WorldWideScience

Sample records for tip-turbine-driven lift fan

  1. Dynamic response of Hovercraft lift fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, D. D.

    1981-08-01

    Hovercraft lift fans are subjected to varying back pressure due to wave action and craft motions when these vehicles are operating in a seaway. The oscillatory back pressure causes the fans to perform dynamically, exhibiting a hysteresis type of response and a corresponding degradation in mean performance. Since Hovercraft motions are influenced by variations in lift fan pressure and discharge, it is important to understand completely the nature of the dynamic performance of lift fans in order to completely solve the Hovercraft seakeeping problem. The present study was performed to determine and classify the instabilities encountered in a centrifugal fan operating against time-varying back pressure. A model-scale experiment was developed in which the fan discharge was directed into a flow-measuring device, terminating in a rotating valve which produced an oscillatory back pressure superimposed upon a mean aerodynamic resistance. Pressure and local velocity were measured as functions of time at several locations in the fan volute. The measurements permitted the identification of rotating (or propagating) stall in the impeller. One cell and two cell configurations were classified and the transient condition connecting these two configurations was observed. The mechanisms which lead to rotating stall in a centrifugal compressor are presented and discussed with specific reference to Hovercraft applications.

  2. Numerical Study of Transition of an Annular Lift Fan Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Jiang; Bo Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at studying the transition of annular lift fan aircraft through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The oscillations of lift and drag, the optimization for the figure of merit, and the characteristics of drag, yawing, rolling and pitching moments in transition are studied. The results show that a two-stage upper and lower fan lift system can generate oscillations of lift and drag in transition, while a single-stage inner and outer fan lift system can elimin...

  3. Numerical Study of Transition of an Annular Lift Fan Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Jiang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at studying the transition of annular lift fan aircraft through computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. The oscillations of lift and drag, the optimization for the figure of merit, and the characteristics of drag, yawing, rolling and pitching moments in transition are studied. The results show that a two-stage upper and lower fan lift system can generate oscillations of lift and drag in transition, while a single-stage inner and outer fan lift system can eliminate the oscillations. The characteristics of momentum drag of the single-stage fans in transition are similar to that of the two-stage fans, but with the peak of drag lowered from 0.63 to 0.4 of the aircraft weight. The strategy to start transition from a negative angle of attack −21° further reduces the peak of drag to 0.29 of the weight. The strategy also reduces the peak of pitching torque, which needs upward extra thrusts of 0.39 of the weight to eliminate. The peak of rolling moment in transition needs differential upward thrusts of 0.04 of the weight to eliminate. The requirements for extra thrusts in transition lead to a total thrust–weight ratio of 0.7, which makes the aircraft more efficient for high speed cruise flight (higher than 0.7 Ma.

  4. CFD Study of a New Annular Lift Fan Configuration with High Lift Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Jiang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A new annular lift fan configuration that has very high lift efficiency is explored by using a numerical scheme. The inlet lip radius and diffuser angle are maximized by semicircle duct walls and the location of the lift fan is moved from the throat to the diffuser area to maximize the diffusion effect of the ducted fan. The improved lift fan achieves the figure of merit of 0.772 and the power loading of 9.03 lbs/hp without ground effect, very close to the theoretical limit. Under the ground effect, the figure of merit reaches 0.822 with the power loading of 9.62 lbs/hp. The improved lift efficiency deteriorates the transition characteristics with higher momentum drag and pitching moment. However, with the aid of jet thrusts directly providing part of the lift during transition, the peak of momentum drag and pitching moment can be lowered. A total thrust to weight ratio of 0.7 is enough for all of the requirements in transition and in hover and for the maximum speed of 0.75 Mach in cruise flight.

  5. CFD Study of an Annular-Ducted Fan Lift System for VTOL Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Jiang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at assessing a novel annular-ducted fan lift system for VTOL aircraft through computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. The power and lift efficiency of the lift fan system in hover mode, the lift and drag in transition mode, the drag and flight speed of the aircraft in cruise mode and the pneumatic coupling of the tip turbine and jet exhaust were studied. The results show that the annular-ducted fan lift system can have higher lift efficiency compared to the rotor of the Apache helicopter; the smooth transition from vertical takeoff to cruise flight needs some extra forward thrust to overcome a low peak of drag; the aircraft with the lift fan system enclosed during cruise flight theoretically may fly faster than helicopters and tiltrotors based on aerodynamic drag prediction, due to the elimination of rotor drag and compressibility effects on the rotor blade tips; and pneumatic coupling of the tip turbine and jet exhaust of a 300 m/s velocity can provide enough moment to spin the lift fan. The CFD results provide insight for future experimental study of the annular-ducted lift fan VTOL aircraft.

  6. Numerical Investigation of Effect of Parameters on Hovering Efficiency of an Annular Lift Fan Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Jiang; Bo Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The effects of various parameters on the hovering performance of an annular lift fan aircraft are investigated by using numerical scheme. The pitch angle, thickness, aspect ratio (chord length), number of blades, and radius of duct inlet lip are explored to optimize the figure of merit. The annular lift fan is also compared with a conventional circular lift fan of the same features with the same disc loading and similar geometry. The simulation results show that the pitch angle of 27°, the th...

  7. Numerical Investigation of Effect of Parameters on Hovering Efficiency of an Annular Lift Fan Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Jiang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various parameters on the hovering performance of an annular lift fan aircraft are investigated by using numerical scheme. The pitch angle, thickness, aspect ratio (chord length, number of blades, and radius of duct inlet lip are explored to optimize the figure of merit. The annular lift fan is also compared with a conventional circular lift fan of the same features with the same disc loading and similar geometry. The simulation results show that the pitch angle of 27°, the thickness of 4% chord length, the aspect ratio of 3.5~4.0, 32 blades, and the radius of inlet lip of 4.7% generate the maximum figure of merit of 0.733. The optimized configuration can be used for further studies of the annular lift fan aircraft.

  8. Optimized Matching Lift Unit Transmission Ratio of Engine Driven Ducted Fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Senlin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As a kind of VTOL technology, ducted fan is not only used by many kinds of aircrafts, but also one of the trends of the future aircraft lift system, and attracts more and more attention. For an engine driven ducted fan lift unit, involving the engine and ducted fan matching problem, the form of transmission and transmission ratio are the key design parameters. In order to design and develop a ducted fan aircraft reasonably, a thrust test platform was set up to connect the engine with the ducted fan through the belt driving. The matching relationship between the engine and the transmission system was experimentally studied and the optimal transmission ratio was determined. The results showed that the optimal transmission ratio for the engine 1 is 2.2:1, and for the engine 2, the optimal transmission ratio should be 2.95:1 based on the current ducted and movable blade aerofoil design. At this time, the lift will exceed 130 kg•f, meeting the aircraft's original design requirements.

  9. Lift/cruise fan V/STOL technology aircraft design definition study. Volume 2: Propulsion transmission system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    Two types of lift/cruise fan technology aircraft were conceptually designed. One aircraft used turbotip fans pneumatically interconnected to three gas generators, and the other aircraft used variable pitch fans mechanically interconnected to three turboshaft engines. The components of each propulsion transmission system were analyzed and designed to the depth necessary to determine areas of risk, development methods, performance, weights and costs. The types of materials and manufacturing processes were identified to show that the designs followed a low cost approach. The lift/cruise fan thrust vectoring hoods, which are applicable to either aircraft configuration, were also evaluated to assure a low cost/low risk approach.

  10. Lift/cruise fan V/STOL technology aircraft design definition study. Volume 1: Technology flight vehicle definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    Concept design is presented for two types of lift/cruise fan technology V/STOL aircraft, turbotip fans and the other using mechanically driven fans. The turbotip research technology aircraft reflects maximum usage of existing airframe components. The propulsion system consists of three turbotip fans pneumatically interconnected to three gas generators. Thrust modulation is accomplished by use of energy transfer and control system and thrust reduction modulation. This system can also be operated in the two engine/three fan mode. The mechanical RTA is virtually identical to the turbotip RTA with the exceptions that a different propulsion system and aft fuselage/tail are used. Both aircraft meet or exceed all of the mission performance guidelines and reflect a low cost, low risk approach.

  11. Design definition study of a lift/cruise fan technology V/STOL aircraft. Volume 1: Navy operational aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft were designed and sized to meet Navy mission requirements. Five missions were established for evaluation: anti-submarine warfare (ASW), surface attack (SA), combat search and rescue (CSAR), surveillance (SURV), and vertical on-board delivery (VOD). All missions were performed with a short takeoff and a vertical landing. The aircraft were defined using existing J97-GE gas generators or reasonable growth derivatives in conjunction with turbotip fans reflecting LF460 type technology. The multipurpose aircraft configuration established for U.S. Navy missions utilizes the turbotip driven lift/cruise fan concept for V/STOL aircraft.

  12. Design definition study of a lift/cruise fan technology V/STOL airplane: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabinsky, J. M.; Higgins, H. C.

    1975-01-01

    A two-engine three-fan V/STOL airplane was designed to fulfill naval operational requirements. A multimission airplane was developed from study of specific point designs. Based on the multimission concept, airplanes were designed to demonstrate and develop the technology and operational procedures for this class of aircraft. Use of interconnected variable pitch fans led to a good balance between high thrust with responsive control and efficient thrust at cruise speeds. The airplanes and their characteristics are presented.

  13. CFD Models of a Serpentine Inlet, Fan, and Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chima, R. V.; Arend, D. J.; Castner, R. S.; Slater, J. W.; Truax, P. P.

    2010-01-01

    Several computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes were used to analyze the Versatile Integrated Inlet Propulsion Aerodynamics Rig (VIIPAR) located at NASA Glenn Research Center. The rig consists of a serpentine inlet, a rake assembly, inlet guide vanes, a 12-in. diameter tip-turbine driven fan stage, exit rakes or probes, and an exhaust nozzle with a translating centerbody. The analyses were done to develop computational capabilities for modeling inlet/fan interaction and to help interpret experimental data. Three-dimensional Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) calculations of the fan stage were used to predict the operating line of the stage, the effects of leakage from the turbine stream, and the effects of inlet guide vane (IGV) setting angle. Coupled axisymmetric calculations of a bellmouth, fan, and nozzle were used to develop techniques for coupling codes together and to investigate possible effects of the nozzle on the fan. RANS calculations of the serpentine inlet were coupled to Euler calculations of the fan to investigate the complete inlet/fan system. Computed wall static pressures along the inlet centerline agreed reasonably well with experimental data but computed total pressures at the aerodynamic interface plane (AIP) showed significant differences from the data. Inlet distortion was shown to reduce the fan corrected flow and pressure ratio, and was not completely eliminated by passage through the fan

  14. Aero-acoustic design and test of a multiple splitter exhaust noise suppressor for a 0.914m diameter lift fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpert, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    A lift fan exhaust suppression system to meet future VTOL aircraft noise goals was designed and tested. The test vehicle was a 1.3 pressure ratio, 36 inch (91.44 cm) diameter lift fan with two chord rotor to stator spacing. A two splitter fan exhaust suppression system thirty inches (76.2 cm) long achieved 10 PNdB exhaust suppression in the aft quadrant compared to a design value of 20 PNdB. It was found that a broadband noise floor limited the realizable suppression. An analytical investigation of broadband noise generated by flow over the treatment surfaces provided very good agreement with the measured suppression levels and noise floor sound power levels. A fan thrust decrement of 22% was measured for the fully suppressed configuration of which 11.1% was attributed to the exhaust suppression hardware.

  15. Low speed wind tunnel test of ground proximity and deck edge effects on a lift cruise fan V/STOL configuration, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, V. R.

    1979-01-01

    The characteristics were determined of a lift cruise fan V/STOL multi-mission configuration in the near proximity to the edge of a small flat surface representation of a ship deck. Tests were conducted at both static and forward speed test conditions. The model (0.12 scale) tested was a four fan configuration with modifications to represent a three fan configuration. Analysis of data showed that the deck edge effects were in general less critical in terms of differences from free air than a full deck (in ground effect) configuration. The one exception to this was when the aft edge of the deck was located under the center of gravity. This condition, representative of an approach from the rear, showed a significant lift loss. Induced moments were generally small compared to the single axis control power requirements, but will likely add to the pilot work load.

  16. V/STOL Tandem Fan transition section model test. [in the Lewis Research Center 10-by-10 foot wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkin, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    An approximately 0.25 scale model of the transition section of a tandem fan variable cycle engine nacelle was tested in the NASA Lewis Research Center 10-by-10 foot wind tunnel. Two 12-inch, tip-turbine driven fans were used to simulate a tandem fan engine. Three testing modes simulated a V/STOL tandem fan airplane. Parallel mode has two separate propulsion streams for maximum low speed performance. A front inlet, fan, and downward vectorable nozzle forms one stream. An auxilliary top inlet provides air to the aft fan - supplying the core engine and aft vectorable nozzle. Front nozzle and top inlet closure, and removal of a blocker door separating the two streams configures the tandem fan for series mode operations as a typical aircraft propulsion system. Transition mode operation is formed by intermediate settings of the front nozzle, blocker door, and top inlet. Emphasis was on the total pressure recovery and flow distortion at the aft fan face. A range of fan flow rates were tested at tunnel airspeeds from 0 to 240 knots, and angles-of-attack from -10 to 40 deg for all three modes. In addition to the model variables for the three modes, model variants of the top inlet were tested in the parallel mode only. These lip variables were: aft lip boundary layer bleed holes, and Three position turning vane. Also a bellmouth extension of the top inlet side lips was tested in parallel mode.

  17. Follow-On Studies for Design Definition of a Lift/Cruise Fan Technology V/STOL Airplane, Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    A three engine, three fan V/STOL airplane was designed for use as a Research Technology Airplane in proof-of-concept of a candidate configuration for use as a Navy multimission airplane. Use of mechanically interconnected variable pitch fans is made to accommodate power transfer for flight control in hover and to provide flight capability in the event of a single engine failure. The airplane is a modification of a T-39A transport. Design definition is provided for high risk propulsion components and a development test program is defined.

  18. Design definition study of a lift/cruise fan technology V/STOL aircraft. Volume 2: Technology aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Technology flight vehicles were defined for three different approaches which demonstrate the concept and characteristics of the multipurpose aircraft established for Navy missions. The propulsion system used for the various technology flight vehicles was representative of that established for the multipurpose aircraft. Existing J97-GE100 gas generators were selected based on cost, availability and exhaust characteristics. The LF459 fans were also selected and are compatible with both technology and operational vehicles. To comply with the design guideline safety criteria, it was determined that three gas generators were required to provide engine out safety in the hover flight mode. The final propulsion system established for the technology aircraft was three existing J97 gas generators powering three LF459 fans. Different aircraft candidates were evaluated for application to the three designated design approaches. Each configuration was evaluated on the basis of (1) propulsion system integration, (2) modification required, (3) pilot's visibility, (4) payload volume, and (5) adaptability to compatible location of center-of-gravity/aerodynamic center and thrust center.

  19. Tornado lift

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanchin, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that one of the causes for tornado is Tornado Lift. At increasing vortex diameter its kinetic energy decreases to keep the moment of momentum constant. A kinetic energy gradient of such vortex is Tornado Lift. Evaluation shows that contribution of Tornado Lift in air lifting in a tornado is comparable to buoyancy according to the order of magnitude.

  20. weiqiang fan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics. WEIQIANG FAN. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 96 Issue 6 December 2017 pp 867-872 RESEARCH ARTICLE. A genetic variant in COL11A1 is functionally associated with lumbar disc herniation in Chinese population · WENJUN LIU GUISEN SUN LONGSHENG GUO ...

  1. Breast lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and areola may be moved. Sometimes, women have breast augmentation (enlargement with implants) when they have a breast lift. Why the ... MD, FACS, general surgery practice specializing in breast cancer, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed ...

  2. Operational procedure for computer program for design point characteristics of a compressed-air generator with through-flow combustor for V/STOL applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, R. P.

    1971-01-01

    The computer program described in this report calculates the design-point characteristics of a compressed-air generator for use in V/STOL applications such as systems with a tip-turbine-driven lift fan. The program computes the dimensions and mass, as well as the thermodynamic performance of a model air generator configuration which involves a straight through-flow combustor. Physical and thermodynamic characteristics of the air generator components are also given. The program was written in FORTRAN IV language. Provision has been made so that the program will accept input values in either SI units or U.S. customary units. Each air generator design-point calculation requires about 1.5 seconds of 7094 computer time for execution.

  3. RUO-FAN QIU

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. RUO-FAN QIU. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 89 Issue 6 December 2017 pp 81 Research Article. Three-dimensional coupled double-distribution-function lattice Boltzmann models for compressible Navier–Stokes equations · RUO-FAN QIU ...

  4. yi fan zheng

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. YI FAN ZHENG. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 40 Issue 7 December 2017 pp 1329-1333. Synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic activity of g-C 3 N 4 hybridized CdS nanoparticles · QING YING LIU YI LING QI YI FAN ZHENG XU CHUN SONG.

  5. Lift truck safety review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter's Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given

  6. Lift truck safety review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter`s Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given.

  7. Online Fan Practices and CALL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauro, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a narrative overview of research on online fan practices for language and literacy learning, use, and identity work. I begin with an introduction to online fan communities and common fan practices found in these online affinity spaces, the best known of which is fan fiction, fictional writing that reinterprets and remixes the…

  8. Fans af Bruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaben, Nana Katrine

    2007-01-01

    Analysen viser, hvordan det samme ritual under en koncert forener og opdeler de fans, der orienterer sig mod Bruce Springsteen. På den ene side forener ritualet hele publikum i en stor fælles "Intimitet for mange" og på den anden side splitter det dem, fordi det bliver tydeligt, hvem der er de...... rigtige fans, og hvem der tilhører "pøbelen"....

  9. Lift scheduling organization : Lift Concept for Lemminkainen

    OpenAIRE

    Mingalimov, Iurii

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to make a simple schedule for the main contractors and clients to check and control workflow connected with lifts. It gathers works with electricity, construction, engineering networks, installing equipment and commissioning works. The schedule was carried out during working on the building site Aino in Saint Petersburg in Lemminkӓinen. The duration of work was 5 months. The lift concept in Lemminkӓinen is very well controlled in comparison with other buil...

  10. ENERGY STAR Certified Ceiling Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ceiling Fans that are effective as of April 1, 2012. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=ceiling_fans.pr_crit_ceiling_fans

  11. ENERGY STAR Certified Ventilating Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ventilating Fans that are effective as of October 1, 2015. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=vent_fans.pr_crit_vent_fans

  12. The Fabulous Fact Fan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Jene P.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the use and construction of "fact fans," fun and easy-to-make manipulatives that provide elementary school students with the opportunity to explore mathematics operations being studied in the classroom and to practice addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division facts. (BB)

  13. Face-Lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or sun damage, you might also consider a skin-resurfacing procedure. A face-lift can be done in combination with some other cosmetic procedures, such as a brow lift or eyelid surgery. Why it's done As you get older, your facial skin changes — sagging and becoming loose. This can make ...

  14. Centrifugal fans: Similarity, scaling laws, and fan performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardar, Asad Mohammad

    Centrifugal fans are rotodynamic machines used for moving air continuously against moderate pressures through ventilation and air conditioning systems. There are five major topics presented in this thesis: (1) analysis of the fan scaling laws and consequences of dynamic similarity on modelling; (2) detailed flow visualization studies (in water) covering the flow path starting at the fan blade exit to the evaporator core of an actual HVAC fan scroll-diffuser module; (3) mean velocity and turbulence intensity measurements (flow field studies) at the inlet and outlet of large scale blower; (4) fan installation effects on overall fan performance and evaluation of fan testing methods; (5) two point coherence and spectral measurements conducted on an actual HVAC fan module for flow structure identification of possible aeroacoustic noise sources. A major objective of the study was to identity flow structures within the HVAC module that are responsible for noise and in particular "rumble noise" generation. Possible mechanisms for the generation of flow induced noise in the automotive HVAC fan module are also investigated. It is demonstrated that different modes of HVAC operation represent very different internal flow characteristics. This has implications on both fan HVAC airflow performance and noise characteristics. It is demonstrated from principles of complete dynamic similarity that fan scaling laws require that Reynolds, number matching is a necessary condition for developing scale model fans or fan test facilities. The physical basis for the fan scaling laws derived was established from both pure dimensional analysis and also from the fundamental equations of fluid motion. Fan performance was measured in a three times scale model (large scale blower) in air of an actual forward curved automotive HVAC blower. Different fan testing methods (based on AMCA fan test codes) were compared on the basis of static pressure measurements. Also, the flow through an actual HVAC

  15. Controls on alluvial fans morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, P.; Devauchelle, O.; Lajeunesse, E.; Barrier, L.; Métivier, F.

    2017-12-01

    Using laboratory experiments, we investigate the influence of water and sediment discharges on the morphology of an alluvial fan. In our flume, a single-thread laminar river deposits corundum sand (0.4 mm) into a conical fan. We record the fan progradation with top-view images, and measure its shape using the deformation of a Moiré pattern. The fan remains virtually self-affine as it grows, with a nearly constant slope. We find that, when the sediment discharge is small, the longitudinal slope of the fan remains close to that of a river at the threshold for sediment transport. A higher sediment discharge causes the fan's slope to depart from the threshold value. Due to the downstream decrease of the sediment load, this slope gets shallower towards the fan's toe. This mechanism generates a slightly concave fan profile. This suggests that the proximal slope of an alluvial fan could be a proxy for the sediment flux that feeds the fan.Finally, we discuss the applicability of these results to natural systems.

  16. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  17. Wind tower service lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  18. Observational Analysis of Coronal Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpeanu, D.-C.; Rachmeler, L; Mierla, Marilena

    2017-01-01

    Coronal fans (see Figure 1) are bright observational structures that extend to large distances above the solar surface and can easily be seen in EUV (174 angstrom) above the limb. They have a very long lifetime and can live up to several Carrington rotations (CR), remaining relatively stationary for many months. Note that they are not off-limb manifestation of similarly-named active region fans. The solar conditions required to create coronal fans are not well understood. The goal of this research was to find as many associations as possible of coronal fans with other solar features and to gain a better understanding of these structures. Therefore, we analyzed many fans and created an overview of their properties. We present the results of this statistical analysis and also a case study on the longest living fan.

  19. 75 FR 79952 - Airworthiness Directives; DASSAULT AVIATION Model Falcon 10 Airplanes; Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... Airworthiness Directives; DASSAULT AVIATION Model Falcon 10 Airplanes; Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN JET FALCON.... (1) DASSAULT AVIATION Model Falcon 10 airplanes, Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN JET FALCON SERIES C, D, E... airplanes Inspection threshold (whichever occurs later) Inspection interval Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN JET...

  20. Regional changes in spine posture at lift onset with changes in lift distance and lift style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gill, K.P.; Bennet, S.J.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN. Repeated measures experiment. OBJECTIVE. To determine the effect of changes in horizontal lift distance on the amount of flexion, at lift onset, in different spine regions when using different lift styles. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. By approximating spine bending during lifting as a

  1. Design features of fans, blowers, and compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheremisinoff, N. P.; Cheremisinoff, P. N.

    Fan engineering and compression machines are discussed. Basic aspects of fan performance and design are reviewed, and the design and performance characteristics of radial-flow fans, axial-flow fans, and controllable pitch fans are examined in detail. Air-conditioning systems are discussed, and noise, vibration, and mechanical considerations in fans are extensively examined. The thermodynamic principles governing compression machines are reviewed, and piston compressors, rotary compressors, blowers, and centrifugal compressors are discussed.

  2. Fan Cart: The Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamore, Brian

    2016-01-01

    For years the fan cart has provided physics students with an excellent resource for exploring fundamental mechanics concepts such as acceleration, Newton's laws, impulse, momentum, work-energy, and energy conversions. "The Physics Teacher" has even seen some excellent do-it-yourself (DIY) fan carts and activities. If you are interested…

  3. Ferromanganese micronodules from Bengal Fan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Gujar, A.R.; Rao, Ch.M.

    The occurrence of ferromanganese micronodules, hitherto unreported from any fan-valley system of the world, has been recorded from over 0.22 million km sup(2) area located in the middle fan region of the Bay of Bengal. Their abundance is higher...

  4. A hypersonic lift mechanism with decoupled lift and drag surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, YiZhe; Xu, ZhiQi; Li, ShaoGuang; Li, Juan; Bai, ChenYuan; Wu, ZiNiu

    2013-05-01

    In the present study, we propose a novel lift mechanism for which the lifting surface produces only lift. This is achieved by mounting a two-dimensional shock-shock interaction generator below the lifting surface. The shock-shock interaction theory in conjunction with a three dimensional correction and checked with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to analyze the lift and drag forces as function of the geometrical parameters and inflow Mach number. Through this study, though limited to only inviscid flow, we conclude that it is possible to obtain a high lift to drag ratio by suitably arranging the shock interaction generator.

  5. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. Marr

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation

  6. Knees Lifted High

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Knees Lifted High gives children fun ideas for active outdoor play.

  7. JWST Lifting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolleson, William

    2012-01-01

    A document describes designing, building, testing, and certifying a customized crane (Lifting Device LD) with a strong back (cradle) to facilitate the installation of long wall panels and short door panels for the GHe phase of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The LD controls are variable-frequency drive controls designed to be adjustable for very slow and very-short-distance movements throughout the installation. The LD has a lift beam with an electric actuator attached at the end. The actuator attaches to a rectangular strong back (cradle) for lifting the long wall panels and short door panels from a lower angle into the vertical position inside the chamber, and then rotating around the chamber for installation onto the existing ceiling and floor. The LD rotates 360 (in very small increments) in both clockwise and counterclockwise directions. Eight lifting pads are on the top ring with 2-in. (.5-cm) eye holes spaced evenly around the ring to allow for the device to be suspended by three crane hoists from the top of the chamber. The LD is operated by remote controls that allow for a single, slow mode for booming the load in and out, with slow and very slow modes for rotating the load.

  8. LIFT11 linnas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tallinn 2011 programmi kuuluva installatsioonide festivali "Lift11" avalikule ideekonkursile esitati 129 tööd, välja valiti 17. Tutvustatakse Maarja Kase ja Ralf Lõokese tööd "L", Tomomi Hayashi tööd "Merele!", Toomas Paaveri, Teele Pehki ja Triin Talki tööd "Kalarand"

  9. Lift11 / Ingrid Ruudi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruudi, Ingrid, 1978-

    2010-01-01

    23. augustist 11. oktoobrini 2010 toimuvast konkursist, mille eesmärk on leida kultuuripealinna üritusena toimuva linnainstallatsioonide festivali "Lift11" tarvis installatsioonide ideekavandeid. Festivali kuraatorid on kunstiteadlased Maarin Mürk ja Ingrid Ruudi ning arhitektid Margit Aule ja Margit Argus

  10. Heterotic weight lifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Schellekens, A.N., E-mail: t58@nikhef.n [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); IMAPP, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2010-03-21

    We describe a method for constructing genuinely asymmetric (2,0) heterotic strings out of N=2 minimal models in the fermionic sector, whereas the bosonic sector is only partly build out of N=2 minimal models. This is achieved by replacing one minimal model plus the superfluous E{sub 8} factor by a non-supersymmetric CFT with identical modular properties. This CFT generically lifts the weights in the bosonic sector, giving rise to a spectrum with fewer massless states. We identify more than 30 such lifts, and we expect many more to exist. This yields more than 450 different combinations. Remarkably, despite the lifting of all Ramond states, it is still possible to get chiral spectra. Even more surprisingly, these chiral spectra include examples with a certain number of chiral families of SO(10), SU(5) or other subgroups, including just SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1). The number of families and mirror families is typically smaller than in standard Gepner models. Furthermore, in a large number of different cases, spectra with three chiral families can be obtained. Based on a first scan of about 10% of the lifted Gepner models we can construct, we have collected more than 10,000 distinct spectra with three families, including examples without mirror fermions. We present an example where the GUT group is completely broken to the standard model, but the resulting and inevitable fractionally charged particles are confined by an additional gauge group factor.

  11. Heterotic weight lifting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gato-Rivera, B.; Schellekens, A.N.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a method for constructing genuinely asymmetric (2,0) heterotic strings out of N=2 minimal models in the fermionic sector, whereas the bosonic sector is only partly build out of N=2 minimal models. This is achieved by replacing one minimal model plus the superfluous E 8 factor by a non-supersymmetric CFT with identical modular properties. This CFT generically lifts the weights in the bosonic sector, giving rise to a spectrum with fewer massless states. We identify more than 30 such lifts, and we expect many more to exist. This yields more than 450 different combinations. Remarkably, despite the lifting of all Ramond states, it is still possible to get chiral spectra. Even more surprisingly, these chiral spectra include examples with a certain number of chiral families of SO(10), SU(5) or other subgroups, including just SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1). The number of families and mirror families is typically smaller than in standard Gepner models. Furthermore, in a large number of different cases, spectra with three chiral families can be obtained. Based on a first scan of about 10% of the lifted Gepner models we can construct, we have collected more than 10,000 distinct spectra with three families, including examples without mirror fermions. We present an example where the GUT group is completely broken to the standard model, but the resulting and inevitable fractionally charged particles are confined by an additional gauge group factor.

  12. Vertical vector face lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoano, Brian; Chan, Joanna; Morganroth, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Facial rejuvenation using local anesthesia has evolved in the past decade as a safer option for patients seeking fewer complications and minimal downtime. Mini- and short-scar face lifts using more conservative incision lengths and extent of undermining can be effective in the younger patient with lower face laxity and minimal loose, elastotic neck skin. By incorporating both an anterior and posterior approach and using an incision length between the mini and more traditional face lift, the Vertical Vector Face Lift can achieve longer-lasting and natural results with lesser cost and risk. Submentoplasty and liposuction of the neck and jawline, fundamental components of the vertical vector face lift, act synergistically with superficial musculoaponeurotic system plication to reestablish a more youthful, sculpted cervicomental angle, even in patients with prominent jowls. Dramatic results can be achieved in the right patient by combining with other procedures such as injectable fillers, chin implants, laser resurfacing, or upper and lower blepharoplasties. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Lifting as You Climb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Debra R.

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses leadership themes and answers leadership questions presented to "Exchange" by the Panel members who attended the "Exchange" Panel of 300 Reception in Dallas, Texas, last November. There is an old proverb that encourages people to lift as they climb: "While you climb a mountain, you must not forget others along the way." With…

  14. A history of RPGs: Made by fans; played by fans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Mason

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available I explore some aspects of the early history of tabletop role-playing games (RPGs that are perhaps not well known among media scholars, and which offer an alternative take on the idea of fan activity.

  15. Dynamic and Implications of Football Fans' Club and Fans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    As spectator in football game for example, human beings are known to fragment into fans groups. ..... since respondents identified performance as the main motivating factor in their selection of supporting teams ... directional. They are supports ...

  16. 30 CFR 57.4504 - Fan installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fan installations. 57.4504 Section 57.4504... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4504 Fan installations. (a) Fan houses, fan bulkheads... of combustible materials, except installed wiring, ground and track support, headframes, and direct...

  17. 14 CFR 29.908 - Cooling fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooling fans. 29.908 Section 29.908... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant General § 29.908 Cooling fans. For cooling fans that are a part of a powerplant installation the following apply: (a) Category A. For cooling fans installed...

  18. Helicopter Toy and Lift Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-01-01

    A $1 plastic helicopter toy (called a Wacky Whirler) can be used to demonstrate lift. Students can make basic measurements of the toy, use reasonable assumptions and, with the lift formula, estimate the lift, and verify that it is sufficient to overcome the toy's weight. (Contains 1 figure.)

  19. How Do Wings Generate Lift?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ideas to get expressions for lift and moment that are remarkably accurate. The pressure ... ating a lift force, leads to a nose-up or nose-down moment also. .... venient to use for a fluid since we would like to deal with a flow .... energy to get lift?

  20. 75 FR 43878 - Airworthiness Directives; DASSAULT AVIATION Model Falcon 10 Airplanes; Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... Model Falcon 10 Airplanes; Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN JET FALCON SERIES C, D, E, F, and G Airplanes.... Since that NPRM was issued, we have determined that Model FAN JET FALCON SERIES C, D, E, F, and G..., Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN JET FALCON SERIES C, D, E, F, and G airplanes, and Model MYSTERE-FALCON 20-C5...

  1. A non-regular Groebner fan

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Anders N.

    2005-01-01

    The Groebner fan of an ideal $I\\subset k[x_1,...,x_n]$, defined by Mora and Robbiano, is a complex of polyhedral cones in $R^n$. The maximal cones of the fan are in bijection with the distinct monomial initial ideals of $I$ as the term order varies. If $I$ is homogeneous the Groebner fan is complete and is the normal fan of the state polytope of $I$. In general the Groebner fan is not complete and therefore not the normal fan of a polytope. We may ask if the restricted Groebner fan, a subdivi...

  2. Stranger than fiction: Fan identity in cosplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle Lamerichs

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Academic accounts of fan cultures usually focus on creative practices such as fan fiction, fan videos, and fan art. Through these practices, fans, as an active audience, closely interpret existing texts and rework them with texts of their own. A practice scarcely examined is cosplay ("costume play", in which fans produce their own costumes inspired by fictional characters. Cosplay is a form of appropriation that transforms and actualizes an existing story in close connection to the fan community and the fan's own identity. I provide analytical insights into this fan practice, focusing on how it influences the subject. Cosplay is understood as a performative activity and analyzed through Judith Butler's concept of performativity. I specifically focus on boundaries between the body and dress, and on those between reality and fiction. I aim to show that cosplay emphasizes the personal enactment of a narrative, thereby offering new perspectives on fan identity.

  3. PFP supply fan motor starters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) is currently stabilizing about 25 kg of Pu sludge; upon completion of this task, PFP will be maintained in a safe standby condition to await decision from the PFP NEPA review. It can take about 10 years to initiate and complete terminal cleanout after this; the facility will then be decommissioned and decontaminated. The 234-5Z ventilation system must continue to operate until terminal cleanout. Part of the ventilation system is the seismic fan shutdown system which shuts down the ventilation supply fans in case of strong earthquake. This document presents criteria for installing solid state, reduced voltage motor starters and isolation contactors for the 8 main ventilation supply fans. The isolation contactors will shutdown the supply fans in event of earthquake

  4. ENERGY STAR Certified Ceiling Fans

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ceiling Fans that are effective as of April 1,...

  5. ENERGY STAR Certified Ventilating Fans

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ventilating Fans that are effective as of...

  6. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS ELECTRIC FANS

    OpenAIRE

    Inderpreet Singh

    2017-01-01

    The study of consumer behaviour develops great interest for consumers, students, scientists, and marketers. As consumers, we need insights into our own consumption related decisions: what we buy, why we buy, and how we buy. The aim of the study is to cover entire research about consumer behaviour towards electric fans and different factors affecting their buying decision. A sample of 200 consumers of electric fans is taken. Questionnaire has been analysed with the help of pie diagram & bar ch...

  7. On the Use of Surface Porosity to Reduce Unsteady Lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinetti, Ana F.; Kelly, Jeffrey J.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Thomas, Russell H.

    2001-01-01

    An innovative application of existing technology is proposed for attenuating the effects of transient phenomena, such as rotor-stator and rotor-strut interactions, linked to noise and fatigue failure in turbomachinery environments. A computational study was designed to assess the potential of passive porosity technology as a mechanism for alleviating interaction effects by reducing the unsteady lift developed on a stator airfoil subject to wake impingement. The study involved a typical high bypass fan Stator airfoil (solid baseline and several porous configurations), immersed in a free field and exposed to the effects of a transversely moving wake. It was found that, for the airfoil under consideration, the magnitude of the unsteady lift could be reduced more than 18% without incurring significant performance losses.

  8. Lift application development cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, Gilberto T

    2013-01-01

    Lift Application Development Cookbook contains practical recipes on everything you will need to create secure web applications using this amazing framework.The book first teaches you basic topics such as starting a new application and gradually moves on to teach you advanced topics to achieve a certain task. Then, it explains every step in detail so that you can build your knowledge about how things work.This book is for developers who have at least some basic knowledge about Scala and who are looking for a functional, secure, and modern web framework. Prior experience with HTML and JavaScript

  9. Knees Lifted High

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Knees Lifted High gives children fun ideas for active outdoor play.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  10. Two-Stage Centrifugal Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, David

    2011-01-01

    Fan designs are often constrained by envelope, rotational speed, weight, and power. Aerodynamic performance and motor electrical performance are heavily influenced by rotational speed. The fan used in this work is at a practical limit for rotational speed due to motor performance characteristics, and there is no more space available in the packaging for a larger fan. The pressure rise requirements keep growing. The way to ordinarily accommodate a higher DP is to spin faster or grow the fan rotor diameter. The invention is to put two radially oriented stages on a single disk. Flow enters the first stage from the center; energy is imparted to the flow in the first stage blades, the flow is redirected some amount opposite to the direction of rotation in the fixed stators, and more energy is imparted to the flow in the second- stage blades. Without increasing either rotational speed or disk diameter, it is believed that as much as 50 percent more DP can be achieved with this design than with an ordinary, single-stage centrifugal design. This invention is useful primarily for fans having relatively low flow rates with relatively high pressure rise requirements.

  11. On Some Generalized Ky Fan Minimax Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianqiang Luo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Some generalized Ky Fan minimax inequalities for vector-valued mappings are established by applying the classical Browder fixed point theorem and the Kakutani-Fan-Glicksberg fixed point theorem.

  12. Contrasting morphodynamics in alluvial fans and fan deltas: effect of the downstream boundary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, M. van; Kleinhans, M.G.; Postma, G.; Kraal, E.

    2012-01-01

    Alluvial fans and fan deltas can, in principle, have exactly the same upstream conditions, but fan deltas by definition have ponding water at their downstream boundary. This ponding creates effects on the autogenic behaviour of fan deltas, such as backwater adaptation, mouth bars and backward

  13. Advance Noise Control Fan II: Test Rig Fan Risk Management Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, John

    2013-01-01

    Since 1995 the Advanced Noise Control Fan (ANCF) has significantly contributed to the advancement of the understanding of the physics of fan tonal noise generation. The 9'x15' WT has successfully tested multiple high speed fan designs over the last several decades. This advanced several tone noise reduction concepts to higher TRL and the validation of fan tone noise prediction codes.

  14. Online Fan Fiction and Critical Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Rebecca W.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores English-language-learning (ELL) youths' engagement with popular media through composing and publicly posting stories in an online fan fiction writing space. Fan fiction is a genre that lends itself to critical engagement with media texts as fans repurpose popular media to design their own narratives. Analyses describe how…

  15. Lifting devices in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rule is valid for lifts, cranes, winches, rail travel trolleys, load lifting devices and fuel element changing devices for light-water reactors, insofar as these are used in plants to produce or to fission nuclear fuels or to process irradiated nuclear fuels or in the storage or other use of nuclear fuels. (LH) [de

  16. Project LIFT: Year 1 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Michael; Piccinino, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Research for Action (RFA) is currently in the second year of a five-year external evaluation of the Project Leadership and Investment for Transformation (LIFT) Initiative in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg School District (CMS). Project LIFT is a public-private partnership between CMS and the local philanthropic and business communities in Charlotte,…

  17. Industrial fans used in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Industrial fans are widely used in nuclear facilities, and their most common use is in building ventilation. To control the spread of contamination, airflows are maintained at high levels. Therefore, the selection of the fan and fan control are important to the safety of people, equipment and the environment. As a result, 80% of all energy used in nuclear facilities is fan energy. Safety evolves from the durability, control and redundancy in the system. In new or retrofit installations, testing and qualification of fans and systems are completed prior to start-up. Less important but necessary is the energy conservation aspect of fan selection and installations. Fan efficiency, type of control and system installation are evaluated for energy use

  18. Low Noise Research Fan Stage Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, David E.; Neubert, Robert J.; Malmborg, Eric W.; Philbrick, Daniel H.; Spear, David A.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the design of a Low Noise ADP Research Fan stage. The fan is a variable pitch design which is designed at the cruise pitch condition. Relative to the cruise setting, the blade is closed at takeoff and opened for reverse thrust operation. The fan stage is a split flow design with fan exit guide vanes and core stators. This fan stage design was combined with a nacelle and engine core duct to form a powered fan/nacelle, subscale model. This model is intended for use in aerodynamic performance, acoustic and structural testing in a wind tunnel. The model has a 22-inch outer fan diameter and a hub-to-top ratio of 0.426 which permits the use of existing NASA fan and cowl force balance designs and rig drive system. The design parameters were selected to permit valid acoustic and aerodynamic comparisons with the PW 17-inch rig previously tested under NASA contract. The fan stage design is described in detail. The results of the design axisymmetric analysis at aerodynamic design condition are included. The structural analysis of the fan rotor and attachment is described including the material selections and stress analysis. The blade and attachment are predicted to have adequate low cycle fatigue life, and an acceptable operating range without resonant stress or flutter. The stage was acoustically designed with airfoil counts in the fan exit guide vane and core stator to minimize noise. A fan-FEGV tone analysis developed separately under NASA contract was used to determine these airfoil counts. The fan stage design was matched to a nacelle design to form a fan/nacelle model for wind tunnel testing. The nacelle design was developed under a separate NASA contract. The nacelle was designed with an axisymmetric inlet, cowl and nozzle for convenience in testing and fabrication. Aerodynamic analysis of the nacelle confirmed the required performance at various aircraft operating conditions.

  19. WHO ARE FANS OF FACEBOOK FAN PAGES? AN ELECTRONIC WORD-OF-MOUTH COMMUNICATION PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Hu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Given its great business value and popularity, Facebook fan pages have attracted more and more attention in both industry and academia. Fans of Facebook fan pages play an important role in electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM communication. This study focused on the population of fans on Facebook fan pages and examined the differences between fans and non-fans in terms of demographics, social network sites (SNS use, Internet use, and online shopping behaviors. The results indicated that fans used SNS more frequently than non-fans. Additionally, from the eWOM perspective, the researchers moderated product types in the model of people’s word-of-mouth (WOM preferences and found that people had different preferences for eWOM and traditional WOM for different products. Traditional WOM is still the most important source of information for people when shopping online.

  20. Wavelets and the Lifting Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Jensen, Arne

    The objective of this article is to give a concise introduction to the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based on a technique called lifting. The lifting technique allows one to give an elementary, but rigorous, definition of the DWT, with modest requirements on the reader. A basic knowledge...... of linear algebra and signal processing will suffice. The lifting based definition is equivalent to the usual filer bank based definition of the DWT. The article does not discuss applications in any detail. The reader is referred to other articles in this collection....

  1. Wavelets and the lifting scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Jensen, Arne

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article is to give a concise introduction to the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based on a technique called lifting. The lifting technique allows one to give an elementary, but rigorous, definition of the DWT, with modest requirements on the reader. A basic knowledge...... of linear algebra and signal processing will suffice. The lifting based definition is equivalent to the usual filer bank based definition of the DWT. The article does not discuss applications in any detail. The reader is referred to other articles in this collection....

  2. Wavelets and the lifting scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Jensen, Arne

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article is to give a concise introduction to the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based on a technique called lifting. The lifting technique allows one to give an elementary, but rigorous, definition of the DWT, with modest requirements on the reader. A basic knowledge...... of linear algebra and signal processing will suffice. The lifting based definition is equivalent to the usual filer bank based definition of the DWT. The article does not discuss applications in any detail. The reader is referred to other articles in this collection....

  3. Lifting strength in two-person teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of lifting range, hand-to-toe distance, and lifting direction on single-person lifting strengths and two-person teamwork lifting strengths. Six healthy males and seven healthy females participated in this study. Two-person teamwork lifting strengths were examined in both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. Our results showed that lifting strength significantly decreased with increasing lifting range or hand-to-toe distance. However, lifting strengths were not affected by lifting direction. Teamwork lifting strength did not conform to the law of additivity for both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. In general, teamwork lifting strength was dictated by the weaker of the two members, implying that weaker members might be exposed to a higher potential danger in teamwork exertions. To avoid such overexertion in teamwork, members with significantly different strength ability should not be assigned to the same team.

  4. Nordic noir and lifted localities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    What I do here is to draw attention to a particular visual quality of recent Nordic noir and to relate the visuality of TV-drama to what I – with a term borrowed from Roland Robertson – dub lifted localites.......What I do here is to draw attention to a particular visual quality of recent Nordic noir and to relate the visuality of TV-drama to what I – with a term borrowed from Roland Robertson – dub lifted localites....

  5. Null lifts and projective dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cariglia, Marco, E-mail: marco@iceb.ufop.br

    2015-11-15

    We describe natural Hamiltonian systems using projective geometry. The null lift procedure endows the tangent bundle with a projective structure where the null Hamiltonian is identified with a projective conic and induces a Weyl geometry. Projective transformations generate a set of known and new dualities between Hamiltonian systems, as for example the phenomenon of coupling-constant metamorphosis. We conclude outlining how this construction can be extended to the quantum case for Eisenhart–Duval lifts.

