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Sample records for tio2 x nx photocatalytic

  1. Fabrication and Photocatalytic Property of One-Dimensional SrTiO3/TiO2-xNx Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huarong Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional SrTiO3/TiO2−xNx nanostructures were prepared by the hydrothermal method and investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS measurements. The photocatalytic activities of the prepared samples were evaluated by photodegrading the methylene blue (MB solution. According to the characterizations, the intermediate product of SrTiO3/titanate nanotubes was presented after hydrothermal processing of the TiO2−xNx nanoparticles with the mixed solution of NaOH and Sr(NO32. The final product of SrTiO3/TiO2−xNx nanorods was obtained after calcining the intermediate. As compared to the TiO2−xNx nanoparticles, the absorption performance of SrTiO3/titanate nanotubes or SrTiO3/TiO2−xNx nanorods was depressed, instead of improving it. The mechanisms of the absorption property changes were discussed. The SrTiO3/TiO2−xNx nanorods presented better photocatalytic activity than the TiO2−xNx nanoparticles or nanorods. However, due to overmuch adsorption, the SrTiO3/titanate nanotubes gave ordinary photocatalytic performances.

  2. Formation of crystalline TiO2-xNx and its photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jum Suk; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Ji, Sang Min; Bae, Sang Won; Jung, Jong Hyeon; Shon, Byung Hyun; Lee, Jae Sung

    2006-01-01

    Amorphous precursors to nitrogen-doped TiO 2 (NTP) and pure TiO 2 (ATP) powders were synthesized by hydrolytic synthesis and sol-gel method (SGM), respectively. Corresponding crystalline phases were obtained by thermally induced transformation of these amorphous powders. From FT-IR and XPS data, it was concluded that a complex containing titanium and ammonia was formed in the precipitate stage while calcination drove weakly adsorbed ammonium species off the surface, decomposed ammonia bound on surface of precipitated powder and led to substitution of nitrogen atom into the lattice of TiO 2 during the crystallization. The activation energies required for grain growth in amorphous TiO 2-x N x and TiO 2 samples were determined to be 1.6 and 1.7kJ/mol, respectively. Those required for the phase transformation from amorphous to crystalline TiO 2-x N x and TiO 2 were determined to be 129 and 142kJ/mol, respectively. A relatively low temperature was required for the phase transformation in NTP sample than in ATP sample. The fabricated N-doped TiO 2 photocatalyst absorbed the visible light showing two absorption edges; one in UV range due to titanium oxide as the main edge and the other due to nitrogen doping as a small shoulder. TiO 2-x N x photocatalyst demonstrated its photoactivity for photocurrent generation and decomposition of 2-propanol (IPA) under visible light irradiation (λ>=420nm)

  3. Effect of SiNx diffusion barrier thickness on the structural properties and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 films obtained by sol–gel dip coating and reactive magnetron sputtering

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    Mohamed Nawfal Ghazzal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effect of the thickness of the silicon nitride (SiNx diffusion barrier on the structural and photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 films obtained with different processes. We show that the structural and photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 films produced using soft chemistry (sol–gel and physical methods (reactive sputtering are affected differentially by the intercalating SiNx diffusion barrier. Increasing the thickness of the SiNx diffusion barrier induced a gradual decrease of the crystallite size of TiO2 films obtained by the sol–gel process. However, TiO2 obtained using the reactive sputtering method showed no dependence on the thickness of the SiNx barrier diffusion. The SiNx barrier diffusion showed a beneficial effect on the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 films regardless of the synthesis method used. The proposed mechanism leading to the improvement in the photocatalytic efficiency of the TiO2 films obtained by each process was discussed.

  4. Preparation of visible-light-responsive TiO2-xNx photocatalyst by a sol-gel method: analysis of the active center on TiO2 that reacts with NH3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Yasushige; Mori, Toshinori; Yagi, Kazunori; Makihata, Naoko; Kawahara, Yoichiro; Nagao, Mahiko; Kittaka, Shigeharu

    2005-08-16

    Active reaction centers for ammonia on titanium oxyhydroxide were explored to direct the search for an efficient sol-gel method for the synthesis of a titanium oxynitride (TiO2-xNx) sample with an efficient responsiveness to the visible light constituting a main part of the solar spectrum. The results lead to the conclusion that the site giving IR bands at around 2195 cm(-1) for the adsorbed CO molecules at 300 K is a reactive site and behaves as Lewis acid site in the coordination environment of distorted five-coordinate Ti4+ ions. Ammonia molecules are adsorbed on such a site to form -NH2 and -OH species during the heat treatments at a temperature above 373 K, and they are ultimately incorporated into the TiO2 lattice as nitride through the dehydration at higher temperatures of up to 723 K, resulting in the formation of an anatase type of TiO2-xNx.

  5. Evaluation of Photocatalytic Properties of Portland Cement Blended with Titanium Oxynitride (TiO2−xNy Nanoparticles

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    Juan D. Cohen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic activity of Portland cement pastes blended with nanoparticles of titanium oxynitride (TiO2−xNy was studied. Samples with different percentages of TiO2−xNy (0.0%, 0.5%, 1%, 3% and TiO2 (1%, 3% were evaluated in order to study their self-cleaning properties. The presence of nitrogen in the tetragonal structure of TiO2 was evidenced by X-ray diffraction (XRD as a shift of the peaks in the 2θ axis. The samples were prepared with a water/cement ratio of 0.5 and a concentration of Rhodamine B of 0.5 g/L. After 65 h of curing time, the samples were irradiated with UV lamps to evaluate the reduction of the pigment. The color analysis was carried out using a Spectrometer UV/Vis measuring the coordinates CIE (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage L*, a*, b*, and with special attention to the reddish tones (Rhodamine B color which correspond to a* values greater than zero. Additionally, samples with 0.5%, 1%, 3% of TiO2−xNy and 1%, 3% of TiO2 were evaluated under visible light with the purpose of determining the Rhodamine B abatement to wavelengths greater than 400 nm. The results have shown a similar behavior for both additions under UV light irradiation, with 3% being the addition with the highest photocatalytic efficiency obtained. However, TiO2−xNy showed activity under irradiation with visible light, unlike TiO2, which can only be activated under UV light.

  6. Characterization and Comparison of Photocatalytic Activity Silver Ion doped on TiO2(TiO2/Ag+) and Silver Ion doped on Black TiO2(Black TiO2/Ag+)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Yi; Sim, Ho Hyung; Song, Sinae; Noh, Yeoung Ah; Lee, Hong Woon; Taik Kim, Hee

    2018-03-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the representative ceramic materials containing photocatalyst, optic and antibacterial activity. The hydroxyl radical in TiO2 applies to the intensive oxidizing agent, hence TiO2 is suitable to use photocatalytic materials. Black TiO2was prepared through reduction of amorphous TiO2 conducting under H2 which leads to color changes. Its black color is proven that absorbs 100% light across the whole-visible light, drawing enhancement of photocatalytic property. In this study, we aimed to compare the photocatalytic activity of silver ion doped on TiO2(TiO2/Ag+) and silver ion doped on black TiO2(black TiO2/Ag+) under visible light range. TiO2/Ag+ was fabricated following steps. 1) TiO2 was synthesized by a sol-gel method from Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). 2) Then AgNO3 was added during an aging process step for silver ion doping on the surface of TiO2. Moreover, Black TiO2/Ag+ was obtained same as TiO2/Ag+ except for calcination under H2. The samples were characterized X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible reflectance (UV-vis DRS), and Methylene Blue degradation test. XRD analysis confirmed morphology of TiO2. The band gap of black TiO2/Ag+ was confirmed (2.6 eV) through UV-vis DRS, which was lower than TiO2/Ag+ (2.9 eV). The photocatalytic effect was conducted by methylene blue degradation test. It demonstrated that black TiO2/Ag+ had a photocatalytic effect under UV light also visible light.

  7. Preparation and Photocatalytic Property of Sr(Zr1-xYx)O3/TiO2/CdS heterojunction photocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yonggang; Liu Suwen; Zhang Haiping; Xiu Zhiliang; Yu Xiaojun; Wang Enhua; Li Tanggang

    2010-01-01

    A novel composite heterojunction photocatalysts Sr(Zr 1-x Y x )O 3 /TiO 2 /CdS was prepared by sol-gel combustion method. Its photoatalytic properties under visible light were investigated through degradation of methyl orange. XRD, SEM, Uv-Vis and PL techniques were used to characterize the structure and optical properties of the sample. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity of prepared composite photocatalysts under visible light is 2.85 times of that of pure TiO 2 .

  8. Photocatalytic effects for the TiO2-coated phosphor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Jung-Sik

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The photocatalytic behavior of the coupling of TiO 2 with phosphorescent materials. → The photobleaching of an MB aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. → The ALD TiO 2 -coated phosphor composite showed much higher photocatalytic reactivity. → The light emitted from the phosphors contributed to the photo-generation. - Abstract: This study investigated the photocatalytic behavior of the coupling of TiO 2 with phosphorescent materials. A TiO 2 thin film was deposited on CaAl 2 O 4 :Eu 2+ ,Nd 3+ phosphor particles by using atomic layer deposition (ALD), and its photocatalytic reaction was investigated by the photobleaching of an aqueous solution of methylene-blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. To clarify the mechanism of the TiO 2 -phosphorescent materials, two different samples of TiO 2 -coated phosphor and TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -coated phosphor particles were prepared. The photocatalytic mechanisms of the ALD TiO 2 -coated phosphor powders were different from those of the pure TiO 2 and TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -coated phosphor. The absorbance in a solution of the ALD TiO 2 -coated phosphor decreased much faster than that of pure TiO 2 under visible irradiation. In addition, the ALD TiO 2 -coated phosphor showed moderately higher photocatalytic degradation of MB solution than the TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -coated phosphor did. The TiO 2 -coated phosphorescent materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS).

  9. Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue under UV Light Irradiation on Prepared Carbonaceous TiO2

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    Zatil Amali Che Ramli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study involves the investigation of altering the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 using composite materials. Three different forms of modified TiO2, namely, TiO2/activated carbon (AC, TiO2/carbon (C, and TiO2/PANi, were compared. The TiO2/carbon composite was obtained by pyrolysis of TiO2/PANi prepared by in situ polymerization method, while the TiO2/activated carbon (TiO2/AC was obtained after treating TiO2/carbon with 1.0 M KOH solution, followed by calcination at a temperature of 450°C. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TG-DTA, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET, and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used to characterize and evaluate the prepared samples. The specific surface area was determined to be in the following order: TiO2/AC > TiO2/C > TiO2/PANi > TiO2 (179 > 134 > 54 > 9 m2 g−1. The evaluation of photocatalytic performance for the degradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation was also of the same order, with 98 > 84.7 > 69% conversion rate, which is likely to be attributed to the porosity and synergistic effect in the prepared samples.

  10. Photocatalytic Decolorization Study of Methyl Orange by TiO2–Chitosan Nanocomposites

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    Imelda Fajriati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic decolorization of methyl orange (MO by TiO2-chitosan nanocomposite has been studied. This study was started by synthesizing TiO2-chitosan nanocomposites using sol-gel method with various concentrations of Titanium(IV isopropoxide (TTIP as the TiO2 precursor. The structure, surface morphology, thermal and optical property of TiO2-chitosan nanocomposite were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, fourier transform infra red (FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and diffuse reflectance ultra violet (DRUV spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2-chitosan nanocomposite was evaluated by photocatalytic decolorization of methyl orange as a model pollutant. The results indicate that the particle size of TiO2 increases with increasing ofthe concentration of TTIP, in which TiO2 with smallest particle size exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity. The highest photocatalytic decolorization was obtained at 5 h of contact time, initial concentration of MO at 20 ppm and at solution pH of 4. Using these conditions, over 90% of MO was able to be decolorized using 0.02 g of TiO2-chitosan nanocomposite under UV light irradiation. The TiO2-chitosan nanocomposite could be reused, which meant that the TiO2-chitosan nanocomposites can be developed as an effective and economical photocatalyst to decolorize or treat dye in wastewater.

  11. Fabrication and visible-light photocatalytic activity of novel Ag/TiO2-xNx nanocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efforts of the scientific community are directed towards the preparation of photocatalysts that are active under solar or artificial visible light irradiation. TiO2 is one of the most 15 widely used photocatalyst that is employed in self-cleaning coatings, photocatalytic proc...

  12. Thiourea-Modified TiO2 Nanorods with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity

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    Xiaofeng Wu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor TiO2 photocatalysis has attracted much attention due to its potential application in solving the problems of environmental pollution. In this paper, thiourea (CH4N2S modified anatase TiO2 nanorods were fabricated by calcination of the mixture of TiO2 nanorods and thiourea at 600 °C for 2 h. It was found that only N element was doped into the lattice of TiO2 nanorods. With increasing the weight ratio of thiourea to TiO2 (R from 0 to 8, the light-harvesting ability of the photocatalyst steady increases. Both the crystallization and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanorods increase first and then decrease with increase in R value, and R2 sample showed the highest crystallization and photocatalytic activity in degradation of Brilliant Red X3B (X3B and Rhodamine B (RhB dyes under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm. The increased visible-light photocatalytic activity of the prepared N-doped TiO2 nanorods is due to the synergistic effects of the enhanced crystallization, improved light-harvesting ability and reduced recombination rate of photo-generated electron-hole pairs. Note that the enhanced visible photocatalytic activity of N-doped nanorods is not based on the scarification of their UV photocatalytic activity.

  13. Thiourea-Modified TiO2 Nanorods with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaofeng; Fang, Shun; Zheng, Yang; Sun, Jie; Lv, Kangle

    2016-02-01

    Semiconductor TiO2 photocatalysis has attracted much attention due to its potential application in solving the problems of environmental pollution. In this paper, thiourea (CH4N2S) modified anatase TiO2 nanorods were fabricated by calcination of the mixture of TiO2 nanorods and thiourea at 600 °C for 2 h. It was found that only N element was doped into the lattice of TiO2 nanorods. With increasing the weight ratio of thiourea to TiO2 (R) from 0 to 8, the light-harvesting ability of the photocatalyst steady increases. Both the crystallization and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanorods increase first and then decrease with increase in R value, and R2 sample showed the highest crystallization and photocatalytic activity in degradation of Brilliant Red X3B (X3B) and Rhodamine B (RhB) dyes under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). The increased visible-light photocatalytic activity of the prepared N-doped TiO2 nanorods is due to the synergistic effects of the enhanced crystallization, improved light-harvesting ability and reduced recombination rate of photo-generated electron-hole pairs. Note that the enhanced visible photocatalytic activity of N-doped nanorods is not based on the scarification of their UV photocatalytic activity.

  14. Alcohol solvents evaporation-induced self-assembly synthesis of mesoporous TiO2- x- y C x N y nanoparticles toward visible-light driven photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shou-Heng; Syu, Han-Ren; Wu, Chung-Yi

    2014-12-01

    A one-step solvent evaporation-induced self-assembly (SEISA) process was demonstrated to prepare carbon and nitrogen co-doping mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticles (MesoTiO2- x- y C x N y - S) using an ionic liquid as carbon and nitrogen sources as well as mesoporous template. After the evaporation of different solvents (methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol) and subsequent calcinations at 773 K, the obtained MesoTiO2- x- y C x N y - S samples were systematically characterized by a variety of spectroscopic and analytical techniques, including small- and large-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopies. The results indicate that the solvents play an essential role on the chemical microstructure, doping elemental states, and photocatalytic performance of catalysts. The MesoTiO2- x- y C x N y -I samples have the lowest band gap of ca. 2.75 eV and strongest absorbance of visible light in the range of 400-600 nm. Among the MesoTiO2- x- y C x N y - S photocatalysts, the MesoTiO2- x- y C x N y -M catalysts show superior photocatalytic activity of hydrogen generation in methanol aqueous solution under visible light irradiation as compared to MesoTiO2- x- y C x N y -E, MesoTiO2- x- y C x N y -I, and commercial Degussa TiO2. This result could be attributed to the moderate C,N co-doping amounts on their developed mesoporous texture (pore size = 8.0 nm) and high surface area (107 m2 g-1) of TiO2 (crystallite size = 9.9 nm) in the MesoTiO2- x- y C x N y -M catalysts.

  15. Probing Photocatalytic Characteristics of Sb-Doped TiO2 under Visible Light Irradiation

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    Lingjing Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sb-doped TiO2 nanoparticle with varied dopant concentrations was synthesized using titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4 and antimony chloride (SbCl3 as the precursors. The properties of Sb-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, fluorescence spectrophotometer, and Uv-vis spectrophotometer. The absorption edge of TiO2 nanoparticles could be extended to visible region after doping with antimony, in contrast to the UV absorption of pure TiO2. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity of Sb-doped TiO2 nanoparticles was much more active than pure TiO2. The 0.1% Sb-doped TiO2 nanoparticles demonstrated the best photocatalytic activity which was better than that of the Degussa P25 under visible light irradiation using terephthalic acid as fluorescent probe. The effects of Sb dopant on the photocatalytic activity and the involved mechanism were extensively investigated in this work as well.

  16. Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of W-Doped and W-La-Codoped TiO2 Nanomaterials under Simulated Sunlight

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    Chenghe Hua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available W-doped TiO2 and W-La-codoped TiO2 nanomaterials were successfully synthesized via the sol-gel method. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The presence of W and La results in significant red shift of absorption edge for TiO2-based nanomaterials. The weight ratios of La and W in the composites play important roles in the absorption edge for TiO2-based nanomaterials. The photocatalytic activities of both W-doped TiO2 and W-La-codoped TiO2 photocatalysts for decolorization of methyl orange solution were evaluated under simulated sunlight irradiation. The results showed that both W-doped and W-La-codoped can effectively improve the photocatalytic behaviors of TiO2 nanomaterials ascribed to the improved photoinduced charge carriers separation, enhanced light absorption, and large surface area. Furthermore, W-La-codoped TiO2 exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than W-doped TiO2. Considering their high photocatalytic activity, the doped TiO2 nanomaterials could be applied in wastewater treatment and environmental purification.

  17. Surfactant-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of TiO2/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites and their photocatalytic performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ju; Li, Hansheng; Muhammad, Sohail; Wu, Qin; Zhao, Yun; Jiao, Qingze

    2017-09-01

    Titanium dioxide/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites (TiO2/RGO-X, X=S, T or C, was denoted sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate, Triton X-100 and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, respectively) were synthesized using a one-step surfactant-assisted hydrothermal method. The characterization of phase structure and morphology of the as-obtained nanocomposites reveals that TiO2 in the TiO2/RGO-X exhibits the morphologies of nanoparticles, nanowires and array-like nanowires on the surface of RGO, respectively. Compared with the control TiO2/RGO nanocomposite, TiO2/RGO-X presents an excellent photocatalytic activity. With uniform array-like TiO2 nanowires on the surface of RGO, the TiO2/RGO-C shows a significant enhancement in the photocatalytic efficiency. Besides, a deeper insight into the growth mechanism of TiO2/RGO nanocomposites is put forward. This work indicates that the surfactant-assisted hydrothermal method is an effective approach to improve the structure, morphology and photocatalytic performance of TiO2/RGO composites. Moreover, the surfactants with various types can interact with the precursors of TiO2 and RGO in different ways.

  18. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    FT–IR, UV-Vis-NIR, XRD, SEM and TEM techniques were used to characterize the PANI/TiO2 core-shell nanocomposite. Photocatalytic activity of PANI/TiO2 nanocomposite was investigated under both UV and visible light irradiations and compared with unmodified TiO2 nanoparticles. Results indicated deposition of PANI ...

  19. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , but it suffers from dissolution and photocatalytic degradation of the dyes (Min et al 2007). Conducting polymers with extended π-conjugated electron system and good environmental stability act as stable photo-sensitizer to sensitize TiO2 by ...

  20. Interfacial Structure and Photocatalytic Activity of Magnetron Sputtered TiO2 on Conducting Metal Substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daviðsdóttir, Svava; Petit, Jean-Pierre; Mermoux, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The photocatalytic behavior of magnetron sputtered anatase TiO2 coatings on copper, nickel, and gold was investigated with the aim of understanding the effect of the metallic substrate and coating-substrate interface structure. Stoichiometry and nanoscale structure of the coating were investigated...... using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscope, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Photocatalytic behavior of the coating was explored by using optical spectrophotometry and electrochemical methods via photovoltage, photocurrent, and scanning kelvin probe microscopy...... measurements. The nature of the metal substrate and coating-substrate interface had profound influence on the photocatalytic behavior. Less photon energy was required for TiO2 excitation on a nickel substrate, whereas TiO2 coating on copper showed a higher band gap attributed to quantum confinement. However...

  1. Improved Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity for TiO2 Nanomaterials by Codoping with Zinc and Sulfur

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    Qianzhi Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available S/Zn codoped TiO2 nanomaterials were synthesized by a sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the morphology, structure, and optical properties of the prepared samples. The introduction of Zn and S resulted in significant red shift of absorption edge for TiO2-based nanomaterials. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degrading reactive brilliant red X-3B solution under simulated sunlight irradiation. The results showed S/Zn codoped TiO2 exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than pure TiO2 and commercial P25, due to the photosynergistic effect of obvious visible light absorption, efficient separation of photoinduced charge carriers, and large surface area. Moreover, the content of Zn and S in the composites played important roles in photocatalytic activity of TiO2-based nanomaterials.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of fluorine doped TiO2 nanoflakes synthesized using solid state reaction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umadevi, M; Parimaladevi, R; Sangari, M

    2014-01-01

    Fluorine doped TiO2 were synthesized by solid state reaction method. Optical and structural properties of fluorine doped TiO2 were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-vis diffusion reflectance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopic techniques. The prepared fluorine doped TiO2 was smaller in size with respect to pure TiO2 and it is tetragonal in crystalline structure. Nanoflakes like structure of pure and fluorine doped TiO2 was confirmed from SEM image. Fluorine doped TiO2 shows smaller band gap, high strain and dislocation density when compared to pure TiO2. It also has higher photocatalytic activity with respect to pure TiO2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sprayed nanostructured TiO2 films for efficient photocatalytic degradation of textile azo dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolova, Irina; Shipochka, Capital Em Cyrillicaria; Blaskov, Vladimir; Loukanov, Alexandrе; Vassilev, Sasho

    2012-12-05

    Spray pyrolysis procedure for preparation of nanostructured TiO(2) films with higher photocatalytic effectiveness and longer exploitation life is presented in this study. Thin films of active nanocrystalline TiO(2) were obtained from titanium isopropoxide, stabilized with acetyl acetone and characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The activity of sprayed nanostructured TiO(2) is tested for photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Black 5 dye with concentrations up to 80 ppm. Interesting result of the work is the reduction of toxicity after photocatalytic treatment of RB5 with TiO(2), which was confirmed by the lower percentage of mortality of Artemia salina. It was proved that the film thickness, conditions of post deposition treatment and the type of the substrate affected significantly the photocatalytic reaction. Taking into account that the parameters are interdependent, it is necessary to optimize the preparation conditions in order to synthesize photocatalytic active films. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity of Mo-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles

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    Ji-guo Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The undoped and Mo-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, diffuse reflectance UV-visible absorption spectra (UV-vis DRS, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under irradiation of a 500 W xenon lamp and natural solar light outdoor. Effects of calcination temperatures and Mo doping amounts on crystal phase, crystallite size, lattice distortion, and optical properties were investigated. The results showed that most of Mo6+ took the place of Ti4+ in the crystal lattice of TiO2, which inhibited the growth of crystallite size, suppressed the transformation from anatase to rutile, and led to lattice distortion of TiO2. Mo doping narrowed the band gap (from 3.05 eV of TiO2 to 2.73 eV of TiMo0.02O and efficiently increased the optical absorption in visible region. Mo doping was shown to be an efficient method for degradation of methylene blue under visible light, especially under solar light. When the calcination temperature was 550°C and the Mo doping amount was 2.0%, the Mo-doped TiO2 sample exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity.

  5. Sulfur/Gadolinium-Codoped TiO2 Nanoparticles for Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Performance

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    Eric S. Agorku

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of S/Gd3+-codoped TiO2 photocatalysts were synthesized by a modified sol-gel method. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. Laboratory experiments with Indigo Carmine chosen as a model for organic pollutants were used to evaluate the photocatalytic performance of S/Gd3+-codoped TiO2 under visible-light with varying concentrations of Gd3+ ions in the host material. XRD and Raman results confirmed the existence of anatase phase TiO2 with particle size ranging from 5 to 12 nm. Codoping has exerted a great influence on the optical responses along with red shift in the absorption edge. S/Gd3+-codoped TiO2 showed significant visible-light induced photocatalytic activity towards Indigo Carmine dye compared with S-TiO2 or commercial TiO2. TiO2-S/Gd3+ (0.6% Gd3+ degraded the dye (ka = 5.6 × 10−2 min−1 completely in 50 min.

  6. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion. The aqueous solutions of MeO were used as model pollutant for investigation of the photocatalytic activity of samples. 0·01 g of pristine TiO2 or PANI/TiO2 photocatalysts was added to 50 ml of MeO aqueous solution (10 mg·L. −1) under magnetic stirring. The solid concentration in final sus- pension was 200 mg·L. −1.

  7. Photocatalytic Water Treatment on TiO2 Thin Layers.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolcová, Olga; Spáčilová, L.; Maléterová, Ywetta; Morozová, Magdalena; Ezechiáš, Martin; Křesinová, Zdena

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 25 (2016), s. 11631-11638 ISSN 1944-3994. [International Conference on Protection and Restoration of the Environment /12./. Skiathos Island, 29.06.2014-03.07.2014] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01020804 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : water purification * endocrine disruptor * photocatalytic * TiO2 layers Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 1.631, year: 2016

  8. Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 doped with boron and vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettinelli, M.; Dallacasa, V.; Falcomer, D.; Fornasiero, P.; Gombac, V.; Montini, T.; Romano, L.; Speghini, A.

    2007-01-01

    Boron (B)- and vanadium (V)-doped TiO 2 photocatalysts were synthesized using modified sol-gel reaction processes and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and N 2 physisorption (BET). The photocatalytic activities were evaluated by monitoring the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The results showed that the materials possess high surface area. The addition of B favored the transformation of anatase to rutile, while in the presence of V, anatase was the only phase detected. The MB degradation on V-doped TiO 2 was significantly affected by the preparation method. In fact while the presence of V in the bulk did not influence strongly the photoreactivity under visible irradiation, an increase of surface V doping lead to improved photodegradation of MB. The degradation of MB dye indicated that the photocatalytic activities of TiO 2 increased as the boron doping increased, with high conversion efficiency for 9 mol% B doping

  9. Nanostructured Photocatalytic TiO2 Coating Deposited by Suspension Plasma Spraying with Different Injection Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuezhang; Wen, Kui; Deng, Chunming; Yang, Kun; Deng, Changguang; Liu, Min; Zhou, Kesong

    2018-02-01

    High plasma power is beneficial for the deposition efficiency and adhesive strength of suspension-sprayed photocatalytic TiO2 coatings, but it confronts two challenges: one is the reduced activity due to the critical phase transformation of anatase into rutile, and the other is fragmented droplets which cannot be easily injected into the plasma core. Here, TiO2 coatings were deposited at high plasma power and the position of suspension injection was varied with the guidance of numerical simulation. The simulation was based on a realistic three-dimensional time-dependent numerical model that included the inside and outside of torch regions. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to study the microstructure of the TiO2 coatings, whereas x-ray diffraction was adopted to analyze phase composition. Meanwhile, photocatalytic activities of the manufactured TiO2 coatings were evaluated by the degradation of an aqueous solution of methylene blue dye. Fragmented droplets were uniformly injected into the plasma jet, and the solidification pathway of melting particles was modified by varying the position of suspension injection. A nanostructured TiO2 coating with 93.9% anatase content was obtained at high plasma power (48.1 kW), and the adhesive coating bonding to stainless steel exhibited the desired photocatalytic activity.

  10. Visible light photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles hybridized by conjugated derivative of polybutadiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoquan; Liu, Longchen; Song, Jinran; Liang, Jiudi; Luo, Qingzhi; Wang, Desong

    2014-05-01

    A series of conjugated polymer/TiO2 (CP/TiO2) nanocomposites were prepared from TiO2 and commercial polybutadiene. The as-prepared CP/TiO2 nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman Spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic activities of CP/TiO2 nanocomposites were investigated by monitoring the degradation of methyl orange aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. The effects of preparation conditions (such as the mass ratio of PB to TiO2 in suspensions for PB/TiO2 preparation, heat-treatment temperature and time) of CP/TiO2 nanocomposites on their visible light photocatalytic activity were investigated. The results show that the CP/TiO2 nanocomposites have excellent visible light photocatalytic activity. As the content of conjugated polymer on the TiO2 surface, heat-treatment temperature and time increase, the visible light photocatalytic activity increases at first and then decreases. The visible light photocatalytic mechanism of the CP/TiO2 nanocomposites has been discussed.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of TiO2 quantum dots for photocatalytic application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitha Gnanasekaran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, TiO2 quantum dots (QDs were effectively synthesized by the sol–gel method and it was characterized by several techniques. The structure of the TiO2 QDs, before and after calcination, was analyzed by the powder X-ray diffraction technique. The XRD results indicate that after calcination, TiO2 QDs have pure anatase phase with tetragonal structure without any other phases and impurities. The morphology and size of the TiO2 QDs were determined from FE-SEM and TEM analysis. The optical band gap of TiO2 QDs was estimated using Kubelka–Munk function from diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity and recycling ability of the TiO2 QDs have been investigated. The TiO2 QDs were used to degrade the model dyes such as methyl orange and methylene blue under UV light irradiation and their results have been discussed. A mechanism is proposed and discussed accordingly in detail.

  12. Photosensitization of TiO2 P25 with CdS Nanoparticles for Photocatalytic Applications

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    Trenczek-Zając A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A TiO2/CdS coupled system was prepared by mixing the TiO2 P25 with CdS synthesized by means of the precipitation method. It was found that the specific surface area (SSA of both components is extremely different and equals 49.5 for TiO2 and 145.4 m2·g−1 for CdS. The comparison of particle size distribution and images obtained by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM showed agglomeration of nanocomposites. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns suggest that CdS crystallizes in a mixture of cubic and hexagonal phases. Optical reflectance spectra revealed a gradual shift of the fundamental absorption edge towards longer wavelengths with increasing CdS molar fraction, which indicates an extension of the absorption spectrum of TiO2. The photocatalytic activity in UV and UV-vis was tested with the use of methyl orange (MO. The Langmuir–Hinshelwood model described well the photodegradation process of MO. The results showed that the photocatalytic behaviour of the TiO2/CdS mixture is significantly better than that of pure nanopowders.

  13. Solar photocatalytic activity of TiO2 modified with WO3 on the degradation of an organophosphorus pesticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos-Delgado, N.A.; Gracia-Pinilla, M.A.; Maya-Treviño, L.; Hinojosa-Reyes, L.; Guzman-Mar, J.L.; Hernández-Ramírez, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO 2 and WO 3 /TiO 2 (2 and 5%) were tested in the photocatalytic malathion degradation. • The use of solar radiation in the photocatalytic degradation process was evaluated. • Modified catalyst showed greater photocatalytic activity than pure TiO 2 . • The mineralization rate was improved when WO 3 content on TiO 2 was 2%. -- Abstract: In this study, the solar photocatalytic activity (SPA) of WO 3 /TiO 2 photocatalysts synthesized by the sol–gel method with two different percentages of WO 3 (2 and 5%wt) was evaluated using malathion as a model contaminant. For comparative purpose bare TiO 2 was also prepared by sol–gel process. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance UV–vis spectroscopy (DRUV–vis), specific surface area by the BET method (SSA BET ), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy with a high annular angle dark field detector (STEM-HAADF). The XRD, Raman, HRTEM and STEM-HAADF analyses indicated that WO 3 was present as a monoclinic crystalline phase with nanometric cluster sizes (1.1 ± 0.1 nm for 2% WO 3 /TiO 2 and 1.35 ± 0.3 nm for 5% WO 3 /TiO 2 ) and uniformly dispersed on the surface of TiO 2 . The particle size of the materials was 19.4 ± 3.3 nm and 25.6 ± 3 nm for 2% and 5% WO 3 /TiO 2 , respectively. The SPA was evaluated on the degradation of commercial malathion pesticide using natural solar light. The 2% WO 3 /TiO 2 photocatalyst exhibited the best photocatalytic activity achieving 76% of total organic carbon (TOC) abatement after 300 min compared to the 5% WO 3 /TiO 2 and bare TiO 2 photocatalysts, which achieved 28 and 47% mineralization, respectively. Finally, experiments were performed to assess 2% WO 3 /TiO 2 catalyst activity on repeated uses; after several successive cycles its photocatalytic activity was retained showing long-term stability

  14. In3+-doped TiO2 and TiO2/In2S3 nanocomposite for photocatalytic and stoichiometric degradations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengl, Václav; Opluštil, František; Němec, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    A novel In(3+)-doped TiO(2) and TiO(2)/In(2)S(3) nanocomposites for photocatalytic degradation of environmental pollutants and stoichiometric degradation of warfare agents were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis with urea and thioacetamide, respectively. The prepared samples series TiInTAA were annealed at 600°C. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, specific surface area (BET) and porosity determination. The method of UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy was employed to estimate band-gap energies. The photocatalytic activity (PCA) was tested by degradation of Orange dye, whereas stoichiometric activity was studied by degradation of sulfur mustard. Incorporation of In(3+) into titania lattice increases PCA of TiO(2) in the visible light and increases stoichiometric decomposition of sulfur mustard against nondoped TiO(2) as well. PCA of TiO(2)/In(2)S(3) composite depends on the optimal ratio of TiO(2):In(2)S(3) in composite, while the activity for stoichiometric decomposition of sulfur mustards depends on the content of In(2)S(3) in nanocomposite. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2011 The American Society of Photobiology.

  15. Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Using TiO2 Impregnated Diatomite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranfang Zuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nano-TiO2 showed a good catalytic activity, but it is easy to agglomerate, resulting in the reduction or even complete loss of photocatalytic activity. The dispersion of TiO2 particles on porous materials was a potential solution to this problem. Diatomite has high specific surface and absorbability because of its particular shell structure. Thus, TiO2/diatomite composite, prepared by loading TiO2 on the surface of diatomite, was a good photocatalyst, through absorbing organic compounds with diatomite and degrading them with TiO2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive spectrum (EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, chemical analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR indicated that TiO2 was impregnated well on the surface of diatomite. Furthermore, TiO2/diatomite was more active than nano-TiO2 for the degradation of methylene blue (MB in solution. MB at concentrations of 15 and 35 ppm can be completely degraded in 20 and 40 min, respectively.

  16. Enhanced TiO2 Photocatalytic Processing of Organic Wastes for Green Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udom, I.; Goswami, D. Y.; Ram, M. K.; Stefanakos, E. K.; Heep, A. F.; Kulis, M. J.; McNatt, J. S.; Jaworske, D. A.; Jones, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of transition metal co-catalysts on the photocatalytic properties of TiO2 was investigated. Ruthenium (Ru), palladium, platinum, copper, silver, and gold, were loaded onto TiO2 powders (anatase and mixed-phase P25) and screened for the decomposition of rhodamine B (RhB) under broad-band irradiation. The morphology and estimated chemical composition of photocatalysts were determined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy, respectively. Brunhauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) analysis measured mass-specific surface area(s). X-ray diffraction analysis was performed to confirm the identity of titania phase(s) present. The BET surface area of anatase TiO2/Ru 1% (9.2 sq m/gm) was one of the highest measured of all photocatalysts prepared in our laboratory. Photolyses conducted under air-saturated and nitrogen-saturated conditions revealed photodegradation efficiencies of 85 and 2 percent, respectively, after 60 min compared to 58 percent with no catalyst. The cause of low photocatalytic activity under an inert atmosphere is discussed. TiO2/Ru 1% showed a superior photocatalytic activity relative to P25-TiO2 under broad-band irradiation. A potential deployment of photocatalytic technologies on a mission could be a reactor with modest enhancement in solar intensity brought about by a trough-style reactor, with reactants and catalyst flowing along the axis of the trough and therefore being illuminated for a controlled duration based on the flow rate.

  17. Role of Platinum Deposited on TiO2 in Photocatalytic Methanol Oxidation and Dehydrogenation Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luma M. Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Titania modified nanoparticles have been prepared by the photodeposition method employing platinum particles on the commercially available titanium dioxide (Hombikat UV 100. The properties of the prepared photocatalysts were investigated by means of the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and UV-visible diffuse spectrophotometry (UV-Vis. XRD was employed to determine the crystallographic phase and particle size of both bare and platinised titanium dioxide. The results indicated that the particle size was decreased with the increasing of platinum loading. AFM analysis showed that one particle consists of about 9 to 11 crystals. UV-vis absorbance analysis showed that the absorption edge shifted to longer wavelength for 0.5% Pt loading compared with bare titanium dioxide. The photocatalytic activity of pure and Pt-loaded TiO2 was investigated employing the photocatalytic oxidation and dehydrogenation of methanol. The results of the photocatalytic activity indicate that the platinized titanium dioxide samples are always more active than the corresponding bare TiO2 for both methanol oxidation and dehydrogenation processes. The loading with various platinum amounts resulted in a significant improvement of the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. This beneficial effect was attributed to an increased separation of the photogenerated electron-hole charge carriers.

  18. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of microwave treated TiO2 pillared montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Shenmei; Jiang Yinshan; Yu Lixin; Li Fangfei; Yang Zhengwen; Hou Tianyi; Hu Daqiang; Xia Maosheng

    2006-01-01

    TiO 2 pillared montmorillonite synthesized by microwave irradiation, exhibited good photocatalytic degradation performance of methyl orange, whose pseudo first order reaction rate constant was nearly four times than that of conventional method, because of its enhanced crystalline, preferred anatase phase and improved porosity performance, which were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), far Fourier transform infrared ray spectroscopy (FTIR) and nitrogen adsorption isotherms

  19. Synthesis and characterization of high photocatalytic activity and stable Ag3PO4/TiO2 fibers for photocatalytic degradation of black liquor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Li; Long, Qiyi; Yin, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers were prepared via in situ Ag 3 PO 4 particles onto the surface of TiO 2 fiber. • Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers have stronger catalytic activity and excellent chemical stability. • Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers act as an efficient catalyst for the photocatalytic degradation of black liquor. - Abstract: The TiO 2 fiber was prepared by using cotton fiber as a template, and then Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers were synthesized via in situ Ag 3 PO 4 particles onto the surface of TiO 2 fiber. Their structure and physical properties were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), specific surface analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis absorption spectra and photoluminescence spectra (PL). SEM analysis indicated that the well-defined surface morphology of natural cotton fiber was mostly preserved in TiO 2 and Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers. Compared with TiO 2 fiber, the absorbance wavelengths of Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers were apparently red shifted and the PL intensities revealed a significant decrease. By using the photocatalytic degradation of black liquor as a model reaction, the visible light and ultraviolet light catalytic efficiencies of TiO 2 , Ag 3 PO 4 and Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers were evaluated. The reaction results showed that Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers had stronger photocatalytic activity and excellent chemical stability in repeated and long-term applications. Therefore, the prepared Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers could act as an efficient catalyst for the photocatalytic degradation of black liquor, which suggested their promising applications. It was proposed that the • OH radicals played the leading role in the photocatalytic degradation of the black liquor by Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers system

  20. Photocatalytic decomposition of diclofenac potassium using silver-modified TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalheiro, A.A.; Bruno, J.C.; Saeki, M.J.; Valente, J.P.S.; Florentino, A.O.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of silver insertion on the TiO 2 photocatalytic activity for the degradation of diclofenac potassium were reported here. Techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used to comprehend the relation between structure and properties of the silver-modified TiO 2 thin films obtained by the sol-gel method. The lattice parameters and the crystallinity of TiO 2 anatase phase were affected by inserted silver, and the film thickness increased about 4 nm for each 1 wt.% of silver inserted. The degradation of diclofenac potassium and by-products reached an efficiency of 4.6 mg C W -1 when the material was modified with silver. Although the first step of degradation involves only the photochemical process related to the loss of the chlorine and hydrogen atoms. This cyclization reaction leads to the formation of intermediate, which degradation is facilitated by the modified material

  1. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of Bi2WO6/TiO2 composite coated polyester fabric under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zoufei; Cheng, Cheng; Tan, Lin; Lan, Jianwu; Jiang, Shouxiang; Zhao, Ludan; Guo, Ronghui

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a visible-light-driven photocatalyst Bi2WO6/TiO2 composite was reported using one-step hydrothermal method and then coated on the polyester fabric. The samples were systematically characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The photocatalytic activity of Bi2WO6/TiO2 coated polyester fabric was evaluated by degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and Methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. The self-cleaning property of the fabrics was assessed through removing red wine stain. The results reveal that the Bi2WO6/TiO2 composites with irregular shape are coated on the polyester fabric successfully. The UV-vis absorption spectra show a broad absorption band in the visible region, which extends the scope of absorption spectrum and helps to improve the photocatalytic degradation efficiency. Photocatalytic activities of the Bi2WO6/TiO2 composite polyester fabric are associated with the content of TiO2. Bi2WO6/15%TiO2 coated polyester fabric exhibits the degradation efficiency for RhB and MB up to 98% and 95.1%, respectively, which is much higher than that of pure Bi2WO6 and TiO2 coated polyester fabric. Moreover, Bi2WO6/15%TiO2 coated polyester fabric shows good cycle stability toward continuous three cycles of photocatalytic experiment for dyes degradation. In addition, the Bi2WO6/TiO2 coated polyester fabric shows good self-cleaning property. This work could be extended to design of other composite photocatalyst coating on the fabric for enhancing activity by coupling suitable wide and narrow band-gap semiconductors.

  2. In situ loading of CuS nanoflowers on rutile TiO2 surface and their improved photocatalytic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Y.Y.; Zhang, Y.Y.; Zhang, J.; Shi, Y.; Li, Z.; Feng, Z.C.; Li, C.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: CuS nanoflowers, fabricated by an element-direct-reaction route using copper and sulfur powder, were loaded on rutile TiO 2 (CuS/TiO 2 ) at low temperature. In photocatalytic degradation of MB or 4-CP, it is found that the surface modification with CuS can enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO 2 . The promotion of photocatalytic performance is mainly ascribed to the enhanced charge separation originating from the well-matched heterostructure between CuS and rutile TiO 2 . - Highlights: • CuS nanoflowers, fabricated by an element-direct-reaction route using copper and sulfur powder, were loaded on rutile TiO 2 at low temperature. • In the photo-degradation studies of MB and 4-CP, surface modification with CuS can enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of rutile TiO 2 . • CuS/TiO 2 composite materials show the good repeatability of the photocatalytic activity. • This work provides a facile method to design and fabricate the effective composites photocatalyst. - Abstract: CuS nanoflowers, fabricated by an element-direct-reaction route using copper and sulfur powder, were loaded on rutile TiO 2 (CuS/TiO 2 ) at low temperature. CuS/TiO 2 composites were utilized as the photocatalysts for the degradation of Methylene Blue (MB) and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP). X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), XPS, and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra were used to characterize the crystalline phase, morphology, particle size, and the optical properties of CuS/TiO 2 samples. It is found that CuS/TiO 2 photocatalyst, which CuS are loaded on the surface of rutile TiO 2 , exhibited enhanced photocatalytic degradation of MB (or 4-CP) than TiO 2 or CuS. This indicates that CuS can enhance effectively the photocatalytic activity of rutile TiO 2 by forming heterojunction between CuS and rutile TiO 2 , which is confirmed by photoluminescence (PL) spectra and TEM. Moreover, CuS content has a significant

  3. Enhanced photocatalytic efficacy of hetropolyacid pillared TiO2 nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivea, R; Gunasekaran, V; Kannan, R; Sakthivel, T; Govindan, K

    2014-06-01

    The removal of dye from industrial effluents is prime important, photo-catalysis is a finest method to combat dye from effluents. This study concerns about the investigation of photocatalytic activity of TiO2-HPAs (Hetropolyacids) nanocomposite namely TiO2-Phosphomolybdic nanocomposite [TiO2-HMA] and TiO2-Phosphotungstic nanocomposite [TiO2-HWA] which were prepared by Sol-gel method and the same were characterized by using XRD, SEM-EDAX. The photocatalytic activity of prepared photo-catalysts were evaluated and compared by the degradation of Methylene Blue dye in water solution under UV irradiation. In that TiO2-HMA nanocomposite showed superior photocatalytic activity than TiO2-HWA.

  4. Photocatalytic degradation properties of V-doped TiO2to automobile exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Shen, Dongya; Xu, Tao; Jiang, Ruiling

    2017-05-15

    To improve the photocatalytic degradation properties of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) used as raw materials for purifying automobile exhaust (AE), the vanadium (V)-doped TiO 2 samples were prepared. The photocatalytic degradation efficiencies of V-doped TiO 2 to each component in AE were evaluated under ultraviolet (UV) and visible light irradiation, respectively. Results indicated that the photocatalytic activity of V-doped TiO 2 to AE was higher than that of pure TiO 2 , and the optimal V dopant content of TiO 2 was 1.0% under UV light irradiation. The degradation efficiencies of V-doped TiO 2 to NOx and HC were higher than those to CO 2 and CO in AE because of the reversible reaction between CO 2 and CO. In addition, it was found that the photocatalytic degradation efficiencies of V-doped TiO 2 to each component in AE were also increased under visible light irradiation. The V-doped TiO 2 also showed higher degradation efficiencies to NOx and HC than those to CO 2 and CO under visible light irradiation. The V doped TiO 2 presented higher photocatalytic activity to CO 2 than that to CO, but the reversible reaction between CO and CO 2 was not found under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic reactions of pure and V-doped TiO 2 samples to each component in AE followed the first order kinetic pathway under the two light irradiations. It is concluded that the V doping is a feasible method to improve the photocatalytic degradation properties of TiO 2 to AE for air purification, developing a sustainable environmental purification technology based on TiO 2 materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Preparation and characterization of Co-doped TiO2 materials for solar light induced current and photocatalytic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesh, Ibram; Gupta, A.K.; Kumar, P.P.; Chandra Sekhar, P.S.; Radha, K.; Padmanabham, G.; Sundararajan, G.

    2012-01-01

    Different amounts of Co-doped TiO 2 powders and thin films were prepared by following a conventional co-precipitation and sol–gel dip coating technique, respectively. The synthesized powders and thin films were subjected to thermal treatments from 400 to 800 °C and were thoroughly investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive analysis with X-rays, FT-infrared, FT-Raman, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, BET surface area, zeta potential, flat band potential measurements, band-gap energy, etc. The photocatalytic ability of the powders was evaluated by methylene blue (MB) degradation studies. The thin films were characterized by photocurrent and ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopy techniques. The characterization results suggest that the Co-doped TiO 2 powders synthesized in this study consist mainly anatase phase, and possess reasonably high specific surface area, low band gap energy and flat band potentials amenable to water oxidation in photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells. The photocatalytic degradation of MB over Co-doped TiO 2 powders followed the Langmuir–Hinshelwood first order reaction rate relationship. The 0.1 wt.% Co-doped TiO 2 composition provided the higher photocurrent, n-type semi-conducting behavior and higher photocatalytic activity among various Co-doped TiO 2 compositions and pure TiO 2 investigated.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Hierarchical Structured TiO2 Nanotubes and Their Photocatalytic Performance on Methyl Orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical structured TiO2 nanotubes were prepared by mechanical ball milling of highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays grown by electrochemical anodization of titanium foil. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, specific surface area analysis, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, photocurrent measurement, photoluminescence spectra, electrochemical impedance spectra, and photocatalytic degradation test were applied to characterize the nanocomposites. Surface area increased as the milling time extended. After 5 h ball milling, TiO2 hierarchical nanotubes exhibited a corn-like shape and exhibited enhanced photoelectrochemical activity in comparison to commercial P25. The superior photocatalytic activity is suggested to be due to the combined advantages of high surface area of nanoparticles and rapid electron transfer as well as collection of the nanotubes in the hierarchical structure. The hierarchical structured TiO2 nanotubes could be applied into flexible applications on solar cells, sensors, and other photoelectrochemical devices.

  7. TiO(2)-assisted photocatalytic degradation of humic acids: effect of copper ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyguner, C S; Bekbolet, M

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the removal efficiency of aqueous humic acid solutions by TiO(2) photocatalytic degradation in the presence of Cu(II) species. The pseudo-first-order kinetics revealed rate constants as 9.87 x 10(-3), 7.19 x 10(-3), 3.81 x 10(-3) min(-1) for Color(436), UV(254) and TOC, respectively. Comparatively, lower rate constants were attained with respect to photocatalytic degradation of humic acid. Considering the source-dependent diverse chemical and spectral characteristics of NOM, a particular interaction would be expected for humic acid with Cu(II) species (0.1 mg L(-1)). The presence of copper ions significantly altered the photocatalytic degradation kinetics of humic acids in relation to the concentration effects of humic acid as expressed by spectroscopic parameters and TOC. Batch equilibrium adsorption experiments revealed a distinct Langmuirian-type adsorptive behavior of humic acid onto TiO(2) both in terms of UV(254) and Color(436) and a C-type adsorption isotherm was attained for TOC. K(F) values displayed an inconsistent effect of Cu(II) species, while adsorption intensity factor 1/ncopper ions and humic molecular size fractions, spectroscopic techniques were also employed for the assessment of the adsorption as well as photocatalytic degradation efficiencies.

  8. Decolorization of Methylene Blue with TiO2 Sol via UV Irradiation Photocatalytic Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 sol was prepared for the degradation of methylene blue (MB solution under ultraviolet (UV irradiation. The absorption spectra of MB indicated that the maximum wavelength, 663 nm, almost kept the same. The performance of 92.3% for color removal was reached after 160 min. The particle size of TiO2 sol was about 22.5 nm. X-ray diffraction showed that TiO2 consisted of a single anatase phase. The small size and anatase phase probably resulted in high photocatalytic activity of TiO2 sol. The degradation ratio decreased as the initial concentration of MB increased. The photodegradation efficiency decreased in the order of pH 2>pH 9>pH 7. Regarding catalyst load, the degradation increased with the mass of catalyst up to an amount of 1.5 g⋅L−1 then decreased as the mass continued to increase. The addition of H2O2 to TiO2 sol resulted in an increase on the degradation ratio.

  9. Mesoporous TiO2 Micro-Nanometer Composite Structure: Synthesis, Optoelectric Properties, and Photocatalytic Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous anatase TiO2 micro-nanometer composite structure was synthesized by solvothermal method at 180°C, followed by calcination at 400°C for 2 h. The as-prepared TiO2 was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM, and Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR. The specific surface area and pore size distribution were obtained from N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm, and the optoelectric property of the mesoporous TiO2 was studied by UV-Vis absorption spectrum and surface photovoltage spectra (SPS. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photodegradation of sole rhodamine B (RhB and sole phenol aqueous solutions under simulated sunlight irradiation and compared with that of Degussa P-25 (P25 under the same conditions. The photodegradation preference of this mesoporous TiO2 was also investigated for an RhB-phenol mixed solution. The results show that the TiO2 composite structure consists of microspheres (∼0.5–2 μm in diameter and irregular aggregates (several hundred nanometers with rough surfaces and the average primary particle size is 10.2 nm. The photodegradation activities of this mesoporous TiO2 on both RhB and phenol solutions are higher than those of P25. Moreover, this as-prepared TiO2 exhibits photodegradation preference on RhB in the RhB-phenol mixture solution.

  10. Directly assembled quantum dots on one dimension ordered TiO2 nanostructure in aqueous solution for improving photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin-zhao; Kuang, Lei; Liu, Song; Zhao, Yong-dan; Jiang, Tao; Liu, Shi-you; Wei, Ming-zhi

    2013-07-01

    One dimension (1D) ordered titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanostructured photocatalysts sensitized by quantum dots (QDs) are fabricated. Their morphologies, crystal structures and photocatalytic properties are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-vis-NIR) absorption spectroscopy, respectively. Compared with the original TiO2 nanostructure, the nanostructured TiO2 sensitized by QDs exhibits a good photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange (MO). The QDs with core-shell structure can reduce the photocatalytic ability due to the higher potential barrier of carrier transport in ZnS shell layer. The results indicate that the proposed photocatalyst shows promising potential for the application in organic dye degradation.

  11. Visible-light photocatalytic performances of TiO2 nanoparticles modified by trace derivatives of PVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le SHI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the visible-light photocatalytic activity and catalysis stability of nanocomposites, a TiO2-based visible-light photocatalyst is prepared by surface-modification of TiO2 nanoparticles using trace conjugated derivatives from polyvinyl alcohol (DPVA via a facile method. The obtained DPVA/TiO2 nanocomposites are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared Spectra (FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. With Rhodamine B (RhB as a model pollutant, the visible-light photocatalytic activity and stability of DPVA/TiO2 nanocomposites are investigated by evaluating the RhB decomposition under visible light irradiation. The results reveal that the trace conjugated polymers on the TiO2 surface doesn’t change the crystalline and crystal size of TiO2 nanoparticles, but significantly enhances their visible-light absorbance and visible-light photocatalytic activity. The nanocomposite with the PVA and TiO2 mass ratio of 1∶200 exhibits the highest visible-light photocatalytic activity. The investigated nanocomposites exhibit well visible-light photoctatalytic stability. The photogenerated holes are thought as the main active species for the RhB photodegradation in the presence of the DPVA/TiO2 nanocomposites.

  12. Chelated Nitrogen-Sulphur-Codoped TiO2: Synthesis, Characterization, Mechanistic, and UV/Visible Photocatalytic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayat Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents in detail the physicochemical, photoluminescent, and photocatalytic properties of carboxylic acid chelated nitrogen-sulphur-codoped TiO2. From the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study, it was revealed that the formate group formed bidentate bridging linkage while the acetate group coordinated in a bidentate chelating mode with a titanium precursor. In compliance with X-ray diffraction data, the anatase to rutile transformation temperature was extended due to carboxylic acid chelation and NS codoping. Raman analysis indicated four Raman peaks at 146, 392, 512, and 632 cm−1 for the precalcined chelated TiO2; on incorporation with NS dopants, an increase in Raman intensity for these peaks was recorded, indicating the structure stability of the anatase phase. Furthermore, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic study revealed the presence of anionic doping of nitrogen and cationic doping of sulphur in the lattice of TiO2. When evaluating the UV-visible photodegradation rate of 4-chlorophenol, the modified TiO2 (NS0.06-TFA showed the highest photocatalytic activity. In connection with the activity tests, several scavenger agents were employed to elucidate the significance of the different reactive oxidizing species during the photocatalytic process. Moreover, the transfer pathways of photogenerated carriers and the photocatalytic reaction mechanism of modified TiO2 were also explained in detail.

  13. Synthesis, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Properties of Sulfur- and Carbon-Codoped TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, S.; Barylyak, A.; Besaha, K.; Bund, A.; Bobitski, Y.; Wojnarowska-Nowak, R.; Yaremchuk, I.; Kus-Liśkiewicz, M.

    2016-03-01

    One-step TiO2 nanoparticle synthesis based on the interaction between thiourea and metatitanic acid is applied for sulfur and carbon anatase codoping. The synthesis of the doped TiO2 has been monitored by means of differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis (DTA-TG), which allows determining the optimal thermal conditions for the process. Electron microscopy showed micrometer-sized (5-15 μm) randomly distributed crystal aggregates, consisting of many 15-40-nm TiO2 nanoparticles. The obtained phase composition and chemical states of the doping elements are analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). XRD displays in both samples (doped and pristine) the existence of only one crystalline phase—the tetragonal modification of TiO2—anatase. Further data assessment by means of Rietveld refinement allowed detection of a slight c lattice parameter and volume increase related to incorporation of the doping elements. XPS demonstrated the presence of carbon and sulfur as doping elements in the material. It was confirmed that carbon is in elemental form and also present in oxygen-containing compounds, which are adsorbed on the particle surface. The binding energy for sulfur electron core shell corresponds to the established data for sulfate compounds, where sulfur is in 6+ oxidation state. The synthesized S- and C-codoped TiO2 showed excellent photocatalytic performance during the degradation of organic dyes (rhodamine B, methylene blue), gas-phase oxidation of ethanol under visible light, and photocatalytic hydrogen generation from ethanol under ultraviolet light.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of Fe2O3-TiO2 nanoparticles and nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmadi Golsefidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this pepper Fe2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized via a fast microwave method. Then Fe2O3-TiO2 nanocomposites were synthesized by a sonochemical-assisted method. The prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The photocatalytic behaviour of Fe2O3-TiO2 nanocomposites was evaluated using the degradation of Rhodamine B under ultra violet irradiation. The results show that nanocomposites have applicable magnetic and photocatalytic performance.

