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Sample records for tioga nitrogen removal process

  1. Nitrogen removal from coal gasification wastewater by activated carbon technologies combined with short-cut nitrogen removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng; Jia, Shengyong; Fang, Fang

    2014-11-01

    A system combining granular activated carbon and powdered activated carbon technologies along with shortcut biological nitrogen removal (GAC-PACT-SBNR) was developed to enhance total nitrogen (TN) removal for anaerobically treated coal gasification wastewater with less need for external carbon resources. The TN removal efficiency in SBNR was significantly improved by introducing the effluent from the GAC process into SBNR during the anoxic stage, with removal percentage increasing from 43.8%-49.6% to 68.8%-75.8%. However, the TN removal rate decreased with the progressive deterioration of GAC adsorption. After adding activated sludge to the GAC compartment, the granular carbon had a longer service-life and the demand for external carbon resources became lower. Eventually, the TN removal rate in SBNR was almost constant at approx. 43.3%, as compared to approx. 20.0% before seeding with sludge. In addition, the production of some alkalinity during the denitrification resulted in a net savings in alkalinity requirements for the nitrification reaction and refractory chemical oxygen demand (COD) degradation by autotrophic bacteria in SBNR under oxic conditions. PACT showed excellent resilience to increasing organic loadings. The microbial community analysis revealed that the PACT had a greater variety of bacterial taxons and the dominant species associated with the three compartments were in good agreement with the removal of typical pollutants. The study demonstrated that pre-adsorption by the GAC-sludge process could be a technically and economically feasible method to enhance TN removal in coal gasification wastewater (CGW). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Autotrophic nitrogen removal process in a potable water treatment biofilter that simultaneously removes Mn and NH4(+)-N.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yan'an; Li, Dong; Liang, Yuhai; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2014-11-01

    Ammonia (NH4(+)-N) removal pathways were investigated in a potable water treatment biofilter that simultaneously removes manganese (Mn) and NH4(+)-N. The results indicated a significant loss of nitrogen in the biofilter. Both the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process and nitrification were more likely to contribute to NH4(+)-N removal. Moreover, the model calculation results demonstrated that the CANON process contributed significantly to the removal of NH4(+)-N. For influent NH4(+)-N levels of 1.030 and 1.749mg/L, the CANON process contribution was about 48.5% and 46.6%, respectively. The most important finding was that anaerobic ammonia oxidation (ANAMMOX) bacteria were detectable in the biofilter. It is interesting that the CANON process was effective even for such low NH4(+)-N concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The water vapor nitrogen process for removing sodium from LMFBR components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crippen, M D; Funk, C W; Lutton, J M [Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Richland (United States)

    1978-08-01

    Application and operation of the Water Vapor-Nitrogen Process for removing sodium from LMFBR components is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on recent efforts to verify the technological bases of the process, to refine the values of process parameters and to ensure the utility of the process for cleaning and requalifying components. (author)

  4. Control of a Biological Nitrogen Removal Process in an Intensified Single Reactor Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Gernaey, Krist

    2013-01-01

    The nitrogen removing granular sludge process is a novel and intensified process. However, its stable operation and control remains a challenging problem. In this contribution, a new process oriented approach is used to develop, evaluate and benchmark control strategies to ensure stable operation...

  5. Energy saving processes for nitrogen removal in organic wastewater from food processing industries in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, N H; Suksawad, N; Balslev, P

    2004-01-01

    Nitrogen removal from organic wastewater is becoming a demand in developed communities. The use of nitrite as intermediate in the treatment of wastewater has been largely ignored, but is actually a relevant energy saving process compared to conventional nitrification/denitrification using nitrate as intermediate. Full-scale results and pilot-scale results using this process are presented. The process needs some additional process considerations and process control to be utilized. Especially under tropical conditions the nitritation process will round easily, and it must be expected that many AS treatment plants in the food industry already produce NO2-N. This uncontrolled nitrogen conversion can be the main cause for sludge bulking problems. It is expected that sludge bulking problems in many cases can be solved just by changing the process control in order to run a more consequent nitritation. Theoretically this process will decrease the oxygen consumption for oxidation by 25% and the use of carbon source for the reduction will be decreased by 40% compared to the conventional process.

  6. Optimization of an Sbr process for nitrogen removal from concentrated wastewater via nitrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhi, L.; Basilico, D.; Meloni, A.; Canziani, R.

    2009-01-01

    The results of an experimentation carried out on a pilot-scale Sbr for nitrogen removal via nitridation-denitration are reported. The experimentation was carried out in the period July October 2007 and was aimed at achieving design data for the upgrade of a full scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), following the new regulations issued by Lombardy Regional Authority for the discharge of effluents into sensitive areas. One aspect that has been considered in the upgrade is nitrogen removal from the supernatant coming from anaerobic sludge digestion. The experimental results provided sound design data based on real biological activity measurements and operational process parameters such as oxygen and organic carbon requirements. [it

  7. Start-Up and Aeration Strategies for a Completely Autotrophic Nitrogen Removal Process in an SBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The start-up and performance of the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal via nitrite (CANON process were examined in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR with intermittent aeration. Initially, partial nitrification was established, and then the DO concentration was lowered further, surplus water in the SBR with high nitrite was replaced with tap water, and continuous aeration mode was turned into intermittent aeration mode, while the removal of total nitrogen was still weak. However, the total nitrogen (TN removal efficiency and nitrogen removal loading reached 83.07% and 0.422 kgN/(m3·d, respectively, 14 days after inoculating 0.15 g of CANON biofilm biomass into the SBR. The aggregates formed in SBR were the mixture of activated sludge and granular sludge; the volume ratio of floc and granular sludge was 7 : 3. DNA analysis showed that Planctomycetes-like anammox bacteria and Nitrosomonas-like aerobic ammonium oxidization bacteria were dominant bacteria in the reactor. The influence of aeration strategies on CANON process was investigated using batch tests. The result showed that the strategy of alternating aeration (1 h and nonaeration (1 h was optimum, which can obtain almost the same TN removal efficiency as continuous aeration while reducing the energy consumption, inhibiting the activity of NOB, and enhancing the activity of AAOB.

  8. Innovative process scheme for removal of organic matter, phosphorus and nitrogen from pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    blanket (UASB) reactor, partial oxidation), nitrogen (oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification-denitrification, OLAND) and phosphorus (phosphorus removal by precipitation as struvite, PRS) from pig manure were tested. Results obtained showed that microfiltration was unsuitable for pig manure treatment....... PRS treated effluent was negatively affecting the further processing of the pig manure in UASB, and was therefore not included in the final process flow scheme. In a final scheme (PIGMAN concept) combination of the following successive process steps was used: thermophilic anaerobic digestion...... with sequential separation by decanter centrifuge, post-digestion in UASB reactor, partial oxidation and finally OLAND process. This combination resulted in reduction of the total organic, nitrogen and phosphorus contents by 96%, 88%, and 81%, respectively....

  9. Rapid startup and high rate nitrogen removal from anaerobic sludge digester liquor using a SNAP process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Sen; Nishiyama, Takashi; Fujii, Tatsuo; Bhatti, Zafar; Furukawa, Kenji

    2012-02-01

    In this study, a single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal reactor, packed with a novel acrylic fiber biomass carrier material (Biofix), was applied for nitrogen removal from sludge digester liquor. For rapid start-up, conventional activated sludge was added to the reactor soon after the attachment of anammox biomass on the Biofix carriers, which allowed conventional activated sludge to form a protective layer of biofilm around the anammox biomass. The Nitrogen removal efficiency reached 75% within 1 week at a nitrogen loading rate of 0.46 kg-N/m(3)/day for synthetic wastewater treatment. By the end of the synthetic wastewater treatment period, the maximum nitrogen removal rate had increased to 0.92 kg-N/m(3)/day at a nitrogen loading rate of 1.0 kg-N/m(3)/day. High nitrogen removal rate was also achieved during the actual raw digester liquor treatment with the highest nitrogen removal rate being 0.83 kg-N/m(3)/day at a nitrogen loading rate of 0.93 kg-N/m(3)/day. The thick biofilm on Biofix carriers allowed anammox bacteria to survive under high DO concentration of 5-6 mg/l resulting in stable and high nitrogen removal performance. FISH and CLSM analysis demonstrated that anammox bacteria coexisted and surrounded by ammonium oxidizing bacteria.

  10. Nitrogen removal process optimization in New York City WPCPS: a case study of Wards Island WPCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, K; Fillos, J; Musabyimana, M; Deur, A; Beckmann, K

    2009-01-01

    The New York City Department of Environmental Protection has been engaged in a continuous process to develop a nitrogen removal program to reduce the nitrogen mass discharge from its water pollution control plants, (WPCPs), from 49,158 kg/d to 20,105 kg/d by the year 2017 as recommended by the Long Island Sound Study. As part of the process, a comprehensive research effort was undertaken involving bench, pilot and full scale studies to identify the most effective way to upgrade and optimize the existing WPCPs. Aeration tank 13 (AT-13) at the Wards Island WPCP was particularly attractive as a full-scale research facility because its aeration tank with its dedicated final settling tanks and RAS pumps could be isolated from the remaining treatment facilities. The nitrogen removal performance of AT-13, which, at the time, was operated as a "basic step feed BNR Facility", was evaluated and concurrently nitrification kinetic parameters were measured using in-situ bench scale experiments. Additional bench scale experiments provided denitrification rates using different sources of carbon and measurement of the maximum specific growth rate of nitrifying bacteria. The combined findings were then used to upgrade AT-13 to a "full" BNR facility with carbon and alkalinity addition. This paper will focus on the combined bench and full scale results that were the basis for the consequent upgrade.

  11. Advances in wastewater nitrogen removal by biological processes: state of the art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea G. Capodaglio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the state-of-the-art of the most recent advances in biological nitrogen removal, including process design criteria and technological innovations. With reference to the Modified Ludzck Ettinger (MLE process (pre-denitrification and nitrification in the activated sludge process, the most common nitrogen removal process used nowadays, a new design equation for the denitrification reactor based on specific denitrification rate (SDNR has been proposed. In addition, factors influencing SDNR (DO in the anoxic reactor; hydrodynamic behavior are analyzed, and technological solutions are proposed. Concerning technological advances, the paper presents a summary of various “deammonification” processes, better known by their patent names like ANAMMOX®, DEMON®, CANON®, ANITA® and others. These processes have already found applications in the treatment of high-strength wastewater such as digested sludge liquor and landfill leachate. Among other emerging denitrification technologies, consideration is given to the Membrane Biofilm Reactors (MBfRs that can be operated both in oxidation and reduction mode.

  12. High temperature fluidized bed zero valent iron process for flue gas nitrogen monoxide removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.Y.; Chen, S.S.; Tang, C.H.; Chang, Y.M.; Cheng, H.H.; Liu, H.L.

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) are generated from a variety of sources, and are critical components of photochemical smog. Zero valent iron (ZVI) has been used to remove NO x in a number of studies. The ZVI process requires no extra chemicals or catalysts. In this study, a fluidized ZVI process for removing NO x from flue gases was proposed. The study examined the effects of temperature, ZVI dosage and influent NO concentrations, and observed the kinetic effects between the fluidized ZVI and NO x . A life cycle analysis of the process was also provided. The parametric analysis was conducted in a series of column studies using a continuous emissions monitoring system. Minimum fluidization velocity equations were provided, and the drag coefficient was determined. Capacities of ZVI for NO removal at different temperatures were calculated. Results of the study suggested that temperature, influent concentrations, and flow rates all influenced kinetic coefficients. Different temperatures resulted in different rates of NO removal. It was concluded that between 673 K and 773 K, almost complete NO removals were achieved. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs

  13. Process for the removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides from flue gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshout, R.V.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a continuous process for removing sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide contaminants from the flue gas generated by industrial power plants and boiler systems burning sulfur containing fossil fuels and for converting these contaminants, respectively, into recovered elemental liquid sulfur and nitrogen ammonia and mixtures thereof. It comprises removing at least a portion of the flue gas generated by a power plant or boiler system upstream of the stack thereof; passing the cooled and scrubbed flue gas through an adsorption system; combining a first portion of the reducing gas stream leaving the adsorbers of the adsorption system during regeneration thereof and containing sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide contaminants with a hydrogen sulfide rich gas stream at a temperature of about 400 degrees F to about 600 degrees F and passing the combined gas streams through a Claus reactor-condenser system over a catalyst in the reactor section thereof which is suitable for promoting the equilibrium reaction between the hydrogen sulfide and the sulfur dioxide of the combined streams to form elemental sulfur

  14. Development of novel control strategies for single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal: A process oriented approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Gernaey, Krist

    2014-01-01

    operation and rejection of disturbances. Three novel control strategies were developed, evaluated, and benchmarked against each other: a feedforward control (control structure 1 – CS#1), a rule-based feedback control (CS#2), and a feedforward–feedback controller, in which the feedback loop updates the set......The autotrophic nitrogen removing granular sludge process is a novel and intensified process. However, its stable operation and control remain a challenging issue. In this contribution, a process oriented approach was used to develop, evaluate and benchmark novel control strategies to ensure stable...... point of the feedforward loop (CS#3). The CS#1 gave the best performance against disturbances in the ammonium concentration, whereas the CS#2 provided the best performance against disturbances in the organic carbon concentration and dynamic influent conditions. The CS#3 rejected both disturbances...

  15. Effect of dissolved oxygen on nitrogen removal and process control in aerobic granular sludge reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xiangjuan; Gao Dawen

    2010-01-01

    A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with aerobic granular sludge was operated to determine the effect of different DO concentrations on biological nitrogen removal process and to investigate the spatial profiles of DO, ORP and pH as online control parameters in such systems. The results showed that DO concentration had a significant effect on nitrification efficiencies and the profiles of DO, ORP and pH. The specific nitrification rate was decreased from 0.0595 mgNH 4 + -N/(gMLSS min) to 0.0251 mgNH 4 + -N/(gMLSS min) after DO concentration was dropped off from 4.5 mg/L to 1.0 mg/L. High DO concentration improved the nitrification and increased the volumetric NH 4 + -N removal. Low DO concentration enhanced TIN removal, while prolonged the nitrification duration. Also there existed a good correlation between online control parameters (ORP, pH) and nutrient (COD, NH 4 + -N, NO 2 - -N, NO 3 - -N) variations in aerobic granular sludge reactor when DO was 2.5 mg/L, 3.5 mg/L and 4.5 mg/L. However it was difficult to identify the end of nitrification and denitrification when DO was 1.0 mg/L, due to no apparent bending points on ORP and pH curves. In conclusion, the optimal DO concentration was suggested at 2.5 mg/L as it not only achieved high nitrogen removal efficiency and decreased the reaction duration, but also saved operation cost by aeration and mixing.

  16. Nitrogen removal on recycling water process of wastewater treatment plant effluent using subsurface horizontal wetland with continuous feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazkiaturrizki, T.; Soewondo, P.; Handajani, M.

    2018-01-01

    Recycling water is a generic term for water reclamation and reuse to solve the scarcity of water. Constructed wetlands have been recognized as providing many benefits for wastewater treatment including water supply and control by recycling water. This research aims to find the best condition to significantly remove nitrogen using constructed wetland for recycling water of Bojongsoang Waste Water Treatment Plan (WWTP) effluent. Using media of soil, sand, gravel, and vegetation (Typha latifolia and Scirpus grossus) with an aeration system, BOD and COD parameters have been remarkably reduced. On the contrary, the removal efficiency for nitrogen is only between 50-60%. Modifications were then conducted by three step of treatment, i.e., Step I is to remove BOD/COD using Typha latifolia with an aeration system, Step II is todecrease nitrogen using Scirpus grossus with/without aeration, and Step III isto complete the nitrogen removal with denitrification process by Glycine max without aeration. Results of the research show that the nitrogen removal has been successfully increased to a high efficiency between 80-99%. The combination of aeration system and vegetation greatly affects the nitrogen removal. The vegetation acts as the organic nitrogen consumer (plant uptake) for amino acids, nitrate, and ammonium as nutrition, as well as theoxygen supplier to the roots so that aerobic microsites are formed for ammonification microorganisms.

  17. Improving the biological nitrogen removal process in pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrijos, M; Carrera, J; Lafuente, J

    2004-04-01

    The Biological Nitrogen Removal (BNR) process of some pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants has important operational problems. This study shows that, in order to solve these problems, the design of industrial BNR processes should start by analysing three key parameters: the characteristics of the wastewater load, the determination of the maximum TKN removal rate and the detection of toxic or inhibitory compounds in the wastewater. A case study of this analysis in pharmaceutical wastewater is presented here. In this case, the conventional TKN analytical method does not make an accurate characterisation of the wastewater load because it measures a concentration of 100 mg TKN l(-1) whereas the real concentration, determined with a modified TKN analytical method, is 150-500 mg TKN l(-1). Also, the TKN removal of the treatment system is insufficient in some periods because it falls below legal requirements. This problem might be a consequence of the wrong characterisation of wastewater during the design process. The maximum TKN removal at 27 degrees C (24 mg N g VSS(-1) d(-1) or 197 mg N l(-1) d(-1)) was evaluated in a pilot-scale plant. This value is six times greater than the average NLR applied in the full-scale plant. Finally, some of the components of the wastewater, such as p-phenylenediamine, might have inhibitory or toxic effects on the biological process. P-phenylenediamine causes a large decrease in the nitrification rate. This effect was determined by respirometry. This methodology shows that the effect is mainly inhibitory with a contact time of 30 min and if the contact time is longer, 14 hours, a toxic effect is observed.

  18. Simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal in the sulfur cycle-associated Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Ekama, George A; Wang, Hai-Guang; Wei, Li; Lu, Hui; Chui, Ho-Kwong; Liu, Wen-Tso; Brdjanovic, Damir; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2014-02-01

    Hong Kong has practiced seawater toilet flushing since 1958, saving 750,000 m(3) of freshwater every day. A high sulfate-to-COD ratio (>1.25 mg SO4(2-)/mg COD) in the saline sewage resulting from this practice has enabled us to develop the Sulfate reduction, Autotrophic denitrification and Nitrification Integrated (SANI(®)) process with minimal sludge production and oxygen demand. Recently, the SANI(®) process has been expanded to include Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) in an alternating anaerobic/limited-oxygen (LOS-EBPR) aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR). This paper presents further development - an anaerobic/anoxic denitrifying sulfur cycle-associated EBPR, named as DS-EBPR, bioprocess in an alternating anaerobic/anoxic SBR for simultaneous removal of organics, nitrogen and phosphorus. The 211 day SBR operation confirmed the sulfur cycle-associated biological phosphorus uptake utilizing nitrate as electron acceptor. This new bioprocess cannot only reduce operation time but also enhance volumetric loading of SBR compared with the LOS-EBPR. The DS-EBPR process performed well at high temperatures of 30 °C and a high salinity of 20% seawater. A synergistic relationship may exist between sulfur cycle and biological phosphorus removal as the optimal ratio of P-release to SO4(2-)-reduction is close to 1.0 mg P/mg S. There were no conventional PAOs in the sludge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Achieving mainstream nitrogen removal through simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification process in an integrated fixed film activated sludge reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Sitong; Xu, Xiaochen; Zhang, Chaolei; Wang, Dong; Yang, Fenglin

    2018-07-01

    The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is becoming a critical technology for energy neutral in mainstream wastewater treatment. However, the presence of chemical oxygen demanding in influent would result in a poor nitrogen removal efficiency during the deammonification process. In this study, the simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification process (SNAD) for mainstream nitrogen removal was investigated in an integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS) reactor. SNAD-IFAS process achieved a total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency of 72 ± 2% and an average COD removal efficiency was 88%. The optimum COD/N ratio for mainstream wastewater treatment was 1.2 ± 0.2. Illumina sequencing analysis and activity tests showed that anammox and denitrifying bacteria were the dominant nitrogen removal microorganism in the biofilm and the high COD/N ratios (≥2.0) leaded to the proliferation of heterotrophic bacteria (Hydrogenophaga) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrospira) in the suspended sludge. Network analysis confirmed that anammox bacteria (Candidatus Kuenenia) could survive in organic matter environment due to that anammox bacteria displayed significant co-occurrence through positive correlations with some heterotrophic bacteria (Limnobacter) which could protect anammox bacteria from hostile environments. Overall, the results of this study provided more comprehensive information regarding the community composition and assemblies in SNAD-IFAS process for mainstream nitrogen removal. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Selection of controlled variables in bioprocesses. Application to a SHARON-Anammox process for autotrophic nitrogen removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Valverde Perez, Borja; Sin, Gürkan

    Selecting the right controlled variables in a bioprocess is challenging since the objectives of the process (yields, product or substrate concentration) are difficult to relate with a given actuator. We apply here process control tools that can be used to assist in the selection of controlled var...... variables to the case of the SHARON-Anammox process for autotrophic nitrogen removal....

  1. Anammox-based technologies for nitrogen removal: Advances in process start-up and remaining issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad; Okabe, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen removal from wastewater via anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox)-based process has been recognized as efficient, cost-effective and low energy alternative to the conventional nitrification and denitrification processes. To date, more than one hundred full-scale anammox plants have been installed and operated for treatment of NH4(+)-rich wastewater streams around the world, and the number is increasing rapidly. Since the discovery of anammox process, extensive researches have been done to develop various anammox-based technologies. However, there are still some challenges in practical application of anammox-based treatment process at full-scale, e.g., longer start-up period, limited application to mainstream municipal wastewater and poor effluent water quality. This paper aimed to summarize recent status of application of anammox process and researches on technological development for solving these remaining problems. In addition, an integrated system of anammox-based process and microbial fuel cell is proposed for sustainable and energy-positive wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of process costs for small-scale nitrogen removal from natural gas. Topical report, January 1989-December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echterhoff, L.W.; Pathak, V.K.

    1991-08-01

    The report establishes the cost of producing pipeline quality gas on a small scale from high nitrogen subquality natural gas. Three processing technologies are evaluated: cryogenic, Nitrotec Engineering Inc.'s pressure swing adsorption (PSA), and lean oil absorption. Comparison of the established costs shows that the cryogenic process exhibits the lowest total plant investment for nitrogen feed contents up to about 22%, above which the PSA process exhibits the lowest investment cost. The lean oil process exhibits the highest total plant investment at the 25% nitrogen feed studied. Opposite to the total plant investment for the cryogenic process, the total plant investment for the PSA process decreases with increasing nitrogen content primarily due to increasing product gas compression requirements. The cryogenic process exhibits the lowest gas processing costs for the nitrogen content range under study. However, the difference between the gas processing costs for the PSA and cryogenic processes narrows as the nitrogen content approaches 15-25%. The lean oil gas processing cost is very high compared to both the cryogenic and PSA processes. The report verifies that nitrogen removal from natural gas is expensive, especially for small-scale applications, and several avenues are identified for improving the cryogenic and PSA technologies

  3. Incremental design of control system of SHARON-Anammox process for autotrophic nitrogen removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Valverde Perez, Borja; Sin, Gürkan

    2012-01-01

    With the perspective of investigating a suitable control design for autotrophic nitrogen removal, this work explores the control design for a SHARON-Anammox reactor sequence. With this aim, a full model is developed, including the pH dependency, in order to simulate the reactor and determine...

  4. Optimization of free ammonia concentration for nitrite accumulation in shortcut biological nitrogen removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jinwook; Shim, Hojae; Park, Seong-Jun; Kim, Seung-Jin; Bae, Wookeun

    2006-03-01

    A shortcut biological nitrogen removal (SBNR) utilizes the concept of a direct conversion of ammonium to nitrite and then to nitrogen gas. A successful SBNR requires accumulation of nitrite in the system and inhibition of the activity of nitrite oxidizers. A high concentration of free ammonia (FA) inhibits nitrite oxidizers, but unfortunately decreases the ammonium removal rate as well. Therefore, the optimal range of FA concentration is necessary not only to stabilize nitrite accumulation but also to achieve maximum ammonium removal. In order to derive such optimal FA concentrations, the specific substrate utilization rates of ammonium and nitrite oxidizers were measured. The optimal FA concentration range appeared to be 5-10 mg/L for the adapted sludge. The simulated results from the modified inhibition model expressed by FA and ammonium/nitrite concentrations were shown very similar to the experimental results.

  5. Towards a plant-wide Benchmark Simulation Model with simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal wastewater treatment processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Ikumi, David; Batstone, Damien

    It is more than 10 years since the publication of the Benchmark Simulation Model No 1 (BSM1) manual (Copp, 2002). The main objective of BSM1 was creating a platform for benchmarking carbon and nitrogen removal strategies in activated sludge systems. The initial platform evolved into BSM1_LT and BSM....... This extension aims at facilitating simultaneous carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus (P) removal process development and performance evaluation at a plant-wide level. The main motivation of the work is that numerous wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) pursue biological phosphorus removal as an alternative...... to chemical P removal based on precipitation using metal salts, such as Fe or Al. This paper identifies and discusses important issues that need to be addressed to upgrade the BSM2 to BSM2-P, for example: 1) new influent wastewater characteristics; 2) new (bio) chemical processes to account for; 3...

  6. New concepts of microbial treatment processes for the nitrogen removal: effect of protein and amino acids degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martínez, Alejandro; Calderón, Kadiya; González-López, Jesús

    2016-05-01

    High concentrations of proteins and amino acids can be found in wastewater and wastewater stream produced in anaerobic digesters, having shown that amino acids could persist over different managements for nitrogen removal affecting the nitrogen removal processes. Nitrogen removal is completely necessary because of their implications and the significant adverse environmental impact of ammonium such as eutrophication and toxicity to aquatic life on the receiving bodies. In the last decade, the treatment of effluents with high ammonium concentration through anammox-based bioprocesses has been enhanced because these biotechnologies are cheaper and more environmentally friendly than conventional technologies. However, it has been shown that the presence of important amounts of proteins and amino acids in the effluents seriously affects the microbial autotrophic consortia leading to important losses in terms of ammonium oxidation efficiency. Particularly the presence of sulfur amino acids such as methionine and cysteine has been reported to drastically decrease the autotrophic denitrification processes as well as affect the microbial community structure promoting the decline of ammonium oxidizing bacteria in favor of other phylotypes. In this context we discuss that new biotechnological processes that improve the degradation of protein and amino acids must be considered as a priority to increase the performance of the autotrophic denitrification biotechnologies.

  7. Extending the benchmark simulation model no2 with processes for nitrous oxide production and side-stream nitrogen removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiocchi, Riccardo; Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist V.

    2015-01-01

    In this work the Benchmark Simulation Model No.2 is extended with processes for nitrous oxide production and for side-stream partial nitritation/Anammox (PN/A) treatment. For these extensions the Activated Sludge Model for Greenhouse gases No.1 was used to describe the main waterline, whereas...... the Complete Autotrophic Nitrogen Removal (CANR) model was used to describe the side-stream (PN/A) treatment. Comprehensive simulations were performed to assess the extended model. Steady-state simulation results revealed the following: (i) the implementation of a continuous CANR side-stream reactor has...... increased the total nitrogen removal by 10%; (ii) reduced the aeration demand by 16% compared to the base case, and (iii) the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria is most influencing nitrous oxide emissions. The extended model provides a simulation platform to generate, test and compare novel control...

  8. Investigation on thiosulfate-involved organics and nitrogen removal by a sulfur cycle-based biological wastewater treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jin; Lu, Hui; Cui, Yanxiang; Wei, Li; Liu, Rulong; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2015-02-01

    Thiosulfate, as an intermediate of biological sulfate/sulfite reduction, can significantly improve nitrogen removal potential in a biological sulfur cycle-based process, namely the Sulfate reduction-Autotrophic denitrification-Nitrification Integrated (SANI(®)) process. However, the related thiosulfate bio-activities coupled with organics and nitrogen removal in wastewater treatment lacked detailed examinations and reports. In this study, S2O3(2-) transformation during biological SO4(2-)/SO3(2-) co-reduction coupled with organics removal as well as S2O3(2-) oxidation coupled with chemolithotrophic denitrification were extensively evaluated under different experimental conditions. Thiosulfate is produced from the co-reduction of sulfate and sulfite through biological pathway at an optimum pH of 7.5 for organics removal. And the produced S2O3(2-) may disproportionate to sulfide and sulfate during both biological S2O3(2-) reduction and oxidation most possibly carried out by Desulfovibrio-like species. Dosing the same amount of nitrate, pH was found to be the more direct factor influencing the denitritation activity than free nitrous acid (FNA) and the optimal pH for denitratation (7.0) and denitritation (8.0) activities were different. Spiking organics significantly improved both denitratation and denitritation activities while minimizing sulfide inhibition of NO3(-) reduction during thiosulfate-based denitrification. These findings in this study can improve the understanding of mechanisms of thiosulfate on organics and nitrogen removal in biological sulfur cycle-based wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Inside Story of Gas Processes within Stormwater Biofilters: Does Greenhouse Gas Production Tarnish the Benefits of Nitrogen Removal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Emily G I; Pham, Tracey; Cook, Perran L M; Deletic, Ana; Hatt, Belinda E; Fletcher, Tim D

    2017-04-04

    Stormwater biofilters are dynamic environments, supporting diverse processes that act to capture and transform incoming pollutants. However, beneficial water treatment processes can be accompanied by undesirable greenhouse gas production. This study investigated the potential for nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ) generation in dissolved form at the base of laboratory-scale stormwater biofilter columns. The influence of plant presence, species, inflow frequency, and inclusion of a saturated zone and carbon source were studied. Free-draining biofilters remained aerobic with negligible greenhouse gas production during storm events. Designs with a saturated zone were oxygenated at their base by incoming stormwater before anaerobic conditions rapidly re-established, although extended dry periods allowed the reintroduction of oxygen by evapotranspiration. Production of CH 4 and N 2 O in the saturated zone varied significantly in response to plant presence, species, and wetting and drying. Concentrations of N 2 O typically peaked rapidly following stormwater inundation, associated with limited plant root systems and poorer nitrogen removal from biofilter effluent. Production of CH 4 also commenced quickly but continued throughout the anaerobic interevent period and lacked clear relationships with plant characteristics or nitrogen removal performance. Dissolved greenhouse gas concentrations were highly variable, but peak concentrations of N 2 O accounted for nitrogen load. While further work is required to measure surface emissions, the potential for substantial release of N 2 O or CH 4 in biofilter effluent appears relatively low.

  10. Effective Biological Nitrogen Removal Treatment Processes for Domestic Wastewaters with Low C/N Ratios: A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Sheng-Peng; Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles; Merkey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    with high efficiency and relative low costs. However, the removal of nitrogen from domestic wastewater with a low carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio can often be limited in municipal wastewater plants (WWTPs) because organic carbon is a limiting factor for denitrification. The present work reviews innovative....... They can effectively be used for nitrogen removal from low C/N domestic wastewater without external carbon addition. In addition, conventional and alternative carbon sources for enhanced biological nitrogen removal were also reviewed. We conclude that alternative carbon sources such as wine distillery...... at large scale for nitrogen removal from low C/N domestic wastewater, (2) further method logic are explored to introduce the Anammox pathway into domestic wastewater treatment, and (3) alternative carbon sources are explored and optimized for supporting the denitrification. With these efforts, cost...

  11. Enhanced nitrogen removal from electroplating tail wastewater through two-staged anoxic-oxic (A/O) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xinmei; Zhu, Chunyan; Huang, Bin; Yan, Qun; Zhang, Guangsheng

    2018-01-01

    Consisted of anaerobic (ANA), anoxic-1 (AN1), aerobic-1 (AE1), anoxic-2 (AN2), aerobic-2 (AE2) reactors and sediment tank, the two-staged A/O process was applied for depth treatment of electroplating tail wastewater with high electrical conductivity and large amounts of ammonia nitrogen. It was found that the NH 4 + -N and COD removal efficiencies reached 97.11% and 83.00%, respectively. Besides, the short-term salinity shock of the control, AE1 and AE2 indicated that AE1 and AE2 have better resistance to high salinity when the concentration of NaCl ranged from 1 to 10g/L. Meanwhile, it was found through high-throughput sequencing that bacteria genus Nitrosomonas, Nitrospira and Thauera, which are capable of nitrogen removal, were enriched in the two-staged A/O process. Moreover, both salt-tolerant bacteria and halophili bacteria were also found in the combined process. Therefore, microbial community within the two-staged A/O process could be acclimated to high electrical conductivity, and adapted for electroplating tail wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Lacustrine wetland in an agricultural catchment: nitrogen removal and related biogeochemical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Balestrini

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of specific catchment areas, such as the soil-river or lake interfaces, in removing or buffering the flux of N from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems is globally recognized but the extreme variability of microbiological and hydrological processes make it difficult to predict the extent to which different wetlands function as buffer systems. In this paper we evaluate the degree to which biogeochemical processes in a lacustrine wetland are responsible for the nitrate removal from ground waters feeding Candia Lake (Northern Italy. A transect of 18 piezometers was installed perpendicular to the shoreline, in a sub-unit formed by 80 m of poplar plantation, close to a crop field and 30 m of reed swamp. The chemical analysis revealed a drastic NO3-N ground water depletion from the crop field to the lake, with concentrations decreasing from 15–18 mg N/l to the detection limit within the reeds. Patterns of Cl, SO42–, O2, NO2-N, HCO3 and DOC suggest that the metabolic activity of bacterial communities, based on the differential use of electron donors and acceptors in redox reactions is the key function of this system. The significant inverse relationship found between NO3-N and HCO3 is a valuable indicator of the denitrification activity. The pluviometric regime, the temperature, the organic carbon availability and the hydrogeomorphic properties are the main environmental factors affecting the N transformations in the studied lacustrine ecosystem.

  13. Respirometry applied for biological nitrogen removal process; Aplicacion de la respirometria al tratamiento biologico para la eliminacion del nitrogeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, E.

    2004-07-01

    In waste water treatment plants, the Biological Nitrogen Removal (BNR) has acquired a fundamental importance. The BNR processes are Nitrification ( aerobic) and Denitrification (anoxic). Since both processes are carried on living microorganisms, a lack of their bioactivity information might cause serious confusion about their control criteria and following up purposes. For this reason, the Re spirometry applied to those processes has reached an important role by getting an essential information in a timely manner through respiration rate measurements in static and dynamic modes and applications such as AUR (Ammonium Uptake Rate), Nitrification Capacity. RBCOD (Readily Biodegradable COD) as well as AUR related to SRT (Sludge age), RBCOD related to NUR (Specific Nitrate Uptake Rate) and others. By other side in this article we have introduced a not very well known applications related to denitrification, about the methanol acclimatization and generated bioactivity. (Author) 6 refs.

  14. Sliding mode control of dissolved oxygen in an integrated nitrogen removal process in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, C; Young, H; Antileo, C; Bornhardt, C

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a sliding mode controller (SMC) for dissolved oxygen (DO) in an integrated nitrogen removal process carried out in a suspended biomass sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The SMC performance was compared against an auto-tuning PI controller with parameters adjusted at the beginning of the batch cycle. A method for cancelling the slow DO sensor dynamics was implemented by using a first order model of the sensor. Tests in a lab-scale reactor showed that the SMC offers a better disturbance rejection capability than the auto-tuning PI controller, furthermore providing reasonable performance in a wide range of operation. Thus, SMC becomes an effective robust nonlinear tool to the DO control in this process, being also simple from a computational point of view, allowing its implementation in devices such as industrial programmable logic controllers (PLCs).

  15. Sulfonamide antibiotic removal and nitrogen recovery from synthetic urine by the combination of rotating advanced oxidation contactor and methylene urea synthesis process

    OpenAIRE

    Fukahori, S.; Fujiwara, T.; Ito, R.; Funamizu, N.

    2015-01-01

    The combination of nitrogen recovery and pharmaceutical removal processes for livestock urine treatment were investigated to suppress the discharge of pollutants and recover nitrogen as resources. We combined methylene urea synthesis from urea and adsorption and photocatalytic decomposition of sulfonamide antibiotic using rotating advanced oxidation contactor (RAOC) contained for obtaining both safe fertilizer and reclaimed water. The methylene urea synthesis could recover urea in synthetic u...

  16. Enhancement of the complete autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite process in a modified single-stage subsurface vertical flow constructed wetland: Effect of saturated zone depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Menglu; Wang, Zhen; Qi, Ran

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to explore enhancement of the complete autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process in a modified single-stage subsurface vertical flow constructed wetland (VSSF) with saturated zone, and nitrogen transformation pathways in the VSSF treating digested swine wastewater were investigated at four different saturated zone depths (SZDs). SZD significantly affected nitrogen transformation pathways in the VSSF throughout the experiment. As the SZD was 45cm, the CANON process was enhanced most effectively in the system owing to the notable enhancement of anammox. Correspondingly, the VSSF had the best TN removal performance [(76.74±7.30)%] and lower N 2 O emission flux [(3.50±0.22)mg·(m 2 ·h) - 1 ]. It could be concluded that autotrophic nitrogen removal via CANON process could become a primary route for nitrogen removal in the VSSF with optimized microenvironment that developed as a result of the appropriate SZD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An operational protocol for facilitating start-up of single-stage autotrophic nitrogen-removing reactors based on process stoichiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutlu, Ayten Gizem; Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Sin, Gürkan

    2013-01-01

    Start-up and operation of single-stage nitritation–anammox sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) for completely autotrophic nitrogen removal can be challenging and far from trivial. In this study, a step-wise procedure is developed based on stoichiometric analysis of the process performance from...

  18. Sulfonamide antibiotic removal and nitrogen recovery from synthetic urine by the combination of rotating advanced oxidation contactor and methylene urea synthesis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukahori, S; Fujiwara, T; Ito, R; Funamizu, N

    2015-01-01

    The combination of nitrogen recovery and pharmaceutical removal processes for livestock urine treatment were investigated to suppress the discharge of pollutants and recover nitrogen as resources. We combined methylene urea synthesis from urea and adsorption and photocatalytic decomposition of sulfonamide antibiotic using rotating advanced oxidation contactor (RAOC) contained for obtaining both safe fertilizer and reclaimed water. The methylene urea synthesis could recover urea in synthetic urine, however, almost all sulfonamide antibiotic was also incorporated, which is unfavorable from a safety aspect if the methylene urea is to be used as fertilizer. Conversely, RAOC could remove sulfonamide antibiotic without consuming urea. It was also confirmed that the methylene urea could be synthesized from synthetic urine treated by RAOC. Thus, we concluded that RAOC should be inserted prior to the nitrogen recovery process for effective treatment of urine and safe use of methylene urea as fertilizer.

  19. Optimization aspects of the biological nitrogen removal process in a full-scale twin sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system in series treating landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmas, Nikolaos; Ntougias, Spyridon; Chatzopoulou, Marianna; Melidis, Paraschos

    2018-03-29

    Despite the fact that biological nitrogen removal (BNR) process has been studied in detail in laboratory- and pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) systems treating landfill leachate, a limited number of research works have been performed in full-scale SBR plants regarding nitrification and denitrification. In the current study, a full-scale twin SBR system in series of 700 m 3 (350 m 3 each) treating medium-age landfill leachate was evaluated in terms of its carbon and nitrogen removal efficiency in the absence and presence of external carbon source, i.e., glycerol from biodiesel production. Both biodegradable organic carbon and ammonia were highly oxidized [biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) and total Kjehldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal efficiencies above 90%], whereas chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was slightly above 40%, which is within the range reported in the literature for pilot-scale SBRs. As the consequence of the high recalcitrant organic fraction of the landfill leachate, dissimilatory nitrate reduction was restricted in the absence of crude glycerol, although denitrification was improved by electron donor addition, resulting in TN removal efficiencies above 70%. Experimental data revealed that the second SBR negligibly contributed to BNR process, since carbon and ammonia oxidation completion was achieved in the first SBR. On the other hand, the low VSS/SS ratio, due to the lack of primary sedimentation, highly improved sludge settleability, resulting in sludge volume indices (SVI) below 30 mL g -1 .

  20. Liquid Nitrogen Removal of Critical Aerospace Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, Donald E.; Merrick, Jason; Hayes, Paul W.

    2005-01-01

    Identification of innovative solutions to unique materials problems is an every-day quest for members of the aerospace community. Finding a technique that will minimize costs, maximize throughput, and generate quality results is always the target. United Space Alliance Materials Engineers recently conducted such a search in their drive to return the Space Shuttle fleet to operational status. The removal of high performance thermal coatings from solid rocket motors represents a formidable task during post flight disassembly on reusable expended hardware. The removal of these coatings from unfired motors increases the complexity and safety requirements while reducing the available facilities and approved processes. A temporary solution to this problem was identified, tested and approved during the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) return to flight activities. Utilization of ultra high-pressure liquid nitrogen (LN2) to strip the protective coating from assembled space shuttle hardware marked the first such use of the technology in the aerospace industry. This process provides a configurable stream of liquid nitrogen (LN2) at pressures of up to 55,000 psig. The performance of a one-time certification for the removal of thermal ablatives from SRB hardware involved extensive testing to ensure adequate material removal without causing undesirable damage to the residual materials or aluminum substrates. Testing to establish appropriate process parameters such as flow, temperature and pressures of the liquid nitrogen stream provided an initial benchmark for process testing. Equipped with these initial parameters engineers were then able to establish more detailed test criteria that set the process limits. Quantifying the potential for aluminum hardware damage represented the greatest hurdle for satisfying engineers as to the safety of this process. Extensive testing for aluminum erosion, surface profiling, and substrate weight loss was performed. This successful project clearly

  1. Automatic adjustment of cycle length and aeration time for improved nitrogen removal in an alternating activated sludge process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard

    1997-01-01

    The paper examines the nitrogen dynamics in the alternating BIODENITRO and BIODENIPHO processes with a focus on two control handles influencing now scheduling and aeration: the cycle length and the ammonia concentration at which a nitrifying period is terminated. A steady state analysis examining...

  2. Removal of organic matter and ammoniacal nitrogen from landfill leachate using the UV/H2O2 photochemical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova, Rolando Nunes; Nagel-Hassemer, Maria Eliza; Matias, William Gerson; Muller, Jose Miguel; de Castilhos Junior, Armando Borges

    2017-12-04

    This study investigates the effects of pH, H 2 O 2 concentration and reaction time of the UV/H 2 O 2 photochemical process on the removal of organic matter and ammonia from biologically pre-treated landfill leachates in anaerobic stabilization ponds. The results show that the concentration of H 2 O 2 and the initial pH are significant factors, with no significant interaction between them. A pH of 3 is the optimum value for the UV/H 2 O 2 process for the removal of organic matter, resulting in 51.63% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in addition to the removal of aromatic compounds. The N-NH 3 removal showed little variation between pH values of 1, 5, 7, 11 and 13; the removal was on the order of 16.43 ± 2.00%. The consumption of H 2 O 2 was elevated at pH 9, 11 and 13; at these pH values, the average removal was 94.56 ± 0.43%, compared to 43.07% at pH 3. First-order polynomial models and reaction times on the order of 15 min are sufficient for optimization studies and for evaluation of the effects of the studied parameters. The results of this study support the optimization of the UV/H 2 O 2 process for the removal of organic matter and ammonia from landfill leachates.

  3. Antipollution system to remove nitrogen dioxide gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, A. J.; Slough, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    Gas phase reaction system using anhydrous ammonia removes nitrogen dioxide. System consists of ammonia injection and mixing section, reaction section /reactor/, and scrubber section. All sections are contained in system ducting.

  4. Enhanced removal of chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen and phosphorus using the ameliorative anoxic/anaerobic/oxic process and micro-electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, K Q; Gao, J Q; Wang, Z B; Zhang, R Q; Zhang, Z Y; Sugiura, N

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic wastewater was treated using a novel system integrating the reversed anoxic/anaerobic/oxic (RAAO) process, a micro-electrolysis (ME) bed and complex biological media. The system showed superior chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) removal rates. Performance of the system was optimised by considering the influences of three major controlling factors, namely, hydraulic retention time (HRT), organic loading rate (OLR) and mixed liquor recirculation (MLR). TP removal efficiencies were 69, 87, 87 and 83% under the HRTs of 4, 8, 12 and 16 h. In contrast, HRT had negligible effects on the COD and TN removal efficiencies. COD, TN and TP removal efficiencies from synthetic wastewater were 95, 63 and 87%, respectively, at an OLR of 1.9 g/(L·d). The concentrations of COD, TN and TP in the effluent were less than 50, 15 and 1 mg/L, respectively, at the controlled MLR range of 75-100%. In this system, organics, TN and TP were primarily removed from anoxic tank regardless of the operational conditions.

  5. Removal of selected nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds in biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (BPCGW) using the catalytic ozonation process combined with the two-stage membrane bioreactor (MBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hao; Han, Yuxing; Ma, Wencheng; Han, Hongjun; Ma, Weiwei

    2017-12-01

    Three identical anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs) were operated in parallel for 300 consecutive days for raw (R 1 ), ozonated (R 2 ) and catalytic ozonated (R 3 ) biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (BPCGW) treatment. The results demonstrated that catalytic ozonation process (COP) applied asa pretreatment remarkably improved the performance of the unsatisfactory single MBR. The overall removal efficiencies of COD, NH 3 -N and TN in R 3 were 92.7%, 95.6% and 80.6%, respectively. In addition, typical nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) of quinoline, pyridine and indole were completely removed in the integrated process. Moreover, COP could alter sludge properties and reshape microbial community structure, thus delaying the occurrence of membrane fouling. Finally, the total cost for this integrated process was estimated to be lower than that of single MBR. The results of this study suggest that COP is a good option to enhance pollutants removal and alleviate membrane fouling in the MBR for BPCGW treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhanced nitrogen removal in trickling filter plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Y; Constantinou, A; Griffiths, P

    2013-01-01

    The Beaudesert Sewage Treatment Plant (STP), originally built in 1966 and augmented in 1977, is a typical biological trickling filter (TF) STP comprising primary sedimentation tanks (PSTs), TFs and humus tanks. The plant, despite not originally being designed for nitrogen removal, has been consistently achieving over 60% total nitrogen reduction and low effluent ammonium concentration of less than 5 mg NH3-N/L. Through the return of a NO3(-)-rich stream from the humus tanks to the PSTs and maintaining an adequate sludge age within the PSTs, the current plant is achieving a substantial degree of denitrification. Further enhanced denitrification has been achieved by raising the recycle flows and maintaining an adequate solids retention time (SRT) within the PSTs. This paper describes the approach to operating a TF plant to achieve a high degree of nitrification and denitrification. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated through the pilot plant trial. The results from the pilot trial demonstrate a significant improvement in nitrogen removal performance whilst maximising the asset life of the existing infrastructure. This shows great potential as a retrofit option for small and rural communities with pre-existing TFs that require improvements in terms of nitrogen removal.

  7. Complete nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater via partial nitrification by appropriately alternating anoxic/aerobic conditions in a continuous plug-flow step feed process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shijian; Peng, Yongzhen; Qiu, Shuang; Zhu, Ao; Ren, Nanqi

    2014-05-15

    This study assessed the technical feasibility of removing nitrogen from municipal wastewater by partial nitrification (nitritation) in a continuous plug-flow step feed process. Nitrite in the effluent accumulated to over 81.5  ± 9.2% but disappeared with the transition of process operation from anoxic/oxic mode to the anaerobic/anoxic/oxic mode. Batch tests showed obvious ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) stimulation (advanced ammonia oxidation rate) and nitrite (NOB) oxidizing bacteria inhibition (reduced nitrite oxidation rate) under transient anoxic conditions. Two main factors contributed to nitritation in this continuous plug-flow process: One was the alternating anoxic and oxic operational condition; the step feed strategy guaranteed timely denitrification in anoxic zones, allowing a reduction in energy supply (nitrite) to NOB. Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that NOB population gradually decreased to 1.0  ± 0.1% of the total bacterial population (dominant Nitrospira spp., 1.55 × 10(9) copies/L) while AOB increased approximately two-fold (7.4  ± 0.9%, 1.25 × 10(10) copies/L) during the above anoxic to anaerobic transition. Most importantly, without addition of external carbon sources, the above wastewater treatment process reached 86.0  ± 4.2% of total nitrogen (TN) removal with only 7.23 ± 2.31 mg/L of TN in the effluent, which met the discharge requirements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An operation protocol for facilitating start-up of single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removing reactors based on process stoichiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutlu, A. Gizem; Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Sin, Gürkan

    2012-01-01

    Start-up and operation of single-stage nitritation/anammox reactor employing complete autotrophic nitrogen can be difficult. Keeping the performance criteria and monitoring the microbial community composition may not be easy or fast enough to take action on time. In this study, a control strategy...

  9. Removal of hard COD, nitrogenous compounds and phenols from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to identify the factors affecting the suspended and fixed biomass in the removal of hard COD, nitrogenous compounds and phenols from a coal gasification wastewater (CGWW) stream using a hybrid fixed-film bioreactor (H-FFBR) process under real-time plant operational conditions and ...

  10. Nitrogen removal from urban wastewater by activated sludge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study deals with nitrogen removal from urban wastewater employing the activated sludge process at low temperature. It aims at determining the performances and rates of nitrification, and characterising the autotrophic biomass (concentration and kinetic parameters) at 11°C and for F/M ratios higher than the ...

  11. Ammonia nitrogen removal from aqueous solution by local agricultural wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azreen, I.; Lija, Y.; Zahrim, A. Y.

    2017-06-01

    Excess ammonia nitrogen in the waterways causes serious distortion to environment such as eutrophication and toxicity to aquatic organisms. Ammonia nitrogen removal from synthetic solution was investigated by using 40 local agricultural wastes as potential low cost adsorbent. Some of the adsorbent were able to remove ammonia nitrogen with adsorption capacity ranging from 0.58 mg/g to 3.58 mg/g. The highest adsorption capacity was recorded by Langsat peels with 3.58 mg/g followed by Jackfruit seeds and Moringa peels with 3.37 mg/g and 2.64 mg/g respectively. This experimental results show that the agricultural wastes can be utilized as biosorbent for ammonia nitrogen removal. The effect of initial ammonia nitrogen concentration, pH and stirring rate on the adsorption process were studied in batch experiment. The adsorption capacity reached maximum value at pH 7 with initial concentration of 500 mg/L and the removal rate decreased as stirring rate was applied.

  12. Nitrogen Removal from Landfill Leachate by Microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sérgio F. L.; Gonçalves, Ana L.; Moreira, Francisca C.; Silva, Tânia F. C. V.; Vilar, Vítor J. P.; Pires, José C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Landfill leachates result from the degradation of solid residues in sanitary landfills, thus presenting a high variability in terms of composition. Normally, these effluents are characterized by high ammoniacal-nitrogen (N–NH4+) concentrations, high chemical oxygen demands and low phosphorus concentrations. The development of effective treatment strategies becomes difficult, posing a serious problem to the environment. Phycoremediation appears to be a suitable alternative for the treatment of landfill leachates. In this study, the potential of Chlorella vulgaris for biomass production and nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus) removal from different compositions of a landfill leachate was evaluated. Since microalgae also require phosphorus for their growth, different loads of this nutrient were evaluated, giving the following N:P ratios: 12:1, 23:1 and 35:1. The results have shown that C. vulgaris was able to grow in the different leachate compositions assessed. However, microalgal growth was higher in the cultures presenting the lowest N–NH4+ concentration. In terms of nutrients uptake, an effective removal of N–NH4+ and phosphorus was observed in all the experiments, especially in those supplied with phosphorus. Nevertheless, N–NO3− removal was considered almost negligible. These promising results constitute important findings in the development of a bioremediation technology for the treatment of landfill leachates. PMID:27869676

  13. Process for separating nitrogen from methane using microchannel process technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee [Marysville, OH; Qiu, Dongming [Dublin, OH; Dritz, Terence Andrew [Worthington, OH; Neagle, Paul [Westerville, OH; Litt, Robert Dwayne [Westerville, OH; Arora, Ravi [Dublin, OH; Lamont, Michael Jay [Hilliard, OH; Pagnotto, Kristina M [Cincinnati, OH

    2007-07-31

    The disclosed invention relates to a process for separating methane or nitrogen from a fluid mixture comprising methane and nitrogen, the process comprising: (A) flowing the fluid mixture into a microchannel separator, the microchannel separator comprising a plurality of process microchannels containing a sorption medium, the fluid mixture being maintained in the microchannel separator until at least part of the methane or nitrogen is sorbed by the sorption medium, and removing non-sorbed parts of the fluid mixture from the microchannel separator; and (B) desorbing the methane or nitrogen from the sorption medium and removing the desorbed methane or nitrogen from the microchannel separator. The process is suitable for upgrading methane from coal mines, landfills, and other sub-quality sources.

  14. ARSENIC REMOVAL BY IRON REMOVAL PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation will discuss the removal of arsenic from drinking water using iron removal processes that include oxidation/filtration and the manganese greensand processes. Presentation includes results of U.S. EPA field studies conducted in Michigan and Ohio on existing iron remo...

  15. META-ANALYSIS OF NITROGEN REMOVAL IN RIPARIAN BUFFERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian buffer zones, the vegetated region adjacent to streams and wetlands, are thought to be effective at intercepting and controlling nitrogen loads entering water bodies. Riparian buffer width may be positively related to nitrogen removal effectiveness by influencing nitrog...

  16. Influence of road salt on the biological removal of nitrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Eliška Horniaková; Milan Búgel

    2007-01-01

    Processes occuring in the aeration tank remove nitrogen from the organic substances in wastewater by using the bacterii. Nitrification utilize the metabolism of aerobic bacterii Nitrosomonas, Nitrococus, Nitrospira, Nitrobacter Nitrocystis a Nitrosobolus. Pseudosomonas, Chromobacterium, Denitrobacillus a Micrococus are denitrification anaerobic bacterii. The bacterii are lithotrophic and they are sensitive to pH of wastewater. Chlorine and heavy metals are toxic for these bacterii. For a corr...

  17. Removing Spilled Oil With Liquid Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Daniel B.

    1991-01-01

    Technique proposed to reduce more quickly, contain, clean up, and remove petroleum products and such other pollutants as raw sewage and chemicals without damage to humans, animals, plants, or the environment. Unique and primary aspect of new technique is use of cryogenic fluid to solidify spill so it can be carried away in solid chunks. Liquid nitrogen (LN2), with boiling point at -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C), offers probably best tradeoff among extreme cold, cost, availability, and lack of impact on environment among various cryogenic fluids available. Other applications include extinguishing fires at such locations as oil derricks or platforms and at tank farms containing such petroleum products as gasoline, diesel fuel, and kerosene.

  18. Full scale experimental assessment of reliability of steady state design criteria of activated sludge process with biological nitrogen removal and chemical phosphorus removal; Verifica sperimentale a scala reale di criteri di dimensionamento dei sistemi a fanghi attivi per la rimozione dei nutrienti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatano, F. [Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy). Dip. di Ingegneria Idraulica, Ambientale e del Rilevamento, Sez. Ambientale

    1996-06-01

    The biological phase of a wastewater treatment plant situated in the Ruhr River Region (Germany), has been monitored for about one year. The collected experimental data have been elaborated in this paper with the objective of an assessment of the reliability of some recent steady-state design criteria of the activated sludge process with biological nitrogen removal and chemical phosphorus removal.

  19. Towards an optimal experimental design for N2O model calibration during biological nitrogen removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domingo Felez, Carlos; Valverde Pérez, Borja; Plósz, Benedek G.

    Process models describing nitrous oxide (N2O) production during biological nitrogen removal allow for the development of mitigation strategies of this potent greenhouse gas. N2O is an intermediate of nitrogen removal, hence its prediction is negatively affected by the uncertainty associated to it...... of strategies to minimize the carbon footprint of wastewater treatment plants....

  20. Biological floating bed and bio-contact oxidation processes for landscape water treatment: simultaneous removal of Microcystis aeruginosa, TOC, nitrogen and phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jun Feng; Liang, Dong Hui; Fu, Le; Wei, Li; Ma, Min

    2018-06-13

    The aim of this study was to identify algicidal bacteria J25 against the Microcystis aeruginosa (90.14%), Chlorella (78.75%), Scenedesmus (not inhibited), and Oscillatoria (90.12%). Meanwhile, we evaluate the SOD activity and efficiency of denitrification characteristics with Acinetobacter sp. J25. A novel hybrid bioreactor combined biological floating bed with bio-contact oxidation (BFBO) was designed for treating the landscape water, and the average removal efficiencies of nitrate-N, ammonia-N, nitrite-N, TN, TP, TOC, and algal cells were 91.14, 50, 87.86, 88.83, 33.07, 53.95, and 53.43%, respectively. A 454-pyrosequencing technology was employed to investigate the microbial communities of the BFBO reactor samples. The results showed that Acinetobacter sp. J25 was the dominant contributor for effective removal of N, algal cells, and TOC in the BFBO reactor. And the relative abundance of Acinetobacter showed increase trend with the delay of reaction time. Graphical abstract Biological floating bed and bio-contact oxidation (BFBO) as a novel hybrid bioreactor designed for simultaneous removal Microcystis aeruginosa, TOC, nitrogen, and phosphorus. And high-throughput sequencing data demonstrated that Acinetobacter sp. J25 was the dominate species in the reactor and played key roles in the removal of N, TOC, and M. aeruginosa. Proposed reaction mechanism of the BFBO.

  1. Removal of 14C from nitrogen annulus gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheh, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    A dry, ambient temperature process using Ca(OH) 2 as the sorbent to remove 14 CO 2 from moderator cover gas was further developed to remove 14 C from the extremely dry nitrogen annulus gas. Thermal gravimetric analysis was carried out to study the thermal stability of Ca(OH) 2 and the CO 2 -Ca(OH) 2 reaction at elevated temperatures under extremely low humidity conditions. Results shows that to achieve high utilization and avoid decomposition of Ca(OH) 2 , humidification of the annulus gas was necessary at high or low temperatures. Results of the bench scale (1-10 L/min) oxidizer study showed that, with 0.5% Pd or alumina as the catalyst, it was possible to achieve complete oxidation of CO and over 80% oxidation of CH 4 with 1% hydrogen in the nitrogen. The gas superficial velocity should be less than or equal to30 cm/s and the residence time greater than or equal to0.5 s. A pilot scale (up to 160 L/min) system including a catalytic oxidizer, a humidifier/demister, a Ca(OH) 2 reactor, a condenser/demister and regenerable molecular sieve dryers, was assembled and tested with simulated nitrogen annulus gas. Results showed that complete oxidation of the CO and 60-100% oxidation of the CH 4 with 0.5% H 2 in the simulated gas were achieved in the pilot plant. The CO 2 concentration was reduced from 30-60 μL/L at the inlet of the Ca(OH) 2 reactor to 1 μL/L or less at the outlet. After modifications of the dryer to overcome the problems encountered, the simulated annulus gas was dried to 0 C dew point before recirculation. Equipment specifications and operating conditions of a 14 C removal system for nitrogen annulus gas are summarized

  2. Nitrate-nitrogen removal with small-scale reverse osmosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nitrate-nitrogen concentration in water supplied to clinics in Limpopo Province is too high to be fit for human consumption (35 to 75 mg/ℓ NO3-N). Therefore, small-scale technologies (reverse osmosis, ion-exchange and electrodialysis) were evaluated for nitrate-nitrogen removal to make the water potable (< 10 mg/ℓ ...

  3. Nitrogen removal in Northern peatlands treating mine wastewaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Katharina; Karlsson, Teemu; Turunen, Kaisa; Liisa Räisänen, Marja; Backnäs, Soile

    2015-04-01

    Natural peatlands can be used as passive purification systems for mine wastewaters. These treatment peatlands are well-suited for passive water treatment as they delay the flow of water, and provide a large filtration network with many adsorptive surfaces on plant roots or soil particles. They have been shown to remove efficiently harmful metals and metalloids from mine waters due to variety of chemical, physical and biological processes such as adsorption, precipitation, sedimentation, oxidation and reduction reactions, as well as plant uptake. Many factors affect the removal efficiency such as inflow water quality, wetland hydrology, system pH, redox potential and temperature, the nature of the predominating purification processes, and the presence of other components such as salts. However, less attention has been paid to nitrogen (N) removal in peatlands. Thus, this study aimed to assess the efficiency of N removal and seasonal variation in the removal rate in two treatment peatlands treating mine dewatering waters and process effluent waters. Water sampling from treatment peatland inflow and outflow waters as well as pore waters in peatland were conducted multiple times during 2012-2014. Water samples were analysed for total N, nitrate-N and ammonium-N. Additionally, an YSI EXO2 device was used for continuous nitrate monitoring of waters discharged from treatment peatlands to the recipient river during summer 2014. The results showed that the oxic conditions in upper peat layer and microbial activity in treatment peatlands allowed the efficient oxidation of ammonium-N to nitrite-N and further to nitrate-N during summer time. However, the slow denitrification rate restricts the N removal as not all of the nitrate produced during nitrification is denitrified. In summer time, the removal rate of total N varied between 30-99 % being highest in late summer. N removal was clearly higher for treatment peatland treating process effluent waters than for peatland

  4. Sequentially aerated membrane biofilm reactors for autotrophic nitrogen removal: microbial community composition and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles; Franck, Stephanie; Gülay, Arda

    2014-01-01

    Membrane-aerated biofilm reactors performing autotrophic nitrogen removal can be successfully applied to treat concentrated nitrogen streams. However, their process performance is seriously hampered by the growth of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB). In this work we document how sequential aeration...

  5. Removal Characteristics of Nitrogen and Phosphorus and Their Land Application Rates During a Multi-level Treatment Process for Manure and Waste Water:An Example from Intensive Swine Farm in Water Network Region of Southern Jiangsu Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIN Hong-mei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The actual removal rates of nitrogen and phosphorus in animal manure and waste water during multi-level treatment process remain vague for large-scale farms. This limits its land application in water network regions of China. The aims of this study were:(1 to verify the removal characteristics of total nitrogen(TN and phosphorus(TP during a multi-level treatment process for swine manure and waste water, and(2 to calculate its land carrying capacity. An intensive swine farm in Southern Jiangsu, which possessed a typical manure and waste water treatment plant with two anaerobic digesters, three natural sediment ponds, and one aquatic plant ponds, was chosen to monitor for the four seasons during a whole year. The results showed that total productions of manure and urine were 4 086.9 t and 10 995.8 t, respectively, in 2016. The collection rate of manure was around 90.5%. The available TN and TP were 183.12 t and 148.97 t, respectively, for land application. The removal rates of TN and TP were less than 25.3% and 57.2% respectively, after secondary anaerobic digestion. The residual TN and TP in the digestates could be removed more than 80% by oxygen ponds treatments. Then the effluent was processed by aquatic plants, and the removal rates for TN and TP were more than 95%, which guaranteed the effluent to be up to the discharge standard. The multi-level processing technology could improve the land carrying capacity and reduce the manure and waste water treatment costs for the intensive animal farms, which were suitable for very intensive, economically developed and land resource limited regions.

  6. A coupled system of half-nitritation and ANAMMOX for mature landfill leachate nitrogen removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Li, Jun; Zhao, Baihang; Wang, Xiujie; Zhang, Yanzhuo; Wei, Jia; Bian, Wei

    2017-09-01

    A coupled system of membrane bioreactor-nitritation (MBR-nitritation) and up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket-anaerobic ammonium oxidation (UASB-ANAMMOX) was employed to treat mature landfill leachate containing high ammonia nitrogen and low C/N. MBR-nitritation was successfully realized for undiluted mature landfill leachate with initial concentrations of 900-1500 mg/L [Formula: see text] and 2000-4000 mg/L chemical oxygen demand. The effluent [Formula: see text] concentration and the [Formula: see text] accumulation efficiency were 889 mg/L and 97% at 125 d, respectively. Half-nitritation was quickly realized by adjustment of hydraulic retention time and dissolved oxygen (DO), and a low DO control strategy could allow long-term stable operation. The UASB-ANAMMOX system showed high effective nitrogen removal at a low concentration of mature landfill leachate. The nitrogen removal efficiency was inhibited at excessive influent substrate concentration and the nitrogen removal efficiency of the system decreased as the concentration of mature landfill leachate increased. The MBR-nitritation and UASB-ANAMMOX processes were coupled for mature landfill leachate treatment and together resulted in high effective nitrogen removal. The effluent average total nitrogen concentration and removal efficiency values were 176 mg/L and 83%, respectively. However, the average nitrogen removal load decreased from 2.16 to 0.77 g/(L d) at higher concentrations of mature landfill leachate.

  7. Nitrogen Removal by Anammox Biofilm Column Reactor at Moderately Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuty Emilia Agustina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox as a new biological approach for nitrogen removal has been considered to be more cost-effective compared with the combination of nitrification and denitrification process. However, the anammox bioreactors are mostly explored at high temperature (>300C in which temperature controlling system is fully required. This research was intended to develop and to apply anammox process for high nitrogen concentration removal at ambient temperature used for treating wastewater in tropical countries. An up-flow biofilm column reactor, which the upper part constructed with a porous polyester non-woven fabric material as a carrier to attach the anammox bacteria was operated without heating system. A maximum nitrogen removal rate (NRR of 1.05 kg-N m3 d-1 was reached in the operation days of 178 with a Total Nitrogen (TN removal efficiency of 74%. This showed the biofilm column anammox reactor was successfully applied to moderate high nitrogen removal from synthetic wastewater at moderately low temperature. Keywords: Anammox, biofilm column reactor, ambient temperature, nitrogen removal

  8. Operational strategies for nitrogen removal in granular sequencing batch reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Fang-yuan; Liu, Yong-Qiang; Tay, Joo-Hwa; Ning, Ping

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of different operational strategies for nitrogen removal by aerobic granules with mean granule sizes of 1.5 mm and 0.7 mm in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). With an alternating anoxic/oxic (AO) operation mode without control of dissolve oxygen (DO), the granular sludge with different size achieved the total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) removal efficiencies of 67.8-71.5%. While under the AO condition with DO controlled at 2 mg/l at the oxic phase, the TIN removal efficiency was improved up to 75.0-80.4%. A novel operational strategy of alternating anoxic/oxic combined with the step-feeding mode was developed for nitrogen removal by aerobic granules. It was found that nitrogen removal efficiencies could be further improved to 93.0-95.9% with the novel strategy. Obviously, the alternating anoxic/oxic strategy combined with step-feeding is the optimal way for TIN removal by granular sludge, which is independent of granule size.

  9. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation and its contribution to nitrogen removal in China’s coastal wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lijun; Zheng, Yanling; Liu, Min; Li, Xiaofei; Lin, Xianbiao; Yin, Guoyu; Gao, Juan; Deng, Fengyu; Chen, Fei; Jiang, Xiaofen

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several decades, human activities have caused substantial enrichment of reactive nitrogen in China’s coastal wetlands. Although anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), the process of oxidizing ammonium into dinitrogen gas through the reduction of nitrite, is identified as an important process for removing reactive nitrogen, little is known about the dynamics of anammox and its contribution to nitrogen removal in nitrogen-enriched environments. Here, we examine potential rates of anammox and associate them with bacterial diversity and abundance across the coastal wetlands of China using molecular and isotope tracing techniques. High anammox bacterial diversity was detected in China’s coastal wetlands and included Candidatus Scalindua, Kuenenia, Brocadia, and Jettenia. Potential anammox rates were more closely associated with the abundance of anammox bacteria than to their diversity. Among all measured environmental variables, temperature was a key environmental factor, causing a latitudinal distribution of the anammox bacterial community composition, biodiversity and activity along the coastal wetlands of China. Based on nitrogen isotope tracing experiments, anammox was estimated to account for approximately 3.8–10.7% of the total reactive nitrogen removal in the study area. Combined with denitrification, anammox can remove 20.7% of the total external terrigenous inorganic nitrogen annually transported into China’s coastal wetland ecosystems. PMID:26494435

  10. Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joubert, James I. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1986-01-01

    Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

  11. Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joubert, J.I.