  6. Lift-and-fill face lift: integrating the fat compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrich, Rod J; Ghavami, Ashkan; Constantine, Fadi C; Unger, Jacob; Mojallal, Ali

    2014-06-01

    Recent discovery of the numerous fat compartments of the face has improved our ability to more precisely restore facial volume while rejuvenating it through differential superficial musculoaponeurotic system treatment. Incorporation of selective fat compartment volume restoration along with superficial musculoaponeurotic system manipulation allows for improved control in recontouring while addressing one of the key problems in facial aging, namely, volume deflation. This theory was evaluated by assessing the contour changes from simultaneous face "lifting" and "filling" through fat compartment-guided facial fat transfer. A review of 100 face-lift patients was performed. All patients had an individualized component face lift with fat grafting to the nasolabial fold, deep malar, and high/lateral malar fat compartment locations. Photographic analysis using a computer program was conducted on oblique facial views preoperatively and postoperatively, to obtain the most projected malar contour point. Two independent observers visually evaluated the malar prominence and nasolabial fold improvements based on standardized photographs. Nasolabial fold improved by at least one grade in 81 percent and by over one grade in 11 percent. Malar prominence average projection increase was 13.47 percent and the average amount of lift was 12.24 percent. The malar prominence score improved by at least one grade in 62 percent of the patients postoperatively, and 9 percent had a greater than one grade improvement. Twenty-eight percent of the patients had a convex malar prominence postoperatively compared with 6 percent preoperatively. Malar prominence improved by at least one grade in 63 percent and by over one grade in 10 percent. The lift-and-fill face lift merges two key concepts in facial rejuvenation: (1) effective tissue manipulation by means of lifting and tightening in differential vectors according to original facial asymmetry and shape; and (2) selective fat compartment filling

  7. Acoustic Power Transmission Through a Ducted Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Envia, Ed

    2016-01-01

    For high-speed ducted fans, when the rotor flowfield is shock-free, the main contribution to the inlet radiated acoustic power comes from the portion of the rotor stator interaction sound field that is transmitted upstream through the rotor. As such, inclusion of the acoustic transmission is an essential ingredient in the prediction of the fan inlet noise when the fan tip relative speed is subsonic. This paper describes a linearized Euler based approach to computing the acoustic transmission of fan tones through the rotor. The approach is embodied in a code called LINFLUX was applied to a candidate subsonic fan called the Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP). The results from this study suggest that it is possible to make such prediction with sufficient fidelity to provide an indication of the acoustic transmission trends with the fan tip speed.

  8. Laboratory alluvial fans in one dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerit, L; Métivier, F; Devauchelle, O; Lajeunesse, E; Barrier, L

    2014-08-01

    When they reach a flat plain, rivers often deposit their sediment load into a cone-shaped structure called alluvial fan. We present a simplified experimental setup that reproduces, in one dimension, basic features of alluvial fans. A mixture of water and glycerol transports and deposits glass beads between two transparent panels separated by a narrow gap. As the beads, which mimic natural sediments, get deposited in this gap, they form an almost one-dimensional fan. At a moderate sediment discharge, the fan grows quasistatically and maintains its slope just above the threshold for sediment transport. The water discharge determines this critical slope. At leading order, the sediment discharge only controls the velocity at which the fan grows. A more detailed analysis reveals a slight curvature of the fan profile, which relates directly to the rate at which sediments are transported.

  9. The Effect of Bypass Nozzle Exit Area on Fan Aerodynamic Performance and Noise in a Model Turbofan Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; Podboy, Gary, G.; Woodward, Richard P.; Jeracki, Robert, J.

    2013-01-01

    the smallest to the largest nozzle was 12.9 percent of the baseline nozzle area. The results will show that there are significant changes in aerodynamic performance and farfield acoustics as the fan nozzle area is increased. The weight flow through the fan model increased between 7 and 9 percent, the fan and stage pressure dropped between 8 and 10 percent, and the adiabatic efficiency increased between 2 and 3 percent--the magnitude of the change dependent on the fan speed. Results from force balance measurements of fan and outlet guide vane thrust will show that as the nozzle exit area is increased the combined thrust of the fan and outlet guide vanes together also increases, between 2 and 3.5 percent, mainly due to the increase in lift from the outlet guide vanes. In terms of farfield acoustics, the overall sound power level produced by the fan stage dropped nearly linearly between 1 dB at takeoff condition and 3.5 dB at approach condition, mainly due to a decrease in the broadband noise levels. Finally, fan swirl angle survey and Laser Doppler Velocimeter mean velocity and turbulence data obtained in the fan wake will show that the swirl angles and turbulence levels within the wake decrease as the fan nozzle area increases, which helps to explain the drop in the fan broadband noise at all fan speeds.

  10. An Alluvial Fan at Apollinaris Patera, Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Ghail, RC; Hutchison, JE

    2003-01-01

    Apollinaris Patera, Mars (7?S,173?E), is an intermediate sized volcano (~6 km high, 150 km diameter) with a large (200-km long) fan-like deposit on its southern flank. This fan is deeply incised and originates from a single breach in the rim of the summit caldera. New topographic and multispectral image data reveal that this fan is alluvial, implying a long-lived source of (volcaniclastic) sediment and water (probably from a caldera lake).

  11. Truncated Groebner fans and lattice ideals

    OpenAIRE

    Lauritzen, Niels

    2005-01-01

    We outline a generalization of the Groebner fan of a homogeneous ideal with maximal cells parametrizing truncated Groebner bases. This "truncated" Groebner fan is usually much smaller than the full Groebner fan and offers the natural framework for conversion between truncated Groebner bases. The generic Groebner walk generalizes naturally to this setting by using the Buchberger algorithm with truncation on facets. We specialize to the setting of lattice ideals. Here facets along the generic w...

  12. 30 CFR 57.8518 - Main and booster fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main and booster fans. 57.8518 Section 57.8518... and Underground § 57.8518 Main and booster fans. (a) All mine main and booster fans installed and used...-cycle shutdowns or planned or scheduled fan maintenance or fan adjustments where air quality is...

  13. Computer fan performance enhancement via acoustic perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenblatt, David, E-mail: davidg@technion.ac.il [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel); Avraham, Tzahi; Golan, Maayan [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Computer fan effectiveness was increased by introducing acoustic perturbations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acoustic perturbations controlled blade boundary layer separation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimum frequencies corresponded with airfoils studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exploitation of flow instabilities was responsible for performance improvements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peak pressure and peak flowrate were increased by 40% and 15% respectively. - Abstract: A novel technique for increasing computer fan effectiveness, based on introducing acoustic perturbations onto the fan blades to control boundary layer separation, was assessed. Experiments were conducted in a specially designed facility that simultaneously allowed characterization of fan performance and introduction of the perturbations. A parametric study was conducted to determine the optimum control parameters, namely those that deliver the largest increase in fan pressure for a given flowrate. The optimum reduced frequencies corresponded with those identified on stationary airfoils and it was thus concluded that the exploitation of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, commonly observed on airfoils, was responsible for the fan blade performance improvements. The optimum control inputs, such as acoustic frequency and sound pressure level, showed some variation with different fan flowrates. With the near-optimum control conditions identified, the full operational envelope of the fan, when subjected to acoustic perturbations, was assessed. The peak pressure and peak flowrate were increased by up to 40% and 15% respectively. The peak fan efficiency increased with acoustic perturbations but the overall system efficiency was reduced when the speaker input power was accounted for.

  14. Enhanced Fan Noise Modeling for Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejsa, Eugene A.; Stone, James R.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes work by consultants to Diversitech Inc. for the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to revise the fan noise prediction procedure based on fan noise data obtained in the 9- by 15 Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel at GRC. The purpose of this task is to begin development of an enhanced, analytical, more physics-based, fan noise prediction method applicable to commercial turbofan propulsion systems. The method is to be suitable for programming into a computational model for eventual incorporation into NASA's current aircraft system noise prediction computer codes. The scope of this task is in alignment with the mission of the Propulsion 21 research effort conducted by the coalition of NASA, state government, industry, and academia to develop aeropropulsion technologies. A model for fan noise prediction was developed based on measured noise levels for the R4 rotor with several outlet guide vane variations and three fan exhaust areas. The model predicts the complete fan noise spectrum, including broadband noise, tones, and for supersonic tip speeds, combination tones. Both spectra and directivity are predicted. Good agreement with data was achieved for all fan geometries. Comparisons with data from a second fan, the ADP fan, also showed good agreement.

  15. Computer fan performance enhancement via acoustic perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenblatt, David; Avraham, Tzahi; Golan, Maayan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Computer fan effectiveness was increased by introducing acoustic perturbations. ► Acoustic perturbations controlled blade boundary layer separation. ► Optimum frequencies corresponded with airfoils studies. ► Exploitation of flow instabilities was responsible for performance improvements. ► Peak pressure and peak flowrate were increased by 40% and 15% respectively. - Abstract: A novel technique for increasing computer fan effectiveness, based on introducing acoustic perturbations onto the fan blades to control boundary layer separation, was assessed. Experiments were conducted in a specially designed facility that simultaneously allowed characterization of fan performance and introduction of the perturbations. A parametric study was conducted to determine the optimum control parameters, namely those that deliver the largest increase in fan pressure for a given flowrate. The optimum reduced frequencies corresponded with those identified on stationary airfoils and it was thus concluded that the exploitation of Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities, commonly observed on airfoils, was responsible for the fan blade performance improvements. The optimum control inputs, such as acoustic frequency and sound pressure level, showed some variation with different fan flowrates. With the near-optimum control conditions identified, the full operational envelope of the fan, when subjected to acoustic perturbations, was assessed. The peak pressure and peak flowrate were increased by up to 40% and 15% respectively. The peak fan efficiency increased with acoustic perturbations but the overall system efficiency was reduced when the speaker input power was accounted for.

  16. Prototype Morphing Fan Nozzle Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Jun; Song, Gang-Bing

    2004-01-01

    Ongoing research in NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch to develop smart materials technologies for aeropropulsion structural components has resulted in the design of the prototype morphing fan nozzle shown in the photograph. This prototype exploits the potential of smart materials to significantly improve the performance of existing aircraft engines by introducing new inherent capabilities for shape control, vibration damping, noise reduction, health monitoring, and flow manipulation. The novel design employs two different smart materials, a shape-memory alloy and magnetorheological fluids, to reduce the nozzle area by up to 30 percent. The prototype of the variable-area fan nozzle implements an overlapping spring leaf assembly to simplify the initial design and to provide ease of structural control. A single bundle of shape memory alloy wire actuators is used to reduce the nozzle geometry. The nozzle is subsequently held in the reduced-area configuration by using magnetorheological fluid brakes. This prototype uses the inherent advantages of shape memory alloys in providing large induced strains and of magnetorheological fluids in generating large resistive forces. In addition, the spring leaf design also functions as a return spring, once the magnetorheological fluid brakes are released, to help force the shape memory alloy wires to return to their original position. A computerized real-time control system uses the derivative-gain and proportional-gain algorithms to operate the system. This design represents a novel approach to the active control of high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines. Researchers have estimated that such engines will reduce thrust specific fuel consumption by 9 percent over that of fixed-geometry fan nozzles. This research was conducted under a cooperative agreement (NCC3-839) at the University of Akron.

  17. Fan Fuel Casting Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhoff, Seth D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-28

    LANL was approached to provide material and design guidance for a fan-shaped fuel element. A total of at least three castings were planned. The first casting is a simple billet mold to be made from high carbon DU-10Mo charge material. The second and third castings are for optimization of the actual fuel plate mold. The experimental scope for optimization is only broad enough for a second iteration of the mold design. It is important to note that partway through FY17, this project was cancelled by the sponsor. This report is being written in order to capture the knowledge gained should this project resume at a later date.

  18. Lift production through asymmetric flapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalikop, Shreyas; Sreenivas, K. R.

    2009-11-01

    At present, there is a strong interest in developing Micro Air Vehicles (MAV) for applications like disaster management and aerial surveys. At these small length scales, the flight of insects and small birds suggests that unsteady aerodynamics of flapping wings can offer many advantages over fixed wing flight, such as hovering-flight, high maneuverability and high lift at large angles of attack. Various lift generating mechanims such as delayed stall, wake capture and wing rotation contribute towards our understanding of insect flight. We address the effect of asymmetric flapping of wings on lift production. By visualising the flow around a pair of rectangular wings flapping in a water tank and numerically computing the flow using a discrete vortex method, we demonstrate that net lift can be produced by introducing an asymmetry in the upstroke-to-downstroke velocity profile of the flapping wings. The competition between generation of upstroke and downstroke tip vortices appears to hold the key to understanding this lift generation mechanism.

  19. Autogenic dynamics of debris-flow fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Wilco; de Haas, Tjalling; Braat, Lisanne; Kleinhans, Maarten

    2015-04-01

    Alluvial fans develop their semi-conical shape by cyclic avulsion of their geomorphologically active sector from a fixed fan apex. These cyclic avulsions have been attributed to both allogenic and autogenic forcings and processes. Autogenic dynamics have been extensively studied on fluvial fans through physical scale experiments, and are governed by cyclic alternations of aggradation by unconfined sheet flow, fanhead incision leading to channelized flow, channel backfilling and avulsion. On debris-flow fans, however, autogenic dynamics have not yet been directly observed. We experimentally created debris-flow fans under constant extrinsic forcings, and show that autogenic dynamics are a fundamental intrinsic process on debris-flow fans. We found that autogenic cycles on debris-flow fans are driven by sequences of backfilling, avulsion and channelization, similar to the cycles on fluvial fans. However, the processes that govern these sequences are unique for debris-flow fans, and differ fundamentally from the processes that govern autogenic dynamics on fluvial fans. We experimentally observed that backfilling commenced after the debris flows reached their maximum possible extent. The next debris flows then progressively became shorter, driven by feedbacks on fan morphology and flow-dynamics. The progressively decreasing debris-flow length caused in-channel sedimentation, which led to increasing channel overflow and wider debris flows. This reduced the impulse of the liquefied flow body to the flow front, which then further reduced flow velocity and runout length, and induced further in-channel sedimentation. This commenced a positive feedback wherein debris flows became increasingly short and wide, until the channel was completely filled and the apex cross-profile was plano-convex. At this point, there was no preferential transport direction by channelization, and the debris flows progressively avulsed towards the steepest, preferential, flow path. Simultaneously

  20. Normalized lift: an energy interpretation of the lift coefficient simplifies comparisons of the lifting ability of rotating and flapping surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Burgers

    Full Text Available For a century, researchers have used the standard lift coefficient C(L to evaluate the lift, L, generated by fixed wings over an area S against dynamic pressure, ½ρv(2, where v is the effective velocity of the wing. Because the lift coefficient was developed initially for fixed wings in steady flow, its application to other lifting systems requires either simplifying assumptions or complex adjustments as is the case for flapping wings and rotating cylinders.This paper interprets the standard lift coefficient of a fixed wing slightly differently, as the work exerted by the wing on the surrounding flow field (L/ρ·S, compared against the total kinetic energy required for generating said lift, ½v(2. This reinterpreted coefficient, the normalized lift, is derived from the work-energy theorem and compares the lifting capabilities of dissimilar lift systems on a similar energy footing. The normalized lift is the same as the standard lift coefficient for fixed wings, but differs for wings with more complex motions; it also accounts for such complex motions explicitly and without complex modifications or adjustments. We compare the normalized lift with the previously-reported values of lift coefficient for a rotating cylinder in Magnus effect, a bat during hovering and forward flight, and a hovering dipteran.The maximum standard lift coefficient for a fixed wing without flaps in steady flow is around 1.5, yet for a rotating cylinder it may exceed 9.0, a value that implies that a rotating cylinder generates nearly 6 times the maximum lift of a wing. The maximum normalized lift for a rotating cylinder is 1.5. We suggest that the normalized lift can be used to evaluate propellers, rotors, flapping wings of animals and micro air vehicles, and underwater thrust-generating fins in the same way the lift coefficient is currently used to evaluate fixed wings.

  1. Normalized Lift: An Energy Interpretation of the Lift Coefficient Simplifies Comparisons of the Lifting Ability of Rotating and Flapping Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgers, Phillip; Alexander, David E.

    2012-01-01

    For a century, researchers have used the standard lift coefficient CL to evaluate the lift, L, generated by fixed wings over an area S against dynamic pressure, ½ρv 2, where v is the effective velocity of the wing. Because the lift coefficient was developed initially for fixed wings in steady flow, its application to other lifting systems requires either simplifying assumptions or complex adjustments as is the case for flapping wings and rotating cylinders. This paper interprets the standard lift coefficient of a fixed wing slightly differently, as the work exerted by the wing on the surrounding flow field (L/ρ·S), compared against the total kinetic energy required for generating said lift, ½v2. This reinterpreted coefficient, the normalized lift, is derived from the work-energy theorem and compares the lifting capabilities of dissimilar lift systems on a similar energy footing. The normalized lift is the same as the standard lift coefficient for fixed wings, but differs for wings with more complex motions; it also accounts for such complex motions explicitly and without complex modifications or adjustments. We compare the normalized lift with the previously-reported values of lift coefficient for a rotating cylinder in Magnus effect, a bat during hovering and forward flight, and a hovering dipteran. The maximum standard lift coefficient for a fixed wing without flaps in steady flow is around 1.5, yet for a rotating cylinder it may exceed 9.0, a value that implies that a rotating cylinder generates nearly 6 times the maximum lift of a wing. The maximum normalized lift for a rotating cylinder is 1.5. We suggest that the normalized lift can be used to evaluate propellers, rotors, flapping wings of animals and micro air vehicles, and underwater thrust-generating fins in the same way the lift coefficient is currently used to evaluate fixed wings. PMID:22629326

  2. Normalized lift: an energy interpretation of the lift coefficient simplifies comparisons of the lifting ability of rotating and flapping surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgers, Phillip; Alexander, David E

    2012-01-01

    For a century, researchers have used the standard lift coefficient C(L) to evaluate the lift, L, generated by fixed wings over an area S against dynamic pressure, ½ρv(2), where v is the effective velocity of the wing. Because the lift coefficient was developed initially for fixed wings in steady flow, its application to other lifting systems requires either simplifying assumptions or complex adjustments as is the case for flapping wings and rotating cylinders.This paper interprets the standard lift coefficient of a fixed wing slightly differently, as the work exerted by the wing on the surrounding flow field (L/ρ·S), compared against the total kinetic energy required for generating said lift, ½v(2). This reinterpreted coefficient, the normalized lift, is derived from the work-energy theorem and compares the lifting capabilities of dissimilar lift systems on a similar energy footing. The normalized lift is the same as the standard lift coefficient for fixed wings, but differs for wings with more complex motions; it also accounts for such complex motions explicitly and without complex modifications or adjustments. We compare the normalized lift with the previously-reported values of lift coefficient for a rotating cylinder in Magnus effect, a bat during hovering and forward flight, and a hovering dipteran.The maximum standard lift coefficient for a fixed wing without flaps in steady flow is around 1.5, yet for a rotating cylinder it may exceed 9.0, a value that implies that a rotating cylinder generates nearly 6 times the maximum lift of a wing. The maximum normalized lift for a rotating cylinder is 1.5. We suggest that the normalized lift can be used to evaluate propellers, rotors, flapping wings of animals and micro air vehicles, and underwater thrust-generating fins in the same way the lift coefficient is currently used to evaluate fixed wings.

  3. Motivational variables that influence fan attendance in domestic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A convenience sample of 180 fans was surveyed from a Gauteng based team. A factor analytical approach revealed seven dimensions of fan motivation, namely, ... marketing communication strategies in various aspects of fan attendance.

  4. Two novel genes, fanA and fanB, involved in the biogenesis of K99 fimbriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosendaal, E; Boots, M; de Graaf, F K

    1987-08-11

    The nucleotide sequence of the region located transcriptionally upstream of the K99 fimbrial subunit gene (fanC) was determined. Several putative transcription signals and two open reading frames, designated fanA and fanB, became apparent. Frameshift mutations in fanA and fanB reduced K99 fimbriae expression 8-fold and 16-fold, respectively. Complementation of the mutants in trans restored the K99 expression to about 75% of the wild type level, indicating that fanA and fanB code for transacting polypeptides involved in the biogenesis of K99 fimbriae. The fanA and fanB gene products FanA and FanB were not detectable in minicell preparations, indicating that both polypeptides are synthesized in very small amounts. However, in an in vitro DNA directed translation system FanA and FanB could be identified. The deduced amino acid sequences of FanA and FanB showed that both polypeptides contain no signal peptides, indicating a cytoplasmic location. Furthermore, the polypeptides are very hydrophilic, mainly basic, and exhibit remarkable homology to each other and to a regulatory protein (papB) encoded by the pap-operon (1). Some of these features are characteristics of nucleic acid binding proteins, which suggests that FanA and FanB have a regulatory function in the synthesis of FanC and the auxiliary polypeptides FanD-H.

  5. TCA High Lift Preliminary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, G. H.; Polito, R. C.; Yeh, D. T.; Elzey, M. E.; Tran, J. T.; Meredith, Paul T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a TCA (Technology Concept Airplane) High lift Preliminary Assessment. The topics discussed are: 1) Model Description; 2) Data Repeatability; 3) Effect of Inboard L.E. (Leading Edge) Flap Span; 4) Comparison of 14'x22' TCA-1 With NTF (National Transonic Facility) Modified Ref. H; 5) Comparison of 14'x22' and NTF Ref. H Results; 6) Effect of Outboard Sealed Slat on TCA; 7) TCA Full Scale Build-ups; 8) Full Scale L/D Comparisons; 9) TCA Full Scale; and 10) Touchdown Lift Curves. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  6. Endoscopic brow lifts uber alles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhupendra C K

    2006-12-01

    Innumerable approaches to the ptotic brow and forehead have been described in the past. Over the last twenty-five years, we have used all these techniques in cosmetic and reconstructive patients. We have used the endoscopic brow lift technique since 1995. While no one technique is applicable to all patients, the endoscopic brow lift, with appropriate modifications for individual patients, can be used effectively for most patients with brow ptosis. We present the nuances of this technique and show several different fixation methods we have found useful.

  7. New F-theory lifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collinucci, Andres

    2009-01-01

    In this note, a procedure is developed to explicitly construct non-trivial F-theory lifts of perturbative IIB orientifold models on Calabi-Yau complete intersections in toric varieties. This procedure works on Calabi-Yau orientifolds where the involution coordinate can have arbitrary projective weight, as opposed to the well-known hypersurface cases where it has half the weight of the equation defining the CY threefold. This opens up the possibility of lifting more general setups, such as models that have O3-planes.

  8. The creation of football slash fan fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abby Waysdorf

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although sports fandom and fan fiction are often thought of as different worlds, in the contemporary media environment, this is not the case. Sport is a popular source text for fan fiction, and high-level European football, one of the world's most watched sports, has long had an online fan fiction presence. In a study of the LiveJournal community Footballslash over the 2011–12 European football season, I investigate what makes football a suitable source text for fan fiction, especially slash fan fiction; what fan fiction authors are doing with football; and what this suggests about how football and fan fiction are used in the present day. I present a new understanding of football as a media text to be transformed as well as provide an in-depth look into how this type of real person slash is developed and thought of by its practitioners. In doing so, I show what happens when fandoms and fan practices converge in the 21st century.

  9. The Right to Be a Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Reading experts have consistently cited the importance of independent reading, reading for pleasure, and fostering "a love of reading." Unfortunately, fanning the fire of fan readership is not so easy in the service of our clear-cut and standards-aligned curricula, except perhaps in small, carefully channeled doses. Moreover, the impetus for such…

  10. Radon reduction using sub floor fans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.H.; Chittaporn, P.

    1996-01-01

    The basement and second floor 222 Rn concentrations in an energy efficient home were measured hourly for 6 y using continuous monitors of our design. The home had a subslab pipe network installed during construction, and for the past 2 y a 150 cfm fan was operative venting air via ductwork inside the chimney exiting on the roof. During this measurement interval, experiments were conducted with the fan in 3 modes: (1) with the subslab fan off, (2) in the conventional direction auctioning air from beneath the slab to outside, and (3) reversed, blowing outdoor air into the network under the slab. We have a large data base to show that the indoor 222 R n concentration varies inversely with the indoor/outdoor temperature difference. In order to compare the 3 fan modes directly, we selected 50 to 90 d periods when the outdoor temperature was essentially the same. For the 3 modes, the fan off, blowing upward, and blowing downward, the basement concentration averaged 80, 38, and 34 Bq m -3 , respectively. Radon peaks or surges occur over a period of about 1 d during falling barometric pressure. With the fan blowing downward, these 222 Rn peaks tend to be smaller but only marginally so. We conclude that in this home the reduction in 222 Rn with the fan and subslab pipe network operating was essentially the same regardless of the direction of flow from the fan

  11. Computing Gröbner fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, K.; Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Thomas, R.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents algorithms for computing the Gröbner fan of an arbitrary polynomial ideal. The computation involves enumeration of all reduced Gröbner bases of the ideal. Our algorithms are based on a uniform definition of the Gröbner fan that applies to both homogeneous and non......-homogeneous ideals and a proof that this object is a polyhedral complex. We show that the cells of a Gröbner fan can easily be oriented acyclically and with a unique sink, allowing their enumeration by the memory-less reverse search procedure. The significance of this follows from the fact that Gröbner fans...... are not always normal fans of polyhedra in which case reverse search applies automatically. Computational results using our implementation of these algorithms in the software package Gfan are included....

  12. Blade Vibration Measurement System for Unducted Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marscher, William

    2014-01-01

    With propulsion research programs focused on new levels of efficiency and noise reduction, two avenues for advanced gas turbine technology are emerging: the geared turbofan and ultrahigh bypass ratio fan engines. Both of these candidates are being pursued as collaborative research projects between NASA and the engine manufacturers. The high bypass concept from GE Aviation is an unducted fan that features a bypass ratio of over 30 along with the accompanying benefits in fuel efficiency. This project improved the test and measurement capabilities of the unducted fan blade dynamic response. In the course of this project, Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI) collaborated with GE Aviation to (1) define the requirements for fan blade measurements; (2) leverage MSI's radar-based system for compressor and turbine blade monitoring; and (3) develop, validate, and deliver a noncontacting blade vibration measurement system for unducted fans.

  13. Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using High Angle Wells and Multiple Hydraulic Fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike L. Laue

    1997-05-30

    The distal fan margin in the northeast portion of the Yowlumne field contains significant reserves but is not economical to develop using vertical wells. Numerous interbedded shales and deteriorating rock properties limit producibility. In addition, extreme depths (13,000 ft) present a challenging environment for hydraulic fracturing and artificial lift. Lastly, a mature waterflood increases risk because of the uncertainty with size and location of flood fronts. This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting the distal fan margin of this slope-basin clastic reservoir through the use of a high-angle well completed with multiple hydraulic-fracture treatments. The combination of a high-angle (or horizontal) well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional vertical wells while maintaining vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. The equivalent production rate and reserves of three vertical wells are anticipated at one-half to two-thirds the cost.

  14. How Do Wings Generate Lift?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    So how do you go about teaching them something new? By mix- ing what they know with .... the viscous terms to the Euler equations increases the order of the ... such a strange result, one can use this pressure distribution and calculate the lift ...

  15. Turbofan gas turbine engine with variable fan outlet guide vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Peter John (Inventor); LaChapelle, Donald George (Inventor); Grant, Carl (Inventor); Zenon, Ruby Lasandra (Inventor); Mielke, Mark Joseph (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A turbofan gas turbine engine includes a forward fan section with a row of fan rotor blades, a core engine, and a fan bypass duct downstream of the forward fan section and radially outwardly of the core engine. The forward fan section has only a single stage of variable fan guide vanes which are variable fan outlet guide vanes downstream of the forward fan rotor blades. An exemplary embodiment of the engine includes an afterburner downstream of the fan bypass duct between the core engine and an exhaust nozzle. The variable fan outlet guide vanes are operable to pivot from a nominal OGV position at take-off to an open OGV position at a high flight Mach Number which may be in a range of between about 2.5-4+. Struts extend radially across a radially inwardly curved portion of a flowpath of the engine between the forward fan section and the core engine.

  16. Safe lifting in patients with chronic low back pain : Comparing FCE lifting task and NIOSH lifting guideline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijer, Wietske; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Brouwer, Sandra; Reneman, Michiel F.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Both the floor-to-waist lifting task of the Isernhagen Work Systems Functional Capacity Evaluation (IWS FCE) and recommended weight limit (RWL) of the NIOSH produce safe lifting weights and are used world-wide nowadays. It is unknown whether they produce similar safe lifting weights.

  17. School spirits: alcohol and collegiate sports fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Toben F; Wechsler, Henry

    2003-01-01

    While studies have addressed alcohol use and related problems among college athletes, little is known about the drinking patterns of non-athletes who are sports fans. This study examines the relationship between alcohol use and interest in collegiate sports on two levels. First, do sports fans in college binge drink more and exhibit more negative alcohol-related outcomes than other students? Second, do colleges with large numbers of sports fans have higher rates of heavy drinking and accompanying secondhand effects affecting other students? The study analyzed the responses of a nationally representative sample of students who completed questionnaires in the spring of 1999 regarding their extracurricular activities and substance use. The responses of 3445 student sports fans were compared to those of 8405 students who were not sports fans. More sports fans drank alcohol, engaged in binge drinking, had a heavy drinking style and reported alcohol-related problems than nonfans. The percentage of sports fans at a school was associated with binge drinking rates and the secondhand effects. The implications for those working with college athletics and for alcohol prevention personnel are discussed. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  18. Fuel Cell Hydroge Manifold for Lift Trucks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham

    . Battery driven lift trucks are being used more and more in different companies to reduce their emissions. However, battery driven lift trucks need long time to recharge and may be out of work for a long time. Fuel cell driven lift trucks diminish this problem and are therefore getting more attention...

  19. Sherlock (Holmes in Japanese (fan works [symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Morimoto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available I explore the history of Japanese writing centered on Sherlock Holmes as a means of interrogating the 2014 BBC Sherlock pastiche John and Sherlock Casebook 1: Jon, zenchi renmei e iku (The stark naked league, written by Japanese Sherlockian Kitahara Naohiko for mainstream publication by the publishing house Hayakawa shobō. I argue that exploration of the Japanese (fan cultural contexts of Kitahara's book begins to reveal the limits of the Anglo-American-centered framework through which fan studies scholars explore fan/producer relationships.

  20. 30 CFR 57.8519 - Underground main fan controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground main fan controls. 57.8519 Section... Ventilation Surface and Underground § 57.8519 Underground main fan controls. All underground main fans shall have controls placed at a suitable protected location remote from the fan and preferably on the surface...

  1. 30 CFR 75.331 - Auxiliary fans and tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fans and tubing. 75.331 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.331 Auxiliary fans and tubing. (a) When auxiliary fans and tubing are used for face ventilation, each auxiliary fan shall be— (1...

  2. FANS-3D Users Guide (ESTEP Project ER 201031)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    TECHNICAL DOCUMENT 3293 August 2016 FANS -3D User’s Guide (ESTEP Project ER-201031) Pei-Fang Wang SSC Pacific Hamn-Ching...1.1 THEORY AND NUMERICAL ALGORITHM OF FANS CODE ............................................. 1 2. FANS -3D SOFTWARE DOCUMENTATION AND EXECUTION...5 3. FANS -3D CODE PARALLELIZATION

  3. 30 CFR 75.310 - Installation of main mine fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Installation of main mine fans. 75.310 Section... mine fans. (a) Each main mine fan shall be— (1) Installed on the surface in an incombustible housing... that gives a signal at the mine when the fan either slows or stops. A responsible person designated by...

  4. 30 CFR 75.302 - Main mine fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main mine fans. 75.302 Section 75.302 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.302 Main mine fans. Each coal mine shall be ventilated by one or more main mine fans. Booster fans shall not be installed underground to assist main mine...

  5. PICNIC - FANS, ULTRAS AND HOOLIGANS - INTERNAL DIFFERENTIATE OF SUBCULTURE GROUP FOOTBALL FANS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Solinski

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a main part of "Internal differentiate of subculture group of football fans in Poland" project. Author has tried to show how the subculture of football fans can be differentiate. Author ha presented three different subgroups of Polish fans. It is very important to divide this subculture, because each subgroup has different mentality and style. That is why I have paid the most attention on this element.

  6. Lifting device for drilling rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radzivilovich, L L; Laptev, A G; Lipkovich, V A

    1982-01-01

    A lifter is proposed for drilling rods including a spacer stand with rotating bracket, boom with by-pass rollers, spacing and lifting hydrocylinders with rods and flexible tie mechanism. In order to improve labor productivity by improving maneuverability and to increase the maintenance zone, the lifter is equipped with a hydrocylinder of advance and a cross piece which is installed with the possibility of forward and rotational movement on the stand, and in which by means of the hydrocylinder of advance a boom is attached. Within the indicated boom there is a branch of the flexible tie mechanism with end attached with the possibility of regulation over the length on a rotating bracket, while the rod of the lifting hydrocylinder is connected to the cross piece.

  7. First-Order Twistor Lifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simões BrunoAscenso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of twistor methods in the study of Jacobi fields has proved quite fruitful, leading to a series of results. L. Lemaire and J. C. Wood proved several properties of Jacobi fields along harmonic maps from the two-sphere to the complex projective plane and to the three- and four-dimensional spheres, by carefully relating the infinitesimal deformations of the harmonic maps to those of the holomorphic data describing them. In order to advance this programme, we prove a series of relations between infinitesimal properties of the map and those of its twistor lift. Namely, we prove that isotropy and harmonicity to first order of the map correspond to holomorphicity to first order of its lift into the twistor space, relatively to the standard almost complex structures and . This is done by obtaining first-order analogues of classical twistorial constructions.

  8. First-Order Twistor Lifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ascenso Simões

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of twistor methods in the study of Jacobi fields has proved quite fruitful, leading to a series of results. L. Lemaire and J. C. Wood proved several properties of Jacobi fields along harmonic maps from the two-sphere to the complex projective plane and to the three- and four-dimensional spheres, by carefully relating the infinitesimal deformations of the harmonic maps to those of the holomorphic data describing them. In order to advance this programme, we prove a series of relations between infinitesimal properties of the map and those of its twistor lift. Namely, we prove that isotropy and harmonicity to first order of the map correspond to holomorphicity to first order of its lift into the twistor space, relatively to the standard almost complex structures J1 and J2. This is done by obtaining first-order analogues of classical twistorial constructions.

  9. The Effect of Lifting Speed on Cumulative and Peak Biomechanical Loading for Symmetric Lifting Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasey O. Greenland

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: Based on peak values, BCF is highest for fast speeds, but the BCF cumulative loading is highest for slow speeds, with the largest difference between fast and slow lifts. This may imply that a slow lifting speed is at least as hazardous as a fast lifting speed. It is important to consider the duration of lift when determining risks for back and shoulder injuries due to lifting and that peak values alone are likely not sufficient.

  10. Being of service: "X-Files" fans and social engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethan Jones

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available I explore the ways in which celebrity charity and fan activism can lead to civic engagement and social change. Fan studies has moved away from the traditional view of fans as psychologically deficient and has begun to examine resistance within the cultural productions of fandom—fan fiction, for example, addressing gender imbalances in popular TV shows. However, scholarship on celebrity-focused fans still retains much of the stigmatizing language that mars early writing about fans. I examine the relationship between celebrity and fan; examine the role celebrity plays in framing fan charity; assess how fan investment affects celebrity charity work; and argue that fans are active participants in encouraging social awareness and charitable giving.

  11. Active Vibration Reduction of Titanium Alloy Fan Blades (FAN1) Using Piezoelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Benjamin; Kauffman, Jeffrey; Duffy, Kirsten; Provenza, Andrew; Morrison, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing smart adaptive structures to improve fan blade damping at resonances using piezoelectric (PE) transducers. In this paper, a digital resonant control technique emulating passive shunt circuits is used to demonstrate vibration reduction of FAN1 Ti real fan blade at the several target modes. Single-mode control and multi-mode control using one piezoelectric material are demonstrated. Also a conceptual study of how to implement this digital control system into the rotating fan blade is discussed.

  12. The Fan Effect Co-production, Communication & Dispute Between Digital Game Fans, Developers and Publishers

    OpenAIRE

    Jalamo, Tuomas

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the relationship between video game fans, developers and publishers. The topic is approached via a case study that explores online fan reviews of the video game Mass Effect 3 at the Metacritic website. The game had a controversial ending, which was posthumously altered due to negative feedback from the fans. The study seeks to understand the ways in which the case study reflects the issues between the fans and the industry and how these themes are related to the wider disc...

  13. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dean, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Acosta, Jason [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  14. Magnetic anomalies in Central Bengal fan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.C.S.; Lakshminarayana, S.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.

    Total magnetic field anomalies recorded over the Central Bengal Fan are analysed and the depths to the magnetic basement are computed using the analytical signal and the Werner deconvolution methods. To the west and east of 85 degrees E...

  15. NASA ISS Portable Fan Assembly Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Andrew; Allen, Christopher S.; Hess, Linda F.

    2018-01-01

    The Portable Fan Assembly (PFA) is a variable speed fan that can be used to provide additional ventilation inside International Space Station (ISS) modules as needed for crew comfort or for enhanced mixing of the ISS atmosphere. This fan can also be configured with a Shuttle era lithium hydroxide (LiOH) canister for CO2 removal in confined areas partially of fully isolated from the primary Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) on ISS which is responsible for CO2 removal. This report documents noise emission levels of the PFA at various speed settings and configurations. It also documents the acoustic attenuation effects realized when circulating air through the PFA inlet and outlet mufflers and when operating in its CO2 removal configuration (CRK) with a LiOH canister (sorbent bed) installed over the fan outlet.

  16. Aerodynamic Modelling and Optimization of Axial Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft

    A numerically efficient mathematical model for the aerodynamics oflow speed axial fans of the arbitrary vortex flow type has been developed.The model is based on a blade-element principle, whereby therotor is divided into a number of annular streamtubes.For each of these streamtubes relations......-Raphson method, andsolutions converged to machine accuracy are found at small computing costs.The model has been validated against published measurementson various fan configurations,comprising two rotor-only fan stages, a counter-rotatingfan unit and a stator-rotor-stator stage.Comparisons of local...... and integrated propertiesshow that the computed results agree well with the measurements.Integrating a rotor-only version of the aerodynamic modelwith an algorithm for numerical designoptimization, enables the finding of an optimum fan rotor.The angular velocity of the rotor, the hub radius and the spanwise...

  17. Rating behavior of football fans by Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Szczygielski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to present the opinion of Internet users for football fans and their behavior. The research method was used diagnostic survey research in the form of a survey computer. 102 people were tested mostly in the age of 21-25 years. The research can draw the following conclusions: (1 Football stadiums should be better secured and protected by the relevant departments, (2 The colors and club merchandise is not a reliable indicator of fan devotion of his team, (3 These are the fans, the fans are cheering for is a sacred thing, (4 All acts of devastation to property and vandalism in football stadiums should be severely punished.

  18. Aerodynamic modelling and optimization of axial fans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noertoft Soerensen, Dan

    1998-01-01

    A numerically efficient mathematical model for the aerodynamics of low speed axial fans of the arbitrary vortex flow type has been developed. The model is based on a blade-element principle, whereby the rotor is divided into a number of annular stream tubes. For each of these stream tubes relations for velocity, pressure and radial position are derived from the conservation laws for mass, tangential momentum and energy. The equations are solved using the Newton-Raphson methods, and solutions converged to machine accuracy are found at small computing costs. The model has been validated against published measurements on various fan configurations, comprising two rotor-only fan stages, a counter-rotating fan unit and a stator-rotor stator stage. Comparisons of local and integrated properties show that the computed results agree well with the measurements. Optimizations have been performed to maximize the mean value of fan efficiency in a design interval of flow rates, thus designing a fan which operates well over a range of different flow conditions. The optimization scheme was used to investigate the dependence of maximum efficiency on 1: the number of blades, 2: the width of the design interval and 3: the hub radius. The degree of freedom in the choice of design variable and constraints, combined with the design interval concept, provides a valuable design-tool for axial fans. To further investigate the use of design optimization, a model for the vortex shedding noise from the trailing edge of the blades has been incorporated into the optimization scheme. The noise emission from the blades was minimized in a flow rate design point. Optimizations were performed to investigate the dependence of the noise on 1: the number of blades, 2: a constraint imposed on efficiency and 3: the hub radius. The investigations showed, that a significant reduction of noise could be achieved, at the expense of a small reduction in fan efficiency. (EG) 66 refs.

  19. Wordplay, mindplay: Fan fiction and postclassical narratology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle Van Steenhuyse

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent narrative theories on story worlds, or the worlds evoked by narratives, call attention to the process of fan reading and the role which the canon plays in that process. This paper posits that such theories can help us understand literary techniques that make a difference on the level of the reading experience that is implied by fan fiction texts. This is illustrated with a close reading of Naguabo's "The Mother of All Marriage Proposals," a Jane Austen fic.

  20. A Fan Solution for the Philips Airfryer

    OpenAIRE

    Gibernau Torres, Octavi

    2012-01-01

    The thesis on hand has been carried out at Philips Consumer Lifestyle Drachten that, together with Delft University of Technology, aims to develop a computed tool that determines the performance and efficiency curve of any centrifugal fan operating in the Philips Airfryer. The Airfryer is a Philips kitchen appliance that, thanks to the use of Rapid Air Technology, enables to fry food with a reduction of unhealthy fat up to 80%. Philips aims at reducing the total cost of the cooking fan an...

  1. Investigating for failure of central ventilation fan blade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Jae Raeyang; Ko Woo Sig; Kim, Yeon Hwan; Park, Kwang Ha

    2002-01-01

    During the operation, central ventilation fan stopped when switch 'on' condition. When central ventilation fan disassemble, ten blades of fan fractured. We have searched cause of failure. We had modeling one of the fan blades and analysis with computer programs. Thus we have find that fracture of central ventilation fan blades is alternative stress and vibration at hub. In this paper, we have described cause of failure

  2. New heavy-lift system under construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Heavy-lift availability is at a premium, and the market is eager for alternatives to meet the demand. An alternative heavy-lift solution from SeaMetric - which has two multi-purpose heavy-lift vessels under construction in China - will be available in the first quarter of 2011. The TML system is based on buoyancy and ballast tanks, with four lifting arms mounted on two identical vessels, each vessel measuring 140 x 40 x 10.75 metres. To perform a lift, one TML with lifting arms is positioned on each side of the object. Using seawater pumps, lift force is created by de ballasting the buoyancy tanks and at the same time ballasting the ballast tanks. (AG). tab., ills

  3. Geotomography using refraction fan shots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlis, Gary L.

    1986-05-01

    This paper introduces a new method for imaging lateral variations in the seismic velocity structure of the earth. The discussion is centered around the geometry of a pilot experiment conducted in Salt Creek valley near Bloomington, Indiana, but the methodology is more general in scope. In the pilot experiment, 24 explosions were fired at equal intervals around a circular area 190 m in diameter and recorded by geophones positioned diametrically opposite the source. Travel time residuals for the fan shots are inverted to estimate lateral velocity variations in a two-dimensional, bowl-shaped image reconstruction region under the circular array. A simple damped least squares inversion worked poorly when delay times were included as additional free parameters in the solution. A parameter separation procedure was more successful. The value of these data in determining structure was analyzed using synthetic data and resolving power calculations. Structure could be determined to high accuracy with little distortion in the center of the circular region where rays crossed from all directions, but results were comparatively poor near the fringes of the region where angular coverage was more limited. Inversion of the Salt Creek data indicates the observed variations in the residuals can be almost completely accounted for by variations in the weathered layer. The refractor velocity is nearly constant to a precision of 0.005 s/km, but there is a suggestion of a slight velocity decrease in the refractor at higher elevations above the water table.

  4. Australian Queer Science Fiction Fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, Stephen Craig

    2017-10-23

    Science fiction (sf) does more than provide a fleeting moment of entertainment; it has many personal and social functions. In addition to offering audiences "romantic escapism" (Gerrold, 1996, pp. 5-6), sf also enables the "postulation of an alternative reality from which to contemplate this one" (Gerrold, 1996, pp. 5-6); as such, it is especially important "for groups which have had limited stakes in the status quo" (Jenkins, 1995, p. 242). To date, no research has been undertaken on the relationship between Australian queers and sf fandom. This article reports the findings of an online survey and explores the psycho-social features of Australian queer sf fans and why they like the genre. While the characteristics of this sample mirror those of Australian queers generally, they also have slightly higher rates of mental illness and are far more likely to state they have "no religion." Furthermore, while enjoying the "sciency" (P10, bisexual woman) aspects of sf, Australian queers also like the "poignant metaphors for our own civilization" (P45, asexual man).

  5. Variable Lifting Index (VLI): A New Method for Evaluating Variable Lifting Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Thomas; Occhipinti, Enrico; Colombini, Daniela; Alvarez-Casado, Enrique; Fox, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We seek to develop a new approach for analyzing the physical demands of highly variable lifting tasks through an adaptation of the Revised NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) Lifting Equation (RNLE) into a Variable Lifting Index (VLI). There are many jobs that contain individual lifts that vary from lift to lift due to the task requirements. The NIOSH Lifting Equation is not suitable in its present form to analyze variable lifting tasks. In extending the prior work on the VLI, two procedures are presented to allow users to analyze variable lifting tasks. One approach involves the sampling of lifting tasks performed by a worker over a shift and the calculation of the Frequency Independent Lift Index (FILI) for each sampled lift and the aggregation of the FILI values into six categories. The Composite Lift Index (CLI) equation is used with lifting index (LI) category frequency data to calculate the VLI. The second approach employs a detailed systematic collection of lifting task data from production and/or organizational sources. The data are organized into simplified task parameter categories and further aggregated into six FILI categories, which also use the CLI equation to calculate the VLI. The two procedures will allow practitioners to systematically employ the VLI method to a variety of work situations where highly variable lifting tasks are performed. The scientific basis for the VLI procedure is similar to that for the CLI originally presented by NIOSH; however, the VLI method remains to be validated. The VLI method allows an analyst to assess highly variable manual lifting jobs in which the task characteristics vary from lift to lift during a shift. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  6. Novel Crosstalk Measurement Method for Multi-Core Fiber Fan-In/Fan-Out Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Feihong; Ono, Hirotaka; Abe, Yoshiteru

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new crosstalk measurement method for multi-core fiber fan-in/fan-out devices utilizing the Fresnel reflection. Compared with the traditional method using core-to-core coupling between a multi-core fiber and a single-mode fiber, the proposed method has the advantages of high reliability...

