WorldWideScience

Sample records for tip strain fields

  1. Mode I and mixed mode crack-tip fields in strain gradient plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutianos, Stergios

    2011-01-01

    Strain gradients develop near the crack-tip of Mode I or mixed mode cracks. A finite strain version of the phenomenological strain gradient plasticity theory of Fleck–Hutchinson (2001) is used here to quantify the effect of the material length scales on the crack-tip stress field for a sharp...... stationary crack under Mode I and mixed mode loading. It is found that for material length scales much smaller than the scale of the deformation gradients, the predictions converge to conventional elastic–plastic solutions. For length scales sufficiently large, the predictions converge to elastic solutions....... Thus, the range of length scales over which a strain gradient plasticity model is necessary is identified. The role of each of the three material length scales, incorporated in the multiple length scale theory, in altering the near-tip stress field is systematically studied in order to quantify...

  2. Crack tip stress and strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, D.

    1975-01-01

    The study of potential energy variations in a loaded elastic solid containing a crack leads to determination of the crack driving force G. Generalization of this concept to cases other than linear elasticity leads to definition of the integral J. In a linear solid, the crack tip stress field is characterized by a single parameter: the stress-intensity factor K. When the crack tip plastic zone size is confined to the elastic singularity J=G, it is possible to establish relationship between these parameters and plastic strain (and in particular the crack tip opening displacement delta). The stress increases because of the triaxiality effect. This overload rises with increasing strain hardening. When the plastic zone size expands, using certain hypotheses, delta can be calculated. The plastic strain intensity is exclusively dependent on parameter J [fr

  3. Electron field emission characteristics of carbon nanotube on tungsten tip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Ngoc Hong; Bui Hung Thang; Nguyen Tuan Hong; Phan Ngoc Minh; Lee, Soonil

    2009-01-01

    Electron field emission characteristic of carbon nanotubes on tungsten tip was investigated in 2x10 -6 Torr vacuum. The measurement results showed that the CNTs/W tip could emit electron at 0.7 V/μm (nearly 10 times lower than that of the W tip itself) and reach up to 26 μA at the electric field of 1 V/μm. The emission characteristic follows the Fowler-Nordheim mechanism. Analysis of the emission characteristic showed that the CNTs/W tip has a very high value of field enhancement factor (β = 4.1 x 10 4 cm -1 ) that is much higher than that of the tungsten tip itself. The results confirmed the excellent field emission behavior of the CNTs materials and the CNTs/W tip is a prospective candidate for advanced electron field emitter.

  4. Dependence of electric field on STM tip preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, D.H.; Grey, Francois; Aono, M.

    1998-01-01

    Voltage pulses applied between an STM tip and a surface can modify the surface on the nanometer scale due to electric-field-induced evaporation. However, at present, different groups have achieved surface modification with quite different bias conditions, and it is still difficult to obtain high...... reproducibility in such experiments. In this paper, we measure the tip displacement during a pulse at constant tunnelling current, and deduce that the electric field produced by the pulse depends in a systematic way on tip preparation, The results show how differences in tip preparation can be a major source...

  5. 2D mapping of plane stress crack-tip fields following an overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Withers

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of crack-tip strain fields in a thin (plane stress compact tension sample following an overload (OL event has been studied using two different experimental techniques. Surface behaviour has been characterised by Digital Image Correlation (DIC, while the bulk behaviour has been characterised by means of synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD. The combination of both surface and bulk information allowed us to visualise the through-thickness evolution of the strain fields before the OL event, during the overload event, just after OL and at various stages after it. Unlike previous work, complete 2D maps of strains around the crack-tip were acquired at 60m spatial resolution by XRD. The DIC shows less crack opening after overload and the XRD a lower crack-tip peak stress after OL until the crack has grown past the compressive crack-tip residual stress introduced by the overload after which the behaviour returned to that for the baseline fatigue response. While the peak crack-tip stress is supressed by the compressive residual stress, the crack-tip stress field changes over each cycle are nevertheless the same for all Kmax cycles except at OL.

  6. Chemically etched fiber tips for near-field optical microscopy: a process for smoother tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambelet, P; Sayah, A; Pfeffer, M; Philipona, C; Marquis-Weible, F

    1998-11-01

    An improved method for producing fiber tips for scanning near-field optical microscopy is presented. The improvement consists of chemically etching quartz optical fibers through their acrylate jacket. This new method is compared with the previous one in which bare fibers were etched. With the new process the meniscus formed by the acid along the fiber does not move during etching, leading to a much smoother surface of the tip cone. Subsequent metallization is thus improved, resulting in better coverage of the tip with an aluminum opaque layer. Our results show that leakage can be avoided along the cone, and light transmission through the tip is spatially limited to an optical aperture of a 100-nm dimension.

  7. Light depolarization induced by metallic tips in apertureless near-field optical microscopy and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gucciardi, P G [CNR-Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, sezione Messina, Salita Sperone, Contrada Papardo, I-98158 Faro Superiore, Messina (Italy); Lopes, M; Deturche, R; Julien, C; Barchiesi, D; Chapelle, M Lamy de la [Institut Charles Delaunay-CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes (France)

    2008-05-28

    We have investigated the depolarization effects of light scattered by sharp tips used for apertureless near-field optical microscopy. Dielectric and metal coated tips have been investigated and depolarization factors between 5 and 30% have been measured, changing as a function of the incident light polarization and of the tip shape. The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical calculations performed by the finite element method, giving a near-field depolarization factor close to 10%. The effect of depolarization has been investigated in polarized tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) experiments; the depolarization gives rise to forbidden Raman modes in Si crystals.

  8. Ion production from LiF-coated field emitter tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Bieg, K.W.; Olson, R.E.; Panitz, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Ion emission has been obtained from a LiF-coated tungsten field-emitter tip. Ion formation is thought to be caused by the high electric field experienced by the LiF. At the time of emission the electric field at the surface of the LiF is calculated to be on the order of 100 MV/cm. Inside the LiF the field is on the order of 10 MV/cm. These fields exceed the value needed to produce bulk dielectric breakdown in LiF. The surface field is of sufficient magnitude to produce ion emission by field evaporation from the crystal surface. Even prior to dielectric breakdown, precursor processes can lead to ion formation. Electric-field-stress fragmentation of the LiF layer is thought to occur, followed by ionization of the fragments

  9. Nanosecond field emitted and photo-field emitted current pulses from ZrC tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganter, R.; Bakker, R.J.; Gough, C.; Paraliev, M.; Pedrozzi, M.; Le Pimpec, F.; Rivkin, L.; Wrulich, A.

    2006-01-01

    In order to find electron sources with low thermal emittance, cathodes based on single tip field emitter are investigated. Maximum peak current, measured from single tip in ZrC with a typical apex radius around 1 μm, are presented. Voltage pulses of 2 ns duration and up to 50 kV amplitude lead to field emission current up to 470 mA from one ZrC tip. Combination of high applied electric field with laser illumination gives the possibility to modulate the emission with laser pulses. Nanoseconds current pulses have been emitted with laser pulses at 1064 nm illuminating a ZrC tip under high-DC electric field. The dependence of photo-field emitted current with the applied voltage can be explained by the Schottky effect

  10. Nanosecond field emitted and photo-field emitted current pulses from ZrC tips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganter, R. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland)]. E-mail: romain.ganter@psi.ch; Bakker, R.J. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Gough, C. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Paraliev, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Pedrozzi, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Le Pimpec, F. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Rivkin, L. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Wrulich, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland)

    2006-09-15

    In order to find electron sources with low thermal emittance, cathodes based on single tip field emitter are investigated. Maximum peak current, measured from single tip in ZrC with a typical apex radius around 1 {mu}m, are presented. Voltage pulses of 2 ns duration and up to 50 kV amplitude lead to field emission current up to 470 mA from one ZrC tip. Combination of high applied electric field with laser illumination gives the possibility to modulate the emission with laser pulses. Nanoseconds current pulses have been emitted with laser pulses at 1064 nm illuminating a ZrC tip under high-DC electric field. The dependence of photo-field emitted current with the applied voltage can be explained by the Schottky effect.

  11. Tip-induced local strain on Mo S2/graphite detected by inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Wonhee; Hus, Saban M.; Li, Xufan; Berlijn, Tom; Nguyen, Giang D.; Xiao, Kai; Li, An-Ping

    2018-03-01

    We report the detection of tip-induced local strain applied to the monolayer Mo S2 grown on a graphite substrate by scanning tunneling microscope. Monolayer Mo S2 behaves as both mechanical and tunneling barriers that prevent the tip from contacting the graphite while maintaining the tunneling current. Inelastic tunneling electron spectroscopy (IETS) is utilized to probe the phonon modes in graphite. As the tip pushes the sample, IETS reveals a continuous phonon softening in graphite, corroborated by a downward shift of the phonon energy as calculated by density-functional theory. Our results demonstrate a way to apply local mechanical strain and simultaneously detect the induced change in phonon modes by unitizing IETS with two-dimensional materials as a tunneling barrier.

  12. Magnetic field measurements using the transient internal probe (TIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galambos, J.P.; Bohnet, M.A.; Jarboe, T.R.; Mattick, A.T.

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the internal magnetic field profile in hot plasmas is fundamental to understanding the structure and behavior of the current profile. The transient internal probe (TIP) is a novel diagnostic designed to measure internal magnetic fields in hot plasmas. The diagnostic involves shooting a magneto-optic probe through the plasma at high velocities (greater than 2 km/s) using a two stage light gas gun. Local fields are obtained by illuminating the probe with an argon ion laser and measuring the amount of Faraday rotation in the reflected beam. Initial development of the diagnostic is complete. Results of magnetic field measurements conducted at 2 km/s will be presented. Helium muzzle gas introduction to the plasma chamber has been limited to less than 0.4 Torr-ell. Magnetic field resolution of 40 Gauss and spatial resolution of 5 mm have been achieved. System frequency response is 10 MHz

  13. [TIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazzini, Augusto; Carrillo, Alvaro; Cantella, Raúl

    1998-01-01

    Esophageal hemorrage due to variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients represents a serious problem for the physician in charge, especially in this country where liver transplants are inexistent; and also, it is a drama for the patient and its familly. We propose here the Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS). Twenty one patients were part of a study where 23 TIPS were placed, observing an immediate improval in 18 of them, a rebleeding in 2, within the first 24 and 48 hours. An embolization of the coronary veins was performed in the procedure in 15 patients, and a second intervention due to rebleeding in 2 of them. In the latter patients, the embolization of the coronary veins was rutinary.The survival of the patients has been outstanding.We conclude that this interventional procedure is a worldwide reality in the treatment of esophageal hemorrage by variceal bleeding due to portal hipertension, and it does not cut down the probability of liver transplant, unfortunately inexistent in our country. This procedure results in a low morbimortality with an adequate quality of life.

  14. Development of transient internal probe (TIP) magnetic field diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galambos, J.P.; Bohnet, M.A.; Jarboe, T.R.; Mattick, A.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Transient Internal Probe (TIP) is designed to permit measurement of internal magnetic fields, in hot, high density plasmas. The concept consists of accelerating a probe to high velocities (2.2 Km/s) in order to minimize probe exposure time to plasma. Faraday rotation within the probe is used to measure the local magnetic field. An Argon laser illuminates the probe consisting of a Faraday-rotator material with a retro-reflector that returns the incident light to the detection system. Performance results of the light gas gun and optical detection system will be shown. To date, the gas gun has been extensively tested consistently achieving velocities between 2 and 3 km/s. The probe and detection scheme have been tested by dropping the probe through a static magnetic field. Magnetic field resolution of 20 gauss and spatial resolution of 5 mm has been achieved. System frequency response is 10Mhz. Work is currently being conducted to integrate the diagnostic system with laboratory plasma experiments. Specifically a gas interfaced system has been developed to prevent helium muzzle gas from entering the plasma chamber with the probe. Additionally the probe must be separated from the sabot which protects the probe during acceleration in the gas gun. Data will be presented showing the results of various separation techniques

  15. Neutron diffraction studies on lattice strain evolution around a crack-tip during tensile loading and unloading cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Yinan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)]. E-mail: ysun1@utk.edu; Choo, Hahn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Metals and Ceramics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Liaw, Peter K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Lu Yulin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Yang Bing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Brown, Donald W. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Bourke, Mark A.M. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2005-10-15

    Elastic lattice-strain profiles ahead of a fatigue-crack-tip were measured during tensile loading and unloading cycles using neutron diffraction. The crack-closure phenomenon after an overload was observed. Furthermore, the plastic-zone size in front of the crack-tip was estimated from the diffraction-peak broadening, which showed good agreement with the calculated result.

  16. Dark field electron holography for strain measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beche, A., E-mail: armand.beche@fei.com [CEA-Grenoble, INAC/SP2M/LEMMA, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Rouviere, J.L. [CEA-Grenoble, INAC/SP2M/LEMMA, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Barnes, J.P.; Cooper, D. [CEA-LETI, Minatec Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

    2011-02-15

    Dark field electron holography is a new TEM-based technique for measuring strain with nanometer scale resolution. Here we present the procedure to align a transmission electron microscope and obtain dark field holograms as well as the theoretical background necessary to reconstruct strain maps from holograms. A series of experimental parameters such as biprism voltage, sample thickness, exposure time, tilt angle and choice of diffracted beam are then investigated on a silicon-germanium layer epitaxially embedded in a silicon matrix in order to obtain optimal dark field holograms over a large field of view with good spatial resolution and strain sensitivity. -- Research Highlights: {yields} Step by step explanation of the dark field electron holography technique. {yields} Presentation of the theoretical equations to obtain quantitative strain map. {yields} Description of experimental parameters influencing dark field holography results. {yields} Quantitative strain measurement on a SiGe layer embedded in a silicon matrix.

  17. Pseudomagnetic fields and triaxial strain in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Power, Stephen; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomagnetic fields, which can result from nonuniform strain distributions, have received much attention in graphene systems due to the possibility of mimicking real magnetic fields with magnitudes of greater than 100 T. We examine systems with such strains confined to finite regions ("pseudoma......Pseudomagnetic fields, which can result from nonuniform strain distributions, have received much attention in graphene systems due to the possibility of mimicking real magnetic fields with magnitudes of greater than 100 T. We examine systems with such strains confined to finite regions......-binding calculations of single pseudomagnetic dots in extended graphene sheets confirm these predictions, and are also used to study the effect of rotating the strain direction with respect to the underlying graphene lattice, and varying the size of the pseudomagnetic dot....

  18. Strain gradient plasticity modeling of hydrogen diffusion to the crack tip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez Pañeda, Emilio; del Busto, S.; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2016-01-01

    to characterize the gradient-enhanced stress elevation and subsequent diffusion of hydrogen towards the crack tip. Results reveal that GNDs, absent in conventional plasticity predictions, play a fundamental role on hydrogen transport ahead of a crack. SGP estimations provide a good agreement with experimental......In this work hydrogen diffusion towards the fracture process zone is examined accounting for local hardening due to geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) by means of strain gradient plasticity (SGP). Finite element computations are performed within the finite deformation theory...

  19. The generalized fracture criteria based on the multi-parameter representation of the crack tip stress field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, L. V.

    2017-12-01

    The paper is devoted to the multi-parameter asymptotic description of the stress field near the crack tip of a finite crack in an infinite isotropic elastic plane medium subject to 1) tensile stress; 2) in-plane shear; 3) mixed mode loading for a wide range of mode-mixity situations (Mode I and Mode II). The multi-parameter series expansion of stress tensor components containing higher-order terms is obtained. All the coefficients of the multiparameter series expansion of the stress field are given. The main focus is on the discussion of the influence of considering the higher-order terms of the Williams expansion. The analysis of the higher-order terms in the stress field is performed. It is shown that the larger the distance from the crack tip, the more terms it is necessary to keep in the asymptotic series expansion. Therefore, it can be concluded that several more higher-order terms of the Williams expansion should be used for the stress field description when the distance from the crack tip is not small enough. The crack propagation direction angle is calculated. Two fracture criteria, the maximum tangential stress criterion and the strain energy density criterion, are used. The multi-parameter form of the two commonly used fracture criteria is introduced and tested. Thirty and more terms of the Williams series expansion for the near-crack-tip stress field enable the angle to be calculated more precisely.

  20. Direct measurement of conformational strain energy in protofilaments curling outward from disassembling microtubule tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Jonathan W; Geyer, Elisabeth A; Bailey, Megan E; Rice, Luke M; Asbury, Charles L

    2017-06-19

    Disassembling microtubules can generate movement independently of motor enzymes, especially at kinetochores where they drive chromosome motility. A popular explanation is the 'conformational wave' model, in which protofilaments pull on the kinetochore as they curl outward from a disassembling tip. But whether protofilaments can work efficiently via this spring-like mechanism has been unclear. By modifying a previous assay to use recombinant tubulin and feedback-controlled laser trapping, we directly demonstrate the spring-like elasticity of curling protofilaments. Measuring their mechanical work output suggests they carry ~25% of the energy of GTP hydrolysis as bending strain, enabling them to drive movement with efficiency similar to conventional motors. Surprisingly, a β-tubulin mutant that dramatically slows disassembly has no effect on work output, indicating an uncoupling of disassembly speed from protofilament strain. These results show the wave mechanism can make a major contribution to kinetochore motility and establish a direct approach for measuring tubulin mechano-chemistry.

  1. The potential use of diamond coated tungsten tips as a field ionisation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, A.; Prawer, S.; Legge, G.J.F.; Kostidis, L.I. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Tungsten tips are convenient for use in a high brightness gaseous phase field ionisation source. However, the lifetime of these tips is not adequate for practical use. The authors are investigating whether coating tungsten tips with diamond using Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) will improve the practicality of using these tips by an improvement in longevity of the source and/or an improvement in brightness due to the effects of the property of negative electron affinity which has been observed on CVD diamond. 1 ref.

  2. The potential use of diamond coated tungsten tips as a field ionisation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, A; Prawer, S; Legge, G J.F.; Kostidis, L I [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Tungsten tips are convenient for use in a high brightness gaseous phase field ionisation source. However, the lifetime of these tips is not adequate for practical use. The authors are investigating whether coating tungsten tips with diamond using Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) will improve the practicality of using these tips by an improvement in longevity of the source and/or an improvement in brightness due to the effects of the property of negative electron affinity which has been observed on CVD diamond. 1 ref.

  3. Plasmonic superfocusing on metallic tips for near-field optical imaging and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neacsu, Catalin C.; Olmon, Rob; Berweger, Samuel; Kappus, Alexandria; Kirchner, Friedrich; Ropers, Claus; Saraf, Lax; Raschke, Markus B.

    2008-03-01

    Realization of localized light sources through nonlocal excitation is important in the context of plasmon photonics, molecular sensing, and in particular near-field optical techniques. Here, the efficient conversion of propagating surface plasmons, launched on the shaft of a scanning probe tip, into localized plasmon at the apex provides a true nanoconfined light source. Focused ion beam milling is used to generate periodic surface nanostructures on the tip shaft that allow for tailoring the plasmon excitation. Using ultrashort visible and mid-IR transients the dynamics of the propagation and subsequent scattered emission is characterized. The strong field enhancement and spatial field confinement at the apex is demonstrated studying the coupling of the tip in near-field interaction with a flat sample surface. It is used in scattering near-field spectroscopic imaging (s-SNOM) to probe surface nanostructures with spatial resolution down to 10 nm.

  4. Strain sensors for high field pulse magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Christian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zheng, Yan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Easton, Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farinholt, Kevin M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an investigation into several strain sensing technologies that are being considered to monitor mechanical deformation within the steel reinforcement shells used in high field pulsed magnets. Such systems generally operate at cryogenic temperatures to mitigate heating issues that are inherent in the coils of nondestructive, high field pulsed magnets. The objective of this preliminary study is to characterize the performance of various strain sensing technologies at liquid nitrogen temperatures (-196 C). Four sensor types are considered in this investigation: fiber Bragg gratings (FBG), resistive foil strain gauges (RFSG), piezoelectric polymers (PVDF), and piezoceramics (PZT). Three operational conditions are considered for each sensor: bond integrity, sensitivity as a function of temperature, and thermal cycling effects. Several experiments were conducted as part of this study, investigating adhesion with various substrate materials (stainless steel, aluminum, and carbon fiber), sensitivity to static (FBG and RFSG) and dynamic (RFSG, PVDF and PZT) load conditions, and sensor diagnostics using PZT sensors. This work has been conducted in collaboration with the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL), and the results of this study will be used to identify the set of sensing technologies that would be best suited for integration within high field pulsed magnets at the NHMFL facility.

  5. Optical shaping of a nano-scale tip by femtosecond laser assisted field evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Russo, E.; Houard, J.; Langolff, V.; Moldovan, S.; Rigutti, L.; Deconihout, B.; Blavette, D.; Bogdanowicz, J.; Vella, A.

    2018-04-01

    We have investigated the morphology of a nanotip under femtosecond laser pulse illumination and a high electric field. We show that both the symmetry and the local radius of the tip change with the direction of laser polarization as against the tip axis. The experiments were performed on the very same GaN nanotip by laser-assisted atom probe tomography and electron tomography. This allowed an accurate assessment of the tip features by following the order of evaporation of single atoms from the surface. A change of atom emission sites was observed when a change of the angle between the tip axis and the linearly polarized electric field of the laser was imposed. This enables an optical control of field-evaporation sites. A close optical control of the tip morphology on a scale below 10 nm is thus achievable. Calculations of the field at nanotip apex and absorption maps support the experimental observations. Based on the present study, methods can be developed for reshaping nanotips at the nanometer level. This finding opens perspectives for numerous applications, making use of nanotips as probes or field emitters, and for plasmonic devices.

  6. On the dynamic fracture toughness and crack tip strain behavior of nuclear pressure vessel steel: Application of electromagnetic force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagawa, G.; Yoshimura, S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the application of the electromagnetic force to the determination of the dynamic fracture toughness of materials. Taken is an edge-cracked specimen which carries a transient electric current and is simply supported in a steady magnetic field. As a result of their interaction, the dynamic electromagnetic force occurs in the whole body of the specimen, which is then deformed to fracture in the opening mode of cracking. Using the electric potential and the J-R curve methods to determine the dynamic crack initiation point in the experiment, together with the finite element method to calculate the extended J-integral with the effects of the electromagnetic force and inertia, the dynamic fracture toughness values of nuclear pressure vessel steel A508 class 3 are evaluated over a wide temperature range from lower to upper shelves. The strain distribution near the crack tip in the dynamic process of fracture is also obtained by applying a computer picture processing. (orig.)

  7. Continuum damage mechanics analysis of crack tip zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yinchu, L.; Jianping, Z.

    1989-01-01

    The crack tip field and its intensity factor play an important role in fracture mechanics. Generally, the damage such as microcracks, microvoids etc. will initiate and grow in materials as the cracked body is subjected to external loadings, especially in the crack tip zone. The damage evolution will load to the crack tip damage field and the change of the stress, strain and displacement fields of cracks tip zone. In this paper, on the basis of continuum damage mechanics, the authors have derived the equations which the crack tip field and its intensity factor must satisfy in a loading process, calculated the angle distribution curves of stress, strain and displacement fields in a crack tip zone and have compared them with the corresponding curves of HRR field and linear elastic field in undamaged materials. The equations of crack tip field intensity factors have been solved and its solutions give the variation of the field intensity factors with the loading parameter

  8. Phase field approaches of bone remodeling based on TIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganghoffer, Jean-François; Rahouadj, Rachid; Boisse, Julien; Forest, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    The process of bone remodeling includes a cycle of repair, renewal, and optimization. This adaptation process, in response to variations in external loads and chemical driving factors, involves three main types of bone cells: osteoclasts, which remove the old pre-existing bone; osteoblasts, which form the new bone in a second phase; osteocytes, which are sensing cells embedded into the bone matrix, trigger the aforementioned sequence of events. The remodeling process involves mineralization of the bone in the diffuse interface separating the marrow, which contains all specialized cells, from the newly formed bone. The main objective advocated in this contribution is the setting up of a modeling and simulation framework relying on the phase field method to capture the evolution of the diffuse interface between the new bone and the marrow at the scale of individual trabeculae. The phase field describes the degree of mineralization of this diffuse interface; it varies continuously between the lower value (no mineral) and unity (fully mineralized phase, e.g. new bone), allowing the consideration of a diffuse moving interface. The modeling framework is the theory of continuous media, for which field equations for the mechanical, chemical, and interfacial phenomena are written, based on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. Additional models for the cellular activity are formulated to describe the coupling of the cell activity responsible for bone production/resorption to the kinetics of the internal variables. Kinetic equations for the internal variables are obtained from a pseudo-potential of dissipation. The combination of the balance equations for the microforce associated to the phase field and the kinetic equations lead to the Ginzburg-Landau equation satisfied by the phase field with a source term accounting for the dissipative microforce. Simulations illustrating the proposed framework are performed in a one-dimensional situation showing the evolution of

  9. Electro-optic detection of subwavelength terahertz spot sizes in the near field of a metal tip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Valk, N.C.J.; Planken, P.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    We report on a method to obtain a subwavelength resolution in terahertz time-domain imaging. In our method, a sharp copper tip is used to locally distort and concentrate the THz electric field. The distorted electric field, present mainly in the near field of the tip, is electro-optically measured

  10. Effects of plastic anisotropy on crack-tip behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Brian Nyvang; Tvergaard, Viggo; Kuroda, Mitsutoshi

    2002-01-01

    For a crack in a homogeneous material the effect of plastic anisotropy on crack-tip blunting and on the near-tip stress and strain fields is analyzed numerically. The full finite strain analyses are carried out for plane strain under small scale yielding conditions, with purely symmetric mode I...... loading remote from the crack-tip. In cases where the principal axes of the anisotropy are inclined to the plane of the crack it is found that the plastic zones as well as the stress and strain fields just around the blunted tip of the crack become non-symmetric. In these cases the peak strain...... on the blunted tip occurs off the center line of the crack, thus indicating that the crack may want to grow in a different direction. When the anisotropic axes are parallel to the crack symmetry is retained, but the plastic zones and the near-tip fields still differ from those predicted by standard isotropic...

  11. Dependence of the ferroelectric domain shape on the electric field of the microscope tip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starkov, Alexander S.; Starkov, Ivan A.

    2015-01-01

    A theory of an equilibrium shape of the domain formed in an electric field of a scanning force microscope (SFM) tip is proposed. We do not assume a priori that the domain has a fixed form. The shape of the domain is defined by the minimum of the free energy of the ferroelectric. This energy includes the energy of the depolarization field, the energy of the domain wall, and the energy of the interaction between the domain and the electric field of the SFM tip. The contributions of the apex and conical part of the tip are examined. Moreover, in the proposed approach, any narrow tip can be considered. The surface energy is determined on the basis of the Ginzburg-Landau-Devonshire theory and takes into account the curvature of the domain wall. The variation of the free energy with respect to the domain shape leads to an integro-differential equation, which must be solved numerically. Model results are illustrated for lithium tantalate ceramics

  12. A TEM method for analyzing local strain fields in irradiated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennetch, J.I.; Jesser, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    Of great interest to the field of fracture mechanics is the strain field in front of a crack tip. In irradiated materials, cavities which naturally form as a result of radiation provide convenient internal markers. If a miniaturized irradiated tensile sample is pulled in situ in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), both the relative displacement of these cavities and their distortion in shape provide information on localized strain on a microscopic level. In addition, the TEM method allows direct correlation of active slip systems with crack propagation characteristics. To illustrate this method a strain field map was constructed about a crack propagating in a helium irradiated type 316 stainless steel sample containing large cavities. (orig.)

  13. Characterization and fabrication of fully metal-coated scanning near-field optical microscopy SiO2 tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeschimann, L; Akiyama, T; Staufer, U; De Rooij, N F; Thiery, L; Eckert, R; Heinzelmann, H

    2003-03-01

    The fabrication of silicon cantilever-based scanning near-field optical microscope probes with fully aluminium-coated quartz tips was optimized to increase production yield. Different cantilever designs for dynamic- and contact-mode force feedback were implemented. Light transmission through the tips was investigated experimentally in terms of the metal coating and the tip cone-angle. We found that transmittance varies with the skin depth of the metal coating and is inverse to the cone angle, meaning that slender tips showed higher transmission. Near-field optical images of individual fluorescing molecules showed a resolution thermocouple showed no evidence of mechanical defect or orifice formation by thermal effects.

  14. Field Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freifeld, Lorri

    2012-01-01

    Many employees claim they learn best while doing, so they prefer to dive right in and learn as they go when they get a new job or take on new responsibilities. But the most successful and quickest learning on the job takes place when there is a formal on-the-job training (OJT) program--a fact many organizations and managers fail to take into…

  15. Polarization contrast in reflection near-field optical microscopy with uncoated fibre tips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Langbein, Wolfgang; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1999-01-01

    Using cross-hatched, patterned semiconductor surfaces and round 20-nm-thick gold pads on semiconductor wafers, we investigate the imaging characteristics of a reflection near-field optical microscope with an uncoated fibre tip for different polarization configurations and light wavelengths....... Is is shown that cross-polarized detection allows one to effectively suppress far-field components in the detected signal and to realise imaging of optical contrast on the sub-wavelength scale. The sensitivity window of our microscope, i.e. the scale on which near-field optical images represent mainly optical...

  16. Application of computer picture processing to dynamic strain measurement under electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagawa, G.; Soneda, N.

    1987-01-01

    For the structural design of fusion reactors, it is very important to ensure the structural integrity of components under various dynamic loading conditions due to a solid-electromagnetic field interaction, an earthquake, MHD effects and so on. As one of the experimental approaches to assess the dynamic fracture, we consider the strain measurement near a crack tip under a transient electromagnetic field, which in general involves several experimental difficulties. The authors have developed a strain measurement method using a picture processing technique. In this method, locations of marks printed on a surface of specimen are determined by the picture processing. The displacement field is interpolated using the mark displacements and finite elements. Finally the strain distribution is calculated by differentiating the displacement field. In the present study, the method is improved and automated apply to the measurement of dynamic strain distribution under an electromagnetic field. Then the effects of dynamic loading on the strain distribution are investigated by comparing the dynamic results with the static ones. (orig./GL)

  17. Study of electrons photoemitted from field emission tips. Progress report, July 1, 1979-March 1, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifenberger, R.

    1980-02-01

    Photo-induced field emission is a technique which studies electrons that have been photoemitted from a field emission tip. This new experimental method promises to combine the proven utility of both field emission and photoemission for investigating the electronic states near a metal surface. The primary objective of the research being performed is to investigate photo-induced field emitted electrons using a tuneable cw dye laser. To fully exploit this continuously tuneable photon source, a differential energy analyzer is being constructed to allow energy resolved measurements of the photo-field emitted electrons. This report describes the progress made in implementing experiments on photo-induced field emission from July 1979 to March 1980

  18. Field-emission from parabolic tips: Current distributions, the net current, and effective emission area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Debabrata

    2018-04-01

    Field emission from nano-structured emitters primarily takes place from the tips. Using recent results on the variation of the enhancement factor around the apex [Biswas et al., Ultramicroscopy 185, 1-4 (2018)], analytical expressions for the surface distribution of net emitted electrons, as well as the total and normal energy distributions are derived in terms of the apex radius Ra and the local electric field at the apex Ea. Formulae for the net emitted current and effective emission area in terms of these quantities are also obtained.

  19. Near field plasmonic gradient effects on high vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yurui; Zhang, Zhenglong; Chen, Li; Sun, Mengtao

    2015-01-14

    Near field gradient effects in high vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (HV-TERS) are a recent developing ultra-sensitive optical and spectral analysis technology on the nanoscale, based on the plasmons and plasmonic gradient enhancement in the near field and under high vacuum. HV-TERS can not only be used to detect ultra-sensitive Raman spectra enhanced by surface plasmon, but also to detect clear molecular IR-active modes enhanced by strongly plasmonic gradient. Furthermore, the molecular overtone modes and combinational modes can also be experimentally measured, where the Fermi resonance and Darling-Dennison resonance were successfully observed in HV-TERS. Theoretical calculations using electromagnetic field theory firmly supported experimental observation. The intensity ratio of the plasmon gradient term over the linear plasmon term can reach values greater than 1. Theoretical calculations also revealed that with the increase in gap distance between tip and substrate, the decrease in the plasmon gradient was more significant than the decrease in plasmon intensity, which is the reason that the gradient Raman can be only observed in the near field. Recent experimental results of near field gradient effects on HV-TERS were summarized, following the section of the theoretical analysis.

  20. Investigating of the Field Emission Performance on Nano-Apex Carbon Fiber and Tungsten Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Marwan S.; Alnawasreh, Shadi; Madanat, Mazen A.; Al-Rabadi, Anas N.

    2015-10-01

    Field electron emission measurements have been performed on carbon-based and tungsten microemitters. Several samples of both types of emitters with different apex radii have been obtained employing electrolytic etching techniques using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution with different molarities depending on the material used. A suitable, home-built, field electron microscope (FEM) with 10 mm tip to screen separation distance was used to electrically characterize the electron emitters. Measurements were carried out under ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions with base pressure of 10-9 mbar. The current-voltage characteristics (I-V) presented as Fowler-Nordheim (FN) type plots, and field electron emission images have been recorded. In this work, initial comparison of the field electron emission performance of these micro and nanoemitters has been carried out, with the aim of obtaining a reliable, stable and long life powerful electron source. We compare the apex radii measured from the micrographs obtained from the SEM images to those extracted from the FN-type _I-V_plots for carbon fibers and tungsten tips.

  1. Investigating of the Field Emission Performance on Nano-Apex Carbon Fiber and Tungsten Tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousa, Marwan S; Alnawasreh, Shadi; Al-Rabadi, Anas N; Madanat, Mazen A

    2015-01-01

    Field electron emission measurements have been performed on carbon-based and tungsten microemitters. Several samples of both types of emitters with different apex radii have been obtained employing electrolytic etching techniques using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution with different molarities depending on the material used. A suitable, home-built, field electron microscope (FEM) with 10 mm tip to screen separation distance was used to electrically characterize the electron emitters. Measurements were carried out under ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions with base pressure of 10 -9 mbar. The current-voltage characteristics (I-V) presented as Fowler-Nordheim (FN) type plots, and field electron emission images have been recorded. In this work, initial comparison of the field electron emission performance of these micro and nanoemitters has been carried out, with the aim of obtaining a reliable, stable and long life powerful electron source. We compare the apex radii measured from the micrographs obtained from the SEM images to those extracted from the FN-type -I-V-plots for carbon fibers and tungsten tips. (paper)

  2. Some aspects of forces and fields in atomic models of crack tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoagland, R.G.; Daw, M.S.; Hirth, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the stresses and displacement gradients in atomistic models of cracks based on an EAM potential devised for aluminum. Methods for computing these quantities are described. Results are presented for two models differing in terms of the orientations of the crack relative to the crystal, a [100](010) orientation that behaves in a brittle fashion and a [111](110) orientation which emits partial dislocations prior to extending. Both models display lattice trapping. The stresses in the brittle crack model are compared with the linear elastic prediction and found to be in remarkably good agreement to within distances of about one lattice parameter of the crack tip and at the free surface where contributions from sources other than strain energy (e.g., surface tension) influence the results. Similar results are observed for the ductile model until dislocation emission occurs. The largest stresses that develop just prior to crack extension or dislocation emission are used to estimate the ratio of theoretical tensile strength to shear strength in this material. Eshelby's conservation integrals, F and M, are also computed. F is found to be essentially contour independent and in agreement with the linear elastic prediction in both models until dislocation emission occurs, at which point a large screening contribution arises from the emitted partials. The contour size dependence of M reveals some interesting features of the crack tip including a slight wobble of the crack tip inside its potential well with changing applied K and the existence of forces acting to move the crack faces apart as blunting occurs

  3. Calculated shape dependence of electromagnetic field in tip-enhanced Raman scattering by using a monopole antenna model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahama, Yasutaka; Itoh, Tamitake; Suzuki, Toshiaki

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the shape of an Ag tip with regard to tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) signal, the enhanced electromagnetic (EM) field and scattering spectrum, arising from surface plasmon resonance at the apex of the tip, were calculated using a finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method. In the calculated forward scattering spectra from the smooth Ag tip, the band appeared within the visible region, similar to the experimental results and calculation for a corrugated Ag cone. In the FDTD calculation of TERS, the Ag tip acting as a monopole antenna was adopted by insertion of a perfect electric conductor between the root of the tip and a top boundary surface of the calculation space. As a result, the EM field was only enhanced at the apex. The shape dependence i.e. the EM field calculated at the apex with various curvatures on the different tapered tips, obtained using the monopole antenna model, was different from that simulated using a conventional dipole antenna model.

  4. Effects of a Nonuniform Tip Clearance Profile on the Performance and Flow Field in a Centrifugal Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohan Jung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical investigation of the effects of a nonuniform tip clearance profile on the performance and flow field in a centrifugal compressor with a vaneless diffuser. This study focuses in particular on the magnitude and location of the wake. Six impellers with different tip clearance profiles were tested in the flow simulations. The accuracy of the numerical simulations was assessed by comparing the experimental data with the computational results for a system characterized by the original tip clearance. Although the performance improved for low tip clearances, a low tip clearance at the trailing edge improved the compressor performance more significantly than a low tip clearance at the leading edge. The flow field calculated for a system characterized by a low tip clearance at the trailing edge produced a more uniform velocity distribution both in the circumferential and in the axial directions at the impeller exit because the wake magnitude was reduced. As a consequence, this impeller provided a better potential for diffusion processes inside a vaneless diffuser.

  5. A linear least squares approach for evaluation of crack tip stress field parameters using DIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harilal, R.; Vyasarayani, C. P.; Ramji, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the present work, an experimental study is carried out to estimate the mixed-mode stress intensity factors (SIF) for different cracked specimen configurations using digital image correlation (DIC) technique. For the estimation of mixed-mode SIF's using DIC, a new algorithm is proposed for the extraction of crack tip location and coefficients in the multi-parameter displacement field equations. From those estimated coefficients, SIF could be extracted. The required displacement data surrounding the crack tip has been obtained using 2D-DIC technique. An open source 2D DIC software Ncorr is used for the displacement field extraction. The presented methodology has been used to extract mixed-mode SIF's for specimen configurations like single edge notch (SEN) specimen and centre slant crack (CSC) specimens made out of Al 2014-T6 alloy. The experimental results have been compared with the analytical values and they are found to be in good agreement, thereby confirming the accuracy of the algorithm being proposed.

  6. Strain field due to self-interstitial impurity in Ni

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The embedded-atom method have been applied to study the strain field ... coordinates which are essentially the Fourier inverses of the direct space ..... stiffness, low coefficient of thermal expansion and chemical compatibility in a variety of.

  7. Dynamic scattering theory for dark-field electron holography of 3D strain fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubk, Axel; Javon, Elsa; Cherkashin, Nikolay; Reboh, Shay; Gatel, Christophe; Hÿtch, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Dark-field electron holography maps strain in crystal lattices into reconstructed phases over large fields of view. Here we investigate the details of the lattice strain-reconstructed phase relationship by applying dynamic scattering theory both analytically and numerically. We develop efficient analytic linear projection rules for 3D strain fields, facilitating a straight-forward calculation of reconstructed phases from 3D strained materials. They are used in the following to quantify the influence of various experimental parameters like strain magnitude, specimen thickness, excitation error and surface relaxation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A quantitative prediction model of SCC rate for nuclear structure materials in high temperature water based on crack tip creep strain rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, F.Q.; Xue, H.; Zhao, L.Y.; Fang, X.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Creep is considered to be the primary mechanical factor of crack tip film degradation. • The prediction model of SCC rate is based on crack tip creep strain rate. • The SCC rate calculated at the secondary stage of creep is recommended. • The effect of stress intensity factor on SCC growth rate is discussed. - Abstract: The quantitative prediction of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of structure materials is essential in safety assessment of nuclear power plants. A new quantitative prediction model is proposed by combining the Ford–Andresen model, a crack tip creep model and an elastic–plastic finite element method. The creep at the crack tip is considered to be the primary mechanical factor of protective film degradation, and the creep strain rate at the crack tip is suggested as primary mechanical factor in predicting the SCC rate. The SCC rates at secondary stage of creep are recommended when using the approach introduced in this study to predict the SCC rates of materials in high temperature water. The proposed approach can be used to understand the SCC crack growth in structural materials of light water reactors

  9. Synthesis and field emission characteristics of carbon nanocoils with a high aspect ratio supported by copper micro-tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Woo Yong; Ok, Jong Girl; Kim, Wal Jun; Lee, Seung Min; Yeon, Soon Chang; Lee, Ho Young; Kim, Yong Hyup

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanocoils (CNCs) were synthesized via thermal chemical vapour deposition (CVD) with C 2 H 2 and NH 3 gases at 600 deg. C. A Ni catalyst was placed upon the copper micro-tip structures that were fabricated on a silicon substrate. Our CNCs had a long rope shape with a length not exceeding 100 μm and a nanoscale diameter. The copper micro-tips were formed through high current pulse electroplating, which played a significant role in characterizing our CNCs. The CNCs grown on the copper micro-tips showed outstanding field emission performance and long-term stability. Their turn-on field, defined as that at a current density of 10 μA cm -2 , was 1.30 V μm -1 and the maximum current density reached 11.17 mA cm -2 at an electric field of 2.39 V μm -1

  10. Tip-enhanced near-field Raman spectroscopy with a scanning tunneling microscope and side-illumination optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, K J; He, X N; Zhou, Y S; Xiong, W; Lu, Y F

    2008-07-01

    Conventional Raman spectroscopy (RS) suffers from low spatial resolution and low detection sensitivity due to the optical diffraction limit and small interaction cross sections. It has been reported that a highly localized and significantly enhanced electromagnetic field could be generated in the proximity of a metallic tip illuminated by a laser beam. In this study, a tip-enhanced RS system was developed to both improve the resolution and enhance the detection sensitivity using the tip-enhanced near-field effects. This instrument, by combining RS with a scanning tunneling microscope and side-illumination optics, demonstrated significant enhancement on both optical sensitivity and spatial resolution using either silver (Ag)-coated tungsten (W) tips or gold (Au) tips. The sensitivity improvement was verified by observing the enhancement effects on silicon (Si) substrates. Lateral resolution was verified to be below 100 nm by mapping Ag nanostructures. By deploying the depolarization technique, an apparent enhancement of 175% on Si substrates was achieved. Furthermore, the developed instrument features fast and reliable optical alignment, versatile sample adaptability, and effective suppression of far-field signals.

  11. Towards quantitative off-axis electron holographic mapping of the electric field around the tip of a sharp biased metallic needle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beleggia, Marco; Kasama, Takeshi; Larson, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    We apply off-axis electron holography and Lorentz microscopy in the transmission electron microscope to map the electric field generated by a sharp biased metallic tip. A combination of experimental data and modelling provides quantitative information about the potential and the field around...... the tip. Close to the tip apex, we measure a maximum field intensity of 82 MV/m, corresponding to a field k factor of 2.5, in excellent agreement with theory. In order to verify the validity of the measurements, we use the inferred charge density distribution in the tip region to generate simulated phase...

  12. Programmable set-up for electrochemical preparation of STM tips and ultra-sharp field emission cathodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knápek, Alexandr; Sýkora, Jiří; Chlumská, Jana; Sobola, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 173, APR 5 (2017), s. 42-47 ISSN 0167-9317 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : field emission cathode * STM tip * electrochemical etching Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2016

  13. Strain-induced modulation of near-field radiative transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanekar, Alok; Ricci, Matthew; Tian, Yanpei; Gregory, Otto; Zheng, Yi

    2018-06-11

    In this theoretical study, we present a near-field thermal modulator that exhibits change in radiative heat transfer when subjected to mechanical stress/strain. The device has two terminals at different temperatures separated by vacuum: one fixed and one stretchable. The stretchable side contains one-dimensional grating. When subjected to mechanical strain, the effective optical properties of the stretchable side are affected upon deformation of the grating. This results in modulation of surface waves across the interfaces influencing near-field radiative heat transfer. We show that for a separation of 100 nm, it is possible to achieve 25% change in radiative heat transfer for a strain of 10%.

  14. The measurement of the modal strain fields using digital shearography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes J.M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a Michelson shearography interferometer configuration associated with stroboscopic double illumination technique for the measurement of modal rotation fields and their strain fields on a clamped circular aluminium plate. The speckle pattern is frozen by the synchronization between the LASER illumination and the modal vibration of the object. The quantitative evaluation is performed for each digital shearogram using a time modulation technique. The setup of double illumination LASER with out-of-plane opposite sensitivity allows the two phase maps measurement of the modal spatial gradient. The modal rotation and strain fields are extracted by the combination of this two digital phase maps. Image processing techniques are applied on the phase maps to obtain full-field measurements using a dedicated post-processing algorithm. Finally, is presented a comparison between the experimental measurement and the numerical solution.

  15. Tip enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, Satoshi

    2007-01-01

    This book discusses the recent advances in the area of near-field Raman scattering, mainly focusing on tip-enhanced and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Some of the key features covered here are the optical structuring and manipulations, single molecule sensitivity, analysis of single-walled carbon nanotubes, and analytic applications in chemistry, biology and material sciences. This book also discusses the plasmonic materials for better enhancement, and optical antennas. Further, near-field microscopy based on second harmonic generation is also discussed. Chapters have been written by some of the leading scientists in this field, who present some of their recent work in this field.·Near-field Raman scattering·Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy·Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy·Nano-photonics·Nanoanalysis of Physical, chemical and biological materials beyond the diffraction limits·Single molecule detection

  16. Strain rate orientations near the Coso Geothermal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasa, N. T.; Kaven, J. O.; Barbour, A. J.; von Huene, R.

    2016-12-01

    Many geothermal reservoirs derive their sustained capacity for heat exchange in large part due to continuous deformation of preexisting faults and fractures that permit permeability to be maintained. Similarly, enhanced geothermal systems rely on the creation of suitable permeability from fracture and faults networks to be viable. Stress measurements from boreholes or earthquake source mechanisms are commonly used to infer the tectonic conditions that drive deformation, but here we show that geodetic data can also be used. Specifically, we quantify variations in the horizontal strain rate tensor in the area surrounding the Coso Geothermal Field (CGF) by analyzing more than two decades of high accuracy differential GPS data from a network of 14 stations from the University of Nevada Reno Geodetic Laboratory. To handle offsets in the data, from equipment changes and coseismic deformation, we segment the data, perform a piecewise linear fit and take the average of each segment's strain rate to determine secular velocities at each station. With respect to North America, all stations tend to travel northwest at velocities ranging from 1 to 10 mm/yr. The nearest station to CGF shows anomalous motion compared to regional stations, which otherwise show a coherent increase in network velocity from the northeast to the southwest. We determine strain rates via linear approximation using GPS velocities in Cartesian reference frame due to the small area of our network. Principal strain rate components derived from this inversion show maximum extensional strain rates of 30 nanostrain/a occur at N87W with compressional strain rates of 37nanostrain/a at N3E. These results generally align with previous stress measurements from borehole breakouts, which indicate the least compressive horizontal principal stress is east-west oriented, and indicative of the basin and range tectonic setting. Our results suggest that the CGF represents an anomaly in the crustal deformation field, which

  17. Polarization Control with Plasmonic Antenna Tips: A Universal Approach to Optical Nanocrystallography and Vector-Field Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoung-Duck; Raschke, Markus B.

    2018-05-01

    Controlling the propagation and polarization vectors in linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy enables to probe the anisotropy of optical responses providing structural symmetry selective contrast in optical imaging. Here we present a novel tilted antenna-tip approach to control the optical vector-field by breaking the axial symmetry of the nano-probe in tip-enhanced near-field microscopy. This gives rise to a localized plasmonic antenna effect with significantly enhanced optical field vectors with control of both \\textit{in-plane} and \\textit{out-of-plane} components. We use the resulting vector-field specificity in the symmetry selective nonlinear optical response of second-harmonic generation (SHG) for a generalized approach to optical nano-crystallography and -imaging. In tip-enhanced SHG imaging of monolayer MoS$_2$ films and single-crystalline ferroelectric YMnO$_3$, we reveal nano-crystallographic details of domain boundaries and domain topology with enhanced sensitivity and nanoscale spatial resolution. The approach is applicable to any anisotropic linear and nonlinear optical response, and provides for optical nano-crystallographic imaging of molecular or quantum materials.

  18. Xenon gas field ion source from a single-atom tip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wei-Chiao; Lin, Chun-Yueh; Chang, Wei-Tse; Li, Po-Chang; Fu, Tsu-Yi; Chang, Chia-Seng; Tsong, T. T.; Hwang, Ing-Shouh

    2017-06-01

    Focused ion beam (FIB) systems have become powerful diagnostic and modification tools for nanoscience and nanotechnology. Gas field ion sources (GFISs) built from atomic-size emitters offer the highest brightness among all ion sources and thus can improve the spatial resolution of FIB systems. Here we show that the Ir/W(111) single-atom tip (SAT) can emit high-brightness Xe+ ion beams with a high current stability. The ion emission current versus extraction voltage was analyzed from 150 K up to 309 K. The optimal emitter temperature for maximum Xe+ ion emission was ˜150 K and the reduced brightness at the Xe gas pressure of 1 × 10-4 torr is two to three orders of magnitude higher than that of a Ga liquid metal ion source, and four to five orders of magnitude higher than that of a Xe inductively coupled plasma ion source. Most surprisingly, the SAT emitter remained stable even when operated at 309 K. Even though the ion current decreased with increasing temperature, the current at room temperature (RT) could still reach over 1 pA when the gas pressure was higher than 1 × 10-3 torr, indicating the feasibility of RT-Xe-GFIS for application to FIB systems. The operation temperature of Xe-SAT-GFIS is considerably higher than the cryogenic temperature required for the helium ion microscope (HIM), which offers great technical advantages because only simple or no cooling schemes can be adopted. Thus, Xe-GFIS-FIB would be easy to implement and may become a powerful tool for nanoscale milling and secondary ion mass spectroscopy.

  19. Strain fields and line energies of dislocations in uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parfitt, David C; Bishop, Clare L; Wenman, Mark R; Grimes, Robin W

    2010-01-01

    Computer simulations are used to investigate the stability of typical dislocations in uranium dioxide. We explain in detail the methods used to produce the dislocation configurations and calculate the line energy and Peierls barrier for pure edge and screw dislocations with the shortest Burgers vector 1/2 . The easiest slip system is found to be the {100}(110) system for stoichiometric UO 2 , in agreement with experimental observations. We also examine the different strain fields associated with these line defects and the close agreement between the strain field predicted by atomic scale models and the application of elastic theory. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the processes of slip that may occur for the three different edge dislocation geometries and nudged elastic band calculations are used to establish a value for the Peierls barrier, showing the possible utility of the method in investigating both thermodynamic average behaviour and dynamic processes such as creep and plastic deformation.

  20. Dynamic scattering theory for dark-field electron holography of 3D strain fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubk, Axel; Javon, Elsa; Cherkashin, Nikolay; Reboh, Shay; Gatel, Christophe; Hÿtch, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Dark-field electron holography maps strain in crystal lattices into reconstructed phases over large fields of view. Here we investigate the details of the lattice strain–reconstructed phase relationship by applying dynamic scattering theory both analytically and numerically. We develop efficient analytic linear projection rules for 3D strain fields, facilitating a straight-forward calculation of reconstructed phases from 3D strained materials. They are used in the following to quantify the influence of various experimental parameters like strain magnitude, specimen thickness, excitation error and surface relaxation. - Author-Highlights: • We derive a simple dynamic scattering formalism for dark field electron holography based on a perturbative two-beam theory. • The formalism facilitates the projection of 3D strain fields by a simple weighting integral. • The weighted projection depends analytically on the diffraction order, the excitation error and the specimen thickness. • The weighting integral formalism represents an important prerequisite towards the development of tomographic strain reconstruction techniques

  1. Multi-parameter approximation of the stress field in a cracked body in the more distant surroundings of the crack tip

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselý, V.; Sobek, J.; Frantík, P.; Seitl, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 89, AUG (2016), s. 20-35 ISSN 0142-1123. [International Conference on Characterisation of Crack Tip Fields /3./. Urbino, 20.04.2015-22.04.2015] Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Crack-tip fields * Williams power series * Higher order terms * Stress field reconstruction * Multi-parameter approximation accuracy Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.899, year: 2016

  2. Quasi-static crack tip fields in rate-sensitive FCC single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this work, the effects of loading rate, material rate sensitivity and constraint level on quasi-static crack tip fields in a FCC single crystal are studied. ... Global General Motors R&D, India Science Lab, GM Technical Centre (India), Bangalore 560 066, India; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, ...

