCh zakljuchaetsja v vozmozhnosti formirovanija osevogo potoka libo putem ispol'zovanija chastic razlichnoj velichiny i pogloshhenija, libo zhe putem.sootvetstvujushhego formirovanija oblasti poperechnogo sechenija SPCh. (author)

  20. Fast Plasma from a Coaxial Gun; Plasma Rapide Produit par un Canon Coaxial; Bystraya plazma iz koaksial'nogo inzhektora; Produccion de Plasma Rapido Mediante un Inyector Coaxial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, J.; Henins, I. [Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    produce constituyen el objeto de los experimentos descritos en la memoria. El mecanismo de aceleracion es complicado y no se conoce perfectamente, pero se han adquirido unas nociones considerables mediante un gran numero de experimentos, utilizando para el diagnostico: circuitos externos de captacion diamagnetica, circuitos de Rogowsky en el vacio, sondas electricas, electrodos externos de captacion capacitiva, analisis de la deflexion magnetica y electrostatica de las particulas, espectroscopia, fotografia de la luz emitida por el blanco, medicion del tiempo de vuelo con y sin campo guia, determinacion de los neutrones emitidos en el volumen del plasma a raiz de la reaccion d-d y otros metodos. Como resultado se aprecia que se produce un proceso magneto-electrico complejo delante de la boca del inyector. El proceso de aceleracion depende de la diferencia de densidades del gas entre dicha region (baja) y dentro del inyector (elevada). El plasma rapido procede en gran parte del gas adsorbido en los electrodos, lo que obliga a obtener un vacio limpio para evitar la contaminacion por iones rapidos de impurezas fuertemente ionizadas (C{sup 5+}, 10{sup 8} cm/s). El material del electrodo se evapora, pero parece que no es un contaminante grave porque se forma tarde. La alta tension que en realidad acelera los iones esta ligada a la rapida expansion, en el vacio, de un volumen de flujo magnetico alrededor del chorro. El plasma rapido es emitido en forma de cono estrecho con el centro abierto. La alta tension que acelera los deuterones rapidos acelera tambien iones del material de la pared cuando el plasma rapido bonbardea una pared de vidrio, provocando su evaporacion. (author) [Russian] Koaksial'nyj plazmennyj inzhektor, ispol'zuemyj v dannom jeksperimente, javljaetsja istochnikom dvuh razlichnyh tipov plazmy, obrazovannyh razlichnymi mehanizmami. Plotnaja medlennaja ( Tilde-Operator 10{sup 7} sm/sek) dejte- rievaja plazma obrazuetsja neposredstvenno v rezul'tate ] HV

  1. Chemical Effects of Nuclear Recoil in Organic Halide Systems: A New Theoretical Treatment and Experimental Verification of the Theory; Effets Chimiques du Recul Nucleaire dans des Systemes Organiques Halogenes: Nouveau Traitement Theorique et Verification Experimentale de la Theorie; Khimicheskie vozdejstviya yadernoj otdachi v organicheskikh galoidnykh sistemakh: novoe teoreticheskoe tolkovanie i ehksperimental'noe podtverzhdenie teorii; Efectos Quimicos del Retroceso Nuclear en Sistemas de Haluros Organicos: Nuevo Tratamiento Teorico y Verificacion Experimental de la Teoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontis, S. S.; Sanitwongs, P.; Weston, M. [Londonderry Laboratory for Radiochemistry, University of Durham, Durham (United Kingdom)


    vide dvuh tipov parametrov, a imenno: 1) frakcionnaja vozmozhnost' togo, chto stolknovenie gorjachego atoma radioaktivnogo galogena s kakoj-to opredelennoj molekuloj privedet k uderzhaniju gorjachego atoma v toj molekule; 2) verhnie i nizhnie predely jenergij dlja tak nazyvaemogo gorjachego atoma broma. Pokazyvaetsja, kak pervyj tip parametra mozhet byt' vyveden iz jeksperimentov s binarnymi smesjami organicheskogo galoidnogo soedinenija i sootvetstvujushhego svobodnogo galogena: vtoroj tip parametra dolzhen vyvodit'sja iz jadernyh i himicheskih dannyh. Jeti metody proverjalis' s pomoshh'ju issledovanij na sistemah C{sub 2}H{sub 5}Br/CCl{sub 4}/Br{sub 2} i C{sub 2}H{sub 5}Br/C{sub 6}H{sub 5}Br/Br{sub 2}. Vychislennye uderzhanija (s ispol'zovaniem parametrov, vyvedennyh iz issledovanij sistem C{sub 2}H{sub 5}Br/Br{sub 2}, CCl{sub 4}/Br{sub 2} i C{sub 6}H{sub 5}Br/Br{sub 2}) horosho soglasujutsja s uderzhanijami, najdennymi jeksperimental'no v smesjah s frakciej grammolekuly broma bol'she 0,1. Takim obrazom, polagajut, chto mehanizm Libbi javljaetsja podhodjashhim dlja ob'jasnenija nabljudaemyh organicheskih uderzhanij v takih smesjah. Esli frakcija grammolekuly broma opuskaetsja nizhe OD, nabljudaemye uderzhanija stanovjatsja v progressivnoj stepeni vyshe, chem rasschitannye velichiny. Jeto ob{sup j}asnjaetsja dopolnitel'nymi vidami mecheni* gorjachih atomov, kotorye stanovjatsja dejstvujushhimi, esli koncentracija broma ne javljaetsja dostatochno vysokoj, chtoby dat' sootvetstvujushhuju ochistku radikala. (author)