  7. Fan relationship management in football - going beyond traditional product offerings to win the hearts of fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The management and control of fan relations should go beyond a football club’s traditional product and service offerings and touch the important experiential side of the football economy. This will create a stronger platform to optimize ROI, ROE and ROO relating to different fan segments....

  8. Lift enhancement by trapped vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of lift enhancement by trapped vortex are provided. Efforts are continuously being made to find simple ways to convert wings of aircraft from an efficient cruise configuration to one that develops the high lift needed during landing and takeoff. The high-lift configurations studied here consist of conventional airfoils with a trapped vortex over the upper surface. The vortex is trapped by one or two vertical fences that serve as barriers to the oncoming stream and as reflection planes for the vortex and the sink that form a separation bubble on top of the airfoil. Since the full three-dimensional unsteady flow problem over the wing of an aircraft is so complicated that it is hard to get an understanding of the principles that govern the vortex trapping process, the analysis is restricted here to the flow field illustrated in the first slide. It is assumed that the flow field between the two end plates approximates a streamwise strip of the flow over a wing. The flow between the endplates and about the airfoil consists of a spanwise vortex located between the suction orifices in the endplates. The spanwise fence or spoiler located near the nose of the airfoil serves to form a separated flow region and a shear layer. The vorticity in the shear layer is concentrated into the vortex by withdrawal of fluid at the suction orifices. As the strength of the vortex increases with time, it eventually dominates the flow in the separated region so that a shear or vertical layer is no longer shed from the tip of the fence. At that point, the vortex strength is fixed and its location is such that all of the velocity contributions at its center sum to zero thereby making it an equilibrium point for the vortex. The results of a theoretical analysis of such an idealized flow field are described.

  9. Procedure for Balancing an Air Distribution System with Decentralised Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunner, Amalie; Hultmark, Göran; Vorre, Anders

    2015-01-01

    flawed. This paper presents a new procedure for balancing of CAV systems in combination with decentralised fans. The new system was based on replacing the balancing dampers with decentralised fans. By replacing the balancing dampers with decentralised fans, airflows can be balanced by adjusting the speed...... of the fans. In conventional air distribution systems the fan provides the necessary pressure to overcome the resistance in the branch with the highest pressure resistance. This gives an unnecessary overpressure in the remaining branches that does not provide any useful purpose. In order to decrease the fan...... pressure requirements the fan was dimensioned for the branch with the least pressure resistance. The decentralised fans then provided sufficient pressure to overcome the exact resistance in the corresponding branch. The results show that by using decentralised fans in duct systems instead of dampers...

  10. Normalized Lift: An Energy Interpretation of the Lift Coefficient Simplifies Comparisons of the Lifting Ability of Rotating and Flapping Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Burgers, Phillip; Alexander, David E.

    2012-01-01

    For a century, researchers have used the standard lift coefficient C(L) to evaluate the lift, L, generated by fixed wings over an area S against dynamic pressure, ½ρv(2), where v is the effective velocity of the wing. Because the lift coefficient was developed initially for fixed wings in steady flow, its application to other lifting systems requires either simplifying assumptions or complex adjustments as is the case for flapping wings and rotating cylinders.This paper interprets the standar...

  11. Study on performance of centripetal fan, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejiri, Eiji; Shirakura, Masaaki; Tagori, Tetsuo; Enomoto, Hisao.

    1984-01-01

    Centripetal fans are radial flow type fans which gather air from outer side into inner side. The construction is simple, and when heat exchangers are arranged around them, cooled air can be discharged upward only by connecting simple ducts, accordingly, centripetal fans are suitable to the ventilating fans for superlarge cooling towers of nuclear power plants. The static pressure rise is obtained only by the diffuser action of impellers, therefore, they are not suitable to pumps and compressors, and their use is limited only to fans. Centrifugal force exerts negative effect on static pressure rise, accordingly, the ratio of internal diameter/external diameter of impellers cannot be made very small. In this study, a small model with impeller diameter of 0.6 m was used, and its overall performance, the performance of moving blades in the range of stable operation, the rotating stall characteristics in the region of low flow rate, and the effect of side wind on the overall performance in outdoor use were examined. By changing the angle of inclination of entrance guide vanes, the range of stable operation was expanded, and the pressure coefficient and efficiency were increased. (Kako, I.)

  12. Numerical Aerodynamic Evaluation and Noise Investigation of a Bladeless Fan

    OpenAIRE

    mohammad jafari; Hossein Afshin; Bijan Farhanieh; Hamidreza bozorgasareh

    2015-01-01

    Bladeless fan is a novel fan type that has no observable impeller, usually used for domestic applications. Numerical investigation of a Bladeless fan via Finite Volume Method was carried out in this study. The fan was placed in center of a 4×2×2m room and 473 Eppler airfoil profile was used as cross section of the fan. Performance and noise level of the fan by solving continuity and momentum equations as well as noise equations of Broadband Noise Source (BNS) and Ffowcs Williams a...

  13. Acceptance test report MICON software exhaust fan control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    This test procedure specifies instructions for acceptance testing of software for exhaust fan control under Project ESPT (Energy Savings Performance Contract). The software controls the operation of two emergency exhaust fans when there is a power failure. This report details the results of acceptance testing for the MICON software upgrades. One of the modifications is that only one of the emergency fans will operate at all times. If the operating fan shuts off or fails, the other fan will start and the operating fan will be stopped

  14. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulden, Steve [Sysco Food Service, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-08-20

    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.

  15. Study on process design of partially-balanced, hydraulically lifting vertical ship lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Shen; Xiaofeng, Xu; Lu, Zhang; Bing, Zhu; Fei, Li

    2017-11-01

    The hub ship lift in Panjin is the first navigation structure in China for the link between the inland and open seas, which adopts a novel partially-balanced, hydraulically lifting ship lift; it can meet such requirements as fast and sharp water level change in open sea, large draft of a yacht, and launching of a ship reception chamber; its balancing weight system can effectively reduce the load of the primary lifting cylinder, and optimize the force distribution of the ship reception chamber. The paper provides an introduction to main equipment, basic principles, main features and system composition of a ship lift. The unique power system and balancing system of the completed ship lift has offered some experience for the construction of the tourism-type ship lifts with a lower lifting height.

  16. The mediating role of facebook fan pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chih, Wen-Hai; Hsu, Li-Chun; Wang, Kai-Yu; Lin, Kuan-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Using the dual mediation hypothesis, this study investigates the role of interestingness (the power of attracting or holding one's attention) attitude towards the news, in the formation of Facebook Fan Page users' electronic word-of-mouth intentions. A total of 599 Facebook fan page users in Taiwan were recruited and structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the research hypotheses. The results show that both perceived news entertainment and informativeness positively influence interestingness attitude towards the news. Interestingness attitude towards the news subsequently influences hedonism and utilitarianism attitudes towards the Fan Page, which then influence eWOM intentions. Interestingness attitude towards the news plays a more important role than hedonism and utilitarianism attitudes in generating electronic word-of-mouth intentions. Based on the findings, the implications and future research suggestions are provided.

  17. SWITCHING POWER FAN CONTROL OF COMPUTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr I. Popovskyi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of material presented in the article, due to extensive use of high-performance computers to create modern information systems, including the NAPS of Ukraine. Most computers in NAPS of Ukraine work on Intel Pentium processors at speeds from 600 MHz to 3 GHz and release a lot of heat, which requires the installation of the system unit 2-3 additional fans. The fan is always works on full power, that leads to rapid deterioration and high level (up to 50 dB noise. In order to meet ergonomic requirements it is proposed to іnstall a computer system unit and an additional control unit ventilators, allowing independent control of each fan. The solution is applied at creation of information systems planning research in the National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine on Internet basis.

  18. Noise Measurements of the VAIIPR Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Jeff; Weir, Don

    2012-01-01

    This final report has been prepared by Honeywell Aerospace, Phoenix, Arizona, a unit of Honeywell International, Inc., documenting work performed during the period September 2004 through November 2005 for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, under the Revolutionary Aero-Space Engine Research (RASER) Program, Contract No. NAS3- 01136, Task Order 6, Noise Measurements of the VAIIPR Fan. The NASA Task Manager was Dr. Joe Grady, NASA Glenn Research Center, Mail Code 60-6, Cleveland, Ohio 44135. The NASA Contract Officer was Mr. Albert Spence, NASA Glenn Research Center, Mail Code 60-6, Cleveland, Ohio 44135. This report focuses on the evaluation of internal fan noise as generated from various inflow disturbances based on measurements made from a circumferential array of sensors located near the fan and sensors upstream of a serpentine inlet.

  19. Scattered radiation in fan beam imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, P.C.; Yaffe, M.

    1982-01-01

    Scatter-to-primary energy fluence ratios (S/P) have been studied for fan x-ray beams as used in CT scanners and slit projection radiography systems. The dependence of S/P on phantom diameter, distance from phantom to image receptor, and kilovoltage is presented. An empirical equation is given that predicts S/P over a wide range of fan beam imaging configurations. For CT body scans on a 4th-generation machine, S/P is approximately 5%. Scattered radiation can produce a significant cupping artefact in CT images which is similar to that due to beam hardening. When multiple slices are used in scanned slit radiography, they can be arranged such that the increase in S/P is negligible. Calculations of scatter-to-primary ratios for first order scattering showed that for fan beams the contribution of coherent scatter is comparable to or greater than that of incoherent first scatter

  20. Optimism Bias in Fans and Sports Reporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Bradley C; Kopeć, Łukasz; Guest, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    People are optimistic about their prospects relative to others. However, existing studies can be difficult to interpret because outcomes are not zero-sum. For example, one person avoiding cancer does not necessitate that another person develops cancer. Ideally, optimism bias would be evaluated within a closed formal system to establish with certainty the extent of the bias and the associated environmental factors, such that optimism bias is demonstrated when a population is internally inconsistent. Accordingly, we asked NFL fans to predict how many games teams they liked and disliked would win in the 2015 season. Fans, like ESPN reporters assigned to cover a team, were overly optimistic about their team's prospects. The opposite pattern was found for teams that fans disliked. Optimism may flourish because year-to-year team results are marked by auto-correlation and regression to the group mean (i.e., good teams stay good, but bad teams improve).

  1. Optimism Bias in Fans and Sports Reporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Bradley C.

    2015-01-01

    People are optimistic about their prospects relative to others. However, existing studies can be difficult to interpret because outcomes are not zero-sum. For example, one person avoiding cancer does not necessitate that another person develops cancer. Ideally, optimism bias would be evaluated within a closed formal system to establish with certainty the extent of the bias and the associated environmental factors, such that optimism bias is demonstrated when a population is internally inconsistent. Accordingly, we asked NFL fans to predict how many games teams they liked and disliked would win in the 2015 season. Fans, like ESPN reporters assigned to cover a team, were overly optimistic about their team’s prospects. The opposite pattern was found for teams that fans disliked. Optimism may flourish because year-to-year team results are marked by auto-correlation and regression to the group mean (i.e., good teams stay good, but bad teams improve). PMID:26352146

  2. Isolated neck-lifting procedure: isolated stork lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarino, Sheila C; Wu, Allan Y; Morrow, David M

    2013-04-01

    Many patients desire cosmetic improvement of neck laxity when consulting with a plastic surgeon about their face. Neck laxity and loss of the cervicomental angle can be due to multiple components of aging such as skin quality/elasticity, loss of platysma muscle tone, and submental fat accumulation. Traditionally, the procedure of choice for patients with an aging lower face and neck is a cervicofacial rhytidectomy. However, occasionally, a patient wishes to have no other facial surgery than an improvement of their excessive skin of the anterior, lateral, and/or posterior neck. In other instances, a patient may present with having had a face/neck-lifting procedure that left objectionable vertical/diagonal lines at the lateral neck. In both these instances, a surgeon should consider an isolated stork lift (ISL) procedure. An ISL procedure avoids and/or corrects problematic vertical/diagonal lateral neck folds by "walking" the excess skin flaps around the posterior inferior occipital hairline bilaterally, bringing the flaps together at the lateral and posterior neck, which sometimes involves a midline posterior dart excision of the dog ear. A patient presenting with excessive skin of the neck (anterior, lateral, and/or posterior) and/or residual vertical/diagonal skin folds is an excellent candidate for the ISL. The ISL procedure was performed on 273 patients over a 2-year period at The Morrow Institute. Patients were included if they had excessive skin of the anterior, lateral, and/or posterior neck and/or diagonal/vertical lateral bands and did not desire a full face-lifting procedure. Patients were excluded from this study if they would not accept having longer hair in order to cover the scar along the posterior inferior occipital hairline or a midline T-flap skin closure scar at the base of the posterior midline neck. Under a combination of local anesthesia and IV sedation, a postauricular face-lift incision was made that was extended in a circumoccipital fashion

  3. Comparison of BacT/Alert FAN and FAN Plus Bottles with Conventional Medium for Culturing Cerebrospinal Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, In Young; Chun, Sejong; Song, Dong Joon; Huh, Hee Jae; Lee, Nam Yong

    2016-11-01

    We compared the BacT/Alert system FAN and FAN Plus media to conventional media for culturing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with 2,545 samples. FAN/FAN Plus bottles showed better performance for isolating microorganisms in CSF than conventional media (positive rate, 7.2% [182/2,545] versus 3.1% [80/2,545]). The incremental recovery rate of Cryptococcus neoformans from FAN Plus bottles was higher than that from FAN bottles. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Scaling of lifting forces in relation to object size in whole body lifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, I.; van Dieen, J.H.; Toussaint, H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Subjects prepare for a whole body lifting movement by adjusting their posture and scaling their lifting forces to the expected object weight. The expectancy is based on visual and haptic size cues. This study aimed to find out whether lifting force overshoots related to object size cues disappear or

  5. The Challenges of Teaching Fan Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephan, Matthias

    , has only gained in popularity. Yet, the nature of the course in question, an interdisciplinary open elective, has meant a class with a variety of backgrounds, preparation, and expectations from fan studies and its critical apparatus. In addition, due to the course being taught in English, it attracts...... an abundance of exchange students, further complicating the course expectations. The paper will explore how different aspects of fan studies are presented, the variety and depth of theoretical approaches that are both available and suitable to the course, while at the same time exploring the difficulty...

  6. Homophobia, heteronormativity, and slash fan fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April S. Callis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available I analyze the relationship between homophobia/heteronormativity and slash fan fiction. Through reading and coding almost 6,000 pages of Kirk/Spock fan fiction written from 1978 to 2014, I illuminate shifts in how normative gender and sexuality are portrayed by K/S authors. Writers of K/S, while ostensibly writing about the 23rd century, consciously or unconsciously include cultural norms from the 20th and 21st centuries. Thus, slash becomes a lens through which readers can view a decrease in both homophobia and heteronormativity in US culture over the past several decades.

  7. Development of a miniature fan motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chien-Chang; Yao, Yeong-Der; Liang, Kun-Yi; Huang, Chung-Chun; Chang, Yu-Choung

    2012-04-01

    A novel compact axial flux fan motor was developed. Such a micromotor could be a potential candidate for using as the cooling solution for the next generation mobile devices, for example, smart phones and pico-projectors. The key parameters of the motor, such as back electromotive force, cogging torque, and axial preload are predicted using finite element method. In addition, new approaches are proposed to measure these items, and the corresponding experimental results are in good agreement with the simulated one. Moreover, the undesired vibration harmonic is successfully suppressed, and the fan motor represents a high static pressure and air flow rate.

  8. Sport fans' impressions of gay male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jamonn; Cothren, Denise; Rogers, Ross; Kistler, Lindsay; Osowski, Anne; Greenauer, Nathan; End, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sport fans' impressions of gay male athletes. Participants formed impressions of a fictional athlete from their favorite team after reading a short scenario about the player. The scenarios described the athlete as being gay or straight, and either becoming a distraction or not causing a distraction to the team. While males' ratings of the athlete did not significantly differ, female fans formed significantly more positive impressions of the gay male player than the straight athlete. These results are discussed in terms of the ingroup bias and the shifting culture of homophobia in sport.

  9. Analysis of dynamic parameters of mine fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russky, E. Yu

    2018-03-01

    The design of the rotor of an axial fan and its main units, namely double leaf blades impeller and the main shaft are discussed. The parameters of a disturbed mine air flow under sudden outbursts are determined and the influence of disturbances on frequencies of axial fan units is assessed. The scope of the assessment embraces the disturbance effect on the blades and on the torsional vibrations of the main shafts. The dependences of the stresses in the elements of the rotor versus the disturbed air flow parameters are derived.

  10. Experiencing fan activism: Understanding the power of fan activist organizations through members' narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neta Kligler-Vilenchik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fan activism, forms of civic engagement and political participation growing out of experiences of fandom, is a powerful mode of mobilization, particularly for young people. Building on 40 interviews with members of two organizations representing different configurations of fan activism, this article discusses three emerging elements that are key to the experience of membership in such groups. We suggest that the strength of fan activist groups builds on successfully combining these elements: two that are common to fandom, shared media experiences and a sense of community, and one that is traditionally ascribed to volunteerism and activism, the wish to help.

  11. Quiet High Speed Fan II (QHSF II): Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Karen; Weir, Don; Ross, Dave

    2012-01-01

    This report details the aerodynamic, mechanical, structural design and fabrication of a Honey Engines Quiet High Speed Fan II (lower hub/tip ratio and higher specific flow than the Baseline I fan). This fan/nacelle system incorporates features such as advanced forward sweep and an advanced integrated fan/fan exit guide vane design that provides for the following characteristics: (1) Reduced noise at supersonic tip speeds, in comparison to current state-of-the-art fan technology; (2) Improved aeroelastic stability within the anticipated operating envelope; and (3) Aerodynamic performance consistent with current state-of-the-art fan technology. This fan was fabricated by Honeywell and tested in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Ft Low Speed Wind Tunnel for aerodynamic, aeromechanical, and acoustic performance.

  12. Improving Fan System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-04-01

    This is one of a series of sourcebooks on motor-driven equipment produced by the Industrial Technologies Program. It provides a reference for industrial fan systems users, outlining opportunities to improve fan system performance.

  13. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of the...

  14. Complex multiplication and lifting problems

    CERN Document Server

    Chai, Ching-Li; Oort, Frans

    2013-01-01

    Abelian varieties with complex multiplication lie at the origins of class field theory, and they play a central role in the contemporary theory of Shimura varieties. They are special in characteristic 0 and ubiquitous over finite fields. This book explores the relationship between such abelian varieties over finite fields and over arithmetically interesting fields of characteristic 0 via the study of several natural CM lifting problems which had previously been solved only in special cases. In addition to giving complete solutions to such questions, the authors provide numerous examples to illustrate the general theory and present a detailed treatment of many fundamental results and concepts in the arithmetic of abelian varieties, such as the Main Theorem of Complex Multiplication and its generalizations, the finer aspects of Tate's work on abelian varieties over finite fields, and deformation theory. This book provides an ideal illustration of how modern techniques in arithmetic geometry (such as descent the...

  15. Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…

  16. Thermally stimulating mechanically-lifted well production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, E.A.; Hinson, R.A.

    1984-06-19

    A well which is producing slowly by artificial lift can be economically heated by first inflowing a nitrogen-generating solution, to form a pool of reacting liquid near the uppermost opening into the reservoir, then inflowing more solution while artificially-lifting liquid from near the lowermost opening into the reservoir at a rate substantially equalling the inflow rate.

  17. Fan action and political participation on "The Colbert Report"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Schulzke

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Colbert Report merges the increasingly popular political satire genre with fan activism. The result is that the fan community helps to construct Colbert's malleable character and demonstrates symbolic power through its willingness to act. The fans are usually a nonpartisan force, acting to produce entertainment rather than substantive political change. However, this can be politically meaningful, as the fans' projects promote collective action, parallel political activities like voting and protesting, and encourage critical thinking about political information.

  18. Introduction of a Cooling-Fan Efficiency Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiavon, S.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2009-01-01

    In a warm environment, air movement with elevated velocity is a well-known cooling strategy. The local air movement is typically generated by cooling fans (e.g., ceiling fan, table fans, etc.). Appearance, power input, and price are the main parameters considered today when purchasing cooling fans...... in practice the recommended elevated velocities in warm environments presented in the present standards. The standards need to be revised....

  19. Lift conference | 5-7 February

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Since 2006, Lift Events explore the business and social implications of new technologies through the organisation of international event series and open innovation programs in Europe, Asia and America. The next conference will be held on 5-7 February in Geneva.   (Image: © Lift Conference) The Lift Conference is one of the leading conferences on innovation in Europe and a key annual meeting for individuals and organizations wishing to understand and anticipate trends and innovation. Held every year in February in Geneva (5-7 February 2014), the Lift Conference is a three-day event consisting of talks, interactive workshops, exhibitions, and discussions bringing together over 1’000 participants from all society’s sectors and industries in a dynamic and informal environment with the aim to learn, connect, share and leverage innovation opportunities.   Extraordinary speakers will take to the stage at Lift14: Porter Erisman, former VP of Alibaba.com turned...

  20. Lambda-Lifting in Quadratic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2002-01-01

    Lambda-lifting is a program transformation that is used in compilers, partial evaluators, and program transformers. In this article, we show how to reduce its complexity from cubic time to quadratic time, and we present a flow-sensitive lambda-lifter that also works in quadratic time. Lambda-lifting...... that yields the cubic factor in the traditional formulation of lambda-lifting, which is due to Johnsson. This search is carried out by computing a transitive closure. To reduce the complexity of lambda-lifting, we partition the call graph of the source program into strongly connected components, based...... of lambda-lifting from O(n^3) to O(n^2) . where n is the size of the program. Since a lambda-lifter can output programs of size O(n^2), our algorithm is asympotically optimal....

  1. Lambda-Lifting in Quadratic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2003-01-01

    Lambda-lifting is a program transformation that is used in compilers, partial evaluators, and program transformers. In this article, we show how to reduce its complexity from cubic time to quadratic time, and we present a flow-sensitive lambda-lifter that also works in quadratic time. Lambda-lifting...... that yields the cubic factor in the traditional formulation of lambda-lifting, which is due to Johnsson. This search is carried out by computing a transitive closure. To reduce the complexity of lambda-lifting, we partition the call graph of the source program into strongly connected components, based...... of lambda-lifting from O(n^3) to O(n^2) . where n is the size of the program. Since a lambda-lifter can output programs of size O(n^2), our algorithm is asympotically optimal....

  2. Occupational lifting and pelvic pain during pregnancy:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Juhl, Mette

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Pelvic pain during pregnancy is a common ailment, and the disease is a major cause of sickness absence during pregnancy. It is plausible that occupational lifting may be a risk factor of pelvic pain during pregnancy, but no previous studies have examined this specific exposure. The aim...... of this study was to examine the association between occupational lifting and pelvic pain during pregnancy. METHODS: The study comprised 50 143 pregnant women, enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort in the period from 1996-2002. During pregnancy, the women provided information on occupational lifting...... (weight load and daily frequency), and six months post partum on pelvic pain. Adjusted odds ratios for pelvic pain during pregnancy according to occupational lifting were calculated by logistic regression. RESULTS: Any self-reported occupational lifting (>1 time/day and loads weighing >10 kg...

  3. Lambda-Lifting in Quadratic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2004-01-01

    Lambda-lifting is a program transformation that is used in compilers, partial evaluators, and program transformers. In this article, we show how to reduce its complexity from cubic time to quadratic time, and we present a flow-sensitive lambda-lifter that also works in quadratic time. Lambda-lifting...... that yields the cubic factor in the traditional formulation of lambda-lifting, which is due to Johnsson. This search is carried out by computing a transitive closure. To reduce the complexity of lambda-lifting, we partition the call graph of the source program into strongly connected components, based...... of lambda-lifting from O(n^3) to O(n^2) . where n is the size of the program. Since a lambda-lifter can output programs of size O(n^2), our algorithm is asympotically optimal....

  4. The Female Vikings, a women's fan group in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mintert, Svenja-Maria; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2014-01-01

    on the historical development of a Danish women-only fan group called 'The Female Vikings', which support a professional football club, Lyngby Boldklub (BK), in a city north of Copenhagen. The article explores the backgrounds and motivations of female fans, as well as their ways of staging femininity in a man...... of the female fans during the club's 'crisis' and their 'collective memories'....

  5. 30 CFR 57.8529 - Auxiliary fan systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fan systems 57.8529 Section 57.8529 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.8529 Auxiliary fan systems When auxiliary fan systems are used, such systems shall...

  6. 30 CFR 57.8525 - Main fan maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main fan maintenance. 57.8525 Section 57.8525 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.8525 Main fan maintenance. Main fans shall be maintained according to either the...

  7. 76 FR 50739 - Hung Ta Fan: Debarment Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ...] Hung Ta Fan: Debarment Order AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... (the FD&C Act) debarring Hung Ta Fan for a period of 5 years from importing articles of food or.... Fan was convicted of a felony under Federal law for conduct relating to the importation into the...

  8. 30 CFR 75.311 - Main mine fan operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main mine fan operation. 75.311 Section 75.311... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.311 Main mine fan operation. (a) Main mine fans shall be continuously operated, except as otherwise approved in the ventilation plan, or when...

  9. Dead links, vaporcuts, and creativity in fan edit replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Wille

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In my examination of a Star Wars prequel trilogy fan edit reportedly made by Topher Grace, I introduce the term vaporcut to describe fan edits with reputations that may generate critical discourse but that are not publicly released. I explore the ways some fan editors attempt to recreate intangible projects but inevitably produce variant works that reflect their own creative perspectives.

  10. 16 CFR 305.13 - Labeling for ceiling fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling for ceiling fans. 305.13 Section... Disclosures § 305.13 Labeling for ceiling fans. (a) Ceiling fans—(1) Content. Any covered product that is a ceiling fan shall be labeled clearly and conspicuously on the principal display panel with the following...

  11. High-Resolution Geologic Mapping of Martian Terraced Fan Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolak, J. M.; Patterson, A. B.; Smith, S. D.; Robbins, N. N.

    2018-06-01

    This abstract documents our initial progress (year 1) mapping terraced fan features on Mars. Our objective is to investigate the role of fluids during fan formation and produce the first high-resolution geologic map (1:18k) of a terraced fan.

  12. 78 FR 25626 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans and Ceiling Fan... for residential ceiling fans and ceiling fan light kits in the Federal Register. This document... other aspect of the rulemaking for ceiling fans and ceiling fan light kits. The comment period is...

  13. Direct lifts of coupled cell networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, A. P. S.; Moreira, C. S.

    2018-04-01

    In networks of dynamical systems, there are spaces defined in terms of equalities of cell coordinates which are flow-invariant under any dynamical system that has a form consistent with the given underlying network structure—the network synchrony subspaces. Given a network and one of its synchrony subspaces, any system with a form consistent with the network, restricted to the synchrony subspace, defines a new system which is consistent with a smaller network, called the quotient network of the original network by the synchrony subspace. Moreover, any system associated with the quotient can be interpreted as the restriction to the synchrony subspace of a system associated with the original network. We call the larger network a lift of the smaller network, and a lift can be interpreted as a result of the cellular splitting of the smaller network. In this paper, we address the question of the uniqueness in this lifting process in terms of the networks’ topologies. A lift G of a given network Q is said to be direct when there are no intermediate lifts of Q between them. We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for a lift of a general network to be direct. Our results characterize direct lifts using the subnetworks of all splitting cells of Q and of all split cells of G. We show that G is a direct lift of Q if and only if either the split subnetwork is a direct lift or consists of two copies of the splitting subnetwork. These results are then applied to the class of regular uniform networks and to the special classes of ring networks and acyclic networks. We also illustrate that one of the applications of our results is to the lifting bifurcation problem.

  14. Online Fan Fiction, Global Identities, and Imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Rebecca W.

    2009-01-01

    Based on longitudinal data from a three year ethnographic study, this article uses discourse analytic methods to explore the literacy and social practices of three adolescent English language learners writing in an online fan fiction community. Theoretical constructs within globalization and literacy studies are used to describe the influences of…

  15. Fan Affinity Laws from a Collision Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Shayak

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a fan is usually estimated using hydrodynamical considerations. The calculations are long and involved and the results are expressed in terms of three affinity laws. In this paper we use kinetic theory to attack this problem. A hard sphere collision model is used, and subsequently a correction to account for the flow behaviour…

  16. The Ashgate Research Companion to Fan Cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stijn Reijnders; Linda Duits; dr. Koos Zwaan

    2014-01-01

    Fans constitute a very special kind of audience. They have been marginalized, ridiculed and stigmatized, yet at the same time they seem to represent the vanguard of new relationships with and within the media. ‘Participatory culture’ has become the new normative standard. Concepts derived from early

  17. Optimisation of efficiency of axial fans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, Nicolaas P.; Pennings, P.C.; Faasen, R.

    2014-01-01

    A three-stage research project has been executed to develop ducted axial-fans with increased efficiency. In the first stage a design method has been developed in which various conflicting design criteria can be incorporated. Based on this design method, an optimised design has been determined

  18. Saving energy via high-efficiency fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Thomas Heine, sales and market manager for EC Upgrades, the retrofit arm of global provider of air movement solutions, ebm-papst A&NZ, discusses the retrofitting of high-efficiency fans to existing HVAC equipment to 'drastically reduce energy consumption'.

  19. Submersible fans and pumps for cryogenic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Submersible electric motor driven fans of three sizes have been designed, built and operated at 21 0 K at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The largest is a 100-mm diameter, 2 stage vaneaxial fan with a nominal capacity of 6 L/s at 2 m head. It is driven by a 4 pole, 3 phase induction motor that runs at 1750 rpm. The next smaller one is an 85-mm diameter centrifugal pump. It pumps 3 L/s at a head of 5 m. The third is a 75-mm single stage vaneaxial fan with a nominal capacity is 3 L/s at a head of 2 m. The 85-mm pump and the 75-mm fan are driven by 2 pole, 3 phase induction motors running at 3550 rpm. The motors were modified to operate submerged in the cryogenic fluid. The pumps have been operated in liquid hydrogen, liquid deuterium, and pressurized helium gas at 21 0 K. They can also operate with denser fluids such as liquid nitrogen, but rotational speed, capacity, and head will be reduced. They have been operated while submerged in liquid helium

  20. Lifting index of the niosh lifting equation and low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Remor Teixeira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to assess the relationship of the Lifting Index obtained through the application of the NIOSH Lifting Equation and the incidence of low back pain among forty-eight workers involved in manual lifting tasks. It was applied the equation in eleven tasks and the workers were interviewed. The most unfavorable conditions presented themselves in the lifting destination. The variables that most contributed to the inadequate values of the Lifting Index were: the horizontal location, the lifting frequency and the vertical distance, beyond the high weight of the load. The incidence of low back pain in the last twelve months was 19%, whereas the incidence of work-related low back pain in the same period was 10%. In 72.7% of the tasks evaluated the Composite Lifting Index was more than three, which are considered as high ergonomic risk.

  1. Analysis of impact resistance of composite fan blade. Fukugozai fan blade no taishogekisei no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyachi, T; Okumura, H; Otake, K; Sofue, Y [Japan Society for Aeronautical and Space Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-01-05

    Numerical analysis of impact response was carried out when a bird strike was simulated to study the applicability of fiber reinforced composite material to fan blades for turbo-fan engines. The validity of the numerical analysis was verified by comparing the analyzed results with impact tested results of a fan-blade model of Ti-alloy. The impact resistance was studied by applying this method to fan blades of composite materials such as carbon fiber, epoxy resin and carbon-silicate fiber reinforced Ti-alloy. The finite element method was used for the analysis by dividing the model into triangular flat elements. The relation between the impact load, the deformation of blade and the strain, the natural frequency characteristics, the elastic modulus and hetrogeneity of blade were considered to analyze the impact response. The impact load by the strike of 1.5 lbs bird is very severe to the fan blades for turbo-fan engines having the thrust of 5 ton class. 23 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Bydrage ta de kennis fan it libben, de persoan en it wurk fan Dr. Eeltsje Halbersma 1797-1858

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1946-01-01

    It doel fan dizze dissertaesje is yn 'e earste pleats nij materiael to bringen oer Dr. Eeltsje. De wichtichste boarnen foar syn libben en syn wurk binne syn brieven oan Ds, Joast. Oant nou ta wie fan dy brieven mar in lyts bytsje bikend wurden, Dêrneist binne fansels ek de brieven fan Ds. Joast en

  3. Occupational lifting of heavy loads and preterm birth:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runge, Stine Bjerrum; Pedersen, Jacob Krabbe; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association between occupational lifting during pregnancy and preterm birth. The risk of preterm birth was estimated for total burden lifted per day and number of medium and heavy loads lifted per day.......To examine the association between occupational lifting during pregnancy and preterm birth. The risk of preterm birth was estimated for total burden lifted per day and number of medium and heavy loads lifted per day....

  4. Modeling lift operations with SASmacr Simulation Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Leow Soo

    2016-10-01

    Lifts or elevators are an essential part of multistorey buildings which provide vertical transportation for its occupants. In large and high-rise apartment buildings, its occupants are permanent, while in buildings, like hospitals or office blocks, the occupants are temporary or users of the buildings. They come in to work or to visit, and thus, the population of such buildings are much higher than those in residential apartments. It is common these days that large office blocks or hospitals have at least 8 to 10 lifts serving its population. In order to optimize the level of service performance, different transportation schemes are devised to control the lift operations. For example, one lift may be assigned to solely service the even floors and another solely for the odd floors, etc. In this paper, a basic lift system is modelled using SAS Simulation Studio to study the effect of factors such as the number of floors, capacity of the lift car, arrival rate and exit rate of passengers at each floor, peak and off peak periods on the system performance. The simulation is applied to a real lift operation in Sunway College's North Building to validate the model.

  5. Fan-beam intensity modulated proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Patrick; Westerly, David; Mackie, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a concept for a proton therapy system capable of delivering intensity modulated proton therapy using a fan beam of protons. This system would allow present and future gantry-based facilities to deliver state-of-the-art proton therapy with the greater normal tissue sparing made possible by intensity modulation techniques. A method for producing a divergent fan beam of protons using a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles is described and particle transport through the quadrupole doublet is simulated using a commercially available software package. To manipulate the fan beam of protons, a modulation device is developed. This modulator inserts or retracts acrylic leaves of varying thickness from subsections of the fan beam. Each subsection, or beam channel, creates what effectively becomes a beam spot within the fan area. Each channel is able to provide 0-255 mm of range shift for its associated beam spot, or stop the beam and act as an intensity modulator. Results of particle transport simulations through the quadrupole system are incorporated into the MCNPX Monte Carlo transport code along with a model of the range and intensity modulation device. Several design parameters were investigated and optimized, culminating in the ability to create topotherapy treatment plans using distal-edge tracking on both phantom and patient datasets. Beam transport calculations show that a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles can be used to create a divergent fan beam of 200 MeV protons over a distance of 2.1 m. The quadrupole lengths were 30 and 48 cm, respectively, with transverse field gradients less than 20 T/m, which is within the range of water-cooled magnets for the quadrupole radii used. MCNPX simulations of topotherapy treatment plans suggest that, when using the distal edge tracking delivery method, many delivery angles are more important than insisting on narrow beam channel widths in order to obtain conformal target coverage. Overall, the sharp distal

  6. Characterization of Composite Fan Case Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoracek, Charlene M.

    2004-01-01

    The majority of commercial turbine engines that power today s aircraft use a large fan driven by the engine core to generate thrust which dramatically increases the engine s efficiency. However, if one of these fan blades fails during flight, it becomes high energy shrapnel, potentially impacting the engine or puncturing the aircraft itself and thus risking the lives of passengers. To solve this problem, the fan case must be capable of containing a fan blade should it break off during flight. Currently, all commercial fan cases are made of either just a thick metal barrier or a thinner metal wall surrounded by Kevlar-an ultra strong fiber that elastically catches the blade. My summer 2004 project was to characterize the resins for a composite fan case that will be lighter and more efficient than the current metal. The composite fan case is created by braiding carbon fibers and injecting a polymer resin into the braid. The resin holds the fibers together, so at first using the strongest polymer appears to logically lead to the strongest fan case. Unfortunately, the stronger polymers are too viscous when melted. This makes the manufacturing process more difficult because the polymer does not flow as freely through the braid, and the final product is less dense. With all of this in mind, it is important to remember that the strength of the polymer is still imperative; the case must still contain blades with high impact energy. The research identified which polymer had the right balance of properties, including ease of fabrication, toughness, and ability to transfer the load to the carbon fibers. Resin deformation was studied to better understand the composite response during high speed impact. My role in this research was the testing of polymers using dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile, compression, and torsion testing. Dynamic mechanical analysis examines the response of materials under cyclic loading. Two techniques were used for dynamic mechanical analysis

  7. Numerical Study of Aeroacoustic Sound on Performance of Bladeless Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mohammad; Sojoudi, Atta; Hafezisefat, Parinaz

    2017-03-01

    Aeroacoustic performance of fans is essential due to their widespread application. Therefore, the original aim of this paper is to evaluate the generated noise owing to different geometric parameters. In current study, effect of five geometric parameters was investigated on well performance of a Bladeless fan. Airflow through this fan was analyzed simulating a Bladeless fan within a 2 m×2 m×4 m room. Analysis of the flow field inside the fan and evaluating its performance were obtained by solving conservations of mass and momentum equations for aerodynamic investigations and FW-H noise equations for aeroacoustic analysis. In order to design Bladeless fan Eppler 473 airfoil profile was used as the cross section of this fan. Five distinct parameters, namely height of cross section of the fan, outlet angle of the flow relative to the fan axis, thickness of airflow outlet slit, hydraulic diameter and aspect ratio for circular and quadratic cross sections were considered. Validating acoustic code results, we compared numerical solution of FW-H noise equations for NACA0012 with experimental results. FW-H model was selected to predict the noise generated by the Bladeless fan as the numerical results indicated a good agreement with experimental ones for NACA0012. To validate 3-D numerical results, the experimental results of a round jet showed good agreement with those simulation data. In order to indicate the effect of each mentioned parameter on the fan performance, SPL and OASPL diagrams were illustrated.

  8. Tune-Up Your Fan Systems for Improved Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2018-04-03

    Fans are used extensively in commercial buildings and represent approximately 6% of total energy consumed by commercial buildings. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that fans in commercial buildings consume 158 billion kWh of electricity annually. Maintaining fan systems in proper condition provides energy savings and ensures a comfortable and healthy environment. While many fan systems have significant energy savings opportunities available through improvements in fan selection, system design, and operational practices, it is not always apparent when a fan system needs maintenance or what opportunities are available for improvements. This resource is designed for facility managers and maintenance staff to provide easy-to-implement actionable guidance on fan efficiency measures for existing ducted air systems.

  9. Wingless Flight: The Lifting Body Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R. Dale; Lister, Darlene (Editor); Huntley, J. D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Wingless Flight tells the story of the most unusual flying machines ever flown, the lifting bodies. It is my story about my friends and colleagues who committed a significant part of their lives in the 1960s and 1970s to prove that the concept was a viable one for use in spacecraft of the future. This story, filled with drama and adventure, is about the twelve-year period from 1963 to 1975 in which eight different lifting-body configurations flew. It is appropriate for me to write the story, since I was the engineer who first presented the idea of flight-testing the concept to others at the NASA Flight Research Center. Over those twelve years, I experienced the story as it unfolded day by day at that remote NASA facility northeast of los Angeles in the bleak Mojave Desert. Benefits from this effort immediately influenced the design and operational concepts of the winged NASA Shuttle Orbiter. However, the full benefits would not be realized until the 1990s when new spacecraft such as the X-33 and X-38 would fully employ the lifting-body concept. A lifting body is basically a wingless vehicle that flies due to the lift generated by the shape of its fuselage. Although both a lifting reentry vehicle and a ballistic capsule had been considered as options during the early stages of NASA's space program, NASA initially opted to go with the capsule. A number of individuals were not content to close the book on the lifting-body concept. Researchers including Alfred Eggers at the NASA Ames Research Center conducted early wind-tunnel experiments, finding that half of a rounded nose-cone shape that was flat on top and rounded on the bottom could generate a lift-to-drag ratio of about 1.5 to 1. Eggers' preliminary design sketch later resembled the basic M2 lifting-body design. At the NASA Langley Research Center, other researchers toyed with their own lifting-body shapes. Meanwhile, some of us aircraft-oriented researchers at the, NASA Flight Research Center at Edwards Air

  10. Reinforced orbitotemporal lift: contribution to midface rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renó, Waldir Teixeira

    2003-02-01

    The changes in the aging face occur from progressive ptosis of the skin, fat, and muscle, in conjunction with bone absorption and cartilage atrophy. In the orbital region, hollowness and compartmentalization occur. Conventional face lift procedures correct only the skin flaccidity, and superficial musculoaponeurotic system techniques reposition the skin and platysma without repositioning the middle third of the face, creating an artificial jawline. Subperiosteal rhytidectomy disrupts the anatomy of the periorbita, which gives the patient a certain scarecrow aspect. Composite rhytidectomy associated with brow lift and blepharoplasty may offer better results, with improvement in the malar and orbital regions. The reinforced orbitotemporal lift (ROTEL) is a new procedure in a face lift that allows the orbicularis oculi muscle and all the structures connected to it to be elevated and stretched and the orbitotemporal skin to be raised, repositioning these structures and ending orbital compartmentalization. The result is an impressive improvement in the malar-orbitotemporal region, resulting in a natural and youthful appearance.

  11. Lambda-lifting in Quadratic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, O.; Schultz, U.P.

    2004-01-01

    -lifting transforms a block-structured program into a set of recursive equations, one for each local function in the source program. Each equation carries extra parameters to account for the free variables of the corresponding local function and of all its callees. It is the search for these extra parameters......Lambda-lifting is a program transformation that is used in compilers, partial evaluators, and program transformers. In this article, we show how to reduce its complexity from cubic time to quadratic time, and we present a flow-sensitive lambda-lifter that also works in quadratic time. Lambda...... that yields the cubic factor in the traditional formulation of lambda-lifting, which is due to Johnsson. This search is carried out by computing a transitive closure. To reduce the complexity of lambda-lifting, we partition the call graph of the source program into strongly connected components, based...

  12. Design of heavy lift cargo aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the bird of the skies of the future. The heavy lift cargo aircraft which is currently being developed by me has twice the payload capacity of an Antonov...

  13. Lift : Special Needs Transportation in Portland, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The report covers Portland, Oregon's Special Needs Transportation (SNT) project - the Lift - during its first year of operation. The purposes of this UMTA Service and Methods Demonstration (SMD) is to: (1) test a transit operator's ability to provide...

  14. Lower complexity bounds for lifted inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    instances of the model. Numerous approaches for such “lifted inference” techniques have been proposed. While it has been demonstrated that these techniques will lead to significantly more efficient inference on some specific models, there are only very recent and still quite restricted results that show...... the feasibility of lifted inference on certain syntactically defined classes of models. Lower complexity bounds that imply some limitations for the feasibility of lifted inference on more expressive model classes were established earlier in Jaeger (2000; Jaeger, M. 2000. On the complexity of inference about...... that under the assumption that NETIME≠ETIME, there is no polynomial lifted inference algorithm for knowledge bases of weighted, quantifier-, and function-free formulas. Further strengthening earlier results, this is also shown to hold for approximate inference and for knowledge bases not containing...

  15. Spherical projections and liftings in geometric tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodey, Paul; Kiderlen, Markus; Weil, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    We consider a variety of integral transforms arising in Geometric Tomography. It will be shown that these can be put into a common framework using spherical projection and lifting operators. These operators will be applied to support functions and surface area measures of convex bodies and to rad......We consider a variety of integral transforms arising in Geometric Tomography. It will be shown that these can be put into a common framework using spherical projection and lifting operators. These operators will be applied to support functions and surface area measures of convex bodies...... and to radial functions of star bodies. We then investigate averages of lifted projections and show that they correspond to self-adjoint intertwining operators. We obtain formulas for the eigenvalues of these operators and use them to ascertain circumstances under which tomographic measurements determine...... the original bodies. This approach via mean lifted projections leads us to some unexpected relationships between seemingly disparate geometric constructions....

  16. Lambda-Lifting in Quadratic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2002-01-01

    Lambda-lifting is a program transformation used in compilers and in partial evaluators and that operates in cubic time. In this article, we show how to reduce this complexity to quadratic time. Lambda-lifting transforms a block-structured program into a set of recursive equations, one for each...... local function in the source program. Each equation carries extra parameters to account for the free variables of the corresponding local function and of all its callees. It is the search for these extra parameters that yields the cubic factor in the traditional formulation of lambda-lifting, which...... is not needed. We therefore simplify the search for extra parameters by treating each strongly connected component instead of each function as a unit, thereby reducing the time complexity of lambda-lifting from O(n 3 log n)toO(n2 log n), where n is the size of the program. Since a lambda-lifter can output...

  17. A Practical Approach To Lift-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan K.; Chapman, Richard C.; Pavelchek, Edward K.