  15. Photocatalytic removal of gaseous nitrogen oxides using WO3/TiO2 particles under visible light irradiation: Effect of surface modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Joseph Albert; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kang, Joo-Hyon

    2017-09-01

    Photocatalytic nanoparticles have been receiving considerable attention for their potential use in many environmental management applications, including urban air quality control. This paper investigates the performance of surface modified WO 3 /TiO 2 composite particles in removing gaseous nitrogen oxides (NO x ) under visible light irradiation. The WO 3 /TiO 2 composite particles were synthesized using a modified wet chemical method with different concentrations of NaOH solution used as a surface modification agent for the host TiO 2 particles. The NO x removal efficiency of the WO 3 /TiO 2 particles was evaluated using a lab-scale continuous gas flow photo-reactor with a gas contact time of 1 min. Results showed that surface modification using NaOH can enhance the photocatalytic activity of the WO 3 /TiO 2 particles. The NO x removal efficiency of the surface modified WO 3 /TiO 2 was greater than 90%, while that of WO 3 /TiO 2 particles prepared by the conventional wet chemical method was ∼75%. The enhanced removal efficiency might be attributed to the formation of oxygen vacancies on the TiO 2 surface, providing sites for WO 3 particles to effectively bind with TiO 2 . However, excess amount of NaOH >3 M deteriorated the photocatalytic performance due to the increased agglomeration of the host TiO 2 particles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficient Visible Light Photocatalytic Oxidation of NO on F- and N-Codoped Spherical TiO2 Synthesized via Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jianhui; Cheuk, Wahkit; Wu, Yifan; Lee, Frank S. C.; Ho, Wingkei

    2012-01-01

    The fluorine- and nitrogen-codoped TiO2 was synthesized by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method with titanium tetrafluoride and urea as precursor. The codoped TiO2 was characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Nitric oxide (NO) photocatalytic oxidation in gas-phase medium was employed as a probe reaction to evaluate the photocatalytic ...

  17. Toxicological aspects of photocatalytic degradation of selected xenobiotics with nano-sized Mn-doped TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Murat; Güngördü, Abbas; Erdemoglu, Sema; Ozmen, Nesrin; Asilturk, Meltem

    2015-08-01

    The toxic effects of two selected xenobiotics, bisphenol A (BPA) and atrazine (ATZ), were evaluated after photocatalytic degradation using nano-sized, Mn-doped TiO2. Undoped and Mn-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-vis-diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), and BET surface area. The photocatalytic efficiency of the undoped and Mn-doped TiO2 was evaluated for BPA and ATZ. The toxicity of the synthesized photocatalysts and photocatalytic by-products of BPA and ATZ was determined using frog embryos and tadpoles, zebrafish embryos, and bioluminescent bacteria. Possible toxic effects were also evaluated using selected enzyme biomarkers. The results showed that Mn-doped TiO2 nanoparticles did not cause significant lethality in Xenopus laevis embryos and tadpoles, but nonfiltered samples caused lethality in zebrafish. Furthermore, Mn-doping of TiO2 increased the photocatalytic degradation capability of nanoparticles, and it successfully degraded BPA and AZT, but degradation of AZT caused an increase of the lethal effects on both tadpoles and fish embryos. Degradation of BPA caused a significant reduction of lethal effects, especially after 2-4h of degradation. However, biochemical assays showed that both Mn-doped TiO2 and the degradation by-products caused a significant change of selected biomarkers on X. laevis tadpoles; thus, the ecological risks of Mn-doped TiO2 should be considered due to nanomaterial applications and for spilled nanoparticles in an aquatic ecosystem. Also, the risk of nanoparticles should be considered using indicator reference biochemical markers to verify the environmental health impacts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Defective TiO2 with oxygen vacancies: synthesis, properties and photocatalytic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoyang; Yang, Min-Quan; Fu, Xianzhi; Zhang, Nan; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2013-04-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2), as an important semiconductor metal oxide, has been widely investigated in the field of photocatalysis. The properties of TiO2, including its light absorption, charge transport and surface adsorption, are closely related to its defect disorder, which in turn plays a significant role in the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. Among all the defects identified in TiO2, oxygen vacancy is one of the most important and is supposed to be the prevalent defect in many metal oxides, which has been widely investigated both by theoretical calculations and experimental characterizations. Here, we give a short review on the existing strategies for the synthesis of defective TiO2 with oxygen vacancies, and the defect related properties of TiO2 including structural, electronic, optical, dissociative adsorption and reductive properties, which are intimately related to the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. In particular, photocatalytic applications with regard to defective TiO2 are outlined. In addition, we offer some perspectives on the challenge and new direction for future research in this field. We hope that this tutorial minireview would provide some useful contribution to the future design and fabrication of defective semiconductor-based nanomaterials for diverse photocatalytic applications.Titanium dioxide (TiO2), as an important semiconductor metal oxide, has been widely investigated in the field of photocatalysis. The properties of TiO2, including its light absorption, charge transport and surface adsorption, are closely related to its defect disorder, which in turn plays a significant role in the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. Among all the defects identified in TiO2, oxygen vacancy is one of the most important and is supposed to be the prevalent defect in many metal oxides, which has been widely investigated both by theoretical calculations and experimental characterizations. Here, we give a short review on the existing strategies for the

  19. Photocatalytic degradation of dyes and organic contaminants in water using nanocrystalline anatase and rutile TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh J. Tayade et al

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline TiO2 was synthesized by controlled hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide. The anatase phase was converted to rutile phase by thermal treatment at 1023 K for 11 h. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS, Fourier-transform infrared absorption spectrophotometry (FT-IR and N2 adsorption (BET at 77 K. This study compare the photocatalytic activity of the anatase and rutile phases of nanocrystalline TiO2 for the degradation of acetophenone, nitrobenzene, methylene blue and malachite green present in aqueous solutions. The initial rate of degradation was calculated to compare the photocatalytic activity of anatase and rutile nanocrystalline TiO2 for the degradation of different substances under ultraviolet light irradiation. The higher photocatalytic activity was obtained in anatase phase TiO2 for the degradation of all substances as compared with rutile phase. It is concluded that the higher photocatalytic activity in anatase TiO2 is due to parameters like band-gap, number of hydroxyl groups, surface area and porosity of the catalyst.

  20. TiO(2) crystal facet-dependent antimony adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiaying; Yan, Li; Duan, Jinming; Jing, Chuanyong

    2017-06-15

    Anatase TiO 2 crystal facets are garnering increasing attention due to their unique surface property. However, no specific linear relationship had been derived between the facet exposed on TiO 2 and the surface adsorption capacity as well as photocatalytic performance. This study systematically explored the facet effects on antimony (Sb) adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation using high-index {201} and low-index {101}, {001}, and {100} TiO 2 . The results suggest that high-index {201} TiO 2 exhibits the best Sb(III) adsorption and photocatalytic activity compared to the low-index TiO 2 . Both the Sb(III) adsorption density and the amount of OH and O 2 - generated in solution were correlated to the magnitude of surface energy on TiO 2 facets. Photocatalytically generated OH and O 2 - were responsible for Sb(III) photooxidation as evidenced by radical-trapping experiments. The great contribution of OH was observed only on {201}, not on low-index TiO 2 . This phenomenon was found to be attributable to the high surface energy on {201}, which enables the generation of a large amount of photogeneration OH to compensate for the fast rate of OH dissipation. Therefore, the predominant participation of OH in Sb(III) photooxidation was only possible on high-index {201} TiO 2 , which resulted in an enhanced photocatalytic rate. On the other hand, O 2 - dominated the Sb(III) photocatalytic oxidation on low-index TiO 2 . The intrinsic facet-dependent adsorption and photocatalytic mechanism obtained from this study would be useful for developing TiO 2 -based environmental technologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Highly photocatalytic TiO2 interconnected porous powder fabricated by sponge-templated atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shengqiang; Zhao, Yuting; Huang, Gaoshan; Wang, Jiao; Baunack, Stefan; Gemming, Thomas; Li, Menglin; Zheng, Lirong; Schmidt, Oliver G; Mei, Yongfeng

    2015-09-11

    A titanium dioxide (TiO2) interconnected porous structure has been fabricated by means of atomic layer deposition of TiO2 onto a reticular sponge template. The obtained freestanding TiO2 with large surface area can be easily taken out of the water to solve a complex separation procedure. A compact and conformal nanocoating was evidenced by morphologic characterization. A phase transition, as well as production of oxygen vacancies with increasing annealing temperature, was detected by x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The photocatalytic experimental results demonstrated that the powder with appropriate annealing treatment possessed excellent photocatalytic ability due to the co-action of high surface area, oxygen vacancies and the optimal crystal structure.

  2. Room temperature synthesized rutile TiO2 nanoparticles induced by laser ablation in liquid and their photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Peisheng; Cai Weiping; Fang Ming; Li Zhigang; Zeng Haibo; Hu Jinlian; Luo Xiangdong; Jing Weiping

    2009-01-01

    TiO 2 nanoparticles were prepared by one-step pulsed laser ablation of a titanium target immersed in a poly-(vinylpyrrolidone) solution at room temperature. The products were systematically characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that the rutile TiO 2 nanocrystalline particles were one-step synthesized at room temperature and the mean size in diameter is about 50 nm with a narrow size distribution. A probable formation process was proposed on the basis of the microstructure and the instantaneous plasma plume induced by the laser. Photocatalytic activity was monitored by degradation of a methylene blue solution. The as-prepared rutile TiO 2 nanoparticles demonstrate a good photocatalytic performance. This work shows that pulsed laser ablation in liquid media is a good method to synthesize some nanosized materials which are difficult to produce by other conventional methods.

  3. Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange over Metalloporphyrins Supported on TiO2 Degussa P25

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Jiao Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic activity of meso-tetraphenylporphyrins with different metal centers (Fe, Co, Mn and Cu adsorbed on TiO2 (Degussa P25 surface has been investigated by carrying out the photodegradation of methyl orange (MO under visible and ultraviolet light irradiation. The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, diffuse reflectance UV (DRS-UV-vis and infrared spectra. Copper porphyrin-sensitized TiO2 photocatalyst (CuP-TiO2 showed excellent activity for the photodegradation of MO whether under visible or ultraviolet light irradiation. Natural Bond Orbital (NBO charges analysis showed that methyl orange ion is adsorbed easier by CuP-TiO2 catalyst due to the increase of induced interactions.

  4. Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity of Anatase TiO2 Nanoparticles-coated Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Yi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A simple and straightforward approach to prepare TiO2-coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs is presented. Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs with the average size ~8 nm were coated on CNTs from peroxo titanic acid (PTA precursor even at low temperature of 100 °C. We demonstrate the effects of CNTs/TiO2 molar ratio on the adsorption capability and photocatalytic efficiency under UV–visible irradiation. The samples showed not only good optical absorption in visible range, but also great adsorption capacity for methyl orange (MO dye molecules. These properties facilitated the great enhancement of photocatalytic activity of TiO2 NPs-coated CNTs photocatalysts. The TiO2 NPs-coated CNTs exhibited 2.45 times higher photocatalytic activity for MO degradation than that of pure TiO2.

  5. Effects of Ni doping on photocatalytic activity of TiO2 thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ni-doped TiO2 thin films can be used as photocatalyst for the photodegradation of methyl orange dye. It was found that, organic dye undergoes degradation efficiently in presence of non-uniformly Ni-doped TiO2 thin films when compared to uniformly doped films and pure TiO2 films under visible light. The photocatalytic ...

  6. Effect of W doping level on TiO2 on the photocatalytic degradation of Diuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foura, Ghania; Soualah, Ahcène; Robert, Didier

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, three compositions of W-doped titania nano-photocatalyst are synthesized via the sol-gel method. The powders obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic performances of the different photocatalysts are tested with respect to the degradation of Diuron in water solutions under simulated solar light and visible light irradiation. The W 0.03 Ti 0.97 O 2 catalyst exhibits better photoactivity than the pure TiO 2 even under simulated solar light and visible light. This improvement in activity was attributed to photoelectron/hole separation efficiency.

  7. Novel Photocatalytic Membrane Reactor with TiO2 Nanotubes for Azo Dye Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel photocatalytic membrane reactor (PMR with TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs has been designed and applied in azo dye wastewater treatment. Prepared by hydrothermal method, the TNTs with length of 30–80 nm and diameter of 10 nm had good photocatalytic activity. The result showed that the optimal pH value was 4.5 and catalyst loading of this reaction system was 0.5g/L. The decolorization rate of X-3B with application of TNTs was up to 94.6% after 75min of irradiation. In the combined process, the PES ultrafiltration membrane was adopted to separate and recover the nano catalysts for reuse. The retention rate of TNTs in PMR system reached 100%. All these showed that TNTs photocatalysis integrated with ultrafiltration was capable of removing X-3B dye effectively and simultaneous separating TNTs photocatalysts successfully.

  8. PHOTOCATALYTIC EFFICIENCY OF N-TIO2 APPLIED ON COTTON KNIT – PART 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRESCU Iuliana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the research work is the development of photocatalytic textiles materials by treating them with TiO2 doped with nitrogen. Also, the research was focused on the nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (N-TiO2 formulation as homogeneous, stable solution, immobilization of large quantities of N-TiO2 on 100% cotton knit while preserving its genuine properties, minimize the loss of nanoparticles in wastewaters and achieve a high photocatalytic fabrics effects under visible light. The photocatalytic effect was investigated by exposing the materials to ultraviolet and visible light, and the evaluation of exposed and non-exposed fabrics was performed using a spectroscopic method. By using scanning electron microscopy, we investigated the characteristic, morphology and distribution of nanoparticles covering the textile materials, and the presence of Ti and Fe on textile materials was analyzed by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. The results showed the relatively uniform coating of cotton fibers by particles by using initial and re-used N-TiO2 dispersions. By using additives like polyethylene glycols and wetting agents, the stability of aqueous N-TiO2 is increased. Wetting agents, together with a higher treatment temperature represent important factors contributing to the deposition of increased amount of N-TiO2 particles existing in the dispersion remained after the first treatment of the fabric. Key words: nitrogen-doped TiO2, photocatalysis, cotton fabric, nanoparticles, scanning electron microscopy.

  9. Role of hydrothermal temperature on crystallinity, photoluminescence, photocatalytic and gas sensing properties of TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malligavathy, M.; Iyyapushpam, S.; Nishanthi, S. T.; Padiyan, D. Pathinettam

    2018-04-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesised by hydrothermal method. The degree of crystallinity and phase purity were confirmed from the Raman spectra and X-ray diffraction. By increasing the hydrothermal temperature, crystallinity and AC conductivity of the TiO2 nanoparticles increase. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements confirmed that the samples were mesoporous with an average pore diameter of 4.4-7.45 nm. Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles was evaluated and the sample hydrothermally treated at 160°C has the highest photocatalytic activity. In gas sensing measurements, sensitivity increases as a function of concentration and the response to ethanol vapour was better compared to other gases for the sample synthesised at 160°C.

  10. Photocatalytical Antibacterial Activity of Mixed-Phase TiO2 Nanocomposite Thin Films against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Yeniyol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed-phase TiO2 nanocomposite thin films consisting of anatase and rutile prepared on commercially pure Ti sheets via the electrochemical anodization and annealing treatments were investigated in terms of their photocatalytic activity for antibacterial use around dental implants. The resulting films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The topology was assessed by White Light Optical Profiling (WLOP in the Vertical Scanning Interferometer (VSI mode. Representative height descriptive parameters of roughness Ra and Rz were calculated. The photocatalytic activity of the resulting TiO2 films was evaluated by the photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB dye solution. The antibacterial ability of the photocatalyst was examined by  Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans suspensions in a colony-forming assay. XRD showed that anatase/rutile mixed-phase TiO2 thin films were predominantly in anatase and rutile that were 54.6 wt% and 41.9 wt%, respectively. Craters (2–5 µm and protruding hills (10–50 µm on Ti substrates were produced after electrochemical anodization with higher Ra and Rz surface roughness values. Anatase/rutile mixed-phase TiO2 thin films showed 26% photocatalytic decolorization toward RhB dye solution. The number of colonizing bacteria on anatase/rutile mixed-phase TiO2 thin films was decreased significantly in vitro. The photocatalyst was effective against A. actinomycetemcomitans colonization.

  11. Comparison study on photocatalytic oxidation of pharmaceuticals by TiO2-Fe and TiO2-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites immobilized on optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lu; Wang, Huiyao; Jiang, Wenbin; Mkaouar, Ahmed Radhi; Xu, Pei

    2017-07-05

    Incorporating reduced graphene oxide (rGO) or Fe 3+ ions in TiO 2 photocatalyst could enhance photocatalytic degradation of organic contaminants in aqueous solutions. This study characterized the photocatalytic activities of TiO 2 -Fe and TiO 2 -rGO nanocomposites immobilized on optical fibers synthesized by polymer assisted hydrothermal deposition method. The photocatalysts presented a mixture phase of anatase and rutile in the TiO 2 -rGO and TiO 2 -Fe nanocomposites. Doping Fe into TiO 2 particles (2.40eV) could reduce more band gap energy than incorporating rGO (2.85eV), thereby enhancing utilization efficiency of visible light. Incorporating Fe and rGO in TiO 2 decreased significantly the intensity of TiO 2 photoluminescence signals and enhanced the separation rate of photo-induced charge carriers. Photocatalytic performance of the synthesized nanocomposites was measured by the degradation of three pharmaceuticals under UV and visible light irradiation, including carbamazepine, ibuprofen, and sulfamethoxazole. TiO 2 -rGO exhibited higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of pharmaceuticals under UV irradiation, while TiO 2 -Fe demonstrated more suitable for visible light oxidation. The results suggested that the enhanced photocatalytic performance of TiO 2 -rGO could be attributed to reduced recombination rate of photoexcited electrons-hole pairs, but for TiO 2 -Fe nanocomposite, narrower band gap would contribute to increased photocatalytic activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Solar photocatalytic disinfection of E. coli and bacteriophages MS2, ΦX174 and PR772 using TiO2, ZnO and ruthenium based complexes in a continuous flow system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Mahon, Joanne; Pillai, Suresh C; Kelly, John M; Gill, Laurence W

    2017-05-01

    The performance of photocatalytic treatment processes were assessed using different photocatalysts against E. coli and bacteriophages MS2, ΦX174 and PR772, in a recirculating continuous flow compound parabolic collector system under real sunlight conditions. Suspended TiO 2 and ZnO nanoparticle powders and Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)dichlororuthenium(II) hexahydrate in solution were tested separately, as well as in combination, using E. coli. For a 3-log reduction of E. coli in distilled water, inactivation rates in terms of cumulative dose were in the order Ru(bpy) 3 Cl 2 >(TiO 2 & Ru(bpy) 3 Cl 2 )>(ZnO & Ru(bpy) 3 Cl 2 )>ZnO>TiO 2 >photolysis. Reactivation of E. coli was observed following all trials despite the detection limit being reached, although the reactivated colonies were observed to be under stress and much slower growing when compared to original colonies. Treatment with Ru(bpy) 3 Cl 2 was also compared against standard photolysis of bacteriophages MS2, ΦX174 and PR772 with the order of photolytic inactivation for a 3-log reduction in terms of cumulative UV-A dose being ΦX174>PR772>MS2. However, MS2 was found to be the most susceptible bacteriophage to treatment with Ru(bpy) 3 Cl 2 , with complete removal of the phage observed within the first 15min of exposure. Ru(bpy) 3 Cl 2 also significantly improved inactivation rates for PR772 and ΦX174. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparing the photocatalytic activity of TiO2at macro- and microscopic scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torras-Rosell, Antoni; Johannsen, Sabrina Rostgaard; Dirscherl, Kai; Daviðsdóttir, Svava; Jeppesen, Christian Sloth; Louring, Sascha; Andersen, Inge Hald

    2017-05-01

    This study focuses on the characterization of photocatalytic TiO 2 coatings using Kelvin probe force microscopy. While most photocatalytic experiments are carried out at a macroscopic scale, Kelvin probe force microscopy is a microscopic technique that is surface sensitive. In order to link microscale results to macroscopic experiments, a simple method to establish the relation between Kelvin probe force microscopy and electrochemical measurements is presented by the calibration of a reference sample consisting of epitaxial deposited Cu-Ni-Au that is used as a transfer standard. The photocatalytic properties of TiO 2 at macro- and microscopic scales are investigated by comparing photocatalytic degradation of acetone and electrochemical experiments to Kelvin probe force microscopy. The good agreement between the macro- and microscopic experiments suggests that Kelvin probe force microscopy can be a valuable tool towards the understanding, standardization and design of TiO 2 -based solutions in photocatalytic applications.

  14. Notable photocatalytic activity of TiO2-polyethylene nanocomposites for visible light degradation of organic pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Romero-Saez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the photocatalytic activity showed by nanocomposites of TiO2 with low density polyethylene (LDPE and high density polyethylene (HDPE (10, 20 wt% for the degradation of methyl orange in aqueous medium under visible light irradiation. TiO2 was synthetized by sol-gel process, and the polymers were incorporated by impregnation. Both the pure TiO2 and the nanocomposites were characterized using different physico-chemical techniques including specific surface area analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. All the prepared nanocomposites showed an absorption edge in the visible region. TiO2(90/LDPE photocatalyst showed the best degradation efficiency after 180 minutes of reaction, without notorious decrease of degradation efficiency after three consecutive uses. Photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses suggested the presence of vacancies in the TiO2 structure promoted by a Ti–O–C interaction being responsible for the photocatalytic activity enhancement under visible light irradiation.

  15. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of chemically-bonded phosphate ceramics containing TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Monize Aparecida; de Lima, Bruna de Oliveira; Ferreira, Leticia Patrício; Colonetti, Emerson; Feltrin, Jucilene; De Noni, Agenor

    2017-05-01

    Titanium dioxide was incorporated into chemically-bonded phosphate ceramic for use as photocatalytic inorganic coating. The coatings obtained were applied to unglazed ceramic tiles and cured at 350 °C. The surfaces were characterized by photocatalytic activity, determined in aqueous medium, based on the degradation of methylene blue dye. The effects of the percentage of TiO2 and the thickness of the layer on the photocatalytic efficiency were evaluated. The influence of the incorporation of TiO2 on the consolidation of the phosphate matrix coating was investigated using the wear resistance test. The crystalline phases of the coatings obtained were determined by XRD. The microstructure of the surfaces was analyzed by SEM. The thermal curing treatment did not cause a phase transition from anatase to rutile. An increase in the photocatalytic activity of the coating was observed with an increase in the TiO2 content. The dye degradation indices ranged from 14.9 to 44.0%. The photocatalytic efficiency was not correlated with the thickness of the coating layer deposited. The resistance to wear decreased with an increase in the TiO2 content. Comparison with a commercial photocatalytic ceramic coating indicated that there is a range of values for the TiO2 contents which offer potential for photocatalytic applications.

  16. Hydrothermal synthesis, characterization, photocatalytic activity and dye-sensitized solar cell performance of mesoporous anatase TiO2 nanopowders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavasupree, Sorapong; Jitputti, Jaturong; Ngamsinlapasathian, Supachai; Yoshikawa, Susumu

    2008-01-01

    Mesoporous anatase TiO 2 nanopowder was synthesized by hydrothermal method at 130 deg. C for 12 h. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), HRTEM, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area. The as-synthesized sample with narrow pore size distribution had average pore diameter about 3-4 nm. The specific BET surface area of the as-synthesized sample was about 193 m 2 /g. Mesoporous anatase TiO 2 nanopowders (prepared by this study) showed higher photocatalytic activity than the nanorods TiO 2 , nanofibers TiO 2 mesoporous TiO 2 , and commercial TiO 2 nanoparticles (P-25, JRC-01, and JRC-03). The solar energy conversion efficiency (η) of the cell using the mesoporous anatase TiO 2 was about 6.30% with the short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 13.28 mA/cm 2 , the open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.702 V and the fill factor (ff) of 0.676; while η of the cell using P-25 reached 5.82% with Jsc of 12.74 mA/cm 2 , Voc of 0.704 V and ff of 0.649

  17. Efficient Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution over Platinum and Boron Co-doped TiO2 Photoatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang JIN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the new photocatalyst, Ptx-/TiO2-yBy was prepared by impregnation method via coupling with a inorganic water splitting system, namely, a ternary system K+,Na+/B4O72- - H2O for hydrogen evolution. The integration process of the preparation for B doping Pt/TiO2 with the significant photocatalytic hydrogen evolution in the ternary system K+,Mg2+/B4O72- - H2O and K+,Na+/B4O72- - H2O were accomplished by impregnation in situ. The photocatalyst Ptx-/TiO2-yBy synthesis and the photocatalytic hydrogen production of the isothermal solubility of the ternary system K+,Mg2+/B4O72- - H2O and K+,Na+/B4O72- - H2O at 25 ºC have been studied. Thus, the present challenge is not only to demonstrate a suitable photocatalytical system that can efficiently produce hydrogen under the borate exsited, but also research that the addition of borate to the suspensions greatly enhanced the stability of the  photocatalysts over semiconductor catalysts.The results show that borate solution is a suitable for B doped TiO2 photocatalysts preparation and a novel photocatalyst Ptx-/TiO2-yBy was successfully prepared by this way. XRD and XPS characterization showed that both anatase and rutile are coexisted and the B is incorporated into the crystal of the TiO2.So the TiO2 can be denoted as TiO2-xBx. The effect of borate on the photocatalytic properties were investigated. The results showed that the amount of hydrogen evolved is enhanced by factors of 4 with the addition of H3BO3 to the ethanol/water reaction solutions. The role of boron anion does not act as a sacrificial electron donors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.4.6412

  18. Acidic Peptizing Agent Effect on Anatase-Rutile Ratio and Photocatalytic Performance of TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Hatem A.; Narasimharao, Katabathini; Ali, Tarek T.; Khalil, Kamal M. S.

    2018-02-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized from titanium isopropoxide by a simple peptization method using sulfuric, nitric, and acetic acids. The effect of peptizing acid on physicochemical and photocatalytic properties of TiO2 powders was studied. The structural properties of synthesized TiO2 powders were analyzed by using XRD, TEM, N2-physisorption, Raman, DR UV- vis, FTIR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. The characterization results showed that acetic acid peptization facilitated the formation of pure anatase phase after thermal treatment at 500 °C; in contrast, nitric acid peptization led to a major rutile phase formation (67%). Interestingly, the sample peptized using sulfuric acid yielded 95% anatase and 5% rutile phases. The photocatalytic activity of synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles was evaluated for degradation of selected organic dyes (crystal violet, methylene blue, and p-nitrophenol) in aqueous solution. The results confirmed that the TiO2 sample peptized using nitric acid (with rutile and anatase phases in 3:1 ratio) offered the highest activity for degradation of organic dyes, although, TiO2 samples peptized using sulfuric acid and acetic acid possessed smaller particle size, higher band gap energy, and high surface area. Interestingly, TiO2 sample peptized with nitric acid possessed relatively high theoretical photocurrent density (0.545 mAcm-2) and pore diameter (150 Å), which are responsible for high electron-hole separation efficiency and diffusion and mass transportation of organic reactants during the photochemical degradation process. The superior activity of TiO2 sample peptized with nitric acid is due to the effective transfer of photogenerated electrons between rutile and anatase phases.

  19. Photocatalytical Properties and Theoretical Analysis of N, Cd-Codoped TiO2 Synthesized by Thermal Decomposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Gao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available N, Cd-codoped TiO2 have been synthesized by thermal decomposition method. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET specific surface area analysis, respectively. The products represented good performance in photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange. The effect of the incorporation of N and Cd on electronic structure and optical properties of TiO2 was studied by first-principle calculations on the basis of density functional theory (DFT. The impurity states, introduced by N 2p or Cd 5d, lied between the valence band and the conduction band. Due to dopants, the band gap of N, Cd-codoped TiO2 became narrow. The electronic transition from the valence band to conduction band became easy, which could account for the observed photocatalytic performance of N, Cd-codoped TiO2. The theoretical analysis might provide a probable reference for the experimentally element-doped TiO2 synthesis.

  20. Synergistic effect of N- and F-codoping on the structure and photocatalytic performance of TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiemei; Liu, Zongming; Zhang, Haitao; Huang, Taizhong; Han, Jitian; Zhang, Yihe; Chong, Daohuang

    2015-02-01

    Three types of TiO2 nanostructures were synthesized via a facile hydrolysis method at 195°C. Effects of the preparation method and doping with N and F on the crystal structure and photocatalytic performance of TiO2 were investigated. The nanomaterials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller porosimetry, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and fluorescent emission spectra. Their photo-catalytic activity was examined by the photodegradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution under both ultra-violet and visible light irradiation. The results show that nitrogen and fluorine co-doped anatase TiO2 had the characteristics of a smaller crystalline size, broader light absorption spectrum and lower charge recombination than pure TiO2. Most importantly, more efficient photocatalytic activity under both ultra-violet and visible light was observed. The obtained N-F-TiO2 nanomaterial shows considerable potential for water treatment under sunlight irradiation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Combustion synthesized TiO2 for enhanced photocatalytic activity under the direct sunlight-optimization of titanylnitrate synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daya Mani, A.; Laporte, V.; Ghosal, P.; Subrahmanyam, Ch.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Effect of oxidant on the combustion synthesis of TiO 2 has been studied by preparing titanylnitrate in four different ways from Ti(IV) iso-propoxide. It is observed that oxidant preparation method has a significant effect on physico-chemical as well as photocatalytic properties of TiO 2 . All the catalysts showed excellent photocatalytic activity than Degussa P-25 under direct sunlight for the degradation of a textile dye (methylene blue), without the need of external light sources, oxygen supply and reactor systems. Highlights: ► Optimized synthesis of titanylnitrate. ► Influence of titanylnitrate synthesis on the physico-chemical properties of TiO 2 prepared by combustion synthesis. ► Development of highly efficient TiO 2 photocatalysts those are active under the direct sunlight in open atmosphere. ► Degradation of the textile dye (methylene blue) under direct sunlight. -- Abstract: Optimized synthesis of Ti-precursor ‘titanylnitrate’ for one step combustion synthesis of N- and C-doped TiO 2 catalysts were reported and characterized by using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffused reflectance UV–vis spectroscopy, N 2 adsorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD confirmed the formation of TiO 2 anatase and nano-crystallite size which was further confirmed by TEM. UV-DRS confirmed the decrease in the band gap to less than 3.0 eV, which was assigned due to the presence of C and N in the framework of TiO 2 as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Degradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution under the direct sunlight was carried out and typical results indicated the better performance of the synthesized catalysts than Degussa P-25.

  2. The Effects of Oxidation Temperature on the Microstructure and Photocatalytic Activity of the TiO2 Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin TANG

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Titanium coatings were prepared on the surface of 1mm ZrO2 balls by mechanical ball mill, then the coatings were oxidized to photocatalytic TiO2 films at 400 ~ 600 °C. X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy and Optical Microscope were used to analyze the microstructure and crystal form of the films. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was also evaluated. After that, the effects of oxidation temperature on the microstructure and photocatalytic activity of the films were discussed. The results show that the fabricated coatings are uneven, with average thickness of 60 μm. In the process of oxidation, oxygen is imported into the inner coatings by the gaps existed in the Ti coatings, which makes the Ti particles oxidize from surface to core, finally the films with TiO2 + Ti composite microstructure are obtained. The films oxidized at 500 °C have the best photocatalytic performance with the degradation rate of methyl orange solution 79.08 %, this owing to the existence of anatase and the TiO2+Ti composite microstructure. The result will provide theoretical basis for the fabrication of efficient photocatalytic film.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.2.15590

  3. Synthesis, structure and photocatalytic activity of nano TiO2 and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The material shows higher photocatalytic activity both in UV and visible region of the solar radiation compared to commercial Degussa P25 TiO2. Transition metal ion substitution for Ti4+ creates mid-gap states which act as recombination centers for electron{hole induced by photons thus reducing photocatalytic activity.

  4. How Pt nanoparticles affect TiO2-induced gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraters, B.D.; Amrollahi Buky, Rezvaneh; Mul, Guido

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Pt nanoparticles on the gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation activity of TiO2 is shown to be largely dependent on the molecular functionality of the substrate. We demonstrate that Pt nanoparticles decrease rates in photocatalytic oxidation of propane, whereas a strong beneficial effect

  5. Synthesis of TiO2 nanorod-decorated graphene sheets and their highly efficient photocatalytic activities under visible-light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eunwoo; Hong, Jin-Yong; Kang, Haeyoung; Jang, Jyongsik

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► TiO 2 nanorods were successfully decorated on the surface of graphene sheets. ► Population of TiO 2 nanorods can be controlled by changing experimental conditions. ► TiO 2 nanorod-decorated graphene sheets have an expanded light absorption range. ► TiO 2 nanorod-decorated graphene sheets showed unprecedented photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: The titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanorod-decorated graphene sheets photocatalysts with different TiO 2 nanorods population have been synthesized by a simple non-hydrolytic sol–gel approach. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the TiO 2 nanorods are well-dispersed and successfully anchored on the graphene sheet surface through the formation of covalent bonds between Ti and C atoms. The photocatalytic activities are evaluated in terms of the efficiencies of photodecomposition and adsorption of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution under visible-light irradiation. The as-synthesized TiO 2 nanorod-decorated graphene sheets showed unprecedented photodecomposition efficiency compared to the pristine TiO 2 nanorods and the commercial TiO 2 (P-25, Degussa) under visible-light. It is believed that this predominant photocatalytic activity is due to the synergistic contribution of both a retarded charge recombination rate caused by a high electronic mobility of graphene and an increased surface area originated from nanometer-sized TiO 2 nanorods. Furthermore, photoelectrochemical study is performed to give deep insights into the primary roles of graphene that determines the photocatalytic activity.

  6. Preparation and Photocatalytic Activity of Magnetic Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijing Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple sol-gel method was used to prepare magnetic Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 composites with core-shell structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM have been applied to investigate the structure and morphology of the resultant composites. The obtained composites showed excellent magnetism and higher photodegradation ability than pure TiO2. The photocatalytic mechanism was also discussed. The magnetic composites should be extended to various potential applications, such as photodegradation, catalysis, separation, and purification processes.

  7. Preparation of Fe-Doped TiO2 Nanotubes and Their Photocatalytic Activities under Visible Light

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Honghui; Xu, Shukun; Sun, Dandan; Zhang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Fe-doped TiO2 nanotubes (Fe-TNTs) have been prepared by ultrasonic-assisted hydrothermal method. The structure and composition of the as-prepared TiO2 nanotubes were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. Their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by the degradation of MO under visible light. The UV-visible absorption spectra of the Fe-TNT showed a red shift and an enhancement of the absorption in the visible region co...

  8. Gd, I-doped TiO2 thin films coated on solid waste material: synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic activity under UV or visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Siwei; Yu, Jiang; Yang, Chun; Chang, Jiahua; Wang, Yizheng; Wang, Ping; Xie, Shiqian

    2017-10-01

    In this work, titanium dioxide thin films doped with different concentrations of gadolinium (Gd) and iodine (I) were synthesized using the sol-gel method and successfully coated on solid waste material (made in our lab) by dipping, resulting in the titanium dioxide thin-film-coated material (TiO2M). Then, the doped titanium dioxide thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, and UV-Vis spectroscopy; the optimum coating cycle was evaluated by removal rates of COD and ammonia nitrogen in raw wastewater and secondary effluent. Moreover, the photocatalytic activity was determined by degradation efficiency of methyl orange. The results showed that TiO2M had desirable reusability and the photocatalytic activity was attractive under ultraviolet light irradiation. Furthermore, it is found that the amount of dopant in TiO2 was a key parameter in increasing the photoactivity. 1% Gd-doped TiO2M exhibited the best photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange with the removal rate reaching 85.55%. The result was in good agreement with the observed smaller crystallite size and profitable crystal structure (anatase phase). Besides, the TiO2M (0.8% Gd-doped TiO2M, 1% Gd-doped TiO2M, 10% I-doped TiO2M, and 5% I-1% Gd-doped TiO2M) with desirable photocatalytic activity at ultraviolet light irradiation was selected for the visible light photocatalytic experiments with taking methyl orange as the target pollutants. The results showed that all of them exhibited the similar photocatalytic activity after 7 h of sunlight irradiation (around 90% removal effect). In general, this research developed a very effective and environmentally friendly photocatalyst for pollutant degradation.

  9. PHOTOCATALYTIC PROPERTIES OF Cr DOPED TiO2–SiO2 NANOSTRUCTURE THIN FILM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Eshaghi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Cr doped TiO2–SiO2 nanostructure thin film on glass substrates was prepared by a sol-gel dip coating method. X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and UV-vis spectrophotometer were used to characterize the structural, chemical and optical properties of the thin film. The XRD showed that thin films contain only anatase phase. FE-SEM images illustrated that anatase average crystallite size in the pure TiO2 and Cr doped TiO2–SiO2 thin films are 15 nm and 10 nm, respectively. XPS spectra confirmed the presence of Cr3+ in the thin film. UV-vis absorption spectra indicated that absorption edge in Cr doped TiO2–SiO2 thin film shifted to the visible light region. The photocatalytic results pointed that Cr doping in TiO2–SiO2 improved decoloring rate of methyl orange in comparison to pure TiO2 thin film.

  10. PHOTOCATALYTIC DEGRADATION OF INDIGO CARMINE BY TiO2/ACTIVATED CARBON DERIVED FROM WASTE COFFEE GROUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Irwan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available TiO2/activated carbon derived from waste coffee grounds (TiO2/WCGAC has been prepared by a sol gel method . Waste coffee ground was chemically activated using hydrochloric acid 0.1 M solution and modified with titanium tetraisopropoxide as TiO2 precursor. The structural features of the photocatalyst was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM EDX,  Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. The XRD results showed that TiO2 is anatase and rutile phase, while FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of  Ti-O groups. The specifics surface area of TiO2/WCGAC was higher than that of activated carbon derived from waste coffee grounds. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2/WGCAC has been evaluated for degradation of indigo carmine solution under UV and solar light irradiation. It was found that degradation percentage of indigo carmine under solar light was higher than that of under UV light.

  11. Low-Temperature Synthesis of Anatase TiO2 Nanoparticles with Tunable Surface Charges for Enhancing Photocatalytic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Qin, Zhenping; Guo, Hongxia; Yang, Hanxiao; Zhang, Guojun; Ji, Shulan; Zeng, Tingying

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the positively or negatively charged anatase TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized via a low temperature precipitation-peptization process (LTPPP) in the presence of poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) and poly(sodium4- styrenesulfonate) (PSS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) confirmed the anatase crystalline phase. The charges of the prepared TiO2, PEI-TiO2 and PSS-TiO2 nanoparticles were investigated by zeta potentials. The results showed that the zeta potentials of PEI-TiO2 nanoparticles can be tuned from +39.47 mV to +95.46 mV, and that of PSS-TiO2 nanoparticles can be adjusted from −56.63 mV to −119.32 mV. In comparison with TiO2, PSS-TiO2 exhibited dramatic adsorption and degradation of dye molecules, while the PEI modified TiO2 nanoparticles showed lower photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic performances of these charged nanoparticles were elucidated by the results of UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and the photoluminescence (PL) spectra, which indicated that the PSS-TiO2 nanoparticles showed a lower recombination rate of electron-hole pairs than TiO2 and PEI-TiO2. PMID:25506839

  12. TiO2-Based Photocatalytic Geopolymers for Nitric Oxide Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Strini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an experimental overview for the development of photocatalytic materials based on geopolymer binders as catalyst support matrices. Particularly, geopolymer matrices obtained from different solid precursors (fly ash and metakaolin, composite systems (siloxane-hybrid, foamed hybrid, and curing temperatures (room temperature and 60 °C were investigated for the same photocatalyst content (i.e., 3% TiO2 by weight of paste. The geopolymer matrices were previously designed for different applications, ranging from insulating (foam to structural materials. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated as NO degradation in air, and the results were compared with an ordinary Portland cement reference. The studied matrices demonstrated highly variable photocatalytic performance depending on both matrix constituents and the curing temperature, with promising activity revealed by the geopolymers based on fly ash and metakaolin. Furthermore, microstructural features and titania dispersion in the matrices were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS analyses. Particularly, EDS analyses of sample sections indicated segregation effects of titania in the surface layer, with consequent enhancement or depletion of the catalyst concentration in the active sample region, suggesting non-negligible transport phenomena during the curing process. The described results demonstrated that geopolymer binders can be interesting catalyst support matrices for the development of photocatalytic materials and indicated a large potential for the exploitation of their peculiar features.

  13. TiO2-Based Photocatalytic Geopolymers for Nitric Oxide Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strini, Alberto; Roviello, Giuseppina; Ricciotti, Laura; Ferone, Claudio; Messina, Francesco; Schiavi, Luca; Corsaro, Davide; Cioffi, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    This study presents an experimental overview for the development of photocatalytic materials based on geopolymer binders as catalyst support matrices. Particularly, geopolymer matrices obtained from different solid precursors (fly ash and metakaolin), composite systems (siloxane-hybrid, foamed hybrid), and curing temperatures (room temperature and 60 °C) were investigated for the same photocatalyst content (i.e., 3% TiO2 by weight of paste). The geopolymer matrices were previously designed for different applications, ranging from insulating (foam) to structural materials. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated as NO degradation in air, and the results were compared with an ordinary Portland cement reference. The studied matrices demonstrated highly variable photocatalytic performance depending on both matrix constituents and the curing temperature, with promising activity revealed by the geopolymers based on fly ash and metakaolin. Furthermore, microstructural features and titania dispersion in the matrices were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) analyses. Particularly, EDS analyses of sample sections indicated segregation effects of titania in the surface layer, with consequent enhancement or depletion of the catalyst concentration in the active sample region, suggesting non-negligible transport phenomena during the curing process. The described results demonstrated that geopolymer binders can be interesting catalyst support matrices for the development of photocatalytic materials and indicated a large potential for the exploitation of their peculiar features. PMID:28773634

  14. Blue to Yellow Photoluminescence Emission and Photocatalytic Activity of Nitrogen Doping in TiO2 Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Byzynski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The defects caused by doping are important for understanding the increased photocatalytic activities of TiO2:N in organic reactions and in the evaluation of OH radical production after doping. TiO2:N was therefore synthesized using a modified polymeric method and N doping was performed by calcination with urea. The resulting powders were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, and photoluminescence emission spectroscopy (PL. N doping did not alter the morphology of the nanoparticles, and the anatase phase predominated, with the retention of the rutile phase. The band gap values, superficial areas, and crystallite sizes of the powders decreased after doping. The PL results showed an additional energy level in the TiO2:N band gap structure as a result of TiO2 lattice defects caused by doping. At low N contents, the powders showed continuous emissions from the blue region to the yellow region and a high N content shifted the PL emissions to the red region. These results suggest that the use of these powders could increase the efficiencies of solar cells and water-splitting processes. The photocatalytic activity of the powders under UVC illumination was confirmed for different organic dye molecules. The OH radical production did not change extensively after doping, as shown by experiments with terephthalic acid, and higher photocatalytic efficiencies in Rhodamine-B degradation under UVC illumination were achieved using the doped samples.

  15. An enhanced photocatalytic response of nanometric TiO2 wrapping of Au nanoparticles for eco-friendly water applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuderi, Viviana; Impellizzeri, Giuliana; Romano, Lucia; Scuderi, Mario; Brundo, Maria V; Bergum, Kristin; Zimbone, Massimo; Sanz, Ruy; Buccheri, Maria A; Simone, Francesca; Nicotra, Giuseppe; Svensson, Bengt G; Grimaldi, Maria G; Privitera, Vittorio

    2014-10-07

    We propose a ground-breaking approach by an upside-down vision of the Au/TiO2 nano-system in order to obtain an enhanced photocatalytic response. The system was synthesized by wrapping Au nanoparticles (∼8 nm mean diameter) with a thin layer of TiO2 (∼4 nm thick). The novel idea of embedding Au nanoparticles with titanium dioxide takes advantage of the presence of metal nanoparticles, in terms of electron trapping, without losing any of the TiO2 exposed surface, so as to favor the photocatalytic performance of titanium dioxide. A complete structural characterization was made by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The remarkable photocatalytic performance together with the stability of the nano-system was demonstrated by degradation of the methylene blue dye in water. The non-toxicity of the nano-system was established by testing the effect of the material on the reproductive cycle of Mytilus galloprovincialis in an aquatic environment. The originally synthesized material was also compared to conventional TiO2 with Au nanoparticles on top. The latter system showed a dispersion of Au nanoparticles in the liquid environment, due to their instability in the aqueous solution that clearly represents an environmental contamination issue. Thus, the results show that nanometric TiO2 wrapping of Au nanoparticles has great potential in eco-friendly water/wastewater purification.

  16. Modelling studies for photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes using TiO2nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narendra; Rana, Mohit Singh; Gupta, Raju Kumar

    2017-09-05

    In this work, modelling of the photocatalytic degradation of para-nitrophenol (PNP) using synthesized electrospun TiO 2 nanofibers under UV light illumination is reported. A dynamic model was developed in order to understand the behaviour of operating parameters, i.e. light intensity and catalyst loading on the photocatalytic activity. This model was simulated and analysed for both TiO 2 solid nanofibers and TiO 2 hollow nanofibers, applied as photocatalysts in the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic framework. The entire photocatalytic degradation rate follows pseudo-first-order kinetics. The simulated results obtained from the developed model are in good agreement with the experimental results. At a catalyst loading of 1.0 mg mL -1 , better respective degradation rates were achieved at UV light irradiance of 4 mW cm -2 , for both the TiO 2 solid and hollow nanofibers. However, it was also observed that TiO 2 hollow nanofibers have a higher adsorption rate than that of TiO 2 solid nanofibers resulting in a higher photocatalytic degradation rate of PNP.

  17. Enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4/TiO2 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonprakob, Natkritta; Wetchakun, Natda; Phanichphant, Sukon; Waxler, David; Sherrell, Peter; Nattestad, Andrew; Chen, Jun; Inceesungvorn, Burapat

    2014-03-01

    Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) using graphitic carbon nitride/titanium dioxide (g-C3N4/TiO2) catalyst films has been demonstrated in this present work. The g-C3N4/TiO2 composites were prepared by directly heating the mixture of melamine and pre-synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles in Ar gas flow. The g-C3N4 contents in the g-C3N4/TiO2 composites were varied as 0, 20, 50 and 70 wt%. It was found that the visible-light-induced photocatalytic degradation of MB was remarkably increased upon coupling TiO2 with g-C3N4 and the best degradation performance of ~70% was obtained from 50 wt% g-C3N4 loading content. Results from UV-vis absorption study, Electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggest that the improved photoactivity is due to a decrease in band gap energy, an increased light absorption in visible light region and possibly an enhanced electron-hole separation efficiency as a result of effective interfacial electron transfer between TiO2 and g-C3N4 of the g-C3N4/TiO2 composite film. Based on the obtained results, the possible MB degradation mechanism is ascribed mainly to the generation of active species induced by the photogenerated electrons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fabrication of TiO2/ZnS nanocomposites for solar energy mediated photocatalytic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasannalakshmi, P.; Shanmugam, N.

    2017-03-01

    In the present work, we demonstrate the photocatalytic properties of nanosized TiO2, and different levels of ZnS-loaded TiO2/ZnS composites, for the degradation of the organic dyes brilliant green (BG), and methylene blue (MB) under solar light irradiation. For this process, TiO2 and the composites were synthesized by a sol-gel method. Further, the prepared products were subjected to structural, optical, and morphological characterizations. The results of the photocatalytic activity imply that for the samples studied, TiO2 loaded with an optimum level of zinc (0.25 M), and sulfur (0.5 M) is better able to actively degrade both BG and MB, due to its enhanced BET surface area, reduced band gap, and low charge transfer resistance.

  19. TiO2 and ZnO Nanoparticles in Photocatalytic and Hygienic Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Jašková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial paints were based on the aqueous acrylic dispersion and various nanoparticles of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide. Antimicrobial ability and photoactivity were assumed in these paints. It was possible to observe the photoactivity thanks to change of organic dyes due to oxidative-reductive reaction. The best photocatalytic effect showed the coating containing the mixture of the first type of TiO2 and nano-ZnO despite the fact that the first type of TiO2 was not better in the photocatalytic test than the other types of TiO2. The agar dilution method was used to test antimicrobial ability. The Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus were chosen as test bacteria and Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus niger as test molds. The antimicrobial effect of coatings with the mixture of the first type of TiO2 and nano-ZnO was the best of all the tested samples.

  20. Full factorial experimental design applied to oxalic acid photocatalytic degradation in TiO2 aqueous suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Barka

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Full factorial experimental design technique was used to study the main effects and the interaction effects between operational parameters in the photocatalytic degradation of oxalic acid in a batch photo-reactor using TiO2 aqueous suspension. The important parameters which affect the removal efficiency of oxalic acid such as agitation, initial concentration, volume of the solution and TiO2 dosage were investigated. The parameters were coded as X1, X2, X3 and X4, consecutively, and were investigated at two levels (−1 and +1. The effects of individual variables and their interaction effects for dependent variables, namely, photocatalytic degradation efficiency (% were determined. From the statistical analysis, the most effective parameters in the photocatalytic degradation efficiency were initial concentration and volume of solution. The interaction between initial concentration, volume of solution and TiO2 dosage was the most influencing interaction. However, the interaction between agitation, initial concentration and volume of solution was the least influencing parameter.

  1. Photocatalytic ozonation of aniline with TiO2-carbon composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orge, C A; Faria, J L; Pereira, M F R

    2017-06-15

    The photocatalytic ozonation of aniline (ANL) aqueous solutions was carried out in the presence of neat titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and a composite of TiO 2 and MWCNT. Independent tests for catalytic ozonation and photocatalysis were also carried out in order to explore the potential occurrence of a synergetic effect. Photocatalytic and catalytic ozonation carried out with an ozone dose of 50 g m -3 converted ANL in 15 min. Photocatalysis using P25, commercial TiO 2 , and an 80:20 (w/w) composite of P25 and MWCNT also led to total ANL conversion, but at longer reaction times. Removal of TOC was higher than 70% for all photocatalytic ozonation systems at 1 h of reaction. With the exception of neat MWCNT, photocatalytic ozonation in the presence of the selected samples led to nearly complete mineralization after 3 h of reaction. Photocatalytic ozonation completely removed oxalic acid (OXA) formed during ANL degradation. The concentration of oxamic acid (OMA, other ANL degradation by-product more refractory than OXA) generally increased with time, and in the photocatalytic ozonation with P25 based materials its concentration decreased earlier. The presence of nitrates and ammonium was confirmed during ANL degradation by all tested treatments, with the exception of the cation in TiO 2 catalysed reactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Photocatalytic oxidation of NOx over TiO2/HZSM-5 catalysts in the presence of water vapor: Effect of hydrophobicity of zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Gaofei; Hu, Yun; Jiang, Shumei; Wei, Chaohai

    2012-07-15

    TiO(2) hybridized with HZSM-5 zeolites photocatalysts were prepared by a simple solid state dispersion method. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflectance and FT-IR spectroscopy. The photocatalytic oxidation of NO(x) over TiO(2)/HZSM-5 having different Si/Al ratios was carried out under various levels of humidity and different pre-adsorption times in dark. The TiO(2)/HZSM-5 composite catalysts exhibited higher NO conversion and lower NO(2) formation than pure TiO(2). Pre-adsorption with water vapor and the high humidity during the photoreaction were harmful to the reactivity of TiO(2) hybridized with hydrophilic HZSM-5 zeolite. However, the photocatalytic reactivity of TiO(2) hybridized with hydrophobic zeolite varied little with increase in humidity. The results indicated that the high photocatalytic reactivity of TiO(2)/HZSM-5 catalysts is largely depended on the hydrophobicity of the zeolites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Reduced graphene oxide is not a universal promoter for photocatalytic activities of TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ling Tan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Addition of reduced graphene oxide (RGO to P25 TiO2 was made and its impacts on photocatalytic oxidation of various organic substances were studied. Although the presence of RGO in TiO2 can enhance certain TiO2-based photocatalytic reactions, it is not a universal observation that can be expected in all types of organic substances. The factor of photocatalytic activity enhancement is strongly affected by the various functional groups appeared in the organic substances. In this work, it is realised that the length of alkyl chain in alcohols and carboxylic acids have the minimum influence on the overall activity while the number of hydroxyl groups can promote the further activity enhancement in the presence of RGO.

  4. Solvothermal synthesis of hierarchical TiO2 nanostructures with tunable morphology and enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhenghua; Meng, Fanming; Zhang, Miao; Wu, Zhenyu; Sun, Zhaoqi; Li, Aixia

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents controllable growth and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 hierarchical nanostructures by solvothermal method at different temperatures. It is revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) that the morphology of TiO2 can be effectively controlled as rose-like, chrysanthemum-like and sea-urchin-like only changing solvothermal temperature. BET surface area analysis confirms the presence of a mesoporous network in all the nanostructures, and shows high surface area at relatively high temperature. The photocatalytic activities of the photocatalysts are evaluated by the photodegradation of RhB under UV light irradiation. The TiO2 samples exhibit high activity on the photodegradation of RhB, which is higher than that of the commercial P25. The enhancement in photocatalytic performance can be attributed to the synergetic effect of the surface area, crystallinity, band gap and crystalline size.

  5. Hydrothermal synthesis of fluorinated anatase TiO2/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites and their photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lijun; Yang, Ye; Zhang, Ali; Wang, Min; Liu, Yongjun; Bian, Longchun; Jiang, Fengzhi; Pan, Xuejun

    2015-10-01

    The surface fluorinated TiO2/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites (denoted as F-TiO2-RGO) were synthesized via hydrothermal method. The as-prepared materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The results showed that pure anatase TiO2 particles were anchored on the surface of reduced graphene oxide. And the HF added during the preparation process can not only prevent phase transformation from anatase to rutile, but also the F- ion adsorbed on the surface of TiO2-RGO surface can enhance photocatalytic activity of F-TiO2-RGO. The photocatalytic activities of F-TiO2-RGO nanocomposites were evaluated by decomposing bisphenol A under UV light illumination. Under optimal degradation condition, the degradation rate constant of BPA over F-TiO2-10RGO (0.01501 min-1) was 3.41 times than that over P25 (0.00440 min-1). The result indicated that the enhanced photocatalytic activity of F-TiO2-10RGO was ascribed to the adsorbed F ion and RGO in F-TiO2-RGO composite, which can reduce the recombination rate of the photo-generated electrons and holes synergistically.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Fe-N-S-tri-Doped TiO2 Photocatalyst and Its Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biying Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe-N-S-tri-doped TiO2 photocatalysts were synthesized by one step in the presence of ammonium ferrous sulfate. The resulting materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectrum (UV-Vis DRS. XPS analysis indicated that Fe (III and S6+ were incorporated into the lattice of TiO2 through substituting titanium atoms, and N might coexist in the forms of substitutional N (O-Ti-N and interstitial N (Ti-O-N in tridoped TiO2. XRD results showed that tri-doping with Fe, N, and S elements could effectively retard the phase transformation of TiO2 from anatase to rutile and growth of crystallite size. DRS results revealed that the light absorbance edge of TiO2 in visible region was greatly improved by tri-doping with Fe, N, and S elements. Further, the photocatalytic activity of the as-synthesized samples was evaluated by the degradation of phenol under visible light irradiation. It was found that Fe-N-S-tri-doped TiO2 catalyst exhibited higher visible light photocatalytic activity than that of pure TiO2 and P25 TiO2, which was mainly attributed to the small crystallite size, intense light absorbance in visible region, and narrow bandgap energy.

  7. Influence of N2 annealing on TiO2 tubes structure and its photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoxiang; Pan, Zhanchang; Yu, Ke; Xiao, Jun; Wu, Shoukun; Li, Jinghong; Chen, Chun; Lin, Yingsheng; Hu, Guanghui; Xu, Yanbin

    2018-02-01

    In this work, the TiO2 tubes (TBs) were prepared by solvothermal method. The morphology and phase structure of TiO2 TBs is significantly affected by N2 annealing temperature. XRD was used to characterize the phase structure of the as-prepared samples. The morphology and surface areas were characterized by SEM and N2 adsorption-desorption, which show that the tubes were assembled with about 100-nm nanosheets and small ball particles under 400 and 600 °C N2 annealing; when temperature reached 800 °C, the surface of tubes appeared a lot of collapse and many large holes. In addition, the surface areas of 400 °C TiO2, 600 °C TiO2, and 800 °C TiO2 TBs were significantly affected by N2 annealing. Most importantly, the UV-vis and electrochemical tests demonstrate 600 °C TiO2 TBs exhibit higher absorption intensity and photocurrent; thus, it possess on better photocatalytic activity. Therefore, the photocatalytic performance for TiO2 TBs is significantly co-affected by surface area and mix-phase. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Preparation of Fe-Doped TiO2 Nanotubes and Their Photocatalytic Activities under Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghui Teng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe-doped TiO2 nanotubes (Fe-TNTs have been prepared by ultrasonic-assisted hydrothermal method. The structure and composition of the as-prepared TiO2 nanotubes were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. Their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by the degradation of MO under visible light. The UV-visible absorption spectra of the Fe-TNT showed a red shift and an enhancement of the absorption in the visible region compared to the pure TNT. The Fe-TNTs were provided with good photocatalytic activities and photostability and under visible light irradiation, and the optimum molar ratio of Ti : Fe was found to be 100 : 1 in our experiments.

  9. Photocatalytic methane decomposition over vertically aligned transparent TiO2 nanotube arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In, Su-il; Nielsen, Morten Godtfred; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard

    2011-01-01

    Vertically aligned transparent TiO2 nanotube arrays grown by the one-step anodic oxidation technique (on non-conductive supports such as Pyrex) and their photocatalytic performance for methane decomposition in a single-pass micro-fabricated reactor under UV light.......Vertically aligned transparent TiO2 nanotube arrays grown by the one-step anodic oxidation technique (on non-conductive supports such as Pyrex) and their photocatalytic performance for methane decomposition in a single-pass micro-fabricated reactor under UV light....