  2. Moderation of Neutrons Emitted by a Pulsed Source and Neutron Spectrometry Based on Slowing-Down Time; Ralentissement des Neutrons Emis par une Source Pulsee et Leur Spectrometrie en Fonction du Temps de Ralentissement; Zamedlenie nejtronov, ispuskaemykh impul'snym istochnikom, i spektrometriya nejtronov po vremeni zamedleniya; Moderacion de Neutrones Emitidos por una Pitente Pulsada y Espectrometria Neutronica Basada en el Tiempo de Frenado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, A. A.; Isakov, A. I.; Kazarnovskij, M. V.; Popov, Ju. P.; Shapiro, F. L. [Fizicheskij Institut Im. P.N. Lebedeva AN SSSR, Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)


    orbital 1 = 1. (author) [Russian] V Fizicheskom institute im. P.N.Lebedeva AN SSSR na protjazhenii poslednih 10 let byl vypolnen rjad rabot po issledovaniju nestacionarnogo zamedlenija nejtronov v tjazhelyh sredah, razvitiju metoda spektrometrii nejtronov po vremeni zamedlenija i primeneniju jetogo metoda dlja izuchenija jenergeticheskoj zavisimosti sechenij jadernyh reakcij, vyzyvaemyh nejtronami s jenergiej do 30 kjev. V nastojashhem doklade daetsja obzor jetih issledovanij i obsuzhdajutsja ih itogi. V doklade posle kratkogo rassmotrenija teorii nestacionarnogo zamedlenija i termalizacii nejtronov izlagajutsja rezul'taty jeksperimental'nogo izuchenija zamedlenija nejtronov v grafite, zheleze i svince i izuchenija termalizacii nejtronov v svince. Pri pomoshhi impul'snogo istochnika nejtronov i rezonansnyh detektorov bylo izmereno raspredelenie vremen zamedlenija do rjada fiksirovannyh znachenij konechnoj jenergii nejtrona. Provedeno sravnenie poluchennyh rezul'tatov s teoriej, uchityvajushhej teplovoe dvizhenie atomov zamedlitelja, kotoroe v sluchae svinca privodit k izmerimomu razbrosu vremen zamedlenija pri jenergijah nizhe 10 jev. Dlja podkadmievoj oblasti jenergij izmerena zavisimost' srednej skorosti nejtronov v svince ot vremeni zamedlenija i provedeno sravnenie s mnogogruppovoj teoriej. Opisana primenjavshajasja metodika opredelenija jenergeticheskoj zavisimosti sechenij nejtronnyh reakcij po vremeni zamedlenija i obsuzhdajutsja vozmozhnosti i perspektivy jetogo metoda spektrometrii. Kratko obsuzhdajutsja rezul'taty spektrometricheskih izmerenij, kotorye velis' v dvuh napravlenijah. Pervoe napravlenie -precizionnye izmerenija jenergeticheskoj zavisimosti jenergeticheskogo hoda otnoshenij sechenij reakcij He{sup 3}(n, p), Li{sup 6}(n, {alpha}), B{sup 10}(n, {alpha}) i N{sup 14}(n, p). Naibolee interesnyj rezul'tat jetih opytov -obnaruzhenie postojannoj otricatel'noj slagajushhej sechenija reakcij i ukazanija na sushhestvovanie vozbuzhdennogo urovnja Ne{sup 4