    1987-08-01

    Lift-off technology provides an alternate metal patterning technology to that of subtractive etching. In this raper, we describe an image reversal process which provides a practical means for reliably producing resist stencils which are required for successful lift-off in a 2.0 μm metal pitch CMOS process, as well as for experimental submicron processing. Experimental data and PROSIM simulations are presented to show the effects of patterning exposure dose, flood exposure dose, develop time, and focus parameters on resist linewidths as well as for control of resist retrograde (undercut) sidewall angles. Deposition and subsequent lift-off of Al/Cu alloys and sandwich metallizations is demonstrated. Because the image reversal process enables pattern definition at the top of the resist film, it is demonstrated that thicker resist films can be used to produce finer resolution of lift-off stencils over topography than would have been expected without resorting to multilayer resist structures.

  18. Noise study in laboratories with exhaust fans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, G.H.; Hashmi, R.; Shareef, A.

    2005-01-01

    Noise study has been carried out in 25 laboratories fitted with exhaust fans. We have studied A- Weighted equivalent sound pressure levels (dB(A) LAeJ and equivalent octave band sound pressure levels (dB L/sub eq/ in each of the laboratories surveyed. The data collected has been analyzed for Preferred Speech Interference Levels (PSIL). The results show that the interior noise levels in these laboratories vary from 59.6 to 72.2 dB(A) L/sub Aeq/, which are very high and much beyond the interior noise limits recommended for laboratories. Some ways and means to limit emission of high-level noise from exhaust fans are also discussed. (author)

  19. 'Bataille's boys': postmodernity, Fascists and football fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T

    2000-09-01

    In his analysis of football hooliganism, Anthony King claims to reveal the historical, conceptual scheme young, male supporters draw upon. This 'masculine vision', he states, is similar to that held by the Freikorps. Both groups are said to adhere to modernist notions of masculinity, sexuality and nationhood, reinforced by rituals which maintain boundaries between these 'proper' males and deviant 'others'. Occasionally, football hooligans breach these boundaries in acts of postmodern transgression. King also claims that fans link sex and violence in their imaginations. In this response I examine King's critique of his fellow theorists; challenge his 'Freikorps-Fans' analogy; demonstrate the problem he has in establishing the sex-violence link and question the relevance of his concept of postmodernity.

  20. Energy labeling for electric fans in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.; Taha, F.M.; Rahim, N.A.; Saidur, R.

    2005-01-01

    To reduce energy consumption in the residential sector, Malaysia Energy Commission is considering implementing energy labels for household electrical appliances including electric fans in 2005. The purpose of the energy labels is to provide the consumers a guideline to compare the size, features, price and efficiency of the appliance. This paper discusses the energy label for electric fans in this country based on Malaysian Standards developed by a technical committee that reviewed the performance of household electrical appliances. This study includes methodology for the calculation of the energy efficiency star rating and projected energy usage, performance requirements, details of the energy label and the requirements for the valid application in Malaysia. The label also can be adopted for other household electrical appliances with only slight modifications

  1. Cost Benefit Analysis of Boat Lifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    associated with commercial boat lifts were obtained through a market survey based on products advertised for sale to the general public. The information...from the market survey and knowledge of specific boat maintenance items susceptible to cost reduction using a boat lift were then compared to identify...transferred to the Boat Inventory Manager ( BIM ). Custodians are responsible for maintaining boats and small craft in good working order at all times

  2. Characterization of Oscillatory Lift in MFC Airfoils

    OpenAIRE

    Lang Jr, Joseph Reagle

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to characterize the response of an airfoil with an oscillatory morphing, Macro-fiber composite (MFC) trailing edge. Correlation of the airfoil lift with the oscillatory input is presented. Modal analysis of the test airfoil and apparatus is used to determine the frequency response function. The effects of static MFC inputs on the FRF are presented and compared to the unactuated airfoil. The transfer function is then used to determine the lift component du...

  3. Gigapixel Images Connect Sports Teams with Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Technology developed at Ames Research Center to take high-resolution imagery on Mars is now being used in baseball stadiums across the country. New York City-based Major League Baseball Advanced Media LP customized the platform to accommodate in-game shots that capture nearly the whole stadium. Fans navigate the photos online and tag themselves and their friends using social media tools.

  4. A note on Ramsey numbers for fans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yanbo; Broersma, Haitze J.; Chen, Yaojun

    For two given graphs G1 and G2, the Ramsey number R(G1,G2) is the smallest integer N such that, for any graph G of order N, either G contains G1 as a subgraph or the complement of G contains G2 as a subgraph. A fan Fl is l triangles sharing exactly one vertex. In this note, it is shown that R(Fn,

  5. Harmonic Balance Computations of Fan Aeroelastic Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Reddy, T. S. R.

    2010-01-01

    A harmonic balance (HB) aeroelastic analysis, which has been recently developed, was used to determine the aeroelastic stability (flutter) characteristics of an experimental fan. To assess the numerical accuracy of this HB aeroelastic analysis, a time-domain aeroelastic analysis was also used to determine the aeroelastic stability characteristics of the same fan. Both of these three-dimensional analysis codes model the unsteady flowfield due to blade vibrations using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. In the HB analysis, the unsteady flow equations are converted to a HB form and solved using a pseudo-time marching method. In the time-domain analysis, the unsteady flow equations are solved using an implicit time-marching approach. Steady and unsteady computations for two vibration modes were carried out at two rotational speeds: 100 percent (design) and 70 percent (part-speed). The steady and unsteady results obtained from the two analysis methods compare well, thus verifying the recently developed HB aeroelastic analysis. Based on the results, the experimental fan was found to have no aeroelastic instability (flutter) at the conditions examined in this study.

  6. Visual perception of fatigued lifting actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Steven L; Albert, Wayne J; McGarry, Tim

    2012-12-01

    Fatigue-related changes in lifting kinematics may expose workers to undue injury risks. Early detection of accumulating fatigue offers the prospect of intervention strategies to mitigate such fatigue-related risks. In a first step towards this objective, this study investigated whether fatigue detection was accessible to visual perception and, if so, what was the key visual information required for successful fatigue discrimination. Eighteen participants were tasked with identifying fatigued lifts when viewing 24 trials presented using both video and point-light representations. Each trial comprised a pair of lifting actions containing a fresh and a fatigued lift from the same individual presented in counter-balanced sequence. Confidence intervals demonstrated that the frequency of correct responses for both sexes exceeded chance expectations (50%) for both video (68%±12%) and point-light representations (67%±10%), demonstrating that fatigued lifting kinematics are open to visual perception. There were no significant differences between sexes or viewing condition, the latter result indicating kinematic dynamics as providing sufficient information for successful fatigue discrimination. Moreover, results from single viewer investigation reported fatigue detection (75%) from point-light information describing only the kinematics of the box lifted. These preliminary findings may have important workplace applications if fatigue discrimination rates can be improved upon through future research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. "Emotions-Only" versus "Special People": Genre in fan discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa Ellen Stein

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay looks at genre as a complex set of discursive threads running unevenly through production, TV text, and fan reception. Through a case study of the reception of fan favorite Roswell, this essay interrogates the role of genre in spectatorship. In its mixing of teen and science fiction elements, Roswell trod upon contested generic spaces, eliciting strong reaction from its viewers. Connections between genre and gender came to the fore, as producer commentary linked science fiction with male audiences and teen romance with female audiences. Fans responded with analyses that greatly complicated and at times overtly rejected industrial suppositions regarding the gendered work of genre. Through these fan conversations, we can witness the complexity of genre as discursive thread moving through not only TV texts but also multivariant fan responses. I intend this essay to work at two levels. My analysis of fan responses to Roswell models the possibilities of a close study of genre discourse. At the same time, my case study probes the nature of genre in fan engagement, as genre discourses intersect with other fan concerns such as character identification, perceptions of textual quality, and questions of gender representation. While we cannot necessarily look to fan accounts for proof of how viewers engage with genre, they do tell us how fans frame their engagement with genre, how they incorporate genre into their performance of fannishness, and how they perform and thus enact genre itself as a shared cultural process.

  8. Fan edits and the legacy of The Phantom Edit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Wille

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A fan edit can generally be defined as an alternative version of a film or television text created by a fan. It offers a different viewing experience, much as a song remix offers a different listening experience. The contemporary wave of fan edits has emerged during the remix zeitgeist of digital media and at a time when digital video editing technology has become more affordable and popular. The increasing number of alternative versions of films and the works of revisionist Hollywood filmmakers such as George Lucas have contributed to a greater public understanding of cinema as a fluid medium instead of one that exists in a fixed form. The Phantom Edit (2000, a seminal fan edit based on Lucas's Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace (1999, inspired new ranks of fan editors. However, critics have misunderstood fan edits as merely the work of disgruntled fans. In order to provide a critical and historical basis for studies in fan editing as a creative practice, I examine previous interpretations of fan edits in the context of relevant contemporary works, and I use an annotated chronology of The Phantom Edit to trace its influence on subsequent fan editing communities and uncover their relationship with intellectual property disputes.

  9. Advanced Low-Noise Research Fan Stage Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, Robert; Bock, Larry; Malmborg, Eric; Owen-Peer, William

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the design of the Advanced Low-Noise Research Fan stage. The fan is a variable pitch design, which is designed at the cruise pitch condition. Relative to the cruise setting, the blade is closed at takeoff and opened for reverse thrust operation. The fan stage is a split flow design with fan exit guide vanes (FEGVs) and core stators. The fan stage design is combined with a nacelle and engine core duct to form a powered fan/nacelle subscale model. This model is intended for use in combined aerodynamic, acoustic, and structural testing in a wind tunnel. The fan has an outer diameter of 22 in. and a hub-to-tip of 0.426 in., which allows the use of existing NASA fan and cowl force balance and rig drive systems. The design parameters were selected to permit valid acoustic and aerodynamic comparisons with the Pratt & Whitney (P&W) 17- and 22-in. rigs previously tested under NASA contract. The fan stage design is described in detail. The results of the design axisymmetric and Navier-Stokes aerodynamic analysis are presented at the critical design conditions. The structural analysis of the fan rotor and attachment is included. The blade and attachment are predicted to have adequate low-cycle fatigue life and an acceptable operating range without resonant stress or flutter. The stage was acoustically designed with airfoil counts in the FEGV and core stator to minimize noise. A fan/FEGV tone analysis developed separately under NASA contract was used to determine the optimum airfoil counts. The fan stage was matched to the existing nacelle, designed under the previous P&W low-noise contract, to form a fan/nacelle model for wind tunnel testing. It is an axisymmetric nacelle for convenience in testing and analysis. Previous testing confirmed that the nacelle performed as required at various aircraft operating conditions.

  10. Metabolic Responses to Weight Lifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Nelson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Editor's Note, The ability to lift heavy loads while performing multiple repetitions is not only highly correlated with muscle mass or the total number actomyosin interactions, but also metabolic functions that includes substrate concentrations and by-product removal.  Muscles use adenosine triphosphate (ATP in at least three locations during exercise; to run the actomyosin interaction, operate sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pumps, and operate sarcolemma sodium and potassium pumps.  Weight lifting sessions are considered to be an intermittent activity that includes only a few second bursts of high force and/or velocity movements followed by rest periods of up to several minutes. Therefore, the anaerobic pathways such as the phosphagen and glycolytic systems are the initial pathways to respond due in part to the ability to match the increased rates of ATP depletion by increasing ATP production. After the initial resting ATP stores are used up, the phosphagen system starts contributing to ATP replenishment.  This system consists of reactions from the creatine kinase (CK pathway and the adenylate kinase (AK pathway.  However, the CK pathway can only work at max capacity for a short period for resting phosphocreatine (PCr concentrations are only about 4-6 times the amount of resting ATP stores.  Once the PCr concentrations are depleted, the AK reaction will begin by using two adenosine diphosphate (ADP to form one ATP and one adenosine monophosphate (AMP. Although ATP is produced in this pathway, this production of ATP does coincide with an increased concentration of AMP. This is problematic because increased AMP levels will in turn stimulate the adenylate deaminase reaction, which will produce ammonia (NH3. This conversion of AMP into NH3 will result in the muscle cell having a net loss of total adenine nucleotides available to resynthesize ATP.  Glycolysis is the next reaction in line, which increases its role in ATP replenishment as PCr

  11. High pressure axial flow fans for modern coal power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyrus, Vaclav [AHT Energetika s.r.o., Praha (Czech Republic); Koci, Petr [ZVVZ Milevsko a.s. (Czech Republic)

    2008-07-01

    Brown coal fired power stations, located in Northern Bohemia, have mostly older boiler blocks with an output of 110 and 200 MWe. Flue gases are cleaned by the desulphurization plants installed between 1993 and 1997. Usually, each boiler block has two air fans and one to three flue gas fans. Flue gas fans operate in severe conditions; fan blades should be resistant to the flue gases containing sulphur and acid drops with the operating temperature at 170 C to 190 C. Additionally, flue gas also often contains ash particles. Currently, some boiler blocks are gradually being refurbished. New blocks with an electrical power output of 600 to 700 MWe are at the design stage. Submitted paper shows our design study of one stage axial flow fan for the new blocks. Results from the new aerodynamic research of the axial flow stages were used in the fan design. (orig.)

  12. Heavy Lift for Exploration: Options and Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Steve; Sumrall, Phil

    2010-01-01

    Every study of exploration capabilities since the Apollo Program has recommended the renewal of a heavy lift launch capability for the United States. NASA is aggressively pursuing that capability. This paper will discuss several aspects of that effort and the potential uses for that heavy lift capability. The need for heavy lift was cited most recent in the findings of the Review of U.S. Human Space Flight Plans Committee. Combined with considerations of launch availability and on-orbit operations, the Committee finds that exploration will benefit from the availability of a heavy-lift vehicle, the report said. In addition, heavy lift would enable the launching of large scientific observatories and more capable deep-space missions. It may also provide benefit in national security applications. The most recent focus of NASA s heavy lift effort is the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, which is part of the Constellation Program architecture for human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The most recent point-of-departure configuration of the Ares V was approved during the Lunar Capabilities concept Review (LCCR) in 2008. The Ares V first stage propulsion system consists of a core stage powered by six commercial liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen (LH2/LOX) RS-68 engines, flanked by two 5.5-segment solid rocket boosters (SRBs) based on the 5-segment Ares I first stage. The boosters use the same Polybutadiene Acrylonitrile (PBAN) propellant as the Space Shuttle. Atop the core stage is the Earth departure stage (EDS), powered by a single J-2X upper stage engine based on the Ares I upper stage engine. The 33-foot-diameter payload shroud can enclose a lunar lander, scientific instruments, or other payloads. Since LCCR, NASA has continued to refine the design through several successive internal design cycles. In addition, NASA has worked to quantify the broad national consensus for heavy lift in ways that, to the extent possible, meet the needs of the user community.

  13. FACTORS INFLUENCING BRAND LOYALTY IN PROFESSIONAL SPORTS FANS

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Tsan Lin; Chen-Hsien Lin

    2008-01-01

    Many researchers have provided comprehensive definitions for the term of brand loyalty and also examined the factors affecting brand loyalty with many empirical studies. But there is little research focusing on the brand loyalty of professional sports fans. The topic area about factors influencing brand loyalty in professional sports fans was identified because these fans bring significant financial benefits every year and stimulate economic growth in the United States. Although different con...

  14. Improving the energy efficiency of mine fan assemblages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Souza, Euler

    2015-01-01

    Energy associated with ventilating an underground operation comprises a significant portion of a mine operation's base energy demand and is consequently responsible for a large percentage of the total operating costs. Ventilation systems may account from 25 to 40% of the total energy costs and 40–50% of the energy consumption of a mine operation. Fans are the most important mechanical devices used to ventilate underground mines and the total fan power installed in a single mine operation can easily exceed 10,000 kW. Investigations of a number of mine main fan installations have determined their assemblage to be, in general, very energy inefficient. The author has found that 40–80% of the energy consumed by a main fan is used to overcome the resistance of fan assemblage components. This paper presents how engineering design principles can be applied to improve the performance and efficiency of fan installations, resulting in substantial reductions in power consumption, operating cost and greenhouse gas emissions. A detailed case study is presented to demonstrate that, by designing fan assemblages using proper engineering concepts of fluid physics and industrial ventilation design, main fan systems will operate at efficiencies well above 80–90% (compared to common operating efficiencies of between 20 and 65%), resulting in a drastic reduction in a mine's overall costs and base electrical and energy loads. - Highlights: • Increases in fan assemblage efficiencies with minimum capital investment. • Improved designs for substantial fan power and operating cost savings. • General solutions and tactics for improving existing main fan installations. • Case study presented to demonstrate proper design of fan assemblages.

  15. 30 CFR 75.313 - Main mine fan stoppage with persons underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main mine fan stoppage with persons underground... mine fan stoppage with persons underground. (a) If a main mine fan stops while anyone is underground and the ventilating quantity provided by the fan is not maintained by a back-up fan system— (1...

  16. 30 CFR 57.8534 - Shutdown or failure of auxiliary fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shutdown or failure of auxiliary fans. 57.8534... Ventilation Underground Only § 57.8534 Shutdown or failure of auxiliary fans. (a) Auxiliary fans installed and... fan maintenance or fan adjustments where air quality is maintained in compliance with the applicable...

  17. 78 FR 16443 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... Standards for Ceiling Fans and Ceiling Fan Light Kits AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... consider amending the energy conservation standards for ceiling fans and ceiling fan light kits. DOE also....gov . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Email: CeilingFan[email protected

  18. Thread-Lift Sutures : Still in the Lift? A Systematic Review of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulbitti, Haydar Aslan; Colebunders, Britt; Pirayesh, Ali; Bertossi, Dario; van der Lei, Berend

    Background: In 2006, Villa et al. published a review article concerning the use of thread-lift sutures and concluded that the technique was still in its infancy but had great potential to become a useful and effective procedure for nonsurgical lifting of sagged facial tissues. As 11 years have

  19. Thread-Lift Sutures : Still in the Lift? A Systematic Review of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gülbitti, Haydar Aslan; Colebunders, Britt; Pirayesh, Ali; Bertossi, Dario; van der Lei, Berend

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2006, Villa et al. published a review article concerning the use of thread-lift sutures and concluded that the technique was still in its infancy but had great potential to become a useful and effective procedure for nonsurgical lifting of sagged facial tissues. As 11 years have

  20. Effect of training and lifting equipment for preventing back pain in lifting and handling: systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martimo, Kari-Pekka; Verbeek, Jos; Karppinen, Jaro; Furlan, Andrea D.; Takala, Esa-Pekka; Kuijer, P. Paul F. M.; Jauhiainen, Merja; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether advice and training on working techniques and lifting equipment prevent back pain in jobs that involve heavy lifting. Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, Cochrane Back Group's specialised register, CINAHL, Nioshtic, CISdoc, Science Citation Index, and PsychLIT were searched up to

  1. 77 FR 20558 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for Motor Vehicles; Platform Lift...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... unrelated to the barrier's safety. Lift-U also questioned the agency's statement that it could be difficult... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 [Docket No. NHTSA-2012-0039] RIN 2127-AJ93 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for...

  2. Highstand shelf fans: The role of buoyancy reversal in the deposition of a new type of shelf sand body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Elisabeth; Simms, Alexander R.; Warrick, Jonathan; Yokoyama, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    Although sea-level highstands are typically associated with sediment-starved continental shelves, high sea level does not hinder major river floods. Turbidity currents generated by plunging of sediment-laden rivers at the fluvial-marine interface, known as hyperpycnal flows, allow for cross-shelf transport of suspended sand beyond the coastline. Hyperpycnal flows in southern California have deposited six subaqueous fans on the shelf of the northern Santa Barbara Channel in the Holocene. Using eight cores and nine grab samples, we describe the deposits, age, and stratigraphic architecture of two fans in the Santa Barbara Channel. Fan lobes have up to 3 m of relief and are composed of multiple hyperpycnite beds ∼5 cm to 40 cm thick. Deposit architecture and geometry suggest the hyperpycnal flows became positively buoyant and lifted off the seabed, resulting in well-sorted, structureless, elongate sand lobes. Contrary to conventional sequence stratigraphic models, the presence of these features on the continental shelf suggests that active-margin shelves may locally develop high-quality reservoir sand bodies during sea-level highstands, and that such shelves need not be solely the site of sediment bypass. These deposits may provide a Quaternary analogue to many well-sorted sand bodies in the rock record that are interpreted as turbidites but lack typical Bouma-type features.

  3. K-pop Reception and Participatory Fan Culture in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Yeon Sung

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available K-pop’s popularity and its participatory fan culture have expanded beyond Asia and become significant in Europe in the past few years. After South Korean pop singer Psy’s “Gangnam Style” music video topped the Austrian chart in October 2012, the number and size of K-pop events in Austria sharply increased, with fans organizing various participatory events, including K-pop auditions, dance festivals, club meetings, quiz competitions, dance workshops, and smaller fan-culture gatherings. In the private sector, longtime fans have transitioned from participants to providers, and in the public sector, from observers to sponsors. Through in-depth interviews with event organizers, sponsors, and fans, this article offers an ethnographic study of the reception of K-pop in Europe that takes into consideration local interactions between fans and Korean sponsors, perspectives on the genre, patterns of social integration, and histories. As a case study, this research stresses the local situatedness of K-pop fan culture by arguing that local private and public sponsors and fans make the reception of K-pop different in each locality. By exploring local scenes of K-pop reception and fan culture, the article demonstrates the rapidly growing consumption of K-pop among Europeans and stresses multidirectional understandings of globalization.

  4. Single photon emission computed tomography by using fan beam collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Yoshihisa

    1992-01-01

    A multislice fan beam collimator which has parallel collimation along the cephalic-caudul axis of a patient and converging collimation within planes that are perpendicular to that axis was designed for a SPECT system with a rotating scintillation camera, and it was constructed by the lead casting method which was developed in recent years. A reconstruction algorithm for fan beam SPECT was formed originally by combining the reconstruction algorithm of the parallel beam SPECT with that of the fan beam X-ray CT. The algorithm for fan beam SPECT was confirmed by means of computer simulation and a head phantom filled with diluted radionuclide. Not only 99m Tc but also 123 I was used as a radionuclide. A SPECT image with the fan beam collimator was compared with that of a parallel hole, low energy, high resolution collimator which was routinely used for clinical and research SPECT studies. Both system resolution and sensitivity of the fan beam collimator were ∼20% better than those of the parallel hole collimator. Comparing SPECT images obtained from fan beam collimator with those of parallel hole collimator, the SPECT images using fan beam collimator had far better resolution. A fan beam collimator is a useful implement for the SPECT study. (author)

  5. Review of noise reduction methods for centrifugal fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neise, W.

    1981-11-01

    Several methods for the reduction of centrifugal fan noise are presented, the most of which are aimed at a lower blade passage frequency level. The methods are grouped into five categories: casing modifications to increase the distance between impeller and cutoff, the introduction of a phase shift of the source pressure fluctuations, impeller modifications, radial clearance between impeller eye and inlet nozzle, and acoustical measures. Resonators mounted at the cutoff of centrifugal fans appear to be a highly efficient and simple means of reducing the blade passage tone, and the method can be used for new fan construction and existing installations without affecting the aerodynamic performance of the fan.

  6. CERN takes off at Lift11

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    CERN was especially featured at the Lift11 conference, held in Geneva early this month. Tara Shears delivered a keynote speech at the event, while Paul Oortman Gerlings (DGS-SEE) and Erik van der Bij (BE-CO) – winners of the Bulletin’s Lift11 competition – organised the CERN workshop.   Paul Oortman Gerlings takes questions at CERN's Lift11 workshop. Lift11 was an opportunity for CERN to reach today’s innovators and developers. “The event was filled with people eager to learn new ideas, who were not afraid to ask questions,” says Tara Shears, physicist from the LHCb Collaboration who presented an update on the status of the LHC. “People were amazed by what goes on inside CERN, by our science, our facilities – even by the way we carry out our day-to-day work. It is a branch of fundamental research that really seems to inspire everyone.” A small Lift11 group had the chance to take a tour of CERN, ...

  7. Win a lift to the future!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The Communication Group is organising a competition offering people at CERN the chance to submit their ideas and win a ticket to the Lift10 Conference, which will be held in Geneva from 5 to7 May.   Lift is a community of technology "pioneers", created in 2006. It now involves more than 4,000 people from over 60 countries, who meet regularly in Europe and in Asia to explore the social implications of new technologies and the major shifts ahead. CERN is one of the academic partners of the next Lift conference, whose theme is "Connected people”. For this occasion, 10 free tickets to the conference will be awarded to the "CERNois" who come up with the best answers to the question: “How would you contribute to Lift10?” Those taking part in the competition can choose from among the following categories: - run workshop(s); - cover the conference on a blog; - coordinate a discussion during the breaks; - organize a lift@home ...

  8. Fan beam intensity modulated proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Patrick M.

    A fan beam proton therapy is developed which delivers intensity modulated proton therapy using distal edge tracking. The system may be retrofit onto existing proton therapy gantries without alterations to infrastructure in order to improve treatments through intensity modulation. A novel range and intensity modulation system is designed using acrylic leaves that are inserted or retracted from subsections of the fan beam. Leaf thicknesses are chosen in a base-2 system and motivated in a binary manner. Dose spots from individual beam channels range between 1 and 5 cm. Integrated collimators attempting to limit crosstalk among beam channels are investigated, but found to be inferior to uncollimated beam channel modulators. A treatment planning system performing data manipulation in MATLAB and dose calculation in MCNPX is developed. Beamlet dose is calculated on patient CT data and a fan beam source is manually defined to produce accurate results. An energy deposition tally follows the CT grid, allowing straightforward registration of dose and image data. Simulations of beam channels assume that a beam channel either delivers dose to a distal edge spot or is intensity modulated. A final calculation is performed separately to determine the deliverable dose accounting for all sources of scatter. Treatment plans investigate the effects that varying system parameters have on dose distributions. Beam channel apertures may be as large as 20 mm because the sharp distal falloff characteristic of proton dose provides sufficient intensity modulation to meet dose objectives, even in the presence of coarse lateral resolution. Dose conformity suffers only when treatments are delivered from less than 10 angles. Jaw widths of 1--2 cm produce comparable dose distributions, but a jaw width of 4 cm produces unacceptable target coverage when maintaining critical structure avoidance. Treatment time for a prostate delivery is estimated to be on the order of 10 minutes. Neutron production

  9. The Lower Cretaceous Way Group of northern Chile: An alluvial fan-fan delta complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, S.; Clemmey, H.; Turner, P.

    1986-01-01

    Alluvial fan sediments of the Lower Cretaceous Coloso Basin in northern Chile were deposited in a half-graben and derived from andesitic volcanics of a former island arc. Transport directions were towards the east, away from the present-day Peru-Chile trench. Grain flow, density modified grain flow and sheetflow processes were responsible for most of the sediment deposition with cohesive debris flows playing only a minor part. An early phase of conglomerate deposition (Coloso Formation) into a restricted basin records the transition from proximal fan facies with abundant grain flows and remobilized screes to mid-fan facies dominated by sheetflows. Stratiform copper mineralization near the top of the lower conglomerates is related to the unroofing of the Jurassic island arc. This mineralization comprises copper sulphide-cemented sands and gravels and formed by the reaction of mineralized detritus with diagenetic and hydrothermal solutions. A later phase of deposition (Lombriz Formation) includes sandstones, siltstones and conglomerates with a source area different from the Coloso Formation. This change in source may be related to strike-slip tectonics as the basin extended. The Lombriz conglomerates pass distally (eastwards) into red sandstones and purple siltstones with thin limestones deposited under marine conditions. This sequence is interpreted as a major fan delta complex. It passes conformably into marine carbonates of the Tableado Formation signifying the complete drowning of the basin in lower Cretaceous times.

  10. Levitated Duct Fan (LDF) Aircraft Auxiliary Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Emerson, Dawn C.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.

    2011-01-01

    This generator concept includes a novel stator and rotor architecture made from composite material with blades attached to the outer rotating shell of a ducted fan drum rotor, a non-contact support system between the stator and rotor using magnetic fields to provide levitation, and an integrated electromagnetic generation system. The magnetic suspension between the rotor and the stator suspends and supports the rotor within the stator housing using permanent magnets attached to the outer circumference of the drum rotor and passive levitation coils in the stator shell. The magnets are arranged in a Halbach array configuration.

  11. TMI-2 reactor vessel plenum final lift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    Removal of the plenum assembly from the TMI-2 reactor vessel was necessary to gain access to the core region for defueling. The plenum was lifted from the reactor vessel by the polar crane using three specially designed pendant assemblies. It was then transferred in air to the flooded deep end of the refueling canal and lowered onto a storage stand where it will remain throughout the defueling effort. The lift and transfer were successfully accomplished on May 15, 1985 in just under three hours by a lift team located in a shielded area within the reactor building. The success of the program is attributed to extensive mockup and training activities plus thorough preparations to address potential problems. 54 refs

  12. Quadratic Interpolation and Linear Lifting Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Solé

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A quadratic image interpolation method is stated. The formulation is connected to the optimization of lifting steps. This relation triggers the exploration of several interpolation possibilities within the same context, which uses the theory of convex optimization to minimize quadratic functions with linear constraints. The methods consider possible knowledge available from a given application. A set of linear equality constraints that relate wavelet bases and coefficients with the underlying signal is introduced in the formulation. As a consequence, the formulation turns out to be adequate for the design of lifting steps. The resulting steps are related to the prediction minimizing the detail signal energy and to the update minimizing the l2-norm of the approximation signal gradient. Results are reported for the interpolation methods in terms of PSNR and also, coding results are given for the new update lifting steps.

  13. Lift mechanics of downhill skiing and snowboarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qianhong; Igci, Yesim; Andreopoulos, Yiannis; Weinbaum, Sheldon

    2006-06-01

    This study is conducted to develop a simplified mathematical model to describe the lift mechanics of downhill skiing and snowboarding, where the lift contributions due to both the transiently trapped air and the compressed solid phase (snow crystals) are determined. To our knowledge, this is the first time that anyone has attempted to realistically estimate the relative contribution of the transiently trapped air to the total lift in skiing and snowboarding. The model uses Shimizu's empirical relation to predict the local variation in Darcy permeability due to the compression of the solid phase. The forces and moments on the skier or snowboarder are used to predict the angle of attack of the planing surface, the penetration depth at the leading edge, and the shift in the center of pressure for two typical snow types, fresh and wind-packed snow. We present numerical solutions for snowboarding and asymptotic analytic solutions for skiing for the case where there are no edging or turning maneuvers. The force and moment balance are then used to develop a theory for control and stability in response to changes in the center of mass as the individual shifts his/her weight. Our model predicts that for fine-grained, windpacked snow that when the velocity (U) of the snowboarder or skier is 20 m.s, approximately 50% of the total lift force is generated by the trapped air for snowboarding and 40% for skiing. For highly permeable fresh powder snow, the lift contribution from the pore air pressure drops substantially. This paper develops a new theoretical framework for analyzing the lift mechanics and stability of skis and snowboards that could have important applications in future ski and snowboard design.

  14. The morphology, processes, and evolution of Monterey Fan: a revisit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, James V.; Bohannon, Robert G.; Field, Michael E.; Masson, Douglas G.

    2010-01-01

    Long-range (GLORIA) and mid-range (TOBI) sidescan imagery and seismic-reflection profiles have revealed the surface morphology and architecture of the complete Monterey Fan. The fan has not developed a classic wedge shape because it has been blocked for much of its history by Morro Fracture Zone. The barrier has caused the fan to develop an upper-fan and lower-fan sequence that are distinctly different from one another. The upper-fan sequence is characterized by Monterey and Ascension Channels and associated Monterey Channel-levee system. The lower-fan sequence is characterized by depositional lobes of the Ascension, Monterey, and Sur-Parkington-Lucia systems, with the Monterey depositional lobe being the youngest. Presently, the Monterey depositional lobe is being downcut because the system has reached a new, lower base level in the Murray Fracture Zone. A five-step evolution of Monterey Fan is presented, starting with initial fan deposition in the Late Miocene, about 5.5 Ma. This first stage was one of filling bathymetric lows in the oceanic basement in what was to become the upper-fan segment. The second stage involved filling the bathymetric low on the north side of Morro Fracture Zone, and probably not much sediment was transported beyond the fracture zone. The third stage witnessed sediment being transported around both ends of Morro Fracture Zone and initial sedimentation on the lower-fan segment. During the fourth stage Ascension Channel was diverted into Monterey Channel, thereby cutting off sedimentation to the Ascension depositional lobe.

  15. Testing lifting systems in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kling, H.; Laug, R.

    1984-01-01

    Lifting systems in nuclear facilities must be inspected at regular intervals after having undergone their first acceptance test. These inspections are frequently carried out by service firms which not only employ the skilled personnel required for such jobs but also make available the necessary test equipment. The inspections in particular include a number of sophisticated load tests for which test load systems have been developed to allow lifting systems to be tested so that reactor specific boundary conditions are taken into account. In view of the large number of facilities to be inspected, the test load system is a modular system. (orig.) [de

  16. Asymmetric Gepner models II. Heterotic weight lifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Schellekens, A.N., E-mail: t58@nikhef.n [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); IMAPP, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2011-05-21

    A systematic study of 'lifted' Gepner models is presented. Lifted Gepner models are obtained from standard Gepner models by replacing one of the N=2 building blocks and the E{sub 8} factor by a modular isomorphic N=0 model on the bosonic side of the heterotic string. The main result is that after this change three family models occur abundantly, in sharp contrast to ordinary Gepner models. In particular, more than 250 new and unrelated moduli spaces of three family models are identified. We discuss the occurrence of fractionally charged particles in these spectra.

  17. Soccer ball lift coefficients via trajectory analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin parameters that have not been obtained by today's wind tunnels. Our trajectory analysis technique is not only a valuable tool for professional sports scientists, it is also accessible to students with a background in undergraduate-level classical mechanics.

  18. Soccer ball lift coefficients via trajectory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, John Eric [Department of Physics, Lynchburg College, Lynchburg, VA 24501 (United States); Carre, Matt J, E-mail: goff@lynchburg.ed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin parameters that have not been obtained by today's wind tunnels. Our trajectory analysis technique is not only a valuable tool for professional sports scientists, it is also accessible to students with a background in undergraduate-level classical mechanics.

  19. Asymmetric Gepner models II. Heterotic weight lifting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gato-Rivera, B.; Schellekens, A.N.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic study of 'lifted' Gepner models is presented. Lifted Gepner models are obtained from standard Gepner models by replacing one of the N=2 building blocks and the E 8 factor by a modular isomorphic N=0 model on the bosonic side of the heterotic string. The main result is that after this change three family models occur abundantly, in sharp contrast to ordinary Gepner models. In particular, more than 250 new and unrelated moduli spaces of three family models are identified. We discuss the occurrence of fractionally charged particles in these spectra.

  20. Case study of French and Spanish fan reception of Game of Thrones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Bourdaa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The reception of the American TV show Game of Thrones (2011– by French and Spanish fans and nonfans is addressed via a qualitative methodology, the goal of which is to understand how European viewers perceive themselves as fans and what it means for them to be fans. Analysis of characteristics of a specifically European reception helps us learn what fan studies tell us about fans and what fans really think about fandoms.

  1. Acoustic Measurements of an Uninstalled Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation Fan Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, L. Danielle; Brown, Clifford A.; Shook, Tony D.; Winkel, James; Kolacz, John S.; Podboy, Devin M.; Loew, Raymond A.; Mirecki, Julius H.

    2012-01-01

    Sound pressure measurements were recorded for a prototype of a spacecraft cabin ventilation fan in a test in the NASA Glenn Acoustical Testing Laboratory. The axial fan is approximately 0.089 m (3.50 in.) in diameter and 0.223 m (9.00 in.) long and has nine rotor blades and eleven stator vanes. At design point of 12,000 rpm, the fan was predicted to produce a flow rate of 0.709 cu m/s (150 cfm) and a total pressure rise of 925 Pa (3.72 in. of water) at 12,000 rpm. While the fan was designed to be part of a ducted atmospheric revitalization system, no attempt was made to throttle the flow or simulate the installed configuration during this test. The fan was operated at six speeds from 6,000 to 13,500 rpm. A 13-microphone traversing array was used to collect sound pressure measurements along two horizontal planes parallel to the flow direction, two vertical planes upstream of the fan inlet and two vertical planes downstream of the fan exhaust. Measurements indicate that sound at blade passing frequency harmonics contribute significantly to the overall audible noise produced by the fan at free delivery conditions.

  2. Construction of an automated temperature sensing electric fan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... electric fan indicate that there will be a great demand for the product if it is introduced to the market since everybody cannot afford an air-conditioner due to its high cost. Key words: Temperature, Fan Regulator, C++ programming, Analogue-to-Digital Converter (ADC), Micro-controller, Relay, Liquid Crystal Display (LCD).

  3. Facilitating Attuned Interactions: Using the FAN Approach to Family Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkerson, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Erikson Institute's Fussy Baby Network® (FBN) is a national model prevention program known for its approach to family engagement called the FAN (Gilkerson & Gray, 2014; Gilkerson et al., 2012). The FAN is both a conceptual framework and a practical tool to facilitate attunement in helping relationships and promote reflective practice. This…

  4. Using Fan Fiction to Teach Critical Reading and Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about fan fiction, which is defined by Jenkins (2008) as "original stories and novels which are set in the fictional universe of favorite television series, films, comics, games or other media properties." Fan fiction generally involves writing stories with a combination of established characters and established…

  5. The Retarding Force on a Fan-Cart Reversing Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurora, Tarlok S.; Brunner, Bernard J.

    2011-01-01

    In introductory physics, students learn that an object tossed upward has a constant downward acceleration while going up, at the highest point and while falling down. To demonstrate this concept, a self-propelled fan cart system is used on a frictionless track. A quick push is given to the fan cart and it is allowed to move away on a track under…

  6. Violent fan fluctuations: a diffusion perspective to explain supporters' violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braun, R.; Vliegenthart, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we address the question of how diffusion mechanisms predict the level of violence among soccer fans. We embed possible causes of violent fan behavior in a theoretical framework of diffusion, as social movement scholars deploy it to study other instances of collective violence. Four

  7. The performance of a centrifugal fan with enlarged impeller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunxi; Song Lingwang; Jia Yakui

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The influence of impeller enlargement is evaluated numerically and experimentally. → Variation equations of the operation points for enlarged impellers are derived. → Impeller enlargement leads to louder fan noise due to reduced impeller-volute gap. - Abstract: The influence of enlarged impeller in unchanged volute on G4-73 type centrifugal fan performance is investigated in this paper. Comparisons are conducted between the fan with original impeller and two larger impellers with the increments in impeller outlet diameter of 5% and 10% respectively in the numerical and experimental investigations. The internal characteristics are obtained by the numerical simulation, which indicate there is more volute loss in the fan with larger impeller. Experiment results show that the flow rate, total pressure rise, shaft power and sound pressure level have increased, while the efficiency have decreased when the fan operates with larger impeller. Variation equations on the performance of the operation points for the fan with enlarged impellers are suggested. Comparisons between experiment results and the trimming laws show that the trimming laws for usual situation can predict the performance of the enlarged fan impeller with less error for higher flow rate, although the situation of application is not in agreement. The noise frequency analysis shows that higher noise level with the larger impeller fan is caused by the reduced impeller-volute gap.

  8. The performance of a centrifugal fan with enlarged impeller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Chunxi, E-mail: leechunxi@163.com [School of Energy and Power Engineering, North China Electric Power University, 071003 Baoding, Hebei (China); Song Lingwang [School of Energy and Power Engineering, North China Electric Power University, 071003 Baoding, Hebei (China); Jia Yakui [Hebei Electric Power Design and Research Institute, 050031 Shijiazhuang, Hebei (China)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} The influence of impeller enlargement is evaluated numerically and experimentally. {yields} Variation equations of the operation points for enlarged impellers are derived. {yields} Impeller enlargement leads to louder fan noise due to reduced impeller-volute gap. - Abstract: The influence of enlarged impeller in unchanged volute on G4-73 type centrifugal fan performance is investigated in this paper. Comparisons are conducted between the fan with original impeller and two larger impellers with the increments in impeller outlet diameter of 5% and 10% respectively in the numerical and experimental investigations. The internal characteristics are obtained by the numerical simulation, which indicate there is more volute loss in the fan with larger impeller. Experiment results show that the flow rate, total pressure rise, shaft power and sound pressure level have increased, while the efficiency have decreased when the fan operates with larger impeller. Variation equations on the performance of the operation points for the fan with enlarged impellers are suggested. Comparisons between experiment results and the trimming laws show that the trimming laws for usual situation can predict the performance of the enlarged fan impeller with less error for higher flow rate, although the situation of application is not in agreement. The noise frequency analysis shows that higher noise level with the larger impeller fan is caused by the reduced impeller-volute gap.

  9. Amateur mythographies: Fan fiction and the myth of myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Willis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on classical scholarship on myth in order to critically examine three ways in which scholars and fans have articulated a relationship between fan fiction and myth. These are (1 the notion of fan fiction as a form of folk culture, reclaiming popular story from corporate ownership; (2 the notion of myth as counterhegemonic, often feminist, discourse; (3 the notion of myth as a commons of story and a universal story world. I argue that the first notion depends on an implicit primitivizing of fan fiction and myth, which draws ultimately on the work of Gottfried von Herder in the 18th century and limits our ability to produce historically and politically nuanced understandings of fan fiction. The second notion, which is visible in the work of Henry Jenkins and Constance Penley, is more helpful because of its attention to the politics of narration. However, it is the third model of myth, as a universal story world, where we find the richest crossover between fan fiction's creative power and contemporary classical scholarship on myth, especially in relation to Sarah Iles Johnston's analysis of hyperserial narrative. I demonstrate this through some close readings of fan fiction from the Greek and Roman Mythology fandom on Archive of Our Own. I conclude the paper by extending Johnston's arguments to show that fan-fictional hyperseriality, specifically, can be seen as mythic because it intervenes not only in the narrative worlds of its source materials but also in the social world of its telling.

  10. Preliminary Aerodynamic Investigation of Fan Rotor Blade Morphing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Various new technologies currently under development may enable controlled blade shape variability, or so-called blade morphing, to be practically employed in aircraft engine fans and compressors in the foreseeable future. The current study is a relatively brief, preliminary computational fluid dynamics investigation aimed at partially demonstrating and quantifying the aerodynamic potential of fan rotor blade morphing. The investigation is intended to provide information useful for near-term planning, as well as aerodynamic solution data sets that can be subsequently analyzed using advanced acoustic diagnostic tools, for the purpose of making fan noise comparisons. Two existing fan system models serve as baselines for the investigation: the Advanced Ducted Propulsor fan with a design tip speed of 806 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.294, and the Source Diagnostic Test fan with a design tip speed of 1215 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.470. Both are 22-in. sub-scale, low-noise research fan/nacelle models that have undergone extensive experimental testing in the 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The study, restricted to fan rotor blade morphing only, involves a fairly simple blade morphing technique. Specifically, spanwise-linear variations in rotor blade-section setting angle are applied to alter the blade shape; that is, the blade is linearly retwisted from hub to tip. Aerodynamic performance comparisons are made between morphed-blade and corresponding baseline configurations on the basis of equal fan system thrust, where rotor rotational speed for the morphed-blade fan is varied to change the thrust level for that configuration. The results of the investigation confirm that rotor blade morphing could be a useful technology, with the potential to enable significant improvements in fan aerodynamic performance. Even though the study is very limited in scope and confined to simple geometric perturbations of two existing fan

  11. Infrared thermography application on predictive maintenance for exhaust fan motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I Wayan Widiana; Jakaria; Artadi Heru; Mulyono

    2013-01-01

    To determine the condition of the exhaust fan motor in terms of heat dissipation, predictive maintenance needs to be done. One way is to use infrared thermography. The method used is an infrared thermography with qualitative technique which the analysis focused on the distribution patterns of heat captured by the infrared camera. From measurement results expected to be obtained data of the heat distribution occurs in the motor exhaust fan so it can be given treatment or further improvements recommendations to avoid failure of the operation. Results of measurements on the motor exhaust fan 9 and the motor exhaust fan 10 indicates that there is excessive heat dissipation (over heating). The recommendation given is increasing the motor capacity of 11 kW to 18 kW with a consideration of the addition load on exhaust fan system and age of motor more than 22 years. (author)

  12. Costs and benefits of energy efficiency improvements in ceiling fans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Nihar; Sathaye, Nakul; Phadke, Amol; Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technology Division

    2013-10-15

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, especially in developing countries with warm climates. The paper provides analysis of costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans to assess the global potential for electricity savings and green house gas (GHG) emission reductions. Ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terawatt hours per year could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize potential savings.