  3. Methods for Cavitation Prediction on Tip-Modified Propellers in Ship Wake Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Keun Woo; Regener, Pelle Bo; Andersen, Poul

    2015-01-01

    Unsteady cavitation simulations on a tip-modified propellerin behind-hull condition are made by both BoundaryElement Method (BEM) and Computational FluidDynamics (CFD).As the hull geometry typically is not disclosed to thepropeller designer and thus cannot be included in thesimulation, other meas...

  4. Moving an Evidence-Based Policy Agenda Forward: Leadership Tips From the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Teresa

    2018-05-01

    Advancing evidence-based policy change is a leadership challenge that nurses should embrace. Key tips to ensure that evidence-based policy changes are successful at the individual, community, and population levels are offered to help nurses through the change process. The public trust in the nursing profession is a leverage point that should be used to advance the use of evidence, expedite change, and improve health for students and across communities.

  5. Nickel--chromium strain gages for cryogenic stress analysis of superconducting structures in high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Magnetoresistance measurements of strain gages were made. The magnitude and variation of the magnetoresistance of a large number of strain gages were measured for the following conditions: (1) dc magnetic fields up to 12 T, (2) three orthogonal field directions, (3) increasing and decreasing fields, (4) a wide range of strain levels, and (5) liquid helium temperature

  6. Controlling molecular condensation/diffusion of copper phthalocyanine by local electric field induced with scanning tunneling microscope tip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Katsumi; Yaginuma, Shin; Nakayama, Tomonobu

    2018-02-01

    We have discovered the condensation/diffusion phenomena of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules controlled with a pulsed electric field induced by the scanning tunneling microscope tip. This behavior is not explained by the conventional induced dipole model. In order to understand the mechanism, we have measured the electronic structure of the molecule by tunneling spectroscopy and also performed theoretical calculations on molecular orbitals. These data clearly indicate that the molecule is positively charged owing to charge transfer to the substrate, and that hydrogen bonding exists between CuPc molecules, which makes the molecular island stable.

  7. Tips for TIPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, C.F.

    2015-01-01

    The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedure is one of the most technically challenging procedures in interventional radiology. During the procedure, interventional radiologists (IRs) insert very thin and long instruments through a little incision in the patient’s neck. They

  8. Near-Field Imaging of Free Carriers in ZnO Nanowires with a Scanning Probe Tip Made of Heavily Doped Germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakat, Emilie; Giliberti, Valeria; Bollani, Monica; Notargiacomo, Andrea; Pea, Marialilia; Finazzi, Marco; Pellegrini, Giovanni; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Weber-Bargioni, Alexander; Melli, Mauro; Sassolini, Simone; Cabrini, Stefano; Biagioni, Paolo; Ortolani, Michele; Baldassarre, Leonetta

    2017-11-01

    A novel scanning probe tip made of heavily doped semiconductor is fabricated and used instead of standard gold-coated tips in infrared scattering-type near-field microscopy. Midinfrared near-field microscopy experiments are conducted on ZnO nanowires with a lateral resolution better than 100 nm, using tips made of heavily electron-doped germanium with a plasma frequency in the midinfrared (plasma wavelength of 9.5 μ m ). Nanowires embedded in a dielectric matrix are imaged at two wavelengths, 11.3 and 8.0 μ m , above and below the plasma wavelength of the tips. An opposite sign of the imaging contrasts between the nanowire and the dielectric matrix is observed at the two infrared wavelengths, indicating a clear role of the free-electron plasma in the heavily doped germanium tip in building the imaging contrast. Electromagnetic simulations with a multispherical dipole model accounting for the finite size of the tip are well consistent with the experiments. By comparison of the simulated and measured imaging contrasts, an estimate for the local free-carrier density in the investigated ZnO nanowires in the low 1019 cm-3 range is retrieved. The results are benchmarked against the scattering intensity and phase maps obtained on the same sample with a gold-coated probe tip in pseudoheterodyne detection mode.

  9. Highly stable carbon nanotube field emitters on small metal tips against electrical arcing for miniature X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jun Mok; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Hyun Nam; Raza, Hamid Saeed; Cho, Sung Oh

    2015-01-01

    If CNT emitters are operated at a high voltage or at a high electric field, electrical arcing (or vacuum breakdown) can occur. Arcing can be initiated by the removed CNTs, impurities on the CNTs or substrates, protrusion of CNTs, low operating vacuum, and a very high electric field. Since arcing is accompanied with a very high current flow and it can produce plasma channel near the emitter, CNTs are seriously damaged or sometimes CNTs are almost completely removed from the substrate by the arcing events. Detachment of CNTs from a substrate is an irreversible catastrophic phenomenon for a device operation. In addition to the detachment of CNTs, arcing induces a sudden voltage drop and thus device operation is stopped. The metal mixture strongly attached CNTs to the tip substrate. Due to the strong adhesion, CNT emitters could be pre-treated with electrical conditioning process without seriously damaging the CNTs even though many intense arcing events were induced at the small and sharp geometry of the tip substrate. Impurities that were loosely bound to the substrates were almost removed and CNTs heights became uniform after the electrical conditioning process

  10. Multi-scale simulations of field ion microscopy images—Image compression with and without the tip shank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NiewieczerzaŁ, Daniel; Oleksy, CzesŁaw; Szczepkowicz, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Multi-scale simulations of field ion microscopy images of faceted and hemispherical samples are performed using a 3D model. It is shown that faceted crystals have compressed images even in cases with no shank. The presence of the shank increases the compression of images of faceted crystals quantitatively in the same way as for hemispherical samples. It is hereby proven that the shank does not influence significantly the local, relative variations of the magnification caused by the atomic-scale structure of the sample. -- Highlights: ► Multi-scale simulations of field ion microscopy images. ► Faceted and hemispherical samples with and without shank. ► Shank causes overall compression, but does not influence local magnification effects. ► Image compression linearly increases with the shank angle. ► Shank changes compression of image of faceted tip in the same way as for smooth sample.

  11. A wireless sensor network design and evaluation for large structural strain field monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Zixue; Wu, Jian; Yuan, Shenfang

    2011-01-01

    Structural strain changes under external environmental or mechanical loads are the main monitoring parameters in structural health monitoring or mechanical property tests. This paper presents a wireless sensor network designed for monitoring large structural strain field variation. First of all, a precision strain sensor node is designed for multi-channel strain gauge signal conditioning and wireless monitoring. In order to establish a synchronous strain data acquisition network, the cluster-star network synchronization method is designed in detail. To verify the functionality of the designed wireless network for strain field monitoring capability, a multi-point network evaluation system is developed for an experimental aluminum plate structure for load variation monitoring. Based on the precision wireless strain nodes, the wireless data acquisition network is deployed to synchronously gather, process and transmit strain gauge signals and monitor results under concentrated loads. This paper shows the efficiency of the wireless sensor network for large structural strain field monitoring

  12. Anisotropic excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on a metal film by a scattering-type scanning near-field microscope with a non-rotationally-symmetric probe tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walla Frederik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on gold films with the metallized probe tip of a scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM. The emission of the polaritons from the tip, illuminated by near-infrared laser radiation, was found to be anisotropic and not circularly symmetric as expected on the basis of literature data. We furthermore identified an additional excitation channel via light that was reflected off the tip and excited the plasmon polaritons at the edge of the metal film. Our results, while obtained for a non-rotationally-symmetric type of probe tip and thus specific for this situation, indicate that when an s-SNOM is employed for the investigation of plasmonic structures, the unintentional excitation of surface waves and anisotropic surface wave propagation must be considered in order to correctly interpret the signatures of plasmon polariton generation and propagation.

  13. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash ... tv tip-overs. The force of a large television falling from tipping furniture can be staggering. A ...

  14. CPAP Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... now Try it free Find out why Close CPAP Tips from FDA USFoodandDrugAdmin Loading... Unsubscribe from USFoodandDrugAdmin? ... apnea and use a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device when sleeping? Here are some tips from ...

  15. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The force of a large television falling from tipping furniture ... 50 lb. TV falls with about the same force as child falling from the third story of ...

  16. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture ... about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The force of a ...

  17. Ultra-thin graphene edges at the nanowire tips: a cascade cold cathode with two-stage field amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, Uday N; Majumder, Tapas Pal; Maiti, Soumen; Chattopadhyay, Kalyan K

    2011-01-01

    A multistage field emitter based on graphene-linked ZnO nanowire array is realized by means of spin-coating a graphene dispersion (reduced graphene oxide) over a nanostructured platform followed by plasma modification. Spin-coating leads to interlinking of graphene sheets between the neighboring nanowires whereas plasma etching in the subsequent step generates numerous ultra-sharp graphene edges at the nanowire tips. The inherent tendency of graphene to lay flat over a plane substrate can easily be bypassed through the currently presented nanostructure platform based technique. The turn-on and threshold field significantly downshifted compared to the individual components in the cascade emitter. Through the facile electron transfer from nanowires to graphene due to band bending at the ZnO–graphene interface together with multistage geometrical field enhancement at both the nanowire and graphene edges remain behind this enriched field emission from the composite cold cathode. This strategy will open up a new direction to integrate the functionalities of both the graphene array and several other inorganic nanostructure array for practical electronic devices.

  18. Nickel--chromium strain gages for cryogenic stress analysis of superconducting structures in high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freynik, H.S. Jr.; Roach, D.R.; Deis, D.W.; Hirzel, D.G.

    1977-01-01

    Evaluation and calibration measurements were performed on commercial nickel-chromium metal-foil strain gages in a high-magnetic-field (12 T), liquid-helium (4.2 K) environment. The purpose was to fully characterize strain gages for use at cryogenic temperatures in high magnetic fields. In this study, the magnetoresistance of a number of strain gages was measured in three orthogonal directions at mechanical strain levels to 8900 μm/m. As a result, a unique calibration curve was defined for magnetoresistance strain errors that is independent of strain level and field direction to 12 T at 4.2 K. A current strain-gage application is the measurement of superconductor mechanical properties. These gages will soon be used in the stress analysis of superconducting fusion magnets during cooldown from ambient temperatures and during operation at 4.2 K with magnetic fields to 12 T

  19. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... en español Blog About OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by ... danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe ...

  20. Enhancement of electron emission and long-term stability of tip-type carbon nanotube field emitters via lithium coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-Pil; Chang, Han-Beet; Kim, Bu-Jong; Park, Jin-Seok

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were deposited on conical tip-type substrates via electrophoresis and coated with lithium (Li) thin films with diverse thicknesses via electroplating. For the as-deposited (i.e., without Li coating) CNT, the turn-on (or triggering) electric field was 0.92 V/μm, and the emission current, which was generated at an applied field of 1.2 V/μm was 56 μA. In the case of the 4.7 nm-thick Li-coated CNT, the turn-on field decreased to 0.65 V/μm and the emission current at the same applied field increased more than ten times to 618 μA. The analysis based on the Kelvin probe measurement and Fowler–Nordheim theory indicated that the coating of Li caused a loss in the structural-aspect-ratio of the CNTs and it reduced their effective work functions from 5.36 eV to 4.90 eV, which led to a great improvement of their electron emission characteristics. The results obtained in this study also showed that the long-term emission stability could be enhanced by the coating of thin Li films on CNTs. - Highlights: ► CNTs are deposited via electrophoretic deposition (EPD). ► Thin films of Li are coated on CNTs via electroplating, without plasma damage. ► Li coating enhanced field emission properties and emission stability of CNTs. ► The effective work functions and field enhancement factors of CNTs are evaluated

  1. Characterization of metal-coated fiber tip for NSOM lithography by tip-to-tip scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubicova, I.; Pudis, D.; Suslik, L.; Skriniarova, J.

    2011-01-01

    For the optical field characterization, a tip-to-tip scan of two metal-coated fiber tips with circular aperture at the apex was performed. The optical field irradiated from the fiber probe in illumination mode was analyzed by NSOM represented by fiber probe in collection mode. The near-field intensity profile of the source fiber tip in the plane perpendicular to the axis of the tip was taken. Experimental stage requires high resolution 3D motion system controlled by computer (Fig. 1). The source and the detector fiber tip were placed on the moving and static part of the 3D nanoposition system, respectively. As a light source, a modulated 473 nm DPSS laser was used. After the source fiber tip characterization, the NSOM lithography was performed. In the experimental setup from Fig. 1, the detector fiber tip was replaced by a sample fixed in a vacuum holder. As a sample, a 600 nm positive photoresist AZ 5214E was spin-coated on a GaAs substrate. Exposure was carried out by irradiation of the sample at desired positions through the fiber tip aperture. The sample was developed in AZ 400K developer for 30 s and rinsed in DI water. A promising tip-to-tip scanning technique for characterization of metal-coated fiber tips with aperture at the apex was presented. Nearly-circular aperture shapes were documented from NSOM measurements with diameter estimated to be less than 460 nm. By knowing the source-detector distance and the FWHM of the near-field intensity profile, the tip-to-tip scan proves an easy and fast method to analyze the fiber tip aperture properties. The fiber tip resolution was confirmed by preparation of 2D planar structures in thin photoresist layer, where the NSOM lithography uses the metal-coated fiber tip characterized in previous section. (authors)

  2. High resolution structuring of emitter tips for the gaseous field ionization source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubby, J.A.; Siegel, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    Extraction of a stable, high brightness ion beam from an apertured field ion emitter surface requires microfabrication procedures to sculpture the surface topography on both microscopic (100 --1000 nm) and near atomic (10 --100 nm) length scales. Structuring on a near atomic scale is required to confine and stabilize the ion beam by local enhancement of the surface electrostatic field and to orient that emission on the optical axis. Control of the emitter contour on a microscopic scale is required for manipulating the supply of neutral molecules to the ionization site and also affects beam stability. We have developed a method using ion milling for configuring surface contour on microscopic and near atomic length scales which utilizes the morphological changes occurring at ion bombarded surfaces as a result of erosion by sputtering. A SEM study of the microscopic emitter topographical development is compared to computer simulations of the kinematical wave equation which depicts the erosion process. In this way, prediction of configuration on a length scale large compared to the ion penetration depth has been established. TEM observations show the surface development on the length scale of ion penetration depth. Preliminary results using this microfabricated emitter in a gaseous field ion source to produce a hydrogen ion beam with high angular beam confinement are given. Requirements for surface topography that are essential to obtain stable high brightness ion beams are discussed

  3. Photoemission and photo-field-emission from photocathodes with arrays of silicon tips under continuous and pulsed lasers action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laguna, M.

    1995-11-01

    The electron machines's development and improvement go through the discovery of new electron sources of high brightness. After reminding the interests in studying silicon cathodes with array of tips as electron sources, I describe, in the three steps model, the main phenomenological features related to photoemission and photoemission and photo-field-emission from a semi-conductor. the experimental set-ups used for the measurements reported in chapter four, five and six are described in chapter three. In chapter three. In chapter four several aspects of photo-field-emission in continuous and nanosecond regimes, studied on the Clermont-Ferrand's test bench are tackled. We have measured quantum efficacies of 0.4 percent in the red (1.96 eV). Temporal responses in the nanoseconds range (10 ns) were observed with the Nd: YLF laser. With the laser impinging at an oblique angle we obtained ratios of photocurrent to dark current of the order of twenty. The issue of the high energy extracted photocurrent saturation is addressed and I give a preliminary explanation. In collaboration with the L.A.L. (Laboratoire de l'Accelerateur Lineaire) some tests with shortened pulsed laser beam (Nd: YAG laser 35 ps) were performed. Satisfactory response times have been obtained within the limitation of the scope (400 ps). (authors). 101 refs. 93 figs., 27 tabs., 3 photos., 1 append

  4. Analysis of strain field around. beta. -hydride in Nb-H by Electron Channeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akune, K; Bulhoes, I A.M.

    1985-06-01

    The strain field in Nb-H system generated by the precipitation of ..beta..-hydride has been evaluated quantitatively by Electron Channeling experiment. The results were analyzed in terms of the effective deformation of the Levi-Mises solid by making use of an elasto-plastic model of the strain field around the misfitting cylindrical precipitate.

  5. Research on the novel FBG detection system for temperature and strain field distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-chao; Yang, Jin-hua

    2017-10-01

    In order to collect the information of temperature and strain field distribution information, the novel FBG detection system was designed. The system applied linear chirped FBG structure for large bandwidth. The structure of novel FBG cover was designed as a linear change in thickness, in order to have a different response at different locations. It can obtain the temperature and strain field distribution information by reflection spectrum simultaneously. The structure of novel FBG cover was designed, and its theoretical function is calculated. Its solution is derived for strain field distribution. By simulation analysis the change trend of temperature and strain field distribution were analyzed in the conditions of different strain strength and action position, the strain field distribution can be resolved. The FOB100 series equipment was used to test the temperature in experiment, and The JSM-A10 series equipment was used to test the strain field distribution in experiment. The average error of experimental results was better than 1.1% for temperature, and the average error of experimental results was better than 1.3% for strain. There were individual errors when the strain was small in test data. It is feasibility by theoretical analysis, simulation calculation and experiment, and it is very suitable for application practice.

  6. Field culture of American strain of Artemia in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Krishnakumari, L.

    Pilot scale culture of Artemia was carried out in a 0.22 ha condenser unit of salt pans. Pond was fertilized with inorganic salts. The nauplii of San Francisco Bay, USA strain were inoculated. Within a period of 5 months a production of 20.6 kg dry...

  7. Prevention of brittle fracture of steel structures by controlling the local stress and strain fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyseychik Evgeniy Alekseevich

    Full Text Available In the article the author offers a classification of the methods to increase the cold resistance of steel structural shapes with a focus on the regulation of local fields of internal stresses and strains to prevent brittle fracture of steel structures. The need of a computer thermography is highlighted not only for visualization of temperature fields on the surface, but also to control the fields of residual stresses and strains in a controlled element.

  8. CPAP Tips

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... now Try it free Find out why Close CPAP Tips from FDA USFoodandDrugAdmin Loading... Unsubscribe from USFoodandDrugAdmin? ... apnea and use a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device when sleeping? Here are some tips from ...

  9. Technology Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathematics Teacher, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Some inexpensive or free ways that enable to capture and use images in work are mentioned. The first tip demonstrates the methods of using some of the built-in capabilities of the Macintosh and Windows-based PC operating systems, and the second tip describes methods to capture and create images using SnagIt.

  10. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point ... 24 hours a day. For young children whose home is a playground, it’s the best way to ...

  11. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash ...

  12. A comparative study of P450 gene expression in field and laboratory Musca domestica L. strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højland, Dorte Heidi; Vagn Jensen, Karl-Martin; Kristensen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The housefly is a global pest that has developed resistance to most insecticides applied for its control. Resistance has been associated with cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s). The authors compare the expression of six genes possibly associated with insecticide resistance in three...... unselected strains: a multiresistant strain (791a), a neonicotinoid-resistant strain (766b) and a new field strain (845b). RESULTS CYP4G2 was highly expressed throughout the range of strains and proved to be the one of the most interesting expression profiles of all P450s analysed. CYP6G4 was expressed up...... to 11-fold higher in 766b than in WHO-SRS. Significant differences between expression of P450 genes between F1 flies from 845b and established laboratory strains were shown. In general, P450 gene expression in 845b was 2–14-fold higher than in the reference strain (P

  13. Gender-specific differences in cannibalism between a laboratory strain and a field strain of a predatory mite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revynthi, A M; Janssen, A; Egas, M

    2018-03-01

    Many phytoseiid species, including Phytoseiulus persimilis, are known to engage in cannibalism when food is scarce and when there is no possibility to disperse. In nature adult females of P. persimilis are known to disperse when prey is locally depleted. Males, in contrast, are expected to stay and wait for potential mates to mature. During this phase, males can obtain food by cannibalizing. Therefore, we hypothesize that male P. persimilis exhibit a higher tendency to cannibalize than females. Because rearing conditions in the laboratory usually prevent dispersal, prolonged culturing may also affect cannibalistic behavior. We hypothesize that this should especially affect cannibalism by females, because they consume far more food. We tested these hypotheses by comparing males and females from two strains, one of which had been in culture for over 20 years, whereas the other was recently collected from the field. It is known that this predator can discriminate between kin and non-kin and prefers cannibalizing the latter, hence to construct lines with high relatedness we created isofemale lines of these two original strains. We subsequently tested to what extent the adult females and males of the original strains and the isofemale lines cannibalized conspecific larvae from the same strain/line in a closed system. Relatedness with the victims did not affect cannibalistic behavior, but males engaged more often in cannibalism than females, and females of the laboratory strain engaged more in cannibalism than those of the field strain, both in agreement with our ideas. We hypothesize that the difference in cannibalism between the two genders will increase when they have the alternative to disperse.

  14. Field-induced strain memory with non-180 .deg. domain-reorientation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadota, Yoichi; Hosaka, Hiroshi; Morita, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Using non-180 .deg. domain-reorientation control, we propose the strain memory effect in ferroelectric ceramics. Electric fields with asymmetric amplitudes were applied to soft-type lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics, and the strain hysteresis and the polarization loop were measured. The butterfly curve became asymmetric under an electric field with a particular asymmetric amplitude. The asymmetric butterfly curve had two stable strain states at zero electric field. Thus, the strain memory effect was realized as the difference between the two stable strain states. An XRD analysis was carried out to verify the contribution of the non-180 .deg. domain reorientation to the strain memory effect. The non-180 .deg. domain reorientation was determined as the intensity ratio of the (002) to the (200) peak. The strain memory determined from macroscopic strain measurements had a linear relationship to the non-180 .deg. domain volume fraction. This result indicated the origin of the strain memory to be the non-180 .deg. domain reorientation.

  15. Analysis of strain field around β-hydride in Nb-H by electron channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akune, K.; Bulhoes, I.A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The strain field in Nb-H system generated by the precipitation of β-hydride has been evaluated quantitatively by Electron Channelling experiment. The results were analyzed in terms of the effective deformation of the Levi-Mises solid by making use of an elasto-plastic model of the strain fiedl around the misfitting cylindrical precipitate. (Author) [pt

  16. The genomic diversity and stability of field strains of Suid herpesvirus 1 (Aujeszky's disease virus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Sørensen, K. J.

    1991-01-01

    The genomic diversity among isolates of suid herpesvirus 1 (SHV-1) collected in the same herd and among clones from the same isolate was studied by restriction fragment pattern (RFP) analysis using BamHI. Tentatively defining a field strain as a transmissible entity, it was concluded that strains...

  17. Hybrid MEFPI/FBG sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mao-qing; Zhao, Yong; Lv, Ri-qing; Xia, Feng

    2017-12-01

    A hybrid fiber-optic sensor consisting of a micro extrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (MEFPI) and an etched fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is proposed, which can measure strain and magnetic field simultaneously. The etched FBG is sealed in a capillary with ferrofluids to detect the surrounding magnetic field. FBG with small diameter will be more sensitive to magnetic field is confirmed by simulation results. The MEFPI sensor that is prepared through welding a short section of hollow-core fiber (HCF) with single-mode fiber (SMF) is effective for strain detection. The experiment shows that strain and magnetic field can be successfully simultaneously detected based on hybrid MEFPI/FBG sensor. The sensitivities of the strain and magnetic field intensity are measured to be up to 1.41 pm/με and 5.11 pm/mT respectively. There is a negligible effect on each other, hence simultaneously measuring strain and magnetic field is feasible. It is anticipated that such easy preparation, compact and low-cost fiber-optic sensors for simultaneous measurement of strain and magnetic field could find important applications in practice.

  18. Method of measurement of near tip field of fast propagating cracks by means of interferometry; Hikari kansho ni yoru kosoku shinten kiretsu sentanbu no oryokuba keisokuho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, s.; Miyazaki, F. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakane, K. [Nitto Denko Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1994-12-15

    The measurement by an interference method at the tip of fast propagating cracks was investigated. To clarify the direction-dependent problem of dynamic cracks in a higher-order term, a high-precision stress field must be measured in every direction. In this method, the propagated interference fringes near the crack tip are shot at a speed of some hundreds of m/sec, and the coefficient of dynamic stress extension is obtained from the expression given when the number of fringes (`m`) in the interferences fringes is differentiated partially. The information below was obtained. The stress field in every direction can be analyzed by the interference method. However, the interference fringes in an area of absolute {theta} < 120{degree} are radially spread from the crack tip, so the precision of the interference fringes in the {gamma} direction deteriorates. In this area, the above partial differential is higher in precision when {alpha}m/{alpha}{theta} is used instead of {alpha}m/{alpha}{gamma}. The stress extension coefficient obtained by a caustic method can be verified if a stress field of {theta} = {plus_minus}72{degree} is analyzed by the interference method. By shooting in this optical system, the COD measurement, the K-value measurement of caustic light, and the stress field measurement by an interference method can be done simultaneously. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  19. Effect of strain field on displacement cascade in tungsten studied by molecular dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Gao, N., E-mail: ning.gao@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Z.G., E-mail: zhgwang@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Gao, X. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); He, W.H. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Cui, M.H.; Pang, L.L.; Zhu, Y.B. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Using atomistic methods, the coupling effect of strain field and displacement cascade in body-centered cubic (BCC) tungsten is directly simulated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at different temperatures. The values of the hydrostatic and uniaxial (parallel or perpendicular to primary knock-on atom (PKA) direction) strains are from −2% to 2% and the temperature is from 100 to 1000 K. Because of the annealing effect, the influence of strain on radiation damage at low temperature has been proved to be more significant than that at high temperature. When the cascade proceeds under the hydrostatic strain, the Frenkel Pair (FP) production, the fraction of defect in cluster and the average size of the defect cluster, all increase at tensile state and decrease at compressive state. When the cascade is under uniaxial strain, the effect of strain parallel to PKA direction is less than the effect of hydrostatic strain, while the effect of strain perpendicular to PKA direction can be negligible. Under the uniaxial strain along 〈1 1 1〉 direction, the SIA and SIA cluster is observed to orientate along the strain direction at tensile state and the uniaxial compressive strain with direction perpendicular to 〈1 1 1〉 has led to the similar preferred nucleation. All these results indicate that under irradiation, the tensile state should be avoided for materials used in nuclear power plants.

  20. Full-field Strain Analysis of a Ski Boot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.; Singer, G.; Major, Z.

    2010-06-01

    The quality of the ski boots plays an extraordinary important role in the performance and in the safety of the skiers. The deformation behavior of a racing class ski boot was characterized by using the digital image correlation technique in this study. The boot was gripped in the ski binding and 3 types of motions of the skiers and the deformations of the boot were simulated by a professional skier in the laboratory. First, the buckles were closed in 4 stages and the resulting strains were measured. Furthermore, the skier positioned his balance continuously forward, resulting in a high overall bending deformation of the boot. The leg of the skier acted as a bending arm and pushed the upper part of the boot forward. This loading situation was assumed as quasistatic and was repeated several times. Finally, the skier jumped and this dynamic movement was recorded by using two high speed cameras for 3D analysis. Special focus was devoted to the measurement of the deformation of the boot during the contact of the ski with the ground of the laboratory. Both the displacement of the upper part and the local strain in selected areas of the boot was determined for both quasi-static and dynamic test conditions and are discussed in the paper.

  1. Laboratory and field studies on an Indian strain of the brine shrimp Artemia

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.

    The Tuticorin strain of the brine shrimp @iArtemia@@ was studied under both laboratory and field conditions. Studies on the survival of the nauplii at different temperatures and salinities revealed that the nauplii preferred a salinity of 35 ppt...

  2. Electric Field Induced Strain in Electrostrictive Polymers Under High Hydrostatic Pressure - System Development and Material Characterization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Q

    2000-01-01

    ... of (i) developing a high performance piezo-bimorph based dilatometer which can be used to characterize the electric field induced strain response in polymer films under high hydrostatic pressure, (ii...

  3. Tipping Point

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  9. MEASUREMENTS OF STRAIN FIELDS DUE TO NANOSCALE PRECIPITATES USING THE PHASE IMAGE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Donnadieu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Owing the phase image method (Hytch, 1998, strain fields can be derived from HREM images. The method is here applied to the nanoscale precipitates responsible for hardening in Aluminum alloys. Since the method is a very sensitive one, we have examined the impact of several aspects of the image quality (noise, fluctuations, distortion. The strain field information derived from the HREM image analysis is further introduced in a simulation of the dislocation motion in the matrix.

  10. Effect of In Situ Annealing Treatment on the Mobility and Morphology of TIPS-Pentacene-Based Organic Field-Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fuqiang; Wang, Xiaolin; Fan, Huidong; Tang, Ying; Yang, Jianjun; Yu, Junsheng

    2017-08-01

    In this work, organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with a bottom gate top contact structure were fabricated by using a spray-coating method, and the influence of in situ annealing treatment on the OFET performance was investigated. Compared to the conventional post-annealing method, the field-effect mobility of OFET with 60 °C in situ annealing treatment was enhanced nearly four times from 0.056 to 0.191 cm2/Vs. The surface morphologies and the crystallization of TIPS-pentacene films were characterized by optical microscope, atomic force microscope, and X-ray diffraction. We found that the increased mobility was mainly attributed to the improved crystallization and highly ordered TIPS-pentacene molecules.

  11. Field monitoring of static, dynamic, and statnamic pile loading tests using fibre Bragg grating strain sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Correia, Ricardo P.; Chehura, Edmon; Staines, Stephen; James, Stephen W.; Tatam, Ralph; Butcher, Antony P.; Fuentes, Raul

    2009-10-01

    Pile loading test plays an important role in the field of piling engineering. In order to gain further insight into the load transfer mechanism, strain gauges are often used to measure local strains along the piles. This paper reports a case whereby FBG strain sensors was employed in a field trial conducted on three different types of pile loading tests in a glacial till. The instrumentation systems were configured to suit the specific characteristic of each type of test. Typical test results are presented. The great potential of using FBG sensors for pile testing is shown.

  12. Deformation-strain field in Sichuan and its surrounding areas based on GPS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchao Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The strain rate in Sichuan and its surrounding areas, and the activity rate and strain rate in two block boundary fault zones were calculated according to the block movement parameters estimated using the station speed obtained from regional GPS station observation data in these areas for 2009–2011 and GPS continuous station data for 2011–2013. The movement field characteristics in these areas were analyzed with the Sichuan Basin as the reference. Results show that the principal strain rate and maximum shear strain rate of the Bayan Har block were the largest, followed by those of the Sichuan–Yunnan block and Sichuan Basin. The deep normal strain rate in the Longmenshan fault zone was compressive and large over the study period. The normal strain rate in the Xianshuihe fault zone was tensile.

  13. Magnet pole tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Craig E.; Chasman, Chellis; Baltz, Anthony J.

    1984-04-24

    An improved magnet which more easily provides a radially increasing magnetic field, as well as reduced fringe field and requires less power for a given field intensity. The subject invention comprises a pair of spaced, opposed magnetic poles which further comprise a pair of pole roots, each having a pole tip attached to its center. The pole tips define the gap between the magnetic poles and at least a portion of each pole tip is separated from its associated pole root. The separation begins at a predetermined distance from the center of the pole root and increases with increasing radial distance while being constant with azimuth within that portion. Magnets in accordance with the subject invention have been found to be particularly advantageous for use in large isochronous cyclotrons.

  14. Evaluation of metal-foil strain gages for cryogenic application in magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freynik, H.S. Jr.; Roach, D.R.; Deis, D.W.; Hirzel, D.G.

    1977-01-01

    The requirement for the design and construction of large superconducting magnet systems for fusion research has raised a number of new questions regarding the properties of composite superconducting conductors. One of these, the effect of mechanical stress on the current-carrying capacity of Nb 3 Sn, is of major importance in determining the feasibility of constructing large magnets with this material. A typical experiment for determining such data involves the measurement of critical current versus magnetic field while the conductor is being mechanically strained to various degrees. Techniques are well developed for the current and field measurements, but much less so for the accurate measurement of strain at liquid-helium temperature in a high magnetic field. A study was made of commercial, metal-foil strain gages for use under these conditions. The information developed can also be applied to the use of strain gages as diagnostic tools in superconducting magnets

  15. Measuring strain and rotation fields at the dislocation core in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, L. L.; Carpio, A.; Gong, C.; Warner, J. H.

    2015-10-01

    Strain fields, dislocations, and defects may be used to control electronic properties of graphene. By using advanced imaging techniques with high-resolution transmission electron microscopes, we have measured the strain and rotation fields about dislocations in monolayer graphene with single-atom sensitivity. These fields differ qualitatively from those given by conventional linear elasticity. However, atom positions calculated from two-dimensional (2D) discrete elasticity and three-dimensional discrete periodized Föppl-von Kármán equations (dpFvKEs) yield fields close to experiments when determined by geometric phase analysis. 2D theories produce symmetric fields whereas those from experiments exhibit asymmetries. Numerical solutions of dpFvKEs provide strain and rotation fields of dislocation dipoles and pairs that also exhibit asymmetries and, compared with experiments, may yield information on out-of-plane displacements of atoms. While discrete theories need to be solved numerically, analytical formulas for strains and rotation about dislocations can be obtained from 2D Mindlin's hyperstress theory. These formulas are very useful for fitting experimental data and provide a template to ascertain the importance of nonlinear and nonplanar effects. Measuring the parameters of this theory, we find two characteristic lengths between three and four times the lattice spacings that control dilatation and rotation about a dislocation. At larger distances from the dislocation core, the elastic fields decay to those of conventional elasticity. Our results may be relevant for strain engineering in graphene and other 2D materials of current interest.

  16. Strain dependence of the critical current and critical field in multifilamentary Nb3Sn composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekin, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    High-J/sub c/ multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn superconductors with widely varying amounts of prestrain and critical field values can be characterized fairly accurately by a single normalized critical field-strain relationship. Such a relationship permits first order prediction of critical-current degradation at arbitrary magnetic field magnitudes with knowledge of only two parameters for any conductor, the prestrain and the maximum critical field. Some of the conductor-fabrication factors affecting the parameters are considered

  17. Validation of the Abbreviated Brucella AMOS PCR as a Rapid Screening Method for Differentiation of Brucella abortus Field Strain Isolates and the Vaccine Strains, 19 and RB51

    OpenAIRE

    Ewalt, Darla R.; Bricker, Betsy J.

    2000-01-01

    The Brucella AMOS PCR assay was previously developed to identify and differentiate specific Brucella species. In this study, an abbreviated Brucella AMOS PCR test was evaluated to determine its accuracy in differentiating Brucella abortus into three categories: field strains, vaccine strain 19 (S19), and vaccine strain RB51/parent strain 2308 (S2308). Two hundred thirty-one isolates were identified and tested by the conventional biochemical tests and Brucella AMOS PCR. This included 120 isola...

  18. Current-Induced Joule Heating and Electrical Field Effects in Low Temperature Measurements on TIPS Pentacene Thin Film Transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikiforov, G.O.; Venkateshvaran, D.; Mooser, S.; Meneau, A.; Strobel, T.; Kronemeijer, A.; Jiang, L.; Lee, M.J.; Sirringhaus, H.

    2016-01-01

    The channel temperature (Tch) of solution-processed 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)-pentacene (TIPS pentacene) thin film transistors (TFTs) is closely monitored in real time during current–voltage (I–V) measurements carried out in a He exchange gas cryostat at various base temperatures (Tb)

  19. [Characterization of the genetic variability of field strains of Brucella canis isolated in Antioquia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal Arboleda, Juana L; Ortiz Roman, Luisa F; Olivera Angel, Martha

    2017-12-22

    Brucella canis is a facultative intracellular pathogen responsible for canine brucellosis, a zoonotic disease that affects canines, causing abortions and reproductive failure; and the production of non-specific symptoms in humans. In 2005 the presence of B. canis in Antioquia was demonstrated and the strains were identified as type 2. The sequencing of the genome of a field strain denoted Brucella canis str. Oliveri, showed species-specific indel events, which led us to investigate the genomic characteristics of the B. canis strain isolated and to establish the phylogenetic relationships and the divergence time of B. canis str. Oliveri. Conventional PCR sequencing was performed in 30 field strains identifying 5 indel events recognized in B. canis str. Oliveri. ADN from Brucella suis, Brucella melitensis and vaccine strains from Brucella abortus were used as control, and it was determined that all of the studied field strains shared 4 out of the 5 indels of the sequenced Oliveri strain, indicating the presence of more than one strain circulating in the region. Phylogenetic analysis was performed with 24 strains of Brucella using concatenated sequences of genetic markers for species differentiation. The molecular clock hypothesis and Tajima's relative rate test were tested, showing that the Oliveri strain, similarly to other canis species, diverged from B. suis. The molecular clock hypothesis between Brucella species was rejected and an evolution rate and a similar genetic distance between the B. canis were demonstrated. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Interrelationship between flexoelectricity and strain gradient elasticity in ferroelectric nanofilms: A phase field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Limei; Xu, Xiaofei; Zhou, Yichun

    2016-12-01

    With the development of the integrated circuit technology and decreasing of the device size, ferroelectric films used in nano ferroelectric devices become thinner and thinner. Along with the downscaling of the ferroelectric film, there is an increasing influence of two strain gradient related terms. One is the strain gradient elasticity and the other one is flexoelectricity. To investigate the interrelationship between flexoelectricity and strain gradient elasticity and their combined effect on the domain structure in ferroelectric nanofilms, a phase field model of flexoelectricity and strain gradient elasticity on the ferroelectric domain evolution is developed based on Mindlin's theory of strain-gradient elasticity. Weak form is derived and implemented in finite element formulations for numerically solving the model equations. The simulation results show that upper bounds for flexoelectric coefficients can be enhanced by increasing strain gradient elasticity coefficients. While a large flexoelectricity that exceeds the upper bound can induce a transition from a ferroelectric state to a modulated/incommensurate state, a large enough strain gradient elasticity may lead to a conversion from an incommensurate state to a ferroelectric state. Strain gradient elasticity and the flexoelectricity have entirely opposite effects on polarization. The observed interrelationship between the strain gradient elasticity and flexoelectricity is rationalized by an analytical solution of the proposed theoretical model. The model proposed in this paper could help us understand the mechanism of phenomena observed in ferroelectric nanofilms under complex electromechanical loads and provide some guides on the practical application of ferroelectric nanofilms.

  1. Microbial control of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with Beauveria bassiana strain GHA: field applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer

    2008-01-01

    The effects of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA, applied as BotaniGard ES, on newly colonised and well-established populations of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) were evaluated in the field using foliar and trunk sprays in Michigan in 2004-2005. Results from field trials at a newly colonised white ash...

  2. Modeling of strain effects on the device behaviors of ferroelectric memory field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Feng; Hu, Guangda; Wu, Weibing; Yang, Changhong; Wu, Haitao; Tang, Minghua

    2013-01-01

    The influence of strains on the channel current–gate voltage behaviors and memory windows of ferroelectric memory field-effect transistors (FeMFETs) were studied using an improved model based on the Landau–Devonshire theory. ‘Channel potential–gate voltage’ ferroelectric polarization and silicon surface potential diagrams were constructed for strained single-domain BaTiO 3 FeMFETs. The compressive strains can increase (or decrease) the amplitude of transistor currents and enlarge memory windows. However, tensile strains only decrease the maximum value of transistor currents and compress memory windows. Mismatch strains were found to have a significant influence on the electrical behaviors of the devices, therefore, they must be considered in FeMFET device designing. (fast track communication)

  3. Quantum capacitance in topological insulators under strain in a tilted magnetic field

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.

    2012-12-06

    Topological insulators exhibit unique properties due to surface states of massless Dirac fermions with conserved time reversal symmetry. We consider the quantum capacitance under strain in an external tilted magnetic field and demonstrate a minimum at the charge neutrality point due to splitting of the zeroth Landau level. We also find beating in the Shubnikov de Haas oscillations due to strain, which originate from the topological helical states. Varying the tilting angle from perpendicular to parallel washes out these oscillations with a strain induced gap at the charge neutrality point. Our results explain recent quantum capacitance and transport experiments.

  4. Quantum capacitance in topological insulators under strain in a tilted magnetic field

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2012-01-01

    Topological insulators exhibit unique properties due to surface states of massless Dirac fermions with conserved time reversal symmetry. We consider the quantum capacitance under strain in an external tilted magnetic field and demonstrate a minimum at the charge neutrality point due to splitting of the zeroth Landau level. We also find beating in the Shubnikov de Haas oscillations due to strain, which originate from the topological helical states. Varying the tilting angle from perpendicular to parallel washes out these oscillations with a strain induced gap at the charge neutrality point. Our results explain recent quantum capacitance and transport experiments.

  5. CPAP Tips

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  10. Magnetotransport properties of 8-Pmmn borophene: effects of Hall field and strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, S K Firoz

    2018-07-11

    The polymorph of 8-Pmmn borophene is an anisotropic Dirac material with tilted Dirac cones at two valleys. The tilting of the Dirac cones at two valleys are in opposite directions, which manifests itself via the valley dependent Landau levels in presence of an in-plane electric field (Hall field). The valley dependent Landau levels cause valley polarized magnetotransport properties in presence of the Hall field, which is in contrast to the monolayer graphene with isotropic non-tilted Dirac cones. The longitudinal conductivity and Hall conductivity are evaluated by using linear response theory in low temperature regime. An analytical approximate form of the longitudinal conductivity is also obtained. It is observed that the tilting of the Dirac cones amplifies the frequency of the longitudinal conductivity oscillation (Shubnikov-de Haas). On the other hand, the Hall conductivity exhibits graphene-like plateaus except the appearance of valley dependent steps which are purely attributed to the Hall field induced lifting of the valley degeneracy in the Landau levels. Finally we look into the different cases when the Hall field is applied to the strained borophene and find that valley dependency is fully dominated by strain rather than Hall field. Another noticeable point is that if the real magnetic field is replaced by the strain induced pseudo magnetic field then the electric field looses its ability to cause valley polarized transport.

  11. Controlling the exciton energy of a nanowire quantum dot by strain fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jiaxiang; Ding, Fei, E-mail: f.ding@ifw-dresden.de [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, Helmholtz Strasse 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Zadeh, Iman Esmaeil; Jöns, Klaus D.; Fognini, Andreas; Zwiller, Val [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Reimer, Michael E. [Institute for Quantum Computing and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Dalacu, Dan; Poole, Philip J. [National Research Council, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Schmidt, Oliver G. [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, Helmholtz Strasse 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Material Systems for Nanoelectronics, Chemnitz University of Technology, Reichenhainer Strasse 70, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2016-05-02

    We present an experimental route to engineer the exciton energies of single quantum dots in nanowires. By integrating the nanowires onto a piezoelectric crystal, we controllably apply strain fields to the nanowire quantum dots. Consequently, the exciton energy of a single quantum dot in the nanowire is shifted by several meVs without degrading its optical intensity and single-photon purity. Second-order autocorrelation measurements are performed at different strain fields on the same nanowire quantum dot. The suppressed multi-photon events at zero time delay clearly verify that the quantum nature of single-photon emission is well preserved under external strain fields. The work presented here could facilitate on-chip optical quantum information processing with the nanowire based single photon emitters.

  12. THE USE OF DIGITAL IMAGE CORRELATION IN THE STUDY OF ACHILLES TENDON STRAIN FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Holak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an application of vision-based measurement method in experimental mechanics of biological materials.  The displacement and strain fields of human Achilles tendon specimen under tensile test were computed using digital image correlation method. Different software applications, both commercial as well as open source ones, were compared. The performance of algorithms was tested based on a referential measurement, carried out by a commercial software with affine model of deformation implemented. The root mean square error of a difference between strain obtained using reference measurement and each of the analyzed programs was computed. Additionally,  an example of full field computation of displacement and strain field was presented.

  13. Survival and Competitiveness of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Strains 20 Years after Introduction into Field Locations in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narożna, Dorota; Pudełko, Krzysztof; Króliczak, Joanna; Golińska, Barbara; Sugawara, Masayuki; Mądrzak, Cezary J; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-08-15

    It was previously demonstrated that there are no indigenous strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum forming nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbioses with soybean plants in arable field soils in Poland. However, bacteria currently classified within this species are present (together with Bradyrhizobium canariense) as indigenous populations of strains specific for nodulation of legumes in the Genisteae tribe. These rhizobia, infecting legumes such as lupins, are well established in Polish soils. The studies described here were based on soybean nodulation field experiments, established at the Poznań University of Life Sciences Experiment Station in Gorzyń, Poland, and initiated in the spring of 1994. Long-term research was then conducted in order to study the relation between B. japonicum USDA 110 and USDA 123, introduced together into the same location, where no soybean rhizobia were earlier detected, and nodulation and competitive success were followed over time. Here we report the extra-long-term saprophytic survival of B. japonicum strains nodulating soybeans that were introduced as inoculants 20 years earlier and where soybeans were not grown for the next 17 years. The strains remained viable and symbiotically competent, and molecular and immunochemical methods showed that the strains were undistinguishable from the original inoculum strains USDA 110 and USDA 123. We also show that the strains had balanced numbers and their mobility in soil was low. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the extra-long-term persistence of soybean-nodulating strains introduced into Polish soils and the first analyzing the long-term competitive relations of USDA 110 and USDA 123 after the two strains, neither of which was native, were introduced into the environment almost 2 decades ago. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Short-period strain (0.1-105 s): Near-source strain field for an earthquake (M L 3.2) near San Juan Bautista, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M. J. S.; Borcherdt, R. D.; Linde, A. T.

    1986-10-01

    Measurements of dilational earth strain in the frequency band 25-10-5 Hz have been made on a deep borehole strainmeter installed near the San Andreas fault. These data are used to determine seismic radiation fields during nuclear explosions, teleseisms, local earthquakes, and ground noise during seismically quiet times. Strains of less than 10-10 on these instruments can be clearly resolved at short periods (< 10 s) and are recorded with wide dynamic range digital recorders. This permits measurement of the static and dynamic strain variations in the near field of local earthquakes. Noise spectra for earth strain referenced to 1 (strain)2/Hz show that strain resolution decreases at about 10 dB per decade of frequency from -150 dB at 10-4 Hz to -223 dB at 10 Hz. Exact expressions are derived to relate the volumetric strain and displacement field for a homogeneous P wave in a general viscoelastic solid as observed on colocated dilatometers and seismometers. A rare near-field recording of strain and seismic velocity was obtained on May 26, 1984, from an earthquake (ML 3.2) at a hypocentral distance of 3.2 km near the San Andreas fault at San Juan Bautista, California. While the data indicate no precursory strain release at the 5 × 10-11 strain level, a coseismic strain release of 1.86 nanostrain was observed. This change in strain is consistent with that calculated from a simple dislocation model of the event. Ground displacement spectra, determined from the downhole strain data and instrument-corrected surface seismic data, suggest that source parameters estimated from surface recordings may be contaminated by amplification effects in near-surface low-velocity materials.

  15. 6% magnetic-field-induced strain by twin-boundary motion in ferromagnetic Ni-Mn-Ga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, S. J.; Marioni, M.; Allen, S. M.; O'Handley, R. C.; Lograsso, T. A.

    2000-01-01

    Field-induced strains of 6% are reported in ferromagnetic Ni-Mn-Ga martensites at room temperature. The strains are the result of twin boundary motion driven largely by the Zeeman energy difference across the twin boundary. The strain measured parallel to the applied magnetic field is negative in the sample/field geometry used here. The strain saturates in fields of order 400 kA/m and is blocked by a compressive stress of order 2 MPa applied orthogonal to the magnetic field. The strain versus field curves exhibit appreciable hysteresis associated with the motion of the twin boundaries. A simple model accounts quantitatively for the dependence of strain on magnetic field and external stress using as input parameters only measured quantities. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  16. Magnetic field effect on microplastic strain rate in C690 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, B.I.; Shpejzman, V.V.; Peschanskaya, N.N.; Nikolaev, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    Microplastic strain in magnetic field and beyond it, as well as, subsequent to preliminary exposure of C 60 crystals to magnetic field was investigated by means of laser interferometer enabling to measure rate of strain on the basis of 0.15 μm linear shifting. It is shown that introduction and removal of specimen from 0.2 T induction field immediately during deformation of specimen result in variation of its rate, and at reduction of rate one observes discontinuous interruption of deformation. Sign of effect depends on temperature: at room temperature magnetic field promotes deformation, at 100 K - shows it down. Effect of preliminary exposure within 0.2 and 2T induction field turned to be analogous one. One analyzed possible reasons of the observed manifestation of magnetoplastic effect in C 60 and relation of its sign with phase transition under 260 K temperature [ru

  17. Strain- and electric field-induced band gap modulation in nitride nanomembranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, Rodrigo G; Zhong Xiaoliang; Mukhopadhyay, Saikat; Pandey, Ravindra; Rocha, Alexandre R; Karna, Shashi P

    2013-01-01

    The hexagonal nanomembranes of the group III-nitrides are a subject of interest due to their novel technological applications. In this paper, we investigate the strain- and electric field-induced modulation of their band gaps in the framework of density functional theory. For AlN, the field-dependent modulation of the bandgap is found to be significant whereas the strain-induced semiconductor-metal transition is predicted for GaN. A relatively flat conduction band in AlN and GaN nanomembranes leads to an enhancement of their electronic mobility compared to that of their bulk counterparts. (paper)

  18. Specimen aspect ratio and progressive field strain development of sandstone under uniaxial compression by three-dimensional digital image correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Munoz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The complete stress–strain characteristics of sandstone specimens were investigated in a series of quasi-static monotonic uniaxial compression tests. Strain patterns development during pre- and post-peak behaviours in specimens with different aspect ratios was also examined. Peak stress, post-peak portion of stress–strain, brittleness, characteristics of progressive localisation and field strain patterns development were affected at different extents by specimen aspect ratio. Strain patterns of the rocks were obtained by applying three-dimensional (3D digital image correlation (DIC technique. Unlike conventional strain measurement using strain gauges attached to specimen, 3D DIC allowed not only measuring large strains, but more importantly, mapping the development of field strain throughout the compression test, i.e. in pre- and post-peak regimes. Field strain development in the surface of rock specimen suggests that strain starts localising progressively and develops at a lower rate in pre-peak regime. However, in post-peak regime, strains increase at different rates as local deformations take place at different extents in the vicinity and outside the localised zone. The extent of localised strains together with the rate of strain localisation is associated with the increase in rate of strength degradation. Strain localisation and local inelastic unloading outside the localised zone both feature post-peak regime.

  19. Strain on field effect transistors with single–walled–carbon nanotube network on flexible substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T. G. [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Research center for Time-domain Nano-functional Device, Giheung, Yong-In, Gyeonggi 446-712 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, U. J.; Lee, E. H. [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Frontier Research Laboratory, Giheung, Yong-In, Gyeonggi 446-712 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, J. S. [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, S. W., E-mail: swnano.hwang@samsung.com, E-mail: sangsig@korea.ac.kr [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Research center for Time-domain Nano-functional Device, Giheung, Yong-In, Gyeonggi 446-712 (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Frontier Research Laboratory, Giheung, Yong-In, Gyeonggi 446-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S., E-mail: swnano.hwang@samsung.com, E-mail: sangsig@korea.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-07

    We have systematically analyzed the effect of strain on the electrical properties of flexible field effect transistors with a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) network on a polyethersulfone substrate. The strain was applied and estimated at the microscopic scale (<1 μm) by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with indigenously designed special bending jig. Interestingly, the strain estimated at the microscopic scale was found to be significantly different from the strain calculated at the macroscopic scale (centimeter-scale), by a factor of up to 4. Further in-depth analysis using SEM indicated that the significant difference in strain, obtained from two different measurement scales (microscale and macroscale), could be attributed to the formation of cracks and tears in the SWCNT network, or at the junction of SWCNT network and electrode during the strain process. Due to this irreversible morphological change, the electrical properties, such as on current level and field effect mobility, lowered by 14.3% and 4.6%, respectively.

  20. Different resistance patterns of reference and field strains of Brucella abortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina L. Miranda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth of the B. abortus reference strains and field isolates on media containing different inhibitor agents. Reference strains were seeded on tryptose agar containing: i-erythritol (1.0 mg/mL, fuchsin (20 μg/mL and 80 μg/mL, thionin (2.5 μg/mL and 10 μg/mL, rifampicin (200 μg/mL and safranin O (200 μg/mL. Field isolates were tested only on media containing i-erythritol, rifampicin and thionin. Furthermore, each suspension was also inoculated on tryptose agar incubated in air, to test its ability to grow without CO2. Sensitivity to fuchsin was similar among reference strains evaluated. Growth of S19, 544 and 2308 but not RB51 were inhibited on media containing rifampicin. Medium with safranin O showed no inhibition for RB51, 544 and 2308, but it partially inhibited the S19 growth as well as medium containing i-erythritol. Treatment/control growth ratio for 2308 on tryptose agar containing thionin (2.5 μg/mL was approximatelly 1.0, whereas S19 and RB51 showed 0.85 and 0.89 ratios, respectively. Growth of 544, S19 and RB51 but not 2308 was completely inhibited on medium with thionin (10 μg/mL. All field strains grew on medium containing i-erythritol, but were completelly inhibited by rifampicin. With exception of A1 (B. abortus biovar 3 all field isolates grew on medium with thionin, although some strains showed a treatment/control growth ratio of 0.75–0.80 (10 μg/mL. These results showed that tryptose agar with thionin, i-erythritol or rifampicin could be useful for differentiating vaccine, challenge and field strains of B. abortus.