    1985-02-08

    Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

  12. Mechanism of nitrogen removal in wastewater lagoon: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendramelli, Richard A; Vijay, Saloni; Yuan, Qiuyan

    2017-06-01

    Ammonia being a nutrient facilitates the growth of algae in wastewater and causes eutrophication. Nitrate poses health risk if it is present in drinking water. Hence, nitrogen removal from wastewater is required. Lagoon wastewater treatment systems have become common in Canada these days. The study was conducted to understand the nitrogen removal mechanisms from the existing wastewater treatment lagoon system in the town of Lorette, Manitoba. The lagoon system consists of two primary aerated cells and two secondary unaerated cells. Surface samples were collected periodically from lagoon cells and analysed from 5 May 2015 to 9 November 2015. The windward and leeward sides of the ponds were sampled and the results were averaged. It was found that the free ammonia volatilization to the atmosphere is responsible for most of the ammonia removal. Ammonia and nitrate assimilation into biomass and biological growth in the cells appears to be the other mechanisms of nitrogen removal over the monitoring period. Factors affecting the nitrogen removal efficiency were found to be pH, temperature and hydraulic residence time. Also, the ammonia concentration in the effluent from the wastewater treatment lagoon was compared with the regulatory standard.

  13. Removal of ammonia nitrogen in wastewater by microwave radiation: A pilot-scale study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Li; Chen Jing; Xu Zuqun; Yuan Songhu; Cao Menghua; Liu Huangcheng; Lu Xiaohua

    2009-01-01

    A large removal of ammonia nitrogen in wastewater has been achieved by microwave (MW) radiation in our previous bench-scale study. This study developed a continuous pilot-scale MW system to remove ammonia nitrogen in real wastewater. A typical high concentration of ammonia nitrogen contaminated wastewater, the coke-plant wastewater from a Coke company, was treated. The output power of the microwave reactor was 4.8 kW and the handling capacity of the reactor was about 5 m 3 per day. The ammonia removal efficiencies under four operating conditions, including ambient temperature, wastewater flow rate, aeration conditions and initial concentration were evaluated in the pilot-scale experiments. The ammonia removal could reach about 80% for the real coke-plant wastewater with ammonia nitrogen concentrations of 2400-11000 mg/L. The running cost of the MW technique was a little lower than the conventional steam-stripping method. The continuous microwave system showed the potential as an effective method for ammonia nitrogen removal in coke-plant water treatment. It is proposed that this process is suitable for the treatment of toxic wastewater containing high concentrations of ammonia nitrogen.

  14. Nitrogen Transformation and Removal in Horizontal Surface Flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential use of Constructed Mangrove Wetlands (CMWs) as a cheaper, effective and appropriate method for Nitrogen removal from domestic sewage of coastal zone in peri-urban cities was investigated from August 2007 to. September, 2008. Field investigations were made on horizontal surface flow constructed ...

  15. Biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal by filamentous bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The availability of excess nutrients (phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N)) in wastewater systems causes many water quality problems. These problems include eutrophication whereby algae grow excessively and lead to depletion of oxygen, death of the aquatic life and bad odours. Biological phosphorus removal has gained ...

  16. Removal of nitrogen from anaerobically digested swine wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This result indicates that the sulfur-packed biofilter would be used as an efficient option for denitrification by autotrophic denitrifiers during swine wastewater treatment. Key words: Biological nitrogen removal, nitrification, denitrification, chemical oxygen demand (COD), intermittent aeration, sulfur-packed bed reactor, swine ...

  17. A study on nitrogen removal efficiency of Pseudomonas stutzeri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... ambient temperature in the reaction system, the efficiency of nitrogen removal was studied. The results ... no reported experiment which has been conducted to ... controlled shaker at 32°C with a 150 r/min rotating speed (Ahn,.

  18. Simultaneous removal of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides from combustion gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, David T.; Lynn, Scott

    1976-10-19

    A process for the simultaneous removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides from power plant stack gases comprising contacting the stack gases with a supported iron oxide catalyst/absorbent in the presence of sufficient reducing agent selected from the group consisting of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and mixtures thereof, to provide a net reducing atmosphere in the SO.sub.x /NO.sub.x removal zone. The sulfur oxides are removed by absorption substantially as iron sulfide, and nitrogen oxides are removed by catalytic reduction to nitrogen and ammonia. The spent iron oxide catalyst/absorbent is regenerated by oxidation and is recycled to the contacting zone. Sulfur dioxide is also produced during regeneration and can be utilized in the production of sulfuric acid and/or sulfur.

  19. Nitrogen removal from concentrated latex wastewater by land treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikanda Thongnuekhang

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the concentrated latex factories in the South of Thailand discharge treated wastewater that contains high level of nitrogen to a nearby river or canals leading to a water pollution problem. A study of land treatment system was conducted to treat and utilize nitrogen in treated wastewater from the concentrated latex factory. The experimental pilot-scale land treatment system was constructed at the Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai Campus. It consisted of water convolvulus (Ipomea aquatica, I. Reptans, tropical carpet grass (Axonopus compresus (Swartz Beav. and control unit (no plantation. The treated wastewater from the stabilization pond system of the selected concentrated latex factoryin Songkhla was used to irrigate each experimental unit. Influent and effluent from the experimental units were analyzed for TKN, NH3-N, Org-N, NO3 --N, NO2 --N, BOD5, sulfate, pH and EC. The land treatment system resulted a high removal efficiency for nitrogen. Tropical carpet grass provided higher removal efficiency than other units for all parameters. The removal efficiency of water convolvulus and control unit were not significantly different. The average removal efficiency of TKN, NH3-N, Org-N, BOD5 and sulfate for tropical carpet grass unit were 92, 97, 61, 88 and 52%, for water convolvulus unit were 75, 80, 43, 41 and 30%, and for control unit were 74, 80, 41, 31 and 28%, respectively. Mass balance of nitrogen transformation was conducted. It revealed that plant uptake was the major mechanism for nitrogen removal in land treatment.

  20. Nitrogen removal from wastewater by a catalytic oxidation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T L; Macinnes, J M; Cliffe, K R

    2001-06-01

    The ammonia-containing waste produced in industries is usually characterized by high concentration and high temperature, and is not treatable by biological methods directly. In this study, a hydrophobic Pt/SDB catalyst was first used in a trickle-bed reactor to remove ammonia from wastewater. In the reactor, both stripping and catalytic oxidation occur simultaneously. It was found that higher temperature and higher oxygen partial pressure enhanced the ammonia removal. A reaction pathway, which involves oxidizing ammonia to nitric oxide, which then further reacts with ammonia to produce nitrogen and water, was confirmed. Small amounts of by-products, nitrites and nitrates were also detected in the resultant reaction solution. These compounds came from the absorption of nitrogen oxides. Both the minimum NO2- selectivity and maximum ammonia removal were achieved when the resultant pH of treated water was near 7.5 for a feed of unbuffered ammonia solution.

  1. Removal and recovery of nitrogen and sulfur oxides from gaseous mixtures containing them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, H.B.H.

    1984-01-01

    A cyclic process for removing lower valence nitrogen oxides from gaseous mixtures includes treating the mixtures with an aqueous media including alkali metal carbonate and alkali metal bicarbonate and a preoxygen oxidant to form higher valence nitrogen oxides and to capture these oxides as alkali metal salts, expecially nitrites and nitrates, in a carbonate/bicarbonate-containing product aqueous media. Highly selective recovery of nitrates in high purity and yield may then follow, as by crystallization, with the carbonate and bicarbonate alkali metal salts strongly increasing the selectivity and yield of nitrates. The product nitrites are converted to nitrates by oxidation after lowering the product aqueous media pH to below about 9. A cyclic process for removing sulfur oxides from gas mixtures includes treating these mixtures includes treating these mixtures with aqueous media including alkali metal carbonate and alkali metal bicarbonate where the ratio of alkali metal to sulfur dioxide is not less than 2. The sulfur values may be recovered from the resulting carbonate/bicarbonate/-sulfite containing product aqueous media as alkali metal sulfate or sulfite salts which are removed by crystallization from the carbonate-containing product aqueous media. As with the nitrates, the carbonate/bicarbonate system strongly increases yield of sulfate or sulfite during crystallization. Where the gas mixtures include both sulfur dioxide and lower valence nitrogen oxides, the processes for removing lower valence nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide may be combined into a single removal/recovery system, or may be effected in sequence

  2. A novel control strategy for single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal in SBR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Gernaey, Krist

    2015-01-01

    A novel feedforward–feedback control strategy was developed for complete autotrophic nitrogen removal in a sequencing batch reactor. The aim of the control system was to carry out the regulation of the process while keeping the system close to the optimal operation. The controller was designed...... based on a process model and then tested experimentally. The resulting batch-to-batch control strategy had the total nitrogen removal efficiency as controlled variable and the setting of the aeration mass flow controller as manipulated variable. Compared to manual operation mode (constant air supply......), the controller resulted in a significant performance improvement: removal efficiency was kept at a stable high level in the presence of influent ammonium concentration disturbances, and the absolute deviation on removal efficiency was reduced by 40%. The successful validation of the controller in a lab...

  3. Municipal wastewater treatment for effective removal of organic matter and nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebenevich, E.V.; Zaletova, N.A.; Terentieva, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    The organic matter, as well as nitrogen and phosphorus, are nutrient substances. Their excess concentrations in water receiving bodies lead to eutrophication, moreover, the nitrogen content in water bodies is standardized according the sanitary-toxicological criterion of harmfulness: NH 4 + -N ≤0,39-2,0 mgl - , NO 3 -N ≤9,1-10 mgl - . The municipal wastewater contain, usually, organic matter estimated by BOD 150-200 mgl - , and COD 300-400 mgl - , the nitrogen compounds 50-60 mgl - , and NH 4 + -N 20-25 mgl - . NO x -N are practically absent. Their presence indicated on discharge of industrial wastewater. The total phosphorus is present in the concentration of 15 mgl - , PO 4 - - P 5-8 mgl - . Activated sludge process has been most widely used in the USSR for municipal wastewater treatment. The activated sludge is biocenoses of heterotrophic and auto trophic microorganisms. They consume nutrient matters, transferring pollution of wastewater by means of enzyme systems in acceptable forms. C, N and P-containing matters are removed from wastewater by biological intake for cell synthesis. Moreover C- containing matters are removed by oxidation to CO 2 and H 2 O. P-containing compounds under definite conditions associate with solid fraction of activated sludge and thus simultaneously removed from wastewater. The removal of nitrogen in addition to biosynthesis is carried out only in the denitrification process, when oxygen of NO x -N is used for oxidation of organic matter and produced gaseous nitrogen escapes into the atmosphere

  4. Physico-chemical technologies for nitrogen removal from wastewaters: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea G. Capodaglio

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the main physico-chemical processes for nitrogen removal from wastewaters, considering both those that have been long known and still widely applied at the industrial scale, and those that are still at the research level. Special attention is paid to the latest technological developments, as well as to operational problems and fields of application. The processes considered are briefly summarized as follows: ammonia air and steam stripping; ammonia vacuum distillation; ammonia precipitation as struvite; ammonia and nitrate removal by selected ion exchange; breakpoint chlorination; chloramine removal by selected activated carbon; ammonia adsorption on charcoal; chemical reduction of nitrate; advanced oxidation processes to convert ammonia and organic-N into nitrogen gas or nitrate. Special attention is given to advanced oxidation processes, as great research efforts are currently addressed to their implementation. These specifically include ozonation, peroxon oxidation, catalytic wet air oxidation, photo-catalytic oxidation and electrochemical oxidation.

  5. Influence of road salt on the biological removal of nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliška Horniaková

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Processes occuring in the aeration tank remove nitrogen from the organic substances in wastewater by using the bacterii. Nitrification utilize the metabolism of aerobic bacterii Nitrosomonas, Nitrococus, Nitrospira, Nitrobacter Nitrocystis a Nitrosobolus. Pseudosomonas, Chromobacterium, Denitrobacillus a Micrococus are denitrification anaerobic bacterii. The bacterii are lithotrophic and they are sensitive to pH of wastewater. Chlorine and heavy metals are toxic for these bacterii. For a correct grow, reproduction and metabolism, temperature above 10 ºC is needed but the ideal temperature is from 20 to 30 ºC. An intensive cold reduces or even stops the activity of bacterii.Cold road salt flow to a sewage and then to the aeration basin. Many of nitrification microorganisms dead because their cells lyse and their content flow into the tank. NaCl is toxic for bacterii. From aeration basin a high amount of N-NH4 flows out. The sludge may be a slightly flocculate and the effluent water may be turbid

  6. A fuzzy-logic based diagnosis and control of a reactor performing complete autotrophic nitrogen removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Gernaey, Krist

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis and control modules based on fuzzy set theory were tested for novel bioreactor monitoring and control. Two independent modules were used jointly to carry out first the diagnosis of the state of the system and then use transfer this information to control the reactor. The separation in d...... autotrophic nitrogen removal process. The whole module is evaluated by dynamic simulation....

  7. Model-based optimization biofilm based systems performing autotrophic nitrogen removal using the comprehensive NDHA model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valverde Pérez, Borja; Ma, Yunjie; Morset, Martin

    Completely autotrophic nitrogen removal (CANR) can be obtained in single stage biofilm-based bioreactors. However, their environmental footprint is compromised due to elevated N2O emissions. We developed novel spatially explicit biochemical process model of biofilm based CANR systems that predicts...

  8. Simultaneous nitrogen, phosphorous, and hardness removal from reverse osmosis concentrate by microalgae cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Xiong; Wu, Yin-Hu; Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Xu, Xue-Qiao; Dao, Guo-Hua; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2016-05-01

    While reverse osmosis (RO) is a promising technology for wastewater reclamation, RO concentrate (ROC) treatment and disposal are important issues to consider. Conventional chemical and physical treatment methods for ROC present certain limitations, such as relatively low nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies as well as the requirement of an extra process for hardness removal. This study proposes a novel biological approach for simultaneous removal of nitrogen, phosphorus, and calcium (Ca(2+)) and magnesium (Mg(2+)) ions from the ROC of municipal wastewater treatment plants by microalgal cultivation and algal biomass production. Two microalgae strains, Chlorella sp. ZTY4 and Scenedesmus sp. LX1, were used for batch cultivation of 14-16 days. Both strains grew well in ROC with average biomass production of 318.7 mg/L and lipid contents up to 30.6%, and nitrogen and phosphorus could be effectively removed with efficiencies of up to 89.8% and 92.7%, respectively. Approximately 55.9%-83.7% Ca(2+) could be removed from the system using the cultured strains. Mg(2+) removal began when Ca(2+) precipitation ceased, and the removal efficiency of the ion could reach up to 56.0%. The most decisive factor influencing Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) removal was chemical precipitation with increases in pH caused by algal growth. The results of this study provide a new biological approach for removing nitrogen, phosphorous, and hardness from ROC. The results suggest that microalgal cultivation presents new opportunities for applying an algal process to ROC treatment. The proposed approach serves dual purposes of nutrient and hardness reduction and production of lipid rich micro-algal biomass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nitrogen removal from digested slurries using a simplified ammonia stripping technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provolo, Giorgio; Perazzolo, Francesca; Mattachini, Gabriele; Finzi, Alberto; Naldi, Ezio; Riva, Elisabetta

    2017-11-01

    This study assessed a novel technique for removing nitrogen from digested organic waste based on a slow release of ammonia that was promoted by continuous mixing of the digestate and delivering a continuous air stream across the surface of the liquid. Three 10-day experiments were conducted using two 50-L reactors. In the first two, nitrogen removal efficiencies were evaluated from identical digestates maintained at different temperatures (30°C and 40°C). At the start of the first experiment, the digestates were adjusted to pH 9 using sodium hydroxide, while in the second experiment pH was not adjusted. The highest ammonia removal efficiency (87%) was obtained at 40°C with pH adjustment. However at 40°C without pH adjustment, removal efficiencies of 69% for ammonia and 47% for total nitrogen were obtained. In the third experiment two different digestates were tested at 50°C without pH adjustment. Although the initial chemical characteristics of the digestates were different in this experiment, the ammonia removal efficiencies were very similar (approximately 85%). Despite ammonia removal, the pH increased in all experiments, most likely due to carbon dioxide stripping that was promoted by temperature and mixing. The technique proved to be suitable for removing nitrogen following anaerobic digestion of livestock manure because effective removal was obtained at natural pH (≈8) and 40°C, common operating conditions at typical biogas plants that process manure. Furthermore, the electrical energy requirement to operate the process is limited (estimated to be 3.8kWhm -3 digestate). Further improvements may increase the efficiency and reduce the processing time of this treatment technique. Even without these advances slow-rate air stripping of ammonia is a viable option for reducing the environmental impact associated with animal manure management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Novel heterotrophic nitrogen removal and assimilation characteristic of the newly isolated bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri AD-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Hui; Donde, Oscar Omondi; Tian, Cuicui; Wang, Chunbo; Wu, Xingqiang; Feng, Shanshan; Liu, Yao; Xiao, Bangding

    2018-04-18

    AD-1, an aerobic denitrifier, was isolated from activated sludge and identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri. AD-1 completely removed NO 3 - or NO 2 - and removed 99.5% of NH 4 + during individual culturing in a broth medium with an initial nitrogen concentration of approximately 50 mg L -1 . Results showed that larger amounts of nitrogen were removed through assimilation by the bacteria. And when NH 4 + was used as the sole nitrogen source in the culture medium, neither NO 2 - nor NO 3 - was detected, thus indicating that AD-1 may not be a heterotrophic nitrifier. Only trace amount of N 2 O was detected during the denitrification process. Single factor experiments indicated that the optimal culture conditions for AD-1 were: a carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N) of 15, a temperature of 25°C and sodium succinate or glucose as a carbon source. In conclusion, due to the ability of AD-1 to utilize nitrogen of different forms with high efficiencies for its growth while producing only trace emissions of N 2 O, the bacterium had outstanding potential to use in the bioremediation of high-nitrogen-containing wastewaters. Meanwhile, it may also be a proper candidate for biotreatment of high concentration organic wastewater. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Removal of organic nitrogen compounds in LCO reduces the hydrodesulphurization severity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, H.; Chen, J.; Ring, Z. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Canada and the United States committed to reducing diesel sulphur from 500 to 15 part per million by 2006. Refineries could benefit from a better understanding of the effects of feed matrix on sulphur removal by hydrodesulphurization (HDS) in selecting the right feed or feed pre-treatment options for their existing HDS units and achieve the required sulphur level at minimum cost. This paper presented a study that examined the influence of nitrogen compounds on the HDS activities of substituted dibenzothiophenes in light oil cycle over a nitrogen/molybdenum on alumina oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) commercial catalyst using five light cycle oil feeds with different concentrations of organic nitrogen compounds. The paper discussed experiments that were conducted under conditions close to industrial HDS processes. The paper addressed feed preparation; the nitrogen effect on HDS reactivity of dibenzothiophene, 4-methyldibenzothiophene, and 4,6-dimethyl dibenzothiophene; sulphur composition analysis; hydrodenitrogenation; and kinetic modeling. It was concluded that organic nitrogen compounds have more of an inhibition effect on sulphur removal by the hydrogenation pathway than by the hydrogenolysis pathway. Nitrogen removal by feed pre-treatment was found to be an attractive alternative to achieve the ultra-low sulphur goal. 26 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  12. Effect of powdered activated carbon technology on short-cut nitrogen removal for coal gasification wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Han, Hongjun; Xu, Chunyan; Zhuang, Haifeng; Fang, Fang; Zhang, Linghan

    2013-08-01

    A combined process consisting of a powdered activated carbon technology (PACT) and short-cut biological nitrogen removal reactor (SBNR) was developed to enhance the removal efficiency of the total nitrogen (TN) from the effluent of an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor, which was used to treat coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The SBNR performance was improved with the increasing of COD and TP removal efficiency via PACT. The average removal efficiencies of COD and TP in PACT were respectively 85.80% and 90.30%. Meanwhile, the NH3-N to NO2-N conversion rate was achieved 86.89% in SBNR and the total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency was 75.54%. In contrast, the AOB in SBNR was significantly inhibited without PACT or with poor performance of PACT in advance, which rendered the removal of TN. Furthermore, PAC was demonstrated to remove some refractory compounds, which therefore improved the biodegradability of the coal gasification wastewater. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Kinetic Interpretation of Nitrogen Removal in Pilot Scale Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul; Sinkjær, Ole

    1995-01-01

    with biological and chemical phosphorus removal. Nitrification and denitrification rates have been measured in batch tests on activated sludge extracted from the pilot plants and by measuring transient concentrations during the alternating mode of operation in the aerobic and anoxic tanks. The data were......Pilot plant experiments have been performed over a period of four years in order to establish an experimental basis for the upgrading of the treatment plants of The City of Copenhagen to nutrient removal. The choice of design is the alternating mode of operating biological nitrogen removal...... normalized to standard conditions by correcting them according to the kinetic theory. The average normalized nitrification rate was measured to be between 54 and 60 mg NH~-N/(g VSSn~t' h) by different test methods at 7°C. The denitrification rate was measured to vary between 0.85 and 0.95mg NO~--N/(g VSS. h...

  14. Startup and oxygen concentration effects in a continuous granular mixed flow autotrophic nitrogen removal reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varas, Rodrigo; Guzmán-Fierro, Víctor; Giustinianovich, Elisa; Behar, Jack; Fernández, Katherina; Roeckel, Marlene

    2015-08-01

    The startup and performance of the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process was tested in a continuously fed granular bubble column reactor (BCR) with two different aeration strategies: controlling the oxygen volumetric flow and oxygen concentration. During the startup with the control of oxygen volumetric flow, the air volume was adjusted to 60mL/h and the CANON reactor had volumetric N loadings ranging from 7.35 to 100.90mgN/Ld with 36-71% total nitrogen removal and high instability. In the second stage, the reactor was operated at oxygen concentrations of 0.6, 0.4 and 0.2mg/L. The best condition was 0.2 mgO2/L with a total nitrogen removal of 75.36% with a CANON reactor activity of 0.1149gN/gVVSd and high stability. The feasibility and effectiveness of CANON processes with oxygen control was demonstrated, showing an alternative design tool for efficiently removing nitrogen species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sequentially aerated membrane biofilm reactors for autotrophic nitrogen removal: microbial community composition and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles; Franck, Stephanie; Gülay, Arda

    2014-01-01

    Membrane-aerated biofilm reactors performing autotrophic nitrogen removal can be successfully applied to treat concentrated nitrogen streams. However, their process performance is seriously hampered by the growth of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB). In this work we document how sequential aeration...... (rich in oxygen) and AnAOB in regions neighbouring the liquid phase. Both communities were separated by a transition region potentially populated by denitrifying heterotrophic bacteria. AOB and AnAOB bacterial groups were more abundant and diverse than NOB, and dominated by the r......-strategists Nitrosomonas europaea and Ca. Brocadia anammoxidans, respectively. Taken together, the present work presents tools to better engineer, monitor and control the microbial communities that support robust, sustainable and efficient nitrogen removal....

  16. Oxygen Limited Bioreactors System For Nitrogen Removal Using Immobilized Mix Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, B. K.; Sumino, T.; Saiki, Y.; Kazama, F.

    2005-12-01

    .5-7.4 respectively. The molar ratio of NO2-N and NH4+-N was varied from 0.85 to 4.1 and RUN3 has closed to Stoichiometric ratio of anaerobic ammonia oxidation process. Total nitrogen removal in all reactors was ranged from 11-79% and RUN3 showed best removal performance (Table 1). Table 1 Characteristic of N removal process Parameters RUN1 RUN2 RUN3 RUN4 Effluent TOC (mg/l) 1.22 2.08 2.33 1.97 NO2- -N/ NH4+-N converted 1.18 0.85 1.32 4.15 Average NH4+-N removal % 86 95 74 32 Average NO2- -N removal % 97 81 98 92 Average TN removal % 11 36 79 59 Four different kinds of laboratory scale nitrogen removal bio-rectors were monitored for 218 days. Comparing reactors based on observed data, the bioreactor containing mix culture (RUN3) removed the 79% of incoming total nitrogen and suggests best for nitrogen removal in the natural water systems. It is recommended that further study is required in pilot scale to understand scaling effects and other natural phenomenon.

  17. Dissolved organic nitrogen recalcitrance and bioavailable nitrogen quantification for effluents from advanced nitrogen removal wastewater treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lu; Brett, Michael T; Jiang, Wenju; Li, Bo

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the composition of nitrogen (N) in the effluents of advanced N removal (ANR) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This study also tested two different experimental protocols for determining dissolved N recalcitrance. An analysis of 15 effluent samples from five WWTPs, showed effluent concentrations and especially effluent composition varied greatly from one system to the other, with total nitrogen (TN) ranging between 1.05 and 8.10 mg L -1 . Nitrate (NO 3 - ) accounted for between 38 ± 32% of TN, and ammonium accounted for a further 29 ± 28%. All of these samples were dominated by dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN; NO 3 -  + NH 4 + ), and uptake experiments indicated the DIN fraction was as expected highly bioavailable. Dissolved organic N (DON) accounted for 20 ± 11% for the total dissolved N in these effluents, and uptake experiments indicated the bioavailability of this fraction varied between 27 ± 26% depending on the WWTP assessed. These results indicate near complete DIN removal should be the primary goal of ANR treatment systems. The comparison of bioavailable nitrogen (BAN) quantification protocols showed that the dissolved nitrogen uptake bioassay approach was clearly a more reliable way to determine BAN concentrations compared to the conventional cell yield protocol. Moreover, because the nitrogen uptake experiment was much more sensitive, this protocol made it easier to detect extrinsic factors (such as biological contamination or toxicity) that could affect the accuracy of these bioassays. Based on these results, we recommend the nitrogen uptake bioassay using filtered and autoclaved samples to quantify BAN concentrations. However, for effluent samples indicating toxicity, algal bioassays will not accurately quantify BAN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dissolved organic nitrogen recalcitrance and bioavailable nitrogen quantification for effluents from advanced nitrogen removal wastewater treatment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Lu; Brett, Michael T.; Jiang, Wenju; Li, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the composition of nitrogen (N) in the effluents of advanced N removal (ANR) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This study also tested two different experimental protocols for determining dissolved N recalcitrance. An analysis of 15 effluent samples from five WWTPs, showed effluent concentrations and especially effluent composition varied greatly from one system to the other, with total nitrogen (TN) ranging between 1.05 and 8.10 mg L −1 . Nitrate (NO 3 − ) accounted for between 38 ± 32% of TN, and ammonium accounted for a further 29 ± 28%. All of these samples were dominated by dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN; NO 3 −  + NH 4 + ), and uptake experiments indicated the DIN fraction was as expected highly bioavailable. Dissolved organic N (DON) accounted for 20 ± 11% for the total dissolved N in these effluents, and uptake experiments indicated the bioavailability of this fraction varied between 27 ± 26% depending on the WWTP assessed. These results indicate near complete DIN removal should be the primary goal of ANR treatment systems. The comparison of bioavailable nitrogen (BAN) quantification protocols showed that the dissolved nitrogen uptake bioassay approach was clearly a more reliable way to determine BAN concentrations compared to the conventional cell yield protocol. Moreover, because the nitrogen uptake experiment was much more sensitive, this protocol made it easier to detect extrinsic factors (such as biological contamination or toxicity) that could affect the accuracy of these bioassays. Based on these results, we recommend the nitrogen uptake bioassay using filtered and autoclaved samples to quantify BAN concentrations. However, for effluent samples indicating toxicity, algal bioassays will not accurately quantify BAN. - Highlights: • DIN was the dominated N pool for most of the tested effluent samples. • DON bioavailability considerably varied depending on the WWTP assessed.

  19. Functional consortium for denitrifying sulfide removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan; Ren, Nanqi; Wang, Aijie; Liu, Lihong; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2010-03-01

    Denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) process simultaneously converts sulfide, nitrate, and chemical oxygen demand from industrial wastewaters to elemental sulfur, nitrogen gas, and carbon dioxide, respectively. This investigation utilizes a dilution-to-extinction approach at 10(-2) to 10(-6) dilutions to elucidate the correlation between the composition of the microbial community and the DSR performance. In the original suspension and in 10(-2) dilution, the strains Stenotrophomonas sp., Thauera sp., and Azoarcus sp. are the heterotrophic denitrifiers and the strains Paracoccus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. are the sulfide-oxidizing denitrifers. The 10(-4) dilution is identified as the functional consortium for the present DSR system, which comprises two functional strains, Stenotrophomonas sp. strain Paracoccus sp. At 10(-6) dilution, all DSR performance was lost. The functions of the constituent cells in the DSR granules were discussed based on data obtained using the dilution-to-extinction approach.

  20. Integrated nitrogen removal biofilter system with ceramic membrane for advanced post-treatment of municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Dong-Jin; Yun, Chan-Young; Kim, Woo-Yeol; Zhang, Xing-Ya; Kim, Dae-Gun; Chang, Duk; Sunwoo, Young; Hong, Ki-Ho

    2016-12-01

    The pre-denitrification biofilm process for nitrogen removal was combined with ceramic membrane with pore sizes of 0.05-0.1 µm as a system for advanced post-treatment of municipal wastewater. The system was operated under an empty bed hydraulic retention time of 7.8 h, recirculation ratio of 3, and transmembrane pressure of 0.47 bar. The system showed average removals of organics, total nitrogen, and solids as high as 93%, 80%, and 100%, respectively. Rapid nitrification could be achieved and denitrification was performed in the anoxic filter without external carbon supplements. The residual particulate organics and nitrogen in effluent from biofilm process could be also removed successfully through membrane filtration and the removal of total coliform was noticeably improved after membrane filtration. Thus, a system composed of the pre-denitrification biofilm process with ceramic membrane would be a compact and flexible option for advanced post-treatment of municipal wastewater.

  1. [Phylogenetic analysis and nitrogen removal characteristics of a heterotrophic nitrifying-aerobic denitrifying bacteria strain from marine environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuemei; Li, Qiufen; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Huaide; Zhao, Jun; Qu, Keming

    2012-06-04

    We determined the phylogenetic position of a heterotrophic nitrifying-aerobic denitrifying bacterium X3, and detected its nitrogen removal characteristics for providing evidence to explain the principle of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification and to improve the process in purification of marine-culture wastewater. The evolutionary position of the strain was determined based on its morphological, physiological, biochemical characteristics and 16SrRNA gene sequence. The nitrification-denitrification ability of this strain was detected by detecting its nitrogen removal efficiency and growth on different inorganic nitrogen source. Strain X3 was identified as Halomonas sp. It grew optimally at salinity 3%, pH 8.5, C:N 10:1 at 28 degrees C, and it could still survive at 15% salinity. The removal of NH4+ -N, NO2(-) -N and NO3(-) -N was 98.29%, 99.07%, 96.48% respectively within 24 h. When three inorganic nitrogen existed simultaneously, it always utilized ammonia firstly, and the total inorganic nitrogen removal was higher than with only one nitrogen, suggesting that strain X3 has the ability of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification and completing the whole nitrogen removing process. Strain X3 belonged to the genus of Halomonas. It had strong simultaneous nitrification and denitrification capability and could live in high-salinity environment.

  2. Wastewater centrate ammonia removal by chemisorption processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbachem, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' This presentation will describe the nature, scope, and findings of a third-party evaluation of a patent-protected wastewater treatment technology identified as the ThermoEnergy Ammonia Recovery Process TM (ARP). The ARP is a reversible chemisorption process using a zinc-impregnated ion exchange resin, and it is unique in that it removes/reduces the ammonia-nitrogen load in the solids processing liquor of municipal sewage treatment plants and recycles the recovered product into a pelletized ammonium salt that can be used as an agricultural fertilizer. The primary objective of the ARP evaluation was to perform well-defined field and laboratory tests to provide data on process performance. The evaluation process was overseen and coordinated by the Environmental Technology Evaluation Center (EvTEC), a program of the Civil Engineering Research Foundation (CERF), the research and technology transfer arm of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). EvTEC is a pilot program evaluating innovative environmental technologies under the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. A pilot scale ARP treatment facility was constructed and tested at the Oakwood Beach Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) in Staten Island, New York, from September through December of 1998. While operating during the 3 month period using the anaerobically digested centrate normally produced at the WPCP, the pilot study demonstrated that the ARP process was capable of removing/recovering ammonia with efficiencies ranging from 75-99+ % at influent concentrations exceeding 400 mg/L. During the pilot plant operations, forty-eight (48) complete validated runs of centrate processing were performed. The plant processed the centrate under normal day-to-day conditions at the WPCP, and no special operational considerations were given to the centrifuge operation to accommodate the ARP pilot plant. The Oakwood WPCP operated exactly the way

  3. Electron beam treatment removes both sulphur and nitrogen oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, K.; Miller, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Ebara Corporation in Japan has developed an electron beam flue gas treatment (e-beam fgt) process. The process offers the following features: simultaneous removal of SO 2 and NOsub(x); a dry process which involves no slurry recycling, no sludge disposal, and no gas reheating; turndown and load following capabilities with a minimum of process control; SO 2 and NOsub(x) are converted into saleable fertiliser. The demonstration plant is described. (author)

  4. Nitrogen removal kinetics in the treatment of landfill leachate by SBR systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreottola, G.; Foladori, P.; Ragazzi, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this study, laboratory-scale experiments were conducted applying the SBR activated sludge process to leachate from an old MSW landfill operating for 7 years. Due to the fact that old leachate is characterized with a high concentration of ammonia (approximately 1500 mgN/1) and low availability of readily biodegradable organic matter (BOD 5 /COD,06), the aim was to examine the nitrogen removal process and to compare the efficiency of one-stage and two stage systems operating at temperature of 20 C and 12 C. The second alternative SBR configuration is based on the coupling of two SBR reactors: the first one specialized in nitrification and the second one in post-denitrification, with external carbon source addition. By the efficient removal of nitrogen, an on-site pretreatment of leachate allows to comply with the limits required for discharging into sewers or into municipal wastewater treatment plant [it

  5. Actinorhizal nitrogen fixing nodules: infection process, molecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Actinorhizal nitrogen fixing nodules: infection process, molecular biology and genomics. Mariana Obertello, Mame Oureye SY, Laurent Laplaze, Carole Santi, Sergio Svistoonoff, Florence Auguy, Didier Bogusz, Claudine Franche ...

  6. Immobilized periphytic cyanobacteria for removal of nitrogenous compounds and phosphorus from shrimp farm wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    BANERJEE, SANJOY; KHATOON, HELENA; SHARIFF, MOHAMED; YUSOFF, FATIMAH

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria can be used to remove nitrogenous compounds from wastewater, but a major bottleneck in the process is the separation of cyanobacterial biomass from the treated water discharge, which may cause eutrophication. The current study assessed the suitability of three periphytic cyanobacteria (Geitlerinema sp., Gloeotrichia sp., and Lyngbya sp.) isolated from shrimp ponds. These cyanobacteria were immobilized by self-adhesion to polyvinyl chloride sheets, forming mats, and were screened...

  7. Biological nitrogen removal from sewage via anammox: Recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bin; Wang, Shanyun; Cao, Shenbin; Miao, Yuanyuan; Jia, Fangxu; Du, Rui; Peng, Yongzhen

    2016-01-01

    Biological nitrogen removal from sewage via anammox is a promising and feasible technology to make sewage treatment energy-neutral or energy-positive. Good retention of anammox bacteria is the premise of achieving sewage treatment via anammox. Therefore the anammox metabolism and its factors were critically reviewed so as to form biofilm/granules for retaining anammox bacteria. A stable supply of nitrite for anammox bacteria is a real bottleneck for applying anammox in sewage treatment. Nitritation and partial-denitrification are two promising methods of offering nitrite. As such, the strategies for achieving nitritation in sewage treatment were summarized by reviewing the factors affecting nitrite oxidation bacteria growth. Meanwhile, the methods of achieving partial-denitrification have been developed through understanding the microorganisms related with nitrite accumulation and their factors. Furthermore, two cases of applying anammox in the mainstream sewage treatment plants were documented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A secondary fuel removal process: plasma processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, J Y; Kim, Y S [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, K K; Yang, M S [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Plasma etching process of UO{sub 2} by using fluorine containing gas plasma is studied as a secondary fuel removal process for DUPIC (Direct Use of PWR spent fuel Into Candu) process which is taken into consideration for potential future fuel cycle in Korea. CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} gas mixture is chosen for reactant gas and the etching rates of UO{sub 2} by the gas plasma are investigated as functions of CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} ratio, plasma power, substrate temperature, and plasma gas pressure. It is found that the optimum CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} ratio is around 4:1 at all temperatures up to 400 deg C and the etching rate increases with increasing r.f. power and substrate temperature. Under 150W r.f. power the etching rate reaches 1100 monolayers/min at 400 deg C, which is equivalent to about 0.5mm/min. (author).

  9. Myriophyllum aquaticum Constructed Wetland Effectively Removes Nitrogen in Swine Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haishu Sun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Removal of nitrogen (N is a critical aspect in the functioning of constructed wetlands (CWs, and the N treatment in CWs depends largely on the presence and activity of macrophytes and microorganisms. However, the effects of plants on microorganisms responsible for N removal are poorly understood. In this study, a three-stage surface flow CW was constructed in a pilot-scale within monospecies stands of Myriophyllum aquaticum to treat swine wastewater. Steady-state conditions were achieved throughout the 600-day operating period, and a high (98.3% average ammonia removal efficiency under a N loading rate of 9 kg ha-1 d-1 was observed. To determine whether this high efficiency was associated with the performance of active microbes, the abundance, structure, and interactions of microbial community were compared in the unvegetated and vegetated samples. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reactions showed the abundances of nitrifying genes (archaeal and bacterial amoA and denitrifying genes (nirS, nirK, and nosZ were increased significantly by M. aquaticum in the sediments, and the strongest effects were observed for the archaeal amoA (218-fold and nirS genes (4620-fold. High-throughput sequencing of microbial 16S rRNA gene amplicons showed that M. aquaticum greatly changed the microbial community, and ammonium oxidizers (Nitrosospira and Nitrososphaera, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrospira, and abundant denitrifiers including Rhodoplanes, Bradyrhizobium, and Hyphomicrobium, were enriched significantly in the sediments. The results of a canonical correspondence analysis and Mantle tests indicated that M. aquaticum may shift the sediment microbial community by changing the sediment chemical properties. The enriched nitrifiers and denitrifiers were distributed widely in the vegetated sediments, showing positive ecological associations among themselves and other bacteria based on phylogenetic molecular ecological networks.

  10. [Rapid startup and nitrogen removal characteristic of anaerobic ammonium oxidation reactor in packed bed biofilm reactor with suspended carrier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng; Sun, De-zhi; Yu, Guang-lu

    2010-03-01

    Packed bed biofilm reactor with suspended carrier was used to cultivate ANAMMOX bacteria with sludge inoculums from WWTP secondary settler. The startup of ANAMMOX reactor was comparatively studied using high nitrogen loading method and low nitrogen loading method with aerobically biofilmed on the carrier, and the nitrogen removal characteristic was further investigated. The results showed that the reactor could be started up successfully within 90 days using low nitrogen loading method, the removal efficiencies of ammonium and nitrite were nearly 100% and the TN removal efficiencywas over 75% , however, the high nitrogen loading method was proved unsuccessfully for startup of ANAMMOX reactor probably because of the inhibition effect of high concentration of ammonium and nitrite. The pH value of effluent was slightly higher than the influent and the pH value can be used as an indicator for the process of ANAMMOX reaction. The packed bed ANAMMOX reactor with suspended carrier showed good characteristics of high nitrogen loading and high removal efficiency, 100% of removal efficiency could be achieved when the influent ammonium and nitrite concentration was lower than 800 mg/L.

  11. [Isolation, Identification and Nitrogen Removal Characteristics of a Heterotrophic Nitrification-Aerobic Denitrification Strain y3 Isolated from Marine Environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qing-hua; Yu, De-shuang; Zhang, Pei-yu; Lin, Xue-zheng; Xu, Guang-yao; Li, Jin

    2016-03-15

    A heterotrophic nitrification--aerobic denitrification bacterium named y3 was isolated from the sludge of Jiaozhou Bay using the enrichment medium with seawater as the matrix. It was identified as Pseudomonas sp. based on the morphological observation, physiological experiments and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA. The experiment results showed that the optimal carbon resource was sodium citrate, the optimal pH was 7.0, and the optimal C/N was 13. The strain could use NH₄Cl, NaNO₂ and KNO₃ as sole nitrogen source, and the removal efficiencies were 98.69%, 78.38% and 72.95% within 20 hours, respectively. There was no nitrate and nitrite accumulation during the heterotrophic nitrification process. Within 20 hours, the nitrogen removal efficiencies were 99.56%, 99.75% and 99.41%, respectively, in the mixed system with NO₃⁻-N: NO²⁻-N of 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2. When the NH₄⁺-N: NO₃⁻-N ratios were 2: 1 , 1: 1 , 1: 2, the nitrogen removal efficiencies were all 100% . When the NH₄⁺-N:NO₂⁻-N ratios were 2:1,1:1,1:2, the nitrogen removal efficiencies were 90.43%, 92.79% and 99.96%, respectively. They were higher than those with single nitrogen source. As a result, strain y3 had good nitrogen removal performance in high saline wastewater treatment.

  12. Hybrid process for nitrogen oxides reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epperly, W.R.; Sprague, B.N.

    1991-09-10

    This patent describes a process for reducing the nitrogen oxide concentration in the effluent from the combustion of a carbonaceous fuel. It comprises introducing into the effluent a first treatment agent comprising a nitrogenous composition selected from the group consisting of urea, ammonia, hexamethylenetetramine, ammonium salts of organic acids, 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic hydrocarbons having at least one cyclic nitrogen, hydroxy amino hydrocarbons, NH{sub 4}-lignosulfonate, fur-furylamine, tetrahydrofurylamine, hexamethylenediamine, barbituric acid, guanidine, guanidine carbonate, biguanidine, guanylurea sulfate, melamine, dicyandiamide, biuret, 1.1{prime}-azobisformamide, methylol urea, methylol urea-urea condensation product, dimethylol urea, methyl urea, dimethyl urea, calcium cyanamide, and mixtures thereof under conditions effective to reduce the nitrogen oxides concentration and ensure the presence of ammonia in the effluent; introducing into the effluent a second treatment agent comprising an oxygenated hydrocarbon at an effluent temperature of about 500{degrees} F. to about 1600{degrees} F. under conditions effective to oxidize nitric oxide in the effluent to nitrogen dioxide and ensure the presence of ammonia at a weight ratio of ammonia to nitrogen dioxide of about 1:5 to about 5:1; and contacting the effluent with an aqueous scrubbing solution having a pH of 12 or lower under conditions effective to cause nitrogen dioxide to be absorbed therein.

  13. Removal of nitrogen compounds from Brazilian petroleum samples by oxidation followed by liquid-liquid extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, L.; Pergher, S.B.C. [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Misses (URI), Erechim, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], E-mail: pergher@uricer.edu.br; Oliveira, J.V. [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Misses (URI), Erechim, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia dos Alimentos; Souza, W.F. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2009-10-15

    This work reports liquid-liquid extraction of nitrogen compounds from oxidized and non-oxidized Brazilian petroleum samples. The experiments were accomplished in a laboratory-scale liquid-liquid apparatus in the temperature range of 303 K-323 K, using methanol, n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and N,Ndimethylformamide (DMF), and their mixtures as extraction solvents, employing solvent to sample volume ratios of 1:2, 1:1 and 2:1, exploring up to three separation stages. Results show that an increase in temperature, solvent to oil ratio, and number of equilibrium stages greatly improves the nitrogen removal from the oxidized sample (from 2600 to 200 ppm). The employed oxidation scheme is thus demonstrated to be an essential and efficient step of sample preparation for the selective liquid-liquid removal of nitrogen compounds. It is shown that the use of mixtures of DMF and NMP as well their use as co-solvents with methanol did not prove to be useful for selective nitrogen extraction since great oil losses were observed in the final process. (author)

  14. NO/sub x/ removal facility: MON process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Y

    1974-05-01

    A newly developed process for nitrogen oxides removal is described. The MON process, named for Mitsubishi Kizoku, Okabe of Tohoku Univ., and Nippon Kagaku, uses potassium permanganate as an oxidizing agent. Potassium permanganate in alkaline solution converts nitric oxide into nitrate and nitrogen dioxide into nitric acid. The resulting MnO/sub 2/ is easily filtered and recovered as material for the manufacturing of KMnO/sub 4/. Contrary to the conventional methods, the NO/sub x/ conversion rate increases with increasing temperature. Test results at a pilot plant showed that NO/sub x/ was reduced from 570 ppM (nitric oxide 520 ppM) to 27 ppM (mostly NO) at 97 to 98 percent conversion. Another advantage of the process is that other acidic gases such as sulfur dioxide are also removed.

  15. Modelling nitrogen transformation and removal in mara river basin wetlands upstream of lake Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Aloyce W.; Muraza, Marwa; Norbert, Joel

    2018-06-01

    Lake Victoria, the largest lake in Africa, is a resource of social-economic potential in East Africa. This lake receives water from numerous tributaries including Mara River, which contributes about 4.8% of the total Lake water inflow. Unfortunately, Mara River basin faces environmental problems because of intensive settlement, agriculture, overgrazing in the basin and mining activities, which has lead to water pollution in the river, soil erosion and degradation, decreased soil fertility, loss of vegetation cover, decreased water infiltration capacity and increased sedimentation. One of the pollutants carried by the river includes nitrogen, which has contributed to ecological degradation of the Lake Victoria. Therefore this research work was intended to determine the effectiveness of Mara River wetland for removal of nitrogen and to establish nitrogen removal mechanisms in the wetland. To predict nitrogen removal in the wetland, the dynamics of nitrogen transformation was studied using a conceptual numerical model that takes into account of various processes in the system using STELLA II version 9.0®2006 software. Samples of model input from water, plants and sediments were taken for 45 days and were analyzed for pH, temperature, and DO in situ and chemical parameters such as NH3-N, Org-N, NO2-N, and NO3-N were analyzed in the laboratory in accordance with Standard methods. For plants, the density, dominance, biomass productivity and TN were determined and for sediments TN was analyzed. Inflow into the wetland was determined using stage-discharge relationship and was found to be 734,400 m3/day and the average wetland volume was 1,113,500 m3. Data collected by this study were used for model calibration of nitrogen transformation in this wetland while data from another wetland were used for model validation. It was found that about 37.8% of total nitrogen was removed by the wetland system largely through sedimentation (26.6%), plant uptake (6.6%) and

  16. Robust biological nitrogen removal by creating multiple tides in a single bed tidal flow constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuansheng; Zhao, Yaqian; Rymszewicz, Anna

    2014-02-01

    Achieving effective total nitrogen (TN) removal is one of the major challenges faced by constructed wetlands (CWs). To address this issue, multiple "tides" were proposed in a single stage tidal flow constructed wetland (TFCW). With this adoption, exceptional TN removal (85% on average) was achieved under a high nitrogen loading rate (NLR) of around 28 g Nm(-2)day(-1), which makes the proposed system an adequate option to provide advanced wastewater treatment for peri-urban communities and rural area. It was revealed that the multiple "tides" not only promoted TN removal performance, but also brought more flexibility to TFCWs. Adsorption of NH4(+)-N onto the wetland medium (during contact period) and regeneration of the adsorption capacity via nitrification (during bed resting) were validated as the key processes for NH4(+)-N conversion in TFCWs. Moreover, simultaneous nitrification denitrification (SND) was found to be significant during the bed resting period. These findings will provide a new foundation for the design and modeling of nitrogen conversion and oxygen transfer in TFCWs. © 2013.

  17. Nitrogen Removal from Milking Center Wastewater via Simultaneous Nitrification and Denitrification Using a Biofilm Filtration Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Gun Won

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Milking center wastewater (MCW has a relatively low ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C/N ratio, which should be separately managed from livestock manure due to the negative impacts of manure nutrients and harmful effects on down-stream in the livestock manure process with respect to the microbial growth. Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND is linked to inhibition of the second nitrification and reduces around 40% of the carbonaceous energy available for denitrification. Thus, this study was conducted to find the optimal operational conditions for the treatment of MCW using an attached-growth biofilm reactor; i.e., nitrogen loading rate (NLR of 0.14, 0.28, 0.43, and 0.58 kg m−3 d−1 and aeration rate of 0.06, 0.12, and 0.24 m3 h−1 were evaluated and the comparison of air-diffuser position between one-third and bottom of the reactor was conducted. Four sand packed-bed reactors with the effective volume of 2.5 L were prepared and initially an air-diffuser was placed at one third from the bottom of the reactor. After the adaptation period of 2 weeks, SND was observed at all four reactors and the optimal NLR of 0.45 kg m−3 d−1 was found as a threshold value to obtain higher nitrogen removal efficiency. Dissolved oxygen (DO as one of key operational conditions was measured during the experiment and the reactor with an aeration rate of 0.12 m3 h−1 showed the best performance of NH4-N removal and the higher total nitrogen removal efficiency through SND with appropriate DO level of ~0.5 mg DO L−1. The air-diffuser position at one third from the bottom of the reactor resulted in better nitrogen removal than at the bottom position. Consequently, nitrogen in MCW with a low C/N ratio of 2.15 was successfully removed without the addition of external carbon sources.

  18. Method for combined removal of mercury and nitrogen oxides from off-gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H [Downers Grove, IL; Livengood, C David [Lockport, IL

    2006-10-10

    A method for removing elemental Hg and nitric oxide simultaneously from a gas stream is provided whereby the gas stream is reacted with gaseous chlorinated compound to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds and the nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide. The method works to remove either mercury or nitrogen oxide in the absence or presence of each other.

  19. Bioremediation of polluted wasewaterwater influent: phiosphorus and nitrogen removal. Scientific Research and Essays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo; Akpor, OB

    2010-01-01

    Akpor OB and Muchie M. (2010). Bioremediation of polluted wasewaterwater influent: phiosphorus and nitrogen removal. Scientific Research and Essays, Vol. 5(21), pp. 3222–3230......Akpor OB and Muchie M. (2010). Bioremediation of polluted wasewaterwater influent: phiosphorus and nitrogen removal. Scientific Research and Essays, Vol. 5(21), pp. 3222–3230...

  20. Nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand removal from septic tank wastewater in subsurface flow constructed wetlands: substrate (cation exchange capacity) effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Robert S; Grismer, Mark E

    2014-04-01

    The current article focuses on chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) removal performance from synthetic human wastewater as affected by different substrate rocks having a range of porosities and cation exchange capacities (CECs). The aggregates included lava rock, lightweight expanded shale, meta-basalt (control), and zeolite. The first three had CECs of 1 to 4 mequiv/100 gm, whereas the zeolite CEC was much greater (-80 mequiv/100 gm). Synthetic wastewater was gravity fed to each constructed wetland system, resulting in a 4-day retention time. Effluent samples were collected, and COD and nitrogen species concentrations measured regularly during four time periods from November 2008 through June 2009. Chemical oxygen demand and nitrogen removal fractions were not significantly different between the field and laboratory constructed wetland systems when corrected for temperature. Similarly, overall COD and nitrogen removal fractions were practically the same for the aggregate substrates. The important difference between aggregate effects was the zeolite's ammonia removal process, which was primarily by adsorption. The resulting single-stage nitrogen removal process may be an alternative to nitrification and denitrification that may realize significant cost savings in practice.

  1. Energy and chemical efficient nitrogen removal at a full-scale MBR water reuse facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Wen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With stringent wastewater discharge limits on nitrogen and phosphorus, membrane bioreactor (MBR technology is gaining popularity for advanced wastewater treatment due to higher effluent quality and smaller footprint. However, higher energy intensity required for MBR plants and increased operational costs for nutrient removal limit wide application of the MBR technology. Conventional nitrogen removal requires intensive energy inputs and chemical addition. There are drivers to search for new technology and process control strategies to treat wastewater with lower energy and chemical demand while still producing high quality effluent. The NPXpress is a patented technology developed by American Water engineers. This technology is an ultra-low dissolved oxygen (DO operation for wastewater treatment and is able to remove nitrogen with less oxygen requirements and reduced supplemental carbon addition in MBR plants. Jefferson Peaks Water Reuse Facility in New Jersey employs MBR technology to treat municipal wastewater and was selected for the implementation of the NPXpress technology. The technology has been proved to consistently produce a high quality reuse effluent while reducing energy consumption and supplemental carbon addition by 59% and 100%, respectively. Lab-scale kinetic studies suggested that NPXpress promoted microorganisms with higher oxygen affinity. Process modelling was used to simulate treatment performance under NPXpress conditions and develop ammonia-based aeration control strategy. The application of the ammonia-based aeration control at the plant further reduced energy consumption by additional 9% and improved treatment performance with 35% reduction in effluent total nitrogen. The overall energy savings for Jefferson Peaks was $210,000 in four years since the implementation of NPXpress. This study provided an insight in design and operation of MBR plants with NPXpress technology and ultra-low DO operations.

  2. Emissão de óxido nitroso nos processos de remoção biológica de nitrogênio de efluentes Nitrous oxide emission in the biological nitrogen removal process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bortoli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O óxido nitroso (N2O é altamente impactante ao meio ambiente por ser um dos três gases mais importantes quando considerado o alto potencial de efeito estufa e a baixa quantidade emitida para a atmosfera. A preocupação com a geração de N2O no tratamento de efluentes tem crescido nas duas últimas décadas. Muitos estudos vêm sendo realizados com o objetivo de avaliar as condições de geração e emissão de N2O em etapas de remoção de nitrogênio no tratamento, tanto em escala laboratorial quanto em estações de tratamento de efluentes. Essas pesquisas demonstram que, sob certas condições, ambos os processos podem produzir e emitir grandes quantidades de N2O para a atmosfera, o que remete à importância de mais investigações para determinar as condições específicas que minimizem a produção e a emissão de N2O nesse caso.The nitrous oxide (N2O has a high striking power in environmental. It's one of the three most important greenhouse gases, when considered the greenhouse potential and emissions to the atmosphere. The concern in the two last decades with the N2O generation in wastewater treatment has grown. Many studies have been conducted with the objective of evaluate the conditions of N2O generation and emission in the nitrification and denitrification process, in biological nitrogen removal of wastewater treatment, both lab scale and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP. These studies show that under certain conditions, both processes can generate and emit large amounts of N2O to the atmosphere, what demonstrates the importance of conducting further investigations to determine specific conditions that minimize N2O production and emission.

  3. Mathematical modeling of simultaneous carbon-nitrogen-sulfur removal from industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xi-Jun; Chen, Chuan; Wang, Ai-Jie; Ni, Bing-Jie; Guo, Wan-Qian; Yuan, Ye; Huang, Cong; Zhou, Xu; Wu, Dong-Hai; Lee, Duu-Jong; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2017-01-05

    A mathematical model of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur removal (C-N-S) from industrial wastewater was constructed considering the interactions of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (SOB), nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB), facultative bacteria (FB), and methane producing archaea (MPA). For the kinetic network, the bioconversion of C-N by heterotrophic denitrifiers (NO 3 - →NO 2 - →N 2 ), and that of C-S by SRB (SO 4 2- →S 2- ) and SOB (S 2- →S 0 ) was proposed and calibrated based on batch experimental data. The model closely predicted the profiles of nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, sulfide, lactate, acetate, methane and oxygen under both anaerobic and micro-aerobic conditions. The best-fit kinetic parameters had small 95% confidence regions with mean values approximately at the center. The model was further validated using independent data sets generated under different operating conditions. This work was the first successful mathematical modeling of simultaneous C-N-S removal from industrial wastewater and more importantly, the proposed model was proven feasible to simulate other relevant processes, such as sulfate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing process (SR-SO) and denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) process. The model developed is expected to enhance our ability to predict the treatment of carbon-nitrogen-sulfur contaminated industrial wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nitrogen removal in maturation waste stabilisation ponds via biological uptake and sedimentation of dead biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo Valero, M A; Mara, D D; Newton, R J

    2010-01-01

    In this work a set of experiments was undertaken in a pilot-scale WSP system to determine the importance of organic nitrogen sedimentation on ammonium and total nitrogen removals in maturation ponds and its seasonal variation under British weather conditions, from September 2004 to May 2007. The nitrogen content in collected sediment samples varied from 4.17% to 6.78% (dry weight) and calculated nitrogen sedimentation rates ranged from 273 to 2868 g N/ha d. High ammonium removals were observed together with high concentrations of chlorophyll-a in the pond effluent. Moreover, chlorophyll-a had a very good correlation with the corresponding increment of VSS (algal biomass) and suspended organic nitrogen (biological nitrogen uptake) in the maturation pond effluents. Therefore, when ammonium removal reached its maximum, total nitrogen removal was very poor as most of the ammonia taken up by algae was washed out in the pond effluent in the form of suspended solids. After sedimentation of the dead algal biomass, it was clear that algal-cell nitrogen was recycled from the sludge layer into the pond water column. Recycled nitrogen can either be taken up by algae or washed out in the pond effluent. Biological (mainly algal) uptake of inorganic nitrogen species and further sedimentation of dead biomass (together with its subsequent mineralization) is one of the major mechanisms controlling in-pond nitrogen recycling in maturation WSP, particularly when environmental and operational conditions are favourable for algal growth.

  5. Nitrogen removal and microbial communities in a three-stage system simulating a riparian environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziyuan; Wang, Zhixin; Pei, Yuansheng

    2014-06-01

    The riparian zone is an active interface for nitrogen removal, in which nitrogen transformations by microorganisms have not been valued. In this study, a three-stage system was constructed to simulate the riparian zone environments, and nitrogen removal as well as the microbial community was investigated in this 'engineered riparian system'. The results demonstrated that stage 1 of this system accounted for 41-51 % of total nitrogen removal. Initial ammonium loading and redox potential significantly impacted the nitrogen removal performances. Stages 1 and 2 were both composed of an anoxic/oxic (A/O) zone and an anaerobic column. The A/O zone removed most of the ammonium load (6.8 g/m(2)/day), while the anaerobic column showed a significant nitrate removal rate (11.1 g/m(2)/day). Molecular biological analysis demonstrated that bacterial diversity was high in the A/O zones, where ammonium-oxidizing bacteria and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria accounted for 8.42 and 3.32 % of the bacterial population, respectively. The denitrifying bacteria Acidovorax sp. and the nitrifying bacteria Nitrosospira/Nitrosomonas were the predominant microorganisms in this engineered riparian system. This three-stage system was established to achieve favorable nitrogen removal and the microbial community in the system was also retained. This investigation should deepen our understanding of biological nitrogen removal in engineered riparian zones.

  6. Removal of nitrite impurity from nitrate labeled with nitrogen-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, J.P.; Stevens, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Potassium nitrate labeled with 15 N is often used as a tracer in studies of N dynamics in soil and water systems. Typically, 0.8% NO 2 - impurity has been found in the batches of K 15 NO 3 enriched to 99 atom % excess 15 N that were purchased by our laboratory. Nitrite is an intermediate in several N cycling processes so its addition when adding NO 3 - could produce misleading results. We have developed a safe, simple, and inexpensive method to remove NO 2 - impurity from any NO 3 - solution in a water matrix. The principle is the oxidation of NO2- to NO 3 - by UV light in the presence of a heterogenous TiO 2 catalyst. A NO 2 - concentration of 0.2 mM in 100 mL of 0.2 M NO 3 - solution could be oxidized in 12 min using 0.5 g L -1 TiO 2 in a specially constructed photoreactor with a 75-W UV facial tanning lamp. For the routine removal of NO 2 - , use of the same TiO 2 concentration in a standard beaker worked equally well when the irradiation time was extended to 2.5 h. After irradiation, the TiO2 is easily and totally removed from the solution by membrane filtration. (author)

  7. Nitrogen and phosphorus removed from a subsurface flow multi-stage filtration system purifying agricultural runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaqi; Huang, Lei; Chen, Yucheng

    2018-07-01

    Agricultural nonpoint source pollution has been increasingly serious in China since the 1990s. The main causes were excessive inputs of nitrogen fertilizer and pesticides. A multi-stage filtration system was built to test the purification efficiencies and removal characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus when treating agricultural runoff. Simulated runoff pollution was prepared by using river water as source water based on the monitoring of local agricultural runoff. Experimental study had been performed from September to November 2013, adopting 12 h for flooding and 12 h for drying. The results showed that the system was made adaptive to variation of inflow quality and quantity, and had good removal for dissolved total nitrogen, total nitrogen, dissolved total phosphorus (DTP), and total phosphorus, and the average removal rate was 27%, 36%, 32%, and 48%, respectively. Except nitrate ([Formula: see text]), other forms of nitrogen and phosphorus all decreased with the increase of stages. Nitrogen was removed mainly in particle form the first stage, and mostly removed in dissolved form the second and third stage. Phosphorus was removed mainly in particulate during the first two stages, but the removal of particulate phosphorus and DTP were almost the same in the last stage. An approximate logarithmic relationship between removal loading and influent loading to nitrogen and phosphorus was noted in the experimental system, and the correlation coefficient was 0.78-0.94. [Formula: see text]: ammonium; [Formula: see text]: nitrite; [Formula: see text]: nitrate; DTN: dissolved total nitrogen; TN: total nitrogen; DTP: dissolved total phosphorus; TP: total phosphorus; PN: particulate nitrogen; PP: particulate phosphorus.

  8. Arsenic removal by electrocoagulation process: Recent trends and removal mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidheesh, P V; Singh, T S Anantha

    2017-08-01

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water is a major issue in the present world. Arsenicosis is the disease caused by the regular consumption of arsenic contaminated water, even at a lesser contaminated level. The number of arsenicosis patients is increasing day-by-day. Decontamination of arsenic from the water medium is the only one way to regulate this and the arsenic removal can be fulfilled by water treatment methods based on separation techniques. Electrocoagulation (EC) process is a promising technology for the effective removal of arsenic from aqueous solution. The present review article analyzes the performance of the EC process for arsenic removal. Electrocoagulation using various sacrificial metal anodes such as aluminium, iron, magnesium, etc. is found to be very effective for arsenic decontamination. The performances of each anode are described in detail. A special focus has been made on the mechanism behind the arsenite and arsenate removal by EC process. Main trends in the disposal methods of sludge containing arsenic are also included. Comparison of arsenic decontamination efficiencies of chemical coagulation and EC is also reported. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. New perspectives for the petroleum industry. Bioprocesses for the selective removal of sulphur, nitrogen and metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerlia, T.

    2000-01-01

    Fuel biocatalytic conversion is a process that removes, through selective enzyme-catalyzed reactions, sulphur, nitrogen and metals. The mild operating conditions, the specificity of reactions and the quality of coproducts (particularly the organo sulphur compounds, a source for the petrochemical industry) are just a few of the attractive aspects of this new technology which could open a new world of possibilities in the technology and in the environmental impact of fuels. The paper shows the state-of-the-art of the research and applications of bioprocesses to the petroleum field [it

  10. Nitrogen removal and its relationship with the nitrogen-cycle genes and microorganisms in the horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands with different design parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, You-Sheng; Wei, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; He, Liang-Ying; Yang, Yong-Qiang; Chen, Fan-Rong

    2017-07-03

    This study aims to investigate nitrogen removal and its relationship with the nitrogen-cycle genes and microorganisms in the horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (CWs) with different design parameters. Twelve mesocosm-scale CWs with four substrates and three hydraulic loading rates were set up in the outdoor. The result showed the CWs with zeolite as substrate and HLR of 20 cm/d were selected as the best choice for the TN and NH 3 -N removal. It was found that the single-stage mesocosm-scale CWs were incapable to achieve high removals of TN and NH 3 -N due to inefficient nitrification process in the systems. This was demonstrated by the lower abundance of the nitrification genes (AOA and AOB) than the denitrification genes (nirK and nirS), and the less diverse nitrification microorganisms than the denitrification microorganisms in the CWs. The results also show that microorganism community structure including nitrogen-cycle microorganisms in the constructed wetland systems was affected by the design parameters especially the substrate type. These findings show that nitrification is a limiting factor for the nitrogen removal by CWs.

  11. Simultaneous removal of nitrogen oxide/nitrogen dioxide/sulfur dioxide from gas streams by combined plasma scrubbing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Moo Been; Lee, How Ming; Wu, Feeling; Lai, Chi Ren

    2004-08-01

    Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) [nitrogen oxide (NO) + nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are removed individually in traditional air pollution control technologies. This study proposes a combined plasma scrubbing (CPS) system for simultaneous removal of SO2 and NOx. CPS consists of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) and wet scrubbing in series. DBD is used to generate nonthermal plasmas for converting NO to NO2. The water-soluble NO2 then can be removed by wet scrubbing accompanied with SO2 removal. In this work, CPS was tested with simulated exhausts in the laboratory and with diesel-generator exhausts in the field. Experimental results indicate that DBD is very efficient in converting NO to NO2. More than 90% removal of NO, NOx, and SO2 can be simultaneously achieved with CPS. Both sodium sulfide (Na2S) and sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) scrubbing solutions are good for NO2 and SO2 absorption. Energy efficiencies for NOx and SO2 removal are 17 and 18 g/kWh, respectively. The technical feasibility of CPS for simultaneous removal of NO, NO2, and SO2 from gas streams is successfully demonstrated in this study. However, production of carbon monoxide as a side-product (approximately 100 ppm) is found and should be considered.

  12. Short communication Biological removal of nitrogen species from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gravel-packed column reactor was found to be unsuitable for the removal of nitrate in the configuration used (maximum 15% removal efficiency). The critical parameters for denitrification are nitrate concentration, temperature, influent flow rate and mean cell retention time. Nitrate removal did not meet the expectations ...

  13. Process and system for removing tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridgely, J.N.

    1976-01-01

    A process and system for removing tritium, particularly from high temperature gas cooled atomic reactors (HTGR), is disclosed. Portions of the reactor coolant, which is permeated with the pervasive tritium atom, are processed to remove the tritium. Under conditions of elevated temperature and pressure, the reactor coolant is combined with gaseous oxygen, resulting in the formation of tritiated water vapor from the tritium in the reactor coolant and the gaseous oxygen. The tritiated water vapor and the remaining gaseous oxygen are then successively removed by fractional liquefaction steps. The reactor coolant is then recirculated to the reactor

  14. Evaluation of the performance of the Tyson Foods wastewater treatment plant for nitrogen removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubay-Cokgor, E; Randall, C W; Orhon, D

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of the Tyson Foods wastewater treatment plant with an average flow rate of 6500 m3/d was evaluated before and after upgrading of the treatment system for nitrogen removal. This study was also covered with an additional recommendation of BIOWIN BNR program simulation after the modification period to achieve an additional nutrient removal. The results clearly show that the upgrading was very successful for improved nitrogen removal, with a 57% decrease on the total nitrogen discharge. There also were slight reductions in the discharged loads of biological oxygen demand, total suspended solids, ammonium and total phosphorus with denitrification, even though the effluent flow was higher during operation of the nitrogen removal configuration.