  10. Synthesis of mesoporous TiO2-curcumin nanoparticles for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Gamra, Z M; Ahmed, M A

    2016-07-01

    Herein, we demonstrate a facile route for synthesis a new photocatalyst based on TiO2-curcumin nanoparticles for photodegradation of methylene blue dye under UV and visible light irradiation. The photocatalyst was prepared by sol-gel method using chitosan as biodegradable polymer. The crystalline and the nanostructure were characteristic X-ray diffraction [XRD], adsorption-desorption isotherm and high resolution transmission electron microscopy [HRTEM]. However, the optical features of the samples were investigated by a UV-visible spectrophotometer. It is obvious to notice the removal of the majority of methylene blue dye on a pure titania surface via adsorption mechanism owing to the high surface area and to the organized mesoporous nature of the solid sample. Incorporation of curcumin on titania surface changes the removal direction from adsorption to the photocatalytic pathway. Various photocatalytic experiments were performed to investigate the influence of initial dye concentration, weight of catalyst, stirring and light intensity on the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue as primary pollutant model. Chemical oxygen demand [COD] test confirms the complete degradation of methylene blue dye. The exceptional photocatalytic reactivity of titania-curcumin nanoparticles is referred to reduction in band gap energy and to the facility of electron transfer from II* curcumin energy level to titania conduction band which increases the concentration of reactive oxygen superoxide radicals which in turn prevents the electron-hole recombination. The effect of various scavengers on the methylene blue dye degradation was investigated using ethanol, ascorbic acid and methyl viologen. The results have pointed out that O2(-) and HO(.) are considered the main active species in the degradation process. A plausible pathway and mechanism for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by titania-curcumin nanoparticles were illustrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  11. Photocatalytic fabrics based on reduced graphene oxide and TiO2 coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, J.; Fernandes, F.; Fernández, J.; Pastor, M.; Correia, A.; Souto, A.P.; Carneiro, J.O.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Photocatalytic fabrics were produced with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and TiO 2 . • Charge transfer resistance decreased with the increasing number of RGO layers. • Scanning electrochemical microscopy showed the photoresponse obtained. • Photocatalytic properties were tested with Rhodamine B solutions. • Photocatalytic efficiency increased with the number of RGO layers. - Abstract: The purpose of this work is to obtain photocatalytic fabrics based on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and TiO 2 coatings on polyester fabrics. The influence of the applied number of RGO coatings on properties such as light absorption, conductivity, electroactivity and photocatalytic properties of the fabrics was established. An improvement of these properties with the number of RGO coatings applied was obtained. FESEM, EDX, XPS and FTIR-ATR showed the incorporation of the TiO 2 nanoparticles on the fabrics. FTIR-ATR showed the formation of a bidentate carboxylic ligand with titanium atoms. The photocatalytic properties of the fabrics were tested with Rhodamine B dye solutions. Photocatalytic efficiency increased with the number of RGO coatings, due to the increased light absorption, and better electrical properties. The charge transfer resistance (R ct ) and its time constant (τ) decreased, indicating a better electron transfer which helps to increase the lifetime of the pair electron/hole

  12. Photocatalytic degradation of an azo-dye on TiO2/activated carbon composite material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriantsiferana, C; Mohamed, E F; Delmas, H

    2014-01-01

    A sequential adsorption/photocatalytic regeneration process to remove tartrazine, an azo-dye in aqueous solution, has been investigated. The aim ofthis work was to compare the effectiveness of an adsorbent/photocatalyst composite-TiO2 deposited onto activated carbon (AC) - and a simple mixture of powders of TiO2 and AC in same proportion. The composite was an innovative material as the photocatalyst, TiO2, was deposited on the porous surface ofa microporous-AC using metal-organic chemical vapour deposition in fluidized bed. The sequential process was composed of two-batch step cycles: every cycle alternated a step of adsorption and a step of photocatalytic oxidation under ultra-violet (365 nm), at 25 degreeC and atmospheric pressure. Both steps, adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation, have been investigated during four cycles. For both materials, the cumulated amounts adsorbed during four cycles corresponded to nearly twice the maximum adsorption capacities qmax proving the photocatalytic oxidation to regenerate the adsorbent. Concerning photocatalytic oxidation, the degree of mineralization was higher with the TiO2/AC composite: for each cycle, the value of the total organic carbon removal was 25% higher than that obtained with the mixture powder. These better photocatalytic performances involved better regeneration than higher adsorbed amounts for cycles 2, 3 and 4. Better performances with this promising material - TiO2 deposited onto AC - compared with TiO2 powder could be explained by the vicinity of photocatalytic and AC adsorption sites.

  13. Preparation and photocatalytic performance of fibrous Tb3+-doped TiO2 using collagen fiber as template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ting; Wan, Xiang-Jun; Jiang, Shang-Xuan; Zhang, Li-Yuan; Hong, Zheng-Qu; Liu, Jiao

    2018-04-01

    Fibrous Tb3+-doped TiO2 were prepared using collagen fiber as template. Morphology, crystalline structure, surface area, element content, chemical composition and elemental chemical status, microstructure and element distribution of the prepared samples were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, specific surface area analysis, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope and element mapping, respectively. The photocatalytic activities were evaluated by following degradation of methyl orange. The results showed that the fiber structure of collagen template was fully preserved when the calcination temperature was 500-800 °C. However, with the increase of calcination temperature, crystallinity and average particle size were increased, and the photocatalytic performance was decreased. For 2% Tb3+-TiO2 calcined at 500 °C, the degradation rate of methyl orange reached 93.87% after 6 h when a high-pressure mercury lamp (150 W) was used as the light source for photocatalytic degradation. Titanium tanning agent performance was excellent, the yield of TiO2 was high, and the fiber structure was presented when 0.2 mol/L citric acid/sodium citrate buffer solution was used.

  14. Enhanced photocatalytic production of molecular hydrogen on TiO(2) modified with Pt-polypyrrole nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandiel, Tarek A; Dillert, Ralf; Bahnemann, Detlef W

    2009-05-01

    Titanium dioxide was modified with Pt-polypyrrole nanocomposites through the in situ simultaneous reduction of Pt(iv) and the oxidative polymerization of pyrrole monomers at ambient temperature. The modified powders were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (DF-STEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and by the determination of the BET surface area by nitrogen adsorption. Photocatalytic hydrogen production tests were performed employing 75 ml aqueous solution containing 2250 mumol methanol as the sacrificial electron donor. The obtained results show that 0.5 and 1.0 wt% Pt and polypyrrole, respectively, are the optimum ratios for high photocatalytic H(2) production rates. The amount of H(2) evolved during 5 h of UV-vis illumination of the suspension of Pt-polypyrrole modified TiO(2) powder is three times higher than that obtained with Pt-loaded TiO(2) prepared by a photochemical deposition method. The photonic efficiencies of the H(2) production employing 75 ml aqueous solution containing 370 mmol methanol were calculated to be 10.6 +/- 0.5 and 4.5 +/- 0.2% for TiO(2) modified with Pt-polypyrrole nanocomposites and for Pt-loaded TiO(2) prepared by a photochemical deposition method, respectively. A synergistic effect between Pt nanoparticles and polypyrrole leading to a better separation of the charge carriers is proposed to explain the enhanced reactivity of the newly synthesized photocatalyst.

  15. Photocatalytic Degradation of Aniline Using TiO2 Nanoparticles in a Vertical Circulating Photocatalytic Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Shahrezaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic degradation of aniline in the presence of titanium dioxide (TiO2 and ultraviolet (UV illumination was performed in a vertical circulating photocatalytic reactor. The effects of catalyst concentration (0–80 mg/L, initial pH (2–12, temperature (293–323 K, and irradiation time (0–120 min on aniline photodegradation were investigated in order to obtain the optimum operational conditions. The results reveal that the aniline degradation efficiency can be effectively improved by increasing pH from 2 to 12 and temperature from 313 to 323 K. Besides, the effect of temperature on aniline photo degradation was found to be unremarkable in the range of 293–313 K. The optimum catalyst concentration was about 60 mg/L. The Langmuir Hinshelwood kinetic model could successfully elucidate the effects of the catalyst concentration, pH, and temperature on the rate of heterogeneous photooxidation of aniline. The data obtained by applying the Langmuir Hinshelwood treatment are consistent with the available kinetic parameters. The activated energy for the photocatalytic degradation of aniline is 20.337 kj/mol. The possibility of the reactor use in the treatment of a real petroleum refinery wastewater was also investigated. The results of the experiments indicated that it can therefore be potentially applied for the treatment of wastewater contaminated by different organic pollutants.

  16. Continuous-Flow Photocatalytic Degradation of Organics Using Modified TiO2 Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Ali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs were fabricated on a Ti sheet following the anodic oxidation method and were decorated with reduced graphene oxide (RGO, graphene oxide (GO, and bismuth (Bi via electrodeposition. The surface morphologies, crystal structures, and compositions of the catalyst were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, photoluminance spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The TNTs loaded with RGO, GO, and Bi were used in a continuous-flow system as photocatalysts for the degradation of methylene blue (MB dye. It was found that the TNTs are efficient photocatalysts for the removal of color from water; upon UV irradiation on TNTs, the MB removal ratio was ~89%. Moreover, the photocatalytic activities of the decorated TNTs were higher than that of pristine TNTs in visible light. In comparison with TNTs, the rate of MB removal in visible light was increased by a factor of 3.4, 3.2, and 2.9 using RGO-TNTs, Bi-TNTs, and GO-TNTs, respectively. The reusability of the catalysts were investigated, and their quantum efficiencies were also calculated. The cylindrical anodized TNTs were excellent photocatalysts for the degradation of organic pollutants. Thus, it was concluded that the continuous-flow photocatalytic reactor comprising TNTs and modified TNTs is suitable for treating wastewater in textile industries.

  17. Visible-light photocatalytic activity of nitrided TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camps, Enrique; Escobar-Alarcon, L.; Camacho-Lopez, Marco Antonio; Casados, Dora A. Solis

    2010-01-01

    TiO 2 thin films have been applied in UV-light photocatalysis. Nevertheless visible-light photocatalytic activity would make this material more attractive for applications. In this work we present results on the modification of titanium oxide (anatase) sol-gel thin films, via a nitriding process using a microwave plasma source. After the treatment in the nitrogen plasma, the nitrogen content in the TiO 2 films varied in the range from 14 up to 28 at%. The titanium oxide films and the nitrided ones were characterized by XPS, micro-Raman spectroscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy. Photocatalytic activity tests were done using a Methylene Blue dye solution, and as catalyst TiO 2 and nitrided TiO 2 films. The irradiation of films was carried out with a lamp with emission in the visible (without UV). The results showed that the nitrided TiO 2 films had photocatalytic activity, while the unnitrided films did not.

  18. Enhanced photocatalytic activities of low-bandgap TiO2-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Dong, Xinju; Cao, Yan; Xiang, Junjie; Gao, Hongyan

    2017-06-01

    In this study, a hydrothermal method was successfully used to prepare a reduced graphene oxide (RG)-titanium dioxide (TiO2) hybrid in 10-20 nm, starting from commercial TiO2 P25 nanoparticles and liquid-exfoliated graphene oxide (GO). Compared to TiO2, an obvious red shift of light absorption (from 3.1 to 2.6 eV) of the as-prepared RG-TiO2 was observed by UV-Vis analysis, and an enhanced photocatalytic degradation of the Rhodamine B (Rh. B) was also observed under Xe lamp exposure test by using the as-prepared RG-TiO2. Multiple characterizations of this RG-TiO2 nanocomposite confirmed that its photocatalytic enhancement could be ascribed to two approaches. Firstly, RG extended the mean free path and photogenerated electrons' lifetime of TiO2, which minimized electron-hole pairs' recombination. Secondly, RG expanded the light absorption spectrum of TiO2 from UV range to UV and visible light range. The explication of these improvements was concluded as the energy gap changing and a likelihood of up-conversion photoluminescence mechanism (UCPL). Due to the low-cost, nonpoisonous and excellent photocatalytic properties of RG-TiO2, this material can be applied well in sewage treatment and other related fields.

  19. Photocatalytic decolorization of basic dye by TiO2 nanoparticle in photoreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutaporn Chanathaworn1

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic decolorization of rhodamine B (RB and malachite green (MG basic dyes in aqueous solution wasevaluated using TiO2 powder as a semiconductor photocatalyst under UV black light irradiation. A 0.5 L batch photoreactorcontaining dyeing solution was installed in a stainless steel chamber with air cooling under irradiation. The TiO2 powder wascharacterized by XRD observation and it was shown that the nanoparticles could be identified as 73 nm anatase crystals. Theeffects of operational parameters such as light intensity (0-114 W/m2, initial dye concentration (10-30 mg/L, and TiO2 powderloading (0.5-1.5 g/L on the decolorization of dye samples were examined. The photocatalytic decolorization rate depended onthe pollutant’s structure, such that the MG dye could be removed faster than the RB dye. Decolorization efficiency (% of thephotocatalytic system increased with increasing TiO2 loading and light intensity; however, it decreased with increasing initialdye concentration. A loading of 1.5 g TiO2/L, initial dye concentration of 20 mg/L, and light intensity of 114 W/m2 were foundto yield the highest removal efficiency of dye solution based on time requirement. The kinetics are of first order and dependon the TiO2 powder loading and dye structure. The research had a perfect application foreground.

  20. Growth of g-C3N4 Layer on Commercial TiO2 for Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel visible light photocatalytic graphitic carbon nitride/TiO2 (g-C3N4/TiO2 composite samples were synthesized by heating mixtures of melamine and commercial TiO2(TO at different weight ratios. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and UV-visible diffused reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS. Characterization confirms formation of nanocomposites of g-C3N4/TiO2. At the optimized precursor weight ratio (melamine:mTiO2=2.5, the samples exhibited highest adsorption capacity and visible light photocatalytic activity, measured by degradation of methylene blue (MB. Under visible light irradiation, the excited electrons on the surface of g-C3N4 transfer easily to the conduction band (CB of TiO2 via the well-built heterojunction. The g-C3N4/TiO2 nanocomposites exhibit enhanced visible light catalytic activity due to increased visible light adsorption and effective separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. These g-C3N4/TiO2 nanocomposites could find broad applicability in environmental protection due to their excellent visible light photocatalytic property and facile, cost-effective preparation process.

  1. Synthesis, structure and photocatalytic activity of nano TiO2 and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/pram/065/04/0641-0645. Keywords. Titania; nanomaterial; photocatalysis; three-way catalysis. Abstract. We have synthesized 5-7 nm size, highly crystalline TiO2 which absorbs radiation in the visible region of solar spectrum. The material shows higher photocatalytic activity ...

  2. Photocatalytic degradation of crystal violet by thiourea-doped TiO2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, optimisation of the photocatalytic behaviour of crystal violet (CV) by thiourea (Tu)-codoped TiO2 thin film in fixed bed photoreactor was investigated by central composite designs (CCDs). The effective variables were pH, the concentration of CV dye, flow rate and reaction time. The results of the CCD model ...

  3. Photocatalytic performance of melt-electrospun polypropylene fabric decorated with TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahaliloglu, Zeynep; Hacker, Christoph; Demirbilek, Murat; Seide, Gunnar; Denkbas, Emir Baki; Gries, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Recently, nanomaterials, especially titanium-based nanomaterials, have a great potential for decolorization of textile dye effluents. In this article, the nanofibrillar filters functionalized with titanium nanoparticle (nTi) were designed to improve dyeing wastewater decolorization. Pristine polypropylene (PP) and nTi-PP nanocomposite nonwovens were produced as a photocatalyzer by melt-electrospinning process. The average diameter of pristine PP- and nTi-PP nanocomposite melt-electrospun fibers was found average as 700 ± 0.3 and 800 ± 0.4 nm, respectively. Before functionalization with nTi, the surface of fabrics was activated by a technique using glutaraldehyde (GA) and polyethyleneimine to improve decomposition activity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results revealed that titanium nanoparticles were deposited uniformly on the nanofibers. X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) results confirmed the presence of titanium nanoparticles and generation of amine groups after modification. Photocatalytic performance of nTi-loaded pristine and nanocomposite melt-electrospun filters was investigated by using methyl orange (MO) as a model compound. The decolorization experiments were carried out by varying initial dye concentration (10, 20, 40 mg/L), pH (2, 5, and 9), and loaded TiO2 amount (1 and 2 %). According to photocatalytic decolarization test results, nTi-loaded GA-treated pristine or nTi-PP nanocomposite fabric filter has better properties compared to GA-untreated group from point of photocatalytic efficiency, especially over 90 % decolorization efficiency at GA-treated pristine and nTi-PP composite PP fabrics. The complete decolarization of MO was observed at pH value of 5, photocatalyst concentration of 20 mg/L, and 1 % nTi-loading after 3 h. The results show that surface activated PP nonwovens, which is introduced Ti nanoparticles into and onto the structure, a good photocatalytic activity.

  4. Effect of food processing organic matter on photocatalytic bactericidal activity of titanium dioxide (TiO2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemmireddy, Veerachandra K; Hung, Yen-Con

    2015-07-02

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of food processing organic matter on photocatalytic bactericidal activity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs). Produce and meat processing wash solutions were prepared using romaine lettuce and ground beef samples. Physico-chemical properties such as pH, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phenolics (for produce) and protein (for meat) content of the extracts were determined using standard procedures. The photocatalytic bactericidal activity of TiO2 (1 mg/mL) in suspension with or without organic matter against Escherichia coli O157:H7 (5-strain) was determined over a period of 3h. Increasing the concentration of organic matter (either produce or meat) from 0% to 100% resulted in 85% decrease in TiO2 microbicidal efficacy. 'Turbidity, total phenolics, and protein contents in wash solutions had significant effect on the log reduction. Increasing the total phenolics content in produce washes from 20 to 114 mg/L decreased the log reduction from 2.7 to 0.38 CFU/mL, whereas increasing the protein content in meat washes from 0.12 to 1.61 mg/L decreased the log reduction from and 5.74 to 0.87 CFU/mL. Also, a linear correlation was observed between COD and total phenolics as well as COD and protein contents. While classical disinfection kinetic models failed to predict, an empirical equation in the form of "Y=me(nX)" (where Y is log reduction, X is COD, and m and n are reaction rate constants) predicted the disinfection kinetics of TiO2 in the presence of organic matter (R(2)=94.4). This study successfully identified an empirical model with COD as a predictor variable to predict the bactericidal efficacy of TiO2 when used in food processing environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A study on structure, morphology, optical properties, and photocatalytic ability of SrTiO3/TiO2 granular composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi Mai Oanh, Le; Xuan Huy, Nguyen; Thi Thuy Phuong, Doan; Danh Bich, Do; Van Minh, Nguyen

    2018-03-01

    (1-x)SrTiO3-xTiO2 granular composites with x=0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, and 0.8 were synthesized by sol-gel process. Structure, morphology, optical properties, and photocatalytic activity were investigated in detail using x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Raman scattering, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra, and photoluminescence (PL). XRD analysis showed the formation of single phase for parent phases and the present of two component phases in all composites without any impurity. A tight cohesion between TiO2 and SrTiO3 (STO) at grain boundary region was inferred from lattice parameter change of STO. Moreover, FE-SEM images revealed a granular structure of composite in which SrTiO3 particles were surrounded by smaller TiO2 nanoparticles. As TiO2 concentration increased, absorption edge firstly shifted to the left for composite with x=0.3 and then shifted gradually to the right with further increasing of TiO2 content from 30 mol% to 80 mol%. Composites exhibited a stronger photocatalytic activity than parent phases, with the highest efficiency at 50 mol% of TiO2. PL analysis result showed that the recombination rate of photogenerated electron-hole pairs decreased in composite sample, which partly explained the enhanced photocatalytic property.

  6. The electronic properties and enhanced photocatalytic mechanism of TiO2 hybridized with MoS2 sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fengjuan; Jia, Jun; Dai, Dongmei; Gao, Hongtao

    2018-03-01

    In this work, first-principles calculation based on density functional theory (DFT) was used to explore the enhanced photocatalytic mechanism of TiO2 by combined with both pristine and defective monolayer MoS2. It was demonstrated that the combination of TiO2 with MoS2 was favorable thermodynamically. The charge densities between the interface of TiO2 and MoS2 were investigated to clarify the improved property of TiO2. Electrons migrated from TiO2 to MoS2 across the interface under irradiation, which caused the electrons accumulating on the MoS2 side and electrons depleting on the other TiO2 side. There appeared a built-in electric field in the interface between TiO2 and monolayer MoS2. And due to its presence, electrons and holes recombination was effectively suppressed, contributing to the enhanced photocatalytic performance of TiO2/MoS2. The electrons dispersed from highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) to lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), promoting the separation of the electrons and holes. The efficient separation of photoexcited electrons and holes prolonged the lifetime of photoexcited carriers, which effectively improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. The theoretical study could provide credible evidence to understand the mechanism of enhanced photocatalytic activity of TiO2/MoS2.

  7. Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped TiO2 nanosheets with exposed {001} facets: synthesis, characterization and visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Quanjun; Yu, Jiaguo; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2011-03-21

    Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped TiO(2) nanosheets with exposed {001} facets (N-S-TiO(2)) were prepared by a simple mixing-calcination method using the hydrothermally prepared TiO(2) nanosheets powder as a precursor and thiourea as a dopant. The resulting samples were characterized by transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, N(2) adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The electronic properties of N,S co-doped TiO(2) were studied using the first-principle density functional theory (DFT). The photocatalytic activity of N-S-TiO(2) was evaluated by degradation of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. The production of hydroxyl radicals (˙OH) on the surface of visible-light-irradiated samples was detected by photoluminescence technique using terephthalic acid as a probe molecule. The results show that nitrogen and sulfur atoms were successfully incorporated into the lattice of TiO(2), which resulted in N-S-TiO(2) samples exhibiting stronger absorption in the UV-visible range with a red shift in the band gap transition. The first-principle DFT calculations further confirm that N and S co-dopants can induce the formation of new energy levels in the band gap, which is associated with the response of N-S-TiO(2) nanosheets to visible light irradiation. Surprisingly, pure TiO(2) nanosheets show the visible-light photocatalytic activity for the degradation of 4-CP mainly due to the substrate-surface complexation of TiO(2) and 4-CP, which results in extending absorption of titania to visible light region through ligand-to-titanium charge transfer. The N-S-TiO(2) samples studied exhibited an enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity than pure TiO(2). Especially, the doped TiO(2) sample at the nominal weight ratio of thiourea to TiO(2) powder of 2 showed the highest photocatalytic activity, which was about twice greater than that of Degussa P25. The enhanced activity of

  8. Photocatalytic degradation of diuron in aqueous solution by platinized TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumata, Hideyuki; Sada, Maki; Nakaoka, Yusuke; Kaneco, Satoshi; Suzuki, Tohru; Ohta, Kiyohisa

    2009-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of diuron, which is one of phenylurea herbicides, was carried out in the presence of platinized TiO 2 photocatalyst. Platinization was found to increase the rate of diuron degradation. When 0.2 wt.% of platinum was deposited onto the surface of TiO 2 , an initial diuron concentration of 10 mg L -1 was completely degraded after 20 min. Furthermore, the first-order rate constant for diuron degradation by Pt-TiO 2 was ca. 4 times higher than P-25 TiO 2 . In addition, the photocatalytic activity of Pt-TiO 2 was appeared under visible light. The decrease of TOC as a result of mineralization of diuron was observed during the photocatalytic process. The degree of diuron mineralization was about 97% under UV irradiation after 8 h. The formations of chloride, nitrate and ammonium ions as end-products were observed during the photocatalytic system. The decomposition of diuron gave four kinds of intermediate products. The degradation mechanism of diuron was proposed on the base of the evidence of the identified intermediates. Based on these results, the photocatalytic reaction by Pt-TiO 2 could be useful technology for the treatment of wastewater containing diuron.

  9. Wet-Chemical Preparation of TiO2-Based Composites with Different Morphologies and Photocatalytic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Xiang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available TiO2-based composites have been paid significant attention in the photocatalysis field. The size, crystallinity and nanomorphology of TiO2 materials have an important effect on the photocatalytic efficiency. The synthesis and photocatalytic activity of TiO2-based materials have been widely investigated in past decades. Based on our group’s research works on TiO2 materials, this review introduces several methods for the fabrication of TiO2, rare-earth-doped TiO2 and noble-metal-decorated TiO2 particles with different morphologies. We focused on the preparation and the formation mechanism of TiO2-based materials with unique structures including spheres, hollow spheres, porous spheres, hollow porous spheres and urchin-like spheres. The photocatalytical activity of urchin-like TiO2, noble metal nanoparticle-decorated 3D (three-dimensional urchin-like TiO2 and bimetallic core/shell nanoparticle-decorated urchin-like hierarchical TiO2 are briefly discussed.

  10. Natural fiber templated TiO2 microtubes via a double soaking sol-gel route and their photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Li, Xu; Wang, Ziru; Shen, Yun; Liu, Ming

    2017-10-01

    TiO2 microtubes with a yam-like surface were prepared for the first time through a simple and efficient double soaking sol-gel route by utilizing Platanus acerifolia seed fibers as bio-templates. The physicochemical properties of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface analysis and Ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis). The results showed that the obtained TiO2 microtubes had an anatase phase and were composed of a smooth internal wall and a rough yam-like external wall with an average diameter of 24 μm and the wall thickness of 2 μm. The surface area and pore volume of the as-prepared TiO2 microtubes reached 128.271 m2/g and 0.149 cm3/g, respectively. The UV-vis analysis displayed a favorable extension of light absorption capacity of TiO2 microtubes. The synthetic mechanism was preliminarily discussed as well. The moisture in the natural fiber templates facilitated the mild hydrolysis of titanium sol, leaving a prime layer on the surface of the fibers, and subsequently assisted in the successful preparation of TiO2 microtubes with a yam-like surface without requiring specific control of hydrolysis. Photocatalytic experiments indicated that the as-obtained TiO2 microtubes exhibited a higher efficiency than commercial P25 in the degradation of tetracycline hydrochloride.

  11. Photocatalytic degradation of reactive black-5 dye using TiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ‡R&D Centre, Reliance Industries Limited, Vadodara Manufacturing Division, Vadodara 391 346, India. MS received 27 September 2010; revised ... Titanium atoms incorporated into the zeolite framework and particle attached on the ... The X-ray powder diffraction patterns of TiO2: ZSM-5 and. TiO2 as shown in figure 2, was ...

  12. Visible light active photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol-A using nitrogen doped TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, N; Vinu, A; Anandan, S; Arabindoo, Banumathi; Murugesan, V

    2006-08-01

    Nitrogen doped titania was prepared by low temperature sol-gel method using titanium precursor and nitrogen containing bases like triethylamine and tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide compounds. The materials were characterized by XRD, BET, SEM, XPS, DRS-UV, and FT-IR techniques. DRS-UV study substantially indicates shift of the absorption edge of TiO2 to lower energy region. The phase composition, crystallinity, specific surface area, and visible light activity of nitrogen doped titania depend upon the preparation conditions. Photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol-A in aqueous medium was investigated by TiO2 and nitrogen doped TiO2 under visible light irradiation in a batch photocatalytic reactor. The results indicate higher visible light activity for nitrogen doped TiO2 than commercial TiO2 (Degussa P25) for bisphenol-A degradation. The influence of various parameters such as initial concentration of bisphenol-A, catalyst loading and pH was examined for maximum degradation efficiency.

  13. Facile flame thermal synthesis of SiOx-C/ TiO2 microspheres with enhanced photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Ma, Xiaoqing; Cui, Xiaoli

    2014-04-01

    We report a very simple and novel photocatalyst synthetic strategy for the preparation of SiO x modified TiO2 microspheres and demonstrate their enhanced photocatalytic properties. The as-prepared samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra. XRD results showed that anatase TiO2 was obtained directly without any post-heat treatment, and no obvious effect on the crystal structure was observed with the introduction of a small amount of SiO x . SEM images show microspherical morphology for the synthesized samples with a suitable amount of SiO x but irregular morphology was observed when higher content of SiO x was introduced. XPS results indicated that silicon existed in the forms of SiO2, SiO and Si2O3. Higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV-vis light illumination was demonstrated with SiO x modification. The results indicated that the feasibility of MB degradation was not only due to morphological properties but also to the SiO x modification. Significantly, SiO x facilitates effective photodegradation through the increasing surface hydroxyl groups as traced by the FT-IR spectra for the resulting samples.

  14. Highly efficient low-temperature plasma-assisted modification of TiO2 nanosheets with exposed {001} facets for enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Beibei; Zhao, Zongbin; Zhou, Quan; Meng, Bo; Meng, Xiangtong; Qiu, Jieshan

    2014-11-03

    Anatase TiO2 nanosheets with exposed {001} facets have been controllably modified under non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma with various working gas, including Ar, H2 , and NH3 . The obtained TiO2 nanosheets possess a unique crystalline core/amorphous shell structure (TiO2 @TiO2-x ), which exhibit the improved visible and near-infrared light absorption. The types of dopants (oxygen vacancy/surface Ti(3+) /substituted N) in oxygen-deficient TiO2 can be tuned by controlling the working gases during plasma discharge. Both surface Ti(3+) and substituted N were doped into the lattice of TiO2 through NH3 plasma discharge, whereas the oxygen vacancy or Ti(3+) (along with the oxygen vacancy) was obtained after Ar or H2 plasma treatment. The TiO2 @TiO2-x from NH3 plasma with a green color shows the highest photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation compared with the products from Ar plasma or H2 plasma due to the synergistic effect of reduction and simultaneous nitridation in the NH3 plasma. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Photocatalytic Improvement under Visible Light in TiO2 Nanoparticles by Carbon Nanotube Incorporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathana Wongaree

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles was successfully enhanced by addition of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT to make CNT/TiO2 nanocomposites by sol-gel method at ambient temperature. CNT treated by HNO3 : H2SO4 treatment (1 : 3 v/v was mixed with TiO2 nanoparticles at various molar ratios and calcination temperatures. The optimal molar ratio of CNT : TiO2 was found at 0.05 : 1 by weight. The optimal calcination condition was 400°C for 3 h. From the results, the photocatalytic activities of CNT/TiO2 nanocomposites were determined by the decolorization of 1 × 10−5 M methylene blue (MB under visible light. CNT/TiO2 nanocomposites could enhance the photocatalytic activity and showed faster for the degradation of MB with only 90 min. The degradation efficiency of the MB solution with CNT/TiO2 nanocomposite achieved 70% which was higher than that with pristine TiO2 (22%. This could be explained that CNT prevents TiO2 from its agglomeration which could further enhance electron transfer in the composites. In addition, CNT/TiO2 nanocomposites had high specific surface area (202 m2/g which is very promising for utilization as a photocatalyst for environmental applications.

  16. Engineering bamboo-type TiO2 nanotube arrays to enhance their photocatalytic property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Dongsheng; Hymel, Paul J; Zhou, Chengjun; Wang, Ying

    2014-06-01

    Bamboo-type TiO2 nanotube arrays with high surface area can be synthesized by alternating voltage (AV) anodization for their important use as photocatalytic medium. Their morphologies are highly dependent on preparation parameters including anodization time and electrolyte composition. Minimum time of high-voltage steps required for forming desired bamboo ridge spacing on these nanotubes can be calculated from current-time profiles recorded during potentiostatic anodization at the voltage. Water content in NH4F-containing ethylene glycol (EG) electrolytes is optimized simply from analyses of current transients or current-voltage relations for anodization in EG electrolytes with different amount of water, in order to achieve efficient electrochemical growth of TiO2 nanotubes for large ridge density and long tube length. Two types of bamboo-type TiO2 nanotubes with the same length of 5.46 microm but different ridge spacing are synthesized for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV radiation. Both of the bamboo-type nanotube arrays show improved photo catalysis compared to smooth TiO2 nanotubes of the same length, due to their larger surface area favorable for heterogeneous catalytic processes. In particular, the apparent rate constant of photocatalytic degradation on bamboo-type nanotubes is up to 29.4% higher than that for degradation on smooth ones.

  17. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of dyes under sunlight using biocompatible TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, B.; Sonkar, A. K.; Singh, N.; Dash, D.; Rath, Chandana

    2017-08-01

    As TiO2 is one of the most popular photocatalysts, we have studied here the photocatalytic degradation of the most common dyestuffs like rhodamine B (RhB), congo red (CR) and methylene blue (MB), which mainly come from the textile and photographic industries using nanoparticles of TiO2. Nanoparticles of TiO2 synthesized through a simple and cost effective sol-gel technique crystallizes in the anatase phase, showing a band gap less than that of bulk value. Particles consisting of coherently scattered domains of size 33 nm are found to be agglomerated and polycrystalline in nature. While the degradation rates of MB, CR and RhB after irradiating with a renewable source of energy, i.e. sunlight, show 100% degradation, TiO2 irradiated with UV light of 4.8 eV shows a much slower degradation rate. To use the waste water after photocatalysis, we examine further the biocompatibile nature of the TiO2 nanoparticles by platelet interaction activity, hemolysis effect and MTT assay. It is worth mentioning here that TiO2 nanoparticles are found to be highly hemocompatible, show no platelet aggregation, and the level of intracellular ROS in human platelets does not show significant change in ROS level. We conclude that TiO2 nanoparticles constitute an excellent photocatalyst and biocompatible material, and that after photocatalytic degradation of dye effluents obtained from textile industries, purified water can be used in agriculture and domestic sectors.

  18. Synthesis and photocatalytic application of TiO2 nanoparticles immobilized on polyacrylonitrile nanofibers using EDTA chelating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaúque, Eutilério F.C.; Adelodun, Adedeji A.; Dlamini, Langelihle N.; Greyling, Corinne J.; Ray, Sekhar C.; Ngila, J. Catherine

    2017-01-01

    The photocatalytic properties of TiO 2 nanoparticles (TNPs) have been widely demonstrated in the literature. Here, we report the chemical attachment of TNPs to the surface of polyacrylonitrile nanofibers (PNFs) using the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and ethylenediamine (EDA) as the chelating agents. The composite nanofibers were prepared through the chelation of Ti 4+ ions with surface carboxylic and amine groups followed by self-growth of TiO 2 nanoparticles on the surface of modified PNFs during the incubation process. The fabricated composite nanofibers were stabilized at 240 °C in a tube furnace under N 2 gas. The heat treatment served to simultaneously crystallize the TNPs and enhance robustness of PNFs as cyclization reactions and the cross-linking of adjacent nitrile groups (–C=N−C=N–) usually takes place at temperatures above 200 °C. Characterization techniques included X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) technique. The chemical impregnation of EDTA-EDA on the surface of PNFs resulted in slight increase in the average nanofiber's diameter. The anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles with average 9.4 nm particle size prepared in situ were immobilized on the surface of pre-functionalized PNFs. The fabricated composite nanofibers were applied in the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) in synthetic aqueous solutions. The as-prepared composite nanofibers were reused for five (5) cycles without considerable decline in the MO removal efficiency (i.e. >98% of initial performance). - Highlights: • Electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofibers (PNFs) were chemically modified with EDTA. • The TiO 2 -EDTA-EDA-PNFs composites were prepared through chelation of Ti 4+ ions. • Composites were calcined for simultaneous crystallization and chemical stability. • TiO 2 anatase were successfully

  19. Production and Characterization of TiO2 Nanofilms for Hemocompatible and Photocatalytic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schvezov, C. E.; Vera, M. L.; Schuster, J. M.; Rosenberger, M. R.

    2017-10-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) coatings are currently produced for hemocompatible and photocatalytic applications by using two techniques: sol-gel and anodic oxidation. In this review, the research advances on TiO2 nanofilms produced with these techniques are presented, with a focus on different aspects such as process parameters, morphology, roughness, crystal structure, adhesion, wear and erosion resistance, corrosion resistance, hemocompatibility, toxicity, plaque and bacterial adhesion, and heterogeneous photocatalysis of immobilized porous material. This review was presented at the 3rd Pan American Materials Congress at the 2017 TMS Annual Meeting and Exhibition in San Diego, California, USA.

  20. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of Ag microgrid connected TiO2 nanocrystalline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Feng; Zhang Junying; Zhang Weiwei; Wang Tianmin; Cai Chao

    2007-01-01

    One reason for the high degree of photogenerated carrier recombination was found to be the charge accumulation caused by the uneven reaction area on the photocatalyst surface. The authors connected TiO 2 nanoparticles with conducting Ag microgrid. Obvious photocatalytic activity improvement (81%) over the pure TiO 2 was observed, which is attributed to the electron-hole pairs separation by the metal-semiconductor contact and the large specific area of metal grid, which increased the O 2 absorption and transported the electrons to the sites needed for the deoxidize reactions. This structure lowers the electron accumulation on the particles and improves the utilization ratio of the photoexcited carriers

  1. TiO2 and ZnO Nanoparticles in Photocatalytic and Hygienic Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Jašková, Veronika; Hochmannová, Libuše; Vytřasová, Jarmila

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial paints were based on the aqueous acrylic dispersion and various nanoparticles of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide. Antimicrobial ability and photoactivity were assumed in these paints. It was possible to observe the photoactivity thanks to change of organic dyes due to oxidative-reductive reaction. The best photocatalytic effect showed the coating containing the mixture of the first type of TiO2 and nano-ZnO despite the fact that the first type of TiO2 was not better in the photo...

  2. Construction of anatase/rutile TiO2 hollow boxes for highly efficient photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Changchao; Zhang, Xiao; Yang, Ping

    2018-02-01

    Hollow TiO2 hierarchical boxes with suitable anatase and rutile ratios were designed for photocatalysis. The unique hierarchical structure was fabricated via a Topotactic synthetic method. CaTiO3 cubes were acted as the sacrificial templates to create TiO2 hollow hierarchical boxes with well-defined phase distribution. The phase composition of the hollow TiO2 hierarchical boxes is similar to that of TiO2 P25 nanoparticles (∼80% anatase, and 20% rutile). Compared with nanaoparticles, TiO2 hollow boxes with hierarchical structures exhibited an excellent performance in the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue organic pollutant. Quantificationally, the degradation rate of the hollow boxes is higher than that of TiO2 P25 nanoparticles by a factor of 2.7. This is ascribed that hollow structure provide an opportunity for using incident light more efficiently. The surface hierarchical and well-organized porous structures are beneficial to supply more active sites and enough transport channels for reactant molecules. The boxes consist of single crystal anatase and rutile combined well with each other, which gives photon-generated carriers transfer efficiently.

  3. Tuning the morphology, stability and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanocrystal colloids by tungsten doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Haiping; Liao, Jianhua; Yuan, Shuai; Zhao, Yin; Zhang, Meihong; Wang, Zhuyi; Shi, Liyi

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • W 6+ -doped TiO 2 nanocrystal colloids were prepared by hydrothermal methods. • The properties of TiO 2 nanocrystal colloids can be tuned by tungsten doping. • W 6+ -doped TiO 2 nanocrystal colloids show higher stability and dispersity. • W 6+ -doped TiO 2 nanocrystal colloids show higher photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: The effects of tungsten doping on the morphology, stability and photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 nanocrystal colloids were investigated. The nanostructure, chemical state of Ti, W, O, and the properties of tungsten doped TiO 2 samples were investigated carefully by TEM, XRD, XPS, UV–vis, PL and photocatalytic degradation experiments. And the structure–activity relationship was discussed according to the analysis and measurement results. The analysis results reveal that the morphology, zeta potential and photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 nanocrystals can be easily tuned by changing the tungsten doping concentration. The tungsten doped TiO 2 colloid combines the characters of high dispersity and high photocatalytic activity

  4. Wastewater treatment by sonophotocatalysis using PEG modified TiO2film in a circular Photocatalytic-Ultrasonic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Qi; Gu, Zhibin; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Na; Stanislaus, Mishma S; Li, Dawei; Yang, Yingnan

    2017-05-01

    TiO 2 photocatalyst film recently has been utilized as the potential candidate for the wastewater treatment, due to its high stability and low toxicity. In order to further increase the photocatalytic ability and stability, different molecular weight of polyethylene glycol (PEG) were used to modify TiO 2 structure to synthesize porous thin film used in the developed Photocatalytic-Ultrasonic system in this work. The results showed that PEG2000 modified TiO 2 calcinated under 450°C for 2h exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity, attributed to the smallest crystallite size and optimal particle size. Over 95.0% of rhodamine B (Rh B) was photocatalytically degraded by optimized PEG 2000 -TiO 2 film after 60min of UV irradiation, while only about 50.8% of Rh B was decolored over pure TiO 2 film. Furthermore, optimized PEG 2000 -TiO 2 film was used in a circular Photocatalytic-Ultrasonic system, and the obtained synergy (0.6519) of sonophotocatalysis indicated its extremely high efficiency for Rh B degradation. In this Photocatalytic-Ultrasonic system, larger amount of PEG 2000 -TiO 2 coated glass beads, stronger ultrasonic power and longer experimental time could result to higher degradation efficiency of Rh B. In addition, repetitive experiments showed that about 97.2% of Rh B were still degraded in the fifth experiment by sonophotocatalysis using PEG 2000 -TiO 2 film. Therefore, PEG 2000 -TiO 2 film used in Photocatalytic-Ultrasonic system has promising potential for wastewater treatment, due to its excellent photocatalytic activity and high stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characteristics and Photocatalytic Properties of TiO2 Thin Film Prepared by Sputter Deposition and Post-N+ Ion Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider A. Shukur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 thin films of a rutile, an anatase, and a mixture type with anatase and rutile were fabricated by a magnetron sputtering method. The fabricated films were irradiated by N+ ions with several doses using the Freeman ion source. Atomic force microscopy (AFM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and UV-VIS spectrophotometer were employed to investigate morphology, structure, chemical state, and optical characteristics, respectively. Photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degradation of a methylene blue solution using UV and visible light. TiO2 thin films with each structure irradiated by N+ ions showed the different N concentration in the same N+ ion dose and the chemical state of XPS results suggested that an O atom in TiO2 lattice replaced by an N atom. Therefore the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 thin films was improved under visible light. The maximum photocatalytic activity of TiO2 thin films with each structure was indicated at N concentration of 2.1% for a rutile type, of 1.0% for an anatase type, and of 3.8% for a mixture type under the condition of 2.5×1015 ions/cm2 in N+ ion dose.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Uniform Spherical Nanoporous TiO2 Aerogel Templated by Cellulose Alcohol-Gel with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The spherical nanoporous TiO2 aerogels were prepared by a simple ethanol-thermal method, using spherical cellulose alcohol-gel as the template. The morphology, crystalline structure, pore size, specific surface area, and the photocatalytic activity of obtained TiO2 aerogel were separately characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and double beam UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The characteristics of TiO2 aerogels presented uniform sphere shape, good internal structural morphology, high specific surface area (ranging from 111.88 to 149.95 m2/g, and good crystalline anatase phase. Moreover, methyl orange dye was used as the target pollutant to characterize the photocatalytic activities and the adsorption performance. The photocatalytic experiment shows that the obtained spherical TiO2 aerogels had a higher degradation ratio of 92.9% on methyl orange dye compared with aspherical TiO2 aerogels prepared from other concentrations of tetrabutyl orthotitanate (TBOT.

  7. The Photocatalytic Activity and Compact Layer Characteristics of TiO2 Films Prepared Using Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 compact layers are used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs to prevent charge recombination between the electrolyte and the transparent conductive substrate (indium tin oxide, ITO; fluorine-doped tin oxide, FTO. Thin TiO2 compact layers are deposited onto ITO/glass by means of radio frequency (rf magnetron sputtering, using deposition parameters that ensure greater photocatalytic activity and increased DSSC conversion efficiency. The photoinduced decomposition of methylene blue (MB and the photoinduced hydrophilicity of the TiO2 thin films are also investigated. The photocatalytic performance characteristics for the deposition of TiO2 films are improved by using the Grey-Taguchi method. The average transmittance in the visible region exceeds 85% for all samples. The XRD patterns of the TiO2 films, for sol-gel with spin coating of porous TiO2/TiO2 compact/ITO/glass, show a good crystalline structure. In contrast, without the TiO2 compact layer (only porous TiO2, the peak intensity of the anatase (101 plane in the XRD patterns for the TiO2 film has a lower value, which demonstrates inferior crystalline quality. With a TiO2 compact layer to prevent charge recombination, a higher short-circuit current density is obtained. The DSSC with the FTO/glass and Pt counter electrode demonstrates the energy conversion efficiency increased.

  8. Photocatalytic Study of New Immobilized TiO2 Technique Towards Degradation of Reactive Red 4 Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ain S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study on TiO2 for wastewater remediation has gained interest among researchers. However, the application of this photocatalyst is limited due to non-recyclability of conventional TiO2. Thus, immobilization technique has been developed to solve this issue. Hence, a comparison study between two types of immobilized photocatalysts namely titanium dioxide (TiO2 and TiO2 mixed with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA has been conducted in this work to observe the significant effect of PVA polymer in photocatalysis reaction of reactive red 4 (RR4 dye. Double sided adhesive tape (DSAT was used as thin layer binder in this immobilization system. The result shows that the photocatalytic performance of TiO2-PVA/DSAT was higher than that of TiO2/DSAT under both normal UV and visible light irradiations due to the conjugated unsaturated polymer from PVA serve as electron donor for TiO2 thus increase the photocatalysis process. Besides, TiO2-PVA/DSAT was also found to possess much better adhesion strength to the support material compared to TiO2/DSAT. Based on the findings, this TiO2 immobilization system is expected to be beneficial in the industrial wastewater treatment. Thus, further study to improve the photocatalytic activity of this immobilized TiO2 will be in our future work.

  9. Acetaminophen Removal from Aqueous Solutions by TiO2-X photo catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Malakootian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pharmaceutical wastes are in group of emerging contaminants. These materials cannot be removed completely with conventional treatment methods of water and wastewater. Drug and its metabolites, due to the potential risks toxic and toxicity potential to humans and environment should be removed from the water resources. In this study, Acetaminophen photo catalytic removal from aqueous solutions was investigated by X zeolite modified with TiO2 (TiO2/ X zeolite. Methods: This study was experimental and carried out on a laboratory scale. To remove acetaminophen from aqueous solution, TiO2/X zeolite photo-catalyst under UV-C radiation (UV/TiO2-X process was used. Acetaminophen concentration of soluble was measured using by spectrophotometer UV/Vis in λmax ~ 243nm. The optimal conditions of pH, catalyst dosage, acetaminophen initial concentration and reaction time were determined and also acetaminophen disintegration reaction kinetics was studied by TiO2-X catalyst. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics. Results: The results indicated that maximum removal of acetaminophen(95.45% was related to 1 mg/L of initial concentration in the neutral pH and a catalyst concentration of 500 mg/L after 75min of start of photo-catalytic reaction. By decreasing concentration of acetaminophen its removal rates will increase. The Acetaminophen degradation kinetic with UV/TiO2-X process followed a pseudo-first order reaction with rate constants of  0.01446 min-1. Conclusion: The Photocatalytic method of UV/TiO2-X to remove acetaminophen from aqueous solutions has a high efficiency and is recommended

  10. Photocatalytic performance of pure anatase nanocrystallite TiO2 synthesized under low temperature hydrothermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayilkan, Funda; Erdemoglu, Sema; Asiltuerk, Meltem; Akarsu, Murat; Sener, Sadiye; Sayilkan, Hikmet; Erdemoglu, Murat; Arpac, Ertugrul

    2006-01-01

    Photocatalytic performance of a hydrothermally synthesized pure anatase TiO 2 with 8 nm average crystallite size for decomposition of Reactive Red 141 was examined by investigating the effects of UV-light irradiation time, irradiation power, amount of TiO 2 and initial dye concentration. Change in the UV absorbance of the dye during irradiation was monitored. One wt.% TiO 2 in 30 mg/l Reactive Red 141 aqueous solution was found adequate for complete decolorization in 70 min at 770 W/m 2 irradiation power. It was realized that, compared to Degussa P-25, the synthesized nano-TiO 2 can be repeatedly used as a new catalyst. The results also proved that Reactive Red 141 is decomposed catalytically due to the pseudo first-order reaction kinetics

  11. Photocatalytic degradation of dimethoate using LbL fabricated TiO2/polymer hybrid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, D Neela; Modak, Jayant M; Trebše, Polonca; Zabar, Romina; Raichur, Ashok M

    2011-11-15

    Degradation of dimethoate under UV irradiation using TiO(2)/polymer films prepared by the layer-by-layer (LbL) method was investigated. The thin films were fabricated on glass slides and the surface morphology and roughness of the thin films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The effect of lamp intensity, catalyst loading in the layers, number of bilayers, pH and initial dimethoate concentration on the degradation of dimethoate was systematically studied. The degradation was monitored using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and total organic carbon (TOC) measurements as a function of irradiation time, to see the change in concentration of dimethoate and mineralization, respectively. Complete degradation of dimethoate was achieved under TiO(2) optimum loading of 4 g/L at an UV irradiation time of 180 min. Increase in the lamp intensity, catalyst loading and number of bilayers increased the rate of degradation. At a pH of 4.62, complete degradation of dimethoate was observed. The degradation efficiency decreased with increase in initial dimethoate concentration. The degradation byproducts were analyzed and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectra (GC-MS). Toxicity of the irradiated samples was measured using the luminescence of bacteria Vibrio fischeri after 30 min of incubation and the results showed more toxicity than the parent compound. Catalyst reusability studies revealed that the fabricated thin films could be repeatedly used for up to ten times without affecting the photocatalytic activity of the films. The findings of the present study are very useful for the treatment of wastewaters contaminated with pesticides. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Photocatalytic degradation of azo dyes using Au:TiO2, gamma-Fe2O3:TiO2 functional nanosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadale, Tushar; Kulkarni, Manjusha; Pravarthana, D; Ramadan, Wegdan; Thakur, Pragati

    2012-02-01

    We report photocatalytic degradation studies on Navy Blue HE2R (NB) dye on significant details as a representative from the class of azo dyes using functional nanosystems specifically designed to allow a strong photocatalytic activity. A modified sol-gel route was employed to synthesize Au and gamma-Fe2O3 modified TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) at low temperature. The attachment strategy is better because it allows clear surface of TiO2 to remain open for photo-catalysis. X-ray diffraction, Raman and UV-VIS spectroscopy studies showed the presence of gold and iron oxide phases along-with the anatase TiO2 phase. TEM studies showed TiO2 nanocomposite particles of size approximately 10-12 nm. A detailed investigation on heterogeneous photocatalytic performance for Navy Blue HE2R dye was done using the as-synthesized catalysts Au:TiO2 and gamma-Fe2O3:TiO2 in aqueous suspension under 8 W low-pressure mercury vapour lamp irradiation. Also, the photocatalytic degradation of Amranth and Orange G azo dyes were studied. The surface modified TiO2 NPs showed significantly improved photocatalytic activity as compared to pure TiO2. Exposure of the dye to the UV light in the presence of pure and gold NPs attached TiO2 catalysts caused dye degradation of about approximately 20% and approximately 80%, respectively, in the first couple of hours. In the presence of gamma-Fe2O3 NPs attached TiO2, a remarkable approximately 95% degradation of the azo dye was observed only in the first 15 min of UV exposure. The process parameters for the optimum catalytic activity are established which lead to a complete decoloration and substantial dye degradation, supported by the values of the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) approximately 93% and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) approximately 65% of the treated dye solution after 5 hours on the employment of the UV/Au:TiO2/H2O2 photocatalytic process.

  13. Notable photocatalytic activity of TiO2-polyethylene nanocomposites for visible light degradation of organic pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    M. Romero-Saez; L. Y. Jaramillo; R. Saravanan; N. Benito; E. Pabon; E. Mosquera; F. Gracia

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the photocatalytic activity showed by nanocomposites of TiO2 with low density polyethylene (LDPE) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) (10, 20 wt%) for the degradation of methyl orange in aqueous medium under visible light irradiation. TiO2 was synthetized by sol-gel process, and the polymers were incorporated by impregnation. Both the pure TiO2 and the nanocomposites were characterized using different physico-chemical techniques including specific surface area analysis,...

  14. Enhancing photocatalytic activity by using TiO2-MgO core-shell-structured nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hyun Suk; Lee, Jung-Kun; Nastasi, Michael; Kim, Jeong-Ryeol; Lee, Sang-Wook; Kim, Jin Young; Park, Jong-Sung; Hong, Kug Sun; Shin, Hyunho

    2006-01-01

    Hygroscopic Mg(OH) 2 gel was topotactically decomposed on TiO 2 particle surfaces, resulting in highly nanoporous MgO-coated TiO 2 particles. The highly hygroscopic and nanoporous MgO shell absorbed more water molecules and hydroxyl groups from the environment to yield an improved photocatalytic property of the core-shell particles as compared to the uncoated TiO 2 counterpart

  15. Parameters affecting the photocatalytic degradation of dyes using TiO2-based photocatalysts: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpan, U G; Hameed, B H

    2009-10-30

    This paper presents the review of the effects of operating parameters on the photocatalytic degradation of textile dyes using TiO2-based photocatalysts. It further examines various methods used in the preparations of the considered photocatalysts. The findings revealed that various parameters, such as the initial pH of the solution to be degraded, oxidizing agents, temperature at which the catalysts must be calcined, dopant(s) content and catalyst loading exert their individual influence on the photocatalytic degradation of any dye in wastewaters. It was also found out that sol-gel method is widely used in the production of TiO2-based photocatalysts because of the advantage derived from its ability to synthesize nanosized crystallized powder of the photocatalysts of high purity at relatively low temperature.

  16. OH radical generation in a photocatalytic reactor using TiO2 nanotube plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kangpyung; Ku, Haemin; Pak, Daewon

    2016-04-01

    In order to use TiO2 nanotubes grown on a Ti plate as a photocatalyst, self-organized oxide nanotube layers were grown by anodization in a glycerol based electrolyte. The ultimate conditions for the synthesis of the TiO2 nanotube array on the Ti plate were investigated by comparing the morphology, length, and inner diameter of the nanotubes. They were significantly affected by the applied anodic voltage, anodization time, and composition of the electrolyte such as the water and fluoride ion concentration. The crystallographic structures of TiO2 nanotubes before and after annealing were compared. The photocatalytic reactor used in this study consisted of two parallel and closely spaced TiO2 nanotube plates. The plates were squares while a UV lamp was inserted perpendicularly to them. OH radical generation in the photocatalytic reactor was monitored by using a probe compound, parachlorobenzoate (pCBA). The steady state OH radical concentration was compared depending on the length of nanotubes and crystallographic structure. The longer the nanotubes, the higher the steady state OH radical concentration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Black TiO2 synthesized via magnesiothermic reduction for enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangdong; Fu, Rong; Yin, Qianqian; Wu, Han; Guo, Xiaoling; Xu, Ruohan; Zhong, Qianyun

    2018-04-01

    Utilizing solar energy for hydrogen evolution is a great challenge for its insufficient visible-light power conversion. In this paper, we report a facile magnesiothermic reduction of commercial TiO2 nanoparticles under Ar atmosphere and at 550 °C followed by acid treatment to synthesize reduced black TiO2 powders, which possesses a unique crystalline core-amorphous shell structure composed of disordered surface and oxygen vacancies and shows significantly improved optical absorption in the visible region. The unique core-shell structure and high absorption enable the reduced black TiO2 powders to exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity, including splitting of water in the presence of Pt as a cocatalyst and degradation of methyl blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. Photocatalytic evaluations indicate that the oxygen vacancies play key roles in the catalytic process. The maximum hydrogen production rates are 16.1 and 163 μmol h-1 g-1 under the full solar wavelength range of light and visible light, respectively. This facile and versatile method could be potentially used for large scale production of colored TiO2 with remarkable enhancement in the visible light absorption and solar-driven hydrogen production.

  18. Dispersion and Stabilization of Photocatalytic TiO2 Nanoparticles in Aqueous Suspension for Coatings Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hajar Othman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To produce titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticle coatings, it is desirable that the nanoparticles are dispersed into a liquid solution and remain stable for a certain period of time. Controlling the dispersion and aggregation of the nanoparticles is crucial to exploit the advantages of the nanometer-sized TiO2 particles. In this work, TiO2 nanoparticles were dispersed and stabilized in aqueous suspensions using two common dispersants which were polyacrylic acid (PAA and ammonium polymethacrylate (Darvan C. The effect of parameters such as ultrasonication amplitude and type and amount of dispersants on the dispersibility and stability of the TiO2 aqueous suspensions were examined. Rupture followed by erosion was determined to be the main break up mechanisms when ultrasonication was employed. The addition of dispersant was found to produce more dispersed and more stabilized aqueous suspension. 3 wt.% of PAA with average molecular weight (Mw of 2000 g/mol (PAA 2000 was determined to produce the best and most stable dispersion. The suspensions were then coated on quartz glass, whereby the photocatalytic activity of the coatings was studied via the degradation of formaldehyde gas under UV light. The coatings were demonstrated to be photocatalytically active.