  1. On fracture in finite strain gradient plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez Pañeda, Emilio; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2016-01-01

    In this work a general framework for damage and fracture assessment including the effect of strain gradients is provided. Both mechanism-based and phenomenological strain gradient plasticity (SGP) theories are implemented numerically using finite deformation theory and crack tip fields are invest......In this work a general framework for damage and fracture assessment including the effect of strain gradients is provided. Both mechanism-based and phenomenological strain gradient plasticity (SGP) theories are implemented numerically using finite deformation theory and crack tip fields...... are investigated. Differences and similarities between the two approaches within continuum SGP modeling are highlighted and discussed. Local strain hardening promoted by geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) in the vicinity of the crack leads to much higher stresses, relative to classical plasticity...... in the multiple parameter version of the phenomenological SGP theory. Since this also dominates the mechanics of indentation testing, results suggest that length parameters characteristic of mode I fracture should be inferred from nanoindentation....

  2. A phase field study of strain energy effects on solute–grain boundary interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Tae Wook; Bhattacharyya, Saswata; Chen Longqing

    2011-01-01

    We have studied strain-induced solute segregation at a grain boundary and the solute drag effect on boundary migration using a phase field model integrating grain boundary segregation and grain structure evolution. The elastic strain energy of a solid solution due to the atomic size mismatch and the coherency elastic strain energy caused by the inhomogeneity of the composition distribution are obtained using Khachaturyan’s microelasticity theory. Strain-induced grain boundary segregation at a static planar boundary is studied numerically and the equilibrium segregation composition profiles are validated using analytical solutions. We then systematically studied the effect of misfit strain on grain boundary migration with solute drag. Our theoretical analysis based on Cahn’s analytical theory shows that enhancement of the drag force with increasing atomic size mismatch stems from both an increase in grain boundary segregation due to the strain energy reduction and misfit strain relaxation near the grain boundary. The results were analyzed based on a theoretical analysis in terms of elastic and chemical drag forces. The optimum condition for solute diffusivity to maximize the drag force under a given driving force was identified.

  3. A comparative study of P450 gene expression in field and laboratory Musca domestica L. strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Højland, Dorte H; Vagn Jensen, Karl-Martin; Kristensen, Michael

    2014-08-01

    The housefly is a global pest that has developed resistance to most insecticides applied for its control. Resistance has been associated with cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s). The authors compare the expression of six genes possibly associated with insecticide resistance in three unselected strains: a multiresistant strain (791a), a neonicotinoid-resistant strain (766b) and a new field strain (845b). CYP4G2 was highly expressed throughout the range of strains and proved to be the one of the most interesting expression profiles of all P450s analysed. CYP6G4 was expressed up to 11-fold higher in 766b than in WHO-SRS. Significant differences between expression of P450 genes between F1 flies from 845b and established laboratory strains were shown. In general, P450 gene expression in 845b was 2-14-fold higher than in the reference strain (P resistance. There is a strong indication that CYP6G4 is a major insecticide resistance gene involved in neonicotinoid resistance. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus strains in Hungarian maize fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebők, Flóra; Dobolyi, Csaba; Zágoni, Dóra; Risa, Anita; Krifaton, Csilla; Hartman, Mátyás; Cserháti, Mátyás; Szoboszlay, Sándor; Kriszt, Balázs

    2016-12-01

    Due to the climate change, aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species and strains have appeared in several European countries, contaminating different agricultural commodities with aflatoxin. Our aim was to screen the presence of aflatoxigenic fungi in maize fields throughout the seven geographic regions of Hungary. Fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi were isolated in the ratio of 26.9% and 42.3% from soil and maize samples in 2013, and these ratios decreased to 16.1% and 34.7% in 2014. Based on morphological characteristics and the sequence analysis of the partial calmodulin gene, all isolates proved to be Aspergillus flavus, except four strains, which were identified as Aspergillus parasiticus. About half of the A. flavus strains and all the A. parasiticus strains were able to synthesize aflatoxins. Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus strains were isolated from all the seven regions of Hungary. A. parasiticus strains were found in the soil of the regions Southern Great Plain and Southern Transdanubia and in a maize sample of the region Western Transdanubia. In spite of the fact that aflatoxins have rarely been detected in feeds and foods in Hungary, aflatoxigenic A. flavus and A. parasiticus strains are present in the maize culture throughout Hungary posing a potential threat to food safety.

  5. Biopesticide activity of sugarcane associated rhizobacteria: Ochrobactrum intermedium strain NH-5 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain NH-300 against red rot under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nadeem HASSAN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum falcatum is the major fungal pathogen causing sugarcane red rot. Four antagonistic bacterial strains exhibiting biocontrol activity against this pathogen in greenhouse conditions were characterized for production of different antifungal metabolites and biocontrol determinants to elucidate the mechanism of action involved in their antagonistic activity. The strains were also evaluated under field conditions to assess their biocontrol potential. All the strains produced hydrogen cyanide (HCN, and volatile and diffusible antibiotics. In addition, the Ochrobactrum intermedium strain NH-5 produced siderophores and the broad spectrum antibiotic 2, 4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG; Pseudomonas sp. NH-203 produced siderophores, and Pseudomonas sp. NH-276 produced protease. Two strains, Ochrobactrum intermedium NH-5 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia NH-300, exhibited good biocontrol activity, suppressing red rot by 44–52% on two sugarcane varieties, SPF-234 and Co-1148, in field experiments. The strains gave consistent results in three consecutive years and showed potential to be used as biopesticides.

  6. Toxin genotyping of Clostridium perfringens field strains isolated from healthy and diseased chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens is well known as the aetiological agent of necrotic enteritis in chicken. Type A and type C are considered the C. perfringens toxin types responsible for this disease. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of genes coding for α, β, ε, ι, β2 and enterotoxin in C. perfringens field strains collected from healthy and diseased chickens. Thirty-seven C. perfringens field strains were toxin typed: all strains resulted to be toxin type A and 3 of these tested positive for the presence of the toxin β2 coding gene. Four isolates showed the cpa gene with the insertion of a group II intron. Our findings confirm the most recent results reported from different countries and the data suggest that the role of C. perfringens type C should be revaluated in the etiopathogenesis of necrotic enteritis.

  7. Sensitive element of multifunctional sensor for measuring temperature, strain and magnetic field induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druzhinin A. A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensitive element of multifunctional sensor for measuring temperature, strain and magnetic field induction has been developed based on the studies of electrical conductivity and magnetoresistance of silicon and germanium microcrystals in the temperature range 4.2—70 K, strain ±1.5*10–3 rel.un. and magnetic fields of 0—14 T. The feature of the sensitive element is the using of the p- and n-type conductivity germanium microcrystals as mechanical and magnetic field sensors, respectively, and the p-type silicon microcrystal — as temperature sensor. That allows providing the compensation of temperature influence on piezoresistance and on sensitivity to the magnetic field.

  8. Image processing of full-field strain data and its use in model updating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W; Mottershead, J E; Sebastian, C M; Patterson, E A

    2011-01-01

    Finite element model updating is an inverse problem based on measured structural outputs, typically natural frequencies. Full-field responses such as static stress/strain patterns and vibration mode shapes contain valuable information for model updating but within large volumes of highly-redundant data. Pattern recognition and image processing provide feasible techniques to extract effective and efficient information, often known as shape features, from this data. For instance, the Zernike polynomials having the properties of orthogonality and rotational invariance are powerful decomposition kernels for a shape defined within a unit circle. In this paper, full field strain patterns for a specimen, in the form of a square plate with a circular hole, under a tensile load are considered. Effective shape features can be constructed by a set of modified Zernike polynomials. The modification includes the application of a weighting function to the Zernike polynomials so that high strain magnitudes around the hole are well represented. The Gram-Schmidt process is then used to ensure orthogonality for the obtained decomposition kernels over the domain of the specimen. The difference between full-field strain patterns measured by digital image correlation (DIC) and reconstructed using 15 shape features (Zernike moment descriptors, ZMDs) at different steps in the elasto-plastic deformation of the specimen is found to be very small. It is significant that only a very small number of shape features are necessary and sufficient to represent the full-field data. Model updating of nonlinear elasto-plastic material properties is carried out by adjusting the parameters of a FE model until the FE strain pattern converges upon the measured strains as determined using ZMDs.

  9. Electric field-induced valley degeneracy lifting in uniaxial strained graphene: evidence from magnetophonon resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Assili, Mohamed; Haddad, Sonia; Kang, Woun

    2015-01-01

    A double peak structure in the magneto-phonon resonance (MPR) spectrum of uniaxial strained graphene, under crossed electric and magnetic fields, is predicted. We focus on the $\\Gamma$ point optical phonon modes coupled to the inter-Landau level transitions $0 \\leftrightarrows \\pm 1$ where MPR is expected to be more pronounced at high magnetic field. We derive the frequency shifts and the broadenings of the longitudinal (LO) and transverse (TO) optical phonon modes taking into account the eff...

  10. Effect of Agave tequilana age, cultivation field location and yeast strain on tequila fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinal, L; Cornejo, E; Arellano, M; Herrera, E; Nuñez, L; Arrizon, J; Gschaedler, A

    2009-05-01

    The effect of yeast strain, the agave age and the cultivation field location of agave were evaluated using kinetic parameters and volatile compound production in the tequila fermentation process. Fermentations were carried out with Agave juice obtained from two cultivation fields (CF1 and CF2), as well as two ages (4 and 8 years) and two Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains (GU3 and AR5) isolated from tequila fermentation must. Sugar consumption and ethanol production varied as a function of cultivation field and agave age. The production of ethyl acetate, 1-propanol, isobutanol and amyl alcohols were influenced in varying degrees by yeast strain, agave age and cultivation field. Methanol production was only affected by the agave age and 2-phenylethanol was influenced only by yeast strain. This work showed that the use of younger Agave tequilana for tequila fermentation resulted in differences in sugar consumption, ethanol and volatile compounds production at the end of fermentation, which could affect the sensory quality of the final product.

  11. Full-Field Strain Mapping at a Ge/Si Heterostructure Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buwen Cheng

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The misfit dislocations and strain fields at a Ge/Si heterostructure interface were investigated experimentally using a combination of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and quantitative electron micrograph analysis methods. The type of misfit dislocation at the interface was determined to be 60° dislocation and 90° full-edge dislocation. The full-field strains at the Ge/Si heterostructure interface were mapped by using the geometric phase analysis (GPA and peak pairs analysis (PPA, respectively. The effect of the mask size on the GPA and PPA results was analyzed in detail. For comparison, the theoretical strain fields of the misfit dislocations were also calculated by the Peierls-Nabarro and Foreman dislocation models. The results showed that the optimal mask sizes in GPA and PPA were approximately three tenths and one-tenth of the reciprocal lattice vector, respectively. The Foreman dislocation model with an alterable factor a = 4 can best describe the strain field of the misfit dislocation at the Ge/Si heterostructure interface.

  12. Numerical modeling of large field-induced strains in ferroelastic bodies: a continuum approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raikher, Yu L; Stolbov, O V

    2008-01-01

    A consistent continuum model of a soft magnetic elastomer (SME) is presented and developed for the case of finite strain. The numeric algorithm enabling one to find the field-induced shape changes of an SME body is described. The reliability of the method is illustrated by several examples revealing specifics of the magnetostriction effect in SME samples of various geometries

  13. TEMPORAL STRUCTURE OF OPEN-FIELD BEHAVIOR IN INBRED STRAINS OF MICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MAKINO, J; KATO, K; MAES, FW

    1991-01-01

    Behavior of the inbred mouse strains BALB, C3H, DBA and C57BL in an open field was directly observed for 10 min by a multi-event time sampling method. It was coded into nine behavioral items, the occurrence or absence of which in consecutive 5-s time bins was called a behavioral state. Fourteen

  14. Electric field-induced valley degeneracy lifting in uniaxial strained graphene: Evidence from magnetophonon resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assili, Mohamed; Haddad, Sonia; Kang, Woun

    2015-03-01

    A double peak structure in the magnetophonon resonance (MPR) spectrum of uniaxial strained graphene, under crossed electric and magnetic fields, is predicted. We focus on the Γ point optical phonon modes coupled to the inter-Landau level transitions 0 ⇆±1 where MPR is expected to be more pronounced at high magnetic field. We derive the frequency shifts and the broadenings of the longitudinal and transverse optical phonon modes taking into account the effect of the strain modified electronic spectrum on the electron-phonon coupling. We show that the MPR line for a given phonon mode acquires a double peak structure originating from the twofold valley degeneracy lifting. The latter is due to the different Landau level spacings in the two Dirac valleys resulting from the simultaneous action of the inplane electric field and the strain-induced Dirac cone tilt. We discuss the role of some key parameters such as disorder, strain, doping, and electric field amplitude on the emergence of the double peak structure.

  15. Numerical and experimental study of moisture-induced stress and strain field developments in timber logs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur

    2013-01-01

    shrinkage and the inhomogeneity of the material. To obtain a better understanding of how stresses develop during climatic variations, the field histories of stresses (and strains) in cross sections in their entirety need to be studied. The present paper reports on experiments and numerical simulations...

  16. Strain-Induced Pseudo--Magnetic Fields in Graphene: MegaGauss in Nanobubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Niv

    2011-03-01

    Recent theoretical proposals suggest that strain can be used to modify graphene electronic states through the creation of a pseudo--magnetic field. This effect is unique to graphene because of its massless Dirac fermion-like band structure and particular lattice symmetry (C3v). Scanning tunneling microscopy shows that graphene grown on a platinum (111) surface forms nanobubbles, which are highly strained due to thermal expansion mismatch between the film and the substrate. We find that scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements of these nanobubbles exhibit Landau levels that form in the presence of strain-induced pseudo--magnetic fields greater than 300 Tesla. This demonstration of enormous pseudo--magnetic fields opens the door to both the study of charge carriers in previously inaccessible high magnetic field regimes and deliberate mechanical control over electronic structure in graphene or so-called ``strain engineering''. In collaboration with S. A. Burke ,2 , K. L. Meaker 2 , M. Panlasigui 2 , A. Zettl 2,3 , F. Guinea 4 , A. H. Castro Neto 5 and M. F. Crommie 2,3 . 1. Present address: Department of Physics and Astronomy and Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 121, Canada. 2. Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. 3. Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. 4. Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), Madrid 28049, Spain. 5. Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

  17. Imaging of the strain field around precipitate particles using transmission ion channeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    King, PJC; Breese, MBH; Meekeson, D; Smulders, PJM; Wilshaw, PR; Grime, GW

    1996-01-01

    This paper shows ion channeling images of the strain field produced by precipitate particles in a crystal matrix. Images have been produced by mapping the energy of 3 MeV protons transmitted through a thinned silicon crystal containing colonies of copper silicide particles, with the incident beam at

  18. Field inversion gel electrophoretic analysis of Legionella pneumophila strains associated with nosocomial legionellosis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M; Wald, E R; Dashefsky, B; Barbadora, K; Wadowsky, R M

    1996-01-01

    Two nosocomial cases of Legionnaires' disease occurred in children. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from both patients and 30 of 39 plumbing system sites in the hospital. The patient and hospital environmental isolates yielded identical field inversion gel electrophoretic patterns which differed from patterns observed with epidemiologically unrelated strains.

  19. A numerical study of crack tip constraint in ductile single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Swapnil D.; Narasimhan, R.; Mishra, R. K.

    In this work, the effect of crack tip constraint on near-tip stress and deformation fields in a ductile FCC single crystal is studied under mode I, plane strain conditions. To this end, modified boundary layer simulations within crystal plasticity framework are performed, neglecting elastic anisotropy. The first and second terms of the isotropic elastic crack tip field, which are governed by the stress intensity factor K and T-stress, are prescribed as remote boundary conditions and solutions pertaining to different levels of T-stress are generated. It is found that the near-tip deformation field, especially, the development of kink or slip shear bands, is sensitive to the constraint level. The stress distribution and the size and shape of the plastic zone near the crack tip are also strongly influenced by the level of T-stress, with progressive loss of crack tip constraint occurring as T-stress becomes more negative. A family of near-tip fields is obtained which are characterized by two terms (such as K and T or J and a constraint parameter Q) as in isotropic plastic solids.

  20. Differential phase-contrast dark-field electron holography for strain mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denneulin, Thibaud, E-mail: thibaud.denneulin@cemes.fr; Houdellier, Florent, E-mail: florent.houdellier@cemes.fr; Hÿtch, Martin, E-mail: martin.hytch@cemes.fr

    2016-01-15

    Strain mapping is an active area of research in transmission electron microscopy. Here we introduce a dark-field electron holographic technique that shares several aspects in common with both off-axis and in-line holography. Two incident and convergent plane waves are produced in front of the specimen thanks to an electrostatic biprism in the condenser system of a transmission electron microscope. The interference of electron beams diffracted by the illuminated crystal is then recorded in a defocused plane. The differential phase recovered from the hologram is directly proportional to the strain in the sample. The strain can be quantified if the separation of the images due to the defocus is precisely determined. The present technique has the advantage that the derivative of the phase is measured directly which allows us to avoid numerical differentiation. The distribution of the noise in the reconstructed strain maps is isotropic and more homogeneous. This technique was used to investigate different samples: a Si/SiGe superlattice, transistors with SiGe source/drain and epitaxial PZT thin films. - Highlights: • DPC dark-field electron holography is set up with a condenser biprism. • The DPC phase is directly proportional to the lattice deformation. • The technique is illustrated with epitaxial SiGe and Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} samples. • The defocus allows us to control the strain sensitivity and the spatial resolution. • A solution is proposed to setup this technique with a post-specimen biprism.

  1. High-resolution melt PCR analysis for rapid identification of Chlamydia abortus live vaccine strain 1B among C. abortus strains and field isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorimore, Fabien; Cavanna, Noémie; Vicari, Nadia; Magnino, Simone; Willems, Hermann; Rodolakis, Annie; Siarkou, Victoria I; Laroucau, Karine

    2012-09-01

    We describe a novel high-resolution melt assay that clearly differentiates Chlamydia abortus live vaccine strain 1B from field C. abortus strains and field wild-type isolates based on previously described single nucleotide polymorphisms. This modern genotyping technique is inexpensive, easy to use, and less time-consuming than PCR-RFLP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Tuning the energy gap of bilayer α-graphyne by applying strain and electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hang; Wu, Wen-Zhi; Jin, Yu; Wan-Lin, Guo

    2016-02-01

    Our density functional theory calculations show that the energy gap of bilayer α-graphyne can be modulated by a vertically applied electric field and interlayer strain. Like bilayer graphene, the bilayer α-graphyne has electronic properties that are hardly changed under purely mechanical strain, while an external electric field can open the gap up to 120 meV. It is of special interest that compressive strain can further enlarge the field induced gap up to 160 meV, while tensile strain reduces the gap. We attribute the gap variation to the novel interlayer charge redistribution between bilayer α-graphynes. These findings shed light on the modulation of Dirac cone structures and potential applications of graphyne in mechanical-electric devices. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2013CB932604 and 2012CB933403), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51472117 and 51535005), the Research Fund of State Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control of Mechanical Structures, China (Grant No. 0414K01), the Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (NUAA) Fundamental Research Funds, China (Grant No. NP2015203), and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions.

  3. Strain field mapping of dislocations in a Ge/Si heterostructure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanlong Liu

    Full Text Available Ge/Si heterostructure with fully strain-relaxed Ge film was grown on a Si (001 substrate by using a two-step process by ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition. The dislocations in the Ge/Si heterostructure were experimentally investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. The dislocations at the Ge/Si interface were identified to be 90° full-edge dislocations, which are the most efficient way for obtaining a fully relaxed Ge film. The only defect found in the Ge epitaxial film was a 60° dislocation. The nanoscale strain field of the dislocations was mapped by geometric phase analysis technique from the HRTEM image. The strain field around the edge component of the 60° dislocation core was compared with those of the Peierls-Nabarro and Foreman dislocation models. Comparison results show that the Foreman model with a = 1.5 can describe appropriately the strain field around the edge component of a 60° dislocation core in a relaxed Ge film on a Si substrate.

  4. Strain field mapping of dislocations in a Ge/Si heterostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quanlong; Zhao, Chunwang; Su, Shaojian; Li, Jijun; Xing, Yongming; Cheng, Buwen

    2013-01-01

    Ge/Si heterostructure with fully strain-relaxed Ge film was grown on a Si (001) substrate by using a two-step process by ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition. The dislocations in the Ge/Si heterostructure were experimentally investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The dislocations at the Ge/Si interface were identified to be 90° full-edge dislocations, which are the most efficient way for obtaining a fully relaxed Ge film. The only defect found in the Ge epitaxial film was a 60° dislocation. The nanoscale strain field of the dislocations was mapped by geometric phase analysis technique from the HRTEM image. The strain field around the edge component of the 60° dislocation core was compared with those of the Peierls-Nabarro and Foreman dislocation models. Comparison results show that the Foreman model with a = 1.5 can describe appropriately the strain field around the edge component of a 60° dislocation core in a relaxed Ge film on a Si substrate.

  5. Genetic characterization of Italian field strains of Schmallenberg virus based on N and NSs genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Francesca; Cosseddu, Gian Mario; Polci, Andrea; Iapaolo, Federica; Pinoni, Chiara; Capobianco Dondona, Andrea; Valleriani, Fabrizia; Monaco, Federica

    2016-08-01

    Following its first identification in Germany in 2011, the Schmallenberg virus (SBV) has rapidly spread to many other European countries. Despite the wide dissemination, the molecular characterization of the circulating strains is limited to German, Belgian, Dutch, and Swiss viruses. To fill this gap, partial genetic characterization of 15 Italian field strains was performed, based on S segment genes. Samples were collected in 2012 in two different regions where outbreaks occurred during distinct epidemic seasons. The comparative sequence analysis demonstrated a high molecular stability of the circulating viruses; nevertheless, we identified several variants of the N and NSs proteins not described in other SBV isolates circulating in Europe.

  6. Exploring the Diversity of Field Strains of Brucella abortus Biovar 3 Isolated in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Sanogo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is one of the most widespread bacterial zoonotic diseases in the world, affecting both humans and domestic and wild animals. Identification and biotyping of field strains of Brucella are of key importance for a better knowledge of the epidemiology of brucellosis, for identifying appropriate antigens, for managing disease outbreaks and for setting up efficient preventive and control programmes. Such data are required both at national and regional level to assess potential threats for public health. Highly discriminative genotyping methods such as the multiple locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA allow the comparison and assessment of genetic relatedness between field strains of Brucella within the same geographical area. In this study, MLVA biotyping data retrieved from the literature using a systematic review were compared using a clustering analysis and the Hunter-Gaston diversity index (HGDI. Thus, the analysis of the 42 MLVA genotyping results found in the literature on West Africa [i.e., from Ivory Coast (1, Niger (1, Nigeria (34, The Gambia (3, and Togo (3] did not allow a complete assessment of the actual diversity among field strains of Brucella. However, it provided some preliminary indications on the co-existence of 25 distinct genotypes of Brucella abortus biovar 3 in this region with 19 genotypes from Nigeria, three from Togo and one from Ivory Coast, The Gambia, and Niger. The strong and urgent need for more sustainable molecular data on prevailing strains of Brucella in this sub-region of Africa and also on all susceptible species including humans is therefore highlighted. This remains a necessary stage to allow a comprehensive understanding of the relatedness between field strains of Brucella and the epidemiology of brucellosis within West Africa countries.

  7. Strain-Modulated Bandgap and Piezo-Resistive Effect in Black Phosphorus Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zuocheng; Li, Likai; Horng, Jason; Wang, Nai Zhou; Yang, Fangyuan; Yu, Yijun; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Guorui; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Chen, Xian Hui; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Yuanbo

    2017-10-11

    Energy bandgap largely determines the optical and electronic properties of a semiconductor. Variable bandgap therefore makes versatile functionality possible in a single material. In layered material black phosphorus, the bandgap can be modulated by the number of layers; as a result, few-layer black phosphorus has discrete bandgap values that are relevant for optoelectronic applications in the spectral range from red, in monolayer, to mid-infrared in the bulk limit. Here, we further demonstrate continuous bandgap modulation by mechanical strain applied through flexible substrates. The strain-modulated bandgap significantly alters the density of thermally activated carriers; we for the first time observe a large piezo-resistive effect in black phosphorus field-effect transistors (FETs) at room temperature. The effect opens up opportunities for future development of electromechanical transducers based on black phosphorus, and we demonstrate an ultrasensitive strain gauge constructed from black phosphorus thin crystals.

  8. Genetic variation of viral protein 1 genes of field strains of waterfowl parvoviruses and their attenuated derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsiang-Jung; Tseng, Chun-hsien; Chang, Poa-chun; Mei, Kai; Wang, Shih-Chi

    2004-09-01

    To understand the genetic variations between the field strains of waterfowl parvoviruses and their attenuated derivatives, we analyzed the complete nucleotide sequences of the viral protein 1 (VP1) genes of nine field strains and two vaccine strains of waterfowl parvoviruses. Sequence comparison of the VP1 proteins showed that these viruses could be divided into goose parvovirus (GPV) related and Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) related groups. The amino acid difference between GPV- and MDPV-related groups ranged from 13.1% to 15.8%, and the most variable region resided in the N terminus of VP2. The vaccine strains of GPV and MDPV exhibited only 1.2% and 0.3% difference in amino acid when compared with their parental field strains, and most of these differences resided in residues 497-575 of VP1, suggesting that these residues might be important for the attenuation of GPV and MDPV. When the GPV strains isolated in 1982 (the strain 82-0308) and in 2001 (the strain 01-1001) were compared, only 0.3% difference in amino acid was found, while MDPV strains isolated in 1990 (the strain 90-0219) and 1997 (the strain 97-0104) showed only 0.4% difference in amino acid. The result indicates that the genome of waterfowl parvovirus had remained highly stable in the field.

  9. Description of near-tip fracture processes in strain hardening cementitious composites using image-based analysis and the compact tension test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Eduardo B.; Fischer, Gregor; Barros, Joaquim A.O.

    2013-01-01

    The cracking mechanisms assume a key role in the composite behavior of Strain Hardening Cementitious Composites (SHCCs). Due to their importance, in previous studies the mechanical behavior of SHCC materials, as well as of other strain softening fiber reinforced cementitious composites......, was characterized under eccentric tensile loading using the Compact Tension Test (CTT). The present research further extends this investigation, with particular emphasis on cementitious composites reinforced with multiple types of fibers. The experimental tensile load-displacement results are discussed and compared...

  10. Molecular Typing of Acinetobacter Baumannii Clinical Strains in Tehran by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Farahani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective : Currently, Acinetobacter baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen insofar as its hospital outbreaks have been described from various geographical areas. Since the discrimination of strains within a species is important for delineating nosocomial outbreaks, this study was conducted with the aim of genotyping the A. baumannii clinical strains in Tehran via the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE method, which is the most accurate method used for the typing of bacterial species.   Materials & methods: This study was performed on 70 isolates of acinetobacter baumannii isolated from patients from Baqiyatallah, Rasoole Akram, and Milad hospitals in Tehran. Cultural and biochemical methods were used for the identification of the isolates in species level, and then susceptibility tests were carried out on 50 isolates of A. baumannii using the disk diffusion method. The PFGE method was performed on the isolates by Apa I restriction enzyme. Finally, the results of the PFGE were analyzed. Result: Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from hospitals in Tehran showed seven different genetic patterns, two of which were sporadic . Also, genotypic profiles were different in each hospital, and different patterns of genetic resistance to common antibiotics were observed. Conclusion: A lthough diversity was observed among the strains of A. baumannii by the PFGE method in Tehran, no epidemic strains were found among them.  

  11. Establishment of a nanoparticle-assisted RT-PCR assay to distinguish field strains and attenuated strains of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Wang, Gui-Hua; Cui, Yu-Dong; Cui, Shang-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) can cause serious disease and even death in neonatal piglets, resulting in serious damage to the swine industry worldwide. Open reading frame 3 (ORF3) is the only accessory gene in the PEDV genome. Previous studies have indicated that PEDV vaccine strains have a partial deletion in ORF3. In this study, a nanoparticle-assisted polymerase chain reaction (nanoparticle-assisted RT-PCR) assay targeting the ORF3 of PEDV was developed to distinguish PEDV field strains from attenuated strains by using a specific pair of primers. The PCR products of field strains and attenuated strains were 264 bp and 215 bp in length, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of this assay were also assessed. The nanoparticle-assisted RT-PCR assay was 10-100 times more sensitive than the conventional RT-PCR assay, with no cross-reactions when amplifying porcine pseudorabies virus (PRV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), porcine parvovirus (PPV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine rotavirus (RV), and porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). The nanoparticle-assisted RT-PCR assay we describe here can be used to distinguish field strains from vaccine strains of PEDV, and it shows promise for reducing economic loss due to PEDV infection.

  12. Differential reactivity of immune sera from human vaccinees with field strains of eastern equine encephalitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strizki, J M; Repik, P M

    1995-11-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that can produce a severe and often fatal acute encephalitis in humans, with significant neurologic sequelae in survivors. Due to the serious nature of the disease, an investigational inactivated EEE vaccine (PE-6) is available to individuals at risk for infection. Both serologic and recent molecular analyses of EEE viruses have demonstrated marked differences between the two antigenic varieties of EEE virus, designated North American (NA) and South American (SA). In view of these findings, we have examined the reactivity of sera from three individuals immunized with the EEE vaccine, derived from an NA isolate, with field strains of EEE virus. Anti-EEE serum antibodies from vaccinees reacted strongly in Western blot assays with both of the envelope (E1 and E2) glycoproteins of each NA strain examined, while reactivities with the glycoproteins of SA strains were substantially weaker and variable and dependent upon both the immune response of the vaccinee and the virus isolate assayed. Most striking was the modest to virtual lack of reactivity with the E2 protein of SA strains. Antigenic differences among the glycoproteins of EEE viruses were not as pronounced in immunoprecipitation analysis. Most significantly, although human immune sera displayed high neutralizing titers against each of the NA isolates examined, only negligible neutralizing titers were obtained against SA isolates. These data suggest that immunized individuals would mount an effective antibody response against infection with NA strains of EEE virus, but that further investigation is clearly warranted to fully assess the protective capability of the vaccine against infection with SA strains.

  13. Micromachined silicon cantilevers with integrated high-frequency magnetoimpedance sensors for simultaneous strain and magnetic field detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettel, G.; Joppich, J.; Hartmann, U.

    2017-12-01

    Giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) measurements in the high-frequency regime utilizing a coplanar waveguide with an integrated Permalloy multilayer and micromachined on a silicon cantilever are reported. The fabrication process is described in detail. The aspect ratio of the magnetic multilayer in the magnetoresistive and magnetostrictive device was varied. Tensile strain and compressive strain were applied. Vector network analyzer measurements in the range from the skin effect to ferromagnetic resonance confirm the technological potential of GMI-based micro-electro-mechanical devices for strain and magnetic field sensing applications. The strain-impedance gauge factor was quantified by finite element strain calculations and reaches a maximum value of almost 200.

  14. Temperature-Dependent Coercive Field Measured by a Quantum Dot Strain Gauge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Yang; Keil, Robert; Zopf, Michael; Ding, Fei; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2017-12-13

    Coercive fields of piezoelectric materials can be strongly influenced by environmental temperature. We investigate this influence using a heterostructure consisting of a single crystal piezoelectric film and a quantum dots containing membrane. Applying electric field leads to a physical deformation of the piezoelectric film, thereby inducing strain in the quantum dots and thus modifying their optical properties. The wavelength of the quantum dot emission shows butterfly-like loops, from which the coercive fields are directly derived. The results suggest that coercive fields at cryogenic temperatures are strongly increased, yielding values several tens of times larger than those at room temperature. We adapt a theoretical model to fit the measured data with very high agreement. Our work provides an efficient framework for predicting the properties of ferroelectric materials and advocating their practical applications, especially at low temperatures.

  15. Investigation on seasonal variation of thermal-induced strain in flexible pavements based on field and laboratory measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simita Biswas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pavement temperature variation has a large influence on the structural response of flexible pavements. Daily and seasonal temperature fluctuation causes expansion and contraction of pavement material, which then leads to the generation of thermal strain. In this study, field observation and laboratory tests were conducted to investigate seasonal variation of thermal-induced strain in flexible pavement. Field observations were conducted at the Integrated Road Research Facility (IRRF’s test road in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, which is fully equipped with structural and environmental monitoring instruments. The main objective of the field study was to compare the variation of thermal-induced strain in warm and cold seasons. Field results indicated that thermal-induced strain is 1.4–2.0 times greater in cold seasons than in warm seasons following the same pavement temperature variations; however, strain generation rate was greater in warm seasons. Laboratory testing of asphalt slab and cylindrical samples produced comparable ratios. Moreover, field observation and laboratory testing showed a similar trend of temperature and thermal strain variations. Keywords: Thermal-induced strain, Asphalt strain gauge, Field observation, Flexible pavement, Laboratory testing, Seasonal variation

  16. Strain-assisted current-induced magnetization reversal in magnetic tunnel junctions: A micromagnetic study with phase-field microelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H. B.; Hu, J. M.; Yang, T. N.; Chen, L. Q.; Ma, X. Q.

    2014-01-01

    Effect of substrate misfit strain on current-induced in-plane magnetization reversal in CoFeB-MgO based magnetic tunnel junctions is investigated by combining micromagnetic simulations with phase-field microelasticity theory. It is found that the critical current density for in-plane magnetization reversal decreases dramatically with an increasing substrate strain, since the effective elastic field can drag the magnetization to one of the four in-plane diagonal directions. A potential strain-assisted multilevel bit spin transfer magnetization switching device using substrate misfit strain is also proposed.

  17. On the development of a magnetoresistive sensor for blade tip timing and blade tip clearance measurement systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassini, R.; Rossi, G.; Brouckaert, J.-F.

    2016-10-01

    A simultaneous blade tip timing (BTT) and blade tip clearance (BTC) measurement system enables the determination of turbomachinery blade vibrations and ensures the monitoring of the existing running gaps between the blade tip and the casing. This contactless instrumentation presents several advantages compared to the well-known telemetry system with strain gauges, at the cost of a more complex data processing procedure. The probes used can be optical, capacitive, eddy current as well as microwaves, everyone with its dedicated electronics and many existing different signal processing algorithms. Every company working in this field has developed its own processing method and sensor technology. Hence, repeating the same test with different instrumentations, the answer is often different. Moreover, rarely it is possible to achieve reliability for in-service measurements. Developments are focused on innovative instrumentations and a common standard. This paper focuses on the results achieved using a novel magnetoresistive sensor for simultaneous tip timing and tip clearance measurements. The sensor measurement principle is described. The sensitivity to gap variation is investigated. In terms of measurement of vibrations, experimental investigations were performed at the Air Force Institute of Technology (ITWL, Warsaw, Poland) in a real aeroengine and in the von Karman Institute (VKI) R2 compressor rig. The advantages and limitations of the magnetoresistive probe for turbomachinery testing are highlighted.

  18. Waveguide analysis of heat-drawn and chemically etched probe tips for scanning near-field optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moar, Peter N; Love, John D; Ladouceur, François; Cahill, Laurence W

    2006-09-01

    We analyze two basic aspects of a scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) probe's operation: (i) spot-size evolution of the electric field along the probe with and without a metal layer, and (ii) a modal analysis of the SNOM probe, particularly in close proximity to the aperture. A slab waveguide model is utilized to minimize the analytical complexity, yet provides useful quantitative results--including losses associated with the metal coating--which can then be used as design rules.

  19. Strain Energy Density in the Elastodynamics of the Spacetime Continuum and the Electromagnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millette P. A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the strain energy density of the spacetime continuum in the Elasto- dynamics of the Spacetime Continuum by applying continuum m echanical results to strained spacetime. The strain energy density is a scalar. W e find that it is separated into two terms: the first one expresses the dilatation energy density (the “mass” longitu- dinal term while the second one expresses the distortion en ergy density (the “massless” transverse term. The quadratic structure of the energy rel ation of Special Relativity is found to be present in the theory. In addition, we find that the kinetic energy pc is car- ried by the distortion part of the deformation, while the dil atation part carries only the rest-mass energy. The strain energy density of the electrom agnetic energy-momentum stress tensor is calculated. The dilatation energy density (the rest-mass energy density of the photon is found to be 0 as expected. The transverse dis tortion energy density is found to include a longitudinal electromagnetic energy fl ux term, from the Poynting vector, that is massless as it is due to distortion, not dilatation, of the spacetime con- tinuum. However, because this energy flux is along the direct ion of propagation (i.e. longitudinal, it gives rise to the particle aspect of the el ectromagnetic field, the photon.

  20. A model for electric field enhancement in lightning leader tips to levels allowing X-ray and γ ray emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babich, L. P.; Bochkov, E. I.; Kutsyk, I. M.

    2015-01-01

    A model is proposed capable of accounting for the local electric field increase in front of the lightning stepped leader up to magnitudes allowing front electrons to overcome the runaway energy threshold and thus to initiate relativistic runaway electron avalanches capable of generating X......-ray and ray bursts observed in negative lightning leader. The model is based on an idea that an ionization wave, propagating in a preionized channel, is being focused, such that its front remains narrow and the front electric field is being enhanced. It is proposed that when a space leader segment, formed...... that the ionization channels of streamers limit the lateral expansion of the ionization wave, thereby enhancing the peak electric field to values allowing an acceleration of low-energy electrons into the runaway regime where electrons efficiently generate bremsstrahlung. The results suggest that the inhomogeneous...

  1. Multiphase-field model of small strain elasto-plasticity according to the mechanical jump conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Christoph; Schoof, Ephraim; Schneider, Daniel; Schwab, Felix; Reiter, Andreas; Selzer, Michael; Nestler, Britta

    2018-04-01

    We introduce a small strain elasto-plastic multiphase-field model according to the mechanical jump conditions. A rate-independent J_2 -plasticity model with linear isotropic hardening and without kinematic hardening is applied exemplary. Generally, any physically nonlinear mechanical model is compatible with the subsequently presented procedure. In contrast to models with interpolated material parameters, the proposed model is able to apply different nonlinear mechanical constitutive equations for each phase separately. The Hadamard compatibility condition and the static force balance are employed as homogenization approaches to calculate the phase-inherent stresses and strains. Several verification cases are discussed. The applicability of the proposed model is demonstrated by simulations of the martensitic transformation and quantitative parameters.

  2. Strain, Sex, and Open-Field Behavior: Factors Underlying the Genetic Susceptibility to Helplessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Eimeira; Barrett, Douglas W.; Shumake, Jason D.; Gonzalez-Lima, F.

    2009-01-01

    Learned helplessness represents a failure to escape after exposure to inescapable stress and may model human psychiatric disorders related to stress. Previous work has demonstrated individual differences in susceptibility to learned helplessness. In this study, we assessed different factors associated with this susceptibility, including strain, sex, and open-field behavior. Testing of three rat strains (Holtzman, Long-Evans, and Sprague-Dawley) revealed that Holtzman rats were the most susceptible to helplessness. Holtzman rats not only had the longest escape latencies following inescapable shock, but also showed spontaneous escape deficits in the absence of prior shock when tested with a fixed-ratio 2 (FR2) running response. Moreover, when tested with fixed-ratio 1 (FR1) running—an easy response normally unaffected by helplessness training in rats—inescapable shock significantly increased the escape latencies of Holtzman rats. Within the Holtzman strain, we confirmed recent findings that females showed superior escape performance and therefore appeared more resistant to helplessness than males. However, regression and covariance analyses suggest that this sex difference may be explained by more baseline ambulatory activity among females. In addition, some indices of novelty reactivity (greater exploration of novel vs. familiar open-field) predicted subsequent helpless behavior. In conclusion, Holtzman rats, and especially male Holtzman rats, have a strong predisposition to become immobile when stressed which interferes with their ability to learn active escape responses. The Holtzman strain therefore appears to be a commercially available model for studying susceptibility to helplessness in males, and novelty-seeking may be a marker of this susceptibility. PMID:19428642

  3. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Effect of strain, magnetic field and field angle on the critical current density of Y Ba2Cu3O7-δ coated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, D. C.; Ekin, J. W.; Douglas, J. F.; Clickner, C. C.; Stauffer, T. C.; Goodrich, L. F.

    2010-07-01

    A large, magnetic-field-dependent, reversible reduction in critical current density with axial strain in Y Ba2Cu3O7-δ coated conductors at 75.9 K has been measured. This effect may have important implications for the performance of Y Ba2Cu3O7-δ coated conductors in applications where the conductor experiences large stresses in the presence of a magnetic field. Previous studies have been performed only under tensile strain and could provide only a limited understanding of the in-field strain effect. We now have constructed a device for measuring the critical current density as a function of axial compressive and tensile strain and applied magnetic field as well as magnetic field angle, in order to determine the magnitude of this effect and to create a better understanding of its origin. The reversible reduction in critical current density with strain becomes larger with increasing magnetic field at all field angles. At 76 K the critical current density is reduced by about 30% at - 0.5% strain when a magnetic field of 5 T is applied parallel to the c-axis of the conductor or 8 T is applied in the ab-plane, compared to a reduction of only 13% in self-field. Differences in the strain response of the critical current density at various magnetic field angles indicate that the pinning mechanisms in Y Ba2Cu3O7-δ coated conductors are uniquely affected by strain. Contribution of NIST, not subject to US copyright.

  4. Symmetry analysis of strain, electric and magnetic fields in the Bi2Se3-class of topological insulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brems, Mathias Rosdahl; Paaske, Jens; Lunde, Anders Mathias

    2018-01-01

    Based on group theoretical arguments we derive the most general Hamiltonian for the Bi2Se3-class of materials including terms to third order in the wave vector, first order in electric and magnetic fields, first order in strain and first order in both strain and wave vector. We determine analytic......Based on group theoretical arguments we derive the most general Hamiltonian for the Bi2Se3-class of materials including terms to third order in the wave vector, first order in electric and magnetic fields, first order in strain and first order in both strain and wave vector. We determine...... for the effective mass tensor of the Bi2Se3 class of materials as a function of strain and electric field....

  5. Strained silicon/silicon germanium heterojunction n-channel metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Sarah H.

    2002-01-01

    Investigations into the performance of strained silicon/silicon-germanium (Si/SiGe) n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) have been carried out. Theoretical predictions suggest that use of a strained Si/SiGe material system with advanced material properties compared with conventional silicon allows enhanced MOSFET device performance. This study has therefore investigated the practical feasibility of obtaining superior electrical performance using a Si/SiGe material system. The MOSFET devices consisted of a strained Si surface channel and were fabricated on relaxed SiGe material using a reduced thermal budget process in order to preserve the strain. Two batches of strained Si/SiGe devices fabricated on material grown by differing methods have been analysed and both showed good transistor action. A correlation of electrical and physical device data established that the electrical device behaviour was closely related to the SiGe material quality, which differed depending on growth technique. The cross-wafer variation in the electrical performance of the strained Si/SiGe devices was found to be a function of material quality, thus the viability of Si/SiGe MOSFET technology for commercial applications has been addressed. Of particular importance was the finding that large-scale 'cross-hatching' roughness associated with relaxed SiGe alloys led to degradation in the small-scale roughness at the gate oxide interface, which affects electrical device performance. The fabrication of strained Si MOSFET devices on high quality SiGe material thus enabled significant performance gains to be realised compared with conventional Si control devices. In contrast, the performance of devices fabricated on material with severe cross-hatching roughness was found to be diminished by the nanoscale oxide interface roughness. The effect of device processing on SiGe material with differing as-grown roughness has been carried out and compared with the reactions

  6. A model for electric field enhancement in lightning leader tips to levels allowing X-ray and γ ray emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Babich, L. P.; Bochkov, E. I.; Kutsyk, I. M.; Neubert, Torsten; Chanrion, Olivier Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    A model is proposed capable of accounting for the local electric field increase in front of the lightning stepped leader up to magnitudes allowing front electrons to overcome the runaway energy threshold and thus to initiate relativistic runaway electron avalanches capable of generating X-ray and ray bursts observed in negative lightning leader. The model is based on an idea that an ionization wave, propagating in a preionized channel, is being focused, such that its front remains narrow and ...

  7. Field Strain Measurement on the Fiber-Epoxy Scale in CFRPs

    KAUST Repository

    Tao, Ran

    2015-06-08

    Laminated composites are materials with complex architecture made of continuous fibers (usually glass or carbon) embedded within a polymeric resin. The properties of the raw materials can vary from one point to another due to different local processing conditions or complex geometrical features for example. A first step towards the identification of these spatially varying material parameters is to image with precision the displacement fields in this complex microstructure when subjected to mechanical loading. Secondary electron images obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and then numerically deformed are post-processed by either local subset-based digital image correlation (DIC) or global finite-element based DIC to measure the displacement and strain fields at the fiber-matrix scale in a cross-ply composite. It is shown that when global DIC is applied with a conformal mesh, it can capture more accurate local variations in the strain fields as it takes into account the underlying microstructure. In comparison to subset DIC, global DIC is better suited for capturing gradients across the fiber-matrix interfaces.

  8. In vitro activity of tylvalosin against Spanish field strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavío, M M; Poveda, C; Assunção, P; Ramírez, A S; Poveda, J B

    2014-11-29

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is involved in the porcine enzootic pneumonia and respiratory disease complex; therefore, the search for new treatment options that contribute to the control of this organism is relevant. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations of tylvalosin and 19 other antimicrobial agents against 20 Spanish field isolates of M. hyopneumoniae were determined using the broth microdilution method, with the type strain (J) as a control strain. Tylvalosin had MIC50 and MIC90 values of 0.016 and 0.06 µg/ml, respectively, and was the second-most effective of the assayed antibiotics, after valnemulin. Tiamulin, tylosin and lincomycin were also among the antibiotics with the lowest MIC50 and MIC90 values against the 20 field isolates (0.06-0.25 µg/ml). However, resistance to tylosin and spiramycin, which like tylvalosin, are 16-membered macrolides, was observed. The MIC50 and MIC90 values for ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin ranged from 0.125 to 1 µg/ml; the corresponding values ranged from 2 to 4 µg/ml for oxytetracyline, which was the most active tetracycline. Furthermore, tylvalosin and valnemulin exhibited the highest bactericidal activities. In conclusion, the macrolide tylvalosin and the pleuromutilin valnemulin exhibited the highest in vitro antimicrobial activities against M. hyopneumoniae field isolates in comparison with the other tested antibiotics. British Veterinary Association.

  9. Microbial control of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with Beauveria bassiana strain GHA: Greenhouse and field trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer

    2008-01-01

    In 2003-2004, the lethal and sublethal effects of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA on emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) adults and larvae were evaluated using topical spray and fungal band treatments in the greenhouse and field. B. bassiana strain GHA was moderately effective against...

  10. Characterization of field isolates of Suid herpesvirus 1 (Aujeszky's disease virus) as derivatives of attenuated vaccine strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Medveczky, I.; Strandbygaard, Bertel

    1992-01-01

    Field isolates of suid herpesvirus 1 (Aujeszky's disease virus) from Poland and Hungary were identified by restriction fragment pattern analysis as derivatives of attenuated vaccine strains. The Polish isolates were found to be related to the BUK-TK-900 strain (Suivac A) which is widely used...

  11. Enriched open field facilitates exercise and social interaction in 2 strains of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jacob S; Bellinger, Seanceray A; Joshi, Prianca; Kleven, Gale A

    2014-07-01

    Current housing guidelines for laboratory rodents include recommendations for enrichment. Working with guinea pigs, we have developed an open-field enrichment paradigm that provides several aspects of this species' natural environment. These naturalistic aspects include access to increased space for exploration, access to western timothy (Phleum pratense L.) hay, and grouping as a herd to facilitate social interaction. To determine the immediate effect on behavior from access to the enriched environment, female guinea pigs from 2 strains, IAF Hairless and NIH Hartley, were observed in both standard home cages and an open-field enriched environment. Subjects were housed with cagemates in pairs for the home-cage observation and were grouped as a herd when in the open-field arena. Behaviors were videorecorded for 1 h and then scored. Salivary cortisol levels were measured both prior to and immediately after behavioral observations. Analyses revealed higher levels of activity and social interaction in the open-field arena compared with the home cage, with no significant change in salivary cortisol levels. These results suggest that exposure to the open-field environment provide increased opportunities for exercise and social enrichment. Although additional studies are needed to determine long-term effects on experimental outcomes, the open-field configuration holds promise as a laboratory enrichment paradigm for guinea pigs.

  12. Chiral Anomaly from Strain-Induced Gauge Fields in Dirac and Weyl Semimetals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Pikulin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dirac and Weyl semimetals form an ideal platform for testing ideas developed in high-energy physics to describe massless relativistic particles. One such quintessentially field-theoretic idea of the chiral anomaly already resulted in the prediction and subsequent observation of the pronounced negative magnetoresistance in these novel materials for parallel electric and magnetic fields. Here, we predict that the chiral anomaly occurs—and has experimentally observable consequences—when real electromagnetic fields E and B are replaced by strain-induced pseudo-electromagnetic fields e and b. For example, a uniform pseudomagnetic field b is generated when a Weyl semimetal nanowire is put under torsion. In accordance with the chiral anomaly equation, we predict a negative contribution to the wire resistance proportional to the square of the torsion strength. Remarkably, left- and right-moving chiral modes are then spatially segregated to the bulk and surface of the wire forming a “topological coaxial cable.” This produces hydrodynamic flow with potentially very long relaxation time. Another effect we predict is the ultrasonic attenuation and electromagnetic emission due to a time-periodic mechanical deformation causing pseudoelectric field e. These novel manifestations of the chiral anomaly are most striking in the semimetals with a single pair of Weyl nodes but also occur in Dirac semimetals such as Cd_{3}As_{2} and Na_{3}Bi and Weyl semimetals with unbroken time-reversal symmetry.

  13. Chiral Anomaly from Strain-Induced Gauge Fields in Dirac and Weyl Semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikulin, D. I.; Chen, Anffany; Franz, M.

    2016-10-01

    Dirac and Weyl semimetals form an ideal platform for testing ideas developed in high-energy physics to describe massless relativistic particles. One such quintessentially field-theoretic idea of the chiral anomaly already resulted in the prediction and subsequent observation of the pronounced negative magnetoresistance in these novel materials for parallel electric and magnetic fields. Here, we predict that the chiral anomaly occurs—and has experimentally observable consequences—when real electromagnetic fields E and B are replaced by strain-induced pseudo-electromagnetic fields e and b . For example, a uniform pseudomagnetic field b is generated when a Weyl semimetal nanowire is put under torsion. In accordance with the chiral anomaly equation, we predict a negative contribution to the wire resistance proportional to the square of the torsion strength. Remarkably, left- and right-moving chiral modes are then spatially segregated to the bulk and surface of the wire forming a "topological coaxial cable." This produces hydrodynamic flow with potentially very long relaxation time. Another effect we predict is the ultrasonic attenuation and electromagnetic emission due to a time-periodic mechanical deformation causing pseudoelectric field e . These novel manifestations of the chiral anomaly are most striking in the semimetals with a single pair of Weyl nodes but also occur in Dirac semimetals such as Cd3 As2 and Na3Bi and Weyl semimetals with unbroken time-reversal symmetry.

  14. Generation of iPSC from cardiac and tail-tip fibroblasts derived from a second heart field reporter mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Javier; Arellano-Viera, Estibaliz; Iglesias-García, Olalla; Ferreira, Carmen; Iglesias, Elena; Abizanda, Gloria; Prósper, Felipe; Carvajal-Vergara, Xonia

    2016-05-01

    Mef2c Anterior Heart Field (AHF) enhancer is activated during embryonic heart development and it is expressed in multipotent cardiovascular progenitors (CVP) giving rise to endothelial and myocardial components of the outflow tract, right ventricle and ventricular septum. Here we have generated iPSC from transgenic Mef2c-AHF-Cre x Ai6(RCLZsGreen) mice. These iPSC will provide a novel tool to investigate the AHF-CVP and their cell progeny. Copyright © 2016 Roslin Cells Ltd. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Strain Fields And Crystallographic Characteristics Of Interstitial Dislocation Loops of Various Geometry In BCC Iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivak, Alexander B.; Chernov, Viatcheslav M.; Romanov, Vladimir A.