  13. c-fans and Newton polyhedra of algebraic varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarnovskii, B Ya

    2003-01-01

    To every algebraic subvariety of a complex torus there corresponds a Euclidean geometric object called a c-fan. This correspondence determines an intersection theory for algebraic varieties. c-fans form a graded commutative algebra with visually defined operations. The c-fans of algebraic varieties lie in the subring of rational c-fans. It seems that other subrings may be used to construct an intersection theory for other categories of analytic varieties. We discover a relation between an old problem in the theory of convex bodies (the so-called Minkowski problem) and the ring of c-fans. This enables us to define a correspondence that sends any algebraic curve to a convex polyhedron in the space of characters of the torus

  14. Sports Fans, Alcohol Use, and Violent Behavior: A Sociological Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowsky, Michael K

    2016-08-31

    This review makes four contributions to the sociological study of sports fans, alcohol use, and violent behavior. First, this article focuses explicitly on the relationship between alcohol use and violent behavior among sports fans. This is a worldwide social problem, yet it is quite understudied. Second, this article synthesizes the fragmented literature on alcohol use and violent behavior among sports fans. Third, this article identifies four broad sets of risk factors-sociocultural, event/venue, police, and crowd-that appear to be closely related to violent behavior among sports fans. Finally, to help explain the possible correlation between alcohol and violence among sports fans, this article draws upon the key understandings from the literature on alcohol and violence in wider society. The article concludes with suggestions for future research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Lifting devices in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The regulation applies to lifts, cranes, winches, rail trolleys, load pick-up equipment and fuel charging machines for LWR reactors, as far as these are employed in plants for the production or fission of nuclear fuels or for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels or for the storage or other uses of nuclear fuels. (orig.) 891 HP [de

  16. Leading-Edge Vortex lifts swifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videler, JJ; Stamhuis, EJ; Povel, GDE

    2004-01-01

    The current understanding of how birds fly must be revised, because birds use their hand-wings in an unconventional way to generate lift and drag. Physical models of a common swift wing in gliding posture with a 60degrees sweep of the sharp hand-wing leading edge were tested in a water tunnel.

  17. Lifts of matroid representations over partial fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pendavingh, R.A.; Zwam, van S.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    There exist several theorems which state that when a matroid is representable over distinct fields F1,...,Fk , it is also representable over other fields. We prove a theorem, the Lift Theorem, that implies many of these results. First, parts of Whittle's characterization of representations of

  18. Lifts of projective congruence groups, II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiming, Ian

    2014-01-01

    We continue and complete our previous paper ``Lifts of projective congruence groups'' concerning the question of whether there exist noncongruence subgroups of  that are projectively equivalent to one of the groups  or . A complete answer to this question is obtained: In case of  such noncongruence...

  19. Measuring Lift with the Wright Airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavers, Richard M.; Soleymanloo, Arianne

    2011-01-01

    In this laboratory or demonstration exercise, we mount a small airfoil with its long axis vertical at one end of a nearly frictionless rotating platform. Air from a leaf blower produces a sidewise lift force L on the airfoil and a drag force D in the direction of the air flow (Fig. 1). The rotating platform is kept in equilibrium by adding weights…

  20. Development of a Fan for Future Space Suit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul. Heather L.; Converse, David; Dionne, Steven; Moser, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    NASA's next generation space suit system will place new demands on the fan used to circulate breathing gas through the ventilation loop of the portable life support system. Long duration missions with frequent extravehicular activities (EVAs), the requirement for significant increases in reliability and durability, and a mission profile that imposes strict limits on weight, volume and power create the basis for a set of requirements that demand more performance than is available from existing fan designs. This paper describes the development of a new fan to meet these needs. A centrifugal fan was designed with a normal operating speed of approximately 39,400 rpm to meet the ventilation flow requirements while also meeting the aggressive minimal packaging, weight and power requirements. The prototype fan also operates at 56,000 rpm to satisfy a second operating condition associated with a single fan providing ventilation flow to two spacesuits connected in series. This fan incorporates a novel nonmetallic "can" to keep the oxygen flow separate from the motor electronics, thus eliminating ignition potential. The nonmetallic can enables a small package size and low power consumption. To keep cost and schedule within project bounds a commercial motor controller was used. The fan design has been detailed and implemented using materials and approaches selected to address anticipated mission needs. Test data is presented to show how this fan performs relative to anticipated ventilation requirements for the EVA portable life support system. Additionally, data is presented to show tolerance to anticipated environmental factors such as acoustics, shock, and vibration. Recommendations for forward work to progress the technology readiness level and prepare the fan for the next EVA space suit system are also discussed.

  1. Life, death and revival of debris-flow fans on Earth and Mars : fan dynamics and climatic inferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374023190

    2016-01-01

    Alluvial fans are ubiquitous landforms in high-relief regions on Earth and Mars. They have a semi-conical shape and are located at the transition between highlands and adjacent basins. Alluvial fans can form by a range of processes including debris flows, which are water-laden masses of soil and

  2. The Revolutionary Vertical Lift Technology (RVLT) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Gloria K.

    2018-01-01

    The Revolutionary Vertical Lift Technology (RVLT) Project is one of six projects in the Advanced Air Vehicles Program (AAVP) of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate. The overarching goal of the RVLT Project is to develop and validate tools, technologies, and concepts to overcome key barriers for vertical lift vehicles. The project vision is to enable the next generation of vertical lift vehicles with aggressive goals for efficiency, noise, and emissions, to expand current capabilities and develop new commercial markets. The RVLT Project invests in technologies that support conventional, non-conventional, and emerging vertical-lift aircraft in the very light to heavy vehicle classes. Research areas include acoustic, aeromechanics, drive systems, engines, icing, hybrid-electric systems, impact dynamics, experimental techniques, computational methods, and conceptual design. The project research is executed at NASA Ames, Glenn, and Langley Research Centers; the research extensively leverages partnerships with the US Army, the Federal Aviation Administration, industry, and academia. The primary facilities used by the project for testing of vertical-lift technologies include the 14- by 22-Ft Wind Tunnel, Icing Research Tunnel, National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, 7- by 10-Ft Wind Tunnel, Rotor Test Cell, Landing and Impact Research facility, Compressor Test Facility, Drive System Test Facilities, Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility, Vertical Motion Simulator, Mobile Acoustic Facility, Exterior Effects Synthesis and Simulation Lab, and the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Complex. To learn more about the RVLT Project, please stop by booth #1004 or visit their website at https://www.nasa.gov/aeroresearch/programs/aavp/rvlt.

  3. Thread-Lift Sutures: Still in the Lift? A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülbitti, Haydar Aslan; Colebunders, Britt; Pirayesh, Ali; Bertossi, Dario; van der Lei, Berend

    2018-03-01

    In 2006, Villa et al. published a review article concerning the use of thread-lift sutures and concluded that the technique was still in its infancy but had great potential to become a useful and effective procedure for nonsurgical lifting of sagged facial tissues. As 11 years have passed, the authors now performed again a systematic review to determine the real scientific current state of the art on the use of thread-lift sutures. A systematic review was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines using the PubMed database and using the Medical Subject Headings search term "Rhytidoplasty." "Rhytidoplasty" and the following entry terms were included by this Medical Subject Headings term: "facelift," "facelifts," "face Lift," "Face Lifts," "Lift," "Face," "Lifts," "Platysmotomy," "Platysmotomies," "Rhytidectomy," "Rhytidectomies," "Platysmaplasty," "and "Platysmaplasties." The Medical Subject Headings term "Rhytidoplasty" was combined with the following search terms: "Barbed suture," "Thread lift," "APTOS," "Suture suspension," "Percutaneous," and "Silhouette suture." RefWorks was used to filter duplicates. Three of the authors (H.A.G., B.C., and B.L.) performed the search independently. The initial search with all search terms resulted in 188 articles. After filtering the duplicates and the articles about open procedures, a total of 41 articles remained. Of these, the review articles, case reports, and letters to the editor were subsequently excluded, as were reports dealing with nonbarbed sutures, such as Vicryl and Prolene with Gore-Tex. This resulted in a total of 12 articles, seven additional articles since the five articles reviewed by Villa et al. The authors' review demonstrated that, within the past decade, little or no substantial evidence has been added to the peer-reviewed literature to support or sustain the promising statement about thread-lift sutures as made by Villa et al. in 2006 in terms of

  4. Mannesmann Demag crawler cranes give plants a big lift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Preassembly of large reactor components reduces construction costs, but creates the need for cranes with larger lifting capacities. A German company is extending its range with a new crawler crane which will lift up to 1600t. (author)

  5. Effect of hydrogen addition on autoignited methane lifted flames

    KAUST Repository

    Choin, Byung Chul; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Autoignited lifted flames in laminar jets with hydrogen-enriched methane fuels have been investigated experimentally in heated coflow air. The results showed that the autoignited lifted flame of the methane/hydrogen mixture, which had an initial

  6. Lifting Safety: Tips To Help Prevent Back Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevent Back Injuries Lifting Safety: Tips to Help Prevent Back Injuries Share Print Back injuries are common problems at work, home, and play. They can be caused by accidents or improper lifting technique. Below are tips to ...

  7. Submarine fans: A critical retrospective (1950–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shanmugam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available When we look back the contributions on submarine fans during the past 65 years (1950–2015, the empirical data on 21 modern submarine fans and 10 ancient deep-water systems, published by the results of the First COMFAN (Committee on FANs Meeting (Bouma et al., 1985a, have remained the single most significant compilation of data on submarine fans. The 1970s were the “heyday” of submarine fan models. In the 21st century, the general focus has shifted from submarine fans to submarine mass movements, internal waves and tides, and contourites. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the complexity of issues surrounding the origin and classification of submarine fans. The principal elements of submarine fans, composed of canyons, channels, and lobes, are discussed using nine modern case studies from the Mediterranean Sea, the Equatorial Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexico, the North Pacific, the NE Indian Ocean (Bay of Bengal, and the East Sea (Korea. The Annot Sandstone (Eocene–Oligocene, exposed at Peira-Cava area, SE France, which served as the type locality for the “Bouma Sequence”, was reexamined. The field details are documented in questioning the validity of the model, which was the basis for the turbidite-fan link. The 29 fan-related models that are of conceptual significance, developed during the period 1970–2015, are discussed using modern and ancient systems. They are: (1 the classic submarine fan model with attached lobes, (2 the detached-lobe model, (3 the channel-levee complex without lobes, (4 the delta-fed ramp model, (5 the gully-lobe model, (6 the suprafan lobe model, (7 the depositional lobe model, (8 the fan lobe model, (9 the ponded lobe model, (10 the nine models based on grain size and sediment source, (11 the four fan models based on tectonic settings, (12 the Jackfork debrite model, (13 the basin-floor fan model, (14 supercritical and subcritical fans, and (15 the three types of fan reservoirs. Each model is unique

  8. Analysis of lifting beam and redesigned lifting lugs for 241-AZ-01A decant pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coverdell, B.L.

    1994-01-01

    This supporting document details calculations for the proper design of a lifting beam and redesigned lifting lugs for the 241AZO1A decant pump. This design is in accordance with Standard Architectural-Civil Design Criteria, Design Loads for Facilities (DOE-RL 1989) and is safety class three. The design and fabrication is in accordance with American Institute of Steel Construction, Manual of Steel Construction, (AISC, 1989) and the Hanford Hoisting and Rigging Manual (DOE-RL 1993)

  9. The Design of Wheelchair Lifting Mechanism and Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Cong; WANG Zheng-xing; JIANG Shi-hong; ZHANG Li; LIU Zheng-yu

    2014-01-01

    In order to achieve a wheelchair lift function, this paper designs a tri-scissors mechanism. Through the so-called H-type transmission and L-type swing rod, the three scissors mechanisms lift in the same rate with only one liner motor while ensuring the stability of the lift. Finite element analysis in ANSYS is performed to verify the material strength. The control system with Sunplus SCM achieves the voice control of wheelchair walking and lifting.

  10. Lift/cruise fan V/STOL technology aircraft design definition study. Volume 3: Development program and budgetary estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    The aircraft development program, budgetary estimates in CY 1976 dollars, and cost reduction program variants are presented. Detailed cost matrices are also provided for the mechanical transmission system, turbotip transmission system, and the thrust vector hoods and yaw doors.

  11. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an electrically powered device either fixed or mobile, used to lift and transport patients in the horizontal or other...

  12. A lifting line model to investigate the influence of tip feathers on wing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluck, M; Crawford, C

    2014-01-01

    Bird wings have been studied as prototypes for wing design since the beginning of aviation. Although wing tip slots, i.e. wings with distinct gaps between the tip feathers (primaries), are very common in many birds, only a few studies have been conducted on the benefits of tip feathers on the wing's performance, and the aerodynamics behind tip feathers remains to be understood. Consequently most aircraft do not yet copy this feature. To close this knowledge gap an extended lifting line model was created to calculate the lift distribution and drag of wings with tip feathers. With this model, is was easily possible to combine several lifting surfaces into various different birdwing-like configurations. By including viscous drag effects, good agreement with an experimental tip slotted reference case was achieved. Implemented in C++ this model resulted in computation times of less than one minute per wing configuration on a standard notebook computer. Thus it was possible to analyse the performance of over 100 different wing configurations with and without tip feathers. While generally an increase in wing efficiency was obtained by splitting a wing tip into distinct, feather-like winglets, the best performance was generally found when spreading more feathers over a larger dihedral angle out of the wing plane. However, as the results were very sensitive to the precise geometry of the feather fan (especially feather twist) a careless set-up could just as easily degrade performance. Hence a detailed optimization is recommended to realize the full benefits by simultaneously optimizing feather sweep, twist and dihedral angles. (paper)

  13. Reactive control of subsonic axial fan noise in a duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Choy, Y S; Huang, L; Cheng, L

    2014-10-01

    Suppressing the ducted fan noise at low frequencies without varying the flow capacity is still a technical challenge. This study examines a conceived device consisting of two tensioned membranes backed with cavities housing the axial fan for suppression of the sound radiation from the axial fan directly. The noise suppression is achieved by destructive interference between the sound fields from the axial fan of a dipole nature and sound radiation from the membrane via vibroacoustics coupling. A two-dimensional model with the flow effect is presented which allows the performance of the device to be explored analytically. The air flow influences the symmetrical behavior and excites the odd in vacuo mode response of the membrane due to kinematic coupling. Such an asymmetrical effect can be compromised with off-center alignment of the axial fan. Tension plays an important role to sustain the performance to revoke the deformation of the membrane during the axial fan operation. With the design of four appropriately tensioned membranes covered by a cylindrical cavity, the first and second blade passage frequencies of the axial fan can be reduced by at least 20 dB. The satisfactory agreement between experiment and theory demonstrates that its feasibility is practical.

  14. Fans of Columbine shooters Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ryan Rico

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available On April 20, 1999, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold murdered 12 students and one teacher at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, in what was then the deadliest school shooting in American history. Despite causing a national panic and serving as a flash point for larger narratives on bullying, gun control, and media violence, both boys have gained active online fans. These fandoms dedicated to the Columbine shooters are widely referred to as dark examples of Internet communities, while the fans are also frequently denigrated as unstable and violent outcasts. Such dark online fandoms are yet to permeate mainstream culture or to challenge the preexisting perception of these communities as breeding grounds for the next wave of school shooters. While studies have covered the types of fans and their myriad interests, the field remains focused on more conventional examples of fan communities. In an effort to challenge and expand the object of focus when we study fandom, this qualitative study examines Columbine fans and their activity in order to understand the dominant motives they appear to have for engaging with and around such controversial figures and then concludes by exploring how this community might help us reflect more broadly on our concept of fandom. Redeeming these fans as part of diverse and complex communities of social relevance can demonstrate how even a dark fandom such as that of these Columbine shooters provides valuable cultural insights and benefits the field of fan studies.

  15. The Star Wars franchise, fan edits, and Lucasfilm [symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forrest Phillips

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fan edits assert that fan authority is on par with that of a work's original creator; this authority is generated not only through the argument, but through the structure of the text itself. Fan edits adhere to classical filmmaking techniques, creating coherent plots and editing for continuity. These recut texts are emblematic of current ownership debates; they are the read/write culture brought to fandom. The Star Wars series of films are among the most frequently recut texts and are my focus here.

  16. Gender constructions and negotiations of female football fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenneis, Verena; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2015-01-01

    While both the media and the academic literature focus primarily on male fans, in particular on violence and the prevention of hooliganism, little is known about female football supporters. This is also true of Denmark, a country that is known for its high degree of gender equality. This article...... aims to give insight into gender constructions and negotiations of female football fans in the stands. Drawing on a social constructivist perspective to gender and Bourdieu's (1984) approaches to field, capital and habitus, we explored the experiences and opinions of female fans. The methods employed...

  17. Turbine Engine with Differential Gear Driven Fan and Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor); Pagluica, Gino J. (Inventor); Duong, Loc Quang (Inventor); Portlock, Lawrence E. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A gas turbine engine provides a differential gear system coupling the turbine to the bypass fan and the compressor. In this manner, the power/speed split between the bypass fan and the compressor can be optimized under all conditions. In the example shown, the turbine drives a sun gear, which drives a planet carrier and a ring gear in a differential manner. One of the planet carrier and the ring gear is coupled to the bypass fan, while the other is coupled to the compressor.

  18. Design of flood protection for transportation alignments on alluvial fans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    The method of floodplain delineation on alluvial fans developed for the national flood insurance program is modified to provide estimates of peak flood flows at transportation alignments crossing an alluvial fan. The modified methodology divides the total alignment length into drainage design segments and estimates the peak flows that drainage structures would be required to convey as a function of the length of the drainage design segment, the return period of the event, and the location of the alignment on the alluvial fan. An example of the application of the methodology is provided. 16 refs., 5 figs

  19. Large Fluvial Fans: Aspects of the Attribute Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Justin M.

    2015-01-01

    In arguing for a strict definition of the alluvial fan (coarse-grained with radii less than10 km, in mountain-front settings), Blair and McPherson (1994) proposed that there is no meaningful difference between large fluvial fans (LFF) and floodplains, because the building blocks of both are channel-levee-overbank deposits. Sediment bodies at the LFF scale (greater than 100 km long, fan-shaped in planform), are relatively unstudied although greater than 160 are now identified globally. The following perspectives suggest that the significance of LFF needs to be reconsidered.

  20. K-pop Reception and Participatory Fan Culture in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Yeon Sung

    2013-01-01

    K-pop’s popularity and its participatory fan culture have expanded beyond Asia and become significant in Europe in the past few years. After South Korean pop singer Psy’s “Gangnam Style” music video topped the Austrian chart in October 2012, the number and size of K-pop events in Austria sharply increased, with fans organizing various participatory events, including K-pop auditions, dance festivals, club meetings, quiz competitions, dance workshops, and smaller fan-culture gatherings. In the ...

  1. Radon concentration in the springs of the alluvial fan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Kimiko; Ishii, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Masao

    2003-01-01

    Rokugo alluvial fan is one of the typical stratified alluvial fans which have grown in the east edge of Yokote basin in Akita Prefecture. Many of Rokugo's springs are gushing out from 45 m to 50 m above the sea level where city town have been developed. Mechanism of gushing out of spring is closely bound up with the landform of this area. There is nearly no radon existing in the surface water, but in groundwater, radon concentrations are stable in every stratums and infiltration of groundwater to surface water. We would like to obtain some hydrological information by measuring radon concentration in water samples of Rokugo alluvial fan. (author)

  2. Multiple view fan beam polarimetry on Tokamak devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geck, W.R.; Domier, C.W.; Luhmann, N.C.

    1997-01-01

    A polarimeter diagnostic is under development which utilizes several fan beams to accumulate line integrated Faraday rotation data in a Tokamak plasma. The utilization of a fan beam configuration over that of conventional vertical view polarimeter systems significantly reduces access requirements. The high angular separation inherent in a fan beam implementation increases plasma coverage and eliminates the necessity of assumed plasma symmetries to generate high quality current density profiles. Codes have been developed to generate these high-resolution two-dimensional images of the plasma current profile from data collected at arbitrary positions and viewing angles. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  3. Channel systems and lobe construction in the Mississippi Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, L. E.; Kenyon, Neil H.; Bouma, A.H.

    1982-01-01

    Morphological features on the Mississippi Fan in the eastern Gulf of Mexico were mapped using GLORIA II, a long-range side-scan sonar system. Prominent is a sinuous channel flanked by well-developed levees and occasional crevasse splays. The channel follows the axis and thickest part of the youngest fan lobe; seismic-reflection profiles offer evidence that its course has remained essentially constant throughout lobe development. Local modification and possible erosion of levees by currents indicates a present state of inactivity. Superficial sliding has affected part of the fan lobe, but does not appear to have been a factor in lobe construction. ?? 1982 A. M. Dowden, Inc.

  4. Lifting CERN entrepreneurs to new heights

    CERN Multimedia

    William Rode

    2014-01-01

    How can an international research institution help employees who wish to leave their comfort zone for the risky endeavour of starting a company? CERN encourages the creation of companies as a way of disseminating technology developed here. But what else can be done to foster these initiatives?   William Rode, a technical student in CERN’s Knowledge Transfer Group, studied spin-off creations in some leading research institutions as part of his Master's thesis in entrepreneurship at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. William, who was offered a ticket to attend the Lift14 conference in Geneva, shares some insight into how we can support entrepreneurship at CERN: "A while ago I attended the Lift conference in Geneva. The conference explores the business and social implications of technology innovation through talks and workshops, as well as through art and discussion. Innovation is at the core of the conference and is reflected in the open-mindedness of th...

  5. Leading-edge vortex lifts swifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videler, J J; Stamhuis, E J; Povel, G D E

    2004-12-10

    The current understanding of how birds fly must be revised, because birds use their hand-wings in an unconventional way to generate lift and drag. Physical models of a common swift wing in gliding posture with a 60 degrees sweep of the sharp hand-wing leading edge were tested in a water tunnel. Interactions with the flow were measured quantitatively with digital particle image velocimetry at Reynolds numbers realistic for the gliding flight of a swift between 3750 and 37,500. The results show that gliding swifts can generate stable leading-edge vortices at small (5 degrees to 10 degrees) angles of attack. We suggest that the flow around the arm-wings of most birds can remain conventionally attached, whereas the swept-back hand-wings generate lift with leading-edge vortices.

  6. Eisenhart lift for higher derivative systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galajinsky, Anton, E-mail: galajin@tpu.ru; Masterov, Ivan, E-mail: masterov@tpu.ru

    2017-02-10

    The Eisenhart lift provides an elegant geometric description of a dynamical system of second order in terms of null geodesics of the Brinkmann-type metric. In this work, we attempt to generalize the Eisenhart method so as to encompass higher derivative models. The analysis relies upon Ostrogradsky's Hamiltonian. A consistent geometric description seems feasible only for a particular class of potentials. The scheme is exemplified by the Pais–Uhlenbeck oscillator.

  7. Analysis of the Umbrella Roof for lifting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaaban, A.

    1983-01-01

    In addition to supporting the dead loads and the operational loads, the Umbrella Roof (UR) has two major functions to which it was designed. First is to allow access for repair and removal of any of the TF coils, the upper PF coils and the Vacuum Vessel sections; and second, is to reproduce the exact positioning of the upper PF coils every time the UR is placed over the Tokamac. To provide these functions, the UR is designed to be lifted as one integrated structure to which the upper PF coils are attached. In order to ensure precise positioning of the UR, a redundant system of 13 guide pins were provided on the bottom of the radial beams, and four shear lugs were provided atop the central column. Mating reciprocals with very close tolerance for the guide pins were provided in the tops of the 13 peripheral columns. To meet close tolerances and to accommodate such high redundancy in match points, accurate analysis was necessary by which the center of gravity of the UR can be located and the deflection of all match points can be computed. Also stress analysis of the members of the UR was necessary because when the UR is lifted it is denied the midpoint support over the center column; and also the beams of the UR are not interconnected by moment-capable joints, thus if provisions are not made to support every radial beam, those which are not supported would yield and collapse. In this paper, the lifting schemes proposed for the UR are discussed and the results of the analysis performed for the elected scheme are presented. Also presented is a unique application of the NASTRAN code by which the center of gravity of the UR was located by allowing a refined model of the UR to swing until it came to rest under an arbitrary lift point

  8. Lift of dilogarithm to partition identities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terhoeven, M.

    1992-11-01

    For the whole set of dilogarithm identities found recently using the thermodynamic Bethe-Ansatz for the ADET series of purely elastic scattering theories we give partition identities which involve characters of those conformal field theories which correspond to the UV-limits of the scattering theories. These partition identities in turn allow to derive the dilogarithm identities using modular invariance and a saddle point approximation. We conjecture on possible generalizations of this correspondance, namely, a lift from dilogarithm to partition identities. (orig.)

  9. Neck lift my way: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Joel J

    2014-12-01

    The author updates prior descriptions of an approach to the surgical neck lift that aims for a maximum degree of control over the size, shape, and position of every anatomical feature of the neck that is negatively affecting its appearance. A 38-year clinical experience guided the development of the operative tactics that define the strategy. Data collected from a records review of 522 consecutive neck lifts performed during the 10-year period 2004 through 2013 further inform the report. The approach has eight features: (1) nearly routine use of open submental access to all tissue layers of the central neck, including a regimen that curbed the problems that may attend an extensive tissue dissection; (2) management of lax neck skin by lateral excision using a specific postauricular incision, or by using the nonexcisional method of redistribution; (3) open lipectomy for precise removal of excess subcutaneous neck and jawline fat; (4) individualized modifications to subplatysmal fat, perihyoid fascia, and anterior digastric muscles; (5) treatment of large, ptotic, or malpositioned submandibular salivary glands by partial excision using a transcutaneous traction suture; (6) the current version of the corset platysmaplasty, which is used to treat static paramedian platysma muscle bands, and to avoid contour imperfections following subplatysmal maneuvers; (7) an approach that facilitates an isolated neck lift; and (8) durable results. Case examples demonstrate outcomes. Although the updated approach remains relatively complex and invasive, the author believes that the ends justify the means.

  10. Occupational lifting, fetal death and preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocevic, Emina; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between occupational lifting during pregnancy and risk of fetal death and preterm birth using a job exposure matrix (JEM). METHODS: For 68,086 occupationally active women in the Danish National Birth Cohort, interview information on occupational lifting...... the JEM. We used Cox regression models with gestational age as underlying time variable and adjustment for covariates. RESULTS: We observed 2,717 fetal deaths and 3,128 preterm births within the study cohort. No exposure-response relation was observed for fetal death, but for women with a prior fetal...... death, we found a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.87 (95% CI 1.37, 6.01) for stillbirth (fetal death ≥22 completed gestational weeks) among those who lifted >200 kg/day. For preterm birth, we found an exposure-response relation for primigravid women, reaching a HR of 1.43 (95% CI 1.13, 1.80) for total loads >200...

  11. 30 CFR 77.212 - Draw-off tunnel ventilation fans; installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Draw-off tunnel ventilation fans; installation... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.212 Draw-off tunnel ventilation fans; installation. When fans are used to ventilate draw-off tunnels the fans shall be: (a) Installed on the surface; (b...

  12. 14 CFR 33.27 - Turbine, compressor, fan, and turbosupercharger rotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbine, compressor, fan, and... Turbine, compressor, fan, and turbosupercharger rotors. (a) Turbine, compressor, fan, and... affect turbine, compressor, fan, and turbosupercharger rotor structural integrity will not be exceeded in...

  13. Representation of American versus non-American fans in Baillie Walsh's Springsteen & I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the representation of American versus non-American fans in Baillie Walsh's 2013 crowd/fan-sourced documentary Springsteen & I. The film—as much as it was fed by a wide and international range of fan-produced material—ultimately produced and presented one particular type of fan

  14. Masculinity and Lifting Accidents among Danish Ambulance Personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus D.; Nielsen, Kent J

    Background Work injuries related to lifting are the most prevalent among ambulance personnel (AP) despite the introduction of ‘assistive technologies’ (AT) that help reduce situations of manual lifting. One third of the AP report using AT only ‘sometimes’ and 10% report having lifted a patient...... alone. Aim This presentation investigates whether failure to use AT is linked to male ambulance workers’ gender identity? Is lifting patients alone a way of performing masculinity for AP’s? Method Data is taken from MARS, a panel study of AP workers in Denmark (n = 1606). Information from questionnaires...... measuring traditional male role norms (MRNI), safety attitudes and safety behavior will be linked to company register information on work injuries categorized as lifting accidents. Logistic regression is used to analyse associations between masculinity, lifting behavior, and lifting accidents. Results...

  15. Study on dynamic lifting characteristics of control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Xiaoyao

    2012-01-01

    Based on the equations of the electric circuit and the magnetic circuit and analysis of the dynamic lifting process for the control rod drive mechanism (CRDM), coupled magnetic-electric-mechanical equations both for the static status and the dynamic status are derived. The analytical method is utilized to obtain the current and the time when the lift starts. The numerical simulation method of dynamic analysis recommended by ASME Code is utilized to simulate the dynamic lifting process of CRDM, and the dynamic features of the system with different design gaps are studied. Conclusions are drawn as: (1) the lifting-start time increases with the design gap, and the time for the lifting process is longer with larger gaps; (2) the lifting velocity increases with time; (3) the lifting acceleration increases with time, and with smaller gaps, the impact acceleration is larger. (author)

  16. How to lift a box that is too large to fit between the knees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, I.; Faber, G.S.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    Many studies compared lifting techniques such as stoop and squat lifting. Results thus far show that when lifting a wide load, high back loads result, irrespective of the lifting technique applied. This study compared four lifting techniques in 11 male subjects lifting wide loads. One of these

  17. Acceptance test procedure MICON software exhaust fan control modifications; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SILVAN, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    This acceptance test verifies the MICON program changes for the new automatic transfer switch ATS-2 alarms, the Closed Loop Cooling isolator status, the CB-3 position alarm, and the alarms for the new emergency fan damper backup air compressor

  18. Fundamental investigation on the impact strength of hollow fan blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, T; Miyachi, T; Sofue, Y

    1985-01-01

    Models of hollow fan blades were made and tested to prove that their strength is sufficient for use in real engines. The hollow blades were fabricated by diffusion bonding of two titanium alloy (6Al-4V-Ti) plates, one of which had three spanwise stiffners and the other being flat plate. The model as a nontwisted tapered blade. Impact tests were carried out on the hollow fan blade models in which the ingestion of a 1.5 pounds bird was simulated. Solid blades with the same external form were also tested by similar methods for comparison. The results of these tests show that properly designed hollow blades have sufficient stiffness and strength for use as fan blades in the turbo-fan engine.

  19. PLSS 2.5 Fan Design and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gregory; Carra, Michael; Converse, David; Chullen, Cinda

    2015-01-01

    NASA is building a high fidelity prototype of an advanced portable life support system (PLSS) as part of the Advanced Exploration Systems Program. This new PLSS, designated as PLSS 2.5, will advance component technologies and systems knowledge in order to inform a future flight program. The oxygen ventilation loop of its predecessor, PLSS 2.0, is driven by a centrifugal fan developed using specifications from the Constellation Program. PLSS technology and system parameters have matured to the point where the existing fan will not perform adequately for the new prototype. In addition, areas of potential improvement have been identified with the existing fan that could be addressed in a new design. As a result, a new fan was designed and tested for the PLSS 2.5.

  20. Pathological effects of cyanobacteria on sea fans in southeast Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryu, Y; Landsberg, J H; Peters, E C; Tichenor, E; Burleson, C; Perry, N

    2015-07-01

    In early August 2008, observations by divers indicated that sea fans, particularly Gorgonia ventalina, Gorgonia flabellum, and Iciligorgia schrammi, were being covered by benthic filamentous cyanobacteria. From August 2008 through January 2009 and again in April 2009, tissue samples from a targeted G. ventalina colony affected by cyanobacteria and from a nearby, apparently healthy (without cyanobacteria) control colony, were collected monthly for histopathological examination. The primary cellular response of the sea fan to overgrowth by cyanobacteria was an increase in the number of acidophilic amoebocytes (with their granular contents dispersed) that were scattered throughout the coenenchyme tissue. Necrosis of scleroblasts and zooxanthellae and infiltration of degranulated amoebocytes were observed in the sea fan surface tissues at sites overgrown with cyanobacteria. Fungal hyphae in the axial skeleton were qualitatively more prominent in cyanobacteria-affected sea fans than in controls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Image reconstruction from multiple fan-beam projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelinek, J.; Overton, T.R.

    1984-01-01

    Special-purpose third-generation fan-beam CT systems can be greatly simplified by limiting the number of detectors, but this requires a different mode of data collection to provide a set of projections appropriate to the required spatial resolution in the reconstructed image. Repeated rotation of the source-detector fan, combined with shift of the detector array and perhaps offset of the source with respect to the fan's axis after each 360 0 rotation(cycle), provides a fairly general pattern of projection space filling. The authors' investigated the problem of optimal data-collection geometry for a multiple-rotation fan-beam scanner and of corresponding reconstruction algorithm

  2. Heat sends wimbledon fans to a&e.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-07

    Emergency nurses at the south London hospital that serves Wimbledon treated an influx of tennis fans suffering the effects of heatstroke last week. St George's in Tooting reported that the numbers were up on previous years.

  3. Fan fiction, early Greece, and the historicity of canon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahuvia Kahane

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The historicity of canon is considered with an emphasis on contemporary fan fiction and early Greek oral epic traditions. The essay explores the idea of canon by highlighting historical variance, exposing wider conceptual isomorphisms, and formulating a revised notion of canonicity. Based on an analysis of canon in early Greece, the discussion moves away from the idea of canon as a set of valued works and toward canon as a practice of containment in response to inherent states of surplus. This view of canon is applied to the practice of fan fiction, reestablishing the idea of canonicity in fluid production environments within a revised, historically specific understanding in early oral traditions on the one hand and in digital cultures and fan fiction on the other. Several examples of early epigraphic Greek texts embedded in oral environments are analyzed and assessed in terms of their implications for an understanding of fan fiction and its modern contexts.

  4. Female fans of men's football - a case study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfister, Gertrud Ursula; Lenneis, Verena; Mintert, Svenja-Maria

    2013-01-01

    Football is an invention by men for men, and today, the majority of players and fans are men. There is an abundance of literature on football and fandom; however, gender is mostly not an issue in these publications. Research about female football supporters and fans is very limited. This is also...... true for Denmark, the country, which is the focus of this article. Based on gender and socialization theories, this contribution addresses women and their (lack of) interest in men's football. The main questions refer to the numbers of female supporters and their patterns of football consumption...... to a 'man's world' and what are their roles in this 'male environment'? The statements of interviewees revealed that female fans have to cope with a measure of sexism, but that they can adopt the men's perspectives in order to be accepted as 'authentic fans'. Other women reacted on men's domination...

  5. Sport Fan Motivation: Are You Going To The Game?

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes A. Wiid; Michael C. Cant

    2015-01-01

    Every individual or group consume sporting events for different reasons and are therefore motivated in different ways. People consuming sport events can be referred to as sport fans, someone who is enthusiastic about a particular sport, an athlete or someone who is motivated to make the effort to attend a live sporting event. Research on sport consumption motivation had led to the development of the Sport Fan Motivation Scale (SFMS), which consists of eight motives namely, eustress, self-este...

  6. Should electric fans be used during a heat wave?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Ollie; Cramer, Matthew N; Ravanelli, Nicholas M; Hodder, Simon G

    2015-01-01

    Heat waves continue to claim lives, with the elderly and poor at greatest risk. A simple and cost-effective intervention is an electric fan, but public health agencies warn against their use despite no evidence refuting their efficacy in heat waves. A conceptual human heat balance model can be used to estimate the evaporative requirement for heat balance, the potential for evaporative heat loss from the skin, and the predicted sweat rate, with and without an electrical fan during heat wave conditions. Using criteria defined by the literature, it is clear that fans increase the predicted critical environmental limits for both the physiological compensation of endogenous/exogenous heat, and the onset of cardiovascular strain by an air temperature of ∼3-4 °C, irrespective of relative humidity (RH) for the young and elderly. Even above these critical limits, fans would apparently still provide marginal benefits at air temperatures as high as 51.1 °C at 10%RH for young adults and 48.1 °C at 10%RH for the elderly. Previous concerns that dehydration would be exacerbated with fan use do not seem likely, except under very hot (>40 °C) and dry (fans by a minor amount (∼20-30 mL/h). Relative to the peak outdoor environmental conditions reported during ten of the most severe heat waves in recent history, fan use would be advisable in all of these situations, even when reducing the predicted maximum sweat output for the elderly. The protective benefit of fans appears to be underestimated by current guidelines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of a 60cm Diameter Bladeless Fan

    OpenAIRE

    mohammad jafari; Hossein Afshin; Bijan Farhanieh; Hamidreza bozorgasareh

    2016-01-01

    Bladeless fan is a novel type of fan with an unusual geometry and unique characteristics. This type of fan has been recently developed for domestic applications in sizes typically up to 30cm diameter. In the present study, a Bladeless fan with a diameter of 60cm was designed and constructed, in order to investigate feasibility of its usage in various industries with large dimensions. Firstly, flow field passed through this fan was studied by 3D modeling. Aerodynamic and aeroacoust...

  8. Potential Global Benefits of Improved Ceiling Fan Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Nakul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-10-31

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, both in an absolute sense and as a proportion of household consumption in many locations, especially in developing countries in warm climates. However, there has been little detailed assessment of the costs and benefits of efficiency improvement options for ceiling fans and the potential resulting electricity consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. We analyze the costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans and assess the global potential for electricity savings and GHG emission reductions with more detailed assessments for India, China, and the U.S. We find that ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terrawatt hours per year (TWh/year) could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize this savings potential.

  9. D0 Cryo Ventilation Fan Controls and Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markley, D.

    1990-01-01

    This engineering note describes how exhaust fan 6 (EF-6) and exhaust fan 7 (EF-7) are controlled and monitored. Since these two fans are a vital link in the ODH safety system, they will be monitored, controlled and periodically operated by the programmable logic controller (PLC). If there should be a fault in the ventilation system, the PLC will print a warning message to the cryo control room printer and flash a descriptive warning on the ODH/ventilation graphics page. This fault is also logged to the Xpresslink graphics alarm page and to an alarm history hard disk file. The ventilation failure is also an input to the auto dialer which will continue it's automatic sequence until acknowledged. EF-6 delivers 13000 C.F.M. and is considered emergency ventilation. EF-7 delivers 4500 C.F.M. and will run 24 hrs a day. Both ventilation fans are located in an enclosed closet in the TRD gas room. Their ductwork, both inlets and outlets run along side the pipe chase, but are separated by an airtight wall. Their combination motor control starter cabinets are located in the TRD room in plain visible sight of the fans with the closet door open. The fans have signs that state they are automatically controlled and can energize at any time.

  10. Broadband Liner Optimization for the Source Diagnostic Test Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    The broadband component of fan noise has grown in relevance with the utilization of increased bypass ratio and advanced fan designs. Thus, while the attenuation of fan tones remains paramount, the ability to simultaneously reduce broadband fan noise levels has become more appealing. This paper describes a broadband acoustic liner optimization study for the scale model Source Diagnostic Test fan. Specifically, in-duct attenuation predictions with a statistical fan source model are used to obtain optimum impedance spectra over a number of flow conditions for three liner locations in the bypass duct. The predicted optimum impedance information is then used with acoustic liner modeling tools to design liners aimed at producing impedance spectra that most closely match the predicted optimum values. Design selection is based on an acceptance criterion that provides the ability to apply increased weighting to specific frequencies and/or operating conditions. Typical tonal liner designs targeting single frequencies at one operating condition are first produced to provide baseline performance information. These are followed by multiple broadband design approaches culminating in a broadband liner targeting the full range of frequencies and operating conditions. The broadband liner is found to satisfy the optimum impedance objectives much better than the tonal liner designs. In addition, the broadband liner is found to provide better attenuation than the tonal designs over the full range of frequencies and operating conditions considered. Thus, the current study successfully establishes a process for the initial design and evaluation of novel broadband liner concepts for complex engine configurations.

  11. "The florals": Female fans over 50 in the Sherlock fandom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Nybro Petersen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article uses e-mail interviews with nine female fans to explore what it means to be a fan over the age of 50 of the popular BBC drama Sherlock (2010–. The research aims to better understand the role of fandom in later life, in particular how the participants in this study negotiate their perceptions of their subjective age in relation to being a fan in this part of their life course. This study combines theory on cultural gerontology with fan studies and mediatization theory in order to understand the dynamics and processes that guide fans' negotiations of subjective age as well as the role of fan practices and the affordances of social media in these processes. I argue that fandom, as a manifestation of a mediatized culture, augments the relevance of subjective age and informs the way in which participants in middle and later life perceive and negotiate their own subjective age specifically in relation to fandom as youth culture, women's passion, and creativity.

  12. PLSS 2.5 Fan Design and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, David; Carra, Michael; Quinn, Gregory; Chullen, Cinda

    2015-01-01

    NASA is building a high fidelity prototype of an advanced portable life support system (PLSS) as part of the Advanced Exploration Systems Program. This new PLSS, designated as PLSS 2.5, will advance component technologies and systems knowledge in order to inform a future flight program. The oxygen ventilation loop of its predecessor, PLSS 2.0, is driven by a centrifugal fan developed using specifications from over five years ago. PLSS technology and system parameters have matured to the point where the existing fan will not perform adequately for the new prototype. In addition, areas of potential improvement have been identified with the existing fan that could be addressed in a new design. As a result, a new fan was designed and tested for the PLSS 2.5. The PLSS 2.5 fan is a derivative of the one used in PLSS 2.0. It uses the same basic non-metallic can around the motor, but with a larger volute and impeller to meet the higher pressure drop requirements of the PLSS 2.5 loop. This allows it to operate at rotational speeds that are matched to rolling element bearings, and which create reasonably low impeller tip speeds. Development of the fan also considered a shrouded impeller design that allows larger clearances for greater oxygen safety and better performance.

  13. Fan-shaped antennas: Realization of wideband characteristics and generation of stop bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, H.; Morishita, K.; Iitsuka, Y.; Mimaki, H.; Yoshida, T.; Yamauchi, J.

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents four fan-shaped antennas: U.S.-FAN, CROSS-FAN, CROSS-FAN-W, and CROSS-FAN-S. Each of these antennas stands upright above a ground plane, and has edges expressed by an exponential function and a circle function. The four antennas are investigated using frequencies from 1.5 GHz to 11 GHz. The CROSS-FAN is found to have a lower VSWR over a wide frequency band compared to the U.S.-FAN. The CROSS-FAN-W and CROSS-FAN-S are modified versions of the CROSS-FAN, each designed to have a stop band (a high VSWR frequency range) for interference cancellation. The stop band for the CROSS-FAN-W is controlled by a wire (total length 4Lwire) that connects the fan-shaped elements. The center frequency of the stop band fstop is close to the frequency corresponding to a wire segment length Lwire of half the wavelength. It is also found that the stop band in the CROSS-FAN-S can be controlled by four slots, one cut into each of the fan-shaped elements. The center frequency of the stop band fstop is close to the frequency corresponding to a slot length Lslot of one-quarter of the wavelength. Experimental work is performed to confirm the theoretical results, using the CROSS-FAN-S.

  14. Review: Bettina Fritzsche (2003. Pop-Fans. Studie einer Mädchenkultur [Pop-Fans: Study of a Girl Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lothar Mikos

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the "girl culture" created by fans of boy groups and girl groups. The central case study is used to examine fan practices as cultural practices using reconstructive and documentary methodologies, and to assess the normative demands placed on young people. The study centers on the question of gender socialization by mediated symbolic resources, and shows that fan culture is a self-determined space in which girls can negotiate normative demands and engage with questions of gender, sexuality and the body, testing conformity and obstinacy. Fan activities are presented as part of the self-empowerment of girls. The study makes an important contribution to the research of a specific girl culture. It shows in a brilliant way how media representations are used as symbolic material in everyday cultural practices. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0603187

  15. A walker used as a lifting device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glimskär, Bo; Hjalmarson, Jenny; Lundberg, Stefan; Larsson, Tore

    2014-05-01

    To develop assistive technology that would help an older person to arise from a kneeling position to a standing one. Developing a prototype, based on an inclusive design and then testing the prototype to verify the approach. The prototype was subsequently tested by a panel of 20 elderly users. These tests were observed and filmed. Participants' experiences of being lifted with the elevation seat were registered with the VIDAR ergonomic assessment system. None of the 20 participants used a walker at that time. In response to a question of whether, assuming they might have to use a walker in the future, they thought that a walker with an elevating seat would be helpful, 18 said that it would. Two of the participants did not believe that they would ever have to use a walker. A simple assistive technology such as a walker equipped with an elevating seat would in many of these cases simplify matters and reduce the distress of people who fall often. In addition, such a device can allow people who fall often to live in their homes longer. For caregivers dealing frequently with people who fall, this assistive device can contribute to decreasing occupational injuries. Development of a lifting device that can help people raise themselves up entirely on their own, or with minimal assistance, would be a revolutionary step for the individual. Lifting devices in use today requires much more extensive assistance from home helpers or others and due to the risk of injuries it is a great value for the helpers that easy to use devices develops. A walker equipped with an elevating seat could even provide a potential for people to stay in their homes longer.