  15. Redox stratified biofilms to support completely autotrophic nitrogen removal: Principles and results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles; Smets, Barth F.

    liquid. If operated properly, MABRs yield compact and homogeneous redox-stratified biofilms capable of hosting side-by-side aerobic and anaerobic microbial communities. We have recently demonstrated that completely autotrophic nitrogen removal is feasible in MABRs at nitrogen removal rates as high as 5......After 10 years of pilot and full-scale studies, completely autotrophic nitrogen via coupled aerobic and anaerobic ammonium oxidation is now firmly established in the wastewater treatment community. The reasons for the popularization of the technology are numerous, but the most attractive....... The continuous and sustained inoculation of metabolically active anaerobic oxidizing bacteria from a biofilm reactor placed in the recirculation line of our MABRs showed to shorten considerably the onset of autotrophic nitrogen removal. However, the main hurdle keeping MABRs from attaining high removal...

  16. Adsorption Equilibrium and Kinetics of the Removal of Ammoniacal Nitrogen by Zeolite X/Activated Carbon Composite Synthesized from Elutrilithe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeolite X/activated carbon composite material (X/AC was prepared from elutrilithe, by a process consisting of carbonization, activation, and subsequent hydrothermal transformation of aluminosilicate in alkaline solution, which was used for the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen from aqueous solutions. Adsorption kinetics, equilibrium, and thermodynamic were studied and fitted by various models. The adsorption kinetics is best depicted by pseudosecond-order model, and the adsorption isotherm fits the Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson model. This explains the ammoniacal nitrogen adsorption onto X/AC which was chemical adsorption in nature. Thermodynamic properties such as ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS were determined for the ammoniacal nitrogen adsorption, and the positive enthalpy confirmed that the adsorption process was endothermic. It can be inferred that ammoniacal nitrogen removal by X/AC composite is attributed to the ion exchange ability of zeolite X. Further, as a novel sorbent, this material has the potential application in removing ammoniacal nitrogen coexisting with other organic compounds from industrial wastewater.

  17. Development of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) for biological nitrogen removal in domestic wastewater treatment (Case study: Surabaya City, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaya, I. Made Wahyu; Soedjono, Eddy Setiadi; Fitriani, Nurina

    2017-11-01

    Domestic wastewater effluent is the main contributor to diverse water pollution problems. The contaminants contained in the wastewater lead the low quality of water. The presence of ammonium and nitrate along with phosphorus are potentially cause eutrophication and endanger aquatic life. Excess nutrients, mostly N and P is the main cause of eutrophication which is result in oxygen depletion, biodiversity reduction, fish kills, odor and increased toxicity. Most of the domestic wastewater in Surabaya City still contains nitrogen that exceeded the threshold. The range of ammonium and orthophosphate concentration in the domestic wastewater is between 6.29 mg/L - 38.91 mg/L and 0.44 mg/L - 1.86 mg/L, respectively. An advance biological nitrogen removal process called anammox is a sustainable and cost effective alternative to the basic method of nitrogen removal, such as nitrification and denitrification. Many research have been conducted through anammox and resulted promisingly way to remove nitrogen. In this process, ammonium will be oxidized with nitrite as an electron acceptor to produce nitrogen gas and low nitrate in anoxic condition. Anammox requires less oxygen demand, no needs external carbon source, and low operational cost. Based on its advantages, anammox is possible to apply in domestic wastewater treatment in Surabaya with many further studies.

  18. Enhancing nitrogen removal in stormwater treatment facilities for transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Stormwater from roadways is a point source of pollution. State DOTs must comply with Total Maximum : Daily Load (TMDL) regulations for nutrients such as nitrogen, which causes water quality impairment. Existing stormwater treatment technologies, such...

  19. On the 'hysteresis' effect in the biological nitrogen removal :theory and full scale experimental evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatano, F.

    1996-01-01

    The wastewater treatments plants localized in the Ruhr River (Germany), generally present a typical wastewater temperature variation curve during the winter period. These temperature changes produce specific effects on the nitrogen removal efficiencies in the activated sludge systems. The so called 'hysteresis' phenomenon is responsible for these effects. The paper deals with some simplified theoretical considerations and with a full scale experimental evaluations of the effects caused by the hysteresis phenomenon in the biological nitrogen removal

  20. The effect of nitrogen on phosphorus and potassium removal by cauliflower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, A.P.; Moel, de C.P.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the amount of nitrogen applied and of the method of application on the amounts of phosphorus and potassium removed from the field with the product in cauliflower cultivation was studied in three field experiments. Band placement or split application of nitrogen did not influence

  1. Sediment diffusion method improves wastewater nitrogen removal in the receiving lake sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, Sanni L; Saarenheimo, Jatta; Ropponen, Janne; Juntunen, Janne; Rissanen, Antti J; Tiirola, Marja

    2018-07-01

    Sediment microbes have a great potential to transform reactive N to harmless N 2 , thus decreasing wastewater nitrogen load into aquatic ecosystems. Here, we examined if spatial allocation of the wastewater discharge by a specially constructed sediment diffuser pipe system enhanced the microbial nitrate reduction processes. Full-scale experiments were set on two Finnish lake sites, Keuruu and Petäjävesi, and effects on the nitrate removal processes were studied using the stable isotope pairing technique. All nitrate reduction rates followed nitrate concentrations, being highest at the wastewater-influenced sampling points. Complete denitrification with N 2 as an end-product was the main nitrate reduction process, indicating that the high nitrate and organic matter concentrations of wastewater did not promote nitrous oxide (N 2 O) production (truncated denitrification) or ammonification (dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium; DNRA). Using 3D simulation, we demonstrated that the sediment diffusion method enhanced the contact time and amount of wastewater near the sediment surface especially in spring and in autumn, altering organic matter concentration and oxygen levels, and increasing the denitrification capacity of the sediment. We estimated that natural denitrification potentially removed 3-10% of discharged wastewater nitrate in the 33 ha study area of Keuruu, and the sediment diffusion method increased this areal denitrification capacity on average 45%. Overall, our results indicate that sediment diffusion method can supplement wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) nitrate removal without enhancing alternative harmful processes. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Further contributions to the understanding of nitrogen removal in waste stabilization ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, R K X; Rios, E N; Sánchez, I A

    2018-06-01

    A set of experiments were conducted in Brazil in a pilot-scale waste stabilization pond (WSP) system (a four-maturation-pond series) treating an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor effluent. Over a year and a half the pond series was monitored under two flow rate conditions, hence also different hydraulic retention times and surface loading rates. On-site and laboratory trials were carried out to assess: (i) ammonia losses by volatilization using acrylic capture chambers placed at the surface of the ponds; (ii) organic nitrogen sedimentation rates using metal buckets placed at the bottom of the ponds for collecting settled particulate matter; (iii) nitrogen removal by algal uptake based on the nitrogen content of the suspended particulate matter in samples from the ponds' water column. In addition, nitrification and denitrification rates were measured in laboratory-based experiments using pond water and sediment samples. The pond system achieved high nitrogen removal (69% total nitrogen and 92% ammonia removal). The average total nitrogen removal rates varied from 10,098 to 3,849 g N/ha·d in the first and the last ponds, respectively, with the following fractions associated with the various removal pathways: (i) 23.5-45.6% sedimentation of organic nitrogen; (ii) 13.1-27.8% algal uptake; (iii) 1.2-3.1% ammonia volatilization; and (iv) 0.15-0.34% nitrification-denitrification.

  3. Denitrifying sulfide removal process on high-salinity wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunshuang; Zhao, Chaocheng; Wang, Aijie; Guo, Yadong; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2015-08-01

    Denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) process comprising both heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrifiers can simultaneously convert nitrate, sulfide, and acetate into nitrogen gas, elemental sulfur (S(0)), and carbon dioxide, respectively. Sulfide- and nitrate-laden wastewaters at 2-35 g/L NaCl were treated by DSR process. A C/N ratio of 3:1 was proposed to maintain high S(0) conversion rate. The granular sludge with a compact structure and smooth outer surface was formed. The microbial communities of DSR consortium via high-throughput sequencing method suggested that salinity shifts the predominating heterotrophic denitrifiers at 10 g/L NaCl.

  4. Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Greene and Tioga Counties, Pennsylvania, 2004-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E.T.; Milheim, L.E.; Roig-Silva, C.M.; Fisher, G.B.

    2012-01-01

    Increased demands for cleaner burning energy, coupled with the relatively recent technological advances in accessing unconventional hydrocarbon-rich geologic formations, have led to an intense effort to find and extract natural gas from various underground sources around the country. One of these sources, the Marcellus Shale, located in the Allegheny Plateau, is currently undergoing extensive drilling and production. The technology used to extract gas in the Marcellus shale is known as hydraulic fracturing and has garnered much attention because of its use of large amounts of fresh water, its use of proprietary fluids for the hydraulic-fracturing process, its potential to release contaminants into the environment, and its potential effect on water resources. Nonetheless, development of natural gas extraction wells in the Marcellus Shale is only part of the overall natural gas story in the area of Pennsylvania. Coalbed methane, which is sometimes extracted using the same technique, is commonly located in the same general area as the Marcellus Shale and is frequently developed in clusters across the landscape. The combined effects of these two natural gas extraction methods create potentially serious patterns of disturbance on the landscape. This document quantifies the landscape changes and consequences of natural gas extraction for Greene County and Tioga County in Pennsylvania between 2004 and 2010. Patterns of landscape disturbance related to natural gas extraction activities were collected and digitized using National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery for 2004, 2005/2006, 2008, and 2010. The disturbance patterns were then used to measure changes in land cover and land use using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of 2001. A series of landscape metrics are also used to quantify these changes and are included in this publication.

  5. Does Avicennia germinans expansion alter salt marsh nitrogen removal capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatariw, C.; Kleinhuizen, A.; Rajan, S.; Flournoy, N.; Sobecky, P.; Mortazavi, B.

    2017-12-01

    Plant species expansion poses risks to ecosystem services through alterations to plant-microbiome interactions associated with changes to key microbial drivers such as organic carbon (C) substrates, nitrogen (N) availability, and rhizosphere-associated microbial communities. In the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM), warming winter temperatures associated with climate change have promoted Avicennia germinans (black mangrove) expansion into salt marshes. To date, there is limited knowledge regarding the effects of mangrove expansion on vital ecosystem services such as N cycling in the northern GOM. We designed a field-based study to determine the potential effects of mangrove expansion on salt marsh N biogeochemical cycling in the Spartina alterniflora dominated Chandeleur Islands (LA, USA). We used a combination of process rate measurements and metadata to: 1) Determine the impact of mangrove expansion on salt marsh denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), with the goal of quantifying losses or gains in ecosystem services; and 2) identify the mechanisms driving changes in ecosystem services to improve predictions about the impacts of mangrove expansion on salt marsh functional resiliency. The pneumatophore root structure of A. germinans is efficient at delivering oxygen (O2) to sediment, which can promote coupled nitrification-denitrification and decrease sulfide inhibition. We hypothesized that increased sediment O2, when coupled with cooler soil temperatures caused by plant shading, will favor denitrification instead of the DNRA process. An increase in sediment O2, as well as higher N content of A. germinans litter, will also result in a shift in the microbial community. Initial findings indicated that the denitrification pathway dominates over DNRA regardless of vegetation type, with average denitrification rates of 30.1 µmol N kg-1 h-1 versus average DNRA rates of 8.5 µmol N kg-1 h-1. However, neither denitrification nor DNRA rates

  6. Removal of silver nanoparticles by coagulation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Qian; Li, Yan; Tang, Ting; Yuan, Zhihua; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This study investigated the removal of AgNP suspensions by four regular coagulants. • The optimal removal efficiencies for the four coagulants were achieved at pH 7.5. • The removal efficiency of AgNPs was affected by the natural water characteristics. • TEM and XRD showed that AgNPs or silver-containing NPs were adsorbed onto the flocs. -- Abstract: Commercial use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) will lead to a potential route for human exposure via potable water. Coagulation followed by sedimentation, as a conventional technique in the drinking water treatment facilities, may become an important barrier to prevent human from AgNP exposures. This study investigated the removal of AgNP suspensions by four regular coagulants. In the aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride coagulation systems, the water parameters slightly affected the AgNP removal. However, in the poly aluminum chloride and polyferric sulfate coagulation systems, the optimal removal efficiencies were achieved at pH 7.5, while higher or lower of pH could reduce the AgNP removal. Besides, the increasing natural organic matter (NOM) would reduce the AgNP removal, while Ca 2+ and suspended solids concentrations would also affect the AgNP removal. In addition, results from the transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed AgNPs or silver-containing nanoparticles were adsorbed onto the flocs. Finally, natural water samples were used to validate AgNP removal by coagulation. This study suggests that in the case of release of AgNPs into the source water, the traditional water treatment process, coagulation/sedimentation, can remove AgNPs and minimize the silver ion concentration under the well-optimized conditions

  7. Temporary storage or permanent removal? The division of nitrogen between biotic assimilation and denitrification in stormwater biofiltration systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily G I Payne

    Full Text Available The long-term efficacy of stormwater treatment systems requires continuous pollutant removal without substantial re-release. Hence, the division of incoming pollutants between temporary and permanent removal pathways is fundamental. This is pertinent to nitrogen, a critical water body pollutant, which on a broad level may be assimilated by plants or microbes and temporarily stored, or transformed by bacteria to gaseous forms and permanently lost via denitrification. Biofiltration systems have demonstrated effective removal of nitrogen from urban stormwater runoff, but to date studies have been limited to a 'black-box' approach. The lack of understanding on internal nitrogen processes constrains future design and threatens the reliability of long-term system performance. While nitrogen processes have been thoroughly studied in other environments, including wastewater treatment wetlands, biofiltration systems differ fundamentally in design and the composition and hydrology of stormwater inflows, with intermittent inundation and prolonged dry periods. Two mesocosm experiments were conducted to investigate biofilter nitrogen processes using the stable isotope tracer 15NO3(- (nitrate over the course of one inflow event. The immediate partitioning of 15NO3(- between biotic assimilation and denitrification were investigated for a range of different inflow concentrations and plant species. Assimilation was the primary fate for NO3(- under typical stormwater concentrations (∼1-2 mg N/L, contributing an average 89-99% of 15NO3(- processing in biofilter columns containing the most effective plant species, while only 0-3% was denitrified and 0-8% remained in the pore water. Denitrification played a greater role for columns containing less effective species, processing up to 8% of 15NO3(-, and increased further with nitrate loading. This study uniquely applied isotope tracing to biofiltration systems and revealed the dominance of assimilation in stormwater

  8. Phosphorus and nitrogen removal in waste water at small factory. Shokibo jigyosho ni okeru haisuichu no rin chisso shori gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, M. (National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1994-05-25

    For the purpose of preventing closed waters from eutrophicating, COD regulations and nitrogen and phosphorus waste water regulations are executed in Japan, but practically applicable techniques for this purpose are a few. Concerning technology for removing nitrogen and phosphorus in waste water, this paper describes the actual situation of two industries, electroplating and alumite processing, and applicable techniques. Among various nitrogen removal methods, the biological treatment method has been used practically in many cases and is applicable to practical use. While there are many kinds of physical and chemical treatment methods, applicable methods are limited. In removing nitrogen, the coagulating sedimentation method with Ca salt, Al salt and Fe salt is effective generally for orthophosphate. At electroplating factories, various forms of phosphorus and nitrogen compounds are used as plating chemicals. In treating waste water containing phosphorus, the coagulating sedimentation method is used most frequently. The oxidation + coagulating sedimentation method, the autolysis + oxidation coagulation method, and the evaporation method are effected, though the examples of their implementation are small in number. 15 tabs.

  9. Aeration control by monitoring the microbiological activity using fuzzy logic diagnosis and control. Application to a complete autotrophic nitrogen removal reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiocchi, Riccardo; Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine

    2015-01-01

    Complete Autotrophic Nitrogen Removal (CANR) is a novel process where ammonia is converted to nitrogen gas by different microbial groups. The performance of the process can be compromised by an unbalanced activity of the biomass caused by disturbances or non-optimal operational conditions...... microbial groups on the other hand, the diagnosis provides information on: nitritation, nitratation, anaerobic ammonium oxidation and overall autotrophic nitrogen removal. These four results give insight into the state of the process and are used as inputs for the controller that manipulates the aeration...... to the reactor.The diagnosis tool was first evaluated using 100 days of real process operation data obtained from a lab-scale single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removing reactor. This evaluation revealed that the fuzzy logic diagnosis is able to provide a realistic description of the microbiological state...

  10. Factorial study of rain garden design for nitrogen removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Nitrate (〖NO〗_3^--N ) removal studies in bioretention systems showed great variability in removal rates and in some cases 〖NO〗_3^--N was exported. A 3-way factorial design (2 x 2 x 4) was devised for eight outdoor un-vegetated rain gardens to evaluate the effects of ...

  11. Evaluation on nitrogen oxides and nanoparticle removal and nitrogen monoxide generation using a wet-type nonthermal plasma reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehana, Kotaro; Kuroki, Tomoyuki; Okubo, Masaaki

    2018-05-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted from power plants and combustion sources cause air pollution problems. Selective catalytic reduction technology is remarkably useful for NOx removal. However, there are several drawbacks such as preparation of reducing agents, usage of harmful heavy metals, and higher cost. On the other hand, trace NO is a vasodilator agent and employed in inhalation therapies for treating pulmonary hypertension in humans. Considering these factors, in the present study, a wet-type nonthermal plasma reactor, which can control NOx and nanoparticle emissions and generate NO, is investigated. The fundamental characteristics of the reactor are investigated. First, the experiment of nanoparticle removal is carried out. Collection efficiencies of over 99% are achieved for nanoparticles at 50 and 100 ml min‑1 of liquid flow rates. Second, experiments of NOx removal under air atmosphere and NOx generation under nitrogen atmosphere are carried out. NOx-removal efficiencies of over 95% under the air plasma are achieved in 50–200 ml min‑1 liquid flow rates. Moreover, under nitrogen plasma, NOx is generated, of which the major portion is NO. For example, NO concentration is 25 ppm, while NOx concentration is 31 ppm at 50 ml min‑1 liquid flow rate. Finally, experiments of NO generation under the nitrogen atmosphere with or without flowing water are carried out. When water flows on the inner surface of the reactor, approximately 14 ppm of NO is generated. Therefore, NO generation requires flowing water. It is considered that the reaction of N and OH, which is similar to the extended Zeldovich mechanism, could occur to induce NO formation. From these results, it is verified that the wet-type plasma reactor is useful for NOx removal and NO generation under nitrogen atmosphere with flowing water.

  12. Effects of porous carrier size on biofilm development, microbial distribution and nitrogen removal in microaerobic bioreactors

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmad, Muhammad; Liu, Sitong; Mahmood, Nasir; Mahmood, Asif; Ali, Muhammad; Zheng, Maosheng; Ni, Jinren

    2017-01-01

    In this study, effects of porous carrier’s size (polyurethane-based) on microbial characteristics were systematically investigated in addition to nitrogen removal performance in six microaerobic bioreactors. Among different sized carriers (50, 30, 20, 15,10, 5 mm), 15 mm carrier showed highest nitrogen removal (98%) due to optimal micro-environments created for aerobic nitrifiers in outer layer (0∼7 mm), nitrifiers and denitrifiers in middle layer (7∼10 mm) and anaerobic denitrifiers in inner layer (10∼15 mm). Candidatus brocadia, a dominant anammox bacteria, was solely concentrated close to centroid (0∼70 μm) and strongly co-aggregated with other bacterial communities in the middle layer of the carrier. Contrarily, carriers with a smaller (<15 mm) or larger size (>15 mm) either destroy the effective zone for anaerobic denitrifiers or damage the microaerobic environments due to poor mass transfer. This study is of particular use for optimal design of carriers in enhancing simultaneous nitrification-denitrification in microaerobic wastewater treatment processes.

  13. Effects of porous carrier size on biofilm development, microbial distribution and nitrogen removal in microaerobic bioreactors

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmad, Muhammad

    2017-03-15

    In this study, effects of porous carrier’s size (polyurethane-based) on microbial characteristics were systematically investigated in addition to nitrogen removal performance in six microaerobic bioreactors. Among different sized carriers (50, 30, 20, 15,10, 5 mm), 15 mm carrier showed highest nitrogen removal (98%) due to optimal micro-environments created for aerobic nitrifiers in outer layer (0∼7 mm), nitrifiers and denitrifiers in middle layer (7∼10 mm) and anaerobic denitrifiers in inner layer (10∼15 mm). Candidatus brocadia, a dominant anammox bacteria, was solely concentrated close to centroid (0∼70 μm) and strongly co-aggregated with other bacterial communities in the middle layer of the carrier. Contrarily, carriers with a smaller (<15 mm) or larger size (>15 mm) either destroy the effective zone for anaerobic denitrifiers or damage the microaerobic environments due to poor mass transfer. This study is of particular use for optimal design of carriers in enhancing simultaneous nitrification-denitrification in microaerobic wastewater treatment processes.

  14. Nitrogen removal in shallow groundwater below three arable land systems in a high nitrogen loading region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X.; Zhou, W.

    2017-12-01

    The Taihu Lake region (TLR) is one of the most intensive agricultural regions with high nitrogen (N) loading in eastern China. Large inputs of synthetic N fertilizer have led to a series of environmental problems including eutrophication of surface waters, nitrate (NO3-) pollution of groundwater. To fully evaluate the risk of NO3- on groundwater environments, it is necessary to know the natural NO3- removal ability. In this study, denitrification capacity was assessed for two years through measuring the concentration of different N species (NO3-, NH4+, TN, excess N2 and dissolved N2O) in groundwater below three typical agricultural land-use types in the TLR. The results suggested that the conversion of paddy field (PF) to vineyard (VY) and vegetable (VF) significantly increased the groundwater NO3-N concentration, but denitrification consumed 76%, 83% and 65% of the groundwater NO3-N in VY, VF and PF, respectively. Because of the low O2 and high DOC concentrations in groundwater, denitrification activity was high in the study sites, resulting in high excess N2 accumulation in groundwater, and the concentration even exceeded the total active N in the deep layer. The large amounts of excess N2 observed in the VY and VF over all the sample times indicated that considerable N was stored as gaseous N2 in groundwater and should not be ignored in balancing N budgets in aquifers where denitrification is high. Our results also demonstrated that the indirect N2O emission factor (EF5-g) in VY (0.0052)and VF (0.0057)was significantly higher than PF (0.0011)as well as higher than the IPCC default values (0.0025. In view of the increasing trend of paddy fields being converted to uplands combined with the low GWT in the TLR, we thus concluded that the risk of NO3- contamination in groundwater and indirect N2O emission will intensify below arable land.

  15. High performance of nitrogen and phosphorus removal in an electrolysis-integrated biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y; Xie, Y W; Zhang, Q; Yu, Y X; Yang, L Y

    A novel electrolysis-integrated biofilter system was developed in this study to evaluate the intensified removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from contaminated water. Two laboratory-scale biofilter systems were established, one with electrolysis (E-BF) and one without electrolysis (BF) as control. The dynamics of intensified nitrogen and phosphorus removal and the changes of inflow and outflow water qualities were also evaluated. The total nitrogen (TN) removal rate was 94.4% in our newly developed E-BF, but only 74.7% in the control BF. Ammonium removal rate was up to 95% in biofilters with or without electrolysis integration with an influent ammonium concentration of 40 mg/L, and the accumulation of nitrate and nitrite was much lower in the effluent of E-BF than that of BF. Thus electrolysis plays an important role in TN removal especially the nitrate and nitrite removal. Phosphorus removal was significantly enhanced, exceeding 90% in E-BF by chemical precipitation, physical adsorption, and flocculation of phosphorus because of the in situ formation of ferric ions by the anodizing of sacrificial iron anodes. Results from this study indicate that the electrolysis integrated biofilter is a promising solution for intensified nitrogen and phosphorus removal.

  16. Governing processes for reactive nitrogen compounds in the European atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Hertel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Reactive nitrogen (Nr compounds have different fates in the atmosphere due to differences in the governing processes of physical transport, deposition and chemical transformation. Nr compounds addressed here include reduced nitrogen (NHx: ammonia (NH3 and its reaction product ammonium (NH4+, oxidized nitrogen (NOy: nitrogen monoxide (NO + nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and their reaction products as well as organic nitrogen compounds (organic N. Pollution abatement strategies need to take into account the differences in the governing processes of these compounds when assessing their impact on ecosystem services, biodiversity, human health and climate. NOx (NO + NO2 emitted from traffic affects human health in urban areas where the presence of buildings increases the residence time in streets. In urban areas this leads to enhanced exposure of the population to NOx concentrations. NOx emissions generally have little impact on nearby ecosystems because of the small dry deposition rates of NOx. These compounds need to be converted into nitric acid (HNO3 before removal through deposition is efficient. HNO3 sticks quickly to any surface and is thereby either dry deposited or incorporated into aerosols as nitrate (NO3. In contrast to NOx compounds, NH3 has potentially high impacts on ecosystems near the main agricultural sources of NH3 because of its large ground-level concentrations along with large dry deposition rates. Aerosol phase NH4+ and NO3 contribute significantly to background PM2.5 and PM10 (mass of aerosols with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 and 10 μm, respectively with an impact on radiation balance as well as potentially on human

  17. Digestate application in landfill bioreactors to remove nitrogen of old landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Pivato, Alberto; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Raga, Roberto

    2018-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion of organics is one of the most used solution to gain renewable energy from waste and the final product, the digestate, still rich in putrescible components and nutrients, is mainly considered for reutilization (in land use) as a bio-fertilizer or a compost after its treatment. Alternative approaches are recommended in situations where conventional digestate management practices are not suitable. Aim of this study was to develop an alternative option to use digestate to enhance nitrified leachate treatment through a digestate layer in a landfill bioreactor. Two identical landfill columns (Ra and Rb) filled with the same solid digestate were set and nitrified leachate was used as influent. Ra ceased after 75 day's operation to get solid samples and calculate the C/N mass balance while Rb was operated for 132 days. Every two or three days, effluent from the columns were discarded and the columns were refilled with nitrified leachate (average N-NO 3 - concentration = 1,438 mg-N/L). N-NO 3 - removal efficiency of 94.7% and N-NO 3 - removal capacity of 19.2 mg N-NO 3 - /gTS-digestate were achieved after 75 days operation in Ra. Prolonging the operation to 132 days in Rb, N-NO 3 - removal efficiency and N-NO 3 - removal capacity were 72.5% and 33.1 mg N-NO 3 - /gTS-digestate, respectively. The experimental analysis of the process suggested that 85.4% of nitrate removal could be attributed to denitrification while the contribution percentage of adsorption was 14.6%. These results suggest that those solid digestates not for agricultural or land use, could be used in landfill bioreactors to remove the nitrogen from old landfill leachate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Outcompeting nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in single-stage nitrogen removal in sewage treatment plants: a model-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Julio; Lotti, Tommaso; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Picioreanu, Cristian; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2014-12-01

    This model-based study investigated the mechanisms and operational window for efficient repression of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in an autotrophic nitrogen removal process. The operation of a continuous single-stage granular sludge process was simulated for nitrogen removal from pretreated sewage at 10 °C. The effects of the residual ammonium concentration were explicitly analyzed with the model. Competition for oxygen between ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and NOB was found to be essential for NOB repression even when the suppression of nitrite oxidation is assisted by nitrite reduction by anammox (AMX). The nitrite half-saturation coefficient of NOB and AMX proved non-sensitive for the model output. The maximum specific growth rate of AMX bacteria proved a sensitive process parameter, because higher rates would provide a competitive advantage for AMX. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Economic feasibility of biochemical processes for the upgrading of crudes and the removal of sulfur, nitrogen, and trace metals from crude oil -- Benchmark cost establishment of biochemical processes on the basis of conventional downstream technologies. Final report FY95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premuzic, E.T.

    1996-08-01

    During the past several years, a considerable amount of work has been carried out showing that microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is promising and the resulting biotechnology may be deliverable. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), systematic studies have been conducted which dealt with the effects of thermophilic and thermoadapted bacteria on the chemical and physical properties of selected types of crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Current studies indicate that during the biotreatment several chemical and physical properties of crude oils are affected. The oils are (1) emulsified; (2) acidified; (3) there is a qualitative and quantitative change in light and heavy fractions of the crudes; (4) there are chemical changes in fractions containing sulfur compounds; (5) there is an apparent reduction in the concentration of trace metals; and (6) the qualitative and quantitative changes appear to be microbial species dependent; and (7) there is a distinction between biodegraded and biotreated oils. The downstream biotechnological crude oil processing research performed thus far is of laboratory scale and has focused on demonstrating the technical feasibility of downstream processing with different types of biocatalysts under a variety of processing conditions. Quantitative economic analysis is the topic of the present project which investigates the economic feasibility of the various biochemical downstream processes which hold promise in upgrading of heavy crudes, such as those found in California, e.g., Monterey-type, Midway Sunset, Honda crudes, and others.

  20. Nitrogen Removal in Greywater Living Walls: Insights into the Governing Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha S. Fowdar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is a pollutant of great concern when present in excess in surface waters. Living wall biofiltration systems that employ ornamentals and climbing plants are an emerging green technology that has recently demonstrated significant potential to reduce nitrogen concentrations from greywater before outdoor domestic re-use. However, there still exists a paucity of knowledge around the mechanisms governing this removal, particularly in regards to the fate of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON within these systems. Understanding the fate of nitrogen in living wall treatment systems is imperative both to optimise designs and to predict the long-term viability of these systems, more so given the growing interest in adopting green infrastructure within urban cities. A laboratory study was undertaken to investigate the transformation and fate of nitrogen in biofilters planted with different climbing plants and ornamental species. An isotropic tracer (15N-urea was applied to quantify the amount removed through coupled nitrification-denitrification. The results found that nitrification-denitrification formed a minor removal pathway in planted systems, comprising only 0–15% of added 15N. DON and ammonium were effectively reduced by all biofilter designs, indicating effective mineralisation and nitrification rates. However, in designs with poor nitrogen removal, the effluent was enriched with nitrate, suggesting limited denitrification rates. Given the likely dominance of plant assimilation in removal, this indicates that plant selection is a critical design parameter, as is maintaining healthy plant growth for optimal nitrogen removal in greywater living wall biofilters in their early years of operation.

  1. Nitrogen Removal in a Full-Scale Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant with Activated Sludge and Trickling Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Nourmohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, more stringent effluent requirements concerning the nutrients effluent values have been imposed by legislation and social concern. In this study, efficiency of total nitrogen removal in activated sludge and trickling filter processes (AS/TF was investigated in Tehran North wastewater treatment plant. Biological system in this site was included, anoxic selector tank, aeration tank, final sedimentation, and trickling filter. A part of treated wastewater before chlorination was mixed with supernatant of dewatered sludge and fed to the trickling filter. Supernatant of dewatered sludge with high concentration of NH4-N was diluted by treated wastewater to provide complete nitrification in trickling filter Produced nitrate in trickling filter was arrived to the anoxic tank and converted to nitrogen gas by denitrification. According to the study result, low concentration of organic carbone and high concentration of NH4-N led to nitrification in TF, then nitrate denitrification to nitrogen gas occurred in selector area. NH4-N concentration decreased from 26.8 mg/L to 0.29 mg/L in TF, and NO3-N concentration increased from 8.8 mg/L to 27 mg/L in TF. Consequently, the total nitrogen decreased approximately to 50% in biological process. This efficiency has been observed in returned flow around 24% from final sedimentation into TF. It was concluded that, in comparison with biological nutrient removal processes, this process is very efficient and simple.

  2. Optimum O2:CH4 Ratio Promotes the Synergy between Aerobic Methanotrophs and Denitrifiers to Enhance Nitrogen Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The O2:CH4 ratio significantly effects nitrogen removal in mixed cultures where aerobic methane oxidation is coupled with denitrification (AME-D. The goal of this study was to investigate nitrogen removal of the AME-D process at four different O2:CH4 ratios [0, 0.05, 0.25, and 1 (v/v]. In batch tests, the highest denitrifying activity was observed when the O2:CH4 ratio was 0.25. At this ratio, the methanotrophs produced sufficient carbon sources for denitrifiers and the oxygen level did not inhibit nitrite removal. The results indicated that the synergy between methanotrophs and denitrifiers was significantly improved, thereby achieving a greater capacity of nitrogen removal. Based on thermodynamic and chemical analyses, methanol, butyrate, and formaldehyde could be the main trophic links of AME-D process in our study. Our research provides valuable information for improving the practical application of the AME-D systems.

  3. Denitrification, anammox and fixed nitrogen removal in the water column of a tropical great lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darchambeau, François; Roland, Fleur; Crowe, Sean A.; De Brabandere, Loreto; Llirós, Marc; Garcia-Armisen, Tamara; Inceoglu, Ozgul; Michiels, Céline; Servais, Pierre; Morana, Cédric D. T.; Bouillon, Steven; Meysman, Filip; Veuger, Bart; Masilya, Pascal M.; Descy, Jean-Pierre; Borges, Alberto V.

    2013-04-01

    If rates of microbial denitrification in aquatic systems are poorly constrained, it is much more the case for tropical water bodies. Lake Kivu [2.50° S 1.59° S, 29.37° E 28.83° E] is one of the great lakes of the East African Rift. It is an oligotrophic lake characterized by anoxic deep waters rich in dissolved gases (methane and carbon dioxide) and nutrients, and by well oxygenated and nutrient-depleted surface waters. During the seasonally stratified rainy season (October to May), a nitrogenous zone characterized by the accumulation of nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) is often observed in the lower layer of the mixolimnion. It results from nitrification of ammonium released by decaying organic matter. With the seasonal uplift of the oxygen minimum zone, the nitrogenous zone becomes anoxic and might be the most preferential area for fixed nitrogen (N) removal in Lake Kivu. Our work aimed at identifying and quantifying the processes of N losses by denitrification and/or anammox in the nitrogenous zone of the Lake Kivu water column. During 5 sampling campaigns (March 2010, October 2010, June 2011, February 2012 and September 2012), isotopic labelling experiments were used to quantify denitrification and anammox rates along vertical profiles at two pelagic stations of the main lake. Moreover, N2:Ar ratios were estimated during the September 2012 campaign, and 16S rDNA pyrosequencing was used to describe bacterial community composition during the last 2 campaigns. No bacteria related to organisms performing anammox was observed and labelling experiments failed to detect anammox at any locations and any depths. In Lake Kivu, denitrifying bacteria were mainly related to Denitratisoma and Thiobacillus genus. Significant denitrification rates were observed at several occasions, especially under the oxic-anoxic interface in the bottom of the nitracline. The annual average denitrification rate was estimated at ~150 μmoles N m-2 d-1. Denitrification was not the only

  4. Biotechnology based processes for arsenic removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.; Olde Weghuis, M.; Gonzalez-Contreras, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    The regulations for arsenic control have become strict. Therefore, better technologies to remove arsenic from bleeds and effluents are desired. In addition, no single solution is suitable for all cases. The properties of the process streams and the storage facilities are major factors determining

  5. Enhancement of oxygen transfer and nitrogen removal in a membrane separation bioreactor for domestic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiemchaisri, C; Yamamoto, K

    2005-01-01

    Biological nitrogen removal in a membrane separation bioreactor developed for on-site domestic wastewater treatment was investigated. The bioreactor employed hollow fiber membrane modules for solid-liquid separation so that the biomass could be completely retained within the system. Intermittent aeration was supplied with 90 minutes on and off cycle to achieve nitrification and denitrification reaction for nitrogen removal. High COD and nitrogen removal of more than 90% were achieved under a moderate temperature of 25 degrees C. As the temperature was stepwise decreased from 25 to 5 degrees C, COD removal in the system could be constantly maintained while nitrogen removal was deteriorated. Nevertheless, increasing aeration supply could enhance nitrification at low temperature with benefit from complete retention of nitrifying bacteria within the system by membrane separation. At low operating temperature range of 5 degrees C, nitrogen removal could be recovered to more than 85%. A mathematical model considering diffusion resistance of limiting substrate into the bio-particle is applied to describe nitrogen removal in a membrane separation bioreactor. The simulation suggested that limitation of the oxygen supply was the major cause of inhibition of nitrification during temperature decrease. Nevertheless, increasing aeration could promote oxygen diffusion into the bio-particle. Sufficient oxygen was supplied to the nitrifying bacteria and the nitrification could proceed. In the membrane separation bioreactor, biomass concentration under low temperature operation was allowed to increase by 2-3 times of that of moderate temperature to compensate for the loss of bacterial activities so that the temperature effect was masked.

  6. Advanced treatment technique for swine wastewater using two agents: Thermally polymerized amorphous silica and hydrated lime for color and phosphorus removal and sulfur for nitrogen removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Teruaki; Kurose, Yohei; Tanaka, Yasuo

    2017-10-01

    The efficacy of advanced treatment of swine wastewater using thermally polymerized, modified amorphous silica and hydrated lime (M-CSH-lime) for color and phosphorus removal and sulfur for nitrogen removal was examined with a demonstration-scale treatment plant. The color removal rate was approximately 78% at M-CSH-lime addition rates of > 0.055 wt/v%. The PO43--P removal rate exceeded 99.9% with > 0.023 wt/v%. pH of the effluent from the M-CSH-lime reactor increased with the addition rate till a maximum value of 12.7, which was effective in disinfection. The recovered M-CSH-lime would be suitable as a phosphorus fertilizer because the total P 2 O 5 content was approximately 10%. The nitrogen oxide (NOx-N) removal rate by sulfur denitrification increased to approximately 80% when the NOx-N loading rate was around 0.1 kg-N/ton-S/day. It was suggested that the combination of the two processes would be effective in the advanced treatment of swine wastewater. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Designing Bioretention Systems to Improve Nitrogen Removal - poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rain gardens, also referred to as bioretention systems, are designed primarily to infiltrate stormwater flow and reduce surface runoff and peak flows to receiving streams. Additionally, they are known to remove stressors from urban stormwater runoff, including oil and grease, pho...

  8. Artificial intelligence models for predicting the performance of biological wastewater treatment plant in the removal of Kjeldahl Nitrogen from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manu, D. S.; Thalla, Arun Kumar

    2017-11-01

    The current work demonstrates the support vector machine (SVM) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) modeling to assess the removal efficiency of Kjeldahl Nitrogen of a full-scale aerobic biological wastewater treatment plant. The influent variables such as pH, chemical oxygen demand, total solids (TS), free ammonia, ammonia nitrogen and Kjeldahl Nitrogen are used as input variables during modeling. Model development focused on postulating an adaptive, functional, real-time and alternative approach for modeling the removal efficiency of Kjeldahl Nitrogen. The input variables used for modeling were daily time series data recorded at wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) located in Mangalore during the period June 2014-September 2014. The performance of ANFIS model developed using Gbell and trapezoidal membership functions (MFs) and SVM are assessed using different statistical indices like root mean square error, correlation coefficients (CC) and Nash Sutcliff error (NSE). The errors related to the prediction of effluent Kjeldahl Nitrogen concentration by the SVM modeling appeared to be reasonable when compared to that of ANFIS models with Gbell and trapezoidal MF. From the performance evaluation of the developed SVM model, it is observed that the approach is capable to define the inter-relationship between various wastewater quality variables and thus SVM can be potentially applied for evaluating the efficiency of aerobic biological processes in WWTP.

  9. Effects of slash removal in an experimental nitrogen gradient. Final report for the project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohrstedt, H.Oe.; Ring, Eva; Sikstroem, Ulf; Hoegbom, Lars; Nordlund, Sten

    2000-04-01

    During four years after clear-felling, the effects of slash removal, including needles, were studied on a productive spruce site (site index G30) in the province of Vaermland, western Sweden. The study was made in an old fertilization experiment, in which at the most 2400 kg N/ha had been added during a twenty-year period. Despite the fact that the site is rich in nitrogen and that much slash was removed (100 ton d. m./ha), there were only very minor effects of the slash removal on the variables under study. These were the composition of soil water, the content of inorganic nitrogen in soil, the biomass of the field layer and the development of the planted spruce seedlings. The only statistically significant effect was that the content of nitrate was reduced in the humus layer. No data supported the idea that the previous fertilization influenced the effect of the slash removal, even though the fertilization had increased the content of total nitrogen in soil and the nitrogen leaching. Thus, we have not been able to repeat the observation from another Swedish study that slash removal reduces leaching of nitrogen and accompanying base cations, e. g. potassium. The effect of slash removal seems to depend on site conditions. Research is needed to reveal the variation in response and decisive factors. Our results, that the survival of spruce seedlings tends to be favoured by slash removal and that the early height growth is unaffected, are in accordance with results from previous studies. Our result, that the biomass of the total field layer is unaffected by slash removal, is not possible to compare with results from other studies, since these were mainly of a qualitative nature

  10. Method of removing oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from exhaust gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    A continuous method is presented for removing both oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from combustion or exhaust gases with the regeneration of the absorbent. Exhaust gas is cleaned of particulates and HCl by a water scrub prior to contact with a liquid absorbent that includes an aqueous solution of bisulfite and sulfite ions along with a metal chelate, such as, an iron or zinc aminopolycarboxylic acid. Following contact with the combustion gases the spent absorbent is subjected to electrodialysis to transfer bisulfite ions into a sulfuric acid solution while splitting water with hydroxide and hydrogen ion migration to equalize electrical charge. The electrodialysis stack includes alternate layers of anion selective and bipolar membranes. Oxides of nitrogen are removed from the liquid absorbent by air stripping at an elevated temperature and the regenerated liquid absorbent is returned to contact with exhaust gases for removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides.

  11. Effect of operational cycle time length on nitrogen removal in an alternating oxidation ditch system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantziaras, I D; Stamou, A; Katsiri, A

    2011-06-01

    This paper refers to nitrogen removal optimization of an alternating oxidation ditch system through the use of a mathematical model and pilot testing. The pilot system where measurements have been made has a total volume of 120 m(3) and consists of two ditches operating in four phases during one cycle and performs carbon oxidation, nitrification, denitrification and settling. The mathematical model consists of one-dimensional mass balance (convection-dispersion) equations based on the IAWPRC ASM 1 model. After the calibration and verification of the model, simulation system performance was made. Optimization is achieved by testing operational cycles and phases with different time lengths. The limits of EU directive 91/271 for nitrogen removal have been used for comparison. The findings show that operational cycles with smaller time lengths can achieve higher nitrogen removals and that an "equilibrium" between phase time percentages in the whole cycle, for a given inflow, must be achieved.

  12. Ammonium nitrogen removal from coking wastewater by chemical precipitation recycle technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Ding, Lili; Ren, Hongqiang; Xiong, Xiang

    2009-12-01

    Ammonium nitrogen removal from wastewater has been of considerable concern for several decades. In the present research, we examined chemical precipitation recycle technology (CPRT) for ammonium nitrogen removal from coking wastewater. The pyrolysate resulting from magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) pyrogenation in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution was recycled for ammonium nitrogen removal from coking wastewater. The objective of this study was to investigate the conditions for MAP pyrogenation and to characterize of MAP pyrolysate for its feasibility in recycling. Furthermore, MAP pyrolysate was characterized by scanning electron microscope (FESEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) as well as X-ray diffraction (XRD). The MAP pyrolysate could be produced at the optimal condition of a hydroxyl (OH(-)) to ammonium molar ratio of 2:1, a heating temperature of 110 degrees C, and a heating time of 3h. Surface characterization analysis indicated that the main component of the pyrolysate was amorphous magnesium sodium phosphate (MgNaPO(4)). The pyrolysate could be recycled as a magnesium and phosphate source at an optimum pH of 9.5. When the recycle times were increased, the ammonium nitrogen removal ratio gradually decreased if the pyrolysate was used without supplementation. When the recycle times were increased, the ammonium nitrogen removal efficiency was not decreased if the added pyrolysate was supplemented with MgCl(2).6H(2)O plus Na(2)HPO(4).12H(2)O during treatment. A high ammonium nitrogen removal ratio was obtained by using pre-formed MAP as seeding material.

  13. Nitrogen Removal from Digested Black Water by One-stage Partial Nitritation and Anammox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaeminck, S.E.; Terada, Akihiko; Smets, Barth F.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the technical feasibility to treat digested black water from vacuum toilets (> 1000 mg NH4+-N L-1) in a lab-scale oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification/denitrification (OLAND) rotating biological contactor. After an adaptation period of 2.5 months, a stable. nitrogen removal...... conversion was very low, in contrast to the high specific AnAOB activity. DGGE analysis showed that the dominant AerAOB and AnAOB species were resistant to the transition from synthetic medium to digested black water. This study demonstrates high-rate nitrogen removal from digested black water by one...

  14. Nitrogen in the Process of Waste Activated Sludge Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suschka Jan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary or secondary sewage sludge in medium and large WWTP are most often processed by anaerobic digestion, as a method of conditioning, sludge quantity minimization and biogas production. With the aim to achieve the best results of sludge processing several modifications of technologies were suggested, investigated and introduced in the full technical scale. Various sludge pretreatment technologies before anaerobic treatment have been widely investigated and partially introduced. Obviously, there are always some limitations and some negative side effects. Selected aspects have been presented and discussed. The problem of nitrogen has been highlighted on the basis of the carried out investigations. The single and two step - mesophilic and thermophilic - anaerobic waste activated sludge digestion processes, preceded by preliminary hydrolysis were investigated. The aim of lab-scale experiments was pre-treatment of the sludge by means of low intensive alkaline and hydrodynamic disintegration. Depending on the pretreatment technologies and the digestion temperature large ammonia concentrations, up to 1800 mg NH4/dm3 have been measured. Return of the sludge liquor to the main sewage treatment line means additional nitrogen removal costs. Possible solutions are discussed.

  15. Sequential Aeration of Membrane-Aerated Biofilm Reactors for High-Rate Autotrophic Nitrogen Removal: Experimental Demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles; Sun, Sheng-Peng; Lackner, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    One-stage autotrophic nitrogen (N) removal, requiring the simultaneous activity of aerobic and anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB and AnAOB), can be obtained in spatially redox-stratified biofilms. However, previous experience with Membrane-Aerated Biofilm Reactors (MABRs) has revealed...... a difficulty in reducing the abundance and activity of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB), which drastically lowers process efficiency. Here we show how sequential aeration is an effective strategy to attain autotrophic N removal in MABRs: Two separate MABRs, which displayed limited or no N removal under...... continuous aeration, could remove more than 5.5 g N/m2/day (at loads up to 8 g N/m2/day) by controlled variation of sequential aeration regimes. Daily averaged ratios of the surficial loads of O2 (oxygen) to NH4+ (ammonium) (LO2/LNH4) were close to 1.73 at this optimum. Real-time quantitative PCR based on 16...

  16. Apple wine processing with different nitrogen contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Alberti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the nitrogen content in different varieties of apple musts and to study the effect of different nitrogen concentrations in apple wine fermentation. The average total nitrogen content in 51 different apples juices was 155.81 mg/L, with 86.28 % of the values above 100 mg/L. The apple must with 59.0, 122.0 and 163.0 mg/L of total nitrogen content showed the maximum population of 2.05x 10(7; 4.42 x 10(7 and 8.66 x 10(7 cell/mL, respectively. Therefore, the maximum fermentation rates were dependent on the initial nitrogen level, corresponding to 1.4, 5.1 and 9.2 g/L.day, respectively. The nitrogen content in the apple musts was an important factor of growth and fermentation velocity.

  17. Effects of Invasive-Plant Management on Nitrogen-Removal Services in Freshwater Tidal Marshes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Alldred

    Full Text Available Establishing relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem function is an ongoing endeavor in contemporary ecosystem and community ecology, with important practical implications for conservation and the maintenance of ecosystem services. Removal of invasive plant species to conserve native diversity is a common management objective in many ecosystems, including wetlands. However, substantial changes in plant community composition have the potential to alter sediment characteristics and ecosystem services, including permanent removal of nitrogen from these systems via microbial denitrification. A balanced assessment of costs associated with keeping and removing invasive plants is needed to manage simultaneously for biodiversity and pollution targets. We monitored small-scale removals of Phragmites australis over four years to determine their effects on potential denitrification rates relative to three untreated Phragmites sites and adjacent sites dominated by native Typha angustifolia. Sediment ammonium increased following the removal of vegetation from treated sites, likely as a result of decreases in both plant uptake and nitrification. Denitrification potentials were lower in removal sites relative to untreated Phragmites sites, a pattern that persisted at least two years following removal as native plant species began to re-colonize treated sites. These results suggest the potential for a trade-off between invasive-plant management and nitrogen-removal services. A balanced assessment of costs associated with keeping versus removing invasive plants is needed to adequately manage simultaneously for biodiversity and pollution targets.

  18. Effects of Invasive-Plant Management on Nitrogen-Removal Services in Freshwater Tidal Marshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alldred, Mary; Baines, Stephen B; Findlay, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Establishing relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem function is an ongoing endeavor in contemporary ecosystem and community ecology, with important practical implications for conservation and the maintenance of ecosystem services. Removal of invasive plant species to conserve native diversity is a common management objective in many ecosystems, including wetlands. However, substantial changes in plant community composition have the potential to alter sediment characteristics and ecosystem services, including permanent removal of nitrogen from these systems via microbial denitrification. A balanced assessment of costs associated with keeping and removing invasive plants is needed to manage simultaneously for biodiversity and pollution targets. We monitored small-scale removals of Phragmites australis over four years to determine their effects on potential denitrification rates relative to three untreated Phragmites sites and adjacent sites dominated by native Typha angustifolia. Sediment ammonium increased following the removal of vegetation from treated sites, likely as a result of decreases in both plant uptake and nitrification. Denitrification potentials were lower in removal sites relative to untreated Phragmites sites, a pattern that persisted at least two years following removal as native plant species began to re-colonize treated sites. These results suggest the potential for a trade-off between invasive-plant management and nitrogen-removal services. A balanced assessment of costs associated with keeping versus removing invasive plants is needed to adequately manage simultaneously for biodiversity and pollution targets.

  19. Microbial community stratification in Membrane-Aerated Biofilm Reactors for Completely Autotrophic Nitrogen Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles; Ruscalleda, Maël; Terada, Akihiko

    of bacterial granules or biofilms. In this sense, completely autotrophic nitrogen removal from high ammonium strength wastewater was achieved in a Membrane-Aereated Biofilm Reactor (MABR) in a single step. Here, a biofilm containing nitrifiers (Aerobic Ammonium and Nitrite Oxidizing Bacteria, AOB and NOB......, respectively) and Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidizing Bacteria (AnAOB) is grown on bubbleless aeration membranes to remove ammonium. Since oxygen permeates through the membrane-biofilm interface while ammonium diffuses into the biofilm from the biofilm-liquid interface, oxygen gradients can be established across...... the biofilm, allowing nitrogen removal in a single reactor by simultaneous activity of the mentioned biocatalysts. This work consists on the analysis of the microbial community existing in two laboratory-scale reactors operated for more than 300 days, which removed up to 5.5 g-N/m2/day. The system contained...

  20. Process for removing mercury from aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Googin, John M.; Napier, John M.; Makarewicz, Mark A.; Meredith, Paul F.

    1986-01-01

    A process for removing mercury from water to a level not greater than two parts per billion wherein an anion exchange material that is insoluble in water is contacted first with a sulfide containing compound and second with a compound containing a bivalent metal ion forming an insoluble metal sulfide. To this treated exchange material is contacted water containing mercury. The water containing not more than two parts per billion of mercury is separated from the exchange material.

  1. Aerobic and heterotrophic nitrogen removal by Enterobacter cloacae CF-S27 with efficient utilization of hydroxylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhi, Soumesh Kumar; Tripathy, Swetaleena; Mohanty, Sriprakash; Maiti, Nikhil Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Heterotrophic bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae CF-S27 exhibited simultaneous nitrification and aerobic denitrification in presence of high concentration of hydroxylamine. With the initial nitrogen concentration of 100mgL -1 h -1 , ammonium, nitrate and nitrite removal efficiencies were 81%, 99.9% and 92.8%, while the corresponding maximum removal rates reached as high as 11.6, 15.1 and 11.2mgL -1 h -1 respectively. Quantitative amplification by real time PCR and enzyme assay demonstrated that hydroxylamine reductase gene (hao) is actively involved in hetrotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification process of Enterobacter cloacae CF-S27. PCR primers were designed targeting amplification of hao gene from diversified environmental soil DNA. The strain Enterobacter cloacae CF-S27 significantly maintained the undetectable amount of dissolved nitrogen throughout 60days of zero water exchange fish culture experiment in domestic wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Suitable flow pattern increases the removal efficiency of nitrogen in gravity sewers: a suitable anoxic and aerobic environment in biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiang; Yin, Feixian; Li, Hong; Wang, Yinliang; Xu, Jingwei; Ai, Hainan

    2018-03-25

    The sewers have the function of carbon removal, which has been proven. But if the effect of nitrogen removal can be enhanced at the same time of carbon removal, it can lay a foundation for the realization of "sewer's working as a reactor." This paper investigated the effects of shear stress and C/N ratio on nitrogen removal through biofilms on the sewer inner wall and nitrogen transfer. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) nitrogen could be partially removed in sewers after a series of reactions; (2) the anaerobic, anoxic, aerobic environment and some bacteria related to nitrogen metabolism, which exist in the biofilm, promote the nitrification and denitrification; (3) a total of 722 functional genes involved in nitrogen metabolism were detected in the biofilm (C/N ratio of 10, shear stress of 1.4 Pa), accounting for 0.67% of all genes, and the functional genes related to denitrification were dominant. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  3. Nitrogen cycling process rates across urban ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, Alexander J; Groffman, Peter M; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J

    2016-09-21

    Nitrogen (N) pollution of freshwater, estuarine, and marine ecosystems is widespread and has numerous environmental and economic impacts. A portion of this excess N comes from urban watersheds comprised of natural and engineered ecosystems which can alter downstream N export. Studies of urban N cycling have focused on either specific ecosystems or on watershed-scale mass balances. Comparisons of specific N transformations across ecosystems are required to contextualize rates from individual studies. Here we reviewed urban N cycling in terrestrial, aquatic, and engineered ecosystems, and compared N processing in these urban ecosystem types to native reference ecosystems. We found that net N mineralization and net nitrification rates were enhanced in urban forests and riparian zones relative to reference ecosystems. Denitrification was highly variable across urban ecosystem types, but no significant differences were found between urban and reference denitrification rates. When focusing on urban streams, ammonium uptake was more rapid than nitrate uptake in urban streams. Additionally, reduction of stormwater runoff coupled with potential decreases in N concentration suggests that green infrastructure may reduce downstream N export. Despite multiple environmental stressors in urban environments, ecosystems within urban watersheds can process and transform N at rates similar to or higher than reference ecosystems. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The Influence of the Ratio of Nitrate to Ammonium Nitrogen on Nitrogen Removal in the Economical Growth of Vegetation in Hybrid Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq Nawaz Abbasi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Growing vegetables economically in the use of constructed wetland for wastewater treatment can play a role in overcoming water and food scarcity. Allium porrum L., Solanum melongena L., Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., and Capsicum annuum L. plants were selected to grow in hybrid constructed wetland (CW under natural conditions. The impact of the ratio of nitrate to ammonium nitrogen on ammonium and nitrate nitrogen removal and on total nitrogen were studied in wastewater. Constructed wetland planted with Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. and Solanum melongena L. showed higher removal efficiency for ammonium nitrogen under higher ammonium concentration, whereas Allium porrum L.-planted CW showed higher nitrate nitrogen removal when NO3–N concentration was high in wastewater. Capsicum annuum L.-planted CW showed little efficiency for both nitrogen sources compared to other vegetables.

  5. Waste water treatment plants with removal of nitrogens and phosphorous; Planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales con eliminacion de fosforo y nitrogeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroiss, H.

    1996-10-01

    Wherever waste water is discharged into a receiving water of a sensitive area the treatment efficiency has to be increased beyond the removal of easily biodegradable carbonaceous compounds (BOD{sub 5}). The main requirements are then the removal of nitrogens and phosphorous compounds in order to prevent eutrophication in the receiving water. With these requirements a much better removal of carbonaceous matter is achieved too. One of this prerequisites for nitrogen removal is the nitrification process wich removes ammonia toxicity from the waste water. The removal of ammonia from the waste water can easily be monitored by the treatment plant operators and can be classified as the best indicator for a stable high treatment efficiency for every waste water.

  6. Tioga County - 24-inch Resolution Natural Color Orthoimagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital orthographic imagery datasets contain georeferenced images of the Earth's surface, collected by a sensor in which object displacement has been removed for...

  7. Control of SHARON reactor for autotrophic nitrogen removal in two-reactor configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valverde Perez, Borja; Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Sin, Gürkan

    2012-01-01

    With the perspective of investigating a suitable control design for autotrophic nitrogen removal, this work explores the control design for a SHARON reactor. With this aim, a full model is developed, including the pH dependency, in order to simulate the reactor and determine the optimal operating...

  8. Start-up strategies of membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) for completely autotrophic nitrogen removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Sheng-Peng; Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles; Terada, Akihiko

    2009-01-01

    Completely autotrophic nitrogen removal, coupling aerobic and anaerobic ammonium oxidation, can be achieved via redox stratified biofilms growing on gas-permeable membranes. These sequential reactions are mediated by aerobic and anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB and AnAOB). The major...

  9. Performance of an autotrophic nitrogen removing reactor: Diagnosis through fuzzy logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Mutlu, Ayten Gizem

    Autotrophic nitrogen removal through nitritation-anammox in one stage SBRs is an energy and cost efficient alternative to conventional treatment methods. Intensification of an already complex biological system challenges our ability to observe, understand, diagnose, and control the system. A fuzzy...

  10. Nitrogen removal and water microbiota in grass carp culture following supplementation with Bacillus licheniformis BSK-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Quan; Zhang, Xiaoping; Lee, Khui Hung; Wang, Yibing; Yu, Kan; Shen, Wenying; Fu, Luoqin; Shu, Miaoan; Li, Weifen

    2015-11-01

    This experiment was designed to study the effects of Bacillus licheniformis BSK-4 on nitrogen removal and microbial community structure in a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) culture. The selected strain Bacillus licheniformis BSK-4 significantly decreased nitrite, nitrate and total nitrogen levels in water over an extended, whereas increased ammonia level. Pyrosequencing showed that Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes were dominant in grass carp culture water. Compared with the control group, the number of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were increased, while Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes decreased in treatment group. At the genus level, some genera, such as Bacillus, Prosthecobacter, Enterococcus, etc., appear only in the treatment, while many other genera exist only in the control group; Lactobacillus, Luteolibacter, Phenylobacterium, etc. were increased in treatment group compared to those in control group. As above, the results suggested that supplementation with B. licheniformis BSK-4 could remove some nitrogen and cause alterations of the microbial composition in grass carp water.

  11. [Effect of Elodea nuttallii-immobilized Nitrogen Cycling Bacteria on Nitrogen Removal Mechanism in an Inflow River, Gonghu Bay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hua-yang; Li, Zheng-kui; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Qian

    2016-04-15

    Undisturbed sediment cores and surface water from Qinshui River in Gonghu Bay were collected to carry out a simulation experiment in our laboratory. The remediation effect of Elodea nuttallii-Immobilized Nitrogen Cycling Bacteria (INCB) was applied in the polluted inflow river. The denitrification rate, ANAMMOX rate and nitrogen microorganism diversity were measured by ¹⁵N isotope pairing technology and high-throughput sequencing technology based on 16S rRNA. The TN, NH₄⁺-N, NO₃⁻-N concentrations were reduced by 72.03%, 46.67% and 76.65% in the treatment with addition of Elodea nuttallii and INCB in our laboratory experiment. Meanwhile, denitrification bacteria and ANAMMOX bacteria had synergistic effect with each other. The denitrification and ANAMMOX rates were increased by 165 µmol (m² · h)⁻¹ and 269.7 µmol · (m² · h)⁻¹, respectively. The diversities of denitrification and ANAMMOX bacteria also increased in our experiment. From the level of major phylum, Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Acidobbacteria and Bacteroidetes all increased significantly. The results showed that the Elodea nuttallii-INCB assemblage technology could increase the bio-diversity of nitrogen cycling bacteria and promote the ability of nitrogen removal in Qinshui River.

  12. A robust nitrifying community in a bioreactor at 50°C opens up the path for thermophilic nitrogen removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Courtens, E.N.P.; Spieck, E.; Vilchez-Vargas, R.; Bodé, S.; Boeckx, P.; Schouten, S.; Jáuregui, R.; Pieper, D.H.; Vlaeminck, S.E.; Boon, N.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing production of nitrogen-containing fertilizers is crucial to meet the global food demand, yet high losses of reactive nitrogen associated with the food production/consumption chain progressively deteriorate the natural environment. Currently, mesophilic nitrogen-removing microbes

  13. REDUCING ARSENIC LEVELS IN DRINKING WATER DURING IRON REMOVAL PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation provides an overview of iron removal technology for the removal of arsenic from drinking water. The presentation is divided into several topic topics: Arsenic Chemistry, Treatment Selection, Treatment Options, Case Studies and Iron Removal Processes. Each topic i...

  14. [Characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus removal and control of membrane fouling in MBR and SMBR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Ma; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Kai-Yan; Zhao Yang-Guo

    2015-03-01

    To improve the efficiency and running stability of wastewater advanced treatment, a sequencing membrane bioreactor (SMBR) and a traditional membrane bioreactor (MBR) were used to investigate the characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus removal, and the effect of anoxic time on treatment systems and membrane fouling. Simultaneously, molecular biology techniques were applied to analyze the composition of microbial community and the structure of suspended sludge. The results showed that SMBR had higher efficiency in removing TN than MBR, which indicated that intermittent aeration could enhance the ability of nitrogen removal. SMBR and MBR had a similar removal efficiency of NH4(+)-N, TP, COD, and turbidity with the removal rates of 94%, 78%, 80%, and 97%, respectively. Extension of SMBR anoxic time had no effect on COD, NH4(+) -N removal but decreased TN and TP removal rate, dropping from 61% and 74% to 46% and 52%, respectively. Intermittent aeration and powder activated carbon (PAC) could both mitigate membrane fouling. The analysis on microbial community indicated that there was no difference in the composition and structure of microbial community between SMBR and MBR. Nitrospira and Dechloromonas were both highly abundant functional groups, which provided the basis for highly efficient control of bioreactors.

  15. Instability of biological nitrogen removal in a cokes wastewater treatment facility during summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Mo; Park, Donghee; Lee, Dae Sung; Park, Jong Moon

    2007-01-01

    Failure in nitrogen removal of cokes wastewater occurs occasionally during summer season (38 deg. C) due to the instability of nitrification process. The objective of this study was to examine why the nitrification process is unstable especially in summer. Various parameters such as pH, temperature, nutrients and pollutants were examined in batch experiments using activated sludge and wastewater obtained from a full-scale cokes wastewater treatment facility. Batch experiments showed that nitrification rate of the activated sludge was faster in summer (38 deg. C) than in spring or autumn (29 deg. C) and the toxic effects of cyanide, phenol and thiocyanate on nitrification were reduced with increasing temperature. Meanwhile, experiment using continuous reactor showed that the reduction rate in nitrification efficiency was higher at 38 deg. C than at 29 deg. C. In conclusion, the instability of full-scale nitrification process in summer might be mainly due to washing out of nitrifiers by fast growth of competitive microorganisms at higher temperature under increased concentrations of phenol and thiocyanate

  16. Internal nitrogen removal from sediments by the hybrid system of microbial fuel cells and submerged aquatic plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xu

    Full Text Available Sediment internal nitrogen release is a significant pollution source in the overlying water of aquatic ecosystems. This study aims to remove internal nitrogen in sediment-water microcosms by coupling sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs with submerged aquatic plants. Twelve tanks including four treatments in triplicates were designed: open-circuit (SMFC-o, closed-circuit (SMFC-c, aquatic plants with open-circuit (P-SMFC-o and aquatic plants with closed-circuit (P-SMFC-c. The changes in the bio-electrochemical characteristics of the nitrogen levels in overlying water, pore water, sediments, and aquatic plants were documented to explain the migration and transformation pathways of internal nitrogen. The results showed that both electrogenesis and aquatic plants could facilitate the mineralization of organic nitrogen in sediments. In SMFC, electrogenesis promoted the release of ammonium from the pore water, followed by the accumulation of ammonium and nitrate in the overlying water. The increased redox potential of sediments due to electrogenesis also contributed to higher levels of nitrate in overlying water when nitrification in pore water was facilitated and denitrification at the sediment-water interface was inhibited. When the aquatic plants were introduced into the closed-circuit SMFC, the internal ammonium assimilation by aquatic plants was advanced by electrogenesis; nitrification in pore water and denitrification in sediments were also promoted. These processes might result in the maximum decrease of internal nitrogen with low nitrogen levels in the overlying water despite the lower power production. The P-SMFC-c reduced 8.1%, 16.2%, 24.7%, and 25.3% of internal total nitrogen compared to SMFC-o on the 55th, 82th, 136th, and 190th days, respectively. The smaller number of Nitrospira and the larger number of Bacillus and Pseudomonas on the anodes via high throughput sequencing may account for strong mineralization and denitrification in the

  17. New approaches to improve the removal of dissolved organic matter and nitrogen in aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Ahnen, Mathis

    further due to the lack of cost-effective and easy applicable treatment methods for removing dissolved N and OM. The purpose of this PhD thesis was to assess the problem of removing dissolved N and OM in the context of the large differences in system intensity between farms, and to devise new, simple...... at increasing long-term waste loadings. The second part examined the potential of using anoxic denitrifying woodchip bioreactors for removal of nitrate from aquaculture effluent (Paper III-V). Investigations within the first part showed that the effectiveness of biofilters, as determined by their areal removal......-term biofilter loading up to a certain threshold. The latter indicated that the removal capacity of biofilters operated at lower loadings is easily exceeded, and that they may not respond very well to sudden increases in total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) concentrations. In the second part of the thesis, a field study...

  18. Removal of ammonia solutions used in catalytic wet oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chang Mao; Lou, Jie Chung; Lin, Chia Hua

    2003-08-01

    Ammonia (NH(3)) is an important product used in the chemical industry, and is common place in industrial wastewater. Industrial wastewater containing ammonia is generally either toxic or has concentrations or temperatures such that direct biological treatment is unfeasible. This investigation used aqueous solutions containing more of ammonia for catalytic liquid-phase oxidation in a trickle-bed reactor (TBR) based on Cu/La/Ce composite catalysts, prepared by co-precipitation of Cu(NO(3))(2), La(NO(3))(2), and Ce(NO(3))(3) at 7:2:1 molar concentrations. The experimental results indicated that the ammonia conversion of the wet oxidation in the presence of the Cu/La/Ce composite catalysts was determined by the Cu/La/Ce catalyst. Minimal ammonia was removed from the solution by the wet oxidation in the absence of any catalyst, while approximately 91% ammonia removal was achieved by wet oxidation over the Cu/La/Ce catalyst at 230 degrees C with oxygen partial pressure of 2.0 MPa. Furthermore, the effluent streams were conducted at a liquid hourly space velocity of under 9 h(-1) in the wet catalytic processes, and a reaction pathway was found linking the oxidizing ammonia to nitric oxide, nitrogen and water. The solution contained by-products, including nitrates and nitrites. Nitrite selectivity was minimized and ammonia removal maximized when the feed ammonia solution had a pH of around 12.0.