    2008-01-01

    The formation energy, the relaxation volume, the dipole-force tensor, the self strain tensor and strain fields of interstitial dislocation loops in bcc iron (clusters of self interstitial atoms) have been calculated by molecular statics. Hexagonal and square dislocation loops of different types with different Burgers vectors, directions of dislocation segments and habit planes containing up to ∼2500 self-interstitials have been considered. Analytical expressions describing size dependence of the formation energy, the relaxation volume and the self strain tensor for the loops stated have been obtained. The most energetically favorable loops are hexagonal loops with Burgers vector a/2 and habit plane {11x}, where x takes values in the range from 0 to 1 depending on the loop size. The formation energy of a loops with and dislocation segments is ∼14% and 23% greater than that of hexagonal a/2 loops at N>500, respectively. The analysis of the formation energies of a/2 and a loops demonstrated that the nucleation of an a loop by joining of two a/2 loops is possible when the total number of constituent self-interstitials in these loops is larger than 13

  16. Biodegradation of buprofezin by Rhodococcus sp. strain YL-1 isolated from rice field soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Ji; Wu, Zhi-Guo; Cao, Li; Yan, Xin; Li, Shun-Peng

    2012-03-14

    A buprofezin-degrading bacterium, YL-1, was isolated from rice field soil. YL-1 was identified as Rhodococcus sp. on the basis of the comparative analysis of 16S rDNA sequences. The strain could use buprofezin as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen for growth and was able to degrade 92.4% of 50 mg L(-1) buprofezin within 48 h in liquid culture. During the degradation of buprofezin, four possible metabolites, 2-tert-butylimino-3-isopropyl-1,3,5-thiadiazinan-4-one, N-tert-butyl-thioformimidic acid formylaminomethyl ester, 2-isothiocyanato-2-methyl-propane, and 2-isothiocyanato-propane, were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The catechol 2,3-dioxygenase activity was strongly induced during the degradation of buprofezin. A novel microbial biodegradation pathway for buprofezin was proposed on the basis of these metabolites. The inoculation of soils treated with buprofezin with strain YL-1 resulted in a higher degradation rate than that observed in noninoculated soils, indicating that strain YL-1 has the potential to be used in the bioremediation of buprofezin-contaminated environments.

  17. Isolation of an attenuated myxoma virus field strain that can confer protection against myxomatosis on contacts of vaccinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárcena, J; Pagès-Manté, A; March, R; Morales, M; Ramírez, M A; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M; Torres, J M

    2000-01-01

    Twenty MV strains obtained from a survey of field strains currently circulating throughout Spain were analyzed for their virulence and horizontal spreading among rabbits by contact transmission. A virus strain with suitable characteristics to be used as a potential vaccine against myxomatosis in wild rabbit populations was selected. Following inoculation, the selected MV strain elicited high levels of MV specific antibodies and induced protection of rabbits against a virulent MV challenge. Furthermore, the attenuated MV was transmitted to 9 out of 16 uninoculated rabbits by contact, inducing protection against myxomatosis.

  18. Population Genetic Structure of Listeria monocytogenes Strains as Determined by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Multilocus Sequence Typing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henri, Clémentine; Félix, Benjamin; Guillier, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    on the basis of different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) clusters, serotypes, and strain origins and typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and the MLST results were supplemented with MLST data available from Institut Pasteur, representing human and additional food strains from France....... The distribution of sequence types (STs) was compared between food and clinical strains on a panel of 675 strains. High congruence between PFGE and MLST was found. Out of 73 PFGE clusters, the two most prevalent corresponded to ST9 and ST121. Using original statistical analysis, we demonstrated that (i...

  19. Comprehensive study of proteasome inhibitors against Plasmodium falciparum laboratory strains and field isolates from Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kremsner Peter G

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to almost all available antimalarial drugs necessitates the search for new chemotherapeutic compounds. The ubiquitin/proteasome system plays a major role in overall protein turnover, especially in fast dividing eukaryotic cells including plasmodia. Previous studies show that the 20S proteasome is expressed and catalytically active in plasmodia and treatment with proteasome inhibitors arrests parasite growth. This is the first comprehensive screening of proteasome inhibitors with different chemical modes of action against laboratory strains of P. falciparum. Subsequently, a selection of inhibitors was tested in field isolates from Lambaréné, Gabon. Methods Epoxomicin, YU101, YU102, MG132, MG115, Z-L3-VS, Ada-Ahx3-L3-VS, lactacystin, bortezomib (Velcade®, gliotoxin, PR11 and PR39 were tested and compared to chloroquine- and artesunate-activities in a standardized in vitro drug susceptibility assay against P. falciparum laboratory strains 3D7, D10 and Dd2. Freshly obtained field isolates from Lambaréné, Gabon, were used to measure the activity of chloroquine, artesunate, epoxomicin, MG132, lactacystin and bortezomib. Parasite growth was detected through histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2 production. Raw data were fitted by a four-parameter logistic model and individual inhibitory concentrations (50%, 90%, and 99% were calculated. Results Amongst all proteasome inhibitors tested, epoxomicin showed the highest activity in chloroquine-susceptible (IC50: 6.8 nM [3D7], 1.7 nM [D10] and in chloroquine-resistant laboratory strains (IC50: 10.4 nM [Dd2] as well as in field isolates (IC50: 8.5 nM. The comparator drug artesunate was even more active (IC50: 1.0 nM, whereas all strains were chloroquine-resistant (IC50: 113 nM. Conclusion The peptide α',β'-epoxyketone epoxomicin is highly active against P. falciparum regardless the grade of the parasite's chloroquine

  20. Male Mating Competitiveness of a Wolbachia-Introgressed Aedes polynesiensis Strain under Semi-Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossin, Hervé; Dobson, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a global public health problem affecting approximately 120 million people worldwide, is a leading cause of disability in the developing world including the South Pacific. Despite decades of ongoing mass drug administration (MDA) in the region, some island nations have not yet achieved the threshold levels of microfilaremia established by the World Health Organization for eliminating transmission. Previously, the generation of a novel Aedes polynesiensis strain (CP) infected with an exogenous type of Wolbachia has been described. The CP mosquito is cytoplasmically incompatible (i.e., effectively sterile) when mated with wildtype mosquitoes, and a strategy was proposed for the control of A. polynesiensis populations by repeated, inundative releases of CP males to disrupt fertility of wild females. Such a strategy could lead to suppression of the vector population and subsequently lead to a reduction in the transmission of filarial worms. Methodology/Principal Findings CP males and F1 male offspring from wild-caught A. polynesiensis females exhibit near equal mating competitiveness with F1 females under semi-field conditions. Conclusions/Significance While laboratory experiments are important, prior projects have demonstrated the need for additional testing under semi-field conditions in order to recognize problems before field implementation. The results reported here from semi-field experiments encourage forward progression toward small-scale field releases. PMID:21829750

  1. Electric-field control of magnetism via strain transfer across ferromagnetic/ferroelectric interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniyama, Tomoyasu

    2015-12-23

    By taking advantage of the coupling between magnetism and ferroelectricity, ferromagnetic (FM)/ferroelectric (FE) multiferroic interfaces play a pivotal role in manipulating magnetism by electric fields. Integrating the multiferroic heterostructures into spintronic devices significantly reduces energy dissipation from Joule heating because only an electric field is required to switch the magnetic element. New concepts of storage and processing of information thus can be envisioned when the electric-field control of magnetism is a viable alternative to the traditional current based means of controlling magnetism. This article reviews some salient aspects of the electric-field effects on magnetism, providing a short overview of the mechanisms of magneto-electric (ME) coupling at the FM/FE interfaces. A particular emphasis is placed on the ME effect via interfacial magneto-elastic coupling arising from strain transfer from the FE to FM layer. Recent results that demonstrate the electric-field control of magnetic anisotropy, magnetic order, magnetic domain wall motion, and etc are described. Obstacles that need to be overcome are also discussed for making this a reality for future device applications.

  2. Male mating competitiveness of a Wolbachia-introgressed Aedes polynesiensis strain under semi-field conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric W Chambers

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis (LF, a global public health problem affecting approximately 120 million people worldwide, is a leading cause of disability in the developing world including the South Pacific. Despite decades of ongoing mass drug administration (MDA in the region, some island nations have not yet achieved the threshold levels of microfilaremia established by the World Health Organization for eliminating transmission. Previously, the generation of a novel Aedes polynesiensis strain (CP infected with an exogenous type of Wolbachia has been described. The CP mosquito is cytoplasmically incompatible (i.e., effectively sterile when mated with wildtype mosquitoes, and a strategy was proposed for the control of A. polynesiensis populations by repeated, inundative releases of CP males to disrupt fertility of wild females. Such a strategy could lead to suppression of the vector population and subsequently lead to a reduction in the transmission of filarial worms.CP males and F1 male offspring from wild-caught A. polynesiensis females exhibit near equal mating competitiveness with F1 females under semi-field conditions.While laboratory experiments are important, prior projects have demonstrated the need for additional testing under semi-field conditions in order to recognize problems before field implementation. The results reported here from semi-field experiments encourage forward progression toward small-scale field releases.

  3. Electric-field control of magnetism via strain transfer across ferromagnetic/ferroelectric interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniyama, Tomoyasu

    2015-01-01

    By taking advantage of the coupling between magnetism and ferroelectricity, ferromagnetic (FM)/ferroelectric (FE) multiferroic interfaces play a pivotal role in manipulating magnetism by electric fields. Integrating the multiferroic heterostructures into spintronic devices significantly reduces energy dissipation from Joule heating because only an electric field is required to switch the magnetic element. New concepts of storage and processing of information thus can be envisioned when the electric-field control of magnetism is a viable alternative to the traditional current based means of controlling magnetism. This article reviews some salient aspects of the electric-field effects on magnetism, providing a short overview of the mechanisms of magneto-electric (ME) coupling at the FM/FE interfaces. A particular emphasis is placed on the ME effect via interfacial magneto-elastic coupling arising from strain transfer from the FE to FM layer. Recent results that demonstrate the electric-field control of magnetic anisotropy, magnetic order, magnetic domain wall motion, and etc are described. Obstacles that need to be overcome are also discussed for making this a reality for future device applications. (topical review)

  4. Strain mapping for the semiconductor industry by dark-field electron holography and nanobeam electron diffraction with nm resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, David; Hartmann, Jean Michel; Carron, Veronique; Béché, Armand; Rouvière, Jean-Luc

    2010-01-01

    There is a requirement of the semiconductor industry to measure strain in semiconductor devices with nm-scale resolution. Here we show that dark-field electron holography and nanobeam electron diffraction (NBED) are both complementary techniques that can be used to determine the strain in these devices. We show two-dimensional strain maps acquired by dark holography and line profiles that have been acquired by NBED of recessed SiGe sources and drains with a variety of different gate lengths and Ge concentrations. We have also used dark-field electron holography to measure the evolution in strain during the silicidation process, showing that this can reduce the applied uniaxial compressive strain in the conduction channel by up to a factor of 3

  5. Small strain multiphase-field model accounting for configurational forces and mechanical jump conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Daniel; Schoof, Ephraim; Tschukin, Oleg; Reiter, Andreas; Herrmann, Christoph; Schwab, Felix; Selzer, Michael; Nestler, Britta

    2018-03-01

    Computational models based on the phase-field method have become an essential tool in material science and physics in order to investigate materials with complex microstructures. The models typically operate on a mesoscopic length scale resolving structural changes of the material and provide valuable information about the evolution of microstructures and mechanical property relations. For many interesting and important phenomena, such as martensitic phase transformation, mechanical driving forces play an important role in the evolution of microstructures. In order to investigate such physical processes, an accurate calculation of the stresses and the strain energy in the transition region is indispensable. We recall a multiphase-field elasticity model based on the force balance and the Hadamard jump condition at the interface. We show the quantitative characteristics of the model by comparing the stresses, strains and configurational forces with theoretical predictions in two-phase cases and with results from sharp interface calculations in a multiphase case. As an application, we choose the martensitic phase transformation process in multigrain systems and demonstrate the influence of the local homogenization scheme within the transition regions on the resulting microstructures.

  6. Determination of strain fields in porous shape memory alloys using micro-computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, Therese; Friess, Sebastian; de Wild, Michael; Schumacher, Ralf; Schulz, Georg; Müller, Bert

    2010-09-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) belong to 'intelligent' materials since the metal alloy can change its macroscopic shape as the result of the temperature-induced, reversible martensite-austenite phase transition. SMAs are often applied for medical applications such as stents, hinge-less instruments, artificial muscles, and dental braces. Rapid prototyping techniques, including selective laser melting (SLM), allow fabricating complex porous SMA microstructures. In the present study, the macroscopic shape changes of the SMA test structures fabricated by SLM have been investigated by means of micro computed tomography (μCT). For this purpose, the SMA structures are placed into the heating stage of the μCT system SkyScan 1172™ (SkyScan, Kontich, Belgium) to acquire three-dimensional datasets above and below the transition temperature, i.e. at room temperature and at about 80°C, respectively. The two datasets were registered on the basis of an affine registration algorithm with nine independent parameters - three for the translation, three for the rotation and three for the scaling in orthogonal directions. Essentially, the scaling parameters characterize the macroscopic deformation of the SMA structure of interest. Furthermore, applying the non-rigid registration algorithm, the three-dimensional strain field of the SMA structure on the micrometer scale comes to light. The strain fields obtained will serve for the optimization of the SLM-process and, more important, of the design of the complex shaped SMA structures for tissue engineering and medical implants.

  7. CO-CO coupling on Cu facets: Coverage, strain and field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, Robert B.; Montoya, Joseph H.; Chan, Karen; Nørskov, Jens K.

    2016-01-01

    We present a DFT study on the effect of coverage, strain, and electric field on CO-CO coupling energetics on Cu (100), (111), and (211). Our calculations indicate that CO-CO coupling is facile on all three facets in the presence of a cation-induced electric field in the Helmholtz plane, with the lowest barrier on Cu(100). The CO dimerization pathway is therefore expected to play a role in C_2 formation at potentials negative of the Cu potential of zero charge, corresponding to CO_2/CO reduction conditions at high pH. Both increased *CO coverage and tensile strain further improve C-C coupling energetics on Cu (111) and (211). Since CO dimerization is facile on all 3 Cu facets, subsequent surface hydrogenation steps may also play an important role in determining the overall activity towards C_2 products. Adsorption of *CO, *H, and *OH on the 3 facets were investigated with a Pourbaix analysis. Here, the (211) facet has the largest propensity to co-adsorb *CO and *H, which would favor surface hydrogenation following CO dimerization.

  8. Strain tolerance of Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8-δ/Ag composites at high field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Q.; Ostenson, J.E.; Finnemore, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    Strain tolerance of Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 1 Cu 2 O 8-δ /Ag composites have been studied at fields up to 20 T and bending strains up to 2.6% in order to determine the factors that control the critical current density. The goal is to find the best way to distribute Ag such as to give both high strain tolerance and high critical current density. Partial melt processed samples prepared from micromilled mixtures containing 30% Ag by volume show a gradually decreasing critical current all the way out to 2.6% strain. Samples typically show about 1000 A/cm 2 at 4.2 K, 20 T, and 0.75% strain. At 20 K, these values occur at 4 T and 0.75% strain

  9. On the measurement of the crack tip stress field as a means of determining Delta K(sub eff) under conditions of fatigue crack closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallhead, Ian R.; Edwards, Lyndon; Poole, Peter

    1994-01-01

    The optical method of caustics has been successfully extended to enable stress intensity factors as low as 1MPa square root of m to be determined accurately for central fatigue cracks in 2024-T3 aluminium alloy test panels. The feasibility of using this technique to study crack closure, and to determine the effective stress intensity factor range, Delta K(sub eff), has been investigated. Comparisons have been made between the measured values of stress intensity factor, K(sub caus), and corresponding theoretical values, K(sub theo), for a range of fatigue cracks grown under different loading conditions. The values of K(sub caus) and K(sub theo) were in good agreement at maximum stress, where the cracks are fully open, while K(sub caus) exceeded K(sub theo) at minimum stress, due to crack closure. However, the levels of crack closure and values of Delta K(sub eff) obtained could not account for the variations of crack growth rate with loading conditions. It is concluded that the values of Delta K(sub eff), based on caustic measurements in a 1/square root of r stress field well outside the plastic zone, do not fully reflect local conditions which control crack tip behavior.

  10. Optical fiber meta-tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principe, Maria; Micco, Alberto; Crescitelli, Alessio; Castaldi, Giuseppe; Consales, Marco; Esposito, Emanuela; La Ferrara, Vera; Galdi, Vincenzo; Cusano, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    We report on the first example of a "meta-tip" configuration that integrates a metasurface on the tip of an optical fiber. Our proposed design is based on an inverted-Babinet plasmonic metasurface obtained by patterning (via focused ion beam) a thin gold film deposited on the tip of an optical fiber, so as to realize an array of rectangular aperture nanoantennas with spatially modulated sizes. By properly tuning the resonances of the aperture nanoantennas, abrupt variations can be impressed in the field wavefront and polarization. We fabricated and characterized several proof-of-principle prototypes operating an near-infrared wavelengths, and implementing the beam-steering (with various angles) of the cross-polarized component, as well as the excitation of surface waves. Our results pave the way to the integration of the exceptional field-manipulation capabilities enabled by metasurfaces with the versatility and ubiquity of fiber-optics technological platforms.

  11. Symmetry analysis of strain, electric and magnetic fields in the Bi2Se3-class of topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosdahl Brems, Mathias; Paaske, Jens; Lunde, Anders Mathias; Willatzen, Morten

    2018-05-01

    Based on group theoretical arguments we derive the most general Hamiltonian for the Bi2Se3-class of materials including terms to third order in the wave vector, first order in electric and magnetic fields, first order in strain and first order in both strain and wave vector. We determine analytically the effects of strain on the electronic structure of Bi2Se3. For the most experimentally relevant surface termination we analytically derive the surface state (SS) spectrum, revealing an anisotropic Dirac cone with elliptical constant energy contours giving rise to a direction-dependent group velocity. The spin-momentum locking of strained Bi2Se3 is shown to be modified. Hence, strain control can be used to manipulate the spin degree of freedom via the spin–orbit coupling. We show that for a thin film of Bi2Se3 the SS band gap induced by coupling between the opposite surfaces changes opposite to the bulk band gap under strain. Tuning the SS band gap by strain, gives new possibilities for the experimental investigation of the thickness dependent gap and optimization of optical properties relevant for, e.g., photodetector and energy harvesting applications. We finally derive analytical expressions for the effective mass tensor of the Bi2Se3 class of materials as a function of strain and electric field.

  12. The evolution of crack-tip stresses during a fatigue overload event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steuwer, A.; Rahman, M.; Shterenlikht, A.; Fitzpatrick, M.E.; Edwards, L.; Withers, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the transient retardation or acceleration of fatigue crack growth subsequent to overloading are a matter of intense debate. Plasticity-induced closure and residual stresses have often been invoked to explain these phenomena, but closure mechanisms are disputed, especially under conditions approximating to generalised plane strain. In this paper we exploit synchrotron radiation to report very high spatial resolution two-dimensional elastic strain and stress maps at maximum and minimum loading measured under plane strain during a normal fatigue cycle, as well as during and after a 100% overload event, in ultra-fine grained AA5091 aluminium alloy. These observations provide direct evidence of the material stress state in the vicinity of the crack-tip in thick samples. Significant compressive residual stresses were found both in front of and behind the crack-tip immediately following the overload event. The effective stress intensity at the crack-tip was determined directly from the local stress field measured deep within the bulk (plane strain) by comparison with linear elastic fracture mechanical theory. This agrees well with that nominally applied at maximum load and 100% overload. After overload, however, the stress fields were not well described by classical K fields due to closure-related residual stresses. Little evidence of overload closure was observed sometime after the overload event, in our case possibly because the overload plastic zone was very small.

  13. Strain differences in the influence of open field exposure on sleep in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiangdong; Xiao, Jihua; Liu, Xianling; Sanford, Larry D

    2004-09-23

    The open field (OF) is thought to induce anxiety in rodents. It also allows an opportunity for exploration in a novel environment. Less activity in the OF is thought to indicate greater anxiety whereas more activity may reflect greater exploration, and possibly greater exploratory learning. Anxiety and learning have poorly understood relationships to sleep. In order to determine how anxiety and exploration in the OF could influence sleep, we recorded sleep in mouse strains (C57BL/6J (B6), BALB/cJ (C), DBA/2J (D2), and CB6F1/J (CB6)) with different levels of anxiety and exploration after 30 min in an OF. In all strains, OF exposure induced immediate decreases in rapid eye movement sleep (REM) followed by longer latency increases in REM. The time course and amount of REM decreases and increases varied among strains. Compared to less anxious B6, D2 and CB6 mice, C mice had greater and longer lasting immediate decreases in REM. C mice also displayed longer periods of decreases REM and a smaller, longer latency increase in REM. OF exploratory activity was positively correlated to percentage of REM increases from 6 to 10h after OF exposure. The results suggest that the anxiogenic component of the OF produced an immediate decrease in REM that was greater in more "anxious" mice. In contrast, exploration in the OF was associated with increased REM, with the increase greater in less anxious mice. The results are discussed with respect to the potential influences of anxiety and learning on sleep.

  14. Genotyping of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A strains from clinical and nonclinical origins by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campioni, Fábio; Falcão, Juliana P

    2014-06-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A (B1A) strains are considered mainly nonpathogenic. However, some studies considered strains of this biotype to be the causal agents of infections in humans and animals. In South America, there are no studies that have compared clinical and nonclinical strains of B1A typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and none that have compared the capability of different enzymes on typing these strains. This study typed 51 Y. enterocolitica B1A strains isolated in Brazil and Chile by PFGE, testing the enzymes XbaI, NotI, and XhoI. The resulting dendrograms discriminated the strains in 47, 40, and 49 pulsotypes generated by the cleavage with the enzymes XbaI, NotI, and XhoI, respectively. The majority of the strains were grouped independently of their clinical or nonclinical origins. The high discriminatory power of PFGE confirmed the heterogeneity of B1A strains but could not divide the strains studied into clusters that differed in the frequency of some virulence genes as observed in studies using other methodologies.

  15. Field study of age-differentiated strain for assembly line workers in the automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, Kerstin; Scherf, Christian; Leitner-Mai, Bianca; Spanner-Ulmer, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    A field study in an automotive supply industry company was conducted to explore age-differentiated strain of assembly line workers. Subjective and objective data from 23 female workers aged between 27 and 57 years were collected at the workplace belt buckle assembly during morning shifts. Subjects with medication or chronic diseases affecting heart rate and breath rate were excluded. For subjective data generation different questionnaires were used. Before the Work Ability Index and the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire were completed by the subjects. Short questionnaires (strain-ratings, NASA-TLX) directly at begin and end of the work were used for obtaining shift-related data. During the whole shift (6 a.m. - 2.45 p.m.) bodily functions were logged with a wireless chest strap. In addition, the motion of the hand-arm-system was recorded for 30 times, 3 minutes each after a fixed time-schedule. First results show that younger subjects need significant less time for assembly (mean = 14.940 s) compared to older subjects (mean = 17.040 s; t(472.026) = -9.278 , p < 0.01).

  16. Temperature dependent piezoelectric response and strain-electric-field hysteresis of rare-earth modified bismuth ferrite ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walker, Julian; Ursic, Hana; Bencan, Andreja

    2016-01-01

    with varying amounts of polar rhombohedral R3c and intermediate antipolar orthorhombic Pbam phases as a function of the RE species. During electric-field cycling at electric-fields with amplitudes of 160 kV cm-1, peak-to-peak strains of 0.23-0.27% are reached for all three compositions. However...

  17. Thermal conductivity of bulk GaN—Effects of oxygen, magnesium doping, and strain field compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Roland B.; Anaya, Julian; Kuball, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The effect of oxygen doping (n-type) and oxygen (O)-magnesium (Mg) co-doping (semi-insulating) on the thermal conductivity of ammonothermal bulk GaN was studied via 3-omega measurements and a modified Callaway model. Oxygen doping was shown to significantly reduce thermal conductivity, whereas O-Mg co-doped GaN exhibited a thermal conductivity close to that of undoped GaN. The latter was attributed to a decreased phonon scattering rate due the compensation of impurity-generated strain fields as a result of dopant-complex formation. The results have great implications for GaN electronic and optoelectronic device applications on bulk GaN substrates

  18. Crack Tip Mechanics in Distortion Gradient Plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuentes-Alonso, Sandra; Martínez Pañeda, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    Gradient Plasticity (DGP), the influence on crack tip mechanics of DGP's distinguishing features that entail superior modelling capabilities has not been investigated yet. In this work crack tip fields are thoroughly examined by implementing the higher order theory of DGP in an implicit finite element...

  19. Balancing ballistic protection against physiological strain: evidence from laboratory and field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Burdon, Catriona A; van den Heuvel, Anne M J; Fogarty, Alison L; Notley, Sean R; Hunt, Andrew P; Billing, Daniel C; Drain, Jace R; Silk, Aaron J; Patterson, Mark J; Peoples, Gregory E

    2016-02-01

    This project was based on the premise that decisions concerning the ballistic protection provided to defence personnel should derive from an evaluation of the balance between protection level and its impact on physiological function, mobility, and operational capability. Civilians and soldiers participated in laboratory- and field-based studies in which ensembles providing five levels of ballistic protection were evaluated, each with progressive increases in protection, mass (3.4-11.0 kg), and surface-area coverage (0.25-0.52 m(2)). Physiological trials were conducted on volunteers (N = 8) in a laboratory, under hot-dry conditions simulating an urban patrol: walking at 4 km·h(-1) (90 min) and 6 km·h(-1) (30 min or to fatigue). Field-based trials were used to evaluate tactical battlefield movements (mobility) of soldiers (N = 31) under tropical conditions, and across functional tests of power, speed, agility, endurance, and balance. Finally, trials were conducted at a jungle training centre, with soldiers (N = 32) patrolling under tropical conditions (averaging 5 h). In the laboratory, work tolerance was reduced as protection increased, with deep-body temperature climbing relentlessly. However, the protective ensembles could be grouped into two equally stressful categories, each providing a different level of ballistic protection. This outcome was supported during the mobility trials, with the greatest performance decrement evident during fire and movement simulations, as the ensemble mass was increased (-2.12%·kg(-1)). The jungle patrol trials similarly supported this outcome. Therefore, although ballistic protection does increase physiological strain, this research has provided a basis on which to determine how that strain can be balanced against the mission-specific level of required personal protection.

  20. Tips on Blood Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Test Pain, Discomfort and Anxiety Tips to Help Children through Their Medical Tests Tips to Help the Elderly through Their Medical Tests Find Us On Social Media: Facebook Twitter Google Plus Footer Menu Home About ...

  1. Strain characterization of fin-shaped field effect transistors with SiGe stressors using nanobeam electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun-Wook; Byeon, Dae-Seop; Jang, Hyunchul; Koo, Sang-Mo; Ko, Dae-Hong; Lee, Hoo-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    This study undertook strain analysis on fin-shaped field effect transistor structures with epitaxial Si 1−x Ge x stressors, using nano-beam electron diffraction and finite elements method. Combining the two methods disclosed dynamic strain distribution in the source/drain and channel region of the fin structure, and the effects of dimensional factors such as the stressor thickness and fin width, offering valuable information for device design.

  2. Strain characterization of fin-shaped field effect transistors with SiGe stressors using nanobeam electron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun-Wook; Byeon, Dae-Seop; Jang, Hyunchul; Koo, Sang-Mo; Ko, Dae-Hong, E-mail: dhko@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hoo-Jeong, E-mail: hlee@skku.edu [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-25

    This study undertook strain analysis on fin-shaped field effect transistor structures with epitaxial Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} stressors, using nano-beam electron diffraction and finite elements method. Combining the two methods disclosed dynamic strain distribution in the source/drain and channel region of the fin structure, and the effects of dimensional factors such as the stressor thickness and fin width, offering valuable information for device design.

  3. ZBrush Professional Tips and Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Gaboury, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Learn to work effectively and creatively with all versions of ZBrush! ZBrush is used by top artists in Hollywood to model and sculpt characters in such films as Avatar, Iron Man, and Pirates of the Caribbean. In addition, this amazing technology is also used in jewelry design, forensic science, aerospace, video games, toy creation, and the medical field. Written by Pixologic's in-house ZBrush expert Paul Gaboury, this full-color, beautifully illustrated guide provides you with the ultimate tips and tricks to maximize your use of all versions of ZBrush. Reveals numerous little-known tips and tr

  4. Geometrically Nonlinear Field Fracture Mechanics and Crack Nucleation, Application to Strain Localization Fields in Al-Cu-Li Aerospace Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyapriya Gupta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The displacement discontinuity arising between crack surfaces is assigned to smooth densities of crystal defects referred to as disconnections, through the incompatibility of the distortion tensor. In a dual way, the disconnections are defined as line defects terminating surfaces where the displacement encounters a discontinuity. A conservation statement for the crack opening displacement provides a framework for disconnection dynamics in the form of transport laws. A similar methodology applied to the discontinuity of the plastic displacement due to dislocations results in the concurrent involvement of dislocation densities in the analysis. Non-linearity of the geometrical setting is assumed for defining the elastic distortion incompatibility in the presence of both dislocations and disconnections, as well as for their transport. Crack nucleation in the presence of thermally-activated fluctuations of the atomic order is shown to derive from this nonlinearity in elastic brittle materials, without any algorithmic rule or ad hoc material parameter. Digital image correlation techniques applied to the analysis of tensile tests on ductile Al-Cu-Li samples further demonstrate the ability of the disconnection density concept to capture crack nucleation and relate strain localization bands to consistent disconnection fields and to the eventual occurrence of complex and combined crack modes in these alloys.

  5. Assessing Static Performance of the Dashengguan Yangtze Bridge by Monitoring the Correlation between Temperature Field and Its Static Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao-Xin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking advantage of the structural health monitoring system installed on the steel truss arch girder of Dashengguan Yangtze Bridge, the temperature field data and static strain data are collected and analyzed for the static performance assessment of the bridge. Through analysis, it is found that the static strain changes are mainly caused by temperature field (temperature and temperature difference and train. After the train-induced static strains are removed, the correlation between the remaining static strains and the temperature field shows apparent linear characteristics, which can be mathematically modeled for the description of static performance. Therefore, multivariate linear regression function combined with principal component analysis is introduced to mathematically model the correlation. Furthermore, the residual static strains of mathematical model are adopted as assessment indicator and three kinds of degradation regulations of static performance are obtained after simulation of the residual static strains. Finally, it is concluded that the static performance of Dashengguan Yangtze Bridge was in a good condition during that period.

  6. Young Geophysicists: `Know How' Tips to Nourish Them from Lectures and Seminars to Field Work and Conferences (Geology and Geophysics Department, Novosibirsk State University, GGD, NSU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmenkulova, I. F.

    2016-12-01

    How to nourish young brilliant geophysicists? Here are the tips: We teach them as physicists (at the Department of Physics, together with students majoring in physics). Students have special facilities in field work, using most modern geophysical equipment. They can participate in real projects on applied geophysics during their studies. They attend special seminars and conferences for both young professionals and full-fledged scientists. Their English Language Program is focused on geophysical terminology. There are four specialties at Geology and Geophysics Department of Novosibirsk State University: Geophysics, Geochemistry, Geology, and Geochemistry of Oil and Gas. However, the curriculum for geophysicists is absolutely different from other specialties. Mathematics, physics and laboratory work are given at the Department of Physics (together with students majoring in physics). All the necessary geological subjects are also studied (including field work). During all period of their study the students work part time at many geophysical institutions. The equipment is both traditional and most modern, created at the Institute of Oil and Gas Geophysics. The students present the result of their field work and laboratory experiments in many seminars and conferences. For example, there is a traditional annual conference in Shira, Khakassia, for young professionals. Every year the Seminar in Geodynamics, Geophysics and Geomechanics is held in the Altay Mountains (Denisova Cave Camp). This Seminar was organized by the late Sergey Goldin, the Director of the Institute of Geophysics, the Head of the Chair of Geophysics, a Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In July 2016 this Seminar was devoted to 80's birth anniversary of Sergey Goldin. Several students of geophysics presented the results of their work there. Next year the seminar is supposed to be international. A special attention is given to the English course lasting for 5 years. The students learn general

  7. The TIPS Liquidity Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Martin Møller; Christensen, Jens H.E.; Simon Riddell, Simon

    We introduce an arbitrage-free term structure model of nominal and real yields that accounts for liquidity risk in Treasury inflation-protected securities (TIPS). The novel feature of our model is to identify liquidity risk from individual TIPS prices by accounting for the tendency that TIPS, lik...

  8. Electric-field and strain-tunable electronic properties of MoS2/h-BN/graphene vertical heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Wenyan; Geng, Wei; Liu, Huanxiang; Yao, Xiaojun

    2016-01-28

    Vertical heterostructures of MoS2/h-BN/graphene have been successfully fabricated in recent experiments. Using first-principles analysis, we show that the structural and electronic properties of such vertical heterostructures are sensitive to applied vertical electric fields and strain. The applied electric field not only enhances the interlayer coupling but also linearly controls the charge transfer between graphene and MoS2 layers, leading to a tunable doping in graphene and controllable Schottky barrier height. Applied biaxial strain could weaken the interlayer coupling and results in a slight shift of graphene's Dirac point with respect to the Fermi level. It is of practical importance that the tunable electronic properties by strain and electric fields are immune to the presence of sulfur vacancies, the most common defect in MoS2.

  9. Tip studies using CFD and comparison with tip loss models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Johansen, J.

    2004-01-01

    The flow past a rotating LM8.2 blade equipped with two different tips are computed using CFD. The different tip flows are analysed and a comparison with two different tip loss models is made. Keywords: tip flow, aerodynamics, CFD......The flow past a rotating LM8.2 blade equipped with two different tips are computed using CFD. The different tip flows are analysed and a comparison with two different tip loss models is made. Keywords: tip flow, aerodynamics, CFD...

  10. Effects of Notch Misalignment and Tip Radius on Displacement Field in V-Notch Rail Shear Test as Determined by Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Charles S.; Oliveras, Ovidio M.

    2011-01-01

    Evolution of the 3D strain field during ASTM-D-7078 v-notch rail shear tests on 8-ply quasi-isotropic carbon fiber/epoxy laminates was determined by optical photogrammetry using an ARAMIS system. Specimens having non-optimal geometry and minor discrepancies in dimensional tolerances were shown to display non-symmetry and/or stress concentration in the vicinity of the notch relative to a specimen meeting the requirements of the standard, but resulting shear strength and modulus values remained within acceptable bounds of standard deviation. Based on these results, and reported difficulty machining specimens to the required tolerances using available methods, it is suggested that a parametric study combining analytical methods and experiment may provide rationale to increase the tolerances on some specimen dimensions, reducing machining costs, increasing the proportion of acceptable results, and enabling a wider adoption of the test method.

  11. Job strain, sleep and alertness in shift working health care professionals -- a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhula, Kati; Härmä, Mikko; Sallinen, Mikael; Hublin, Christer; Virkkala, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Puttonen, Sampsa

    2013-01-01

    We explored the associations of job strain with sleep and alertness of shift working female nurses and nursing assistants. Participants (n=95) were recruited from the Finnish Public Sector Study, from hospital wards that belonged to the top or bottom quartiles on job strain. Participants' own job strain was at least as high in high-strain group or low in low-strain group as the ward's average. The study included three-week measurements with sleep diary and actigraphy. Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) was performed during one pre-selected morning and night shift and a day off. Sleep efficiency before morning shifts was lower in the high-strain than low-strain group (p=0.03). Low-strain group took more often (72 vs. 45%; psleep were more common in high-strain group, especially after evening shifts (psleep duration (06:49 h) and efficiency (89%) did not differ between these groups. In conclusion, high job strain is associated with difficulties initiating sleep and reduced psychomotor vigilance in night shifts. Shift working contributed to impaired sleep in both high and low job strain group. Individual and organization-based actions are needed to promote sufficient sleep in shift working nurses, especially with high job strain.

  12. Evolution of phase structure and giant strain at low driving fields in Bi-based lead-free incipient piezoelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqbool, Adnan; Hussain, Ali; Malik, Rizwan Ahmed; Rahman, Jamil Ur; Zaman, Arif; Song, Tae Kwon; Kim, Won-Jeong; Kim, Myong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nb-doped BNBT–SZ ceramics were prepared by conventional solid state method. • A giant normalized strain of 825 pm/V at 4 kV/mm was achieved. • A large strain of 0.20% triggered at a relatively low field of 3 kV/mm. • Highest strain obtained in BNT-based ceramics at such a low driving field. • Ferroelectric to ergodic-relaxor phase transition occurred with Nb-doping. - Abstract: Lead-free 0.99[(Bi 0.5 Na 0.5 ) 0.935 Ba 0.065 Ti (1–x) Nb x O 3 ]–0.01SrZrO 3 (BNBTNb100x–SZ, with Nb100x = 0–1) ceramics were prepared by the conventional mixed oxide route. X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering was utilized for the structural evolution of Nb-modified BNBT–SZ ceramics at average and short-scale localized structure. Temperature dependent dielectric properties showed ferroelectric–ergodic relaxor (FE–ER) transition in Nb-modified BNBT–SZ ceramics by producing a significant disruption of the long-range FE order. A giant normalized strain of 825 pm/V at 4 kV/mm was achieved at Nb1.0. Interestingly, at a relatively low applied field of 3 kV/mm, the Nb0.75 sample displayed a large electric field-induced strain (EFIS) response of 0.20%, which is highest value obtained in non-textured lead-free BNT-based ceramics at such low driving field. The structural distortion induced by doping and electric poling is correlated with the dielectric, ferroelectric and EFIS response, and the evolution of giant strain was ascribed to reversible field induced phase transition from ER–FE phase

  13. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of multidrug-resistant and -sensitive strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a Malaysian hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, Kwai Lin; Lai, Kin Seng; Ganeswrie, R; Puthucheary, S D

    2004-10-01

    Over a period of 6 months from January to June 2002, an unusual increase in the isolation of highly resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains was observed in the various wards and intensive care units of a large general hospital in Johor Bahru, Malaysia. An equal number of multidrug resistant (MDR) and drug-susceptible strains were collected randomly from swabs, respiratory specimens, urine, blood, cerebral spinal fluid, and central venous catheters to determine the clonality and genetic variation of the strains. Macrorestriction analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that the 19 MDR strains were genetically very homogenous; the majority showed the dominant profile S1 (n = 10), the rest very closely related profiles S1a (n = 1), S2 (n = 4), and S2a (n = 3), indicating the endemicity of these strains. In contrast, the 19 drug-sensitive strains isolated during the same time period were genetically more diverse, showing 17 pulsed-field profiles (F = 0.50-1.00), and probably derived from the patients themselves. The presence of the MDR clone poses serious therapeutic problems as it may become endemic in the hospital and give rise to future clonal outbreaks. There is also the potential for wider geographical spread.

  14. Plasmon field enhancement oscillations induced by strain-mediated coupling between a quantum dot and mechanical oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong

    2017-06-23

    We utilize the surface plasmon field of a metal nanoparticle (MNP) to show strain-mediated coupling in a quantum dot-mechanical resonator hybrid system including a quantum dot (QD) embedded within a conical nanowire (NW) and a MNP in the presence of an external field. Based on the numerical solutions of the master equation, we find that a slow oscillation, originating from the strain-mediated coupling between the QD and the NW, appears in the time evolution of the plasmon field enhancement. The results show that the period (about [Formula: see text]) of the slow oscillation is equal to that of the mechanical resonator of NW, which suggests that the time-resolved measurement of the plasmon field enhancement can be easily achieved based on the current experimental conditions. Its amplitude increases with the increasing strain-mediated coupling strength, and under certain conditions there is a linear relationship between them. The slow oscillation of the plasmon field enhancement provides valuable tools for measurements of the mechanical frequency and the strain-mediated coupling strength.

  15. Effect of applied strain on phase separation of Fe-28 at.% Cr alloy: 3D phase-field simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lihui; Li, Yongsheng; Liu, Chengwei; Chen, Shi; Shi, Shujing; Jin, Shengshun

    2018-04-01

    A quantitative simulation of the separation of the α‧ phase in Fe-28 at.% Cr alloy under the effects of applied strain is performed by utilizing a three-dimensional phase-field model. The elongation of the Cr-enriched α‧ phase becomes obvious with the influence of applied uniaxial strain for the phase separation transforms from spinodal decomposition of 700 K to nucleation and growth of 773 K. The applied strain shows a significant influence on the early stage phase separation, and the influence is enlarged with the elevated temperature. The steady-state coarsening with the mechanism of spinodal decomposition is substantially affected by the applied strain for low-temperature aging, while the influence is reduced as the temperature increases and as the phase separation mechanism changes to nucleation and growth. The peak value of particle size distribution decreases, and the PSD for 773 K becomes more widely influenced by the applied strain. The simulation results of separation of the Cr-enriched α‧ phase with the applied strain provide a further understanding of the strain effect on the phase separation of Fe-Cr alloys from the metastable region to spinodal regions.

  16. Theoretical approach of photo-field emission in degenerated semiconductors. The case of slightly P-doped silicon tips; Approche theorique de la photoemission de champ a partir de semiconducteurs degeneres. Cas des pointes de silicium faiblement dope p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chbihi El Wahoudi, A. [Ecole Doctorale des Sciences Fondamentales, Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France). U.F.R. de Recherche Scientifique et Technique

    1996-12-20

    After defining field emission in metallic tips, we examine thoroughly a theory of photo-field emission following the works of Bagchi, Schwartz and Gao. This theory is compared to the experimental results of Reifenberger et al. We study the field emission in a semiconductor, following R. Stratton, and we propose a new theoretical interpretation of the anomalous growth of current with field, as it often occurs in the characteristic current-voltage. We assume the creation by the field of a dynamic quantum well in the surface conduction band. As a consequence of the induced degeneracy, we express theoretically the contribution to the current, of the electrons confined in the well. We compare this hypothesis to the emission of doped P silicon. There is a fairly good agreement. Assuming that the electrons are confined in the well, we develop a new theoretical approach of the photo-field emission of a degenerated semiconductor. We derive the photoelectric transition probability in the case of laser YAG pulse of picosecond duration, then the photocurrent densities of various photonic energies for distinct values of electric field, taking into account the optical property of the medium. We are thus able to interpret our experimental results with a good agreement. This original development should enable us to predict the behaviour of our tipped photocathodes in photo-injectors (CLIC, CANDELA, Tesla). These photocathodes could be interesting in infrared detection. (author) 55 refs.

  17. Prevalence of pathogens from Mollicutes class in cattle affected by respiratory diseases and molecular characteristics of Mycoplasma bovis field strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szacawa Ewelina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mycoplasma bovis is one of the main pathogens involved in cattle pneumonia. Other mycoplasmas have also been directly implicated in respiratory diseases in cattle. The prevalence of different Mycoplasma spp. in cattle affected by respiratory diseases and molecular characteristics of M. bovis field strains were evaluated. Material and Methods: In total, 713 nasal swabs from 73 cattle herds were tested. The uvrC gene fragment was amplified by PCR and PCR products were sequenced. PCR/DGGE and RAPD were performed. Results: It was found that 39 (5.5% samples were positive for M. bovis in the PCR and six field strains had point nucleotide mutations. Additionally, the phylogenetic analysis of 20 M. bovis field strains tested with RAPD showed two distinct groups of M. bovis strains sharing only 3.8% similarity. PCR/DGGE analysis demonstrated the presence of bacteria belonging to the Mollicutes class in 79.1% of DNA isolates. The isolates were identified as: Mycoplasma bovirhinis, M. dispar, M. bovis, M. canis, M. arginini, M. canadense, M. bovoculi, M. alkalescens, and Ureaplasma diversum. Conclusion: Different Mycoplasma spp. strains play a crucial role in inducing respiratory diseases in cattle.

  18. Quantitative Imaging of the Stress/Strain Fields and Generation of Macroscopic Cracks from Indents in Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K. Tanner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The crack geometry and associated strain field around Berkovich and Vickers indents on silicon have been studied by X-ray diffraction imaging and micro-Raman spectroscopy scanning. The techniques are complementary; the Raman data come from within a few micrometres of the indentation, whereas the X-ray image probes the strain field at a distance of typically tens of micrometres. For example, Raman data provide an explanation for the central contrast feature in the X-ray images of an indent. Strain relaxation from breakout and high temperature annealing are examined and it is demonstrated that millimetre length cracks, similar to those produced by mechanical damage from misaligned handling tools, can be generated in a controlled fashion by indentation within 75 micrometres of the bevel edge of 200 mm diameter wafers.

  19. Model for field-induced reorientation strain in magnetic shape memory alloy with tensile and compressive loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yuping; Dui Guansuo

    2008-01-01

    A model based on the micromechanical and the thermodynamic theory is presented for field-induced martensite reorientation in magnetic shape memory alloy (MSMA) single crystals. The influence of variants morphology and the material property to constitutive behavior is considered. The nonlinear and hysteretic strain and magnetization response of MSMA are investigated for two main loading cases, namely the magnetic field-induced reorientation of variants under constant compressive stress and tensile stress. The predicted results have shown that increasing tensile loading reduces the required field for actuation, while increasing compressive loads result in the required magnetic field growing considerably. It is helpful to design the intelligent composite with MSMA fibers

  20. Control of superconductivity by means of electric-field-induced strain in superconductor/piezoelectric hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamopoulos, D.; Zeibekis, M.; Zhang, S. J.

    2018-01-01

    The controlled modification of superconductivity by any means, specifically in hybrid systems, has attracted much interest in the recent decades. Here, we present experimental data and phenomenological modeling on the control of TC of superconducting (SC) Nb thin films, with thickness 3 nm ≤ dN b≤50 nm, under the application of in-plane strain, S(Eex) induced by an external out-of-plane electric field, Eex to piezoelectric (PE) single crystals, namely, ( 1 -x )Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-xPT), with x = 0.27 and 0.31. We report experimental modification of TC of Nb by Eex, accurately described by a phenomenological model that incorporates the constitutive relation S(Eex) of PMN-xPT. The systematic experimental-phenomenological modeling approach introduced here is generic and paves the way for an understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms in any SC/PE hybrid.

  1. Experimental intraocular infection of exotic cockerels with field strain of velogenic Newcastle disease virus in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaila Jonathan Badau

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental intraocular (conjunctival infection of exotic cockerels with a new field strain of viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV was conducted to explore the concurrence of some pathological changes with humoral immune responses. After the NDV infection of 4-week-old cockerels, pathologic changes and antibody responses were observed. The clinical signs observed after the artificial inoculation included inappetence, depression, diarrhea, dyspnea, wing and leg paralysis, torticollis and weight loss. Morbidity due to the NDV was 100%, but mortality was 80% by day 18-21 post-infection. Early hyperthermia followed by terminal hypothermia, decreased packed cell volume (PCV, and 231.4 folds peak-antibody response were observed. Necrotic and/or inflammatory lesions were present in the proventriculus, intestine, liver, spleen, kidney and brain. Neurologic and digestive tract perturbations occurred in 10% and 85% of cases, respectively. The disease consistently caused stunted growth, decreased PCV, and necro-inflammatroy lesions concurrent with antibody response, suggesting probable involvement of immune-mediated mechanisms and cell membrane desialylation by viral neuraminidase in the pathogenesis.

  2. Physical and genetic mapping of the genomes of five Mycoplasma hominis strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladefoged, Søren; Christiansen, Gunna

    1992-01-01

    -field gel electrophoresis. All the ApaI, SmaI, BamHI, XhoI, and SalI restriction sites (total of 21 to 33 sites in each strain) were placed on the physical map, yielding an average resolution of 26 kb. The maps were constructed using three different approaches: (i) size determination of DNA fragments...

  3. Isolation of a nitrate-reducing bacteria strain from oil field brine and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) strain with vigorous growth, strong nitrate reduction ability, strain B9 2-1, was isolated from Suizhong36-1 oilfield, its routine identification and analysis of 16S rRNA and also the competitive inhibition experiments with the enrichment of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were carried out.

  4. Quantitative strain mapping of InAs/InP quantum dots with 1 nm spatial resolution using dark field electron holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, David; Rouviere, Jean-Luc; Béché, Armand

    2011-01-01

    The optical properties of semiconductor quantum dots are greatly influenced by their strain state. Dark field electron holography has been used to measure the strain in InAs quantum dots grown in InP with a spatial resolution of 1 nm. A strain value of 5.4%60.1% has been determined which...

  5. The anti-Phytophthora effect of selected potato-associated Pseudomonas strains: from the laboratory to the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk eGuyer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is the most devastating disease of potato. In organic farming, late Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is the most devastating disease of potato. In organic farming, late blight is controlled by repeated applications of copper-based products, which negatively impact the environment. To find alternative solutions for late blight management, we have previously isolated a large collection of bacteria from the phyllosphere and the rhizosphere of potatoes. Here we report the antagonistic potential of these strains when co-cultivated with P. infestans as well as with other potato pathogens. We then focused on three Pseudomonas strains and compared their protective impact against late blight to that of well-known biocontrol strains in planta using a high-throughput leaf disc assay with automated picture analysis. When sprayed on the leaves of potatoes in the greenhouse, the strains were able to survive for at least 15 days. Under field conditions, populations decreased faster but all tested strains could still be retrieved after 8 days. The most active strain in vitro, P. chlororaphis R47, was also the best protectant on leaf discs from plants grown in the greenhouse experiment, but its protection potential could not be verified in the field due to unfavourable infection conditions. However, its protective effect against P. infestans in planta, its survival in the phyllosphere as well as its ability to colonise the potato rhizosphere in very high population densities, suggest a potential for field application, e.g. in the form of tuber treatment or leaf spray.

  6. The intra-observer reproducibility of cardiovascular magnetic resonance myocardial feature tracking strain assessment is independent of field strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, Andreas; Morton, Geraint; Hussain, Shazia T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance myocardial feature tracking (CMR-FT) is a promising novel method for quantification of myocardial wall mechanics from standard steady-state free precession (SSFP) images. We sought to determine whether magnetic field strength affects the intra-observer reproducibility of CMR-FT strain analysis. Methods: We studied 2 groups, each consisting of 10 healthy subjects, at 1.5 T or 3 T Analysis was performed at baseline and after 4 weeks using dedicated CMR-FT prototype software (Tomtec, Germany) to analyze standard SSFP cine images. Right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) longitudinal strain (Ell RV and Ell LV ) and LV long-axis radial strain (Err LAX ) were derived from the 4-chamber cine, and LV short-axis circumferential and radial strains (Ecc SAX , Err SAX ) from the short-axis orientation. Strain parameters were assessed together with LV ejection fraction (EF) and volumes. Intra-observer reproducibility was determined by comparing the first and the second analysis in both groups. Results: In all volunteers resting strain parameters were successfully derived from the SSFP images. There was no difference in strain parameters, volumes and EF between field strengths (p > 0.05). In general Ecc SAX was the most reproducible strain parameter as determined by the coefficient of variation (CV) at 1.5 T (CV 13.3% and 46% global and segmental respectively) and 3 T (CV 17.2% and 31.1% global and segmental respectively). The least reproducible parameter was Ell RV (CV 1.5 T 28.7% and 53.2%; 3 T 43.5% and 63.3% global and segmental respectively). Conclusions: CMR-FT results are similar with reasonable intra-observer reproducibility in different groups of volunteers at 1.5 T and 3 T. CMR-FT is a promising novel technique and our data indicate that results might be transferable between field strengths. However there is a considerable amount of segmental variability indicating that further refinements are needed before CMR

  7. Development, validation and field evaluation of a quantitative real-time PCR able to differentiate between field Mycoplasma synoviae and the MS-H-live vaccine strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkman, R; Feberwee, A; Landman, W J M

    2017-08-01

    A quantitative PCR (qPCR) able to differentiate between field Mycoplasma synoviae and MS-H vaccine strain was developed, validated and evaluated. It was developed using nucleotide differences in the obg gene. Analytical specificity and sensitivity assessed using DNA from 194 M. synoviae field samples, three different batches of MS-H vaccine and from 43 samples representing four other avian Mycoplasma species proved to be 100%. The detection limit for field M. synoviae and MS-H vaccine strain was 10 2-3 and 10 2 colony-forming units PCR equivalents/g trachea mucus, respectively. The qPCR was able to detect both, field M. synoviae and MS-H vaccine strain in ratios of 1:100 determined both using spiked and field samples. One hundred and twenty samples from M. synoviae-infected non-vaccinated birds, 110 samples from M. synoviae-vaccinated birds from a bird experiment and 224 samples from M. synoviae negative (serology and PCR) birds were used to determine the relative sensitivity and specificity using a previously described M. synoviae PCR as reference. The relative sensitivity and specificity for field M. synoviae were 95.0% and 99.6%, respectively, and 94.6% and 100% for the MS-H-live vaccine, respectively. Field validation and confirmation by multi locus sequence typing revealed that the qPCR correctly distinguished between MS-H and field M. synoviae. Evaluation of the differentiating M. synoviae qPCR in three commercial flocks suggested transmission of MS-H-live vaccine from vaccinated to non-vaccinated flocks at the same farm. Furthermore, it showed evidence for the colonization with field M. synoviae in MS-H-vaccinated flocks.