  19. Photocatalytic properties and selective antimicrobial activity of TiO2(Eu)/CuO nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Robert; Dworniczek, Ewa; Caplovicova, Maria; Monfort, Olivier; Lianos, Panagiotis; Caplovic, Lubomir; Plesch, Gustav

    2016-05-01

    TiO2(Eu)/CuO nanocomposites were prepared by precipitation method. The anatase nanocrystallites with a size of 26 nm exhibited well crystallized and characteristical dipyramidal morphology and {1 0 1} and {0 0 1} faceting. Transmission electron microscopy photographs with atomic resolution showed that the Eu(III) dopants were bounded on surface of titania. In the composites, the CuO nanocrystals exhibiting a monoclinic tenorite structure with a size in the range from 2 to 5 nm were grafted to the surface of titania. The influence of copper(II) oxide led to distinct selectivity in the photocatalytic and antimicrobial properties of the investigated TiO2(Eu)/CuO nanocomposites. While the presence of CuO nanocrystals strongly increased the photocatalytic production of hydrogen by ethanol reforming, it decreased the activity in photoinduced total mineralization of phenol comparing with non-modified TiO2(Eu). In investigated TiO2(Eu)/CuO powders, the photoinduced antimicrobial activity against membranes of Enterococcus species was influenced by the selective binding of CuO to the surface of the microorganism leading to distinct selectivity in their action. The activity against Enterococcus faecalis was higher than against Enterococcus faecium.

  20. Facile fabrication of TiO2-graphene composite with enhanced photovoltaic and photocatalytic properties by electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Peining; Peining, Zhu; Nair, A Sreekumaran; Shengjie, Peng; Shengyuan, Yang; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2012-02-01

    We report the fabrication of one-dimensional TiO(2)-graphene nanocomposite by a facile and one-step method of electrospinning. The unique nanostructured composite showed a significant enhancement in the photovoltaic and photocatalytic properties in comparison to TiO(2) as demonstrated in dye-sensitized solar cells and photodegradation of methyl orange.

  1. Photocatalytic degradation of RhB over MgFe2O4/TiO2 composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; He, Yiming; Wu Ying; Wu Tinghua

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Novel composite MgFe 2 O 4 /TiO 2 as catalyst. → Higher activity for the photodegradation of RhB under visible light irradiation. → Calcination temperature of catalyst has effect on photocatalytic activity. → Different photocatalysis mechanism under UV and visible light irradiation. - Abstract: MgFe 2 O 4 /TiO 2 (MFO/TiO 2 ) composite photocatalysts were successfully synthesized using a mixing-annealing method. The synthesized composites exhibited significantly higher photocatalytic activity than a naked semiconductor in the photodegradation of Rhodamine B. Under UV and visible light irradiation, the optimal percentages of doped MgFe 2 O 4 (MFO) were 2 wt.% and 3 wt.%, respectively. The effects of calcination temperature on photocatalytic activity were also investigated. The origin of the high level of activity was discussed based on the results of X-ray diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and nitrogen physical adsorption. The enhanced activity of the catalysts was mainly attributed to the synergetic effect between the two semiconductors, the band potential of which matched suitably.

  2. Photocatalytic Performance of TiO2 Nanofibers as a Function of Fiber Diameter Using TiCl2 as a Precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Ashkarran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the production of TiO2 nanofibers with controllable diameters using a facile electrospinning technique at room temperature. The resulting nanofibers were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis. The most important electrospinning parameters including potential difference (kV, flow rate (mL/h, and the separation distance between electrodes (cm were found to have significant influence on the diameter of the produced nanofibers. The photocatalytic performance of TiO2 nanofibers was successfully demonstrated for decolorization of Rhodamine B (Rh.B under UV light irradiation. It was found that fiber diameter has a crucial influence on the photocatalytic performance of TiO2 nanofibers.

  3. A novel TiO2-SiO2 aerogel nanocomposite absorbent: preparation, characterization and photocatalytic degradation effects on automobile exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Saisai; Zhang, Zhengqi; Pei, Jianzhong; Li, Rui; Zhang, Jiupeng; Cai, Jun; Cui, Jiexue

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a novel TiO2-SiO2 aerogel nanocomposite absorbent was successfully synthesized using the sol-gel and ambient pressure drying method, and its photocatalytic degradation effects on automobile exhaust were investigated for the first time. The microstructures and properties of the Nano TiO2-SiO2 aerogels were characterized using various methods, including x-ray Diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) specific surface area analysis, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The exhaust purification tests were conducted in a self-developed instrument to investigate the degradation effects of Nano TiO2-SiO2 aerogels on automobile exhaust through degradation rate. Experimental results showed that the Nano TiO2-SiO2 aerogels had a good photocatalytic degradation effect on automobile exhaust, and the degradation rates of CO, CO2, HC and NOx were 1.3%, 1.5%, 3.2% and 34.4%, respectively. The well-designed microstructure makes the Nano TiO2-SiO2 aerogels a stable photocatalytic material with high specific surface area and big average pore size, which has promising applications in environmental treatment.

  4. Preparation and Photocatalytic Activity of Nitrogen-doped Nano TiO2/Tourmaline Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Xin-wei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using Ti(OC4H94 as precursor, CO(NH22 as nitrogen source, tourmaline as support, the nitrogen-doped nano TiO2/tourmaline composites were synthesized by sol-gel method with ultrasound assisted.The structure and performance of composites were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, UV-Vis DRS, SEM, EDS.The effects of calcining temperature, nitrogen-doped content, tourmaline amount, catalyst system on the photocatalytic activity of nitrogen-doped nano TiO2/tourmaline composites were studied.The results show that the photocatalytic activity of nitrogen-doped nano TiO2/tourmaline composites calcined under 500℃, the nitrogen doped amount of 5% (mole fraction, tourmaline added in an amount of 10% (mass fraction, catalyst dosage of 3g/L, under 500W UV light irradiation conditions, the photocatalytic degradation effect of TNT(10mg/L is the best, and has a good recycling performance.

  5. Hierarchical synthesis of corrugated photocatalytic TiO2 microsphere architectures on natural pollen surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Deniz Altunoz; Ozensoy, Emrah

    2017-05-01

    Biomaterials are challenging, yet vastly promising templates for engineering unusual inorganic materials with unprecedented surface and structural properties. In the current work, a novel biotemplate-based photocatalytic material was synthesized in the form of corrugated TiO2 microspheres by utilizing a sol-gel methodology where Ambrosia trifida (Ab, Giant ragweed) pollen was exploited as the initial biological support surface. Hierarchically synthesized TiO2 microspheres were structurally characterized in detail via SEM-EDX, Raman spectroscopy, XRD and BET techniques in order to shed light on the surface chemistry, crystal structure, chemical composition and morphology of these novel material architectures. Photocatalytic functionality of the synthesized materials was demonstrated both in gas phase as well as in liquid phase. Along these lines, air and water purification capabilities of the synthesized TiO2 microspheres were established by performing photocatalytic oxidative NOx(g) storage and Rhodamine B(aq) degradation experiments; respectively. The synthetic approach presented herein offers new opportunities to design and create sophisticated functional materials that can be used in micro reactor systems, adsorbents, drug delivery systems, catalytic processes, and sensor technologies.

  6. TiO2structures doped with noble metals and/or graphene oxide to improve the photocatalytic degradation of dichloroacetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribao, Paula; Rivero, Maria J; Ortiz, Inmaculada

    2017-05-01

    Noble metals have been used to improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 . Noble metal nanoparticles prevent charge recombination, facilitating electron transport due to the equilibration of the Fermi levels. Furthermore, noble metal nanoparticles show an absorption band in the visible region due to a high localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect, which contributes to additional electron movements. Moreover, systems based on graphene, titanium dioxide, and noble metals have been used, considering that graphene sheets can carry charges, thereby reducing electron-hole recombination, and can be used as substrates of atomic thickness. In this work, TiO 2 -based nanocomposites were prepared by blending TiO 2 with noble metals (Pt and Ag) and/or graphene oxide (GO). The nanocomposites were mainly characterized via transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and photocurrent analysis. Here, the photocatalytic performance of the composites was analyzed via oxidizing dichloroacetic acid (DCA) model solutions. The influence of the noble metal load on the composite and the ability of the graphene sheets to improve the photocatalytic activity were studied, and the composites doped with different noble metals were compared. The results indicated that the platinum structures show the best photocatalytic degradation, and, although the presence of graphene oxide in the composites is supposed to enhance their photocatalytic performance, graphene oxide does not always improve the photocatalytic process. Graphical abstract It is a schematic diagram. Where NM is Noble Metal and LSPR means Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance.

  7. Unconventionally prepared TiO2/g-C3N4 photocatalysts for photocatalytic decomposition of nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troppová, Ivana; Šihor, Marcel; Reli, Martin; Ritz, Michal; Praus, Petr; Kočí, Kamila

    2018-02-01

    The TiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites with the various TiO2:g-C3N4 weight ratios from 1:1 to 1:3 were prepared unconventionally by pressurized hot water processing in a flow regime. The parent TiO2 and g-C3N4 was prepared by thermal hydrolysis and thermal annealing, respectively. The nanocomposites as well as parent TiO2 and g-C3N4 were characterized using several complementary characterization methods and investigated in the photocatalytic decomposition of N2O under UVA (λ = 365 nm) irradiation. All the prepared TiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites showed higher photocatalytic activity in comparison with the pure g-C3N4 and chiefly pure TiO2. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites was decreasing in the following sequence: TiO2/g-C3N4 (1:3) > TiO2/g-C3N4 (1:2) > TiO2/g-C3N4 (1:1). In comparison with the parent TiO2 or g-C3N4, the TiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites' photocatalytic capability was significantly enhanced by coupling TiO2 with g-C3N4. The generation of TiO2/g-C3N4 Z-scheme photocatalyst mainly benefited from the effective separation of photoinduced electron-hole pairs and the extended optical absorption range. The TiO2/g-C3N4 (1:3) nanocomposite showed the best photocatalytic behavior in a consequence of the optimal weight ratio of TiO2:g-C3N4 and the lowest band gap energy from all nanocomposites. The N2O conversion in its presence was 70.6% after 20 h of UVA irradiation.

  8. Preparation and characterization of Fe3+-doped TiO2 on fly ash cenospheres for photocatalytic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bing; Li Qin; Wang Wei; Li Ying; Zhai Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Fe 3+ -doped TiO 2 film deposited on fly ash cenosphere (Fe-TiO 2 /FAC) was successfully synthesized by the sol-gel method. These fresh photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). The XRD results showed that Fe element can maintain metastable anatase phase of TiO 2 , and effect of temperature showed rutile phase appears in 650 deg. C for 0.01% Fe-TiO 2 /FAC. The SEM analysis revealed the Fe-TiO 2 films on the surface of a fly ash cenosphere with a thickness of 2 μm. The absorption threshold of Fe-TiO 2 /FACs shifted to a longer wavelength compared to the photocatalyst without Fe 3+ -doping in the UV-vis absorption spectra. The photocatalytic activity and kinetics of Fe-TiO 2 /FAC with varying the iron content and the calcination temperatures were investigated by measuring the photodegradation of methyl blue (MB) during visible light irradiation. Compared with TiO 2 /FAC and Fe 3+ -doped TiO 2 powder (Fe-TiO 2 ), the degradation ratio using Fe-TiO 2 /FAC increased by 33% and 30%, respectively, and the best calcined temperature was 450 deg. C and the optimum doping of Fe/Ti molar ratio was 0.01%. The Fe-TiO 2 /FAC particles can float in water due to the low density of FAC in favor of phase separation to recover these photocatalyst after the reaction, and the recovery test shows that calcination contributes to regaining photocatalytic activity of Fe-TiO 2 /FAC photocatalyst.

  9. Comparative study of photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic properties of alachlor using different morphology TiO2/Ti photoelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yanjun; Liu, Huiling; Han, Lei; Zhou, Yabin

    2011-09-15

    Wormhole-shaped TiO(2)/Ti (WT) and nanotube-shaped TiO(2)/Ti (TNT) photoelectrodes were prepared by anodic oxidation method. The morphology and structure were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that both crystal types of WT and TNT photoelectrodes were composed of anatase and rutile TiO(2) phases; however TNT photoelectrodes had highly ordered nanostructure. The photoelectrochemical (PECH) and photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) properties of WT and TNT photoelectrodes were investigated by photocurrent transient, open-circuit potential and degradation rate of alachlor under the artificial solar light illumination. All results showed that TNT photoelectrodes prepared in NaF-Na(2)SO(4) solution have more excellent photoelectron properties than WT photoelectrodes prepared in H(2)SO(4) solution. The photocatalytic (PC) and PEC experiments of alachlor showed that PC and PEC activities of TNT photoelectrodes were superior to WT photoelectrodes. At applied bias potentials the degradation rate of alachlor at TNT photoelectrodes increased significantly to 94.5%. The higher PC and PEC performance of TNT photoelectrodes were ascribed to the long-range ordered structure and short-orientation diffusion distance of photogenerated carries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Photocatalytic properties and selective antimicrobial activity of TiO2(Eu)/CuO nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michal, Robert; Dworniczek, Ewa; Caplovicova, Maria; Monfort, Olivier; Lianos, Panagiotis; Caplovic, Lubomir; Plesch, Gustav

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanocomposites composed of Eu-doped anatase grafted with CuO. • Increase in photocatalytic hydrogen production due to CuO acting as electrons sink. • CuO in composites decreasing the photoinduced total mineralization of phenol. • Selective photoinduced antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus species. - Abstract: TiO 2 (Eu)/CuO nanocomposites were prepared by precipitation method. The anatase nanocrystallites with a size of 26 nm exhibited well crystallized and characteristical dipyramidal morphology and {1 0 1} and {0 0 1} faceting. Transmission electron microscopy photographs with atomic resolution showed that the Eu(III) dopants were bounded on surface of titania. In the composites, the CuO nanocrystals exhibiting a monoclinic tenorite structure with a size in the range from 2 to 5 nm were grafted to the surface of titania. The influence of copper(II) oxide led to distinct selectivity in the photocatalytic and antimicrobial properties of the investigated TiO 2 (Eu)/CuO nanocomposites. While the presence of CuO nanocrystals strongly increased the photocatalytic production of hydrogen by ethanol reforming, it decreased the activity in photoinduced total mineralization of phenol comparing with non-modified TiO 2 (Eu). In investigated TiO 2 (Eu)/CuO powders, the photoinduced antimicrobial activity against membranes of Enterococcus species was influenced by the selective binding of CuO to the surface of the microorganism leading to distinct selectivity in their action. The activity against Enterococcus faecalis was higher than against Enterococcus faecium.

  11. Ag-loaded TiO2/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilaki, E.; Georgaki, I.; Vernardou, D.; Vamvakaki, M.; Katsarakis, N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag nanoparticles were loaded on TiO 2 by chemical reduction. • TiO 2 /Ag and TiO 2 samples were deposited on reduced graphene oxide (rGO). • Their performance was evaluated via methylene blue removal under visible-light. • TiO 2 /Ag/rGO presented superior activity compared to TiO 2 , TiO 2 /Ag and TiO 2 /rGO. - Abstract: In this work, Ag nanoparticles were loaded by chemical reduction onto TiO 2 P25 under different loadings ranging from 1 up to 4 wt% and hydrothermally deposited on reduced graphene oxide sheets. Chemical reduction was determined to be an effective preparation approach for Ag attachment to titania, leading to the formation of small silver nanoparticles with an average diameter of 4.2 nm. The photocatalytic performance of the hybrid nanocomposite materials was evaluated via methylene blue (MB) dye removal under visible-light irradiation. The rate of dye decolorization was found to depend on the metal loading, showing an increase till a threshold value of 3 wt%, above which the rate drops. Next, the as prepared sample of TiO 2 /Ag of better photocatalytic response, i.e., at a 3 wt% loading value, was hydrothermally deposited on a platform of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) of tunable content (mass ratio). TiO 2 /Ag/rGO coupled nanocomposite presented significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to the TiO 2 /Ag, TiO 2 /rGO composites and bare P25 titania semiconductor photocatalysts. In particular, after 45 min of irradiation almost complete decolorization of the dye was observed for the TiO 2 /Ag/rGO nanocatalyst, while the respective removal efficiency was 92% for TiO 2 /Ag, 93% for TiO 2 /rGO and only 80% for the bare TiO 2 nanoparticles. This simple step by step preparation strategy allows for optimum exploitation of the advanced properties of metal plasmonic effect and reduced graphene oxide as the critical host for boosting the overall photocatalytic activity towards visible-light.

  12. Increased photocatalytic activity induced by TiO2/Pt/SnO2 heterostructured films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testoni, Glaucio O.; Amoresi, Rafael A. C.; Lustosa, Glauco M. M. M.; Costa, João P. C.; Nogueira, Marcelo V.; Ruiz, Miguel; Zaghete, Maria A.; Perazolli, Leinig A.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, a high photocatalytic activity was attained by intercalating a Pt layer between SnO2 and TiO2 semiconductors, which yielded a TiO2/Pt/SnO2 - type heterostructure used in the discoloration of blue methylene (MB) solution. The porous films and platinum layer were obtained by electrophoretic deposition and DC Sputtering, respectively, and were both characterized morphologically and structurally by FE-SEM and XRD. The films with the Pt interlayer were evaluated by photocatalytic activity through exposure to UV light. An increase in efficiency of 22% was obtained for these films compared to those without platinum deposition. Studies on the reutilization of the films pointed out high efficiency and recovery of the photocatalyst, rendering the methodology favorable for the construction of fixed bed photocatalytic reactors. A proposal associated with the mechanism is discussed in this work in terms of the difference in Schottky barrier between the semiconductors and the electrons transfer and trapping cycle. These are fundamental factors for boosting photocatalytic efficiency.

  13. A mild synthetic route to Fe3O4@TiO2-Au composites: preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianqi; Guo, Shaobo; Guo, Xiaohua; Ge, Hongguang

    2015-10-01

    To prevent and avoid magnetic loss caused by magnetite core phase transitions involved in high-temperature crystallization of sol-gel TiO2, a direct and feasible low-temperature crystallization technique was developed to deposit anatase TiO2 nanoparticle shell on Fe3O4 sphere cores. To promote the photocatalytic efficiency of the obtained core-shell Fe3O4@TiO2 magnetic photocatalyst, uniformly distributed Au nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully immobilized on the core-shell Fe3O4@TiO2 spheres via a seed-mediated growth procedure. The 3 nm Au colloid absorbed on Fe3O4@TiO2 served as a nucleation site for the growth of Au NPs overlayer. The morphology, structure, composition and magnetism of the resulting composites were characterized, and their photocatalytic activities were also evaluated. In comparison to Fe3O4@TiO2, Fe3O4@TiO2-Au exhibited higher photocatalytic activity for organic degradation under UV irradiation. This enhanced mechanism may have resulted from efficient charge separation of photogenerated electrons and holes due to the Au NPs attached on the TiO2. In addition, the composites possessed superparamagnetic properties with a high saturation magnetization of 44.6 emu g-1 and could be easily separated and recycled by a magnet.

  14. Enhancing the photocatalytic activity of nanocrystalline TiO2 by co-doping with fluorine and yttrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Huarong; Miao, Guashuai; Ma, Xingping; Wang, Bei; Zheng, Haiwu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • (F, Y)-codoped TiO 2 nanoparticles were prepared by a simple sol–gel method. • The highest photocatalytic activity (15 times of that over the pure TiO 2 ) was exhibited in the codoped TiO 2 with 0.05% Y doping level. • The Y doping induced oxygen vancancies played a duel role on the photocatalyic activity of the codoped TiO 2 . • The photocatalytic reactive oxygen species are critical to the photocatalytic degradation processes. - Abstract: Fluorine and yttrium codoped TiO 2 nanoparticles were prepared using a simple sol–gel method. The products were characterized with various spectroscopic and analytical techniques to determine their structural, morphological, optical absorption and photocatalytic properties. The results reveal that neither F nor Y doping causes obvious absorption edge shift in TiO 2 . Photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra present that the PL signal is enhanced, suggesting a decrease of photo-generated charge carrier separation efficiency, after the F or Y doping. The synergistic action by the F and Y doping leads to the highest photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue solution in the 0.05% (F, Y)-codoped sample (15 times of that over the pure TiO 2 ). With the increase of Y doping level, the photocatalytic performance in the codoped samples increases firstly and then decreases. The photocatalytic activity variations after the F and Y doping were interpreted by the formation of photocatalytic reactive oxygen species induced by the dopings

  15. Influence of Se/N Codoping on the Structural, Optical, Electronic and Photocatalytic Properties of TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelda Y. Gurkan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Se4+ and N3− ions were used as codopants to enhance the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 under sunlight irradiation. The Se/N codoped photocatalysts were prepared through a simple wet-impregnation method followed by heat treatment using SeCl4 and urea as the dopant sources. The prepared photocatalysts were well characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, UV-diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-DRS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Raman spectroscopy. The codoped samples showed photoabsorption in the visible light range from 430 nm extending up to 580 nm. The photocatalytic activity of the Se/N codoped photocatalysts was evaluated by degradation of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP. The degradation of 4-NP was highly increased for the Se/N codoped samples compared to the undoped and single doped samples under both UV-A and sunlight irradiation. Aiming to determine the electronic structure and dopant locations, quantum chemical modeling of the undoped and Se/N codoped anatase clusters was performed using Density Functional Theory (DFT calculations with the hybrid functional (B3LYP and double-zeta (LanL2DZ basis set. The results revealed that Se/N codoping of TiO2 reduces the band gap due to mixing of N2p with O2p orbitals in the valence band and also introduces additional electronic states originating from Se3p orbitals in the band gap.

  16. One-step electrospinning synthesis of TiO2/g-C3N4 nanofibers with enhanced photocatalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qian; Meng, Xianfeng; Wang, Zhiying; Zhou, Jianwei; Tang, Hua

    2018-02-01

    TiO2/g-C3N4 composite nanofibers have been successfully synthesized by one-step electrospinning method, using titanium (IV) n-butoxide (TNBT) and urea as raw materials. The structure and compositions of TiO2/g-C3N4 samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), respectively. The results show that the porous uniform TiO2/g-C3N4 composite nanofibers, with diameter of 100-150 nm, can be successfully prepared through electrospinning method combining 550 °C calcination process. The photocatalytic activity is evaluated by the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under simulated solar light. The enhanced catalytic activity is attributed predominantly to the heterojunction between TiO2 and g-C3N4, which promotes the transferring of carriers and prohibits their recombination. With the optimal doping amount of 0.6 g urea (corresponding to 3 g TNBT), the TiO2/g-C3N4 composite nanofibers exhibit the highest rate towards the photocatalytic degradation of RhB. A diagram is presented to explicate the mechanism of the whole catalytic experiment. This study might provide a promising future of applying green catalysts to solving water pollution problems.

  17. SYNTHESIS OF MAGNETIC NANOPARTICLES OF TiO2-NiFe2O4: CHARACTERIZATION AND PHOTOCATALYTIC ACTIVITY ON DEGRADATION OF RHODAMINE B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmayeni Rahmayeni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanoparticles of TiO2-(xNiFe2O4 with x = 0.01, 0.1, and 0.3have been synthesized by mixture of titanium isopropoxide (TIP and nitric metal as precursors. The particles were characterized by XRD, SEM-EDX, and VSM. XRD pattern show the peaks at 2q = 25.3°, 38.4° and 47.9° which are referred as anatase phase of TiO2. Meanwhile NiFe2O4 phase was observed clearly for x = 0.3. The present of NiFe2O4 can prevent the transformation of TiO2 from anatase to rutile when the calcination temperature increased. Microstructure analyses by SEM show the homogeneous form and size of particles. The magnetic properties analysis by VSM indicates that TiO2-NiFe2O4 is paramagnetic behavior. TiO2 doped NiFe2O4 has higher photocatalytic activity than TiO2 synthesized for degradation of Rhodamine B in aqueous solution under solar light irradiation.

  18. Effect of porphyrin on photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles toward Rhodamine B photodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M A; Abou-Gamra, Z M; Medien, H A A; Hamza, M A

    2017-11-01

    As known, porphyrins have central role in photosynthesis, biological oxidation and reduction and oxygen transport beside to their intensive color which qualify them to be good photosensitizers. Herein, tetra (4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin (TCPP) was prepared by a simple one-pot synthesis to use as a visible antenna for TiO 2 nanoparticles that were prepared via a simple template-free sol-gel method. Various loading percentages of TCPP (0.05-1%) were incorporated on the surface of TiO 2 as photosensitizer for photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (Rh B) dye as a primary cationic pollutant model. Among them, 0.1% TCPP-TiO 2 was the most reactive sample. It was found that the photoactivity of 0.1% TCPP-TiO 2 sample (0.5g/L) was approximately 1.5 times greater than that of pure TiO 2 (0.5g/L) toward the degradation of Rh B (1×10 -5 M) under UV-A irradiation. Transient fluorescence decay measurements showed that the life time of TiO 2 excited state has doubled after anchoring TCPP, thus the probability of electron-hole recombination has decreased. The samples were characterized by XRD, HR-TEM, DRS and N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. The XRD patterns confirmed the successful preparation of TiO 2 nanoparticles with average crystalline size of 25.7nm. Also, XRD patterns suggested the presence of mixed phase TiO 2 nanoparticles of 77% anatase and 23% rutile. DRS showed that the characteristic peaks of TCPP covered the whole visible range 400-700nm. HR-TEM images showed the spheroids shape of TiO 2 nanoparticles and confirmed the presence of anatase and rutile phases as suggested from XRD data. The different parameters affecting the photodegradation of Rh B dye such as catalyst dose, dye concentration and pH were studied to obtain the optimum conditions. Almost complete degradation of Rh B was obtained which confirmed by HPLC and TOC measurements. The effect of scavengers was studied to indicate the most active species. TCPP-TiO 2 gave a good response toward the

  19. Hydrothermal synthesis of core–shell TiO2 to enhance the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Jinghui; Zhou, Han; Zhang, Fan; Fan, Tongxiang; Zhang, Di

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Core–shell TiO 2 with interior cavity was synthesized by a hydrothermal approach to enhance the photocatalytic performance. - Highlights: • Core–shell TiO 2 with interior cavity can be synthesized by hydrothermal approach. • Multiple reflection of incident light in cavity can increase the absorption. • Rutile can optimize the bandgap and delay the charge recombination. - Abstract: A hydrothermal approach was designed to synthesize core–shell TiO 2 with interior cavity by making sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS) as the surfactant and the mixture of water and ethanol as the solvent. The control experiment of solvent reveals ethanol and water are responsible for the formation of sphere and interior cavity, respectively. Besides, SDS can assist the growth of core–shell structure, and the sizes of sphere and interior cavity can be tuned by regulating the reaction time or temperature. UV–vis absorption proves core–shell structure with interior cavity can increase the absorption of incident light to enhance the optical activity of final product. The calculated bandgap and photoluminescence (PL) analyses reveal the coexistence of rutile in final product can optimize the bandgap to 3.03 eV and delay the charge recombination. As a result, an effective photocatalytic hydrogen evolution under full spectrum irradiation can be harvested by the as-synthesized core–shell spheres to reach a quantum yield, approximately 9.57% at 340 nm wavelength.

  20. Preparation and Photocatalytic Property of TiO2/Diatomite-Based Porous Ceramics Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuilin Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The diatomite-based porous ceramics was made by low-temperature sintering. Then the nano-TiO2/diatomite-based porous ceramics composite materials were prepared by hydrolysis deposition method with titanium tetrachloride as the precursor of TiO2 and diatomite-based porous as the supporting body of the nano-TiO2. The structure and microscopic appearance of nano-TiO2/diatomite-based porous ceramics composite materials was characterized by XRD and SEM. The photocatalytic property of the composite was investigated by the degradation of malachite green. Results showed that, after calcination at 550°C, TiO2 thin film loaded on the diatomite-based porous ceramics is anatase TiO2 and average grain size of TiO2 is about 10 nm. The degradation ratio of the composite for 5 mg/L malachite green solution reached 86.2% after irradiation for 6 h under ultraviolet.

  1. Photocatalytic degradation of malathion using Zn2+-doped TiO2 nanoparticles: statistical analysis and optimization of operating parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseri, Simin; Omidvar Borna, Mohammad; Esrafili, Ali; Rezaei Kalantary, Roshanak; Kakavandi, Babak; Sillanpää, Mika; Asadi, Anvar

    2018-02-01

    A Zn2+-doped TiO2 is successfully synthesized by a facile photodeposition method and used in the catalytic photo-degradation of organophosphorus pesticide, malathion. The obtained photocatalysts are characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD results confirm the formation of the anatase and rutile phases for the Zn2+-doped TiO2 nanoparticles, with crystallite sizes of 12.9 nm. Zn2+-doped TiO2 that was synthesized by 3.0%wt Zn doping at 200 °C exhibited the best photocatalytic activity. 60 sets of experiments were conducted using response surface methodology (RSM) by adjusting five operating parameters, i.e. initial malathion concentration, catalyst dose, pH, reaction time at five levels and presence or absence of UV light. The analysis revealed that all considered parameters are significant in the degradation process in their linear terms. The optimum values of the variables were found to be 177.59 mg/L, 0.99 g/L, 10.99 and 81.04 min for initial malathion concentration, catalyst dose, pH and reaction time, respectively, under UV irradiation (UV ON). Under the optimized conditions, the experimental values of degradation and mineralization were 98 and 74%, respectively. Moreover, the effects of competing anions and H2O2 on photocatalyst process were also investigated.

  2. FTIR study of formic acid interaction with TiO2 and TiO2 doped with Pd and Cu in photocatalytic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arana, J.; Garriga i Cabo, C.; Dona-Rodriguez, J.M.; Gonzalez-Diaz, O.; Herrera-Melian, J.A.; Perez-Pena, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this study the different processes occurring on the TiO 2 and Pd and Cu doped TiO 2 surfaces during the photocatalytic formic acid degradation in the presence or absence of S 2 O 8 2- or H 2 O 2 have been investigated. FTIR studies have shown the relevance of the H-bounded hydroxyl groups. It has been observed that formate molecules interact simultaneously with the dopants and surfacial Ti atoms yielding an intermediate species which plays an important role in the phototacatalytic degradation mechanism. Also, it has been determined that Pd or Cu oxides may act as receptors or transmitters of the TiO 2 photogenerated electrons and thus modify the degradation mechanism. Different redox reactions have been proposed according to the obtained results

  3. Photocatalytic oxidation dynamics of acetone on TiO2: tight-binding quantum chemical molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Chen; Wang Xiaojing; Agalya, Govindasamy; Koyama, Michihisa; Kubo, Momoji; Miyamoto, Akira

    2005-01-01

    The clarification of the excited states dynamics on TiO 2 surface is important subject for the design of the highly active photocatalysts. In the present study, we applied our novel tight-binding quantum chemical molecular dynamics method to the investigation on the photocatalytic oxidation dynamics of acetone by photogenerated OH radicals on the hydrated anatase TiO 2 surface. The elucidated photocatalytic reaction mechanism strongly supports the previous experimental proposal and finally the effectiveness of our new approach for the clarification of the photocatalytic reaction dynamics employing the large simulation model was confirmed

  4. Increased visible-light photocatalytic activity of TiO2 via band gap manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Ashley Marie

    Hydrogen gas is a clean burning fuel that has potential applications in stationary and mobile power generation and energy storage, but is commercially produced from non-renewable fossil natural gas. Using renewable biomass as the hydrocarbon feed instead could provide sustainable and carbon-neutral hydrogen. We focus on photocatalytic oxidation and reforming of methanol over modified titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles to produce hydrogen gas. Methanol is used as a model for biomass sugars. By using a photocatalyst, we aim to circumvent the high energy cost of carrying out endothermic reactions at commercial scale. TiO2 is a semiconductor metal oxide of particular interest in photocatalysis due to its photoactivity under ultraviolet illumination and its stability under catalytic reaction conditions. However, TiO2 primarily absorbs ultraviolet light, with little absorption of visible light. While an effective band gap for absorbance of photons from visible light is 1.7 eV, TiO2 polymorphs rutile and anatase, have band gaps of 3.03 eV and 3.20 eV respectively, which indicate ultraviolet light. As most of incident solar radiation is visible light, we hypothesize that decreasing the band gap of TiO2 will increase the efficiency of TiO2 as a visible-light active photocatalyst. We propose to modify the band gap of TiO2 by manipulating the catalyst structure and composition via metal nanoparticle deposition and heteroatom doping in order to more efficiently utilize solar radiation. Of the metal-modified Degussa P25 TiO2 samples (P25), the copper and nickel modified samples, 1%Cu/P25 and 1%Ni/P25 yielded the lowest band gap of 3.05 eV each. A difference of 0.22 eV from the unmodified P25. Under visible light illumination 1%Ni/P25 and 1%Pt/P25 had the highest conversion of methanol of 9.9% and 9.6%, respectively.

  5. In situ growth of TiO2 nanocrystals on g-C3N4 for enhanced photocatalytic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Zhou, Liang; Wang, Lingzhi; Liu, Yongdi; Lei, Juying; Zhang, Jinlong

    2015-07-14

    Well dispersed TiO2 nanocrystals with (001) facets were successfully grown in situ on g-C3N4 through a facial solvothermal method. The resultant TiO2/g-C3N4 composites exhibit remarkably higher efficiency for photocatalytic degradation of phenol as compared to pure catalysts (g-C3N4 or TiO2) or mechanically mixed TiO2/g-C3N4. The optimal composite with 11.2 wt% TiO2 showed the highest degradation rate constant, which is 2.8 times that of pure g-C3N4, 2.2 times that of pure TiO2, and 1.4 times that of mechanically mixed TiO2/g-C3N4. The enhanced photocatalytic activity is mainly attributed to the effective charge separation derived from two aspects: (1) well matched energy levels between TiO2 and g-C3N4 and (2) a uniform and close contact between TiO2 and g-C3N4 that resulted from the in situ growth of highly dispersed TiO2 nanocrystals. The TiO2/g-C3N4 hybrid material prepared in this study is expected to provide a good foundation for the further design and synthesis of advanced TiO2/g-C3N4-based functional materials, and the in situ growth method developed is hopeful to provide a new strategy for the synthesis of other semiconductor-modified g-C3N4 materials.

  6. Fabrication and enhanced photocatalytic properties of Pt@SiO2@TiO2 composites by surface plasma resonance from Pt nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fangfang; Liu, Wei; Liu, Yousong; Wang, Junyi; Ji, Guangbin

    2015-02-01

    Pt@SiO2@TiO2 composites with an average diameter of about 120 nm were synthesized by an aqueous method. Morphology, microstructure, and light absorption performance of as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results indicate that 5-nm-thick SiO2 interlayer coated on the Pt nanoparticles were used to separate the Pt from the TiO2. The covering SiO2 layer between Pt nanoparticles and TiO2 layer present a wide spectral response. The enhanced photocatalytic efficiency under both the full spectrum and visible light can be attributed to the existence of Pt nanoparticles and interlayer SiO2. The coupling processes between TiO2 and plasmon were presented and the mechanism was discussed. The localized surface plasmon resonance effect of Pt nanoparticles is the main reason for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of the composite Pt@SiO2@TiO2.

  7. A facile photoassisted route to synthesis N, F-codoped oxygen-deficient TiO2 with enhanced photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xiaolan; Han, Ying; Song, Xuezhi; Tan, Zhenquan

    2018-03-01

    Herein, we report a facile and economical photoassisted strategy for synthesizing the highly active N, F-codoped oxygen-deficient TiO2 with coexposed {001} and {101} facets. NH4TiOF3 mesocrystals were used to act as the resource of dopants and the intermediate to fabricate TiO2 with highly active {001} facets. Comprehensive analysis based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electron spin resonances manifested that F, N and oxygen vacancies were simultaneously introduced to TiO2 through the photoassisted process. The test of phenol and Rhodamine B (RhB) degradation under visible light demonstrates that the as-prepared N, F codoped oxygen-deficient TiO2 exhibits higher photocatalytic activity than its references. The increased photocatalytic performances results from the synergetic effect of the induced Vo's and N, F codoping in TiO2 with co-exposed {001} and {101} facets, favoring the visible light utilization as well as the separation of photogenerated carriers. This strategy is expected to provide a new insight into the design of high performance photocatalysts.

  8. The role played by different TiO2 features on the photocatalytic degradation of paracetamol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Luca; Meroni, Daniela; Falletta, Ermelinda; Ferretti, Anna Maria; Gervasini, Antonella; Cappelletti, Giuseppe; Ardizzone, Silvia

    2017-12-01

    Photocatalytic reactions promoted by TiO2 can be affected by a large number of oxide features (e.g. surface area, morphology and phase composition). In this context, the role played by the surface characteristics (e.g. surface acidity, wettability, etc.) has been often disregarded. In this work, pristine and Ta-doped TiO2 nanomaterials with different phase composition (pure anatase and anatase/brookite mixture) were synthesized by sol-gel and characterized under the structural and morphological point of view. A careful characterization of the acid properties of the materials has been performed by liquid-solid acid-base titration by means of 2-phenylethylamine (PEA) adsorption to determine the acid site density and average acid strength. Photocatalytic tests were performed in the degradation of paracetamol (acetaminophen) under UV irradiation and results were discussed in the light of the detailed scenarios describing the different oxides. The surface acidity of the samples, was recognized as one of the key parameters controlling the photocatalytic activity. A possible molecule degradation route is proposed on the ground of GC-MS and ESI-MS analyses.

  9. Photocatalytic degradation of Azure and Sudan dyes using nano TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarthi, T.; Narahari, Prashanthi; Madras, Giridhar

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates the dependence of photocatalytic rate on molecular structure of the substrate that is degraded. The photocatalytic degradation of Azure (A and B) and Sudan (III and IV) dyes, having similar structure, but different functional groups, were investigated with two catalysts. The photocatalytic activity of solution combustion synthesized TiO 2 (CS TiO 2 ) was compared with that of Degussa P-25 for degrading these dyes. The effect of solvents and mixed-solvent system on photodegradation of Sudan III was investigated. The photodegradation rate was found to be higher in solvents with higher polarity. The effect of pH and the presence of metal ions in the form of chloride and nitrate salt, on degradation rate of Azure A was also investigated. The metal ions significantly reduced the photocatalysis rates. A detailed Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model has been developed to explain the effect of metal ions on degradation rate of the substrate. This model elucidates the contribution of holes and electrons towards degradation of the dye

  10. Photocatalytic degradation of Azure and Sudan dyes using nano TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarthi, T; Narahari, Prashanthi; Madras, Giridhar

    2007-11-19

    The present study investigates the dependence of photocatalytic rate on molecular structure of the substrate that is degraded. The photocatalytic degradation of Azure (A and B) and Sudan (III and IV) dyes, having similar structure, but different functional groups, were investigated with two catalysts. The photocatalytic activity of solution combustion synthesized TiO(2) (CS TiO(2)) was compared with that of Degussa P-25 for degrading these dyes. The effect of solvents and mixed-solvent system on photodegradation of Sudan III was investigated. The photodegradation rate was found to be higher in solvents with higher polarity. The effect of pH and the presence of metal ions in the form of chloride and nitrate salt, on degradation rate of Azure A was also investigated. The metal ions significantly reduced the photocatalysis rates. A detailed Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model has been developed to explain the effect of metal ions on degradation rate of the substrate. This model elucidates the contribution of holes and electrons towards degradation of the dye.

  11. Function of TiO2 Lattice Defects toward Photocatalytic Processes: View of Electronic Driven Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanan Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen vacancies and Ti-related defects (OTDs are the main lattice defects of TiO2, which have great influence on its photocatalytic activity. To understand the relationship between the defects and photocatalytic activities, detailed discussions based on the electronic driven force provided by these defects are carried out during the three commonly accepted processes in photocatalytic reactions. It is found that these defects inevitably (i influence the energy structure of the pristine TiO2 as the isolate acceptor/donor level or hybrid with the original orbital, (ii provide a disordered short-range force that confuses the charge carriers transferring to surface active sites, (iii act not only as the surface active sites for trapping the charge carriers but also as the main chemisorption sites for O2, H2O, and organic species. These effects of the defects make them one of the key factors that determine the efficiency of heterogeneous photocatalysis. Clarifying the role of the defects will further facilitate the exploration and the construction of high-performance photocatalysts for practical applications.

  12. Transformation of hydrogen titanate nanoribbons to TiO2 nanoribbons and the influence of the transformation strategies on the photocatalytic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Rutar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the reaction conditions during the transformation of hydrogen titanate nanoribbons to TiO2 nanoribbons on the phase composition, the morphology, the appearance of the nanoribbon surfaces and their optical properties was investigated. The transformations were performed (i through a heat treatment in oxidative and reductive atmospheres in the temperature range of 400–650 °C, (ii through a hydrothermal treatment in neutral and basic environments at 160 °C, and (iii through a microwave-assisted hydrothermal treatment in a neutral environment at 200 °C. Scanning electron microscopy investigations showed that the hydrothermal processing significantly affected the nanoribbon surfaces, which became rougher, while the transformations based on calcination in either oxidative or reductive atmospheres had no effect on the morphology or on the surface appearance of the nanoribbons. The transformations performed in the reductive atmosphere, an NH3(g/Ar(g flow, and in the ammonia solution led to nitrogen doping. The nitrogen content increased with an increasing calcination temperature, as was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. According to electron paramagnetic resonance measurements the calcination in the reductive atmosphere also resulted in a partial reduction of Ti4+ to Ti3+. The photocatalytic performance of the derived TiO2 NRs was estimated on the basis of the photocatalytic oxidation of isopropanol. After calcinating in air, the photocatalytic performance of the investigated TiO2 NRs increased with an increased content of anatase. In contrast, the photocatalytic performance of the N-doped TiO2 NRs showed no dependence on the calcination temperature. An additional comparison showed that the N-doping significantly suppressed the photocatalytic performance of the TiO2 NRs, i.e., by 3 to almost 10 times, in comparison with the TiO2 NRs derived by calcination in air. On the other hand, the photocatalytic performance of the

  13. Transformation of hydrogen titanate nanoribbons to TiO2 nanoribbons and the influence of the transformation strategies on the photocatalytic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutar, Melita; Rozman, Nejc; Pregelj, Matej; Bittencourt, Carla; Cerc Korošec, Romana; Sever Škapin, Andrijana; Mrzel, Aleš; Škapin, Srečo D; Umek, Polona

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the reaction conditions during the transformation of hydrogen titanate nanoribbons to TiO2 nanoribbons on the phase composition, the morphology, the appearance of the nanoribbon surfaces and their optical properties was investigated. The transformations were performed (i) through a heat treatment in oxidative and reductive atmospheres in the temperature range of 400-650 °C, (ii) through a hydrothermal treatment in neutral and basic environments at 160 °C, and (iii) through a microwave-assisted hydrothermal treatment in a neutral environment at 200 °C. Scanning electron microscopy investigations showed that the hydrothermal processing significantly affected the nanoribbon surfaces, which became rougher, while the transformations based on calcination in either oxidative or reductive atmospheres had no effect on the morphology or on the surface appearance of the nanoribbons. The transformations performed in the reductive atmosphere, an NH3(g)/Ar(g) flow, and in the ammonia solution led to nitrogen doping. The nitrogen content increased with an increasing calcination temperature, as was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. According to electron paramagnetic resonance measurements the calcination in the reductive atmosphere also resulted in a partial reduction of Ti(4+) to Ti(3+). The photocatalytic performance of the derived TiO2 NRs was estimated on the basis of the photocatalytic oxidation of isopropanol. After calcinating in air, the photocatalytic performance of the investigated TiO2 NRs increased with an increased content of anatase. In contrast, the photocatalytic performance of the N-doped TiO2 NRs showed no dependence on the calcination temperature. An additional comparison showed that the N-doping significantly suppressed the photocatalytic performance of the TiO2 NRs, i.e., by 3 to almost 10 times, in comparison with the TiO2 NRs derived by calcination in air. On the other hand, the photocatalytic performance of the

  14. Rapid and efficient photocatalytic reduction of hexavalent chromium by using “water dispersible” TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lei; Kang, Shi-Zhao; Li, Xiangqing; Qin, Lixia; Yan, Hao; Mu, Jin

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, “water dispersible” TiO 2 nanoparticles were prepared, and meanwhile, their photocatalytic activity was systematically tested for the reduction of aqueous Cr(VI) ions. It is found that the as-prepared “water dispersible” TiO 2 nanoparticles are a highly efficient photocatalyst for the reduction of Cr(VI) ions in water under UV irradiation, and suitable for the remediation of Cr(VI) ions wastewater with low concentration. Compared with commercial TiO 2 nanoparticles (P25), the “water dispersible” TiO 2 nanoparticles exhibit 3.8-fold higher photocatalytic activity. 100% Cr (VI) ions can be reduced into Cr(III) ions within 10 min when the Cr (VI) ions initial concentration is 10 mg L −1 . Moreover, the electrical energy consumption can be obviously decreased using the “water dispersible” TiO 2 nanoparticles. These results suggest that the “water dispersible” TiO 2 nanoparticles are a promising photocatalyst for rapid removal of Cr (VI) in environmental therapy. - Highlights: • “Water dispersible” TiO 2 nanoparticles with high photocatalytic activity. • 100% Cr (VI) (10 mg L −1 ) can be reduced within 10 min. • Obvious decrease of electrical energy consumption.

  15. Enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles by surface-capping DBS groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Baiqi; Jing Liqiang; Qu Yichun; Li Shudan; Jiang Baojiang; Yang Libin; Xin Baifu; Fu Honggang

    2006-01-01

    TiO 2 nanoparticles capped with sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS) are synthesized by a sol-hydrothermal process using tetrabutyl titanate and DBS as raw materials. The effects of surface-capping DBS on the surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS), photoluminescence (PL) and photocatalytic performance of TiO 2 nanoparticles are principally investigated together with their relationships. The results show that the surface of TiO 2 nanoparticles can be well capped by DBS groups while the pH value and added DBS amount are controlled at 5.0 and 2% of TiO 2 mass weight, respectively, and the linkage between DBS groups and TiO 2 surfaces is mainly by means of quasi-sulphonate bond. The intensities of SPS and PL spectra of TiO 2 obviously decrease after DBS-capping, while the activity can greatly increase during the photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) solution, which are mainly attributed to the electron-withdrawing character of the DBS groups. Moreover, the enhancement of photocatalytic activity of DBS-capped TiO 2 is also related to the increase in the capability for adsorbing RhB

  16. Photocatalytic Hydrogen or Oxygen Evolution from Water over S- or N-Doped TiO2 under Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumoto Nishijima

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available S- or N-doping of TiO2 powder having an anatase or rutile phase extended the photocatalytic activity for water oxidation and reduction under UV light and visible light irradiation. For the reduction of water, anatase-doped TiO2 showed higher level of activity than that of doped TiO2 having a rutile phase using ethanol as an electron donor. Furthermore, the activity level of S-doped TiO2 for hydrogen evolution was higher than that of N-doped TiO2 photocatalysts under visible light. Photocatalytic oxidation of water on doped TiO2 having a rutile phase proceeded with fairly high efficiency when Fe3+ ions were used as electron acceptors compared to that on doped TiO2 having an anatase phase. In addition, water splitting under visible light irradiation was achieved by construction of a Z-scheme photocatalysis system employing the doped TiO2 having anatase and rutile phases for H2 and O2 evolution and the I−/IO3− redox couple as an electron relay.

  17. Structural and photocatalytic properties of iron- and europium-doped TiO2 nanoparticles obtained under hydrothermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamandescu, L.; Vasiliu, F.; Tarabasanu-Mihaila, D.; Feder, M.; Vlaicu, A.M.; Teodorescu, C.M.; Macovei, D.; Enculescu, I.; Parvulescu, V.; Vasile, E.

    2008-01-01

    Iron- and europium-doped (≤1 at.%) TiO 2 nanoparticles powders have been synthesized by a hydrothermal route at 200 deg. C, starting with TiCl 4 , FeCl 3 .6H 2 O and EuCl 3 .6H 2 O. The structure, morphology and optical peculiarities were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), Moessbauer spectroscopy and UV-vis measurements. The photocatalytic performance was analysed in the photodegradation reaction of phenol. Rietveld refinements of XRD patterns reveal that the as-prepared samples consist in iron- and europium-doped TiO 2 in the tetragonal anatase structural shape, with particle size as low as 15 nm. By means of Moessbauer spectroscopy on both 57 Fe and 151 Eu isotopes as well as by EXAFS analyses, the presence of Fe 3+ and/or Eu 3+ ions in the nanosized powders has been evidenced. It was found that iron and europium ions can substitute for titanium in the anatase structure. From the UV-vis reflection spectra, by using the transformed Kubelka-Munk functions, the band gap energy (E g ) of the hydrothermal samples has been determined in comparison with that of Degussa P-25 photocatalyst. A decrease of E g from 2.9 eV found for Degussa photocatalyst to 2.8 eV for the titania doped with 1 at.% Fe has been evidenced, indicating a valuable absorption shift (∼20 nm) towards visible light region. However, the best photocatalytic activity in the photodegradation reaction of phenol was evidenced for the hydrothermal sample, TiO 2 : 1 at.% Fe, 0.5 at.% Eu, in both UV and visible light regions. The photocatalytic activities of iron-doped and iron-europium-codoped samples are high and practically the same only in visible light. The photocatalytic properties in correlation with the structural and optical peculiarities of the hydrothermal samples are discussed

  18. Characterization and photocatalytic activity of boron-doped TiO2 thin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    was found that chlorobenzene undergoes degradation efficiently in presence of boron doped TiO2 thin films by exposing its aqueous solution to ... at different irradiation times. The solution was bubbled frequently with air during irradiation. ... X-ray diffraction spectra were obtained from an X-ray diffractometer (type PW 3710 ...

  19. On the photocatalytic reduction of MTT tetrazolium salt on the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles: Formazan production kinetics and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Traian; Lupu, Andreea R; Raditoiu, Valentin; Purcar, Violeta; Teodorescu, Valentin S

    2015-11-01

    The MTT [3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium-bromide] cell cytotoxicity indicator is photocatalytically reduced on the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles in phosphate-buffered-saline (PBS) environment. We hypothesize that specific phosphate adsorption may be used to modulate the efficiency of the TiO2-MTT reaction through colloidal and semiconductor-liquid interface processes. The TiO2-MTT reaction kinetics was studied in PBS, with respect to photocatalyst and MTT concentrations and irradiation wavelength. The effects of PBS and electron scavengers (Fe(3+) ions) on reaction efficiency and the role of colloidal surface charge in the photocatalytic process were investigated. The structural and spectroscopic characteristics of relevant TiO2-formazan systems were studied by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and IR-spectroscopy. The reaction was pseudo-first order with respect to photocatalyst and showed a negative and fractional partial order with respect to MTT. Formazan production rates were directly proportional to radiation wavelength and TiO2 concentration and inversely proportional to the MTT initial concentration. The addition of Fe(3+) ions, as well as the absence of PBS, induced strong reaction inhibition. Reaction efficiency and catalyst Zeta potential were enhanced by Na2HPO4 (PBS component) and showed a maximum around the phosphate concentration 0.005 M. Structural/spectroscopic characterization confirmed the formation of amorphous MTT-formazan on the surface of TiO2 and the TiO2-phosphate binding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Carbon as amorphous shell and interstitial dopant in mesoporous rutile TiO2: Bio-template assisted sol-gel synthesis and photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamad Azuwa; Wan Salleh, Wan Norharyati; Jaafar, Juhana; Rosmi, Mohamad Saufi; Mohd. Hir, Zul Adlan; Abd Mutalib, Muhazri; Ismail, Ahmad Fauzi; Tanemura, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    Regenerated cellulose membrane was used as bio-template nanoreactor for the formation of rutile TiO2 mesoporous, as well as in-situ carbon dopant in acidified sol-gel system. The effects of calcination temperature on the physicochemical characteristic of core-shell nanostructured of bio-templated C-doped mesoporous TiO2 are highlighted in this study. By varying the calcination temperature, the thickness of the carbon shell coating on TiO2, crystallinity, surface area, and optical properties could be tuned as confirmed by HRTEM, nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurement, XRD and UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. The results suggested that increment in the calcination temperature would lead to the band gap narrowing from 2.95 to 2.80 eV and the thickness of carbon shell increased from 0.40 to 1.20 nm. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the visible light absorption capability was mainly due to the incorporation of carbon dopant at interstitial position in the TiO2 to form Osbnd Tisbnd C or Tisbnd Osbnd C bond. In addition, the formation of the carbon core-shell nanostructured was due to carbonaceous layer grafted onto the surface of TiO2 via Tisbnd Osbnd C and Tisbnd OCO bonds. The result indicated that bio-templated C-doped core-shell mesoporous TiO2 prepared at 300 °C exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity. It is worthy to note that, the calcination temperature provided a huge impact towards improving the physicochemical and photocatalytic properties of the prepared bio-templated C-doped core-shell mesoporous TiO2.

  1. Hierarchical TiO2 nanospheres with dominant {001} facets: facile synthesis, growth mechanism, and photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongmei; Zeng, Yangsu; Huang, Tongcheng; Piao, Lingyu; Yan, Zijie; Liu, Min

    2012-06-11

    Hierarchical TiO(2) nanospheres with controlled surface morphologies and dominant {001} facets were directly synthesized from Ti powder by a facile, one-pot, hydrothermal method. The obtained hierarchical TiO(2) nanospheres have a uniform size of 400-500 nm and remarkable 78 % fraction of {001} facets. The influence of the reaction temperature, amount of HF, and reaction time on the morphology and the exposed facets was systematically studied. A possible growth mechanism speculates that Ti powder first dissolves in HF solution, and then flowerlike TiO(2) nanostructures are formed by assembly of TiO(2) nanocrystals. Because of the high concentration of HF in the early stage, these TiO(2) nanostructures were etched, and hollow structures formed on the surface. After the F(-) ions were effectively absorbed on the crystal surfaces, {001} facets appear and grow steadily. At the same time, the {101} facets also grow and meet the {101} facets from adjacent truncated tetragonal pyramids, causing coalescence of these facets and formation of nanospheres with dominant {001} facets. With further extension of the reaction time, single-crystal {001} facets of hierarchical TiO(2) nanospheres are dissolved and TiO(2) nanospheres with dominant {101} facets are obtained. The photocatalytic activities of the hierarchical TiO(2) nanospheres were evaluated and found to be closely related to the exposed {001} facets. Owing to the special hierarchical architecture and high percentage of exposed {001} facets, the TiO(2) nanospheres exhibit much enhanced photocatalytic efficiency (almost fourfold) compared to P25 TiO(2) as a benchmark material. This study provides new insight into crystal-facet engineering of anatase TiO(2) nanostructures with high percentage of {001} facets as well as opportunities for controllable synthesis of 3D hierarchical nanostructures. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Photocatalytic Activities Enhanced by Au-Plasmonic Nanoparticles on TiO2 Nanotube Photoelectrode Coated with MoO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chia-Jui; Tseng, Chuan-Ming; Lai, Sz-Nian; Yang, Chin-Ru; Hung, Wei-Hsuan

    2017-10-01

    Although TiO2 was formerly a common material for photocatalysis reactions, its wide band gap (3.2 eV) results in absorbing only ultraviolet light, which accounts for merely 4% of total sunlight. Modifying TiO2 has become a focus of photocatalysis reaction research, and combining two metal oxide semiconductors is the most common method in the photocatalytic enhancement process. When MoO3 and TiO2 come into contact to form a heterogeneous interface, the photogenerated holes excited from the valence band of MoO3 should be transferred to the valence band of TiO2 to effectively reduce the charge recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. This can efficiently separate the pairs and promote photocatalysis efficiency. In addition, photocurrent enhancement is attributed to the strong near-field and light-scattering effects from plasmonic Ag nanoparticles. In this work, we fabricated MoO3-coated TiO2 nanotube heterostructures with a 3D hierarchical configuration through two-step anodic oxidation and a facile hydrothermal method. This 3D hierarchical structure consists of a TiO2 nanotube core and a MoO3 shell (referred to as TNTs@MoO3), as characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Structure-Controlled Micro-/Nanocomposite TiO2 Fibers with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengcheng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of structure-controlled composite TiO2 fibers combining micro- and nanostructures (hereafter, micro-/nanocomposite were fabricated using a combination of electrospinning and calcination methods, and their photocatalytic activities were investigated. Smooth microscale fibers were obtained by electrospinning a precursor solution containing tetrabutyl titanate and TiF4. TiO2 nanocrystals formed on the microfibers with the help of HF which was produced from the decomposition of TiF4 in calcination. The size and quantity of TiO2 nanocrystals can be controlled by tuning the mass ratio of TiF4 in the sol-gel precursor solutions and the calcination time. The obtained micro-/nanocomposite TiO2 fibers were found to exhibit enhanced photocatalytic properties when compared with the bare microfibers. These micro-/nanocomposite structures exhibit the advantages of both the nanocrystals and microfibers, which will lead to new developments in photocatalysis.