  16. Genes2FANs: connecting genes through functional association networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Protein-protein, cell signaling, metabolic, and transcriptional interaction networks are useful for identifying connections between lists of experimentally identified genes/proteins. However, besides physical or co-expression interactions there are many ways in which pairs of genes, or their protein products, can be associated. By systematically incorporating knowledge on shared properties of genes from diverse sources to build functional association networks (FANs), researchers may be able to identify additional functional interactions between groups of genes that are not readily apparent. Results Genes2FANs is a web based tool and a database that utilizes 14 carefully constructed FANs and a large-scale protein-protein interaction (PPI) network to build subnetworks that connect lists of human and mouse genes. The FANs are created from mammalian gene set libraries where mouse genes are converted to their human orthologs. The tool takes as input a list of human or mouse Entrez gene symbols to produce a subnetwork and a ranked list of intermediate genes that are used to connect the query input list. In addition, users can enter any PubMed search term and then the system automatically converts the returned results to gene lists using GeneRIF. This gene list is then used as input to generate a subnetwork from the user’s PubMed query. As a case study, we applied Genes2FANs to connect disease genes from 90 well-studied disorders. We find an inverse correlation between the counts of links connecting disease genes through PPI and links connecting diseases genes through FANs, separating diseases into two categories. Conclusions Genes2FANs is a useful tool for interpreting the relationships between gene/protein lists in the context of their various functions and networks. Combining functional association interactions with physical PPIs can be useful for revealing new biology and help form hypotheses for further experimentation. Our finding that disease genes in

  17. An elevator for lifting and turning pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnikov, S.P.; Borchenkov, G.I.; Komarov, V.N.; Lebedev, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    An elevator is proposed for lifting and turning pipes, which includes a body and a bushing hinged to it with projections and a shank with a threaded adapter and cams which interact with the projections of the bushing. In order to increase the operational safety of the device through ensuring the capability of eliminating drops in the torque from the shank to the body when raising and extracting drill pipes, the body is equipped with eccentric cams rigidly connected to it, while the shank is equipped with a ring movable connected with it. The eccentric cams are installed between the bushing and the body with the capability of interacting with the shank ring.

  18. Safety mechanism of a lifting machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaive, D.; Chopinet, E.

    1985-01-01

    The lifting machine has at least one winch supporting a chain which passes around a chain pulley in a roller block attached to the load. At least one locking mechanism prevents the rotation of the pulley within the block. The locking mechanism can moves between an out-of-operation position and a locking position. A control system includes load sensors associated with the winch sensing the weight of the load acting through the chain. If one part of the chain should break, the load sensors detect this, and the locking mechanism is activated. The invention applies, more particularly, to the handling winches in a fast neutron nuclear power plant [fr

  19. Containment vessel bottom head transport and lifting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Donghong; Tian Shiyong; Hu Dequan; Xiao Hongtao

    2013-01-01

    The challengeable transport and lifting techniques and high safety assurance measures are needed for the onsite construction of the AP1000 containment vessel bottom head (CVBH), which is a large component with heavy weight, big size, high center of gravity, and easy to deformation. During transport, the infra structural road foundation is heavily loaded with big turning radius, and the requirement for synchronization of transport vehicles is strict. During lifting, the crane lifting capacities are high, requirement for the lifting and rigging tools is strict, nuclear island being put into place is difficult, and the crane operating foundation is heavily loaded. The transport and lifting techniques and safety assurance measures for CVBH are elaborated in detail, so as to provide a reference for the follow-up transport and lifting of large components of nuclear island. (authors)

  20. Back injury prevention: a lift team success story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefti, Kelly S; Farnham, Richard J; Docken, Lisa; Bentaas, Ruth; Bossman, Sharon; Schaefer, Jill

    2003-06-01

    Work related back injuries among hospital personnel account for high volume, high cost workers' compensation claims. These injuries can be life altering experiences, affecting both the personal and professional lives of injured workers. Lifting must be viewed as a skill involving specialized training and mandated use of mechanical equipment, rather than as a random task performed by numerous health care providers. The use of a lift team specially trained in body mechanics, lifting techniques, and the use of mandated mechanical equipment can significantly affect injury data, financial outcomes, and employee satisfaction. The benefits of a lift team extend beyond the effect on injury and financial outcomes--they can be used for recruitment and retention strategies, and team members serve as mentors to others by demonstrating safe lifting techniques. Ultimately, a lift team helps protect a valuable resource--the health care worker.

  1. Linnainstallatsioonide festival "Lift 11" = Urban installations festival Lift 11 / Margit Aule, Margit Argus ; intervjueerinud Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aule, Margit, 1981-

    2012-01-01

    Linnainstallatsioonide festivalist "Lift 11", installatsioonidest. Festivali kuraatorid Margit Argus ja Margit Aule ning kaaskuraatorid Maarin Ektermann ja Ingrid Ruudi pälvisid EK arhitektuuri sihtkapitali 2011. a. arhitektuurialase tegevuse preemia avaliku linnaruumi mitmekesisust märkama, kasutama ning mõtestama ärgitanud ürituse korraldamise eest

  2. Liebherr lifts off with east coast projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2004-11-01

    Liebherr is one of the world's leading manufacturers of construction machinery, and is the supplier of technically-innovative user-oriented products and services not only to the oil industry but also to other industries using heavy lifting equipment. The Newfoundland and Labrador offshore oil and gas sector has been a special springboard of success for the company; they have seven offshore cranes working on three installations, and as the White Rose floating production vessel sails to the Grand Banks in 2005, the number will increase to nine. The other cranes are on the Hibernia platform, the Terra Nova FPSO, and the Henry Goodrich drilling rig. Two of the cranes on the Terra Nova FPSO have a lift capacity of 40 tons, while a third crane mounted at the rear of the vessel has a 20 ton capacity. They are capable of performing loading operations in seas as high as three metres. These cranes are powerful, compact and maneuverable, and feature ultra-modern mobile crane technology that satisfies combined road and off-road operating requirements on construction sites of all kinds. 2 photos.

  3. Deep-water subsea lifting operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nestegaard, Arne; Boee, Tormod

    2010-07-01

    Significant costs are related to marine operations in the installation phase of deep water subsea field developments. In order to establish safe operational criteria and procedures for the installation, detailed planning is necessary, including numerical modelling and analysis of the environmental conditions and hydrodynamic loads on the installed object as well as the installation equipment. This paper presents recommendations for modelling and analysis of deep water subsea lifting operations developed for the new DNV RP-H103 [1]. During installation of subsea structures, the highest dynamic forces are most often encountered in the splash zone. Recommendations for estimation of maximum forces will be presented. For small structures and tools, installation through the moon pool of a small installation vessel is often preferred. Calculation methods for loading on structures installed through a moon pool will be presented. During intervention or installation in deep water a significant amplification of amplitude and forces can be experienced when the frequency range of vertical crane tip motion coincides with the natural vertical oscillation of the lift wire and load. Vertical resonance may reduce the operability of the operation. Simplified calculation methods for such operations are presented. (Author)

  4. AMS gets lift on space shuttle Discovery

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    AMS-02, the CERN-recognized experiment that will seek dark matter, missing matter and antimatter in Space aboard the International Space Station (ISS), has recently got the green light to be part of the STS-134 NASA mission in 2010. Installation of AMS detectors in the Prévessin experiment hall.In a recent press release, NASA announced that the last or last-but-one mission of the Space Shuttle programme would be the one that will deliver AMS, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, to the International Space Station. The Space Shuttle Discovery is due to lift off in July 2010 from Kennedy Space Center and its mission will include the installation of AMS to the exterior of the space station, using both the shuttle and station arms. "It wasn’t easy to get a lift on the Space Shuttle from the Bush administration," says professor Samuel Ting, spokesperson of the experiment, "since during his administration all the funds for space research w...

  5. Effects of a Belt on Intra-Abdominal Pressure during Weight Lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    potentially injurious b compressive forces on spinal discs during lifting. To investigate the effects of a standard lifting belt on lAP and lifting mechanics... injurious compressive forces on spinal discs during lifting. To investigate the effects of a standard lifting belt on IAP and lifting ! mechanics... weightlifting (7,9). Both olympic and power lifters have used lifting belts for many years, yet virtually no research has been reported which examines

  6. ALARA review for the deactivation of 105-N Lift Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nellesen, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    This ALARA review provides a description of the engineering and administrative controls used to manage personnel exposure and to control contamination levels and airborne radioactivity concentrations, while removing water, sludge, stabilizing surfaces, and all other associated work involved in the deactivation of the 105-N Lift Station. The lift station was used as a sump and received contaminated water from the 105-N Fuel Storage Basin weirs and contaminated drains in the 105-N Building. During operation water from the lift station was pumped to the 1310-N and 1325-N cribs. Deactivation of the lift station is a critical step in completing the deactivation of N-Area

  7. Sikkerhedsbestemmelser for beskæringsarbejde fra lift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Ole Sejr; Theilby, Frans

    2010-01-01

    Brug af lift til beskæring og fældning af træer er blevet udbredt i den grønne sektor. Som bruger er det vigtigt at kende den lift, man har valgt, og at arbejdet med motorsav foregår efter Arbejdstilsynets regler og anbefalinger.......Brug af lift til beskæring og fældning af træer er blevet udbredt i den grønne sektor. Som bruger er det vigtigt at kende den lift, man har valgt, og at arbejdet med motorsav foregår efter Arbejdstilsynets regler og anbefalinger....

  8. Fan-structure wave as a source of earthquake instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Boris

    2015-04-01

    Today frictional shear resistance along pre-existing faults is considered to be the lower limit on rock shear strength at confined compression corresponding to the seismogenic layer. This determines the lithospheric strength and the primary earthquake mechanism associated with frictional stick-slip instability on pre-existing faults. This paper introduces a recently identified shear rupture mechanism providing a paradoxical feature of hard rocks - the possibility of shear rupture propagation through the highly confined intact rock mass at shear stress levels significantly less than frictional strength. In the new mechanism the rock failure, associated with consecutive creation of small slabs (known as 'domino-blocks') from the intact rock in the rupture tip, is driven by a fan-shaped domino structure representing the rupture head. The fan-head combines such unique features as: extremely low shear resistance (below the frictional strength), self-sustaining stress intensification in the rupture tip (providing easy formation of new domino-blocks), and self-unbalancing conditions in the fan-head (making the failure process inevitably spontaneous and violent). An important feature of the fan-mechanism is the fact that for the initial formation of the fan-structure an enhanced local shear stress is required, however, after completion of the fan-structure it can propagate as a dynamic wave through intact rock mass at shear stresses below the frictional strength. Paradoxically low shear strength of pristine rocks provided by the fan-mechanism determines the lower limit of the lithospheric strength and favours the generation of new faults in pristine rocks in preference to frictional stick-slip instability along pre-existing faults. The new approach reveals an alternative role of pre-existing faults in earthquake activity: they represent local stress concentrates in pristine rock adjoining the fault where special conditions for the fan-mechanism nucleation are created

  9. Using verbal instructions to influence lifting mechanics - Does the directive "lift with your legs, not your back" attenuate spinal flexion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Tyson A C; Stankovic, Tatjana; Carnegie, Danielle R; Micay, Rachel; Frost, David M

    2018-02-01

    "Use your legs" is commonly perceived as sound advice to prevent lifting-related low-back pain and injuries, but there is limited evidence that this directive attenuates the concomitant biomechanical risk factors. Body segment kinematic data were collected from 12 men and 12 women who performed a laboratory lifting/lowering task after being provided with different verbal instructions. The main finding was that instructing participants to lift "without rounding your lower back" had a greater effect on the amount of spine flexion they exhibited when lifting/lowering than instructing them to lift "with your legs instead of your back" and "bend your knees and hips". It was concluded that if using verbal instructions to discourage spine flexion when lifting, the instructions should be spine- rather than leg-focused. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Aeromechanics Analysis of a Boundary Layer Ingesting Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Reddy, T. S. R.; Herrick, Gregory P.; Shabbir, Aamir; Florea, Razvan V.

    2013-01-01

    Boundary layer ingesting propulsion systems have the potential to significantly reduce fuel burn but these systems must overcome the challe nges related to aeromechanics-fan flutter stability and forced response dynamic stresses. High-fidelity computational analysis of the fan a eromechanics is integral to the ongoing effort to design a boundary layer ingesting inlet and fan for fabrication and wind-tunnel test. A t hree-dimensional, time-accurate, Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes computational fluid dynamics code is used to study aerothermodynamic and a eromechanical behavior of the fan in response to both clean and distorted inflows. The computational aeromechanics analyses performed in th is study show an intermediate design iteration of the fan to be flutter-free at the design conditions analyzed with both clean and distorte d in-flows. Dynamic stresses from forced response have been calculated for the design rotational speed. Additional work is ongoing to expan d the analyses to off-design conditions, and for on-resonance conditions.

  11. An intelligent FFR with a self-adjustable ventilation fan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Song; Li, Hui; Shen, Shengnan; Li, Siyu; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaotie; Yang, James

    2017-11-01

    This article presents an intelligent Filtering Facepiece Respirator (FFR) with a self-adjustable ventilation fan for improved comfort. The ventilation fan with an intelligent control aims to reduce temperature, relative humidity, and CO 2 concentrations inside the facepiece. Compared with a previous version of the FFR, the advantage of this new FFR is the intelligent control of the fan's rotation speed based on the change in temperature and relative humidity in the FFR dead space. The design of the control system utilizes an 8-bit, ultra-low power STC15W404AS microcontroller (HongJin technology, Shenzhen, China), and adopts a high-precision AM2320 device (AoSong electronic, Guangzhou, China) as temperature and relative humidity sensor so that control of temperature and relative humidity is realized in real time within the FFR dead space. The ventilation fan is intelligently driven and runs on a rechargeable lithium battery with a power-save mode that provides a correspondingly longer operational time. Meanwhile, the design is simplistic. Two experiments were performed to determine the best location to place the fan.

  12. Fan array wind tunnel: a multifunctional, complex environmental flow manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Christopher; Veismann, Marcel; Gharib, Morteza

    2017-11-01

    The recent emergence of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has reshaped the aerospace testing environment. Traditional closed-loop wind tunnels are not particularly suited nor easily retrofit to take advantage of these coordinated, controls-based rotorcraft. As such, a highly configurable, novel wind tunnel aimed at addressing the unmet technical challenges associated with single or formation flight performance of autonomous drone systems is presented. The open-loop fan array wind tunnel features 1296 individually controllable DC fans arranged in a 2.88m x 2.88m array. The fan array can operate with and without a tunnel enclosure and is able to rotate between horizontal and vertical testing configurations. In addition to standard variable speed uniform flow, the fan array can generate both unsteady and shear flows. Through the aid of smaller side fan array units, vortex flows are also possible. Conceptual design, fabrication, and validation of the tunnel performance will be presented, including theoretical and computational predictions of flow speed and turbulence intensity. Validation of these parameters is accomplished through standard pitot-static and hot-wire techniques. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) of various complex flows will also be shown. This material is based upon work supported by the Center for Autonomous Systems and Technologies (CAST) at the Graduate Aerospace Laboratories of the California Institute of Technology (GALCIT).

  13. Effect of inlet straighteners on centrifugal fan performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayomi, N.N.; Abdel Hafiz, A. [Faculty of Engineering, Mataria, Helwan University, 11718 Masaken, El-Helmia, Cairo (Egypt); Osman, A.M. [Faculty of Engineering, Shoubra, Zagazig University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2006-11-15

    The use of straighteners in the inlet duct of centrifugal fans is suggested for eliminating any inlet distortion. An experimental investigation was performed to study the effect of inlet straighteners on the performance characteristics of centrifugal fans. Two types of straighteners were used, circular tubes and zigzag cross section, with different lengths. Circular tubes with different diameters have been investigated. The study was conducted on three types of fans, namely radial, backward with exit blade angles 60{sup o} and 75{sup o} and forward with 105{sup o} and 120{sup o}. The results confirm that the inlet straighteners exhibit different effects on the fan performance for the different blade angles. Accordingly, the results indicate the selection of long circular tube straighteners with large diameter for radial blades, long zigzag type for backward 60{sup o} blade angle and short zigzag type for backward 75{sup o} blade angle. Generally, good improvements in efficiency are observed for radial and backward blades on account of a slight drop in static head. In addition, an increase in the flow margin up to 12% and a decrease in the noise level from 3 to 5dB are indicated compared to the free inlet condition. On the contrary, unfavorable influences are exerted on the forward fan performance. (author)

  14. Impeller Design of a Centrifugal Fan with Blade Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tai Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A method is presented for redesigning a centrifugal impeller and its inlet duct. The double-discharge volute casing is a structural constraint and is maintained for its shape. The redesign effort was geared towards meeting the design volute exit pressure while reducing the power required to operate the fan. Given the high performance of the baseline impeller, the redesign adopted a high-fidelity CFD-based computational approach capable of accounting for all aerodynamic losses. The present effort utilized a numerical optimization with experiential steering techniques to redesign the fan blades, inlet duct, and shroud of the impeller. The resulting flow path modifications not only met the pressure requirement, but also reduced the fan power by 8.8% over the baseline. A refined CFD assessment of the impeller/volute coupling and the gap between the stationary duct and the rotating shroud revealed a reduction in efficiency due to the volute and the gap. The calculations verified that the new impeller matches better with the original volute. Model-fan measured data was used to validate CFD predictions and impeller design goals. The CFD results further demonstrate a Reynolds-number effect between the model- and full-scale fans.

  15. "I'm Buffy, and you're history": Putting fan studies into history [editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Reagin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay kicks off the special historical issue of Transformative Works and Cultures by offering an overview of the ways in which fan communities have been studied by academic historians, and how fan studies has written the history of fan communities. The essay discusses historical work done by amateur fan historians throughout the 20th century; what academic historians can offer fan communities; why academic historians could benefit from studying fandoms as part of the history of popular culture; and what fan studies as a discipline might gain from a broader historical analysis of fandoms.

  16. Pig lift applications in offshore dry completion wells; Aplicacao do pig lift em pocos offshore de completacao seca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Paulo C.R.; Faria, Rogerio Costa; Almeida, Alcino Resende [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    Production increases of 10% to 130% have been obtained with pig lift installations on offshore oil wells in the Cacao Field, southeast Brazil. At the present time 3 wells out of 5 are being produced with pig lift. These deep, highly deviated wells with little space on the platform to the required surface equipment presented a challenge to pig lift technology. However, these difficulties were overcame and the benefits obtained helped to maintain the economical attractiveness of the platform. (author)

  17. Silent cooling system with a double suction type centrifugal fan with backward blades; Ryosuikomi turbo fan wo mochiita teisoon engine reikyaku system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funabashi, S. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nakamura, K. [Hitachi Construction Machinery Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-04-25

    We have developed a new cooling system for the engine of construction machinery. This system produces two different air flow routes by a double suction type centrifugal fan with backward blades. We first measured aerodynamic performance and sound level of the double suction type fan, which consists of two single suction type fans of different design, and compared these measurements to those of single suction type fans. Next, we installed the fan in a scale model of the new cooling system. The performance of this double suction type fan was different to that of a single suction type. It is considered that the effect of interaction of the exit flows from the two different fans caused this performance change. The test model installed in an engine compartment showed that this cooling system reduced the area of air inlets and outlets around the engine and did not cause re-circulation of cooling air. (author)

  18. EC-fans and fan control systems; EC-ventilatoren en ventilatorregelsystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havenaar, D.

    2011-07-15

    Saving of energy can be achieved by the design and application of energy efficient components such as EC-fans (EC stands for Electronically Commutated technology), which are used in different types of cooling-refrigeration and air conditioning systems. In this article attention is paid to two products of Ziehl-Abigg: the Icontrol and the Fcontrol frequency converters. [Dutch] Het beperken van het energiegebruik en het verminderen van de uitstoot van het broeikasgas CO2 is voor de sector een belangrijke opgave. Door het ontwerpen en toepassen van energie-efficiente componenten zoals EC-ventilatoren (EC staat voor Electronically Commutated technologie) in allerlei koel-, vries- en luchtbehandelingsinstallaties kan veel bespaard worden in het energiegebruik. In dit artikel wordt aandacht besteed aan 2 producten van Ziehl-Abigg: de Icontrol en de Fcontrol frequentie omvormers.

  19. AFC-Enabled Simplified High-Lift System Integration Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwich, Peter M.; Dickey, Eric D.; Sclafani, Anthony J.; Camacho, Peter; Gonzales, Antonio B.; Lawson, Edward L.; Mairs, Ron Y.; Shmilovich, Arvin

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this trade study report is to explore the potential of using Active Flow Control (AFC) for achieving lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift systems for transonic commercial transport aircraft. This assessment was conducted in four steps. First, based on the Common Research Model (CRM) outer mold line (OML) definition, two high-lift concepts were developed. One concept, representative of current production-type commercial transonic transports, features leading edge slats and slotted trailing edge flaps with Fowler motion. The other CRM-based design relies on drooped leading edges and simply hinged trailing edge flaps for high-lift generation. The relative high-lift performance of these two high-lift CRM variants is established using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions to the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations for steady flow. These CFD assessments identify the high-lift performance that needs to be recovered through AFC to have the CRM variant with the lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift system match the performance of the conventional high-lift system. Conceptual design integration studies for the AFC-enhanced high-lift systems were conducted with a NASA Environmentally Responsible Aircraft (ERA) reference configuration, the so-called ERA-0003 concept. These design trades identify AFC performance targets that need to be met to produce economically feasible ERA-0003-like concepts with lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift designs that match the performance of conventional high-lift systems. Finally, technical challenges are identified associated with the application of AFC-enabled highlift systems to modern transonic commercial transports for future technology maturation efforts.

  20. Sensorimotor memory biases weight perception during object lifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vonne evan Polanen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available When lifting an object, the brain uses visual cues and an internal object representation to predict its weight and scale fingertip forces accordingly. Once available, tactile information is rapidly integrated to update the weight prediction and refine the internal object representation. If visual cues cannot be used to predict weight, force planning relies on implicit knowledge acquired from recent lifting experience, termed sensorimotor memory. Here, we investigated whether perception of weight is similarly biased according to previous lifting experience and how this is related to force scaling. Participants grasped and lifted series of light or heavy objects in a semi-randomized order and estimated their weights. As expected, we found that forces were scaled based on previous lifts (sensorimotor memory and these effects increased depending on the length of recent lifting experience. Importantly, perceptual weight estimates were also influenced by the preceding lift, resulting in lower estimations after a heavy lift compared to a light one. In addition, the weight estimations were negatively correlated with the magnitude of planned force parameters. This perceptual bias was only found if the current lift was light, but not heavy since the magnitude of sensorimotor memory effects had, according to Weber’s law, relatively less impact on heavy compared to light objects. A control experiment tested the importance of active lifting in mediating these perceptual changes and showed that when weights are passively applied on the hand, no effect of previous sensory experience is found on perception. These results highlight how fast learning of novel object lifting dynamics can shape weight perception and demonstrate a tight link between action planning and perception control. If predictive force scaling and actual object weight do not match, the online motor corrections, rapidly implemented to downscale forces, will also downscale weight estimation in

  1. Using Mobile Marketing to Engage NASCAR Fans and Increase Sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARK DODDS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile marketing displays engage the consumer. This sponsorship activation tactic is highly visible at NASCAR races. Some common elements include show cars, interactive race simulators, video games and race suit/equipment displays. The authors of this study argue that by using mobile marketing effectively as a sponsorship activation tactic, the race fans derive more enjoyment from the race experience. This increased enjoyment links to higher product sales for the sponsor. The implications of this study show that sponsors in other sports should use mobile marketing to increase the fan satisfaction of the game experience in order to increase their product sales. Additionally, event mangers should support mobile marketing as a sponsorship activation tactic with the intention of increasing fan enjoyment and improving attendance.

  2. Effect of Number of Blades on Performance of Ceiling Fans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeeb Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of number of blades on ceiling fan performance is discussed. This approach helps to satisfy tradeoff between high air flow (performance and power consumption (energy efficiency. Specifically, variation from two to six blades is considered with nonlinear forward sweep profile. Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS technique is used to model the flow field induced by the ceiling fan inside a generic room. The performance is gauged through response parameters namely volumetric flow rate, mass flow rate, torque and energy efficiency. The results indicate that mass and volumetric flow rates are maximized for six blade configuration and energy efficiency is maximized for two blade configuration. The study indicates the importance of tradeoff between high air flow through ceiling fan and associated energy efficiency.

  3. Historicizing video game series through fan art discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Švelch

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we argue that fannish histories should not be dismissed as mere nostalgia over past experiences of one's own media fandom. Instead they should be understood as complex narratives which combine various historical layers (personal, productional, fictional and influence the future reception of and anticipation for sequels. They also shed light on the personal histories of fans, which are often juxtaposed with extratextual and fictional histories of a video game series. The subjective nature of these historical discourses is not to be seen as a constraint but as a feature of everyday history which points to the prominence of historicizing in fan cultures of video game series. These topics are examined in the selected multimodal material from the site DeviantArt consisting of fan art pieces, authorial captions, and respective comments inspired by two single-player video game series: Tomb Raider and Mass Effect.

  4. Design Optimization of a Centrifugal Fan with Splitter Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Man-Woong; Kim, Jin-Hyuk; Kim, Kwang-Yong

    2015-05-01

    Multi-objective optimization of a centrifugal fan with additionally installed splitter blades was performed to simultaneously maximize the efficiency and pressure rise using three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and hybrid multi-objective evolutionary algorithm. Two design variables defining the location of splitter, and the height ratio between inlet and outlet of impeller were selected for the optimization. In addition, the aerodynamic characteristics of the centrifugal fan were investigated with the variation of design variables in the design space. Latin hypercube sampling was used to select the training points, and response surface approximation models were constructed as surrogate models of the objective functions. With the optimization, both the efficiency and pressure rise of the centrifugal fan with splitter blades were improved considerably compared to the reference model.

  5. Fan filmmaking and copyright in a global world: Warhammer 40,000 fan films and the case of Damnatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Walliss

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed a proliferation, both online and off-line, of films produced by amateurs inspired by mainstream films, TV shows, and novels. As with much other fan production, fan films exist in, at best, a legally gray area since they are produced by amateurs, rather than by the media companies that own the copyrights to the films and novels that provide both their inspiration and settings. I examine the phenomenon of fan filmmaking, focusing on films produced by fans of the Warhammer 40,000 (W40K tabletop battle game. In particular, I examine the case of Damnatus: The Enemy Within (Damnatus: Feind Im Innern, 2005, a German-made fan film set in the W40K universe, which was banned from release by the game's rights holder, the UK company Games Workshop, in 2007. Damnatus offers an interesting case study in both the ongoing struggle between rights holders and textual poachers and the tensions that can exist between different legal understandings of copyright in an increasingly globalized world.

  6. Fatigue-related changes in the coordination of lifting and their effect of low back load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dieën, Jaap H.; Toussaint, Huub M.; Maurice, Cora; Mientjes, Martine

    1996-01-01

    In this study, changes in movement coordination caused by fatigue that developed during repetitive lifting were examined. Five men performed 6 times a 5-min bout of lifting an 8-kg barbell at 15 lifts/min, using two lifting techniques; one minimized trunk rotation (squat lift), and the other

  7. Fitness Tracker for Weight Lifting Style Workouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wihl, B. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This document proposes an early, high level design for a fitness tracking system which can automatically log weight lifting style workouts. The system will provide an easy to use interface both physically through the use of several wireless wristband style motion trackers worn on the limbs, and graphically through a smartphone application. Exercise classification will be accomplished by calibration of the user’s specific motions. The system will accurately track a user’s workout, miscounting no more than one repetition in every 20, have sufficient battery life to last several hours, work with existing smartphones and have a cost similar to those of current fitness tracking devices. This document presents the mission background, current state-of-theart, stakeholders and their expectations, the proposed system’s context and concepts, implementation concepts, system requirements, first sublevel function decomposition, possible risks for the system, and a reflection on the design process.

  8. Backprojection filtering for variable orbit fan-beam tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, G.T.; Zeng, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    Backprojection filtering algorithms are presented for three variable Orbit fan-beam geometries. Expressions for the fan beam projection and backprojection operators are given for a flat detector fan-beam geometry with fixed focal length, with variable focal length, and with fixed focal length and off-center focusing. Backprojection operators are derived for each geometry using transformation of coordinates to transform from a parallel geometry backprojector to a fan-beam backprojector for the appropriate geometry. The backprojection operator includes a factor which is a function of the coordinates of the projection ray and the coordinates of the pixel in the backprojected image. The backprojection filtering algorithm first backprojects the variable orbit fan-beam projection data using the appropriately derived backprojector to obtain a 1/r blurring of the original image then takes the two-dimensional (2D) Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the backprojected image, then multiples the transformed image by the 2D ramp filter function, and finally takes the inverse 2D FFT to obtain the reconstructed image. Computer simulations verify that backprojectors with appropriate weighting give artifact free reconstructions of simulated line integral projections. Also, it is shown that it is not necessary to assume a projection model of line integrals, but the projector and backprojector can be defined to model the physics of the imaging detection process. A backprojector for variable orbit fan-beam tomography with fixed focal length is derived which includes an additional factor which is a function of the flux density along the flat detector. It is shown that the impulse response for the composite of the projection and backprojection operations is equal to 1/r

  9. Automatic Lamp and Fan Control Based on Microcontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyaningrum, V. T.; Pramudita, Y. D.

    2018-01-01

    In general, automation can be described as a process following pre-determined sequential steps with a little or without any human exertion. Automation is provided with the use of various sensors suitable to observe the production processes, actuators and different techniques and devices. In this research, the automation system developed is an automatic lamp and an automatic fan on the smart home. Both of these systems will be processed using an Arduino Mega 2560 microcontroller. A microcontroller is used to obtain values of physical conditions through sensors connected to it. In the automatic lamp system required sensors to detect the light of the LDR (Light Dependent Resistor) sensor. While the automatic fan system required sensors to detect the temperature of the DHT11 sensor. In tests that have been done lamps and fans can work properly. The lamp can turn on automatically when the light begins to darken, and the lamp can also turn off automatically when the light begins to bright again. In addition, it can concluded also that the readings of LDR sensors are placed outside the room is different from the readings of LDR sensors placed in the room. This is because the light intensity received by the existing LDR sensor in the room is blocked by the wall of the house or by other objects. Then for the fan, it can also turn on automatically when the temperature is greater than 25°C, and the fan speed can also be adjusted. The fan may also turn off automatically when the temperature is less than equal to 25°C.

  10. "Cultural acupuncture": Fan activism and the Harry Potter Alliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Jenkins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fan activists have struggled to defend series from cancellation, defend themselves from cease and desist orders, promote alternative representations, and raise money for charity. Building on this background, this article examines how the Harry Potter Alliance encourages young people to speak out as fans on a broad range of human rights and social justice issues through what the group's leader, Andrew Slack, calls "cultural acupuncture." The group's practice of mapping the fictional content world onto real-world concerns helps empower young people to become civicly engaged and politically active.

  11. Performance evaluation methods and instrumentation for mine ventilation fans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Man; WANG Xue-rong

    2009-01-01

    Ventilation fans are one of the most important pieces of equipment in coal mines. Their performance plays an important role in the safety of staff and production. Given the actual requirements of coal mine production, we instituted a research project on the measurement methods of key performance parameters such as wind pressure, amount of ventilation and power. At the end a virtual instrument for mine ventilation fans performance evaluation was developed using a USB interface. The practical perform-ance and analytical results of our experiments show that it is feasible, reliable and effective to use the proposed instrumentation for mine ventilation performance evaluation.

  12. Comparison of Methods of Teaching Children Proper Lifting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was designed to determine the effects of three teaching methods on children\\'s ability to demonstrate and recall their mastery of proper lifting techniques. Method: Ninety-three primary five and six public school children who had no knowledge of proper lifting technique were assigned into three equal ...

  13. UF{sub 6} cylinder lifting equipment enhancements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hortel, J.M. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    This paper presents numerous enhancements that have been made to the Portsmouth lifting equipment to ensure the safe handling of cylinders containing liquid uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). The basic approach has been to provide redundancy to all components of the lift path so that any one component failure would not cause the load to drop or cause any undesirable movement.

  14. Effect of ship motion on spinal loading during manual lifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, G.S.; Kingma, I.; Delleman, N.; Dieën, J. van

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of ship motion on peak spinal loading during lifting. All measurements were done on a ship at sea. In 1-min trials, which were repeated over a wide range of sailing conditions, subjects lifted an 18 kg box five times. Ship motion, whole body kinematics, ground

  15. Towards a three-component model of fan loyalty: a case study of Chinese youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-xiao; Liu, Li; Zhao, Xian; Zheng, Jian; Yang, Meng; Zhang, Ji-qi

    2015-01-01

    The term "fan loyalty" refers to the loyalty felt and expressed by a fan towards the object of his/her fanaticism in both everyday and academic discourses. However, much of the literature on fan loyalty has paid little attention to the topic from the perspective of youth pop culture. The present study explored the meaning of fan loyalty in the context of China. Data were collected by the method of in-depth interviews with 16 young Chinese people aged between 19 and 25 years who currently or once were pop fans. The results indicated that fan loyalty entails three components: involvement, satisfaction, and affiliation. These three components regulate the process of fan loyalty development, which can be divided into four stages: inception, upgrade, zenith, and decline. This model provides a conceptual explanation of why and how young Chinese fans are loyal to their favorite stars. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  16. Towards a three-component model of fan loyalty: a case study of Chinese youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-xiao Zhang

    Full Text Available The term "fan loyalty" refers to the loyalty felt and expressed by a fan towards the object of his/her fanaticism in both everyday and academic discourses. However, much of the literature on fan loyalty has paid little attention to the topic from the perspective of youth pop culture. The present study explored the meaning of fan loyalty in the context of China. Data were collected by the method of in-depth interviews with 16 young Chinese people aged between 19 and 25 years who currently or once were pop fans. The results indicated that fan loyalty entails three components: involvement, satisfaction, and affiliation. These three components regulate the process of fan loyalty development, which can be divided into four stages: inception, upgrade, zenith, and decline. This model provides a conceptual explanation of why and how young Chinese fans are loyal to their favorite stars. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  17. Maximum Acceptable Weight of Lift reflects peak lumbosacral extension moments in a Functional Capacity Evaluation test using free style, stoop, and squat lifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijer, P.P.F.M.; van Oostrom, S.H.; Duijzer, K.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    It is unclear whether the maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL), a common psychophysical method, reflects joint kinetics when different lifting techniques are employed. In a within-participants study (n = 12), participants performed three lifting techniques - free style, stoop and squat lifting

  18. Maximum acceptable weight of lift reflects peak lumbosacral extension moments in a functional capacity evaluation test using free style, stoop and squat lifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijer, P. P. F. M.; van Oostrom, S. H.; Duijzer, K.; van Dieën, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    It is unclear whether the maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL), a common psychophysical method, reflects joint kinetics when different lifting techniques are employed. In a within-participants study (n = 12), participants performed three lifting techniques - free style, stoop and squat lifting

  19. Erosion and deposition on a debris-flow fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, A. L.; Schuerch, P.; Rosser, N. J.; McArdell, B. W.

    2011-12-01

    The ability of a debris flow to entrain or deposit sediment controls the downstream evolution of flow volume, and ultimately dictates both the geomorphic impact of the flow and the potential hazard that it represents. Our understanding of the patterns of, and controls on, such flow volume changes remains extremely limited, however, partly due to a poor mechanistic grasp of the interactions between debris flows and their bed and banks. In addition, we lack a good understanding of the cumulative long-term effects of sequences of flows in a single catchment-fan system. Here we begin to address these issues by using repeated terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to characterize the detailed surface change associated with the passage of multiple debris flows on the Illgraben fan, Switzerland. We calculate surface elevation change along a 300 m study reach, and from this derive the downfan rate of flow volume change, or lag rate; for comparison, we also derive the spatially-averaged lag rate over the entire ~2 km length of the fan. Lag rates are broadly comparable over both length scales, indicating that flow behavior does not vary significantly across the fan for most flows, but importantly we find that flow volume at the fan head is a poor predictor of volume at the fan toe. The sign and magnitude of bed elevation change scale with local flow depth; at flow depths 2 m. On the Illgraben fan, this depth corresponds to a basal shear stress of 3-4 kPa. Because flow depth is in part a function of channel cross-sectional topography, which varies strongly both within and between flows, this result indicates that erosion and deposition are likely to be highly dynamic. The dependence of flow volume change on both the channel topography and the flow history may thus complicate efforts to predict debris-flow inundation areas by simple flow routing. We then apply a 2d numerical model of debris-flow fan evolution to explore the key controls on debris-flow routing and topographic

  20. Optimization of the Hockey Fans in Training (Hockey FIT) weight loss and healthy lifestyle program for male hockey fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunt, Wendy; Gill, Dawn P; Sibbald, Shannon L; Riggin, Brendan; Pulford, Roseanne W; Scott, Ryan; Danylchuk, Karen; Gray, Cindy M; Wyke, Sally; Bunn, Christopher; Petrella, Robert J

    2017-11-28

    The health outcomes of men continue to be poorer than women globally. Challenges in addressing this problem include difficulties engaging men in weight loss programs as they tend to view these programs as contrary to the masculine narrative of independence and self-reliance. Researchers have been turning towards sports fans to engage men in health promotion programs as sports fans are typically male, and tend to have poor health habits. Developed from the highly successful gender-sensitized Football Fans in Training program, Hockey Fans in Training (Hockey FIT) recruited 80 male hockey fans of the London Knights and Sarnia Sting who were overweight or obese into a weekly, 90-minute classroom education and group exercise program held over 12 weeks; a 40-week minimally-supported phase followed. A process evaluation of the Hockey FIT program was completed alongside a pragmatic randomized controlled trial and outcome evaluation in order to fully explore the acceptability of the Hockey FIT program from the perspectives of coaches delivering and participants engaged in the program. Data sources included attendance records, participant focus groups, coach interviews, assessment of fidelity (program observations and post-session coach reflections), and 12-month participant interviews. Coaches enjoyed delivering the program and found it simple to deliver. Men valued being among others of similar body shape and similar weight loss goals, and found the knowledge they gained through the program helped them to make and maintain health behaviour changes. Suggested improvements include having more hockey-related information and activities, greater flexibility with timing of program delivery, and greater promotion of technology support tools. We confirmed Hockey FIT was an acceptable "gender-sensitized" health promotion program for male hockey fans who were overweight or obese. Minor changes were required for optimization, which will be evaluated in a future definitive trial

  1. Precautions against axial fan stall in reactor building to Tianwan NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunlong; Pei Junmin

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces the mechanism and harm of rotating stall of axial fans, analyzes the necessity for prevention against axial fan stall in reactor building of Tianwan NPP, introduces the precautions, and then makes an assessment on anti-stall effect of flow separators. It can provide reference for model-selection or reconstruction of similar fans in power stations, and for operation and maintenance of axial fans. (authors)

  2. Performance Testing Of A Modified Centrifugal Fan With Serrated Blade Impeller

    OpenAIRE

    Zaimar; Mursalim; H. Abbas; Supratomo

    2017-01-01

    Changes of shape dimension and component part of impeller might change of characteristic fluid flow so that pressure static in the fan housing changed. Changing some geometric characteristics of the centrifugal fan has more efficiency taking with energy crises into consideration. Several factors that can affect fan performance namely design and type size rotation speed air condition or gas through a fan operating point on the nature of the relationship between a volume of air flow and pressur...

  3. Source of marine turbidites on the Andaman-Nicobar Islands: Nicobar Fan, Bengal Fan or paleo-Irrawaddy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, A.

    2017-12-01

    Marine turbidites from an axially fed submarine fan are intermittently exposed across the entire chain of the Andaman-Nicobar Islands. Known as the Andaman Flysch (AF) and loosely assigned to the Paleogene, it has been proposed that these rocks are sourced from the Himalaya and thus provide a unique window into early stages of orogenesis. Where the turbidites came from has been subject to debate; they are either Bengal Fan or forearc deposits cut off from the Bengal Fan and possibly sourced from the Irrawaddy delta. Following recent IODP drilling in the eastern Indian Ocean (Expeditions 354 and 362) it is now possible resolve this by comparing the provenance of AF turbidites with the Bengal and Nicobar Fans. The Andaman Flysch can be traced as detached outcrops all along the western side of the main islands of Andaman over a strike length of more than 200 km. Exposures along the east coast are confined to South Andaman Island. Petrographic and geochemical data show a common continental crust signal with minor contributions from arc material. But, there are also differences whereby west coast sandstones show significantly higher quartz content and less feldspars and rock fragments. Staurolite is also present in all samples from the western side, but is absent from east coast samples. Both detrital zircon U-Pb and Bulk rock Nd data record the presence of arc material likely from Myanmar. Detrital zircon data from the Nicobar Fan match the Andaman turbidites and indicate sources from the Greater and Tethyan Himalaya mixed with sediment from the Burmese arc. Transfer of Irrawaddy derived sediment to the Nicobar Fan is ruled out as sediment transfer across the fore-arc to the west was restricted by the then exposed Yadana and M8 highs in the north and the Sewell and Alcock Rises to the south. Sediment isopachs of the Martaban back arc basin, the main north-south-oriented depocentre in the Andaman Sea related to the development of the Thanlwin -Irrawaddy delta system

  4. Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) 22-Inch Low Noise Research Fan Rig Preliminary Design of ADP-Type Fan 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeracki, Robert J. (Technical Monitor); Topol, David A.; Ingram, Clint L.; Larkin, Michael J.; Roche, Charles H.; Thulin, Robert D.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents results of the work completed on the preliminary design of Fan 3 of NASA s 22-inch Fan Low Noise Research project. Fan 3 was intended to build on the experience gained from Fans 1 and 2 by demonstrating noise reduction technology that surpasses 1992 levels by 6 dB. The work was performed as part of NASA s Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) program. Work on this task was conducted in the areas of CFD code validation, acoustic prediction and validation, rotor parametric studies, and fan exit guide vane (FEGV) studies up to the time when a NASA decision was made to cancel the design, fabrication and testing phases of the work. The scope of the program changed accordingly to concentrate on two subtasks: (1) Rig data analysis and CFD code validation and (2) Fan and FEGV optimization studies. The results of the CFD code validation work showed that this tool predicts 3D flowfield features well from the blade trailing edge to about a chord downstream. The CFD tool loses accuracy as the distance from the trailing edge increases beyond a blade chord. The comparisons of noise predictions to rig test data showed that both the tone noise tool and the broadband noise tool demonstrated reasonable agreement with the data to the degree that these tools can reliably be used for design work. The section on rig airflow and inlet separation analysis describes the method used to determine total fan airflow, shows the good agreement of predicted boundary layer profiles to measured profiles, and shows separation angles of attack ranging from 29.5 to 27deg for the range of airflows tested. The results of the rotor parametric studies were significant in leading to the decision not to pursue a new rotor design for Fan 3 and resulted in recommendations to concentrate efforts on FEGV stator designs. The ensuing parametric study on FEGV designs showed the potential for 8 to 10 EPNdB noise reduction relative to the baseline.

  5. Optimization of lift gas allocation in a gas lifted oil field as non-linear optimization problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper allocation and distribution of lift gas is necessary for maximizing total oil production from a field with gas lifted oil wells. When the supply of the lift gas is limited, the total available gas should be optimally distributed among the oil wells of the field such that the total production of oil from the field is maximized. This paper describes a non-linear optimization problem with constraints associated with the optimal distribution of the lift gas. A non-linear objective function is developed using a simple dynamic model of the oil field where the decision variables represent the lift gas flow rate set points of each oil well of the field. The lift gas optimization problem is solved using the emph'fmincon' solver found in MATLAB. As an alternative and for verification, hill climbing method is utilized for solving the optimization problem. Using both of these methods, it has been shown that after optimization, the total oil production is increased by about 4. For multiple oil wells sharing lift gas from a common source, a cascade control strategy along with a nonlinear steady state optimizer behaves as a self-optimizing control structure when the total supply of lift gas is assumed to be the only input disturbance present in the process. Simulation results show that repeated optimization performed after the first time optimization under the presence of the input disturbance has no effect in the total oil production.

  6. Can a new behaviorally oriented training process to improve lifting technique prevent occupationally related back injuries due to lifting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Steven A; Lorenz, Eric P; Andersson, Gunnar B J

    2007-02-15

    A prospective randomized control trial. To determine the degree to which a new behavior-based lift training program (LiftTrainer; Ascension Technology, Burlington, VT) could reduce the incidence of low back disorder in distribution center jobs that require repetitive lifting. Most studies show programs aimed at training lifting techniques to be ineffective in preventing low back disorders, which may be due to their conceptual rather than behavioral learning approach. A total of 2144 employees in 19 distribution centers were randomized into either the LiftTrainer program or a video control group. In the LiftTrainer program, participants were individually trained in up to 5, 30-minute sessions while instrumented with motion capture sensors to quantify the L5/S1 moments. Twelve months following the initial training, injury data were obtained from company records. Survival analyses (Kaplan-Meier) indicated that there was no difference in injury rates between the 2 training groups. Likewise, there was no difference in the turnover rates. However, those with a low (<30 Nm) average twisting moment at the end of the first session experienced a significantly (P < 0.005) lower rate of low back disorder than controls. While overall the LiftTrainer program was not effective, those with twisting moments below 30 Nm reported fewer injuries, suggesting a shift in focus for "safe" lifting programs.

  7. A comparative analysis of lumbar spine mechanics during barbell- and crate-lifting: implications for occupational lifting task assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Jackie D; Carnegie, Danielle R; Welsh, Timothy N; Beach, Tyson A C

    2018-03-19

    To compare the effects of object handled and handgrip used on lumbar spine motion and loading during occupational lifting task simulations. Eight male and eight female volunteers performed barbell and crate lifts with a pronated (barbell) and a neutral (crate) handgrip. The mass of barbells/crates lifted was identical across the objects and fixed at 11.6 and 9.3 kg for men and women, respectively. The initial heights of barbells/crates were individualized to mid-shank level. Body segment kinematics and foot-ground reaction kinetics were collected, and then input into an electromyography-assisted dynamic biomechanical model to quantify lumbar spine motion and loading. Lumbar compression and net lumbosacral moment magnitudes were 416 N and 17 Nm lower when lifting a barbell than when lifting a crate (p  0.392) or flexion/extension velocities (p > 0.085). Crate- and barbell-lifting tasks can be used interchangeably if assessing lifting mechanics based on peak spine motion variables. If assessments are based on the spine loading responses to task demands, however, then crate- and barbell-lifting tasks cannot be used interchangeably.