  8. Evaluation of a New Entomopathogenic Strain of Beauveria bassiana and a New Field Delivery Method against Solenopsis invicta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    Full Text Available Solenopsis invicta Buren is one of the most important pests in China, and control measures are mainly based on the use of synthetic pesticides, which may be inadequate and unsustainable. Hence, there is a growing interest in developing biological control alternatives for managing S. invicta, such as the use of entomopathogenic fungi. To facilitate the commercialization of entomopathogenic fungi against S. invicta, 10 Beauveria bassiana isolates originating from different hosts were tested for virulence in laboratory bioassays, and the most pathogenic strain, ZGNKY-5, was tested in field studies using an improved pathogen delivery system. The cumulative mortality rate reached 93.40% at 1×108 mL-1 conidia after 504 h. The germination and invasion of the spores were observed under a scanning electron microscope, and several conidia adhered to the cuticle of S. invicta after 2 h. Furthermore, the germ tubes of the conidia oriented toward the cuticle after 48 h, and the mycelium colonized the entire body after 96 h. Based on the efficacy observed in the laboratory trials, further experiments were performed with ZGNKY-5 strain to evaluate its utility in an injection control technology against S. invicta in the field. We found that three dosage treatments of ZGNKY-5 strain (500 mL, 750 mL, and 1,000 mL per nest had significant control effects. Our results show that this strain of Beauveria bassiana and our control method were effective against S. invicta in both laboratory and field settings.

  9. Evaluation of a New Entomopathogenic Strain of Beauveria bassiana and a New Field Delivery Method against Solenopsis invicta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Guo, Qiang; Lin, Miaofeng; Jiang, Lu; Ye, Jingwen; Chen, Dasong; Li, Zhigang; Dai, Jianqing; Han, Shichou

    2016-01-01

    Solenopsis invicta Buren is one of the most important pests in China, and control measures are mainly based on the use of synthetic pesticides, which may be inadequate and unsustainable. Hence, there is a growing interest in developing biological control alternatives for managing S. invicta, such as the use of entomopathogenic fungi. To facilitate the commercialization of entomopathogenic fungi against S. invicta, 10 Beauveria bassiana isolates originating from different hosts were tested for virulence in laboratory bioassays, and the most pathogenic strain, ZGNKY-5, was tested in field studies using an improved pathogen delivery system. The cumulative mortality rate reached 93.40% at 1×108 mL-1 conidia after 504 h. The germination and invasion of the spores were observed under a scanning electron microscope, and several conidia adhered to the cuticle of S. invicta after 2 h. Furthermore, the germ tubes of the conidia oriented toward the cuticle after 48 h, and the mycelium colonized the entire body after 96 h. Based on the efficacy observed in the laboratory trials, further experiments were performed with ZGNKY-5 strain to evaluate its utility in an injection control technology against S. invicta in the field. We found that three dosage treatments of ZGNKY-5 strain (500 mL, 750 mL, and 1,000 mL per nest) had significant control effects. Our results show that this strain of Beauveria bassiana and our control method were effective against S. invicta in both laboratory and field settings. PMID:27341441

  10. Strain mapping of LED devices by dark-field inline electron holography: Comparison between deterministic and iterative phase retrieval approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kyung; Shin, Ga-Young; Kim, Jong Kyu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31 Hyoja-dong, Nam-gu, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sang Ho, E-mail: shoh@postech.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31 Hyoja-dong, Nam-gu, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Koch, Christoph T. [Institute for Experimental Physics, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Dark-field inline electron holography has recently been established as a convenient method to map strain in semiconductor devices, combining high precision, low noise, sub-nm spatial resolution and fields-of-view larger than 1 μm. Here we compare two approaches to reconstruct the geometric phase from a transmission electron microscopy dark-field focal series and their effects on the strain measurement: the transport-of-intensity-equation (TIE) and a flux-preserving iterative approach. For this task, we used a GaN-based light emitting diode with a highly complex heterostructure as a model system. While the TIE relies on 3 images only but requires the optimization of two free parameters (defocus step and low-limit cut-off frequency), the iterative reconstruction algorithm involves no adjustable parameters and uses images recorded at 9 different planes of focus with quadratically increasing defocus values. Optimum parameters for the TIE-reconstruction could be identified. However, the iterative phase retrieval approach yields the strain values that agree best with the expected strain levels and provides also higher spatial resolution.

  11. Strain and electric field induced metallization in the GaX (X = N, P, As & Sb) monolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahuguna, Bhagwati Prasad; Saini, L. K.; Sharma, Rajesh O.; Tiwari, Brajesh

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the strain and electric field dependent electronic properties of two dimensional Ga-based group III-V monolayer from the first-principles approach within density functional theory. The energy bandgap of GaX monolayer increases upto the certain value of compressive strain and then decreases. On the other hand, the energy bandgap of GaX monolayer is monotonically decreased with increasing tensile strain and become metallic at the higher value. Furthermore, the perpendicular electric field decreases the energy band gap of unstrained GaX monolayer and shows semiconductor to metal transition. These results suggest that the nature of energy bands and value of energy bandgap in GaX monolayer can be tuned by the biaxial mechanical strain or perpendicular electrical field. Additionally, we have also studied the optical response of unstrained GaX monolayer in term of optical conductivity. These findings may provide valuable information to develop the Ga-based optoelectronic devices and further the understanding of the GaX monolayer.

  12. Comparison of Ribotyping, Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis, and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis in Typing of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and L. casei Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Tynkkynen, Soile; Satokari, Reetta; Saarela, Maria; Mattila-Sandholm, Tiina; Saxelin, Maija

    1999-01-01

    A total of 24 strains, biochemically identified as members of the Lactobacillus casei group, were identified by PCR with species-specific primers. The same set of strains was typed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, ribotyping, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) in order to compare the discriminatory power of the methods. Species-specific primers for L. rhamnosus and L. casei identified the type strain L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469 and the neotype strain L. casei ATCC 33...

  13. Genomic diversity among Danish field strains of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae assessed by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko; Friis, Niels F.; Nielsen, Elisabeth O.

    2002-01-01

    Genomic diversity among strains of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae isolated in Denmark was assessed by using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. Ninety-six strains, obtained from different specimens and geographical locations during 30 years and the type strain of M. hyosynoviae S16(T......) were concurrently examined for variance in BglII-MfeI and EcoRI-Csp6I-A AFLP markers. A total of 56 different genomic fingerprints having an overall similarity between 77 and 96% were detected. No correlation between AFLP variability and period of isolation or anatomical site of isolation could...

  14. Digital image correlation analysis of local strain fields on Ti6Al4V manufactured by electron beam melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Joakim; Sjögren, Torsten; Snis, Anders; Engqvist, Håkan; Lausmaa, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing, or 3D-printing as it is often called, build parts in a layer-by-layer fashion. A common concern, regardless of the specific additive manufacturing technique used, is the risk of inadequate fusion between the adjacent layers which in turn may cause inferior mechanical properties. In this work, the local strain properties of titanium parts produced by Electron Beam Melting (EBM ® ) were studied in order to gain information about the quality of fusion of the stock powder material used in the process. By using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) the strain fields in the individual layers were analyzed, as well as the global strain behavior of the bulk material. The results show that fully solid titanium parts manufactured by EBM are homogenous and do not experience local deformation behavior, neither on local nor on a global level

  15. Digital image correlation analysis of local strain fields on Ti6Al4V manufactured by electron beam melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Joakim, E-mail: Joakim.karlsson@sp.se [SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Box 857, SE-501 15, Borås (Sweden); Division of Applied Materials Science, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Sjögren, Torsten [SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Box 857, SE-501 15, Borås (Sweden); Snis, Anders [Arcam AB, Krokslätts fabriker 27 A, SE-431 37, Mölndal (Sweden); Engqvist, Håkan [Division of Applied Materials Science, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Lausmaa, Jukka [SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Box 857, SE-501 15, Borås (Sweden)

    2014-11-17

    Additive manufacturing, or 3D-printing as it is often called, build parts in a layer-by-layer fashion. A common concern, regardless of the specific additive manufacturing technique used, is the risk of inadequate fusion between the adjacent layers which in turn may cause inferior mechanical properties. In this work, the local strain properties of titanium parts produced by Electron Beam Melting (EBM{sup ®}) were studied in order to gain information about the quality of fusion of the stock powder material used in the process. By using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) the strain fields in the individual layers were analyzed, as well as the global strain behavior of the bulk material. The results show that fully solid titanium parts manufactured by EBM are homogenous and do not experience local deformation behavior, neither on local nor on a global level.

  16. First Report of Avian Metapneumovirus Subtype B Field Strain in a Romanian Broiler Flock During an Outbreak of Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzo, Giovanni; Tucciarone, Claudia Maria; Enache, Mirel; Bejan, Violeta; Ramon, Gema; Koutoulis, Konstantinos C; Cecchinato, Mattia

    2017-06-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) represents one of the most prevalent diseases of turkey, especially in combination with other pathogens, and its frequency is also increasing among chickens. Despite this evidence, epidemiologic data are poor and scattered, severely preventing control of the disease even in highly developed areas such as Europe. In the present study, the detection and characterization of an aMPV subtype B strain circulating in a vaccinated but symptomatic Romanian broiler flock is reported for the first time. The phylogenetic analysis based on the partial G gene sequence demonstrates the close relationship of the Romanian virus with a group of recently emerged Italian field strains for which vaccine-induced protection was experimentally proven to be partial. These preliminary results allow us to hypothesize the spreading of vaccine-escaping aMPV subtype B strains through Europe and, consequently, dictate the carrying out of a more systematic survey to confirm this theory and enforce adequate countermeasures.

  17. Characterization of the failure in Callovo-Oxfordian argillite under plane strain compression using full field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besuelle, P.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Failure by strain localization is commonly observed in geo-materials. Cracks are detected in Underground Research Laboratories (URL) on the walls of galleries (e.g., Andra in Meuse/Haute Marne laboratory, SCK-CEN in Mol), they have been induced by the stress relaxation that results from the excavation. The cracks represent material discontinuities which could impact the flow properties of the rock mass in some circumstances. Generally, experimental characterization of the localization in rocks is performed with classical axisymmetric triaxial compression tests. The effect of the confining pressure can be observed on several aspects: onset of localization, pattern of localization, porosity evolution inside bands or cracks aperture, grain scale mechanisms of deformation (e.g., [1]). However the history (time evolution) of the localization is not accessible because the observations are post-mortem. Strain field measurement and evolution in time of the strain field are particularly useful to study the strain localization (initiation of the deformation bands) and the post-localization regime. Such tools have been developed for soils (e.g., sand specimens in plane strain condition [2] or in triaxial conditions using X-ray tomography [3]). Similar developments for rocks are still difficult, especially because the pertinent confining pressure to reproduce in situ stresses are higher than for soils. We present here first results obtained in a new true triaxial apparatus that allows observation of the rock specimen under loading and especially the complex development of deformation bands and faults. As for [4] and [5], the three principal stresses are different. However, for selected tests discussed here, the intermediate stress is controlled in order to impose a plane strain condition (zero strain in this direction). Observation of a specimen under load is possible as one surface of the prismatic specimen, which is

  18. Superconducting phase transition in STM tips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eltschka, Matthias; Jaeck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Kern, Klaus [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    The superconducting properties of systems with dimensions comparable to the London penetration depth considerably differ from macroscopic systems. We have studied the superconducting phase transition of vanadium STM tips in external magnetic fields. Employing Maki's theory we extract the superconducting parameters such as the gap or the Zeeman splitting from differential conductance spectra. While the Zeeman splitting follows the theoretical description of a system with s=1/2 and g=2, the superconducting gaps as well as the critical fields depend on the specific tip. For a better understanding of the experimental results, we solve a one dimensional Usadel equation modeling the superconducting tip as a cone with the opening angle α in an external magnetic field. We find that only a small region at the apex of the tip is superconducting in high magnetic fields and that the order of the phase transition is directly determined by α. Further, the spectral broadening increases with α indicating an intrinsic broadening mechanism due to the conical shape of the tip. Comparing these calculations to our experimental results reveals the order of the superconducting phase transition of the STM tips.

  19. ADHD: Tips to Try

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español ADHD: Tips to Try KidsHealth / For Teens / ADHD: Tips to Try Print en español TDAH: Consejos que puedes probar ADHD , short for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder , is a ...

  20. Total Telephone Tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corder, Lloyd E.; And Others

    This manual of telephone behavior tips for business and sales professionals offers ways to handle the disgruntled caller and makes suggestions on topics relevant to the telephone. The manual is divided into the following sections and subsections: (1) Common Courtesy (staff tips, answering the telephone, screening calls, transferring calls, taking…

  1. Tip Cells in Angiogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Dallinga (Marchien); S.E.M. Boas (Sonja); I. Klaassen (Ingeborg); R.M.H. Merks (Roeland); C.J.F. van Noorden; R.O. Schlingemann (Reinier)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractIn angiogenesis, the process in which blood vessel sprouts grow out from a pre-existing vascular network, the so-called endothelial tip cells play an essential role. Tip cells are the leading cells of the sprouts; they guide following endothelial cells and sense their environment for

  2. Crystal orientation effects on the piezoelectric field of strained zinc-blende quantum-well structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duggen, Lars; Willatzen, Morten; Lassen, Benny

    2008-01-01

    direction show important changes in strain and the electric distribution due to piezoelectric effects. The findings indicate the quantitative importance of a fully coupled model even for zinc blende, in particular when discussing electronic band structure and optoelectronic properties....

  3. Comparison of mating performance of medfly (Diptera: Tephritidae) genetic sexing and wild type strains: field cage and video recording experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcagno, G.E.; Vilardi, J.C.; Manso, F.

    2002-01-01

    To improve the efficiency of the sterile insect technique (SIT) efforts are being devoted to obtain genetic sexing strains (GSS). The present work was carried out in order to compare the mating efficiency of flies from the GSS [(Ty34228 y + /X)sw x ] and from a wild type strain (Mendoza). Females of the GSS (T228) exhibit longer embryonic development, while males develop in a normal time period. In a field-cage experiment, mating competitiveness was compared between the T228 and the Mendoza, Argentina mass reared strain. The number and duration of matings and the location of copula in the tree were recorded. The analysis was repeated using irradiated males of T228. The results showed that mating efficiency of the GSS is good in comparison with that of the Mendoza strain. Although copulatory success in T228 is reduced by the radiation treatment, the high numbers of sterilized males released would compensate this effect in the control programs. In a second experiment, under laboratory conditions, video recording techniques were applied. In this case two virgin males, one of the GSS and one emerged from wild collected fruits, competed during 30 min for a virgin wild female. The proportion of successful males did not differ between strains, but some differences were observed between strains in the time spent in different stages of the courtship. Males of the T228 were more aggressive, and they attempted to copulate with the other male more frequently than did wild males. These differences may be due to selection for more aggressive individuals under the overcrowded laboratory breeding conditions for this strain. (author)

  4. Resistance to Diamide Insecticides in Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae): Comparison Between Lab-Selected Strains and Field-Collected Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chao; Wang, Cheng-Hua; Wang, Ying-Ying; Sun, Shi-Qing; Wang, Huan-Huan; Xue, Chao-Bin

    2018-04-02

    Diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.; Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is an important pest of crucifers worldwide. The extensive use of diamide insecticides has led to P. xylostella resistance and this presents a serious threat to vegetable production. We selected chlorantraniliprole (Rf) and flubendiamide (Rh) resistance strains of P. xylostella with resistance ratios of 684.54-fold and 677.25-fold, respectively. The Rf and Rh strains underwent 46 and 36 generations of lab-selection for resistance, respectively. Low cross resistance of Rh to cyantraniliprole was found. Cross resistance to chlorfenapyr, tebufenozid, and indoxacarb was not found in Rf and Rh strains. The P. xylostella ryanodine receptor gene (PxRyR) transcripts level in the Rf and Rh strains was up-regulated. Except for Rf34 and Rh36, PxRyR expression in all generations of Rf and Rh selection gradually increased with increasing resistance. Two resistant populations were field-collected from Guangzhou Baiyun (Rb) and Zengcheng (Rz) and propagated for several generations without exposure to any pesticide had higher PxRyR expression than the susceptible strain (S). In the S strain, PxRyR expression was not related to the resistance ratio. Gene sequencing found that the RyR 4946 gene site was glycine (G) in the S, Rf, and Rh strains, and was glutamate (E) with 70% and 80% frequency in the Rb and Rz populations, respectively. The 4946 gene site was substituted by valine (V) with the frequency of 30% and 20% in Rb and Rz populations, respectively. These results increase the understanding of the mechanisms of diamide insecticide resistance in P. xylostella.

  5. Preparation for emergence of an Eastern European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strain in Western Europe: Immunization with modified live virus vaccines or a field strain confers partial protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renson, P; Fablet, C; Le Dimna, M; Mahé, S; Touzain, F; Blanchard, Y; Paboeuf, F; Rose, N; Bourry, O

    2017-05-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes huge economic losses for the swine industry worldwide. In the past several years, highly pathogenic strains that lead to even greater losses have emerged. For the Western European swine industry, one threat is the possible introduction of Eastern European PRRSV strains (example Lena genotype 1.3) which were shown to be more virulent than common Western resident strains under experimental conditions. To prepare for the possible emergence of this strain in Western Europe, we immunized piglets with a Western European PRRSV field strain (Finistere: Fini, genotype 1.1), a new genotype 1 commercial modified live virus (MLV) vaccine (MLV1) or a genotype 2 commercial MLV vaccine (MLV2) to evaluate and compare the level of protection that these strains conferred upon challenge with the Lena strain 4 weeks later. Results show that immunization with Fini, MLV1 or MLV2 strains shortened the Lena-induced hyperthermia. In the Fini group, a positive effect was also demonstrated in growth performance. The level of Lena viremia was reduced for all immunized groups (significantly so for Fini and MLV2). This reduction in Lena viremia was correlated with the level of Lena-specific IFNγ-secreting cells. In conclusion, we showed that a commercial MLV vaccine of genotype 1 or 2, as well as a field strain of genotype 1.1 may provide partial clinical and virological protection upon challenge with the Lena strain. The cross-protection induced by these immunizing strains was not related with the level of genetic similarity to the Lena strain. The slightly higher level of protection established with the field strain is attributed to a better cell-mediated immune response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Magnetic elements for switching magnetization magnetic force microscopy tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambel, V.; Elias, P.; Gregusova, D.; Martaus, J.; Fedor, J.; Karapetrov, G.; Novosad, V.

    2010-01-01

    Using combination of micromagnetic calculations and magnetic force microscopy (MFM) imaging we find optimal parameters for novel magnetic tips suitable for switching magnetization MFM. Switching magnetization MFM is based on two-pass scanning atomic force microscopy with reversed tip magnetization between the scans. Within the technique the sum of the scanned data with reversed tip magnetization depicts local atomic forces, while their difference maps the local magnetic forces. Here we propose the design and calculate the magnetic properties of tips suitable for this scanning probe technique. We find that for best performance the spin-polarized tips must exhibit low magnetic moment, low switching fields, and single-domain state at remanence. The switching field of such tips is calculated and optimum shape of the Permalloy elements for the tips is found. We show excellent correspondence between calculated and experimental results for Py elements.

  7. Analysis of Stress and Strain Fields in and around Inclusions of Various Shapes in a Cylindrical Specimen Loaded in Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neimitz A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A numerical analysis is performed of the stress field in and around inclusions of various shapes. Inclusions both stiffer and more compliant than the metal matrix are analysed. The critical stresses required for inclusion fracture are estimated after observation of cavities and inclusions by scanning electron microscopy. Real inclusions were observed after performing uniaxial loading to different amounts of overall strain. The material tested was Hardox-400 steel.

  8. Safety Tips: Basketball (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Safety Tips: Basketball KidsHealth / For Parents / Safety Tips: Basketball ... make sure they follow these tips. Why Basketball Safety Is Important Fortunately, very few basketball injuries are ...

  9. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the liver). Portal hypertension can also occur in children, although children are much less likely to require a TIPS. ... intentionally to solve the problem. Although extremely rare, children may also require a TIPS procedure. TIPS in ...

  10. Analysis of accuracy of Williams series approximation of stress field in cracked body – influence of area of interest around crack-tip on multi-parameter regression performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sobek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the accuracy of an approximation of the stress field in a cracked body is presented. Crack-tip stress tensor is expressed using the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM theory in this work, more precisely via its multi-parameter formulation, i.e. by Williams power series (WPS. Determination of coefficients of terms of this series is performed using a least squares-based regression technique known as over-deterministic method (ODM for which results from finite element (FE method computation are usually taken as inputs. Main attention is paid to a detailed analysis of a suitable selection of FE nodes whose results serve as the inputs to the employed method. Two different ways of FE nodal selection are compared – nodes selected from the crack tip vicinity lying at a ring of a certain radius versus nodes selected more or less uniformly from a specified part of the test specimen body. Comparison of these approaches is made with the help of procedures developed by the authors which enable both the determination of the coefficients of terms of the analytical WPS approximation of the stress field based on the FE results and the backward reconstruction of the field (again using WPS from those determined terms’ coefficients/functions. The wedge-splitting test (WST specimen with a crack is taken as example for the study.

  11. Deformation localization at the tips of shear fractures: An analytical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Santanu

    2011-04-01

    Mechanical heterogeneities are important features in rocks which trigger deformation localization in brittle, ductile or brittle-ductile modes during deformation. In a recent study Misra et al. (2009) have investigated these different processes of deformation localization at the tips of pre-existing planar shear fractures. The authors identified four mechanisms of deformation, ranging from brittle to ductile, operating at the crack tips. Mechanism A: brittle deformation is the dominant process that forms a pair of long tensile fractures at the two crack tips. Mechanism B: nature of deformation is mixed where the tensile fractures grow to a finite length with incipient plastic deformation at the tips. Mechanism C: mixed mode deformation characterized by dominating macro-scale shear bands, and short, opened-out tensile fissures. Mechanism D: localization of plastic bands in the form of a pair of shear bands at each tip without any discernible brittle fracturing. The transition of the mechanisms is a function of orientation ( α) of the crack with respect to the bulk compression direction and the finite length ( l) of the crack. The aim of this study is to present a theoretical analysis to account for the variability of deformation localization in the vicinity of pre-existing shear cracks considering an elastic-plastic rheological model. The analysis calculates the principal tensile stress ( σ1) and the second stress invariant ( I2) of the stress field at the fracture tip to explain the transition from Mechanism A (tensile fracturing) to Mechanism D (ductile strain). The results show that σ1 at the fracture tip increases non-linearly with increasing α and Ar (aspect ratio of the shear crack), and assumes a large value when α > 50 o, promoting tensile fractures. On the other hand, I2 is a maximum at α < 45°, resulting in nucleation of ductile shear bands.

  12. Stress and strain field singularities, micro-cracks, and their role in failure initiation at the composite laminate free-edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, Joshua S.

    A state-of-the-art multi-scale analysis was performed to predict failure initiation at the free-edge of an angle-ply laminate using the Strain Invariant Failure Theory (SIFT), and multiple improvements to this analysis methodology were proposed and implemented. Application of this analysis and theory led to the conclusion that point-wise failure criteria which ignore the singular stress and strain fields from a homogenized analysis and the presence of free-edge damage in the form of micro-cracking, may do so at the expense of failure prediction capability. The main contributions of this work then are made in the study of the laminate free-edge singularity and in the effects of micro-cracking at the composite laminate free-edge. Study of both classical elasticity and finite element solutions of the laminate free-edge stress field based upon the assumption of homogenized lamina properties reveal that the order of the free-edge singularity is sufficiently small such that the domain of dominance of this term away from the laminate free-edge is much smaller than the relevant dimensions of the microstructure. In comparison to a crack-tip field, these free-edge singularities generate stress and strain fields which are half as intense as those at the crack-tip, leading to the conclusion that existing flaws at the free-edge in the form of micro-cracks would be more prone to the initiation of free-edge failure than the existence of a singularity in the free-edge elasticity solutions. A methodical experiment was performed on a family of [±25°/90°] s laminates made of IM7/8552 carbon/epoxy composite, to both characterize micro-cracks present at the laminate free-edge and to study their behavior under the application of a uniform extensional load. The majority of these micro-cracks were of length on the order of a few fiber diameters, though larger micro-cracks as long as 100 fiber diameters were observed in thicker laminates. A strong correlation between the application of

  13. At the Tipping Point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, H. S.

    2011-02-28

    There comes a time in every field of science when things suddenly change. While it might not be immediately apparent that things are different, a tipping point has occurred. Biology is now at such a point. The reason is the introduction of high-throughput genomics-based technologies. I am not talking about the consequences of the sequencing of the human genome (and every other genome within reach). The change is due to new technologies that generate an enormous amount of data about the molecular composition of cells. These include proteomics, transcriptional profiling by sequencing, and the ability to globally measure microRNAs and post-translational modifications of proteins. These mountains of digital data can be mapped to a common frame of reference: the organism’s genome. With the new high-throughput technologies, we can generate tens of thousands of data points from each sample. Data are now measured in terabytes and the time necessary to analyze data can now require years. Obviously, we can’t wait to interpret the data fully before the next experiment. In fact, we might never be able to even look at all of it, much less understand it. This volume of data requires sophisticated computational and statistical methods for its analysis and is forcing biologists to approach data interpretation as a collaborative venture.

  14. Tensile strained Ge tunnel field-effect transistors: k · p material modeling and numerical device simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, Kuo-Hsing; De Meyer, Kristin; Verhulst, Anne S.; Van de Put, Maarten; Soree, Bart; Magnus, Wim; Vandenberghe, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Group IV based tunnel field-effect transistors generally show lower on-current than III-V based devices because of the weaker phonon-assisted tunneling transitions in the group IV indirect bandgap materials. Direct tunneling in Ge, however, can be enhanced by strain engineering. In this work, we use a 30-band k · p method to calculate the band structure of biaxial tensile strained Ge and then extract the bandgaps and effective masses at Γ and L symmetry points in k-space, from which the parameters for the direct and indirect band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) models are determined. While transitions from the heavy and light hole valence bands to the conduction band edge at the L point are always bridged by phonon scattering, we highlight a new finding that only the light-hole-like valence band is strongly coupling to the conduction band at the Γ point even in the presence of strain based on the 30-band k · p analysis. By utilizing a Technology Computer Aided Design simulator equipped with the calculated band-to-band tunneling BTBT models, the electrical characteristics of tensile strained Ge point and line tunneling devices are self-consistently computed considering multiple dynamic nonlocal tunnel paths. The influence of field-induced quantum confinement on the tunneling onset is included. Our simulation predicts that an on-current up to 160 (260) μA/μm can be achieved along with on/off ratio > 10 6 for V DD  = 0.5 V by the n-type (p-type) line tunneling device made of 2.5% biaxial tensile strained Ge

  15. Tensile strained Ge tunnel field-effect transistors: k · p material modeling and numerical device simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Kuo-Hsing; De Meyer, Kristin [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Verhulst, Anne S. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Van de Put, Maarten; Soree, Bart; Magnus, Wim [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Physics, Universiteit Antwerpen, 2000 Antwerpen (Belgium); Vandenberghe, William G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2014-01-28

    Group IV based tunnel field-effect transistors generally show lower on-current than III-V based devices because of the weaker phonon-assisted tunneling transitions in the group IV indirect bandgap materials. Direct tunneling in Ge, however, can be enhanced by strain engineering. In this work, we use a 30-band k · p method to calculate the band structure of biaxial tensile strained Ge and then extract the bandgaps and effective masses at Γ and L symmetry points in k-space, from which the parameters for the direct and indirect band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) models are determined. While transitions from the heavy and light hole valence bands to the conduction band edge at the L point are always bridged by phonon scattering, we highlight a new finding that only the light-hole-like valence band is strongly coupling to the conduction band at the Γ point even in the presence of strain based on the 30-band k · p analysis. By utilizing a Technology Computer Aided Design simulator equipped with the calculated band-to-band tunneling BTBT models, the electrical characteristics of tensile strained Ge point and line tunneling devices are self-consistently computed considering multiple dynamic nonlocal tunnel paths. The influence of field-induced quantum confinement on the tunneling onset is included. Our simulation predicts that an on-current up to 160 (260) μA/μm can be achieved along with on/off ratio > 10{sup 6} for V{sub DD} = 0.5 V by the n-type (p-type) line tunneling device made of 2.5% biaxial tensile strained Ge.

  16. Microarray-based comparative genomic profiling of reference strains and selected Canadian field isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacInnes Janet I

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, is a highly contagious respiratory pathogen that causes severe losses to the swine industry worldwide. Current commercially-available vaccines are of limited value because they do not induce cross-serovar immunity and do not prevent development of the carrier state. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridizations (M-CGH were used to estimate whole genomic diversity of representative Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains. Our goal was to identify conserved genes, especially those predicted to encode outer membrane proteins and lipoproteins because of their potential for the development of more effective vaccines. Results Using hierarchical clustering, our M-CGH results showed that the majority of the genes in the genome of the serovar 5 A. pleuropneumoniae L20 strain were conserved in the reference strains of all 15 serovars and in representative field isolates. Fifty-eight conserved genes predicted to encode for outer membrane proteins or lipoproteins were identified. As well, there were several clusters of diverged or absent genes including those associated with capsule biosynthesis, toxin production as well as genes typically associated with mobile elements. Conclusion Although A. pleuropneumoniae strains are essentially clonal, M-CGH analysis of the reference strains of the fifteen serovars and representative field isolates revealed several classes of genes that were divergent or absent. Not surprisingly, these included genes associated with capsule biosynthesis as the capsule is associated with sero-specificity. Several of the conserved genes were identified as candidates for vaccine development, and we conclude that M-CGH is a valuable tool for reverse vaccinology.

  17. Impact of interplay between magnetic field, transformation strain, and coarsening on variant selection in L10-type FePd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueshima, N.; Yasuda, H.; Yoshiya, M.; Fukuda, T.; Kakeshita, T.

    2014-01-01

    Variant selection of L1 0 -type ferromagnetic alloys has been numerically investigated using the phase-field modeling, to clarify the phenomena at greater temporal and spatial resolution and to reveal the underlying mechanism. The duration for which the external magnetic field is effective is found to be very short, and variant selection is significantly affected by not only direct response to the external magnetic field but also their interplay between the field, intrinsic transformation strain, and various thermodynamic energy components involved in the course of microstructure evolution. The detailed mechanism of the interplay was quantitatively analyzed in terms of the driving force for the variant selection, by partitioning it into the various energy components. Careful examination of the variant selection at the very early stage revealed that the slight difference in size and configuration of variants during disorder-to-order transition realized by the interplay between transformation strain and external field is essentially needed before proceeding to the latter stage of the variant selection driven by interface energy

  18. Lightning Safety Tips and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Services Careers Contact Us Glossary Safety National Program Lightning Safety Tips and Resources Weather.gov > Safety > Lightning Safety Tips and Resources Lightning Resources Lightning strikes ...

  19. AFM tip-sample convolution effects for cylinder protrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Fei-Hu; Gan, Yang

    2017-11-01

    A thorough understanding about the AFM tip geometry dependent artifacts and tip-sample convolution effect is essential for reliable AFM topographic characterization and dimensional metrology. Using rigid sapphire cylinder protrusions (diameter: 2.25 μm, height: 575 nm) as the model system, a systematic and quantitative study about the imaging artifacts of four types of tips-two different pyramidal tips, one tetrahedral tip and one super sharp whisker tip-is carried out through comparing tip geometry dependent variations in AFM topography of cylinders and constructing the rigid tip-cylinder convolution models. We found that the imaging artifacts and the tip-sample convolution effect are critically related to the actual inclination of the working cantilever, the tip geometry, and the obstructive contacts between the working tip's planes/edges and the cylinder. Artifact-free images can only be obtained provided that all planes and edges of the working tip are steeper than the cylinder sidewalls. The findings reported here will contribute to reliable AFM characterization of surface features of micron or hundreds of nanometers in height that are frequently met in semiconductor, biology and materials fields.

  20. Biosynthesis of compatible solutes in rhizobial strains isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris nodules in Tunisian fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto Joaquín J

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Associated with appropriate crop and soil management, inoculation of legumes with microbial biofertilizers can improve food legume yield and soil fertility and reduce pollution by inorganic fertilizers. Rhizospheric bacteria are subjected to osmotic stress imposed by drought and/or NaCl, two abiotic constraints frequently found in semi-arid lands. Osmostress response in bacteria involves the accumulation of small organic compounds called compatible solutes. Whereas most studies on rhizobial osmoadaptation have focussed on the model species Sinorhizobium meliloti, little is known on the osmoadaptive mechanisms used by native rhizobia, which are good sources of inoculants. In this work, we investigated the synthesis and accumulations of compatible solutes by four rhizobial strains isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris in Tunisia, as well as by the reference strain Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899T. Results The most NaCl-tolerant strain was A. tumefaciens 10c2, followed (in decreasing order by R. tropici CIAT 899, R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli 31c3, R. etli 12a3 and R. gallicum bv. phaseoli 8a3. 13C- and 1H-NMR analyses showed that all Rhizobium strains synthesized trehalose whereas A. tumefaciens 10c2 synthesized mannosucrose. Glutamate synthesis was also observed in R. tropici CIAT 899, R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli 31c3 and A. tumefaciens 10c2. When added as a carbon source, mannitol was also accumulated by all strains. Accumulation of trehalose in R. tropici CIAT 899 and of mannosucrose in A. tumefaciens 10c2 was osmoregulated, suggesting their involvement in osmotolerance. The phylogenetic analysis of the otsA gene, encoding the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, suggested the existence of lateral transfer events. In vivo 13C labeling experiments together with genomic analysis led us to propose the uptake and conversion pathways of different carbon sources into trehalose. Collaterally, the β-1,2-cyclic glucan from R

  1. Low Vision Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/lowvision.html MedlinePlus: Low Vision Tips We are sorry. MedlinePlus no longer maintains the For Low Vision Users page. You will still find health resources ...

  2. Diabetes: Dental Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes: Dental Tips For more copies contact: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research National Oral Health Information Clearinghouse ... damage the gum and bone that hold your teeth in place and may lead to painful chewing ...

  3. Incontinence Treatment: Dietary Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... helpful, please consider supporting IFFGD with a small tax-deductible donation. Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel ... arises requiring an expert’s care. © Copyright 1998-2018 International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, Inc. (IFFGD). All ...

  4. Phase decomposition and morphology characteristic in thermal aging Fe–Cr alloys under applied strain: A phase-field simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongsheng; Zhu Hao; Zhang Lei; Cheng Xiaoling

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effects of variation mobility and applied strain on phase decomposition of Fe–Cr alloy were studied. ► Rate of phase decomposition rises as aging temperature and concentration increase. ► Phase transformation mechanism affects the volume fraction of equilibrium phase. ► Elongate morphology is intensified at higher aging temperature under applied strain. - Abstract: The phase decomposition and morphology evolution in thermal aging Fe–Cr alloys were investigated using the phase field method. In the simulation, the effects of atomic mobility, applied strain, alloy concentration and aging temperature were studied. The simulation results show that the rate of phase decomposition is influenced by the aging temperature and the alloy concentration, the equilibrium volume fractions (V f e ) of Cr-rich phase increases as aging temperature rises for the alloys of lower concentration, and the V f e decreases for the alloys with higher concentration. Under the applied strain, the orientation of Cr-rich phase is intensified as the aging temperature rises, and the stripe morphology is formed for the middle concentration alloys. The simulation results are helpful for understanding the phase decomposition in Fe–Cr alloys and the designing of duplex stainless steels working at high temperature.

  5. Recombinant Gallid herpesvirus 2 with interrupted meq genes confers safe and efficacious protection against virulent field strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanping; Liu, Changjun; Yan, Fuhai; Liu, Ailing; Cheng, Yun; Li, Zhijie; Sun, Guorong; Lv, Hongchao; Wang, Xiaomei

    2017-08-24

    Gallid herpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2) continuously evolves, which reduces the effectiveness of existing vaccines. To construct new GaHV-2 candidate vaccines, LMS, which is a virulent GaHV-2 field strain isolated from diseased chicken flocks in Southwest China in 2007, was modified such that both copies of its meq oncogene were partially deleted. The resulting virus, i.e., rMSΔmeq, was characterized using PCR and sequencing. To evaluate the safety and protective efficacy of rMSΔmeq, specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were inoculated with 2000 plaque forming units (pfu) and 20,000pfu of rMSΔmeq immediately after hatching. All birds grew well during the experimental period, and none of the challenged chickens developed Marek's disease-associated lymphoma. In addition, the rMSΔmeq- and CVI988/Rispens-vaccinated SPF chickens were challenged with 1000 pfu and 5000 pfu of the representative virulent GaHV-2 Md5 strain and 1000 pfu of the variant GaHV-2 strains LCC or LTS. The results showed that the rMSΔmeq strain provided complete protection, which was similar to that provided by the CVI988/Rispens vaccine (protective index (PI) of 95.5) when challenged with a conventional dose of the Md5 strain. However, rMSΔmeq provided a PI of 90.9 when challenged with 5000 pfu of the Md5 strain, which was significantly higher than that provided by the CVI988/Rispens vaccine (54.5). rMSΔmeq provided a PI of 86.4 against LCC, which was equal to that provided by the CVI988/Rispens vaccine (81.8). In addition, rMSΔmeq provided a PI of 100 against LTS, which was significantly higher than that provided by the CVI988/Rispens vaccine (68.2). Altogether, the rMSΔmeq virus provided efficient protection against representative and variant GaHV-2 strains. In conclusion, the rMSΔmeq virus is a safe and effective vaccine candidate for the prevention of Marek's disease and is effective against the Chinese variant GaHV-2 strains. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Integrating a logarithmic-strain based hyper-elastic formulation into a three-field mixed finite element formulation to deal with incompressibility in finite-strain elasto-plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dina Al Akhrass; Bruchon, Julien; Drapier, Sylvain; Fayolle, Sebastien

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the treatment of incompressibility in solid mechanics in finite-strain elasto-plasticity. A finite-strain model proposed by Miehe, Apel and Lambrecht, which is based on a logarithmic strain measure and its work-conjugate stress tensor is chosen. Its main interest is that it allows for the adoption of standard constitutive models established in a small-strain framework. This model is extended to take into account the plastic incompressibility constraint intrinsically. In that purpose, an extension of this model to a three-field mixed finite element formulation is proposed, involving displacements, a strain variable and pressure as nodal variables with respect to standard finite element. Numerical examples of finite-strain problems are presented to assess the performance of the formulation. To conclude, an industrial case for which the classical under-integrated elements fail is considered. (authors)

  7. Full wave field recording of the vertical strain at SAFOD from local, regional and teleseismic earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, W. L.; Karrenbach, M. H.; Zumberge, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    The main borehole at the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) contains optical fibers cemented in place in between casing strings from the surface to just below the top of the basement. The fibers are under tension of approximately 1 N and are housed in a 0.9 mm diameter stainless steel tube. Earth strain is transmitted to the fiber by frictional contact with the tube wall. One fiber has been in use as a vertical strainmeter since 2005, measuring the total strain between 9 and 740 m by laser interferometry. In June 2017 we attached an OptaSense Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) system, model ODH3.1, to a second fiber that terminates at 864 m depth. The DAS laser interrogator measures the strain over a gauge length with a set spacing between gauge intervals. For this experiment we set the gauge length to 10 m with 1 m spacing between gauges. Including the surface run of the fiber, this gives us 936 channels measuring the vertical strain at a sample interval of 0.4 msec (2500 samples/s). Continuous recording of the string produces approximately 1 TB/day. During one month of data collection, we recorded local, regional and teleseismic earthquakes. With this recording geometry, the DAS system captures the full vertical wavefield between the basement interface and free surface, revealing direct, converted and refracted waves. Both P- and S- strain waves are clearly visible in the data, even for 10 km deep earthquakes located almost directly below the well (see figure). The incident and surface reflected wavefields can be separated by frequency-wavenumber filtering due to the large-aperture and fine spatial and temporal sampling. Up- and downgoing strain waves illuminate the subsurface within the sensor array's depth range. Accurate arrival time determinations of the initial arrival phase are possible due to consistent wave forms recorded at 1 m spatial intervals that can be used for fine-scale shallow velocity model estimation.

  8. Laboratory and field evaluation of an entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria cateniannulata strain 08XS-1, against Tetranychus urticae (Koch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaona; Jin, Daochao; Zou, Xiao; Guo, Jianjun

    2016-05-01

    The two-spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is one of the most serious mite pests of crops throughout the world. Biocontrol of the mite with fungal agents has long been paid much attention because of the development of insecticide resistance and the severe restriction of chemical pesticides. In this study, the efficacy of submerged conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria cateniannulata strain 08XS-1 against T. urticae eggs, larvae and female adults was evaluated at different temperatures and humidity in the laboratory and under field conditions. The results showed that a suspension of 2 × 10(7) submerged conidia mL(-1) caused the highest mortalities of mite eggs, larvae and females (100, 100 and 70% respectively) at 100% relative humidity and 25 °C in the laboratory. In the field experiments against the mites, a suspension of 2 × 10(8) submerged conidia mL(-1) achieved significant efficiency - the relative control effects were 88.6, 83.8 and 83%, respectively, in cucumber, eggplant and bean fields after 10 days of treatment. The results suggest that the I. cateniannulata strain 08XS-1 is a potential fungal agent, with acceptable production cost of conidia, against T. urticae in the field in an area such as southwestern China with higher air humidity. © 2016 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Field Demonstration of Real-Time Wind Turbine Foundation Strain Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubert, Tim; Perry, Marcus; Fusiek, Grzegorz; McAlorum, Jack; Niewczas, Pawel; Brotherston, Amanda; McCallum, David

    2017-12-31

    Onshore wind turbine foundations are generally over-engineered as their internal stress states are challenging to directly monitor during operation. While there are industry drivers to shift towards more economical foundation designs, making this transition safely will require new monitoring techniques, so that the uncertainties around structural health can be reduced. This paper presents the initial results of a real-time strain monitoring campaign for an operating wind turbine foundation. Selected reinforcement bars were instrumented with metal packaged optical fibre strain sensors prior to concrete casting. In this paper, we outline the sensors' design, characterisation and installation, and present 67 days of operational data. During this time, measured foundation strains did not exceed 95 μ ϵ , and showed a strong correlation with both measured tower displacements and the results of a foundation finite element model. The work demonstrates that real-time foundation monitoring is not only achievable, but that it has the potential to help operators and policymakers quantify the conservatism of their existing design codes.

  10. Low-field magnetoresistance anisotropy in strained ultrathin Pr0.67Sr0.33MnO3 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.S.; Li, Q.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have studied the anisotropic low-field magnetoresistance (LFMR) in ultrathin Pr 0.67 sr 0.33 MnO 3 (PSMO) films epitaxially grown on LaAlO 3 (LAO), STiO 3 (STO), and NdGaO 3 (NGO) substrates which impose compressive, tensile, and nearly-zero strains in the films. The compressively-strained films show a very large negative LFMR in a perpendicular magnetic field and a much smaller MR in a parallel field, while the tensile-strain films show positive LFMR in a perpendicular field and negative MR in a parallel field. The results are interpreted based on the strain-induced magnetic anisotropy

  11. Tunability of the Quantum Spin Hall Effect in Bi(110) Films: Effects of Electric Field and Strain Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng-Shi; Ji, Wei-Xiao; Li, Ping; Hu, Shu-Jun; Cai, Li; Zhang, Chang-Wen; Yan, Shi-Shen

    2017-06-28

    The quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect is promising for achieving dissipationless transport devices due to their robust gapless edge states inside insulating bulk gap. However, the currently discussed QSH insulators usually suffer from ultrahigh vacuum or low temperature due to the small bulk gap, which limits their practical applications. Searching for large-gap QSH insulators is highly desirable. Here, the tunable QSH state of a Bi(110) films with a black phosphorus (BP) structure, which is robust against structural deformation and electric field, is explored by first-principles calculations. It is found that the two-monolayer BP-Bi(110) film obtains a tunable large bulk gap by strain engineering and its QSH effect shows a favorable robustness within a wide range of combinations of in-plane and out-of-plane strains, although a single in-plane compression or out-of-plane extension may restrict the topological phase due to the self-doping effect. More interestingly, in view of biaxial strain, two competing physics on band topology induced by bonding-antibonding and p x,y -p z band inversions are obtained. Meanwhile, the QSH effect can be persevered under an electric field of up to 0.9 V/Å. Moreover, with appropriate in-plane strain engineering, a nontrivial topological phase in a four-monolayer BP-Bi(110) film is identified. Our findings suggest that these two-dimensional BP-Bi(110) films are ideal platforms of the QSH effect for low-power dissipation devices.

  12. Application of Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis for Study of Genetic Diversity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains Isolated From Tuberculosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Azar Dokht; Vatani, Shideh; Feizabadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Abasi Montazeri, Effat; Jolodar, Abbas

    2014-05-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotyping can effectively improve tuberculosis (TB) control programs by controlling disease transmission. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is a particularly powerful tool for determination of clonal identity of bacteria providing information for understanding and controlling the spread of disease. The aim of present study was to investigate the genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis strains in Khuzestan province by the PFGE technique. In total, 80 M. tuberculosis positive cultures were obtained from tuberculosis patients. PFGE was performed on 60 PCR-confirmed isolates by using DraI and XbaI restriction enzymes according to standard protocols. Plugs containing digested DNA were then loaded on agarose gels and run using contour-clamped homogenous electric fields. Fifty distinct DNA banding patterns were obtained by digestion of DNA with DraI and 38 DNA banding patterns by digestion with XbaI restriction enzymes. The patterns comprised of 17 different clusters in which cluster I was the major one, containing six strains. Three clusters contained three strains each and the 13 remaining clusters comprised of two strains each. Digestion with DraI yielded 15-20 DNA fragments with 50-485 kb size, while digestion by XbaI produced DNA fragments with a size smaller than 50-242 kb. Despite the ability of PFGE for study of genetic diversity of many mycobacterial species and it being considered as a robust and useful tool, in this study we only found a 15% epidemiological relationship amongst the isolates. Thus, for higher discrimination of genotypic clusters among M. tuberculosis clinical isolates, the application of more sophisticated complementary techniques is required.

  13. Crack initiation under generalized plane strain conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shum, D.K.M.; Merkle, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    A method for estimating the decrease in crack-initiation toughness, from a reference plane strain value, due to positive straining along the crack front of a circumferential flaw in a reactor pressure vessel is presented in this study. This method relates crack initiation under generalized plane strain conditions with material failure at points within a distance of a few crack-tip-opening displacements ahead of a crack front, and involves the formulation of a micromechanical crack-initiation model. While this study is intended to address concerns regarding the effects of positive out-of- plane straining on ductile crack initiation, the approach adopted in this work can be extended in a straightforward fashion to examine conditions of macroscopic cleavage crack initiation. Provided single- parameter dominance of near-tip fields exists in the flawed structure, results from this study could be used to examine the appropriateness of applying plane strain fracture toughness to the evaluation of circumferential flaws, in particular to those in ring-forged vessels which have no longitudinal welds. In addition, results from this study could also be applied toward the analysis of the effects of thermal streaming on the fracture resistance of circumferentially oriented flaws in a pressure vessel. 37 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  14. Diagnostic tools based on minor groove binder probe technology for rapid identification of vaccinal and field strains of canine parvovirus type 2b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Martella, Vito; Elia, Gabriella; Desario, Costantina; Campolo, Marco; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Bellacicco, Anna Lucia; Tempesta, Maria; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2006-12-01

    TaqMan-based diagnostic tests have been developed for the identification of canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) strains in the faeces of dogs with diarrhoea, including a minor groove binder (MGB) probe assay for identification of type 2-based vaccines and field strains (types 2a, 2b and 2c). Since type 2b vaccines have been licensed recently in Europe, two novel MGB assays were developed for discrimination between type 2b vaccines and field strains of CPV. Such assays have been found to be highly sensitive, specific and reproducible, allowing for simultaneous detection of type 2b vaccinal and field strains present in the same specimens. These new assays will help resolution of the diagnostic problems related to the detection of a type 2b strain in the faeces of dogs shortly after the administration of a type 2b vaccine.

  15. Exposure to static magnetic field stimulates quorum sensing circuit in luminescent Vibrio strains of the Harveyi clade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelfia Talà

    Full Text Available In this study, the evidence of electron-dense magnetic inclusions with polyhedral shape in the cytoplasm of Harveyi clade Vibrio strain PS1, a bioluminescent bacterium living in symbiosis with marine organisms, led us to investigate the behavior of this bacterium under exposure to static magnetic fields ranging between 20 and 2000 Gauss. When compared to sham-exposed, the light emission of magnetic field-exposed bacteria growing on solid medium at 18°C ±0.1°C was increased up to two-fold as a function of dose and growth phase. Stimulation of bioluminescence by magnetic field was more pronounced during the post-exponential growth and stationary phase, and was lost when bacteria were grown in the presence of the iron chelator deferoxamine, which caused disassembly of the magnetic inclusions suggesting their involvement in magnetic response. As in luminescent Vibrio spp. bioluminescence is regulated by quorum sensing, possible effects of magnetic field exposure on quorum sensing were investigated. Measurement of mRNA levels by reverse transcriptase real time-PCR demonstrated that luxR regulatory gene and luxCDABE operon coding for luciferase and fatty acid reductase complex were significantly up-regulated in magnetic field-exposed bacteria. In contrast, genes coding for a type III secretion system, whose expression was negatively affected by LuxR, were down-regulated. Up-regulation of luxR paralleled with down-regulation of small RNAs that mediate destabilization of luxR mRNA in quorum sensing signaling pathways. The results of experiments with the well-studied Vibrio campbellii strain BB120 (originally classified as Vibrio harveyi and derivative mutants unable to synthesize autoinducers suggest that the effects of magnetic fields on quorum sensing may be mediated by AI-2, the interspecies quorum sensing signal molecule.

  16. Strain Differences of Mice for Open Field Behaviour, Circadian Rhythms,and Morphine Reactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Sekiguchi, Shigehisa

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with some of the work in the field of Behaviour Genetics at the Psychological Laboratory in Shiga University. The first part concerns open field behaviour, the second part discusses circadian rhythms of general activity and of sleepwakefulness cycle, and the third part relates to morphine effects on avoidance behaviour.

  17. Finite Element Verification of Non-Homogeneous Strain and Stress Fields during Composite Material Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    2015-01-01

    Uni-directional glass fiber reinforced polymers play a central role in the task increasing the length of wind turbines blades and thereby lowering the cost of energy from wind turbine installations. During this, optimizing the mechanical performance regarding material stiffness, compression...... strength and fatigue performance is essential. Nevertheless, testing composites includes some challenges regarding stiffness determination using conventional strain gauges and achieving correct material failure unaffected by the gripping region during fatigue testing. Challenges, which in the present study......, has been addressed using the finite element method. During this, a verification of experimental observations, a deeper understanding on the test coupon loading and thereby improved test methods has been achieved....

  18. Identification of a new genetic marker in Mycoplasma synoviae vaccine strain MS-H and development of a strategy using polymerase chain reaction and high-resolution melting curve analysis for differentiating MS-H from field strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling; Konsak, Barbara M; Olaogun, Olusola M; Agnew-Crumptona, Rebecca; Kanci, Anna; Marenda, Marc S; Browning, Glenn F; Noormohammadi, Amir H

    2017-10-01

    Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) is an economically important avian pathogen worldwide, causing subclinical respiratory tract infection and infectious synovitis in chickens and turkeys. A temperature-sensitive (ts + ) live attenuated vaccine MS-H, derived from the Australian field strain 86079/7NS, is now widely used in many countries to control the disease induced by MS. Differentiation of MS-H vaccine from field strains is crucial for monitoring vaccination programs in commercial poultry. Comparison of genomic sequences of MS-H and its parent strain revealed an adenine deletion at nucleotide position 468 of the MS-H oppF-1 gene. This mutation was shown to be unique to MS-H in further comparative analyses of oppF-1 genes of MS-H re-isolates and field strains from Australia and other countries. Based on this single nucleotide, a combination of nested PCR and high-resolution melting (HRM) curve analysis was used to evaluate its potential for use in differentiation of MS-H from field strains. The mean genotype confidence percentages of 99.27 and 48.20 for MS-H and field strains, respectively, demonstrated the high discriminative power of the newly developed assay (oppF PCR-HRM). A set of 13 tracheal swab samples collected from MS-H vaccinated specific pathogen free birds and commercial chicken flocks infected with MS were tested using the oppF PCR-HRM test and results were totally consistent with those obtained using vlhA genotyping. The nested-PCR HRM method established in this study proved to be a rapid, simple and cost effective tool for discriminating the MS-H vaccine strain from Australian and international strains in pure cultures and on tracheal swabs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Magnetic field induced third order susceptibility of third order harmonic generation in a ZnMgSe strained quantum well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark, J. Abraham Hudson, E-mail: a.john.peter@gmail.com; Peter, A. John, E-mail: a.john.peter@gmail.com [Dept. of Physics, SSM Institute of Engineering and Technology, Dindigul-624002 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Third order susceptibility of third order harmonic generation is investigated in a Zn{sub 0.1}Mg{sub 0.9}Se/Zn{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}Se/Zn{sub 0.1}Mg{sub 0.9}Se quantum well in the presence of magnetic field strength. The confinement potential is considered as the addition of energy offsets of the conduction band (or valence band) and the strain-induced potential in our calculations. The material dependent effective mass is followed throughout the computation because it has a high influence on the electron energy levels in low dimensional semiconductor systems.