  4. Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 on TiO2 and other semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habisreutinger, Severin N; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas; Stolarczyk, Jacek K

    2013-07-15

    Rising atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and the depletion of fossil fuel reserves raise serious concerns about the ensuing effects on the global climate and future energy supply. Utilizing the abundant solar energy to convert CO2 into fuels such as methane or methanol could address both problems simultaneously as well as provide a convenient means of energy storage. In this Review, current approaches for the heterogeneous photocatalytic reduction of CO2 on TiO2 and other metal oxide, oxynitride, sulfide, and phosphide semiconductors are presented. Research in this field is focused primarily on the development of novel nanostructured photocatalytic materials and on the investigation of the mechanism of the process, from light absorption through charge separation and transport to CO2 reduction pathways. The measures used to quantify the efficiency of the process are also discussed in detail. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. The design, fabrication, and photocatalytic utility of nanostructured semiconductors: focus on TiO2-based nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arghya Narayan Banerjee

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Arghya Narayan BanerjeeSchool of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, South KoreaAbstract: Recent advances in basic fabrication techniques of TiO2-based nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanowires, nanoplatelets, and both physical- and solution-based techniques have been adopted by various research groups around the world. Our research focus has been mainly on various deposition parameters used for fabricating nanostructured materials, including TiO2-organic/inorganic nanocomposite materials. Technically, TiO2 shows relatively high reactivity under ultraviolet light, the energy of which exceeds the band gap of TiO2. The development of photocatalysts exhibiting high reactivity under visible light allows the main part of the solar spectrum to be used. Visible light-activated TiO2 could be prepared by doping or sensitizing. As far as doping of TiO2 is concerned, in obtaining tailored material with improved properties, metal and nonmetal doping has been performed in the context of improved photoactivity. Nonmetal doping seems to be more promising than metal doping. TiO2 represents an effective photocatalyst for water and air purification and for self-cleaning surfaces. Additionally, it can be used as an antibacterial agent because of its strong oxidation activity and superhydrophilicity. Therefore, applications of TiO2 in terms of photocatalytic activities are discussed here. The basic mechanisms of the photoactivities of TiO2 and nanostructures are considered alongside band structure engineering and surface modification in nanostructured TiO2 in the context of doping. The article reviews the basic structural, optical, and electrical properties of TiO2, followed by detailed fabrication techniques of 0-, 1-, and quasi-2-dimensional TiO2 nanomaterials. Applications and future directions of nanostructured TiO2 are considered in the context of various photoinduced phenomena such as hydrogen production, electricity generation via

  6. Can TiO2-based photocatalytic textiles be used to improve the urban air quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ródenas, Mila; Fages, Eduardo; Fatarella, Enrico; Herrero, David; Castagnoli, Lidia; Borràs, Esther; Vera, Teresa; Gómez, Tatiana; Catota, Marlon; Carreño, Javier; Hernández, Daniel; Gimeno, Cristina; López, Ramón; Muñoz, Amalia

    2017-04-01

    Despite current legislation and efforts made to improve urban air quality, significant negative effects still persist. That is the case of traffic, which impact on air pollution is a growing problem. For this reason, depollution measures are necessary to reach safer air quality levels. Recently, the use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) based photocatalytic self-cleaning and de-polluting materials has been considered to remove air pollutants, especially NOx. TiO2 can be found in the market under different formats for environmental purposes, and its effectiveness depends not only on the support (concrete, paints, etc) but also on the impregnation method (layer, embedded, etc). By combining laboratory and field campaigns, the LIFE PHOTOCITYTEX project was conceived to demonstrate the effectiveness of using TiO2-based photocatalytic nanomaterials in textiles as a way of alleviating the air pollution in urban areas. Within the project, which is already within its last year, two one-year extensive passive dosimetric campaigns have already been completed to assess their impact on the selected urban sites, measuring before and after the installation of the photocatalytic textile prototypes, respectively. Also, intensive active measurement campaigns (using active dosimetry, monitors and instrumentation for physical parameters) have been conducted to account for winter and summer conditions. Besides, lab-tests have been concluded to determine optimal photocatalytic formulations on textiles, and these have been tested at the EUPHORE simulation chambers under typical environmental conditions of various European cities. Besides the effect on NOx, which has been the main focus of the study, VOCs formation and abatement has been assessed, yielding in a better overall understanding of the whole process and its implications. Very promising results on the deep reduction of NOx have been observed at EUPHORE. From the calculation of the uptake coefficient, a mathematical model tool foresees

  7. The Synthesis of a Core-Shell Photocatalyst Material YF3:Ho3+@TiO2 and Investigation of Its Photocatalytic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Xu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, YF3:Ho3+@TiO2 core-shell nanomaterials were prepared by hydrolysis of tetra-n-butyl titanate (TBOT using polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 (PVP as the coupling agent. Characterization methods including X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS under TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, fluorescence spectrometry, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and electron spin resonance (ESR were used to characterize the properties and working mechanism of the prepared photocatalyst material. They indicated that the core phase YF3 nanoparticles were successfully coated with a TiO2 shell and the length of the composite was roughly 100 nm. The Ho3+ single-doped YF3:Ho3+@TiO2 displayed strong visible absorption peaks with wavelengths of 450, 537, and 644 nm, respectively. By selecting these three peaks as excitation wavelengths, we could observe 288 nm (5D4→5I8 ultraviolet emission, which confirmed that there was indeed an energy transfer from YF3:Ho3+ to anatase TiO2. In addition, this paper investigated the influences of different TBOT dosages on photocatalysis performance of the as-prepared photocatalyst material. Results showed that the YF3:Ho3+@TiO2 core-shell nanomaterial was an advanced visible-light-driven catalyst, which decomposed approximately 67% of rhodamine b (RhB and 34.6% of phenol after 10 h of photocatalysis reaction. Compared with the blank experiment, the photocatalysis efficiency was significantly improved. Finally, the visible-light-responsive photocatalytic mechanism of YF3:Ho3+@TiO2 core-shell materials and the influencing factors of photocatalytic degradation were investigated to study the apparent kinetics, which provides a theoretical basis for improving the structural design and functions of this new type of catalytic material.

  8. Synthesis of activated charcoal supported Bi-doped TiO2 nanocomposite under solar light irradiation for enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandraboss, V. L.; Kamalakkannan, J.; Senthilvelan, S.

    2016-11-01

    In this study, activated charcoal (AC) supported bismuth (Bi)-doped Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocomposite was synthesized by precipitation method. The photocatalytic activity of AC-Bi/TiO2 was investigated for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution under solar light irradiation. The incorporation of Bi3+ into the TiO2 lattice shifts the absorbance of TiO2 to the visible region then the addition of high adsorption capacity activated charcoal to improve the efficiency of TiO2. AC-Bi/TiO2 is found to be more efficient than Bi/TiO2 and undoped TiO2 for the degradation of MB under solar light irradiation. Surface morphology and bulk composition of the composite was obtained using high resolution-scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The crystal structure evolution and elemental composition were analyzed by combining Fourier transform-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra show that the absorption edge for the composite with Bi3+ has red shift as compared with that of undoped TiO2. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra demonstrated a decrease in the direct band gap of AC-Bi/TiO2. BET surface area, pore radius and pore volume of the materials were calculated by applying the BET equation to the sorption isotherms. The production of hydroxyl radicals (rad OH) on the surface of solar light irradiated materialswere detected by photoluminescence technique using coumarin as a probe molecule. The mechanism of photocatalytic effect of the AC-Bi/TiO2 was proposed for the degradation of MB under solar light irradiation.

  9. Structure design and photocatalytic properties of one-dimensional SnO2-TiO2 composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Liu, Bitao; Chen, Junfang; Tian, Liangliang; Huang, Lei; Tu, Mingjing; Tan, Shuai

    2015-04-01

    One-dimensional SnO2-TiO2 composites were prepared via emulsion electrospinning process. The obtained samples were characterized by a series of devices. The results showed that the porous core-shell SnO2-TiO2 photocatalyst exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity on the degradation of methyl orange (MO). It should be ascribed to the novel structure, which could separate the electrons and holes effectively.

  10. Photocatalytic Activity in CH3CN Related to the Surface Properties of TiO2 Powders Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Bettoni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Some TiO2 powders, prepared from titanium(IVtetraisopropoxide by the sol-gel method and thermally treated between 100 and 1000∘C, have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and by nitrogen adsorption and desorption at 77 K to calculate the BET-specific surface area, from which the micropore volume and the external surface area can be derived. The photocatalytic activity (ka of the above powders has been evaluated considering the TiO2-sensitized photo-oxidation of 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol in CH3CN as the test reaction. The decrease of ka have been related to the decrease of the BET surface area, the micropore volume, and the external surface area of the TiO2 powders, but a satisfactory linear correlation is observed only for the last superficial parameter.

  11. TiO2 film/Cu2O microgrid heterojunction with photocatalytic activity under solar light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junying; Zhu, Hailing; Zheng, Shukai; Pan, Feng; Wang, Tianmin

    2009-10-01

    Coupling a narrow-band-gap semiconductor with TiO(2) is an effective method to produce photocatalysts that work under UV-vis light irradiation. Usually photocatalytic coupled-semiconductors exist mainly as powders, and photocatalytic activity is only favored when a small loading amount of narrow-band-gap semiconductor is used. Here we propose a heavy-loading photocatalyst configuration in which 51% of the surface of the TiO(2) film is covered by a Cu(2)O microgrid. The coupled system shows higher photocatalytic activity under solar light irradiation than TiO(2) and Cu(2)O films. This improved performance is due to the efficient charge transfer between the two phases and the similar opportunity each has to be exposed to irradiation and adsorbates.

  12. Study on the synthesis of novel TiO2-copper porphyrin catalyst and photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaorui CHEN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of different length side chain catalysts on photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange solution, solving the poroblem of water pollution control, four novel porphyrins and their corresponding copper complexes are synthesized from the starting material 1-naphthol, and their structures are characterized by MS, NMR and elemental analysis. Novel TiO2-porphyrins hybrid systems are prepared and its photocatalytic activity is investigated by photodegradation of methyl orange in aqueous solution under visible light. The results indicate that when there are side chains on the benzene ring of copper-porphyrin derivatives, the photocatalytic activity of substituted TiO2-copper porphyrins is better than TiO2-copper tetraphenyl porphyrin, but the effect of the side chains' length on the activity is not obvious. This study provides an idea for the synthesis of highly efficient catalysts in the future.

  13. Enhancing the photoresponse and photocatalytic properties of TiO2 by controllably tuning defects across {101} facets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Piaopiao; Hood, Zachary D.; Adhikari, Shiba P.; Xu, Yunfan; Yang, Shize; Wu, Sujuan

    2018-03-01

    Introducing defects into semiconductors with well-controlled exposed facets offers an effective route for the development of photocatalytic materials with greatly improved properties. Here, we report a facile ethylene glycol reduction procedure to make anatase titanium dioxide (TiO2) with different concentrations of exposed {001} and {101} facets, leading to different surficial defects. TiO2 with increased concentrations of {101} facets shows a 5-fold improvement in photocurrent generation as well as improved photocatalytic activity towards water splitting under visible light irradiation. The improved activity is ascribed to the oxygen vacancies as well as the variable surface chemical states, which collectively induce a slower recombination rate of photo-induced electron-hole pairs. This work also highlights a feasible strategy to obtain the defective TiO2 and explore the synergistic effect of surface defects and different concentrations of exposed {001} and {101} facets for photocurrent and photocatalytic properties under visible light irradiation.

  14. TiO2 promoted by two different non-noble metal cocatalysts for enhanced photocatalytic H2 evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jing-Dong; Yan, Shi; Huang, Qin-Dong; Fan, Mei-Ting; Yuan, You-Zhu; Tan, Timothy Thatt-Yang; Liao, Dai-Wei

    2014-01-01

    TiO 2 photocatalysts modified by cobalt and nickel cocatalysts were prepared via polymerized complex method (PCM) and evaluated by photocatalytic hydrogen evolution. Hydrogen generation in 6 h for the TiO 2 promoted by cobalt and nickel (0.1%Co + 0.2%Ni/TiO 2 ) is about two times (2456 μmol H 2 ) compared to that of TiO 2 promoted only by cobalt (1180 μmol H 2 for 0.1%Co/TiO 2 ) or nickel (1127 μmol H 2 for 0.2%Ni/TiO 2 ), and mechanically mixed TiO 2 promoted by cobalt and TiO 2 promoted by nickel (0.1%Co/TiO 2 :0.2%Ni/TiO 2 = 1:1 (m/m), 1282 μmol H 2 ). The high photocatalytic H 2 evolution activity over TiO 2 promoted by cobalt and nickel is ascribed to enhanced photo response due to the presence of cobalt and nickel impurity level, and effective separation of photogenerated electrons and holes due to the synergistic effect of cobalt and nickel, which serve as active sites for H 2 evolution reaction (HER) and oxidation reaction (OR) respectively. This study demonstrates a viable strategy to design more active photocatalysts for photocatalytic H 2 evolution by substituting noble metals with more abundant elements using as HER and OR cocatalysts, respectively.

  15. Photocatalytic hydrogen evolution of palladium nanoparticles decorated black TiO2 calcined in argon atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Chung; Hsiao, Kai-Chi; Chang, Yin-Hsuan; Chan, Shun-Hsiang

    2018-02-01

    Black TiO2 nanoparticles (BTN) was prepared by sol-gel derived precursor calcined in an argon atmosphere. The synthesized BTN with trivalent titanium ion, structural defect, and oxygen vacancy shows a remarkably high absorbance in the visible light spectrum. BTN thus behaves a higher visible-active nanoreactor than white TiO2 nanoparticles (WTN) in the aqueous solution for organic pollutant degradation. Moreover, palladium decoration on the BTN surface (Pd-BTN) demonstrates a fascinating clean energy application. The obtained Pd-BTN fulfills a satisfied green material demand in the photocatalytic hydrogen production application. Pd-BTN calcined at 400 °C (Pd-BTN-400) shows the high photocatalytic hydrogen generation rate of 5200 μmol/g h under UV-A irradiation and 9300 μmol/g h under UV-B irradiation, respectively. The well-developed material, Pd-BTN-400, could be one of the best solutions in the concern of clean energy and water-purification with regard to the continuous environmental issue.

  16. Efficient Visible Light Photocatalytic Oxidation of NO on F- and N-Codoped Spherical TiO2 Synthesized via Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhui Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fluorine- and nitrogen-codoped TiO2 was synthesized by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method with titanium tetrafluoride and urea as precursor. The codoped TiO2 was characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. Nitric oxide (NO photocatalytic oxidation in gas-phase medium was employed as a probe reaction to evaluate the photocatalytic reactivity of the catalysts. The results indicated that spherical codoped TiO2 photocatalysts with unique puckered surface were obtained by this method. The codoped catalysts have solely anatase crystalline structure. The optical characterization of the codoped catalysts showed that the codoped samples could be excited by visible light photons in the 400–550 nm and could efficiently oxidize NO under visible light irradiation. The mechanism of special morphology formation of prepared codoped TiO2 structure is also discussed.

  17. Synergistic operation of photocatalytic degradation and Fenton process by magnetic Fe3O4 loaded TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiong; Hong, Yong; Liu, Qiuhong; Dong, Lifeng

    2018-02-01

    The magnetic Fe3O4 loaded anatase TiO2 photocatalysts with different mass ratios were successfully synthesized by a one-step convenient calcining method. The morphology and structure analysis revealed that Fe3O4 was formed in TiO2 with very fine-grained particles. After a small amount of Fe3O4 loaded onto TiO2, the photocatalytic property enhanced obviously for the degradation of organic dye. Furthermore, the photo-Fenton-like catalysis of the iron-containing samples could also be induced after the addition of hydrogen peroxide. The apparent kinetic constant of the reaction that catalyzed by Fe-TiO2 was about 5.3 and 8.3 times of that catalyzed by TiO2 or Fe3O4 only, respectively, proving an effective synergistic contribution of the photocatalysis and Fenton reaction in the composite. Compared with Fe3O4 or free Fe3+ ions, only 13% of iron in TiO2 dissolved into acidic solution (25% for Fe3O4 and 100% for Fe3+) after the reaction, which confirmed the iron had been well immobilized onto TiO2. In addition, the extremely stable photocatalytic activity in cycling experiments proved the immobilized iron had been tightly attached onto TiO2, indicating the great potential of the catalyst for practical applications.

  18. Photocatalytic enhancement of hybrid C3N4/TiO2 prepared via ball milling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianwei; Zhang, Mo; Zhu, Yongfa

    2015-02-07

    C3N4/TiO2 hybrid photocatalysts with highly enhanced photocatalytic performance were prepared by a facile ball milling method. A layered structure of g-C3N4 was formed on the surface of TiO2. The mechanochemical process can promote the dispersion of C3N4 on the surface of TiO2 particles, to form a single layer hybrid structure and a multi-layer core-shell structure. The photocatalytic activities of C3N4/TiO2 under visible and UV light irradiation were 3.0 and 1.3 times those of pure g-C3N4 and TiO2, respectively. Under visible light and UV irradiation, the photocurrent response was up to 2.5 times and 1.5 times as high as that of the pure TiO2 and C3N4, respectively. The evident performance enhancement of g-C3N4-TiO2 was mainly attributed to high separation and migration efficiency of electron-hole pairs.

  19. Photocatalytic Degradation of Alkyle Benzene Solfunate (LAS from Aqueous Solution Using TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Nabi Zadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Anionic detergents are synthetic organic chemicals used in high volumes in household cleaning products. Alkyle benzene Solfunate (LAS detergent is one of the most widely used anionic surfactants due to excellent cleaning properties. LAS can be toxic to aquatic organisms and bio-accumulated in some fish,and eventually spread through ecosystems using food chain. Thus it should be removed from wastewater before discharge direct to the environment. Photocatalyst degradation process is one the advanced technologies in removal of organic materials from water and wastewater.The aim of this study was the applicability of photodegradations of anionic detergent by use of TiO2 nanoparticles and their change in to the nontoxic materials such as H2O and CO2 in a slurry reactor. LAS solution (10mg/L was prepared and in separated stages was exposed to UV and TiO2 and a combination of them. Also the effect of initial LAS concentration, TiO2 loading, pH and various type of UV irradiation on degradation rate were studied. Maximum degradation was obtained at acidic pH, 50 mg/l of TiO2 and 30 min irradiation time, It was also found 99.5% of LAS was degradated in optimal conditions. Kinetics analysis indicated that photocatalytic degradation rates of LAS can be approximated by pseudo-first order model. The mineralization of LAS was reported by measuring the initial and final COD of illuminated solution. Based on the results, UV/TiO2 process may be effectively applied in LAS removal in low concentration but for high concentration not recommended due to economic reasons.

  20. 1D TiO2 Nanostructures Prepared from Seeds Presenting Tailored TiO2 Crystalline Phases and Their Photocatalytic Activity for Escherichia coli in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Cabrera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanotubes were synthesized by alkaline hydrothermal treatment of TiO2 nanoparticles with a controlled proportion of anatase and rutile. Tailoring of TiO2 phases was achieved by adjusting the pH and type of acid used in the hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide (first step in the sol-gel synthesis. The anatase proportion in the precursor nanoparticles was in the 3–100% range. Tube-like nanostructures were obtained with an anatase percentage of 18 or higher while flake-like shapes were obtained when rutile was dominant in the seed. After annealing at 400°C for 2 h, a fraction of nanotubes was conserved in all the samples but, depending on the anatase/rutile ratio in the starting material, spherical and rod-shaped structures were also observed. The photocatalytic activity of 1D nanostructures was evaluated by measuring the deactivation of E. coli in stirred water in the dark and under UV-A/B irradiation. Results show that in addition to the bactericidal activity of TiO2 under UV-A illumination, under dark conditions, the decrease in bacteria viability is ascribed to mechanical stress due to stirring.

  1. Photocatalytic TiO2 and Doped TiO2 Coatings to Improve the Hygiene of Surfaces Used in Food and Beverage Processing—A Study of the Physical and Chemical Resistance of the Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parnia Navabpour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 coatings deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering and spray coating methods, as well as Ag- and Mo-doped TiO2 coatings were investigated as self-cleaning surfaces for beverage processing. The mechanical resistance and retention of the photocatalytic properties of the coatings were investigated over a three-month period in three separate breweries. TiO2 coatings deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering showed better mechanical durability than the spray coated surfaces, whilst the spray-deposited coating showed enhanced retention of photocatalytic properties. The presence of Ag and Mo dopants improved the photocatalytic properties of TiO2 as well as the retention of these properties. The spray-coated TiO2 was the only coating which showed light-induced hydrophilicity, which was retained in the coatings surviving the process conditions.

  2. Photocatalytic, Morphological and Structural Properties of the TiO2-SiO2-Ag Porous Structures Based System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Kovács

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available TiO2-SiO2-based nanocomposites with highly porous structures are gaining ever increasing attention due to their specific properties and large variability of synthesis pathways together with wide information on the impact of the synthesis on the activity of the catalyst. This thereby offers an alternative approach to traditional/commercially available photocatalysts. In our work TiO2-SiO2 based aerogels were obtained and modified with various amount of Ag nanoparticles, using different synthesis pathways. In the first instance their photocatalytic activity was examined in detail, by observing major differences toward salicylic acid and correlating them with their morphological and structural properties (investigating their mesoporous character, band-gap values, crystallinity grade etc.. Applying different techniques such as diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS, X-ray diffraction measurements (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Raman- and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS the nanoparticles and their composite morphological and structural details were successfully evaluated. Major differences were observed in the activity towards salicylic acid.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Visible-Light-Activated Fe-N Co-Doped TiO2 and Its Photocatalytic Inactivation Effect on Leukemia Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangqiang Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fe-N co-doped TiO2 nanocomposites were synthesized by a sol-gel method and characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. Then the photocatalytic inactivation of Fe-N-doped TiO2 on leukemia tumors was investigated by using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 assay. Additionally, the ultrastructural morphology and apoptotic percentage of treated cells were also studied. The experimental results showed that the growth of leukemic HL60 cells was significantly inhibited in groups treated with TiO2 nanoparticles and the photocatalytic activity of Fe-N-TiO2 was significantly higher than that of Fe-TiO2 and N-TiO2, indicating that the photocatalytic efficiency could be effectively enhanced by the modification of Fe-N. Furthermore, when 2 wt% Fe-N-TiO2 nanocomposites at a final concentration of 200 μg/mL were used, the inactivation efficiency of 78.5% was achieved after 30-minute light therapy.

  4. (0 0 1) Facet-exposed anatase-phase TiO2 nanotube hybrid reduced graphene oxide composite: Synthesis, characterization and application in photocatalytic degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xun; Shi, Tiejun; Wu, Jing; Zhou, Haiou

    2013-12-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and TiO2 nanotube (TNT) with (0 0 1) facet-exposed anatase phase are covalently bonded together to synthesize TNT hybrid RGO (RGO-TNT) through consecutive process such as hydrothermal reaction, HCl washing, lyophilization and heat treatment with graphene oxide (GO), TiO2 powder and high concentration NaOH solution as the starting materials. The TNT with the diameter between 10 and 20 nm characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) is in anatase phase proven by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and HRTEM. Additionally, the more active (0 0 1) facet is exposed identified by HRTEM. More significantly, TNT is bridged to RGO by Csbnd Ti bond by the measurement of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photoluminescence (PL) spectra has testified that RGO in RGO-TNT can transfer and accept photoelectrons from TNT. The photocatalytic activity of RGO-TNT for degrading methylene blue (MB) is enhanced by contrast with pure TNT, and changeable by adjusting the mass ratios of GO to TiO2 powder. Simultaneously, lyophilization is benefit for maintaining the high active surface area of RGO-TNT, which is deeply in relationship with a higher photocatalytic activity. After four running cycles of photocatalytic degradation, RGO-TNT has shown a high stability and perfect reproducibility.

  5. Below room temperature: How the photocatalytic activity of dense and mesoporous TiO2 coatings is affected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedillo-González, Erika Iveth; Riccò, Raffaele; Costacurta, Stefano; Siligardi, Cristina; Falcaro, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    Different parameters such as morphology, porosity, crystalline phase or doping agents affect the self-cleaning performance of photocatalytic TiO2-based coatings. However, also environmental conditions have been found to play a major role on the photocatalytic self-cleaning property. Substrate temperature is a significant environmental variable that can drastically affect this process. This variable becomes of great importance especially for outdoor applications: many self-cleaning photocatalytic materials have been designed to be exposed to outdoor environments and consequently, can be exposed to variable temperatures depending on the season of the year and the typical weather of the geographical zone. Thus, understanding the influence of the most common outdoor temperatures on the self-cleaning performance of TiO2-based coatings is essential for the fabrication of any kind of photocatalytic self-cleaning materials (fabricated by coating technology) that is expected to be subjected to outdoor environments. In this work, the photocatalytic activity was studied by Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy varying the temperature in the 0 to 30 °C range for dense and mesoporous TiO2 coatings. The temperature conditions at which these coatings present better performances were identified, providing a deeper insight for the practical application of TiO2-based self-cleaning coatings.

  6. Low temperature synthesis of polyaniline-crystalline TiO2-halloysite composite nanotubes with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiping; Wang, Jie; Guo, Hong; Ding, Shujiang

    2015-11-15

    A series of one-dimensional polyaniline-crystalline TiO2-halloysite composite nanotubes with different mass ratio of polyaniline to TiO2 are facilely prepared by employing the low-temperature synthesis of crystalline TiO2 on halloysite nanotubes. The halloysite nanotubes can adsorb TiO2/polyaniline precursors and induce TiO2 nanocrystals/polyaniline to grow on the support in situ simultaneously. By simply adjusting the acidity of reaction system, PANI-crystalline TiO2-HA composite nanotubes composed of anatase, a mixed phase TiO2 and different PANI redox state are obtained. The XRD and UV-vis results show that the surface polyaniline sensitization has no effect on the crystalline structure of halloysite and TiO2 and the light response of TiO2 is extended to visible-light regions. Photocatalysis test results reveal the photocatalytic activity will be affected by the pH value and the volume ratio of ANI to TTIP. The highest photocatalytic activity is achieved with the composite photocatalysts prepared at pH 0.5 and 1% volume ratio of ANI and TTIP owing to the sensitizing effect of polyaniline and the charge transfer from the photoexcited PANI sensitizer to TiO2. Moreover, the PANI-TiO2-HA composite nanotubes synthesized by one-step at pH 0.5 with 1% volume ratio of ANI to TTIP exhibit higher visible light photocatalytic activity than those synthesized by the two-step. Heterogeneous PANI-TiO2-HA composite nanotubes prepared at pH 0.5 exhibit a higher degradation activity than that prepared at pH 1.5. The redoped experiment proves that the PANI redox state plays the main contribution to the enhanced visible light catalytic degradation efficiency of PANI-TiO2-HA prepared at pH 0.5. Furthermore, the heterogeneous PANI-crystalline TiO2-HA nanotubes have good photocatalytic stability and can be reused four times with only gradual loss of activity under visible light irradiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of triblock copolymer (pluronic F127) on enhancing the physico-chemical properties and photocatalytic response of mesoporous TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Emy Marlina; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Juan, Joon Ching; Basirun, Wan Jefrey

    2015-11-01

    The utilization of triblock copolymer, pluronic F127 as a structure directing agent for the preparation of TiO2 played an important role in enhancing the photocatalytic degradation rate of atrazine by a factor of 1.7. The mesoporous F127-TiO2 showed significant modification of morphology, particle and crystallite size, and presence of defect energy belt within the catalyst forbidden band as proven via photoluminescence spectra and x-ray photon spectroscopy. Hence the photogenerated carriers have longer lifespan to migrate to the catalyst surface for redox activities. Furtherance, surface reactive {0 0 1} facets proven by the formation of new geometrical single crystal of square and rhombus surfaces in F127-TiO2 facilitates atrazine degradation as well. The increased surface area of F127-TiO2 promotes greater atrazine absorption, thus governs improved interaction between absorbed atrazine molecules and surface generated active radicals as a pre-requisite for good photocatalytic activity. Interestingly, using the same synthesis procedure, it was observed that the addition of pluronic F127 significantly affects anatase crystal structure as opposed to the more thermodynamically stable rutile, generating 61% and 25% of total crystallite size modification for anatase and rutile, respectively. However, there were no changes on the final composition of anatase and rutile crystal structure. In overall, enhancement of the photocatalytic degradation of atrazine is ruled out to the following factors (1) modification of geometrical structures and size, (2) narrowing of band gap due to defect energy belt, (3) longer lifespan of photoexcited charges to the catalyst surface, (4) enhanced surface textural properties and (5) increased exposure of reactive {0 0 1} facets, which were all observed in F127-TiO2.

  8. Influence of Ce Doping on the Electrical and Optical Properties of TiO2 and Its Photocatalytic Activity for the Degradation of Remazol Brilliant Blue R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Malik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline TiO2 particles doped with different concentrations of Cerium (Ce, 1–10% have been synthesized using sol-gel method. The prepared particles were characterized by standard analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD, FTIR and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM. The XRD analysis shows no change in crystal structure of TiO2 after doping with different concentrations of Ce, which indicates the single-phase polycrystalline material. The SEM analysis shows the partial crystalline nature of undoped, and doped TiO2 and TEM analysis shows the particle sizes were in the range of 9–14 nm in size. The a.c. analysis shows that the dielectric constant ε and dielectric loss tan δ decrease with the increase in frequency. The dielectric property decreases with the increase in dopant concentration. It is also observed that the impedance increases with an increase in dopant concentration. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized particles (Ce-doped TiO2 with dopant concentration of 9% (Ce showed the highest photocatalytic activity for the degradation of the dye derivative Remazol Brilliant Blue R in an immersion well photochemical reactor with 500 W halogen linear lamp in the presence of atmospheric oxygen.

  9. Carbon as amorphous shell and interstitial dopant in mesoporous rutile TiO2: Bio-template assisted sol-gel synthesis and photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Azuwa Mohamad; Wan Norharyati Wan Salleh; Juhana Jaafar; Mohamad Saufi Rosmi; Zul Adlan Mohd Hir; Muhazri Abd Mutalib; Ahmad Fauzi Ismail; Tanemura, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • RCM as bio-template and in-situ carbon shell and interstitial carbon doping. • Photo-sensitizers by carbonaceous layer grafted onto the surface of TiO 2 . • Visible light response could be tailored depending on the annealing temperature. • Photocatalytic properties and charge carrier transfer mechanism was proposed. - Abstract: Regenerated cellulose membrane was used as bio-template nanoreactor for the formation of rutile TiO 2 mesoporous, as well as in-situ carbon dopant in acidified sol-gel system. The effects of calcination temperature on the physicochemical characteristic of core-shell nanostructured of bio-templated C-doped mesoporous TiO 2 are highlighted in this study. By varying the calcination temperature, the thickness of the carbon shell coating on TiO 2 , crystallinity, surface area, and optical properties could be tuned as confirmed by HRTEM, nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurement, XRD and UV–vis-NIR spectroscopy. The results suggested that increment in the calcination temperature would lead to the band gap narrowing from 2.95 to 2.80 eV and the thickness of carbon shell increased from 0.40 to 1.20 nm. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the visible light absorption capability was mainly due to the incorporation of carbon dopant at interstitial position in the TiO 2 to form O−Ti−C or Ti−O−C bond. In addition, the formation of the carbon core-shell nanostructured was due to carbonaceous layer grafted onto the surface of TiO 2 via Ti−O−C and Ti−OCO bonds. The result indicated that bio-templated C-doped core-shell mesoporous TiO 2 prepared at 300 °C exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity. It is worthy to note that, the calcination temperature provided a huge impact towards improving the physicochemical and photocatalytic properties of the prepared bio-templated C-doped core-shell mesoporous TiO 2 .

  10. Preparation of an antibacterial, hydrophilic and photocatalytically active polyacrylic coating using TiO2 nanoparticles sensitized by graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrati, Rahimeh; Olad, Ali; Shakoori, Sahar

    2017-11-01

    In recent years more attentions have been paid for preparation of coatings with self-cleaning and antibacterial properties. These properties allow the surface to maintain clean and health over long times without any need to cleaning or disinfection. Acrylic coatings are widely used on various surfaces such as automotive, structural and furniture which their self-cleaning and antibacterial ability is very important. The aim of this work is the preparation of a polyacrylic based self-cleaning and antibacterial coating by the modification of TiO 2 as a coating additive. TiO 2 nanoparticles were sensitized to the visible light irradiation using graphene oxide through the preparation of TiO 2 /graphene oxide nanocomposite. Graphene oxide was prepared via a modified Hummers method. TiO 2 /graphene oxide nanocomposite was used as additive in a polyacrylic coating formulation. Hydrophilicity, photocatalytic and antibacterial activities as well as coating stability were evaluated for TiO 2 /graphene oxide modified polyacrylic coating and compared with that of pristine TiO 2 modified and unmodified polyacrylic coatings. TiO 2 /graphene oxide nanocomposite and polyacrylic coating modified by TiO 2 /graphene oxide additive were characterized using FT-IR, UV-Vis, XRD, and FESEM techniques. The effect of TiO 2 /graphene oxide composition and its percent in the coating formulation was evaluated on the polyacrylic coating properties. Results showed that polyacrylic coating having 3% W TiO 2 /graphene oxide nanocomposite additive with TiO 2 to graphene oxide ratio of 100:20 is the best coating considering most of beneficial features such as high photodecolorization efficiency of organic dye contaminants, high hydrophilicity, and stability in water. According to the results, TiO 2 is effectively sensitized by graphene oxide and the polyacrylic coating modified by TiO 2 /graphene oxide nanocomposite shows good photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation. Copyright © 2017

  11. Synthesis and photo-catalytic property of TiO2 nanotube arrays/ZnS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Junhan; Liu, Zhe; Xiong, Yehan; Liu, Zhanhong; Wang, Yongqian

    2017-04-01

    TiO2 nanotube arrays/ZnS (TNAs/ZnS) nanocomposites were synthesized successfully via anodic oxidation method and hydrothermal method as well. In this study, field emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used to monitor the morphological features and elemental composition of the samples. UV-Vis absorption spectra showed the absorption performance in both UV and visible light regions. In addition, the photo-catalytic activity of the samples was measured by the photo-degradation rate of methylene blue. From the result, we could notice that the morphology of the samples would change gradually when the amounts of zinc source and sulfur source changed, and the hydrothermal temperature was one of the significant factors which influenced the morphology. EDS spectra showed the existence of zinc and sulfur elements. Photo-catalytic activity test indicated that the photo-degradation rate of MB rises up to 91.6% after 240 min. Furthermore, there existed an expected relationship between the photo-degradation rate and the amounts of zinc source and sulfur source. UV-Vis absorption spectra of the samples also verified the result of photo-catalytic activity test.

  12. PHOTOCATALYTIC EFFICIENCY OF N-TIO2 APPLIED ON COTTON KNIT – PART 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRESCU Iuliana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to demonstrate the treatment durability at washing of N-TiO2 layers applied on cotton fabrics by padding and to investigate the particle adherence and morphology of the textile surface. After 5 washing cycles, the cotton fibers are covered with a high number of particles, which demonstrate that the particle adherence to the substrate is high, most of them being present as large clusters. Also, the washing process does not affect in an important manner the polymer layer, only from place to place the cotton knit beeing disrupted. To evaluate the photocatalytic effect of the materials after washing treatment, samples were exposed to ultraviolet and visible light. The trichromatic coordinates of the exposed and non-exposed samples were measured on Hunterlab spectrophotometer. The contradictories values are determined by the non-uniformities of the materials which don’t allowed a uniform dyeing of the fabrics. The obtained results showed that after 5 washings, the particles adherence to the substrate is still high and the photocatalytic effects are not significantly impaired. The photocatalytic efficiency of cotton knit treated with N-TiO2 nanoparticles is higher under visible light than under UV light demonstrating the extension of the TiO2 absorption in the visible range.

  13. Fabrication of predominantly Mn4+ -doped TiO2 nanoparticles under equilibrium conditions and their application as visible-light photocatalyts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijie; Fan, Jiajie; Cao, Zetan; Zheng, Yichao; Yao, Zhiqiang; Shao, Guosheng; Hu, Junhua

    2014-07-01

    The chemical state of a transition-metal dopant in TiO(2) can intrinsically determine the performance of the doped material in applications such as photocatalysis and photovoltaics. In this study, manganese-doped TiO2 is fabricated by a near-equilibrium process, in which the TiO(2) precursor powder precipitates from a hydrothermally obtained transparent mother solution. The doping level and subsequent thermal treatment influence the morphology and crystallization of the TiO(2) samples. FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses indicate that the manganese dopant is substitutionally incorporated by replacing Ti(4+) cations. The absorption band edge can be gradually shifted to 1.8 eV by increasing the nominal manganese content to 10 at %. Manganese atoms doped into the titanium lattice are associated with the dominant 4+ valence oxidation state, which introduces two curved, intermediate bands within the band gap and results in a significant enhancement in photoabsorption and the quantity of photogenerated hydroxyl radicals. Additionally, the high photocatalytic performance of manganese-doped TiO(2) is also attributed to the low oxygen content, owing to the equilibrium fabrication conditions. This work provides an important strategy to control the chemical and defect states of dopants by using an equilibrium fabrication process. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Transparent, well-aligned TiO(2) nanotube arrays with controllable dimensions on glass substrates for photocatalytic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lee Kheng; Kumar, Manippady K; An, Wen Wen; Gao, Han

    2010-02-01

    Transparent, well-aligned TiO(2) nanotube arrays (NTAs) with controllable dimensions are grown on glass substrates via atomic layer deposition (ALD) of TiO(2) onto free-standing porous anodic alumina (PAA) templates. Photodegradation of aqueous methylene blue (MB) solution and solid stearic acid (SA) film using TiO(2) NTAs of various wall thicknesses are investigated. The Pd functionalized TiO(2) NTAs, with a wall thickness of 15 nm and height of 200 nm, has the highest photodegradation efficiency at 76% after 4 h of UV irradiation. These functionalized NTAs are able to photodegrade MB molecules completely as no obvious demethylated byproducts are observed during the process. It also demonstrates excellent photocatalytic activity for solid contaminants such as SA film. By using the ALD technique, the nanotube wall thickness can be precisely controlled so that it is sufficiently thin to be transparent while sufficiently thick for excellent photocatalytic performances. The transparent TiO(2) NTAs on glass substrates with excellent photocatalytic properties might have potential applications in self-cleaning coating, transparent electronics, and solar cells.

  15. Extruded expanded polystyrene sheets coated by TiO2 as new photocatalytic materials for foodstuffs packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loddo, V.; Marcì, G.; Palmisano, G.; Yurdakal, S.; Brazzoli, M.; Garavaglia, L.; Palmisano, L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An extruded polystyrene has been functionalised by TiO 2 . ► A photocatalytic polymer has been developed via a sol–gel method. ► Thermoformed packagings for foodstuffs application have been prepared. - Abstract: Nanostructured, photoactive anatase TiO 2 sol prepared under very mild conditions using titanium tetraisopropoxide as the precursor is used to functionalise extruded expanded polystyrene (XPS) sheets by spray-coating resulting in stable and active materials functionalised by TiO 2 nanoparticles. Photocatalytic tests of these sheets performed in a batch reactor in gas–solid system under UV irradiation show their successful activity in degrading probe molecules (2-propanol, trimethylamine and ethene). Raman spectra ensure the deposition of TiO 2 as crystalline anatase phase on the polymer surface. The presence of TiO 2 with respect to polymer surface can be observed in SEM images coupled to EDAX mapping allowing to monitor the surface morphology and the distribution of TiO 2 particles. Finally thermoforming of these sheets in industrial standard equipment leads to useful containers for foodstuffs.

  16. Enhanced photocatalytic performance of N-nitrosodimethylamine on TiO2 nanotube based on the role of singlet oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoyan; Li, Qilin; Zhang, Man; Long, Mingce; Kong, Lulu; Zhou, Qixing; Shao, Huaiqi; Hu, Wanli; Wei, Tingting

    2015-02-01

    N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) photocatalytic degradation performance and mechanism were investigated on the TiO2 nanotube prepared from anatase TiO2 nanopowder in terms of the production of reactive oxygen species including hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen and superoxide radical. Significantly higher NDMA degradation efficiency was obtained on anatase TiO2 nanotube rather than anatase TiO2 nanopowder. The tubular morphology may be responsible for almost 100% NDMA removal on TiO2 nanotube, presumably due to its confinement effect leading to NDMA molecules within the nanotube being attacked by reactive oxygen species such as hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen, and initiating reaction inside the nanotube. In particular, the ability of the nanotubular structure of TiO2 nanotube to promote a singlet oxygen oxidation pathway contributes much to the enhanced NDMA degradation efficiency and favors the formation of dimethylamine and NO3(-). Such function originating from nanotube morphology could bring new insights for the photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Microwave-assisted synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles: photocatalytic activity of powders and thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, G. S.; Borlaf, M.; López-Muñoz, M. J.; Fariñas, J. C.; Rodrigues Neto, J. B.; Moreno, R.

    2018-02-01

    A simple, rapid, and effective synthesis methodology for the preparation of high-performance TiO2 nanoparticles and thin films by combining colloidal sol-gel and microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis was developed. The obtained results indicate that the heating with microwaves at 180 °C for 20 min was enough to synthesize crystalline TiO2 nanoparticles, presenting anatase as a major phase with a crystal size of 7 nm and a specific surface area of 220 m2 g-1. A secondary thermal treatment improved the crystallinity and induced the anatase-to-rutile transformation. The highest photocatalytic activity was found for the as-synthesized powder without any additional thermal treatment. Thin films were also prepared by dip-coating and its high photocatalytic activity showed a kinetic curve comparable to that of a thin film of commercial TiO2 powder prepared under similar conditions.

  18. TiO2 Nanotubes Supported Cu Nanoparticles for Improving Photocatalytic Degradation of Simazine under UV Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syazwan Hanani Meriam Suhaimy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nano size Copper (Cu incorporated TiO2 nanotubes was successfully synthesized via the anodic oxidation technique in ethylene glycol (EG containing 0.5 wt % NH4F and 1.6 wt % KOH for the photocatalytic degradation of Simazine (2-chloro-4, 6-diethylamino-1,3,5-triazine under Ultraviolet (UV illumination. In the present study, the influence of different loading Cu concentrations on the formation of Cu-TiO2 nanotubes film towards the photocatalytic degradation of Simazine is reported. Based on our study, it was found that the optimum Cu loading concentration was about 0.45 wt % on TiO2 nanotubes film for approximately 64% photocatalytic degradation of Simazine after 4 h under UV illumination. This finding was mainly attributed to the uniform surface covering of the Cu loaded TiO2NTs which acted as electron traps, preventing the recombination of electron hole pairs, eventually leading to higher photocatalytic activity of our photocatalyst in degrading the targeted organic pollutant, Simazine. Moreover, an increased kinetic rate of the degradation to 0.0135 h−1 was observed in the presence of Cu in TiO2NTs.

  19. A comparative study into the photocatalytic properties of thin mesoporous layers of TiO2 with controlled mesoporosity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tschirch, J.; Bahnemann, D.; Wark, M.; Rathouský, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 194, 2-3 (2008), s. 181-188 ISSN 1010-6030 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0577 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : mesoporous films * film thickness * TiO2 * dye adsorption * photocatalytic degradation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.362, year: 2008

  20. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange over nitrogen-fluorine codoped TiO2 nanobelts prepared by solvothermal synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zuoli; Que, Wenxiu; Chen, Jing; Yin, Xingtian; He, Yucheng; Ren, Jiangbo

    2012-12-01

    Anatase type nitrogen-fluorine (N-F) codoped TiO(2) nanobelts were prepared by a solvothermal method in which amorphous titania microspheres were used as the precursors. The as-prepared TiO(2) nanobelts are composed of thin narrow nanobelts and it is noted that there are large amount of wormhole-like mesopores on these narrow nanobelts. Photocatalytic activity of the N-F codoped TiO(2) nanobelts was measured by the reaction of photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange. Results indicate that the photocatalytic activity of the N-F codoped TiO(2) nanobelts is higher than that of P25, which is mainly ascribed to wormhole-like mesopores like prison, larger surface area, and enhanced absorption of light due to N-F codoping. Interestingly, it is also found that the photocatalytic activity can be further enhanced when tested in a new testing method because more photons can be captured by the nanobelts to stimulate the formation of the hole-electron pair.

  1. Photocatalytic oxidation of cyclohexane over TiO2: Evidence for a Mars-van krevelen mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida, A.R.; Almeida, Ana Rita; Moulijn, Jacob A.; Mul, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Cyclohexane photocatalytic oxidation with 18O2 over anatase TiO2 was analyzed by in situ attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, to gain insight in the mechanistic steps of formation of cyclohexanone and deactivating carboxylate species, respectively.

  2. Are TiO2 Nanotubes Worth Using in Photocatalytic Purification of Air and Water?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Pichat

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide nanotubes (TNT have mainly been used in dye sensitized solar cells, essentially because of a higher transport rate of electrons from the adsorbed photo-excited dye to the Ti electrode onto which TNT instead of TiO2 nanoparticles (TNP are attached. The dimension ranges and the two main synthesis methods of TNT are briefly indicated here. Not surprisingly, the particular and regular texture of TNT was also expected to improve the photocatalytic efficacy for pollutant removal in air and water with respect to TNP. In this short review, the validity of this expectation is checked using the regrettably small number of literature comparisons between TNT and commercialized TNP referring to films of similar thickness and layers or slurries containing an equal TiO2 mass. Although the irradiated geometrical area differed for each study, it was identical for each comparison considered here. For the removal of toluene (methylbenzene or acetaldehyde (ethanal in air, the average ratio of the efficacy of TNT over that of TiO2 P25 was about 1.5, and for the removal of dyes in water, it was around 1. This lack of major improvement with TNT compared to TNP could partially be due to TNT texture disorders as seems to be suggested by the better average performance of anodic oxidation-prepared TNT. It could also come from the fact that the properties influencing the efficacy are more numerous, their interrelations more complex and their effects more important for pollutant removal than for dye sensitized solar cells and photoelectrocatalysis where the electron transport rate is the crucial parameter.

  3. The porous TiO2 nanotubes/Ag3PO4 heterojunction for enhancing sunlight photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chunyan; Pan, Jiaqi; You, Mingzhu; Dong, Zongjun; Zhao, Weijie; Song, Changsheng; Zheng, Yingying; Li, Chaorong

    2018-03-01

    The porous TiO2 nanotubes/Ag3PO4 heterojunction are synthesized via simple electrospining and chemical co-deposition method. The results of SEM, XRD, TEM and XPS imply that the Ag3PO4 nanoparticles have been introduced on to the surface of TiO2 nanotubes successfully. Compared with the unmodified samples, the photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared porous TiO2 nanotubes/Ag3PO4 heterojunction exhibit a remarkable enhancement by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under the sunlight. Further, the Z-Scheme structure of the samples and the porous-tubular structure of the TiO2 are considered as the main reasons for the enhancement.

  4. Photocatalytic Performance and Degradation Mechanism of Aspirin by TiO2 through Response Surface Methodology

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    Lezhuo Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the photocatalytic performance of P25TiO2 was investigated by means of the degradation of aspirin, while the reaction system was systematically optimized by central composite design (CCD based on the response surface methodology (RSM. In addition, three variables of initial pH value, initial aspirin concentration and P25 concentration were selected to assess the dependence of degradation efficiencies of aspirin. Meanwhile, a predicted model of degradation efficiency was estimated and checked using analysis of variance (ANOVA. The results indicated that the PC removal of aspirin by P25 was significantly influenced by all these variables in descending order as follows: P25 concentration > initial aspirin concentration > initial pH value. Moreover, the parameters were optimized by the CCD method. Under the conditions of an initial pH value of 5, initial aspirin concentration of 10 mg/L and P25 concentration of 50 mg/L, the degradation efficiency of aspirin was 98.9%with 60 min of Xenon lamp irradiation. Besides, based on the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry measurements, two main PC degradation pathways of aspirin by TiO2 were deduced and the tentative degradation mechanism was also proposed.

  5. Parameters affecting the photocatalytic degradation of dyes using TiO2: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Khan Mamun; Kurny, ASW; Gulshan, Fahmida

    2017-07-01

    Traditional chemical, physical and biological processes for treating wastewater containing textile dye have such disadvantages as high cost, high energy requirement and generation of secondary pollution during treatment process. The advanced oxidation processes technology has been attracting growing attention for the decomposition of organic dyes. Such processes are based on the light-enhanced generation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals, which oxidize the organic matter in solution and convert it completely into water, CO2 and inorganic compounds. In this presentation, the photocatalytic degradation of dyes in aqueous solution using TiO2 as photocatalyst under solar and UV irradiation has been reviewed. It is observed that the degradation of dyes depends on several parameters such as pH, catalyst concentration, substrate concentration and the presence of oxidants. Reaction temperature and the intensity of light also affect the degradation of dyes. Particle size, BET-surface area and different mineral forms of TiO2 also have influence on the degradation rate.

  6. Arsenite oxidation-enhanced photocatalytic degradation of phenolic pollutants on platinized TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaesung; Kim, Jungwon

    2014-11-18

    The effect of As(III) on the photocatalytic degradation of phenolic pollutants such as 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in a suspension of platinized TiO2 (Pt/TiO2) was investigated. In the presence of As(III), the photocatalytic degradation of 4-CP and BPA was significantly enhanced, and the simultaneous oxidation of As(III) to As(V) was also achieved. This positive effect of As(III) on the degradation of phenolic pollutants is attributed to the adsorption of As(V) (generated from As(III) oxidation) on the surface of Pt/TiO2, which facilitates the production of free OH radicals ((•)OHf) that are more reactive than surface-bound OH radicals ((•)OHs) toward phenolic pollutants. The generation of (•)OHf was indirectly verified by using coumarin as an OH radical trapper and comparing the yields of coumarin--OH adduct (i.e., 7-hydroxycoumarin) formed in the absence and presence of As(V). In repeated cycles of 4-CP degradation, the degradation efficiency of 4-CP gradually decreased in the absence of As(III), whereas it was mostly maintained in the presence of As(III), which was either initially present or repeatedly injected at the beginning of each cycle. The positive effect of As(III) on 4-CP degradation was observed over a wide range of As(III) concentrations (up to mM levels) with Pt/TiO2. However, a high concentration of As(III) (hundreds of μM) inhibited the degradation of 4-CP with bare TiO2. Therefore, Pt/TiO2 can be proposed as a practical photocatalyst for the simultaneous oxidation of phenolic pollutants and As(III) in industrial wastewaters.

  7. Method for determining the photocatalytic potential of portland cement mortar containing TiO2 for decomposing the pollutant nitrogen monoxide

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    Marcelle M. Bonato

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic materials can minimize atmospheric pollution by decomposing certain organic and inorganic pollutants using sunlight as an energy source. In this paper, the development of a methodology to measure the photocatalytic potential of mortar containing TiO2 nanoparticles is reported. The results indicate that up to 40% of NOx can be degraded by Portland cement mortar containing 30-50% of TiO2, which validates the method developed for evaluating the photocatalytic potential of materials.

  8. Enhancement of photocatalytic properties of TiO2 nanoparticles doped with CeO2 and supported on SiO2 for phenol degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Chunjing; Li, Jing; Zhang, Zailei; Ji, Yongjun; Zhan, Hanhui; Xiao, Fangxing; Wang, Dan; Liu, Bin; Su, Fabing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CeO 2 -TiO 2 /SiO 2 composites were prepared via a facile co-precipitation method. • Introduction of SiO 2 support increases the dispersion of CeO 2 -TiO 2 . • CeO 2 -TiO 2 /SiO 2 exhibits an enhanced photocatalytic efficiency for phenol degradation. • Ce 3+ /Ce 4+ pair coexisting in CeO 2 improves electron–hole pairs separation efficiency. - Abstract: A series of CeO 2 -TiO 2 and CeO 2 -TiO 2 /SiO 2 composites were prepared with TiCl 4 and Ce (NO 3 ) 3 ·6H 2 O as precursors via a facile co-precipitation method. The obtained samples were characterized by various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption (N 2 -BET), Fourier transformation infrared spectrum (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV–Vis spectroscopy measurements. The results indicated that TiO 2 doped with CeO 2 and supported on SiO 2 could reduce the crystallite size, inhibit the phase transformation, enhance the thermal stability, and effectively extend the spectral response from UV to visible range. When applied to the phenol photodegradation on a homemade batch reactor with an external cooling jacket, the CeO 2 -TiO 2 /SiO 2 catalysts exhibited significantly enhanced photodegradation efficiency in comparison with commercial Degussa P25 and CeO 2 -TiO 2 . The unique catalytic properties of CeO 2 -TiO 2 /SiO 2 were ascribed to improved electron–hole pairs separation efficiency and formation of more reactive oxygen species owing to the presence of Ce 3+ /Ce 4+ , as well as high dispersion of active component of CeO 2 -TiO 2 as a result of the introduction of SiO 2 support. Furthermore, the catalysts can be easily recovered from the reaction solution by centrifugation and reused for four cycles without significant loss of activity

  9. Photocatalytic degradation of indigo carmine in aqueous solution by TiO2-coated non-woven fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barka, N; Assabbane, A; Nounah, A; Ichou, Y Aît

    2008-04-15

    The photocatalytic degradation of indigo carmine has been investigated in aqueous solutions using TiO2 coated non-woven fibres as photocatalyst. The experiments were carried out to investigate the factors influencing the photocatalytic degradation, such as the previous adsorption in the dark, initial concentration of dye solution, temperature, and pH. The experimental results show that adsorption is an important parameter controlling the apparent kinetic constant of the degradation. The photocatalytic degradation rate was favoured by a high concentration of solution in respect to Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The degradation rate was pH and temperature dependent with a high degradation rate at high temperature.

  10. Control of interface between anatase TiO2 nanoparticles and rutile TiO2 nanorods for efficient photocatalytic H2 generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaohong; Peng, Shuai; Bao, Yuwen; Wang, Yu; Lei, Binglong; Wang, Zhuo; Huang, Zhongbing; Gao, Yun

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, production of H2 through photocatalytic water splitting has attracted considerable attention in the chemistry and material fields. In this work, TiO2 based heterojunction photocatalyst, which is consisted of rutile nanorods and anatase nanoparticles, is systematically studied by controlling the HCl concentration in hydrothermal process. With the help of loaded Pt, an interesting two-peak feature ("M" shape) is observed in the HCl-dependent H2 production efficiency. The peak values are 54.3 mmol h-1 g-1 and 74.4 mmol h-1 g-1, corresponding to 83.9% and 12% anatase phase, respectively. A detailed analysis based on the microstructure and photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicate that the "M" shape feature is directly linked to the HCl-controlled interface area. Moreover, an unexpected zero interface area is revealed at an intermediate HCl concentration. In terms of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleations, an interface growth mechanism is proposed to clarify its HCl-sensitive character. This work provides a route to enhance the photocatalytic activity in TiO2 based photocatalyst via increasing the interface area.

  11. High photocatalytic activity of Fe2O3/TiO2 nanocomposites prepared by photodeposition for degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

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    Shu Chin Lee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Two series of Fe2O3/TiO2 samples were prepared via impregnation and photodeposition methods. The effect of preparation method on the properties and performance of Fe2O3/TiO2 for photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D under UV light irradiation was examined. The Fe2O3/TiO2 nanocomposites prepared by impregnation showed lower activity than the unmodified TiO2, mainly due to lower specific surface area caused by heat treatment. On the other hand, the Fe2O3/TiO2 nanocomposites prepared by photodeposition showed higher photocatalytic activity than the unmodified TiO2. Three times higher photocatalytic activity was obtained on the best photocatalyst, Fe2O3(0.5/TiO2. The improved activity of TiO2 after photodeposition of Fe2O3 was contributed to the formation of a heterojunction between the Fe2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles that improved charge transfer and suppressed electron–hole recombination. A further investigation on the role of the active species on Fe2O3/TiO2 confirmed that the crucial active species were both holes and superoxide radicals. The Fe2O3(0.5/TiO2 sample also showed good stability and reusability, suggesting its potential for water purification applications.

  12. Performance of NiFe2O4-SiO2-TiO2 Magnetic Photocatalyst for the Effective Photocatalytic Reduction of Cr(VI in Aqueous Solutions

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    Mike O. Ojemaye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation into the reduction of Cr(VI in aqueous solution was carried out through some batch photocatalytic studies. The photocatalysts used were silica coated nickel ferrite nanoparticles (NiFe2O4-SiO2, nickel ferrite titanium dioxide (NiFe2O4-TiO2, nickel ferrite silica titanium dioxide (NiFe2O4-SiO2-TiO2, and titanium dioxide (TiO2. The characterization of the materials prepared via stepwise synthesis using coprecipitation and sol-gel methods were carried out with the aid of X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM. The reduction efficiency was studied as a function of pH, photocatalyst dose, and contact time. The effects of silica interlayer between the magnetic photocatalyst materials reveal that reduction efficiency of NiFe2O4-SiO2-TiO2 towards Cr(VI was higher than that of NiFe2O4-TiO2. However, TiO2 was observed to have the highest reduction efficiency at all batch photocatalytic experiments. Kinetics study shows that photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI obeyed Langmuir-Hinshelwood model and first-order rate kinetics. Regenerability study also suggested that the photocatalyst materials can be reused.

  13. Preparation of Transparent TiO2 Nanoporous Coating with Highly Photocatalytic Activity by Anodizing Ti Film with Loose Structure

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    LIANG Yin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ti film with special structure was deposited onto glass substrate by magnetron sputtering, then via the process of electrochemical anodization and annealing, a transparent TiO2 nanoporous coating (denoted as TNP with high photocatalytic activity can be directly formed on glass substrate. The crystal structure of the TNP was detected by X-ray diffractometry (XRD and the morphology of the coating was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The transmittance, wettability and adhesion of TNP were investigated by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, contact angle meter and scratch tester respectively. Finally, the photocatalytic activity of TNP was evaluated by degradation of methylene blue solution under UV illumination. The results show that the prepared TNP coating has a nanoporous structure and only anatase can be found after annealing, the transmittance of TNP coating can reach 80% or more in visible region, with a super hydrophilic surface (contact angleC0=1×10-5mol/L can reach 94% in 2 hours and the photocatalysis reaction rate constant is 1.47h-1.