  3. Thermal Neutron Spectral and Spatial Distributions in Light-Water-Moderated Uranium Lattices; Distributions Spectrale et Spatiale des Neutrons Thermiques dans des Reseaux a Uranium et a Eau Leger; Spektral'noe i prostranstvennoe raspredelenie teplovykh nejtronov v uranovykh reshetkakh s vodnym zamedlitelem; Distribuciones Espectral y Espacial de los Neutrones Termicos en los Reticulados de Uranio Moderados por Agua Ligera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, J.; Volpe, J. J.; Klein, D.; Schmidt, E.; Gelbard, E. [Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    mediciones se llevaron a cabo en un tubo de 10 cm de diametro, lleno de agua, y colocado en el reticulado del TRX. La pared del tubo se lleno con {sup 10}B en polvo, gracias al cual el interior del tubo se encontraba aislado del reticulado del reactor a energias inferiores alOkeV. Los indices de activacion relativos por neutrones termicos y las formas radiales de los detectores sensibles a los espectros se midieron en dos casos que corresponden respectivamente a una distribucion cuasi maxwelliana (H{sub 2}O pura) y a un espectro considerablemente deformado por la presencia de cadmio. En el marco de ese experimento, se procedio a un calculo de 12 grupoe energeticos con ayuda de cada uno de los nucleos y una aproximacion P{sub 3}. La forma del medio moderador se obtuvo mediante un calculo de valores propios referido a las formas de los modos espaciales que el sistema adopta y que decrecen exponencialmente segun el letargo; el calculo fiie completado por mediciones de las formas de activacion epicadmica. Los indices relativos de activacion, calculados con ayuda de los dos nucleos, acusaban diferencias de hasta 10%, segun que el medio estuviese o no envenenado. Los datos experimentales se compararon con los resultados de calculos efectuados con el nucleo de Radkowsky y el de Nelkin. Los resultados obtenidos son claramente favorables al espectro duro calculado mediante el nucleo de Nelkin. (author) [Russian] Daetsja obzor opytov s cel'ju izuchit' povedenie teplovyh nejtronov v uranovyh reshetkah s vodnym zamedlitelem. Sta- vilis' opyty dvuh osnovnyh tipov: izmerenija stepeni ispol'zovanija teplovyh nejtronov i prostranstvennye raspredelenija aktivacii teplovymi nejtronami v neravnomerno otravlen- noj vodnoj srede. Opyty prednadznachalis' dlja ispytanija prigodnosti sushhestvujushhih teore- ticheskih modelej v rezul'tate provedenija grani mezhdu spektral'nymi i prostranstvennymi jeffektami v reaktornoj srede. Dannye opytov sravnivalis' s teoreticheskimi modeljami, v tom chisle s

  4. Release of Fission Products from UC-ZrC Fuel Inserts; Degagement des produits de fission liberes dans des noyaux combustibles UC-ZrC; Vydelenie produktov deleniya iz topliv UC - ZrC; Liberacion de productos de fision por pastillas de combustible de UC-ZrC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, F.; Von der Decken, C. B.; Schifferstein, K. [Brown Boveri/Krupp Reaktorbau G.M.B.H., Duesseldorf (Germany); Clauss, A.; Reichel, H.; Rygaert, J.; Ruston, W. R. [Societe d' Etudes de Recherches et d' Applications pour l' Industrie (S.E.R.A.I.), Brussels (Belgium)


    reaktora. Krome togo sushchestvovala vozmozhnost' otdel'nogo izmereniya doli otdachi {epsilon}{sub R} , esli toplivnaya serdtsevina byla podveshana v pechi s bol'shim diametrom. Izmerennye velichiny {epsilon}{sub R} lish' neznachitel'no prevyshali vychislennye. Pri bolee vysokikh temperaturakh obraztsa mozhno bylo vychislit' dolyu diffuzii {epsilon}{sub D} vychitaniem doli otdachi iz polnogo vydeleniya. Poluchiv {epsilon}{sub D}, mozhno vychislit' D/r{sub 0}''2 sek, upotreblyaya uravneniya priblizheniya S. Flyugge i K.EH.Tsimensa, gde D - konstanta diffuzii, r{sub 0} rasschitannyj matematicheskim putem srednij radius chastitsy. Grafik zavisimosti logarifma ehtikh velichin ot 1/T daet ehnergiyu aktivatsii (T - temperatura obraztsa, {sup o}K). Raznitsa mezhdu ehnergiyami aktivatsii diffuzii kriptona i ksenona'okaehalas' neznachitel'noj. Malo otlichalis' drug ot druga takzhe i ehnergii aktivatsii, opredelennye dlya razlichnykh tipov tabletok, nesmotrya na to, chto velichiny D/r{sub 0}{sup 2} v nekotorykh sluchayakh pri tekh zhe temperaturakh obraztsa razlichalis' na 4 poryadka. V grafite kapsul posle oblucheniya byli opredeleny aktivnosti izotopov I{sup 131}, Sr{sup 85}, Ba{sup 140} i Ce{sup 141}. 3a isklyucheniem I{sup 131}, aktivnosti byli vyshe ozhidaemykh dlya vydeleniya tol'ko za schet otdachi. Velichiny dlya Sr{sup 85}, Ba{sup 140}, i Ce{sup 141} byli slishkom veliki, chtoby ikh mozhno bylo ob{sup y}asnit' diffuziej sootvetstvuyushchikh im inertnykh gazov-predshestvennikov. Predpolagaetsya, chto izmerennye izotopy ili ikh neinertnye gazy-predshestvenniki vedelyayutsya putem diffuzii. (author)