  20. Molecular analysis of field strains of Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae and Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides, small colony type isolated from goats in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Ojeniyi, B.; Friis, N.F.

    2001-01-01

    A molecular analysis of strains of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp, capripneumoniae (M. capripneumoniae) and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, small colony type (M. mycoides SQ isolated from goats was performed using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and pulsed-field gel...

  1. Myxomatosis: the virulence of field strains of myxoma virus in a population of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) with high resistance to myxomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, J W; Nolan, I F; Shepherd, R C; Gocs, A

    1975-06-01

    The virulence of field strains of myxoma virus is increasing in the Mallee region of Victoria where the resistance of the rabbit to myxomatosis is high. This suggests that the climax association will be a moderately severe disease.

  2. Strain fields around dislocation arrays in a Σ9 silicon bicrystal measured by scanning transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couillard, Martin; Radtke, Guillaume; Botton, Gianluigi A.

    2013-04-01

    Strain fields around grain boundary dislocations are measured by applying geometric phase analysis on atomic resolution images obtained from multiple fast acquisitions in scanning transmission electron microscopy. Maps of lattice distortions in silicon introduced by an array of pure edge dislocations located at a Σ9(122) grain boundary are compared with the predictions from isotropic elastic theory, and the atomic structure of dislocation cores is deduced from images displaying all the atomic columns. For strain measurements, reducing the acquisition time is found to significantly decrease the effects of instabilities on the high-resolution images. Contributions from scanning artefacts are also diminished by summing multiple images following a cross-correlation alignment procedure. Combined with the sub-Ångström resolution obtained with an aberration corrector, and the stable dedicated microscope's environment, therapid acquisition method provides the measurements of atomic displacements with accuracy below 10 pm. Finally, the advantages of combining strain measurements with the collection of various analytical signals in a scanning transmission electron microscope are discussed.

  3. Strained Si channel NMOSFETs using a stress field with Si1-yC y source and drain stressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.T.; Tasi, H.-S.; Kung, C.Y.

    2006-01-01

    The strain field in the silicon channel of a metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor with silicon-carbon alloy source and drain stressors was evaluated using the commercial process simulator FLOOPS-ISE TM . The physical origin of the strain components in the transistor channel region was explained. The magnitude and distribution of the strain components, and their dependence on device design parameters such as the spacing L G between the silicon-carbon alloy stressors, the carbon mole fraction in the stressors and stressor depth were investigated. Reducing the stressor spacing L G or increasing the carbon mole fraction in the stressors and stressor depth increases the magnitude of the vertical compressive stress and the lateral tensile stress in the portion of the N channel region where the inversion charge resides. This is beneficial for improving the electron mobility in n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors. A simple guiding principle for an optimum combination of the above-mentioned device design parameters in terms of mobility enhancement, drain current enhancement and the tradeoff consideration for junction leakage current degradation

  4. Improved flare tip design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogolek, P. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2004-07-01

    This paper discusses the testing procedures and development of an improved flare tip design. Design objectives included performance equal to or better than utility flares at low wind speed; conversion efficiency; fuel slip; smoking; significant improvement at high wind speed; and no increase in trace emissions. A description of the testing facility of the flare tip was provided, with reference to the fact that the facility allowed for realistic near full scale gas flares in a single-pass flare test facility. Other details of the facility included: an adjustable ceiling; high capacity variable speed fan; sampling ports along working section in stack; windows along working section; and air cooled walls, floor, and ceiling. The fuels used in the flare tip included natural gas, propane, gasoline and inert gases. Details of wind speed, appurtenances and turbulence generating grids were presented, with reference to continuous gas emission measurements. A list of design constraints was provided. Flare performance included wind speed, turbulence and fuel composition. A chart of conversion inefficiencies with a correlation of wind speed and turbulence, fuel flow and pipe size was also presented. Several new tip designs were fabricated for testing, with screening tests for comparison to basic pipe and ranking designs. Significant improvements were found in one of the new designs, including results with 30 per cent propane in fuel. Emissions reduction from 10 to 35 per cent were noted. It was concluded that future work should focus on evaluating improved tip for stability at low wind speeds. Fuel slips are the primary source of emissions, and it was recommended that further research is necessary to improve existing flare tips. tabs, figs.

  5. Sudden motility reversal indicates sensing of magnetic field gradients in Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Lina M; Ruder, Warren C; Mitchell, Aaron P; Messner, William C; LeDuc, Philip R

    2015-06-01

    Many motile unicellular organisms have evolved specialized behaviors for detecting and responding to environmental cues such as chemical gradients (chemotaxis) and oxygen gradients (aerotaxis). Magnetotaxis is found in magnetotactic bacteria and it is defined as the passive alignment of these cells to the geomagnetic field along with active swimming. Herein we show that Magnetospirillum magneticum (AMB-1) show a unique set of responses that indicates they sense and respond not only to the direction of magnetic fields by aligning and swimming, but also to changes in the magnetic field or magnetic field gradients. We present data showing that AMB-1 cells exhibit sudden motility reversals when we impose them to local magnetic field gradients. Our system employs permalloy (Ni(80)Fe(20)) islands to curve and diverge the magnetic field lines emanating from our custom-designed Helmholtz coils in the vicinity of the islands (creating a drop in the field across the islands). The three distinct movements we have observed as they approach the permalloy islands are: unidirectional, single reverse and double reverse. Our findings indicate that these reverse movements occur in response to magnetic field gradients. In addition, using a permanent magnet we found further evidence that supports this claim. Motile AMB-1 cells swim away from the north and south poles of a permanent magnet when the magnet is positioned less than ∼30 mm from the droplet of cells. All together, these results indicate previously unknown response capabilities arising from the magnetic sensing systems of AMB-1 cells. These responses could enable them to cope with magnetic disturbances that could in turn potentially inhibit their efficient search for nutrients.

  6. Productivity tips for developers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    I like to read about productivity tools and techniques, but the problem is - most of them are completely overrated, the tips are not that useful or they are too difficult to implement. But, sometimes I can find some stuff that really makes me think "damn, how could I live without this before?!". Today, I would like to share some of them and hopefully hear about the tips and tricks that you use. Maybe we can find a way to share them somehow (github repo/forum)?

  7. Built-in electric field effect on optical absorption spectra of strained (In,Ga)N–GaN nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ghazi, Haddou, E-mail: hadghazi@gmail.com [LPS, Faculty of Science, Dhar EL Mehrez, BP 1796 Fes-Atlas (Morocco); Special Mathematics, CPGE Rabat, Rabat (Morocco); John Peter, A. [Department of Physics, Govt. Arts and Science College, Melur, 625106 Madurai (India)

    2015-08-15

    Based on the effective-mass and the one band parabolic approximations, first order linear, third-order nonlinear and total optical properties related to 1s–1p intra-conduction band transition in wurtzite strained (In,Ga)N–GaN spherical QDs are calculated. The built-in electric field effect, due to the spontaneous and piezoelectric components, is investigated variationally under finite confinement potential. The results reveal that size and internal composition of the dot have a great influence on in-built electric field which affects strongly the optical absorption spectra. It is also found that the modulation of the absorption coefficient, which is suitable for the better performance of optical device applications, can be easily obtained by adjusting geometrical size and internal composition.

  8. Observation of Rashba zero-field spin splitting in a strained germanium 2D hole gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, C.; Rhead, S. D.; Foronda, J.; Leadley, D. R.; Myronov, M.; Wiśniewski, P.

    2014-01-01

    We report the observation, through Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in the magnetoresistance, of spin splitting caused by the Rashba spin-orbit interaction in a strained Ge quantum well epitaxially grown on a standard Si(001) substrate. The Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations display a beating pattern due to the spin split Landau levels. The spin-orbit parameter and Rashba spin-splitting energy are found to be 1.0 × 10 −28   eVm 3 and 1.4 meV, respectively. This energy is comparable to 2D electron gases in III-V semiconductors, but substantially larger than in Si, and illustrates the suitability of Ge for modulated hole spin transport devices.

  9. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THERMAL AND STRAIN FIELDS DURING DEFORMATION OF EN ENCHELON FAULTS AND ITS GEOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of experimental studies using a bi-axial servo-control system to apply load on samples with extensional and compressional en echelon faults. During the experiments, variations of temperature and thermal images were recorded synchronously by a multi-path contact-type thermometric apparatus and a thermal image system, respectively. A digital CCD camera was employed to synchronously collect images of specimens’ surfaces. The digital speckle correlation method (DSCM was utilized to analyze the images and to define displacements and strain fields. Our experimental results show that temperature fields have clear responses to opposite stress states in the jog areas of both types of the en echelon faults. Prior to failure of the jog area, its temperature is the highest at the compressional en echelon faults and the lowest at the extensional en echelon faults. Records by DSCM give evidence that mean strain of the jog area is the highest at compressional en echelon faults and the lowest at the extensional en echelon faults. It is revealed that deformation of the en echelon faults occurs in two stages, developing from stress build-up and fault propagation in the jog area to unstable sliding along the fault. Correspondingly, the mechanism of heating-up converts from strain heating into friction heating. During the period of transformation of the temperature rising mechanism, three events are observed in the jog area and its vicinity. Analyses of our experimental results demonstrate that variations of temperatures in the jog area can be indicative of fault sliding and suggest sliding directions. Observations and studies of temperature changes during transformation of the temperature rising mechanism at sensitive portions of faults are of great importance for early detection of precursors of unstable slip on active faults.

  10. Whole field strain measurement in critical thin adhesive layer of single- and double-sided repaired CFRP panel using DIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashfuddoja, Mohammad; Ramji, M.

    2015-03-01

    In the present work, the behavior of thin adhesively layer in patch repaired carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) panel under tensile load is investigated experimentally using digital image correlation (DIC) technique. The panel is made of Carbon/epoxy composite laminate and the stacking sequence in the panel is [0º]4. A circular hole of 10 mm diameter (d) is drilled at the center of the panel to mimic the case of low velocity impact damage removal. The panel with open hole is repaired with double sided (symmetrical) and single sided (unsymmetrical) rectangular patch made of same panel material having stacking sequence of [0º]3. Araldite 2011 is used for bonding the patch onto the panel over the damaged area. The global behavior of thin adhesive layer is examined by analyzing whole field strain distribution using DIC. Longitudinal, peel and shear strain field in both double and single sided repair configuration is studied and a compression is made between them. An estimate of shear transfer length which is an essential parameter in arriving at an appropriate overlap length in patch design is proposed from DIC and FEA. Damage development, failure mechanism and load displacement behavior is also investigated. The experimental results are compared with the numerical predictions.

  11. Electrical characterization of Ω-gated uniaxial tensile strained Si nanowire-array metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors with - and channel orientations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habicht, Stefan; Feste, Sebastian; Zhao, Qing-Tai; Buca, Dan; Mantl, Siegfried

    2012-01-01

    Nanowire-array metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) were fabricated along and crystal directions on (001) un-/strained silicon-on-insulator substrates. Lateral strain relaxation through patterning was employed to transform biaxial tensile strain into uniaxial tensile strain along the nanowire. Devices feature ideal subthreshold swings and maximum on-current/off-current ratios of 10 11 for n and p-type transistors on both substrates. Electron and hole mobilities were extracted by split C–V method. For p-MOSFETs an increased mobility is observed for channel direction devices compared to devices. The n-MOSFETs showed a 45% increased electron mobility compared to devices. The comparison of strained and unstrained n-MOSFETs along and clearly demonstrates improved electron mobilities for strained channels of both channel orientations.

  12. Dielectrophoretic positioning of single nanoparticles on atomic force microscope tips for tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiterer, Christian; Deckert-Gaudig, Tanja; Singh, Prabha; Wirth, Janina; Deckert, Volker; Fritzsche, Wolfgang

    2015-05-01

    Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, a combination of Raman spectroscopy and scanning probe microscopy, is a powerful technique to detect the vibrational fingerprint of molecules at the nanometer scale. A metal nanoparticle at the apex of an atomic force microscope tip leads to a large enhancement of the electromagnetic field when illuminated with an appropriate wavelength, resulting in an increased Raman signal. A controlled positioning of individual nanoparticles at the tip would improve the reproducibility of the probes and is quite demanding due to usually serial and labor-intensive approaches. In contrast to commonly used submicron manipulation techniques, dielectrophoresis allows a parallel and scalable production, and provides a novel approach toward reproducible and at the same time affordable tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy tips. We demonstrate the successful positioning of an individual plasmonic nanoparticle on a commercial atomic force microscope tip by dielectrophoresis followed by experimental proof of the Raman signal enhancing capabilities of such tips. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Sports Dehydration Safety Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sports Dehydration Safety Tips Everything you need to know to keep your kids safe from dehydration when playing sports. To keep kids in top ... to stay hydrated by drinking plenty of fluids. Dehydration occurs when a body loses more water than ...

  14. Numerical Simulation of LVAD Inflow Cannulas with Different Tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Mao Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The tip structure of LVAD inflow cannula is one of major factors to lead adverse events such as thrombosis and suction leading to obstruction. In this research, four kinds of tips that had been used in inflow cannulas were selected and designed. The flow field of the four inflow cannulas inserted into the apex of left ventricle (LV was numerically computed by computational fluid dynamics. The flow behavior was analyzed in order to compare the blood compatibility and suction in left ventricle and cannulas after the inflow cannulas with different tips were inserted to the apex of LV. The results showed that the cannula tip structure affected the LVAD performance. Among these four cannulas, the trumpet-tipped inflow cannula owned the best performance in smooth flow velocity distribution without backflow or low-velocity flow so that it was the best in blood compatibility. Nevertheless, the caged tipped cannula was the worst in blood compatibility. And the blunt-tipped and beveled tipped inflow cannulas may obstruct more easily than trumpet and caged tipped inflow cannulas because of their shape. The study indicated that the trumpet tip was the most preferable for the inflow cannula of long-term LVAD.

  15. Adipogenesis: forces that tip the scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacDougald, Ormond A; Mandrup, Susanne

    2001-01-01

    factors reviewed include Wnt, transforming growth factor beta, inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandin F(2alpha). Tipping the scales towards or away from adipogenesis has profound implications for human health. In this review, we describe recent contributions to the field and will focus on factors...

  16. Dynamic of cold-atom tips in anharmonic potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menold, Tobias; Federsel, Peter; Rogulj, Carola; Hölscher, Hendrik; Fortágh, József

    2016-01-01

    Background: Understanding the dynamics of ultracold quantum gases in an anharmonic potential is essential for applications in the new field of cold-atom scanning probe microscopy. Therein, cold atomic ensembles are used as sensitive probe tips to investigate nanostructured surfaces and surface-near potentials, which typically cause anharmonic tip motion. Results: Besides a theoretical description of this anharmonic tip motion, we introduce a novel method for detecting the cold-atom tip dynamics in situ and real time. In agreement with theory, the first measurements show that particle interactions and anharmonic motion have a significant impact on the tip dynamics. Conclusion: Our findings will be crucial for the realization of high-sensitivity force spectroscopy with cold-atom tips and could possibly allow for the development of advanced spectroscopic techniques such as Q-control. PMID:28144505

  17. Tunable strain effect and ferroelectric field effect on the electronic transport properties of La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Q. X.; Wang, W.; Zhao, X. Q.; Li, X. M.; Wang, Y.; Luo, H. S.; Chan, H. L. W.; Zheng, R. K.

    2012-05-01

    Tensiled La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 (LSCO) thin films were epitaxially grown on piezoelectric 0.67Pb (Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.33PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) single-crystal substrates. Due to the epitaxial nature of the interface, the lattice strain induced by ferroelectric poling or the converse piezoelectric effect in the PMN-PT substrate is effectively transferred to the LSCO film and thus reduces the tensile strain of the film, giving rise to a decrease in the resistivity of the LSCO film. We discuss these strain effects within the framework of the spin state transition of Co3+ ions and modification of the electronic bandwidth that is relevant to the induced strain. By simultaneously measuring the strain and the resistivity, quantitative relationship between the resistivity and the strain was established for the LSCO film. Both theoretical calculation and experimental results demonstrate that the ferroelectric field effect at room temperature in the LSCO/PMN-PT field-effect transistor is minor and could be neglected. Nevertheless, with decreasing temperature, the ferroelectric field effect competes with the strain effect and plays a more and more important role in influencing the electronic transport properties of the LSCO film, which we interpreted as due to the localization of charge carriers at low temperature.

  18. Wave Phase-Sensitive Transformation of 3d-Straining of Mechanical Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, I. N.; Speranskiy, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    It is the area of research of oscillatory processes in elastic mechanical systems. Technical result of innovation is creation of spectral set of multidimensional images which reflect time-correlated three-dimensional vector parameters of metrological, and\\or estimated, and\\or design parameters of oscillations in mechanical systems. Reconstructed images of different dimensionality integrated in various combinations depending on their objective function can be used as homeostatic profile or cybernetic image of oscillatory processes in mechanical systems for an objective estimation of current operational conditions in real time. The innovation can be widely used to enhance the efficiency of monitoring and research of oscillation processes in mechanical systems (objects) in construction, mechanical engineering, acoustics, etc. Concept method of vector vibrometry based on application of vector 3D phase- sensitive vibro-transducers permits unique evaluation of real stressed-strained states of power aggregates and loaded constructions and opens fundamental innovation opportunities: conduct of continuous (on-line regime) reliable monitoring of turboagregates of electrical machines, compressor installations, bases, supports, pipe-lines and other objects subjected to damaging effect of vibrations; control of operational safety of technical systems at all the stages of life cycle including design, test production, tuning, testing, operational use, repairs and resource enlargement; creation of vibro-diagnostic systems of authentic non-destructive control of anisotropic characteristics of materials resistance of power aggregates and loaded constructions under outer effects and operational flaws. The described technology is revolutionary, universal and common for all branches of engineering industry and construction building objects.

  19. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or bypass, without the risks that accompany open surgery. TIPS is a minimally invasive procedure that typically has a shorter recovery time than surgery. Your TIPS should have less of an effect ...

  20. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... then placed in this tunnel to keep the pathway open. Patients who typically need a TIPS have ... and stomach. A TIPS procedure involves creating a pathway through the liver that connects the portal vein ( ...

  1. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and/or hydrothorax (in the chest). Budd-Chiari syndrome , a blockage in one or more veins that ... intentionally to solve the problem. Although extremely rare, children may also require a TIPS procedure. TIPS in ...

  2. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pressure. top of page How does the procedure work? A TIPS reroutes blood flow in the liver ... filtered out by the liver. The TIPS may cause too much of these substances to bypass the ...

  3. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the esophagus and stomach. A TIPS procedure involves creating a pathway through the liver that connects the ... diseases. This can result in significant challenges in creating the TIPS. top of page Additional Information and ...

  4. Tips for Living with Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Tips for Living Tips for Living with Scleroderma Ways to help manage your symptoms The Scleroderma ... help find improved therapies and a cure for scleroderma! Your gift today will be matched to have ...

  5. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... TIPS. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A TIPS is used to ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  6. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pressure. top of page How does the procedure work? A TIPS reroutes blood flow in the liver ... recovery time than surgery. Your TIPS should have less of an effect than open surgical bypass on ...

  7. Generation of uniaxial tensile strain of over 1% on a Ge substrate for short-channel strained Ge n-type Metal–Insulator–Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors with SiGe stressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Yoshihiko; Kamimuta, Yuuichi; Ikeda, Keiji; Tezuka, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    Tensile strain of over 1% in Ge stripes sandwiched between a pair of SiGe source-drain stressors was demonstrated. The Metal–Oxide–Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (MOSFET)-like structures were fabricated on a (001)-Ge substrate having SiO 2 dummy-gate stripes with widths down to 26 nm. Recess-regions adjacent to the dummy-gate stripes were formed by an anisotropic wet etching technique. A damage-free and well-controlled anisotropic wet etching process is developed in order to avoid plasma-induced damage during a conventional Reactive-ion Etching process. The SiGe stressors were epitaxially grown on the recesses to simulate strained Ge n-channel Metal–Insulator–Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MISFETs) having high electron mobility. A micro-Raman spectroscopy measurement revealed tensile strain in the narrow Ge regions which became higher for narrower regions. Tensile strain of up to 1.2% was evaluated from the measurement under an assumption of uniaxial strain configuration. These results strongly suggest that higher electron mobility than the upper limit for a Si-MOSFET is obtainable in short-channel strained Ge-nMISFETs with the embedded SiGe stressors.

  8. Comparison of ribotyping, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis in typing of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and L. casei strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynkkynen, S; Satokari, R; Saarela, M; Mattila-Sandholm, T; Saxelin, M

    1999-09-01

    A total of 24 strains, biochemically identified as members of the Lactobacillus casei group, were identified by PCR with species-specific primers. The same set of strains was typed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, ribotyping, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) in order to compare the discriminatory power of the methods. Species-specific primers for L. rhamnosus and L. casei identified the type strain L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469 and the neotype strain L. casei ATCC 334, respectively, but did not give any signal with the recently revived species L. zeae, which contains the type strain ATCC 15820 and the strain ATCC 393, which was previously classified as L. casei. Our results are in accordance with the suggested new classification of the L. casei group. Altogether, 21 of the 24 strains studied were identified with the species-specific primers. In strain typing, PFGE was the most discriminatory method, revealing 17 genotypes for the 24 strains studied. Ribotyping and RAPD analysis yielded 15 and 12 genotypes, respectively.

  9. Study of canine parvovirus evolution: comparative analysis of full-length VP2 gene sequences from Argentina and international field strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo Calderón, Marina; Wilda, Maximiliano; Boado, Lorena; Keller, Leticia; Malirat, Viviana; Iglesias, Marcela; Mattion, Nora; La Torre, Jose

    2012-02-01

    The continuous emergence of new strains of canine parvovirus (CPV), poorly protected by current vaccination, is a concern among breeders, veterinarians, and dog owners around the world. Therefore, the understanding of the genetic variation in emerging CPV strains is crucial for the design of disease control strategies, including vaccines. In this paper, we obtained the sequences of the full-length gene encoding for the main capsid protein (VP2) of 11 canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) Argentine representative field strains, selected from a total of 75 positive samples studied in our laboratory in the last 9 years. A comparative sequence analysis was performed on 9 CPV-2c, one CPV-2a, and one CPV-2b Argentine strains with respect to international strains reported in the GenBank database. In agreement with previous reports, a high degree of identity was found among CPV-2c Argentine strains (99.6-100% and 99.7-100% at nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively). However, the appearance of a new substitution in the 440 position (T440A) in four CPV-2c Argentine strains obtained after the year 2009 gives support to the variability observed for this position located within the VP2, three-fold spike. This is the first report on the genetic characterization of the full-length VP2 gene of emerging CPV strains in South America and shows that all the Argentine CPV-2c isolates cluster together with European and North American CPV-2c strains.

  10. Ballistic electron transport calculation of strained germanium-tin fin field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, H.-S.; Liu, C. W.

    2014-01-01

    The dependence of ballistic electron current on Sn content, sidewall orientations, fin width, and uniaxial stress is theoretically studied for the GeSn fin field-effect transistors. Alloying Sn increases the direct Γ valley occupancy and enhances the injection velocity at virtual source node. (112 ¯ ) sidewall gives the highest current enhancement due to the rapidly increasing Γ valley occupancy. The non-parabolicity of the Γ valley affects the occupancy significantly. However, uniaxial tensile stress and the shrinkage of fin width reduce the Γ valley occupancy, and the currents are enhanced by increasing occupancy of specific indirect L valleys with high injection velocity

  11. Ballistic electron transport calculation of strained germanium-tin fin field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, H.-S. [Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering and Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liu, C. W., E-mail: chee@cc.ee.ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering and Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-05-12

    The dependence of ballistic electron current on Sn content, sidewall orientations, fin width, and uniaxial stress is theoretically studied for the GeSn fin field-effect transistors. Alloying Sn increases the direct Γ valley occupancy and enhances the injection velocity at virtual source node. (112{sup ¯}) sidewall gives the highest current enhancement due to the rapidly increasing Γ valley occupancy. The non-parabolicity of the Γ valley affects the occupancy significantly. However, uniaxial tensile stress and the shrinkage of fin width reduce the Γ valley occupancy, and the currents are enhanced by increasing occupancy of specific indirect L valleys with high injection velocity.

  12. Tunnel field-effect transistors with germanium/strained-silicon hetero-junctions for low power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minsoo, E-mail: minsoo@mosfet.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Kim, Younghyun; Yokoyama, Masafumi; Nakane, Ryosho; Kim, SangHyeon; Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi

    2014-04-30

    We have studied a simple structure n-channel tunnel field-effect transistor with a pure-Ge/strained-Si hetero-junction. The device operation was demonstrated for the devices fabricated by combining epitaxially-grown Ge on strained-silicon-on-insulator substrates. Atomic-layer-deposition-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based gate stacks were formed with electron cyclotron resonance plasma post oxidation to ensure the high quality metal–oxide–semiconductor interface between the high-k insulator and Ge. While the gate leakage current and drain current saturation are well controlled, relatively higher minimum subthreshold swing of 125 mV/dec and lower I{sub ON}/I{sub OFF} ratio of 10{sup 3}–10{sup 4} were obtained. It is expected that these device characteristics can be improved by further process optimization. - Highlights: • Layer by layer growth of Ge • Uniform interface between Ge and the insulator • Gate leakage current and drain current saturation seem to be well controlled. • The output characteristics show good saturation.

  13. Tunnel field-effect transistors with germanium/strained-silicon hetero-junctions for low power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Younghyun; Yokoyama, Masafumi; Nakane, Ryosho; Kim, SangHyeon; Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    We have studied a simple structure n-channel tunnel field-effect transistor with a pure-Ge/strained-Si hetero-junction. The device operation was demonstrated for the devices fabricated by combining epitaxially-grown Ge on strained-silicon-on-insulator substrates. Atomic-layer-deposition-Al 2 O 3 -based gate stacks were formed with electron cyclotron resonance plasma post oxidation to ensure the high quality metal–oxide–semiconductor interface between the high-k insulator and Ge. While the gate leakage current and drain current saturation are well controlled, relatively higher minimum subthreshold swing of 125 mV/dec and lower I ON /I OFF ratio of 10 3 –10 4 were obtained. It is expected that these device characteristics can be improved by further process optimization. - Highlights: • Layer by layer growth of Ge • Uniform interface between Ge and the insulator • Gate leakage current and drain current saturation seem to be well controlled. • The output characteristics show good saturation

  14. A model considering mechanical anisotropy of magnetic-field-induced superelastic strain in magnetic shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yuping; Yu, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The model analyzes mechanical anisotropy of magnetic shape memory alloy. ► The numerical evaluation of Eshelby tensor of shape memory alloy is obtained. ► Interaction energy of magnetic shape memory alloy is analyzed. - Abstract: Under applied mechanical load and magnetic field, a micromechanics-based thermodynamic model taking account of mechanical anisotropy of magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs) is developed in this work. Considering the crystallographic and magnetic microstructure, the internal state variables are chosen and the model can capture the magnetic shape memory effect caused by the martensitic variant reorientation process. It is assumed that the Gibbs free energy is consisted of the mechanical potential energy of anisotropic matrix, the Zeeman energy and the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy in the model. In terms of the balance between the thermodynamic driving force derived from the reduction of Gibbs free energy and the resistive force for the variant reorientation, the kinetic equation is established and the Eshelby tensor of anisotropic MSMAs is then obtained by using numerical evaluation. At last, the effects of the anisotropy on interaction energy and macroscopic strain are discussed. The assumption of isotropy tends to underestimate interaction energy and macroscopic strain. The results considering mechanical anisotropy are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  15. The demonstration of nonlinear analytic model for the strain field induced by thermal copper filled TSVs (through silicon via

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Liao

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The thermo-elastic strain is induced by through silicon vias (TSV due to the difference of thermal expansion coefficients between the copper (∼18 ppm/ °C and silicon (∼2.8 ppm/ °C when the structure is exposed to a thermal ramp budget in the three dimensional integrated circuit (3DIC process. These thermal expansion stresses are high enough to introduce the delamination on the interfaces between the copper, silicon, and isolated dielectric. A compact analytic model for the strain field induced by different layouts of thermal copper filled TSVs with the linear superposition principle is found to have large errors due to the strong stress interaction between TSVs. In this work, a nonlinear stress analytic model with different TSV layouts is demonstrated by the finite element method and the analysis of the Mohr's circle. The characteristics of stress are also measured by the atomic force microscope-raman technique with nanometer level space resolution. The change of the electron mobility with the consideration of this nonlinear stress model for the strong interactions between TSVs is ∼2–6% smaller in comparison with those from the consideration of the linear stress superposition principle only.

  16. Microhardness and Strain Field Characterization of Self-Reacting Friction Stir and Plug Welds of Dissimilar Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Karla Renee

    2011-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process with potential advantages for aerospace and automotive industries dealing with light alloys. Self-reacting friction stir welding (SR-FSW) is one variation of the FSW process being developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for use in the fabrication of propellant tanks. Friction plug welding is used to seal the exit hole that remains in a circumferential SR-FSW. This work reports on material properties and strain patterns developed in a SR-FSW with a friction plug weld. Specifically, this study examines the behavior of a SR-FSW formed between an AA 2014-T6 plate on the advancing side and an AA 2219-T87 plate on the retreating side and a SR-FSW (AA 2014-T6 to AA 2219-T87) with a 2219-T87 plug weld. This study presents the results of a characterization of the micro-hardness, joint strength, and strain field characterization of SR-FSW and FPW joints tested at room temperature and cryogenic temperatures.

  17. Possibility of the real-time dynamic strain field monitoring deduced from GNSS data: case study of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Y.; Ohzono, M.; Takahashi, H.; Kawamoto, S.; Hino, R.

    2017-12-01

    A large and destructive earthquake (Mjma 7.3) occurred on April 15, 2016 in Kumamoto region, southwestern Japan. This earthquake was accompanied approximately 32 s later by an M 6 earthquake in central Oita region, which hypocenter located 80 km northeast from the hypocenter of the mainshock of the Kumamoto earthquake. This triggered earthquake also had the many aftershocks in and around the Oita region. It is important to understand how to occur such chain-reacted earthquake sequences. We used the 1Hz dual-frequency phase and range data from GEONET in Kyushu island. The data were processed using GIPSY-OASIS (version 6.4). We adopoted kinematic PPP strategy for the coordinate estimation. The reference GPS satellite orbit and 5 s clock information were obtained using the CODE product. We also applied simple sidereal filter technique for the estimated time series. Based on the obtained 1Hz GNSS time series, we estimated the areal strain and principle strain field using the method of the Shen et al. (1996). For the assessment of the dynamic strain, firstly we calculated the averaged absolute value of areal strain field between 60-85s after the origin time of the mainshock of the Kumamoto earthquake which was used as the "reference" static strain field. Secondly, we estimated the absolute value of areal strain in each time step. Finally, we calculated the strain ratio in each time step relative to the "reference". Based on this procedure, we can extract the spatial and temporal characteristic of the dynamic strain in each time step. Extracted strain ratio clearly shows the spatial and temporal dynamic strain characteristic. When an attention is paid to a region of triggered Oita earthquake, the timing of maximum dynamic strain ratio in the epicenter just corresponds to the origin time of the triggered event. It strongly suggested that the large dynamic strain may trigger the Oita event. The epicenter of the triggered earthquake located within the geothermal region. In

  18. Out-of-plane strain and electric field tunable electronic properties and Schottky contact of graphene/antimonene heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuc, Huynh V.; Hieu, Nguyen N.; Hoi, Bui D.; Phuong, Le T. T.; Hieu, Nguyen V.; Nguyen, Chuong V.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the electronic properties of graphene/monolayer antimonene (G/m-Sb) heterostructure have been studied using the density functional theory (DFT). The effects of out-of-plane strain (interlayer coupling) and electric field on the electronic properties and Schottky contact of the G/m-Sb heterostructure are also investigated. The results show that graphene is bound to m-Sb layer by a weak van-der-Waals interaction with the interlayer distance of 3.50 Å and the binding energy per carbon atom of -39.62 meV. We find that the n-type Schottky contact is formed at the G/m-Sb heterostructure with the Schottky barrier height (SBH) of 0.60 eV. By varying the interlayer distance between graphene and the m-Sb layer we can change the n-type and p-type SBH at the G/m-Sb heterostructure. Especially, we find the transformation from n-type to p-type Schottky contact with decreasing the interlayer distance. Furthermore, the SBH and the Schottky contact could be controlled by applying the perpendicular electric field. With the positive electric field, electrons can easily transfer from m-Sb to graphene layer, leading to the transition from n-type to p-type Schottky contact.

  19. Monte Carlo simulations of spin transport in a strained nanoscale InGaAs field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, B.; Kalna, K.; Langbein, F. C.; Schirmer, S.

    2017-12-01

    Spin-based logic devices could operate at a very high speed with a very low energy consumption and hold significant promise for quantum information processing and metrology. We develop a spintronic device simulator by combining an in-house developed, experimentally verified, ensemble self-consistent Monte Carlo device simulator with spin transport based on a Bloch equation model and a spin-orbit interaction Hamiltonian accounting for Dresselhaus and Rashba couplings. It is employed to simulate a spin field effect transistor operating under externally applied voltages on a gate and a drain. In particular, we simulate electron spin transport in a 25 nm gate length In0.7Ga0.3As metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor with a CMOS compatible architecture. We observe a non-uniform decay of the net magnetization between the source and the gate and a magnetization recovery effect due to spin refocusing induced by a high electric field between the gate and the drain. We demonstrate a coherent control of the polarization vector of the drain current via the source-drain and gate voltages, and show that the magnetization of the drain current can be increased twofold by the strain induced into the channel.

  20. Centrifugal compressor tip clearance and impeller flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaatinen-Varri, Ahti; Tiainen, Jonna; Turunen-Saaresti, Teemu; Gronman, Aki; Ameli, Alireza; Backman, Jari [Laboratory of Fluid Dynamics, LUT School of Energy Systems, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta (Finland); Engeda, Abraham [Turbomachinery Laboratory, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Compressors consume a considerable portion of the electricity used in the industrial sector. Hence, improvements in compressor efficiency lead to energy savings and reduce environmental impacts. The efficiency of an unshrouded centrifugal compressor suffers from leakage flow over the blade tips. The effect of tip leakage flow on the passage flow differs between the full and splitter blade passages. In this study, the differences in the flow fields between the full and splitter blade passages were studied numerically in detail. An industrial high-speed compressor with a design pressure ratio of 1.78 was modelled. Numerical studies were conducted with six different tip clearances and three different diffuser widths. The results show that increasing tip clearance considerably increases the reversed flow into the impeller with an unpinched diffuser. The reversed flow then partly mixes into the flow in the same blade passage it entered the impeller and the rest migrates over the blade, mixing with the tip clearance flow. Furthermore, as the reversed and clearance flow mix into the wake, the wake is weakened. As pinch reduces both the reversed flow and clearance flow, the passage wakes are stronger with pinches. However, the pinch is beneficial as the losses at the impeller outlet decrease.

  1. Centrifugal compressor tip clearance and impeller flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaatinen-Varri, Ahti; Tiainen, Jonna; Turunen-Saaresti, Teemu; Gronman, Aki; Ameli, Alireza; Backman, Jari; Engeda, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Compressors consume a considerable portion of the electricity used in the industrial sector. Hence, improvements in compressor efficiency lead to energy savings and reduce environmental impacts. The efficiency of an unshrouded centrifugal compressor suffers from leakage flow over the blade tips. The effect of tip leakage flow on the passage flow differs between the full and splitter blade passages. In this study, the differences in the flow fields between the full and splitter blade passages were studied numerically in detail. An industrial high-speed compressor with a design pressure ratio of 1.78 was modelled. Numerical studies were conducted with six different tip clearances and three different diffuser widths. The results show that increasing tip clearance considerably increases the reversed flow into the impeller with an unpinched diffuser. The reversed flow then partly mixes into the flow in the same blade passage it entered the impeller and the rest migrates over the blade, mixing with the tip clearance flow. Furthermore, as the reversed and clearance flow mix into the wake, the wake is weakened. As pinch reduces both the reversed flow and clearance flow, the passage wakes are stronger with pinches. However, the pinch is beneficial as the losses at the impeller outlet decrease

  2. Modelling of Strains During SAW Surfacing Taking into Heat of the Weld in Temperature Field Description and Phase Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winczek, J.; Makles, K.; Gucwa, M.; Gnatowska, R.; Hatala, M.

    2017-08-01

    In the paper, the model of the thermal and structural strain calculation in a steel element during single-pass SAW surfacing is presented. The temperature field is described analytically assuming a bimodal volumetric model of heat source and a semi-infinite body model of the surfaced (rebuilt) workpiece. The electric arc is treated physically as one heat source. Part of the heat is transferred by the direct impact of the electric arc, while another part of the heat is transferred to the weld by the melted material of the electrode. Kinetics of phase transformations during heating is limited by temperature values at the beginning and at the end of austenitic transformation, while the progress of phase transformations during cooling is determined on the basis of TTT-welding diagramand JMA-K law for diffusive transformations, and K-M law for martensitic transformation. Totalstrains equal to the sum ofthermaland structuralstrainsinduced by phasetransformationsin weldingcycle.

  3. Effect of Strain Restored Energy on Abnormal Grain Growth in Mg Alloy Simulated by Phase Field Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Huang, Yuan-yuan

    2018-03-01

    Abnormal grain growth of single phase AZ31 Mg alloy in the spatio-temporal process has been simulated by phase field models, and the influencing factors of abnormal grain growth are studied in order to find the ways to control secondary recrystallization in the microstructure. The study aims to find out the mechanisms for abnormal grain growth in real alloys. It is shown from the simulated results that the abnormal grain growth can be controlled by the strain restored energy. Secondary recrystallization after an annealing treatment can be induced if there are grains of a certain orientation in the microstructure with local high restored energy. However, if the value of the local restored energy at a certain grain orientation is not greater than 1.1E 0, there may be no abnormal grain growth in the microstructure.

  4. Tunable electronic properties of silicene/GaP heterobilayer: Effects of electric field or biaxial tensile strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Yang, Xibin; Wu, Wei; Tian, Lifen; Cui, Heping; Zheng, Kai; Jiang, Junke; Chen, Xianping; Ye, Huaiyu

    2018-05-01

    We systematically investigate the electronic properties the two-dimensional (2D) silicene/GaP heterobilayer by using density functional theory calculations. We find the silicene and GaP monolayer are bounded to each other via orbital hybridization, and the charge redistribution occurring at the silicene/GaP interface leads to the opening of a direct energy band gap of about 0.997 eV in silicene. Importantly, by applying external electric field, the band structure of silicene/GaP heterostructure can be effectively modulated, and a semiconductor-metal transition even emerges. These intriguing properties make the silicene/GaP heterobilayer a promising 2D material for future electronics and strain sensors.

  5. Lower Crustal Seismicity, Volatiles, and Evolving Strain Fields During the Initial Stages of Cratonic Rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, C.; Muirhead, J.; Ebinger, C. J.; Tiberi, C.; Roecker, S. W.; Ferdinand-Wambura, R.; Kianji, G.; Mulibo, G. D.

    2014-12-01

    The volcanically active East African rift system in southern Kenya and northern Tanzania transects thick cratonic lithosphere, and comprises several basins characterized by deep crustal seismicity. The US-French-Tanzania-Kenya CRAFTI project aims to understand the role of magma and volatile movement during the initiation and evolution of rifting in cratonic lithosphere. Our 38-station broadband network spans all or parts of fault-bounded rift segments, enabling comparison of lithospheric structure, fault kinematics, and seismogenic layer thickness with age and proximity to the deeply rooted Archaen craton. Seismicity levels are high in all basins, but we find profound differences in seismogenic layer thickness along the length of the rift. Seismicity in the Manyara basin occurs almost exclusively within the lower crust, and in spatial clusters that have been active since 1990. In contrast, seismicity in the ~ 5 My older Magadi basin is localized in the upper crust, and the long border fault bounding the west side of the basin is seismically inactive. Between these two basins lies the Natron rift segment, which shows seismicity between ~ 20 and ~2 km depth, and high concentrations at Oldoinyo Lengai and Gelai volcanoes. Older volcanoes on the uplifted western flank (e.g., Ngorongoro) experience swarms of activity, suggesting that active magmatism and degassing are widespread. Focal mechanisms of the frequent earthquakes recorded across the array are spatially variable, and indicate a stress field strongly influenced by (1) Holocene volcanoes, (2) mechanical interactions between adjacent rift basins, and (3) a far-field ESE-WNW extensional stress regime. We explore the spatial correlation between zones of intense degassing along fault systems and seismicity, and examine the influence of high gas pressures on lower and upper crustal seismicity in this youthful cratonic rift zone.

  6. High-resolution flow field measurements in the rotor passage of a low-mach number turbine for different tip geometries; Hochaufgeloeste Stroemungsfeldvermessungen in der Rotorpassage einer Niedermachzahlturbine fuer verschiedene Schaufelspitzengeometrien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kegalj, Martin

    2013-11-01

    In axial turbines tip leakage forms a large portion of the overall losses. Applying a shroud is very aerodynamically useful, but the higher mechanical loads of the revolving rotor blading exposed to a high thermal load and the higher costs suggest a shroudless configuration is better. The main parameter in the tip leakage loss is the tip gap height, which cannot be reduced arbitrarily as a running gap is necessary due to thermal expansion and vibration of the jet engine. The pressure ratio between pressure and suction of the rotor blade forces the fluid over the blade tip and leads to the formation of the tip leakage vortex. Reduced turning and losses caused by vortices and subsequent mixing are responsible for the reduced efficiency. Using a squealer cavity on the flat blade tip is a feasible way to reduce the aerodynamic losses. A portion of the kinetic energy of the tip leakage flow is dissipated while entering the cavity; the flow exiting the cavity enters the passage with reduced momentum and reduced tip gap mass flow. A 1(1)/(2) stage low mach number turbine was used to investigate the influence of tip geometry. Aerodynamic measurements, performed with five-hole probes, two-component hot-wire anemometer, unsteady wall pressure sensors, stereo and borescopic particle-image-velocimetry setups and oil and dye flow visualization, found small differences in the flow velocities and angles between the flat and squealer tip configuration in the measurement planes downstream of the rotor. The measurement uncertainty proves the difficulty of determining the influence of the squealer cavity on the blade row outflow with global measurement data. To gather information on the flow close to the casing inside the rotor passage is only possible with non-intrusive laser measurement techniques. Comparison of the different tip geometries is still difficult due to the small differences in the absolute flow data. The use of the {lambda}{sub 2} vortex criterion enables an objective

  7. Tip-modified Propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul

    1999-01-01

    The paper deals with tip-modified propellers and the methods which, over a period of two decades, have been applied to develop such propellers. The development is driven by the urge to increase the efficiency of propellers and can be seen as analogous to fitting end plates and winglets to aircraft...... propeller, have efficiency increases of a reasonable magnitude in both open-water and behind-ship conditions....

  8. Numerically simulated and experimentally obtained X-ray section topographs of a spherical strain field in a floating zone silicon crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okitsu, Kouhei; Iida, Satoshi; Sugita, Yoshimitsu; Takeno, Hiroshi; Yagou, Yasuyoshi; Kawata, Hiroshi.

    1992-01-01

    An undoped floating zone (FZ) silicon crystal has been investigated by synchrotron X-radiation section topography with high-order reflections up to 14 14 0. Numerically simulated topographs based on the Takagi-Taupin equations were in good agreement with experimental distorted patterns when a spherical strain field was assumed in the crystal. The volume change of the lattice caused by the strain center was estimated to correspond to a sphere with a radius of 10 μm. (author)

  9. Effect of biaxial strain and external electric field on electronic properties of MoS{sub 2} monolayer: A first-principle study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Chuong V., E-mail: chuongnguyen11@gmail.com [Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang (Viet Nam); School of Mechanical Engineering, Le Quy Don Technical University, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Hieu, Nguyen N. [Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang (Viet Nam)

    2016-04-01

    In this work, making use of density functional theory (DFT) computations, we systematically investigate the effect of biaxial strain engineering and external electric field applied perpendicular to the layers on the band gaps and electronic properties of monolayer MoS{sub 2}. The direct-to-indirect band gaps and semiconductor-to-metal transition are observed in monolayer MoS{sub 2} when strain and electric field are applied in our calculation. We show that when the biaxial strain and external electric field are introduced, the electronic properties including band gaps of monolayer MoS{sub 2} can be reduced to zero. Our results provide many useful insights for the wide applications of monolayer MoS{sub 2} in electronics and optoelectronics.

  10. Projector Augmented-Wave formulation of response to strain and electric field perturbation within the density-functional perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Alexandre; Torrent, Marc; Caracas, Razvan

    2015-03-01

    A formulation of the response of a system to strain and electric field perturbations in the pseudopotential-based density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) has been proposed by D.R Hamman and co-workers. It uses an elegant formalism based on the expression of DFT total energy in reduced coordinates, the key quantity being the metric tensor and its first and second derivatives. We propose to extend this formulation to the Projector Augmented-Wave approach (PAW). In this context, we express the full elastic tensor including the clamped-atom tensor, the atomic-relaxation contributions (internal stresses) and the response to electric field change (piezoelectric tensor and effective charges). With this we are able to compute the elastic tensor for all materials (metals and insulators) within a fully analytical formulation. The comparison with finite differences calculations on simple systems shows an excellent agreement. This formalism has been implemented in the plane-wave based DFT ABINIT code. We apply it to the computation of elastic properties and seismic-wave velocities of iron with impurity elements. By analogy with the materials contained in meteorites, tested impurities are light elements (H, O, C, S, Si).

  11. Final Technical Report: Electrohydrodynamic Tip Streaming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basaran, Osman [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2016-01-06

    When subjected to strong electric fields, liquid drops and films form conical tips and emit thin jets from their tips. Such electrodydrodynamic (EDH) tip streaming or cone-jetting phenomena, which are sometimes referred to as electrospraying, occur widely in nature, e.g., in ejection of streams of small charged drops from pointed tips of raindrops in thunderclouds, and technology, e.g., in electrospray mass spectrometry or electric field-driven solvent extraction. More recently, EHD cone-jetting has emerged as a powerful technique for direct printing of solar cells, micro- and nano- particle production, and microencapsulation for controlled release. In many of the aforementioned situations, of equal importance to the processes by which one drop disintegrates to form several drops are those by which (a) two drops come together and coalesce and (b) two drops are coupled to form a double droplet system (DDS) or a capillary switch (CS). the main objective of this research program is to advance through simulation, theory, and experiment the breakup, coalescence, and oscillatory dynamics of single and pairs of charged as well as uncharged drops.

  12. Nanoscale multiphase phase field approach for stress- and temperature-induced martensitic phase transformations with interfacial stresses at finite strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Anup; Levitas, Valery I.

    2018-04-01

    A thermodynamically consistent, novel multiphase phase field approach for stress- and temperature-induced martensitic phase transformations at finite strains and with interfacial stresses has been developed. The model considers a single order parameter to describe the austenite↔martensitic transformations, and another N order parameters describing N variants and constrained to a plane in an N-dimensional order parameter space. In the free energy model coexistence of three or more phases at a single material point (multiphase junction), and deviation of each variant-variant transformation path from a straight line have been penalized. Some shortcomings of the existing models are resolved. Three different kinematic models (KMs) for the transformation deformation gradient tensors are assumed: (i) In KM-I the transformation deformation gradient tensor is a linear function of the Bain tensors for the variants. (ii) In KM-II the natural logarithms of the transformation deformation gradient is taken as a linear combination of the natural logarithm of the Bain tensors multiplied with the interpolation functions. (iii) In KM-III it is derived using the twinning equation from the crystallographic theory. The instability criteria for all the phase transformations have been derived for all the kinematic models, and their comparative study is presented. A large strain finite element procedure has been developed and used for studying the evolution of some complex microstructures in nanoscale samples under various loading conditions. Also, the stresses within variant-variant boundaries, the sample size effect, effect of penalizing the triple junctions, and twinned microstructures have been studied. The present approach can be extended for studying grain growth, solidifications, para↔ferro electric transformations, and diffusive phase transformations.

  13. Local strain in front of cracks in the case of creep fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rie Kyongtschong; Olfe, J.

    1993-01-01

    In-situ measurements of strain fields in front of cracks were performed for high temperature Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) with different hold times by means of a grid method. The tests were carried out on the austenitic stainless steel 304 L and the ferritic steel X22 CrMoV 12 1. Simultaneous observation of crack growth leads to a correlation between crack growth and local strain. The interaction of creep and fatigue related to strain concentration at the crackk tip and crack growth was discussed. A model is proposed which is based on the formation of cavities on grain boundaries. (orig.) [de

  14. A modified Gurson-type plasticity model at finite strains: formulation, numerical analysis and phase-field coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldakheel, Fadi; Wriggers, Peter; Miehe, Christian

    2017-12-01

    The modeling of failure in ductile materials must account for complex phenomena at the micro-scale, such as nucleation, growth and coalescence of micro-voids, as well as the final rupture at the macro-scale, as rooted in the work of Gurson (J Eng Mater Technol 99:2-15, 1977). Within a top-down viewpoint, this can be achieved by the combination of a micro-structure-informed elastic-plastic model for a porous medium with a concept for the modeling of macroscopic crack discontinuities. The modeling of macroscopic cracks can be achieved in a convenient way by recently developed continuum phase field approaches to fracture, which are based on the regularization of sharp crack discontinuities, see Miehe et al. (Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 294:486-522, 2015). This avoids the use of complex discretization methods for crack discontinuities, and can account for complex crack patterns. In this work, we develop a new theoretical and computational framework for the phase field modeling of ductile fracture in conventional elastic-plastic solids under finite strain deformation. It combines modified structures of Gurson-Tvergaard-Needelman GTN-type plasticity model outlined in Tvergaard and Needleman (Acta Metall 32:157-169, 1984) and Nahshon and Hutchinson (Eur J Mech A Solids 27:1-17, 2008) with a new evolution equation for the crack phase field. An important aspect of this work is the development of a robust Explicit-Implicit numerical integration scheme for the highly nonlinear rate equations of the enhanced GTN model, resulting with a low computational cost strategy. The performance of the formulation is underlined by means of some representative examples, including the development of the experimentally observed cup-cone failure mechanism.

  15. A Blade Tip Timing Method Based on a Microwave Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilong Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Blade tip timing is an effective method for blade vibration measurements in turbomachinery. This method is increasing in popularity because it is non-intrusive and has several advantages over the conventional strain gauge method. Different kinds of sensors have been developed for blade tip timing, including optical, eddy current and capacitance sensors. However, these sensors are unsuitable in environments with contaminants or high temperatures. Microwave sensors offer a promising potential solution to overcome these limitations. In this article, a microwave sensor-based blade tip timing measurement system is proposed. A patch antenna probe is used to transmit and receive the microwave signals. The signal model and process method is analyzed. Zero intermediate frequency structure is employed to maintain timing accuracy and dynamic performance, and the received signal can also be used to measure tip clearance. The timing method uses the rising and falling edges of the signal and an auto-gain control circuit to reduce the effect of tip clearance change. To validate the accuracy of the system, it is compared experimentally with a fiber optic tip timing system. The results show that the microwave tip timing system achieves good accuracy.