  8. 76 FR 37005 - Safety Zone; Fan Pier Yacht Club Fireworks, Boston Harbor, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Fan Pier Yacht Club Fireworks, Boston Harbor, Boston, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Sector Boston Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone for the Fan Pier Yacht Club Fireworks display. This safety... Safety Zone; Fan Pier Yacht Club Fireworks, Boston Harbor, Boston, Massachusetts. (a) General. A...

  9. 75 FR 37453 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Dimmer and Fan Speed Switch Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... Determination Concerning Dimmer and Fan Speed Switch Controls AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... country of origin of certain dimmer and fan speed switch controls which may be offered to the United... determination CBP concluded that Mexico is the country of origin of the dimmer and fan speed switch controls for...

  10. 30 CFR 57.4131 - Surface fan installations and mine openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface fan installations and mine openings. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4131 Surface fan installations... stored within 100 feet of mine openings or within 100 feet of fan installations used for underground...

  11. 30 CFR 75.312 - Main mine fan examinations and records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main mine fan examinations and records. 75.312... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.312 Main mine fan examinations and records. (a) To assure electrical and mechanical reliability of main mine fans, each main mine...

  12. 77 FR 42004 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Main Fan Operation and Inspection in Gassy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... Extension of Existing Information Collection; Main Fan Operation and Inspection in Gassy Underground Metal...) conditions in underground metal and nonmetal mines are largely controlled by the main mine fans. When accumulations of explosive gases, such as methane, are not swept from the mine by the main fans, they may...

  13. 30 CFR 57.22203 - Main fan operation (I-C mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main fan operation (I-C mines). 57.22203... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22203 Main fan operation (I-C mines). Main fans shall be operated continuously while ore production is in progress. ...

  14. 44 CFR 65.13 - Mapping and map revisions for areas subject to alluvial fan flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... areas subject to alluvial fan flooding. 65.13 Section 65.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL... areas subject to alluvial fan flooding. This section describes the procedures to be followed and the... provides protection from the base flood in an area subject to alluvial fan flooding. This information must...

  15. 77 FR 68151 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Main Fan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... for OMB Review; Comment Request: Main Fan Operation and Inspection (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A Mines... Administration (MSHA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Main Fan Operation and Inspection...: Potentially gassy (explosive) conditions underground are largely controlled by main fans. When accumulations...

  16. 30 CFR 57.22209 - Auxiliary fans (I-C mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fans (I-C mines). 57.22209 Section 57... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22209 Auxiliary fans (I-C mines). Electric auxiliary fans shall be approved by MSHA under the applicable requirements of 30 CFR part 18...

  17. Surface morphology of fans in the high-Arctic periglacial environment of Svalbard : Controls and processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haas, Tjalling|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374023190; Kleinhans, Maarten G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/217675123; Carbonneau, Patrice E.; Rubensdotter, Lena; Hauber, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Fan-shaped landforms occur in all climatic regions on Earth. They have been extensively studied in many of these regions, but there are few studies on fans in periglacial, Arctic and Antarctic regions. Fans in such regions are exposed to many site-specific environmental conditions in addition to

  18. Interaction between Dutch soccer teams and fans: a mathematical analysis through cooperative game theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, D.; Driessen, Theo

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by the first lustrum of the Club Positioning Matrix (CPM) for professional Dutch soccer teams, we model the interaction between soccer teams and their potential fans as a cooperative cost game based on the annual voluntary sponsorships of fans in order to validate their fan registration in

  19. 75 FR 41102 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Furnace Fans: Reopening of Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... Furnace Fans: Reopening of Public Comment Period AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... work of residential heating and cooling systems (``furnace fans''). The comment period closed on July 6... information relevant to the furnace fan rulemaking will be accepted until July 27, 2010. ADDRESSES: Interested...

  20. Maximum Acceptable Weight of Lift reflects peak lumbosacral extension moments in a Functional Capacity Evaluation test using free style, stoop, and squat lifting

    OpenAIRE

    Kuijer, P.P.F.M.; van Oostrom, S.H.; Duijzer, K.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    It is unclear whether the maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL), a common psychophysical method, reflects joint kinetics when different lifting techniques are employed. In a within-participants study (n = 12), participants performed three lifting techniques - free style, stoop and squat lifting from knee to waist level - using the same dynamic functional capacity evaluation lifting test to assess MAWL and to calculate low back and knee kinetics. We assessed which knee and back kinetic para...

  1. Acceptance test report MICON software exhaust fan control modifications; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SILVAN, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents the results the acceptance test HNF-4108 which verifies the MICON program changes for the new automatic transfer switch ATS-2 alarms, the Closed Loop Cooling isolator status, the CB-3 position alarm, the alarms for the new emergency fan damper backup air compressor, and the generator sequencer logic

  2. Impact of cyclostationarity on fan broadband noise prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlbrandt, A.; Kissner, C.; Guérin, S.

    2018-04-01

    One of the dominant noise sources of modern Ultra High Bypass Ratio (UHBR) engines is the interaction of the rotor wakes with the leading edges of the stator vanes in the fan stage. While the tonal components of this noise generation mechanism are fairly well understood by now, the broadband components are not. This calls to further the understanding of the broadband noise generation in the fan stage. This article introduces a new extension to the Random Particle Mesh (RPM) method, which accommodates in-depth studies of the impact of cyclostationary wake characteristics on the broadband noise in the fan stage. The RPM method is used to synthesize a turbulence field in the stator domain using a URANS simulation characterized by time-periodic turbulence and mean flow. The rotor-stator interaction noise is predicted by a two-dimensional CAA computation of the stator cascade. The impact of cyclostationarity is decomposed into various effects, which are separately investigated. This leads to the finding that the periodic turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and periodic flow have only a negligible effect on the radiated sound power. The impact of the periodic integral length scale (TLS) is, however, substantial. The limits of a stationary representation of the TLS are demonstrated making this new extension to the RPM method indispensable when background and wake TKE are of comparable level. Good agreement of the predictions with measurements obtained from the 2015 AIAA Fan Broadband Noise Prediction Workshop are also shown.

  3. On passion and sports fans: a look at football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallerand, Robert J; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Philippe, Frederick L; Lavigne, Geneviève L; Carbonneau, Noémie; Bonneville, Arielle; Lagacé-Labonté, Camille; Maliha, Gabrielle

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of the present research was to test the applicability of the Dualistic Model of Passion (Vallerand et al., 2003) to being a sport (football) fan. Three studies provided support for this dualistic conceptualization of passion. Study 1 showed that harmonious passion was positively associated with adaptive behaviours (e.g. celebrate the team's victory), whereas obsessive passion was positively associated with maladaptive behaviours (e.g. risking losing one's job to go to a game). Study 2 used a short Passion Scale and showed that harmonious passion was positively related to the positive affective life of fans during the 2006 FIFA World Cup, psychological health (self-esteem and life satisfaction), and public displays of adaptive behaviours (e.g. celebrate the team's victory into the streets), whereas obsessive passion was predictive of maladaptive affective life (e.g. hating opposing teams' fans) and behaviours (e.g. mocking opposing teams' fans). Finally, Study 3 examined the role of obsessive passion as a predictor of partner's conflict that in turn undermined partner's relationship satisfaction. Overall, the present results provided support for the Dualistic Model of Passion. The conceptual and applied implications of the findings are discussed.

  4. Pump and Fan Technology Characterization and R&D Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Chung, Greg [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report provides the Building Technologies Office (BTO) and the research and development (R&D) community with a technical and market analysis of pumps and fans as they pertain to commercial and residential buildings as well as key conclusions regarding the R&D opportunities that can help achieve BTO’s energy savings goals.

  5. Why do fans attend world Wrestling Entertainment? | Kruger | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research examined the travel motives of South African World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) fans at a live Smackdown event in July 2011, which was part of the WWE's world tour. Based on these motives, different market segments at the events were identified and profiled. This was the first time that the motives of ...

  6. Intermittent Flow Regimes in a Transonic Fan Airfoil Cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lepicovsky

    2004-01-01

    velocity.To date, this flow behavior has only been observed in a linear transonic cascade. Further research is necessary to confirm this phenomenon occurs in actual transonic fans and is not the by-product of an endwall restricted linear cascade.

  7. The Diagonal Compression Field Method using Circular Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    is a modification of the traditional method, the modification consisting of the introduction of circular fan stress fields. To ensure proper behaviour for the service load the -value ( = cot, where  is the angle relative to the beam axis of the uniaxial concrete compression) chosen should not be too large...

  8. Fan-out module for TANSY-KM5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydz, R.; Norberg, L.; Urholm, L.; Grosshoeg, G.

    1991-01-01

    The FAN-out module is a driver module for three time-to-digital units and one multiscaler unit. The 16 input signals come from the Ortec CO 1600 coincidence unit. Diagrams of the circuits and a component list for the module are given here

  9. Modeling Fan Effects on the Time Course of Associative Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Darryl W.; Anderson, John R.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the time course of associative recognition using the response signal procedure, whereby a stimulus is presented and followed after a variable lag by a signal indicating that an immediate response is required. More specifically, we examined the effects of associative fan (the number of associations that an item has with other items…

  10. Fans skriver videre på deres foretrukne historier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Fans skriver videre på deres foretrukne historier Vi har kendt til at lære gennem børn og unges optagethed af populærkultur gennem de sidste tredive år, men alligevel kan man have betænkeligheder ved at involvere unges egenkultur, idet det kan problemati- seres, hvilke erkendelsesformer, der er her....

  11. Are fan fiction and mythology really the same? [symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Keen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This short piece addresses some of the assumptions about the connections between Greek and Roman mythology and fan fiction that underlie this special issue of Transformative Works and Cultures, arguing that the connections are not always as simple as they are sometimes made out to be.

  12. The Nonrelativistic Scattering States of the Deng-Fan Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentol Hoda Yazarloo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The approximately analytical scattering state solution of the Schrodinger equation is obtained for the Deng-Fan potential by using an approximation scheme to the centrifugal term. Energy eigenvalues, normalized wave functions, and scattering phase shifts are calculated. We consider and verify two special cases: the l=0 and the s-wave Hulthén potential.

  13. Placing Fandom : Film Tourism in Contemporary Fan Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Waysdorf (Abby)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractFilm tourism – visiting places associated with a film or television show – is an increasingly visible and popular practice. It is now almost expected whenever a new movie or television show draws on a particular place as a setting. But how are these places experienced by the fans who

  14. Performance Assessment of a Class of Industrial Fans With ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a statistical quality control study for on-condition monitoring of draught fans in a steelmaking process. The study proposes a procedure for obtaining consistent estimates of peak vibration levels for performance assessment the machines based on independent measurements of the variable assuming the ...

  15. Electric fans for reducing adverse health impacts in heatwaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saurabh; Carmichael, Catriona; Simpson, Christina; Clarke, Mike J; Allen, Claire; Gao, Yang; Chan, Emily Y Y; Murray, Virginia

    2012-07-11

    Heatwaves are hot weather events, which breach regional or national thresholds, that last for several days. They are likely to occur with increasing frequency in some parts of the world. The potential consequences were illustrated in Europe in August 2003 when there were an estimated 30,000 excess deaths due to a heatwave. Electric fans might be used with the intention of reducing the adverse health effects of a heatwave. Fans do not cool the ambient air but can be used to draw in cooler air from outside when placed at an open window. The aim of the fans would be to increase heat loss by increasing the efficiency of all normal methods of heat loss, but particularly by evaporation and convection methods. However, it should be noted that increased sweating can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalances if these fluids and electrolytes are not replaced quickly enough. Research has also identified important gaps in knowledge about the use of fans, which might lead to their inappropriate use. To determine whether the use of electric fans contributes to, or impedes, heat loss at high ambient temperatures during a heatwave, and to contribute to the evidence base for the public health impacts of heatwaves. We sought unpublished and published studies that had been published in any language. The review team were able to assess studies reported in English, Chinese, Dutch, French and German; and reports in other languages would have been translated into English as necessary. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Indian biomedical literature (IndMED and MedIND) and databases of Chinese literature (Chinese Journal Net and Digital Periodical of WanFang Data). The most recent electronic searches were done in April 2012. We also checked the reference lists of relevant articles and the websites of relevant national and international organisations, and consulted with researchers and policy makers with experience in

  16. The Forming of AISI 409 sheets for fan blade manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foroni, F. D.; Menezes, M. A.; Moreira Filho, L. A.

    2007-01-01

    The necessity of adapting the standardized fan models to conditions of higher temperature has emerged due to the growth of concern referring to the consequences of the gas expelling after the Mont Blanc tunnel accident in Italy and France, where even though, with 100 fans in operation, 41 people died. The objective of this work is to present an alternative to the market standard fans considering a new technology in constructing blades. This new technology introduces the use of the stainless steel AISI 409 due to its good to temperatures of gas exhaust from tunnels in fire situation. The innovation is centered in the process of a deep drawing of metallic sheets in order to keep the ideal aerodynamic superficies for the fan ideal performance. Through the impression of circles on the sheet plane it is shown, experimentally, that, during the pressing process, the more deformed regions on the sheet plane of the blade can not reach the deformation limits of the utilized sheet material

  17. Dimensions of attachment among fans within the South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attachment to the level of sport in general appeared to be the most highly correlated form of attachment with attendance. Fans appear to attach greater importance to the sport, the level of soccer and the team as opposed to specific players or the coach. The study proposes a framework reflecting both its practical application ...

  18. First Test of Fan Active Noise Control (ANC) Completed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    With the advent of ultrahigh-bypass engines, the space available for passive acoustic treatment is becoming more limited, whereas noise regulations are becoming more stringent. Active noise control (ANC) holds promise as a solution to this problem. It uses secondary (added) noise sources to reduce or eliminate the offending noise radiation. The first active noise control test on the low-speed fan test bed was a General Electric Company system designed to control either the exhaust or inlet fan tone. This system consists of a "ring source," an induct array of error microphones, and a control computer. Fan tone noise propagates in a duct in the form of spinning waves. These waves are detected by the microphone array, and the computer identifies their spinning structure. The computer then controls the "ring source" to generate waves that have the same spinning structure and amplitude, but 180 out of phase with the fan noise. This computer generated tone cancels the fan tone before it radiates from the duct and is heard in the far field. The "ring source" used in these tests is a cylindrical array of 16 flat-plate acoustic radiators that are driven by thin piezoceramic sheets bonded to their back surfaces. The resulting source can produce spinning waves up to mode 7 at levels high enough to cancel the fan tone. The control software is flexible enough to work on spinning mode orders from -6 to 6. In this test, the fan was configured to produce a tone of order 6. The complete modal (spinning and radial) structure of the tones was measured with two builtin sets of rotating microphone rakes. These rakes provide a measurement of the system performance independent from the control system error microphones. In addition, the far-field noise was measured with a semicircular array of 28 microphones. This test represents the first in a series of tests that demonstrate different active noise control concepts, each on a progressively more complicated modal structure. The tests are

  19. The liquid lift: Looking natural without lumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñigo de Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Hyaluronic acid (HA is the most common filler used to rejuvenate. Today, a three-dimensional approach prevails over previous techniques in which this material was used in specific areas of the face such as the nasolabial fold, the marionette line, and the eye trough giving a strange appearance that does not look natural. Even with a volumizing purpose, the injection of HA can sometimes produce clinically detectable nodules or lumps where the filler is deposited. Aims: To develop a new technique of injecting HA that can provide more natural results and avoid the lumpiness and nodular appearance that sometimes occurs with the injection of HA. To detect whether mixing HA with diluted anesthetic agent modifies its behavior. Settings and Design: Prospective, case control, single-center study on a private clinic setting. Materials and Methods: Eighty six patients were enrolled in this study. All of them had a previous treatment with nondiluted HA using a needle at least a year before. Patients were injected with 8 mL of reticulated HA (RHA mixed with 6 mL of saline and 2 mL of anesthetic agent. The mixture was administered through a cannula inserted in the face, one at mid-cheek and another at frontal-temporal point of entry. Owing to the lifting effect of this mixture we called this procedure liquid lift (LL. Patients were evaluated 1 month, 6 months, and a year later and asked to compare the LL with previous experiences in terms of natural look, pain, and appearance of nodules. Statistical Analysis Used: Student′s t-test. Results: One month after the treatment, 83 out of 86 patients (96.5% thought LL produced a more natural look than the previous treatment with the needle. Sixty two (72% considered LL less painful than the previous treatment and only eight (9.3% could detect lumps or nodules 1 month after LL was performed compared with 46 (53.5% that described this problem with previous needle injections. The incidence of bruising was

  20. 'Natural Gas lift', a New Tool for Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, C. D.

    2003-01-01

    Gas lift is the most common means of artificial lift in the Niger Delta and has been widely applied worldwide. The advent of remote monitoring and control devises (RMC) has added a new option in artificiallift, 'natural gas lift'. 'Natural gas lift' is an extension RMC in which a gas zone and one or more oil zones are produced through the same tubing string, using the gas enhance the production of the oil zones. The flow of gas is maintained in the optimal range using down hole chokes that are controlled from the surface. The gas flow rate is monitored using downhole pressure and .temperature gauges. The use of 'natural gas lift' has the advantages of gas lift but without the cost associated with gas lift; gas supply wells, compression etc. This is especially critical in areas that are remote from other facilities or in subsea completions where access to the wells is limited. Stacked reservoirs and frequent inclusion of both oil and gas reservoirs in the same field, as found in the Niger Delta, makes Nigeria a prime candidate for this technology. An example of this production from the North Sea will be presented along with a potential application using data from the Niger Delta. Design elements of the monitoring and control systems will be covered and the advantages and drawbacks of this application will be discussed

  1. EMG Processing Based Measures of Fatigue Assessment during Manual Lifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Shair

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Manual lifting is one of the common practices used in the industries to transport or move objects to a desired place. Nowadays, even though mechanized equipment is widely available, manual lifting is still considered as an essential way to perform material handling task. Improper lifting strategies may contribute to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs, where overexertion contributes as the highest factor. To overcome this problem, electromyography (EMG signal is used to monitor the workers’ muscle condition and to find maximum lifting load, lifting height and number of repetitions that the workers are able to handle before experiencing fatigue to avoid overexertion. Past researchers have introduced several EMG processing techniques and different EMG features that represent fatigue indices in time, frequency, and time-frequency domain. The impact of EMG processing based measures in fatigue assessment during manual lifting are reviewed in this paper. It is believed that this paper will greatly benefit researchers who need a bird’s eye view of the biosignal processing which are currently available, thus determining the best possible techniques for lifting applications.

  2. EMG Processing Based Measures of Fatigue Assessment during Manual Lifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhaban, M. H.; Abdullah, A. R.

    2017-01-01

    Manual lifting is one of the common practices used in the industries to transport or move objects to a desired place. Nowadays, even though mechanized equipment is widely available, manual lifting is still considered as an essential way to perform material handling task. Improper lifting strategies may contribute to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), where overexertion contributes as the highest factor. To overcome this problem, electromyography (EMG) signal is used to monitor the workers' muscle condition and to find maximum lifting load, lifting height and number of repetitions that the workers are able to handle before experiencing fatigue to avoid overexertion. Past researchers have introduced several EMG processing techniques and different EMG features that represent fatigue indices in time, frequency, and time-frequency domain. The impact of EMG processing based measures in fatigue assessment during manual lifting are reviewed in this paper. It is believed that this paper will greatly benefit researchers who need a bird's eye view of the biosignal processing which are currently available, thus determining the best possible techniques for lifting applications. PMID:28303251

  3. Experimental Evaluation of Installed Cooking Exhaust Fan Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-11-01

    The installed performance of cooking exhaust fans was evaluated through residential field experiments conducted on a sample of 15 devices varying in design and other characteristics. The sample included two rear downdraft systems, two under-cabinet microwave over range (MOR) units, three different installations of an under-cabinet model with grease screens across the bottom and no capture hood, two devices with grease screens covering the bottom of a large capture hood (one under-cabinet, one wall-mount chimney), four under-cabinet open hoods, and two open hoods with chimney mounts over islands. Performance assessment included measurement of airflow and sound levels across fan settings and experiments to quantify the contemporaneous capture efficiency for the exhaust generated by natural gas cooking burners.Capture efficiency is defined as the fraction of generated pollutants that are removed through the exhaust and thus not available for inhalation of household occupants. Capture efficiency (CE) was assessed for various configurations of burner use (e.g., single front, single back, combination of one front and one back, oven) and fan speed setting. Measured airflow rates were substantially lower than the levels noted in product literature for many of the units. This shortfall was observed for several units costing in excess of $1000. Capture efficiency varied widely (from<5percent to roughly 100percent) across devices and across conditions for some devices. As expected, higher capture efficiencies were achieved with higher fan settings and the associated higher air flow rates. In most cases, capture efficiencies were substantially higher for rear burners than for front burners. The best and most consistent performance was observed for open hoods that covered all cooktop burners and operated at higher airflow rates. The lowest capture efficiencies were measured when a front burner was used with a rear backdraft system or with lowest fan setting for above the range

  4. Clinical Comparison of Sinus Lift via Summers Osteotomy and Piezosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Radvar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sinus lift is a process that could be performed by two methods. In the closed sinus lift, hybrid materials enter a suitable position through a created cavity. Afterwards, the materials are pressed without damaging the sinus membrane, and the implants are usually placed at the same time. Closed sinus lift is carried out via osteotomy and piezosurgery, and each of the techniques has certain advantages and limitations. The present study aimed to compare the clinical results of closed sinus lift using the summers osteotomy and piezosurgery. Materials and Methods: In this study, 20 patients requiring dental implants in the posterior segment of the maxilla via sinus lift surgery were randomly divided into two groups. The first group received piezosurgery, and the second group underwent summers osteotomy for sinus lift. Postoperative Schneiderian membrane perforation, inflammation, pain, bone gain, and bone loss were compared between the groups six months after the surgery using Mann-Whitney U test and two-sample t-test. Results: In the groups receiving piezosurgery and summers osteotomy, mean sinus lift was 3.6±0.9 and 4.0±2.2 mm, pain score was 1.1±1.2 and 0.9±0.8, bone gain was 2.2±0.8 and 3.1±1.3 mm, and crestal bone loss was 1.1±1.2 and 0.9±0.8 mm, respectively. Moreover, no Schneiderian membrane perforation was observed in the two methods, and the differences between the groups were not considered significant (P>0.05. Conclusion: According to the results, the clinical outcomes of piezosurgery in sinus lift are similar to those of summers osteotomy. Therefore, piezosurgery could be a proper alternative to summers osteotomy in sinus lift surgery.

  5. Recent progress in fan and compressor for aeroengine. Koku engine yo fan asshukuki no saikin no gijutsu shinpo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Y [National Aerospace Lab., Chofu, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-03-10

    As the main components of the aeroengine, the fan and compressor reach to extremely high level stage technologically. Also at present when about 50 years passed after the jet engine was applied in practice, however, an effort for a modification is being continued, and furthermore even in the 1990s, the engines that adopted the new technologies are in succession being put in practical application. New engines in the 1990s are being applied in practice by adopting the study results on fan and compressor from the 1970s to the 1980s. Because, which way the future fan and compressor of the aircraft will go to has a relation with an aircraft trend from now on, and even in the 2000s the high subsonic speed aircrafts will be a center of the private air planes. The engine of high subsonic speed aircraft in the next generation will become an ultrahigh bypass ratio engine, the thrust efficiency is raised and noise is lowered, by lowering a fan pressure ratio and by increasing an air flow quantity compared with the current high bypass ratio turbofan engine. 16 figs.

  6. Two-dimensional unsteady lift problems in supersonic flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaslet, Max A; Lomax, Harvard

    1949-01-01

    The variation of pressure distribution is calculated for a two-dimensional supersonic airfoil either experiencing a sudden angle-of-attack change or entering a sharp-edge gust. From these pressure distributions the indicial lift functions applicable to unsteady lift problems are determined for two cases. Results are presented which permit the determination of maximum increment in lift coefficient attained by an unrestrained airfoil during its flight through a gust. As an application of these results, the minimum altitude for safe flight through a specific gust is calculated for a particular supersonic wing of given strength and wing loading.

  7. CH-53K Heavy Lift Replacement Helicopter (CH-53K)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-390 CH-53K Heavy Lift Replacement Helicopter (CH-53K) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget...December 2015 SAR March 4, 2016 10:04:18 UNCLASSIFIED 4 Col Henry Vanderborght PMA-261 Heavy Lift Helicopters Program Executive Office - Air, Anti...757-5780 Fax: 301-757-5109 DSN Phone: 757-5780 DSN Fax: 757-5109 Date Assigned: May 29, 2014 Program Information Program Name CH-53K Heavy Lift

  8. Heavy Lift Launch Capability with a New Hydrocarbon Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Holt, James B.; Philips, Alan D.; Garcia, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center was tasked to define the thrust requirement of a new liquid oxygen rich staged combustion cycle hydrocarbon engine that could be utilized in a launch vehicle to meet NASA s future heavy lift needs. Launch vehicle concepts were sized using this engine for different heavy lift payload classes. Engine out capabilities for one of the heavy lift configurations were also analyzed for increased reliability that may be desired for high value payloads or crewed missions. The applicability for this engine in vehicle concepts to meet military and commercial class payloads comparable to current ELV capability was also evaluated.

  9. Development of a Marine Propeller With Nonplanar Lifting Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Friesch, Jürgen; Kappel, Jens J.

    2005-01-01

    The principle of non-planar lifting surfaces is applied to the design of modern aircraft wings to obtain better lift to drag ratios. Whereas a pronounced fin or winglet at the wingtip has been developed for aircraft, the application of the nonplanar principle to marine propellers, dealt...... with in this paper, has led to the KAPPEL propeller with blades curved toward the suction side integrating the fin or winglet into the propeller blade. The combined theoretical, experimental, and practical approach to develop and design marine propellers with nonplanar lifting surfaces has resulted in propellers...

  10. Lifted Java: A Minimal Calculus for Translation Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingesman, Matthias Diehn; Ernst, Erik

    2011-01-01

    To support roles and similar notions involving multiple views on an object, languages like Object Teams and CaesarJ include mechanisms known as lifting and lowering. These mechanisms connect pairs of objects of otherwise unrelated types, and enables programmers to consider such a pair almost...... of translation polymorphism has not been proved. This paper presents a simple model that extends Featherweight Java with the core operations of translation polymorphism, provides a Coq proof that its type system is sound, and shows that the ambiguity problem associated with the so-called smart lifting mechanism...... can be eliminated by a very simple semantics for lifting....

  11. Neurologic disorders associated with weight lifting and bodybuilding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busche, Kevin

    2009-02-01

    Weight lifting and other forms of strength training are becoming more common because of an increased awareness of the need to maintain individual physical fitness. Emergency room data indicate that injuries caused by weight training have become more universal over time, likely because of increased participation rates. Neurologic injuries can result from weight lifting and related practices. Although predominantly peripheral nervous system injuries have been described, central nervous system disease may also occur. This article illustrates the types of neurologic disorders associated with weight lifting.

  12. On the design and structural analysis of jet engine fan blade structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoo, Leye M.

    2013-07-01

    Progress in the design and structural analysis of commercial jet engine fan blades is reviewed and presented. This article is motivated by the key role fan blades play in the performance of advanced gas turbine jet engines. The fundamentals of the associated physics are emphasized. Recent developments and advancements have led to an increase and improvement in fan blade structural durability, stability and reliability. This article is intended as a high level review of the fan blade environment and current state of structural design to aid further research in developing new and innovative fan blade technologies.

  13. Numerical investigation of geometric parameter effects on the aerodynamic performance of a Bladeless fan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Jafari; Hossein Afshin; Bijan Farhanieh; Atta Sojoudi

    2016-01-01

    Aerodynamic performance of a Bladeless fan is numerically investigated considering the effect of five geometric parameters. Airflow through this fan was analyzed by simulating a Bladeless fan within a 2 m × 2 m × 4 m room. Analysis of the flow field inside the fan and the evaluation of its performance were obtained by solving conservations of mass and momentum equations for the aerodynamic investigations. In order to design the Bladeless fan an Eppler 473 airfoil profile was used as the cross...

  14. Reverse Flow Engine Core Having a Ducted Fan with Integrated Secondary Flow Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisska, Michael K. (Inventor); Princen, Norman H. (Inventor); Kuehn, Mark S. (Inventor); Cosentino, Gary B. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Secondary air flow is provided for a ducted fan having a reverse flow turbine engine core driving a fan blisk. The fan blisk incorporates a set of thrust fan blades extending from an outer hub and a set of integral secondary flow blades extending intermediate an inner hub and the outer hub. A nacelle provides an outer flow duct for the thrust fan blades and a secondary flow duct carries flow from the integral secondary flow blades as cooling air for components of the reverse flow turbine engine.

  15. Gas Turbine Engine Having Fan Rotor Driven by Turbine Exhaust and with a Bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor); Chandler, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has a core engine incorporating a core engine turbine. A fan rotor is driven by a fan rotor turbine. The fan rotor turbine is in the path of gases downstream from the core engine turbine. A bypass door is moveable from a closed position at which the gases from the core engine turbine pass over the fan rotor turbine, and moveable to a bypass position at which the gases are directed away from the fan rotor turbine. An aircraft is also disclosed.

  16. Autoignited laminar lifted flames of methane, ethylene, ethane, and n-butane jets in coflow air with elevated temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Byungchul; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2010-01-01

    regimes depending on the initial temperature and fuel mole fraction: (1) non-autoignited lifted flame, (2) autoignited lifted flame with tribrachial (or triple) edge, and (3) autoignited lifted flame with mild combustion. For the non-autoignited lifted

  17. Business Profile of Boat Lift Net and Stationary Lift Net Fishing Gear in Morodemak Waters Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapsari, Trisnani D.; Jayanto, Bogi B.; Fitri, Aristi D. P.; Triarso, I.

    2018-02-01

    Lift net is one of the fishing gears that is used widely in the Morodemak coastal fishing port (PPP) for catching pelagic fish. The yield of fish captured by these fishing gear has high economic value, such as fish belt (Trichiurus sp), squids (Loligo sp) and anchovies (Stelophorus sp). The aims of this research were to determine the technical aspects of boat lift net and stationary lift net fishing gear in Morodemak Waters Demak Regency; to find out the financial aspect of those fishing gears and to analyze the financial feasibility by counting PP, NPV, IRR, and B/C ratio criteria. This research used case study method with descriptive analysis. The sampling method was purposive sampling with 22 fishermen as respondents. The result of the research showed that the average of boat lift net acceptance was Rp 388,580,000. The financial analysis of fisheries boat lift net with the result of NPV Rp 836,149,272, PP 2.44 years, IRR value 54%, and B/C ratio 1.73. The average of stationary lift net acceptance was Rp 27,750,000. The financial analysis lift net with the result of NPV Rp 37,937,601; PP 1.96 years, IRR value 86%, and B/C ratio 1.32. This research had a positive NPV value, B/C ratio >1, and IRR > discount rate (12 %). This study concluded that the fishery business of boat lift net and stationary lift net in Morodemak coastal fishing port (PPP) was worth running.

  18. Booster fans : some considerations for their usage in underground coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillies, S.; Slaughter, C. [Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States); Calizaya, F. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wu, H.W. [Gillies Wu Mining Technology Pty Ltd., Brisbane, QLD (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that investigated the conditions under which booster fans can be used safely and efficiently in underground coal mines. Booster fans are installed in series with a main surface fan and are used to boost the air pressure of the ventilation air passing through it. Several coal mining countries use booster fans, but in the United States, they are only used in metal/non-metal mines due to concerns of uncontrolled recirculation. This study investigated installations of booster fans in non-US underground coal mines where safe and efficient atmospheric conditions are achieved. The purpose was to collect reliable information on airway resistances and flow requirements typical in large US coal mines. The study showed that safe booster fan installations are found in both high and low gas conditions, and sometimes where workings are located at great depths. The interlocking systems within the booster fan can control the underground fans and avoid recirculation when surface fans are unexpectedly turned off. Another purpose of the study was to determine when booster fans become a more viable solution in coal mines due to increases in air requirements at higher production rates. It was concluded that a new fan selection algorithm to produce recirculation-free ventilation designs will be developed to enable US coal mine operators to develop ventilation designs to extract coal seams from depths greater than 1000 m. 17 refs., 1 fig.

  19. The development of a laterally confined laboratory fan delta under sediment supply reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Siqiang; Wu, Xi; Xu, Shun; Li, Zhangyong

    2016-03-01

    In previous fan delta experiments, the effect of lateral confinement was generally ignored as these fans were usually unconfined with semiconical geometries. However, in gorge areas, fan development is usually laterally confined by valley walls. This study investigates autogenic processes of fan deltas in a laterally confined experimental tank. The experiment is divided into three phases. The sediment supply is held constant within each phase, so the autogenic processes of the fan are separated from the allogenic forcings. Results indicate that laterally confined fan deltas have higher progradation and aggradation potential, more regular channel braiding, and more even transverse sedimentation than unconfined fans. Besides, responses of fan deltas to sediment supply reduction are investigated in this research. At the initiation of the second and third phases, sediment feed rates are instantaneously reduced so that the allogenic forcings are predominant. Observations show that under sediment supply reduction, channelization on fan deltas are more pronounced and durations of the fluvial cycles are longer. The adjustment of fan morphology becomes slower as the self-regulation capacity of the fan decreases with reduced sediment supply.

  20. Quantifying relief on alluvial fans using airborne lidar to reveal patterns of sediment accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelan, A. E., III; Oskin, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    We present a method of quantifying detailed surface relief on alluvial fans from high-resolution topography. Average slope and curvature of the fan are used together to empirically derive an idealized, radially symmetric fan surface, from which we compute residual topography. Maps produced using this technique highlight spatial patterns of fan deposition and avulsion. Regions of high residual topography reveal active and abandoned sediment lobes accumulated from recent depositional events, often with well-defined channels at their apex. Preliminary observations suggest that surface relief is uniform across a collection of fans in a given region and source lithology. Alluvial fans with granitic catchment lithologies in eastern California (n=12), each with varying source catchment size and mean fan slope, all show relief of around 4 meters. A collection of fans from the Carrizo Plain in central California (n=12), with source catchments set within Miocene marine and nonmarine sedimentary rocks, show significantly lower relief values around 2 meters. We hypothesize that particle grain size determines this contrasting relief through its control on the thickness of fan-building debris flows. In both settings we find that sediment lobes tend to extend toward the fan toe. This pattern supports a process, observed in analog experiments, of fan deposition dominated by back-filling and overtopping of distributary channels by debris-flows.

  1. Shaking table test study on seismic performance of dehydrogenation fan for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Kaiyan; Shi Weixing; Cao Jialiang; Wang Yang

    2011-01-01

    Seismic performance of the dehydrogenation fan for nuclear power plants was evaluated based on the shaking table test of earthquake simulation. Dynamic characteristics including the orthogonal tri-axial fundamental frequencies and equivalent damping ratios were measured by the white noise scanning method. Artificial seismic waves were generated corresponding to the floor acceleration response spectra for nuclear power plants. Furthermore, five OBE and one SSE shaking table tests for dehydrogenation fan were performed by using the artificial seismic waves as the seismic inputs along the orthogonal axis simultaneity. Operating function of dehydrogenation fan was monitored and observed during all seismic tests, and performance indexes of dehydrogenation fan were compared before and after seismic tests. The results show that the structural integrity and operating function of the dehydrogenation fan are perfect during all seismic tests; and the performance indexes of the dehydrogenation fan can remain consistent before and after seismic tests; the seismic performance of the dehydrogenation fan can satisfy relevant technical requirements. (authors)

  2. Performance/Noise Optimization of Centrifugal Fan Using Response Surface Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Donghui; Cheong, Cheolung [Pusan Nat’l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Heo Seung [Korea Aerospace Industries, Sacheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae-Hoon; Jung, Jiwon [LG Electronics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    In this study, centrifugal fan blades used to circulate cold air inside a household refrigerator were optimized to achieve high performance and low noise by using the response surface method, which is frequently employed as an optimization algorithm when multiple independent variables affect one dependent variable. The inlet and outlet blade angles, and the inner radius, were selected as the independent variables. First, the fan blades were optimized to achieve the maximum volume flow rate. Based on this result, a prototype fan blade was manufactured using a 3-D printer. The measured P-Q curves confirmed the increased volume flow rate of the proposed fan. Then, the rotation speed of the new fan was decreased to match the P-Q curve of the existing fan. It was found that a noise reduction of 1.7 dBA could be achieved using the new fan at the same volume flow rate.

  3. The benefits of conducting factory performance tests for main mine fans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, R.E.Jr. [PB Americas Inc., New York, NY (United States); Gamble, G.A. [Clarage Twin City Fan Co., Akron, OH (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Axial flow fans used in underground mining are also commonly used in subway tunnel ventilation fans to provide an evacuation path during a tunnel fire emergency. The axial flow fans provide sufficient air velocity to the fire site to prevent backlayering of smoke against the incoming airflow. Since the tunnels are used by the public, advance testing of fans and motors is conducted to confirm that the equipment will perform as specified during a fire. This paper discussed some of the advantages derived from conducting fan factory tests for tunnel projects that would also apply to mining applications. It also described other benefits from testing that are unique to mining. External factors that may cause the fan performance to vary considerably from the predicted performance measured at the factory were also discussed. These included air density changes and system effects produced by poorly designed shaft configurations and fan inlet ductwork. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Performance/Noise Optimization of Centrifugal Fan Using Response Surface Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Donghui; Cheong, Cheolung; Heo Seung; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Jung, Jiwon

    2017-01-01

    In this study, centrifugal fan blades used to circulate cold air inside a household refrigerator were optimized to achieve high performance and low noise by using the response surface method, which is frequently employed as an optimization algorithm when multiple independent variables affect one dependent variable. The inlet and outlet blade angles, and the inner radius, were selected as the independent variables. First, the fan blades were optimized to achieve the maximum volume flow rate. Based on this result, a prototype fan blade was manufactured using a 3-D printer. The measured P-Q curves confirmed the increased volume flow rate of the proposed fan. Then, the rotation speed of the new fan was decreased to match the P-Q curve of the existing fan. It was found that a noise reduction of 1.7 dBA could be achieved using the new fan at the same volume flow rate.

  5. Linnainstallatsioonide festival Tallinnas 2011 ehk "Lift11" / Margit Aule

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aule, Margit

    2011-01-01

    Tallinna linnainstallatsioonide festivalist "LIFT11", konkursist. 10 installatsioonist (nimetatud autorid), millest avlikku ruumi on jõudnud 8 installatsiooni. Intervjuu installatsiooni "Face it", mille sünd on veel kahtluse all, autorite Argo Peeveri ja Margus Tammega

  6. "LIFT11" lõpetab installatsioon "Rada metsas" / Margit Aule

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aule, Margit

    2011-01-01

    Kadrioru pargis 24.09.-22.10.2011 avatud jaapani arhitekti Tetsuo Kondo installatsioonist "Rada metsas", linnainstallatsioonide festivali LIFT11 viimasest ja suurimast teosest. Installatsiooni on rahastanud Jaapani Fond. Arhitektist

  7. Vertical Lift by Series Hybrid Power, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A major market for vertical lift aircraft is in urban operations, primarily for police and electronic news gathering (typically a Bell 206 or a Eurocopter AS350)....

  8. Lift-(gasless) laparoscopic surgery under regional anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruschinski, Daniel; Homburg, Shirli

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this Chapter was to investigate the feasibility and outcome of gasless laparoscopy under regional anesthesia. A prospective evaluation of Lift-(gasless) laparoscopic procedures under regional anesthesia (Canadian Task Force classification II-1) was done at three endoscopic gynecology centers (franchise system of EndGyn(r)). Sixty-three patients with gynecological diseases comprised the cohort. All patients underwent Lift-laparoscopic surgery under regional anesthesia: 10 patients for diagnostic purposes, 17 for surgery of ovarian tumors, 14 to remove fibroids, and 22 for hysterectomies. All patients were operated without conversion to general anesthesia and without perioperative or anesthesiologic complications. Lift-laparoscopy under regional anesthesia can be recommended to all patients who desire laparoscopic intervention without general anesthesia. For elderly patients, those with cardiopulmonary risks, during pregnancy, or with contraindications for general anesthesia, Lift-laparoscopy under regional anesthesia should be the procedure of choice.

  9. Operation of flooded wells by the gas-lift method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, G S; Kabirov, M M; Nigay, Yu V

    1983-01-01

    A study is made of the factors which influence the effectiveness of operation of the gas-lift lifter during progressive flooding of a well. The law governing the change in its efficiency under the given conditions is also examined.

  10. Factors associated with high physical exertion during manual lifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L.; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High physical exertion during work is a risk factor for back pain and long-term sickness absence. OBJECTIVE: To investigate which factors are associated with physical exertion during manual lifting. METHODS: From 14 workplaces across Denmark, 200 blue-collar workers reported perceived...... physical exertion (Borg-CR10) during manual lifting from floor to table height of 5, 10, 20 and 30 kg at the beginning and end of the working day. The workers also responded to a questionnaire and went through testing of isometric back muscle strength. Associations were modelled using logistic regression...... during manual lifting in blue-collar workers. These factors should be considered when planning work with manual lifting for individual workers....

  11. Lifting of a sector block for YE-2 at Kawasaki.

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Loveless/U. of Wisconsin

    2000-01-01

    YE-2 is build from machined sector blocks. Trial assembly is carried out horizontally. This picture represents the lifting of a machined sector block destined to the trial assembly of a half disk YE-2 at Kawasaki (KHI) Kobe, Japan.

  12. Experimental Investigation of a Lift Augmented Ground Effect Platform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Igue, Roberto T

    2005-01-01

    .... Lift, torque and efficiency were measured and calculated for each setting. Pressure and velocity information was also collected at specific points around the craft when operating at different heights above ground...

  13. Outgoing Cuntz scattering system for a coisometric lifting and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Multivariate operator theory; row contraction; contractive lifting; outgoing. Cuntz scattering system ... multivariate operator setting. In § 3 we study the ..... Our goal is to find an outgoing Cuntz scattering system inside our model. Let as before.

  14. Simultaneous oroantral communication closure, sinus‑lifting, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-10

    Oct 10, 2015 ... Dr. S Yanik,. Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, ... dental implants, and they require sinus‑lifting procedures long after the .... by some researchers, including third molar transplantation,. Figure 1: ...

  15. Morphology and sedimentology of glacigenic submarine fans on the west Greenland continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Cofaigh, Colm; Hogan, Kelly A.; Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Jennings, Anne E.; Noormets, Riko; Evans, Jeffrey

    2014-05-01

    Along the West Greenland continental margin adjoining Baffin Bay, bathymetric data show a series of large submarine fans located at the mouths of cross-shelf troughs. Two of these fans, the Uummannaq Fan and the Disko Fan are trough-mouth fans built largely of debris delivered from ice sheet outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet during past glacial maxima. On the Uummannaq Fan glacigenic debris flow deposits occur on the upper slope and extend to at least 1800 m water depth in front of the trough-mouth. The debris flow deposits are related to the remobilisation of subglacial debris that was delivered onto the upper slope at times when an ice stream was positioned at the shelf edge. In contrast, sedimentary facies from the northern sector of the fan are characterised by hemipelagic and ice-rafted sediments and turbidites; glacigenic debris flows are notably absent in cores from this region. Further south along the Greenland continental margin the surface of the Disko Fan is prominently channelised and associated sediments are acoustically stratified. Although glacigenic debris flow deposits do occur on the upper Disko Fan, sediments recovered in cores from elsewhere on the fan record the influence of turbidity current and meltwater sedimentation. The channelised form of the Disko fan contrasts markedly with that of the Uummannaq Fan and, more widely, with trough mouth fans from the Polar North Atlantic. Collectively these data highlight the variability of glacimarine depositional processes operating on trough-mouth fans on high-latitude continental slopes and show that glacigenic debris flows are but one of a number of mechanisms by which such large glacially-influenced depocentres form.