  14. Surface modification of polypropylene non-woven fibers with TiO2 nanoparticles via layer-by-layer self assembly method: Preparation and photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavasupree, Suttipan; Dubas, Stephan T; Rangkupan, Ratthapol

    2015-11-01

    Polypropylene (PP) meltblown fibers were coated with titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles using layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition technique. The fibers were first modified with 3 layers of poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid) (PSS) and poly(diallyl-dimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) to improve the anchoring of the TiO2 nanoparticle clusters. PDADMAC, which is positively charged, was then used as counter polyelectrolyte in tandem with anionic TiO2 nanoparticles to construct TiO2/PDADMAC bilayer in the LbL fashion. The number of deposited TiO2/PDADMAC layers was varied from 1 to 7 bilayer, and could be used to adjust TiO2 loading. The LbL technique showed higher TiO2 loading efficiency than the impregnation approach. The modified fibers were tested for their photocatalytic activity against a model dye, Methylene Blue (MB). Results showed that the TiO2 modified fibers exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity efficiency similar to that of TiO2 powder dispersed in solution. The deposition of TiO2 3 bilayer on the PP substrate was sufficient to produce nanocomposite fibers that could bleach the MB solution in less than 4hr. TiO2-LbL constructions also preserved TiO2 adhesion on substrate surface after 1cycle of photocatalytic test. Successive photocatalytic test showed decline in MB reduction rate with loss of TiO2 particles from the substrate outer surface. However, even in the third cycle, the TiO2 modified fibers are still moderately effective as it could remove more than 95% of MB after 8hr of treatment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Influences of air calcination and steam activation on microstructure and photocatalytic activity of continuous TiO2 fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Yang; Zhang, Shiying; Xu, Difa

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Effects of air calcination and steam activation on TiO 2 fibers were studied. ► The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degradation of formaldehyde. ► Steam activation promoted the anatase–rutile phase transformation. ► Steam activation decreased grain size and increased special surface area. ► Steam activation improved photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 fibers. -- Abstract: Effects of air calcination and steam activation, on phase transformation, microstructure and photocatalytic activity of continuous TiO 2 fibers prepared by sol–gel method were studied. The fibers were characterized by XRD, SEM, and N 2 adsorption–desorption. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of formaldehyde. Results showed that 100% rutile fibers heat-treated in air and steam were obtained at 800 °C and 600 °C, respectively. The anatase grain sizes and special surface areas of the fibers heat-treated at 500 °C in air and steam were 31.6 nm, 22.7 nm, 26.7 m 2 /g and 32.3 m 2 /g, respectively. The degradation rates of formaldehyde over the fibers heat-treated at 500 °C in air and steam were 92.3% and 98.6% after 14 h under UV irradiation, respectively. Compared with the air calcination, the steam activation promoted the anatase–rutile phase transformation, reduced the grain size, increased the special surface area, and improved photocatalytic activity of continuous TiO 2 fibers.

  16. Unraveling the photocatalytic mechanisms on TiO2 surfaces using the oxygen-18 isotopic label technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xibin; Chen, Chuncheng; Ji, Hongwei; Che, Yanke; Ma, Wanhong; Zhao, Jincai

    2014-10-10

    During the last several decades TiO2 photocatalytic oxidation using the molecular oxygen in air has emerged as a promising method for the degradation of recalcitrant organic pollutants and selective transformations of valuable organic chemicals. Despite extensive studies, the mechanisms of these photocatalytic reactions are still poorly understood due to their complexity. In this review, we will highlight how the oxygen-18 isotope labeling technique can be a powerful tool to elucidate complicated photocatalytic mechanisms taking place on the TiO2 surface. To this end, the application of the oxygen-18 isotopic-labeling method to three representative photocatalytic reactions is discussed: (1) the photocatalytic hydroxylation of aromatics; (2) oxidative cleavage of aryl rings on the TiO2 surface; and (3) photocatalytic decarboxylation of saturated carboxylic acids. The results show that the oxygen atoms of molecular oxygen can incorporate into the corresponding products in aqueous solution in all three of these reactions, but the detailed incorporation pathways are completely different in each case. For the hydroxylation process, the O atom in O2 is shown to be incorporated through activation of O2 by conduction band electrons. In the cleavage of aryl rings, O atoms are inserted into the aryl ring through the site-dependent coordination of reactants on the TiO2 surface. A new pathway for the decarboxylation of saturated carboxylic acids with pyruvic acid as an intermediate is identified, and the O2 is incorporated into the products through the further oxidation of pyruvic acid by active species from the activation of O2 by conduction band electrons.

  17. Anatase TiO2/cellulose hybrid paper: Synthesis, characterizations, and photocatalytic activity for degradation of indigo carmine dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yue; Wan, Caichao; Li, Jian

    We report a facile easy method to deposit anatase titania (TiO2) on cellulose paper. The anatase TiO2/cellulose paper (ATCP) was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. This hybrid paper with the anatase TiO2 content of around 13.86wt.% can serve as an eco-friendly flexible photocatalyst, which can rapidly degrade blue indigo carmine dye into a colorless solution within 30min under UV radiation. Moreover, compared to commercially available TiO2 P25 and anatase TiO2 powder, a faster decomposition rate of indigo carmine dye was acquired when using ATCP. These results suggest that this hybrid paper might be useful in the treatment of organic dye wastewater.

  18. Ag doped TiO2 nanoparticles prepared by hydrothermal method and coating of the nanoparticles on the ceramic pellets for photocatalytic study: Surface properties and photoactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguzhan Avciata

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, Ag doped nano TiO2 photocatalysts were synthesized in powder form by hydrothermal method at 180 ºC in 120 min using different reduction agents. The synthesized powders were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, Energydispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, Surface area measurements (BET, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analyses. The effect of reduction agents on the morphological properties of Ag doped nano TiO2 has been studied. We have been observed that the use of different reduction agents affects the particle size and surface area. Ag doped nano TiO2 photocatalysts were coated to the ceramic pellets by dip coating technique for photocatalytic study. Photocatalytic properties of the synthesized powder were examined in a circulating aquarium filled with indigo blue (IB solution under UV irradiation. Periodical UV spectrophotometric analysis showed that indigo blue (IB has been degraded and its concentration has decreased under UV irradiation by time.

  19. Aqueous photocatalytic oxidation of lignin and humic acids with supported TiO2

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    Elina Portjanskaja

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic oxidation (PCO of UV-irradiated aqueous solutions containing humic acids and lignin was studied. The photocatalyst TiO2 was attached to buoyant hollow glass microspheres and glass plates. A maximum oxidation efficiency as low as 1.1 and 2.54 mg W−1h−1 for humic acids and lignin, respectively, was achieved in neutral and alkaline media with 25 gm−2 of the buoyant catalyst. In acidic media, efficiency was even lower. The photocatalytic efficiency with the photocatalyst attached to glass plates was about 3 to 4 times higher than that for the buoyant catalyst. Ferrous ions added to acidic solutions did not increase the rate of PCO of humic acids. However the addition of Fe2+ ions, up to 0.05 mM, to the lignin solution leads to a dramatic increase, about 25%, in PCO efficiency. A further increase in ferrous ion concentration results in a decrease in the PCO efficiency of lignin. Proceeding most likely by a radical mechanism, the efficiency of PCO of humic acids did not benefit from an excessive presence of hydroxyl radical promoters, such as hydrogen peroxide, although the reaction rate increased. However, PCO of lignin in the acidic medium, where OH.-radical formation is suppressed, benefited from the introduction of hydrogen peroxide due to promoted radical formation.

  20. Aqueous photocatalytic oxidation of lignin and humic acids with supported TiO 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic oxidation (PCO of UV-irradiated aqueous solutions containing humic acids and lignin was studied. The photocatalyst TiO 2 was attached to buoyant hollow glass microspheres and glass plates. A maximum oxidation efficiency as low as 1.1 and 2.54 mg W −1 h −1 for humic acids and lignin, respectively, was achieved in neutral and alkaline media with 25 gm −2 of the buoyant catalyst. In acidic media, efficiency was even lower. The photocatalytic efficiency with the photocatalyst attached to glass plates was about 3 to 4 times higher than that for the buoyant catalyst. Ferrous ions added to acidic solutions did not increase the rate of PCO of humic acids. However the addition of Fe 2+ ions, up to 0.05 mM, to the lignin solution leads to a dramatic increase, about 25%, in PCO efficiency. A further increase in ferrous ion concentration results in a decrease in the PCO efficiency of lignin. Proceeding most likely by a radical mechanism, the efficiency of PCO of humic acids did not benefit from an excessive presence of hydroxyl radical promoters, such as hydrogen peroxide, although the reaction rate increased. However, PCO of lignin in the acidic medium, where OH.-radical formation is suppressed, benefited from the introduction of hydrogen peroxide due to promoted radical formation.

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Ni-Doped TiO2 Materials for Photocurrent and Photocatalytic Applications

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    Ibram Ganesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Different amounts of Ni-doped TiO2 (Ni=0.1 to 10% powders and thin films were prepared by following a conventional coprecipitation and sol-gel dip coating techniques, respectively, at 400 to 800°C, and were thoroughly characterized by means of XRD, FT-IR, FT-Raman, DRS, UV-visible, BET surface area, zeta potential, flat band potential, and photocurrent measurement techniques. Photocatalytic abilities of Ni-doped TiO2 powders were evaluated by means of methylene blue (MB degradation reaction under simulated solar light. Characterization results suggest that as a dopant, Ni stabilizes TiO2 in the form of anatase phase, reduces its bandgap energy, and adjusts its flat band potentials such that this material can be employed for photoelectrochemical (PEC oxidation of water reaction. The photocatalytic activity and photocurrent ability of TiO2 have been enhanced by doping of Ni in TiO2. The kinetic studies revealed that the MB degradation reaction follows the Langmuir-Hinshelwood first-order reaction relationship.

  2. Magnetic recoverable Fe3O4-TiO2:Eu composite nanoparticles with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, M.; Leostean, C.; Pana, O.; Toloman, D.; Popa, A.; Perhaita, I.; Senilă, M.; Marincas, O.; Barbu-Tudoran, L.

    2016-12-01

    This work refers to the influence of Eu doping on the morphologic, structural and compositional properties of magnetic separable Fe3O4-TiO2 composite nanoparticles with photocatalytic activity. In this respect, Fe3O4-TiO2:Eu nanocomposites were prepared by seed mediated growth of TiO2:Eu through a sol-gel method onto preformed magnetite resulted from co-precipitation method. Different Eu concentration precursors were used for doping. The thermal behavior and the conversion of precursors into corresponding Fe3O4-TiO2:Eu composite nanoparticles were evidenced by FT-IR spectra and thermal analysis. The XRD, XPS and HRTEM investigations results indicate that nanocomposites contain besides Fe3O4-TiO2:Eu some amounts of iron titanate. Formation of FeTiO3 is suppressed by the increase of Eu doping level. Magnetic studies also indicated that nanocomposite exhibit superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. The large surface area and mesoporous structure of magnetic nanocomposite were confirmed by the surface area (BET) and porosity measurements. It was demonstrated that the composite nanoparticles exhibit good photocatalytic activity toward the degradation of RhB solution and they can be used as efficient and conveniently recoverable photocatalyst.

  3. A novel biomaterial — Fe 3O 4:TiO 2 core-shell nano particle with magnetic performance and high visible light photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qinghang; Zhang, Zhenxi; Xiong, Jianwen; Xiong, Yuying; Xiao, Hua

    2008-10-01

    Aiming at some disadvantages of TiO 2 nano particle (TiO 2 NP), this paper successfully prepared Fe 3O 4:TiO 2 core-shell nano particle (Fe 3O 4:TiO 2 core-shell NP) using homogeneous precipitation method. The prepared Fe 3O 4:TiO 2 core-shell NP was characterized using XRD, TEM, UV-vis DRS, FT-IR, and VSM, respectively; the results show that Fe 3O 4:TiO 2 core-shell NP is single dispersed with the diameter of 20 nm on average. In contrast to the traditional TiO 2 NP, Fe 3O 4:TiO 2 core-shell NP generates red shift, and has higher absorption in visible region and greater photocatalytic activity, plus additional superparamagetism. In order to demonstrate the benefits of Fe 3O 4:TiO 2 core-shell NP, we adopted Hela cells as a model to investigate the killing efficiency. The results show that Fe 3O 4:TiO 2 core-shell NP is non-toxic, and much more efficient than traditional TiO 2 NP combined with extra magnetic field. This shows that Fe 3O 4:TiO 2 core-shell NP is a novel biomaterial with magnetic performance and high visible light photocatalytic activity. It would be a promising candidate in the field of malignant tumor therapy in future.

  4. Anomalous behavior of visible light active TiO2 for the photocatalytic degradation of different Reactive dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Navneet; Shahi, Satwant Kaur; Singh, Vasundhara

    2015-11-01

    Nanocrystalline undoped, N-doped, N and metal codoped titania with different particle size, surface area, anatase phase content, crystallinity, band gap and zeta potential were synthesized by the sol-gel method. The photocatalytic activities of the synthesized TiO2 powders were compared by employing four different Reactive dyes. The order of photocatalytic activity observed for Reactive Red 198 dye (RR 198) was undoped = N,Cu codoped = N-doped > N,Fe codoped TiO2, Reactive Blue 4 dye (RB 4) was N,Cu codoped > N,Fe codoped > N-doped > undoped TiO2, Reactive Black 5 dye (RB 5) was N,Cu codoped* > undoped > N-doped > N,Fe codoped TiO2 and negligible degradation was observed for Reactive Orange 16 dye (RO 16). In this paper, the anomalous trend of the photocatalytic activity of various photocatalysts for the degradation of a particular class of dyes has been observed and accounted for based upon three parameters: mechanism of degradation, physicochemical properties of the catalyst and adsorption behavior based on the zeta potential. It was concluded that apart from these parameters, the substrate-specificity of the catalyst is also of equal importance in developing new catalysts for the photodegradation of dyes present in textile effluents.

  5. Fabrication of TiO2Nanosheet Aarrays/Graphene/Cu2O Composite Structure for Enhanced Photocatalytic Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinzhao; Fu, Ke; Deng, Xiaolong; Yao, Nannan; Wei, Mingzhi

    2017-12-01

    TiO 2 NSAs/graphene/Cu 2 O was fabricated on the carbon fiber to use as photocastalysts by coating Cu 2 O on the graphene (G) decorated TiO 2 nanosheet arrays (NSAs). The research focus on constructing the composite structure and investigating the reason to enhance the photocatalytic ability. The morphological, structural, and photocatalytic properties of the as-synthesized products were characterized. The experimental results indicate that the better photocatalytic performance is ascribed to the following reasons. First, the TiO 2 NSAs/graphene/Cu 2 O composite structure fabricated on the carbon cloth can form a 3D structure which can provide a higher specific surface area and enhance the light absorption. Second, the graphene as an electron sink can accept the photoelectrons from the photoexcited Cu 2 O which will reduce the recombination. Third, the TiO 2 nanosheet can provide more favorable carrier transportation channel which can reduce the recombination of carriers. Finally, the Cu 2 O can extend the light absorption range.

  6. Analysis of the activity of photocatalytic TiO2 nanofilms of pure tungsten doped

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, L.G.; Bergmann, C.P.; Alves, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Titanium oxide semiconductor is an n-type widely used in advanced oxidation processes and purification processes of the environment. However, due to the fact that their structures are activated only under UV irradiation, limiting the use of sunlight, several alternatives are being sought aiming to overcome this limitation. Among them, the construction of bicomponent films of TiO 2 (3.0-3.2 eV) coupled to a lower band gap semiconductor such as WO 3 (2.5-2.8 eV) semiconductors such as oxides have electronic properties, optical and photoelectrochemical complementary, forming a film with the possibility of photoexcitation in a wider region of the spectrum. In this work nanofilms TiO 2 and TiO 2 /WO 3 were obtained by a spin coater and photoactivity was assessed. The technique of X-ray diffraction (XRD) was employed in determining the formed crystallite size and the morphology and crystal structure of the films was analyzed by scanning (SEM) electron microscopy. (author)

  7. Data on the effect of the dispersion of functionalized nanoparticles TiO2 with photocatalytic activity in LDPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarado Jahell

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article contains the dataset referring to the article ''Study of the effect of the dispersion of functionalized nanoparticles TiO2 with photocatalytic activity in LDPE'' (Jahell et al., 2016 [1]. It includes the FT-IR data of the functionalized nanoparticles of TiO2 with Hexadecyltrimethoxysilane in different degrees of functionalization, thermogravimetric analysis, distribution and particle size in the polymer matrix by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, carbonyl index, gravimetry and scanning electron microscopy of the nanocomposite degraded by UV radiation.

  8. A Cost-Effective Solid-State Approach to Synthesize g-C3N4 Coated TiO2 Nanocomposites with Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Min; Pi, Junmin; Dong, Fan; Duan, Qiuyan; Guo, Huan

    2013-01-01

    Novel graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) coated TiO2 nanocomposites were prepared by a facile and cost-effective solid-state method by thermal treatment of the mixture of urea and commercial TiO2. Because the C3N4 was dispersed and coated on the TiO2 nanoparticles, the as-prepared g-C3N4/TiO2 nanocomposites showed enhanced absorption and photocatalytic properties in visible light region. The as-prepared g-C3N4 coated TiO2 nanocomposites under 450°C exhibited efficient visible light photocataly...

  9. Electrodeposition technique-dependent photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic properties of an In2S3/TiO2 nanotube array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Luo, Shenglian; Wei, Zhendong; Meng, Deshui; Ding, Mingyue; Liu, Chengbin

    2014-03-07

    Electrodeposition is a very versatile tool to fabricate multicomponent TiO2 nanotube array (NTA) composites. However, the understanding of the correlation between the component structure and the fabrication technique has not been clearly investigated yet, though it has been observed that the performance of composites is bound up with the component structure. In this work, the photoelectrochemical properties of In2S3-TiO2 NTA composites prepared by CV electrodeposition, potentiostatic electrodeposition and pulse electrodeposition, respectively, were investigated. The results revealed that the as-prepared photoelectrodes exhibited electrodeposition technique-dependent properties, and the pulse prepared In2S3-TiO2 yielded the highest and stable photocurrent response, consequently exhibiting a superior photocatalytic activity in the degradation of p-nitrophenol (PNP). This may be attributed to the homogeneous, ultra-fine structure of In2S3 nanoparticles (NPs), which brings about a high charge separation efficiency. Furthermore, the trapping tests showed that both radicals and holes were the main active species in the photocatalytic degradation of PNP. This work not only provided a firm basis for maximizing photocatalytic activity via tuning fabrication techniques but also gave a deep insight into the photocatalytic mechanism.

  10. Palladium nanoparticles anchored to anatase TiO2 for enhanced surface plasmon resonance-stimulated, visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kah Hon Leong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Freely assembled palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs on titania (TiO2 nano photocatalysts were successfully synthesized through a photodeposition method using natural sunlight. This synthesized heterogeneous photocatalyst (Pd/TiO2 was characterized through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, BET surface area, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-DRS, Raman and photoluminescence (PL analyses. The simple and smart synthesis anchored well the deposition with controlled Pd NPs size ranging between 17 and 29 nm onto the surface of TiO2. Thus, it gives the characteristic for Pd NPs to absorb light in the visible region obtained through localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPRs. Apparently, the photocatalytic activity of the prepared photocatalysts was evaluated by degrading the endocrine disrupting compound (EDC amoxicillin (AMX excited under an artificial visible light source. In the preliminary run, almost complete degradation (97.5% was achieved in 5 h with 0.5 wt % Pd loading and the degradation followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The reusability trend proved the photostability of the prepared photocatalysts. Hence, the study provides a new insight about the modification of TiO2 with noble metals in order to enhance the absorption in the visible-light region for superior photocatalytic performance.

  11. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange and bromophenol blue dyes in water using sol-gel synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanalakshmi, J.; Pathinettam Padiyan, D.

    2017-09-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by a sol-gel method using titanium tetra isopropoxide as a precursor. The structural, optical, morphological and electrical properties were studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), a high resolution scanning electron microscope (HR-SEM), a transmission electron microscope (TEM), Raman analysis, Photoluminescence (PL) and impedance spectroscopy. The XRD and Raman spectra revealed that the synthesized samples are in pure anatase phase with an average crystallite size of 18 nm. Photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 nanoparticles was investigated for the degradation of 10 ppm methyl orange (MO) and bromophenol blue (BPB) dye using 10 mg of catalyst. Anatase TiO2 exhibited the removal of 67.12% and 85.51% of MO and BPB, respectively, within 240 min. The photocatalytic degradation process is explained using pseudo second order kinetics and fits well with the higher correlation coefficient.

  12. Photocatalytic deposition of Ag nanoparticles on TiO2: Metal precursor effect on the structural and photoactivity properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Albiter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of 1 wt.% Ag–TiO2 photocatalysts were obtained by photodeposition using different organic (acetylacetonate, Ag-A and inorganic (nitrate, Ag-N, and perchlorate, Ag-C silver precursors in order to determinate the influence of the silver precursor on final properties of the photocatalysts. The resulting photocatalytic materials were characterized by different techniques (UV–Vis DRS, TEM/HRTEM and XPS and their photocatalytic activity was evaluated in the degradation of rhodamine B (used as model pollutant in aqueous solution under simulated solar light. The photocatalytic reduction of Ag species to Ag0 on TiO2 was higher with silver nitrate as precursor compared to acetylacetonate or perchlorate. All the Ag-modified TiO2 photocatalysts exhibited a surface plasmon resonance effect in the visible region (400–530 nm indicating different metal particle sizes depending on the Ag precursor used in their synthesis. A higher photocatalytic activity was obtained with all the Ag/TiO2 samples compared with non-modified TiO2. The descending order of photocatalytic activity was as follows: Ag-A/TiO2 ≈ Ag-N/TiO2 > Ag-C/TiO2 > TiO2-P25. The enhanced photoactivity was attributed to the presence of different amounts Ag0 nanoparticles homogeneously distributed on Ag2O and TiO2, trapping the photogenerated electrons and avoiding charge recombination.

  13. Improved visible-light photocatalytic activity of TiO2 co-doped with copper and iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorraj, Masoumeh; Goh, Boon Tong; Sairi, Nor Asrina; Woi, Pei Meng; Basirun, Wan Jefrey

    2018-05-01

    Cu-I-co-doped TiO2 photocatalysts active to visible light absorption were prepared by hydrothermal method and calcined at various temperatures (350 °C, 450 °C, and 550 °C). The co-doped powders at 350 °C displayed the highest experimental Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area and lowest photoluminescence intensity, which demonstrated that a decrease in electron-hole recombination process. The synthesis of co-doped TiO2 was performed at this optimized temperature. In the co-doped sample, the Cu2+ doped TiO2 lattice created a major "red-shift" in the absorption edge due to the presence of the 3d Cu states, whereas the amount of red-shift from the I5+ doping in the TiO2 lattice was minor. Interestingly, the presence of Cu2+ species also boosted the reduction of I5+ ions to the lower multi-valance state I- in the TiO2 lattice by trapping the photogenerated electrons, which resulted in effective separation of the photogenerated charges. The Cu-I-co-doped TiO2 was able to degrade methyl orange dye under visible-light irradiation with improved photocatalytic activity compared with the single metal-doped TiO2 and pure TiO2 because of the strong visible light absorption and effective separation of photogenerated charges caused by the synergistic effects of Cu and I co-dopants.

  14. Anatase/rutile TiO2 composites: Influence of the mixing ratio on the photocatalytic degradation of Malachite Green and Orange II in slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojinova, A.; Kralchevska, R.; Poulios, I.; Dushkin, C.

    2007-01-01

    The present study is directed to clarify the influence of the ratio of anatase to rutile phase, containing in the TiO 2 samples, on their activity as photocatalysts in slurry. A series of samples corresponding to different percentages of anatase is prepared from commercial anatase and rutile TiO 2 brands (KRONOS). The crystalline phase composition of the samples is characterized by X-ray diffraction. The photocatalytic action of the mixtures is tested in photodegradation of the commercial organic dyes Malachite Green Hydrochloride and Orange II in aqueous solutions under UV irradiation. Comparative tests with Degussa P-25 are performed. The apparent rate constants of the process are determined from the kinetic curves using appropriate models. They generally increase with the anatase ratio, being always larger for Malachite Green than for Orange II

  15. Sol-gel synthesis of TiO2nanoparticles: effect of Pluronic P123 on particle's morphology and photocatalytic degradation of paraquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marien, Cédric B D; Marchal, Clément; Koch, Alain; Robert, Didier; Drogui, Patrick

    2017-05-01

    We report a facile method to tune TiO 2 nanoparticles' morphology by modifying and an acid-catalyzed sol-gel synthesis with Pluronic P123. Synthesized particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, BET analysis, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. XRD analysis revealed a high anatase content while BET measurements showed that porous volume strongly depends on the amount of P123. We demonstrate that high amounts of P123 increase particle's aspect-ratio from spherical to rod-shape morphology. We evaluated the photocatalytic performances for the removal of methyl viologen (paraquat) and found that best performances are obtained for the following weight ratio P123/TiO 2  = 7.5. Furthermore, P25 is less active than synthesized nanoparticles.

  16. Effect of Cu2O morphology on photocatalytic hydrogen generation and chemical stability of TiO2/Cu2O composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lihong; Zhang, Junying; Chen, Ziyu; Liu, Kejia; Gao, Hong

    2013-07-01

    Improving photocatalytic activity and stability of TiO2/Cu2O composite is a challenge in generating hydrogen from water. In this paper, the TiO2 film/Cu2O microgrid composite was prepared via a microsphere lithography technique, which possesses a remarkable performance of producing H2 under UV-vis light irradiation, in comparison with pure TiO2 film, Cu2O film and TiO2 film/Cu2O film. More interesting is that in TiO2 film/Cu2O microgrid, photo-corrosion of Cu2O can be retarded. After deposition of Pt on its surface, the photocatalytic activity of TiO2/Cu2O microgrid in producing H2 is improved greatly.

  17. A Cost-Effective Solid-State Approach to Synthesize g-C3N4 Coated TiO2 Nanocomposites with Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Fu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4 coated TiO2 nanocomposites were prepared by a facile and cost-effective solid-state method by thermal treatment of the mixture of urea and commercial TiO2. Because the C3N4 was dispersed and coated on the TiO2 nanoparticles, the as-prepared g-C3N4/TiO2 nanocomposites showed enhanced absorption and photocatalytic properties in visible light region. The as-prepared g-C3N4 coated TiO2 nanocomposites under 450°C exhibited efficient visible light photocatalytic activity for degradation of aqueous MB due to the increased visible light absorption and enhanced MB adsorption. The g-C3N4 coated TiO2 nanocomposites would have wide applications in both environmental remediation and solar energy conversion.

  18. Silver Nanoparticles Influence on Photocatalytic Activity of Hybrid Materials Based on TiO2 P25

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomkouani Kodom

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study consists in the obtaining of a hybrid material film, obtained using TiO2 P25 and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs. The film manufacturing process involved realization of physical mixtures of TiO2 P25 and AgNPs dispersions. The size distribution of the AgNPs proved to be a key factor determining the photodegradation activity of the materials measured using methyl orange. The best result was 33% degradation of methyl orange (MO after 150 min. The second approach was the generation of AgNPs on the surface of TiO2 P25. The obtained hybrid material presents photocatalytic activity of 45% MO degradation after 150 min. The developed materials were characterized by UV-VIS, SEM, and DLS analyses.

  19. Photocatalytic degradation of resorcinol, an endocrine disrupter, by TiO2 and ZnO suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Sze-Mun; Sin, Jin-Chung; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2013-01-01

    In the work presented here, photocatalytic systems using TiO2 and ZnO suspensions were utilized to evaluate the degradation of resorcinol (ReOH). The effects of catalyst concentration and solution pH were investigated and optimized using multivariate analysis based on response surface methodology. The results indicated that ZnO showed greater degradation and mineralization activities compared to TiO2 under optimized conditions. Using certain radical scavengers, a positive hole, together with the participation of hydroxyl radicals, were the oxidative species responsible for ReOH degradation on TiO2 whereas, the ZnO photocatalysis occurred principally via hydroxyl radicals. Some hitherto unreported pathway intermediates of ReOH degradation were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A tentative reaction mechanism for the formation of these intermediates was proposed. Moreover, the figure-of-merit electrical energy per order was employed to estimate the electrical energy consumption.

  20. Uniform Gold-Nanoparticle-Decorated {001}-Faceted Anatase TiO2 Nanosheets for Enhanced Solar-Light Photocatalytic Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huimin; Zhang, Shi; Zhu, Xupeng; Liu, Yu; Wang, Tao; Jiang, Tian; Zhang, Guanhua; Duan, Huigao

    2017-10-25

    The {001}-faceted anatase TiO 2 micro-/nanocrystals have been widely investigated for enhancing the photocatalysis and photoelectrochemical performance of TiO 2 nanostructures, but their practical applications still require improved energy conversion efficiency under solar-light and enhanced cycling stability. In this work, we demonstrate the controlled growth of ultrathin {001}-faceted anatase TiO 2 nanosheets on flexible carbon cloth for enhancing the cycling stability, and the solar-light photocatalytic performance of the synthesized TiO 2 nanosheets can be significantly improved by decorating with vapor-phase-deposited uniformly distributed plasmonic gold nanoparticles. The fabricated Au-TiO 2 hybrid system shows an 8-fold solar-light photocatalysis enhancement factor in photodegrading Rhodamine B, a high photocurrent density of 300 μA cm -2 under the illumination of AM 1.5G, and 100% recyclability under a consecutive long-term cycling measurement. Combined with electromagnetic simulations and systematic control experiments, it is believed that the tandem-type separation and transition of plasmon-induced hot electrons from Au nanoparticles to the {001} facet of anatase TiO 2 , and then to the neighboring {101} facet, is responsible for the enhanced solar-light photochemical performance of the hybrid system. The Au-TiO 2 nanosheet system addresses well the problems of the limited solar-light response of anatase TiO 2 and fast recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, representing a promising high-performance recyclable solar-light-responding system for practical photocatalytic reactions.

  1. Investigation of E. coli bacteria inactivation by photocatalytic activity of TiO2 coated expanded polystyrene foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnagiris, S.; Sakalauskaite, S.; Tuckute, S.; Lelis, M.; Daugelavicius, R.; Milcius, D.

    2017-03-01

    Photocatalytic properties of anatase and other TiO2 polymorphs are widely researched and applied in practical application. In current study TiO2 films on the plasma pre-treated expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam were deposited using magnetron sputtering technique. Main properties of the films were characterised using combination of XRD, XPS and SEM techniques. Photocatalytic properties of the observed crystalline anatase phase were tested by investigating bleaching of the methylene blue (MB) aqueous solution and by testing Escherichia coli (E. coli) viability after incubation under UV-B irradiation. E. coli viability experiments indicated that there are two mechanisms of E. coli bacteria inactivation. UV irradiation alone causes rapid damage to the outer membrane of E. coli bacteria. The second mechanism of E. coli inactivation is invoked only with synergistic combination of TiO2 and UV. Acting as photocatalyst TiO2 generates active radicals who initiate the chain peroxidation of organic molecules and within 45 min reduce E. coli bacteria viability by nearly 90%.

  2. Highly-efficient photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by PoPD-modified TiO2nanocomposites due to photosensitization-synergetic effect of TiO2with PoPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuanxi; Dong, Wenping; Cui, Guanwei; Zhao, Yingqiang; Shi, Xifeng; Xia, Xinyuan; Tang, Bo; Wang, Weiliang

    2017-06-21

    Poly-o-phenylenediamine modified TiO 2 nanocomposites were successfully synthesized via an 'in situ' oxidative polymerization method. The modified nanocomposites were characterized by BET, XRD, TEM, FT-IR, TGA, XPS, EA and UV-Vis DRS. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue was chosen as a model reaction to evaluate the photocatalytic activities of TiO 2 and PoPD/TiO 2 . The results indicated that PoPD/TiO 2 nanocomposites exhibited good photocatalytic activity and stability. The photocatalytic activity of PoPD/TiO 2 increased as the initial pH increased because of electrostatic adsorption between the photocatalyst and MB as well as the generation of ·OH, whereas it exhibited an earlier increasing and later decreasing trend as the concentration of the photocatalyst increased owing to the absorption of visible light. The photocatalytic stability of the PoPD/TiO 2 nanocomposite was dependent on the stability of its structure. Based on radical trapping experiments and ESR measurements, the origin of oxidizing ability of PoPD/TiO 2 nanocomposites on photocatalytic degradation of MB was proposed, which taking into account of ·OH and ·O 2 - were the first and second important ROS, respectively. The possible photocatalytic mechanism and photocatalytic activity enhanced mechanism has been proposed, taking into account the photosensitization effect and synergetic effect of TiO 2 with PoPD.

  3. Synthesis, characterization and enhanced photocatalytic CO2 reduction activity of graphene supported TiO2 nanocrystals with coexposed {001} and {101} facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhuo; Luo, Ying; Zhao, Yongchun; Zhang, Junying; Zheng, Chuguang; Wu, Jeffrey C S

    2016-05-11

    It is known that the combination of TiO2 and graphene and the control of TiO2 crystal facets are both effective routes to improve the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. Here, we report the synthesis and the photocatalytic CO2 reduction performance of graphene supported TiO2 nanocrystals with coexposed {001} and {101} facets (G/TiO2-001/101). The combination of TiO2 and graphene enhanced the crystallinity of TiO2 single nanocrystals and obviously improved their dispersion on graphene. The "surface heterojunction" formed by the coexposed {001} and {101} facets can promote the spatial separation of photogenerated electrons and holes toward different facets and the supports of graphene can further enhance the separation through accelerated electron migration from TiO2 to graphene. The G/TiO2-001/101 exhibited high photocatalytic CO2-reduction activity with a maximum CO yield reaching 70.8 μmol g(-1) h(-1). The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the composites can be attributed to their high surface area, good dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles, and effective separation of excited charges due to the synergy of graphene supports and the co-exposure of {001} and {101} facets.

  4. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue and inactivation of gram-negative bacteria by TiO2 nanoparticles in aqueous suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) and inactivation of Gram-negative bacteria E. coli K12 and P. aeruginosa by TiO2 nanoparticles in aqueous suspension were studied. TiO2 resulted in significant reduction in MB absorption and a shift of MB absorption peak from 664 nm to 658 nm aft...

  5. Influences of Silver-Doping on the Crystal Structure, Morphology and Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barakat, Nasser A. M.; Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmed; Al-Deyab, Salem S.

    2011-01-01

    Doping of titanium dioxide nanofibers by silver nanoparticles revealed distinct improvement in the photocatalytic activ-ity; however other influences have not been investigated. In this work, effect of sliver-doping on the crystal structure, the nanofibrous morphology as well as the photocatalytic...... activity of titanium oxide nanofibers has been studied. Sil-ver-doped TiO2 nanofibers having different silver contents were prepared by calcination of electrospun nanofiber mats consisting of silver nitrate, titanium isopropoxide and poly(vinyl acetate) at 600°C. The results affirmed formation of silver...

  6. A simple UV-ozone surface treatment to enhance photocatalytic performance of TiO 2 loaded polymer nanofiber membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Dilpazir, S.

    2016-01-29

    Homogeneously dispersed titanium dioxide loaded polyacrylonitrile nanofiber membranes with increased active mass loading, Ti3+ surface defects and hydrophilicity were fabricated by combining electrospinning and UV-ozone surface treatment. The photocatalytic activity improved by a factor of ∼2 and the kinetics of photodegradation switched from pseudo-first order to pseudo-second order with increasing TiO2 content with a maximum rate constant of 20.7 h-1. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  7. Black TiO2 nanobelts/g-C3N4 nanosheets Laminated Heterojunctions with Efficient Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalytic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liyan; Xing, Zipeng; Zou, Jinlong; Li, Zhenzi; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yuchi; Zhu, Qi; Yang, Shilin; Zhou, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Black TiO2 nanobelts/g-C3N4 nanosheets laminated heterojunctions (b-TiO2/g-C3N4) as visible-light-driven photocatalysts are fabricated through a simple hydrothermal-calcination process and an in-situ solid-state chemical reduction approach, followed by the mild thermal treatment (350 °C) in argon atmosphere. The prepared samples are evidently investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, N2 adsorption, and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, respectively. The results show that special laminated heterojunctions are formed between black TiO2 nanobelts and g-C3N4 nanosheets, which favor the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Furthermore, the presence of Ti3+ and g-C3N4 greatly enhance the absorption of visible light. The resultant b-TiO2/g-C3N4 materials exhibit higher photocatalytic activity than that of g-C3N4, TiO2, b-TiO2 and TiO2/g-C3N4 for degradation of methyl orange (95%) and hydrogen evolution (555.8 μmol h−1 g−1) under visible light irradiation. The apparent reaction rate constant (k) of b-TiO2/g-C3N4 is ~9 times higher than that of pristine TiO2. Therefore, the high-efficient laminated heterojunction composites will have potential applications in fields of environment and energy. PMID:28165021

  8. Black TiO2 nanobelts/g-C3N4 nanosheets Laminated Heterojunctions with Efficient Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalytic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liyan; Xing, Zipeng; Zou, Jinlong; Li, Zhenzi; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yuchi; Zhu, Qi; Yang, Shilin; Zhou, Wei

    2017-02-01

    Black TiO2 nanobelts/g-C3N4 nanosheets laminated heterojunctions (b-TiO2/g-C3N4) as visible-light-driven photocatalysts are fabricated through a simple hydrothermal-calcination process and an in-situ solid-state chemical reduction approach, followed by the mild thermal treatment (350 °C) in argon atmosphere. The prepared samples are evidently investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, N2 adsorption, and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, respectively. The results show that special laminated heterojunctions are formed between black TiO2 nanobelts and g-C3N4 nanosheets, which favor the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Furthermore, the presence of Ti3+ and g-C3N4 greatly enhance the absorption of visible light. The resultant b-TiO2/g-C3N4 materials exhibit higher photocatalytic activity than that of g-C3N4, TiO2, b-TiO2 and TiO2/g-C3N4 for degradation of methyl orange (95%) and hydrogen evolution (555.8 μmol h-1 g-1) under visible light irradiation. The apparent reaction rate constant (k) of b-TiO2/g-C3N4 is ~9 times higher than that of pristine TiO2. Therefore, the high-efficient laminated heterojunction composites will have potential applications in fields of environment and energy.

  9. [Study on preparation of lanthanum-doped TiO2 nanometer thin film materials and its photocatalytic activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huai-li; Tang, Ming-fang; Gong, Ying-kun; Deng, Xiao-jun; Wu, Bang-hua

    2003-04-01

    In this paper, lanthanum-doped TiO2 nanometer film materials coated on glass were prepared in Ti(OBu)4 precursor solutions by sol-gel processing. Transmittance and photocatalytic activity were respectively investigated and tested for these nanometer thin films prepared with different amount of lanthanum (La), different amount of polyethylene glycol (PEG), and different coating layer times. Some reactive mechanisms were also discussed. For one layer La-addition had little effect on the film transmissivity; but the photocatalytic activity was significantly improved due to La-addition. With increasing PEG, the transmittance of the film decreased for one layer film; but its photocatalytic activity did not rise. Increasing layer number did not affect the transmissivity of multilayer film. After coating two times, increasing layer number did not significantly improve the photocatalytic activity. The highest photocatalytic activity and best transmissivity were obtained for two layer TiO2 film when the dosage of lanthanum was 0.5 g and the dosage of polyethylene was 0.2 g in the precursor solutions. These materials will probably be used in the protection of environment, waste water treatment, and air purification.

  10. Self-organized nanocrack networks: a pathway to enlarge catalytic surface area in sputtered ceramic thin films, showcased for photocatalytic TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, B.; Vahl, A.; Aktas, O. C.; Strunskus, T.; Faupel, F.

    2018-01-01

    Sputter deposited photocatalytic thin films offer high adherence and mechanical stability, but typically are outperformed in their photocatalytic properties by colloidal TiO2 nanostructures, which in turn typically suffer from problematic removal. Here we report on thermally controlled nanocrack formation as a feasible and batch applicable approach to enhance the photocatalytic performance of well adhering, reactively sputtered TiO2 thin films. Networks of nanoscopic cracks were induced into tailored columnar TiO2 thin films by thermal annealing. These deep trenches are separating small bundles of TiO2 columns, adding their flanks to the overall catalytically active surface area. The variation of thin film thickness reveals a critical layer thickness for initial nanocrack network formation, which was found to be about 400 nm in case of TiO2. The columnar morphology of the as deposited TiO2 layer with weak bonds between respective columns and with strong bonds to the substrate is of crucial importance for the formation of nanocrack networks. A beneficial effect of nanocracking on the photocatalytic performance was experimentally observed. It was correlated by a simple geometric model for explaining the positive impact of the crack induced enlargement of active surface area on photocatalytic efficiency. The presented method of nanocrack network formation is principally not limited to TiO2 and is therefore seen as a promising candidate for utilizing increased surface area by controlled crack formation in ceramic thin films in general.

  11. Azo-dyes photocatalytic degradation in aqueous suspension of TiO2 under solar irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augugliaro, Vincenzo; Baiocchi, Claudio; Prevot, Alessandra Bianco; García-López, Elisa; Loddo, Vittorio; Malato, Sixto; Marcí, Giuseppe; Palmisano, Leonardo; Pazzi, Marco; Pramauro, Edmondo

    2002-12-01

    The photodegradation of two common and very stable azo-dyes, i.e. methyl-orange (C14H14N3SO3Na) and orange II (C16H11N2SO4Na), is reported. The photocatalytic oxidation was carried out in aqueous suspensions of polycrystalline TiO2 irradiated by sunlight. Compound parabolic collectors, installed at the "Plataforma Solar de Almería" (PSA, Spain) were used as the photoreactors and two identical reacting systems allowed to perform photoreactivity runs for the two dyes at the same time and under the same irradiation conditions. The disappearance of colour and substrates together with the abatement of total organic carbon content was monitored. The main sulfonate-containing intermediates were found to be in lower number in respect to those obtained under artificial irradiation. In particular there were no more evidence of the presence of hydroxylated transients. The dependence of dye photooxidation rate on: (i) substrate concentration; (ii) catalyst amount; and (iii) initial pH was investigated. The influence of the presence of strong oxidant species (H2O2, S2O8(2-)) and some ions (Cl-, SO4(2-)) on the process was also studied.

  12. Photocatalytic decolorization of methylene blue in the presence of TiO2/ZnS nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, A; Neves, M C; Carrott, M M L Ribeiro; Mendonça, M H; Pereira, M I; Monteiro, O C

    2009-01-15

    The synthesis of distinct nanocrystalline TiO2 capped ZnS samples was carried out using a chemical deposition method. The materials characterization showed that the presence of ZnS onto TiO2 surface results in a red shift of the material band edge when compared with the initial semiconductor. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared nanocomposites was tested on the decolorization of methylene blue (MB) aqueous solutions. The dye photodecolorization process was studied considering the influence of experimental parameters such as catalyst concentration, TiO2/ZnS ratio, pH and methylene blue adsorption rate. The material with the best catalytic activity towards the methylene blue photodecolorization was the TiO2 doped with 0.2% of ZnS. The complete photodecolorization of a 20ppm methylene blue solution, at natural pH was achieved in less than 20min, nearly 70min faster than the TiO2 photoassisted process.

  13. Photocatalytic Degradation of Bisphenol A from Aqueous Solutions using TiO2 Nanoparticles and UV Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzan ali Dianati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Bisphenol A (BPA is used to make certain plastics and epoxy resins. It is a non-biodegradable compound, and poses health risks to both humans and animals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate decomposition efficiency of BPA from aqueous solutions using UV irradiation. Materials and Methods: In this study, the photodegradation of BPA in water were carried out in a reactor equipped 6 W UV lamp. In order to obtain the optimum operational conditions, parameters such as BPA concentration (1-50 mg/l, TiO2 dosage (0.025-2 g/l, and pH (3-11 were evaluated. BPA concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: The highest degradation was 90% and achieved in 60 min. BPA degradation efficiency can be effectively improved by increasing pH, decreasing the initial concentration and increasing TiO2 dosage. The optimal dose of TiO2 was measured at 0.5 g/l. The degradation decreases with increasing TiO2 dosage. Conclusion: Photocatalytic degradation by using TiO2 and low power UV lamp is applicable.

  14. Improved Solar-Driven Photocatalytic Performance of Highly Crystalline Hydrogenated TiO2 Nanofibers with Core-Shell Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Chung; Chen, Ching-Hsiang; Huang, Wei-Kang; Hsiao, Kai-Chi; Lin, Ting-Han; Chan, Shun-Hsiang; Wu, Po-Yeh; Lu, Chun-Fu; Chang, Yin-Hsuan; Lin, Tz-Feng; Hsu, Kai-Hsiang; Hsu, Jen-Fu; Lee, Kun-Mu; Shyue, Jing-Jong; Kordás, Krisztián; Su, Wei-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogenated titanium dioxide has attracted intensive research interests in pollutant removal applications due to its high photocatalytic activity. Herein, we demonstrate hydrogenated TiO2 nanofibers (H:TiO2 NFs) with a core-shell structure prepared by the hydrothermal synthesis and subsequent heat treatment in hydrogen flow. H:TiO2 NFs has excellent solar light absorption and photogenerated charge formation behavior as confirmed by optical absorbance, photo-Kelvin force probe microscopy and photoinduced charge carrier dynamics analyses. Photodegradation of various organic dyes such as methyl orange, rhodamine 6G and brilliant green is shown to take place with significantly higher rates on our novel catalyst than on pristine TiO2 nanofibers and commercial nanoparticle based photocatalytic materials, which is attributed to surface defects (oxygen vacancy and Ti3+ interstitial defect) on the hydrogen treated surface. We propose three properties/mechanisms responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity, which are: (1) improved absorbance allowing for increased exciton generation, (2) highly crystalline anatase TiO2 that promotes fast charge transport rate, and (3) decreased charge recombination caused by the nanoscopic Schottky junctions at the interface of pristine core and hydrogenated shell thus promoting long-life surface charges. The developed H:TiO2 NFs can be helpful for future high performance photocatalysts in environmental applications.

  15. Photocatalytic application of TiO2/SiO2-based magnetic nanocomposite (Fe3O4@SiO2/TiO2) for reusing of textile wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Laleh Enayati Ahangar; Karim Movassaghi; Masoomeh Emadi; Fatemeh Yaghoobi

    2016-01-01

    In this research we have developed a treatment method for textile wastewater by TiO2/SiO2-based magnetic nanocomposite. Textile wastewater includes a large variety of dyes and chemicals and needs treatments. This manuscript presents a facile method for removing dyes from the textile wastewater by using TiO2/SiO2-based nanocomposite (Fe3O4@SiO2/TiO2) under UV irradiation. This magnetic nanocomposite, as photocatalytically active composite, is synthesized via solution method in mild conditions....

  16. [Low-temperature preparation of TiO2/PS/Fe3O4, and its photocatalytic activity and magnetic recovery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-jiao; Ren, Xue-chang; Nian, Juan-ni; Xiao, Ju-qian; Wang, Gang; Chang, Qing

    2012-08-01

    This study reports the fabrication of magnetically responsive titania catalyst, which consisted of a magnetic core surrounded by a titania shell. The magnetic core (oleic acid-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles) was modified with polystyrene as inert isolating layer. The magnetic photocatalyst was prepared at low temperature (90 degrees C) and a neutral pH (about 7). The phase composition, morphology, surface properties and magnetic properties of the composite particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fourier infrared photometer (FT-IR) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The photocatalytic activity of the samples were determined by degradation of phenol and their recovery characteristics were determined by a self-regulating magnetic recycling equipment. The results illustrated that the mean diameter of anatase titanium dioxide synthesized at low temperature was 2-5 nm, the catalyst TiO2/PS/Fe3O4 [the molar ratio of the magnetic photocatalyst was n(TiO2): n(St): n(Fe3O4) = 60:2.5:1] had the structural integrity of shell/shell/core, and titanium dioxide was loaded firmly on the PS/FeO4 surface. The photocatalytic degradation of phenol followed first-order reaction kinetics and the reaction rate constant K of the TiO2/PS/Fe3O4 [n(TiO2): n(St): n (Fe3O4) = 60:2.5:1] was 0.0258, which was close to that of pure TiO2 (K = 0.0262). After 5 times recycling, the K value reduced only by 0.0034. The catalyst had a strong magnetic induction, and the average recovery rate reached 92%. The magnetic TiO2 photocatalyst prepared by this low-temperature hydrolysis method has a good application prospect.

  17. Influences of a new templating agent on the synthesis of coral-like TiO2 nanoparticles and their photocatalytic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satwant Kaur Shahi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a low cost and environmentally-friendly solvent system to synthesize TiO2 nanoparticles using an acidic deep eutectic solvent, choline chloride/p-toluene sulphonic acid as a templating and hydrolyzing agent via sol–gel method. The effect of varying concentration of the deep eutectic solvent (DES on the important physico-chemical characteristics of as-synthesized TiO2 such as phase, morphology, particle size, surface area and band gap energy was studied. A detailed characterization of the obtained nanomaterials has been performed using various techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET surface area, Raman and Ultraviolet–visible absorption spectroscopy. The spherical TiO2 nanoparticles were found to be biphasic with two phases: anatase and rutile having crystallite sizes in the range of 5.6–6.8 nm. These nanoparticles assembled together to form a coral-like morphology. The effect of calcination temperature on the synthesized products was studied by heating at 750 °C. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared TiO2 materials was evaluated by the photo-discoloration of an aqueous methyl orange dye solution (20 ppm under UV light irradiation. The results indicate that the photocatalytic efficiency of an anatase–rutile mixture in the optimal sample DES-3 is higher (98% within 3 h than a commercially available Degussa P-25 (87% within 3 h.

  18. Photocatalytic decouloration of malachite green dye by application of TiO2 nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Alexandre G S; Costa, Leonardo L

    2009-09-30

    The nanotubes of titania were synthesized in a hydrothermal system and characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), FT-IR, FT-Raman, and surface charge density by surface area analyzer. These nanomaterials were applied to photocatalyse malachite green dye degradation. Photodegradation capacity of TiO(2) nanotubes was compared to TiO(2) anatase photoactivity. Malachite dye was completely degraded in 75 and 105 min of reaction photocatalysed by TiO(2) nanotubes and TiO(2) anatase, respectively. Catalysts displayed high photodegradation activity at pH 4. TiO(2) nanotubes were easily recycled whereas the reuse of TiO(2) anatase was not effective. Nanotubes maintained 80% of their activity after 10 catalytic cycles and TiO(2) anatase presented only 8% of its activity after 10 cycles.

  19. Tm-doped TiO2 and Tm2Ti2O7 pyrochlore nanoparticles: enhancing the photocatalytic activity of rutile with a pyrochlore phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiré M. De los Santos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tm-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using a water-controlled hydrolysis reaction. Analysis was performed in order to determine the influence of the dopant concentration and annealing temperature on the phase, crystallinity, and electronic and optical properties of the resulting material. Various characterization techniques were utilized such as X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV–vis spectroscopy. For the samples annealed at 773 and 973 K, anatase phase TiO2 was obtained, predominantly internally doped with Tm3+. ICP–AES showed that a doping concentration of up to 5.8 atom % was obtained without reducing the crystallinity of the samples. The presence of Tm3+ was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV–vis spectroscopy: the incorporation of Tm3+ was confirmed by the generation of new absorption bands that could be assigned to Tm3+ transitions. Furthermore, when the samples were annealed at 1173 K, a pyrochlore phase (Tm2Ti2O7 mixed with TiO2 was obtained with a predominant rutile phase. The photodegradation of methylene blue showed that this pyrochlore phase enhanced the photocatalytic activity of the rutile phase.

  20. TiO2 Nanoparticles as a Soft X-ray Molecular Probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larabell, Carolyn; Ashcroft, Jared M.; Gu, Weiwei; Zhang, Tierui; Hughes, Steven M.; Hartman, Keith B.; Hofmann, Cristina; Kanaras, Antonios G.; Kilcoyne, David A.; Le Gros, Mark; Yin, Yadong; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2007-06-30

    With the emergence of soft x-ray techniques for imaging cells, there is a pressing need to develop protein localization probes that can be unambiguously identified within the region of x-ray spectrum used for imaging. TiO2 nanocrystal colloids, which have a strong absorption cross-section within the "water-window" region of x-rays, areideally suited as soft x-ray microscopy probes. To demonstrate their efficacy, TiO2-streptavidin nanoconjugates were prepared and subsequently labeled microtubules polymerized from biotinylated tubulin. The microtubules were imaged using scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM), and the TiO2 nanoparticle tags were specifically identified using x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES). These experiments demonstrate that TiO2 nanoparticles are potential probes for protein localization analyses using soft x-ray microscopy.

  1. Fabrication of In2S3 nanoparticle decorated TiO2 nanotube arrays by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction technique and their photocatalytic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenrong; Tang, Yanhong; Liu, Chengbin; Wan, Long

    2014-06-01

    In2S3 nanoparticle (NP) decorated self-organized TiO2 nanotube array (In2S3/TiO2 NT) hybrids were fabricated via simple successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. The In2S3 NPs in a size of about 15 nm were found to deposit on the top surface of the highly oriented TiO2 NT while without clogging the tube entrances. The loading amount of In2S3 NPs on the TiO2 NT was controlled by the cycle number of SILAR deposition. Compared with the bare TiO2 NT, the In2S3/TiO2 NT hybrids showed stronger absorption in the visible light region and significantly enhanced photocurrent density. The photocatalytic activity of the In2S3/TiO2 NT photocatalyst far exceeds that of bare TiO2 NT in the degradation of typical herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) under simulated solar light. After 160-min irradiation, almost 100% 2,4-D removal is obtained on the 7-In2S3/TiO2 NT prepared through seven SILAR deposition cycles, much higher than 26% on the bare TiO2 NT. After 10 successive cycles of photocatalytic process with total 1,600 min of irradiation, In2S3/TiO2 NT maintained as high 2,4-D removal efficiency as 95.1% with good stability and easy recovery, which justifies the potential of the photocatalytic system in application for the photocatalytic removal of organic pollutants such as herbicides or pesticides from water.

  2. CO2 dissociation activated through electron attachment on reduced rutile TiO2(110)-1x1 surface

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Shijing; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Jin; Wang, Zhuo; Ma, Chuanxu; Zhao, Aidi; Wang, Bing; Luo, Yi; Yang, Jinlong; Hou, Jianguo

    2011-01-01

    Converting CO$_2$ to useful compounds through the solar photocatalytic reduction has been one of the most promising strategies for artificial carbon recycling. The highly relevant photocatalytic substrate for CO$_2$ conversion has been the popular TiO$_2$ surfaces. However, the lack of accurate fundamental parameters that determine the CO$_2$ reduction on TiO$_2$ has limited our ability to control these complicated photocatalysis processes. We have systematically studied the reduction of CO2 ...

  3. TiO2-Mediated Photocatalytic Mineralization of a Non-Ionic Detergent: Comparison and Combination with Other Advanced Oxidation Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Hegedűs

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Triton X-100 is one of the most widely-applied man-made non-ionic surfactants. This detergent can hardly be degraded by biological treatment. Hence, a more efficient degradation method is indispensable for the total mineralization of this pollutant. Application of heterogeneous photocatalysis based on a TiO2 suspension is a possible solution. Its efficiency may be improved by the addition of various reagents. We have thoroughly examined the photocatalytic degradation of Triton X-100 under various circumstances. For comparison, the efficiencies of ozonation and treatment with peroxydisulfate were also determined under the same conditions. Besides, the combination of these advanced oxidation procedures (AOPs were also studied. The mineralization of this surfactant was monitored by following the TOC and pH values, as well as the absorption and emission spectra of the reaction mixture. An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC method was developed and optimized for monitoring the degradation of Triton X-100. Intermediates were also detected by GC-MS analysis and followed during the photocatalysis, contributing to the elucidation of the degradation mechanism. This non-ionic surfactant could be efficiently degraded by TiO2-mediated heterogeneous photocatalysis. However, surprisingly, its combination with the AOPs applied in this study did not enhance the rate of the mineralization. Moreover, the presence of persulfate hindered the photocatalytic degradation.

  4. Photocatalytic degradation of Direct yellow 86 diazo dye using sulfanilic acid-modified TiO2in aqueous suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouriieh, Nafiseh; Reza Sohrabi, Mahmoud; Pouramir Vajargah, Rogayyeh; Roudbaraki, Hasan

    2017-10-01

    This study synthesized sulfanilic acid (SA)-modified TiO 2 nanocomposites and used them as an effective photocatalyst for Direct yellow 86 diazo dye removal from aqueous solution. This novel nanocomposite (SA/TiO 2 ) was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results showed the formation of SA/TiO 2 nanocatalyst. The photocatalytic activity of the modified photocatalyst was examined by degradation of Direct yellow 86 (GE) under UV and visible light. The effects of five parameters, the concentration of GE, dosage of SA/TiO 2 nanocomposite, UV light irradiation intensity, pH and visible light illumination, on the removal of GE using SA/TiO 2 nanocomposite were studied. The highest GE removal was determined at pH of 9, nanocomposite dosage of 0.15 g/l and initial GE concentration of 50 mg/l at the constant temperature of 25 °C. However, the results showed that the GE removal rate increased as the UV light intensity increased. In addition, an enhancement in the photodegradation rate was observed with visible light illumination. The adsorption trends of GE at various initial concentrations followed the Langmuir isotherm model.