  16. Most effective way to improve the hydrogen storage abilities of Na-decorated BN sheets: applying external biaxial strain and an electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chunmei; Zhang, Xue; Zhou, Xiaofeng

    2017-02-15

    Density functional calculations were used to investigate the hydrogen storage abilities of Na-atoms-decorated BN sheets under both external biaxial strain and a vertical electric field. The Na atom generally has the weakest binding strength to a given substrate compared with the other elements in the periodic table [PANS, 2016, 113, 3735]. Consequently, it is understudied in comparison to other elements and there are few reports about the hydrogen storage abilities of Na-decorated nanomaterials. We calculated that the average binding energy (E b ) of Na atoms to the pure BN sheet is 1.08 eV, which is smaller than the cohesive energy of bulk Na (1.11 eV). However, the E b can be increased to 1.15 eV under 15% biaxial strain, and further up to 1.53 eV with the control of both 15% biaxial strain and a 5.14 V nm -1 electric field (E-field). Therefore, the application of biaxial strain and an external upward E-field can prevent clustering of the Na atoms on the surface of a BN sheet, which is crucial for the hydrogen storage. Each Na atom on the surface of a BN sheet can adsorb only one H 2 molecule when no strain or E-field is applied; however, the absorption increases to five H 2 molecules under 15% biaxial strain and six H 2 molecules under both 15% biaxial strain combined with a 5.14 V nm -1 E-field. The average adsorption energies for H 2 of BN-(Na-mH 2 ) (m = 1-6) are within the range of practical applications (0.2-0.6 eV). The hydrogen gravimetric density of the periodic BN-(Na-6H 2 ) 4 structure is 9 wt%, which exceeds the 5.5 wt% value that should be met by 2017 as specified by the US Department of Energy. On the other side, removal of the biaxial strain and E-field can help to desorb the H 2 molecule. These findings suggest a new route to design hydrogen storage materials under near-ambient conditions.

  17. AERODYNAMICS OF WING TIP SAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSHTAK AL-ATABI

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Observers have always been fascinated by soaring birds. An interesting feature of these birds is the existence of few feathers extending from the tip of the wing. In this paper, small lifting surfaces were fitted to the tip of a NACA0012 wing in a fashion similar to that of wing tip feathers. Experimental measurements of induced drag, longitudinal static stability and trailing vortex structure were obtained.The tests showed that adding wing tip surfaces (sails decreased the induced drag factor and increased the longitudinal static stability. Results identified two discrete appositely rotated tip vortices and showed the ability of wing tip surfaces to break them down and to diffuse them.

  18. Fabrication of silver tips for scanning tunneling microscope induced luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Gao, B; Chen, L G; Meng, Q S; Yang, H; Zhang, R; Tao, X; Gao, H Y; Liao, Y; Dong, Z C

    2011-08-01

    We describe a reliable fabrication procedure of silver tips for scanning tunneling microscope (STM) induced luminescence experiments. The tip was first etched electrochemically to yield a sharp cone shape using selected electrolyte solutions and then sputter cleaned in ultrahigh vacuum to remove surface oxidation. The tip status, in particular the tip induced plasmon mode and its emission intensity, can be further tuned through field emission and voltage pulse. The quality of silver tips thus fabricated not only offers atomically resolved STM imaging, but more importantly, also allows us to perform challenging "color" photon mapping with emission spectra taken at each pixel simultaneously during the STM scan under relatively small tunnel currents and relatively short exposure time.

  19. Effect of large compressive strain on low field electrical transport in La0.88Sr0.12MnO3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Ravikant; Gaur, Anurag; Siwach, P K; Varma, G D; Kaur, A; Singh, H K

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of large in-plane compressive strain on the electrical transport in La 0.88 Sr 0.12 MnO 3 in thin films. For achieving large compressive strain, films have been deposited on single crystal LaAlO 3 (LAO, a = 3.798 A) substrate from a polycrystalline bulk target having average in-plane lattice parameter a av = (a b + b b )/2 = 3.925 A. The compressive strain was further relaxed by varying the film thickness in the range ∼6-75 nm. In the film having least thickness (∼6 nm) large increase (c = 3.929 A) in the out-of-plane lattice parameter is observed which gradually decreases towards the bulk value (c bulk = 3.87 A) for ∼75 nm thick film. This shows that the film having the least thickness is under large compressive strain, which partially relaxes with increasing film thickness. The T IM of the bulk target ∼145 K goes up to ∼235 K for the ∼6 nm thin film and even for partially strain relaxed ∼75 nm thick film T IM is as high as ∼200 K. This enhancement in T IM is explained in terms of suppression of Jahn-Teller distortion of the MnO 6 octahedra by the large in-plane compressive strain. We observe a large enhancement in the low field magnetoresistance (MR) just below T IM in the films having partial strain relaxation. Thick films of 6 and 20 nm have MR ∼14% at 3 kOe that almost doubles in 35 nm film to ∼27%. Similar enhancement is also obtained in the case of the temperature coefficient of resistivity. The near doubling of low field MR is explained in terms of delocalization of weakly localized carriers around T IM by small magnetic fields

  20. On fatigue crack growth in ductile materials by crack-tip blunting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2004-01-01

    One of the basic mechanisms for fatigue crack growth in ductile metals is that depending on crack-tip blunting under tensile loads and re-sharpening of the crack-tip during unloading. In a standard numerical analysis accounting for finite strains it is not possible to follow this process during...

  1. Tips for Starting Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legislative Information Advisory & Coordinating Committees Strategic Plans & Reports Research Areas FAQs ... Starting Physical Activity Related Topics Section Navigation Tips to Help You Get Active ...

  2. Over-expression of multiple cytochrome P450 genes in fenvalerate-resistant field strains of Helicoverpa armigera from north of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Li, Dongzhi; Qin, Jianying; Zhao, Weisong; Qiu, Lihong

    2016-09-01

    Pyrethroid resistance was one of the main reasons for control failure of cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) in China. The promotion of Bt crops decreased the application of chemical insecticides in controlling H.armigera. However, the cotton bollworm still kept high levels of resistance to fenvalerate. In this study, the resistance levels of 8 field-collected strains of H. armigera from north of China to 4 insecticides, as well as the expression levels of related P450 genes were investigated. The results of bioassay indicated that the resistance levels to fenvalerate in the field strains varied from 5.4- to 114.7-fold, while the resistance levels to lambda-cyhalothrin, phoxim and methomyl were low, which were ranged from 1.5- to 5.2-, 0.2- to 1.6-, and 2.9- to 8.3- fold, respectively, compared to a susceptible strain. Synergistic experiment showed that PBO was the most effective synergist in increasing the sensitivity of H. armigera to fenvalerate, suggesting that P450 enzymes were involved in the pyrethroid resistance in the field strains. The results of quantitative RT-PCR indicated that eight P450 genes (CYP332A1, CYP4L11, CYP4L5, CYP4M6, CYP4M7, CYP6B7, CYP9A12, CYP9A14) were all significantly overexpressed in Hejian1 and Xiajin1 strains of H. armigera collected in 2013, and CYP4L5 was significantly overexpressed in all the 6 field strains collected in 2014. CYP332A1, CYP6B7 and CYP9A12 had very high overexpression levels in all the field strains, indicating their important roles in fenvalerate resistance. The results suggested that multiple P450 genes were involved in the high-level fenvalerate-resistance in different field strains of H. armigera collected from north of China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation on field method using strain measurement on pipe surface to measure pressure pulsation in piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Akira; Tsuji, Takashi; Takahashi, Tsuneo; Kato, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    Accurate evaluation of the occurrence location and amplitude of pressure pulsations in piping systems can lead to efficient plant maintenance by preventing fatigue failure of piping and components because the pulsations can be one of the main causes of vibration fatigue and acoustic noise in piping. A non-destructive field method to measure pressure pulsations easily and directly was proposed to replace conventional methods such as prediction using numerical simulations and estimation using locally installed pressure gauges. The proposed method was validated experimentally by measuring pulsating flow in a mock-up piping system. As a result, it was demonstrated that the method to combine strain measurement on the outer surface of pipe with the formula for thick-walled cylinders could measure amplitudes and behavior of the pressure pulsations with a practical accuracy. Factors affecting the measurement accuracy of the proposed method were also discussed. Furthermore, the applicability of the formula for thin-walled cylinders was examined for variously shaped pipes. (author)

  4. Brucella abortus Strain RB51 Vaccine: Immune Response after Calfhood Vaccination and Field Investigation in Italian Cattle Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Tittarelli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune response to Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine was measured in cattle vaccinated at calfhood. After an increase at day 6 post-vaccination (pv, the antibody level recorded in the 10 vaccinated animals remained constant for two months, and then progressively decreased. All vaccinated animals remained negative from day 162 pv to the end of the study (day 300 pv. Only at days 13 and 14 pv the RB51-CFT showed 100% sensitivity (credibility interval (CI 76.2%–100%. The results indicate that the possibility to use RB51-CFT for the identification of cattle vaccinated at calfhood with RB51 is limited in time. A field investigation was carried out on 26,975 sera collected on regional basis from the Italian cattle population. The study outcomes indicate that in case of RB51-CFT positive results observed in officially Brucellosis-free (OBF areas and, in any case, when an illegal use of RB51 vaccine is suspected, the use of the RB51-CFT alone is not sufficient to identify all the vaccinated animals. The design of a more sophisticated diagnostic protocol including an epidemiological investigation, the use of RB51-CFT, and the use of the skin test with RB51 as antigen is deemed more appropriate for the identification of RB51 vaccinated animals.

  5. The Tipping Points of Technology Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauno Kekäle

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The tipping point, the decisive point in time in the competition between old and new, is an interesting phenomenon in physics of today. This aspect in technology acceptance is connected to many business decisions such as technology investments, product releases, resource allocation, sales forecasts and, ultimately, affects the profitability and even survival of a company. The tipping point itself is based on many stochastic and dynamic variables, and the process may at least partly be described as path-dependent. This paper analyses the tipping point from three aspects: (1 product performance, (2 features of the market and infrastructure (including related technologies and human network externalities, and (3 actions of the incumbents (including customer lock-in, systems lock-in, and sustaining innovation. The paper is based on the Bass s-curve idea and the technology trajectory concept proposed by Dosi. Three illustrative cases are presented to make the point of the multiple factors affecting technology acceptance and, thus, the tipping point. The paper also suggests outlines for further research in field of computer simulation.

  6. Detection and differentiation of field and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus using reverse transcription followed by nested real time PCR (RT-nqPCR) and RFLP analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Cristine Dossin Bastos; Ikuta, Nilo; Canal, Cláudio Wageck; Makiejczuk, Aline; Allgayer, Mariangela da Costa; Cardoso, Cristine Hoffmeister; Lehmann, Fernanda Kieling; Fonseca, André Salvador Kazantzi; Lunge, Vagner Ricardo

    2013-12-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is the cause of a severe and highly contagious disease in dogs. Practical diagnosis of canine distemper based on clinical signs and laboratory tests are required to confirm CDV infection. The present study aimed to develop a molecular assay to detect and differentiate field and vaccine CDV strains. Reverse transcription followed by nested real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-nqPCR) was developed, which exhibited analytical specificity (all the samples from healthy dogs and other canine infectious agents were not incorrectly detected) and sensitivity (all replicates of a vaccine strain were positive up to the 3125-fold dilution - 10(0.7) TCID50). RT-nqPCR was validated for CDV detection on different clinical samples (blood, urine, rectal and conjunctival swabs) of 103 animals suspected to have distemper. A total of 53 animals were found to be positive based on RT-nqPCR in at least one clinical sample. Blood resulted in more positive samples (50 out of 53, 94.3%), followed by urine (44/53, 83.0%), rectal (38/53, 71%) and conjunctival (27/53, 50.9%) swabs. A commercial immunochromatography (IC) assay had detected CDV in only 30 conjunctival samples of these positive dogs. Nucleoprotein (NC) gene sequencing of 25 samples demonstrated that 23 of them were closer to other Brazilian field strains and the remaining two to vaccine strains. A single nucleotide sequences difference, which creates an Msp I restriction enzyme digestion, was used to differentiate between field and vaccine CDV strains by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The complete assay was more sensitive than was IC for the detection of CDV. Blood was the more frequently positive specimen and the addition of a restriction enzyme step allowed the differentiation of vaccine and Brazilian field strains. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Damage detection methodology under variable load conditions based on strain field pattern recognition using FBGs, nonlinear principal component analysis, and clustering techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Pérez, Julián; Torres-Arredondo, M.-A.; Alvarez-Montoya, Joham

    2018-01-01

    Structural health monitoring consists of using sensors integrated within structures together with algorithms to perform load monitoring, damage detection, damage location, damage size and severity, and prognosis. One possibility is to use strain sensors to infer structural integrity by comparing patterns in the strain field between the pristine and damaged conditions. In previous works, the authors have demonstrated that it is possible to detect small defects based on strain field pattern recognition by using robust machine learning techniques. They have focused on methodologies based on principal component analysis (PCA) and on the development of several unfolding and standardization techniques, which allow dealing with multiple load conditions. However, before a real implementation of this approach in engineering structures, changes in the strain field due to conditions different from damage occurrence need to be isolated. Since load conditions may vary in most engineering structures and promote significant changes in the strain field, it is necessary to implement novel techniques for uncoupling such changes from those produced by damage occurrence. A damage detection methodology based on optimal baseline selection (OBS) by means of clustering techniques is presented. The methodology includes the use of hierarchical nonlinear PCA as a nonlinear modeling technique in conjunction with Q and nonlinear-T 2 damage indices. The methodology is experimentally validated using strain measurements obtained by 32 fiber Bragg grating sensors bonded to an aluminum beam under dynamic bending loads and simultaneously submitted to variations in its pitch angle. The results demonstrated the capability of the methodology for clustering data according to 13 different load conditions (pitch angles), performing the OBS and detecting six different damages induced in a cumulative way. The proposed methodology showed a true positive rate of 100% and a false positive rate of 1.28% for a

  8. Effects of electric-field-induced piezoelectric strain on the electronic transport properties of La0.9Ce0.1MnO3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, R.K.; Dong, S.N.; Wu, Y.Q.; Zhu, Q.X.; Wang, Y.; Chan, H.L.W.; Li, X.M.; Luo, H.S.; Li, X.G.

    2012-01-01

    The authors constructed multiferroic structures by growing La 0.9 Ce 0.1 MnO 3 (LCEMO) thin films on piezoelectric 0.68Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 –0.32PbTiO 3 (PMN-PT) single-crystal substrates. Due to the efficient elastic coupling at the interface, the electric-field-induced piezoelectric strain in PMN-PT substrates is effectively transferred to LCEMO films and thus, leads to a decrease in the resistance and an increase in the magnetoresistance of the films. Particularly, it was found that the resistance-strain coefficient [(ΔR/R) film /(Δε zz ) film ] of the LCEMO film was considerably enhanced by the application of magnetic fields, demonstrating strong coupling between the lattice and the spin degrees of freedom. (ΔR/R) film /(Δε zz ) film at 122 K was enhanced by ∼ 28.8% by a magnetic field of 1.2 T. An analysis of the overall results demonstrates that the phase separation is crucial to understand strain-mediated modulation of electronic transport properties of manganite film/PMN-PT multiferroic structures. - Highlights: ► La 0.9 Ce 0.1 Mn O3 films were epitaxially grown on piezoelectric single crystals. ► Piezoelectric strain influences the electronic transport properties of films. ► Magnetic field enhances the piezoelectric strain effect. ► Phase separation is crucial to understand the piezoelectric strain effect.

  9. Field Strain Measurement on the Fiber Scale in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers Using Global Finite-Element Based Digital Image Correlation

    KAUST Repository

    Tao, Ran

    2015-01-01

    is aimed to accurately measure the displacement and strain fields at the fiber-matrix scale in a cross-ply composite. First, the theories of both local subset-based digital image correlation (DIC) and global finite-element based DIC are outlined. Second, in

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeribacillus pallidus Strain 8m3, a Thermophilic Hydrocarbon-Oxidizing Bacterium Isolated from the Dagang Oil Field (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltaraus, Andrey B; Sokolova, Diyana S; Grouzdev, Denis S; Ivanov, Timophey M; Malakho, Sophia G; Korshunova, Alena V; Rozanov, Aleksey S; Tourova, Tatiyana P; Nazina, Tamara N

    2016-06-09

    The draft genome sequence of Aeribacillus pallidus strain 8m3, a thermophilic aerobic oil-oxidizing bacterium isolated from production water from the Dagang high-temperature oil field, China, is presented here. The genome is annotated to provide insights into the genomic and phenotypic diversity of the genus Aeribacillus. Copyright © 2016 Poltaraus et al.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeribacillus pallidus Strain 8m3, a Thermophilic Hydrocarbon-Oxidizing Bacterium Isolated from the Dagang Oil Field (China)

    OpenAIRE

    Poltaraus, Andrey B.; Sokolova, Diyana S.; Grouzdev, Denis S.; Ivanov, Timophey M.; Malakho, Sophia G.; Korshunova, Alena V.; Rozanov, Aleksey S.; Tourova, Tatiyana P.; Nazina, Tamara N.

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Aeribacillus pallidus strain 8m3, a thermophilic aerobic oil-oxidizing bacterium isolated from production water from the Dagang high-temperature oil field, China, is presented here. The genome is annotated to provide insights into the genomic and phenotypic diversity of the genus Aeribacillus.

  12. Complete genome sequence of the biofilm-forming Curtobacterium sp. strain BH-2-1-1, isolated from lettuce (Lactuca sativa) originating from a conventional field in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, Merete Wiken; Brurberg, May Bente; Lysøe, Erik

    2016-12-01

    Here, we present the 3,795,952 bp complete genome sequence of the biofilm-forming Curtobacterium sp. strain BH-2-1-1, isolated from conventionally grown lettuce ( Lactuca sativa ) from a field in Vestfold, Norway. The nucleotide sequence of this genome was deposited into NCBI GenBank under the accession CP017580.

  13. Resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin in Spanish field populations of Ceratitis capitata and metabolic resistance mediated by P450 in a resistant strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arouri, Rabeh; Le Goff, Gaelle; Hemden, Hiethem; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente; M'saad, Mariem; Castañera, Pedro; Feyereisen, René; Hernández-Crespo, Pedro; Ortego, Félix

    2015-09-01

    The withdrawal of malathion in the European Union in 2009 resulted in a large increase in lambda-cyhalothrin applications for the control of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, in Spanish citrus crops. Spanish field populations of C. capitata have developed resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin (6-14-fold), achieving LC50 values (129-287 ppm) higher than the recommended concentration for field treatments (125 ppm). These results contrast with the high susceptibility to lambda-cyhalothrin found in three Tunisian field populations. We have studied the mechanism of resistance in the laboratory-selected resistant strain W-1Kλ (205-fold resistance). Bioassays with synergists showed that resistance was almost completely suppressed by the P450 inhibitor PBO. The study of the expression of 53 P450 genes belonging to the CYP4, CYP6, CYP9 and CYP12 families in C. capitata revealed that CYP6A51 was overexpressed (13-18-fold) in the resistant strain. The W-1Kλ strain also showed high levels of cross-resistance to etofenprox (240-fold) and deltamethrin (150-fold). Field-evolved resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin has been found in C. capitata. Metabolic resistance mediated by P450 appears to be the main resistance mechanism in the resistant strain W-1Kλ. The levels of cross-resistance found may compromise the effectiveness of other pyrethroids for the control of this species. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Characterization of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae strains by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko; Friis, N.F.; Ahrens, Peter

    2002-01-01

    , were investigated by analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphisms of the Bgl II and Mfe I restriction sites and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of a Bss HII digest of chromosomal DNA. Both methods allowed unambiguous differentiation of the analysed strains and showed similar discriminatory...

  15. Detection of a Bacteriophage Gene Encoding a Mu-like Portal Protein in Haemophilus parasuis Reference Strains and Field Isolates by Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    A nested PCR assay was developed to determine the presence of a gene encoding a bacteriophage Mu-like portal protein, gp29, in 15 reference strains and 31 field isolates of Haemophilus parasuis. Specific primers, based on the gene’s sequence, were utilized. A majority of the virulent reference strai...

  16. Microhardness, strength and strain field characterization of self-reacting friction stir and plug welds of dissimilar aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Karla Renee

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process with potential advantages for aerospace and automotive industries dealing with light alloys. Self-reacting friction stir welding (SR-FSW) is one variation of the FSW process being developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for use in the fabrication of propellant tanks. Friction plug welding is used to seal the exit hole that remains in a circumferential SR-FSW. This work reports on material properties and strain patterns developed in a SR-FSW with a friction plug weld. Specifically, this study examines the behavior of a SR-FSW formed between an AA2014-T6 plate on the advancing side and an AA2219-T87 plate on the retreating side and a SR-FSW (AA2014-T6 to AA2219-T87) with a 2219-T87 plug weld. This study presents the results of a characterization of the micro-hardness, joint strength, and strain field characterization of SR-FSW and FPW joints tested at room temperature and cryogenic temperatures. The initial weld microstructure analysis showed a nugget region with fine grains and a displaced weld seam from the advancing side past the thermo-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ) into the nugget region. The displaced material shared the same hardness as the parent material. Dynamic recrystallization was observed in the SR-FSW zone and the displaced weld seam region. The welds revealed a fine grain structure in the SR-FSW zone with a sharp demarcation seen on the advancing side and fairly diffuse flow observed on the retreating side. The parent material hardness is 145 HV700g with a drop in hardness starting at the HAZ to 130 HV700g. The hardness further drops in the TMAZ to118 HV700g with an increase representing a dispersed interface of AA2014-T6 material to 135 HV700g. The hardness then drops significantly within the nugget region to 85 HV700g followed by an increase through the retreating side TMAZ into the HAZ to 135 HV 700g. There was a sharp increase in the hardness value within

  17. New Technique for Fabrication of Scanning Single-Electron Transistor Microscopy Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Eric; Tessmer, Stuart

    Fabrication of glass tips for Scanning Single-Electron Transistor Microscopy (SSETM) can be expensive, time consuming, and inconsistent. Various techniques have been tried, with varying levels of success in regards to cost and reproducibility. The main requirement for SSETM tips is to have a sharp tip ending in a micron-scale flat face to allow for deposition of a quantum dot. Drawing inspiration from methods used to create tips from optical fibers for Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopes, our group has come up with a quick and cost effective process for creating SSETM tips. By utilizing hydrofluoric acid to etch the tips and oleic acid to guide the etch profile, optical fiber tips with appropriate shaping can be rapidly prepared. Once etched, electric leads are thermally evaporated onto each side of the tip, while an aluminum quantum dot is evaporated onto the face. Preliminary results using various metals, oxide layers, and lead thicknesses have proven promising.

  18. Converse piezoelectric strain in undoped and Fe-doped AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field effect transistors studied by Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarua, A; Ji, Hangfeng; Pomeroy, J W; Kuball, M; Uren, M J; Martin, T

    2010-01-01

    Converse piezoelectric strain in undoped and Fe-doped AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field effect transistors (HFETs), i.e. the strain induced by applying bias to a transistor, was studied using micro-Raman scattering spectroscopy as a function of applied source–drain voltage for different GaN buffer doping levels and substrate types. By monitoring the phonon frequency shifts and line width of the E 2 and A 1 (LO) phonon modes of GaN, a considerable piezoelectric strain/stress was found in undoped devices, which exhibited a saturation above 40 V bias. This saturation voltage was used to quantify the deep acceptor concentration in the GaN buffer layer. Using experimental Raman data and numerical modelling of the electric field distribution in the device, it was furthermore established that Fe doping causes confinement of the strain/stress to the vicinity of the AlGaN/GaN interface, i.e. near the electron channel, with potential implications for device reliability. It was concluded that varying the structure and doping in the buffer layer has the potential to modify the converse piezoelectric strain and hence affect reliability issues in AlGaN/GaN HFETs

  19. Application of computer assisted moire to the study of a crack tip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, C. A.; Albertazzi, A., Jr.; Mourikes, J.

    The basic principles of computer assisted moire are discussed. The influence of the image sensor and its finite dimensions on the sampling theorem requirements is discussed. Criteria for the selection of grating pitch on the basis of the spatial bandwidth of the pattern to be observed and the requirements arising from sensitivity considerations are given. The method is used to analyze the strain field in the neighborhood of the crack tip of a standard ASTM compact tension specimen. From the displacements the strains are computed, and from the strains the stresses are obtained using the generalized Ramberg-Osgood stress strain relationship. The stresses are used to compute the values for the J-integral in several circuits surrounding the crack. Good agreement is obtained between the values of the stress intensity factors obtained by different methods. The plastic region surrounding the crack does not show a HRR field and thus the usual rationale to justify the J-integral methods must be re-evaluated.

  20. Genome Sequences of Two Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato Race 1 Strains, Isolated from Tomato Fields in California

    OpenAIRE

    Thapa, Shree P.; Coaker, Gitta

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato race 1 strains have evolved to overcome genetic resistance in tomato. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of two race 1 P.?syringae pv. tomato strains, A9 and 407, isolated from diseased tomato plants in California.

  1. Variation in susceptibility of laboratory and field strains of three stored-grain insect species to beta-cyfluthrin and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin applied to concrete surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of beta-cyfluthrin and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin applied to clean, concrete floors of empty bins prior to grain storage against field strains of stored-grain insects is unknown. We exposed adults of 16 strains of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst); 8 strains ...

  2. Symmetry analysis of strain, electric and magnetic fields in the Bi2Se3-class of topological insulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brems, Mathias Rosdahl; Paaske, Jens; Lunde, Anders Mathias

    2018-01-01

    velocity. The spin-momentum locking of strained Bi2Se3 is shown to be modified. Hence, strain control can be used to manipulate the spin degree of freedom via the spin–orbit coupling. We show that for a thin film of Bi2Se3 the SS band gap induced by coupling between the opposite surfaces changes opposite...... to the bulk band gap under strain. Tuning the SS band gap by strain, gives new possibilities for the experimental investigation of the thickness dependent gap and optimization of optical properties relevant for, e.g., photodetector and energy harvesting applications. We finally derive analytical expressions...... analytically the effects of strain on the electronic structure of Bi2Se3. For the most experimentally relevant surface termination we analytically derive the surface state (SS) spectrum, revealing an anisotropic Dirac cone with elliptical constant energy contours giving rise to a direction-dependent group...

  3. Tips for Good Electronic Presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Dennis

    1996-01-01

    Describes library uses of presentation graphics software and offers tips for creating electronic presentations. Tips include: audience retention; visual aid options; software package options; presentation planning; presentation showing; and use of text, colors, and graphics. Sidebars note common presentation errors and popular presentation…

  4. Effects of ambient temperature and early open-field response on the behaviour, feed intake and growth of fast- and slow-growing broiler strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, B L

    2012-09-01

    Increased activity improves broiler leg health, but also increases the heat production of the bird. This experiment investigated the effects of early open-field activity and ambient temperature on the growth and feed intake of two strains of broiler chickens. On the basis of the level of activity in an open-field test on day 3 after hatching, fast-growing Ross 208 and slow-growing i657 chickens were allocated on day 13 to one of the 48 groups. Each group included either six active or six passive birds from each strain and the groups were housed in floor-pens littered with wood chips and fitted with two heat lamps. Each group was fed ad libitum and subjected to one of the three temperature treatments: two (HH; 26°C), one (HC; 16°C to 26°C) or no (CC; 16°C) heat lamps turned on. Production and behavioural data were collected every 2 weeks until day 57. For both strains, early open-field activity had no significant effects on their subsequent behaviour or on any of the production parameters measured, and overall, the slow-growing strain was more active than the fast-growing strain. Ambient temperature had significant effects on production measures for i657 broilers, with CC chickens eating and weighing more, and with a less efficient feed conversion than HH chickens, with HC birds intermediate. A similar effect was found for Ross 208 only for feed intake from 27 to 41 days of age. Ross 208 chickens distributed themselves in the pen with a preference for cooler areas in the hottest ambient temperature treatments. In contrast, the behaviour of the slow-growing strain appeared to be relatively unaffected by the ambient temperature. In conclusion, fast-growing broilers use behavioural changes when trying to adapt to warm environments, whereas slow-growing broilers use metabolic changes to adapt to cooler ambient temperatures.

  5. A numerical study of non-linear crack tip parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.V. Antunes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Crack closure concept has been widely used to explain different issues of fatigue crack propagation. However, different authors have questioned the relevance of crack closure and have proposed alternative concepts. The main objective here is to check the effectiveness of crack closure concept by linking the contact of crack flanks with non-linear crack tip parameters. Accordingly, 3D-FE numerical models with and without contact were developed for a wide range of loading scenarios and the crack tip parameters usually linked to fatigue crack growth, namely range of cyclic plastic strain, crack tip opening displacement, size of reversed plastic zone and total plastic dissipation per cycle, were investigated. It was demonstrated that: i LEFM concepts are applicable to the problem under study; ii the crack closure phenomenon has a great influence on crack tip parameters decreasing their values; iii the Keff concept is able to explain the variations of crack tip parameters produced by the contact of crack flanks; iv the analysis of remote compliance is the best numerical parameter to quantify the crack opening level; v without contact there is no effect of stress ratio on crack tip parameters. Therefore it is proved that the crack closure concept is valid.

  6. 100 MHz high-speed strain monitor using fiber Bragg grating and optical filter applied for magnetostriction measurements of cobaltite at magnetic fields beyond 100 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Akihiko; Nomura, Toshihiro; Matsuda, Yasuhiro H.; Tani, Shuntaro; Kobayashi, Yohei; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Sato, Keisuke

    2018-05-01

    High-speed 100 MHz strain monitor using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and an optical filter has been devised for the magnetostriction measurements under ultrahigh magnetic fields. The longitudinal magnetostriction of LaCoO 3 has been measured at room temperature, 115, 7 and 4.2 K up to the maximum magnetic field of 150 T. The field-induced lattice elongations are observed, which are attributed to the spin-state crossover from the low-spin ground state to excited spin-states.

  7. Regular Scanning Tunneling Microscope Tips can be Intrinsically Chiral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tierney, Heather L.; Murphy, Colin J.; Sykes, E. Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    We report our discovery that regular scanning tunneling microscope tips can themselves be chiral. This chirality leads to differences in electron tunneling efficiencies through left- and right-handed molecules, and, when using the tip to electrically excite molecular rotation, large differences in rotation rate were observed which correlated with molecular chirality. As scanning tunneling microscopy is a widely used technique, this result may have unforeseen consequences for the measurement of asymmetric surface phenomena in a variety of important fields.

  8. Regular scanning tunneling microscope tips can be intrinsically chiral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Heather L; Murphy, Colin J; Sykes, E Charles H

    2011-01-07

    We report our discovery that regular scanning tunneling microscope tips can themselves be chiral. This chirality leads to differences in electron tunneling efficiencies through left- and right-handed molecules, and, when using the tip to electrically excite molecular rotation, large differences in rotation rate were observed which correlated with molecular chirality. As scanning tunneling microscopy is a widely used technique, this result may have unforeseen consequences for the measurement of asymmetric surface phenomena in a variety of important fields.

  9. Tipping the scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    In the US, the October 1998 murder of a physician who performed abortions was an outward manifestation of the insidious battle against legal abortion being waged by radical Christian social conservatives seeking to transform the US democracy into a theocracy. This movement has been documented in a publication entitled, "Tipping the Scales: The Christian Right's Legal Crusade Against Choice" produced as a result of a 4-year investigation conducted by The Center for Reproductive Law and Policy. This publication describes how these fundamentalists have used sophisticated legal, lobbying, and communication strategies to further their goals of challenging the separation of church and state, opposing family planning and sexuality education that is not based solely on abstinence, promoting school prayer, and restricting homosexual rights. The movement has resulted in the introduction of more than 300 anti-abortion bills in states, 50 of which have passed in 23 states. Most Christian fundamentalist groups provide free legal representation to abortion clinic terrorists, and some groups solicit women to bring specious malpractice claims against providers. Sophisticated legal tactics are used by these groups to remove the taint of extremism and mask the danger posed to US constitutional principles being posed by "a well-financed and zealous brand of radical lawyers and their supporters."

  10. Full-field mapping of internal strain distribution in red sandstone specimen under compression using digital volumetric speckle photography and X-ray computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingtao Mao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is always desirable to know the interior deformation pattern when a rock is subjected to mechanical load. Few experimental techniques exist that can represent full-field three-dimensional (3D strain distribution inside a rock specimen. And yet it is crucial that this information is available for fully understanding the failure mechanism of rocks or other geomaterials. In this study, by using the newly developed digital volumetric speckle photography (DVSP technique in conjunction with X-ray computed tomography (CT and taking advantage of natural 3D speckles formed inside the rock due to material impurities and voids, we can probe the interior of a rock to map its deformation pattern under load and shed light on its failure mechanism. We apply this technique to the analysis of a red sandstone specimen under increasing uniaxial compressive load applied incrementally. The full-field 3D displacement fields are obtained in the specimen as a function of the load, from which both the volumetric and the deviatoric strain fields are calculated. Strain localization zones which lead to the eventual failure of the rock are identified. The results indicate that both shear and tension are contributing factors to the failure mechanism.

  11. Spin- and valley-dependent electronic band structure and electronic heat capacity of ferromagnetic silicene in the presence of strain, exchange field and Rashba spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoi, Bui Dinh; Yarmohammadi, Mohsen; Kazzaz, Houshang Araghi

    2017-10-01

    We studied how the strain, induced exchange field and extrinsic Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) enhance the electronic band structure (EBS) and electronic heat capacity (EHC) of ferromagnetic silicene in presence of external electric field (EF) by using the Kane-Mele Hamiltonian, Dirac cone approximation and the Green's function approach. Particular attention is paid to investigate the EHC of spin-up and spin-down bands at Dirac K and K‧ points. We have varied the EF, strain, exchange field and RSOC to tune the energy of inter-band transitions and consequently EHC, leading to very promising features for future applications. Evaluation of EF exhibits three phases: Topological insulator (TI), valley-spin polarized metal (VSPM) and band insulator (BI) at given aforementioned parameters. As a new finding, we have found a quantum anomalous Hall phase in BI regime at strong RSOCs. Interestingly, the effective mass of carriers changes with strain, resulting in EHC behaviors. Here, exchange field has the same behavior with EF. Finally, we have confirmed the reported and expected symmetry results for both Dirac points and spins with the study of valley-dependent EHC.

  12. Strain energy density-distance criterion for the initiation of stress corrosion cracking of alloy X-750

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, M.M. Jr.; Symons, D.M.

    1996-05-01

    A strain energy density-distance criterion was previously developed and used to correlate rising-load K{sub c} initiation data for notched and fatigue precracked specimens of hydrogen precharged Alloy X-750. This criterion, which was developed for hydrogen embrittlement (HE) cracking, is used here to correlate static-load stress corrosion cracking (SCC) initiation times obtained for smooth geometry, notched and fatigue precracked specimens. The onset of SCC crack growth is hypothesized to occur when a critical strain, which is due to environment-enhanced creep, is attained within the specimen interior. For notched and precracked specimens, initiation is shown by analysis to occur at a variable distance from notch and crack tips. The initiation site varies from very near the crack tip, for highly loaded sharp cracks, to a site that is one grain diameter from the notch, for lower loaded, blunt notches. The existence of hydrogen gradients, which are due to strain-induced hydrogen trapping in the strain fields of notch and crack tips, is argued to be controlling the site for initiation of cracking. By considering the sources of the hydrogen, these observations are shown to be consistent with those from the previous HE study, in which the characteristic distance for crack initiation was found to be one grain diameter from the notch tip, independent of notch radius, applied stress intensity factor and hydrogen level.

  13. Effect of axial strain on the critical current of Ag-sheathed Bi-based superconductors in magnetic fields up to 25 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekin, J.W.; Finnemore, D.K.; Li, Q.; Tenbrink, J.; Carter, W.

    1992-01-01

    The irreversible strain limit ε irrev for the onset of permanent axial strain damage to Ag-sheathed Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 1 Cu 2 O 8+x and Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10+x superconductors has been measured to be in the range of 0.2%--0.35%. This strain damage onset is about an order of magnitude higher than for bulk sintered Y-, Bi-, or Tl-based superconductors and is approaching practical values for magnet design. The measurements show that the value of ε irrev is not dependent on magnetic field, nor does the critical current depend on strain below ε irrev at least up to 25 T at 4.2 K. Both of these factors indicate that the observed strain effect in Ag-sheathed Bi-based superconductors is not intrinsic to the superconductor material. Rather, the effect is extrinsic and arises from superconductor fracture. Thus, the damage onset is amenable to further enhancement. Indeed, the data suggest that subdividing the superconductor into fine filaments or adding Ag to the superconductor powder prior to processing significantly enhances the damage threshold ε irrev to above 0.6%

  14. Micro-scale measurements of plastic strain field, and local contributions of slip and twinning in TWIP steels during in situ tensile tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, H.K. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Laboratoire de Mécanique des Solides, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS UMR7649, Université Paris-Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Doquet, V., E-mail: doquet@lms.polytechnique.fr [Laboratoire de Mécanique des Solides, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS UMR7649, Université Paris-Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Zhang, Z.F. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2016-08-30

    In-situ tensile tests were carried out on Fe22Mn0.6C and Fe22Mn0.6C3Al (wt%) twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steels specimens covered with gold micro-grids. High resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were periodically captured. The latter were used for measurements of the plastic strain field, using digital image correlation (DIC). Although no meso-scale localization bands appeared, some areas were deformed three times more than average. Plastic deformation inside the grains was more heterogeneous in Fe22Mn0.6C, but at meso-scale, the degree of strain heterogeneity was not higher, at least up to 12% strain. Plastic deformation started from grain boundaries or annealing twin boundaries in both materials, due to a high elastic anisotropy of the grains. An original method based on DIC was developed to estimate the twin fraction in grains that exhibit a single set of slip/twin bands. Deformation twinning accommodated 60–80% of the plastic strain in some favorably oriented grains, from the onset of plastic flow in Fe22Mn0.6C, but was not observed in the Al-bearing steel until 12% strain. The back stress was important in both materials, but significantly higher in Fe22Mn0.6C.

  15. Micro-scale measurements of plastic strain field, and local contributions of slip and twinning in TWIP steels during in situ tensile tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, H.K.; Doquet, V.; Zhang, Z.F.

    2016-01-01

    In-situ tensile tests were carried out on Fe22Mn0.6C and Fe22Mn0.6C3Al (wt%) twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steels specimens covered with gold micro-grids. High resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were periodically captured. The latter were used for measurements of the plastic strain field, using digital image correlation (DIC). Although no meso-scale localization bands appeared, some areas were deformed three times more than average. Plastic deformation inside the grains was more heterogeneous in Fe22Mn0.6C, but at meso-scale, the degree of strain heterogeneity was not higher, at least up to 12% strain. Plastic deformation started from grain boundaries or annealing twin boundaries in both materials, due to a high elastic anisotropy of the grains. An original method based on DIC was developed to estimate the twin fraction in grains that exhibit a single set of slip/twin bands. Deformation twinning accommodated 60–80% of the plastic strain in some favorably oriented grains, from the onset of plastic flow in Fe22Mn0.6C, but was not observed in the Al-bearing steel until 12% strain. The back stress was important in both materials, but significantly higher in Fe22Mn0.6C.

  16. Investigation of Turbulent Tip Leakage Vortex in an Axial Water Jet Pump with Large Eddy Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hah, Chunill; Katz, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Detailed steady and unsteady numerical studies were performed to investigate tip clearance flow in an axial water jet pump. The primary objective is to understand physics of unsteady tip clearance flow, unsteady tip leakage vortex, and cavitation inception in an axial water jet pump. Steady pressure field and resulting steady tip leakage vortex from a steady flow analysis do not seem to explain measured cavitation inception correctly. The measured flow field near the tip is unsteady and measured cavitation inception is highly transient. Flow visualization with cavitation bubbles shows that the leakage vortex is oscillating significantly and many intermittent vortex ropes are present between the suction side of the blade and the tip leakage core vortex. Although the flow field is highly transient, the overall flow structure is stable and a characteristic frequency seems to exist. To capture relevant flow physics as much as possible, a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) calculation and a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) were applied for the current investigation. The present study reveals that several vortices from the tip leakage vortex system cross the tip gap of the adjacent blade periodically. Sudden changes in local pressure field inside tip gap due to these vortices create vortex ropes. The instantaneous pressure filed inside the tip gap is drastically different from that of the steady flow simulation. Unsteady flow simulation which can calculate unsteady vortex motion is necessary to calculate cavitation inception accurately even at design flow condition in such a water jet pump.

  17. Effect of geometry, material and pressure variability on strain and stress fields in dented pipelines under static and cyclic pressure loading using probability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Muslim, Husain Mohammed; Arif, Abul Fazal M. [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-07-01

    Mechanical damage in transportation pipelines is an issue of extreme importance to pipeline operators and many others. Appropriate procedures for severity assessment are necessary. This paper mainly studies the effect of geometry, material and pressure variability on strain and stress fields in dented pipelines subjected to static and cyclic pressure. Finite element analysis (FEA) has often been used to overcome the limitations of a full-scale test, but it is still impossible to run FEA for all possible combinations of parameters. Probabilistic analysis offers an excellent alternative method to determine the sensitivity of the strain and stress fields to each of those input parameters. A hundred cases were randomly generated with Monte Carlo simulations and analyzed, a general formula was proposed to relate the output variables in terms of practically measured variables, and regression analysis was performed to confirm the appropriateness of the general formula.

  18. Complete genome sequence of the biofilm-forming Microbacterium sp. strain BH-3-3-3, isolated from conventional field-grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, Merete Wiken; Brurberg, May Bente; Lysøe, Erik

    2017-03-01

    The genus Microbacterium contains bacteria that are ubiquitously distributed in various environments and includes plant-associated bacteria that are able to colonize tissue of agricultural crop plants. Here, we report the 3,508,491 bp complete genome sequence of Microbacterium sp. strain BH-3-3-3, isolated from conventionally grown lettuce ( Lactuca sativa ) from a field in Vestfold, Norway. The nucleotide sequence of this genome was deposited into NCBI GenBank under the accession CP017674.

  19. Diffraction-amalgamated grain boundary tracking for mapping 3D crystallographic orientation and strain fields during plastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, Hiroyuki; Kamiko, Takanobu; Tanabe, Yasuto; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Leclere, D.J.; Uesugi, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Hirayama, Kyosuke

    2016-01-01

    By amalgamating the X-ray diffraction technique with the grain boundary tracking technique, a novel method, diffraction-amalgamated grain boundary tracking (DAGT), has been developed. DAGT is a non-destructive in-situ analysis technique for characterising bulk materials, which can be applied up to near the point of fracture. It provides information about local crystal orientations and detailed grain morphologies in three dimensions, together with high-density strain mapping inside grains. As it obtains the grain morphologies by utilising X-ray imaging instead of X-ray diffraction, which latter is typically vulnerable to plastic deformation, DAGT is a fairly robust technique for analysing plastically deforming materials. Texture evolution and localised deformation behaviours have here been successfully characterised in Al–Cu alloys, during tensile deformation of 27% in applied strain. The characteristic rotation behaviours of grains were identified, and attributed to the effects of interaction with adjacent grains on the basis of the 3D local orientation and plastic strain distributions. It has also been revealed that 3D strain distribution in grains is highly heterogeneous, which is not explained by known mechanisms such as simple incompatibility with adjacent grains or strain percolation through soft grains. It has been clarified that groups consisting of a few adjacent grains may deform coordinately, especially in shear and lateral deformation, and the characteristic deformation pattern is thereby formed on a mesoscopic scale.

  20. Attenuation of the goose parvovirus strain B. Laboratory and field trials of the attenuated mutant for vaccination against Derzsy's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisary, J; Derzsy, D; Meszaros, J

    1978-07-01

    Serial transfer of the goose parvovirus strain B, causal agent of Derzsy's gosling disease, in cultured goose-embryo fibroblast (GEF) resulted in a mutant (designated as Bav) apathogenic for both goose embryos and susceptible goslings. Goose embryos inoculated with the 38th or higher passages of strain B survived the infection, although the virus replicated in their organs. Susceptible goslings survived challenge with the Bav strain without showing symptoms, and developed normally. Only 4.2% of gosling progeny of parents vaccinated twice with strain Bav died after challenge with the virulent strain B goose parvovirus compared with 95% of gosling progeny of unvaccinated parents. Progeny of vaccinated and unvaccinated geese were placed on a farm on which Derzsy's disease was present. During the first month of life mortality was 7.7% in the progeny of vaccinated geese compared with 59.8% in the progeny of the unvaccinated geese. At 8 weeks of age the mean weight of the vaccinated goslings was 20% greater than for the unvaccinated goslings. These results indicate that the attenuated apathogenic Bav mutant is suitable for the immunisation of layers to protect their progeny by passive immunisation against Derzsy's disease.

  1. Identification of the Rdl mutation in laboratory and field strains of the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Chris; Schroeder, Iris; Turberg, Andreas; Field, Linda M; Williamson, Martin S

    2004-12-01

    In many insect species, resistance to cyclodiene insecticides is caused by amino acid substitutions at a single residue (A302) within the M2 transmembrane region of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor sub-unit termed Rdl (resistance to dieldrin). These mutations (A302S and A302G) have also been shown to confer varying levels of cross-resistance to fipronil, a phenylpyrazole insecticide with a similar mode of action to cyclodienes. To investigate the possible occurrence of these mutations in the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché), a 176-bp fragment of the cat flea Rdl gene, encompassing the mutation site, was PCR amplified and sequenced from nine laboratory flea strains. The A302S mutation was found in eight of the nine strains analysed, although the relative frequency of the mutant allele varied between strains. Only one strain (R6) was found to be homozygous for the S302 allele in all the individuals tested, and this correlated with previous reports of low-level fipronil resistance in this strain. A PCR-based diagnostic assay, capable of screening individual fleas for this mutation, was developed and used to survey a range of fleas collected at random from veterinary clinics in the UK and USA. The A302S mutation was present at a high frequency in these domestic pet populations. 2004 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... echoes from the tissues in the body. The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and ... bleeding resistant to traditional medical treatments. The greatest difference in performing TIPS in children is their tremendous ...

  3. Fitness: Tips for Staying Motivated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Fitness is for life. Motivate yourself with these practical tips. By Mayo Clinic Staff Have ... 27, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/fitness/in-depth/fitness/art-20047624 . Mayo Clinic ...

  4. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... deeply you are sedated. When the needle is advanced through the liver and the pathway is expanded ... are the limitations of TIPS? Patients with more advanced liver disease are at greater risk for worsening ...

  5. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... to determine the severity of the condition. To help plan for the placement of the TIPS stent, ... Radiological Society of North America, Inc. (RSNA). To help ensure current and accurate information, we do not ...

  6. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... avoiding the liver. TIPS may successfully reduce internal bleeding in the stomach and esophagus in patients with ... stomach, lower esophagus, and intestines, causing enlarged vessels, bleeding and the accumulation of fluid in the chest ...

  7. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... in the chest or abdomen. This condition is most commonly seen in adults, often as a result ... minimally invasive procedures such as a TIPS are most often performed by a specially trained interventional radiologist ...

  8. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... open. Patients who typically need a TIPS have portal hypertension , meaning they have increased pressure in the portal ... problems leading to cirrhosis (scarring of the liver). Portal hypertension can also occur in children, although children are ...

  9. Energy Savers: Cool Summer Tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.

    2001-01-01

    A tri-fold brochure addressing energy-saving tips for homeowners ranging from low- or no-cost suggestions to higher cost suggestions for longer-term savings. Cooling, windows, weatherizing, and landscaping are addressed

  10. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... complex and lengthy procedures requiring extended fluoroscopy use) death (rare) top of page What are the limitations ... filtered out by the liver. The TIPS may cause too much of these substances to bypass the ...

  11. Girlfriends' Health and Safety Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Women? Women's Safety and Health Issues at Work Health Equity Girlfriends' Health and Safety Tips Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Having friends is an important part of life. Celebrate female friendship and support your girlfriends by ...

  12. Search Tips: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/searchtips.html Search Tips To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. How do I search MedlinePlus? The search box appears at the top ...

  13. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... you are pregnant and discuss any recent illnesses, medical conditions, allergies and medications you’re taking. You ... with ascites or variceal bleeding resistant to traditional medical treatments. The greatest difference in performing TIPS in ...

  14. Computerized automatic tip scanning operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, K.; Fukushima, T.; Nakai, H.; Yanagisawa, A.

    1984-01-01

    In BWR nuclear power stations the Traversing Incore Probe (TIP) system is one of the most important components in reactor monitoring and control. In previous TIP systems, however, operators have suffered from the complexity of operation and long operation time required. The system presented in this paper realizes the automatic operation of the TIP system by monitoring and driving it with a process computer. This system significantly reduces the burden on customer operators and improves plant efficiency by simplifying the operating procedure, augmenting the accuracy of the measured data, and shortening operating time. The process computer is one of the PODIA (Plant Operation by Displayed Information Automation) systems. This computer transfers control signals to the TIP control panel, which in turn drives equipment by microprocessor control. The process computer contains such components as the CRT/KB unit, the printer plotter, the hard copier, and the message typers required for efficient man-machine communications. Its operation and interface properties are described

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    Full Text Available ... the TIPS. top of page Additional Information and Resources Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR) - Patient Center This ... To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ACR- ...

  16. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... pressure. top of page How does the procedure work? A TIPS reroutes blood flow in the liver ... risk of infection. The chance of infection requiring antibiotic treatment appears to be less than one in ...

  17. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... surgery. Your TIPS should have less of an effect than open surgical bypass on future liver transplantation ... Encephalopathy can be treated with certain medications, a special diet or, by revising the stent, but sometimes ...

  18. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... risk of infection. The chance of infection requiring antibiotic treatment appears to be less than one in ... limitations of TIPS? Patients with more advanced liver disease are at greater risk for worsening liver failure ...

  19. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... is completed. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits A TIPS is designed to produce the same ... risk of infection. The chance of infection requiring antibiotic treatment appears to be less than one in ...

  20. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... hepatic vein to identify the portal venous system. Access is then gained from the hepatic vein into ... TIPS procedure to make sure that it remains open and functions properly. top of page Who interprets ...

  1. Tips to Prevent Mosquito Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discourage mosquitoes, ticks and other biting insects from landing on you. Here are tips for other preventive ... CDC Mosquito Control Methods - NPIC Exit Top of Page Contact Us to ask a question, provide feedback, ...

  2. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... while avoiding the liver. TIPS may successfully reduce internal bleeding in the stomach and esophagus in patients ... site. Using ultrasound, the doctor will identify your internal jugular vein , which is situated above your collarbone, ...

  3. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... and medical diseases. This can result in significant challenges in creating the TIPS. top of page Additional ... Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your physician with specific medical questions ...

  4. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... the TIPS. top of page Additional Information and Resources Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR) - Patient Center This ... here Images × Image Gallery Radiologist and patient consultation. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging ...

  5. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams Contrast Materials Venography Images related to Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS) Sponsored ...

  6. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery Radiologist and patient consultation. View full size ... X-Ray and CT Exams Contrast Materials Venography Images related to Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS) Sponsored ...

  7. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... pressure. top of page How does the procedure work? A TIPS reroutes blood flow in the liver ... observed. This procedure is usually completed in an hour or two but may take up to several ...

  8. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... the portal system using a TIPS needle (a special long needle extending from the neck into the ... Encephalopathy can be treated with certain medications, a special diet or, by revising the stent, but sometimes ...

  9. (Allium cepa) root tip mitosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    their chemical composition and genotoxic effects on cell reproduction. Two petrochemicals, air ... the chromosomes of the individual cells of the root tip could be a pointer to their ..... Chromosome technique: Theory and. Practice. Butterworths ...

  10. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)? What are some common uses of the procedure? How should I prepare? What does the equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will I ...

  11. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... in creating the TIPS. top of page Additional Information and Resources Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR) - Patient ... Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? Yes No Please type ...

  12. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... pressure. top of page How does the procedure work? A TIPS reroutes blood flow in the liver ... of bleeding that can occur can sometimes be life threatening and those patients are monitored in intensive ...

  13. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... blood draining from the bowel back to the heart while avoiding the liver. TIPS may successfully reduce ... blood away from the liver back to the heart). A stent is then placed in this tunnel ...

  14. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... portal vein to the hepatic vein in the liver. A small metal device called a stent is ... bowel back to the heart while avoiding the liver. TIPS may successfully reduce internal bleeding in the ...

  15. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... pressure. top of page How does the procedure work? A TIPS reroutes blood flow in the liver ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose ...

  16. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... the liver. A small metal device called a stent is placed to keep the connection open and ... a small, tubular metal device commonly called a stent . During a TIPS procedure, interventional radiologists use image ...

  17. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... who typically need a TIPS have portal hypertension , meaning they have increased pressure in the portal vein ... the local anesthetic is injected. Most of the sensation is at the skin incision site, which is ...

  18. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... pressure. top of page How does the procedure work? A TIPS reroutes blood flow in the liver ... physician will numb an area just above your right collarbone with a local anesthetic . A very small ...

  19. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits A TIPS is designed to produce the ... skin that does not have to be stitched. Risks Any procedure where the skin is penetrated carries ...

  20. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... Patients who typically need a TIPS have portal hypertension , meaning they have increased pressure in the portal ... leading to cirrhosis (scarring of the liver). Portal hypertension can also occur in children, although children are ...

  1. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... pressure. top of page How does the procedure work? A TIPS reroutes blood flow in the liver ... above your collarbone, and guide a catheter, a long, thin, hollow plastic tube into the vessel. Using ...