  19. Modeling Nitrous Oxide Production during Biological Nitrogen Removal via Nitrification and Denitrification: Extensions to the General ASM Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Ruscalleda, Maël; Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles

    2011-01-01

    on N2O production from four different mixed culture nitrification and denitrification reactor study reports. Modeling results confirm that hydroxylamine oxidation by ammonium oxidizers (AOB) occurs 10 times slower when NO2– participates as final electron acceptor compared to the oxic pathway. Among......Nitrous oxide (N2O) can be formed during biological nitrogen (N) removal processes. In this work, a mathematical model is developed that describes N2O production and consumption during activated sludge nitrification and denitrification. The well-known ASM process models are extended to capture N2O...

  20. Nitrogen removal from wastewater through microbial electrolysis cells and cation exchange membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadi, Sakineh; Nabi-Bidhendi, Gholamreza; Mehrdadi, Nasser

    2014-02-17

    Vulnerability of water resources to nutrients led to progressively stricter standards for wastewater effluents. Modification of the conventional procedures to meet the new standards is inevitable. New technologies should give a priority to nitrogen removal. In this paper, ammonium chloride and urine as nitrogen sources were used to investigate the capacity of a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) configured by cation exchange membrane (CEM) for electrochemical removal of nitrogen over open-and closed-circuit potentials (OCP and CCP) during biodegradation of organic matter. Results obtained from this study indicated that CEM was permeable to both organic and ammonium nitrogen over OCP. Power substantially mediated ammonium migration from anodic wastewater to the cathode, as well. With a urine rich wastewater in the anode, the maximum rate of ammonium intake into the cathode varied from 34.2 to 40.6 mg/L.h over CCP compared to 10.5-14.9 mg/L.h over OCP. Ammonium separation over CCP was directly related to current. For 1.46-2.12 mmol electron produced, 20.5-29.7 mg-N ammonium was removed. Current also increased cathodic pH up to 12, a desirable pH for changing ammonium ion to ammonia gas. Results emphasized the potential for MEC in control of ammonium through ammonium separation and ammonia volatilization provided that membrane characteristic is considered in their development.

  1. The production of cyanobacterial carbon under nitrogen-limited cultivation and its potential for nitrate removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yingying; Li, Panpan; Chen, Guiqin; Peng, Lin; Chen, Xuechu

    2018-01-01

    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms (CyanoHABs) represent a serious threat to aquatic ecosystems. A beneficial use for these harmful microorganisms would be a promising resolution of this urgent issue. This study applied a simple method, nitrogen limitation, to cultivate cyanobacteria aimed at producing cyanobacterial carbon for denitrification. Under nitrogen-limited conditions, the common cyanobacterium, Microcystis, efficiently used nitrate, and had a higher intracellular C/N ratio. More importantly, organic carbons easily leached from its dry powder; these leachates were biodegradable and contained a larger amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and carbohydrates, but a smaller amount of dissolved total nitrogen (DTN) and proteins. When applied to an anoxic system with a sediment-water interface, a significant increase of the specific NO X - -N removal rate was observed that was 14.2 times greater than that of the control. This study first suggests that nitrogen-limited cultivation is an efficient way to induce organic and carbohydrate accumulation in cyanobacteria, as well as a high C/N ratio, and that these cyanobacteria can act as a promising carbon source for denitrification. The results indicate that application as a carbon source is not only a new way to utilize cyanobacteria, but it also contributes to nitrogen removal in aquatic ecosystems, further limiting the proliferation of CyanoHABs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Simultaneous removal of carbon and nitrogen by mycelial pellets of a heterotrophic nitrifying fungus-Penicillium sp. L1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuxiang; Hu, Tingting; Zhao, Jing; Lv, Yongkang; Ren, Ruipeng

    2017-02-01

    A novel heterotrophic nitrifying fungus, defined as Penicillium sp. L1, can form mycelial pellets in liquid medium in this study. The effects of inoculation method, C/N ratio, initial pH, and temperature were gradually evaluated to improve the simultaneous removal of total nitrogen (TN) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in wastewater by Penicillium sp. L1. Results showed that compared with spore inoculation, 48 h pellet inoculum could significantly increase the pellet size (from about 1.5 mm to 3.2 mm) and improve the removal capability, particularly for COD removal (from less than 50-86.20%). The removal efficiencies of TN and COD reached 98.38% (from 136.01 mg/L to 2.20 mg/L) and 92.40% (from 10,720 mg/L to 815 mg/L) under the following conditions: C/N 36, pH 3, 30°C, and inoculation with 48 h pellets. The pellet diameter reached 4.8 mm after 4-day cultivation. In this case, Penicillium sp. L1 removed TN from 415.93 mg/L to 43.39 mg/L, as well as COD from 29,533 mg/L to 8850 mg/L. Overall, the results indicated that the pellet size was closely related to the pollutant-removal ability of Penicillium sp. L1. Furthermore, mycelial pellets (4.8 mm, dead) only adsorbed 38.08% TN (from 125.45 mg/L to 77.78 mg/L), which indicated that adsorption did not play a major role in the nitrogen-removal process. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimization for zeolite regeneration and nitrogen removal performance of a hypochlorite-chloride regenerant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Zhen; An, Ying; Du, Silu; Ruan, Danian; Zhao, Chengyue; Ren, Ning; Tian, Xiaoce

    2017-07-01

    Simultaneous zeolites regeneration and nitrogen removal were investigated by using a mixed solution of NaClO and NaCl (NaClO-NaCl solution), and effects of the regenerant on ammonium removal performance and textural properties of zeolites were analyzed by long-term adsorption and regeneration operations. Mixed NaClO-NaCl solution removed more NH 4 + exchanged on zeolites and converted more of them to nitrogen than using NaClO or NaCl solution alone. Response surface methodological analysis indicated that molar ratio of hypochlorite and nitrogen (ClO - /N), NaCl concentration and pH value all had significant effects on zeolites regeneration and NH 4 + conversion to nitrogen, and the optimum condition was obtained at ClO - /N of 1.75, NaCl concentration of 20 g/L and pH of 10.0. Zeolites regenerated by mixed NaClO-NaCl solution showed higher ammonium adsorption rate and lower capacity than unused zeolites. Zeolites and the regeneration solution were both effective even after 20 cycles of use. Composition and morphological analysis revealed that the main mineral species and surface morphology of zeolites before and after NaClO-NaCl regeneration were unchanged. Textural analysis indicated that NaClO-NaCl regeneration leads to an increased surface area of zeolites, especially the microporosity. The results indicated that NaClO-NaCl regeneration is an attractive method to achieve sustainable removal of nitrogen from wastewater through zeolite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in the Recirculating Aquaculture System with Water Treatment Tank containing Baked Clay Beads and Chinese Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeknarin Thanakitpairin

    2014-01-01

    most important part was unaccounted nitrogen and phosphorus as high as 60% and 17% in treatment and 53% and 10% in control-2 systems. Nitrogen and phosphorus incorporated in plant (treatment was only 1.31% and 0.11%, respectively. It can be implied from the results that the assimilation in plant was a minor process for nutrient removal in this RAS. On the other hand, the nitrification and denitrification occurred in the sediment layer of baked clay beads tank were the major treatment processes to maintain water quality in the recirculating system. Without baked clay bead, nitrogen waste was accumulated as nitrate in the water while in treatment tank with backed clay beads, nitrogen was significantly removed by denitrification process.

  5. Total nitrogen and total phosphorus removal from brackish aquaculture wastewater using effective microorganism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, K. A.; Mohd, S. Y.; Sarah, R. S.; Mohd, H. Z.; Rasyidah, A.

    2017-09-01

    Aquaculture is one of dominant food based industry in the world with 8.3% annual growth rate and its development had led to adverse effect on the environment. High nutrient production in form of nitrogenous compound and phosphorus contributed to environmental deterioration such as eutrophication and toxicity to the industry. Usage of Effective Microorganism (EM), one of the biological approaches to remove Total Nitrogen (TN) and Total Phosphorus (TP) in aquaculture pond was proposed. Samples were obtained from the Sea Bass intensive brackish aquaculture wastewater (AW) from fish farm at Juru, Penang and the parameters used to measure the removal of nitrogenous compounds include, pH, EM dosage, shaking, contact time and optimum variable conditions. From the study, for effective contact time, day 6 is the optimum contact time for both TN and TP with 99.74% and 62.78% removal respectively while in terms of optimum pH, the highest TN removal was at pH 7 with 66.89 %. The optimum dosage of EM is 1.5 ml with ratio 1:166 for 81.5 % TN removal was also found appropriate during the experiment. At varied optimum conditions of EM, the removal efficiency of TN and TP were 81.53% and 38.94% respectively while the removal mechanism of TN was highly dependent on the decomposition rate of specific bacteria such as Nitrobacter bacteria, Yeast and Bacillus Subtilis sp. The study has established the efficacy of EM's ability to treat excessive nutrient of TN and TP from AW.

  6. Enhanced nitrogen removal in single-chamber microbial fuel cells with increased gas diffusion areas

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Hengjing

    2012-11-23

    Single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with nitrifiers pre-enriched at the air cathodes have previously been demonstrated as a passive strategy for integrating nitrogen removal into current-generating bioelectrochemical systems. To further define system design parameters for this strategy, we investigated in this study the effects of oxygen diffusion area and COD/N ratio in continuous-flow reactors. Doubling the gas diffusion area by adding an additional air cathode or a diffusion cloth significantly increased the ammonia and COD removal rates (by up to 115% and 39%), ammonia removal efficiency (by up to 134%), the cell voltage and cathode potentials, and the power densities (by a factor of approximately 2). When the COD/N ratio was lowered from 13 to 3, we found up to 244% higher ammonia removal rate but at least 19% lower ammonia removal efficiency. An increase of COD removal rate by up to 27% was also found when the COD/N ratio was lowered from 11 to 3. The Coulombic efficiency was not affected by the additional air cathode, but decreased by an average of 11% with the addition of a diffusion cloth. Ammonia removal by assimilation was also estimated to understand the ammonia removal mechanism in these systems. These results showed that the doubling of gas diffusion area enhanced N and COD removal rates without compromising electrochemical performance. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Nitrogen removal in a SBR operated with and without pre-denitrification: effect of the carbon:nitrogen ratio and the cycle time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mees, Juliana Bortoli Rodrigues; Gomes, Simone Damasceno; Hasan, Salah Din Mahmud; Gomes, Benedito Martins; Boas, Márcio Antonio Vilas

    2014-01-01

    The effects of cycle time (CT) (8, 12 and 16h) and C/N ratio (3, 6 and 9) on nitrogen removal efficiencies in a bench top sequencing batch reactor treating slaughterhouse wastewater were investigated under different operating conditions: in condition 1, the reaction comprises an aerobic/anoxic phase and in condition II, the reaction comprises anoxic I/aerobic/anoxic II phases (with pre-denitrification). The greatest percentages of nitrogen removal were obtained in the CT range from 12 to 16 h and C/N ratios from 3 to 6, with mean efficiency values of 80.76% and 85.57% in condition I and 90.99% and 91.09% in condition II. Although condition II gave a higher removal of total inorganic nitrogen (NH4+ - N + NO2- - N + NO3- - N) than condition I, only condition I showed statistically significant and predictive regression for all the steps of nitrogen removal.

  8. Novel MBR_based main stream biological nutrient removal process: high performance and microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanyi; Xu, Xinhai; Zhao, Kuixia; Tang, Lianggang; Zou, Siqi; Yuan, Limei

    2018-02-01

    For municipal wastewater treatment, main stream biological nutrient removal (BNR) process is becoming more and more important. This lab-scale study, novel MBR_based BNR processes (named A 2 N-MBR and A 2 NO-MBR) were built. Comparison of the COD removal, results obtained demonstrated that COD removal efficiencies were almost the same in three processes, with effluent concentration all bellowed 30 mg L -1 . However, the two-sludge systems (A 2 N-MBR and A 2 NO-MBR) had an obvious advantage over the A 2 /O for denitrification and phosphorus removal, with the average TP removal rates of 91.20, 98.05% and TN removal rates of 73.00, 79.49%, respectively, higher than that of 86.45 and 61.60% in A 2 /O process. Illumina Miseq sequencing revealed that Candidatus_Accumulibacter, which is capable of using nitrate as an electron acceptor for phosphorus and nitrogen removal simultaneously, was the dominant phylum in both A 2 N-MBR and A 2 NO-MBR process, accounting for 28.74 and 23.98%, respectively. Distinguishingly, major organism groups related to nitrogen and phosphorus removal in A 2 /O system were Anaerolineaceae_uncultured, Saprospiraceae_uncultured and Thauera, with proportions of 11.31, 8.56 and 5.00%, respectively. Hence, the diversity of dominant PAOs group was likely responsible for the difference in nitrogen and phosphorus removal in the three processes.

  9. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. Kwok-Keung; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1987-08-25

    The present invention relates to a method of removing of nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas which method comprises contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate complex. The NO absorption efficiency of ferrous urea-dithiocarbamate and ferrous diethanolamine-xanthate as a function of time, oxygen content and solution ph is presented. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Process for removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancher, C.W.; Saunders, M.B.; Googin, J.M.

    1984-11-16

    The present invention relates to a method of removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil. The polychlorinated biphenyls are extracted from the soil by employing a liquid organic solvent dispersed in water in the ratio of about 1:3 to 3:1. The organic solvent includes such materials as short-chain hydrocarbons including kerosene or gasoline which are immiscible with water and are nonpolar. The organic solvent has a greater affinity for the PCB's than the soil so as to extract the PCB's from the soil upon contact. The organic solvent phase is separated from the suspended soil and water phase and distilled for permitting the recycle of the organic solvent phase and the concentration of the PCB's in the remaining organic phase. The present process can be satisfactorily practiced with soil containing 10 to 20% petroleum-based oils and organic fluids such as used in transformers and cutting fluids, coolants and the like which contain PCB's. The subject method provides for the removal of a sufficient concentration of PCB's from the soil to provide the soil with a level of PCB's within the guidelines of the Environmental Protection Agency.

  11. Efficient Total Nitrogen Removal in an Ammonia Gas Biofilter through High-Rate OLAND

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Clippeleir, Haydée; Courtens, Emilie; Mosquera, Mariela

    2012-01-01

    Ammonia gas is conventionally treated in nitrifying biofilters; however, addition of organic carbon to perform post-denitrification is required to obtain total nitrogen removal. Oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification/denitrification (OLAND), applied in full-scale for wastewater treatment, can...... offer a cost-effective alternative for gas treatment. In this study, the OLAND application thus was broadened toward ammonia loaded gaseous streams. A down flow, oxygen-saturated biofilter (height of 1.5 m; diameter of 0.11 m) was fed with an ammonia gas stream (248 ± 10 ppmv) at a loading rate of 0...... at water flow rates of 1.3 ± 0.4 m3 m–2 biofilter section d–1. Profile measurements revealed that 91% of the total nitrogen activity was taking place in the top 36% of the filter. This study demonstrated for the first time highly effective and sustainable autotrophic ammonia removal in a gas biofilter...

  12. Simultaneous improvement of waste gas purification and nitrogen removal using a novel aerated vertical flow constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinwen; Hu, Zhen; Ngo, Huu Hao; Zhang, Jian; Guo, Wenshan; Liang, Shuang; Xie, Huijun

    2018-03-01

    Insufficient oxygen supply is identified as one of the major factors limiting organic pollutant and nitrogen (N) removal in constructed wetlands (CWs). This study designed a novel aerated vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW) using waste gas from biological wastewater treatment systems to improve pollutant removal in CWs, its potential in purifying waste gas was also identified. Compared with unaerated VFCW, the introduction of waste gas significantly improved NH 4 + -N and TN removal efficiencies by 128.48 ± 3.13% and 59.09 ± 2.26%, respectively. Furthermore, the waste gas ingredients, including H 2 S, NH 3 , greenhouse gas (N 2 O) and microbial aerosols, were remarkably reduced after passing through the VFCW. The removal efficiencies of H 2 S, NH 3 and N 2 O were 77.78 ± 3.46%, 52.17 ± 2.53%, and 87.40 ± 3.89%, respectively. In addition, the bacterial and fungal aerosols in waste gas were effectively removed with removal efficiencies of 42.72 ± 3.21% and 47.89 ± 2.82%, respectively. Microbial analysis results revealed that the high microbial community abundance in the VFCW, caused by the introduction of waste gas from the sequencing batch reactor (SBR), led to its optimized nitrogen transformation processes. These results suggested that the VFCW intermittently aerated with waste gas may have potential application for purifying wastewater treatment plant effluent and waste gas, simultaneously. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nitrogen Removal Efficiency at Centralized Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plants in Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsak Noophan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, influents and effluents from centralized domestic wastewater treatment systems in Bangkok (Rattanakosin, Dindaeng, Chongnonsi, Nongkhaem, and Jatujak were randomly collected in order to measure organic nitrogen plus ammonium-nitrogen (total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total organic carbon, total suspended solids, and total volatile suspended solids by using Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 1998. Characteristics of influent and effluent (primary data of the centralized domestic wastewater treatment system from the Drainage and Sewerage Department of Bangkok Metropolitan Administration were used to analyze efficiency of systems. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH was used to identify specific nitrifying bacteria (ammonium oxidizing bacteria specific for Nitrosomonas spp. and nitrite oxidizing bacteria specific for Nitrobacter spp. and Nitrospira spp.. Although Nitrosomonas spp. and Nitrobacter spp. were found, Nitrospira spp. was most prevalent in the aeration tank of centralized wastewater treatment systems. Almost all of the centralized domestic wastewater treatment plants in Bangkok are designed for activated sludge type biological nutrient removal (BNR. However, low efficiency nitrogen removal was found at centralized wastewater treatment plants in Bangkok. Influent ratio of TOC:N at centralized treatment plant is less than 2.5. Centralized wastewater treatment systems have not always been used suitability and used successfully in some areas of Bangkok Thailand.

  14. Nitrogen and COD removal from domestic and synthetic wastewater in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, R S; Grismer, M E

    2013-09-01

    Comparisons of the performance of constructed-wetland systems (CWs) for treating domestic wastewater in the laboratory and field may use pathogen-free synthetic wastewater to avoid regulatory health concerns. However, little to no data are available describing the relative treatment efficiencies of CWs to both actual and synthetic domestic wastewaters so as to enable such comparison. To fill this gap, treatment performances with respect to organics (chemical organic demand; COD) and nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) removal from domestic (septic tank) and a similar-strength synthetic wastewater under planted and non-planted subsurface-flow CWs are determined. One pair of CWs was planted with cattails in May 2008, whereas the adjacent system was non-planted. Collected septic tank or synthesized wastewater was allowed to gravity feed each CWs, and effluent samples were collected and tested for COD and nitrogen species regularly during four different periods over six months. Overall, statistically significant greater removal of COD (-12%) and nitrogen (-5%) occurred from the synthetic as compared with the domestic wastewater from the planted and non-planted CWs. Effluent BOD5/COD ratios from the synthetic wastewater CWs averaged nearly twice that from the domestic wastewater CWs (0.17 vs 0.10), reflecting greater concentrations of readily degraded compounds. That removal fractions were consistent across the mid-range loading rates to the CWs suggests that the synthetic wastewater can be used in testing laboratory CWs with reasonable success in application of their results to the field.

  15. Improved Processes to Remove Naphthenic Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; Kangshi Wang; Yongchun Tang; William A. Goddard

    2005-12-09

    In the past three years, we followed the work plan as we suggested in the proposal and made every efforts to fulfill the project objectives. Based on our large amount of creative and productive work, including both of experimental and theoretic aspects, we received important technical breakthrough on naphthenic acid removal process and obtained deep insight on catalytic decarboxylation chemistry. In detail, we established an integrated methodology to serve for all of the experimental and theoretical work. Our experimental investigation results in discovery of four type effective catalysts to the reaction of decarboxylation of model carboxylic acid compounds. The adsorption experiment revealed the effectiveness of several solid materials to naphthenic acid adsorption and acidity reduction of crude oil, which can be either natural minerals or synthesized materials. The test with crude oil also received promising results, which can be potentially developed into a practical process for oil industry. The theoretical work predicted several possible catalytic decarboxylation mechanisms that would govern the decarboxylation pathways depending on the type of catalysts being used. The calculation for reaction activation energy was in good agreement with our experimental measurements.

  16. Nitrogen removal through N cycling from sediments in a constructed coastal marsh as assessed by 15N-isotope dilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Hee-Myong; Kim, Pan-Gun; Park, Ji-Suk; Yun, Seok-In; Han, Junho

    2018-04-01

    Constructed coastal marsh regulates land-born nitrogen (N) loadings through salinity-dependent microbial N transformation processes. A hypothesis that salinity predominantly controls N removal in marsh was tested through incubation in a closed system with added- 15 NH 4 + using sediments collected from five sub-marshes in Shihwa marsh, Korea. Time-course patterns of concentrations and 15 N-atom% of soil-N pools were analyzed. Sediments having higher salinity and lower soil organic-C and acid-extractable organic-N exhibited slower rates of N mineralization and immobilization, nitrification, and denitrification. Rates of denitrification were not predicted well by sediment salinity but by its organic-C, indicating heterotrophic denitrification. Denitrification dominated N-loss from this marsh, and nitrogen removal capacity of this marsh was estimated at 337 kg N day -1 (9.9% of the daily N-loadings) considering the current rooting depth of common reeds (1.0 m). We showed that sediment N removal decreases with increasing salinity and can increase with increasing organic-C for heterotrophic denitrification. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nitrogen Trifluoride-Based Fluoride- Volatility Separations Process: Initial Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2011-09-28

    This document describes the results of our investigations on the potential use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorinating and oxidizing agent in fluoride volatility-based used nuclear fuel reprocessing. The conceptual process uses differences in reaction temperatures between nitrogen trifluoride and fuel constituents that produce volatile fluorides to achieve separations and recover valuable constituents. We provide results from our thermodynamic evaluations, thermo-analytical experiments, kinetic models, and provide a preliminary process flowsheet. The evaluations found that nitrogen trifluoride can effectively produce volatile fluorides at different temperatures dependent on the fuel constituent.

  18. Removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from dairy wastewater using constructed wetlands systems operating in batch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Rocha Bastos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of a study conducted for a period of seven months on the effectiveness of constructed wetland systems for the treatment of dairy wastewater aiming at removing, nitrogen and phosphorus. Six experimental systems were assembled with a net volume of 115 L using HDPE tanks, with length/width ratio of 2:1. In three of the systems, gravel 0 was used as substrate, while gravel 0 and sand was used in the three others, in the percentage of 80% and 20%, respectively. The systems were operated in batch cycles of 48 hours, applying 7.5 L of influent per cycle. Four of the experimental units were cultivated, and two kept as controls. The selected species chosen were the macrophytes, Typha domingensis and Hedychium coronarium. The removal efficiency concerning nitrogen compounds showed to be quite promising with values ranging from 29.4 to 73.4%, while phosphorus removal from the beds was lower, reaching efficiencies between 18.61 and 34.3%, considered good values, since the removal of these substances is quite difficult through conventional treatment.

  19. Removal of nitrogen by a layered soil infiltration system during intermittent storm events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kang Woo; Song, Kyung Guen; Cho, Jin Woo; Kim, Tae Gyun; Ahn, Kyu Hong

    2009-07-01

    The fates of various nitrogen species were investigated in a layered biological infiltration system under an intermittently wetting regime. The layered system consisted of a mulch layer, coarse soil layer (CSL), and fine soil layer (FSL). The effects of soil texture were assessed focusing on the infiltration rate and the removal of inorganic nitrogen species. The infiltration rate drastically decreased when the uniformity coefficient was larger than four. The ammonium in the synthetic runoff was shown to be removed via adsorption during the stormwater dosing and nitrification during subsequent dry days. Stable ammonium adsorption was observed when the silt and clay content of CSL was greater than 3%. This study revealed that the nitrate leaching was caused by nitrification during dry days. Various patterns of nitrate flushing were observed depending on the soil configuration. The washout of nitrate was more severe as the silt/clay content of the CSL was greater. However, proper layering of soil proved to enhance the nitrate removal. Consequently, a strictly sandy CSL over FSL with a silt and clay content of 10% was the best configuration for the removal of ammonium and nitrate.

  20. Combined carbon and nitrogen removal from acetonitrile using algal-bacterial bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, R.; Jacinto, M.; Guieysse, B.; Mattiasson, B. [Dept. of Biotechnology, Center for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    When compared with Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus obliquus and Selenastrum capricornutum, C. sorokiniana presented the highest tolerance to acetonitrile and the highest O{sub 2} production capacity. It also supported the fastest acetonitrile biodegradation when mixed with a suitable acetonitrile-degrading bacterial consortium. Consequently, this microalga was tested in symbiosis with the bacterial culture for the continuous biodegradation of acetonitrile at 2 g l{sup -1} in a stirred tank photobioreactor and in a column photobioreactor under continuous illumination (250 {mu}E m{sup -2} s{sup -1}). Acetonitrile removal rates of up to 2.3 g l{sup -1} day{sup -1} and 1.9 g l{sup -1} day{sup -1} were achieved in the column photobioreactor and the stirred-tank photobioreactor, respectively, when operated at the shortest retention times tested (0.4 days, 0.6 days, respectively). In addition, when the stirred-tank photobioreactor was operated with a retention time of 3.5 days, the microbial culture was capable of assimilating up to 71% and nitrifying up to 12% of the NH{sub 4}{sup +} theoretically released through the biodegradation of acetonitrile, thus reducing the need for subsequent nitrogen removal. This study suggests that complete removal of N-organics can be combined with a significant removal of nitrogen by using algal-bacterial systems and that further residual biomass digestion could pay-back part of the operation costs of the treatment plant. (orig.)

  1. Simultaneous nitrogen and organics removal using membrane aeration and effluent ultrafiltration in an anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactor

    KAUST Repository

    Ye, Yaoli; Saikaly, Pascal; Logan, B.E.

    2017-01-01

    Dissolved methane and a lack of nutrient removal are two concerns for treatment of wastewater using anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactors (AFMBRs). Membrane aerators were integrated into an AFMBR to form an Aeration membrane fluidized bed membrane bioreactor (AeMFMBR) capable of simultaneous removal of organic matter and ammonia without production of dissolved methane. Good effluent quality was obtained with no detectable suspended solids, 93±5% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal to 14±11 mg/L, and 74±8% of total ammonia (TA) removal to 12±3 mg-N/L for domestic wastewater (COD of 193±23 mg/L and TA of 49±5 mg-N/L) treatment. Nitrate and nitrite concentrations were always low (< 1 mg-N/L) during continuous flow treatment. Membrane fouling was well controlled by fluidization of the granular activated carbon (GAC) particles (transmembrane pressures maintained <3 kPa). Analysis of the microbial communities suggested that nitrogen removal was due to nitrification and denitrification based on the presence of microorganisms associated with these processes.

  2. Simultaneous nitrogen and organics removal using membrane aeration and effluent ultrafiltration in an anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactor

    KAUST Repository

    Ye, Yaoli

    2017-08-03

    Dissolved methane and a lack of nutrient removal are two concerns for treatment of wastewater using anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactors (AFMBRs). Membrane aerators were integrated into an AFMBR to form an Aeration membrane fluidized bed membrane bioreactor (AeMFMBR) capable of simultaneous removal of organic matter and ammonia without production of dissolved methane. Good effluent quality was obtained with no detectable suspended solids, 93±5% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal to 14±11 mg/L, and 74±8% of total ammonia (TA) removal to 12±3 mg-N/L for domestic wastewater (COD of 193±23 mg/L and TA of 49±5 mg-N/L) treatment. Nitrate and nitrite concentrations were always low (< 1 mg-N/L) during continuous flow treatment. Membrane fouling was well controlled by fluidization of the granular activated carbon (GAC) particles (transmembrane pressures maintained <3 kPa). Analysis of the microbial communities suggested that nitrogen removal was due to nitrification and denitrification based on the presence of microorganisms associated with these processes.

  3. Catalytic/non-catalytic combination process for nitrogen oxides reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luftglass, B.K.; Sun, W.H.; Hofmann, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for the reduction of nitrogen oxides in the effluent from the combustion of a carbonaceous fuel. It comprises introducing a nitrogenous treatment agent comprising urea, one or more of the hydrolysis products of urea, ammonia, compounds which produce ammonia as a by-product, ammonium salts of organic acids, 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic hydrocarbons having at least one cyclic nitrogen, hydroxy amino hydrocarbons, or mixtures thereof into the effluent at an effluent temperature between about 1200 degrees F and about 2100 degrees F; and contacting the treated effluent under conditions effective to reduce the nitrogen oxides in the effluent with a catalyst effective for the reduction of nitrogen oxides in the presence of ammonia

  4. Carbon dioxide removal in gas treating processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidal, H.

    1992-06-01

    The main contribution of this work is the development of a simple and reliable modelling technique on carbon dioxide removal describing the vapor-liquid equilibria of CO 2 in aqueous alkanolamine solutions. By making use of measured pH data, the author has circumvented the problem of estimating interaction parameters, activity coefficients, and equilibrium constants in the prediction of vapor-liquid equilibria. The applicability of the model is best demonstrated on the tertiary amine system using MDEA. For this system, the VLE is accurately represented for temperatures in the range 25 to 140 o C, for CO 2 loadings from 0.001 to 1 mol/mol, and for amine molarities usually encountered in acid gas treating processes. The absorption of CO 2 into solutions containing the sterically hindered amine AMP, is also well described by the model. The equilibrium of CO 2 in mixed solvents containing a glycol (TEG,DEG) and an alkonolamine (MEA,DEA) has been measured at temperatures encountered in the absorption units. An equilibrium model has been developed for the CO 2 /TEG/MEA system for estimation of CO 2 partial pressures, covering loadings and temperatures for both absorption and desorption conditions. An important spin-off of the work described is that two new experimental set-ups have been designed and built. 154 refs., 38 figs., 22 tabs

  5. Carbon dioxide removal in gas treating processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidal, H

    1992-06-01

    The main contribution of this work is the development of a simple and reliable modelling technique on carbon dioxide removal describing the vapor-liquid equilibria of CO{sub 2} in aqueous alkanolamine solutions. By making use of measured pH data, the author has circumvented the problem of estimating interaction parameters, activity coefficients, and equilibrium constants in the prediction of vapor-liquid equilibria. The applicability of the model is best demonstrated on the tertiary amine system using MDEA. For this system, the VLE is accurately represented for temperatures in the range 25 to 140{sup o}C, for CO{sub 2} loadings from 0.001 to 1 mol/mol, and for amine molarities usually encountered in acid gas treating processes. The absorption of CO{sub 2} into solutions containing the sterically hindered amine AMP, is also well described by the model. The equilibrium of CO{sub 2} in mixed solvents containing a glycol (TEG,DEG) and an alkonolamine (MEA,DEA) has been measured at temperatures encountered in the absorption units. An equilibrium model has been developed for the CO{sub 2}/TEG/MEA system for estimation of CO{sub 2} partial pressures, covering loadings and temperatures for both absorption and desorption conditions. An important spin-off of the work described is that two new experimental set-ups have been designed and built. 154 refs., 38 figs., 22 tabs.

  6. Potential of duckweed (Lemna minor) for removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from water under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunguang; Dai, Zheng; Sun, Hongwen

    2017-02-01

    Duckweed plays a major role in the removal of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from water. To determine the effect of salt stress on the removal of N and P by duckweed, we cultured Lemna minor, a common species of duckweed, in N and P-rich water with NaCl concentrations ranging from 0 to 100 mM for 24 h and 72 h, respectively. The results show that the removal capacity of duckweed for N and P was reduced by salt stress. Higher salt stress with longer cultivation period exerts more injury to duckweed and greater inhibition of N and P removal. Severe salt stress (100 mM NaCl) induced duckweed to release N and P and even resulted in negative removal efficiencies. The results indicate that L. minor should be used to remove N and P from water with salinities below 75 mM NaCl, or equivalent salt stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Synergic Adsorption–Biodegradation by an Advanced Carrier for Enhanced Removal of High-Strength Nitrogen and Refractory Organics

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmad, Muhammad; Liu, Sitong; Mahmood, Nasir; Mahmood, Asif; Ali, Muhammad; Zheng, Maosheng; Ni, Jinren

    2017-01-01

    Coking wastewater contains not only high-strength nitrogen but also toxic biorefractory organics. This study presents simultaneous removal of high-strength quinoline, carbon, and ammonium in coking wastewater by immobilized bacterial communities

  8. Process for selected gas oxide removal by radiofrequency catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Chang Y.

    1993-01-01

    This process to remove gas oxides from flue gas utilizes adsorption on a char bed subsequently followed by radiofrequency catalysis enhancing such removal through selected reactions. Common gas oxides include SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x.

  9. Biofilter design for effective nitrogen removal from stormwater - influence of plant species, inflow hydrology and use of a saturated zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Emily G I; Pham, Tracey; Cook, Perran L M; Fletcher, Tim D; Hatt, Belinda E; Deletic, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The use of biofilters to remove nitrogen and other pollutants from urban stormwater runoff has demonstrated varied success across laboratory and field studies. Design variables including plant species and use of a saturated zone have large impacts upon performance. A laboratory column study of 22 plant species and designs with varied outlet configuration was conducted across a 1.5-year period to further investigate the mechanisms and influences driving biofilter nitrogen processing. This paper presents outflow concentrations of total nitrogen from two sampling events across both 'wet' and 'dry' frequency dosing, and from sampling across two points in the outflow hydrograph. All plant species were effective under conditions of frequent dosing, but extended drying increased variation between species and highlighted the importance of a saturated zone in maintaining biofilter function. The saturated zone also effectively treated the volume of stormwater stored between inflow events, but this extended detention provided no additional benefit alongside the rapid processing of the highest performing species. Hence, the saturated zone reduced performance differences between plant species, and potentially acts as an 'insurance policy' against poor sub-optimal plant selection. The study shows the importance of biodiversity and inclusion of a saturated zone in protecting against climate variability.

  10. Nitrogen removal from landfill leachate via ex situ nitrification and sequential in situ denitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Qi; Li Daping; Tao Yong; Wang Xiaomei; He Xiaohong; Zhang Jie; Zhang Jinlian; Guo Weiqiang; Wang Lan

    2009-01-01

    Ex situ nitrification and sequential in situ denitrification represents a novel approach to nitrogen management at landfills. Simultaneous ammonia and organics removal was achieved in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The results showed that the maximum nitrogen loading rate (NLR) and the maximum organic loading rate (OLR) was 0.65 g N l -1 d -1 and 3.84 g COD l -1 d -1 , respectively. The ammonia and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was over 99% and 57%, respectively. In the run of the CSTR, free ammonia (FA) inhibition and low dissolved oxygen (DO) were found to be key factors affecting nitrite accumulation. In situ denitrification was studied in a municipal solid waste (MSW) column by recalculating nitrified leachate from CSTR. The decomposition of MSW was accelerated by the recirculation of nitrified leachate. Complete reduction of total oxidized nitrogen (TON) was obtained with maximum TON loading of 28.6 g N t -1 TS d -1 and denitrification was the main reaction responsible. Additionally, methanogenesis inhibition was observed while TON loading was over 11.4 g N t -1 TS d -1 and the inhibition was enhanced with the increase of TON loading

  11. Effect of nitrogen doping on titanium carbonitride-derived adsorbents used for arsenic removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jisun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soonjae [Center for Water Resource Cycle Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarang-ro 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Keunsu [Computational Science Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarang-ro 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jinhong [Samsung Electronics Co.Ltd.,(Maetan dong) 129, Samsung-ro Yeongtong-gu, Suwonsi, Gyeonggi-do 443-742, Repubilc of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Daegwon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-Gu [Center for Water Resource Cycle Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarang-ro 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); An, Byungryul [Department of Civil Engineering, Sangmyung University, Cheonan, Chungnam 31066 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Hyup [Center for Water Resource Cycle Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarang-ro 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Mizuseki, Hiroshi, E-mail: mizuseki@kist.re.kr [Computational Science Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarang-ro 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae-Woo, E-mail: plead36@kist.re.kr [Center for Water Resource Cycle Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarang-ro 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Shinhoo, E-mail: shinkang@snu.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • The N-doping can improve the As adsorption performance of carbon-based materials. • The material features high micro- and small meso-pores with exceptional surface area. • Pyrrolic N atoms distributed uniformly on the micropores act as adsorption sites. • The synthesis temperature affected pore properties and surface functional groups. - Abstract: Arsenic in water and wastewater is considered to be a critical contaminant as it poses harmful health risks. In this regard, to meet the stringent regulation of arsenic in aqueous solutions, nitrogen doped carbon-based materials (CN) were prepared as adsorbents and tested for the removal of arsenic ion from aqueous solutions. Nitrogen-doped carbon (CNs) synthesized by chlorination exhibited well-developed micro- and small meso-pores with uniform pore structures. The structure and characteristics of the adsorbents thus developed were confirmed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Among the CNs developed, CN700 exhibited high adsorption capacity for arsenic (31.08 mg/g). The adsorption efficiency for arsenic ion was confirmed to be affected by pyrrolic nitrogen and micro-pores. These results suggest that CNs are useful adsorbents for the treatment of arsenic, and in particular, CN700 demonstrates potential for application as an adsorbent for the removal of anionic heavy metals from wastewater and sewage.

  12. Modeling nitrous oxide production during biological nitrogen removal via nitrification and denitrification: extensions to the general ASM models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Ruscalleda, Maël; Pellicer-Nàcher, Carles; Smets, Barth F

    2011-09-15

    Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) can be formed during biological nitrogen (N) removal processes. In this work, a mathematical model is developed that describes N(2)O production and consumption during activated sludge nitrification and denitrification. The well-known ASM process models are extended to capture N(2)O dynamics during both nitrification and denitrification in biological N removal. Six additional processes and three additional reactants, all involved in known biochemical reactions, have been added. The validity and applicability of the model is demonstrated by comparing simulations with experimental data on N(2)O production from four different mixed culture nitrification and denitrification reactor study reports. Modeling results confirm that hydroxylamine oxidation by ammonium oxidizers (AOB) occurs 10 times slower when NO(2)(-) participates as final electron acceptor compared to the oxic pathway. Among the four denitrification steps, the last one (N(2)O reduction to N(2)) seems to be inhibited first when O(2) is present. Overall, N(2)O production can account for 0.1-25% of the consumed N in different nitrification and denitrification systems, which can be well simulated by the proposed model. In conclusion, we provide a modeling structure, which adequately captures N(2)O dynamics in autotrophic nitrification and heterotrophic denitrification driven biological N removal processes and which can form the basis for ongoing refinements.

  13. Relating N2O emissions during biological nitrogen removal with operating conditions using multivariate statistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilaki, V; Volcke, E I P; Nandi, A K; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Katsou, E

    2018-04-26

    Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to investigate the dependencies and underlying patterns between N 2 O emissions and online operational variables (dissolved oxygen and nitrogen component concentrations, temperature and influent flow-rate) during biological nitrogen removal from wastewater. The system under study was a full-scale reactor, for which hourly sensor data were available. The 15-month long monitoring campaign was divided into 10 sub-periods based on the profile of N 2 O emissions, using Binary Segmentation. The dependencies between operating variables and N 2 O emissions fluctuated according to Spearman's rank correlation. The correlation between N 2 O emissions and nitrite concentrations ranged between 0.51 and 0.78. Correlation >0.7 between N 2 O emissions and nitrate concentrations was observed at sub-periods with average temperature lower than 12 °C. Hierarchical k-means clustering and principal component analysis linked N 2 O emission peaks with precipitation events and ammonium concentrations higher than 2 mg/L, especially in sub-periods characterized by low N 2 O fluxes. Additionally, the highest ranges of measured N 2 O fluxes belonged to clusters corresponding with NO 3 -N concentration less than 1 mg/L in the upstream plug-flow reactor (middle of oxic zone), indicating slow nitrification rates. The results showed that the range of N 2 O emissions partially depends on the prior behavior of the system. The principal component analysis validated the findings from the clustering analysis and showed that ammonium, nitrate, nitrite and temperature explained a considerable percentage of the variance in the system for the majority of the sub-periods. The applied statistical methods, linked the different ranges of emissions with the system variables, provided insights on the effect of operating conditions on N 2 O emissions in each sub-period and can be integrated into N 2 O emissions data processing at wastewater treatment plants

  14. Study about the use of ionizing radiation to delay the putrefaction of strawberries 'Tioga'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritacco, M.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of the ionizing radiation has been studied in fresh strawberries of the variety 'Tioga', with the purpose to extend its commercialization period. After the packaging in semi-permeable polyethylene, the material was procesed using 60 Co source of 400kCi. The strawberries were irradiated with a dose of 2kGy. The treated products and the unirradiated ones were stored refrigerated at 5 deg C with a relative humidity of 90 % and in absence of light. Each 4 days, chemical, organoleptics and microbiological studies were carried out and conditions of expense and transport post-irradiation were simulated. The results obtained would indicate the technological viability of ionizing radiations on this type of berries, keeping them in a good state during a period of 28 days post-treatment, the unirradiated material showed undiserable microbiological, organoleptics and chemical alterations after the 4th day of storage. (Autor) [es

  15. Intensified nitrogen and phosphorus removal in a novel electrolysis-integrated tidal flow constructed wetland system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Xinxin; Wu, Shubiao; Zhang, Yansheng; Dong, Renjie

    2014-08-01

    A novel electrolysis-integrated tidal flow constructed wetland (CW) system was developed in this study. The dynamics of intensified nitrogen and phosphorus removal and that of hydrogen sulphide control were evaluated. Ammonium removal of up to 80% was achieved with an inflow concentration of 60 mg/L in wetland systems with and without electrolysis integration. Effluent nitrate concentration decreased from 2 mg/L to less than 0.5 mg/L with the decrease in current intensity from 1.5 mA/cm(2) to 0.57 mA/cm(2) in the electrolysis-integrated wetland system, thus indicating that the current intensity of electrolysis plays an important role in nitrogen transformations. Phosphorus removal was significantly enhanced, exceeding 95% in the electrolysis-integrated CW system because of the in-situ formation of a ferric iron coagulant through the electro-dissolution of a sacrificial iron anode. Moreover, the electrolyzed wetland system effectively inhibits sulphide accumulation as a result of a sulphide precipitation coupled with ferrous-iron electro-dissolution and/or an inhibition of bacterial sulphate reduction under increased aerobic conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biological nitrogen and carbon removal in a gravity flow biomass concentrator reactor for municipal sewage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Daniel; Hidaka, Taira; Campo, Pablo; Kleiner, Eric; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D

    2013-01-01

    A novel membrane system, the Biomass Concentrator Reactor (BCR), was evaluated as an alternative technology for the treatment of municipal wastewater. Because the BCR is equipped with a membrane whose average poresize is 20 μm (18-28 μm), the reactor requires low-pressure differential to operate (gravity). The effectiveness of this system was evaluated for the removal of carbon and nitrogen using two identical BCRs, identified as conventional and hybrid, that were operated in parallel. The conventional reactor was operated under full aerobic conditions (i.e., organic carbon and ammonia oxidation), while the hybrid reactor incorporated an anoxic zone for nitrate reduction as well as an aerobic zone for organic carbon and ammonia oxidation. Both reactors were fed synthetic wastewater at a flow rate of 71 L d(-1), which resulted in a hydraulic retention time of 9 h. In the case of the hybrid reactor, the recycle flow from the aerobic zone to the anoxic zone was twice the feed flow rate. Reactor performance was evaluated under two solids retention times (6 and 15 d). Under these conditions, the BCRs achieved nearly 100% mixed liquor solids separation with a hydraulic head differential of less than 2.5 cm. The COD removal efficiency was over 90%. Essentially complete nitrification was achieved in both systems, and nitrogen removal in the hybrid reactor was close to the expected value (67%). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Catalytic pleat filter bags for combined particulate separation and nitrogen oxides removal from flue gas streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Ok; Choi, Ho Kyung

    2010-01-01

    The development of a high temperature catalytically active pleated filter bag with hybrid filter equipment for the combined removal of particles and nitrogen oxides from flue gas streams is presented. A special catalyst load in stainless steel mesh cartridge with a high temperature pleated filter bag followed by optimized catalytic activation was developed to reach the required nitrogen oxides levels and to maintain the higher collection efficiencies. The catalytic properties of the developed high temperature filter bags with hybrid filter equipment were studied and demonstrated in a pilot scale test rig and a demonstration plant using commercial scale of high temperature catalytic pleated filter bags. The performance of the catalytic pleated filter bags were tested under different operating conditions, such as filtration velocity and operating temperature. Moreover, the cleaning efficiency and residual pressure drop of the catalyst loaded cartridges in pleated filter bags were tested. As result of theses studies, the optimum operating conditions for the catalytic pleated filter bags are determined. (author)

  18. Nitrogen and COD Removal from Septic Tank Wastewater in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands: Plants Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, R S; Grismer, M E

    2015-11-01

    We evaluated subsurface flow (SSF) constructed wetland treatment performance with respect to organics (COD) and nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) removal from domestic (septic tank) wastewater as affected by the presence of plants, substrate "rock" cation exchange capacity (CEC), laboratory versus field conditions and use of synthetic as compared to actual domestic wastewater. This article considers the effects of plants on constructed wetland treatment in the field. Each constructed wetland system was comprised of two beds (2.6 m long by 0.28 m wide and deep filled with ~18 mm crushed lava rock) separated by an aeration tank connected in series. The lava rock had a porosity of ~47% and a CEC of 4 meq/100 gm. One pair of constructed wetland systems was planted with cattails in May 2008, while an adjacent pair of systems remained un-planted. Collected septic tank or synthesized wastewater was allowed to gravity feed each constructed wetland system and effluent samples were regularly collected and tested for COD and nitrogen species during four time periods spanning November 2008 through June 2009. These effluent concentrations were tested for statistical differences at the 95% level for individual time periods as well as the overall 6-month period. Organics removal from domestic wastewater was 78.8% and 76.1% in the planted and un-planted constructed wetland systems, respectively, while ammonium removal was 94.5% and 90.2%, respectively. Similarly, organics removal from the synthetic wastewater of equivalent strength was 88.8% and 90.1% for planted and un-planted constructed wetland systems, respectively, while ammonium removal was 96.9% and 97.3%, respectively.

  19. Partial Nitrification and Denitrifying Phosphorus Removal in a Pilot-Scale ABR/MBR Combined Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peng; Xu, Lezhong; Wang, Jianfang; Huang, Zhenxing; Zhang, Jiachao; Shen, Yaoliang

    2015-11-01

    A pilot-scale combined process consisting of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) and an aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) for the purpose of achieving easy management, low energy demands, and high efficiencies on nutrient removal from municipal wastewater was investigated. The process operated at room temperature with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7.5 h, recycle ratio 1 of 200%, recycle ratio 2 of 100%, and dissolved oxygen (DO) of 1 mg/L and achieved good effluent quality with chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 25 mg/L, NH4 (+)-N of 4 mg/L, total nitrogen (TN) of 11 mg/L, and total phosphorus (TP) of 0.7 mg/L. The MBR achieved partial nitrification, and NO2 (-)-N has been accumulated (4 mg/L). Efficient short-cut denitrification was occurred in the ABR with a TN removal efficiency of 51%, while the role of denitrification and phosphorus removal removed partial TN (14%). Furthermore, nitrogen was further removed (11%) by simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in the MBR. In addition, phosphorus accumulating organisms in the MBR sufficiently uptake phosphorus; thus, effluent TP further reduced with a TP removal efficiency of 84%. Analysis of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) were enriched in the process. In addition, the accumulation of NO2 (-)-N was contributed to the inhibition on the activities of the NOB rather than its elimination.

  20. Kinetic models for nitrogen inhibition in ANAMMOX and nitrification process on deammonification system at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Prá, Marina C; Kunz, Airton; Bortoli, Marcelo; Scussiato, Lucas A; Coldebella, Arlei; Vanotti, Matias; Soares, Hugo M

    2016-02-01

    In this study were fitted the best kinetic model for nitrogen removal inhibition by ammonium and/or nitrite in three different nitrogen removal systems operated at 25 °C: a nitrifying system (NF) containing only ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB), an ANAMMOX system (AMX) containing only ANAMMOX bacteria, and a deammonification system (DMX) containing both AOB and ANAMMOX bacteria. NF system showed inhibition by ammonium and was best described by Andrews model. The AMX system showed a strong inhibition by nitrite and Edwards model presented a best system representation. For DMX system, the increased substrate concentration (until 1060 mg NH3-N/L) tested was not limiting for the ammonia consumption rate and the Monod model was the best model to describe this process. The AOB and ANAMMOX sludges combined in the DMX system displayed a better activity, substrate affinity and excellent substrate tolerance than in nitrifying and ANAMMOX process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nitrogen and Organics Removal during Riverbank Filtration along a Reclaimed Water Restored River in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyan Pan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Reclaimed water has been widely used to restore rivers and lakes in water scarce areas as well as in Beijing municipality, China. However, refilling the rivers with reclaimed water may result in groundwater pollution. A three-year field monitoring program was conducted to assess the effect of a riverbank filtration (RBF system on the removal of nitrogen and organics from the Qingyang River of Beijing, which is replenished with reclaimed water. Water samples from the river, sediment, and groundwater were collected for NO3-N, NH4-N, and chemical oxygen demand (COD was measured. The results indicate that about 85% of NO3-N was removed from the riverbed sediments. Approximate 92% of NH4-N was removed during the infiltration of water from river to aquifer. On average, 54% of COD was removed by RBF. The attenuation of NO3-N through RBF to the groundwater varied among seasons and was strongly related to water temperature. On the other hand, no obvious temporal variability was identified in the removal of COD. These results suggest that the RBF system is an effective barrier against NO3-N, NH4-N and COD in the Qingyang River, as well as those rivers with similar geological and climatic conditions refilled with reclaimed water.

  2. Nitrogen and carbon export from urban areas through removal and export of litterfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templer, Pamela H.; Toll, Jonathan W.; Hutyra, Lucy R.; Raciti, Steve M.

    2015-01-01

    We found that up to 52 ± 17% of residential litterfall carbon (C) and nitrogen (N; 390.6 kg C and 6.5 kg N ha −1  yr −1 ) is exported through yard waste removed from the City of Boston, which is equivalent to more than half of annual N outputs as gas loss (i.e. denitrification) or leaching. Our results show that removing yard waste results in a substantial decrease in N inputs to urban areas, which may offset excess N inputs from atmospheric deposition, fertilizer application and pet waste. However, export of C and N via yard waste removal may create nutrient limitation for some vegetation due to diminished recycling of nutrients. Removal of leaf litter from residential areas disrupts nutrient cycling and residential yard management practices are an important modification to urban biogeochemical cycling, which could contribute to spatial heterogeneity of ecosystems that are either N limited or saturated within urban ecosystems. - Highlights: • We monitored yard waste bags for one complete fall yard waste collection season. • 52% of residential litterfall C and N is exported annually from the City of Boston. • Litterfall export may create nutrient limitation hotspots in urban ecosystems. • C and N export through litterfall collection modifies urban biogeochemical cycling. - Litterfall removal leads to C and N export from urban ecosystems and disrupts nutrient cycling, showing that this activity is an important modification to urban biogeochemical cycling

  3. Nitrogen Cycling in Permeable Sediments: Process-based Models for Streams and the Coastal Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Azizian, Morvarid

    2017-01-01

    Bioavailable forms of nitrogen, such as nitrate, are necessary for aquatic ecosystem productivity. Excess nitrate in aquatic systems, however, can adversely affect ecosystems and degrade both surface water and groundwater. Some of this excess nitrate can be removed in the sediments that line the bottom of rivers and coastal waters, through the exchange of water between surface water and groundwater (known as hyporheic exchange).Several process-based models have been proposed for estimating ni...

  4. Microbial removal of fixed nitrogen in an oceanic oxygen minimum zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Tage; Thamdrup, Bo; Revsbech, Niels Peter

    We quantified the removal of fixed nitrogen as N2 production by anammox and N2 and N2O production by denitrification over a distance of 1900 km along the coast of Chile and Peru, using short-term incubations with 15N-labeled substrates. The eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP) holds an oxygen...... and that denitrification is needed for the mineralization of organic matter and production of NH4+ for anammox. Our data from frequent sampling along a 1900 km cruise track parallel to the coast of Chile and Peru show that denitrification does indeed occur, but less frequent and at higher rates than anammox...

  5. Control of SHARON reactor for autotrophic nitrogen removal in two-reactor configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valverde Perez, Borja; Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Sin, Gürkan

    2012-01-01

    With the perspective of investigating a suitable control design for autotrophic nitrogen removal, this work explores the control design for a SHARON reactor. With this aim, a full model is developed, including the pH dependency, in order to simulate the reactor and determine the optimal operating...... conditions. Then, the screening of controlled variables and pairing is carried out by an assessment of the effect of the disturbances based on the closed loop disturbance gain plots. Two controlled structures are obtained and benchmarked by their capacity to reject the disturbances before the Anammox reactor....

  6. Role of iron catalyst impregnated by solvent swelling method in pyrolytic removal of coal nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, J.; Kusakabe, K.; Morooka, S.; Nielsen, M.; Furimsky, E. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Technology

    1995-11-01

    Organometallic iron precursors, ferrocene and ferric acetate, were impregnated into Illinois No. 6 (IL), Wyoming (WY) and Yallourn (YL) coals by solvent swelling technique in THF, ethanol, and a THF/ethanol binary solvent. Then iron-impregnated coals were pyrolyzed in a flow of helium at atmospheric pressure in a fixed bed and a thermobalance. Conversion of coal nitrogen to N{sub 2} was 20, 38 and 30% respectively, for original IL, WY, and YL coals. Iron formed from both precursors lowered the onset temperature of N{sub 2} evolution by 20-100{degree}C. When ferrocene was impregnated in coals at a concentration of 1.7-1.8 wt% as Fe, nitrogen conversion was increased to 52, 71 and 68% for IL, WY and YL coals, respectively. Ferric acetate impregnated into IL coal from THF/ethanol solution increased the nitrogen conversion much more than that from ethanol solution. The expansion of microporous coal structure by the swelling was essential for better dispersion of the catalyst precursor. The evolution of HCN as well as NH{sub 3} was effectively suppressed above 600{degree}C by the presence of iron but not influenced significantly by combinations of catalyst precursors and solvents. The increase in N{sub 2} yield was compensated by the decrease in nitrogen emitted as HCN and NH{sub 3} and in tar and char. The increase in CO evolution from the iron-impregnated IL coal at 600-800{degree}C was explained by catalytic rearrangement of aromatic structure of char, accompanying the removal of nitrogen as N{sub 2}. In a range of 600-750{degree}C, the evolution of CO as well as N{sub 2} from the other coals increased remarkably with a significant decrease in CO{sub 2} gasification in char microproes. 32 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Nitrogen removal and nitrate leaching for two perennial, sod-based forage systems receiving dairy effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Kenneth R; French, Edwin C; Sweat, Lewin A; Graetz, Donald A; Sollenberger, Lynn E; Macoon, Bisoondat; Portier, Kenneth M; Rymph, Stuart J; Wade, Brett L; Prine, Gordon M; Van Horn, Harold H

    2003-01-01

    In northern Florida, year-round forage systems are used in dairy effluent sprayfields to reduce nitrate leaching. Our purpose was to quantify forage N removal and monitor nitrate N (NO3(-)-N) concentration below the rooting zone for two perennial, sod-based, triple-cropping systems over four 12-mo cycles (1996-2000). The soil is an excessively drained Kershaw sand (thermic, uncoated Typic Quartzip-samment). Effluent N rates were 500, 690, and 910 kg ha(-1) per cycle. Differences in N removal between a corn (Zea mays L.)-bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.)-rye (Secale cereale L.) system (CBR) and corn-perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.)-rye system (CPR) were primarily related to the performance of the perennial forages. Nitrogen removal of corn (125-170 kg ha(-1)) and rye (62-90 kg ha(-1)) was relatively stable between systems and among cycles. The greatest N removal was measured for CBR in the first cycle (408 kg ha(-1)), with the bermudagrass removing an average of 191 kg N ha(-1). In later cycles, N removal for bermudagrass declined because dry matter (DM) yield declined. Yield and N removal of perennial peanut increased over the four cycles. Nitrate N concentrations below the rooting zone were lower for CBR than CPR in the first two cycles, but differences were inconsistent in the latter two. The CBR system maintained low NO3(-)-N leaching in the first cycle when the bermudagrass was the most productive; however, it was not a sustainable system for long-term prevention of NO3(-)-N leaching due to declining bermudagrass yield in subsequent cycles. For CPR, effluent N rates > or = 500 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) have the potential to negatively affect ground water quality.

  8. Model evaluation of temperature dependency for carbon and nitrogen removal in a full-scale activated sludge plant treating leather-tanning wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgün, Erdem; Insel, Güçlü; Artan, Nazik; Orhon, Derin

    2007-05-01

    Organic carbon and nitrogen removal performance of a full-scale activated sludge plant treating pre-settled leather tanning wastewater was evaluated under dynamic process temperatures. Emphasis was placed upon observed nitrogen removal depicting a highly variable magnitude with changing process temperatures. As the plant was not specifically designed for this purpose, observed nitrogen removal could be largely attributed to simultaneous nitrification and denitrification presumably occurring at increased process temperatures (T>25 degrees C) and resulting low dissolved oxygen levels (DO<0.5 mgO2/L). Model evaluation using long-term data revealed that the yearly performance of activated sludge reactor could be successfully calibrated by means of temperature dependent parameters associated with nitrification, hydrolysis, ammonification and endogenous decay parameters. In this context, the Arrhenius coefficients of (i) for the maximum autotrophic growth rate, [image omitted]A, (ii) maximum hydrolysis rate, khs and (iii) endogenous heterotrophic decay rate, bH were found to be 1.045, 1.070 and 1.035, respectively. The ammonification rate (ka) defining the degradation of soluble organic nitrogen could not be characterized however via an Arrhenius-type equation.

  9. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal in MBR process fed with settled wastewater from Valdebebas WWTP; Eliminacion de nitrogeno y fosforo en proceso BRM alimentado con agua decantada de EDAR de Valdebebas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varela, C.; Casares, B.; Larrea, L.; Paz Cobos, E. de la

    2008-07-01

    The MBR pilot plant (described in Tecnologia del Agua in February 2007) was fed with steeld wastewater from June 2006 to February 2007, maintaining both the hydraulic retention time(HRT) as low as possible in the range between 5-7 hours depending on the temperature and the solids retention time (SRT) around 20 days. The process behaviour showed significant variations but they were described by daily dynamic simulations, thereby allowing a deep analysis. In the final period (winter-February) very satisfactory results were obtained (N{sub T}<10 mg/l y P{sub T}<1 mg/l) thanks to the appropriate definition of the design and operational conditions. The research has concluded that the design and operation with minimum HRT and SRT requires the optimum utilization of the membrane tank as well as of the aerobic reactor, promoting the occurrence of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. (Author) 6 refs.

  10. Governing processes for reactive nitrogen compounds in the European atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Ole; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Reis, S.

    2012-01-01

    +)), oxidized nitrogen (NOy: nitrogen monoxide (NO) + nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and their reaction products) as well as organic nitrogen compounds (organic N). Pollution abatement strategies need to take into account the differences in the governing processes of these compounds when assessing their impact...... on ecosystem services, biodiversity, human health and climate. NOx (NO+NO2) emitted from traffic affects human health in urban areas where the presence of buildings increases the residence time in streets. In urban areas this leads to enhanced exposure of the population to NOx concentrations. NOx emissions.......5 and PM10 (mass of aerosols with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 and 10 mu m, respectively) with an impact on radiation balance as well as potentially on human health. Little is known quantitatively and qualitatively about organic N in the atmosphere, other than that it contributes a significant...

  11. Combined Pre-Precipitation, Biological Sludge Hydrolysis and Nitrogen Reduction - A Pilot Demonstration of Integrated Nutrient Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, G. H.; Jørgensen, P. E.; Strube, R.

    1992-01-01

    solubilization was 10-13% of the suspended COD. The liquid phase of the hydrolyzed sludge, the hydrolysate, was separated from the suspended fraction by centrifugation and added to the biological nitrogen removal stage to support denitrification. The hydrolysate COD consisted mainly of volatile fatty acids......A pilot study was performed to investigate advanced wastewater treatment by pre-precipitation in combination with biological nitrogen removal supported by biological sludge hydrolysis. The influent wastewater was pretreated by addition of a pre-polymerized aluminum salt, followed by flocculation......, resulting in high denitrification rates. Nitrogen reduction was performed based on the Bio-Denitro principle in an activated sludge system. Nitrogen was reduced from 45 mg/l to 9 mg/l and phosphorus was reduced from 11 mg/l to 0.5 mg/l. The sludge yield was low, approx. 0.3-0.4 gCOD/gCOD removed...

  12. Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner. 1 fig

  13. Effect of Nitrogen Oxides on Elemental Mercury Removal by Nanosized Mineral Sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hailong; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Jun; Li, Liqing; Lee, Po-Heng; Feng, Yong; Shih, Kaimin

    2017-08-01

    Because of its large surface area, nanosized zinc sulfide (Nano-ZnS) has been demonstrated in a previous study to be efficient for removal of elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) from coal combustion flue gas. The excellent mercury adsorption performance of Nano-ZnS was found to be insusceptible to water vapor, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen chloride. However, nitrogen oxides (NO X ) apparently inhibited mercury removal by Nano-ZnS; this finding was unlike those of many studies on the promotional effect of NO X on Hg 0 removal by other sorbents. The negative effect of NO X on Hg 0 adsorption over Nano-ZnS was systematically investigated in this study. Two mechanisms were identified as primarily responsible for the inhibitive effect of NO X on Hg 0 adsorption over Nano-ZnS: (1) active sulfur sites on Nano-ZnS were oxidized to inactive sulfate by NO X ; and (2) the chemisorbed mercury, i.e., HgS, was reduced to Hg 0 by NO X . This new insight into the role of NO X in Hg 0 adsorption over Nano-ZnS can help to optimize operating conditions, maximize Hg 0 adsorption, and facilitate the application of Nano-ZnS as a superior alternative to activated carbon for Hg 0 removal using existing particulate matter control devices in power plants.

  14. Organics and nitrogen removal from textile auxiliaries wastewater with A2O-MBR in a pilot-scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Faqian; Sun, Bin; Hu, Jian; He, Yangyang; Wu, Weixiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A pilot-scale A 2 O-MBR system treating textile auxiliaries wastewater was assessed. • Organic matter and recycle ratio strongly affected the performance of the system. • GC/MS analysis found some refractory organics in the MBR permeate. • Combination of organic foulants and inorganic compounds caused membrane fouling. - Abstract: The removal of organic compounds and nitrogen in an anaerobic–anoxic–aerobic membrane bioreactor process (A 2 O-MBR) for treatment of textile auxiliaries (TA) wastewater was investigated. The results show that the average effluent concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium nitrogen (NH 4 + –N) and total nitrogen (TN) were about 119, 3 and 48 mg/L under an internal recycle ratio of 1.5. The average removal efficiency of COD, NH 4 + –N and TN were 87%, 96% and 55%, respectively. Gas chromatograph–mass spectrometer analysis indicated that, although as much as 121 different types of organic compounds were present in the TA wastewater, only 20 kinds of refractory organic compounds were found in the MBR effluent, which could be used as indicators of effluents from this kind of industrial wastewater. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that bacterial foulants were significant contributors to membrane fouling. An examination of foulants components by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence showed that the combination of organic foulants and inorganic compounds enhanced the formation of gel layer and thus caused membrane fouling. The results will provide valuable information for optimizing the design and operation of wastewater treatment system in the textile industry

  15. Nitrogen Retention in Coastal Marine Sediments—a Field Study of the Relative Importance of Biological and Physical Removal in a Danish Estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurentius Nielsen, Søren; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Banta, Gary

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the relative importance of physical versus biological loss processes for the removal of microphytobenthic (MPB) bound nitrogen in a coastal environment at different times of the year via a dual isotope labeling technique. We used 51Cr, binding to inorganic...... were able to discern the relative importance of physical and biological processes. The isotope marking was supplemented with measurements of sediment chlorophyll biomass and oxygen fluxes, allowing us to evaluate MPB biomass as well as primary production vs. respiration in the sediment. In spring...... was physically dominated due to low MPB biomasses and activity combined with a significant storm event. Our data support the hypothesis that the relative balance between physical and biological processes in determining retention and removal of MPB-bound nitrogen changes seasonally....

  16. Nitrogen removal and nitrate leaching for forage systems receiving dairy effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Kenneth R; French, Edwin C; Sweat, Lewin A; Graetz, Donald A; Sollenberger, Lynn E; Macoon, Bisoondat; Portier, Kenneth M; Wade, Brett L; Rymph, Stuart J; Prine, Gordon M; Van Horn, Harold H

    2002-01-01

    Florida dairies need year-round forage systems that prevent loss of N to ground water from waste effluent sprayfields. Our purpose was to quantify forage N removal and monitor nitrate N (NO3(-)-N) concentrations in soil water below the rooting zone for two forage systems during four 12-mo cycles (1996-2000). Soil in the sprayfield is an excessively drained Kershaw sand (thermic, uncoated Typic Quartzipsamment). Over four cycles, average loading rates of effluent N were 500, 690, and 910 kg ha(-1) per cycle. Nitrogen removed by the bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.)-rye (Secale cereale L.) system (BR) during the first three cycles was 465 kg ha(-1) per cycle for the low loading rate, 528 kg ha(-1) for the medium rate, and 585 kg ha(-1) for the high. For the corn (Zea mays L.)-forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]-rye system (CSR), N removals were 320 kg ha(-1) per cycle for the low rate, 327 kg ha(-1) for the medium, and 378 kg ha(-1) for the high. The higher N removals for BR were attributed to higher N concentration in bermudagrass (18.1-24.2 g kg(-1)) than in corn and forage sorghum (10.3-14.7 g kg(-1)). Dry matter yield declined in the fourth cycle for bermudagrass but N removal continued to be higher for BR than CSR. The BR system was much more effective at preventing NO3(-)-N leaching. For CSR, NO3(-)-N levels in soil water (1.5 m below surface) increased steeply during the period between the harvest of one forage and canopy dosure of the next. Overall, the BR system was better than CSR at removing N from the soil and maintaining low NO3(-)-N concentrations below the rooting zone.

  17. Sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides gas treating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, J. T.