  5. Effect of interfacial oxide thickness on the photocatalytic activity of magnetron-sputtered TiO2coatings on aluminum substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daviðsdóttir, Svava; Petit, Jean-Pierre; Shabadi, Rajashekhara

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the coating/substrate interface on the photocatalytic behavior of Al-TiO2 coatings was investigated. The TiO2 coatings were prepared by magnetron sputtering. The nanoscale structure of the coating was analyzed using X-ray diffraction; atomic force microscopy; scanning electron...... microscopy; and transmission electron microscopy. The photocatalytic behavior was investigated through optical spectrophotometry studies and electrochemical experiments; as photo voltage; photocurrent; and electrochemical impedance measurements. Consistent results from both optical and electrochemical...... measurements showed a maximum UV-light absorption by titanium dioxide occurring slightly prior to the energy of the maximum photocurrent. The photocurrent of titanium dioxide decreases with increasing thickness of the aluminum oxide interface layer. Aluminum oxide acts as an insulator; disfavoring the electron...

  6. Daylight photocatalytic activity of TiO2/SnO2 core/shell nanostructures: An experimental and density functional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetri, Pawan; Basyach, Priyanka; Choudhury, Amarjyoti

    2014-04-01

    TiO2/SnO2 core/shell nanostructures is prepared via a simple sol-gel process and compared with bare TiO2 nanoparticles. We carried out XRD, TEM and UV-Visible characterization for evaluating structural and optical properties. A better and promising day light photocatalytic activity is observed for TiO2/SnO2 in comparison to TiO2 in the degradation of methyl orange (MO). We have also done DFT calculation based VASP 5.2 to calculate Density of States of both the system. Finally, a correlation is established between theory and experiment.

  7. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of electrospun nanofibrous TiO2/g-C3N4 heterojunction photocatalyst under simulated solar light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunlei; Hu, Liming; Chai, Bo; Yan, Juntao; Li, Jianfen

    2018-02-01

    Electrospun nanofibrous TiO2/g-C3N4 heterojunction photocatalysts with different TiO2 content have been synthesized via a facile electrospinning and subsequent in situ evaporation and calcination process for the first time, which are examined in terms of morphology, component content, optical properties, PL spectra, photocurrent response, EIS measurement, photocatalytic activity and mechanism. SEM images exhibit TiO2/g-C3N4-4 heterojunction photocatalyst possesses the excellent 1D structure. HRTEM and element mapping images confirm the formation of heterojunction structure. DRS tests identify that TiO2/g-C3N4-4 heterojunction exhibits the intensitive absorption in both UV and visible light region. The photoelectrochemical tests prove that the recombination between electrons and holes are effectively inhibited. Based on TG analysis and photodegradation experiments, TiO2/g-C3N4-4 heterojunction photocatalyst with TiO2 content of 29.30 wt% possesses the best photocatalytic degradation efficiency for the RhB among the g-C3N4, TiO2 and their mixture under simulated sunlight irradiation. Moreover, 1D morphology of TiO2/g-C3N4-4 heterojunction photocatalyst is in favor of separating from solution for reuse and transferring the electrons, and maintains a very high photocatalytic degradation efficiency of 96% even after four recycles experiments, which is beneficial for practical application.

  8. Novel-structured electrospun TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers for high efficient photocatalytic cogeneration of clean water and energy from dye wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siew Siang; Bai, Hongwei; Liu, Zhaoyang; Sun, Darren Delai

    2013-08-01

    It is still a challenge to photocatalytically cogenerate clean water and energy from dye wastewater owing to the relatively low photocatalytic efficiency of photocatalysts. In this study, novel-structured TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers were successfully fabricated via facile electrospinning. For the first time, the TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers demonstrated multifunctional ability for concurrent photocatalytic organic degradation and H2 generation from dye wastewater. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers was ascribed to its excellent synergy of physicochemical properties: 1) mesoporosity and large specific surface area for efficient substrate adsorption, mass transfer and light harvesting; 2) red-shift of the absorbance spectra for enhanced light utilization; 3) long nanofibrous structure for efficient charge transfer and ease of recovery, 4) TiO2/CuO heterojunctions which enhance the separation of electrons and holes and 5) presence of CuO which serve as co-catalyst for the H2 production. The TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers also exhibited rapid settleability by gravity and uncompromised reusability. Thus, the as-synthesized TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers represent a promising candidate for highly efficient concurrent photocatalytic organic degradation and clean energy production from dye wastewater. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rutile TiO2nanocrystals with exposed {331} facets for enhanced photocatalytic CO2reduction activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Quang Duc; Hoa, Huu Thu; Le, Thanh Son

    2017-10-15

    Rutile TiO 2 nanocrystals with exposed high-index facets have been investigated in detail by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED). It was found that the each branched nanocrystal is bound by 4 facets of high-index {331}. Additionally, rutile {101} twinned structures are formed in the boundary of branches during the growth of multi branches in a hierarchical flower-like nanostructures. Notably, the synthesized nanostructures showed significantly higher photocatalytic activities than that of rod particles with exposed {110} facets in photocatalytic CO 2 reduction. Correlating the presence of high-energy surface on rutile nanocrystals with the photocatalytic activity clearly shows the significant role of surface steps in enhancing intrinsic activity for CO 2 reduction to methanol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Photocatalytic degradation of an organophosphorus pesticide from agricultural waste by immobilized TiO2 under solar radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Regina Assalin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes solar heterogeneous photocatalysis using immobilized TiO2 applied in the treatment of agricultural waste resulting from the application of commercial formulations of methyl parathion. The disappearance of the insecticide, as well as the formation of its metabolite, was monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, while mineralization efficiency was monitored by measurements of total organic carbon (TOC. Toxicity studies were performed using the microcrustacean Artemia salina. The TOC removal efficiency by photocatalytic process was 48.5%. After 45 minutes of treatment, the removal efficiency of methyl parathion was 90%, being completely mineralized at the end of treatment. The formation and removal of the metabolite methyl paraoxon was observed during the photocatalytic process. The photocatalytic treatment resulted in increased microcrustacean mobility, indicating a reduction of acute toxicity.

  11. Flexible Bench-Scale Recirculating Flow CPC Photoreactor for Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Using Removable TiO2 Immobilized on PET Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa M. EL-Mekkawi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 immobilized on polyethylene (PET nonwoven sheet was used in the solar photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB. TiO2 Evonik Aeroxide P25 was used in this study. The amount of loaded TiO2 on PET was approximately 24%. Immobilization of TiO2 on PET was conducted by dip coating process followed by exposing to mild heat and pressure. TiO2/PET sheets were wrapped on removable Teflon rods inside home-made bench-scale recirculating flow Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC photoreactor prototype (platform 0.7 × 0.2 × 0.4 m3. CPC photoreactor is made up of seven low iron borosilicate glass tubes connected in series. CPC reflectors are made of stainless steel 304. The prototype was mounted on a platform tilted at 30°N local latitude in Cairo. A centrifugal pump was used to circulate water containing methylene blue (MB dye inside the glass tubes. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of MB using TiO2/PET was achieved upon the exposure to direct sunlight. Chemical oxygen demand (COD analyses reveal the complete mineralization of MB. Durability of TiO2/PET composite was also tested under sunlight irradiation. Results indicate only 6% reduction in the amount of TiO2 after seven cycles. No significant change was observed for the physicochemical characteristics of TiO2/PET after the successive irradiation processes.

  12. The effects of solvent on photocatalytic properties of Bi2WO6/TiO2 heterojunction under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiyao; Huang, Yunfang; Xu, Hui; Luo, Dan; Huang, Feiyue; Gu, Lin; Wei, Yuelin; Zhao, Huang; Fan, Leqing; Wu, Jihuai

    2018-04-01

    Bi2WO6/TiO2 heterojunction photocatalysts with two different microstructures were controllably fabricated via a facile two-step synthetic route. XRD, XPS, SEM, TEM, BET-surface, DRS, PL spectra, photoelectrochemical measurement (Mott-Schottky), and zeta-potential analyzer were employed to clarify structural and morphological characteristics of the obtained products. The results showed that Bi2WO6 nanoparticles/nanosheets grew on the primary TiO2 nanorods. The TiO2 nanorods used as a synthetic template inhibit the growth of Bi2WO6 crystals along the c-axis, resulting in Bi2WO6/TiO2 heterostructure with one-dimensional (1D) morphology. The photocatalytic properties of Bi2WO6/TiO2 heterojunction photocatalysts were strongly dependent on their shapes and structures. Compared with bare Bi2WO6 and TiO2, Bi2WO6/TiO2 composite have stronger adsorption ability and better visible light photocatalytic activities towards organic dyes. The Bi2WO6/TiO2 composite prepared in EG solvent with optimal Bi:Ti ratio of 2:12 (S-TB2) showed the highest photocatalytic activity, which could totally decompose Rhodamine B within 10 min upon irradiation with visible light (λ > 422 nm), and retained the high photocatalytic performance after five recycles, confirming its stability and practical usability. The results of PL indicated that Bi2WO6 and TiO2 could combine well to form a heterojunction structure which facilitated electron-hole separation, and lead to the increasing photocatalytic activity.

  13. Highly efficient photocatalytic H2 evolution using TiO2 nanoparticles integrated with electrocatalytic metal phosphides as cocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Rui; Zhou, Wu; Luo, Bing; Jing, Dengwei

    2017-09-01

    In this work, electrocatalysts like the metal phosphides Ni2P, NiCoP, and FeP, can serve as cocatalysts of TiO2 to form efficient composite photocatalysts for hydrogen generation from an aqueous methanol solution. On comparing Ni2P, NiCoP, and FeP and optimizing their proportions, the NiCoP(1 wt%)/TiO2 composite was found to exhibit the highest activity toward photocatalytic H2 production (1.54 μmol h-1 mg-1), which is about thirteen times that of the naked TiO2 nanoparticles. Mott-Schottky (MS) analysis indicated that the large upward shift or band bending of the Fermi energy level (EF) in metal phosphides was responsible for the enhanced activity of the composites. The steady-state photoluminescence (PL) spectra and photocurrent transient response further confirmed that the enhanced photoinduced charge transfer and band separation after TiO2 was integrated with the metal phosphides. Thus, these electrocatalysts were shown to be efficient cocatalysts that can replace noble metals as low-cost photocatalytic H2 production.

  14. Improved photocatalytic activity of nano CuO-incorporated TiO2 granules prepared by spray drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongjie Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available 4 wt% CuO–96 wt% TiO2 granules were prepared by a spray drying process. The microstructure and optical property of CuO–TiO2 granules were studied. The results indicate that copper existed in the form of CuO. The spray dried granules possess spherical geometry and smooth surface with grain size in the range of 40–80 μm. CuO–TiO2 has a relatively smaller Eg value (2.85 eV than TiO2 (3.17 eV. The photocatalytic property of CuO–TiO2 granules was investigated by degradation of a model pollutant (the azo dye methyl orange under the irradiation of the xenon lamp equipped with a band pass filter of 365 nm. The CuO–TiO2 spray-dried granules degrade about 10% more MO than TiO2 spray-dried granules under UV irradiation within the same time. The XPS spectra suggested that Cu2+ and reduced copper species were coexistent in reacted CuO–TiO2 photocatalyst. The improvement of photocatalytic activity for CuO–TiO2 was mainly attributed to effective separation of photo-generated electron–hole pairs in the presence of CuO.

  15. Synthesis of core-shell TiO2@g-C3N4 hollow microspheres for efficient photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lina; Wang, Guohong; Jiang, Chuanjia; Bao, Helin; Xu, Qingchuan

    2018-02-01

    Core-shell composites with titanium dioxide (TiO2) hollow microsphere as the core and graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) as the shell were fabricated via a two-step self-assembly procedure with the assistance of ultrasonic dispersion. The as-prepared composite samples with different g-C3N4 contents (0-20%) were thoroughly characterized and the photocatalytic activity was evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) in aqueous solution under visible light. A g-C3N4 layer of approximately 80 nm was successfully coated on the surface of TiO2 hollow microspheres with a diameter of 1-3 μm, forming a heterostructure with close interfacial contact. The TiO2@g-C3N4 composite exhibited significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity as compared with pure TiO2 hollow microspheres. At an optimum weight ratio of g-C3N4 to TiO2 (15 wt.%), the photocatalytic activity of the composite sample was almost 3 times higher than that of reference TiO2 hollow microspheres. Moreover, the results of recycling test indicated that the TiO2@g-C3N4 composite had excellent stability. A possible photocatalytic reaction mechanism of TiO2@g-C3N4 composite was proposed, in which superoxide radical anions played the major role in the oxidation of RhB, and the separation of photogenerated charge carriers across the heterostructure interface inhibited electron-hole recombination, thus enhancing the photocatalytic activity.

  16. Synthesis of Ag ion-implanted TiO2 thin films for antibacterial application and photocatalytic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xinggang; Ma, Huiyan; Liu, Feng; Deng, Jianhua; Ai, Yukai; Zhao, Xinlei; Mao, Dong; Li, Dejun; Liao, Bin

    2015-12-15

    TiO2 thin films were deposited by spin coating method. Silver ions were implanted into the films using a Metal Vapor Vacuum Arc implanter. The antibacterial ability of implanted films was tested using Escherichia coli removal under fluorescent irradiation and in the dark. The concentration of E. coli was evaluated by plating technique. The photocatalytic efficiency of the implanted films was studied by degradation of methyl orange under fluorescent illumination. The surface free energy of the implanted TiO2 films was calculated by contact angle testing. Vitamin C was used as radical scavengers to explore the antibacterial mechanism of the films. The results supported the model that both generation of reactive oxygen species and release of silver ions played critical roles in the toxic effect of implanted films against E. coli. XPS experimental results demonstrated that a portion of the Ag(Ag(3+)) ions were doped into the crystalline lattice of TiO2. As demonstrated by density functional theory calculations, the impurity energy level of subtitutional Ag was responsible for enhanced absorption of visible light. Ag ion-implanted TiO2 films with excellent antibacterial efficiency against bacteria and decomposed ability against organic pollutants could be potent bactericidal surface in moist environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Photocatalytic degradation of Bisphenol A (BPA) using immobilized TiO2 and UV illumination in a horizontal circulating bed photocatalytic reactor (HCBPR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongchang; Ren, Dianjun; Xia, Siqing; Zhang, Yalei; Zhao, Jianfu

    2009-09-30

    Photocatalytic degradation of Bisphenol A (BPA) in the presence of titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) and ultraviolet (UV) illumination was performed in a self-designed horizontal circulating bed photocatalytic reactor (HCBPR). TiO(2) catalyst was immobilized on the surface of polyurethane foam (PF) cubes via microwave-assisted liquid phase deposition. The effects of initial BPA concentration, initial pH, TiO(2) dosage and temperature on BPA photodegradation were investigated in order to obtain the optimum operational conditions. The results reveal that the BPA degradation efficiency can be effectively improved by increasing pH from 3.4 to 12.3 or decreasing the initial BPA concentration from 50 to 10 ppm. The optimum TiO(2) carrier dosage (the ratio of the volume of PF carriers to the effective reaction volume of HCBPR) was about 1%. Besides, the effect of temperature on BPA photodegradation was found to be unremarkable in the range of 21.2-30.5 degrees C. Total organic carbon (TOC) was used to evaluate the mineralization of BPA during the photodegradation process. Under the optimum conditions, 95% removal of TOC and 97% removal of BPA can be achieved after 6h of UV radiation, which demonstrates the high photodegradation efficiency of BPA in HCBPR.

  18. Synthesis, structure and photocatalytic activity of nano TiO2 and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    salicylic acid over combustion-synthesized nano TiO2 under UV and solar exposure has been carried out. Under identical conditions of UV exposure, the initial degra- dation rate of phenol with combustion-synthesized TiO2 is two times higher than the initial degradation rate of phenol with Degussa P25, the commercial ...

  19. Enhanced bolometric properties of TiO2-x thin films by thermal annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok Kumar Reddy, Y.; Shin, Young Bong; Kang, In-Ku; Lee, Hee Chul; Sreedhara Reddy, P.

    2015-07-01

    The effect of thermal annealing on the bolometric properties of TiO2-x films was investigated. The test-patterned TiO2-x samples were annealed at 300 °C temperature in order to enhance their structural and electrical properties for effective infrared image sensor device applications. The crystallinity was changed from amorphous to rutile/anatase in annealed TiO2-x films. Compared to the as-deposited samples, a decrement of the band gap and a decrease of the electrical resistivity were perceived in annealed samples. We found that the annealed samples show linear current-voltage (I-V) characteristic performance, which implies that ohmic contact was well formed at the interface between the TiO2-x and the Ti electrode. Moreover, the annealed TiO2-x sample had a significantly low 1/f noise parameter (1.21 × 10-13) with a high bolometric parameter (β) value compared to those of the as-deposited samples. As a result, the thermal annealing process can be used to prepare TiO2-x film for a high-performance bolometric device.

  20. Enhanced photocatalytic water-splitting performance using Fe-doped hierarchical TiO2 ball-flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fangfang; Shen, Tong; Fu, Zhengping; Lu, Yalin; Chen, Changxin

    2018-01-01

    The photocatalytic water-splitting behavior of hierarchically structured TiO2 ball-flowers with different Fe ion contents was studied, in order to elucidate the effects of Fe doping on their water-splitting performance. It was found that with the increase of Fe doping content, the hydrogen evolution rate increased initially and then decreased. The highest hydrogen evolution of 697 μmol g-1 is observed for 2Fe/TiO2, after 4 h of light irradiation, which was five times greater than that in the case of pure TiO2 who has 140 μmol g-1 hydrogen evolution after 4 h of light irradiation. This improvement in the water-splitting efficiency owing to optimized Fe doping could be attributed to an enhancement in the visible-light absorption characteristics and an increase in the number of oxygen vacancies, which act as the reaction sites for water splitting.

  1. Effect of calcination temperature on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 powders prepared by co-precipitation of TiCl3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudoyono, Gatut; Ichzan, Nur; Zharvan, Vicran; Daniyati, Rizqa; Santoso, Hadi; Indarto, Bachtera; Pramono, Yono Hadi; Zainuri, Mochamad; Darminto

    2016-01-01

    The adsorption of basic dye methylene blue (MB) onto titanium dioxide (titania) powder that were prepared by coprecipitation method of TiCl 3 and NH 4 OH as iniatial material with different calcination temperature was studied to examine the photocatalytic activity. Synthesis process carried out by the solution pH was adjusted to be 8. Effect of calcination temperature on the titania powder were characterized with Differential Scanning Calorimetry/Thermogravimetry (DSC/TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The result of TG and XRD showed that the NH 4 Cl decomposed between 235-372°C. The XRD result showed that the anatase TiO 2 only contained a single phase when the calcination temperature of the precursor at 800°C, and over which it began to grow rutile phase. The influence of synthesis condition on the photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 powder was determined by the photodegradation of MB dye under UV light.

  2. In-situ investigations of the photoluminescence properties of SiO2/TiO2 binary and Boron-SiO2/TiO2 ternary oxides prepared by the sol-gel method and their photocatalytic reactivity for the oxidative decomposition of trichloroethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeong Youl Jung

    2003-01-01

    oxygen. It was found that the photocatalytic reactivity of TiO2-based photocatalysts for the decomposition of trichloroethylene was clearly associated with their relative quenching efficiencies of photoluminescence; photocatalyst showing high quenching efficiency exhibited a high photocatalytic reactivity.

  3. Surface characterisation and photocatalytic performance of N-doped TiO2 thin films deposited onto 200 nm pore size alumina membranes by sol–gel methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grilli, R.; Di Camillo, D.; Lozzi, L.; Horovitz, I.; Mamane, H.; Avisar, D.; Baker, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane filtration is employed for water treatment and wastewater reclamation purposes, but membranes alone are unable to remove pollutant molecules and certain pathogens. Photocatalytically active N-doped TiO 2 coatings have been deposited by sol–gel onto 200 nm pore size alumina membranes for water treatment applications using two different methods, via pipette droplets or spiral bar applicator. The uncoated and coated membranes were characterised by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Both coatings showed the presence of N-doped anatase, with a surface coverage between 84 and 92%, and nitrogen concentration (predominantly interstitial) of 0.9 at.%. The spiral bar applicator deposited coatings exhibit a thicker mud-cracked surface layer with limited penetration of the porous membrane, whilst the pipette deposited coatings have mostly penetrated into the bulk of the membrane and a thinner layer is present at the surface. The photocatalytic activity (PCA), measured through the degradation of carbamazepine (CBZ), under irradiation of a solar simulator was 58.6% for the pipette coating and 63.3% for the spiral bar coating. These photocatalytically active N-doped sol–gel coated membranes offer strong potential in forming the fundamental basis of a sunlight based water treatment system. - Highlights: • Sol gel N-doped TiO 2 thin films were deposited on 200 nm pore size Al 2 O 3 membranes. • Two sol–gel methods have been compared – pipette drop and spiral bar deposition. • The coatings showed a similar microstructure and composition but different morphology. • The PCA (degradation of carbamazepine) was ∼60% for both sol–gel coatings. • The coated membranes are promising for use in a membrane based water treatment system

  4. Visible light photocatalytic activity of rutile TiO2 fiber clusters in the degradation of terephthalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yener, H. Banu; Helvacı, Şerife Ş.

    2015-09-01

    Rutile TiO2 nanoparticles, in different structural and morphological properties, were produced by the hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride in a highly acidic reaction media at moderate temperatures without calcination. Their photocatalytic activities were investigated in the liquid-phase degradation of terephthalic acid under visible light illumination. The parameters, which are the concentration of the titanium tetrachloride solution (0.1-1 M) and reaction temperature (60-95 °C), effective on the properties of the particles, and their photocatalytic performances, were investigated. The XRD patterns indicated a pure rutile crystal structure at moderate temperatures without need of calcination. The FEGSEM images showed the formation of flower-, pinecone-, and sphere-like clusters consisting of interconnected nanofibers. The N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms pointed out the microporous structure of the clusters. Band gap energies were found to be varying between 3.02 and 3.08 eV due to the well-developed rutile crystallite structure. Systematic studies elucidated that the optimum reactant concentration and reaction temperature are 0.5 M TiCl4 and 95 °C, respectively. The rutile clusters synthesized at the optimum reaction conditions exhibited 99 % of the photocatalytic degradation of TPA under visible light illumination at shorter irradiation times compared with commercial P25 TiO2.

  5. Photocatalytic removal of C.I. Basic Red 46 on immobilized TiO2 nanoparticles: artificial neural network modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khataee, A R

    2009-10-01

    C.I. Basic Red 46, commonly used as a textile dye, was photocatalytically removed using supported TiO2 nanoparticles irradiated by a 30 W UV-C lamp in a batch reactor. The investigated photocatalyst was industrial Degussa P25 (crystallite mean size 21 nm) immobilized on glass beads by a heat attachment method. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM and BET techniques. The process of the dye decolorization in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles was experimentally studied through changing the initial dye concentration, UV light intensity and initial pH. The influence of inorganic anions such as chloride, sulphate, bicarbonate, carbonate and phosphate on the photocatalytic decolorization of BR46 was investigated. The decolorization of BR46 follows the pseudo-first-order kinetic according to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model (k1 = 0.273 mg L(-1) min(-1), 2 = 0.313 (mg L(-1))(-1)). The efficiency parameters such as apparent quantum yield and electrical energy per order (EEO) were estimated. An artificial neural network model (ANN) was developed to predict the photocatalytic decolorization of BR46 solution. The findings indicated that the ANN provided reasonable predictive performance (R2 = 0.96). The influence of each parameter on the variable studied was assessed: initial concentration of the dye being the most significant factor, followed by the initial pH and reaction time.

  6. One-Step Formation of WO3-Loaded TiO2 Nanotubes Composite Film for High Photocatalytic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Hong Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available High aspect ratio of WO3-loaded TiO2 nanotube arrays have been successfully synthesized using the electrochemical anodization method in an ethylene glycol electrolyte containing 0.5 wt% ammonium fluoride in a range of applied voltage of 10–40 V for 30 min. The novelty of this research works in the one-step formation of WO3-loaded TiO2 nanotube arrays composite film by using tungsten as the cathode material instead of the conventionally used platinum electrode. As compared with platinum, tungsten metal has lower stability, forming dissolved ions (W6+ in the electrolyte. The W6+ ions then move towards the titanium foil and form a coherent deposit on titanium foil. By controlling the oxidation rate and chemical dissolution rate of TiO2 during the electrochemical anodization, the nanotubular structure of TiO2 film could be achieved. In the present study, nanotube arrays were characterized using FESEM, EDAX, XRD, as well as Raman spectroscopy. Based on the results obtained, nanotube arrays with average pore diameter of up to 74 nm and length of 1.6 µm were produced. EDAX confirmed the presence of tungsten element within the nanotube arrays which varied in content from 1.06 at% to 3.29 at%. The photocatalytic activity of the nanotube arrays was then investigated using methyl orange degradation under TUV 96W UV-B Germicidal light irradiation. The nanotube with the highest aspect ratio, geometric surface area factor and at% of tungsten exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity due to more photo-induced electron-hole pairs generated by the larger surface area and because WO3 improves charge separation, reduces charge carrier recombination and increases charge carrier lifetime via accumulation of electrons and holes in the two different metal oxide semiconductor components.

  7. Electrospun cerium-based TiO2 nanofibers for photocatalytic oxidation of elemental mercury in coal combustion flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lulu; Zhao, Yongchun; Zhang, Junying

    2017-10-01

    Photocatalytic oxidation is an attractive method for Hg-rich flue gas treatment. In the present study, a novel cerium-based TiO 2 nanofibers was prepared and selected as the catalyst to remove mercury in flue gas. Accordingly, physical/chemical properties of those nanofibers were clarified. The effects of some important parameters, such as calcination temperature, cerium dopant content and different illumination conditions on the removal of Hg 0 using the photocatalysis process were investigated. In addition, the removal mechanism of Hg 0 over cerium-based TiO 2 nanofibers focused on UV irradiation was proposed. The results show that catalyst which was calcined at 400 °C exhibited better performance. The addition of 0.3 wt% Ce into TiO 2 led to the highest removal efficiency at 91% under UV irradiation. As-prepared samples showed promising stability for long-term use in the test. However, the photoluminescence intensity of nanofibers incorporating ceria was significantly lower than TiO 2 , which was attributed to better photoelectron-hole separation. Although UV and O 2 are essential factors, the enhancement of Hg 0 removal is more obviously related to the participation of catalyst. The coexistence of Ce 3+ and Ce 4+ , which leads to the efficient oxidation of Hg 0 , was detected on samples. Hg 2+ is the final product in the reaction of Hg 0 removal. As a consequence, the emissions of Hg 0 from flue gas can be significantly suppressed. These indicate that combining photocatalysis technology with cerium-based TiO 2 nanofibers is a promising strategy for reducing Hg 0 efficiently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bolometric properties of reactively sputtered TiO2-x films for thermal infrared image sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Y. Ashok Kumar; Kang, In-Ku; Shin, Young Bong; Lee, Hee Chul

    2015-09-01

    A heat-sensitive layer (TiO2-x ) was successfully deposited by RF reactive magnetron sputtering for infrared (IR) image sensors at different relative mass flow of oxygen gas (R O2) levels. The deposition rate was decreased with an increase in the percentage of R O2 from 3.4% to 3.7%. TiO2-x samples deposited at room temperature exhibited amorphous characteristics. Oxygen deficiency causes a change in the oxidation state and is assumed to decrease the Ti4+ component on the surfaces of TiO2-x films. The oxygen stoichiometry (x) in TiO2-x films decreased from 0.35 to 0.05 with increasing the R O2 level from 3.4% to 3.7%, respectively. In TiO2-x -test-patterned samples, the resistivity decreased with the temperature, confirming the typical semiconducting property. The bolometric properties of the resistivity, temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR), and the flicker (1/ f) noise parameter were determined at different x values in TiO2-x samples. The rate of TCR dependency with regard to the 1/ f noise parameter is a universal bolometric parameter (β), acting as the dynamic element in a bolometer. It is high when a sample has a relatively low resistivity (0.82 Ω·cm) and a lower 1/ f noise parameter (3.16   ×   10-12). The results of this study indicate that reactively sputtered TiO2-x is a viable bolometric material for uncooled IR image sensor devices.

  9. One-Step Nonaqueous Synthesis of Pure Phase TiO2 Nanocrystals from TiCl4 in Butanol and Their Photocatalytic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tieping Cao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure phase TiO2 nanomaterials were synthesized by an autoclaving treatment of TiCl4 with butanol as a single alcohol source. It was found that the control of molar ratio of TiCl4 to butanol played an important role in determining the TiO2 crystal phase and morphology. A high molar ratio of TiCl4 to butanol favored the formation of anatase nanoparticles, whereas rutile nanorods were selectively obtained at a low molar ratio of TiCl4 to butanol. Evaluation of the photocatalytic activity of the synthesized TiO2 was performed in terms of decomposition of organic dye rhodamine B under ultraviolet irradiation. It turned out that the as-synthesized TiO2 crystallites possessed higher photocatalytic activities toward bleaching rhodamine B than Degussa P25, benefiting from theirhigh surface area, small crystal size as well as high crystallinity.

  10. Photocatalytic Degradation of 2, 4-dichlorophenol using N-doped SnO2/TiO2 Thin Film Coated Glass Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peerawas Kongsong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP contaminant in water was investigated. Composite SnO2/TiO2 films N-doped to varying degrees were prepared via sol-gel method, and coated on glass fibers by dipping method. The effects of nitrogen-doping on coating morphology, physical properties, and glyphosate degradation rates were experimentally determined. Nitrogen-doping shifted absorption wavelengths and narrowed the energy band gap, enhancing photocatalytic performance. The maximum efficiency of 2,4-DCP degradation was up to 93.65% for 12 h of 40N/SnO2/TiO2 composite film. The near optimal 40N/SnO2/TiO2 composite thin film exhibited about 4 folds degradation rates relative to pure TiO2, and should perform well in water purification applications.

  11. Removal of tributyltin from contaminated seawater by combinations of photolytic and TiO2 mediated photocatalytic processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muff, Jens; Simonsen, Morten Enggrob; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2017-01-01

    Harbour sediment contaminated with tributyltin (TBT) is a worldwide problem and treatment of TBT contaminated seawater is an issue during dredging operations. This study presents results from photolytic and photocatalytic treatment experiments where the influence of the seawater matrix, different...... types of high and low pressure ultraviolet (UV) lamps and different reactor designs have been examined. The study showed that the photolytic rate of degradation in seawater was reduced by 41% compared to the degradation in demineralized water. Moreover, the photocatalytic TiO2 surface was inactivated...... lamp was found to be the most efficient compared to the four low-pressure lamps, and the energy consumptions were estimated to be in the 7–8 Wh L−1 range per log reduction of TBT. This study has demonstrated a feasible method for abatement of TBT in seawater matrix....

  12. A new understanding of the photocatalytic mechanism of the direct Z-scheme g-C3N4/TiO2heterostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianjun; Cheng, Bei; Yu, Jiaguo

    2016-11-16

    Constructing a TiO 2 based heterostructure is a very effective strategy for enhancing photocatalytic performance. The details of the electronic structure, interfacial interaction, and photogenerated carrier separation are important for explaining the photocatalytic properties of a heterostructure. Herein, the density of states, charge distribution, and the band offset of the monolayer g-C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 heterojunction are systematically investigated through the hybrid DFT method. Results indicated that the valence band offset and the conduction band offset of the g-C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 heterostructure were 0.40 and 0.18 eV, respectively. Interfacial interaction made the TiO 2 surface with negative charge, whereas the g-C 3 N 4 surface with positive charge, which led to the formation of a built-in electric field at the interface. Under illumination, the built-in electric field accelerates the transfer of photoexcited electrons in the CB of TiO 2 into the VB of g-C 3 N 4 , thus resulting in the photoexcited electrons and holes naturally accumulating in the CB of g-C 3 N 4 and the VB of TiO 2 , respectively. The photoexcited electrons and holes gathering in different surface regions efficiently prolonged the lifetime of photogenerated carriers. Meanwhile, electrons in the CB of g-C 3 N 4 and holes in the VB of TiO 2 had a stronger redox ability. Therefore, g-C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 is a direct Z-scheme photocatalyst, and the Z-scheme heterostructure mechanism can well explain the improved photocatalytic activity of the g-C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 heterostructure.

  13. Evaluation of the antifouling and photocatalytic properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) plasma-grafted poly(acrylic acid) membrane with self-assembled TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Sheng-Jie; Semblante, Galilee Uy; Lu, Shao-Chung; Damodar, Rahul A.; Wei, Ta-Chin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Plasma and grafting parameters that maximized TiO 2 binding sites were found. ► PVDF hydrophilicity was vastly improved compared to other modification techniques. ► At least 1.5% TiO 2 and 30 min UV exposure were needed to attain full flux recovery. ► Photocatalytic membranes could remove up to 42% of 50 mg/l RB5 dye. - Abstract: Immobilization of TiO 2 is a promising approach that produces antifouling and photocatalytic membranes that could help advance wastewater treatment and re-use processes. In this study, poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) was plasma-grafted on commercial poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) to introduce functional groups on the membrane surface that can support the nanoparticles. It was found that plasma treatment at 100 W for 120 s followed by liquid grafting with 70% aqueous AA at 60 °C for 2 h maximized the number of TiO 2 binding sites. Membrane hydrophilicity was tremendously enhanced by the self-assembly of TiO 2 , following a direct proportionality to TiO 2 loading. The membrane with 0.5% TiO 2 loading maintained the highest pure water flux and the best protein antifouling property. UV irradiation triggered the photodegradation of strongly bound foulants, but at least 1.5% TiO 2 and 30 min cumulative irradiation were necessary to completely recover the membrane's original performance. The TiO 2 -modified membranes removed 30–42% of 50 mg/l aqueous Reactive Black 5 (RB5) dye. The fabricated membranes demonstrate huge potential for use in membrane reactors with high hydrophilicity, fouling mitigation, and photocatalytic capability.

  14. Photocatalytic TiO2 Nanorod Spheres and Arrays Compatible with Flexible Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Nunes

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, titanium dioxide nanostructures were synthesized through microwave irradiation. In a typical microwave synthesis, nanorod spheres in the powder form were simultaneously produced with nanorod arrays grown on polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrates. The syntheses were performed in water or ethanol with limited temperature at 80 °C and 200 °C. A simple and low-cost approach was used for the arrays growth, which involved a PET substrate with a zinc oxide seed layer deposited by spin-coating. X-ray diffraction (XRD and Raman spectroscopy revealed that synthesis in water result in a mixture of brookite and rutile phases, while using ethanol as solvent it was only observed the rutile phase. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed that the synthesized spheres were in the micrometer range appearing as aggregates of fine nanorods. The arrays maintained the sphere nanorod aggregate structures and the synthesis totally covered the flexible substrates. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM was used to identify the brookite structure. The optical band gaps of all materials have been determined from diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Photocatalytic activity was assessed from rhodamine B degradation with remarkable degradability performance under ultraviolet (UV radiation. Reusability experiments were carried out for the best photocatalyst, which also revealed notable photocatalytic activity under solar radiation. The present study is an interesting and competitive alternative for the photocatalysts existing nowadays, as it simultaneously results in highly photoactive powders and flexible materials produced with low-cost synthesis routes such as microwave irradiation.

  15. Reusability of photocatalytic TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles immobilized in poly(vinylidene difluoride)-co-trifluoroethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Sara; Martins, P. M.; Lanceros-Méndez, S.; Kühn, Klaus; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2016-10-01

    Pollutants present in water are increasingly becoming an important public health issue. After their transportation across the sewer network they can pass through the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) mostly unchanged because WWTPs are not designed to remove pollutants present at trace levels. Conventional treatments are therefore ineffective. Immobilized photocatalytic systems are thus an advantage for the treatment of contaminated water, because they are ecofriendly, cost-effective and allow reusability. This work reports on TiO2 and ZnO commercial nanoparticles immobilized in poly(vinylidene difluoride)-co-trifluoroethylene (P(VDF-TrFE)). Nanocomposites of P(VDF-TrFE) with different concentrations of TiO2 nanoparticles (5, 10, and 15 wt.%) and ZnO nanoparticles (15 wt.%) were produced by solvent casting and tested on the degradation of methylene blue, a model organic dye. Each nanocomposite was tested three times to assess its reusability. It is shown that increasing the photocatalyst concentration results in higher photocatalytic efficiencies; the degradation rates of 15% of TiO2 and ZnO are similar; and the photoactivity decreases 6%, 16%, 13%, and 11% after three utilizations, for TiO2 5%, TiO2 10%, TiO2 15%, and ZnO 15%, respectively. Thus, the low decrease in the photocatalytic activity after three uses makes the nanocomposites suitable for applications in which reusability is an important key factor.

  16. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of Eu3+-doped nanoparticulate TiO2 sols and thermal stability of the resulting xerogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borlaf, Mario; Moreno, Rodrigo; Ortiz, Angel L.; Colomer, María T.

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of nanoparticulate TiO 2 sols without and with Eu 3+ doping (1, 2, or 3 mol%) by the colloidal sol–gel method in aqueous media was investigated, with emphasis on the effect of the Eu 3+ doping on the peptization time and rheological properties of the sols. It was found that the addition of Eu 3+ increasingly retards the peptization process, and also results in sols with greater aggregate sizes which are therefore more viscous, although in all cases the distributions of aggregate sizes are unimodal and the flow behavior is Newtonian. The shifting of the isoelectric point of the sols toward greater pH with increasing Eu 3+ doping indicates that the aforementioned trends are due to the chemical adsorption of europium ionic complexes in the form of solvated species. Furthermore, the effect of Eu 3+ doping on the ultraviolet–visible spectrum and photocatalytic activity of the peptized sols was also explored. It was found that the Eu 3+ doping increasingly shifts slightly the absorption edge from the ultraviolet to the visible range, and that its effect on the photocatalytic activity is certainly complex because this is enhanced only if the Eu 3+ cations have some electronic transition (charge transfer transition or transitions between the ground state and the excited states) at the wavelength of the incident radiation, in which case the photocatalytic activity first increases with increasing Eu 3+ content and then decreases perhaps due to occurrence of Eu–Eu interactions or simply to the greater aggregation state. Finally, the influence of the Eu 3+ doping on the thermal stability of the nanoparticulate xerogels resulting from the drying of the peptized sols was also examined by X-ray thermo-diffractometry together with transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffractometry, and X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometry. It was found that although the xerogels crystallize all as anatase phase, this is increasingly more thermally stable

  17. Photocatalytic Anatase TiO2 Thin Films on Polymer Optical Fiber Using Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Kamal; Bulou, Simon; Choquet, Patrick; Boscher, Nicolas D

    2017-04-19

    Due to the undeniable industrial advantages of low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma processes, such as low cost, low temperature, easy implementation, and in-line process capabilities, they have become the most promising next-generation candidate system for replacing thermal chemical vapor deposition or wet chemical processes for the deposition of functional coatings. In the work detailed in this article, photocatalytic anatase TiO 2 thin films were deposited at a low temperature on polymer optical fibers using an atmospheric-pressure plasma process. This method overcomes the challenge of forming crystalline transition metal oxide coatings on polymer substrates by using a dry and up-scalable method. The careful selection of the plasma source and the titanium precursor, i.e., titanium ethoxide with a short alkoxy group, allowed the deposition of well-adherent, dense, and crystalline TiO 2 coatings at low substrate temperature. Raman and XRD investigations showed that the addition of oxygen to the precursor's carrier gas resulted in a further increase of the film's crystallinity. Furthermore, the films deposited in the presence of oxygen exhibited a better photocatalytic activity toward methylene blue degradation assumedly due to their higher amount of photoactive {101} facets.

  18. Assembly, characterization, and photocatalytic activities of TiO2 nanotubes/CdS quantum dots nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Qiang; Fu Minglai; Yuan Baoling; Cui Haojie; Shi Jianwen

    2011-01-01

    The semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) can be very efficient to tune the response of photocatalyst of TiO 2 to visible light. In this study, CdS QDs formed in situ with about 8 nm have been successfully deposited onto the surfaces of TiO 2 nanotubes (TNTs) to form TNTs/CdS QDs nanocomposites by use of a simple bifunctional organic linker, thiolactic acid. The diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) spectra of as prepared samples showed that the absorption edge of the TNTs/CdS composite is extended to visible range, with absorption edge at 530 nm. The photocatalytic activity and stability of TNTs/CdS were also evaluated for the photodegradation of rhodamine B. The results showed that when TNTs/CdS QDs was used, photocatalytic degradation of RhB under visible light irradiation reached 91.6%, higher than 45.4 and 30.5% for P25 and TNTs, respectively. This study indicated that the TNTs/CdS QDs nanocomposites were superior catalysts for photodegradation under visible light irradiation compared with TNTs and P25 samples, which may find wide application as a powerful photocatalyst in environmental field.

  19. Photocatalytic performance of Cu-doped TiO2 nanofibers treated by the hydrothermal synthesis and air-thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Chung; Wu, Po-Yeh; Lin, Ting-Han; Lin, Tz-Feng

    2018-02-01

    Series of transition metal-doped TiO2 (metal/TiO2) is prepared by combining the hydrothermal synthesis and air-thermal treatment without any reduction process. The selected transition metal precursors, including Ag, Au, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pd, Pt, Y, and Zn, were individually doped into TiO2 nanofibers to evaluate the photocatalytic degradation activity and photocatalytic hydrogen generation. Consider the photocatalytic performance of these synthesized metal/TiO2 under UV-A irradiation, copper doped TiO2 nanofibers (Cu/TiO2 NFs) was chosen for further study due to its extraordinary reactivity. Systematical studies were spread to optimize the doping concentration and the calcination condition for much higher photocatalytic activity Cu/TiO2 NFs. In the photocatalytic degradation test, 0.5 mol%-Cu/TiO2 NFs calcined at 650 °C exhibits the highest activity, which is even higher than commercial TiO2-AEROXIDE® TiO2 P25 under UV-A irradiation. The synthesized 0.5 mol%-Cu/TiO2-650 NFs also have the capability in the photocatalytic hydrogen production. The hydrogen evolution rates are 200 μmol/g·h under UV-A irradiation and 280 μmol/g·h under UV-B irradiation. The density of state calculated by CASTEP for Cu/TiO2 indicates that Cu doping contributes to the states near valence band edge and narrows the band gap. The disclosed process in this study is industrial safe, convenient and cost-effective. We further produce a significant amount of TiO2-based catalysts without any hydrogen reduction treatment.

  20. Simultaneous biological-photocatalytic treatment with strain CDS-8 and TiO2for chlorothalonil removal from liquid and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minghui; Deng, Jing; Li, Junjie; Li, Ying; Li, Jinze; Xu, Heng

    2016-12-15

    In this study, a novel chlorothalonil (CTN) degrading bacterial strain CDS-8, identified as Pseudomonas sp., was combined with photocatalyst titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) for the CTN degradation in liquid and soil. After 7day incubation, 90.73% of CTN was removed from mineral salt medium (MSM) by CDS-8 with the optimal condition at pH 7.0 and 30°C. Single biodegradation or photocatalytic degradation could not degrade CTN completely, and many toxic and persistent intermediate metabolites remained. However, simultaneous biological-photocatalytic treatments could markedly remove CTN and reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD) which could not be removed by single biodegradation or photocatalytic degradation. In MSM, treatment with CDS-8/40mgL -1 TiO 2 showed the highest COD removal rate (84.10%). Furthermore, combined CDS-8/TiO 2 treatments could effectively degrade CTN in soil. In treatments with CDS-8/20mgkg -1 TiO 2 of soil, the maximum CTN removal rate reached 97.55% in turned soils. However, with CDS-8/40mgkg -1 TiO 2 of soil, the maximum CTN removal rate (94.94%) was found in static soil. In general, the combined biological-photocatalytic treatments provided a promising alternative candidate for the remediation of CTN-contaminated sites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Photocatalytic and Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting on TiO2 via Photosensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saji Thomas Kochuveedu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for an alternative to replace conventional fuel has been going on for years due to the limited storage of fossil fuel and excess CO2 emission from the fuel. Using H2 as fuel has gained wide attention recently, as well as consequently splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen. Seminal semiconductors such as TiO2 and ZnO have their position of CB and VB in alignment with water reduction and oxidation potential, respectively, but their wide bandgap allows them to absorb only UV light of the solar spectrum. Combining narrow bandgap semiconductors or other visible light active sensitizers with TiO2/ZnO is a facile route to exploit the visible light region of the solar spectrum. In this review, I make an attempt to summarize the various photosensitizers used in combination with TiO2 for water splitting with recent reports as examples.

  2. Comparative Study on The Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production from Methanol over Cu-, Pd-, Co- and Au-Loaded TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udani P.P.C.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic hydrogen production from a methanol-water solution was investigated in a semi-continuous reactor over different metal-loaded TiO2 catalysts under UltraViolet (UV light irradiation. The catalysts were mainly prepared by the incipient wetness impregnation method by varying the metal weight ratio in the range of 1-10 wt%. The effects of metal loading and H2 pre-treatment on the photocatalytic activity were investigated. In addition, the activity of the catalysts was also compared with a reference Au-TiO2 catalyst from the World Gold Council (WGC. The photocatalysts were characterized by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD and N2 physisorption before and after the activity measurements. The photocatalytic activity decreased in the order of Pd > Au > Cu > Co in the comparative study of Cu-TiO2, Co-TiO2, Au-TiO2 and Pd-TiO2. Optimum hydrogen evolution was achieved with 5 wt% Pd-TiO2 and 5 wt% Cu-TiO2.

  3. Structural, optical and photocatalytic properties of TiO2/SnO2 and SnO2/TiO2 core-shell nanocomposites: An experimental and DFT investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetri, Pawan; Basyach, Priyanka; Choudhury, Amarjyoti

    2014-04-01

    We employed an efficient and cost effective method to synthesize core-shell TiO2/SnO2 and inverted core-shell SnO2/TiO2 nanocomposites and investigated their visible light photo catalytic activity for degradation of dye methyl orange. We carried out techniques such as XRD and TEM for the structural verification while UV-Visible and photoluminescence spectra for the optical characterization. BET is done to reveal pore diameter and surface area of prepared nanosystems. We have also performed DFT based calculation using VASP 5.2 to calculate density of states. The analyses of density of states indicate a higher photocatalytic efficiency of core-shell TiO2/SnO2 nanostructures and which we indeed observe through experiment as well.

  4. Hybrid matrices of TiO2 and TiO2–Ag nanofibers with silicone for high water flux photocatalytic degradation of dairy effluent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmad; Alm, Martin; Thomsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    TiO2 and TiO2–Ag nanofibers were produced by electrospinning technique and surface coated on silicone elastomer (diameter: 10.0 mm; thickness: 2.0 mm) by dipcoating method. These coated hybrid nanoporous matrices were characterized by various morphological and physicochemical techniques (like SEM...

  5. Visible light photocatalytic disinfection of E. coli with TiO2–graphene nanocomposite sensitized with tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi, Rahmatollah; Zargari, Solmaz; Yousefi, Azam; Yaghoubi Berijani, Marzieh; Ghaffarinejad, Ali; Morsali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: TiO 2 –graphene nanocomposites with different content of graphene were synthesized via a facile one-step solvothermal method. Photoelectrochemical responses of prepared photocatalysts were measured to determine the optimum content of graphene in TG nanocomposites. The results show that the TG nanocomposite with 3% of graphene has the highest photoactivity. This compound was sensitized with tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin (TGP). The prepared photocatalysts were used for photocatalytic disinfection of E. coli. The results showed that the photocatalytic disinfection of the TG nanocomposite was increased after sensitization with porphyrin. The enhanced photocatalytic performance could be attributed to the synergistic effect between TiO 2 , graphene and porphyrin sensitizer in the TGP photocatalyst. - Highlights: • TiO 2 –graphene nanocomposites (TG) were synthesized with different content of graphene. • The TG nanocomposite with different content of graphene was sensitized with porphyrin (TGP). • The disinfection of E. coli using TGP was investigated in the visible light. • Porphyrin sensitizer increases effectively the photocatalytic disinfection efficiency of TGP. - Abstract: The present research deals with the development of a new heterogeneous photocatalysis system for disinfection of bacteria from wastewater by using TiO 2 –graphene (TG) nanocomposite sensitized with tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin (TCPP). The disinfection of wastewater using this photocatalyst is not reported in the literature yet. All the synthesized materials were thoroughly characterized by Raman, XRD, DRS, BET, and SEM analysis. The optimum content of graphene in the TiO 2 –graphene nanocomposite was determined by photocurrent responses of prepared photocatalysts. Subsequently, the photocurrent measurements demonstrate that the TiO 2 –graphene nanocomposite with 3% graphene content has higher photoactivity. Furthermore, sensitization of the TiO 2

  6. Study on mechanism of photocatalytic performance of La-doped TiO2/Ti photoelectrodes by theoretical and experimental methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin Yanjun; Liu Huiling

    2011-01-01

    TiO 2 photoelectrodes with various nanostructures have been successfully prepared by the anodization method. The morphology, microstructure and optical properties of as-prepared photoelectrodes were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet/visible light diffuse reflectance spectra (UV/vis/DRS), surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) and photocurrent. The electronic structure and optical properties of La doped/undoped TiO 2 photoelectrodes with different crystal structures were calculated by the density function theory. The photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activities of as-prepared photoelectrodes were evaluated. The results showed that the anodization potentials played a crucial role in the surface morphology and microstructure. Both results of theoretical calculations and experimental tests demonstrated that La-doped photoelectrodes were more sensitive to light than undoped one. The difference of photoelectrodes performance was ascribed to the crystal configuration, impurity energy levels and long-range orientation moving of photogenerated carriers. - Graphical abstract: Photophysical chemistry processes in as-prepared TiO 2 photoelectrodes. Overall scheme of TiO 2 photoelectrodes: (A) movement of photoelectrons and holes without bias potentials; (B) movement of photoelectrons and holes at applied bias potentials; (a) and (b) were the transmission of photogenerated electrons and holes of local enlargement of (A) (black open circle): (a) photoelectrons movement in P-TiO 2 photoelectrodes and La-TiO 2 photoelectrodes, the red dot line denotes the top of valence band (VB) and the bottom of conduction band (CB) of pure photoelectrodes; (b) photoelectrons movement in P-160 and La-160 TiO 2 photoelectrodes (mixed crystal phase). The number refers to as follows: (1) transmission process of photoelectrons and holes; (2) recombination process of photoelectrons and holes. Arrows represent the moving direction of

  7. Characterization and photocatalytic activity of boron-doped TiO2 thin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517 502, India. MS received 28 December 2007; revised 16 March 2008. Abstract. Boron doped TiO2 thin films have been successfully deposited on glass substrate and silicon wafer at 30°C from an aqueous solution of ammonium hexa-fluoro titanate and boron ...

  8. Photocatalytic degradation of reactive black-5 dye using TiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The optimum formulation of supported catalyst was found to be (TiO2: ZSM-5 = 0.15:1) which gave the highest efficiency with 98% degradation of 50 mg/L RB-5 solution in 90 min. Effect of different parameters such as initial concentration of dye solution, catalyst amount on the rate of photodegradation was also studied.

  9. Photocatalytic properties of aqueous systems containing TiO2 nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paušová, Š.; Krýsa, J.; Jirkovský, Jaromír; Forano, C.; Prevot, V.; Mailhot, G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 1 (2011), s. 140-146 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0577 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : TiO2 nanoparticles * photocatalysis * aging Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.407, year: 2011

  10. Feasible synthesis of TiO2 deposited on kaolin for photocatalytic applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Henych, Jiří; Štengl, Václav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 61, 3-4 (2013), s. 165-176 ISSN 0009-8604 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/006 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Homogeneous Hydrolysis * Kaolin * Photocatalysis * TiO2 * Urea Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.398, year: 2013

  11. Nanoscale surface potential imaging of the photocatalytic TiO2 films on aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daviðsdóttir, Svava; Dirscherl, Kai; Canulescu, Stela

    2013-01-01

    The change in the surface potential of TiO2 coatings upon UV-illumination was investigated on the nanoscale using Scanning Kelvin Probe Force microscopy and on the micro-scale using photo-electrochemical measurements. A good correlation between the two techniques was obtained. The changes in the ...

  12. Effects of Ni doping on photocatalytic activity of TiO2 thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Ni–TiO2 thin film; LPD technique; photodegradation. 1. Introduction. In the field of photocatalysis, the polycrystalline system formed by transition metal-ion-doped TiO2 has been the object of several studies (Palmisano et al 1988; Soria et al 1991; Karakitsou and Verykios 1993; Choi et al 1994;. Litter and Navio 1994, 1996).

  13. Photocatalytic degradation of reactive black-5 dye using TiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sons, considerable attention has been focused on complete oxidation of organic compounds to harmless products such as CO2 and H2O by the advanced oxidation process (AOP) and appears as one of the most emerging promising technolo- gies. Most of the previous studies illustrate the use of pure. TiO2 particulates ...

  14. Photocatalytic degradation of indigo carmine dye using TiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to the light induced mineralization of hazardous organic pollutants with the use of TiO2 photocatalysts (Crittender et al 1997; Yamashita et al 2000; Panduranga ... degradation is emerging as an effective treatment techni- que (Wang 2000; Neppolian et al 2002). Baetz and Iang- phasuk (1997) and Wang (2000) reported the ...

  15. Sol-Gel to Prepare Nitrogen Doped TiO2 Nanocrystals with Exposed {001} Facets and High Visible-Light Photocatalytic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ying Ai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of N-doped TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed {001} facets was prepared successfully by sol-gel method for the first time. The physicochemical properties of these resultant photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, TEM, XPS, and DRS, and their photocatalytic performances were evaluated by photocatalytic decoloration of methylene blue solution under visible light (λ>420 nm irradiation. The results showed that the N-doped TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed {001} facets showed higher photocatalytic activity than P25. The enhanced photocatalytic performance can be attributed to synergistic effects of several factors, such as good crystallinity, better light response characteristic, and high reactivity of {001} facets.

  16. TiO2-ITO and TiO2-ZnO nanocomposites: application on water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessais B.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most promising ideas to enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of the TiO2 is to couple this photocatalyst with other semiconductors. In this work, we report on the development of photo-catalytic properties of two types of composites based on TiO2 – ITO (Indium Tin Oxide and TiO2 – ZnO deposited on conventional ceramic substrates. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM. The photo-catalytic test was carried out under UV light in order to reduce/oxidize a typical textile dye (Cibacron Yellow. The experiment was carried out in a bench scale reactor using a solution having a known initial dye concentration. After optimization, we found that both nanocomposites exhibit better photocatalytic activity compared to the standard photocatalyst P25 TiO2.

  17. Kinetic analysis on photocatalytic degradation of gaseous acetaldehyde, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide on nanosized porous TiO2 films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iis Sopyan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the UV illumination-assisted degradation of gaseous acetaldehyde, hydrogen sulfide, and ammonia on highly active nanostructured-anatase and rutile films were investigated. It was found that the anatase film showed a higher photocatalytic activity than the counterpart did, however, the magnitude of difference in the photocatalytic activity of both films decreased in the order ammonia>acetaldehyde>hydrogen sulfide. To elucidate the reasons for the observation, the adsorption characteristics and the kinetics of photocatalytic degradation of the three reactants on both films were analyzed. The adsorption analysis examined using a simple Langmuir isotherm, showed that adsorbability on both films decreased in the order ammonia>acetaldehyde>hydrogen sulfide, which can be explained in terms of the decreasing electron-donor capacity. Acetaldehyde and ammonia adsorbed more strongly and with higher coverage on anatase film (1.2 and 5.6 molecules/nm2, respectively than on rutile (0.6 and 4.7 molecules/nm2, respectively. Conversely, hydrogen sulfide molecules adsorbed more strongly on rutile film (0.7 molecules/nm2 than on anatase (0.4 molecules/nm2. Exposure to UV light illumination brought about the photocatalytic oxidation of the three gases in contact with both TiO2 films, and the decrease in concentration were measured, and their kinetics are analyzed in terms of the Langmuir–Hinshelwood kinetic model. From the kinetic analysis, it was found that the anatase film showed the photocatalytic activities that were factors of ~8 and ~5 higher than the rutile film for the degradation of gaseous ammonia and acetaldehyde, respectively. However, the activity was only a factor of ~1.5 higher for the photodegradation of hydrogen sulfide. These observations are systematically explained by the charge separation efficiency and the adsorption characteristics of each catalyst as well as by the physical and electrochemical properties of each

  18. Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Dyes under Visible Light on N-Doped TiO2 Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sacco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on the application of white and blue light emitting diodes (LEDs as sources for the photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes in liquid phase with visible light. The photocatalytic activity of N-doped titanium dioxide, synthesized by direct hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide with ammonia, was evaluated by means of a batch photoreactor. The bandgap energy of titanium dioxide was moved in the visible range from 3.3 eV to 2.5 eV. The visible light responsive photocatalysts showed remarkably effective activity in decolorization process and in the removal of total organic carbon. Methylene blue was also used as a model dye to study the influence of several parameters such as catalyst weight and initial concentration. The effect of dye on the photocatalytic performance was verified with methyl orange (MO. The results demonstrated that the right selection of operating conditions allows to effectively degrade different dyes with the N-doped TiO2 photocatalysts irradiated with visible light emitted by LEDs.