  2. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... This can result in significant challenges in creating the TIPS. top of page Additional Information and Resources Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR) - Patient Center This page ...

  3. Tip model of cold fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goennenwein, F.; Boersig, B.

    1991-01-01

    Cold fission is defined to be the limiting case of nuclear fission where virtually all of the available energy is converted into the total kinetic energy of the fragments. The fragments have, therefore, to be born in or at least close to their respective ground states. Starting from the viewpoint that cold fission corresponds to most compact scission configurations, energy constraints have been exploited to calculate minimum tip distances between the two nascent fragments in binary fission. Crucial input parameters to this tip model of cold fission are the ground-state deformations of fragment nuclei. It is shown that the minimum tip distances being compatible with energy conservation vary strongly with both the mass and charge fragmentation of the fission prone nucleus. The tip distances refer to nuclei with equivalent sharp surfaces. In keeping with the size of the surface width of leptodermous nuclei, only configurations where the tip distances are smaller than a few fm may be considered as valid scission configurations. From a comparison with experimental data on cold fission this critical tip distance appears to be 3.0 fm for the model parameters chosen. Whenever the model calculation yields tip distances being smaller than the critical value, a necessary condition for attaining cold fission is considered to be fulfilled. It is shown that this criterion allows to understand in fair agreement with experiment which mass fragmentations are susceptible to lead to cold fission and which fragment-charge divisions are the most favored in each isobaric mass chain. Being based merely on energy arguments, the model cannot aim at predicting fragment yields in cold fission. However, the tip model proposed appears well suited to delineate the phase space where cold fission phenomena may come into sight. (orig.)

  4. Effects of ambient temperature and early open-field response on the behaviour, feed intake and growth of fast- and slow-growing broiler strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    2012-01-01

    Increased activity improves broiler leg health, but also increases the heat production of the bird. This experiment investigated the effects of early open-field activity and ambient temperature on the growth and feed intake of two strains of broiler chickens. On the basis of the level of activity...... in an open-field test on day 3 after hatching, fast-growing Ross 208 and slow-growing i657 chickens were allocated on day 13 to one of the 48 groups. Each group included either six active or six passive birds from each strain and the groups were housed in floor-pens littered with wood chips and fitted...... with two heat lamps. Each group was fed ad libitum and subjected to one of the three temperature treatments: two (HH; 268C), one (HC; 168C to 268C) or no (CC; 168C) heat lamps turned on. Production and behavioural data were collected every 2 weeks until day 57. For both strains, early open-field activity...

  5. Angle-tip Fiber Probe as Humidity Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabitra NATH

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I present a simple fiber optic relative humidity sensor (FORHS using an angled-tip multimode optical fiber. The sensing region is fabricated by coating moisture sensitive Cobalt Chloride (CoCl2 doped polyvinyl alcohol (PVA film on the surface of fiber optic tip. Light signal introducing from flat-end of the fiber is back-reflected at the fiber tip-air interface by the effect of total internal refection. The change of relative humidity (RH in the outstanding medium affects of evanescent field absorption at the fiber tip-sensing film interface thus, modulates the back-reflected signal. With the present sensing investigation, RH ranging from 5 % to 95 % can be measured with high degree of repeatability and has a fast response time of about 2 seconds.

  6. Capripox disease in Ethiopia: Genetic differences between field isolates and vaccine strain, and implications for vaccination failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelaye, E.; Belay, A.; Melesse, A.G.; Jenberie, S.; Yami, M.; Loitsch, A.; Tuppurainen, E.; Grabherr, R.; Diallo, A.; Lamien, C.E.

    2015-01-01

    Sheeppox virus (SPPV), goatpox virus (GTPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) of the genus Capripoxvirus (CaPV) cause capripox disease in sheep, goats and cattle, respectively. These viruses are not strictly host-specific and their geographical distribution is complex. In Ethiopia, where sheep, goats and cattle are all affected, a live attenuated vaccine strain (KS1-O180) is used for immunization of both small ruminants and cattle. Although occurrences of the disease in vaccinated cattle are frequently reported, information on the circulating isolates and their relation to the vaccine strain in use are still missing. The present study addressed the parameters associated with vaccination failure in Ethiopia

  7. Effects of External Hydrogen on Hydrogen Transportation and Distribution Around the Fatigue Crack Tip in Type 304 Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingyang; Zhou, Chengshuang; Cai, Xiao; Zheng, Jinyang; Zhang, Lin

    2017-10-01

    The effects of external hydrogen on hydrogen transportation and distribution around the fatigue crack tip in type 304 stainless steel were investigated by using hydrogen microprint technique (HMT) and thermal desorption spectrometry. HMT results show that some silver particles induced by hydrogen release are located near the fatigue crack and more silver particles are concentrated around the crack tip, which indicates that hydrogen accumulates in the vicinity of the crack tip during the crack growth in hydrogen gas environment. Along with the crack propagation, strain-induced α' martensite forms around the crack tip and promotes hydrogen invasion into the matrix, which will cause the crack initiation and propagation at the austenite/ α' martensite interface. In addition, the hydrogen content in the vicinity of the crack tip is higher than that at the crack edge far away from the crack tip, which is related to the stress state and strain-induced α' martensite.

  8. Grain tracing and strain determination in a Be compact tension specimen using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, R.; Green, R.; Garcia, M.D.; Satyam, P.V.; Yun, W.B.; Maser, J.; Kai, Z.; Lai, B.; Sinha, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    X-ray synchrotron radiation of high (11 KeV) energy and high flux (10 10 photons per square centimeter per second) has been used to measure strains and polycrystallinity in 6-mm thick polycrystalline beryllium compact tension (CT) specimens at and around the crack tip (for fatigue-precracked sample) or at chevron notch point under load or no-load conditions. The authors demonstrated the feasibility strain field mapping as well as determining the polycrystallinity at or near the points of maximum load in beryllium CT specimens. The experimental techniques and results will be discussed

  9. Further characterization of field strains of rotavirus from Nigeria VP4 genotype P6 most frequently identified among symptomatically infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adah, M I; Rohwedder, A; Olaleye, O D; Durojaiye, O A; Werchau, H

    1997-10-01

    Polymerase chain reaction was utilized to characterize the VP4 types of 39 Rotavirus field isolates from symptomatically infected children in Nigeria. Genotype P6 was identified most frequently, occurring in 41.03 per cent of the typed specimens. Genotype P8 was identified as the next most prevalent (33.3% per cent). Genotype p6 was widespread (68.75 per cent) among infected neonates in Southern Nigeria, but mix infection was more prevalent (70 per cent) among Northern Nigerian children. Four distinct strains were identified with four different P genotypes. Overall strain G1P8 predominated (22.22 per cent) followed by G3P6 (17.8 per cent). Strain G1P8 was most prevalent (70 per cent) among infants aged 3.1-9 months, but strain G3P6 was most frequently identified among neonates occurance of mix infection genotype demonstrates the potential for reassortment events among different rotavirus genogroups in Nigeria. The epidemiological implications of these findings for rotavirus vaccine development and application in the country were discussed.

  10. The pathogenic potential of different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from food in Northeast Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodžić, Snjezana; Hukić, Mirsada; Franciosa, Giovanna; Aureli, Paolo

    2011-09-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is often present in meat and meat products that are sold in the area of northeast Bosnia and Herzegovina. The major objective of this study was to examine the virulence of L. monocytogenes strains isolated from these types of food in that geographic area. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect eight genes responsible for virulence of this pathogen, namely, prfA, inlA, inlB, hly, plcA, plcB, actA, and mpl. All examined isolates were confirmed to possess the eight virulence genes. Ten different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) macrorestriction profiles were recognized among 19 L. monocytogenes strains after restriction with two different endonucleases (ApaI and AscI). The pathogenicity of three different PFGE types of L. monocytogenes was confirmed through in vivo tests, which were performed on female white mice (Pasteur strain), and it ranged from 3.55 × 10(8) LD50 to 1.58 × 10(10) LD50. All of the three different PFGE types of L. monocytogenes were regarded as moderately virulent in relation to the reference strain L. monocytogenes Scott A. This result might be one of the reasons for the absence of reported listeriosis in northeast Bosnia and Herzegovina, despite the high degree of food contamination with this pathogen.

  11. Modeling fracture in the context of a strain-limiting theory of elasticity: a single anti-plane shear crack

    KAUST Repository

    Rajagopal, K. R.

    2011-01-06

    This paper is the first part of an extended program to develop a theory of fracture in the context of strain-limiting theories of elasticity. This program exploits a novel approach to modeling the mechanical response of elastic, that is non-dissipative, materials through implicit constitutive relations. The particular class of models studied here can also be viewed as arising from an explicit theory in which the displacement gradient is specified to be a nonlinear function of stress. This modeling construct generalizes the classical Cauchy and Green theories of elasticity which are included as special cases. It was conjectured that special forms of these implicit theories that limit strains to physically realistic maximum levels even for arbitrarily large stresses would be ideal for modeling fracture by offering a modeling paradigm that avoids the crack-tip strain singularities characteristic of classical fracture theories. The simplest fracture setting in which to explore this conjecture is anti-plane shear. It is demonstrated herein that for a specific choice of strain-limiting elasticity theory, crack-tip strains do indeed remain bounded. Moreover, the theory predicts a bounded stress field in the neighborhood of a crack-tip and a cusp-shaped opening displacement. The results confirm the conjecture that use of a strain limiting explicit theory in which the displacement gradient is given as a function of stress for modeling the bulk constitutive behavior obviates the necessity of introducing ad hoc modeling constructs such as crack-tip cohesive or process zones in order to correct the unphysical stress and strain singularities predicted by classical linear elastic fracture mechanics. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  12. Semi-empirical crack tip analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, A.; Ben Ouezdon, M.

    1988-01-01

    Experimentally observed crack opening displacements are employed as the solution of the multiple crack interaction problem. Then the near and far fields are reconstructed analytically by means of the double layer potential technqiue. Evaluation of the effective stress intensity factor resulting from the interaction of the main crack and its surrounding crazes in addition to the remotely applied load is presented as an illustrative example. It is shown that crazing (as well as microcracking) may constitute an alternative mechanism to Dugdale-Berenblatt models responsible for the cancellation of the singularity at the crack tip.

  13. Effect in field of the native strain COL6 of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae on common bean cv. Percal in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klever Iván Granda-Mora

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Inoculation with selected Rhizobium strains of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. contributes to the agricultural yield of this legume, improves soil fertility and reduces the use of nitrogen fertilizers in sustainable agricultural systems. The research aimed to determine the effect in field of the native strain Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae COL6 on growth, N fixation and agricultural yield in common bean cv. Percal. A field trial was carried out to evaluate the parameters of nodulation, biomass, nitrogen fixation, yield components and agricultural yield in common bean. In addition, soil analyzes were performed before and after experimentation. Prior to planting an inoculant was formulated with the strain COL6. The seeds of cv. Percal were mixed in 250 g inoculant per 10 kg of seed and it was sown manually in the soil. The results of growth, N fixation (total N % and agricultural yield demonstrated the positive effect of inoculation with the bacterial inoculant comparable with chemical fertilizers. The increase in agricultural yield with bacterial inoculant application and chemical fertilization with respect to control was 62 and 64 %, respectively. The results of the soil analysis were variable with respect to the initial physical-chemical characteristics. The promising results of bacterial inoculant use and the effective stimulation in common bean, open the doors for its potential use in Ecuadorian soils and with that the desired potential yield can be reached.

  14. Electron beam fabrication and characterization of high-resolution magnetic force microscopy tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rührig, M.; Porthun, S.; Lodder, J. C.; McVitie, S.; Heyderman, L. J.; Johnston, A. B.; Chapman, J. N.

    1996-03-01

    The stray field, magnetic microstructure, and switching behavior of high-resolution electron beam fabricated thin film tips for magnetic force microscopy (MFM) are investigated with different imaging modes in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). As the tiny smooth carbon needles covered with a thermally evaporated magnetic thin film are transparent to the electron energies used in these TEMs it is possible to observe both the external stray field emanating from the tips as well as their internal domain structure. The experiments confirm the basic features of electron beam fabricated thin film tips concluded from various MFM observations using these tips. Only a weak but highly concentrated stray field is observed emanating from the immediate apex region of the tip, consistent with their capability for high resolution. It also supports the negligible perturbation of the magnetization sample due to the tip stray field observed in MFM experiments. Investigation of the magnetization distributions within the tips, as well as preliminary magnetizing experiments, confirm a preferred single domain state of the high aspect ratio tips. To exclude artefacts of the observation techniques both nonmagnetic tips and those supporting different magnetization states are used for comparison.

  15. Tip preparation for usage in an ultra-low temperature UHV scanning tunneling microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ernst, S. Wirth, M. Rams, V. Dolocan and F. Steglich

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the preparation and characterization of tungsten tips for the use in UHV low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM and STS, respectively. These specific environments require in situ facilities for tip conditioning, for further sharpening of the tips, as well as for reliable tip characterization. The implemented conditioning methods include direct resistive annealing, annealing by electron bombardment, and self-sputtering with noble gas ions. Moreover, results from in situ tip characterization by field emission and STM experiments were compared to ex situ scanning electron microscopy. Using the so-prepared tips, high resolution STM images and tunneling spectra were obtained in a temperature range from ambient down to 350 mK, partially with applied magnetic field, on a variety of materials.

  16. Faulting of rocks in three-dimensional strain fields I. Failure of rocks in polyaxial, servo-control experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reches, Ze'ev; Dieterich, James H.

    1983-05-01

    The dependence of the number of sets of faults and their orientation on the intermediate strain axis is investigated through polyaxial tests, reported here, and theoretical analysis, reported in an accompanying paper. In the experiments, cubic samples of Berea sandstone, Sierra-White and Westerly granites, and Candoro and Solnhofen limestones were loaded on their three pairs of faces by three independent, mutually perpendicular presses at room temperature. Two of the presses were servo-controlled and applied constant displacement rates throughout the experiment. Most samples display three or four sets of faults in orthorhombic symmetry. These faults form in several yielding events that follow a stage of elastic deformation. In many experiments, the maximum and the intermediate compressive stresses interchange orientations during the yielding events, where the corresponding strains are constant. The final stage of most experiments is characterized by slip along the faults.

  17. Faulting of rocks in three-dimensional strain fields I. Failure of rocks in polyaxial, servo-control experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reches, Z.; Dieterich, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    The dependence of the number of sets of faults and their orientation on the intermediate strain axis is investigated through polyaxial tests, reported here, and theoretical analysis, reported in an accompanying paper. In the experiments, cubic samples of Berea sandstone, Sierra-White and Westerly granites, and Candoro and Solnhofen limestones were loaded on their three pairs of faces by three independent, mutually perpendicular presses at room temperature. Two of the presses were servo-controlled and applied constant displacement rates throughout the experiment. Most samples display three or four sets of faults in orthorhombic symmetry. These faults form in several yielding events that follow a stage of elastic deformation. In many experiments, the maximum and the intermediate compressive stresses interchange orientations during the yielding events, where the corresponding strains are constant. The final stage of most experiments is characterized by slip along the faults. ?? 1983.

  18. Characterization of BoHV-5 field strains circulation and report of transient specific subtype of bovine herpesvirus 5 in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiry Julien

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5 is a member of the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae responsible for meningo-encephalitis in young cattle. The first case of bovine meningo-encephalitis associated with a herpesvirus infection was reported in Australia. The current geographical distribution of BoHV-5 infection is mainly restricted to South America, especially Brazil and Argentina. Outbreaks of BoHV-5 are regularly observed in Argentina suggesting the circulation of the virus in the bovine population. Results Seventeen field strains of BoHV-5 isolated from 1984 to now were confirmed by differential PCR and subjected to restriction endonuclease analysis (REA. Viral DNA was cleaved with BstEII which allows the differentiation among subtypes a, b and non a, non b. According to the REA with BstEII, only one field strain showed a pattern similar to the Argentinean A663 strain (prototype of BoHV-5b. All other isolates showed a clear pattern similar to the Australian N569 strain (prototype of BoHV-5a consistent with the subtypes observed in Brazil, the other South-American country where BoHV-5 is known to be prevalent. The genomic region of subtype b responsible for the distinct pattern was determined and amplified by PCR; specifically a point mutation was identified in glycoprotein B gene, on the BstEII restriction site, which generates the profile specific of BoHV-5b. Conclusions This is the first report of circulation of BoHV-5a in Argentina as the prevailing subtype. Therefore the circulation of BoHV-5b was restricted to a few years in Argentina, speculating that this subtype was not able to be maintained in the bovine population. The mutation in the gB gene is associated with the difference in the restriction patterns between subtypes "a" and "b".

  19. Spin current induced by a charged tip in a quantum point contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shchamkhalova, B.S., E-mail: s.bagun@gmail.com

    2017-03-15

    We show that the charged tip of the probe microscope, which is widely used in studying the electron transport in low-dimensional systems, induces a spin current. The effect is caused by the spin–orbit interaction arising due to an electric field produced by the charged tip. The tip acts as a spin-flip scatterer giving rise to the spin polarization of the net current and the occurrence of a spin density in the system.

  20. Root tips moving through soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curlango-Rivera, Gilberto

    2011-01-01

    Root elongation occurs by the generation of new cells from meristematic tissue within the apical 1–2 mm region of root tips. Therefore penetration of the soil environment is carried out by newly synthesized plant tissue, whose cells are inherently vulnerable to invasion by pathogens. This conundrum, on its face, would seem to reflect an intolerable risk to the successful establishment of root systems needed for plant life. Yet root tip regions housing the meristematic tissues repeatedly have been found to be free of microbial infection and colonization. Even when spore germination, chemotaxis, and/or growth of pathogens are stimulated by signals from the root tip, the underlying root tissue can escape invasion. Recent insights into the functions of root border cells, and the regulation of their production by transient exposure to external signals, may shed light on long-standing observations. PMID:21455030

  1. Electric-field-induced strain contributions in morphotropic phase boundary composition of (Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}-BaTiO{sub 3} during poling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khansur, Neamul H.; Daniels, John E. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, UNSW Australia, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Hinterstein, Manuel [School of Materials Science and Engineering, UNSW Australia, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe Institute for Technology, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Wang, Zhiyang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, UNSW Australia, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); The Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Groh, Claudia [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Jo, Wook [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 44919 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-14

    The microscopic contributions to the electric-field-induced macroscopic strain in a morphotropic 0.93(Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3})−0.07(BaTiO{sub 3}) with a mixed rhombohedral and tetragonal structure have been quantified using full pattern Rietveld refinement of in situ high-energy x-ray diffraction data. The analysis methodology allows a quantification of all strain mechanisms for each phase in a morphotropic composition and is applicable to use in a wide variety of piezoelectric compositions. It is shown that during the poling of this material 24%, 44%, and 32% of the total macroscopic strain is generated from lattice strain, domain switching, and phase transformation strains, respectively. The results also suggest that the tetragonal phase contributes the most to extrinsic domain switching strain, whereas the lattice strain primarily stems from the rhombohedral phase. The analysis also suggests that almost 32% of the total strain is lost or is a one-time effect due to the irreversible nature of the electric-field-induced phase transformation in the current composition. This information is relevant to on-going compositional development strategies to harness the electric-field-induced phase transformation strain of (Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}-based lead-free piezoelectric materials for actuator applications.

  2. Strain and electric field mediated manipulation of magnetism in La_(_1_-_x_)Sr_xMnO_3/BaTiO_3 heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Heterostructures of ferromagnetic La_1_-_xSr_xMnO_3 (LSMO) and ferroelectric BaTiO_3 (BTO) were produced and investigated for their structural and magnetic properties. The combination of these ferroic properties can lead to an artificial multiferroic. Special emphasis was given to the manipulation of magnetic properties by applying electric fields. A magneto-electric coupling could be observed in the heterostructures under investigation. Epitaxial LSMO thin films were grown on BTO substrates using a state-of-the-art oxide molecular beam epitaxy (OMBE) and a high oxygen sputtering system (HOPSS). Stoichiometric La_1_-_xSr_xMnO_3 films with doping levels of x=0.5 and x=0.3 were produced. The film quality in terms of roughness and crystalline structure was confirmed by X-ray scattering methods. The presence of structural domains in the BaTiO_3 single crystal substrate, whose proportion could be altered due to the application of electric fields, was shown by X-ray diffraction. Tensile strain is induced into the epitaxial La_1_-_xSr_xMnO_3 films in the whole temperature range under investigation. The magnetization of LSMO alteres by the variation of strain induced into the film, generated by the different structural phases of single crystal BaTiO_3 substrates. The magnetization shows sharp steps at the structural phase transition temperatures of BTO. The evaluation of magnetic hysteresis loops reveals a change of the magnetic anisotropy of LSMO for each structural phase of BTO, but also within the orthorhombic phase. Special focus was given to the manipulation of magnetic properties by the application of electric fields. A newly established measurement option was used to determine the magnetic response to an applied electric field as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The electrically induced modification of the magnetization is profound near the structural phase transition temperatures. Electrical hysteresis loops give a detailed view on the influence of the

  3. Dual-tip magnetic force microscopy with suppressed influence on magnetically soft samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precner, Marián; Fedor, Ján; Šoltýs, Ján; Cambel, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Standard magnetic force microscopy (MFM) is considered as a powerful tool used for magnetic field imaging at nanoscale. The method consists of two passes realized by the magnetic tip. Within the first one, the topography pass, the magnetic tip directly touches the magnetic sample. Such contact perturbs the magnetization of the sample explored. To avoid the sample touching the magnetic tip, we present a new approach to magnetic field scanning by segregating the topological and magnetic scans with two different tips located on a cut cantilever. The approach minimizes the disturbance of sample magnetization, which could be a major problem in conventional MFM images of soft magnetic samples. By cutting the cantilever in half using the focused ion beam technique, we create one sensor with two different tips—one tip is magnetized, and the other one is left non-magnetized. The non-magnetized tip is used for topography and the magnetized one for the magnetic field imaging. The method developed we call dual-tip magnetic force microscopy (DT-MFM). We describe in detail the dual-tip fabrication process. In the experiments, we show that the DT-MFM method reduces significantly the perturbations of the magnetic tip as compared to the standard MFM method. The present technique can be used to investigate microscopic magnetic domain structures in a variety of magnetic samples and is relevant in a wide range of applications, e.g., data storage and biomedicine. (paper)

  4. A novel field transplantation technique reveals intra-specific metal-induced oxidative responses in strains of Ectocarpus siliculosus with different pollution histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sáez, Claudio A.; González, Alberto; Contreras, Rodrigo A.; Moody, A. John; Moenne, Alejandra; Brown, Murray T.

    2015-01-01

    A novel field transplantation technique, in which seaweed material is incorporated into dialysis tubing, was used to investigate intra-specific responses to metals in the model brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus. Metal accumulation in the two strains was similar, with higher concentrations in material deployed to the metal-contaminated site (Ventanas, Chile) than the pristine site (Quintay, Chile). However, the oxidative responses differed. At Ventanas, strain Es147 (from low-polluted site) underwent oxidative damage whereas Es524 (from highly polluted site) was not affected. Concentrations of reduced ascorbate (ASC) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were significantly higher in Es524. Activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR) all increased in Es524, whereas only SOD increased in Es147. For the first time, employing a field transplantation technique, we provide unambiguous evidence of inter-population variation of metal-tolerance in brown algae and establish that antioxidant defences are, in part, responsible. - Highlights: • Metal tolerance in Ectocarpus siliculosus populations was studied through in situ experiments. • Metal tolerance in E. siliculosus populations is partly based in antioxidant defences. • In situ experiments using a dialysis tubing device was successful for metal diagnosis. - Field transplantation experimentation provides evidence that differential antioxidant defences, in part, mediate inter-population tolerance to metal pollution in the model brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus

  5. Field Strain Measurement on the Fiber Scale in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers Using Global Finite-Element Based Digital Image Correlation

    KAUST Repository

    Tao, Ran

    2015-05-01

    Laminated composites are materials with complex architecture made of continuous fibers embedded within a polymeric resin. The properties of the raw materials can vary from one point to another due to different local processing conditions or complex geometrical features for example. A first step towards the identification of these spatially varying material parameters is to image with precision the displacement fields in this complex microstructure when subjected to mechanical loading. This thesis is aimed to accurately measure the displacement and strain fields at the fiber-matrix scale in a cross-ply composite. First, the theories of both local subset-based digital image correlation (DIC) and global finite-element based DIC are outlined. Second, in-situ secondary electron tensile images obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are post-processed by both DIC techniques. Finally, it is shown that when global DIC is applied with a conformal mesh, it can capture more accurately sharp local variations in the strain fields as it takes into account the underlying microstructure. In comparison to subset-based local DIC, finite-element based global DIC is better suited for capturing gradients across the fiber-matrix interfaces.

  6. First-principles calculations on strain and electric field induced band modulation and phase transition of bilayer WSe2sbnd MoS2 heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiang; Yu, Ke

    2018-04-01

    A purposeful modulation of physical properties of material via change external conditions has long captured people's interest and can provide many opportunities to improve the specific performance of electronic devices. In this work, a comprehensive first-principles survey was performed to elucidate that the bandgap and electronic properties of WSe2sbnd MoS2 heterostructure exhibited unusual response to exterior strain and electric field in comparison with pristine structures. It demonstrates that the WSe2sbnd MoS2 is a typical type-II heterostructure, and thus the electron-hole pairs can be effectively spatially separated. The external effects can trigger the electronic phase transition from semiconducting to metallic state, which originates from the internal electric evolution induced energy-level shift. Interestingly, the applied strain shows no direction-depended character for the modulation of bandgap of WSe2sbnd MoS2 heterostructure, while it exists in the electric field tuning processes and strongly depends on the direction of the electric field. Our findings elucidate the tunable electronic property of bilayer WSe2sbnd MoS2 heterostructure, and would provide a valuable reference to design the electronic nanodevices.

  7. Evaluation of 793/B-like and Mass-like vaccine strain kinetics in experimental and field conditions by real-time RT-PCR quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucciarone, C M; Franzo, G; Berto, G; Drigo, M; Ramon, G; Koutoulis, K C; Catelli, E; Cecchinato, M

    2018-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a great economic burden both for productive losses and costs of the control strategies. Many different vaccination protocols are applied in the same region and even in consecutive cycles on the same farm in order to find the perfect balance between costs and benefits. In Northern Italy, the usual second vaccination is more and more often moved up to the chick's first d of life. The second strain administration together with the common Mass priming by spray at the hatchery allows saving money and time and reducing animal stress. The present work compared the different vaccine strains (Mass-like or B48, and 1/96) kinetics both in field conditions and in a 21-day-long experimental trial in broilers, monitoring the viral replication by upper respiratory tract swabbing and vaccine specific real time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) quantification. In both field and experimental conditions, titers for all the vaccines showed an increasing trend in the first 2 wk and then a decrease, though still remaining detectable during the whole monitored period. IBV field strain and avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV) presence also was also investigated by RT-PCR and sequencing, and by multiplex real-time RT-PCR, respectively, revealing a consistency in the pathogen introduction timing at around 30 d, in correspondence with the vaccine titer's main decrease. These findings suggest the need for an accurate knowledge of live vaccine kinetics, whose replication can compete with the other pathogen one, providing additional protection to be added to what is conferred by the adaptive immune response. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Dynamic strain measurements in a sliding microstructured contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennewitz, Roland; David, Jonathan; Lannoy, Charles-Francois de; Drevniok, Benedict; Hubbard-Davis, Paris; Miura, Takashi; Trichtchenko, Olga

    2008-01-01

    A novel experiment is described which measures the tangential strain development across the contact between a PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) block and a glass surface during the initial stages of sliding. The surface of the PDMS block has been microfabricated to take the form of a regular array of pyramidal tips at 20 μm separation. Tangential strain is measured by means of light scattering from the interface between the block and surface. Three phases are observed in all experiments: initial shear deformation of the whole PDMS block, a pre-sliding tangential compression of the tip array with stepwise increase of the compressive strain, and sliding in stick-slip movements as revealed by periodic variation of the strain. The stick-slip sliding between the regular tip array and the randomly rough counter surface always takes on the periodicity of the tip array. The fast slip can cause either a sudden increase or a sudden decrease in compressive strain

  9. Strain-Gated Field Effect Transistor of a MoS2-ZnO 2D-1D Hybrid Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Libo; Xue, Fei; Li, Xiaohui; Huang, Xin; Wang, Longfei; Kou, Jinzong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-01-26

    Two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is an exciting material due to its unique electrical, optical, and piezoelectric properties. Owing to an intrinsic band gap of 1.2-1.9 eV, monolayer or a-few-layer MoS2 is used for fabricating field effect transistors (FETs) with high electron mobility and on/off ratio. However, the traditional FETs are controlled by an externally supplied gate voltage, which may not be sensitive enough to directly interface with a mechanical stimulus for applications in electronic skin. Here we report a type of top-pressure/force-gated field effect transistors (PGFETs) based on a hybrid structure of a 2D MoS2 flake and 1D ZnO nanowire (NW) array. Once an external pressure is applied, the piezoelectric polarization charges created at the tips of ZnO NWs grown on MoS2 act as a gate voltage to tune/control the source-drain transport property in MoS2. At a 6.25 MPa applied stimulus on a packaged device, the source-drain current can be tuned for ∼25%, equivalent to the results of applying an extra -5 V back gate voltage. Another type of PGFET with a dielectric layer (Al2O3) sandwiched between MoS2 and ZnO also shows consistent results. A theoretical model is proposed to interpret the received data. This study sets the foundation for applying the 2D material-based FETs in the field of artificial intelligence.

  10. Proteome analysis reveals distinct uranium stress response in two strains of Cyanobacteria native to Indian paddy fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, Bandita; Basu, Bhakti; Acharya, Celin; Rajaram, Hema; Apte, Shree Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Uranium present in phosphate fertilizer contaminates agricultural land. Uranium exerts chemical toxicity to the resident biota as it induces oxidative stress by generating free radicals. Two strains of nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria viz., Anabaena PCC 7120 and L-31 native to Indian paddy, regularly experience oxidative stress induced by different stresses and heavy metals. The present study investigated their response to uranium exposure at proteomic level. LD_5_0 dose for Anabaena 7120 and Anabaena L-31 was determined to be 75 μM and 200 μM uranyl carbonate exposure for 3 h. A total of 79 proteins from Anabaena 7120 and 64 proteins from Anabaena L-31 were identified by MALDI mass spectrometry, of which levels of 45 and 27 proteins respectively were found to be differentially modulated in the two strains in response to uranium exposure. The differentially expressed proteins belonged to the major functional categories of photosynthesis, carbon metabolism and oxidative stress alleviation, commensurate with their uranium tolerance. Better oxidative stress management, and maintenance of metabolic and energy homeostasis lead to superior uranium tolerance in Anabaena L-31 as compared to Anabaena PCC 7120

  11. Field performance of new cowpea cultivars inoculated with efficient nitrogen-fixing rhizobial strains in the Brazilian Semiarid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Nunes Marinho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the contribution of efficient nitrogen-fixing rhizobial strains to grain yield of new cowpea cultivars, indicated for cultivation in the Brazilian Semiarid region, in the sub-medium of the São Francisco River Valley. Two experiments were set up at the irrigated perimeters of Mandacaru (Juazeiro, state of Bahia and Bebedouro (Petrolina, state of Pernambuco. The treatments consisted of single inoculation of five rhizobial strains - BR 3267, BR 3262, INPA 03-11B, UFLA 03-84 (Bradyrhizobium sp., and BR 3299T (Microvirga vignae -, besides a treatment with nitrogen and a control without inoculation or N application. The following cowpea cultivars were evaluated: BRS Pujante, BRS Tapaihum, BRS Carijó, and BRS Acauã. A randomized complete block design, with four replicates, was used. Inoculated plants showed similar grain yield to the one observed with plants fertilized with 80 kg ha-1 N. The cultivars BRS Tapaihum and BRS Pujante stood out in grain yield and protein contents when inoculated, showing their potential for cultivation in the sub-medium of the São Francisco River Valley.

  12. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will I experience during and after the procedure? Who interprets the results and how do I get them? What are the benefits vs. risks? What are the limitations of TIPS? ...

  13. Nanobits: customizable scanning probe tips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajendra; Shaik, Hassan Uddin; Sardan Sukas, Özlem

    2009-01-01

    We present here a proof-of-principle study of scanning probe tips defined by planar nanolithography and integrated with AFM probes using nanomanipulation. The so-called 'nanobits' are 2-4 mu m long and 120-150 nm thin flakes of Si3N4 or SiO2, fabricated by electron beam lithography and standard s...

  14. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... thin, hollow plastic tube into the vessel. Using real time x-ray guidance, your doctor will then guide ... invasive procedure that typically has a shorter recovery time than surgery. Your TIPS should have less of an effect ...

  15. The tip of the iceberg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørst, Lill Rastad

    2010-01-01

      Abstract: The tip of the iceberg: Ice as a nonhuman actor of the climate change debate   The global climate change debate has the Arctic as a core region of concern and ice has become a central aspect of discourses. This article discusses ice representations from six different contexts linked...

  16. Gardening Health and Safety Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or who take certain medications (i.e. for depression, insomnia, or poor circulation). Eat healthy foods to help keep you energized. Extreme Heat Keep Your Cool in Hot Weather Tips for persons with disabilities and physical activity. Talk to your health care provider if you have physical, mental, or ...

  17. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS) Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ... links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org provides links to relevant websites. RadiologyInfo.org , ACR ...

  18. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in creating the TIPS. top of page Additional Information and Resources Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR) - Patient Center This page ... of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2018 ... To help ensure current and accurate information, we do not permit copying but encourage linking ...

  19. Useful Tips on Avoiding Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamalainen, Maryellen

    2007-01-01

    Teachers are generally kind and nurturing people. Students who plagiarize their assignments from these kind and nurturing teachers are often given a second chance when caught and encouraged to do their work over, but it would be better to eliminate their need to plagiarize. The first tip for eliminating plagiarism has not so much to do with what…

  20. Assigning Effective Homework. Classroom Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Each new school year brings high hopes, great expectations and challenges for both new and seasoned educators. The American Federation of Teachers (AFT) has developed a series called "Classroom Tips" to help educators start the year right and anticipate the year ahead. Over the past 40 years, most research studies on homework have found that…

  1. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing of Escherichia coli strains from samples collected before and after pivmecillinam or placebo treatment of uncomplicated community-acquired urinary tract infection in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnaes, Karen; Sandvang, Dorthe; Lundgren, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    The primary infecting Escherichia coli strains from 156 women with community-acquired uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) randomized to pivmecillinam or placebo and the E. coli strains causing UTI at two follow-up visits were typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE......). The finding that the majority of UTIs at follow-up are caused by the primary infecting E. coli strain supports the theory of a vaginal and rectal reservoir but could also support the recent discovery that E. coli strains are able to persist in the bladder epithelium despite appropriate antibiotic treatment......, constituting a reservoir for recurrent UTI....

  2. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing of Eschericia coli strains from samples collected before and after pivmecillinam or placebo treatment of uncomplicated community-acquired urinary tract infection in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, K; Sandvang, D; Lundgren, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    The primary infecting Escherichia coli strains from 156 women with community-acquired uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) randomized to pivmecillinam or placebo and the E. coli strains causing UTI at two follow-up visits were typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE......). The finding that the majority of UTIs at follow-up are caused by the primary infecting E. coli strain supports the theory of a vaginal and rectal reservoir but could also support the recent discovery that E. coli strains are able to persist in the bladder epithelium despite appropriate antibiotic treatment......, constituting a reservoir for recurrent UTI....

  3. Robustness of tungsten single atom tips to thermal treatment and air exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesa, Cristian; Urban, Radovan [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G7 (Canada); National Institute for Nanotechnology, National Research Council of Canada, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2M9 (Canada); Pitters, Jason L., E-mail: jason.pitters@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Institute for Nanotechnology, National Research Council of Canada, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2M9 (Canada); Wolkow, Robert A. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G7 (Canada); National Institute for Nanotechnology, National Research Council of Canada, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2M9 (Canada)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • W(1 1 1) single atom tips (SATs) were exposed to air. • SATs could be regenerated by field assisted chemical etching after exposure. • Warming procedures to minimize tip contamination were developed. • Degassing temperatures for air exposed tips were established. • Tip faceting occurred when SATs and unetched tips were annealed above 1200 °C. - Abstract: Experiments aimed at assessing the robustness of nitrogen-etched, single-atom tips (SATs) prepared using W(1 1 1) single crystal wire were performed. Our experiments showed that single-atoms tips sustain minimal damage when exposed to atmospheric conditions and can be readily and quickly nitrogen-etched to single-atom tips thereafter. The SATs can be annealed at temperatures up to 1100 °C with minimal shape changes. Moreover, annealing temperatures in excess of 1200 °C resulted in an apex faceting which may prove important in further single-atom tip creation. Procedures for warming of the SATs from operating temperatures of 80 K were also evaluated to determine conditions that limit tip contamination. These results show that SATS could be fabricated in a dedicated vacuum system and subsequently transferred to other instruments where they would undergo a brief conditioning procedure to recover the single-atom apex configuration prior to being subjected to operating conditions.

  4. Note: Automated electrochemical etching and polishing of silver scanning tunneling microscope tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Stephen S; Perdue, Shawn M; Rodriguez Perez, Alejandro; Tallarida, Nicholas; Majors, Julia H; Apkarian, V Ara; Lee, Joonhee

    2013-09-01

    Fabrication of sharp and smooth Ag tips is crucial in optical scanning probe microscope experiments. To ensure reproducible tip profiles, the polishing process is fully automated using a closed-loop laminar flow system to deliver the electrolytic solution to moving electrodes mounted on a motorized translational stage. The repetitive translational motion is controlled precisely on the μm scale with a stepper motor and screw-thread mechanism. The automated setup allows reproducible control over the tip profile and improves smoothness and sharpness of tips (radius 27 ± 18 nm), as measured by ultrafast field emission.

  5. Identification of strain fields in pure Al and hybrid Ni/Al metal foams using X-ray micro-tomography under loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fíla, T.; Jiroušek, O.; Jung, A.; Kumpová, I.

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid foams are materials formed by a core from a standard open cell metal foam that is during the process of electrodeposition coated by a thin layer of different nanocrystalline metals. The material properties of the base metal foam are in this way modified resulting in higher plateau stress and, more importantly, by introduction of strain-rate dependence to its deformation response. In this paper, we used time-lapse X-ray micro-tomography for the mechanical characterization of Ni/Al hybrid foams (aluminium open cell foams with nickel coating layer). To fully understand the effects of the coating layer on the material's effective properties, we compared the compressive response of the base uncoated foam to the response of the material with coating thickness of 50 and 75 μm. Digital volume correlation (DVC) was applied to obtain volumetric strain fields of the deforming micro-structure up to the densification region of the deforming cellular structure. The analysis was performed as a compressive mechanical test with simultaneous observation using X-ray radiography and tomography. A custom design experimental device was used for compression of the foam specimens in several deformation states directly in the X-ray setup. Planar X-ray images were taken during the loading phases and a X-ray tomography was performed at the end of each loading phase (up to engineering strain 22%). The samples were irradiated using micro-focus reflection type X-ray tube and images were taken using a large area flat panel detector. Tomography reconstructions were used for an identification of a strain distribution in the foam using digital volumetric correlation. A comparison of the deformation response of the coated and the uncoated foam in uniaxial quasi-static compression is summarized in the paper.

  6. A general protocol of ultra-high resolution MR angiography to image the cerebro-vasculature in 6 different rats strains at high field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Géraldine; Jiménez-González, María; Plaza-García, Sandra; Beraza, Marta; Padro, Daniel; Ramos-Cabrer, Pedro; Reese, Torsten

    2017-09-01

    Differences in the cerebro-vasculature among strains as well as individual animals might explain variability in animal models and thus, a non-invasive method tailored to image cerebral vessel of interest with high signal to noise ratio is required. Experimentally, we describe a new general protocol of three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography to visualize non-invasively the cerebral vasculature in 6 different rat strains. Flow compensated angiograms of Sprague Dawley, Wistar Kyoto, Lister Hooded, Long Evans, Fisher 344 and Spontaneous Hypertensive Rat strains were obtained without the use of contrast agents. At 11.7T using a repetition time of 60ms, an isotropic resolution of up to 62μm was achieved; total imaging time was 98min for a 3D data set. The visualization of the cerebral arteries was improved by removing extra-cranial vessels prior to the calculation of maximum intensity projection to obtain the angiograms. Ultimately, we demonstrate that the newly implemented method is also suitable to obtain angiograms following middle cerebral artery occlusion, despite the presence of intense vasogenic edema 24h after reperfusion. The careful selection of the excitation profile and repetition time at a higher static magnetic field allowed an increase in spatial resolution to reliably detect of the hypothalamic artery, the anterior choroidal artery as well as arterial branches of the peri-amygdoidal complex and the optical nerve in six different rat strains. MR angiography without contrast agent can be utilized to study cerebro-vascular abnormalities in various animal models. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rotating coherent flow structures as a source for narrowband tip clearance noise from axial fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tao; Lallier-Daniels, Dominic; Sanjosé, Marlène; Moreau, Stéphane; Carolus, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Noise from axial fans typically increases significantly as the tip clearance is increased. In addition to the broadband tip clearance noise at the design flow rate, narrowband humps also associated with the tip flow are observed in the far-field acoustic spectra at lower flow rate. In this study, both experimental and numerical methods are used to shed more light on the noise generation mechanism of this narrowband tip clearance noise and provide a unified description of this source. Unsteady aeroacoustic predictions with the Lattice-Boltzmann Method (LBM) are successfully compared with experiment. Such a validation allows using LBM data to conduct a detailed modal analysis of the pressure field for detecting rotating coherent flow structures which might be considered as noise sources. As previously found in ring fans the narrowband humps in the far-field noise spectra are found to be related to the tip clearance noise that is generated by an interaction of coherent flow structures present in the tip region with the leading edge of the impeller blades. The visualization of the coherent structures shows that they are indeed part of the unsteady tip clearance vortex structures. They are hidden in a complex, spatially and temporally inhomogeneous flow field, but can be recovered by means of appropriate filtering techniques. Their pressure trace corresponds to the so-called rotational instability identified in previous turbomachinery studies, which brings a unified picture of this tip-noise phenomenon for the first time.

  8. High precision attachment of silver nanoparticles on AFM tips by dielectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiterer, Christian; Wünsche, Erik; Singh, Prabha; Albert, Jens; Köhler, Johann M; Deckert, Volker; Fritzsche, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    AFM tips are modified with silver nanoparticles using an AC electrical field. The used technique works with sub-micron precision and also does not require chemical modification of the tip. Based on the electrical parameters applied in the process, particle density and particle position on the apex of the tip can be adjusted. The feasibility of the method is proven by subsequent tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) measurements using the fabricated tips as a measurement probe. Since this modification process itself does not require any lithographic processing, the technique can be easily adapted to modify AFM tips with a variety of nanostructures with pre-defined properties, while being parallelizable for a potential commercial application.

  9. A comprehensive study of bubble inflation in vacuum-assisted thermoforming based on whole-field strain measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, A.; Lacrampe, M.-F.; Krawczak, P.

    2018-05-01

    This paper focuses on the potential use of stereo-DIC in thermoforming conditions to monitor large deformations of softened thermoplastic sheets posteriori to the sagging phenomenon. The study concerns HIPS sheets which are softened by the radiative heat-transfer mode then stretched by inflation of compressed-air for 1.5 s to form a large and quasi-spherical dome of 250 mm in diameter. While the bubble-inflation operation leads to large deformations of the softened sheet, it shows transitional geometrical instabilities due to the initial surface sagging. When the temperature-induced surface deformations are inaccessible by the stereoscopic system during the heating operation, the geometrical instabilities limit the identification of the reference of displacements which affects the accuracy of results based on image-correlation computations. To compare between the principal strains assessed from bubble-inflation tests conducted at different thermal conditions, a method for filtering these instabilities is developed in this study.

  10. Refined tip preparation by electrochemical etching and ultrahigh vacuum treatment to obtain atomically sharp tips for scanning tunneling microscope and atomic force microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Till; El Ouali, Mehdi; Paul, William; Oliver, David; Miyahara, Yoichi; Grütter, Peter

    2011-11-01

    A modification of the common electrochemical etching setup is presented. The described method reproducibly yields sharp tungsten tips for usage in the scanning tunneling microscope and tuning fork atomic force microscope. In situ treatment under ultrahigh vacuum (p ≤10(-10) mbar) conditions for cleaning and fine sharpening with minimal blunting is described. The structure of the microscopic apex of these tips is atomically resolved with field ion microscopy and cross checked with field emission. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  11. Refined tip preparation by electrochemical etching and ultrahigh vacuum treatment to obtain atomically sharp tips for scanning tunneling microscope and atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagedorn, Till; Ouali, Mehdi El; Paul, William; Oliver, David; Miyahara, Yoichi; Gruetter, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A modification of the common electrochemical etching setup is presented. The described method reproducibly yields sharp tungsten tips for usage in the scanning tunneling microscope and tuning fork atomic force microscope. In situ treatment under ultrahigh vacuum (p ≤10 -10 mbar) conditions for cleaning and fine sharpening with minimal blunting is described. The structure of the microscopic apex of these tips is atomically resolved with field ion microscopy and cross checked with field emission.

  12. A minor groove binder probe real-time PCR assay for discrimination between type 2-based vaccines and field strains of canine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Elia, Gabriella; Desario, Costantina; Roperto, Sante; Martella, Vito; Campolo, Marco; Lorusso, Alessio; Cavalli, Alessandra; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2006-09-01

    A minor groove binder (MGB) probe assay was developed to discriminate between type 2-based vaccines and field strains of canine parvovirus (CPV). Considering that most of the CPV vaccines contain the old type 2, no longer circulating in canine population, two MGB probes specific for CPV-2 and the antigenic variants (types 2a, 2b and 2c), respectively, were labeled with different fluorophores. The MGB probe assay was able to discriminate correctly between the old type and the variants, with a detection limit of 10(1) DNA copies and a good reproducibility. Quantitation of the viral DNA loads was accurate, as demonstrated by comparing the CPV DNA titres to those calculated by means of the TaqMan assay recognising all CPV types. This assay will ensure resolution of most diagnostic problems in dogs showing CPV disease shortly after CPV vaccination, although it does not discriminate between field strains and type 2b-based vaccines, recently licensed to market in some countries.

  13. Study of the evolution of the boundary of the elastic field with strain hardening, and elastic-plastic behaviour relationships of cubic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, Huy Duong

    1969-01-01

    In this research thesis on metal strain hardening, the author first discusses the issue of passing from microscopic values to corresponding macroscopic values. If there is generally a correspondence between them, it is not the case for plastic strain. Thus, the author studies the general properties of the boundary of the macroscopic plastic field with respect to single-crystal elastic boundaries. In the second part, the author reports an experimental study of the evolution of the elastic field boundary. In the third part, he develops elastic-plastic behaviour laws for an aggregate of cubic crystals. The objectives are to report experimental results in a more satisfying way than previous studies, and to obtain acceptable physical laws while keeping some properties of conventional laws in order to ensure the solution uniqueness, and to establish minimum principles similar to those of Nodge-Prager and of Greenberg. In order to do so, he introduces a new hypothesis: there is a statistic scattering in initial thresholds of crystals

  14. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing of Escherichia coli strains from samples collected before and after pivmecillinam or placebo treatment of uncomplicated community-acquired urinary tract infection in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnaes, Karen; Sandvang, Dorthe; Lundgren, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    ). The finding that the majority of UTIs at follow-up are caused by the primary infecting E. coli strain supports the theory of a vaginal and rectal reservoir but could also support the recent discovery that E. coli strains are able to persist in the bladder epithelium despite appropriate antibiotic treatment......The primary infecting Escherichia coli strains from 156 women with community-acquired uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) randomized to pivmecillinam or placebo and the E. coli strains causing UTI at two follow-up visits were typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE......). In the pivmecillinam treatment group PFGE showed that among patients having a negative urine culture at the first follow-up 77% (46/60) had a relapse with the primary infecting E. coli strain and 23% (14/60) had reinfection with a new E. coli strain at the second follow-up. Among patients having E. coli at the first...

  15. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing of Eschericia coli strains from samples collected before and after pivmecillinam or placebo treatment of uncomplicated community-acquired urinary tract infection in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, K; Sandvang, D; Lundgren, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    ). The finding that the majority of UTIs at follow-up are caused by the primary infecting E. coli strain supports the theory of a vaginal and rectal reservoir but could also support the recent discovery that E. coli strains are able to persist in the bladder epithelium despite appropriate antibiotic treatment......The primary infecting Escherichia coli strains from 156 women with community-acquired uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) randomized to pivmecillinam or placebo and the E. coli strains causing UTI at two follow-up visits were typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE......). In the pivmecillinam treatment group PFGE showed that among patients having a negative urine culture at the first follow-up 77% (46/60) had a relapse with the primary infecting E. coli strain and 23% (14/60) had reinfection with a new E. coli strain at the second follow-up. Among patients having E. coli at the first...

  16. Tips for Postpartum Dads and Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blues: Partners Interview with Wade Bowen Coping with Suicide & Loss Tips for Postpartum Dads and Partners Pregnancy and postpartum mood and anxiety disorders affect the whole family. Here are some tips ...

  17. Tips for Reducing Pesticide Impacts on Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Web page provides tips for pesticide users in residential and agricultural settings, as well as tips for certified pesticide applicators for ways to protect wildlife from potentially harmful effects of pesticides.

  18. Numerical investigation of tip clearance cavitation in Kaplan runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforova, K.; Semenov, G.; Kuznetsov, I.; Spiridonov, E.

    2016-11-01

    There is a gap between the Kaplan runner blade and the shroud that makes for a special kind of cavitation: cavitation in the tip leakage flow. Two types of cavitation caused by the presence of clearance gap are known: tip vortex cavitation that appears at the core of the rolled up vortex on the blade suction side and tip clearance cavitation that appears precisely in the gap between the blade tip edge and the shroud. In the context of this work numerical investigation of the model Kaplan runner has been performed taking into account variable tip clearance for several cavitation regimes. The focus is put on investigation of structure and origination of mechanism of cavitation in the tip leakage flow. Calculations have been performed with the help of 3-D unsteady numerical model for two-phase medium. Modeling of turbulent flow in this work has been carried out using full equations of Navier-Stokes averaged by Reynolds with correction for streamline curvature and system rotation. For description of this medium (liquid-vapor) simplification of Euler approach is used; it is based on the model of interpenetrating continuums, within the bounds of this two- phase medium considered as a quasi-homogeneous mixture with the common velocity field and continuous distribution of density for both phases. As a result, engineering techniques for calculation of cavitation conditioned by existence of tip clearance in model turbine runner have been developed. The detailed visualization of the flow was carried out and vortex structure on the suction side of the blade was reproduced. The range of frequency with maximum value of pulsation was assigned and maximum energy frequency was defined; it is based on spectral analysis of the obtained data. Comparison between numerical computation results and experimental data has been also performed. The location of cavitation zone has a good agreement with experiment for all analyzed regimes.

  19. Rigid body displacement fields of an in-plane-deformable curved beam based on conventional strain definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Won Joo; Min, Oak Key; Kim, Yong Woo

    1998-01-01

    To improve the convergence and the accuracy of a finite element, the finite element has to describe not only displacement and stress distributions in a static analysis but also rigid body displacements. In this paper, we consider the in-plane-deformable curved beam element to understand the descriptive capability of rigid body displacements of a finite element. We derive the rigid body displacement fields of a single finite element under various essential boundary conditions when the nodal displacements are caused by the rigid body displacement. We also examine the rigid body displacement fields of a quadratic curved beam element by employing the reduced minimization theory

  20. Crack Tip Creep Deformation Behavior in Transversely Isotropic Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Young Wha; Yoon, Kee Bong

    2009-01-01

    Theoretical mechanics analysis and finite element simulation were performed to investigate creep deformation behavior at the crack tip of transversely isotropic materials under small scale creep (SCC) conditions. Mechanical behavior of material was assumed as an elastic-2 nd creep, which elastic modulus ( E ), Poisson's ratio (v ) and creep stress exponent ( n ) were isotropic and creep coefficient was only transversely isotropic. Based on the mechanics analysis for material behavior, a constitutive equation for transversely isotropic creep behavior was formulated and an equivalent creep coefficient was proposed under plain strain conditions. Creep deformation behavior at the crack tip was investigated through the finite element analysis. The results of the finite element analysis showed that creep deformation in transversely isotropic materials is dominant at the rear of the crack-tip. This result was more obvious when a load was applied to principal axis of anisotropy. Based on the results of the mechanics analysis and the finite element simulation, a corrected estimation scheme of the creep zone size was proposed in order to evaluate the creep deformation behavior at the crack tip of transversely isotropic creeping materials