    1985-01-01

    A process is disclosed for treating particle-containing gas streams by removing particles and gaseous atmospheric pollutants. Parallel passage contactors are utilized to remove the gaseous pollutants. The minimum required gas flow rate for effective operation of these contactors is maintained by recycling a variable amount of low temperature gas which has been passed through a particle removal zone. The recycled gas is reheated by heat exchange against a portion of the treated gas

  18. An Example of UMIC-Anaerobic Ammoniation Nitrogen Removal Process Application in Aquaculture Industry Effluent Disposal%UMIC厌氧处理结合工艺在养殖废水处理中的应用--以贵港扬翔大岭种猪场为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟琼; 聂威

    2015-01-01

    针对猪养殖场废水的环境污染问题,以高效、节能与多层次综合为设计目标,本工程运用UMIC上升式多级内循环厌氧反应器为核心处理部件及厌氧氨化脱氮处理方法,对猪场粪污水采用“预处理-UMIC厌氧反应器-厌氧处理”的工艺路线。结果表明,经处理后粪污水中的化学需氧量、生化需氧量、固体悬浮物浓度、氨氮总量、总磷的含量分别为110、18、60、15、0.8mg/L, pH为7~7.5,水质优于《畜禽养殖业污染物排放标准》( GB18596-2001);同时产生副产品得到利用,取得了较好的综合效益,对生猪养殖的废水处理产业具有一定的指导和借鉴意义。%To solve the problem of environmental pollution of pig farm wastewater, with high efficiency, energy saving and multi-level comprehensive goal for the design and the engineering application UMIC rise type multi internal circulation anaerobic reactor as the core processing components and anaerobic ammoniation method of nitrogen removal, of piggery wastewater by pretreatment of -UMIC anaerobic reactor, the anaerobic treatment process. The results show that the post processing fecal sewage COD, BOD, SS, total ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus content were 110, 18, 60, 15, 0. 8 mg/L, pH7~7. 5, better than that of “livestock and poultry breeding industry pollutant discharge standard” ( GB18596-2001);with by-products utilization, and achieve a better economic, social and ecological benefits, and hascertain guidance and reference significance. to pig breeding wastewater treatment industry.

  19. The regional and global significance of nitrogen removal in lakes and reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, J.A.; Maranger, R.J.; Alexander, Richard B.; Giblin, A.E.; Jacinthe, P.-A.; Mayorga, Emilio; Seitzinger, S.P.; Sobota, D.J.; Wollheim, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Human activities have greatly increased the transport of biologically available nitrogen (N) through watersheds to potentially sensitive coastal ecosystems. Lentic water bodies (lakes and reservoirs) have the potential to act as important sinks for this reactive N as it is transported across the landscape because they offer ideal conditions for N burial in sediments or permanent loss via denitrification. However, the patterns and controls on lentic N removal have not been explored in great detail at large regional to global scales. In this paper we describe, evaluate, and apply a new, spatially explicit, annual-scale, global model of lentic N removal called NiRReLa (Nitrogen Retention in Reservoirs and Lakes). The NiRReLa model incorporates small lakes and reservoirs than have been included in previous global analyses, and also allows for separate treatment and analysis of reservoirs and natural lakes. Model runs for the mid-1990s indicate that lentic systems are indeed important sinks for N and are conservatively estimated to remove 19.7 Tg N year-1 from watersheds globally. Small lakes (<50 km2) were critical in the analysis, retaining almost half (9.3 Tg N year -1) of the global total. In model runs, capacity of lakes and reservoirs to remove watershed N varied substantially at the half-degree scale (0-100%) both as a function of climate and the density of lentic systems. Although reservoirs occupy just 6% of the global lentic surface area, we estimate they retain ~33% of the total N removed by lentic systems, due to a combination of higher drainage ratios (catchment surface area:lake or reservoir surface area), higher apparent settling velocities for N, and greater average N loading rates in reservoirs than in lakes. Finally, a sensitivity analysis of NiRReLa suggests that, on-average, N removal within lentic systems will respond more strongly to changes in land use and N loading than to changes in climate at the global scale. ?? 2008 Springer Science

  20. Efficacy of reactive mineral-based sorbents for phosphate, bacteria, nitrogen and TOC removal--column experiment in recirculation batch mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Charlotte; Lakshmanan, Ramnath; Renman, Gunno; Rajarao, Gunaratna Kuttuva

    2013-09-15

    Two mineral-based materials (Polonite and Sorbulite) intended for filter wells in on-site wastewater treatment were compared in terms of removal of phosphate (PO4-P), total inorganic nitrogen (TIN), total organic carbon (TOC) and faecal indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and Enterococci). Using an innovative, recirculating system, septic tank effluent was pumped at a hydraulic loading rate of 3000 L m(2) d(-1) into triplicate bench-scale columns of each material over a 90-day period. The results showed that Polonite performed better with respect to removal of PO4-P, retaining on average 80% compared with 75% in Sorbulite. This difference was attributed to higher CaO content in Polonite and its faster dissolution. Polonite also performed better in terms of removal of bacteria because of its higher pH value. The total average reduction in E. coli was 60% in Polonite and 45% in Sorbulite, while for Enterococci the corresponding value was 56% in Polonite and 34% in Sorbulite. Sorbulite removed TIN more effectively, with a removal rate of 23%, while Polonite removed 11% of TIN, as well as TOC. Organic matter (measured as TOC) was accumulated in the filter materials but was also released periodically. The results showed that Sorbulite could meet the demand in removing phosphate and nitrogen with reduced microbial release from the wastewater treatment process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Benchmarking Combined Biological Phosphorus and Nitrogen Removal Wastewater Treatment Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2004-01-01

    , the second one for nitrate control in the anoxic zone using the internal recirculation flow rate as manipulated variable. Dynamic simulations for different dissolved oxygen set points illustrate the complex interactions in this plant, and the necessity for a continuous trade off between supplying sufficient...

  2. [Effect of Different Purple Parent Rock on Removal Rates of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Organics in Landscape Water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xue-jiao; Liu, Xiao-chen; Li, Zhen-lun; Shi, Wen-hao; Yang, Shan

    2015-05-01

    In order to understand the impacts of physicochemical properties of purple parent rock on the removal rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and organics in landscape water systems, four types of purple parent rocks including Peng-lai-zhen Formation (S1) , Sha-xi-miao Formation (S2) , Fei-xian-guan Formation (S3) and Sui-ning Formation (S4) , which distribute widely in Chongqing, were selected and autoclaved, and added to unsterile landscape water collected from Chong-de Lake in Southwest University, and the landscape water only was used as control. And several indicators such as total nitrogen and phosphorus and so on of every disposal were investigated periodically. The results indicated that: (1) The highest removal rates of total nitrogen, total phosphorus and Ammonia nitrogen were observed in Sl, which were 45.1%, 62.3% and 90%, respectively; the highest removal rate of COD was 94.5% in S4; the ammonia nitrogen content in the purple parent rocks was not obviously changed before and after the experiments, which indicated that the adsorption of ammonia nitrogen on purple parent rock surface was not the main reason for the decrease of ammonia nitrogen in water. (2) Arsenate had inhibitory effect on the sulfate-reducing bacteria, while copper and magnesium had promoting effect on gram-negative bacteria. (3) The microbial diversity was positively correlated to total nitrogen in water. (4) Based on the PCA analyses of microbial community structure and environmental factors, the mineral elements released from parent rock affected the structure and composition of microbial community in the test water, and then influenced the removal rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and organics in water systems.

  3. The Influence of Parameters Affecting Boron Removal by Electrocoagulation Process

    KAUST Repository

    Zeboudji, B.; Drouiche, Nadjib; Lounici, Hakim; Mameri, Nabil; Ghaffour, NorEddine

    2013-01-01

    , this process requires chemical addition and important additional investment, operation and maintenance, and energy costs. Electrocoagulation (EC) process can be used to achieve such low boron concentration. In this work, the removal of boron from aqueous

  4. Study on arsenic removal process from water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Bayarmaa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study a novel adsorbent, iron oxide, is used for As (V or As (III removal. Some ferric oxides have been reported to be effective for arsenic removal. Ferric oxides powder is a good adsorbent material since it’s has magnetic properties and a good adsorption capacity. The main purpose of this study has been focused on to study the relationship between adsorption capacity (ability, performance and the surface characteristics of the ferric oxide. Prepared sample’s capacity was evaluated. The value was 26.1-67.4 mg/g for As (V and 20.5-47.8 mg/g for As (III. pH dependence was evaluated and when pH increasing, adsorption capacity was decreased. The kinetic was evaluated and about 12 hours reached equilibrium and a capacity of 49 mg/g for As (V and 42 mg/g for As(III was gained. The kinetic constants for arsenic adsorption on the ferrihydrite adsorbent’s were fitted.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v12i0.172 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry Vol.12 2011: 53-55

  5. Combined organic matter and nitrogen removal from a chemical industry wastewater in a two-stage MBBR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, S M S; Fontoura, G A T; Dezotti, M; Bassin, J P

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide-producing factories generate highly polluting wastewaters containing toxic and hazardous compounds which should be reduced to acceptable levels before discharge. In this study, a chemical industry wastewater was treated in a pre-denitrification moving-bed biofilm reactor system subjected to an increasing internal mixed liquor recycle ratio from 2 to 4. Although the influent wastewater characteristics substantially varied over time, the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved organic carbon was quite stable and mostly higher than 90%. The highest fraction of the incoming organic matter was removed anoxically, favouring a low COD/N environment in the subsequent aerobic nitrifying tank and thus ensuring stable ammonium removal (90-95%). However, during pH and salt shock periods, nitrifiers were severely inhibited but gradually restored their full nitrifying capability as non-stressing conditions were reestablished. Besides promoting an increase in the maximum nitrification potential of the aerobic attached biomass from 0.34 to 0.63 mg [Formula: see text], the increase in the internal recycle ratio was accompanied by an increase in nitrogen removal (60-78%) and maximum specific denitrification rate (2.7-3.3 mg NOx(-)--N). Total polysaccharides (PS) and protein (PT) concentrations of attached biomass were observed to be directly influenced by the influent organic loading rate, while the PS/PT ratio mainly ranged from 0.3 to 0.5. Results of Microtox tests showed that no toxicity was found in the effluent of both the anoxic and aerobic reactors, indicating that the biological process was effective in removing residual substances which might adversely affect the receiving waters' ecosystem.

  6. Microalgal bacterial flocs treating paper mill effluent: A sunlight-based approach for removing carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Hende, Sofie; Rodrigues, André; Hamaekers, Helen; Sonnenholzner, Stanislaus; Vervaeren, Han; Boon, Nico

    2017-10-25

    Treatment of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluent from a paper mill in aerated activated sludge reactors involves high aeration costs. Moreover, this calcium-rich effluent leads to problematic scale formation. Therefore, a novel strategy for the aerobic treatment of paper mill UASB effluent in microalgal bacterial floc sequencing batch reactors (MaB-floc SBRs) is proposed, in which oxygen is provided via photosynthesis, and calcium is removed via bio-mineralization. Based on the results of batch experiments in the course of this study, a MaB-floc SBR was operated at an initial neutral pH. This SBR removed 58±21% organic carbon, 27±8% inorganic carbon, 77±5% nitrogen, 73±2% phosphorus, and 27±11% calcium. MaB-flocs contained 10±3% calcium, including biologically-influenced calcite crystals. The removal of calcium and inorganic carbon by MaB-flocs significantly decreased when inhibiting extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA), an enzyme that catalyses the hydration and dehydration of CO 2 . This study demonstrates the potential of MaB-floc SBRs for the alternative treatment of calcium-rich paper mill effluent, and highlights the importance of extracellular CA in this treatment process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. REMOVAL OF ARSENIC FROM DRINKING WATER SUPPLIES BY IRON REMOVAL PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This design manual is an in-depth presentation of the steps required to design and operate a water treatment plant for removal of arsenic in the As (V) form from drinking water using an iron removal process. The manual also discusses the capital and operating costs including many...

  8. Sodium removal by alcohol process: Basic tests and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Akai, M.; Yatabe, T.

    1997-01-01

    We have various methods for sodium removal; an alcohol cleaning process, a steam cleaning process and a direct burning process. Sodium removal by the alcohol process has a lot of advantages, such as causing no alkali corrosion to steel, short processing time and easy operation. Therefore the alcohol process was selected for the 1MWt double wall tube straight type steam generator. We have already had some experiences of the alcohol process, while still needed to confirm the sodium removal rate in the crevice and to develop an on-line sodium concentration monitoring method in alcohol during sodium removal. We have conducted the small scale sodium removal test with flowing alcohol where the sodium removal rate in the crevice and the alcohol conductivity were measured as functions of sodium concentration in alcohol and alcohol temperature. The sodium removal of the DWTSG was conducted by the devised alcohol process safely and efficiently. The process hour was about 1 day. Visual inspection during dismantling of the DWTSG showed no evidence of any un-reacted sodium. (author)

  9. Biological Hydrogen Production: Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation with Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal from Wastewater Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    process.7 The reaction is of great economic importance given that the world’s industrial production of nitrogenous fertilizer increased 27-fold between... Enzymatic Saccharification and Fermentation of Paper and Pulp Industry Effluent for Biohydrogen Production . Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 2010, 35, pp...Reactor Setup and Operation 11 4.2 Operational Comparison: SBR and CBR 12 4.3 Effect of pH and Loading on Hydrogen Production 13 4.4 Enzymatic Source

  10. Investigation of electric discharge treatment of water for ammonium nitrogen removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, O.B.; Shubin, B.G.

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of water purification from ammonium nitrogen using pulsed electric discharge in water-air mixtures was investigated. The model solution of chlorous ammonium was used in experiments. The concentration of ions ammonium was about 300 mg/l. Achieved reduction of ammonium concentration was about 35%. In this paper the mechanism of this process is discussed. The ways to increasing efficiency of this method are proposed

  11. [Impurity removal technology of Tongan injection in liquid preparation process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu-fang; Wang, Xiu-hai; Bai, Wei-rong; Kang, Xiao-dong; Liu, Jun-chao; Wu, Yun; Xiao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    In order to effectively remove the invalid impurities in Tongan injection, optimize the optimal parameters of the impurity removal technology of liquid mixing process, in this paper, taking Tongan injection as the research object, with the contents of celandine alkali, and sinomenine, solids reduction efficiency, and related substances inspection as the evaluation indexes, the removal of impurities and related substances by the combined process of refrigeration, coction and activated carbon adsorption were investigated, the feasibility of the impurity removal method was definited and the process parameters were optimized. The optimized process parameters were as follows: refrigerated for 36 h, boiled for 15 min, activated carbon dosage of 0.3%, temperature 100 degrees C, adsorption time 10 min. It can effectively remove the tannin, and other impurities, thus ensure the quality and safety of products.

  12. Experience with antimony activity removal process in Indian PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velmurugan, S.; Mittal, Vinit K.; Kumbhar, A.G.; Narasimhan, S.V.; Bhat, H.R.; Krishna Rao, K.S.; Upadhyay, S.K.; Jain, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    The problem of antimony (Sb) activity during decontamination was first encountered in NAPS-1 and Sb activity deposition took place during the decontamination resulting in poor decontamination factors (DF). Sb problem has been observed in PWRs and PHWRs elsewhere also. These utilities use an oxidative process involving the addition of H 2 O 2 to remove these Sb activities from the core and remove it on ion exchange resins. Experience in CANDU PHWRs indicated disappearance of H 2 O 2 in quantities higher than that observed in PWRs. This is attributed to the higher pick-up of H 2 O 2 by the magnetite/ferrites over large carbon steel surface present in the primary coolant system of PHWRs. Systematic work was carried out to understand the deposition of Sb on PHT system surfaces and a new method was evolved to remove the Sb activities from the system. This alternative reductive chemical process involve the addition of Nitrilo Tri Acetic Acid, Citric Acid and Rodine-92B and circulating the chemicals for a short period and then the Sb and other activities released from the core are removed by the mixed bed. Subsequent to the Sb removal process, the normal chemical decontamination of the system is carried out to remove 60 Co and other activities. This non-oxidizing Sb removal process was applied to NAPS-2 primary system prior to EMCCR. During this Sb removal process of NAPS-2, around 450 μCi/L activity of 124 Sb was released from the system surfaces to the formulation. Activity measurement in the samples collected and the on-line radiation field data indicated that deposition of Sb activities on system surfaces has been prevented by Rodine-92B and subsequently these activities have been removed by mixed bed IX columns. Antimony removal process worked successfully, but in the second normal decontamination process around 150 μCi/L activities came in the formulation which was not anticipated. As a result DF observed immediately after the decontamination campaign was not good

  13. Balancing carbon/nitrogen ratio to improve nutrients removal and algal biomass production in piggery and brewery wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongli; Liu, Mingzhi; Lu, Qian; Wu, Xiaodan; Ma, Yiwei; Cheng, Yanling; Addy, Min; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger

    2018-02-01

    To improve nutrients removal from wastewaters and enhance algal biomass production, piggery wastewater was mixed with brewery wastewaters. The results showed that it was a promising way to cultivate microalga in piggery and brewery wastewaters by balancing the carbon/nitrogen ratio. The optimal treatment condition for the mixed piggery-brewery wastewater using microalga was piggery wastewater mixed with brewery packaging wastewater by 1:5 at pH 7.0, resulting in carbon/nitrogen ratio of 7.9, with the biomass concentration of 2.85 g L -1 , and the removal of 100% ammonia, 96% of total nitrogen, 90% of total phosphorus, and 93% of chemical oxygen demand. The application of the established strategies can enhance nutrient removal efficiency of the wastewaters while reducing microalgal biomass production costs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiocarbon and cation-radio ages for rock varnish on Tioga and Tahoe marainal boulders of Pine Creek, eastern Sierra Nevada, California, and their paleoclimatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, R.I.; Turrin, B.D.; Jull, A.J.T.; Linick, T.W.; Donahue, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry 14C analyses of organic matter extracted from rock varnishes on morainal boulders yield limiting minimum ages for three crests of the Tioga glaciation. At Pine Creek in the eastern Sierra Nevada, varnish started to form on boulders of the outermost Tioga moraine before 19,000 yr B.P., and varnish originated on the innermost Tioga moraine before 13,200 yr B.P. Comparisons with lake-level, paleohydrological, paleoecological, colluvial, and rock varnish micromorphological data indicate that central-eastern California and western Nevada experienced a moisture-effective period during the late Pleistocene but after the Tioga maximum, and perhaps as Tioga glaciers receded from the mouth of Pine Creek canyon. Varnishes on Tahoeage morainal boulders at Pine Creek have cation-ratio ages of about 143,000-156,000 yr B.P., suggesting that the Tahoe glaciation should not be correlated with oxygen-isotope stage 4 in the early Wisconsin, but rather with stage 6. Varnishes on morainal boulders of an older glaciation at Pine Creek are dated by cation ratio at about 182,000-187,000 yr B.P. ?? 1987.

  15. Mathematical Modeling of Nitrous Oxide Production during Denitrifying Phosphorus Removal Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiwen; Peng, Lai; Chen, Xueming; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-07-21

    A denitrifying phosphorus removal process undergoes frequent alternating anaerobic/anoxic conditions to achieve phosphate release and uptake, during which microbial internal storage polymers (e.g., Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)) could be produced and consumed dynamically. The PHA turnovers play important roles in nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation during the denitrifying phosphorus removal process. In this work, a mathematical model is developed to describe N2O dynamics and the key role of PHA consumption on N2O accumulation during the denitrifying phosphorus removal process for the first time. In this model, the four-step anoxic storage of polyphosphate and four-step anoxic growth on PHA using nitrate, nitrite, nitric oxide (NO), and N2O consecutively by denitrifying polyphosphate accumulating organisms (DPAOs) are taken into account for describing all potential N2O accumulation steps in the denitrifying phosphorus removal process. The developed model is successfully applied to reproduce experimental data on N2O production obtained from four independent denitrifying phosphorus removal study reports with different experimental conditions. The model satisfactorily describes the N2O accumulation, nitrogen reduction, phosphate release and uptake, and PHA dynamics for all systems, suggesting the validity and applicability of the model. The results indicated a substantial role of PHA consumption in N2O accumulation due to the relatively low N2O reduction rate by using PHA during denitrifying phosphorus removal.

  16. Hybrid disposal systems and nitrogen removal in individual sewage disposal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franks, A.L.

    1993-06-01

    The use of individual disposal systems in ground-water basins that have adverse salt balance conditions and/or geologically unsuitable locations, has become a major problem in many areas of the world. There has been much research in design of systems for disposal of domestic sewage. This research includes both hybrid systems for disposal of domestic sewage. This research includes both hybrid systems for disposal of the treated waste in areas with adverse geologic conditions and systems for the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus prior to percolation to the ground water. This paper outlines the history of development and rationale for design and construction of individual sewage disposal systems and describes the designs and limitations of the hybrid and denitrification units. The disposal systems described include Mounds, Evapotranspiration and Evapotranspiration/Infiltration systems. The denitrification units include those using methanol, sulfur and limestone, gray water and secondary treated wastewater for energy sources.

  17. Simulation of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in Ecological Ditch Based on EFDC Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S. M.; Wang, X. L.; Zhou, Q. Y.; Han, N. N.

    2018-03-01

    Agricultural non-point source pollution threatens water quality and ecological system recently. To control it, the first and most important task is to control the migration and transformation of nitrogen and phosphorus in the agricultural ditches. An ecological ditch was designed, and according to the design a pilot device was built, the mechanism of N and P removal in ditches under the collaboration of aquatic organisms-hydraulic power was studied through the dynamic and static experiments, in order to find out the specific influences of different environmental factors such as influent concentration, influent flow and water level. The transport and diffusion of N and P in the ditch was simulated by a three dimensional water quality model EFDC, the simulation results and the experimental data were compared. The average relative errors of EFDC model simulated results were all less than 15%, which verified the reliability of the model.

  18. Biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal in membrane bioreactors: model development and parameter estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosenza, Alida; Mannina, Giorgio; Neumann, Marc B; Viviani, Gaspare; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2013-04-01

    Membrane bioreactors (MBR) are being increasingly used for wastewater treatment. Mathematical modeling of MBR systems plays a key role in order to better explain their characteristics. Several MBR models have been presented in the literature focusing on different aspects: biological models, models which include soluble microbial products (SMP), physical models able to describe the membrane fouling and integrated models which couple the SMP models with the physical models. However, only a few integrated models have been developed which take into account the relationships between membrane fouling and biological processes. With respect to biological phosphorus removal in MBR systems, due to the complexity of the process, practical use of the models is still limited. There is a vast knowledge (and consequently vast amount of data) on nutrient removal for conventional-activated sludge systems but only limited information on phosphorus removal for MBRs. Calibration of these complex integrated models still remains the main bottleneck to their employment. The paper presents an integrated mathematical model able to simultaneously describe biological phosphorus removal, SMP formation/degradation and physical processes which also include the removal of organic matter. The model has been calibrated with data collected in a UCT-MBR pilot plant, located at the Palermo wastewater treatment plant, applying a modified version of a recently developed calibration protocol. The calibrated model provides acceptable correspondence with experimental data and can be considered a useful tool for MBR design and operation.

  19. Adsorptive Removal of Nitrate from Aqueous Solution Using Nitrogen Doped Activated Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Motoi; Goto, Tatsuru; Amano, Yoshimasa; Iida, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) has been widely applied for adsorptive removal of organic contaminants from aqueous phase, but not for ionic pollutants. In this study, nitrogen doped AC was prepared to increase the adsorption capacity of nitrate from water. AC was oxidized with (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 8 solution to maximize oxygen content for the first step, and then NH 3 gas treatment was carried out at 950°C to aim at forming quaternary nitrogen (N-Q) species on AC surface (Ox-9.5AG). Influence of solution pH was examined so as to elucidate the relationship between surface charge and adsorption amounts of nitrate. The results showed that Ox-9.5AG exhibited about twice higher adsorption capacity than non-treatment AC at any initial nitrate concentration and any equilibrium solution pH (pH e ) investigated. The more decrease in pH e value, the more adsorption amount of negatively charged nitrate ion, because the surface charge of AC and Ox-9.5AG could become more positive in acidic solution. The oxidation and consecutive ammonia treatments lead to increase in nitrogen content from 0.35 to 6.4% and decrease in the pH of the point of zero charge (pH pzc ) from 7.1 to 4.0 implying that positively charged N-Q of a Lewis acid was created on the surface of Ox-9.5AG. Based on a Langmuir data analysis, maximum adsorption capacity attained 0.5-0.6 mmol/g of nitrate and adsorption affinity was 3.5-4.0 L/mmol at pH e 2.5 for Ox-9.5AG.

  20. A robust nitrifying community in a bioreactor at 50 °C opens up the path for thermophilic nitrogen removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtens, Emilie Np; Spieck, Eva; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Bodé, Samuel; Boeckx, Pascal; Schouten, Stefan; Jauregui, Ruy; Pieper, Dietmar H; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Boon, Nico

    2016-09-01

    The increasing production of nitrogen-containing fertilizers is crucial to meet the global food demand, yet high losses of reactive nitrogen associated with the food production/consumption chain progressively deteriorate the natural environment. Currently, mesophilic nitrogen-removing microbes eliminate nitrogen from wastewaters. Although thermophilic nitrifiers have been separately enriched from natural environments, no bioreactors are described that couple these processes for the treatment of nitrogen in hot wastewaters. Samples from composting facilities were used as inoculum for the batch-wise enrichment of thermophilic nitrifiers (350 days). Subsequently, the enrichments were transferred to a bioreactor to obtain a stable, high-rate nitrifying process (560 days). The community contained up to 17% ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOAs) closely related to 'Candidatus Nitrososphaera gargensis', and 25% nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOBs) related to Nitrospira calida. Incorporation of (13)C-derived bicarbonate into the respective characteristic membrane lipids during nitrification supported their activity as autotrophs. Specific activities up to 198±10 and 894±81 mg N g(-1) VSS per day for AOAs and NOBs were measured, where NOBs were 33% more sensitive to free ammonia. The NOBs were extremely sensitive to free nitrous acid, whereas the AOAs could only be inhibited by high nitrite concentrations, independent of the free nitrous acid concentration. The observed difference in product/substrate inhibition could facilitate the development of NOB inhibition strategies to achieve more cost-effective processes such as deammonification. This study describes the enrichment of autotrophic thermophilic nitrifiers from a nutrient-rich environment and the successful operation of a thermophilic nitrifying bioreactor for the first time, facilitating opportunities for thermophilic nitrogen removal biotechnology.

  1. A wooded riparian strip set up for nitrogen removal can affect the water flux microbial composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizanur Md. Rahman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is part of a project aimed at verifying the potential of a specifically assessed wooded riparian zone in removing excess of combined nitrogen from the Zero river flow for the reduction of nutrient input into Venice Lagoon. Specific objectives were pursued to determine seasonal fluctuations of the microbial populations from the input water to a drainage ditch, conveying back the flux into the river after passing through the soil of the wooded riparian strip. The bacterial communities were determined by combined approaches involving cultivation, microscopic methods and DNA based techniques to determine both culturable and total microbial community in water. The results indicate that the size of the bacterial population, including the culturable fraction, increases from the river to the drainage ditch especially on the warm season. The multiple approach here adopted enabled also to demonstrate that the special condition created in the buffer strip supports the development and the metabolism of the microbial community. The nature of the bacterial population, in terms of phylotypes distribution, was investigated by 16S rDNA analysis indicating that the most represented genera belong to Gamma-proteobacteria, which is known to include an exceeding number of important pathogens. In spring, the effect of the buffer strip seems to significantly reduce such a sub-population. The changes observed for the total bacterial community composition become much evident in summer, as revealed by both denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis cluster analysis and by the diversity index calculation. The hydraulic management coupled to the suspension of farming practices and the development of the woody and herbaceous vegetation resulted in a condition suitable for the containment of undesired microbiota (mainly during the spring season while continuing to support denitrification activity (especially throughout the summer as verified by the total nitrogen

  2. Ammonium Nitrogen Removal from Urea Fertilizer Plant Wastewater via Struvite Crystal Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machdar, I.; Depari, S. D.; Ulfa, R.; Muhammad, S.; Hisbullah, A. B.; Safrul, W.

    2018-05-01

    Elimination of ammonium concentration from urea fertilizer plant wastewater through struvite crystal (NH4MgPO4.6H2O) formation by adding MgCl2, KH2PO4, and KOH were studied. This method of elimination has two benefits, namely, reducing ammonium nitrogen content in the wastewater, as well as production of a valuable material (struvite crystal). Struvite is known as a slow-release fertilizer and less soluble. This report presents the ammonium removal efficiencies during struvite formation. The growth of struvite production under different molar ratios of Mg2+:NH4 +:PO4 3- and solution pH is also discussed. To find the efficiencies and measure the growth rates, lab-scale experiments were conducted in a batch crystallizer-reactor. SEM, XRD, and FTIR observation were also applied to investigate the characteristics of struvite. The reactant molar ratios of Mg2+:NH4 +:PO4 3- of 1.2:1:1, 1:1:1.2, and 1:1:1 were evaluated. Each of the molar ratios was treated at the solution pH of 8, 9, and 10. It was found that, the highest ammonium removal efficiency was 94.7% at the molar ratio of 1.2:1:1 and pH of 9. Primarily, the growth rate of struvite formation complied with a first-order kinetic model. The rate constants (k1) were calculated to be 2.6, 4.3, and 5.0 h-1 for solution pH of 8, 9, and 10, respectively. The findings of the study provide suggestion for an alternative sustainable recovery of ammonium nitrogen content in a urea fertilizer plant effluent.

  3. Effect of salinity on N₂O production during shortcut biological nitrogen removal from landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mu; Liu, Tiantian; Peng, Yongzhen; Wang, Shuying; Xiao, Han

    2014-05-01

    Three identical SBR adapted to different salinity were applied to investigate the characteristics of the treatment performance and N2O production [Formula: see text] during shortcut biological nitrogen removal from landfill leachate under various operating parameters. Increase of salinity might deteriorate the activity of the microorganisms leading to the increase of [Formula: see text] , however, the system could be gradually adapted to the inhibition and alleviate the detrimental effect to some extent. The system acclimated to high salinity provided better performance under high salinity shock and a lower possibility of [Formula: see text] , while a sudden decrease in salinity can cause a temporary increase in [Formula: see text] . High salinity strengthened the influence of high ammonia nitrogen concentration and low DO concentration on [Formula: see text] while the strengthening effect was unconspicuous at high DO concentration. The anoxic phase did not produce a significant amount of N2O even at the lowest C/N ratio of 0.5 and was less susceptible to salinity. Characterization of the biomass composition using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis confirmed that the relative proportion of Nitrosomonas europaea was increased with the increase of the salinity, which may be an important factor for the strengthening effect of salinity on [Formula: see text] . Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effect of HLRs on Nitrogen Removal by Using a Pilot-scale Aerated Steel Slag System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdan R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Discharge from domestic wastewater treatment plant amongst the main sources of nitrogen pollution in the environment. However, to remove nitrogen conventionally in domestic wastewater require high cost and complex chemical treatment method. Vertical flow aerated rock filter emerged as one of attractive alternative wastewater treatment method due to simplicity and compactness of the system. However, the application is yet to be developed in warm climate countries in particular Malaysia. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of hydraulic loading rate (HLR to the performance of a pilot-scale Vertical Flow Aerated Rock Filter (VFARF in removing nitrogen from domestic wastewater using pilot-scale VFARF systems with steel slag as the filter media. Furthermore, this study has been designed to focus on the effects of two HLRs; 2.72 and 1.04 m3/m3.day. Influent and effluent of the filter systems were monitored biweekly basis for 11 weeks and analyzed for selected parameters. Results from this study shows that the VFARF with HLR 1.04 m3/m3.day has performed better in terms of removal ammonium-nitrogen and TKN as the system able to remove 90.4 ± 6.9%, 86.2 ± 10.7%, whilst the VFARF with 2.72 m3/m3.day remove 87.4 ± 9.9%, 80 ± 11.7%, respectively. From the observation, it can be concluded that nitrogen removal does affect by HLR as the removal in lower HLR system was higher due to high DO level in the VFARF system with 1.04 m3/m3.day which range from 4.5 to 5.1 mg/L whilst the DO level was slightly lower in the VFARF system with 2.72 m3/m3.day in the range of 3.7 to 4.5 mg/L.

  5. Upgrading of the symbiosis of Nitrosomanas and anammox bacteria in a novel single-stage partial nitritation-anammox system: Nitrogen removal potential and Microbial characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Niu, Qigui; Wang, Shaopo; Ji, Jiayuan; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min; Hojo, Toshimasa; Li, Yu-You

    2017-11-01

    A novel single-stage partial nitritation-anammox process equipped with porous functional suspended carriers was developed at 25°C in a CSTR by controlling dissolved oxygen <0.3mg/L. The nitrogen removal performance was almost unchanged over a nitrogen loading rate ranging from 0.5 to 2.5kgNH 4 + -N/m 3 /d with a high nitrogen removal efficiency of 81.1%. The specific activity of AOB and anammox bacteria was of 3.00g-N/g-MLVSS/d (the suspended sludge), 3.56g-N/g-MLVSS/d (the biofilm sludge), respectively. The results of pyrosequencing revealed that Nitrosomonas (5.66%) and Candidatus_Kuenenia (4.95%) were symbiotic in carriers while Nitrosomonas (40.70%) was predominant in the suspended flocs. Besides, two specific types of heterotrophic filamentous bacteria in the suspended flocs (Haliscomenobacter) and the functional carrier biofilm (Longilinea) were shown to confer structural integrity to the aggregates. The novel single-stage partial nitritation-anammox process equipped with functional suspended carriers was shown to have good potential for the nitrogen-rich wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Removal of chlortetracycline from spiked municipal wastewater using a photoelectrocatalytic process operated under sunlight irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daghrir, Rimeh, E-mail: rimeh.daghrir@ete.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement, 490 rue de la Couronne, Québec, Qc G1K 9A9 (Canada); Drogui, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.drogui@ete.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement, 490 rue de la Couronne, Québec, Qc G1K 9A9 (Canada); Delegan, Nazar, E-mail: delegan@emt.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, INRS-Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, 1650 Blvd. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Qc J3X 1S2 (Canada); El Khakani, My Ali, E-mail: elkhakani@emt.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, INRS-Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, 1650 Blvd. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Qc J3X 1S2 (Canada)

    2014-01-01

    The degradation of chlortetracycline in synthetic solution and in municipal effluent was investigated using a photoelectrocatalytic oxidation process under visible irradiation. The N-doped TiO{sub 2} used as photoanode with 3.4 at.% of nitrogen content was prepared by means of a radiofrequency magnetron sputtering (RF-MS) process. Under visible irradiation, higher photoelectrocatalytic removal efficiency of CTC was recorded using N-doped TiO{sub 2} compared to the conventional electrochemical oxidation, direct photolysis and photocatalysis processes. The photoelectrocatalytic process operated at 0.6 A of current intensity during 180 min of treatment time promotes the degradation of 99.1 ± 0.1% of CTC. Under these conditions, removal rates of 85.4 ± 3.6%, 87.4 ± 3.1% and 55.7 ± 2.9% of TOC, TN and NH{sub 4}{sup +} have been recorded. During the treatment, CTC was mainly transformed into CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The process was also found to be effective in removing indicator of pathogens such as fecal coliform (log-inactivation was higher than 1.2 units). - Highlights: •PECO process is a feasible technology for the treatment of MWW contaminated by CTC. •99.1% ± 0.1% of CTC was degraded by PECO using N-doped TiO{sub 2}. •85.4% ± 3.6% of TOC removal and 97.5% ± 1.2% of COD removal were achieved. •87.4% ± 3.1% of TN removal and 55.7% ± 2.9% of NH{sub 4}{sup +} removal were recorded. •More than 94% of fecal coliform was removed (abatement > 1.2-log units)

  7. Autotrophic nitrogen removal from low strength waste water at low temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Wang, Y.; Kampman, C.; Zeeman, G.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2012-01-01

    Direct anaerobic treatment of municipal waste waters allows for energy recovery in the form of biogas. A further decrease in the energy requirement for waste water treatment can be achieved by removing the ammonium in the anaerobic effluent with an autotrophic process, such as anammox. Until now,

  8. Removal of sulfur from process streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brignac, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    A process wherein water is added to a non-reactive gas stream, preferably a hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gas stream, sufficient to raise the water level thereof to from about 0.2 percent to about 50 percent, based on the total volume of the process gas stream, and the said moist gas stream is contacted, at elevated temperature, with a particulate mass of a sulfur-bearing metal alumina spinel characterized by the formula MAl 2 O 4 , wherein M is chromium, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, cadmium, mercury, or zinc to desorb sulfur thereon. In the sulfur sorption cycle, due to the simultaneous adsorption of water and sulfur, the useful life of the metal alumina spinel for sulfur adsorption can be extended, and the sorbent made more easily regenerable after contact with a sulfur-bearing gas stream, notably sulfur-bearing wet hydrogen or wet hydrogen-rich gas streams

  9. A system for removing both oxygen and nitrogen from a rare gas-hydrocarbon mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkman, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    A study has been made how to remove nitrogen from a mixture of a rare gas and a hydrocarbon in addition to the removal of oxygen, H 2 O and gaseous oxides. The purpose was to find a simple method for the purification of drift-chamber gases in a recirculation system. Such a method would reduce the operating costs of the large detectors presently constructed for LEP. A promising technique has been developed. First results of a chemical reactor using the novel technique are presented. The N 2 content of Ar/air mixtures containing up to 28% air could be reduced to a level of 20 ppm at a flow rate of 0.11 m 3 /h (200 ppm at 1.0 m 3 /h); and the O 2 content to 30 and 300 ppm respectively. Water and gaseous oxides concentrations were always below 5 ppm. Some of the practical problems still to be solved are discussed and suggestions are given for further development and applications. The method can in principle be of more general use. (orig.)

  10. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal coupled with carbohydrate production by five microalgae cultures cultivated in biogas slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fen; Wang, Zhi; Zhouyang, Siyu; Li, Heng; Xie, Youping; Wang, Yuanpeng; Zheng, Yanmei; Li, Qingbiao

    2016-12-01

    In this study, five microalgae strains were cultured for their ability to survive in biogas slurry, remove nitrogen resources and accumulate carbohydrates. It was proved that five microalgae strains adapted in biogas slurry well without ammonia inhibition. Among them, Chlorella vulgaris ESP-6 showed the best performance on carbohydrate accumulation, giving the highest carbohydrate content of 61.5% in biogas slurry and the highest ammonia removal efficiency and rate of 96.3% and 91.7mg/L/d respectively in biogas slurry with phosphorus and magnesium added. Additionally, the absence of phosphorus and magnesium that can be adverse for biomass accumulation resulted in earlier timing of carbohydrate accumulation and magnesium was firstly recognized and proved as the influence factor for carbohydrate accumulation. Microalgae that cultured in biogas slurry accumulated more carbohydrate in cell, making biogas slurry more suitable medium for the improvement of carbohydrate content, thus can be regarded as a new strategy to accumulate carbohydrate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Growing Chlorella sp. on meat processing wastewater for nutrient removal and biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qian; Zhou, Wenguang; Min, Min; Ma, Xiaochen; Chandra, Ceria; Doan, Yen T T; Ma, Yiwei; Zheng, Hongli; Cheng, Sibo; Griffith, Richard; Chen, Paul; Chen, Chi; Urriola, Pedro E; Shurson, Gerald C; Gislerød, Hans R; Ruan, Roger

    2015-12-01

    In this work, Chlorella sp. (UM6151) was selected to treat meat processing wastewater for nutrient removal and biomass production. To balance the nutrient profile and improve biomass yield at low cost, an innovative algae cultivation model based on wastewater mixing was developed. The result showed that biomass yield (0.675-1.538 g/L) of algae grown on mixed wastewater was much higher than that on individual wastewater and artificial medium. Wastewater mixing eased the bottleneck for algae growth and contributed to the improved biomass yield. Furthermore, in mixed wastewater with sufficient nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies (68.75-90.38%) and total nitrogen removal efficiencies (30.06-50.94%) were improved. Wastewater mixing also promoted the synthesis of protein in algal cells. Protein content of algae growing on mixed wastewater reached 60.87-68.65%, which is much higher than that of traditional protein source. Algae cultivation model based on wastewater mixing is an efficient and economical way to improve biomass yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Understanding the contribution of biofilm in an integrated fixed-film-activated sludge system (IFAS) designed for nitrogen removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, P; Choubert, J M; Canler, J P; Petrimaux, O; Buffiere, P; Lessard, P

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to improve knowledge on the integrated fixed-film-activated sludge (IFAS) system designed for nitrogen removal. Biofilm growth and its contribution to nitrification were monitored under various operating conditions in a semi-industrial pilot-scale plant. Nitrification rates were observed in biofilms developed on free-floating media and in activated sludge operated under a low sludge retention time (4 days) and at an ammonia loading rate of 45-70 gNH4-N/kgMLVSS/d. Operational conditions, i.e. oxygen concentration, redox potential, suspended solids concentration, ammonium and nitrates, were monitored continuously in the reactors. High removal efficiencies were observed for carbon and ammonium at high-loading rate. The contribution of biofilm to nitrification was determined as 40-70% of total NOx-N production under the operating conditions tested. Optimal conditions to optimize process compacity were determined. The tested configuration responds especially well to winter and summer nitrification conditions. These results help provide a deeper understanding of how autotrophic biomass evolves through environmental and operational conditions in IFAS systems.

  13. Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an overview of the nitrogen chemical market as of July 2013, including the production of ammonia compounds. Industrial uses for ammonia include fertilizers, explosives, and plastics. Other topics include industrial capacity of U.S. ammonia producers CF Industries Holdings Inc., Koch Nitrogen Co., PCS Nitrogen, Inc., and Agrium Inc., the impact of natural gas prices on the nitrogen industry, and demand for corn crops for ethanol production.

  14. 454-Pyrosequencing analysis of bacterial communities from autotrophic nitrogen removal bioreactors utilizing universal primers : Effect of annealing temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Martinez, A.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, A.; Rodelas, B.; Abbas, B.A.; Martinez-Toledo, M.V.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Osorio, F.; Gonzalez-Lopez, J.

    2015-01-01

    Identification of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria by molecular tools aimed at the evaluation of bacterial diversity in autotrophic nitrogen removal systems is limited by the difficulty to design universal primers for the Bacteria domain able to amplify the anammox 16S

  15. Nitrogen removal in a single-chamber microbial fuel cell with nitrifying biofilm enriched at the air cathode

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Hengjing; Saito, Tomonori; Regan, John M.

    2012-01-01

    biofilm MFCs had lower Coulombic efficiencies (up to 27%) than the control reactor (up to 36%). The maximum total nitrogen removal efficiency reached 93.9% for MFCs with the DEA binder. The DEA binder accelerated nitrifier biofilm enrichment on the cathode

  16. Enhanced performance of denitrifying sulfide removal process under micro-aerobic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan; Ren, Nanqi; Wang, Aijie; Liu, Lihong; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2010-07-15

    The denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) process with bio-granules comprising both heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrifiers can simultaneously convert nitrate, sulfide and acetate into di-nitrogen gas, elementary sulfur and carbon dioxide, respectively, at high loading rates. This study determines the reaction rate of sulfide oxidized into sulfur, as well as the reduction of nitrate to nitrite, would be enhanced under a micro-aerobic condition. The presence of limited oxygen mitigated the inhibition effects of sulfide on denitrifier activities, and enhanced the performance of DSR granules. The advantages and disadvantages of applying the micro-aerobic condition to the DSR process are discussed. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhanced performance of denitrifying sulfide removal process under micro-aerobic condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Chuan; Ren Nanqi; Wang Aijie; Liu Lihong; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2010-01-01

    The denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) process with bio-granules comprising both heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrifiers can simultaneously convert nitrate, sulfide and acetate into di-nitrogen gas, elementary sulfur and carbon dioxide, respectively, at high loading rates. This study determines the reaction rate of sulfide oxidized into sulfur, as well as the reduction of nitrate to nitrite, would be enhanced under a micro-aerobic condition. The presence of limited oxygen mitigated the inhibition effects of sulfide on denitrifier activities, and enhanced the performance of DSR granules. The advantages and disadvantages of applying the micro-aerobic condition to the DSR process are discussed.

  18. Using delta15N of Chironomidae as an index of nitrogen sources and processing within watersheds as part of EPA’s National Aquatic Resource Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) removal in watersheds is an important regulating ecosystem service that can help reduce N pollution in the nation’s waterways. However, processes that remove N such as denitrification are generally determined at point locations. Measures that integrate N proc...

  19. Image processing on the image with pixel noise bits removed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Keh-Shih; Wu, Christine

    1992-06-01

    Our previous studies used statistical methods to assess the noise level in digital images of various radiological modalities. We separated the pixel data into signal bits and noise bits and demonstrated visually that the removal of the noise bits does not affect the image quality. In this paper we apply image enhancement techniques on noise-bits-removed images and demonstrate that the removal of noise bits has no effect on the image property. The image processing techniques used are gray-level look up table transformation, Sobel edge detector, and 3-D surface display. Preliminary results show no noticeable difference between original image and noise bits removed image using look up table operation and Sobel edge enhancement. There is a slight enhancement of the slicing artifact in the 3-D surface display of the noise bits removed image.

  20. Enhanced nitrogen removal from piggery wastewater with high NH4+ and low COD/TN ratio in a novel upflow microaerobic biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jia; Li, Jiuling; Li, Jianzheng; Antwi, Philip; Deng, Kaiwen; Nan, Jun; Xu, Pianpian

    2018-02-01

    To enhance nutrient removal more cost-efficiently in microaerobic process treating piggery wastewater characterized by high ammonium (NH 4 + -N) and low chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total nitrogen (TN) ratio, a novel upflow microaerobic biofilm reactor (UMBR) was constructed and the efficiency in nutrient removal was evaluated with various influent COD/TN ratios and reflux ratios. The results showed that the biofilm on the carriers had increased the biomass in the UMBR and enhanced the enrichment of slow-growth-rate bacteria such as nitrifiers, denitrifiers and anammox bacteria. The packed bed allowed the microaerobic biofilm process perform well at a low reflux ratio of 35 with a NH 4 + -N and TN removal as high as 93.1% and 89.9%, respectively. Compared with the previously developed upflow microaerobic sludge reactor, the UMBR had not changed the dominant anammox approach to nitrogen removal, but was more cost-efficiently in treating organic wastewater with high NH 4 + -N and low COD/TN ratio. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Nitrogen and Nutrient Removal on Nitrate Accumulation and Growth Characteristics of Spinach (Spinacia oleraceae L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammadsadegh sadeghi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spinach is a leafy vegetable which is rich source of vitamins, antioxidant compounds (e.g. flavonoids, acid ascorbic and essential elements (e.g. Fe, and Se. Spinach is capable of accumulating large amounts of nitrogen in the form of nitrate in shoot tissues which is undesirablein the human diet. The concentration of nitrate in plants is affected by species, fertilizer use, and growing conditions. Green leafy vegetables such as spinach, generally contain higher levels of nitrate than other foods. Nitrate ofplant tissueslevels are clearly related to both form and concentration of N fertilizers applied. Nitrogen fertilizers have been known as the major factors that influence nitrate content in vegetables. Ideally, the N fertility level must be managed to produce optimum crop yield without leading to excessive accumulation of nitrate in the harvested tissues.Usinghigh amounts ofN fertilizer produced higher yield with higher nitrate inleaves but the highest amount of nitrate was accumulated in the petioles.There are several plant species that may accumulate nitrate, including the Brassica plants, green cereal grains (barley, wheat, rye and maize, sorghum and Sudan grasses, corn, beets, rape, docks, sweet clover and nightshades. The presence of nitrate in vegetables, as in water and generally in other foods, is a serious threat to man’s health. Nitrate is relatively non-toxic, but approximately 5% of all ingested nitrate is converted in saliva and the gastrointestinal tract to the more toxic nitrite. This study was aimed to investigate theeffects of nitrogen and nutrient removal on nitrate accumulation and growth characteristics of spinach (Spinacia oleraceae L.. Materials and Methods: A pot hydroponic experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of different levels of nitrogen and nutrient removal (one week before harvest on nitrate accumulation and growth characters. A factorial experiment based on completely randomized design

  2. Nitrogen narcosis and emotional processing during compressed air breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfdahl, Per; Andersson, Daniel; Bennett, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies on nitrogen narcosis have focused on how it affects behavior, performance, and cognitive function. However, little is known about the effects of nitrogen narcosis on the emotional processing of external stimuli. We presented 20 volunteers with images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) and categorized as unpleasant, neutral, or pleasant, while sitting in a hyperbaric chamber at the surface (101,3kPa) and at 39 m equivalent depth (496.4 kPa). The participants rated the images along three affective dimensions: valence (intrinsic attractiveness or aversiveness of a stimuli), arousal, and dominance. In the valence dimension there was no significant effect of increased pressure or interaction between increased pressure and image category. There was a significant interaction between image category and the pressure at which the images were viewed in the arousal dimension. The mean arousal rating score for unpleasant stimuli was 0.5 point (on a 9-point scale) lower at hyperbaric conditions and equal arousal rating score for neutral stimuli in general. The absence of any effect of pressure in the valence dimension suggests that divers have no impairment in their ability to determine the pleasantness or unpleasantness of different stimuli. Furthermore, this study suggests that the effects of nitrogen narcosis on the emotional processing of external stimuli are primarily evident in the arousal dimension. Although differences in arousal ratings were relatively small in magnitude, even a small alteration in emotional response to external stimuli might be important in the context of deep diving.

  3. Electro-coagulation-flotation process for algae removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Shanshan; Yang Jixian; Tian Jiayu; Ma Fang; Tu Gang; Du Maoan

    2010-01-01

    Algae in surface water have been a long-term issue all over the world, due to their adverse influence on drinking water treatment process as well as drinking water quality. The algae removal by electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF) technology was investigated in this paper. The results indicated that aluminum was an excellent electrode material for algae removal as compared with iron. The optimal parameters determined were: current density = 1 mA/cm 2 , pH = 4-7, water temperature = 18-36 deg. C, algae density = 0.55 x 10 9 -1.55 x 10 9 cells/L. Under the optimal conditions, 100% of algae removal was achieved with the energy consumption as low as 0.4 kWh/m 3 . The ECF performed well in acid and neutral conditions. At low initial pH of 4-7, the cell density of algae was effectively removed in the ECF, mainly through the charge neutralization mechanism; while the algae removal worsened when the pH increased (7-10), and the main mechanism shifted to sweeping flocculation and enmeshment. The mechanisms for algae removal at different pH were also confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Furthermore, initial cell density and water temperature could also influence the algae removal. Overall, the results indicated that the ECF technology was effective for algae removal, from both the technical and economical points of view.

  4. Humic acid removal from aqueous solutions by peroxielectrocoagulation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Yazdanbakhsh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Natural organic matter is the cause of many problems associated with water treatment such as the presence of disinfection by-products (DBPs and membrane fouling during water filtration. In this study, the performance of the peroxi-electrocoagulation process (PEP was investigated for the removal of humic acids (HAs from aqueous solutions. Methods: PEP was carried out for the removal of HA using a plexiglas reactor with a volume of 2 L and fitted with iron electrodes and a direct current supply (DC. Samples were taken at various amounts of pH (2-4, current density (1 and 2A/cm2, hydrogen peroxide (50-150 mg/L and reaction time (5-20 minutes and then filtered to remove sludge formed during reaction. Finally, the HA concentration was measured by UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV254. Results: Results indicated that increasing the concentration of H2O2 from 50 to 150 mg/L increased HA removal efficiency from 83% to 94.5%. The highest removal efficiency was observed at pH 3.0; by increasing the pH to the alkaline range, the efficiency of the process was reduced. It was found that HA removal efficiency was high in current density 1A/cm2. Increasing current density up to 1 A cm-2 caused a decrease in removal efficiency. Results of this study showed that under the optimum operating range for the process ([current density] = 1A/cm2, [hydrogen peroxide concentration] = 150 mg/L, [reaction time]= 20 minutes and [pH]= 3.0, HA removal efficiency reached 98%. Conclusion: It can be concluded that PEP has the potential to be utilized for cost-effective removal of HA from aqueous solutions.

  5. Fate of dissolved organic nitrogen in two stage trickling filter process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Halis; Kasi, Murthy; Wadhawan, Tanush; Bye, Christopher; Blonigen, Mark; Khan, Eakalak

    2012-10-15

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) represents a significant portion of nitrogen in the final effluent of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Biodegradable portion of DON (BDON) can support algal growth and/or consume dissolved oxygen in the receiving waters. The fate of DON and BDON has not been studied for trickling filter WWTPs. DON and BDON data were collected along the treatment train of a WWTP with a two-stage trickling filter process. DON concentrations in the influent and effluent were 27% and 14% of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN). The plant removed about 62% and 72% of the influent DON and BDON mainly by the trickling filters. The final effluent BDON values averaged 1.8 mg/L. BDON was found to be between 51% and 69% of the DON in raw wastewater and after various treatment units. The fate of DON and BDON through the two-stage trickling filter treatment plant was modeled. The BioWin v3.1 model was successfully applied to simulate ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, TDN, DON and BDON concentrations along the treatment train. The maximum growth rates for ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria, and AOB half saturation constant influenced ammonia and nitrate output results. Hydrolysis and ammonification rates influenced all of the nitrogen species in the model output, including BDON. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Modelling and simulation of the phased feeding process with biological elimination of nitrogen and phosphorus; Modelizacion y simulacion del proceso de alimentacion escalonada con eliminacion biologica de nitrogeno y fosforo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J. C.; Jorda, J. R.; Cortacans, J. A. [Infilco Espanola, S. A. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    It is set forth experimental results on an Alternative Phase Step Feed Pilot Plant (Nitrogen and Phosphorus removal) placed in San Agustin de Guadalix (Madrid CYII) WWTP. Results on IAWQ Model N. 2 calibration and evaluation of its predictive capacity are also included. Finally, it is introduced the Alphasin, Process Simulator that INFILCO uses as a design and assessment tool on Alpha Process Plants with organic matter removal exclusively or incorporating nutrients (Nitrogen and/or Phosphorus) removal. (Author) 8 refs.

  7. Process for the reduction of nitrogen oxides in an effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epperly, W.R.; Sullivan, J.C.; Sprague, B.N.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes a process for the reduction of the concentration of nitrogen oxides in the effluent from the combustion of a carbonaceous fuel. The process comprises introducing a treatment agent which comprises a composition selected from the group consisting of NH/sub 4/-lignosulfonate, calcium lignosulfonate, 2-furoic acid, 1,3 dioxolane, tetrahydrofuran, furfurylamine, furfurylalcohol, gluconic acid, citric acid, n-butyl acetate, 1,3 butylene glycol, methylal, tetrahydrofuryl alcohol, furan, fish oil, coumalic acid, furfuryl acetate, tetrahydrofuran 2,3,4,5-tetracarboxylic acid, tetrahydrofurylamine, furylacrylic acid, tetrahydropyran, 2,5-furandimethanol, mannitol, hexamethylenediamine, barbituric acid, acetic anhydride, oxalic acid, mucic acid and d-galactose.

  8. Hydrogeology and groundwater quality of the glaciated valleys of Bradford, Tioga, and Potter Counties, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John H.; Taylor, Larry E.; Low, Dennis J.

    1998-01-01

    The most important sources of groundwater in Bradford, Tioga, and Potter Counties are the stratified-drift aquifers. Saturated sand and gravel primarily of outwash origin forms extensive unconfined aquifers in the valleys. Outwash is underlain in most major valleys by silt, clay, and very fine sand of lacustrine origin that comprise extensive confining units. The lacustrine confining units locally exceed 100 feet in thickness. Confined aquifers of ice-contact sand and gravel are buried locally beneath the lacustrine deposits. Bedrock and till are the basal confining units of the stratifies-drift aquifer systems. Recharge to the stratified-drift aquifers if by direct infiltration of precipitation, tributary-stream infiltration, infiltration of unchanneled runoff at the valley walls, and groundwater inflow from the bedrock and till uplands. Valley areas underlain by superficial sand and gravel contribute about 1 million gallons per day per square mile of water from precipitation to the aquifers. Tributary streams provide recharge of nearly 590 gallons per day per foot of stream reach. Water is added at the rate of 1 million gallons per day per square mile of bordering uplands not drained by tributary streams to the stratified-drift aquifers from unchanneled runoff and groundwater inflow. Induced infiltration can be a major source of recharge to well fields completed in unconfined stratified-drift aquifers that are in good hydraulic connection with surface water. The well fields of an industrial site in North Towanda, a public-water supplier at Tioga Point, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at Asaph accounted for 75 percent of the 10.8 million gallons per day pf groundwater withdrawn by public suppliers and other selected users in 1985. The well fields tap stratified-drift aquifers that are substantially recharged by induced infiltration or tributary-stream infiltration. Specific-capacity data from 95 wells indicate that most wells completed in stratified

  9. Oblique map showing maximum extent of 20,000-year-old (Tioga) glaciers, Yosemite National Park, central Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpha, T.R.; Wahrhaftig, Clyde; Huber, N.K.

    1987-01-01

    This map shows the alpine ice field and associated valley glaciers at their maximum extent during the Tioga glaciation. The Tioga glaciation, which peaked about 15,000-20,OOO years ago, was the last major glaciation in the Sierra Nevada. The Tuolumne ice field fed not only the trunk glacier that moved down the Tuolumne River canyon through the present-day Hetch Hetchy Reservoir, but it also overflowed major ridge crests into many adjoining drainage systems. Some of the ice flowed over low passes to augment the flows moving from the Merced basin down through little Yosemite Valley. Tuolumne ice flowed southwest down the Tuolumne River into the Tenaya Lake basin and then down Tenaya Canyon to join the Merced glacier in Yosemite Valley. During the Tioga glaciation, the glacier in Yosemite Valley reached only as far as Bridalveil Meadow, although during a much earlier glaciation, a glacier extended about 10 miles farther down the Merced River to the vicinity of El Portal. Ice of the Tioga glaciation also flowed eastward from the summit region to cascade down the canyons that cut into the eastern escarpment of the Sierra Nevada [see errata, below]. Southeast of the present-day Yosemite Park, glaciers formed in the Mount Lyell region flowed east onto the Mono lowland and southeast and south down the Middle and North Forks of the San Joaquin River. In the southern part of the park, glaciers nearly reached to the present-day site of Wawona along the South Fork of the Merced River. At the time of the maximum extent of the Tioga glaciation, Lake Russell (Pleistocene Mono Lake) had a surface elevation of 6,800 feet, 425 feet higher than the 1980 elevation and 400 feet lower than its maximum level at the end of the Tioga glaciation. Only a few volcanic domes of the Mono Craters existed at the time of the Tioga glaciation. The distribution of vegetation, as suggested by the green overprint, is based on our interpretation. Forests were restricted to lower elevations than present

  10. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Chang Y.; Boysen, John E.; Branthaver, Jan F.

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  11. Dynamic modeling of nitrogen losses in river networks unravels the coupled effects of hydrological and biogeochemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Richard B.; Böhlke, John Karl; Boyer, Elizabeth W.; David, Mark B.; Harvey, Judson W.; Mulholland, Patrick J.; Seitzinger, Sybil P.; Tobias, Craig R.; Tonitto, Christina; Wollheim, Wilfred M.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of lotic systems as sinks for nitrogen inputs is well recognized. A fraction of nitrogen in streamflow is removed to the atmosphere via denitrification with the remainder exported in streamflow as nitrogen loads. At the watershed scale, there is a keen interest in understanding the factors that control the fate of nitrogen throughout the stream channel network, with particular attention to the processes that deliver large nitrogen loads to sensitive coastal ecosystems. We use a dynamic stream transport model to assess biogeochemical (nitrate loadings, concentration, temperature) and hydrological (discharge, depth, velocity) effects on reach-scale denitrification and nitrate removal in the river networks of two watersheds having widely differing levels of nitrate enrichment but nearly identical discharges. Stream denitrification is estimated by regression as a nonlinear function of nitrate concentration, streamflow, and temperature, using more than 300 published measurements from a variety of US streams. These relations are used in the stream transport model to characterize nitrate dynamics related to denitrification at a monthly time scale in the stream reaches of the two watersheds. Results indicate that the nitrate removal efficiency of streams, as measured by the percentage of the stream nitrate flux removed via denitrification per unit length of channel, is appreciably reduced during months with high discharge and nitrate flux and increases during months of low-discharge and flux. Biogeochemical factors, including land use, nitrate inputs, and stream concentrations, are a major control on reach-scale denitrification, evidenced by the disproportionately lower nitrate removal efficiency in streams of the highly nitrate-enriched watershed as compared with that in similarly sized streams in the less nitrate-enriched watershed. Sensitivity analyses reveal that these important biogeochemical factors and physical hydrological factors contribute nearly

  12. The capability of estuarine sediments to remove nitrogen: implications for drinking water resource in Yangtze Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Wang, Dongqi; Deng, Huanguang; Li, Yangjie; Chang, Siqi; Wu, Zhanlei; Yu, Lin; Hu, Yujie; Yu, Zhongjie; Chen, Zhenlou

    2014-09-01

    Water in the Yangtze Estuary is fresh most of the year because of the large discharge of Yangtze River. The Qingcaosha Reservoir built on the Changxing Island in the Yangtze Estuary is an estuarine reservoir for drinking water. Denitrification rate in the top 10 cm sediment of the intertidal marshes and bare mudflat of Yangtze Estuarine islands was measured by the acetylene inhibition method. Annual denitrification rate in the top 10 cm of sediment was 23.1 μmol m(-2) h(-1) in marshes (ranged from 7.5 to 42.1 μmol m(-2) h(-1)) and 15.1 μmol m(-2) h(-1) at the mudflat (ranged from 6.6 to 26.5 μmol m(-2) h(-1)). Annual average denitrification rate is higher at mashes than at mudflat, but without a significant difference (p = 0.084, paired t test.). Taking into account the vegetation and water area of the reservoir, a total 1.42 × 10(8) g N could be converted into nitrogen gas (N2) annually by the sediment, which is 97.7 % of the dissolved inorganic nitrogen input through precipitation. Denitrification in reservoir sediment can control the bioavailable nitrogen level of the water body. At the Yangtze estuary, denitrification primarily took place in the top 4 cm of sediment, and there was no significant spatial or temporal variation of denitrification during the year at the marshes and mudflat, which led to no single factor determining the denitrification process but the combined effects of the environmental factors, hydrologic condition, and wetland vegetation.

  13. Application of KWU antimony removal process at Gentilly-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dundar, Y.; Odar, S.; Streit, K.; Allsop, H.; Guzonas, D.

    1996-09-01

    This paper describes the work performed to adapt the KWU PWR antimony removal process to CANDU plant conditions, and the application of the process at the Hydro Quebec unit, Gentilly-2. The results of the application will be presented and the 'lessons learned' will be discussed in detail. (author)

  14. Observation of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removals and Accumulations in Surface Flow Constructed Wetland (SFCW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suntud Sirianuntapiboon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The tropical emergent plant species; Cyperus involucratus, Canna siamensis, Heliconia sp., Hymenocallis littoralis, Typha augustifolia and Thalia dealbata were used to observe nutrients (total phosphorus: TP and total nitrogen: TN removal efficiencies of surface flow constructed wetland (SFCW. The system was operated at different hydraulic retention time (HRT of 1, 3 and 5 days and the average atmospheric temperature of 29.1 ± 4.9oC. The seafood industrial wastewater was employed as the influent. The high biomass production plant species; Cyperus involucratus, Typha augustifolia and Thalia dealbata could generate the high oxidative environment. Amount of N and P accumulations in plant tissue were increased with the increase of plant biomass production. The system did not show any significantly different on N and P accumulations among the tested-emergent plant species. But the amount of accumulated-N and P were increased with the increase of HRT. N accumulations in plant tissue, effluent, sediment and media of the system with the tested-emergent plant species under HRT of 1-5 days were in the range of 2.17-43.80%, 7.91-27.75%, 19.62-36.86% and 14.39-31.88%, respectively. Also, P accumulations were 0.79-17.01%, 20.35-28.37%, 40.96-56.27% and 9.09-20.47%, respectively.

  15. Optimized biological nitrogen removal of high-strength ammonium wastewater by activated sludge modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelsalam Elawwad

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater containing high ammonium concentrations is produced from various industrial activities. In this study, the author used a complex activated sludge model, improved by utilizing BioWin© (EnviroSim, Hamilton, Canada simulation software, to gain understanding of the problem of instability in biological nitrogen removal (BNR. Specifically, the study focused on BNR in an industrial wastewater treatment plant that receives high-strength ammonium wastewater. Using the data obtained from a nine-day sampling campaign and routinely measured data, the model was successfully calibrated and validated, with modifications to the sensitive stoichiometric and kinetic parameters. Subsequently, the calibrated model was employed to study various operating conditions in order to optimize the BNR. These operating conditions include alkalinity addition, sludge retention time, and the COD/N ratio. The addition of a stripping step and modifications to the configuration of the aerators are suggested by the author to increase the COD/N ratio and therefore enhance denitrification. It was found that the calibrated model could successfully represent and optimize the treatment of the high-strength ammonium wastewater.