  5. The Formation of Polymeric Products in Reactions of Polyvalent Recoil Atoms; Formation de Polymeres lors de Reactions Provoquees par des Atomes de Recul Polyvalents; Obrazovanie polimernykh produktov pri reaktsiyakh polivalentnykh atomov otdachi; Formacion de Polimeros en las Reacciones de Atomos de Retroceso Polivalentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzantiev, B. G.; Stukan, R. A.; Shvedchikov, A. P.; Shishkov, A. V. [Institut Himicheskoj Fiziki AN SSSR, Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)


    mechenyh polimernyh produktov v processe himicheskoj stabilizacii atomov otdachi sery-35 i ugleroda-14, poluchajushhihsja po jadernym reakcijam Cl{sup 35} /n, p/S{sup 35} i N{sup 14}/n, p/C{sup 14} v gazovoj i zhidkoj fazah. Mozhno predpolozhit', chto v processe stabilizacii gorjachie atomy ugleroda obrazujut metilenovye biradikaly, kotorye po svoej sposobnosti vstupat' v reakciju vo mnogom napominajut povedenie atomarnoj sery. Issledovanija provodilis' kak dlja parafinovyh (CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}), tak i dlja ciklicheskih (ciklogeksan, ciklogeksen, benzol) uglevodorod. Oblucheniju podvergalis' binarnye sistemy uglevodorod-datchik gorjachih atomov S{sup 35} i C{sup 14}. V kachestve poslednego ispol'zovalis' soedinenija CCI{sub 4}, HCl i ammiak. Obluchenie provodilos' na reaktore tipa IRT-1000 pri potoke teplovyh nejtronov 10{sup 11} - 10{sup 12} neJtron/cm{sup 2}sek. Pokazano, chto dlja razlichnyh soedinenij v zhidkoj faze do 60-90% sery-35 stabilizuetsja v forme polimera, vyhod kotorogo jekstremal'no zavisit ot sostava, prohodja cherez maksimum pri sootnoshenii komponentov, blizkom k jekvimolekuljarnomu. V gazovoj faze vyhod polimera sostavljaet 30 - 40% ot obshhej aktivnosti. Metodom radiohromatografii na bumage ustanovleno, chto mechenye polimernye produkty imejut slozhnyj sostav i predstavljajut soboj smes' dvuh kachestvenno otlichnyh tipov soedinenij, vyhod kotoryh po-raznomu menjaetsja v zavisimosti ot sootnoshenija komponentov. Uvelichenie vremeni obluchenija privodit k rostu vyhoda mechenogo polimera. V sluchae zhidkofaznoj sistemy C{sub 6}H{sub 12}-CCl{sub 4} molekuljarnyj ves S{sup 35}-soderzhashhego polimera, opredeljalsja metodom diffuzii iz kapilljara i okazalsja ravnym 5000 dlja polimera odnogo tipa i 500 - 1000 dlja drugogo. Obrazovanie vysokokipjashhego mechenogo produkta nabljudalos' takzhe pri obluchenii chistogo CCI{sub 4}. Analogichnye opyty provodilis' v sisteme jetilen -ammiak v gazovoj faze pri vysokom davlenii. Pokazano, chto v jetom sluchae