  16. The modern Kaoping transient fan offshore SW Taiwan: Morphotectonics and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Kan-Hsi; Yu, Ho-Shing; Chiang, Cheng-Shing

    2018-01-01

    Using bathymetry and seismic reflection profiles, this study examined and determined the transient nature of the Kaoping Fan located in the topographically complex slope offshore southwest Taiwan. Kaoping Fan is located west of the lower reach of the Kaoping Canyon at the lower Kaoping Slope, ranging from 2,200 to 3,000 m water depth, and has a relatively small areal extent restricted in the topographic lows confined by structural highs due to mud diapiric uplifting and thrust faulting. Kaoping Fan shows an asymmetrical triangular fan-shaped bathymetric feature elongated in an NW-SE direction but with a strong skew toward the east. The fan deposits consist of three main seismic facies: layered high-amplitude reflections in the upper section and stratified, parallel to sub-parallel low-amplitude reflections with variable continuity and channel fill facies in the lower section. In the absence of ground-truthing from core data, the seismic patterns suggest that the Kaoping Fan recorded the onset of channelized and over-bank deposits in the lower part and layered turbidite facies in the upper part subsequently. The development of the Kaoping Fan can be divided into three stages in terms of canyon activities and fan-feeding processes. Initially, Kaoping Fan was mainly fed by a point sediment source at the apex of the fan. Secondly, Kaoping Fan was maintained as a slope fan, mainly fed laterally by over-spilled sediments from the canyon. Finally, the Kaoping Canyon completely passes through the Kaoping Fan and supplies over-spilled sediments laterally, forming a transient fan with canyon incision and sediment by-passing. The accumulation of sediments and the growth of Kaoping Fan are primarily controlled by inherited complex paleo-topography and the evolution of Kaoping Canyon. The sediment delivery system of Kaoping Fan is characterized by lateral supply of over-spilling sediment flows and sediments bypassing to and beyond the base of slope. The Kaoping Fan together

  17. Searching for ski-lift injury: an uphill struggle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smartt, Pam; Chalmers, David

    2010-03-01

    Injuries arising from ski-lift malfunction are rare. Most arise from skier error when embarking or disembarking, or from improper lift operation. A search of the literature failed to uncover any studies focusing specifically on ski-lift injuries. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterise ski-lift injury resulting in hospitalisation and comment on barriers to reporting and reporting omissions. New Zealand hospitalised injury discharges 2000-2005 formed the primary dataset. To aid case identification these data were linked to ACC compensated claims for the same period and the data searched for all hospitalised cases of injury arising from ski-lifts. 44 cases were identified representing 2% of snow-skiing/snowboarding cases. 28 cases (64%) were male and 16 (36%) female, the average age was 32 yrs (range 5-73 yrs). The majority of cases were snow-skiers (35 cases, 80%). Most of the injuries were serious, or potentially so, with 1 case of traumatic pneumothorax, one of pulmonary embolism (after jumping from a ski-lift) and 28 cases sustaining fractures (six to the neck-of-femur, one to the lumbar spine and one to the pubis). ICISS scores for all cases ranged from 1.00 to 0.8182 (probability of dying in hospital 0-18.18%). Only 14 (32%) cases could be easily identified from ICD-10-AM e-codes and activity codes in the discharge summary. The ICD-10-AM external cause code for ski-lift injury V98 ("other specified transport accidents") was only assigned to 39% of cases. The type of ski-lift could only be determined in 24 cases (55%). Copyright 2009 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A New Perceptual Mapping Model Using Lifting Wavelet Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Taha TahaBasheer; Ehkan Phaklen; Ngadiran Ruzelita

    2017-01-01

    Perceptual mappingapproaches have been widely used in visual information processing in multimedia and internet of things (IOT) applications. Accumulative Lifting Difference (ALD) is proposed in this paper as texture mapping model based on low-complexity lifting wavelet transform, and combined with luminance masking for creating an efficient perceptual mapping model to estimate Just Noticeable Distortion (JND) in digital images. In addition to low complexity operations, experiments results sho...

  19. NASA safety standard for lifting devices and equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    NASA's minimum safety requirements are established for the design, testing, inspection, maintenance, certification, and use of overhead and gantry cranes (including top running monorail, underhung, and jib cranes), mobile cranes, derrick hoists, and special hoist supported personnel lifting devices (these do not include elevators, ground supported personnel lifts, or powered platforms). Minimum requirements are also addressed for the testing, inspection, and use of Hydra-sets, hooks, and slings. Safety standards are thoroughly detailed.

  20. Managing cultural diversity in healthcare partnerships: the case of LIFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannion, Russell; Brown, Sally; Beck, Matthias; Lunt, Neil

    2011-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) Local Improvement Finance Trust (LIFT) programme was launched in 2001 as an innovative public-private partnership to address the historical under-investment in local primary care facilities in England. The organisations from the public and private sector that comprise a local LIFT partnership each have their own distinctive norms of behaviour and acceptable working practices - ultimately different organisational cultures. The purpose of this article is to assess the role of organisational culture in facilitating (or impeding) LIFT partnerships and to contribute to an understanding of how cultural diversity in public-private partnerships is managed at the local level. The approach taken was qualitative case studies, with data gathering comprising interviews and a review of background documentation in three LIFT companies purposefully sampled to represent a range of background factors. Elite interviews were also conducted with senior policy makers responsible for implementing LIFT policy at the national level. Interpreting the data against a conceptual framework designed to assess approaches to managing strategic alliances, the authors identified a number of key differences in the values, working practices and cultures in public and private organisations that influenced the quality of joint working. On the whole, however, partners in the three LIFT companies appeared to be working well together, with neither side dominating the development of strategy. Differences in culture were being managed and accommodated as partnerships matured. As LIFT develops and becomes the primary source of investment for managing, developing and channelling funding into regenerating the primary care infrastructure, further longitudinal work might examine how ongoing partnerships are working, and how changes in the cultures of public and private partners impact upon wider relationships within local health economies and shape the delivery of patient care

  1. EFFECT OF HEEL LIFTS ON PATELLOFEMORAL JOINT STRESS DURING RUNNING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestelle, Zachary; Kernozek, Thomas; Adkins, Kelly S; Miller, Jessica; Gheidi, Naghmeh

    2017-10-01

    Patellofemoral pain is a debilitating injury for many recreational runners. Excessive patellofemoral joint stress may be the underlying source of pain and interventions often focus on ways to reduce patellofemoral joint stress. Heel lifts have been used as an intervention within Achilles tendon rehabilitation programs and to address leg length discrepancies. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of running with heel lifts on patellofemoral joint stress, patellofemoral stress impulse, quadriceps force, step length, cadence, and other related kinematic and spatiotemporal variables. A repeated-measures research design. Sixteen healthy female runners completed five running trials in a controlled laboratory setting with and without 11mm heel lifts inserted in a standard running shoe. Kinetic and kinematic data were used in combination with a static optimization technique to estimate individual muscle forces. These data were inserted into a patellofemoral joint model which was used to estimate patellofemoral joint stress and other variables during running. When running with heel lifts, peak patellofemoral joint stress and patellofemoral stress impulse were reduced by a 4.2% (p=0.049) and 9.3% (p=0.002). Initial center of pressure was shifted anteriorly 9.1% when running with heel lifts (p0.05) were shown between conditions. Heel lift use resulted in decreased patellofemoral joint stress and impulse without associated changes in step length or frequency, or other variables shown to influence patellofemoral joint stress. The center of pressure at initial contact was also more anterior using heel lifts. The use of heel lifts may have therapeutic benefits for runners with patellofemoral pain if the primary goal is to reduce patellofemoral joint stress. 3b.

  2. The Exergy of Lift and Aircraft Exergy Flow Diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Paulus, Jr., David; Gaggioli, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Aside from incidental, auxiliary loads, in level flight the principal load on the aircraft propulsion engine is the power required to provide the continuous lift. To construct an exergy flow diagram for an aircraft – for example, for the purpose of pinpointing inefficiencies and for costing – an expression is needed for the exergy delivered to and by the wings. That is, an expression is needed for the exergy of lift. The purpose of this paper is to present an expression de...

  3. Stability and Control Characteristics of a Model of an Aerial Vehicle Supported by Four Ducted Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlett, Lysle P.

    1961-01-01

    The stability and control characteristics of a simple, lightly loaded model approximately one-third the size of a full-scale vehicle have been investigated by a series of free-flight tests. The model is representative of a type of vertically rising aircraft which would utilize four ducted fans as its sole source of lift and propulsion. The ducts were arranged in a rectangular pattern and were fixed to the airframe so that their axes of revolution were vertical for hovering flight. Control moments were provided by remotely controlled compressed-air jets at the sides and ends of the model. In hovering, the model in its original configuration exhibited divergent oscillations about both the roll and pitch axes. Because these oscillations were of a rather short period., the model was very difficult to control by the use of remote controls only. The model could be completely stabilized by the addition of a sufficient amount of artificial damping. The pitching oscillation was made easier to control by increasing the distance between the forward and rearward pairs of ducts. In forward flight, with the model in its original configuration, the top speed was limited by the development of an uncontrollable pitch-up. Large forward tilt angles were required for trim at the highest speeds attained. With the model rotated so that the shorter axis became the longitudinal axis, the pitch trim problem was found to be less than with the longer axis as the longitudinal axis. The installation of a system of vanes in the slipstream of the forward ducts reduced the tilt angle but increased the power required.

  4. Active Control of Fan Noise: Feasibility Study. Volume 3; Active Fan Noise Cancellation in the NASA Lewis Active Noise Control Fan Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla, Frederic G.; Hu, Ziqiang; Sutliff, Daniel L.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the Active Noise Cancellation (ANC) System designed by General Electric and tested in the NASA Lewis Research Center's (LERC) 48 inch Active Noise Control Fan (ANCF). The goal of this study is to assess the feasibility of using wall mounted secondary acoustic sources and sensors within the duct of a high bypass turbofan aircraft engine for global active noise cancellation of fan tones. The GE ANC system is based on a modal control approach. A known acoustic mode propagating in the fan duct is canceled using an array of flush-mounted compact sound sources. The canceling modal signal is generated by a modal controller. Inputs to the controller are signals from a shaft encoder and from a microphone array which senses the residual acoustic mode in the duct. The key results are that the (6,0) was completely eliminated at the 920 Hz design frequency and substantially reduced elsewhere. The total tone power was reduced 6.8 dB (out of a possible 9.8 dB). Farfield reductions of 15 dB (SPL) were obtained. The (4,0) and (4,1) modes were reduced simultaneously yielding a 15 dB PWL decrease. The results indicate that global attenuation of PWL at the target frequency was obtained in the aft quadrant using an ANC actuator and sensor system totally contained within the duct. The quality of the results depended on precise mode generation. High spillover into spurious modes generated by the ANC actuator array caused less than optimum levels of PWL reduction. The variation in spillover is believed to be due to calibration procedure, but must be confirmed in subsequent tests.

  5. Motor of Lift RSG-GAS Performance Analysis after Repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asep-Saepuloh; Yayan-Andriyanto; Yuyut-Suraniyanto

    2006-01-01

    The out of order an equipment is ordinary natural process happened, above all the equipment be used continually with very old time, as for as out of order can be resulted from kinds of cause. Lift motor out of order can be result by motor is broken or happened the body shorten then affected do not function it the lift, so until done rewinding process. The rewinding is furl to repeat at motor coils. Motor of Lift represent main activator machine turning around shares pulley. Lift Motor will work if there is called in normal operation condition or the moment manual switch if done maintenance. Motor used at lift is motor three phases with two speeds that is low speed and high speed. Rewinding process must be done removed the motor from Lift machine and have to be done by professional workshop. In during function test take place, temperature at coil reach 70 o C (exceeding boundary permitted). After done installation addition thermal at motor coil hence his temperature become normal that is only reach 50 o C. (author)

  6. Analytical inversion formula for uniformly attenuated fan-beam projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Y.; Zeng, G.L.; Gullberg, G.T.

    1997-01-01

    In deriving algorithms to reconstruct single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) projection data, it is important that the algorithm compensates for photon attenuation in order to obtain quantitative reconstruction results. A convolution backprojection algorithm was derived by Tretiak and Metz to reconstruct two-dimensional (2-D) transaxial slices from uniformly attenuated parallel-beam projections. Using transformation of coordinates, this algorithm can be modified to obtain a formulation useful to reconstruct uniformly attenuated fan-beam projections. Unlike that for parallel-beam projections, this formulation does not produce a filtered backprojection reconstruction algorithm but instead has a formulation that is an inverse integral operator with a spatially varying kernel. This algorithm thus requires more computation time than does the filtered backprojection reconstruction algorithm for the uniformly attenuated parallel-beam case. However, the fan-beam reconstructions demonstrate the same image quality as that of parallel-beam reconstructions

  7. Fourier-Accelerated Nodal Solvers (FANS) for homogenization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuschner, Matthias; Fritzen, Felix

    2017-11-01

    Fourier-based homogenization schemes are useful to analyze heterogeneous microstructures represented by 2D or 3D image data. These iterative schemes involve discrete periodic convolutions with global ansatz functions (mostly fundamental solutions). The convolutions are efficiently computed using the fast Fourier transform. FANS operates on nodal variables on regular grids and converges to finite element solutions. Compared to established Fourier-based methods, the number of convolutions is reduced by FANS. Additionally, fast iterations are possible by assembling the stiffness matrix. Due to the related memory requirement, the method is best suited for medium-sized problems. A comparative study involving established Fourier-based homogenization schemes is conducted for a thermal benchmark problem with a closed-form solution. Detailed technical and algorithmic descriptions are given for all methods considered in the comparison. Furthermore, many numerical examples focusing on convergence properties for both thermal and mechanical problems, including also plasticity, are presented.

  8. The Diagonal Compression Field Method using Circular Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new design method, which is a modification of the diagonal compression field method, the modification consisting of the introduction of circular fan stress fields. The traditional method does not allow changes of the concrete compression direction throughout a given beam...... if equilibrium is strictly required. This is conservative, since it is not possible fully to utilize the concrete strength in regions with low shear stresses. The larger inclination (the smaller -value) of the uniaxial concrete stress the more transverse shear reinforcement is needed; hence it would be optimal...... if the -value for a given beam could be set to a low value in regions with high shear stresses and thereafter increased in regions with low shear stresses. Thus the shear reinforcement would be reduced and the concrete strength would be utilized in a better way. In the paper it is shown how circular fan stress...

  9. Pattern recognition: A dialogue on racism in fan communities [symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TWC Editor

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In early 2009, science fiction fandom's online landscape erupted with discussions of race. A post regarding cultural appropriation on author Elizabeth Bear's blog sparked a wide-ranging conversation that soon became acrimonious, with professional science fiction and fantasy writers and fans of science fiction literature and media weighing in. More recently, criticisms of Patricia C. Wrede's decision to set her young adult novel, The Thirteenth Child (2009, in an America empty of indigenous people have spearheaded new waves of discussion. Often the more widely read summaries of these debates have focused on what they mean for writers and aspiring writers who plan to represent minority cultures in their works. But what has their significance been for members of fan communities?

  10. Wake Management Strategies for Reduction of Turbomachinery Fan Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitz, Ian A.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of our work was to evaluate and test several wake management schemes for the reduction of turbomachinery fan noise. Throughout the course of this work we relied on several tools. These include 1) Two-dimensional steady boundary-layer and wake analyses using MISES (a thin-shear layer Navier-Stokes code), 2) Two-dimensional unsteady wake-stator interaction simulations using UNSFLO, 3) Three-dimensional, steady Navier-Stokes rotor simulations using NEWT, 4) Internal blade passage design using quasi-one-dimensional passage flow models developed at MIT, 5) Acoustic modeling using LINSUB, 6) Acoustic modeling using VO72, 7) Experiments in a low-speed cascade wind-tunnel, and 8) ADP fan rig tests in the MIT Blowdown Compressor.

  11. Advanced Trailing Edge Blowing Concepts for Fan Noise Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar RIZEA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study documents trailing edge blowing research performed to reduce rotor / stator interaction noise in turbofan engines. The existing technique of filling every velocity deficit requires a large amount of air and is therefore impractical. The purpose of this research is to investigate new blowing configurations in order to achieve noise reduction with lesser amounts of air. Using the new configurations air is not injected into every fan blade, but is instead varied circumferentially. For example, blowing air may be applied to alternating fan blades. This type of blowing configuration both reduces the amount of air used and changes the spectral shape of the tonal interaction noise. The original tones at the blade passing frequency and its harmonics are reduced and new tones are introduced between them. This change in the tonal spectral shape increases the performance of acoustic liners used in conjunction with trailing edge blowing.

  12. Drive of an industrial fan for wind testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López Monteagudo, Francisco E.; Reyes Rivas, Claudia; Beltrán Telles, Aurelio; Chacón Ruiz, Alejandro; Villela Varela, Rafael; Morera Hernández, Mario

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a fan control industrial wind turbines used for test, which is used as an internal device in the development of a wind tunnel for testing wind measurement. The project consists of regulating the speed of an industrial fan used in a wind tunnel to test control systems in wind turbines, wind generating regulated signals in constant, or to follow a profile defined by a database of values actual measured with an anemometer. To implement the control system and communication devices, in this project employed a digital signal processor (DSP from Texas Instruments EZDSP2407), which acts as an interface to transmit data between the programming environments (VisSim Embedded Control Developer (ECD)). Also uses a variable speed 3HP SIEMENS Micromaster model 420. (author)

  13. Streaming Scholarship: Using Fan Vids to Teach "Harry Potter"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Sarah Fiona

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that Harry Potter fan vids can be used in the classroom as works of secondary criticism about J. K. Rowling's primary text. It makes two claims: the first is that vids can be read as criticism of a particular text (in this case Harry Potter) alongside other critical essays on that text; the second is that the practice of…

  14. The origin of the fan of "bullets" in OMC-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, Vasilii

    A possible mechanism for the formation of linear features radially diverging from the common origin in the Orion molecular cloud OMC-1 is considered. It is shown that a fan of ejections may arise by interaction of a spherical shock wave with dense cloudlets situated in the neighbourhood of the shock's source. The mechanism of formation of ejections is based on the well-known cumulative effect arising in converging conical flows.

  15. Fans of Columbine shooters Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Ryan Rico

    2015-01-01

    On April 20, 1999, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold murdered 12 students and one teacher at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, in what was then the deadliest school shooting in American history. Despite causing a national panic and serving as a flash point for larger narratives on bullying, gun control, and media violence, both boys have gained active online fans. These fandoms dedicated to the Columbine shooters are widely referred to as dark examples of Internet communities, while t...

  16. Impeller Design of a Centrifugal Fan with Blade Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yu-Tai; Ahuja, Vineet; Hosangadi, Ashvin; Slipper, Michael E.; Mulvihill, Lawrence P.; Birkbeck, Roger; Coleman, Roderick M.

    2011-01-01

    A method is presented for redesigning a centrifugal impeller and its inlet duct. The double-discharge volute casing is a structural constraint and is maintained for its shape. The redesign effort was geared towards meeting the design volute exit pressure while reducing the power required to operate the fan. Given the high performance of the baseline impeller, the redesign adopted a high-fidelity CFD-based computational approach capable of accounting for all aerodynamic losses. The present eff...

  17. Dual Fan Separator within the Universal Waste Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Tom; Converse, Dave; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Since NASA's new spacecraft in development for both LEO and Deep Space capability have considerable crew volume reduction in comparison to the Space Shuttle, the need became apparent for a smaller commode. In response the Universal Waste Management System (UWMS) was designed, resulting in an 80% volume reduction from the last US commode, while enhancing performance. The ISS WMS and previous shuttle commodes have a fan supplying air flow to capture feces and a separator to capture urine and separate air from the captured air/urine mixture. The UWMS combined both rotating equipment components into a single unit, referred to at the Dual Fan Separator (DFS). The combination of these components resulted in considerable packaging efficiency and weight reduction, removing inter-component plumbing, individual mounting configurations and required only a single motor and motor controller, in some of the intended UWMS platform applications the urine is pumped to the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) system. It requires the DFS to include less than 2.00% air inclusion, by volume, in the delivered urine. The rotational speed needs to be kept as low as possible in centrifugal urine separators to reduce air inclusion in the pumped fluid, while fans depend on rotational speed to develop delivered head. To satisfy these conflicting requirements, a gear reducer was included, allowing the fans to rotate at a much higher speed than the separator. This paper outlines the studies and analysis performed to develop the DFS configuration. The studies included a configuration trade study, dynamic stability analysis of the rotating bodies and a performance analysis of included labyrinth seals. NASA is considering a program to fly the UWMS aboard the ISS as a flight experiment. The goal of this activity is to advance the Technical Readiness Level (TRL) of the DFS and determine if the concept is ready to be included as part of the flight experiment deliverable.

  18. 30 CFR 57.22208 - Auxiliary fans (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fans (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines... fans (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines). (a) Auxiliary fans, except fans used in shops and other areas... applicable requirements of 30 CFR part 18, and be operated so that recirculation is minimized. Auxiliary fans...

  19. 75 FR 27662 - Special Conditions: Boeing 747-468, Installation of a Medical Lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... electrical motors, mounted to the rear wall, between the struts. A lifting gear-drive with shafts and gear... OPERATE LIFT DURING TAXI, TAKEOFF, LANDING, OR TURBULENCE. c. AN APPROVED MEDICAL STRETCHER OR WHEELCHAIR... operation. b. Operate the lift. c. Stow the lift for non-operation such as during TTL and turbulence. d...

  20. Fan Cooler Operation in Kori 1 for Mitigating Severe Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Nam Duk; Park, Jae Hong

    2005-01-01

    The Korea Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) issued the 'Policy on Severe Accident of Nuclear Power Plants' in August 2001. According to the policy it was required for the licensee to develop a plant specific severe accident management guideline (SAMG) and to implement it. Thus the utility has made an implementation plan to develop SAMGs for operating plants. The SAMG for Kori unit 1 was submitted to the government on January 2004. Since then, the government trusted KINS to review the submitted SAMG in view of its feasibility and effectiveness. The first principle of the developed SAMG is to use only the available facilities as it is without introducing any system change. Because Kori-1 has no mitigative facility against combustible gases during severe accident, it relies heavily both on spray and on fan cooler systems to control the containment condition. Thus one of the issues raised during the review is to know whether the fan coolers which are designed for DBA LOCA can be effective in mitigating the severe accident conditions. This paper presents an analysis result of fan cooler operation in controlling the containment condition during severe accident of Kori 1

  1. Active fans and grizzly bears: Reducing risks for wilderness campers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakals, M. E.; Wilford, D. J.; Wellwood, D. W.; MacDougall, S. A.

    2010-03-01

    Active geomorphic fans experience debris flows, debris floods and/or floods (hydrogeomorphic processes) that can be hazards to humans. Grizzly bears ( Ursus arctos) can also be a hazard to humans. This paper presents the results of a cross-disciplinary study that analyzed both hydrogeomorphic and grizzly bear hazards to wilderness campers on geomorphic fans along a popular hiking trail in Kluane National Park and Reserve in southwestern Yukon Territory, Canada. Based on the results, a method is proposed to reduce the risks to campers associated with camping on fans. The method includes both landscape and site scales and is based on easily understood and readily available information regarding weather, vegetation, stream bank conditions, and bear ecology and behaviour. Educating wilderness campers and providing a method of decision-making to reduce risk supports Parks Canada's public safety program; a program based on the principle of user self-sufficiency. Reducing grizzly bear-human conflicts complements the efforts of Parks Canada to ensure a healthy grizzly bear population.

  2. A Fan-tastic Quantitative Exploration of Ohm's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Brandon; Ekey, Robert; McCullough, Roy; Reitz, William

    2018-02-01

    Teaching simple circuits and Ohm's law to students in the introductory classroom has been extensively investigated through the common practice of using incandescent light bulbs to help students develop a conceptual foundation before moving on to quantitative analysis. However, the bulb filaments' resistance has a large temperature dependence, which makes them less suitable as a tool for quantitative analysis. Some instructors show that light bulbs do not obey Ohm's law either outright or through inquiry-based laboratory experiments. Others avoid the subject altogether by using bulbs strictly for qualitative purposes and then later switching to resistors for a numerical analysis, or by changing the operating conditions of the bulb so that it is "barely" glowing. It seems incongruous to develop a conceptual basis for the behavior of simple circuits using bulbs only to later reveal that they do not follow Ohm's law. Recently, small computer fans were proposed as a suitable replacement of bulbs for qualitative analysis of simple circuits where the current is related to the rotational speed of the fans. In this contribution, we demonstrate that fans can also be used for quantitative measurements and provide suggestions for successful classroom implementation.

  3. Constant depression fan system a novel glovebox ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milliner, W.V.

    1995-01-01

    In a conventional glovebox ventilation system the depression within the glovebox under normal operation is controlled by instrumentation. In the event of a breach the pressure within the box rises to atmospheric pressure, this pressure rise is detected by instrumentation which in turn operates a quick opening damper in a high depression extract to achieve a 1 metre/sec (200 fpm) inflow through the breach, which can take up to 2 seconds to establish. This system, although widely used, suffers from two distinct drawbacks: It takes a finite time to achieve the containment velocity of 1 metre/sec. It relies upon instrumentation to achieve its objectives. A new glovebox ventilation system has been developed by AWE to overcome these drawbacks. This is the Constant Depression Fan System (CDFS) which is based on an extract fan with a flat characteristic. This achieves all the requirements for the ventilation of gloveboxes and has the advantages that: It has only one moving part - the extract fan. It requires NO INSTRUMENTATION to achieve its objectives. It achieves the containment velocity of 1 metre/sec in the shortest possible time - approximately 0.2 seconds - and tests have shown that containment is maintained under breach conditions. Thus the CDFS is SAFER, SIMPLER and MORE RELIABLE

  4. Fan-beam filtered-backprojection reconstruction without backprojection weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennerlein, Frank; Noo, Frederic; Hornegger, Joachim; Lauritsch, Guenter

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of two-dimensional image reconstruction from fan-beam data acquired along a full 2π scan. Conventional approaches that follow the filtered-backprojection (FBP) structure require a weighted backprojection with the weight depending on the point to be reconstructed and also on the source position; this weight appears only in the case of divergent beam geometries. Compared to reconstruction from parallel-beam data, the backprojection weight implies an increase in computational effort and is also thought to have some negative impacts on noise properties of the reconstructed images. We demonstrate here that direct FBP reconstruction from full-scan fan-beam data is possible with no backprojection weight. Using computer-simulated, realistic fan-beam data, we compared our novel FBP formula with no backprojection weight to the use of an FBP formula based on equal weighting of all data. Comparisons in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, spatial resolution and computational efficiency are presented. These studies show that the formula we suggest yields images with a reduced noise level, at almost identical spatial resolution. This effect increases quickly with the distance from the center of the field of view, from 0% at the center to 20% less noise at 20 cm, and to 40% less noise at 25 cm. Furthermore, the suggested method is computationally less demanding and reduces computation time with a gain that was found to vary between 12% and 43% on the computers used for evaluation

  5. Investigating the Importance of Sports Facilities & Staff for Football Fans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinelopi Athanasopoulou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available (a Purpose: This study seeks to investigate the importance of facilities and staff for football fans in Greece. (b Design/methodology/approach: A survey was carried out during two matches of Superleague games with a convenience sample of 312 spectators. A structured questionnaire was used with scales based on previous research. (c Findings: Factor analysis revealed four reliable factor dimensions: facilities design; staff; facilities maintenance, and quick & easy access. Staff and quick & easy access are shown to be the most important dimensions for respondents followed by the other two. Results also indicated that there are significant differences in the importance assigned to these 4 factor dimensions among different levels of age; education; income, and marital status. (d Research limitations/implications: This study is limited to one sport and on a convenience sample of football fans. Future research can validate further these findings and increase their generalisability. (e Practical implications: The results of this study challenge sport managers to manage effectively the design of the stadium; the processes of entry and exit of fans; the environment of the game; and the quality of stadium facilities.

  6. Neural bases of ingroup altruistic motivation in soccer fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolini, Tiago; Bado, Patrícia; Hoefle, Sebastian; Engel, Annerose; Zahn, Roland; de Oliveira Souza, Ricardo; Dreher, Jean-Claude; Moll, Jorge

    2017-11-23

    Humans have a strong need to belong to social groups and a natural inclination to benefit ingroup members. Although the psychological mechanisms behind human prosociality have extensively been studied, the specific neural systems bridging group belongingness and altruistic motivation remain to be identified. Here, we used soccer fandom as an ecological framing of group membership to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying ingroup altruistic behaviour in male fans using event-related functional magnetic resonance. We designed an effort measure based on handgrip strength to assess the motivation to earn money (i) for oneself, (ii) for anonymous ingroup fans, or (iii) for a neutral group of anonymous non-fans. While overlapping valuation signals in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) were observed for the three conditions, the subgenual cingulate cortex (SCC) exhibited increased functional connectivity with the mOFC as well as stronger hemodynamic responses for ingroup versus outgroup decisions. These findings indicate a key role for the SCC, a region previously implicated in altruistic decisions and group affiliation, in dovetailing altruistic motivations with neural valuation systems in real-life ingroup behaviour.

  7. Constant depression fan system a novel glovebox ventilation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliner, W.V. [AME plc., Aldermaston (United Kingdom)

    1995-02-01

    In a conventional glovebox ventilation system the depression within the glovebox under normal operation is controlled by instrumentation. In the event of a breach the pressure within the box rises to atmospheric pressure, this pressure rise is detected by instrumentation which in turn operates a quick opening damper in a high depression extract to achieve a 1 metre/sec (200 fpm) inflow through the breach, which can take up to 2 seconds to establish. This system, although widely used, suffers from two distinct drawbacks: It takes a finite time to achieve the containment velocity of 1 metre/sec. It relies upon instrumentation to achieve its objectives. A new glovebox ventilation system has been developed by AWE to overcome these drawbacks. This is the Constant Depression Fan System (CDFS) which is based on an extract fan with a flat characteristic. This achieves all the requirements for the ventilation of gloveboxes and has the advantages that: It has only one moving part - the extract fan. It requires NO INSTRUMENTATION to achieve its objectives. It achieves the containment velocity of 1 metre/sec in the shortest possible time - approximately 0.2 seconds - and tests have shown that containment is maintained under breach conditions. Thus the CDFS is SAFER, SIMPLER and MORE RELIABLE.

  8. Health Assessment of Cooling Fan Bearings Using Wavelet-Based Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Miao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As commonly used forced convection air cooling devices in electronics, cooling fans are crucial for guaranteeing the reliability of electronic systems. In a cooling fan assembly, fan bearing failure is a major failure mode that causes excessive vibration, noise, reduction in rotation speed, locked rotor, failure to start, and other problems; therefore, it is necessary to conduct research on the health assessment of cooling fan bearings. This paper presents a vibration-based fan bearing health evaluation method using comblet filtering and exponentially weighted moving average. A new health condition indicator (HCI for fan bearing degradation assessment is proposed. In order to collect the vibration data for validation of the proposed method, a cooling fan accelerated life test was conducted to simulate the lubricant starvation of fan bearings. A comparison between the proposed method and methods in previous studies (i.e., root mean square, kurtosis, and fault growth parameter was carried out to assess the performance of the HCI. The analysis results suggest that the HCI can identify incipient fan bearing failures and describe the bearing degradation process. Overall, the work presented in this paper provides a promising method for fan bearing health evaluation and prognosis.

  9. Numerical investigation of geometric parameter effects on the aerodynamic performance of a Bladeless fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jafari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic performance of a Bladeless fan is numerically investigated considering the effect of five geometric parameters. Airflow through this fan was analyzed by simulating a Bladeless fan within a 2 m × 2 m × 4 m room. Analysis of the flow field inside the fan and the evaluation of its performance were obtained by solving conservations of mass and momentum equations for the aerodynamic investigations. In order to design the Bladeless fan an Eppler 473 airfoil profile was used as the cross section of the fan. Five distinct parameters, namely height of cross section of the fan, outlet angle of the flow relative to the fan axis, thickness of airflow outlet slit, hydraulic diameter, and aspect ratio for circular and quadratic cross sections were considered. Validating 3-D numerical results, experimental results of a round jet showed good agreement with those of the simulation data. The multiplier factor M is defined to show the ratio of the outlet flow rate to inlet flow rate from the fan. The obtained numerical results showed that the Discharge ratio has the maximum value for the height of 3 cm. The numerical outcomes of outlet thickness variation indicate that this parameter is one of the most influential parameters on the aerodynamic performance of a Bladeless fan. The results for the outlet thicknesses of 1, 2 and 3 mm showed that the Discharge ratio increased significantly when the outlet thickness decreased.

  10. Fan cooling of the resting area in a free stalls dairy barn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calegari, Ferdinando; Calamari, Luigi; Frazzi, Ermes

    2014-08-01

    This summer study evaluated the effect of providing additional fans (cooling) in the resting area within a free-stall dairy barn that had fans and sprinklers in the feeding area and paddock availability. Thirty cows were divided into two homogenous groups and kept in two pens: one had the resting area equipped with two fans (FAN) while no fans were added to the other resting area (CON). Microclimatic parameters, rectal temperature (RT), breathing rate (BR), milk yield, and milk pH traits were recorded. Time budgeting and the behaviour of the cows (time spent in the feeding area, standing and lying in other areas) were also recorded using digital video technology. Two slight-to-moderate heat waves were observed. During the hottest period the daily maximum temperature recorded was 33.5 °C and the daily maximum THI was 81.6. During this period, the BR and RT increased only slightly in both groups, with lower BR (n.s.) in FAN compared with CON. Milk yield was better maintained (n.s.) in FAN compared with CON during the hottest period. The FAN cows showed a greater ( P FAN and CON, respectively), whereas CON cows made greater ( P fans in the resting area improves cow comfort, which increases use of the resting area. The lying time results also suggest that the benefits of providing ventilation in the resting area might be more evident in barns where there is no paddock.

  11. The Conceptual Design of High Pressure Reversible Axial Tunnel Ventilation Fans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Sheard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tunnel ventilation fans, classically, must have the ability to both supply and extract air from a tunnel system, with the operator's choice dependent on the tunnel ventilation system's operating mode most appropriate at any given point in time. Consequently, tunnel ventilation fans must incorporate a reversible aerodynamic design which limits the maximum fan pressure rise. This paper presents three high pressure reversible fan concepts. These comprise a two-stage counter rotating fan, a single-stage high speed fan, and a two-stage fan with a single motor and impeller on each end of the motor shaft. The authors consider the relative merits of each concept. The third concept offers the most compact fan, transform, silencer, and damper package size. The authors discuss the mechanical design challenges that occur with a two-stage fan with a single motor and impeller on each end of the motor shaft. They present and consider a selected motor bearing arrangement and casing design for maintainability. Finally, the authors present both prototype fan and full-scale package aerodynamic and acoustic performance, before discussing the challenges presented by high temperature certification in accordance with the requirements of EN 12101-3: 2012.

  12. Plate-fin array cooling using a finger-like piezoelectric fan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyu, Jin-Cherng; Syu, Jhih-Zong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the heat transfer of a plate-fin array cooled by a vibrating finger-like piezoelectric fan comprising four flexible rectangular blades was investigated. The results indicated that the heat transfer enhancement of the fin array cooled by a vibrating piezoelectric fan at x/L = 0.5 and H = 5 mm ranged between 1.5 and 3.3, regardless of the fin array orientation. However, the heat transfer enhancement caused by a fan being placed at either edge of the fin array yielded a dissimilar result between both of the fin array orientations because of the superimposed effects of the boundary layer development and the air flow induced by the fan. This dissimilarity was especially noticeable when the piezoelectric fan was composed of aluminum blades to accommodate the moderate Reynolds number. In addition to the Reynolds number, the ratio of the fan blade vibration envelope to the source area determined the Nu number of the piezoelectric fan-cooled fin array. This design enhanced the fin array heat transfer and reduced cooler volume by embedding multiple vibrating beams into the fin array. -- Highlights: • Heat transfer of a piezoelectric fan-cooled plate-fin array was investigated. • Effects of fan position, fan height and fan material on heat transfer were examined. • Similar heat transfer enhancement range was shown for both fin array orientations. • Fin heat transfer with a running Al fan at x = 0 was higher than that at x = 0.25L. • Besides fan Reynolds number, the area ratio also determined Nu of the fin array

  13. More air performance, enhanced energy efficiency. Plug Fans fit for the future; Mehr Luftleistung, hohe Energieeffizienz. Plug Fans fit fuer die Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigloch, Uwe; Muehleck, Ralf [ebm-papst, Mulfingen (Germany); Reiff, Ellen-Christine [Redaktionsbuero, Stutensee (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    The ErP directive 2009/125/EC demands a design of products for the European market according to pre-defined performance criteria. All fans with a performance between 125 W and 500 kW are affected by this directive. Ebm-papst Mulfingen GmbH and Co. KG (Mulfingen, Federal Republic of Germany) has developed and expanded the fan series Plug fans with Greentech EC technology in order to cover even higher air output ranges. Straight in the air technology and air conditioning systems a great potential of energy saving can be deduced with these fans. It is precisely in this area, the fans are operated with a long duty cycle.

  14. Study on the performance improvement of multiblade fans. Effects of suction cones; Tayoku fan no seino kaizen ni kansuru kenkyu. Suction cone no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuratani, F.; Ogawa, T. [Hyogo University of Teacher Education, Hyogo (Japan); Yamamoto, S.

    1999-07-25

    In order to improve the performance of a multiblade fan, the effects of three types of suction cones of the fan casing on the fan efficiency and noise are investigated experimentally. The first type of the suction cone is the insertion type, which is inserted into the inside of the fan impeller. The second type is the extrusion type, which extrudes outside from the casing surface. The third type is the combination type of two types. The results of those three types are compared with those of the commonly used suction cone. The followings are made clear: (1) The insertion type and the extrusion type are effective in improving the efficiency and reducing noise. (2) The optimal lengths of the insertion and the extrusion exist. (3) The combination type is more effective in improving the efficiency. (4) The combination type with the skewed cutoff of the fan casing shows the best effect. (author)

  15. Autoignited lifted flames of dimethyl ether in heated coflow air

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Noman, Saeed M.

    2018-05-16

    Autoignited lifted flames of dimethyl ether (DME) in laminar nonpremixed jets with high-temperature coflow air have been studied experimentally. When the initial temperature was elevated to over 860 K, an autoignition occurred without requiring an external ignition source. A planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique for formaldehyde (CH2O) visualized qualitatively the zone of low temperature kinetics in a premixed flame. Two flame configurations were investigated; (1) autoignited lifted flames with tribrachial edge having three distinct branches of a lean and a rich premixed flame wings with a trailing diffusion flame and (2) autoignited lifted flames with mild combustion when the fuel was highly diluted. For the autoignited tribrachial edge flames at critical autoignition conditions, exhibiting repetitive extinction and re-ignition phenomena near a blowout condition, the characteristic flow time (liftoff height scaled with jet velocity) was correlated with the square of the ignition delay time of the stoichiometric mixture. The liftoff heights were also correlated as a function of jet velocity times the square of ignition delay time. Formaldehydes were observed between the fuel nozzle and the lifted flame edge, emphasizing a low-temperature kinetics for autoignited lifted flames, while for a non-autoignited lifted flame, formaldehydes were observed near a thin luminous flame zone.For the autoignited lifted flames with mild combustion, especially at a high temperature, a unique non-monotonic liftoff height behavior was observed; decreasing and then increasing liftoff height with jet velocity. This behavior was similar to the binary mixture fuels of CH4/H2 and CO/H2 observed previously. A transient homogeneous autoignition analysis suggested that such decreasing behavior with jet velocity can be attributed to partial oxidation characteristics of DME in producing appreciable amounts of CH4/CO/H2 ahead of the edge flame region.

  16. Heavy Lift Launch Capability with a New Hydrocarbon Engine (NHE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Holt, James B.; Philips, Alan D.; Garcia, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has analyzed over 2000 Ares V and other heavy lift concepts in the last 3 years. These concepts were analyzed for Lunar Exploration Missions, heavy lift capability to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) as well as exploratory missions to other near earth objects in our solar system. With the pending retirement of the Shuttle fleet, our nation will be without a civil heavy lift launch capability, so the future development of a new heavy lift capability is imperative for the exploration and large science missions our Agency has been tasked to deliver. The majority of the heavy lift concepts analyzed by ACO during the last 3 years have been based on liquid oxygen / liquid hydrogen (LOX/LH2) core stage and solids booster stage propulsion technologies (Ares V / Shuttle Derived and their variants). These concepts were driven by the decisions made from the results of the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), which in turn, led to the Ares V launch vehicle that has been baselined in the Constellation Program. Now that the decision has been made at the Agency level to cancel Constellation, other propulsion options such as liquid hydrocarbon fuels are back in the exploration trade space. NASA is still planning exploration missions with the eventual destination of Mars and a new heavy lift launch vehicle is still required and will serve as the centerpiece of our nation s next exploration architecture s infrastructure. With an extensive launch vehicle database already developed on LOX/LH2 based heavy lift launch vehicles, ACO initiated a study to look at using a new high thrust (> 1.0 Mlb vacuum thrust) hydrocarbon engine as the primary main stage propulsion in such a launch vehicle.

  17. Shape memory alloy resetable spring lift for pedestrian protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Brian M.; Brei, Diann E.; Luntz, Jonathan E.; Strom, Kenneth; Browne, Alan L.; Johnson, Nancy

    2008-03-01

    Pedestrian protection has become an increasingly important aspect of automotive safety with new regulations taking effect around the world. Because it is increasingly difficult to meet these new regulations with traditional passive approaches, active lifts are being explored that increase the "crush zone" between the hood and rigid under-hood components as a means of mitigating the consequences of an impact with a non-occupant. Active lifts, however, are technically challenging because of the simultaneously high forces, stroke and quick timing resulting in most of the current devices being single use. This paper introduces the SMArt (Shape Memory Alloy ReseTable) Spring Lift, an automatically resetable and fully reusable device, which couples conventional standard compression springs to store the energy required for a hood lift, with Shape Memory Alloys actuators to achieve both an ultra high speed release of the spring and automatic reset of the system for multiple uses. Each of the four SMArt Device subsystems, lift, release, lower and reset/dissipate, are individually described. Two identical complete prototypes were fabricated and mounted at the rear corners of the hood, incorporated within a full-scale vehicle testbed at the SMARTT (Smart Material Advanced Research and Technology Transfer) lab at University of Michigan. Full operational cycle testing of a stationary vehicle in a laboratory setting confirms the ultrafast latch release, controlled lift profile, gravity lower to reposition the hood, and spring recompression via the ratchet engine successfully rearming the device for repeat cycles. While this is only a laboratory demonstration and extensive testing and development would be required for transition to a fielded product, this study does indicate that the SMArt Lift has promise as an alternative approach to pedestrian protection.

  18. Autoignited lifted flames of dimethyl ether in heated coflow air

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Noman, Saeed M.; Choi, Byung Chul; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2018-01-01

    Autoignited lifted flames of dimethyl ether (DME) in laminar nonpremixed jets with high-temperature coflow air have been studied experimentally. When the initial temperature was elevated to over 860 K, an autoignition occurred without requiring an external ignition source. A planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique for formaldehyde (CH2O) visualized qualitatively the zone of low temperature kinetics in a premixed flame. Two flame configurations were investigated; (1) autoignited lifted flames with tribrachial edge having three distinct branches of a lean and a rich premixed flame wings with a trailing diffusion flame and (2) autoignited lifted flames with mild combustion when the fuel was highly diluted. For the autoignited tribrachial edge flames at critical autoignition conditions, exhibiting repetitive extinction and re-ignition phenomena near a blowout condition, the characteristic flow time (liftoff height scaled with jet velocity) was correlated with the square of the ignition delay time of the stoichiometric mixture. The liftoff heights were also correlated as a function of jet velocity times the square of ignition delay time. Formaldehydes were observed between the fuel nozzle and the lifted flame edge, emphasizing a low-temperature kinetics for autoignited lifted flames, while for a non-autoignited lifted flame, formaldehydes were observed near a thin luminous flame zone.For the autoignited lifted flames with mild combustion, especially at a high temperature, a unique non-monotonic liftoff height behavior was observed; decreasing and then increasing liftoff height with jet velocity. This behavior was similar to the binary mixture fuels of CH4/H2 and CO/H2 observed previously. A transient homogeneous autoignition analysis suggested that such decreasing behavior with jet velocity can be attributed to partial oxidation characteristics of DME in producing appreciable amounts of CH4/CO/H2 ahead of the edge flame region.

  19. The hybrid assistive limb (HAL) for Care Support successfully reduced lumbar load in repetitive lifting movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Kousei; Kadone, Hideki; Koda, Masao; Abe, Tetsuya; Kumagai, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Katsuya; Mataki, Kentaro; Fujii, Kengo; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Funayama, Toru; Kawamoto, Hiroaki; Sankai, Yoshiyuki; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2018-05-03

    Work-related low back pain is a serious socioeconomic problem. This study examined whether HAL for Care Support, which is a newly developed wearable robot, would decrease lumbar fatigue and improve lifting performance during repetitive lifting movements. Eighteen healthy volunteers (11 men, 7 women) performed repetitive stoop lifting movements of a cardboard box weighing 12 kg as many times as possible. The first lifting trial was executed without HAL for Care Support, and the second was with it. We evaluated the VAS of lumbar fatigue as the lumbar load and the number of lifts and the lifting time as lifting performance. Without HAL for Care Support, the mean VAS of lumbar fatigue, the number of lifts and lifting time were 68 mm, 60 and 230 s; with HAL for Care Support, they were 51 mm, 87 and 332 s, respectively. Both lifting performance measures were significantly improved by using HAL for Care Support (Fig. 2). A power analysis showed that there was sufficient statistical power for the VAS of lumbar fatigue (0.99), the number of lifts (0.92), and lifting time (0.93). All participants performed their repetitive lifting trials safely. There were no adverse events caused by using HAL for Care Support. In conclusion, the HAL for Care Support can decrease lumbar load and improve the lifting performance during repetitive stoop lifting movements in healthy adults. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Design and Research of Intelligent Remote Control Fan Based on Single Chip Microcomputer and Bluetooth Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xue-Xia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is designed for intelligent remote control fans. The design of the microcontroller as the core, the sensor, Bluetooth and Andrews system applied to the design of intelligent remote control fan. According to the temperature sensor to achieve the indoor temperature collection, to achieve and set the temperature comparison, thus affecting the fan speed. At the same time, the system according to the infrared sensor components to detect external factors, in order to achieve the running or stopping of the fan, that is, to achieve intelligent control of the fan. In addition, the system achieve the Bluetooth and mobile phone Andrews system of effective combination, and through the software program to complete the fan remote operation and wind speed control.