  16. Nitrogen removal in the bioreactor landfill system with intermittent aeration at the top of landfilled waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Ruo; Shen Dongsheng

    2006-01-01

    High ammonia concentration of recycled landfill leachate makes it very difficult to treat. In this work, a vertical aerobic/anoxic/anaerobic lab-scale bioreactor landfill system, which was constructed by intermittent aeration at the top of landfilled waste, as a bioreactor for in situ nitrogen removal was investigated during waste stabilization. Intermittent aeration at the top of landfilled waste might stimulate the growth of nitrifying bacteria and denitrifying bacteria in the top and middle layers of waste. The nitrifying bacteria population for the landfill bioreactor with intermittent aeration system reached between10 6 and 10 8 cells/dry g waste, although it decreased 2 orders of magnitude on day 30, due to the inhibitory effect of the acid environment and high organic matter in the landfilled waste. The denitrifying bacteria population increased by between 4 and 13 orders of magnitude compared with conventional anaerobic landfilled waste layers. Leachate NO 3 - -N concentration was very low in both two experimental landfill reactors. After 105 days operation, leachate NH 4 + -N and TN concentrations for the landfill reactor with intermittent aeration system dropped to 186 and 289 mg/l, respectively, while they were still kept above 1000 mg/l for the landfill reactor without intermittent aerobic system. In addition, there is an increase in the rate of waste stabilization as well as an increase of 12% in the total waste settlement for the landfill reactor with intermittent aeration system

  17. Anaerobic/oxic/anoxic granular sludge process as an effective nutrient removal process utilizing denitrifying polyphosphate-accumulating organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Naohiro; Kim, Juhyun; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Sudo, Ryuichi

    2006-07-01

    In a biological nutrient removal (BNR) process, the utilization of denitrifying polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (DNPAOs) has many advantages such as effective use of organic carbon substrates and low sludge production. As a suitable process for the utilization of DNPAOs in BNR, an anaerobic/oxic/anoxic granular sludge (AOAGS) process was proposed in this study. In spite of performing aeration for nitrifying bacteria, the AOAGS process can create anaerobic/anoxic conditions suitable for the cultivation of DNPAOs because anoxic zones exist inside the granular sludge in the oxic phase. Thus, DNPAOs can coexist with nitrifying bacteria in a single reactor. In addition, the usability of DNPAOs in the reactor can be improved by adding the anoxic phase after the oxic phase. These characteristics enable the AOAGS process to attain effective removal of both nitrogen and phosphorus. When acetate-based synthetic wastewater (COD: 600 mg/L, NH4-N: 60 mg/L, PO(4)-P: 10 mg/L) was supplied to a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor under the operation of anaerobic/oxic/anoxic cycles, granular sludge with a diameter of 500 microm was successfully formed within 1 month. Although the removal of both nitrogen and phosphorus was almost complete at the end of the oxic phase, a short anoxic period subsequent to the oxic phase was necessary for further removal of nitrogen and phosphorus. As a result, effluent concentrations of NH(4)-N, NO(x)-N and PO(4)-P were always lower than 1 mg/L. It was found that penetration depth of oxygen inside the granular sludge was approximately 100 microm by microsensor measurements. In addition, from the microbiological analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization, existence depth of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms was further than the maximum oxygen penetration depth. The water quality data, oxygen profiles and microbial community structure demonstrated that DNPAOs inside the granular sludge may be responsible for denitrification in the

  18. Nitrous oxide production by lithotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and implications for engineered nitrogen-removal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Kartik; Stein, Lisa Y; Klotz, Martin G; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2011-12-01

    Chemolithoautotrophic AOB (ammonia-oxidizing bacteria) form a crucial component in microbial nitrogen cycling in both natural and engineered systems. Under specific conditions, including transitions from anoxic to oxic conditions and/or excessive ammonia loading, and the presence of high nitrite (NO₂⁻) concentrations, these bacteria are also documented to produce nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N₂O) gases. Essentially, ammonia oxidation in the presence of non-limiting substrate concentrations (ammonia and O₂) is associated with N₂O production. An exceptional scenario that leads to such conditions is the periodical switch between anoxic and oxic conditions, which is rather common in engineered nitrogen-removal systems. In particular, the recovery from, rather than imposition of, anoxic conditions has been demonstrated to result in N₂O production. However, applied engineering perspectives, so far, have largely ignored the contribution of nitrification to N₂O emissions in greenhouse gas inventories from wastewater-treatment plants. Recent field-scale measurements have revealed that nitrification-related N₂O emissions are generally far higher than emissions assigned to heterotrophic denitrification. In the present paper, the metabolic pathways, which could potentially contribute to NO and N₂O production by AOB have been conceptually reconstructed under conditions especially relevant to engineered nitrogen-removal systems. Taken together, the reconstructed pathways, field- and laboratory-scale results suggest that engineering designs that achieve low effluent aqueous nitrogen concentrations also minimize gaseous nitrogen emissions.

  19. Controlling the COD removal of an A-stage pilot study with instrumentation and automatic process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark W; Elliott, Matt; DeArmond, Jon; Kinyua, Maureen; Wett, Bernhard; Murthy, Sudhir; Bott, Charles B

    2017-06-01

    The pursuit of fully autotrophic nitrogen removal via the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) pathway has led to an increased interest in carbon removal technologies, particularly the A-stage of the adsorption/bio-oxidation (A/B) process. The high-rate operation of the A-stage and lack of automatic process control often results in wide variations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal that can ultimately impact nitrogen removal in the downstream B-stage process. This study evaluated the use dissolved oxygen (DO) and mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) based automatic control strategies through the use of in situ on-line sensors in the A-stage of an A/B pilot study. The objective of using these control strategies was to reduce the variability of COD removal by the A-stage and thus the variability of the effluent C/N. The use of cascade DO control in the A-stage did not impact COD removal at the conditions tested in this study, likely because the bulk DO concentration (>0.5 mg/L) was maintained above the half saturation coefficient of heterotrophic organisms for DO. MLSS-based solids retention time (SRT) control, where MLSS was used as a surrogate for SRT, did not significantly reduce the effluent C/N variability but it was able to reduce COD removal variation in the A-stage by 90%.

  20. Bisphenol A Removal by Submerged Macrophytes and the Contribution of Epiphytic Microorganisms to the Removal Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guosen; Wang, Yu; Jiang, Jinhui; Yang, Shao

    2017-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a typical endocrine disruptor, has been found in global aquatic environments, causing great concern. The capabilities of five common submerged macrophytes to remove BPA from water and the contributions of epiphytic microorganisms were investigated. Macrophytes removed 62%-100% of total BPA (5 mg/L) over 12 days; much higher rates than that observed in the control (2%, F = 261.511, p = 0.000). Ceratophyllum demersum was the most efficient species. C. demersum samples from lakes with different water qualities showed no significant differences in BPA removal rates. Moreover, removal, inhibition or re-colonization of epiphytic microorganisms did not significantly change the BPA removal rates of C. demersum. Therefore, the contributions of epiphytic microorganisms to the BPA removal process were negligible. The rate of BPA accumulation in C. demersum was 0.1%, indicating that BPA was mainly biodegraded by the macrophyte. Hence, submerged macrophytes, rather than epiphytic microorganisms, substantially contribute to the biodegradation of BPA in water.

  1. Biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal in sequencing batch reactors: effects of cycle length, dissolved oxygen concentration and influent particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginige, Maneesha P; Kayaalp, Ahmet S; Cheng, Ka Yu; Wylie, Jason; Kaksonen, Anna H

    2013-01-01

    Removal of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) from municipal wastewaters is required to mitigate eutrophication of receiving water bodies. While most treatment plants achieve good N removal using influent carbon (C), the use of influent C to facilitate enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is poorly explored. A number of operational parameters can facilitate optimum use of influent C and this study investigated the effects of cycle length, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration during aerobic period and influent solids on biological P and N removal in sequencing batch reactors (SRBs) using municipal wastewaters. Increasing cycle length from 3 to 6 h increased P removal efficiency, which was attributed to larger portion of N being removed via nitrite pathway and more biodegradable organic C becoming available for EBPR. Further increasing cycle length from 6 to 8 h decreased P removal efficiencies as the demand for biodegradable organic C for denitrification increased as a result of complete nitrification. Decreasing DO concentration in the aerobic period from 2 to 0.8 mg L(-1) increased P removal efficiency but decreased nitrification rates possibly due to oxygen limitation. Further, sedimented wastewater was proved to be a better influent stream than non-sedimented wastewater possibility due to the detrimental effect of particulate matter on biological nutrient removal.

  2. The Influence of Parameters Affecting Boron Removal by Electrocoagulation Process

    KAUST Repository

    Zeboudji, B.

    2013-04-01

    Boron removal in seawater desalination presents a particular challenge. In seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) systems boron removal at low concentration (<0.5 mg/L) is usually achieved by a second pass using brackish water RO membranes. However, this process requires chemical addition and important additional investment, operation and maintenance, and energy costs. Electrocoagulation (EC) process can be used to achieve such low boron concentration. In this work, the removal of boron from aqueous solution was carried out by EC process using aluminum and iron electrodes. Several operating parameters on the removal efficiency such as initial pH, current density, initial boron ion concentration, feed concentration, gap between electrodes, and electrode material, were investigated. In the case of bipolar electrocoagulation (BEC), an optimum removal efficiency of 96% corresponding to a final boron concentration of 0.4 mg/L was achieved at a current density of 6 mA/cm2 and pH = 8 using aluminum electrodes. The concentration of NaCl was 2,500 mg/L and the gap between the electrodes of 0.5 cm. Furthermore, a comparison between monopolar electrocoagulation (MEC) and BEC using both aluminum and iron electrodes was carried out. Results showed that the BEC process has reduced the current density applied to obtain high level of boron removal in a short reaction time compared to MEC process. The high performance of the EC showed that the process could be used to reduce boron concentration to acceptable levels at low-cost and more environmentally friendly. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  3. Assessment of the removal of estrogenicity in biological nutrient removal wastewater treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunlaja, O.O.; Parker, W.J.

    2015-01-01

    The removal of estrogenicity in a University of Cape Town-biological nutrient removal (UCT-BNR) wastewater treatment process was investigated using pilot and bench scale systems, batch experiments and mathematical modeling. In the pilot BNR process, 96 ± 5% of the estrogenicity exerted by the influent wastewater was removed by the treatment process. The degradation efficiencies in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones of the pilot BNR bioreactor were 11 ± 9%, 18 ± 2% and 93 ± 10%, respectively. In order to further understand the performance of the BNR process in the removal of estrogenicity from wastewater, a bench scale BNR process was operated with synthetic wastewater dosed with E1 and E2. The removal of estrogenicity in the bench scale system (95 ± 5%) was comparable to the pilot BNR process and the degradation efficiencies were estimated to be 8 ± 0.8%, 38 ± 4% and 85 ± 22% in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones, respectively. A biotransformation model developed to predict the fate of E1 and E2 in batch tests using the sludge from the BNR process was calibrated using the data from the experiments. The biotransformation rate constants for the transformation of E2 to E1 were estimated as 71 ± 1.5, 31 ± 3.3 and 1 ± 0.9 L g COD −1 d −1 for the aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic batch tests, respectively, while the corresponding biotransformation rate constants for the transformation of E1 were estimated to be 7.3 ± 1.0, 3 ± 2.0, and 0.85 ± 0.6 L·g COD −1 d −1 . A steady state mass balance model formulated to describe the interactions between E2 and E1 in BNR activated sludge reasonably described the fate of E1 and E2 in the BNR process. - Highlights: • Comparable estrogenicity removal was observed from two BNR processes. • Pseudo first order model described the transformation of E2 and E1 in BNR process. • Biotransformation of E1 in BNR activated sludge controls the degradation of E2

  4. Assessment of the removal of estrogenicity in biological nutrient removal wastewater treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogunlaja, O.O., E-mail: oogunlaj@uwaterloo.ca; Parker, W.J., E-mail: wjparker@uwaterloo.ca

    2015-05-01

    The removal of estrogenicity in a University of Cape Town-biological nutrient removal (UCT-BNR) wastewater treatment process was investigated using pilot and bench scale systems, batch experiments and mathematical modeling. In the pilot BNR process, 96 ± 5% of the estrogenicity exerted by the influent wastewater was removed by the treatment process. The degradation efficiencies in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones of the pilot BNR bioreactor were 11 ± 9%, 18 ± 2% and 93 ± 10%, respectively. In order to further understand the performance of the BNR process in the removal of estrogenicity from wastewater, a bench scale BNR process was operated with synthetic wastewater dosed with E1 and E2. The removal of estrogenicity in the bench scale system (95 ± 5%) was comparable to the pilot BNR process and the degradation efficiencies were estimated to be 8 ± 0.8%, 38 ± 4% and 85 ± 22% in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones, respectively. A biotransformation model developed to predict the fate of E1 and E2 in batch tests using the sludge from the BNR process was calibrated using the data from the experiments. The biotransformation rate constants for the transformation of E2 to E1 were estimated as 71 ± 1.5, 31 ± 3.3 and 1 ± 0.9 L g COD{sup −1} d{sup −1} for the aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic batch tests, respectively, while the corresponding biotransformation rate constants for the transformation of E1 were estimated to be 7.3 ± 1.0, 3 ± 2.0, and 0.85 ± 0.6 L·g COD{sup −1} d{sup −1}. A steady state mass balance model formulated to describe the interactions between E2 and E1 in BNR activated sludge reasonably described the fate of E1 and E2 in the BNR process. - Highlights: • Comparable estrogenicity removal was observed from two BNR processes. • Pseudo first order model described the transformation of E2 and E1 in BNR process. • Biotransformation of E1 in BNR activated sludge controls the degradation of E2.

  5. Nitrogen removal from sludge digester liquids by nitrification/denitrification or partial nitritation/anammox: environmental and economical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fux, C; Siegrist, H

    2004-01-01

    In wastewater treatment plants with anaerobic sludge digestion, 15-20% of the nitrogen load is recirculated to the main stream with the return liquors from dewatering. Separate treatment of this ammonium-rich digester supernatant significantly reduces the nitrogen load of the activated sludge system. Two biological applications are considered for nitrogen elimination: (i) classical autotrophic nitrification/heterotrophic denitrification and (ii) partial nitritation/autotrophic anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). With both applications 85-90% nitrogen removal can be achieved, but there are considerable differences in terms of sustainability and costs. The final gaseous products for heterotrophic denitrification are generally not measured and are assumed to be nitrogen gas (N2). However, significant nitrous oxide (N2O) production can occur at elevated nitrite concentrations in the reactor. Denitrification via nitrite instead of nitrate has been promoted in recent years in order to reduce the oxygen and the organic carbon requirements. Obviously this "achievement" turns out to be rather disadvantageous from an overall environmental point of view. On the other hand no unfavorable intermediates are emitted during anaerobic ammonium oxidation. A cost estimate for both applications demonstrates that partial nitritation/anammox is also more economical than classical nitrification/denitrification. Therefore autotrophic nitrogen elimination should be used in future to treat ammonium-rich sludge liquors.

  6. Simultaneous Removal of Thallium and EDTA by Fenton Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ruibing; Huang, Xuexia; Li, Huosheng; Su, Minhua; Chen, Diyun

    2018-01-01

    The wastewater containing heavy metals and organic pollutants is widely discharged from industries. Because of the coexistence of heavy metals and organic pollutants, the treatment of such wastewater is very difficult. Fenton process is considered to be one of the most effective approaches for the degradation of organic pollutants in aqueous solution due to the strong oxidative ability of hydroxyl radical which generated from the Fenton process. Apart from this, heavy metals are able to be removed during Fenton process owning to the synergic effect of coagulation and precipitation. In this work, pollutants of thallium and EDTA were successfully removed via the Fenton process. A series of single-factor experiments were designed and performed to achieve an optimal reaction conditions for the removal of both thallium and EDTA. Results showed that the removal efficiencies of thallium and TOC could be as high as 96.54% and 70.42%, respectively. The outcomes from our study demonstrate that Fenton process is a promising method for the purification of wastewater containing thallium and EDTA.

  7. Sludge granulation in an UASB-moving bed biofilm hybrid reactor for efficient organic matter removal and nitrogen removal in biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Pritha; Ghangrekar, M M; Rao, Surampalli

    2018-02-01

    A hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-moving bed biofilm (MBB) and rope bed biofilm (RBB) reactor was designed for treatment of sewage. Possibility of enhancing granulation in an UASB reactor using moving media to improve sludge retention was explored while treating low-strength wastewater. The presence of moving media in the top portion of the UASB reactor allowed a high solid retention time even at very short hydraulic retention times and helped in maintaining selection pressure in the sludge bed to promote formation of different sized sludge granules with an average settling velocity of 67 m/h. These granules were also found to contain plenty of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) such as 58 mg of polysaccharides (PS) per gram of volatile suspended solids (VSS) and protein (PN) content of 37 mg/g VSS. Enriched sludge of nitrogen-removing bacteria forming a porous biofilm on the media in RBB was also observed in a concentration of around 894 g/m 2 . The nitrogen removing sludge also had a high EPS content of around 22 mg PS/g VSS and 28 mg PN/g VSS. This hybrid UASB-MBB-RBB reactor with enhanced anaerobic granular sludge treating both carbonaceous and nitrogenous matter may be a sustainable solution for decentralized sewage treatment.

  8. Bioprocesses for removal of carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide by microalgae for the utilization of gas generated during coal burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Michele Greque de; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira [Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the removal of CO{sub 2} and NO by microalgae and to evaluate the kinetic characteristics of the cultures. Spirulina sp. showed {mu}{sub max} and X{sub max} (0.11 d{sup -1}, 1.11 g L{sup -1} d{sup -1}) when treated with CO{sub 2} and NaNO{sub 3}. The maximum CO{sub 2} removal was 22.97% for S. obliquus treated with KNO{sub 3} and atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The S. obliquus showed maximum NO removal (21.30%) when treated with NO and CO{sub 2}. Coupling the cultivation of these microalgae with the removal of CO{sub 2} and NO has the potential not only to reduce the costs of culture media but also to offset carbon and nitrogen emissions. 19 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Nitrogen Removal Characteristics of Pseudomonas putida Y-9 Capable of Heterotrophic Nitrification and Aerobic Denitrification at Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cold-adapted bacterium Pseudomonas putida Y-9 was investigated and exhibited excellent capability for nitrogen removal at 15°C. The strain capable of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification could efficiently remove ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite at an average removal rate of 2.85 mg, 1.60 mg, and 1.83 mg NL−1 h−1, respectively. Strain Y-9 performed nitrification in preference to denitrification when ammonium and nitrate or ammonium and nitrite coexisted in the solution. Meantime, the presence of nitrate had no effect on the ammonium removal rate of strain Y-9, and yet the presence of high concentration of nitrite would inhibit the cell growth and decrease the nitrification rate. The experimental results indicate that P. putida Y-9 has potential application for the treatment of wastewater containing high concentrations of ammonium along with its oxidation products at low temperature.

  10. Biological nitrogen removal using soil columns for the reuse of reclaimed water: Performance and microbial community analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiaji; Chen, Lei; Rene, Eldon R; Hu, Qian; Ma, Weifang; Shen, Zhenyao

    2018-07-01

    The main aim of this study was to remove nitrogen compounds from reclaimed water and reuse the water in semi-arid riverine lake systems. In order to assess the nitrogen removal efficiencies in different natural environments, laboratory scale column experiments were performed using sterilized soil (SS), silty clay (SC), soil with submerged plant (SSP) and biochar amendment soil (BCS). The initial concentration of NO 3 - -N and the flow rate was maintained constant at 15 mg L -1 and 0.6 ± 0.1 m d -1 , respectively. Among the tested columns, both SSP and BCS were able to achieve NO 3 - -N levels <0.2 mg L -1 in the treated reclaimed water. The results from bacterial community structure analysis, using 454 pyrosequencing of 16s rRNA genes, showed that the dominant denitrifier was Bacillus at the genera level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of nitrogen removal rates and nitrous oxide production from enriched anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria in suspended and attached growth reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwivia, Supaporn; Sirvithayapakorn, Sanya; Wantawin, Chalermraj; Noophan, Pongsak Lek; Munakata-Marr, Junko

    2014-01-01

    Attached growth-systems for the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process have been postulated for implementation in the field. However, information about the anammox process in attached growth-systems is limited. This study compared nitrogen removal rates and nitrous oxide (N2O) production of enriched anammox cultures in both suspended and attached growth sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). Suspended growth reactors (SBR-S) and attached growth reactors using polystyrene sponge as a medium (SBR-A) were used in these experiments. After inoculation with an enriched anammox culture, significant nitrogen removals of ammonium (NH4 (+)) and nitrite (NO2 (-)) were observed under NH4 (+):NO2 (-) ratios ranging from 1:1 to 1:2 in both types of SBRs. The specific rates of total nitrogen removal in SBR-S and SBR-A were 0.52 mg N/mg VSS-d and 0.44 mg N/mg VSS-d, respectively, at an NH4 (+):NO2 (-) ratio of 1:2. N2O production by the enriched anammox culture in both SBR-S and SBR-A was significantly higher at NH4 (+):NO2 (-) ratio of 1:2 than at NH4 (+):NO2 (-) ratios of 1:1 and 1:1.32. In addition, N2O production was higher at a pH of 6.8 than at pH 7.3, 7.8, and 8.3 in both SBR-S and SBR-A. The results of this investigation demonstrate that the anammox process may avoid N2O emission by maintaining an NH4 (+):NO2 (-) ratio of less than 1:2 and pH higher than 6.8.

  12. Nitrogen and Phosphorous Removal in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants in China: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Qiu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface water environment in China was degraded rapidly in the last two decades, resulting in increasingly tighten criteria issued for municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. This paper reviewed the recent advances of process design and operational optimization for nutrients removal. Three major processes, as anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (AAO process, oxidation ditch (OD, and sequencing batch reactor (SBR occupied 65% of WWTPs amounts and 54% of treatment volumes of China in 2006. However conservative process designs and operational faults often impaired the process performances and energy efficiency. Therefore, typical processes were modified, combined, and innovated to meet the requirements of the diverse influent characteristics and lower energy consumptions. Furthermore, operational optimization techniques by modeling, simulation, and real-time control were also developed and applied in China to improve the process operation. Although great efforts had been contributed to improve the WWTPs performances in China, attentions should be continuously paid to the introduction, instruction, and implementation of advanced techniques. At last, the technical demands and appropriated techniques of WWTPs in China were briefly discussed.

  13. Coagulation / flocculation process in the removal of trace metals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attempts were made in this study to examine the effectiveness of polymer addition to coagulation process during treatment of a beverage industrial wastewater to remove some of its trace metals content such as lead, cadmium, total iron, total chromium, nickel and zinc. Experiments were conducted using the standard Jar ...

  14. 27 CFR 19.381 - Removals from processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or further processing; (d) Spirits or wines for authorized voluntary destruction; or (e) Wines by transfer in bond to a bonded wine cellar or to another distilled spirits plant. However, wine may not be removed from the bonded premises of a distilled spirits plant for consumption or sale as wine. Spirits may...

  15. Nitrogen removal capacity and bacterial community dynamics of a Canon biofilter system at different organic matter concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ruiz, María J; Maza-Márquez, Paula; González-López, Jesús; Osorio, Francisco

    2018-02-01

    Three Canon bench-scale bioreactors with a volume of 2 L operating in parallel were configured as submerged biofilters. In the present study we investigated the effects of a high ammonium concentration (320 mgNH 4 + · L -1 ) and different concentrations of organic matter (0, 100 and 400 mgCOD·L -1 ) on the nitrogen removal capacity and the bacterial community structure. After 60 days, the Canon biofilters operated properly under concentrations of 0 and 100 mgCOD·L -1 of organic matter, with nitrogen removal efficiencies up to 85%. However, a higher concentration of organic matter (400 mgCOD·L -1 ) produced a partial inhibition of nitrogen removal (68.1% efficiency). The addition of higher concentrations of organic matter a modified the bacterial community structure in the Canon biofilter, increasing the proliferation of heterotrophic bacteria related to the genera of Thauera, Longilinea, Ornatilinea, Thermomarinilinea, unclassified Chlorobiales and Denitratisoma. However, heterotrophic bacteria co-exist with Nitrosomonas and Candidatus Scalindua. Thus, our study confirms the co-existence of different microbial activities (AOB, Anammox and denitrification) and the adaptation of a fixed-biofilm system to different concentrations of organic matter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Silver removal process development for the MEO cleanout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.C.; Chiba, Z.; Schumacher, B.J.; Murguia, L.C.; Adamson, M.G.

    1996-02-01

    The Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) system is an aqueous process which treats low-level mixed wastes by oxidizing the organic components of he waste into carbon dioxide and water. As MEO system continues to run, dissolved ash and radionuclides slowly accumulate in the anolyte and must be removed to maintain process efficiency. At such time, all of the anolyte is pumped into a still feed tank, and the silver ions need to be removed before sending the solution to a thin-film evaporator for further concentration. The efficiency of removing silver ions in the solution needs to be high enough such that the residual silver sent to Final Forms would be less than 1% wt. The purpose of this work is to develop an efficient process to remove silver ions during the MEO cleanout and to demonstrate the capability of centrifugation for separating small silver chloride particles from the solution. This development work includes lab scale experiments and bench scale tests. This report summarizes the results

  17. Metal chelate process to remove pollutants from fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S.G.T.

    1994-12-06

    The present invention relates to improved methods using an organic iron chelate to remove pollutants from fluids, such as flue gas. Specifically, the present invention relates to a process to remove NO[sub x] and optionally SO[sub 2] from a fluid using a metal ion (Fe[sup 2+]) chelate wherein the ligand is a dimercapto compound wherein the --SH groups are attached to adjacent carbon atoms (HS--C--C--SH) or (SH--C--CCSH) and contain a polar functional group so that the ligand of DMC chelate is water soluble. Alternatively, the DMC is covalently attached to a water insoluble substrate such as a polymer or resin, e.g., polystyrene. The chelate is regenerated using electroreduction or a chemical additive. The dimercapto compound bonded to a water insoluble substrate is also useful to lower the concentration or remove hazardous metal ions from an aqueous solution. 26 figures.

  18. The levels of processing effect under nitrogen narcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, Wendy; Hobbs, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has consistently demonstrated that inert gas (nitrogen) narcosis affects free recall but not recognition memory in the depth range of 30 to 50 meters of sea water (msw), possibly as a result of narcosis preventing processing when learned material is encoded. The aim of the current research was to test this hypothesis by applying a levels of processing approach to the measurement of free recall under narcosis. Experiment 1 investigated the effect of depth (0-2 msw vs. 37-39 msw) and level of processing (shallow vs. deep) on free recall memory performance in 67 divers. When age was included as a covariate, recall was significantly worse in deep water (i.e., under narcosis), compared to shallow water, and was significantly higher in the deep processing compared to shallow processing conditions in both depth conditions. Experiment 2 demonstrated that this effect was not simply due to the different underwater environments used for the depth conditions in Experiment 1. It was concluded memory performance can be altered by processing under narcosis and supports the contention that narcosis affects the encoding stage of memory as opposed to self-guided search (retrieval).

  19. Long-term population dynamics and in situ physiology in activated sludge systems with enhanced biological phosphorus removal operated with and without nitrogen removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, N.; Nielsen, P.H.; Aspegren, H.

    2003-01-01

    . However, we observed a lower correlation (0.9). The Actinobacteria were the only additional group of bacteria which showed a similar degree of correlation to the P content in activated sludge as the Rhodocyclus-related bacteria - but only for the system without nitrogen removal. Significant amounts (less...... of the Betaproteobacteria (part of them identified as Rhodocyclus-related bacteria) as well as the Actinobacteria were able to take up P-33(i), [H-3]-acetate and [H-3]-glucose under anaerobic-aerobic conditions. The contribution of anoxic P-33(i) uptake under alternating anaerobic-anoxic conditions was significantly lower...

  20. Organic pollutant removal from edible oil process wastewater using electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S.; Can, O. T.; Hammed, M.; Nawarathna, D.; Simsek, H.

    2018-03-01

    Wastewaters generated from vegetable oil industries contain a high concentration of organic pollutants that are detrimental to the aquatic ecosystem. Electrochemical processes are gaining importance in the treatment of inorganic and resistant organic pollutants in wastewaters. In this study, electrocoagulation (EC) was applied to remove organic pollutants and oil and grease from canola oil wastewater using aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) electrodes. The application of EC in the wastewater achieved more than 80% removal of organic carbon and nearly 100% removal of suspended solids (SS). The effectiveness of EC is influenced mainly by current density, pH, electrolyte (NaCl), electrode contact time and electrode type. It was observed that Al electrode combination yielded better removal at a lesser time compared to that of Fe electrodes. However, varying current densities had its significance in terms of coagulation time only. Increase in current density achieved decrease in coagulation time. Both Al and Fe could remove between 52-59% of oil and grease from canola oil wastewater

  1. Achieve efficient nitrogen removal from real sewage in a plug-flow integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) reactor via partial nitritation/anammox pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yandong; Zhang, Liang; Cheng, Jun; Zhang, Shujun; Li, Baikun; Peng, Yongzhen

    2017-09-01

    This study tested the feasibility of plug-flow integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) reactor in applying sewage partial nitritation/anammox (PN/A) process. The IFAS reactor was fed with real pre-treated sewage (C/N ratio=1.3) and operated for 200days. High nitrogen removal efficiency of 82% was achieved with nitrogen removal rates of 0.097±0.019kgN/(m 3 ·d). Therefore, plug-flow IFAS reactor could be an alternative to applying sewage PN/A process. Besides, it was found that the stability of sewage PN/A process was significantly affected by residual ammonium. Nitrate accumulated in effluent and PN/A performance deteriorated when residual ammonium was below 1mg/L. On the contrary, long-term stable PN/A operation was achieved when residual ammonium was over 3mg/L. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fruit waste adsorbent for ammonia nitrogen removal from synthetic solution: Isotherms and kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahrim, AY; Lija, Y.; Ricky, L. N. S.; Azreen, I.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, four types of watermelon rind (WR) adsorbents; fresh WR, modified WR with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4) were used as a potential low-cost adsorbent to remove NH3-N from solution. The adsorption data were fitted with the adsorption isotherm and kinetic models to predict the mechanisms and kinetic characteristics of the adsorption process. The equilibrium data agreed well with Langmuir isotherm model with highest correlation (R2=1.00). As for kinetic modelling, the adsorption process follows pseudo-second order for all four types of adsorbents which has R2 value of 1.0 and calculated adsorption capacity, Qe of 1.2148mg/g. The calculated Qe for pseudo-second order has the smallest difference with the experimental Qe and thus suggest that this adsorption process is mainly governed by chemical process involving cations sharing or exchange between WR adsorbent and NH3-N in the solution.

  3. Identification and quantification of nitrogen nutrient deficiency in the activated sludge process using respirometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ning, Z.; Patry, G.G.; Spanjers, H.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental protocols to identify and quantify nitrogen nutrient deficiency in the activated sludge process were developed and tested using respirometry. Respirometric experiments showed that when a nitrogen nutrient deficient sludge is exposed to ammonia nitrogen, the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) of

  4. Cyanide removal by combined adsorption and biodegradation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Roshan Dash, Ch. Balomajumder, A. Kumar

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the effectiveness of simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation (SAB process over individual processes by using microbes Rhizopus oryzae and Stemphylium loti with granular activated carbon (GAC as adsorbent was carried out. The maximum removal efficiency of cyanide had been achieved by biodegradation alone was 83% by R. oryzae, while it was 90% by S. loti at initial pH of 5.6 and 7.2 respectively and at initial CN- concentration of 150 mg/L. In the combined process efficiency of R. oryzae closer to S. loti (95.3% and 98.6% respectively

  5. Wastewater treatment processes for the removal of emerging organic pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa Rubio Clemente

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging organic pollutants form a very heterogeneous group of substances that have negative effects on aquatic organisms, so they should be removed from the environment. Unfortunately, conventional processes in wastewater treatment plants, especially biological ones, are inefficient in the degradation of these substances. It is therefore necessary to evaluate and optimize the effectiveness of the treatments, including advanced oxidation and membrane filtration processes. However, both techniques have drawbacks that may limit their stand-alone application, so it is proposed that the best solution may be to combine these technologies with biological processes to treat wastewater contaminated with emerging organic pollutants.

  6. Method for removing heavy metal and nitrogen oxides from flue gas, device for removing heavy metal and nitrogen oxides from flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hann-Sheng; Livengood, Charles David

    1997-12-01

    A method for the simultaneous removal of oxides and heavy metals from a fluid is provided comprising combining the fluid with compounds containing alkali and sulfur to create a mixture; spray drying the mixture to create a vapor phase and a solid phase; and isolating the vapor phase from the solid phase. A device is also provided comprising a means for spray-drying flue gas with alkali-sulfide containing liquor at a temperature sufficient to cause the flue gas to react with the compounds so as to create a gaseous fraction and a solid fraction and a means for directing the gaseous fraction to a fabric filter.

  7. Process for removing sulfate anions from waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, David N.; Galvan, Gloria J.; Hundley, Gary L.; Wright, John B.

    1997-01-01

    A liquid emulsion membrane process for removing sulfate anions from waste water is disclosed. The liquid emulsion membrane process includes the steps of: (a) providing a liquid emulsion formed from an aqueous strip solution and an organic phase that contains an extractant capable of removing sulfate anions from waste water; (b) dispersing the liquid emulsion in globule form into a quantity of waste water containing sulfate anions to allow the organic phase in each globule of the emulsion to extract and absorb sulfate anions from the waste water and (c) separating the emulsion including its organic phase and absorbed sulfate anions from the waste water to provide waste water containing substantially no sulfate anions.

  8. Effects of Selected Root Exudate Components on Nitrogen Removal and Development of Denitrifying Bacteria in Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailu Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Root exudates, particularly low molecular weight carbon (LMWC substrates, are major drivers of bacterial diversity and activity in the rhizosphere environment. However, it is not well understood how specific LMWC compounds—such as organic acids, soluble sugars, and amino acids—influence the community structures of denitrifying bacteria or if there are specific functions of LMWC substrates that preferentially respond to nitrogen (N removal in constructed wetlands (CWs. To address these knowledge gaps, we added mixtures of artificial exudates to CW microcosms containing N pollutant. N removal efficiency was observed over a 48-h experimental period, and at the end of the experiment, DNA was extracted from microbial samples for assessment of the bacterial community. The removal efficiencies of TN for the exudates treatments were higher than for control groups by 47.1–58.67%. Organic acid and soluble sugar treatments increased N removal, while amino acids were negative to N removal. The microbial community was changed when artificial exudates were added, but there were no significant relationships between LMWC compounds and bacterial community composition. These results indicate that although the responses of community structures of denitrifying bacteria to LMWC additions are still uncertain, there is evidence for N removal in response to exudate additions across LMWC types.

  9. Reactor performance in terms of COD and nitrogen removal and bacterial community structure of a three-stage rotating bioelectrochemical contactor

    KAUST Repository

    Sayess, Rassil R.; Saikaly, Pascal; El-Fadel, Mutasem E.; Li, Dong; Semerjian, Lucy A.

    2013-01-01

    contactor (referred to as RBC-MFC unit) integrating MFC with RBC technology was constructed for simultaneous removal of carbonaceous and nitrogenous compounds and electricity generation from a synthetic medium containing acetate and ammonium. The performance

  10. Process for removal of sulfur oxides from hot gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauerle, G. L.; Kohl, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    A process for the removal of sulfur oxides from two gas streams containing the same. One gas stream is introduced into a spray dryer zone and contacted with a finely dispersed spray of an aqueous medium containing an absorbent for sulfur oxides. The aqueous medium is introduced at a controlled rate so as to provide water to the gas in an amount to produce a cooled product gas having a temperature at least 7 0 C. above its adiabatic saturation temperature and from about 125-300% of the stoichiometric amount of absorbent required to react with the sulfur oxides to be removed from the gas stream. The effluent from the spray dryer zone comprises a gas stream of reduced sulfur oxide content and contains entrained dry particulate reaction products including unreacted absorbent. This gas stream is then introduced into a particulate removal zone from which is withdrawn a gas stream substantially free of particles and having a reduced sulfur oxide content. the dry particulate reaction products are collected and utilized as a source of absorbent for a second aqueous scrubbing medium containing unreacted absorbent for the sulfur oxides. An effluent gas stream is withdrawn from the aqueous scrubbing zone and comprises a water-saturated gas stream of reduced sulfur oxide content and substantially free of particles. The effluent gas streams from the particulate removal zone and the aqueous scrubbing zone are combined in such proportions that the combined gas stream has a temperature above its adiabatic saturation temperature

  11. Nitrogen removal and intentional nitrous oxide production from reject water in a coupled nitritation/nitrous denitritation system under real feed-stream conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weißbach, Max; Thiel, Paul; Drewes, Jörg E; Koch, Konrad

    2018-05-01

    A Coupled Aerobic-anoxic Nitrous Decomposition Operation (CANDO) was performed over five months to investigate the performance and dynamics of nitrogen elimination and nitrous oxide production from digester reject water under real feed-stream conditions. A 93% conversion of ammonium to nitrite could be maintained for adapted seed sludge in the first stage (nitritation). The second stage (nitrous denitritation), inoculated with conventional activated sludge, achieved a conversion of 70% of nitrite to nitrous oxide after only 12 cycles of operation. The development of an alternative feeding strategy and the addition of a coagulant (FeCl 3 ) facilitated stable operation and process intensification. Under steady-state conditions, nitrite was reliably eliminated and different nitrous oxide harvesting strategies were assessed. Applying continuous removal increased N 2 O yields by 16% compared to the application of a dedicated stripping phase. These results demonstrate the feasible application of the CANDO process for nitrogen removal and energy recovery from ammonia rich wastewater. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical-chemical processes of astrophysical interest: nitrogen chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loison, Jean-Christophe; Hickson, Kevin; Hily-Blant, Pierre; Faure, Alexandre; Vuitton, Veronique; Bacmann, A.; Maret, Sebastien; Legal, Romane; Rist, Claire; Roncero, Octavio; Larregaray, Pascal; Hochlaf, Majdi; Senent, M. L.; Capron, Michael; Biennier, Ludovic; Carles, Sophie; Bourgalais, Jeremy; Le Picard, Sebastien; Cordier, Daniel; Guillemin, Jean-Claude; Trolez, Yann; Bertin, M.; Poderoso, H.A.M.; Michaut, X.; Jeseck, P.; Philippe, L.; Fillion, J.H.; Fayolle, E.C.; Linnartz, H.; Romanzin, C.; Oeberg, K.I.; Roueff, Evelyne; Pagani, Laurent; Padovani, Marco; Wakelam, Veronique; Honvault, Beatrice; Zvereva-Loete, Natalia; Ouk, Chanda-Malis; Scribano, Yohann; Hartmann, J.M.; Pineau des Forets, Guillaume; Hernandez, Mario; Lique, Francois; Kalugina, Yulia N.; Stoecklin, T.; Hochlaf, M.; Crespos, C.; Larregaray, P.; Martin-Gondre, L.; Petuya, R.; Quintas Sanchez, E.L.; Zanchet, Alexandre; Rodriguez-Lazcano, Yamilet; Mate, Belen

    2013-06-01

    This document contains the programme and abstracts of contributions to a workshop on nitrogen chemistry within an astrophysical perspective. These contributions have been presented in sessions: Introduction (opening lecture, experimental approaches to molecular astrophysics, theoretical approaches to astrophysics, observations in molecular astrophysics), Physical-chemical theory of the gas phase (time-dependent approach in elementary activity, statistic approach in elementary activity in the case of the N+H_2 reaction, potential energy surfaces for inelastic and reactive collisions, collision rate for N_2H"+, ortho/para selection rules in the chemistry of nitrogen hydrides, cyanides/iso-cyanides excitation in the ISM, CN excitation, radiative association with N_2H as new interstellar anion, ro-vibratory excitation of HCN) Laboratory astrophysics (measurement of reaction products in the CRESUSOL project, reactivity of the CN- anion, N_2 photo-desorption in ices, CRESU study of nitrogen chemistry, chemistry of nitrogen complex molecules), Observations and chemistry of astrophysical media (the problem of interstellar nitrogen fractioning, abundance of N_2 in proto-stellar cores, HNC in Titan atmosphere and nitrogen-related mechanisms in hot Jupiters, HCN and HNC in dark clouds or how theoretical modelling helps in interpreting observations, nitrogen chemistry in cold clouds, deuteration of nitrogen hydrides, nitrogen in interstellar ices, biochemical molecules on Titan, coupling between excitation and chemistry, radiative transfer of nitrogen hydrides, ortho/para chemistry of nitrogen hydrides), Physical-chemical theory of gas-grain interactions (nitrogen reactivity on surfaces, IR spectra of ices of NH_3 and NH_3/N_2 mixtures)

  13. An innovative symbiotic microalgae-IFAS process for nutrient removal and photo-oxygenation: Multi-scale investigations using microelectrodes and next-generation molecular tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    A consortium of algae and bacteria is known to be effective in removing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from wastewater; however, the concept has largely been limited to suspended processes and fixed filmed (biofilm) processes have not fully been explored. Here we demonstrate the...

  14. Evaluation of Fenton Process in Removal of Direct Red 81

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Baghapour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyes are visible materials and are considered as one of the hazardous components that make up the industrial waste. Dye compounds in natural water, even in very low concentrations, will lead to environmental problems. Azo dyes are compounds with one or more –N=N– groups and are used in textile industry. Because of its low price, solubility, and stability, azo dyes are widely used in the textile industry. Direct Red 81 (DR81 is one of the azo dyes, which is removed from bodies of water, using various methods. This study aimed to assess DR81 dye removal by Fenton oxidation and the effects of various parameters on this process. Methods: Decolorization tests by Fenton oxidation were performed at dye concentrations of 50, 500, 100 and 1000 mg/L; hydrogen peroxide concentrations of 0, 10, 30, 60 and 120 mg/L; iron (II sulfate heptahydrate concentrations of 0, 3, 5, 20 and 50 mg/L; and pH levels of 3, 5, 7 and 10 for durations of 5, 10, 20, 30, 60 and 180 minutes. Results: The optimal condition occurred at a dye concentration of 20 mg/L, hydrogen peroxide concentration of 120 mg/L, bivalent iron concentration of 100 mg/L, pH of 3, and duration of 30 minutes. Under such conditions, the maximum dye removal rate was 88.98%. Conclusion: The results showed that DR81 could be decomposed and removed by Fenton oxidation. In addition, the removal of Direct Red 81 (DR81 depends on several factors such as dye concentration, reaction time, concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and iron, and pH

  15. Nitrogen removal in a single-chamber microbial fuel cell with nitrifying biofilm enriched at the air cathode

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Hengjing

    2012-05-01

    Nitrogen removal is needed in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for the treatment of most waste streams. Current designs couple biological denitrification with side-stream or combined nitrification sustained by upstream or direct aeration, which negates some of the energy-saving benefits of MFC technology. To achieve simultaneous nitrification and denitrification, without extra energy input for aeration, the air cathode of a single-chamber MFC was pre-enriched with a nitrifying biofilm. Diethylamine-functionalized polymer (DEA) was used as the Pt catalyst binder on the cathode to improve the differential nitrifying biofilm establishment. With pre-enriched nitrifying biofilm, MFCs with the DEA binder had an ammonia removal efficiency of up to 96.8% and a maximum power density of 900 ± 25 mW/m 2, compared to 90.7% and 945 ± 42 mW/m 2 with a Nafion binder. A control with Nafion that lacked nitrifier pre-enrichment removed less ammonia and had lower power production (54.5% initially, 750 mW/m 2). The nitrifying biofilm MFCs had lower Coulombic efficiencies (up to 27%) than the control reactor (up to 36%). The maximum total nitrogen removal efficiency reached 93.9% for MFCs with the DEA binder. The DEA binder accelerated nitrifier biofilm enrichment on the cathode, and enhanced system stability. These results demonstrated that with proper cathode pre-enrichment it is possible to simultaneously remove organics and ammonia in a single-chamber MFC without supplemental aeration. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Population dynamics in wastewater treatment plants with enhanced biological phosphorus removal operated with and without nitrogen removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, N.; Jansen, J.l.C.; Aspegren, H.

    2002-01-01

    belonged to the β Proteobacteria, whereas the rest of the clusters belonged either to the Actinobacteria or to the α Proteobacteria. The relative abundance of Rhodocyclus-related bacteria in the activated sludge varied significantly in both systems during the whole period (from 6 to 18% in BNP, and from 4...... Proteobacteria (part of them Rhodocyclus-related, the identity of the rest unknown) and the Actinobacteria. However, not all of the Rhodocyclus-related bacteria showed 33Pi uptake. The P removal in the investigated plants is thus believed to be mediated by a mixed population consisting of a part...... of the Rhodocyclus-related bacteria, the Actinobacteria and other, yet unidentified bacteria....

  17. Elementary sulfur in effluent from denitrifying sulfide removal process as adsorbent for zinc(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan; Zhou, Xu; Wang, Aijie; Wu, Dong-hai; Liu, Li-hong; Ren, Nanqi; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2012-10-01

    The denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) process can simultaneously convert sulfide, nitrate and organic compounds into elementary sulfur (S(0)), di-nitrogen gas and carbon dioxide, respectively. However, the S(0) formed in the DSR process are micro-sized colloids with negatively charged surface, making isolation of S(0) colloids from other biological cells and metabolites difficult. This study proposed the use of S(0) in DSR effluent as a novel adsorbent for zinc removal from wastewaters. Batch and continuous tests were conducted for efficient zinc removal with S(0)-containing DSR effluent. At pHremoval rates of zinc(II) were increased with increasing pH. The formed S(0) colloids carried negative charge onto which zinc(II) ions could be adsorbed via electrostatic interactions. The zinc(II) adsorbed S(0) colloids further enhanced coagulation-sedimentation efficiency of suspended solids in DSR effluents. The DSR effluent presents a promising coagulant for zinc(II) containing wastewaters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Uncertainty assessment of a model for biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal: Application to a large wastewater treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Giorgio; Cosenza, Alida; Viviani, Gaspare

    In the last few years, the use of mathematical models in WasteWater Treatment Plant (WWTP) processes has become a common way to predict WWTP behaviour. However, mathematical models generally demand advanced input for their implementation that must be evaluated by an extensive data-gathering campaign, which cannot always be carried out. This fact, together with the intrinsic complexity of the model structure, leads to model results that may be very uncertain. Quantification of the uncertainty is imperative. However, despite the importance of uncertainty quantification, only few studies have been carried out in the wastewater treatment field, and those studies only included a few of the sources of model uncertainty. Seeking the development of the area, the paper presents the uncertainty assessment of a mathematical model simulating biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal. The uncertainty assessment was conducted according to the Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) methodology that has been scarcely applied in wastewater field. The model was based on activated-sludge models 1 (ASM) and 2 (ASM2). Different approaches can be used for uncertainty analysis. The GLUE methodology requires a large number of Monte Carlo simulations in which a random sampling of individual parameters drawn from probability distributions is used to determine a set of parameter values. Using this approach, model reliability was evaluated based on its capacity to globally limit the uncertainty. The method was applied to a large full-scale WWTP for which quantity and quality data was gathered. The analysis enabled to gain useful insights for WWTP modelling identifying the crucial aspects where higher uncertainty rely and where therefore, more efforts should be provided in terms of both data gathering and modelling practises.

  19. Artificial neural network modelling for organic and total nitrogen removal of aerobic granulation under steady-state condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, H; Pishgar, R; Tay, J H

    2018-04-27

    Aerobic granulation is a recent technology with high level of complexity and sensitivity to environmental and operational conditions. Artificial neural networks (ANNs), computational tools capable of describing complex non-linear systems, are the best fit to simulate aerobic granular bioreactors. In this study, two feedforward backpropagation ANN models were developed to predict chemical oxygen demand (Model I) and total nitrogen removal efficiencies (Model II) of aerobic granulation technology under steady-state condition. Fundamentals of ANN models and the steps to create them were briefly reviewed. The models were respectively fed with 205 and 136 data points collected from laboratory-, pilot-, and full-scale studies on aerobic granulation technology reported in the literature. Initially, 60%, 20%, and 20%, and 80%, 10%, and 10% of the points in the corresponding datasets were randomly chosen and used for training, testing, and validation of Model I, and Model II, respectively. Overall coefficient of determination (R 2 ) value and mean squared error (MSE) of the two models were initially 0.49 and 15.5, and 0.37 and 408, respectively. To improve the model performance, two data division methods were used. While one method is generic and potentially applicable to other fields, the other can only be applied to modelling the performance of aerobic granular reactors. R 2 value and MSE were improved to 0.90 and 2.54, and 0.81 and 121.56, respectively, after applying the new data division methods. The results demonstrated that ANN-based models were capable simulation approach to predict a complicated process like aerobic granulation.

  20. Use of advanced oxidation processes for removal of micropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    photocatalysis when illuminated with UV light, and it may furthermore be arranged so the photocatalyst is immobilized on the UV quartz tubes by coating, which removes the need for a constant addition and subsequent removal of TiO2 to the system. The effect of the current system, and the TiO2 modified system...... was investigated by degradation of the synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2). EE2 was used as the model compound since it is a very potent endocrine disruptor that has been found to have endocrine effects on fish at ppt levels. Also, the disinfection capability with photocatalysis was investigated...... of the microorganisms, photocatalysis works by oxidizing the cell membrane for microorganism adsorbed to the coated surface, which is a more inefficient process per mole UV light....

  1. Natural diatomite process for removal of radioactivity from liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal [Radioactive Waste Management Unit (RWMU), Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Altinsehir Yolu 5 km. Halkali, 34303K Cekmece, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: Erdal.Osmanlioglu@taek.gov.tr

    2007-01-15

    Diatomite has a number of unique physical properties and has found diversified industrial utilization. The filtration characteristics are particularly significant in the purification of liquids. The purpose of this study was to test natural diatomaceous earth (diatomite) as an alternative material that could be used for removal of radioactivity from liquid waste. A pilot-scale column-type device was designed. Natural diatomite samples were ground, sieved and prepared to use as sorption media. In this study, real waste liquid was used as radioactive liquid having special conditions. The liquid waste contained three radionuclides (Cs-137, Cs-134 and Co-60). Following the treatment by diatomite, the radioactivity of liquid waste was reduced from the initial 2.60 Bq/ml to less than 0.40 Bq/ml. The results of this study show that most of the radioactivity was removed from the solution by processing with diatomite.

  2. Natural diatomite process for removal of radioactivity from liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2007-01-01

    Diatomite has a number of unique physical properties and has found diversified industrial utilization. The filtration characteristics are particularly significant in the purification of liquids. The purpose of this study was to test natural diatomaceous earth (diatomite) as an alternative material that could be used for removal of radioactivity from liquid waste. A pilot-scale column-type device was designed. Natural diatomite samples were ground, sieved and prepared to use as sorption media. In this study, real waste liquid was used as radioactive liquid having special conditions. The liquid waste contained three radionuclides (Cs-137, Cs-134 and Co-60). Following the treatment by diatomite, the radioactivity of liquid waste was reduced from the initial 2.60 Bq/ml to less than 0.40 Bq/ml. The results of this study show that most of the radioactivity was removed from the solution by processing with diatomite

  3. Natural diatomite process for removal of radioactivity from liquid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2007-01-01

    Diatomite has a number of unique physical properties and has found diversified industrial utilization. The filtration characteristics are particularly significant in the purification of liquids. The purpose of this study was to test natural diatomaceous earth (diatomite) as an alternative material that could be used for removal of radioactivity from liquid waste. A pilot-scale column-type device was designed. Natural diatomite samples were ground, sieved and prepared to use as sorption media. In this study, real waste liquid was used as radioactive liquid having special conditions. The liquid waste contained three radionuclides (Cs-137, Cs-134 and Co-60). Following the treatment by diatomite, the radioactivity of liquid waste was reduced from the initial 2.60 Bq/ml to less than 0.40 Bq/ml. The results of this study show that most of the radioactivity was removed from the solution by processing with diatomite.

  4. The physiological and biochemical mechanism of nitrate-nitrogen removal by water hyacinth from agriculture eutrophic wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Wenwei

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Large amount of agriculturl wastewater containing high level nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 --N is produced from modern intensive agricultural production management due to the excessive use of chemical fertilizers and livestock scale farming. The hydroponic experiment of water hyacinth was conducted for analyzing the content of NO3 --N, soluble sugar content, N-transported the amino acid content and growth change in water hyacinth to explore its purification ability to remove NO3 --N from agriculture eutrophic wastewater and physiological and biochemical mechanism of this plant to remove NO3 --N. The results showed that the water hyacinth could effectively utilize the NO3 --N from agriculture eutrophic wastewater. Compared with the control, the contents of NO3 -change to NO3 --N in the root, leaf petiole and leaf blade of water hyacinth after treatment in the wastewater for a week was significantly higher than that in the control plants treated with tap water, and also the biomass of water hyacinth increased significantly, indicating that the accumulation of biomass due to the rapid growth of water hyacinth could transfer some amount of NO3 --N.13C-NMR analysis confirmed that water hyacinth would convert the part nitrogen absorbed from agriculture eutrophic wastewater to ammonia nitrogen, which increased the content of aspartic acid and glutamic acid, decreased the content of soluble sugar, sucrose and fructose and the content of N-storaged asparagine and glutamine, lead to enhance the synthesis of plant amino acids and promote the growth of plants. These results indicate that the nitrate in agriculture eutrophic wastewater can be utilized by water hyacinth as nitrogen nutrition, and can promote plant growth by using soluble sugar and amide to synthesis amino acids and protein.

  5. Nitrogen removal and recovery from lagoon-pretreated swine wastewater by constructed wetlands under sustainable plant harvesting management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Pei; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Shunan; Li, Hongfang; Yao, Ran; Jiang, Qianwen; Xiao, Runlin; Wu, Jinshui

    2018-06-01

    A series of three-stage pilot-scale surface flow constructed wetlands (CWs) planted with Myriophyllum aquaticum were fed with three strengths of lagoon-pretreated swine wastewater to study nitrogen (N) removal and recovery under sustainable plant harvesting management. The CWs had mean removal efficiency of 87.7-97.9% for NH 4 + -N and 85.4-96.1% for total N (TN). The recovered TN mass via multiple harvests of M. aquaticum was greatest (120-222 g N m -2  yr -1 ) when TN concentrations were 21.8-282 mg L -1 . The harvested TN mass accounted for 0.85-100% of the total removal in the different CW units. Based on mass balance estimation, plant uptake, sediment storage, and microbial removal accounted for 13.0-55.0%, 4.9-8.0%, and 33.0-67.5% of TN loading mass, respectively. The results of this study confirm that M. aquaticum is appropriate for the removal and recovery of nutrients in CW systems designed for treating swine wastewater in conjunction with sustainable plant harvesting strategies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. New approaches for description of nitrogen chemistry in combustion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Kilpinen, P.; Nordstroem, T. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Research Group

    1997-10-01

    The aim of the project is to assist in development of more efficient in-furnace control methods for nitrogen oxide emission from energy conversion technologies based on combustion and/or gasification. Main emphasis in put on technologies such as fluidized bed combustion (CFBC, BFBC) and combined cycle processes (PFBC, IGCC). The project consists of two parts: (a) detailed kinetic elementary reaction modelling and (b) prediction of NO{sub x} emission from full scale combustors. The following topics have been studied during 1996: (a) Detailed kinetic modelling Effect of HCl on CO burn-out under FBC freeboard conditions. Effect of pressure on the Thermal DeNO{sub x} process under PFBC conditions. Mechanism of NH{sub 3} destruction to N{sub 2} by selective oxidation (SO): -the importance of formation of NO{sub 2} from NO and O{sub 2} at low temperatures. (b) Prediction of NO{sub x} emission from full scale combustors Prediction of NO{sub x} emission from BFBC freeboard: a case study using flow tubes and detailed chemistry. The work has been made partly in collaboration with VTT Energy (projects 213 and 214) and Tampere University of Technology (project 210). (orig.)

  7. Removal of mercury from coal via a microbial pretreatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borole, Abhijeet P [Knoxville, TN; Hamilton, Choo Y [Knoxville, TN

    2011-08-16

    A process for the removal of mercury from coal prior to combustion is disclosed. The process is based on use of microorganisms to oxidize iron, sulfur and other species binding mercury within the coal, followed by volatilization of mercury by the microorganisms. The microorganisms are from a class of iron and/or sulfur oxidizing bacteria. The process involves contacting coal with the bacteria in a batch or continuous manner. The mercury is first solubilized from the coal, followed by microbial reduction to elemental mercury, which is stripped off by sparging gas and captured by a mercury recovery unit, giving mercury-free coal. The mercury can be recovered in pure form from the sorbents via additional processing.

  8. Removal of Cr{sup 6+} from wastewater via adsorption with high-specific-surface-area nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon derived from silkworm cocoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Junting; Zhang, Zhengping; Ji, Jing; Dou, Meiling, E-mail: douml@mail.buct.edu.cn; Wang, Feng, E-mail: wangf@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • The nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon was prepared from silkworm cocoon. • The NHPC possesses a unique porous structure and a high specific surface area. • The NHPC presents superior adsorption performance for Cr (VI). • The NHPC exhibits an excellent recyclability for the removal of Cr (VI). - Abstract: The development of highly efficient adsorbents is an effective way to remove Cr{sup 6+} from wastewater for environment protection. Herein, a high-specific-surface-area nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon (NHPC) derived from silkworm cocoon was synthesized and applied as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of Cr{sup 6+} from wastewater. The resultant NHPC possesses a specific surface area as high as 3134 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} and a unique hierarchical porous structure with a large number of small mesopores (2–4 nm) and micropores (0.8–2 nm) embedded in the sidewall of bowl-like macropores (200–300 nm), in which sufficient exposure of adsorption sites and high-flow transfer of Cr{sup 6+} ions can be achieved. As a result, the NHPC exhibits a remarkable adsorption performance with a larger adsorption capacity (366.3 mg g{sup −1}), a higher adsorption rate (4 × 10{sup −2} g mg{sup −1} min{sup −1}) and a superior recyclability in comparison with the commercial adsorbent (Norit CGP). Thermodynamic and kinetic analyses indicate that the adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic, which fits well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model. This biomass-based porous carbon with well-defined hierarchical porous structure can be applied as a promising adsorbent for the removal of Cr{sup 6+} from wastewater.

  9. Synergic Adsorption–Biodegradation by an Advanced Carrier for Enhanced Removal of High-Strength Nitrogen and Refractory Organics

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmad, Muhammad

    2017-03-29

    Coking wastewater contains not only high-strength nitrogen but also toxic biorefractory organics. This study presents simultaneous removal of high-strength quinoline, carbon, and ammonium in coking wastewater by immobilized bacterial communities composed of a heterotrophic strain Pseudomonas sp. QG6 (hereafter referred as QG6), ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), and anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (anammox). The bacterial immobilization was implemented with the help of a self-designed porous cubic carrier that created structured microenvironments including an inner layer adapted for anaerobic bacteria, a middle layer suitable for coaggregation of certain aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and an outer layer for heterotrophic bacteria. By coating functional polyurethane foam (FPUF) with iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs), the biocarrier (IONPs-FPUF) could provide a good outer-layer barrier for absorption and selective treatment of aromatic compounds by QG6, offer a conducive environment for anammox in the inner layer, and provide a mutualistic environment for AOB in the middle layer. Consequently, simultaneous nitrification and denitrification were reached with the significant removal of up to 322 mg L (98%) NH, 311 mg L (99%) NO, and 633 mg L (97%) total nitrogen (8 mg L averaged NO concentration was recorded in the effluent), accompanied by an efficient removal of chemical oxygen demand by 3286 mg L (98%) and 350 mg L (100%) quinoline. This study provides an alternative way to promote synergic adsorption and biodegradation with the help of a modified biocarrier that has great potential for treatment of wastewater containing high-strength carbon, toxic organic pollutants, and nitrogen.

  10. Synergic Adsorption-Biodegradation by an Advanced Carrier for Enhanced Removal of High-Strength Nitrogen and Refractory Organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muhammad; Liu, Sitong; Mahmood, Nasir; Mahmood, Asif; Ali, Muhammad; Zheng, Maosheng; Ni, Jinren

    2017-04-19

    Coking wastewater contains not only high-strength nitrogen but also toxic biorefractory organics. This study presents simultaneous removal of high-strength quinoline, carbon, and ammonium in coking wastewater by immobilized bacterial communities composed of a heterotrophic strain Pseudomonas sp. QG6 (hereafter referred as QG6), ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), and anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (anammox). The bacterial immobilization was implemented with the help of a self-designed porous cubic carrier that created structured microenvironments including an inner layer adapted for anaerobic bacteria, a middle layer suitable for coaggregation of certain aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and an outer layer for heterotrophic bacteria. By coating functional polyurethane foam (FPUF) with iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs), the biocarrier (IONPs-FPUF) could provide a good outer-layer barrier for absorption and selective treatment of aromatic compounds by QG6, offer a conducive environment for anammox in the inner layer, and provide a mutualistic environment for AOB in the middle layer. Consequently, simultaneous nitrification and denitrification were reached with the significant removal of up to 322 mg L -1 (98%) NH 4 , 311 mg L -1 (99%) NO 2 , and 633 mg L -1 (97%) total nitrogen (8 mg L -1 averaged NO 3 concentration was recorded in the effluent), accompanied by an efficient removal of chemical oxygen demand by 3286 mg L -1 (98%) and 350 mg L -1 (100%) quinoline. This study provides an alternative way to promote synergic adsorption and biodegradation with the help of a modified biocarrier that has great potential for treatment of wastewater containing high-strength carbon, toxic organic pollutants, and nitrogen.

  11. ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS SAMPLE ANALYSIS, CHEMICAL MODELING, AND FILTRATION EVALUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; Herman, D.; Pike, J.; Peters, T.

    2014-06-05

    Filtration within the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) currently limits the throughput in interim salt processing at the Savannah River Site. In this process, batches of salt solution with Monosodium Titanate (MST) sorbent are concentrated by crossflow filtration. The filtrate is subsequently processed to remove cesium in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) followed by disposal in saltstone grout. The concentrated MST slurry is washed and sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification. During recent ARP processing, there has been a degradation of filter performance manifested as the inability to maintain high filtrate flux throughout a multi-batch cycle. The objectives of this effort were to characterize the feed streams, to determine if solids (in addition to MST) are precipitating and causing the degraded performance of the filters, and to assess the particle size and rheological data to address potential filtration impacts. Equilibrium modelling with OLI Analyzer{sup TM} and OLI ESP{sup TM} was performed to determine chemical components at risk of precipitation and to simulate the ARP process. The performance of ARP filtration was evaluated to review potential causes of the observed filter behavior. Task activities for this study included extensive physical and chemical analysis of samples from the Late Wash Pump Tank (LWPT) and the Late Wash Hold Tank (LWHT) within ARP as well as samples of the tank farm feed from Tank 49H. The samples from the LWPT and LWHT were obtained from several stages of processing of Salt Batch 6D, Cycle 6, Batch 16.

  12. Multi-Level Contact Oxidation Process Performance When Treating Automobile Painting Wastewater: Pollutant Removal Efficiency and Microbial Community Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufang Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study applied a multi-level contact oxidation process system in a pilot-scale experiment to treat automobile painting wastewater. The experimental wastewater had been pre-treated through a series of physicochemical methods, but the water still contained a high concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD and had poor biodegradability. After the biological treatment, the COD concentration of effluent could stay below 300 mg/L. The study analyzed the effects of hydraulic residence time (HRT on COD, ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N, and total nitrogen (TN. The optimal HRT was 8 h; at that time, removal efficiencies of COD, ammonia nitrogen, and total nitrogen were 83.8%, 86.3%, and 65%, respectively. The system also greatly reduced excess sludge production; the removal efficiency was 82.8% with a HRT of 8 h. The study applied high-throughput pyrosequencing technology to evaluate the microbial diversity and community structures in distinct stages of the biological reactor. The relevance between process performance and microbial community structure was analyzed at the phylum and class level. The abundant Firmicutes made a large contribution to improving the biodegradability of painting wastewater through hydrolysis acidification and reducing sludge production through fermentation in the biological reactor.

  13. Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Ammonia was produced by 13 companies at 23 plants in 16 states during 2009. Sixty percent of all U.S. ammonia production capacity was centered in Louisiana. Oklahoma and Texas because of those states' large reserves of natural gas, the dominant domestic feedstock. In 2009, U.S. producers operated at about 83 percent of their rated capacity (excluding plants that were idle for the entire year). Five companies — Koch Nitrogen Co.; Terra Industries Inc.; CF Industries Inc.; PCS Nitrogen Inc. and Agrium Inc., in descending order — accounted for 80 percent of the total U.S. ammonia production capacity. U.S. production was estimated to be 7.7 Mt (8.5 million st) of nitrogen (N) content in 2009 compared with 7.85 Mt (8.65 million st) of N content in 2008. Apparent consumption was estimated to have decreased to 12.1 Mt (13.3 million st) of N, a 10-percent decrease from 2008. The United States was the world's fourth-ranked ammonia producer and consumer following China, India and Russia. Urea, ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphates, nitric acid and ammonium sulfate were the major derivatives of ammonia in the United States, in descending order of importance.

  14. Enhanced nitrogen removal in single-chamber microbial fuel cells with increased gas diffusion areas

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Hengjing; Regan, John M.

    2012-01-01

    significantly increased the ammonia and COD removal rates (by up to 115% and 39%), ammonia removal efficiency (by up to 134%), the cell voltage and cathode potentials, and the power densities (by a factor of approximately 2). When the COD/N ratio was lowered

  15. Aluminium removal from water after defluoridation with the electrocoagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Richa; Mathur, Sanjay; Brighu, Urmila

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride is the most electronegative element and has a strong affinity for aluminium. Owing to this fact, most of the techniques used for fluoride removal utilized aluminium compounds, which results in high concentrations of aluminium in treated water. In the present paper, a new approach is presented to meet the WHO guideline for residual aluminium concentration as 0.2 mg/L. In the present work, the electrocoagulation (EC) process was used for fluoride removal. It was found that aluminium content in water increases with an increase in the energy input. Therefore, experiments were optimized for a minimum energy input to achieve the target value (0.7 mg/L) of fluoride in resultant water. These optimized sets were used for further investigations of aluminium control. The experimental investigations revealed that use of bentonite clay as coagulant in clariflocculation brings down the aluminium concentration of water below the WHO guideline. Bentonite dose of 2 g/L was found to be the best for efficient removal of aluminium.

  16. Process for removal of sulfur compounds from fuel gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Raymond H.; Stegen, Gary E.

    1978-01-01

    Fuel gases such as those produced in the gasification of coal are stripped of sulfur compounds and particulate matter by contact with molten metal salt. The fuel gas and salt are intimately mixed by passage through a venturi or other constriction in which the fuel gas entrains the molten salt as dispersed droplets to a gas-liquid separator. The separated molten salt is divided into a major and a minor flow portion with the minor flow portion passing on to a regenerator in which it is contacted with steam and carbon dioxide as strip gas to remove sulfur compounds. The strip gas is further processed to recover sulfur. The depleted, minor flow portion of salt is passed again into contact with the fuel gas for further sulfur removal from the gas. The sulfur depleted, fuel gas then flows through a solid absorbent for removal of salt droplets. The minor flow portion of the molten salt is then recombined with the major flow portion for feed to the venturi.

  17. [Identification and Nitrogen Removal Characteristics of a Heterotrophic Nitrification-Aerobic Denitrification Strain Isolated from Marine Environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qing-hua; Yu, De-shuang; Zhang, Pei-yu; Lin, Xue-zheng; Li, Jin

    2016-02-15

    A heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification strain named y5 was isolated from marine environment by traditional microbial isolation method using seawater as medium. It was identified as Klebsiella sp. based on the morphological, physiological and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The experiment results showed that the optimal carbon resource was sodium citrate; the optimal pH was 7.0; and the optimal C/N was 17. The strain could use NH4Cl, NaNO2 and KNO3 as sole nitrogen source, and the removal efficiencies were77.07%, 64.14% and 100% after 36 hours, respectively. The removal efficiency reached 100% after 36 hours in the coexistence of NH4Cl, NaNO2 and KNO3. The results showed that the strain y5 had independent and efficient heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification activities in high salt wastewater.

  18. A process to remove ammonia from PUREX plant effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Zirconium-clad nuclear fuel from the Hanford N-Reactor is reprocessed in the PUREX (Plutonium Uranium Extraction) Plant operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Comapny. Before dissolution, cladding is chemically removed from the fuel elements with a solution of ammonium fluoride-ammonium nitrate (AFAN). a solution batch with an ammonia equivalent of about 1,100 kg is added to each fuel batch of 10 metric tons. This paper reports on this decladding process, know as the 'Zirflex' process which produces waste streams containing ammonia and ammonium slats. Waste stream treatment, includes ammonia scrubbing, scrub solution evaporation, residual solids dissolution, and chemical neutralization. These processes produce secondary liquid and gaseous waste streams containing varying concentrations of ammonia and low-level concentrations of radionuclides. Until legislative restrictions were imposed in 1987, these secondary streams were released to the soil in a liquid disposal 'crib' and to the atmosphere

  19. Nitrogen removal by denitrification in the sediments of a shallow lake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijn, van F.