  6. Photofission of Even-Even Nuclei Near the Threshold; Photofission des Noyaux Pair-Pair au Voisinage du Seuil; 0424 041e 0422 041e 0414 0415 041b 0415 041d 0418 0415 0427 0415 0422 041d 041e - 0427 0415 0422 041d 042b 0425 042f 0414 0415 0420 0412 0411 041b 0418 0417 0418 041f 041e 0420 041e 0413 0410 ; Fotofision de los Nucleos Par-Par Cerca del Umbral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabotnov, N. S.; Smirenkin, G. N.; Soldatov, A. C.; Usachev, L. N. [Fiziko-Energeticheskij Institut, Obninsk, SSSR (Russian Federation); Kapica, S. P.; Cipenjuk, I. Ju.M. [Institut Fizicheskih Problem, Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)


    la cuestion de la paridad del estado fundamental del MaPu en relacion con los resultados de las mediciones de la distribucion angular de los fragmentos procedentes de la fotofision del {sup 239}Pu, donde se ha observado un cambio del signo de anisotropia, de conformidad con las previsiones teoricas para los canales K = 1 /2 y 3/2. (author) [Russian] Soobshhajutsja rezul'taty izmerenij uglovyh raspredelenij oskolkov pri fotodelenii U{sup 238}, Th{sup 232}, Pu{sup 240} i Pu{sup 239}, vypolnennyh na puchke gamma-kvantov tormoznogo izluchenija. Istochnikom gamma-izluchenija sluzhil mikrotron Instituta fizicheskih problem AN SSSR s moshhnost'ju puchka 12 Mjev. Ispol'zovanie mikrotrona v kachestve moshhnogo istochnika gamma-luchej pozvolilo proizvesti izmerenija uglovyh raspredelenij v naibolee interesnoj i do sih por ne izuchennoj oblasti jenergij gamma-kvantov s E{sub makc} < 6 Mjev. Dlja U{sup 238} issledovanija byli proizvedeny v diapazone jenergij ot 5,2 Mjev do 9,2 Mjev, dlja Th{sup 232} - ot 5,4 Mjev do 6,9 Mjev, dlja Pu{sup 240} - ot 5,4 Mjev do 7,9 Mjev i dlja Pu{sup 239} - ot 5,4 Mjev do 7,9 Mjev. Privodjatsja takzhe rezul'taty izmerenij uglovyh raspredelenij pri fotodjo- lenii U{sup 238} i Th{sup 232} gamma-luchami reakcii F{sup 19} (p, {alpha}{gamma}). Istochnikom gamma-izluchenija javljalas' tolstaja mishen' iz SaEg, obluchavshajasja protonami s jenergiej. 1,45 Mjev. - V rezul'tate jetih izmerenij udalos' ustanovit', v sootvetstvii s bol'shinstvom vypolt nennyh ranee jeksperimentov no v protivopolozhnost' dannym Lazarevoj i dr. i Forkmana i Juhansona, chto vklad delenij, svjazannyh s kvadrupol'nym pogloshheniem fotonov v polnoe sechenie delenija mal v oblasti jenergij E Less-Than-Or-Equal-To 6 MeV. Vpervye pokazano, chto v soglasii s teoreticheskimi predposylkami, osnovannymi na .modeli kanalov delenija O.Bora, otnositel'nyj ves kvadrupol'noj komponenty stanovitsja sushhestvennym tol'ko pri jenergijah vozbuzhdenija nizhe poroga 'dipol'nogo' delenija

  7. HISTORICAL MEMOIR: The play of light in crystals (United States)

    Zakharchenya, Boris Petrovitch


    journal Doklady AN SSSR in 1952. Nikitin, knowing Russian and having read Gross' papers, performed the same experiment and published it in far more accessible European journals, but did so considerably later---clearly an act of misappropriation. Also astonishing are the references made to a short notice in 1951 by Japanese physicists from Hokkaido University, which is frequently cited as the first observation of the exciton but seemingly without actually having been read. It describes an observation of certain absorption edges at the fundamental absorption edge, but not a word on lines, nor on hydrogen-likeness, nor on excitons can be found there, whereas the first paper of Gross and his postgraduate student Karryev was clearly and boldly entitled The optical spectrum of the exciton. Young co-workers joining Gross' laboratory often asked me: 'What will happen with an exciton in a micro-crystal the size of which is comparable with the radius of exciton orbits?' I knew the answer to this question, since at the very start of the exciton saga I had investigated the behaviour of excitons in magnetic fields. The orbits of electrons and holes forming excitons shrink in a magnetic field, and their motion approximates a one-dimensional one. This one-dimensionality is caused by a strong magnetic field. The situation is similar to what occurs in the structure which is nowadays called a quantum wire (a kind of semiconductor microstructure). But in such a quasi-one-dimensional potential well the exciton binding energy increases (it is already a so-called magneto-exciton). Indeed, in modern semiconductor microstructures (quantum wells, quantum wires, superlattices, quantum dots) the binding energy of the exciton increases, and in many cases it can be observed at room temperature. There is no conference on nanostructures that does not include exciton optics. Countless new investigations and discoveries have been accomplished owing to the exciton spectroscopy of these structures, so