    1997-01-01

    Most surface waters in the Netherlands are highly eutrophicated due to high loadings with the nutrients nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). To improve the water quality of lakes often the phosphorus loading is reduced. Due to phosphorus release from the sediments the success of the recovery of

  20. Treatment of highly polluted groundwater by novel iron removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, S J; Kang, C D; Lee, J W; Kim, W S

    2001-01-01

    The removal of ferrous iron (Fe(II)) in groundwater has been generally achieved by simple aeration, or the addition of an oxidizing agent. Aeration has been shown to be very efficient in insolubilization ferrous iron at a pH level greater than 6.5. In this study, pH was maintained over 6.5 using limestone granules under constant aeration to oxidize ferrous iron in groundwater in a limestone packed column. A sedimentation unit coupled with a membrane filtration was also developed to precipitate and filtrate the oxidized ferric compound simultaneously. Several bench-scale studies, including the effects of the limestone granule sizes, amounts and hydraulic retention time on iron removal in the limestone packed column were investigated. It was found that 550 g/L of the 7-8 mesh size limestone granules, and 20 min of hydraulic retention time in the limestone packed column, were necessary for the sufficient oxidation of 40 mg/L of iron(II) in groundwater. Long-term operation was successfully achieved in contaminated waters by removing the iron deposits on the surface of the limestone granule by continuous aeration from the bottom of the column. Periodic reverse flow helped to remove caking and fouling of membrane surface caused by the continuous filtration. Recycling of the treated water from the membrane right after reverse flow operation made possible an admissible limit of iron concentration of the treated water for drinking. The pilot-scale process was constructed and has been tested in the rural area of Korea.

  1. Extraction process for removing metallic impurities from alkalide metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Lamar T.

    1988-01-01

    A development is described for removing metallic impurities from alkali metals by employing an extraction process wherein the metallic impurities are extracted from a molten alkali metal into molten lithium metal due to the immiscibility of the alkali metals in lithium and the miscibility of the metallic contaminants or impurities in the lithium. The purified alkali metal may be readily separated from the contaminant-containing lithium metal by simple decanting due to the differences in densities and melting temperatures of the alkali metals as compared to lithium.

  2. Use of bioreactor landfill for nitrogen removal to enhance methane production through ex situ simultaneous nitrification-denitrification and in situ denitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaojie; Zhang, Hongxia; Cheng, Zhaowen

    2017-08-01

    High concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen (NO 3 - -N) derived from ex situ nitrification phase can inhibit methane production during ex situ nitrification and in situ denitrification bioreactor landfill. A combined process comprised of ex situ simultaneous nitrification-denitrification (SND) in an aged refuse bioreactor (ARB) and in situ denitrification in a fresh refuse bioreactor (FRB) was conducted to reduce the negative effect of high concentrationsof NO 3 - -N. Ex situ SND can be achieved because NO 3 - -N concentration can be reduced and the removal rate of ammonium-nitrogen (NH 4 + -N) remains largely unchanged when the ventilation rate of ARB-A2 is controlled. The average NO 3 - -N concentrations of effluent were 470mg/L in ex situ nitrification ARB-A1 and 186mg/L in ex situ SND ARB-A2. The average NH 4 + -N removal rates of ARB-A1 and ARB-A2 were 98% and 94%, respectively. Based on the experimental data from week 4 to week 30, it is predicted that NH 4 + -N concentration in FRB-F1 of the ex situ nitrification and in situ denitrification process would reach 25mg/L after 63weeks, and about 40weeks for the FRB-F2 of ex situ SND and in situ denitrification process . Ex situ SND and in situ denitrification process can improve themethane production of FRB-F2. The lag phase time of methane production for the FRB-F2 was 11weeks. This phase was significantly shorter than the 15-week phases of FRB-F1 in ex situ nitrification and in situ denitrification process. A seven-week stabilizationphase was required to increase methane content from 5% to 50% for FRB-F2. Methane content in FRB-F1 did not reach 50% but reached the 45% peak after 20weeks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of application rates and media types on nitrogen and surfactant removal in trickling filters applied to the post-treatment of effluents from UASB reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, P. G. S. de; Taveres, F. v. F.; Chernicharo, C. A. I.

    2009-07-01

    Tricking filters are a very promising alternative for the post treatment of effluents from UASB reactors treating domestic sewage,especially in developing countries. Although a fair amount of information is already available regarding organic mater removal in this combined system, very little is known in relation to nitrogen and surfactant removal in trickling filters post-UASB reactors. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect evaluate and compare the effect of different application rates and packing media types on trickling filters applied to the post-treatment of effluents from UASB reactors, regarding the removal of ammonia nitrogen and surfactants. (Author)

  4. Effect of application rates and media types on nitrogen and surfactant removal in trickling filters applied to the post-treatment of effluents from UASB reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, P. G. S. de; Taveres, F. v. F.; Chernicharo, C. A. I.

    2009-01-01

    Tricking filters are a very promising alternative for the post treatment of effluents from UASB reactors treating domestic sewage,especially in developing countries. Although a fair amount of information is already available regarding organic mater removal in this combined system, very little is known in relation to nitrogen and surfactant removal in trickling filters post-UASB reactors. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect evaluate and compare the effect of different application rates and packing media types on trickling filters applied to the post-treatment of effluents from UASB reactors, regarding the removal of ammonia nitrogen and surfactants. (Author)

  5. Organics and nitrogen removal from textile auxiliaries wastewater with A{sup 2}O-MBR in a pilot-scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Faqian [Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Sun, Bin [Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Shanghai Electric Group Co. Ltd. Central Academe, Shanghai 200070 (China); Hu, Jian; He, Yangyang [Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wu, Weixiang, E-mail: weixiang@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • A pilot-scale A{sup 2}O-MBR system treating textile auxiliaries wastewater was assessed. • Organic matter and recycle ratio strongly affected the performance of the system. • GC/MS analysis found some refractory organics in the MBR permeate. • Combination of organic foulants and inorganic compounds caused membrane fouling. - Abstract: The removal of organic compounds and nitrogen in an anaerobic–anoxic–aerobic membrane bioreactor process (A{sup 2}O-MBR) for treatment of textile auxiliaries (TA) wastewater was investigated. The results show that the average effluent concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium nitrogen (NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N) and total nitrogen (TN) were about 119, 3 and 48 mg/L under an internal recycle ratio of 1.5. The average removal efficiency of COD, NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N and TN were 87%, 96% and 55%, respectively. Gas chromatograph–mass spectrometer analysis indicated that, although as much as 121 different types of organic compounds were present in the TA wastewater, only 20 kinds of refractory organic compounds were found in the MBR effluent, which could be used as indicators of effluents from this kind of industrial wastewater. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that bacterial foulants were significant contributors to membrane fouling. An examination of foulants components by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence showed that the combination of organic foulants and inorganic compounds enhanced the formation of gel layer and thus caused membrane fouling. The results will provide valuable information for optimizing the design and operation of wastewater treatment system in the textile industry.

  6. Novel forward osmosis process to effectively remove heavy metal ions

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Yue; Ge, Qingchun; Liu, Xiangyang; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a novel forward osmosis (FO) process for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater was demonstrated for the first time. The proposed FO process consists of a thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane made from interfacial polymerization on a macrovoid-free polyimide support and a novel bulky hydroacid complex Na4[Co(C6H4O7)2]·r2H2O (Na-Co-CA) as the draw solute to minimize the reverse solute flux. The removal of six heavy metal solutions, i.e., Na2Cr2O7, Na2HAsO4, Pb(NO3)2, CdCl2, CuSO4, Hg(NO3)2, were successfully demonstrated. Water fluxes around 11L/m2/h (LMH) were harvested with heavy metals rejections of more than 99.5% when employing 1M Na-Co-CA as the draw solution to process 2000ppm(1 ppm=1 mg/L) heavy metal solutions at room temperature. This FO performance outperforms most nanofiltration (NF) processes. In addition, the high rejections were maintained at 99.5% when a more concentrated draw solution (1.5M) or feed solution (5000ppm) was utilized. Furthermore, rejections greater than 99.7% were still achieved with an enhanced water flux of 16.5LMH by operating the FO process at 60°C. The impressive heavy metal rejections and satisfactory water flux under various conditions suggest great potential of the newly developed FO system for the treatment of heavy metal wastewater. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Novel forward osmosis process to effectively remove heavy metal ions

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Yue

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a novel forward osmosis (FO) process for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater was demonstrated for the first time. The proposed FO process consists of a thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane made from interfacial polymerization on a macrovoid-free polyimide support and a novel bulky hydroacid complex Na4[Co(C6H4O7)2]·r2H2O (Na-Co-CA) as the draw solute to minimize the reverse solute flux. The removal of six heavy metal solutions, i.e., Na2Cr2O7, Na2HAsO4, Pb(NO3)2, CdCl2, CuSO4, Hg(NO3)2, were successfully demonstrated. Water fluxes around 11L/m2/h (LMH) were harvested with heavy metals rejections of more than 99.5% when employing 1M Na-Co-CA as the draw solution to process 2000ppm(1 ppm=1 mg/L) heavy metal solutions at room temperature. This FO performance outperforms most nanofiltration (NF) processes. In addition, the high rejections were maintained at 99.5% when a more concentrated draw solution (1.5M) or feed solution (5000ppm) was utilized. Furthermore, rejections greater than 99.7% were still achieved with an enhanced water flux of 16.5LMH by operating the FO process at 60°C. The impressive heavy metal rejections and satisfactory water flux under various conditions suggest great potential of the newly developed FO system for the treatment of heavy metal wastewater. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Absorption process for removing krypton from the off-gas of an LMFBR fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, M.J.; Dunthorn, D.I.; Reed, W.D.; Pashley, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant selective absorption process for the collection and recovery of krypton and xenon is being further developed to demonstrate, on a pilot scale, a fluorocarbon-based process for removing krypton from the off-gas of an LMFBR fuel reprocessing plant. The new ORGDP selective absorption pilot plant consists of a primary absorption-stripping operation and all peripheral equipment required for feed gas preparation, process solvent recovery, process solvent purification, and krypton product purification. The new plant is designed to achieve krypton decontamination factors in excess of 10 3 with product concentration factors greater than 10 4 while processing a feed gas containing typical quantities of common reprocessing plant off-gas impurities, including oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, water, xenon, iodine, and methyl iodide. Installation and shakedown of the facility were completed and some short-term tests were conducted early this year. The first operating campaign using a simulated reprocessing plant off-gas feed is now underway. The current program objective is to demonstrate continuous process operability and performance for extended periods of time while processing the simulated ''dirty'' feed. This year's activity will be devoted to routine off-gas processing with little or no deliberate system perturbations. Future work will involve the study of the system behavior under feed perturbations and various plant disturbances. (U.S.)

  9. Hydraulic effects on nitrogen removal in a tidal spring-fed river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Robert T.; Cohen, Matthew J.; Korhnak, Larry V.

    2015-03-01

    Hydraulic properties such as stage and residence time are important controls on riverine N removal. In most rivers, these hydraulic properties vary with stochastic precipitation forcing, but in tidal rivers, hydraulics variation occurs on a predictable cycle. In Manatee Springs, a highly productive, tidally influenced spring-fed river in Florida, we observed significant reach-scale N removal that varied in response to tidally driven variation in hydraulic properties as well as sunlight-driven variation in assimilatory uptake. After accounting for channel residence time and stage variation, we partitioned the total removal signal into assimilatory (i.e., plant uptake) and dissimilatory (principally denitrification) pathways. Assimilatory uptake was strongly correlated with primary production and ecosystem C:N was concordant with tissue stoichiometry of the dominant autotrophs. The magnitude of N removal was broadly consistent in magnitude with predictions from models (SPARROW and RivR-N). However, contrary to model predictions, the highest removal occurred at the lowest values of τ/d (residence time divided by depth), which occurred at low tide. Removal efficiency also exhibited significant counterclockwise hysteresis with incoming versus outgoing tides. This behavior is best explained by the sequential filling and draining of transient storage zones such that water that has spent the longest time in the storage zone, and thus had the most time for N removal, drains back into the channel at the end of an outgoing tide, concurrent with shortest channel residence times. Capturing this inversion of the expected relationship between channel residence time and N removal highlights the need for nonsteady state reactive transport models.

  10. 454-Pyrosequencing Analysis of Bacterial Communities from Autotrophic Nitrogen Removal Bioreactors Utilizing Universal Primers: Effect of Annealing Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Martinez, Alejandro; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Alejandro; Rodelas, Belén; Abbas, Ben A; Martinez-Toledo, Maria Victoria; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Osorio, F; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Identification of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria by molecular tools aimed at the evaluation of bacterial diversity in autotrophic nitrogen removal systems is limited by the difficulty to design universal primers for the Bacteria domain able to amplify the anammox 16S rRNA genes. A metagenomic analysis (pyrosequencing) of total bacterial diversity including anammox population in five autotrophic nitrogen removal technologies, two bench-scale models (MBR and Low Temperature CANON) and three full-scale bioreactors (anammox, CANON, and DEMON), was successfully carried out by optimization of primer selection and PCR conditions (annealing temperature). The universal primer 530F was identified as the best candidate for total bacteria and anammox bacteria diversity coverage. Salt-adjusted optimum annealing temperature of primer 530F was calculated (47°C) and hence a range of annealing temperatures of 44-49°C was tested. Pyrosequencing data showed that annealing temperature of 45°C yielded the best results in terms of species richness and diversity for all bioreactors analyzed.

  11. 454-Pyrosequencing Analysis of Bacterial Communities from Autotrophic Nitrogen Removal Bioreactors Utilizing Universal Primers: Effect of Annealing Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Gonzalez-Martinez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox bacteria by molecular tools aimed at the evaluation of bacterial diversity in autotrophic nitrogen removal systems is limited by the difficulty to design universal primers for the Bacteria domain able to amplify the anammox 16S rRNA genes. A metagenomic analysis (pyrosequencing of total bacterial diversity including anammox population in five autotrophic nitrogen removal technologies, two bench-scale models (MBR and Low Temperature CANON and three full-scale bioreactors (anammox, CANON, and DEMON, was successfully carried out by optimization of primer selection and PCR conditions (annealing temperature. The universal primer 530F was identified as the best candidate for total bacteria and anammox bacteria diversity coverage. Salt-adjusted optimum annealing temperature of primer 530F was calculated (47°C and hence a range of annealing temperatures of 44–49°C was tested. Pyrosequencing data showed that annealing temperature of 45°C yielded the best results in terms of species richness and diversity for all bioreactors analyzed.

  12. Using one filter stage of unsaturated/saturated vertical flow filters for nitrogen removal and footprint reduction of constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morvannou, Ania; Troesch, Stéphane; Esser, Dirk; Forquet, Nicolas; Petitjean, Alain; Molle, Pascal

    2017-07-01

    French vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCW) treating raw wastewater have been developed successfully over the last 30 years. Nevertheless, the two-stage VFCWs require a total filtration area of 2-2.5 m 2 /P.E. Therefore, implementing a one-stage system in which treatment performances reach standard requirements is of interest. Biho-Filter ® is one of the solutions developed in France by Epur Nature. Biho-Filter ® is a vertical flow system with an unsaturated layer at the top and a saturated layer at the bottom. The aim of this study was to assess this new configuration and to optimize its design and operating conditions. The hydraulic functioning and pollutant removal efficiency of three different Biho-Filter ® plants commissioned between 2011 and 2012 were studied. Outlet concentrations of the most efficient Biho-Filter ® configuration are 70 mg/L, 15 mg/L, 15 mg/L and 25 mg/L for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD 5 ), total suspended solids (TSS) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), respectively. Up to 60% of total nitrogen is removed. Nitrification efficiency is mainly influenced by the height of the unsaturated zone and the recirculation rate. The optimum recirculation rate was found to be 100%. Denitrification in the saturated zone works at best with an influent COD/NO 3 -N ratio at the inflet of this zone larger than 2 and a hydraulic retention time longer than 0.75 days.

  13. Development on the technologies for tritium removal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Ki Woong; Kim, Yong Ik; Nah, Jung Won; Koo, Je Hyoo; Kim, Kwang Lak; Chung, Heung Suk; Lee, Han Soo; Cho, Yung Hyun; Paek, Seung Woo; Kang, Heui Suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Yong Won [In Hah Univ., Inchun (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    While tritium exposure to the site-workers in Wolsung NPP is upto about 40 % of the total personnel exposure, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety has asked tritium removal facility, as one of the requirements for post reactor construction, after operation of four CANDU reactors in Wolsung site. For the purpose of essential removal of tritium from the heavy water system of the heavy water reactors, an experiment of Ar-N{sub 2} cryogenic distillation tower was carried out as a preliminary study for development of liquid-phase catalytic exchange - cryogenic hydrogen distillation process. The steady-state reached after 50 minutes under 90 K in the Ar-N{sub 2} distillation column (inner diameter 20 mm, height 500 mm) packed with Dixon ring ({phi} 3 mm x H 3 mm), and the ratios of Ar-concentration at the top and at the bottom measured by gas chromatography within {+-}1 % relative error was approximately 93 : 3. This value was distillation performances quite higher than those estimated by computer-simulation, which might be due to good efficiency of the packing materials. Several dynamic characteristics such as height equivalent to theoretical plate or effects of the kind of packing materials for Ar-N{sub 2} distillation column to be produced will be available for design study of cryogenic hydrogen distillation process. 19 figs, 17 tabs, 21 refs. (Author).

  14. Development on the technologies for tritium removal processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Ki Woong; Kim, Yong Ik; Nah, Jung Won; Koo, Je Hyoo; Kim, Kwang Lak; Chung, Heung Suk; Lee, Han Soo; Cho, Yung Hyun; Paek, Seung Woo; Kang, Heui Suk; Chung, Yong Won

    1994-12-01

    While tritium exposure to the site-workers in Wolsung NPP is upto about 40 % of the total personnel exposure, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety has asked tritium removal facility, as one of the requirements for post reactor construction, after operation of four CANDU reactors in Wolsung site. For the purpose of essential removal of tritium from the heavy water system of the heavy water reactors, an experiment of Ar-N 2 cryogenic distillation tower was carried out as a preliminary study for development of liquid-phase catalytic exchange - cryogenic hydrogen distillation process. The steady-state reached after 50 minutes under 90 K in the Ar-N 2 distillation column (inner diameter 20 mm, height 500 mm) packed with Dixon ring (φ 3 mm x H 3 mm), and the ratios of Ar-concentration at the top and at the bottom measured by gas chromatography within ±1 % relative error was approximately 93 : 3. This value was distillation performances quite higher than those estimated by computer-simulation, which might be due to good efficiency of the packing materials. Several dynamic characteristics such as height equivalent to theoretical plate or effects of the kind of packing materials for Ar-N 2 distillation column to be produced will be available for design study of cryogenic hydrogen distillation process. 19 figs, 17 tabs, 21 refs. (Author)

  15. The AMES Laboratory chemical disposal site removal action: Source removal, processing, and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Ames Laboratory has historically supported the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) and its predecessor agencies by providing research into the purification and manufacturing of high purity uranium, thorium, and yttrium metals. Much of this work was accomplished in the late 1950s and early 1960s prior to the legislation of strict rules and regulations covering the disposal of radioactive and chemical wastes. As a result, approximately 800 cubic meters of low-level radioactive wastes, chemical wastes, and contaminated debris were disposed in nine near surface cells located in a 0.75 hectare plot of land owned by Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa. Under a national contract with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), OHM Remediation Services Corp (OHM) was tasked with providing turnkey environmental services to remove, process, package, transport, and coordinate the disposal of the waste materials and contaminated environmental media

  16. The Ames Laboratory Chemical Disposal Site removal action: Source removal, processing, and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    The Ames Laboratory has historically supported the US Department of Energy (USDOE) and its predecessor agencies by providing research into the purification and manufacturing of high purity uranium, thorium, and yttrium metals. Much of this work was accomplished in the late 1950s and early 1960s prior to the legislation of strict rules and regulations covering the disposal of radioactive and chemical wastes. As a result, approximately 800 cubic meters of low-level radioactive wastes, mixed wastes, and contaminated debris were disposed in nine near surface cells located in a 0.75 hectare plot of land owned by Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa. Under a national contract with the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), OHM Remediation Services Corp. (OHM) was tasked with providing turnkey environmental services to remove, process, package, transport, and coordinate the disposal of the waste materials and contaminated environmental media

  17. Biological removal of metal ions from aqueous process streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumate, S.E. II; Strandberg, G.W.; Parrott, J.R. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Aqueous waste streams from nuclear fuel processing operations may contain trace quantities of heavy metals such as uranium. Conventional chemical and physical treatment may be ineffective or very expensive when uranium concentrations in the range of 10 to 100 g/m 3 must be reduced to 1 g/m 3 or less. The ability of some microorganisms to adsorb or complex dissolved heavy metals offers an alternative treatment method. Uranium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-2574 and a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was examined to identify factors which might affect a process for the removal of uranium from wastewater streams. At uranium concentrations in the range of 10 to 500 g/m 3 , where the binding capacity of the biomass was not exceeded, temperature, pH, and initial uranium concentration were found to influence the rate of uranium uptake, but not the soluble uranium concentration at equilibrium. 6 figs

  18. Reduction of produced elementary sulfur in denitrifying sulfide removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xu; Liu, Lihong; Chen, Chuan; Ren, Nanqi; Wang, Aijie; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2011-05-01

    Denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) processes simultaneously convert sulfide, nitrate, and chemical oxygen demand from industrial wastewater into elemental sulfur, dinitrogen gas, and carbon dioxide, respectively. The failure of a DSR process is signaled by high concentrations of sulfide in reactor effluent. Conventionally, DSR reactor failure is blamed for overcompetition for heterotroph to autotroph communities. This study indicates that the elementary sulfur produced by oxidizing sulfide that is a recoverable resource from sulfide-laden wastewaters can be reduced back to sulfide by sulfur-reducing Methanobacterium sp. The Methanobacterium sp. was stimulated with excess organic carbon (acetate) when nitrite was completely consumed by heterotrophic denitrifiers. Adjusting hydraulic retention time of a DSR reactor when nitrite is completely consumed provides an additional control variable for maximizing DSR performance.

  19. Nitrogen-Doped Carbonaceous Materials for Removal of Phenol from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Hofman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbonaceous material (brown coal modified by pyrolysis, activation, and enrichment in nitrogen, with two different factor reagents, have been used as adsorbent of phenol from liquid phase. Changes in the phenol content in the test solutions were monitored after subsequent intervals of adsorption with selected adsorbents prepared from organic materials. Significant effect of nitrogen present in the adsorbent material on its adsorption capacity was noted. Sorption capacity of these selected materials was found to depend on the time of use, their surface area, and pore distribution. A conformation to the most well-known adsorption isotherm models, Langmuir, and Freundlich ones, confirms the formation of mono- and heterolayer solute (phenol coverage on the surface of the adsorbent applied herein. The materials proposed as adsorbents of the aqueous solution contaminants were proved effective, which means that the waste materials considered are promising activated carbon precursors for liquid phase adsorbents for the environmental protection.

  20. Escherichia coli morphological changes and lipid A removal induced by reduced pressure nitrogen afterglow exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayat Zerrouki

    Full Text Available Lipid A is a major hydrophobic component of lipopolysaccharides (endotoxin present in the membrane of most Gram-negative bacteria, and the major responsible for the bioactivity and toxicity of the endotoxin. Previous studies have demonstrated that the late afterglow region of flowing post-discharges at reduced pressure (1-20 Torr can be used for the sterilization of surfaces and of the reusable medical instrumentation. In the present paper, we show that the antibacterial activity of a pure nitrogen afterglow can essentially be attributed to the large concentrations of nitrogen atoms present in the treatment area and not to the UV radiation of the afterglow. In parallel, the time variation of the inactivation efficiency quantified by the log reduction of the initial Escherichia coli (E. coli population is correlated with morphologic changes observed on the bacteria by scanning electron microscopy (SEM for increasing afterglow exposure times. The effect of the afterglow exposure is also studied on pure lipid A and on lipid A extracted from exposed E. coli bacteria. We report that more than 60% of lipid A (pure or bacteria-extracted are lost with the used operating conditions (nitrogen flow QN2 = 1 standard liter per minute (slpm, pressure p = 5 Torr, microwave injected power PMW = 200 W, exposure time: 40 minutes. The afterglow exposure also results in a reduction of the lipid A proinflammatory activity, assessed by the net decrease of the redox-sensitive NFκB transcription factor nuclear translocation in murine aortic endothelial cells stimulated with control vs afterglow-treated (pure and extracted lipid A. Altogether these results point out the ability of reduced pressure nitrogen afterglows to neutralize the cytotoxic components in Gram-negative bacteria.

  1. Particulate removal processes and hydraulics of porous gravel media filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minto, J. M.; Phoenix, V. R.; Dorea, C. C.; Haynes, H.; Sloan, W. T.

    2013-12-01

    Sustainable urban Drainage Systems (SuDS) are rapidly gaining acceptance as a low-cost tool for treating urban runoff pollutants close to source. Road runoff water in particular requires treatment due to the presence of high levels of suspended particles and heavy metals adsorbed to these particles. The aim of this research is to elucidate the particle removal processes that occur within gravel filters that have so far been considered as 'black-box' systems. Based on these findings, a better understanding will be attained on what influences gravel filter removal efficiency and how this changes throughout their design life; leading to a more rational design of this useful technology. This has been achieved by tying together three disparate research elements: tracer residence time distribution curves of filters during clogging; 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of clogging filters and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling of complex filter pore networks. This research relates column average changes in particle removal efficiency and tracer residence time distributions (RTDs) due to clogging with non-invasive measurement of the spatial variability in particle deposition. The CFD modelling provides a link between observed deposition patterns, flow velocities and wall shear stresses as well as the explanations for the change in RTD with clogging and the effect on particle transport. Results show that, as a filter clogs, particles take a longer, more tortuous path through the filter. This is offset by a reduction in filter volume resulting in higher flow velocities and more rapid particle transport. Higher velocities result in higher shear stresses and the development of preferential pathways in which the velocity exceeds the deposition threshold and the overall efficiency of the filter decreases. Initial pore geometry is linked to the pattern of deposition and subsequent formation of preferential pathways. These results shed light on the 'black-box' internal

  2. Application of electrochemical processes to membrane bioreactors for improving nutrient removal and fouling control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borea, Laura; Naddeo, Vincenzo; Belgiorno, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology is becoming increasingly popular as wastewater treatment due to the unique advantages it offers. However, membrane fouling is being given a great deal of attention so as to improve the performance of this type of technology. Recent studies have proven that the application of electrochemical processes to MBR represents a promising technological approach for membrane fouling control. In this work, two intermittent voltage gradients of 1 and 3 V/cm were applied between two cylindrical perforated electrodes, immersed around a membrane module, at laboratory scale with the aim of investigating the treatment performance and membrane fouling formation. For comparison purposes, the reactor also operated as a conventional MBR. Mechanisms of nutrient removal were studied and membrane fouling formation evaluated in terms of transmembrane pressure variation over time and sludge relative hydrophobicity. Furthermore, the impact of electrochemical processes on transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP), proposed as a new membrane fouling precursor, was investigated in addition to conventional fouling precursors such as bound extracellular polymeric substances (bEPS) and soluble microbial products (SMP). All the results indicate that the integration of electrochemical processes into a MBR has the advantage of improving the treatment performance especially in terms of nutrient removal, with an enhancement of orthophosphate (PO 4 -P) and ammonia nitrogen (NH 4 -N) removal efficiencies up to 96.06 and 69.34 %, respectively. A reduction of membrane fouling was also observed with an increase of floc hydrophobicity to 71.72 %, a decrease of membrane fouling precursor concentrations, and, thus, of membrane fouling rates up to 54.33 %. The relationship found between TEP concentration and membrane fouling rate after the application of electrochemical processes confirms the applicability of this parameter as a new membrane fouling indicator.

  3. Contaminant removal performances on domestic sewage using modified anoxic/anaerobic/oxic process and micro-electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Gao, Jingqing; Liu, Yifan; Xiao, Shuai; Zhang, Ruiqin; Zhang, Zhenya

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) from domestic sewage in a sequencing batch reactor with added new materials. A modified anoxic/anaerobic/oxic (MAAO) process, integrating a micro-electrolysis (ME) bed in an anoxic tank, and complex biological media (CBM) in anoxic, anaerobic and oxic tanks to treat domestic sewage, and their performances were investigated. The MAAO system was operated at controlled hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8 h and mixed liquor recirculation (MLR) at 75%. The results showed that the MAAO system could effectively remove COD, TN and TP with average rates of 93%, 80% and 94%, respectively, in March, and 94%, 76% and 91%, respectively, in August. In this system, TP was primarily removed from the anoxic tank regardless of the operational conditions; removal contribution ratios to TP of the anoxic tank reached 56% both in March and August, indicating that the ME bed can effectively enhance phosphorus removal. TN was primarily removed from the anoxic and anaerobic tanks; removal contribution ratios to TN of anoxic and anaerobic tanks reached 36-38% and 37-38%, respectively. The oxic tank had the highest share of COD removal (56% both in March and August) in the removal of phosphorus. The outflow concentrations of COD, TN and TP were 3-46, 7-14 and 0.3-0.5 mg/L, respectively, in March, and 26-49, 9-15 and 0.04-0.1 mg/L, respectively, in August. COD and TN removal performances indicated that the innovative materials of the ME bed and CBM can effectively enhance COD and TN removal.

  4. Nitrogen-removal performance and community structure of nitrifying bacteria under different aeration modes in an oxidation ditch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chang-Zi; Fu, Wei; Chen, Xue-Mei; Peng, Dang-Cong; Jin, Peng-Kang

    2013-07-01

    Oxidation-ditch operation modes were simulated using sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) with alternate stirring and aerating. The nitrogen-removal efficiencies and nitrifying characteristics of two aeration modes, point aeration and step aeration, were investigated. Under the same air-supply capacity, oxygen dissolved more efficiently in the system with point aeration, forming a larger aerobic zone. The nitrifying effects were similar in point aeration and step aeration, where the average removal efficiencies of NH4(+) N were 98% and 96%, respectively. When the proportion of anoxic and oxic zones was 1, the average removal efficiencies of total nitrogen (TN) were 45% and 66% under point aeration and step aeration, respectively. Step aeration was more beneficial to both anoxic denitrification and simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND). The maximum specific ammonia-uptake rates (AUR) of point aeration and step aeration were 4.7 and 4.9 mg NH4(+)/(gMLVSS h), respectively, while the maximum specific nitrite-uptake rates (NUR) of the two systems were 7.4 and 5.3 mg NO2(-)-N/(gMLVSS h), respectively. The proportions of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) to all bacteria were 5.1% under point aeration and 7.0% under step aeration, and the proportions of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) reached 6.5% and 9.0% under point and step aeration, respectively. The dominant genera of AOB and NOB were Nitrosococcus and Nitrospira, which accounted for 90% and 91%, respectively, under point aeration, and the diversity of nitrifying bacteria was lower than under step aeration. Point aeration was selective of nitrifying bacteria. The abundance of NOB was greater than that of AOB in both of the operation modes, and complete transformation of NH4(+) N to NO3(-)-N was observed without NO2(-)-N accumulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Removal of nitrogen compounds from gasification gas by selective catalytic or non-catalytic oxidation; Typpiyhdisteiden poisto kaasutuskaasusta selektiivisellae katalyyttisellae ja ei-katalyyttisellae hapetuksella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaelahti, J.; Koljonen, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    In gasification reactive nitrogenous compounds are formed from fuel nitrogen, which may form nitrogen oxides in gas combustion. In fluidized bed gasification the most important nitrogenous compound is ammonia (NH{sub 3}). If ammonia could be decomposed to N{sub 2} already before combustion, the emissions if nitrogen oxides could be reduced significantly. One way of increasing the decomposition rate of NH{sub 3} could be the addition of suitable reactants to the gas, which would react with NH{sub 3} and produce N{sub 2}. The aim of this research is to create basic information, which can be used to develop a new method for removal of nitrogen compounds from gasification gas. The reactions of nitrogen compounds and added reactants are studied in reductive atmosphere in order to find conditions, in which nitrogen compounds can be oxidized selectively to N{sub 2}. The project consists of following subtasks: (1) Selective non-catalytic oxidation (SNCO): Reactions of nitrogen compounds and oxidizers in the gas phase, (2) Selective catalytic oxidation (SCO): Reactions of nitrogen compounds and oxidizers on catalytically active surfaces, (3) Kinetic modelling of experimental results in co-operation with the Combustion Chemistry Research Group of Aabo Akademi University. The most important finding has been that NH{sub 3} can be made to react selectively with the oxidizers even in the presence of large amounts of CO and H{sub 2}. Aluminium oxides were found to be the most effective materials promoting selectivity. (author)

  6. Nitrogen removal and greenhouse gas emissions from constructed wetlands receiving tile drainage water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh, Tyler A; Gentry, Lowell E; David, Mark B

    2015-05-01

    Loss of nitrate from agricultural lands to surface waters is an important issue, especially in areas that are extensively tile drained. To reduce these losses, a wide range of in-field and edge-of-field practices have been proposed, including constructed wetlands. We re-evaluated constructed wetlands established in 1994 that were previously studied for their effectiveness in removing nitrate from tile drainage water. Along with this re-evaluation, we measured the production and flux of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO, NO, and CH). The tile inlets and outlets of two wetlands were monitored for flow and N during the 2012 and 2013 water years. In addition, seepage rates of water and nitrate under the berm and through the riparian buffer strip were measured. Greenhouse gas emissions from the wetlands were measured using floating chambers (inundated fluxes) or static chambers (terrestrial fluxes). During this 2-yr study, the wetlands removed 56% of the total inlet nitrate load, likely through denitrification in the wetland. Some additional removal of nitrate occurred in seepage water by the riparian buffer strip along each berm (6.1% of the total inlet load, for a total nitrate removal of 62%). The dominant GHG emitted from the wetlands was CO, which represented 75 and 96% of the total GHG emissions during the two water years. The flux of NO contributed between 3.7 and 13% of the total cumulative GHG flux. Emissions of NO were 3.2 and 1.3% of the total nitrate removed from wetlands A and B, respectively. These wetlands continue to remove nitrate at rates similar to those measured after construction, with relatively little GHG gas loss. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Nitrogen removal in permeable woodchips filters affected by hydraulic loading rate and woodchips ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jacob Druedahl; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Hoffmann, Carl Christian

    2016-01-01

    response of mixed reactive media (woodchips-Seashells and woodchips-Filtralite mixtures) at two woodchips ratios (WR) to changes in the hydraulic loading rate (HLR). The tests implied continuous loading of aerated NO3-N spiked artificial drainage water and tritium (3H2O) breakthrough experiments. Flow...... normalized nitrate reduction rates were 0.35-3.97 g N m-3 L-1, corresponding to N- removal efficiencies of 5 to 74% depending on HLR and filter mixtures. At high HLR oxic conditions prevailed, thus N removal was restricted to the immobile domain, controlled by diffusion. At lower HLR, progressively lower...

  8. Nitrogen Removal in a Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland Estimated Using the First-Order Kinetic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Cui

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We monitored the water quality and hydrological conditions of a horizontal subsurface constructed wetland (HSSF-CW in Beijing, China, for two years. We simulated the area-based constant and the temperature coefficient with the first-order kinetic model. We examined the relationships between the nitrogen (N removal rate, N load, seasonal variations in the N removal rate, and environmental factors—such as the area-based constant, temperature, and dissolved oxygen (DO. The effluent ammonia (NH4+-N and nitrate (NO3−-N concentrations were significantly lower than the influent concentrations (p < 0.01, n = 38. The NO3−-N load was significantly correlated with the removal rate (R2 = 0.96, p < 0.01, but the NH4+-N load was not correlated with the removal rate (R2 = 0.02, p > 0.01. The area-based constants of NO3−-N and NH4+-N at 20 °C were 27 ± 26 (mean ± SD and 14 ± 10 m∙year−1, respectively. The temperature coefficients for NO3−-N and NH4+-N were estimated at 1.004 and 0.960, respectively. The area-based constants for NO3−-N and NH4+-N were not correlated with temperature (p > 0.01. The NO3−-N area-based constant was correlated with the corresponding load (R2 = 0.96, p < 0.01. The NH4+-N area rate was correlated with DO (R2 = 0.69, p < 0.01, suggesting that the factors that influenced the N removal rate in this wetland met Liebig’s law of the minimum.

  9. Optimization of operation conditions for the startup of aerobic granular sludge reactors biologically removing carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmatter, Samuel; Holliger, Christof

    2014-08-01

    The transformation of conventional flocculent sludge to aerobic granular sludge (AGS) biologically removing carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus (COD, N, P) is still a main challenge in startup of AGS sequencing batch reactors (AGS-SBRs). On the one hand a rapid granulation is desired, on the other hand good biological nutrient removal capacities have to be maintained. So far, several operation parameters have been studied separately, which makes it difficult to compare their impacts. We investigated seven operation parameters in parallel by applying a Plackett-Burman experimental design approach with the aim to propose an optimized startup strategy. Five out of the seven tested parameters had a significant impact on the startup duration. The conditions identified to allow a rapid startup of AGS-SBRs with good nutrient removal performances were (i) alternation of high and low dissolved oxygen phases during aeration, (ii) a settling strategy avoiding too high biomass washout during the first weeks of reactor operation, (iii) adaptation of the contaminant load in the early stage of the startup in order to ensure that all soluble COD was consumed before the beginning of the aeration phase, (iv) a temperature of 20 °C, and (v) a neutral pH. Under such conditions, it took less than 30 days to produce granular sludge with high removal performances for COD, N, and P. A control run using this optimized startup strategy produced again AGS with good nutrient removal performances within four weeks and the system was stable during the additional operation period of more than 50 days. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, Robert; McConnell, Elizabeth

    2016-06-29

    Machining methods across many industries generally require multiple operations to machine and process advanced materials, features with micron precision, and complex shapes. The resulting multiple machining platforms can significantly affect manufacturing cycle time and the precision of the final parts, with a resultant increase in cost and energy consumption. Ultrafast lasers represent a transformative and disruptive technology that removes material with micron precision and in a single step manufacturing process. Such precision results from athermal ablation without modification or damage to the remaining material which is the key differentiator between ultrafast laser technologies and traditional laser technologies or mechanical processes. Athermal ablation without modification or damage to the material eliminates post-processing or multiple manufacturing steps. Combined with the appropriate technology to control the motion of the work piece, ultrafast lasers are excellent candidates to provide breakthrough machining capability for difficult-to-machine materials. At the project onset in early 2012, the project team recognized that substantial effort was necessary to improve the application of ultrafast laser and precise motion control technologies (for micromachining difficult-to-machine materials) to further the aggregate throughput and yield improvements over conventional machining methods. The project described in this report advanced these leading-edge technologies thru the development and verification of two platforms: a hybrid enhanced laser chassis and a multi-application testbed.

  11. Process and system for removing impurities from a gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsen, Gunnar; Knowlton, Teddy Merrill; Findlay, John George; Schlather, Jerry Neal; Turk, Brian S

    2014-04-15

    A fluidized reactor system for removing impurities from a gas and an associated process are provided. The system includes a fluidized absorber for contacting a feed gas with a sorbent stream to reduce the impurity content of the feed gas; a fluidized solids regenerator for contacting an impurity loaded sorbent stream with a regeneration gas to reduce the impurity content of the sorbent stream; a first non-mechanical gas seal forming solids transfer device adapted to receive an impurity loaded sorbent stream from the absorber and transport the impurity loaded sorbent stream to the regenerator at a controllable flow rate in response to an aeration gas; and a second non-mechanical gas seal forming solids transfer device adapted to receive a sorbent stream of reduced impurity content from the regenerator and transfer the sorbent stream of reduced impurity content to the absorber without changing the flow rate of the sorbent stream.

  12. Environmental Modeling, The Buffer Priority layers for Nitrogen Removal identify priority forest/grass buffer sites by subwatershed. Land use, hydrology, soil, and landscape characteristics were analyzed to rank opportunities with high nitrogen removal potential., Published in 2014, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Environmental Modeling dataset current as of 2014. The Buffer Priority layers for Nitrogen Removal identify priority forest/grass buffer sites by subwatershed. Land...

  13. Removal of nitrogen and organic matter in a submerged-membrane bioreactor operating in a condition of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Major Barbosa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the removal of nitrogen and organic matter in a membrane bioreactor system operating in a condition of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification controlled by intermittent aeration. A submerged-membrane system in a bioreactor was used in a pilot scale to treat domestic wastewater. The dissolved oxygen concentration was maintained between 0.5 and 0.8 mg L-1. The concentration of the mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS in the system ranged from 1 to 6 g L-1. The system efficiency was evaluated by the removal efficiency of organic matter, quantified by Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5 and Total Organic Carbon (TOC. Nitrogen removal was assessed by quantifying Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN and ammonia nitrogen. During the system start-up, the removal efficiencies of COD and NTK were around 90% and 80%, respectively. After the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND conditions were established, the removal efficiencies of COD and NTK were 70% and 99%, respectively. These results showed that sewage treatment with the membrane bioreactor (MBR system, operating with simultaneous nitrification and denitrification conditions, was able to remove organic matter and promote nitrification and denitrification in a single reactor, producing a high-quality permeate.

  14. Thermodynamic processes associated with frostbite in the handling of liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Cook, C. R.

    2014-01-01

    It is often taught that exposure to liquid nitrogen will cause frostbite or more severe damage to exposed skin tissue. However, it is also demonstrated that a full hand can be briefly immersed in liquid nitrogen without damage. To better understand and possibly visualize the effects of human tissue exposure to liquid nitrogen, a series of tests were conducted using simulated hands and arms composed of molded gelatin forms. The simulated hands and arms were immersed, sprayed, or splashed with liquid nitrogen both with and without state of the art personal protective equipment. Thermocouples were located within the test articles to allow for thermal mapping during the freezing process. The study is aimed to help understand frostbite hazards and the time constants involved with the handling of liquid nitrogen to improve future safety protocols for the safe handling of cryogenic fluids. Results of the testing also show the limits to handling liquid nitrogen while using various means of protection.

  15. Thermodynamic processes associated with frostbite in the handling of liquid nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, W. L. [Cryogenics Test Laboratory, NASA Kennedy Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, FL, 32899 (United States); Cook, C. R. [Dept. Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    It is often taught that exposure to liquid nitrogen will cause frostbite or more severe damage to exposed skin tissue. However, it is also demonstrated that a full hand can be briefly immersed in liquid nitrogen without damage. To better understand and possibly visualize the effects of human tissue exposure to liquid nitrogen, a series of tests were conducted using simulated hands and arms composed of molded gelatin forms. The simulated hands and arms were immersed, sprayed, or splashed with liquid nitrogen both with and without state of the art personal protective equipment. Thermocouples were located within the test articles to allow for thermal mapping during the freezing process. The study is aimed to help understand frostbite hazards and the time constants involved with the handling of liquid nitrogen to improve future safety protocols for the safe handling of cryogenic fluids. Results of the testing also show the limits to handling liquid nitrogen while using various means of protection.

  16. Thermodynamic processes associated with frostbite in the handling of liquid nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W. L.; Cook, C. R.

    2014-01-01

    It is often taught that exposure to liquid nitrogen will cause frostbite or more severe damage to exposed skin tissue. However, it is also demonstrated that a full hand can be briefly immersed in liquid nitrogen without damage. To better understand and possibly visualize the effects of human tissue exposure to liquid nitrogen, a series of tests were conducted using simulated hands and arms composed of molded gelatin forms. The simulated hands and arms were immersed, sprayed, or splashed with liquid nitrogen both with and without state of the art personal protective equipment. Thermocouples were located within the test articles to allow for thermal mapping during the freezing process. The study is aimed to help understand frostbite hazards and the time constants involved with the handling of liquid nitrogen to improve future safety protocols for the safe handling of cryogenic fluids. Results of the testing also show the limits to handling liquid nitrogen while using various means of protection

  17. Biological removal of iron and manganese in rapid sand filters - Process understanding of iron and manganese removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Katie

    to precipitation and corrosion. Manganese and iron can either be removed physico-chemically or biologically or combined. The physico-chemical oxidation and precipitation of manganese can theoretically be achieved by aeration, but this process is slow unless pH is raised far above neutral, making the removal...... of manganese by simple aeration and precipitation under normal drinking water treatment conditions insignificant. Manganese may also be oxidized autocatalytically. Iron is usually easier to remove. First, iron is rapidly chemically oxidized by oxygen at neutral pH followed by precipitation and filtration......-filter, where iron is removed. Step 2: Filtration in an after-filter where e.g. ammonium and manganese is removed. The treatment relies on microbial processes and may present an alternative, greener and more sustainable approach for drinking water production spending less chemicals and energy than chemical (e...

  18. Radium removal processes capital and operating cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, F.J.

    1979-09-01

    An estimate of the fixed capital and operating costs for two alternative processes for the removal of dissolved Ra-226 from uranium mill effluent in Elliot Lake, Ontario is presented. Process 1 consists of barium-radium coprecipitation followed by coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation. Process 2 consists of barium-radium coprecipitation followed by gravity media filtration, sand filter backwashing and sedimentation. Cost estimates were prepared for 18 different plant configurations designed to treat 1000 and 4000 imperial gallons per minute (ig/m) of effluent, 24 hrs per day, 7 days per week and 365 days per year with several equipment options. The estimated fixed capital costs for plants equipped with gravity filters were less than those equipped with circular clarifiers. The capital costs ranged from $552,000 with a flow rate of 1000 ig/m to $2,578,000 with a flow rate of 4000 ig/m. Estimated annual operating costs, based on a plant life of 10 years, ranged from $298,000 with a flow rate of 1000 ig/m to $1,061,000 with a flow rate of 4000 ig/m

  19. Nitrogen deposition to the United States: distribution, sources, and processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We simulate nitrogen deposition over the US in 2006–2008 by using the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model at 1/2°×2/3° horizontal resolution over North America and adjacent oceans. US emissions of NOx and NH3 in the model are 6.7 and 2.9 Tg N a−1 respectively, including a 20% natural contribution for each. Ammonia emissions are a factor of 3 lower in winter than summer, providing a good match to US network observations of NHx (≡NH3 gas + ammonium aerosol and ammonium wet deposition fluxes. Model comparisons to observed deposition fluxes and surface air concentrations of oxidized nitrogen species (NOy show overall good agreement but excessive wintertime HNO3 production over the US Midwest and Northeast. This suggests a model overestimate N2O5 hydrolysis in aerosols, and a possible factor is inhibition by aerosol nitrate. Model results indicate a total nitrogen deposition flux of 6.5 Tg N a−1 over the contiguous US, including 4.2 as NOy and 2.3 as NHx. Domestic anthropogenic, foreign anthropogenic, and natural sources contribute respectively 78%, 6%, and 16% of total nitrogen deposition over the contiguous US in the model. The domestic anthropogenic contribution generally exceeds 70% in the east and in populated areas of the west, and is typically 50–70% in remote areas of the west. Total nitrogen deposition in the model exceeds 10 kg N ha−1 a−1 over 35% of the contiguous US.

  20. Constructed wetlands targeting nitrogen removal in agricultural drainage discharge – a subcatchment scale mitigation strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Hoffmann, Carl Christian; Bruun, Jacob Druedahl

    analysis of variable mitigation strategies and cost-efficiency analysis reveals that even at low to moderate yearly N removal efficiencies (20-25% N removal efficiency) CWs targeting drainage water are highly efficient and cost-efficient measures. Thus, although challenges remain regarding site......-specific documentations, CWs targeting drainage discharge has been included as new mitigation strategy in the Danish environmental regulation....... of recipients, drainage water nutrient loads have a major impact on water quality, and end-of-pipe drainage filter solution may offer the benefits of a targeted measure. This calls for a paradigm shift towards the development of new, cost-efficient technologies to mitigate site-specific nutrient losses...

  1. The role of DOM in nitrogen processing in streams across arctic regions affected by fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Cardona, B.; Schade, J. D.; Holmes, R. M.; Natali, S.; Mann, P. J.; Wymore, A.; Coble, A. A.; Prokishkin, A. S.; Zito, P.; Podgorski, D. C.; Spencer, R. G.; McDowell, W. H.

    2017-12-01

    In stream ecosystems, inputs of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have a strong influence on nitrogen (N) processing. Previous studies have demonstrated that increases in DOC concentrations can promote greater N removal in many stream ecosystems. Most of what we know about C and N coupling comes from studies of temperate streams; less is known about this relationship in the Arctic. Streams in Arctic ecosystems are facing rapid changes in climate and disturbance regimes, in particular increasing fire frequencies that are likely to alter biogeochemical cycles. Although fires can lead to increases in NO3 concentrations in streams, the effects of fire on DOC (concentration and composition) have been difficult to generalize. We studied the relationships between DOC and N in two locations; the Central Siberian Plateau, Russia and the Yukon-Kuskokwim (YK) River Delta, Alaska. Streams in both regions show increases in NO3 concentrations after fire, while DOC concentrations decrease in Siberia but increase in streams within the YK-Delta. These patterns in DOC and NO3 create a gradient in DOC and nutrient concentrations, allowing us to study this coupling in a wider Pan-Arctic scope. In order to assess the role of DOC in Arctic N processing, we conducted NO3 and NH4 additions to stream microcosms at the Alaskan site as well as whole-stream additions in Siberia. We hypothesized that nutrient uptake would be high in older burn sites of Siberia and recently burned sites in the YK-Delta, due to greater DOC concentrations and availability. Our results suggest that nitrogen dynamics in the Alaskan sites is strongly responsive to C availability, but is less so in Siberian sites. The potential impacts of permafrost thawing and fires on DOM and nutrient dynamics thus appear to not be consistent across the Arctic suggesting that different regions of the Arctic have unique biogeochemical controls.

  2. Silver-promoted catalyst for removal of nitrogen oxides from emission of diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, K.; Tsujimura, K. [New ACE Institute Co., Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan); Shinoda, K.; Kato, T. [Mitsui Mining and Smelting Co., Ltd. Ageo, Saitama (Japan)

    1996-02-29

    Removal of NO{sub x} from diesel exhaust gas using C{sub 3}H{sub 6}, CH{sub 3}OH or (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}O as a reducing agent was investigated on Ag/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ag/ZSM-5 and Ag/mordenite catalysts over a wide range of temperatures. Among them, (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}O was found to be suitable for the elimination of NO{sub x} over Ag/mordenite catalyst at the relatively low temperature of 200C to 350C. CH{sub 3}OH was suitable over Ag/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst from 350C to 450C while the Ag/mordenite catalyst using (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}O was superior to the Ag/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst using CH{sub 3}OH with respect to the temperature range. The Ag/ZSM-5 catalyst had a poor elimination ability when compared with Ag/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ag/mordenite catalysts. The effects of Ag on mordenite and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were also investigated. It was found that Ag improved the removal of NO{sub x} in the higher range of temperatures with mordenite, while Ag improved the removal of NO{sub x} in the lower temperature range with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. It was concluded that Ag/mordenite catalyst using (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}O as a reducing agent has a good ability for NO{sub x} removal over a wide range of temperatures

  3. Removal of Basic Nitrogen Compounds from Fuel Oil with [Hnmp]H2PO4 Ionic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquid (IL N-methyl pyrrolidone dihydrogen phosphate ([Hnmp]H2PO4 was synthesized and its structure was characterized with FT-IR spectroscopy and 1H NMR. The denitrogenation performance of the ionic liquid was investigated using Fushun shale diesel oil that included 0.52 w% basic nitrogen as feedstock. Experiment results showed that under the operating conditions with temperature of 30 °C, 1:7 (w/w IL: oil, reaction time of 20 min, and settling time of 2 h, the ionic liquid exhibited good denitrogenation performance achieving 86.27 % basic N-extraction efficiency and the yield of refined diesel oil can reach more than 90 %. In addition, the basic N-removal efficiency can still reach 54 % during four recycles of the ionic liquid.

  4. Evaluation of clinoptilolite for removal of ammoniacal nitrogen produced in aquaculture by Neutron activation analysis and UV-VIS spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibiano C, L.; Iturbe G, J.L.; Lopez M, B.E.; Martinez M, V.

    1997-01-01

    In fish culture system, ammonia is excreted in the water as a metabolic by-product. In this work, sorption properties of clinoptilolite were determined and it was applied in culture of the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss for the removal of the ammoniacal nitrogen. The original clinoptilolite was treated with 1N NaCl solution from 24 to 192 h, for exchange NH 4 ions produced in fish culture. The content of Na in the clinoptilolite was determined by neutron activation analysis. The ammonium ion content in the exchange was analysed by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. Maximum uptake of sodium was reached between 24 and 48 hours at neutral pH with granules of the clinoptilolite from 14 to 24 mesh size. The adsorption capacity was from 3.28 to 6.8 mg of ammonium per gram of clinoptilolite. (Author)

  5. Selecting appropriate forms of nitrogen fertilizer to enhance soil arsenic removal by Pteris vittata: a new approach in phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiao-Yong; Chen, Tong-Bin; Xiao, Xi-Yuan; Xie, Hua; Yan, Xiu-Lan; Zhai, Li-Mei; Wu, Bin

    2007-01-01

    Certain plant species have been shown to vigorously accumulate some metals from soil, and thus represent promising and effective remediation alternatives. In order to select the optimum forms of nitrogen (N) fertilizers for the arsenic (As) hyperaccumulator, Pteris vittata L., to maximize As extraction, five forms of N were added individually to different treatments to study the effect of N forms on As uptake of the plants under soil culture in a greenhouse. Although shoot As concentration tended to decrease and As translocation from root to shoot was inhibited, overall As accumulation was greater due to higher biomass when N fertilizer was added. Arsenic accumulation in plants with N fertilization was 100-300% more than in the plants without N fertilization. There were obvious differences in plant biomass and As accumulation among the N forms, i.e., NH4HCO3, (NH4)2S04, Ca(NO3)2, KNO3, urea. The total As accumulation in the plants grown in As-supplied soil, under different forms of N fertilizer, decreased as NH4HCO3>(NH4)2S04 > urea > Ca(NO3)2 >KNO3>CK. The plants treated with N and As accumulated up to 5.3-7.97 mg As/pot and removed 3.7-5.5% As from the soils, compared to approximately 2.3% of As removal in the control. NH4+ -N was apparently more effective than other N fertilizers in stimulating As removal when soil was supplied with As at initiation. No significant differences in available As were found among different forms of N fertilizer after phytoremediation. It is concluded that NH4+ -N was the preferable fertilizer for P. vittata to maximize As removal.

  6. Removal of radionuclides from process streams - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itzkovitch, I.J.; Ritcey, G.M.

    1979-04-01

    This report details the origin and control of radium 226, thorium 230 and lead 210 contamination of mill effluent streams from conventional and non-conventional milling of uranium ores, reviews the basic chemistry of the radionuclides as it relates to potential alternatives for control and presents these alternatives along with a summary of published cost data. The conclusions from the study indicate that the current technology, using sulphuric acid processing, solubilizes only a comparatively small quantity of the radionuclides, with the solid containing approximately the same concentration as the original ore. Present technolgy does not provide for complete removal and isolation of the radionuclides. Current practice for control of thorium 230 in liquid effluents by neutralization is adequate to meet present Governmental guidelines. Radium in solution is presently being controlled by precipitation with barium chloride but levels of less than 3 pCi/L of soluble radium could be difficult if not impossible to achieve consistently by this treatment. Indications are that the concentration of lead 210 in liquid effluent may exceed present guidelines. No specific control procedures are employed for lead 210. Methods of isolating radium 226 are required for treating effluents from conventional milling as well as from alternative processes under development. Ion exchange is suggested as a means of isolating these radionuclides. (OT)

  7. Removable partial denture alloys processed by laser-sintering technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alageel, Omar; Abdallah, Mohamed-Nur; Alsheghri, Ammar; Song, Jun; Caron, Eric; Tamimi, Faleh

    2018-04-01

    Removable partial dentures (RPDs) are traditionally made using a casting technique. New additive manufacturing processes based on laser sintering has been developed for quick fabrication of RPDs metal frameworks at low cost. The objective of this study was to characterize the mechanical, physical, and biocompatibility properties of RPD cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys produced by two laser-sintering systems and compare them to those prepared using traditional casting methods. The laser-sintered Co-Cr alloys were processed by the selective laser-sintering method (SLS) and the direct metal laser-sintering (DMLS) method using the Phenix system (L-1) and EOS system (L-2), respectively. L-1 and L-2 techniques were 8 and 3.5 times more precise than the casting (CC) technique (p laser-sintered and cast alloys were biocompatible. In conclusion, laser-sintered alloys are more precise and present better mechanical and fatigue properties than cast alloys for RPDs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 1174-1185, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A MULTISTAGE GRADUAL NITROGENREDUCTION STRATEGY FOR INCREASED LIPID PRODUCTIVITY AND NITROGEN REMOVAL IN WASTEWATER USING Chlorella vulgaris AND Scenedesmus obliquus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Robles-Heredia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractChlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquuswere grown in artificial-wastewater using a new nitrogen-limitation strategy aimed at increasing lipid productivity. This strategy consisted in a multi-stage process with sequential reduction of N-NH4 concentration (from 90 to 60, 40, and 20 mg.L-1 to promote a balance between cell growth and lipid accumulation. Lipid productivity was compared against a reference process consisting of nitrogen reduction in two stages, where the nitrogen concentration was suddenly reduced from 90 mg.L-1 to three different concentrations (10, 20, and 30 mg.L-1. In the multi-stage mode, only C. vulgaris exhibited a net lipid-productivity increase. Lipid content of S. obliquus did not present a significant increase, thus decreasing lipid productivity. The highest lipid productivities were observed in the two-stage mode for both S. obliquus and C. vulgaris (194.9 and 133.5 mg.L-1.d-1, respectively, and these values are among the highest reported in the literature to date.

  9. Nitrogen sources, transport and processing in peri-urban floodplains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooddy, D C; Macdonald, D M J; Lapworth, D J; Bennett, S A; Griffiths, K J

    2014-10-01

    Peri-urban floodplains are an important interface between developed land and the aquatic environment and may act as a source or sink for contaminants moving from urban areas towards surface water courses. With increasing pressure from urban development the functioning of floodplains is coming under greater scrutiny. A number of peri-urban sites have been found to be populated with legacy landfills which could potentially cause pollution of adjacent river bodies. Here, a peri-urban floodplain adjoining the city of Oxford, UK, with the River Thames has been investigated over a period of three years through repeated sampling of groundwaters from existing and specially constructed piezometers. A nearby landfill has been found to have imprinted a strong signal on the groundwater with particularly high concentrations of ammonium and generally low concentrations of nitrate and dissolved oxygen. An intensive study of nitrogen dynamics through the use of N-species chemistry, nitrogen isotopes and dissolved nitrous oxide reveals that there is little or no denitrification in the majority of the main landfill plume, and neither is the ammonium significantly retarded by sorption to the aquifer sediments. A simple model has determined the flux of total nitrogen and ammonium from the landfill, through the floodplain and into the river. Over an 8 km reach of the river, which has a number of other legacy landfills, it is estimated that 27.5 tonnes of ammonium may be delivered to the river annually. Although this is a relatively small contribution to the total river nitrogen, it may represent up to 15% of the ammonium loading at the study site and over the length of the reach could increase in-stream concentrations by nearly 40%. Catchment management plans that encompass floodplains in the peri-urban environment need to take into account the likely risk to groundwater and surface water quality that these environments pose. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  10. Influence of Process Parameters on Nitrogen Oxide Formation in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lans, Robert Pieter Van Der; Glarborg, Peter; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the influence of burner operating conditions, burner geometry and fuel parameters on the formation of nitrogen oxide during combustion of pulverized coal. Main attention has been paid to combustion test facilities with self-sustaining flames, while extensions have been made...... to full scale boilers and furnace modeling. Since coal combustion and flame aerodynamics have been reviewed earlier, these phenomena are only treated briefly....

  11. Simulating temporal variations of nitrogen losses in river networks with a dynamic transport model unravels the coupled effects of hydrological and biogeochemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Alexander, Richard [U.S. Geological Survey; Bohlke, John [U.S. Geological Survey; Boyer, Elizabeth [Pennsylvania State University; Harvey, Judson [U.S. Geological Survey; Seitzinger, Sybil [Rutgers University; Tobias, Craig [University of North Carolina, Wilmington; Tonitto, Christina [Cornell University; Wollheim, Wilfred [University of New Hampshire

    2009-01-01

    The importance of lotic systems as sinks for nitrogen inputs is well recognized. A fraction of nitrogen in streamflow is removed to the atmosphere via denitrification with the remainder exported in streamflow as nitrogen loads. At the watershed scale, there is a keen interest in understanding the factors that control the fate of nitrogen throughout the stream channel network, with particular attention to the processes that deliver large nitrogen loads to sensitive coastal ecosystems. We use a dynamic stream transport model to assess biogeochemical (nitrate loadings, concentration, temperature) and hydrological (discharge, depth, velocity) effects on reach-scale denitrification and nitrate removal in the river networks of two watersheds having widely differing levels of nitrate enrichment but nearly identical discharges. Stream denitrification is estimated by regression as a nonlinear function of nitrate concentration, streamflow, and temperature, using more than 300 published measurements from a variety of US streams. These relations are used in the stream transport model to characterize nitrate dynamics related to denitrification at a monthly time scale in the stream reaches of the two watersheds. Results indicate that the nitrate removal efficiency of streams, as measured by the percentage of the stream nitrate flux removed via denitrification per unit length of channel, is appreciably reduced during months with high discharge and nitrate flux and increases during months of low-discharge and flux. Biogeochemical factors, including land use, nitrate inputs, and stream concentrations, are a major control on reach-scale denitrification, evidenced by the disproportionately lower nitrate removal efficiency in streams of the highly nitrate-enriched watershed as compared with that in similarly sized streams in the less nitrate-enriched watershed. Sensitivity analyses reveal that these important biogeochemical factors and physical hydrological factors contribute nearly

  12. Effects of pH and H2O2 on ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate transformations during UV254nm irradiation: Implications to nitrogen removal and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junli; Song, Mingrui; Chen, Baiyang; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Rongshu

    2017-10-01

    In order to achieve better removal and analyses of three dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) species via ultraviolet-activated hydrogen peroxide (UV/H 2 O 2 ) process, this study systematically investigated the rates of photo-oxidations of ammonia/ammonium (NH 3 /NH 4 + ) and nitrite (NO 2 - ) as well as the photo-reduction of nitrate (NO 3 - ) at varying pH and H 2 O 2 conditions. The results showed that the mass balances of nitrogen were maintained along irradiation despite of interconversions of DIN species, suggesting that no nitrogen gas (N 2 ) or other nitrogen-containing compound was formed. NH 3 was more reactive than NH 4 + with hydroxyl radical (OH), and by a stepwise H 2 O 2 addition method NH 3 /NH 4 + can be completely converted to NO x - ; NO 2 - underwent rapid oxidation to form NO 3 - when H 2 O 2 was present, suggesting that it is an intermediate compound linking NH 3 /NH 4 + and NO 3 - ; but once H 2 O 2 was depleted, NO 3 - can be gradually photo-reduced back to NO 2 - at high pH conditions. Other than H 2 O 2 , the transformation kinetics of DINs were all dependent on pH, but to varying aspects and extents: the NH 3 photo-oxidation favored a pH of 10.3, which fell within the pK a values of NH 4 + (9.24) and H 2 O 2 (11.6); the NO 3 - photo-reduction increased with increasing pH provided that it exceeds the pK a of peroxynitrous acid (6.8); while the NO 2 - photo-oxidation remained stable unless the pH neared the pK a of H 2 O 2 (11.6). The study thereby demonstrates a picture of the evolutions of DIN species together during UV/H 2 O 2 irradiation process, and for the first time presents a method to achieve complete conversion of NH 4 + to NO 3 - with UV/H 2 O 2 process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nitrogen sources, transport and processing in peri-urban floodplains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gooddy, D.C.; Macdonald, D.M.J.; Lapworth, D.J.; Bennett, S.A.; Griffiths, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Peri-urban floodplains are an important interface between developed land and the aquatic environment and may act as a source or sink for contaminants moving from urban areas towards surface water courses. With increasing pressure from urban development the functioning of floodplains is coming under greater scrutiny. A number of peri-urban sites have been found to be populated with legacy landfills which could potentially cause pollution of adjacent river bodies. Here, a peri-urban floodplain adjoining the city of Oxford, UK, with the River Thames has been investigated over a period of three years through repeated sampling of groundwaters from existing and specially constructed piezometers. A nearby landfill has been found to have imprinted a strong signal on the groundwater with particularly high concentrations of ammonium and generally low concentrations of nitrate and dissolved oxygen. An intensive study of nitrogen dynamics through the use of N-species chemistry, nitrogen isotopes and dissolved nitrous oxide reveals that there is little or no denitrification in the majority of the main landfill plume, and neither is the ammonium significantly retarded by sorption to the aquifer sediments. A simple model has determined the flux of total nitrogen and ammonium from the landfill, through the floodplain and into the river. Over an 8 km reach of the river, which has a number of other legacy landfills, it is estimated that 27.5 tonnes of ammonium may be delivered to the river annually. Although this is a relatively small contribution to the total river nitrogen, it may represent up to 15% of the ammonium loading at the study site and over the length of the reach could increase in-stream concentrations by nearly 40%. Catchment management plans that encompass floodplains in the peri-urban environment need to take into account the likely risk to groundwater and surface water quality that these environments pose. - Highlights: • Peri-urban floodplains have been found to

  14. Nitrogen sources, transport and processing in peri-urban floodplains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooddy, D.C., E-mail: dcg@bgs.ac.uk [British Geological Survey, Maclean Building, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Macdonald, D.M.J.; Lapworth, D.J. [British Geological Survey, Maclean Building, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Bennett, S.A. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Griffiths, K.J. [British Geological Survey, Maclean Building, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-01

    Peri-urban floodplains are an important interface between developed land and the aquatic environment and may act as a source or sink for contaminants moving from urban areas towards surface water courses. With increasing pressure from urban development the functioning of floodplains is coming under greater scrutiny. A number of peri-urban sites have been found to be populated with legacy landfills which could potentially cause pollution of adjacent river bodies. Here, a peri-urban floodplain adjoining the city of Oxford, UK, with the River Thames has been investigated over a period of three years through repeated sampling of groundwaters from existing and specially constructed piezometers. A nearby landfill has been found to have imprinted a strong signal on the groundwater with particularly high concentrations of ammonium and generally low concentrations of nitrate and dissolved oxygen. An intensive study of nitrogen dynamics through the use of N-species chemistry, nitrogen isotopes and dissolved nitrous oxide reveals that there is little or no denitrification in the majority of the main landfill plume, and neither is the ammonium significantly retarded by sorption to the aquifer sediments. A simple model has determined the flux of total nitrogen and ammonium from the landfill, through the floodplain and into the river. Over an 8 km reach of the river, which has a number of other legacy landfills, it is estimated that 27.5 tonnes of ammonium may be delivered to the river annually. Although this is a relatively small contribution to the total river nitrogen, it may represent up to 15% of the ammonium loading at the study site and over the length of the reach could increase in-stream concentrations by nearly 40%. Catchment management plans that encompass floodplains in the peri-urban environment need to take into account the likely risk to groundwater and surface water quality that these environments pose. - Highlights: • Peri-urban floodplains have been found to

  15. Hydrologic control of nitrogen removal, storage, and export in a mountain stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R.O.; Baker, M.A.; Arp, C.D.; Kocha, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient cycling and export in streams and rivers should vary with flow regime, yet most studies of stream nutrient transformation do not include hydrologic variability. We used a stable isotope tracer of nitrogen (15N) to measure nitrate (NO3) uptake, storage, and export in a mountain stream, Spring Creek, Idaho, U.S.A. We conducted two tracer tests of 2-week duration during snowmelt and baseflow. Dissolved and particulate forms of 15N were monitored over three seasons to test the hypothesis that stream N cycling would be dominated by export during floods, and storage during low flow. Floods exported more N than during baseflow conditions; however, snowmelt floods had higher than expected demand for NO{3 because of hyporheic exchange. Residence times of benthic N during both tracer tests were longer than 100 d for ephemeral pools such as benthic algae and wood biofilms. Residence times were much longer in fine detritus, insects, and the particulate N from the hyporheic zone, showing that assimilation and hydrologic storage can be important mechanisms for retaining particulate N. Of the tracer N stored in the stream, the primary form of export was via seston during periods of high flows, produced by summer rainstorms or spring snowmelt the following year. Spring Creek is not necessarily a conduit for nutrients during high flow; hydrologic exchange between the stream and its valley represents an important storage mechanism.

  16. Simultaneous biological removal of sulfur, nitrogen and carbon using EGSB reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Chuan; Ren Nanqi; Wang Aijie; Yu Zhenguo [School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Inst. of Tech. (China); Lee Duu-Jong [School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Inst. of Tech. (China); Dept. of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (China)

    2008-04-15

    High-rate biological conversion of sulfide and nitrate in synthetic wastewater to, respectively, elemental sulfur (S{sup 0}) and nitrogen-containing gas (such as N{sub 2}) was achieved in an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor. A novel strategy was adopted to first cultivate mature granules using anaerobic sludge as seed sludge in sulfate-laden medium. The cultivated granules were then incubated in sulfide-laden medium to acclimate autotrophic denitrifiers. The incubated granules converted sulfide, nitrate, and acetate simultaneously in the same EGSB reactor to S{sup 0}, N-containing gases and CO{sub 2} at loading rates of 3,0 kg S m{sup -3} d{sup -1}, 1.45 kg N m{sup -3} d{sup -1}, and 2.77 kg Ac m{sup -1} d{sup -1}, respectively, and was not inhibited by sulfide concentrations up to 800 mg l{sup -1}. Effects of the C/N ratio on granule performance were identified. The granules cultivated in the sulfide-laden medium have Pseudomonas spp. and Azoarcus sp. presenting the heterotrophs and autotrophs that co-work in the high-rate EGSB-SDD (simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification) reactor. (orig.)

  17. A-Cell equipment removal quality process plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TAKASUMI, D.S.

    1999-01-01

    This document establishes the quality assuring activities used to manage the 324 building A-Cell equipment removal activity. This activity will package, remove, transport and dispose of the equipment in A-Cell. This document is provided to ensure that appropriate and effective quality assuring activities have been incorporated into the work controlling documentation and procedures

  18. 512-S Facility, Actinide Removal Process Radiological Design Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathan, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    This report contains top-level requirements for the various areas of radiological protection for workers. Detailed quotations of the requirements for applicable regulatory documents can be found in the Radiological Design Summary Report Implementation Guide. For the purposes of demonstrating compliance with these requirements, per Engineering Standard 01064, ''shall consider / shall evaluate'' indicates that the designer must examine the requirement for the design and either incorporate or provide a technical justification as to why the requirement is not incorporated. This report describes how the Building 512-S, Actinide Removal Process meets the required radiological design criteria and requirements based on 10CFR835, DOE Order 420.1A, WSRC Manual 5Q and various other DOE guides and handbooks. The analyses supporting this Radiological Design Summary Report initially used a source term of 10.6 Ci/gallon of Cs-137 as the basis for bulk shielding calculations. As the project evolved, the source term was reduced to 1.1 Ci/gallon of Cs-137. This latter source term forms the basis for later dose rate evaluations

  19. The effects of operating factors on the removal of total ammonia nitrogen and florfenicol antibiotic from synthetic trout fish farm wastewater through nanofiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheshmberah, F.; Solaimany Nazar, A.R.; Farhadian, M.

    2016-01-01

    An aquaculture system can be a potentially significant source of antibacterial compounds and ammonia in an aquatic environment. In this study, the removal of total ammonia nitrogen and florfenicol antibiotic from synthetic aqueous wastewater was assessed by applying a commercial thin film composite polyamide nanofilter. The effects of p H (6.5-8.5), pressure (4-10 bar), concentration of total ammonia nitrogen (1-9 mg/L), and florfenicol (0.2-5 mg/L) on the removal efficiency of the nanofilter were studied at a constant 70% recovery rate. It was found that by increasing the p H within the range of 6.5 to 8.5, it enhanced the removal efficiency by up to 98% and 100% for total ammonia nitrogen and florfenicol, respectively. With an increase in pressure from 4 to 7 bar, the removal percentage increased and then, it decreased from 7 to 10 bar. The interactions factors did not have significant effects on the both pollutants removal efficiencies. To obtain optimal removal efficiencies, an experimental design and statistical analysis via the response surface method were adopted.

  20. The effects of operating factors on the removal of total ammonia nitrogen and florfenicol antibiotic from synthetic trout fish farm wastewater through nanofiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Solaimany Nazar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An aquaculture system can be a potentially significant source of antibacterial compounds and ammonia in an aquatic environment. In this study, the removal of total ammonia nitrogen and florfenicol antibiotic from synthetic aqueous wastewater was assessed by applying a commercial TFC (thin film composite polyamide nanofilter. The effects of pH (6.5-8.5, pressure (4-10 bar, concentration of total ammonia nitrogen (1-9 mg/L, and florfenicol (0.2-5 mg/L on the removal efficiency of the nanofilter were studied at a constant 70% recovery rate. It was found that by increasing the pH within the range of 6.5 to 8.5, it enhanced the removal efficiency by up to 98% and 100% for total ammonia nitrogen and florfenicol, respectively. With an increase in pressure from 4 to 7 bar, the removal percentage increased and then, it decreased from 7 to 10 bar. The interactions factors did not have significant effects on the both pollutants removal efficiencies. To obtain optimal removal efficiencies, an experimental design and statistical analysis via the response surface method were adopted.

  1. Regulation of nitrogen removal and retention in sphagnum bogs and other peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damman, A.W.H.

    1988-01-01

    Nitrogen concentrations range from 0.3-l.3% in ombrotrophic peat of raised bogs. Within ombrogenous bogs, the N concentration of the peat increases in oceanic regions, with the highest concentrations found in blanket bogs on Southern Hemisphere islands. In minerotrophic peat, N concentrations increase with age (depth) as in upland humus. In this paper, I propose that N immobilization is truncated at low levels in ombrotrophic peat because 1) microbial activity is reduced well below that determined by environmental conditions, and 2) N is not limiting decay, in spite of low N concentrations. Consequently, net mineralization of N occurs at C:N quotients 80 to over 100 in inland raised bogs. Nutrient deficiency, probably P deficiency, appears to limit microbial activity and N immobilization. The increased N immobilization in oceanic bogs is attributed to higher Mg inputs that stimulate the biochemical release of P by enzymatic catalysis, and hence increase microbial activity. In ombrotrophi bogs, peat formed during periods of slow accumulation and long residence in the acrotelm has the highest N concentrations but, paradoxically, has also lost more of its original N content than peat that accumulated rapidly. Irregular changes in the anaerobic peat reflect conditions of decay when the peat was in the acrotelm. In a dated profile, N losses were largest during the last 2000 yr. This indicates a change in environmental conditions in the surface peat. Presumably, during this period the bog reached its maximum elevation with respect to the water mound that can be maintained in the peat under the present climatic conditions, and N losses increased as peat accumulation decreased. (author)

  2. Identification and quantification of nitrogen cycling processes in cryptogamic covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bettina; Wu, Dianming; Lenhart, Katharina; Tamm, Alexandra; Ruckteschler, Nina; Rodríguez-Caballero, Emilio; Elbert, Wolfgang; Burrows, Susannah; Clough, Tim; Steinkamp, Jörg; Meusel, Hannah; Behrendt, Thomas; Büdel, Burkhard; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Sörgel, Matthias; Cheng, Yafang; Crutzen, Paul; Keppler, Frank; Su, Hang; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Cryptogamic covers (CC) comprise communities of photoautotrophic cyanobacteria, lichens, algae, and bryophytes together with heterotrophic bacteria, microfungi, and archaea in varying proportions. Depending on their habitat, cryptogamic rock covers, cryptogamic plant covers, and cryptogamic soil covers are distinguished. The latter comprise biological soil crusts (biocrusts), which globally occur under dryland conditions. In a first assessment of their global role, we quantified that CC fix ˜49 Tg of nitrogen (N) per year (Elbert et al., 2013), corresponding to ˜1/2 of the maximum terrestrial biological N fixation determined in the latest IPCC report. The fixed N is used for biomass formation and partially leached into the ground, where it can be taken up by plants or transformed into N oxides, being emitted into the atmosphere. We show that biocrusts release nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous acid (HONO), which are key species in the global cycling of nitrogen and in the production of ozone and hydroxyl radicals, regulating the oxidizing power and self-cleaning capacity of the atmosphere. Based on laboratory, field and satellite measurement data, we obtained a best estimate of 1.1 Tg a-1 of NO-N and 0.6 Tg a-1 of HONO-N being globally emitted by biocrusts, corresponding to ˜20% of the global nitrogen oxide emissions from soils under natural vegetation (Weber et al., 2015). During full wetting and drying cycles, emissions peaked at low water contents suggesting NO- and HONO-formation under aerobic conditions during nitrification. Other measurements revealed that cryptogamic organisms release nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas of crucial importance for climate change. The emission rates varied with temperature, humidity, and N deposition, but divided by respiratory CO2 emission they formed an almost constant ratio, which allowed upscaling on the global scale. We estimated annual N2O emissions of 0.3 - 0.6 Tg by cryptogams, accounting for 4-9% of the global N2O

  3. Effects of organic matter removal and soil compaction on fifth-year mineral soil carbon and nitrogen contents for sites across the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe G. Sanchez; Allan E. Tiarks; J. Marty Kranabetter; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Robert F. Powers; Paul T. Sanborn; William K. Chapman

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the main treatment effects of organic matter removal and compaction and a split-plot effect of competition control on mineral soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools. Treatment effects on soil C and N pools are discussed for 19 sites across five locations (British Columbia, Northern Rocky Mountains, Pacific Southwest, and Atlantic and Gulf coasts)...

  4. Specific ability of sulfur-ligands on removal of 203Hg-labeled organomercury from hemoglobin in comparison with nitrogen-ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, Yasuji; Sugiura, Yukio; Tanaka, Hisashi

    1975-01-01

    Removal of 203 Hg-labeled organomercurials, bound to sulfhydryl groups of hemoglobin, by various chelating agents was investigated by the use of equilibrium dialysis. Organomercurials employed were chlormerodrin, methylmercury, ethylmercury and phenylmercury compounds. Higher and more specific effects of the sulfur-ligands, such as penicillamine and glutathione, on removal of organomercurial were found as compared with those of the nitrogen-ligands such as EDTA, glycine and polymethylenediamines. Linear correlation was observed between the degree of organomercury elimination from hemoglobin and the stability constant (log K 1 ) of 1:1 organomercury complex in both the sulfur- and nitrogen-ligand systems and at the same value of log K 1 , the elimination-effect of sulfur-ligands was extremely greater than that of the nitrogen-ligands. The relationship between the average percentage of removal and the Taft's polar substituent constant of organic moiety of the metal was also linear among the organomercury compounds other than chlormerodrin. The average removal percentage by sulfur-ligands increased in the order, ethylmercury>methylmercury>phenylmercury, while that of the nitrogen-ligands was not different among the organomercurials investigated. In addition, direct ligand-exchange reaction between hemoglobin-SH and the ligand coordinating-atom (S or N) against organomercurials rather than Ssub(N2) reaction via the ternary complex, hemoglobin-S-RHg-ligand, is postulated. (auth.)

  5. Heterotrophic nitrogen removal in Bacillus sp. K5: involvement of a novel hydroxylamine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunlong; Lin, Ershu; Huang, Shaobin

    2017-12-01

    An aerobic denitrifying bacterium isolated from a bio-trickling filter treating NOx, Bacillus sp. K5, is able to convert ammonium to nitrite, in which hydroxylamine oxidase (HAO) plays a critical role. In the present study, the performance for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification was investigated with batch experiments and an HAO was purified by an anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography from strain K5. The purified HAO's molecular mass was determined by SDS-PAGE and its activity by measuring the change in the concentration of ferricyanide, the electron acceptor. Results showed that as much as 87.8 mg L -1 ammonium-N was removed without nitrite accumulation within 24 hours in the sodium citrate medium at C/N of 15. The HAO isolated from the strain K5 was approximately 71 KDa. With hydroxylamine (NH 2 OH) as a substrate and potassium ferricyanide as an electron acceptor, the enzyme was capable of oxidizing NH 2 OH to nitrite in vitro when the pH varied from 7 to 9 and temperature ranged from 25 °C to 40 °C. This is the first time that an HAO has been purified from the Bacillus genus, and the findings revealed that it is distinctive in its molecular mass and enzyme properties.

  6. Nitrogen oxidative activation in the radiolysis process of dioxide hydrocarbon composition, oxygen-nitrogen over 3-d transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustamov, V.R.; Garibov, A.A.; Kerimov, V.K.; Aliyev, S.M.; Nasirova, Kh.Y.

    2004-01-01

    The radiochemical process of nitrogen fixation in carbon dioxide, oxygen-nitrogen composition in 3-d metal (iron, nickel) was studied. Bifunctional character of surface's role in the generation of radiolysis products was postulated: a) Chemisorption's of molecular ions (N 2 + , CO 2 + , O 2 + ) on the surface of metal and their dissociative neutralization. b) Coordination of nitrogen and carbon oxide being generated in nitrosyl and carbonyl-nitrosyl complex of iron and nickel. Total yield of the products is over the rang 6,4†7,5, to explain radiolysis' what contribution of only neutral products is impossible. Evidently in the generation of final products, defined contribution brings in molecular ions N 2 + (N + ) and CO 2 + . Interaction character of these ions with nickel proposes the formation of the relation between unpaired electrons N 2 + and CO 2 + with unfilled d-sub level of this metals with the nickel nitride generation [N i -N=N + ] and binding energy in ion diazotate decreases to twice. The yield of nitrogen dioxide on radiolysis of the air gave G NO2 =0,8±0,2 molecule/100eV which is proper to the date in the literature. Kinetic curve appears rapidly in the saturation. Air radiolysis over iron gave the following results: G NO 2 = 2,75 ± 0,25, G N 2 O = 9,0 ± 1,0 molecule/100eV. Thus total yield of radiolysis products is Σ G = 10,5 ± 12,0 molecule/100eV. (author)

  7. Nitrogen oxidative activation in the radiolysis process of dioxide hydrocarbon composition, oxygen-nitrogen over 3-D transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustamov, V.R.; Garibov, A.A.; Kerimov, V.K.; Aliyev, S.M.; Nasirova, Kh.Y.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The radiochemical process of nitrogen fixation in carbon dioxide, oxygen-nitrogen composition in 3-d metal (iron, nickel) was studied. Bifunctional character of surface's role in the generation of radiolysis products was postulated: a) Chemisorption's of molecular ions (N 2 + , CO 2 + , O 2 + ) on the surface of metal and their dissociative neutralization. b) Coordination of nitrogen and carbon oxide being generated in nitrosyl and carbonyl-nitrosyl complex of iron and nickel. Total yield of the products is over the rang 6,4†7,5, to explain radiolysis' what contribution of only neutral products is impossible. Evidently in the generation of final products, defined contribution brings in molecular ions N 2 + (N + ) and CO 2 + . Interaction character of these ions with nickel proposes the formation of the relation between unpaired electrons N 2 + and CO 2 + with unfilled d-sub level of this metals with the nickel nitride generation [N i -N=N + ] and binding energy in ion diazotate decreases to twice. The yield of nitrogen dioxide on radiolysis of the air gave G NO2 =0,8±0,2 molecule/100eV which is proper to the date in the literature. Kinetic curve appears rapidly in the saturation. Air radiolysis over iron gave the following results: G NO 2 = 2,75 ± 0,25, G N 2 O = 9,0 ± 1,0 molecule/100eV. Thus total yield of radiolysis products is Σ G = 10,5 ± 12,0 molecule/100eV

  8. Effect of COD/N ratio on N2O production during nitrogen removal by aerobic granular sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velho, V F; Magnus, B S; Daudt, G C; Xavier, J A; Guimarães, L B; Costa, R H R

    2017-12-01

    N 2 O-production was investigated during nitrogen removal using aerobic granular sludge (AGS) technology. A pilot sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with AGS achieved an effluent in accordance with national discharge limits, although presented a nitrite accumulation rate of 95.79% with no simultaneous nitrification-denitrification. N 2 O production was 2.06 mg L -1 during the anoxic phase, with N 2 O emission during air pulses and the aeration phase of 1.6% of the nitrogen loading rate. Batch tests with AGS from the pilot reactor verified that at the greatest COD/N ratio (1.55), the N 2 O production (1.08 mgN 2 O-N L -1 ) and consumption (up to 0.05 mgN 2 O-N L -1 ), resulted in the lowest remaining dissolved N 2 O (0.03 mgN 2 O-N L -1 ), stripping the minimum N 2 O gas (0.018 mgN 2 O-N L -1 ). Conversely, the carbon supply shortage, under low C/N ratios, increased N 2 O emission (0.040 mgN 2 O-N L -1 ), due to incomplete denitrification. High abundance of ammonia-oxidizing and low abundance of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were found, corroborating the fact of partial nitrification. A denitrifying heterotrophic community, represented mainly by Pseudoxanthomonas, was predominant in the AGS. Overall, the AGS showed stable partial nitrification ability representing capital and operating cost savings. The SBR operation flexibility could be advantageous for controlling N 2 O emissions, and extending the anoxic phase would benefit complete denitrification in cases of low C/N influents.

  9. Remoção de nitrogênio de efluente agroindustrial utilizando biorreatores = Nitrogen removal from agro-industrial wastewater using bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Miranda Teixeira

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a remoção de nitrogênio do efluente de uma indústria frigorífica utilizando biorreatores de nitrificação e desnitrificação. O sistema foi composto por dois reatores de fluxo contínuo operados em série: um reator híbrido(anaeróbio/anóxico conectado a um reator tipo filtro biológico de fluxo ascendente com aeração, o qual possuía um reciclo para o reator híbrido. A alimentação foi realizada com água residuária proveniente da estação de tratamento de uma indústria processadora de avese suínos. O acompanhamento do processo foi realizado por análises periódicas da concentração de amônia, nitrato, nitrito, alcalinidade, demanda química de oxigênio (DQO e pH. A eficiência do sistema na remoção de nitrogênio foi comparada com a eficiência teórica máxima para a razão de reciclo utilizada.This work evaluates the process of nitrogen removal from wastewater at a meat processing plant, using nitrification and denitrification in bioreactors. The system was composed of two reactors with continuous flow operated in series: a hybrid reactor(anaerobic/anoxic connected to an ascending flow biological filter with aeration, which recycled into the hybrid reactor. Feeding was accomplished with wastewater from the treatment station of a poultry and swine processing plant. The process was monitored by periodic analysis of the concentrations of ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, alkalinity, chemical oxygen demand (COD and pH. The nitrogen removal efficiency of the system was compared with the maximum theoretical efficiency for the recycle rate used.

  10. Calibration and validation of a model describing complete autotrophic nitrogen removal in a granular SBR system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Mutlu, Ayten Gizem; Gernaey, Krist

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A validated model describing the nitritation-anammox process in a granular sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system is an important tool for: a) design of future experiments and b) prediction of process performance during optimization, while applying process control, or during system scale......-up. RESULTS: A model was calibrated using a step-wise procedure customized for the specific needs of the system. The important steps in the procedure were initialization, steady-state and dynamic calibration, and validation. A fast and effective initialization approach was developed to approximate pseudo...... screening of the parameter space proposed by Sin et al. (2008) - to find the best fit of the model to dynamic data. Finally, the calibrated model was validated with an independent data set. CONCLUSION: The presented calibration procedure is the first customized procedure for this type of system...

  11. Reactor performance in terms of COD and nitrogen removal and bacterial community structure of a three-stage rotating bioelectrochemical contactor

    KAUST Repository

    Sayess, Rassil R.

    2013-02-01

    Integrating microbial fuel cell (MFC) into rotating biological contactor (RBC) creates an opportunity for enhanced removal of COD and nitrogen coupled with energy generation from wastewater. In this study, a three-stage rotating bioelectrochemical contactor (referred to as RBC-MFC unit) integrating MFC with RBC technology was constructed for simultaneous removal of carbonaceous and nitrogenous compounds and electricity generation from a synthetic medium containing acetate and ammonium. The performance of the RBC-MFC unit was compared to a control reactor (referred to as RBC unit) that was operated under the same conditions but without current generation (i.e. open-circuit mode). The effect of hydraulic loading rate (HLR) and COD/N ratio on the performance of the two units was investigated. At low (3.05 gCOD g-1N) and high COD/N ratio (6.64 gCOD g-1N), both units achieved almost similar COD and ammonia-nitrogen removal. However, the RBC-MFC unit achieved significantly higher denitrification and nitrogen removal compared to the RBC unit indicating improved denitrification at the cathode due to current flow. The average voltage under 1000 Ω external resistance ranged between 0.03 and 0.30 V and between 0.02 and 0.21 V for stages 1 and 2 of the RBC-MFC unit. Pyrosequencing analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene revealed high bacterial diversity at the anode and cathode of both units. Genera that play a role in nitrification (Nitrospira; Nitrosomonas), denitrification (Comamonas; Thauera) and electricity generation (Geobacter) were identified at the electrodes. Geobacter was only detected on the anode of the RBC-MFC unit. Nitrifiers and denitrifiers were more abundant in the RBC-MFC unit compared to the RBC unit and were largely present on the cathode of both units suggesting that most of the nitrogen removal occurred at the cathode. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Nitrogen removal and nitrous oxide emission in surface flow constructed wetlands for treating sewage treatment plant effluent: Effect of C/N ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Wu, Haiming; Zhang, Jian; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Kong, Qiang

    2017-09-01

    In order to design treatment wetlands with maximal nitrogen removal and minimal nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emission, the effect of influent C/N ratios on nitrogen removal and N 2 O emission in surface flow constructed wetlands (SF CWs) for sewage treatment plant effluent treatment was investigated in this study. The results showed that nitrogen removal and N 2 O emission in CWs were significantly affected by C/N ratio of influent. Much higher removal efficiency of NH 4 + -N (98%) and TN (90%) was obtained simultaneously in SF CWs at C/N ratios of 12:1, and low N 2 O emission (8.2mg/m 2 /d) and the percentage of N 2 O-N emission in TN removal (1.44%) were also observed. These results obtained in this study would be utilized to determine how N 2 O fluxes respond to variations in C/N ratios and to improve the sustainability of CWs for wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nitrogen deposition in precipitation to a monsoon-affected eutrophic embayment: Fluxes, sources, and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunchao; Zhang, Jingping; Liu, Songlin; Jiang, Zhijian; Arbi, Iman; Huang, Xiaoping; Macreadie, Peter Ian

    2018-06-01

    Daya Bay in the South China Sea (SCS) has experienced rapid nitrogen pollution and intensified eutrophication in the past decade due to economic development. Here, we estimated the deposition fluxes of nitrogenous species, clarified the contribution of nitrogen from precipitation and measured ions and isotopic composition (δ15N and δ18O) of nitrate in precipitation in one year period to trace its sources and formation processes among different seasons. We found that the deposition fluxes of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), NO3-, NH4+, NO2-, and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) to Daya Bay were 132.5, 64.4 17.5, 1.0, 49.6 mmol m-2•yr-1, respectively. DON was a significant contributor to nitrogen deposition (37% of TDN), and NO3- accounted for 78% of the DIN in precipitation. The nitrogen deposition fluxes were higher in spring and summer, and lower in winter. Nitrogen from precipitation contributed nearly 38% of the total input of nitrogen (point sources input and dry and wet deposition) in Daya Bay. The δ15N-NO3- abundance, ion compositions, and air mass backward trajectories implicated that coal combustion, vehicle exhausts, and dust from mainland China delivered by northeast monsoon were the main sources in winter, while fossil fuel combustion (coal combustion and vehicle exhausts) and dust from PRD and southeast Asia transported by southwest monsoon were the main sources in spring; marine sources, vehicle exhausts and lightning could be the potential sources in summer. δ18O results showed that OH pathway was dominant in the chemical formation process of nitrate in summer, while N2O5+ DMS/HC pathways in winter and spring.

  14. Radiation-chemical removal of exhaust gases of thermal power stations from nitrogen and sulfur oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimov, G.Ya.; Gerasimova, T.S.; Tokmacheva, I.P.; Fadeev, S.A.; Faminskaya, M.V.

    1991-01-01

    Problem related to numerical simulation of kinetic processes occuring in waste flue gases of heat and power plants when they are treated by fast electrons are considered. The system of gas-phase chemical reactions describing kinetics of NO transformation in the presence of ammonia was studied. Different groups of reactions resulting in SO 2 oxidation were analyzed. Results of the calculations are compared with experimental data

  15. A novel approach to enhance biological nutrient removal using a culture supernatant from Micrococcus luteus containing resuscitation-promoting factor (Rpf) in SBR process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yindong; Su, Xiaomei; Lu, Lian; Ding, Linxian; Shen, Chaofeng

    2016-03-01

    A culture supernatant from Micrococcus luteus containing resuscitation-promoting factor (SRpf) was used to enhance the biological nutrient removal of potentially functional bacteria. The obtained results suggest that SRpf accelerated the start-up process and significantly enhanced the biological nutrient removal in sequencing batch reactor (SBR). PO4 (3-)-P removal efficiency increased by over 12 % and total nitrogen removal efficiency increased by over 8 % in treatment reactor acclimated by SRpf compared with those without SRpf addition. The Illumina high-throughput sequencing analysis showed that SRpf played an essential role in shifts in the composition and diversity of bacterial community. The phyla of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, which were closely related to biological nutrient removal, were greatly abundant after SRpf addition. This study demonstrates that SRpf acclimation or addition might hold great potential as an efficient and cost-effective alternative for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to meet more stringent operation conditions and legislations.

  16. Auto-recognition of surfaces and auto-generation of material removal volume for finishing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataraki, Pramod S.; Salman Abu Mansor, Mohd

    2018-03-01

    Auto-recognition of a surface and auto-generation of material removal volumes for the so recognised surfaces has become a need to achieve successful downstream manufacturing activities like automated process planning and scheduling. Few researchers have contributed to generation of material removal volume for a product but resulted in material removal volume discontinuity between two adjacent material removal volumes generated from two adjacent faces that form convex geometry. The need for limitation free material removal volume generation was attempted and an algorithm that automatically recognises computer aided design (CAD) model’s surface and also auto-generate material removal volume for finishing process of the recognised surfaces was developed. The surfaces of CAD model are successfully recognised by the developed algorithm and required material removal volume is obtained. The material removal volume discontinuity limitation that occurred in fewer studies is eliminated.

  17. Removal of macro-pollutants in oily wastewater obtained from soil remediation plant using electro-oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghari, Mehdi; Drogui, Patrick; Blais, Jean François

    2018-03-01

    Electro-oxidation process by niobium boron-doped diamond (Nb/BDD) electrode was used to treat non-biodegradable oily wastewater provided from soil leachate contaminated by hydrocarbons. Firstly, the diffusion current limit and mass transfer coefficient was experimentally measured (7.1 mA cm -2 and 14.7 μm s -1 , respectively), in order to understand minimum applied current density. Later on, the oxidation kinetic model of each pollutant was investigated in different current densities ranged between 3.8 and 61.5 mA cm -2 . It was observed that direct oxidation was the main removal mechanism of organic and inorganic carbon, while the indirect oxidation in higher current density was responsible for nitrogen oxidation. Hydrocarbon in the form of colloidal particles could be removed by electro-flotation. On the other hand, electro-decomposition on the surface of cathode and precipitation by hydroxyl ions were the utmost removal pathway of metals. According to the initial experiments, operating condition was further optimized by central composite design model in different current density, treatment time, and electrolyte addition, based on the best responses on the specific energy consumption (SEC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiency. Unde r optimum operating condition (current density = 23.1 mA cm -2 , time = 120 min, Ti/Pt as a cathode, and Nb/BDD as the anode), electro-oxidation showed the following removal efficiencies: COD (84.6%), TOC (68.2%), oil and grease (99%), color (87.9%), total alkalinity (92%), N tot (18%), NH 4 + (31%), Ca (66.4%), Fe (71.1%), Mg (41.4%), Mn (78.1%), P tot (75%), S (67.1%), and Si (19.1%). Graphical abstract Environmental significance statement Soil treatment facilities are rapidly grown throughout the world, especially in North America due to its intense industrialization. High water content soil in humid area like Canada produces significant amount of leachate which is

  18. Thief process for the removal of mercury from flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennline, Henry W.; Granite, Evan J.; Freeman, Mark C.; Hargis, Richard A.; O'Dowd, William J.

    2003-02-18

    A system and method for removing mercury from the flue gas of a coal-fired power plant is described. Mercury removal is by adsorption onto a thermally activated sorbent produced in-situ at the power plant. To obtain the thermally activated sorbent, a lance (thief) is inserted into a location within the combustion zone of the combustion chamber and extracts a mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas. The semi-combusted coal has adsorptive properties suitable for the removal of elemental and oxidized mercury. The mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas is separated into a stream of gas and semi-combusted coal that has been converted to a stream of thermally activated sorbent. The separated stream of gas is recycled to the combustion chamber. The thermally activated sorbent is injected into the duct work of the power plant at a location downstream from the exit port of the combustion chamber. Mercury within the flue gas contacts and adsorbs onto the thermally activated sorbent. The sorbent-mercury combination is removed from the plant by a particulate collection system.

  19. Optimization of coagulation-flocculation process for colour removal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response surface methodology (RSM) using face-centered central composite design (FCCD) was used to optimize the four variables. Increase in the colour removal efficiency was higher in acidic solution pH. Accurate control of coagulant dosages gave optimum destabilization of charged particles and re-stabilization ...

  20. optimization of coagulation-flocculation process for colour removal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, AWKA, ANAMBRA STATE. ... The ability of organic polymer rich coagulants for colour removal from acid dye was studied. ... Response surface methodology (RSM) using face-centered ...... successfully applied for modeling and optimizing the.

  1. Management of microbial community composition, architecture and performance in autotrophic nitrogen removing bioreactors through aeration regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutlu, A. Gizem

    to describe aggregation and architectural evolution in nitritation/anammox reactors, incorporating the possible influences of intermediates formed with intermittent aeration. Community analysis revealed an abundant fraction of heterotrophic types despite the absence of organic carbon in the feed. The aerobic...... and anaerobic ammonia oxidizing guilds were dominated by fast-growing Nitrosomonas spp. and Ca. Brocadia spp., while the nitrite oxidizing guild was dominated by high affinity Nitrospira spp. Emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) was evaluated from both reactors under dynamic aeration regimes. Contrary to the widely...... impacts could be isolated, increasing process understanding. It was demonstrated that aeration strategy can be used as a powerful tool to manipulate the microbial community composition, its architecture and reactor performance. We suggest operation via intermittent aeration with short aerated periods...

  2. Recalcitrance removal of pretreated landfill leachate by ozone-based oxidation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Van Aken, Pieter; Van Eyck, Kwinten; Luyten, Jan; Degrève, Jan; Liers, Sven

    2010-01-01

    The sanitary landfill method for the ultimate disposal of solid waste material continues to be widely accepted and used due to its economic advantages. However, water infiltrates through the solid waste and a variety of organic and inorganic pollutants will be dissolved and transported. These leachates may contain large amounts of organic matter, as well as ammonia-nitrogen, heavy metals, chlorinated organic and inorganic salts. The removal of organic material is usual the prerequisite before...

  3. The use of hybrid constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment with special attention to nitrogen removal: a review of a recent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vymazal, Jan

    2013-09-15

    The hybrid systems were developed in the 1960s but their use increased only during the late 1990 s and in the 2000s mostly because of more stringent discharge limits for nitrogen and also more complex wastewaters treated in constructed wetlands (CWs). The early hybrid CWs consisted of several stages of vertical flow (VF) followed by several stages of horizontal flow (HF) beds. During the 1990 s, HF-VF and VF-HF hybrid systems were introduced. However, to achieve higher removal of total nitrogen or to treat more complex industrial and agricultural wastewaters other types of hybrid constructed wetlands including free water surface (FWS) CWs and multistage CWs have recently been used as well. The survey of 60 hybrid constructed wetlands from 24 countries reported after 2003 revealed that hybrid constructed wetlands are primarily used on Europe and in Asia while in other continents their use is limited. The most commonly used hybrid system is a VF-HF constructed wetland which has been used for treatment of both sewage and industrial wastewaters. On the other hand, the use of a HF-VF system has been reported only for treatment of municipal sewage. Out of 60 surveyed hybrid systems, 38 have been designed to treat municipal sewage while 22 hybrid systems were designed to treat various industrial and agricultural wastewaters. The more detailed analysis revealed that VF-HF hybrid constructed wetlands are slightly more efficient in ammonia removal than hybrid systems with FWS CWs, HF-VF systems or multistage VF and HF hybrid CWs. All types of hybrid CWs are comparable with single VF CWs in terms of NH4-N removal rates. On the other hand, CWs with FWS units remove substantially more total nitrogen as compared to other types of hybrid constructed wetlands. However, all types of hybrid constructed wetlands are more efficient in total nitrogen removal than single HF or VF constructed wetlands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reducing equifinality using isotopes in a process-based stream nitrogen model highlights the flux of algal nitrogen from agricultural streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, William I.; Fox, James F.; Pollock, Erik

    2017-08-01

    The fate of bioavailable nitrogen species transported through agricultural landscapes remains highly uncertain given complexities of measuring fluxes impacting the fluvial N cycle. We present and test a new numerical model named Technology for Removable Annual Nitrogen in Streams For Ecosystem Restoration (TRANSFER), which aims to reduce model uncertainty due to erroneous parameterization, i.e., equifinality, in stream nitrogen cycle assessment and quantify the significance of transient and permanent removal pathways. TRANSFER couples nitrogen elemental and stable isotope mass-balance equations with existing hydrologic, hydraulic, sediment transport, algal biomass, and sediment organic matter mass-balance subroutines and a robust GLUE-like uncertainty analysis. We test the model in an agriculturally impacted, third-order stream reach located in the Bluegrass Region of Central Kentucky. Results of the multiobjective model evaluation for the model application highlight the ability of sediment nitrogen fingerprints including elemental concentrations and stable N isotope signatures to reduce equifinality of the stream N model. Advancements in the numerical simulations allow for illumination of the significance of algal sloughing fluxes for the first time in relation to denitrification. Broadly, model estimates suggest that denitrification is slightly greater than algal N sloughing (10.7% and 6.3% of dissolved N load on average), highlighting the potential for overestimation of denitrification by 37%. We highlight the significance of the transient N pool given the potential for the N store to be regenerated to the water column in downstream reaches, leading to harmful and nuisance algal bloom development.

  5. Applications of digital processing for noise removal from plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, R.J.; Candy, J.V.; Casper, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    The use of digital signal techniques for removal of noise components present in plasma diagnostic signals is discussed, particularly with reference to diamagnetic loop signals. These signals contain noise due to power supply ripple in addition to plasma characteristics. The application of noise canceling techniques, such as adaptive noise canceling and model-based estimation, will be discussed. The use of computer codes such as SIG is described. 19 refs., 5 figs

  6. Zinc removal from wastewater by complexation-microfiltration process

    OpenAIRE

    Trivunac Katarina; Sekulić Zoran; Stevanović Slavica

    2012-01-01

    As a result of its wide industrial applications, zinc has become an important contaminant in aquatic environment since it is a toxic heavy metal and some of its compounds such as zinc arsenate and zinc cyanide, may be extremely hazardous. Therefore, there is a growing need for developing simple methods capable of separating and recovering trace zinc from environmental waters. Nowadays, the ultra and microfiltration method for trace metals removal from waters by the addition of water-sol...

  7. Removing radioactive noble gases from nuclear process off-gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofredo, A.

    1977-01-01

    A system is claimed for separating, concentrating and storing radioactive krypton and xenon in the off-gases from a boiling water reactor, wherein adsorption and cryogenic distillation are both efficiently used for rapid and positive separation and removal of the radioactive noble gases, and for limiting such gases in circulation in the system to low inventory at all times, and wherein the system is self-regulating to eliminate operator options or attention

  8. Process for off-gas particulate removal and apparatus therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    In the event of a breach in the off-gas line of a melter operation requiring closure of the line, a secondary vessel vent line is provided with a particulate collector utilizing atomization for removal of large particulates from the off-gas. The collector receives the gas containing particulates and directs a portion of the gas through outer and inner annular channels. The collector further receives a fluid, such as water, which is directed through the outer channel together with a second portion of the particulate-laden gas. The outer and inner channels have respective ring-like termination apertures concentrically disposed adjacent one another on the outer edge of the downstream side of the particulate collector. Each of the outer and inner channels curves outwardly away from the collector's centerline in proceeding toward the downstream side of the collector. Gas flow in the outer channel maintains the fluid on the channel's wall in the form of a ''wavy film,'' while the gas stream from the inner channel shears the fluid film as it exits the outer channel in reducing the fluid to small droplets. Droplets formed by the collector capture particulates in the gas stream by one of three mechanisms: impaction, interception or Brownian diffusion in removing the particulates. The particulate-laden droplets are removed from the fluid stream by a vessel vent condenser or mist eliminator. 4 figs

  9. Comparison study of nitrogen and argon processing in a plasma arc centrifugal treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuey, M.; Tsuji, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Recent testing performed at the plasma research center of Retech Services, Inc. compared nitrogen with argon as plasma gas in the processing of simulated wastes. The testing took place in a full-scale production PACT system under a cooperative research and development study between Retech Services Inc. and Toyo Engineering Corporation. This study shows that simulated waste can be processed by both nitrogen and argon plasmas. Heat losses to the torch nozzle were significantly lower with argon and should be studied further. Both argon and nitrogen plasma were able to process feeds containing both metals and oxides. Some of the drawbacks to using argon plasma are cost, higher volume flow rates, and dual mode torch nozzle erosion. (authors)

  10. Nitrogen removal and electricity production at a double-chamber microbial fuel cell with cathode nitrite denitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yangyang; Zhao, Jianqiang; Wang, Sha; Zhao, Huimin; Ding, Xiaoqian; Gao, Kun

    2017-12-01

    Double-chamber microbial fuel cell was applied to investigate the performance of the electricity production and nitrite denitrification through feeding nitrite into the cathode. Factors influencing denitrification performance and power production, such as external resistance, influent nitrite concentration and Nitrite Oxygen Bacteria inhibitors, were studied. The results show that when the concentration of nitrite nitrogen and external resistance were 100 mg L -1 and 10 Ω, respectively, the nitrite denitrification reached the best state. The NaN 3 can inhibit nitrite oxidation effectively; meanwhile, the nitrite denitrification with N 2 O as the final products was largely improved. The [Formula: see text] was reduced to [Formula: see text], causing the cathode denitrification coulombic efficiency to exceed 100%. In chemoautotrophic bio-nitrification, microorganisms may utilize H 2 O to oxidize nitrite under anaerobic conditions. Proteobacteria might play a major role in the process of denitrification in MFC.

  11. Influence of Silver nanoparticles on nutrient removal and microbial communities in SBR process after long-term exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhaohan [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No73, Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Heilongjiang River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, No 43, Songfa Street, Daoli District, Harbin 150001 (China); Gao, Peng, E-mail: hitzzh@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No73, Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Li, Moqing; Cheng, Jiaqi [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No73, Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Liu, Wei [Heilongjiang River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, No 43, Songfa Street, Daoli District, Harbin 150001 (China); Feng, Yujie, E-mail: yujief@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No73, Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2016-11-01

    The widespread utilization of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in industrial and commercial products inevitably raises the release into wastewater that might cause potential negative impacts on sewage treatment system. In this paper, long-term exposure experiments at four levels were conducted to determine whether AgNPs caused adverse impacts on nutrient removals in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) and changes of microbial community structure. Compared with the control reactor (without AgNPs), carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal in presence of 0.1 mg/L AgNPs was no difference. However, presence of 1.0 and 10 mg/L AgNPs decreased the average removal efficiencies of COD from 95.4% to 85.2% and 68.3%, ammonia nitrogen from 98.8% to 71.2% and 49%, SOP from 97.6% to 75.5% and 54.1%, respectively. It was found that AgNPs could accumulate in sludge with the distribution coefficients of 39.2–114 L/g, inhibit the protein and polysaccharide production in EPS, reduce the SOUR of sludge, and greatly increase LDH release from microbial cells. The illumina high-throughput sequencing results indicated that AgNPs concentration changed the structures of bacterial communities, associating with the effects of AgNPs on reactor performance. Sequence analyses showed that Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria were the dominant phyla. It was notable that AgNPs addition reduced the contents of several nitrifying bacteria at genera level in sludge, leading to the lower removal of nitrogen. - Highlights: • More than 1.0 mg/L AgNPs evidently reduce COD, NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N and SOP removal in SBR process. • AgNPs decrease the protein and polysaccharide contents of EPS. • AgNPs increase LDH release for 1.46–2.41 times. • AgNPs are apt to accumulate on surface and even into microbial cells. • AgNPs levels affect microbial community structure and composition.

  12. Influence of Silver nanoparticles on nutrient removal and microbial communities in SBR process after long-term exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhaohan; Gao, Peng; Li, Moqing; Cheng, Jiaqi; Liu, Wei; Feng, Yujie

    2016-01-01

    The widespread utilization of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in industrial and commercial products inevitably raises the release into wastewater that might cause potential negative impacts on sewage treatment system. In this paper, long-term exposure experiments at four levels were conducted to determine whether AgNPs caused adverse impacts on nutrient removals in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) and changes of microbial community structure. Compared with the control reactor (without AgNPs), carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal in presence of 0.1 mg/L AgNPs was no difference. However, presence of 1.0 and 10 mg/L AgNPs decreased the average removal efficiencies of COD from 95.4% to 85.2% and 68.3%, ammonia nitrogen from 98.8% to 71.2% and 49%, SOP from 97.6% to 75.5% and 54.1%, respectively. It was found that AgNPs could accumulate in sludge with the distribution coefficients of 39.2–114 L/g, inhibit the protein and polysaccharide production in EPS, reduce the SOUR of sludge, and greatly increase LDH release from microbial cells. The illumina high-throughput sequencing results indicated that AgNPs concentration changed the structures of bacterial communities, associating with the effects of AgNPs on reactor performance. Sequence analyses showed that Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria were the dominant phyla. It was notable that AgNPs addition reduced the contents of several nitrifying bacteria at genera level in sludge, leading to the lower removal of nitrogen. - Highlights: • More than 1.0 mg/L AgNPs evidently reduce COD, NH_4"+-N and SOP removal in SBR process. • AgNPs decrease the protein and polysaccharide contents of EPS. • AgNPs increase LDH release for 1.46–2.41 times. • AgNPs are apt to accumulate on surface and even into microbial cells. • AgNPs levels affect microbial community structure and composition.

  13. Aerobic and anaerobic nitrogen transformation processes in N2-fixing cyanobacterial aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klawonn, Isabell; Bonaglia, Stefano; Brüchert, Volker; Ploug, Helle

    2015-06-01

    Colonies of N(2)-fixing cyanobacteria are key players in supplying new nitrogen to the ocean, but the biological fate of this fixed nitrogen remains poorly constrained. Here, we report on aerobic and anaerobic microbial nitrogen transformation processes that co-occur within millimetre-sized cyanobacterial aggregates (Nodularia spumigena) collected in aerated surface waters in the Baltic Sea. Microelectrode profiles showed steep oxygen gradients inside the aggregates and the potential for nitrous oxide production in the aggregates' anoxic centres. (15)N-isotope labelling experiments and nutrient analyses revealed that N(2) fixation, ammonification, nitrification, nitrate reduction to ammonium, denitrification and possibly anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) can co-occur within these consortia. Thus, N. spumigena aggregates are potential sites of nitrogen gain, recycling and loss. Rates of nitrate reduction to ammonium and N(2) were limited by low internal nitrification rates and low concentrations of nitrate in the ambient water. Presumably, patterns of N-transformation processes similar to those observed in this study arise also in other phytoplankton colonies, marine snow and fecal pellets. Anoxic microniches, as a pre-condition for anaerobic nitrogen transformations, may occur within large aggregates (⩾1 mm) even when suspended in fully oxygenated waters, whereas anoxia in small aggregates (1.5 μM), O(2)-depleted water layers, for example, in the chemocline of the Baltic Sea or the oceanic mesopelagic zone, aggregates may promote N-recycling and -loss processes.

  14. Removal of radionuclides from process streams, a series of applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menetrez, M.Y.

    1987-01-01

    The extensive research performed on metal oxide adsorption, the adsorption phenomena and physical conditions of cationic adsorption on manganese dioxide in solution have demonstrated that above pH 3 cations are adsorbed by an order of affinity, and that the interaction is characterized by the pH dependence of the metal. The relationship of the zero point charge of pH and the solution ionic strength effects on interfacial surface potential and adsorption have been addressed. A system to produce MnO 2 fiber with a heavy MnO 2 loading was designed, constructed, and operated successfully. Extensive testing has been performed on the adsorption of radium, calcium, cadmium, cesium, cobalt, iron, and manganese on MnO 2 fiber. This testing entailed field work utilizing bleed stream tests of MnO 2 fiber cartridges and tests of loose MnO 2 fiber and resin in columns. Radium removal amounted to a level of 36.9 nanocuries per gram MnO 2 , or 2 microcuries on a single 10 inch MnO 2 fiber filter element. Removal of metals from solutions was demonstrated at various rates specific for each metal tested. The order of affinity of those metals tested and the combined effects of electrolytic solutions was compared to previous research. The analysis of radium in water was performed using a highly modified procedure which is included to specify the exact steps of the analytical method followed. This method has introduced innovations in equipment, technique, and the use of reagents. Results of a comparison of MnO 2 fiber to commercial water treatment media for the removal of cobalt and cesium is presented

  15. Efficiency of SBR Process with a Six Sequence Aerobic-Anaerobic Cycle for Phosphorus and Organic Material Removal from Municipal Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiya Shahandeh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various chemical, physical and biologic treatment methods are being used to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater. Sequencing batch reactor (SBR is a modified activated sludge process that removes phosphorus and organic material from sanitary wastewater, biologically. Methods: This study was conducted in 2016.The performance of an aerobic-anaerobic SBR pilot device, located at Ahwaz West Wastewater Treatment Plant, Ahwaz, southern Iran in phosphorus and organic material removal was evaluated to determine the effect of the aerobic-anaerobic step time on the efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus removal, the effect of changing the sequence of steps and the effect of time ratio on phosphorus removal efficiency. A reactor of 8 L was used. Influent contained 397 and 10.7 mg/l COD and phosphorus, respectively. The pilot plant started with a 24 h cycle including four cycles of 6 h, as follows: 1- Loading (15 min, 2-Anaerobic (2 h-Aerobic (2 h, 3- Settling (1 h, Idleness (30 min and 5- decant (15 min. Results: After reaching steady conditions (6 months, Removal percentages of phosphorus, BOD5, COD, and TSS in The SBR over a period of 6 months was 79%, 86%, 89% and 83%, respectively. Conclusion: Result of this study can be used for designing and optimum operation of sequencing batch reactors.

  16. Nitrogen Processing Efficiency of an Upper Mississippi River Backwater Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    with denitrification accounting for ~32 percent. By subtraction, assimilation (bacteria, periphyton , phytoplankton , and macrophyte uptake) must...later release and processing or transport. Phytoplankton and periphyton can assimilate considerable nitrate for growth in the absence of ammonia in...over the relatively short period of this study. As with phytoplankton and periphyton biomass, the macrophyte N pool is subject to N transformation

  17. Nitrogen oxide closed system in the future reprocessing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, S.; Takaoku, Y.; Sumida, Y.; Moriya, T.; Araya, S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: The aqueous reprocessing process for the future type reactor like as Fast Breeder Reactor(FBR) is being developed in many institutes, while the existence of sodium nitrate as the secondary waste is considered as problematic due to an enormous quantity of sodium nitrate generated and the difficulty in its handling for disposal. As a means for solving the problem, a complete recycle of nitric acid and salt free system is considered, but it become a constraint in the process constitution. We have devised the alternative system, which shall approve the generation of sodium nitrate, and make the choice of a wide reprocessing process. Under this system nitric acid within sodium nitrate shall be reduced and made into harmless gas, while at the same time, the remaining sodium compound shall be re-used in a suitable form. In order to prevent the accumulation of radioactivity by re-use, we propose to use a part of remaining sodium compound as substitution of the fresh sodium within the glass material used for the vitrified solid waste. As a result of using this system, the waste originating from sodium nitrate can be reduced to 'zero'. We have studied a typical application case for the future reprocessing process, and got a good result at an economical point of view

  18. Removal of organic substances and oxidation of ammonium nitrogen by a down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor under high salinity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Shigeki; Suzuki, Saori; Abe, Kenichi; Kubota, Keiichi; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Takemura, Yasuyuki; Harada, Hideki

    2010-07-01

    A down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor, constructed by connecting three identical treatment units in series, was fed with highly saline artificial coke-plant wastewater containing 1400 mg L(-1) of phenol in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 500 mg-NL(-1) of ammonium nitrogen. The COD was removed by the 1st unit, achieving 92% removal at an average COD loading rate of 3.0 kg-COD m(-3)d(-1) for all units, with oxidation of ammonium nitrogen occurring primarily in the two downstream units. Microbial assays of the different units of the reactor revealed greater numbers of nitrifying bacteria in the 2nd and 3rd units than in the 1st unit, corresponding with the observed ammonium oxidation pattern of the reactor. These findings suggest that a succession of microflora was successfully established along the DHS. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. CO{sub 2} removal potential of carbons prepared by co-pyrolysis of sugar and nitrogen containing compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenillas, A.; Drage, T.C.; Smith, K.; Snape, C.E. [University of Nottingham, Fuel Science Group, School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-15

    The nitrogen enrichment of active carbons is reported to be effective in enhancing the specific adsorbate-adsorbent interactions for CO{sub 2}. In this work, nitrogen-enriched carbons were prepared by co-pyrolysis of sugar and a series of nitrogen compounds with different nitrogen functionalities. The results show that although the amount of nitrogen incorporated to the final adsorbent is important, the N-functionality seems to be more relevant for increasing CO{sub 2} uptake. Thus, the adsorbent obtained from urea co-pyrolysis presents the highest nitrogen content but the lowest CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity. However, the adsorbent obtained from carbazole co-pyrolysis, despite the lower amount of N incorporated, shows high CO{sub 2} uptake, up to 9wt.%, probably because the presence of more basic functionalities as determined by XPS analysis.

  20. Removal of halogenated emerging contaminants from water by nitrogen-doped graphene decorated with palladium nanoparticles: Experimental investigation and theoretical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Gong, Li; Wang, Yi-Xuan; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Jie; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2016-07-01

    The removal performance and mechanisms of halogenated emerging contaminants from water by palladium decorated nitrogen-doped graphene (Pd/NG) were investigated in this study. For comparison, three catalysts of Pd/NG, palladium decorated graphene (Pd/G) and commercial Pd/C were initially explored to degrade tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). After that, the influence of various environmental parameters on TBBPA removal by the Pd/NG catalyst was evaluated. Moreover, both Langmuir-Hinshelwood model and density functional theory (DFT) were adopted to theoretically elucidate the adsorption and the activation of TBBPA on the catalyst. The results show that the apparent rate constant of TBBPA dehalogenation was increased by 26.7% and 39.0% in the presence of the Pd/NG catalyst compared to the Pd/G and Pd/C ones. Higher temperature, catalyst dosage and alkaline conditions resulted in the enhancement of TBBPA dehalogenation by the Pd/NG catalyst, while humic acid in the solution had a negatively effect on the transformation of TBBPA. The corresponding rate constant value exhibited a 2.1- and 1.8-fold increase with the rise of temperature from 298 to 328 K and initial pH from 6.5 to 9.0, respectively. On the contrary, the rate constant was decreased by 78.9% in the presence of 15 mg L(-1) humic acid. Theoretical analysis revealed that both adsorption and activation processes of TBBPA on the Pd/NG catalyst were enhanced through the N doping into graphene framework. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The mechanism of enhanced wastewater nitrogen removal by photo-sequencing batch reactors based on comprehensive analysis of system dynamics within a cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianfeng; Liang, Junyu; Wang, Liang; Markou, Giorgos

    2018-07-01

    To understand the mechanism of enhanced nitrogen removal by photo-sequencing batch reactors (photo-SBRs), which incorporated microalgal photosynthetic oxygenation into the aerobic phases of a conventional cycle, this study performed comprehensive analysis of one-cycle dynamics. Under a low aeration intensity (about 0.02 vvm), a photo-SBR, illuminated with light at 92.27 μ·mol·m -2 ·s -1 , could remove 99.45% COD, 99.93% NH 4 + -N, 90.39% TN, and 95.17% TP, while the control SBR could only remove 98.36% COD, 83.51% NH 4 + -N, 78.96% TN, and 97.75% TP, for a synthetic domestic sewage. The specific oxygen production rate (SOPR) of microalgae in the photo-SBR could reach 6.63 fmol O 2 ·cell -1 ·h -1 . One-cycle dynamics shows that the enhanced nitrogen removal by photo-SBRs is related to photosynthetic oxygenation, resulting in strengthened nitrification, instead of direct nutrient uptake by microalgae. A too high light or aeration intensity could deteriorate anoxic conditions and thus adversely affect the removal of TN and TP in photo-SBRs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High-rate nitrogen removal from waste brine by marine anammox bacteria in a pilot-scale UASB reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Yasutsugu; Tokutomi, Takaaki; Kiyokawa, Tomohiro; Hori, Tomoyuki; Ikeda, Daisuke; Song, Kang; Hosomi, Masaaki; Terada, Akihiko

    2018-02-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a startup strategy for a high-rate anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) reactor to treat waste brine with high concentrations of ammonium from a natural gas plant. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) anammox reactor with an effective volume of 294 L was fed continuously with waste brine with a salinity of 3% and a NH 4 + concentration of 180 mg-N/L, as well as a NaNO 2 solution. By inoculating a methanogenic granular biomass as a biomass carrier, the reactor attained the maximum volumetric nitrogen removal rate (NRR) of 10.7 kg-N/m 3 /day on day 209, which was 1.7 times higher than the highest reported NRR for wastewater of comparable salinity. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons revealed that Candidatus Scalindua wagneri was enriched successfully in granules in the UASB, and it replaced Methanosaeta and became dominant in the granule. The inhibitory effect of NO 2 - on the anammox reaction in the granules was assessed by a 15 N tracer method, and the results showed that anammox activity was maintained at 60% after exposure to 300 mg-N/L of NO 2 - for 24 h. Compared with previous studies of the susceptibilities of Candidatus Brocadia and Candidatus Kuenenia to NO 2 - , the enriched marine anammox bacteria were proven to have comparable or even higher tolerances for high NO 2 - concentrations after a long exposure.

  3. Start-up of simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulfate from an anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process in an anaerobic up-flow bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Zhiquan [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China); Zhou Shaoqi, E-mail: fesqzhou@scut.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China); State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Building Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China); Sun Yanbo [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China)

    2009-09-30

    A laboratory testing of simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulfate (SRAS) was studied from an anammox process in an anaerobic bioreactor filled with granular activated carbon. Two different phases of experiment were investigated to start up the SRAS process, and final batch tests were performed to analyze the SRAS process. The experiment included an anammox process and an SRAS process. During the anammox process, the highest removal efficiency of ammonium and nitrite was up to 97 and 98%, respectively. After 160 days in the stationary phase of anammox process, the ratio of ammonium to nitrite consumption was approximately 1:1.15, which is much higher than 1:1.32 in the traditional anammox process. The extra electron acceptor, such as sulfate, was thought to react with ammonium by bacteria. Synthetic wastewater containing ammonium chlorine and sodium sulfate was used as the feed for the bioreactor in the second phase of experiment. During the SRAS process, the influent concentrations of ammonium and sulfate were controlled to be 50-60 and 210-240 mg L{sup -1} respectively. After start-up and acclimatization of this process for 60 days, the average effluent concentrations of ammonium and sulfate were 30 and 160 mg L{sup -1}, respectively. The simultaneous ammonium and sulfate removal was detected in the reactor. In order to further validate the biochemical interaction between ammonium and sulfate, batch tests was carried out. Abiotic tests were carried out to demonstrate that the pure chemical action between ammonium and sulfate without microorganism was not possible. Biotic assays with different ammonium and sulfate concentrations were further investigated that high concentrations of ammonium and sulfate could promote simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulfate. And elemental sulfur and nitrogen gas as the products measured in the SRAS process helped to demonstrate the occurrence of new interaction between nitrogen and sulfur. The new process of SRAS in the

  4. Start-up of simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulfate from an anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process in an anaerobic up-flow bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhiquan; Zhou Shaoqi; Sun Yanbo

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory testing of simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulfate (SRAS) was studied from an anammox process in an anaerobic bioreactor filled with granular activated carbon. Two different phases of experiment were investigated to start up the SRAS process, and final batch tests were performed to analyze the SRAS process. The experiment included an anammox process and an SRAS process. During the anammox process, the highest removal efficiency of ammonium and nitrite was up to 97 and 98%, respectively. After 160 days in the stationary phase of anammox process, the ratio of ammonium to nitrite consumption was approximately 1:1.15, which is much higher than 1:1.32 in the traditional anammox process. The extra electron acceptor, such as sulfate, was thought to react with ammonium by bacteria. Synthetic wastewater containing ammonium chlorine and sodium sulfate was used as the feed for the bioreactor in the second phase of experiment. During the SRAS process, the influent concentrations of ammonium and sulfate were controlled to be 50-60 and 210-240 mg L -1 respectively. After start-up and acclimatization of this process for 60 days, the average effluent concentrations of ammonium and sulfate were 30 and 160 mg L -1 , respectively. The simultaneous ammonium and sulfate removal was detected in the reactor. In order to further validate the biochemical interaction between ammonium and sulfate, batch tests was carried out. Abiotic tests were carried out to demonstrate that the pure chemical action between ammonium and sulfate without microorganism was not possible. Biotic assays with different ammonium and sulfate concentrations were further investigated that high concentrations of ammonium and sulfate could promote simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulfate. And elemental sulfur and nitrogen gas as the products measured in the SRAS process helped to demonstrate the occurrence of new interaction between nitrogen and sulfur. The new process of SRAS in the inorganic

  5. The effects of antecedent dry days on the nitrogen removal in layered soil infiltration systems for storm run-off control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kang-Woo; Yoon, Min-Hyuk; Song, Kyung-Guen; Ahn, Kyu-Hong

    2011-01-01

    The effects of antecedent dry days (ADD) on nitrogen removal efficiency were investigated in soil infiltration systems, with three distinguishable layers: mulch layer (ML), coarse soil layer (CSL) and fine soil layer (FSL). Two sets of lab-scale columns with loamy CSL (C1) and sandy CSL (C2) were dosed with synthetic run-off, carrying chemical oxygen demand of 100 mg L(-1) and total nitrogen of 13 mg L(-1). The intermittent dosing cycle was stepwise adjusted for 5, 10 and 20 days. The influent ammonium and organic nitrogen were adsorbed to the entire depth in C1, while dominantly to the FSL in C2. In both columns, the effluent ammonium concentration increased while the organic nitrogen concentration decreased, as ADD increased from 5 to 20 days. The effluent of C1 always showed nitrate concentration exceeding influent, caused by nitrification, by increasing amounts as ADD increased. However, the wash-out of nitrate in C1 was not distinct in terms of mass since the effluent flow rate was only 25% of the influent. In contrast, efficient reduction (>95%) of nitrate loading was observed in C2 under ADD of 5 and 10 days, because of insignificant nitrification in the CSL and denitrification in the FSL. However, for the ADD of 20 days, a significant nitrate wash-out appeared in C2 as well, possibly because of the re-aeration by the decreasing water content in the FSL. Consequently, the total nitrogen load escaping with the effluent was always smaller in C2, supporting the effectiveness of sandy CSL over loamy FSL for nitrogen removal under various ADDs.

  6. Probing the Effects of Templating on the UV and Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity of Porous Nitrogen-Modified Titania Monoliths for Dye Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursam, Natalita M; Wang, Xingdong; Tan, Jeannie Z Y; Caruso, Rachel A

    2016-07-13

    Porous nitrogen-modified titania (N-titania) monoliths with tailored morphologies were prepared using phase separation and agarose gel templating techniques. The doping and templating process were simultaneously carried out in a one-pot step using alcohol amine-assisted sol-gel chemistry. The amount of polymer used in the monoliths that were prepared using phase separation was shown to affect both the physical and optical properties: higher poly(ethylene glycol) content increased the specific surface area, porosity, and visible light absorption of the final materials. For the agarose-templated monoliths, the infiltration conditions affected the monolith morphology. A porous monolith with high surface area and the least shrinkage was obtained when the N containing alkoxide precursor was infiltrated into the agarose scaffolds at 60 °C. The effect of the diverse porous morphologies on the photocatalytic activity of N-titania was studied for the decomposition of methylene blue (MB) under visible and UV light irradiation. The highest visible light activity was achieved by the agarose-templated N-titania monolith, in part due to higher N incorporation. This sample also showed better UV activity, partly because of the higher specific surface area (up to 112 m(2) g(-1)) compared to the phase separation-induced monoliths (up to 103 m(2) g(-1)). Overall, agarose-templated, porous N-titania monoliths provided better features for effectively removing the MB contaminant.

  7. Reduction of nitrogen oxides from simulated exhaust gas by using plasma-catalytic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mok, Young Sun; Koh, Dong Jun; Shin, Dong Nam; Kim, Kyong Tae

    2004-01-01

    Removal of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) using a nonthermal plasma reactor (dielectric-packed bed reactor) combined with monolith V 2 O 5 /TiO 2 catalyst was investigated. The effect of initial NO x concentration, feed gas flow rate (space velocity), humidity, and reaction temperature on the removal of NO x was examined. The plasma reactor used can be energized by either ac or pulse voltage. An attempt was made to utilize the electrical ignition system of an internal combustion engine as a high-voltage pulse generator for the plasma reactor. When the plasma reactor was energized by the electrical ignition system, NO was readily oxidized to NO 2 . Performance was as good as with ac energization. Increasing the fraction of NO 2 in NO x , which is the main role of the plasma reactor, largely enhanced the NO x removal efficiency. In the plasma-catalytic reactor, the increases in initial NO x concentration, space velocity (feed gas flow rate) and humidity lowered the NO x removal efficiency. However, the reaction temperature in the range up to 473 K did not significantly affect the NO x removal efficiency in the presence of plasma discharge

  8. Comprehensive evaluation of nitrogen removal rate and biomass, ethanol, and methane production yields by combination of four major duckweeds and three types of wastewater effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Tadashi; Hanaoka, Tsubasa; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Morikawa, Masaaki; Mori, Kazuhiro

    2018-02-01

    To assess the potential of duckweeds as agents for nitrogen removal and biofuel feedstocks, Spirodela polyrhiza, Lemna minor, Lemna gibba, and Landoltia punctata were cultured in effluents of municipal wastewater, swine wastewater, or anaerobic digestion for 4 days. Total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (T-DIN) of 20-50 mg/L in effluents was effectively removed by inoculating with 0.3-1.0 g/L duckweeds. S. polyrhiza showed the highest nitrogen removal (2.0-10.8 mg T-DIN/L/day) and biomass production (52.6-70.3 mg d.w./L/day) rates in all the three effluents. Ethanol and methane were produced from duckweed biomass grown in each effluent. S. polyrhiza and L. punctata biomass showed higher ethanol (0.168-0.191, 0.166-0.172 and 0.174-0.191 g-ethanol/g-biomass, respectively) and methane (340-413 and 343-408 NL CH 4 /kg VS, respectively) production potentials than the others, which is related to their higher carbon and starch contents and calorific values. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Modelling of fluoride removal via batch monopolar electrocoagulation process using aluminium electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, N.; Hashim, M. I.; Ismail, N.; Rohman, F. S.; Bashah, N. A. A.

    2017-09-01

    Electrocoagulation (EC) is a promising technology that extensively used to remove fluoride ions efficiently from industrial wastewater. However, it has received very little consideration and understanding on mechanism and factors that affecting the fluoride removal process. In order to determine the efficiency of fluoride removal in EC process, the effect of operating parameters such as voltage and electrolysis time were investigated in this study. A batch experiment with monopolar aluminium electrodes was conducted to identify the model of fluoride removal using empirical model equation. The EC process was investigated using several parameters which include voltage (3 - 12 V) and electrolysis time (0 - 60 minutes) at a constant initial fluoride concentration of 25 mg/L. The result shows that the fluoride removal efficiency increased steadily with increasing voltage and electrolysis time. The best fluoride removal efficiency was obtained with 94.8 % removal at 25 mg/L initial fluoride concentration, voltage of 12 V and 60 minutes electrolysis time. The results indicated that the rate constant, k and number of order, n decreased as the voltage increased. The rate of fluoride removal model was developed based on the empirical model equation using the correlation of k and n. Overall, the result showed that EC process can be considered as a potential alternative technology for fluoride removal in wastewater.

  10. Retardation effect of nitrogen compounds and condensed aromatics on shale oil catalytic cracking processing and their characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Chen, Chen; Wang, Bin; Li, Shaojie; Yang, Chaohe; Chen, Xiaobo

    Untreated shale oil, shale oil treated with HCl aqueous solution and shale oil treated with HCl and furfural were used to do comparative experiments in fixed bed reactors. Nitrogen compounds and condensed aromatics extracted by HCl and furfural were characterized by electrospray ionization Fourier transform cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry and gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, respectively. Compared with untreated shale oil, the conversion and yield of liquid products increased considerably after removing basic nitrogen compounds by HCl extraction. Furthermore, after removing nitrogen compounds and condensed aromatics by both HCl and furfural, the conversion and yield of liquid products further increased. In addition, N 1 class species are predominant in both basic and non-basic nitrogen compounds, and they are probably indole, carbazole, cycloalkyl-carbazole, pyridine and cycloalkyl-pyridine. As for the condensed aromatics, most of them possess aromatic rings with two to three rings and zero to four carbon atom.

  11. Removal of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus from the separated liquid phase of hog manu