  19. Effect of water composition on the photocatalytic removal of pesticides with different TiO2 catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajo, Jaime; García-Muñoz, Patricia; Tolosana-Moranchel, Alvaro; Faraldos, Marisol; Bahamonde, Ana

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this work is double-firstly to explore the photocatalytic efficiency of five different commercial TiO2 catalysts in the photodegradation of a mixture of pesticides classified by the EU as priority pollutants and secondly to analyze the correlation between their physicochemical properties and the inhibition of the studied photocatalytic process when natural water was employed. Photocatalytic efficiencies when ultrapure water was used seem to point out that surface area was not a prerequisite for the photodegradation of the selected mixture of pesticides. On the other hand, significant differences in total organic carbon (TOC) conversions were obtained with the two studied water compositions. On one side, Evonik materials appear to be mostly inhibited when natural water was employed, whereas on the other, it should be remarked that anatase Sigma-Aldrich (SA) and, particularly, Hombikat UV100 (HBK) materials presented a very limited photo-efficiency inhibition or even a higher initial rate of TOC removal when a natural water matrix was used, probably due to their specific surface properties (PZC, S BET). Therefore, heterogeneous photocatalysis has proved to be a promising technology for the degradation of the selected mixture of pesticides where the final photo-efficiency of the five commercial titania catalysts studied here responds to a complex balance between its surface and structural properties.

  20. Scale-up study of a multiphase photocatalytic reactor--degradation of cyanide in water over TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motegh, Mahsa; van Ommen, J Ruud; Appel, Peter W; Kreutzer, Michiel T

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an integrated view on various aspects of reactor design for photocatalytic reactions and presents a scale-up study of photocatalytic reactors. This study focuses on degrading organic pollutants in the effluent of an integrated gasification coal combustion plant over TiO2, with the target of degrading cyanide to below its allowable emission threshold set by European legislation. Here, we show the interplay of different efficiencies that affect the overall apparent photonic efficiency and the reactor volume required to achieve a certain objective in conversion. The chosen reactor configuration is rectangular slurry-bubble-columns-in-series to ensure a good mass transfer rate per photoreactor while approaching plug-flow behavior as a sum, and a high reactor surface-area-to-volume ratio for a good capture of incident photons. We consider a simple 1D photonic description of a photoreactor, in the direction of incident solar light, and implement a bidirectional scattering model for photocatalytic particles and bubbles to calculate the local rate of photon absorption and the photon absorption efficiency in the photoreactor. We show that, implementing the principles of process intensification, the large scale degradation of cyanide to below European emission limits is achievable.

  1. What can we learn from the decay of $ N_X(1625)$ in molecule picture?

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Bo

    2007-01-01

    Considering two molecular state assumptions, i.e. S-wave $\\bar{\\Lambda}-K^-$ and S-wave $\\bar{\\Sigma}^0-K^-$ molecular states, we study the possible decays of $\\bar N_X(1625)$ that include $\\bar N_X(1625)\\to K^{-}\\bar{\\Lambda}, \\pi^{0}\\bar{p}, \\eta\\bar{p}, \\pi^{-}\\bar{n}$. Our results indicate: (1) if $\\bar N_{X}(1625)$ is $\\bar{\\Lambda}-K^-$ molecular state, $K^{-}\\bar{\\Lambda}$ is the main decay modes of $\\bar N_{X}(1625)$, and the branching ratios of the rest decay modes are tiny; (2) if $...

  2. Cotton fabric coated with nano TiO2-acrylate copolymer for photocatalytic self-cleaning by in-situ suspension polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xue; Tian Xiuzhi; Gu Jian; Huang Dan; Yang Yiqi

    2011-01-01

    Two kinds of nano TiO 2 -polyacrylate hybrid dispersions, TBM-w and TBM-e were synthesized by in-situ suspension polymerization and solution polymerization respectively, in order to fix the nano TiO 2 on fabrics. The photocatalytic self-cleaning fabrics have received much attention in recent years for its water-saving and environment-protection advantages. However, the fixation of the photocatalyst on fabrics is still a key problem that inhibits industrialization of these eco-friendly fabrics. The cotton fabric was treated by the two hybrid dispersions. The photocatalytic self-cleaning property was characterized. Infrared spectroscopy, burning loss test and thermogravimetry showed that some copolymer chains entangled with the nano TiO 2 . Transmission electron microscope illustrated that there was a polymeric layer on the surface of nano TiO 2 . The average diameter of TBM-w was smaller than that of TBM-e based on size analysis. The photocatalytic decoloration of the grape syrup indicated that the fabric with TiO 2 -polymer hybrid had excellent self-cleaning property.

  3. Effective Electron Transfer Pathway of the Ternary TiO2/RGO/Ag Nanocomposite with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity under Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Tian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous TiO2/reduced graphene oxide/Ag (TiO2/RGO/Ag ternary nanocomposite with an effective electron transfer pathway is obtained by an electrostatic self-assembly method and photo-assisted treatment. Compared with bare mesoporous TiO2 (MT and mesoporous TiO2/RGO (MTG, the ternary mesoporous TiO2/RGO/Ag (MTGA nanocomposite exhibited superior photocatalytic performance for the degradation of methylene blue (MB under visible light, and the degradation rate reached 0.017 min−1, which was 3.4-times higher than that of MTG. What is more, the degradation rate of MTGA nanocomposite after three cycle times is 91.2%, and the composition is unchanged. In addition, we found that the OH•, h+ and especially O2•− contribute to the high photocatalytic activity of MTGA for MB degradation. It is proposed that Ag nanoparticles can form the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR to absorb the visible light and distract the electrons into MT, and RGO can accept the electrons from MT to accelerate the separation efficiency of photogenerated carriers. The establishment of MTGA ternary nanocomposite makes the three components act synergistically to enhance the photocatalytic performance.

  4. Photocatalytic Inactivation Effect of Gold-Doped TiO2 (Au/TiO2 Nanocomposites on Human Colon Carcinoma LoVo Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyu Jiang

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic inactivation effecting of gold-doped TiO2 (Au/TiO2 nanocomposites on human colon carcinoma LoVo cells was investigated for the first time. The Au/TiO2 samples containing different amounts of Au (1–4 wt% were prepared by deposition-precipitation (DP method. These synthesized Au/TiO2 nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. It was found that the photocatalytic inactivation effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on LoVo cancer cells could be greatly improved by the surface modification of Au nanoparticles. Furthermore, the loading amount of Au on the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles affects the photocatalytic inactivation efficiency strongly, and it was found that the most efficient nanocomposites were TiO2 nanoparticles doped with 2 wt% Au. When 50 μg/mL 2 wt% Au/TiO2 nanocomposites were used, all of the LoVo cancer cells were killed under the irradiation of UV light (λmax = 365 nm, Intensity = 1.8 mW/cm2 within 100 minutes. But for 50 μg/mL TiO2 nanoparticles, only 40% cancer cells were killed under the same condition.

  5. Unique bar-like sulfur-doped C3N4/TiO2 nanocomposite: Excellent visible light driven photocatalytic activity and mechanism study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Xu, Shiping; Sun, Xiang; Xu, Xing; Gao, Baoyu

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a nanocomposite of TiO2 nanoparticles coupled with sulfur-doped C3N4 (S-C3N4) laminated layer was successfully fabricated using a facile impregnation method and the nanocomposite exhibited superior photocatalytic activity in pollutant removal under visible light irradiation, compared to bare TiO2, g-C3N4 and binary C3N4-TiO2 nanocomposite. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was benefited from the efficient migration and transformation of electron-hole (e--h+) pairs, improved visible light absorption capability, and relatively large specific surface area induce by sulfur doping. Interestingly, the introduction of sulfur changes regulated the morphology of g-C3N4 leading to the formation of ultrathin g-C3N4 layer nanosheet assemblies and unique bar-like g-C3N4/TiO2 nanocomposite, which is beneficial for the outstanding performance of the product. In addition, trapping experiment was carried out to identify the main active species in the photocatalytic reaction over the S-C3N4/TiO2 photocatalyst, and functional mechanism of the composite was proposed. This work may provide new ideas for the fabrication and utilization of highly efficient photocatalyst with excellent visible light response in environmental purification applications.

  6. Template-free fabrication of hierarchical macro/mesoporpous SnS2/TiO2 composite with enhanced photocatalytic degradation of Methyl Orange (MO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Gaopeng; Qin, Haiquan; Zhou, Huan; Wang, Wanqiang; Luo, Tianxiong

    2018-02-01

    Ordered macro/mesoporous SnS2/TiO2 composite was successfully prepared via a template-free aqueous technique using tetrabutyl titanate as the titanium precursor and SnCl4•5H2O as the tin precursor. The photocatalytic activity of SnS2/TiO2 composite was tested by the degradation of Methyl Orange (MO) aqueous solution under irradiation of the simulated sunlight. It was found that SnS2/TiO2 composite displayed an enhanced photocatalytic activity with a 0.055 min-1 apparent rate constant (degradation efficiency of 90.9% within 50 min). The ordered macro/mesoporous structure and SnS2/TiO2 heterostructure were considered to play synergistic effects in its enhanced photocatalytic performance, because the ordered porous structure can improve mass transfer and light capture, and heterostructure between SnS2 and TiO2 can reduce the recombination rate of photogenerated electrons and holes.

  7. Synthesis of solvothermal derived TiO2 nanocrystals supported on ground nano egg shell waste and its utilization for the photocatalytic dye degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rohini; Kumari, Pooja; Chavan, Prakash Dhondiram; Datta, Sudipta; Dutta, Suman

    2017-11-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles with excellent crystallinity were synthesized via solvothermal method and supported on the ground nano-sized egg shell waste at different loading concentrations. The photocatalytic degradation of the mixture of Methylene blue (MB) and Rhodamine 6G (Rh 6G) in aqueous solution utilizing prepared TiO2 nano composite under visible light irradiation was analysed. Different characterizations including UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, Field emission scanning electron microscopic (FE-SEM), energy dispersive studies (EDS), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were performed to investigate the physicochemical properties of the prepared catalyst. In addition, FE-SEM and EDS analysis of the prepared egg shell support were carried out to confirm the morphology, particle size distribution, and composition. The solvothermal derived TiO2 nanocrystals supported on ground nano-sized egg shell waste exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity as compared to the as-prepared TiO2 nanoparticles. The synergistic effect of TiO2 nanoparticles and nano egg shell support is attributed to the effective dispersion of TiO2 that offers high specific surface area.

  8. High photocatalytic activity of hierarchical SiO2@C-doped TiO2hollow spheres in UV and visible light towards degradation of rhodamine B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Chen, Juanrong; Hua, Li; Li, Songjun; Zhang, Xuanxuan; Sheng, Weichen; Cao, Shunsheng

    2017-10-15

    Ongoing research activities are targeted to explore high photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 -based photocatalysts for the degradation of environmental contaminants under UV and visible light irradiation. In this work, we devise a facile, cost-effective technique to in situ synthesize hierarchical SiO 2 @C-doped TiO 2 (SCT) hollow spheres for the first time. This strategy mainly contains the preparation of monodisperse cationic polystyrene spheres (CPS), sequential deposition of inner SiO 2 , the preparation of the sandwich-like CPS@SiO 2 @CPS particles, and formation of outer TiO 2 . After the one-step removal of CPS templates by calcination at 450°C, hierarchical SiO 2 @C-doped TiO 2 hollow spheres are in situ prepared. The morphology, hierarchical structure, and properties of SCT photocatalyst were characterized by TEM. SEM, STEM Mapping, BET, XRD, UV-vis spectroscopy, and XPS. Results strongly confirm the carbon doping in the outer TiO 2 lattice of SCT hollow spheres. When the as-synthesized SCT hollow spheres were employed as a photocatalyst for the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible-light and ultraviolet irradiation, the SCT photocatalyst exhibits a higher photocatalytic activity than commercial P25, effectively overcoming the limitations of poorer UV activity for many previous reported TiO 2 -based photocatalysts due to doping. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The influence of preparation method, nitrogen source, and post-treatment on the photocatalytic activity and stability of N-doped TiO2 nanopowder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaozheng; Li, Fayun; Fan, Zhiping

    2011-11-30

    NH(3) plasma, N(2) plasma, and annealing in flowing NH(3) were used to prepare N doped TiO(2), respectively. XRD, UV-vis spectroscopy, N(2) adsorption, FT-IR, Zeta-potential measurement, and XP spectra were used to characterize the prepared TiO(2) samples. The nitridation procedure did not change the phase composition and particle sizes of TiO(2) samples, but extended its absorption edges to the visible light region. The photocatalytic activities were tested in the degradation of an aqueous solution of a reactive dyestuff, methylene blue, under visible light. The photocatalytic activity and stability of TiO(2) prepared by NH(3) plasma were much higher than that of samples prepared by other nitridation procedures. The visible light activity of the prepared N doped TiO(2) was improved by increasing the lattice-nitrogen content and decreasing adsorbed NH(3) on catalyst surface. The lattice-nitrogen stability of N-doped TiO(2) samples improved after HCl solution washing. The possible mechanism for the photocatalysis was proposed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Reduced graphene oxide enwrapped pinecone-liked Ag3PO4/TiO2 composites with enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability under visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ni; Qiu, Yiwei; Zhang, Yichao; Liu, Hanyang; Yang, Yana; Wang, Jingwei; Li, Xiaoyun; Cui, Can

    2015-01-01

    Ag 3 PO 4 possesses high photocatalytic activity under visible light, but its application is limited by photogenerated charges recombination, photocorrosion as well as consumption of noble Ag. It is of great interesting to develop new Ag 3 PO 4 -based photocatalysts with high charges separation efficiency, good stability and low content of Ag. In this paper, we report a novel Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 /reduced graphene oxide (Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 /rGO) photocatalyst. It exhibits advantages on both the microstructure and the charges separation. The microstructure shows that TiO 2 spheres of hundreds of nanometers in size are decorated with dense nano-sized Ag 3 PO 4 to form pinecone-liked particles, which are enwrapped by rGO sheets. This novel structure effectively prevents aggregation of nano-sized Ag 3 PO 4 , which not only suppresses the charges recombination in Ag 3 PO 4 but also significantly reduces the content of Ag. Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 /rGO also favors separation of photogenerated charges owing to its two pathways for charges transportation, i.e., the electrons in Ag 3 PO 4 can be transferred to rGO, while the holes in Ag 3 PO 4 can be transferred to TiO 2 . The dual-pathway for charges separation as well as the pinecone-liked Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 microstructure ultimately leads to enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability of Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 /rGO. The photocatalytic performance varies with different contents of Ag 3 PO 4 in the composites, because low content of Ag 3 PO 4 induces weak light absorption while excess Ag 3 PO 4 results in serious charges recombination due to the aggregation of Ag 3 PO 4 nanoparticles. In this work, Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 /rGO with weight ratio of Ag 3 PO 4 against TiO 2 /rGO equals to 0.6 exhibits the highest photocatalytic activity. The percentage of Ag in this composite is around 29 wt%, much lower than 77 wt% in pure Ag 3 PO 4 . - Highlights: • Nano-sized Ag 3 PO 4 were decorated on TiO 2 particles. • Pinecone-liked Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2

  11. Effects of donor doping and acceptor doping on rutile TiO2 particles for photocatalytic O2 evolution by water oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Fumiaki; Tosaki, Ryosuke; Sato, Kyosuke; Higuchi, Yamato

    2018-02-01

    Crystalline defects of photocatalyst particles may be considered to be the recombination center of photoexcited electrons and holes. In this study, we investigated the photocatalytic activity of cation-doped rutile TiO2 photocatalysts for O2 evolution from an aqueous silver nitrate solution under ultraviolet light irradiation. The photocatalytic activity of rutile TiO2 was enhanced by donor doping of Ta5+ and Nb5+ with a valence higher than that of Ti4+, regardless of increased density of electrons and Ti3+ species (an electron trapped in Ti4+ sites). Conversely, acceptor doping of lower valence cations such as In3+ and Ga3+ decreased photocatalytic activity for O2 evolution by water oxidation. The doping of equal valence cations such as Sn4+ and Ge4+ hardly changed the activity of non-doped TiO2. This study demonstrates that Ti3+ species, which is a crystalline defect, enhanced the photocatalytic activity of semiconductor oxides, for example rutile TiO2 with large crystalline size.

  12. Synergistic Effects of Sm and C Co-Doped Mixed Phase Crystalline TiO2 for Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchang Peng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mixed phase TiO2 nanoparticles with element doping by Sm and C were prepared via a facile sol-gel procedure. The UV-Vis light-diffuse reflectance spectroscopy analysis showed that the absorption region of co-doped TiO2 was shifted to the visible-light region, which was attributed to incorporation of samarium and carbon into the TiO2 lattice during high-temperature reaction. Samarium effectively decreased the anatase-rutile phase transformation. The grain size can be controlled by Sm doping to achieve a large specific surface area useful for the enhancement of photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic activities under visible light irradiation were evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB. The degradation rate of MB over the Sm-C co-doped TiO2 sample was the best. Additionally, first-order apparent rate constants increased by about 4.3 times compared to that of commercial Degusssa P25 under the same experimental conditions. Using different types of scavengers, the results indicated that the electrons, holes, and •OH radicals are the main active species for the MB degradation. The high visible-light photocatalytic activity was attributed to low recombination of the photo-generated electrons and holes which originated from the synergistic effect of the co-doped ions and the heterostructure.

  13. Suppressing the Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Nanoparticles by Extremely Thin Al2O3 Films Grown by Gas-Phase Deposition at Ambient Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, J.; Bui, H.V.; Valdesueiro Gonzalez, D.; Yuan, Shaojun; Liang, Bin; van Ommen, J.R.

    2018-01-01

    This work investigated the suppression of photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigment powders by extremely thin aluminum oxide (Al2O3) films deposited via an atomic-layer-deposition-type process using trimethylaluminum (TMA) and H2O as precursors. The deposition was performed on

  14. Investigation on Parameters Affecting the Effectiveness of Photocatalytic Functional Coatings to Degrade NO: TiO2 Amount on Surface, Illumination, and Substrate Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hot

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the degradation of NO by photocatalytic oxidation using TiO2-based coatings. Tests are conducted at a laboratory scale through an experimental setup inspired from ISO 22197-1 standard. Various parameters are explored to evaluate their influence on photocatalysis efficiency: TiO2 dry matter content applied to the surface, nature of the substrate, and illumination conditions (UV and visible light. This article points out the different behaviors between three kinds of substrates which are common building materials: normalized mortar, denser mortar, and commercial wood. The illumination conditions are of great importance in the photocatalytic process with experiments under UV light showing the best results. However, a significant decrease in NO concentration under visible light is also observed provided that the TiO2 dry matter content on the surface is high enough. The nature of the substrate plays an important role in the photocatalytic activity with rougher substrates being more efficient to degrade NO. However, limiting the roughness of the substrate seems to be of utmost interest to obtain the highest exposed surface area and thus the optimal photocatalytic efficiency. A higher roughness promotes the surface contact between TiO2 and NO but does not necessarily increase the photochemical oxidation.

  15. Seed-mediated photodeposition route to Ag-decorated SiO2@TiO2 microspheres with ideal core-shell structure and enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianqi; Guo, Xiaohua; Ge, Hongguang; Tian, Guanghui; Zhang, Qiang

    2018-03-01

    Ag-decorated SiO2@TiO2 microspheres (SiO2@TiO2-Ag) with ideal core-shell structure and enhanced photocatalytic activity were successfully fabricated by combining both coating anatase TiO2 on the surface of SiO2 spheres and subsequent depositing face-centered cubic Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on the coated TiO2 surface via novel sol-gel method and Ag-seed-mediated photodeposition (PD) route, respectively. The morphology, structure, composition and optical properties of the resulting composites were characterized in detail. The results reveal that the monodisperse SiO2 spheres of ∼260 nm were covered uniformly and perfectly by the TiO2 nanoparticle coating layer with the thickness of ca. 55 nm by the novel sol-gel method. Further, homogeneously and highly dispersed Ag NPs with an average size of 8 ± 1.5 nm were strongly anchored onto the TiO2 surface in SiO2@TiO2 core-shell spheres by the modified PD process (Ag-seed-mediated PD route), whereas polydispersed Ag aggregates and detached Ag NPs were irregularly deposited over the TiO2 surface in previous works, which is the inherent problem and has not been effectively solved for depositing noble metal NPs such as Au, Ag, Pt, Pd on TiO2 surface by conventional PD method. The formation mechanism of small and uniformly dispersed Ag NPs with narrow size distribution via the modified PD method is tentatively explained by both nucleation kinetics and growth kinetics. The key reason is that the pre-deposited seeds firmly tethered on SiO2@TiO2 spheres served as nucleation sites and anchoring points for the further nucleation and subsequent growth of Ag via photoreduction of Ag+.

  16. Effect of Silver Doping on the TiO2 for Photocatalytic Reduction of CO2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočí, K.; Matějů, K.; Obalová, L.; Krejčíková, Simona; Lacný, Z.; Plachá, D.; Čapek, L.; Hospodková, Alice; Šolcová, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 96, 3-4 (2010), s. 239-244 ISSN 0926-3373 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD203/08/H032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : Ag doping * TiO2 * photocatalysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.749, year: 2010

  17. One-step formation of TiO2 hollow spheres via a facile microwave-assisted process for photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Alosfur, Firas K.; Ridha, Noor J.; Hafizuddin Haji Jumali, Mohammad; Radiman, S.

    2018-04-01

    Mesoporous TiO2 hollow spherical nanostructures with high surface areas were successfully prepared using a microwave method. The prepared hollow spheres had a size range between 200 and 500 nm. The spheres consisted of numerous smaller TiO2 nanoparticles with an average diameter of 8 nm. The particles had an essentially mesoporous structure, with a pore size in the range of 2-50 nm. The results confirmed that the synthesised of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with specific surface area approximately 172.3 m2 g-1. The effect of ultraviolet and visible light irradiation and catalyst dosage on the TiO2 photocatalytic activity was studied by measuring the degradation rate of methylene blue. The maximum dye degradation performances with low catalyst loading (30 mg) were 99% and 63.4% using the same duration of ultraviolet and visible light irradiation, respectively (120 min).

  18. Photocatalytic degradation of Congo Red by hydrothermally synthesized nanocrystalline TiO2 and identification of degradation products by LC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdemoglu, Sema; Aksu, Songuel Karaaslan; Sayilkan, Funda; Izgi, Belgin; Asiltuerk, Meltem; Sayilkan, Hikmet; Frimmel, Fritz; Guecer, Seref

    2008-01-01

    Degradation of Congo Red (CR) dye in aqueous solutions was investigated by means of photocatalysis of TiO 2 which was hydrothermally synthesized at 200 deg. C in 2 h, in anatase phase with 8 nm crystallite size. Efficiency of TiO 2 in photocatalytic degradation under visible irradiation was studied by investigating the effects of amount of TiO 2 , irradiation time, initial CR concentration and pH. It was found that complete decolorization is achieved within 30 min of irradiation. Effects of nitrate and sulphate ions and humic acid on the degradation were also tested. The results were compared with Degussa P-25 TiO 2 at the same degradation conditions. Degradation products were detected using LC-MS technique. The probable pathways for the formation of degradation products were proposed

  19. Performance of Photocatalytic Oxidation of Tetracycline in Aqueous Solution by TiO2 Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahbakhsh Javid

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The presence of pharmaceutical compounds in water and soil has become an environmental concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of TiO 2 nanofiber in the oxidation of the antibiotic tetracycline. TiO 2 nanofiber was fabricated by electro-spinning method, and then was calcined at 560?C for 2 h. Central composite design (CCD statistic model was used to optimize tetracycline concentration, time and pH for TiO 2 catalyst. A tubular Pyrex glass reactor with diameter of 15 cm and height of 30 cm was designed and a 125W Philips HPLN lamp (UV, ? > 254 nm was used as light source. Samples were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Equation of model suggests a direct relationship between pH and time with efficiency of tetracycline removal. The observations indicated that time is the most significant (scaled estimate = + 28.04 parameter in efficiency of tetracycline removal. The application of response surface methodology yielded the equation of Y?=?65.82?+?5.74?pH?+?28.04 time?+?(?3.07(pH 2 ?+?(?6.6(time 2 , with R 2 = 0.986 which represents good reliability of model. Based on the response surface plots optimum conditions for degradation of tetracycline with maximum efficiency of around 95% was attained. These conditions are as follow; concentration: 50 mg/l, pH= 8.3, time= 15 min.

  20. Synergetic Effect of Ti3+and Oxygen Doping on Enhancing Photoelectrochemical and Photocatalytic Properties of TiO2/g-C3N4Heterojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Huang, Zhenyu; Zeng, Xiaoqiao; Huang, Baibiao; Gao, Shanmin; Lu, Jun

    2017-04-05

    To improve the utilization of visible light and reduce photogenerated electron/hole recombination, Ti 3+ self-doped TiO 2 /oxygen-doped graphitic carbon nitride (Ti 3+ -TiO 2 /O-g-C 3 N 4 ) heterojunctions were prepared via hydrothermal treatment of a mixture of g-C 3 N 4 and titanium oxohydride sol obtained from the reaction of TiH 2 with H 2 O 2 . In this way, exfoliated O-g-C 3 N 4 and Ti 3+ -TiO 2 nanoparticles were obtained. Simultaneously, strong bonding was formed between Ti 3+ -TiO 2 nanoparticles and exfoliated O-g-C 3 N 4 during the hydrothermal process. Charge transfer and recombination processes were characterized by transient photocurrent responses, electrochemical impedance test, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The photocatalytic performances were investigated through rhodamine B degradation test under an irradiation source based on 30 W cold visible-light-emitting diode. The highest visible-light photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activities were observed from the heterojunction with 1:2 mass ratio of Ti 3+ -TiO 2 to O-g-C 3 N 4 . The photodegradation reaction rate constant based on this heterojuction is 0.0356 min -1 , which is 3.87 and 4.56 times higher than those of pristine Ti 3+ -TiO 2 and pure g-C 3 N 4 , respectively. The remarkably high photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performances of the heterojunctions are mainly attributed to the synergetic effect of efficient photogenerated electron-hole separation, decreased electron transfer resistance from interfacial chemical hydroxy residue bonds, and oxidizing groups originating from Ti 3+ -TiO 2 and O-g-C 3 N 4 .

  1. Effects of single metal atom (Pt, Pd, Rh and Ru) adsorption on the photocatalytic properties of anatase TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cui; Dai, Ying; Wei, Wei; Ma, Xiangchao; Li, Mengmeng; Huang, Baibiao

    2017-12-01

    The effects of single metal atom (Pt, Pd, Rh and Ru) adsorption on the photocatalytic properties of anatase TiO2 are investigated by means of the first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). Our results show that the most stable adsorption site for single metal atom on anatase TiO2 (101) surface is the bridge site formed by two twofold coordinated oxygen (O2c) atoms at the step edge. Due to the charge transfer from metal atoms to anatase TiO2 (101) surface, the work function of adsorbed surface is significantly smaller than the clean one, indicating enhanced surface activity. Fukui functions are highly localized around the isolated metal atoms, indicating that single metal atoms on anatase TiO2 (101) surface serve as the active reduction and oxidation sites in the photocatalytic process. Photo-induced electrons in the electronically excited TiO2 photocatalyst can be transferred to target species through the deposited single atoms. The band structures of host TiO2 are almost unchanged upon the adsorption, and the metal induced states are located in the band gap of the host. Remarkably, due to the metal atoms adsorption, the upward shift of conduction band edge will improve the reducing capacity of anatase TiO2. Moreover, when single metal atoms are adsorbed, potential energy of topmost surface Ti atoms turns to get close to the vacuum level, which significantly facilitates the electron transfer for hydrogen evolution. Results in this work provide new insights into improving the photocatalytic performance by single metal atoms adsorption.

  2. Optimization of process conditions for the production of TiO2–xNy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    tone to Ti, molar ratio of water to Ti and calcination temperature as the key process factors affecting the roughness of TiO2–xNy film. The adjusted determination coefficient (R2. Adj) of the regression model was 0∙9651, which indicated that the regression model is significant. By analysing the contour plots of response surface ...

  3. Photocatalytic Removal of Azo Dye and Anthraquinone DyeUsing TiO2 Immobilised on Ceramic Tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Palanisamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic activity of TiO2 immobilized on different supports; cement and ceramic tile, was studied to decolorize two commercial dyes. The catalyst was immobilised by two different techniques, namely, slurry method on ceramic tile and powder scattering on cement. The degradation of the dyes was carried out using UV and solar irradiation. The comparative efficiency of the catalyst immobilised on two different supports was determined. The photodegradation process was monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The catalyst immobilised on ceramic tile was found to be better than the catalyst immobilised on cement. Experimental results showed that both illumination and the catalyst were necessary for the degradation of the dyes and UV irradiation is more efficient compared to solar irradiation.

  4. Biphasic TiO2 nanoparticles decorated graphene nanosheets for visible light driven photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamelu, K.; Raja, V.; Shiamala, L.; Jaffar Ali, B. M.

    2018-02-01

    We present characterization of biphasic TiO2 nanoparticles and its graphene nanocomposite synthesized by cost effective, hydrothermal method. The structural properties and morphology of the samples were characterized by series of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. Introducing high surface area graphene could suppress the electron hole pair recombination rate in the nanocomposite. Further, the nanocomposite shows red-shift of the absorption edge and contract of the band gap from 2.98 eV to 2.85 eV. We have characterized its photocatalytic activity under natural sunlight and UV filtered sunlight irradiation. Data reveal graphene-TiO2 composite exhibit about 15 and 3.5 folds increase in degradability of Congo red and Methylene Blue dyes, respectively, comparison to pristine TiO2. This underscores the marginal effect of UV component of sunlight on the degradation ability of composite, implying its increased efficiency in harnessing visible region of solar spectrum. We have thus developed a visible light active graphene composite catalyst that can degrade both cationic and anionic dyes and making it potentially useful in environmental remediation and water splitting applications, under direct sunlight.

  5. Magnetic, electronic, optical, and photocatalytic properties of nonmetal- and halogen-doped anatase TiO2 nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadlallah, M. M.

    2017-05-01

    The structure stability, magnetic, electronic, optical, and photocatalytic properties of nonmetal (B, C, N, P, and S), and halogen (F, Cl, Br, and I)-doped anatase TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) have been investigated using spin polarized density functional theory. The N- and F-doped TNTs are the most stable among other doped TNTs. It is found that the magnetic moment of doped TNT is the difference between the number of the valence electrons of the dopant and host anion. All dopants decrease the band gap of TNT. The decrease in the band gap of nonmetal (C, N, P, and S)-doped TNTs, in particular N and P, is larger than that of halogen-doped TNTs due to the created states of the nonmetal dopant in the band gap. There is a good agreement between the calculation results and the experimental observations. Even though C-, N-, and P-doped TNTs have the lowest band gap, they cannot be used as a photocatalysis for water splitting. The B-, S-, and I-doped TiO2 nanotubes are of great potential as candidates for water splitting in the visible light range.

  6. Synthesis of hierarchical anatase TiO 2 nanostructures with tunable morphology and enhanced photocatalytic activity

    KAUST Repository

    Rahal, Raed

    2012-01-01

    A facile one-pot method to prepare three-dimensional hierarchical nanostructures of titania with good control over their morphologies without the use of hydrofluoric acid is developed. The reaction is performed under microwave irradiation conditions in pure water, and enables enhanced photocatalytic activity. This study indicates that photocatalytic activity depends not only on the surface area but also on the morphology of the titania. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Ternary composite of TiO2 nanotubes/Ti plates modified by g-C3N4 and SnO2 with enhanced photocatalytic activity for enhancing antibacterial and photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Masoud; Mohaghegh, Neda; Abedini, Amir

    2018-01-01

    A series of g-C 3 N 4 -SnO 2 /TiO 2 nanotubes/Ti plates were fabricated via simple dipping of TiO 2 nanotubes/Ti in a solution containing SnCl 2 and g-C 3 N 4 nanosheets and finally annealing of the plates. Synthesized plates were characterized by various techniques. The SEM analysis revealed that the g-C 3 N 4 -SnO 2 nanosheets with high physical stability have been successfully deposited onto the surface of TiO 2 nanotubes/Ti plate. Photocatalytic activity was investigated using two probe chemical reactions: oxidative decomposition of acetic acid and oxidation of 2-propanol under irradiation. Antibacterial activities for Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria were also investigated in dark and under UV/Vis illuminations. Detailed characterization and results of photocatalytic and antibacterial activity tests revealed that semiconductor coupling significantly affected the photocatalyst properties synthesized and hence their photocatalytic and antibacterial activities. Modification of TiO 2 nanotubes/Ti plates with g-C 3 N 4 -SnO 2 deposits resulted in enhanced photocatalytic activities in both chemical and microbial systems. The g-C 3 N 4 -SnO 2 /TiO 2 nanotubes/Ti plate exhibited the highest photocatalytic and antibacterial activity, probably due to the heterojunction between g-C 3 N 4 -SnO 2 and TiO 2 nanotubes/Ti in the ternary composite plate and thus lower electron/hole recombination rate. Based on the obtained results, a photocatalytic and an antibacterial mechanism for the degradation of E. coli bacteria and chemical pollutants over g-C 3 N 4 -SnO 2 /TiO 2 nanotubes/Ti plate were proposed and discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Decoration of size-tunable CuO nanodots on TiO2 nanocrystals for noble metal-free photocatalytic H2 production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Geon Dae; Joo, Ji Bong; Lee, Ilkeun; Yin, Yadong

    2014-09-01

    We report a simple yet effective approach for the decoration of the TiO2 nanocrystal surface with size-tunable CuO nanodots for high-performance noble metal-free photocatalytic H2 production. Modification with polyacrylic acid enables the surface of TiO2 nanocrystals to be selectively deposited with Cu(OH)2 nanodots, which can be subsequently converted to CuO through dehydration without changing their morphologies. UV irradiation of the nanocomposite solution in the presence of a hole scavenger produces photogenerated electrons which reduce CuO to metallic Cu nanodots, making them effective co-catalysts in a role similar to Pt for promoting photocatalytic H2 production. Due to the considerably high work function of Cu, the formation of a metal-semiconductor Schottky junction induces efficient charge separation and transfer. As a result, the TiO2 nanocrystals decorated with an optimal amount of CuO nanodots (1.7 wt%) could reach ~50% of the photocatalytic activity achievable by the Pt-TiO2 counterparts (1 wt%), clearly demonstrating the great potential of such composite catalysts for efficient noble metal-free photocatalytic H2 production.We report a simple yet effective approach for the decoration of the TiO2 nanocrystal surface with size-tunable CuO nanodots for high-performance noble metal-free photocatalytic H2 production. Modification with polyacrylic acid enables the surface of TiO2 nanocrystals to be selectively deposited with Cu(OH)2 nanodots, which can be subsequently converted to CuO through dehydration without changing their morphologies. UV irradiation of the nanocomposite solution in the presence of a hole scavenger produces photogenerated electrons which reduce CuO to metallic Cu nanodots, making them effective co-catalysts in a role similar to Pt for promoting photocatalytic H2 production. Due to the considerably high work function of Cu, the formation of a metal-semiconductor Schottky junction induces efficient charge separation and transfer. As a

  9. Synergetic Enhancement of the Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 with Visible Light by Sensitization Using a Novel Push-Pull Zinc Phthalocyanine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Luna-Flores

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new one-pot synthesis of a novel A3B-type asymmetric zinc phthalocyanine (AZnPc was developed. The phthalocyanine complex was characterized unambiguously and used to prepare a TiO2 hybrid photocatalyst to enhance its photocatalytic activity in the visible range. Different compositions of the phthalocyanine dye were tested in order to find the optimum amount of sensitizer to get the highest activity during the photocatalytic tests. The hybrid photocatalyst was characterized by UV-Vis diffuse reflectance (DRS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and its photocatalytic activity was compared with that of the individual components considering the effects of sensitization on their efficiency to degrade Rhodamine B as a model reaction. A synergic improvement of the photocatalytic activity for the hybrid system was explained in terms of an improved electron injection from the photo-activated phthalocyanine to the TiO2. Considering the structural features of the phthalocyanine sensitizer and their effect on aggregation, some mechanistic aspects of its binding to TiO2 are suggested to account for the photocatalytic activity enhancement. Finally, the inhibitory effect on the sprouting of chia seeds (Salvia hispanica was evaluated in order to test the toxicity of the water effluent obtained after the photodegradation process. According to our growth inhibition assays, it was found that the Rh-B degradation by-products do not lead to an acute toxicity.

  10. Structural and photocatalytic characteristics of TiO2 coatings produced by various thermal spray techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Štengl, Václav; Pala, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2013), s. 218-226 ISSN 2226-4108 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1872 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : plasma spraying * high velocity oxy–fuel (HVOF) spraying * flame spraying * titanium dioxide (TiO2) * photocatalysis * band gap Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; CA - Inorganic Chemistry (UACH-T) http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&id=doi:10.1007/s40145-013-0063-z

  11. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of hydrogenated and vanadium doped TiO2 nanotube arrays grown by anodization of sputtered Ti layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motola, Martin; Satrapinskyy, Leonid; Čaplovicová, Mária; Roch, Tomáš; Gregor, Maroš; Grančič, Branislav; Greguš, Ján; Čaplovič, Ľubomír; Plesch, Gustav

    2018-03-01

    TiO2 nanotube (TiNT) arrays were grown on silicon substrate via electrochemical anodization of titanium films sputtered by magnetron. To improve the photocatalytic activity of arrays annealed in air (o-TiNT), doping of o-TiNT with vanadium was performed (o-V/TiNT). These non-doped and doped TiNT arrays were also hydrogenated in H2/Ar atmosphere to r-TiNT and r-V/TiNT samples, respectively. Investigation of composition and morphology by X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed the presence of well-ordered arrays of anatase nanotubes with average diameter and length of 100 nm and 1.3 μm, respectively. In both oxidized and reduced V-doped samples, vanadium is partly dissolved in the structure of anatase and partly deposited in form of oxide on the nanotube surface. Vanadium-doped and reduced samples exhibited higher rates in the photodegradation of organic dyes (compared to non-modified o-TiNT sample) and this is caused by limitation of electron-hole recombination rates and by shift of the energy gap into visible region. The photocatalytic activity was measured under UV, sunlight and visible irradiation, and the corresponding efficiency increased in the order (o-TiNT) < (r-TiNT) < (o-V/TiNT) < (r-V/TiNT). Under visible light, only r-TiNT and r-V/TiNT showed significant photocatalytic activity.

  12. Photocatalytic application of TiO2/SiO2-based magnetic nanocomposite (Fe3O4@SiO2/TiO2 for reusing of textile wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Enayati Ahangar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research we have developed a treatment method for textile wastewater by TiO2/SiO2-based magnetic nanocomposite. Textile wastewater includes a large variety of dyes and chemicals and needs treatments. This manuscript presents a facile method for removing dyes from the textile wastewater by using TiO2/SiO2-based nanocomposite (Fe3O4@SiO2/TiO2 under UV irradiation. This magnetic nanocomposite, as photocatalytically active composite, is synthesized via solution method in mild conditions. A large range of cationic, anionic and neutral dyes including: methyl orange, methylene blue, neutral red, bromocresol green and methyl red are used for treatment investigations. Neutral red and bromocresol green have good results in reusing treatment. The high surface area of nanocomposites improve the kinetic of wastewater treatment. In this method, by using the magnetic properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, TiO2-based photocatalyst could be separated and reused for 3 times. The efficiency of this method is respectively 100% and 65% for low concentration (10 ppm and high concentration (50 ppm of neutral red and bromocrosol green after 3 h treatment. The efficiency of treatment using the second used nanocomposite was 90% for 10 ppm of the same dyes.

  13. Photocatalytic Bactericidal Efficiency of Ag Doped TiO2/Fe3O4 on Fish Pathogens under Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekkachai Kanchanatip

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluates photocatalytic bactericidal efficiencies of Ag-TiO2/Fe3O4 in visible light using target pollutants that include Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, and Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida. The investigation started with Ag-TiO2/Fe3O4 synthesis and calcination followed by a series of product tests that include the examination of crystallite phase, light absorption, element composition morphology, and magnetic properties. The results of the experiment indicate that Ag and Fe3O4 significantly enhanced the light absorption capacity of TiO2 in the entire visible light range. The Ag-TiO2/Fe3O4 prepared in this study displays significantly enhanced visible light absorption and narrowed band gap energy. The magnetic property of Ag-TiO2/Fe3O4 made it easy for retrieval using a permanent magnet bar. The photocatalytic activity of Ag-TiO2/Fe3O4 remains above 85% after three application cycles, which indicates high and favorable efficiency in bactericidal evaluation. The experiments have proved that the Ag-TiO2/Fe3O4 magnetic photocatalyst is a promising photocatalyst for antibacterial application under visible light.

  14. Photocatalytic mechanism of high-activity anatase TiO2 with exposed (001) facets from molecular-atomic scale: HRTEM and Raman studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Shi, Chentian; Zhang, Yupeng; Fu, Qiang; Pan, Chunxu

    2017-12-01

    Anatase TiO2 with a variant percentage of exposed (001) facets was prepared under hydrothermal processes by adjusting the volume of HF, and the photocatalytic mechanism was studied from atomic-molecular scale by HRTEM and Raman spectroscopy. It was revealed that: 1) From HRTEM observations, the surface of original TiO2 with exposed (001) facets was clean without impurity, and the crystal lattice was clear and completed; however, when mixed with methylene blue (MB) solution, there were many 1 nm molecular absorbed at the surface of TiO2; after the photocatalytic experiment, MB molecules disappeared and the TiO2 lattice image became fuzzy. 2) The broken path of the MB chemical bond was obtained by Raman spectroscopy, i.e., after the irradiation of the light, the vibrational mode of C-N-C disappeared due to the chemical bond breakage, and the groups containing C-N bond and carbon rings were gradually decomposed. Accordingly, we propose that the driving force for breaking the chemical bond and the disappearance of groups is from the surface lattice distortion of TiO2 during photocatalyzation.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of noble metal-modified TiO2 nanosheets with exposed {0 0 1} facets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diak, Magdalena; Grabowska, Ewelina; Zaleska, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TiO 2 nanosheets with exposed {0 0 1} facets were prepared by hydrothermal method. • Pd and Ag NPs-loaded enhanced the photocatalytic activity under visible irradiation. • Photodeposition is an effective method to obtain noble metal NPs on TiO 2 surface. - Abstract: Pt, Pd, Ag and Au nanoparticles were photodeposited on the {0 0 1} crystal facets of the TiO 2 anatase nanosheets. Morphological and surface characterization of the samples as well as photocatalytic activity were studied. The influence of metal precursor concentration used during photodeposition (0.05−0.5%) on size of formed metal nanoparticles together with UV and vis-mediated activity of Pt, Pd, Ag or Au−TiO 2 was investigated. Generally, samples obtained by photodeposition of noble metal nanoparticles using their 0.2% precursor solutions revealed highest activity in phenol degradation reaction under visible light (λ > 420 nm). The photoactivity of the as-prepared samples with respect to the modified metal species was ordered Ag≅Pd > Au > Pt. TEM analysis showed that photodeposited metal nanoparticles appeared only on {0 0 1} facets of TiO 2 . The average degradation rate of phenol in the presence of Pd and Ag−TiO 2 was 0.5 μmol dm −3 min −1 after 60 min of irradiation under visible light, and was five times higher than that of pure TiO 2 nanosheets

  16. Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Performance of Nanosized Anatase TiO2 Doped with CdS Quantum Dots for Cancer-Cell Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangqiang Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available CdS quantum-dots-(QDs-doped TiO2 nanocomposites were successfully synthesized using the sol-gel technique and characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, EDS, UV-Vis, and FS. They were then used as a new “photosensitizer” based on photodynamic therapy (PDT for cancer-cell treatment. The photocatalytic activities of CdS-TiO2 on leukemia tumors were investigated by using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 assay. The ultrastructural morphology of treated cells was also studied by AFM. The experimental results indicated that an obvious inhibition of tumor growth would be observed in groups treated with CdS-TiO2 nanocomposites, and the PDT efficiency in the presence of CdS-doped TiO2 was significantly higher than that of TiO2, revealing that the photocatalytic activities of TiO2 could be effectively enhanced by the modification of CdS QDs. Additionally, CdS- TiO2 can exhibit a very high photodynamic efficiency of 80.5% at a final concentration of 200 μg/mL under visible-light irradiation. CdS-TiO2 nanocomposites in this case were regarded as a promising application for cancer-cell treatment.

  17. Hydrothermal synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic activity of mixed-phase TiO2 powders with controllable anatase/rutile ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Qiao, Zhi; Jiang, Peng; Kuang, Jianlei; Liu, Wenxiu; Cao, Wenbin

    2018-03-01

    In this study, mixed-phase TiO2 powders were novelly synthesized via a facile and mild hydrothermal method without any post-heat treatment. TiOSO4 and peroxide titanic acid (PTA) were used as inorganic titanium sources, while no special solvent or additive were introduced. The XRD and TEM results showed the mixed-phase TiO2 powders were composed of anatase and rutile phases, and the PTA sol played an important role on forming the rutile nucleus. The proportion of rutile in the mixed-phase TiO2 could be easily controlled in the range of 0%-70.5% by changing the amount of PTA sol used in the synthesis process. The UV-Visible absorption spectra indicated the prepared mixed-phase TiO2 showed enhanced visible light absorption with the increase of rutile ratio. The photodegradation experiments revealed the mixed-phase TiO2 exhibited the best photocatalytic activity at the rutile ratio of 41.5%, while a higher or lower rutile ratio both resulted in the decrease of photocatalytic activity.

  18. A Brown Mesoporous TiO2-x /MCF Composite with an Extremely High Quantum Yield of Solar Energy Photocatalysis for H2 Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mingyang; Zhang, Jinlong; Qiu, Bocheng; Tian, Baozhu; Anpo, Masakazu; Che, Michel

    2015-04-24

    A brown mesoporous TiO2-x /MCF composite with a high fluorine dopant concentration (8.01 at%) is synthesized by a vacuum activation method. It exhibits an excellent solar absorption and a record-breaking quantum yield (Φ = 46%) and a high photon-hydrogen energy conversion efficiency (η = 34%,) for solar photocatalytic H2 production, which are all higher than that of the black hydrogen-doped TiO2 (Φ = 35%, η = 24%). The MCFs serve to improve the adsorption of F atoms onto the TiO2 /MCF composite surface, which after the formation of oxygen vacancies by vacuum activation, facilitate the abundant substitution of these vacancies with F atoms. The decrease of recombination sites induced by high-concentration F doping and the synergistic effect between lattice Ti(3+)-F and surface Ti(3+)-F are responsible for the enhanced lifetime of electrons, the observed excellent absorption of solar light, and the photocatalytic production of H2 for these catalysts. The as-prepared F-doped composite is an ideal solar light-driven photocatalyst with great potential for applications ranging from the remediation of environmental pollution to the harnessing of solar energy for H2 production. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Preparation and enhanced photocatalytic activity of carbon nitride/titania(001 vs 101 facets)/reduced graphene oxide (g-C3N4/TiO2/rGO) hybrids under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meina; Yu, Jianhua; Hu, Qun; Su, Wenli; Fan, Minguang; Li, Bin; Dong, Lihui

    2016-12-01

    Herein, a novel photocatalyst, anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with both exposed (101) and (001) facets synchronously incorporated with g-C3N4 and graphene, was successfully prepared via a simple one-step solvothermal route. The morphology and structure of as-prepared composites were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS). Efficiency of the prepared samples was investigated by monitoring the degradation of Methyl Orange (MO), Rhodamine B (RhB) and phenol under visible light irradiation. Improved photocatalytic activity in g-C3N4/TiO2/rGO is observed owing to higher specific surface area and enhanced visible light absorption capability. Most importantly, the in situ g-C3N4 and rGO doping might enhance the interaction among g-C3N4, TiO2 (001 vs 101) and rGO, which generates more synergistic heteroconjunctions in g-C3N4/TiO2/rGO facilitating a fast electron transfer at the interface among them. This synergistic approach could prove useful for the design and development of other visible light active photocatalysts with high chemical stability.

  20. Suppressing the Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Nanoparticles by Extremely Thin Al2O3 Films Grown by Gas-Phase Deposition at Ambient Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the suppression of photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide (TiO2 pigment powders by extremely thin aluminum oxide (Al2O3 films deposited via an atomic-layer-deposition-type process using trimethylaluminum (TMA and H2O as precursors. The deposition was performed on multiple grams of TiO2 powder at room temperature and atmospheric pressure in a fluidized bed reactor, resulting in the growth of uniform and conformal Al2O3 films with thickness control at sub-nanometer level. The as-deposited Al2O3 films exhibited excellent photocatalytic suppression ability. Accordingly, an Al2O3 layer with a thickness of 1 nm could efficiently suppress the photocatalytic activities of rutile, anatase, and P25 TiO2 nanoparticles without affecting their bulk optical properties. In addition, the influence of high-temperature annealing on the properties of the Al2O3 layers was investigated, revealing the possibility of achieving porous Al2O3 layers. Our approach demonstrated a fast, efficient, and simple route to coating Al2O3 films on TiO2 pigment powders at the multigram scale, and showed great potential for large-scale production development.

  1. A facile preparation of TiO2/ACF with Csbnd Ti bond and abundant hydroxyls and its enhanced photocatalytic activity for formaldehyde removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R. F.; Li, W. B.; Peng, A. Y.

    2018-01-01

    The quantum yields and efficiency(ACF) was prepared via a modified deposition-precipitation method to facilitate its photon absorption and of photogenerated charge carriers have been the major issues for photocatalysis on titania catalyst. The TiO2/ACF catalyst with anatase TiO2 uniformly dispersed on activated carbon fibers electron transfer, thus improve the quantum yields and efficiency of the photogenerated electrons and holes. XPS analysis on the catalyst demonstrates the existence of Ti3+ and Ti2+ species, Csbnd Ti bond and abundant hydroxyls, which are also proved by UV-vis DRS and TG-DSC analysis. It is believed that the acid environment in preparation plays an essential role in the formation of Csbnd Ti bond and surface hydroxyls, which can be tuned by changing hydrothermal synthesis time. The Csbnd Ti bond can improve the electron transfer in the catalyst and the substantial surface hydroxyls lead to high absorption for UV lines and enhanced adsorption of water and formaldehyde, resulting in more active OH free radicals and the outstanding photocatalytic activity of TiO2/ACF, which is much higher than the titania powder for photocatalytic removal of low concentration formaldehyde. The essential role of surface hydroxyls for photocatalytic activity was confirmed surpassing that of chemical bond between carbon and titanium in TiO2-carbon composite for the first time.

  2. A Heterojunction Design of Single Layer Hole Tunneling ZnO Passivation Wrapping around TiO2Nanowires for Superior Photocatalytic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadi, Amir; Ulusoy, T. Gamze; Garifullin, Ruslan; Guler, Mustafa O.; Okyay, Ali K.

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured hybrid heterojunctions have been studied widely for photocatalytic applications due to their superior optical and structural properties. In this work, the impact of angstrom thick atomic layer deposited (ALD) ZnO shell layer on photocatalytic activity (PCA) of hydrothermal grown single crystalline TiO2 nanowires (NWs) is systematically explored. We showed that a single cycle of ALD ZnO layer wrapped around TiO2 NWs, considerably boosts the PCA of the heterostructure. Subsequent cycles, however, gradually hinder the photocatalytic activity (PCA) of the TiO2 NWs. Various structural, optical, and transient characterizations are employed to scrutinize this unprecedented change. We show that a single atomic layer of ZnO shell not only increases light harvesting capability of the heterostructure via extension of the absorption toward visible wavelengths, but also mitigates recombination probability of carriers through reduction of surface defects density and introduction of proper charge separation along the core-shell interface. Furthermore, the ultrathin ZnO shell layer allows a strong contribution of the core (TiO2) valence band holes through tunneling across the ultrathin interface. All mechanisms responsible for this enhanced PCA of heterostructure are elucidated and corresponding models are proposed. PMID:27464476

  3. Hierarchically multifunctional K-OMS-2/TiO2/Fe3O4 heterojunctions for the photocatalytic oxidation of humic acid under solar light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Yan, Xiaoli; Sun, Darren Delai

    2012-12-01

    A multifunctional heterojunctioned K-OMS-2/TiO(2)/Fe(3)O(4) (KTF) nanocomposite was successfully synthesized using a combination of hydrothermal and co-precipitation techniques. The resultant sample was characterized by XRD, FESEM, TEM, N(2) adsorption, XPS and VSM. Its photocatalytic activity was demonstrated in the photocatalytic degradation of humic acid (HA). Morphology characterization showed the hierarchical structure of the synthesized material, and XRD results revealed that both the rutile and anatase TiO(2) structures are present in the sample. The average pore diameters and BET surface area of the synthesized KTF heterojunctions were 40 nm and 134.42 m(2)/g, respectively. XPS spectra confirmed the presence of Fe(3)O(4) and TiO(2) in the synthesized material, and the valences of Mn were kept at +3 and +4 after the grafting of Fe(3)O(4) and TiO(2). The synthesized material showed good magnetic response and photocatalytic activity under simulated solar light irradiation, and 85.7% of HA was decomposed after 120 min in the presence of KTF nanocomposites. The reusability study suggested that the magnetic recovered material was stable enough for multiple recycling usages, verifying its potential application in water purification. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of concrete surfaces as novel substrate for immobilization of TiO2 nano powder in photocatalytic treatment of phenolic water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnavaz, Mohammad; Ayati, Bita; Ganjidoust, Hossein; Sanjabi, Sohrab

    2015-01-01

    In this study, concrete application as a substrate for TiO2 nano powder immobilization in heterogeneous photocatalytic process was evaluated. TiO2 immobilization on the pervious concrete surface was done by different procedures containing slurry method (SM), cement mixed method (CMM) and different concrete sealer formulations. Irradiation of TiO2 was prepared by UV-A and UV-C lamps. Phenolic wastewater was selected as a pollutant and efficiency of the process was determined in various operation conditions including influent phenol concentration, pH, TiO2 concentration, immobilization method and UV lamp intensity. The removal efficiency of photocatalytic process in 4 h irradiation time and phenol concentration ranges of 25-500 mg/L was more than 80 %. Intermediates were identified by GC/Mass and spectrophotometric analysis. According to the results, photocatalytic reactions followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics and can effectively treate phenol under optimal conditions.

  5. TiO2-Based Photocatalytic Treatment of Raw and Constructed-Wetland Pretreated Textile Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Mahne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately, 15% of the total textile colorant production is estimated to be lost during dyeing and processing of textile fibres. If left untreated, these wastewaters can represent a serious environmental threat. In the present paper a combination of photocatalytic and biological degradation of prepared textile wastewaters (simulation of real textile effluent is presented. Samples have been monitored through the course of photocatalytic experiments: change in UV-VIS absorbance spectra and complete decolouration were achieved for all three tested dyed wastewaters; however, only partial COD removal was achieved with photocatalytic oxidation (PCOx and photocatalytic ozonation (PCOz. Toxicity test (Vibrio fischeri of untreated and pretreated (constructed wetland, CW samples showed a decrease in toxicity values only for the red-dyed wastewater. Comparison of efficiency of PCOx and PCOz for decolouration and mineralization of three structurally different dyes (anthraquinone and two azo dyes has been done. CW pretreatment caused faster decolouration and substantial COD removal in PCOx (up to 45%. Pretreatment also accelerated decolouration during PCOz, but it accelerated COD removal only in the case of red-dyed wastewater due to short irradiation times applied.

  6. Cyclohexane selective photocatalytic oxidation by anatase TiO2: influence of particle size and crystallinity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro, J.T.; Carneiro, Joana T.; Almeida, A.R.; Almeida, Ana R.; Moulijn, Jacob A.; Mul, Guido

    2010-01-01

    A systematic study is presented on the effect of crystallite size of Anatase (Hombikat, Sachtleben), varied by calcination at different temperatures up to 800 °C, on photocatalytic activity in cyclohexane selective oxidation. Two different reactors were used to test the materials: a top illumination

  7. TIO2 based photocatalytic gas purification: the effects of co-catalysts and process conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraters, B.D.

    2015-01-01

    Photocatalysis is highly promising as a technology to mitigate environmental pollution. In this thesis the focus will be on air purification by photocatalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOC’s). A major challenge in photocatalysis is the low photonic efficiency, due to high electron

  8. Surface modified TiO2 floating photocatalyst with PDDA for efficient adsorption and photocatalytic inactivation of Microcystis aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Xuejiang; Zhao, Jianfu; Song, Jingke; Su, Chenliang; Wang, Zhongchang

    2017-12-27

    Microcystis aeruginosa, as the most common cyanobacteria, often grows uncontrollably in eutrophic lakes with the accumulation of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) in water, which heavily pollutes water and hence imposes tremendous threat to aquatic animals and human beings. To remediate the harmful algae polluted water, here we synthesize a series of poly dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride (PDDA) modified TiO 2 floating photocatalysts, PDDA@NPT-EGC, and apply them as a visible light driven multifunctional material. The fabricated PDDA@NPT-EGC composites have a worm-like structure with PDDA particles distributed on their surfaces, and the concentration of PDDA can affect the agglomerative condition and distribution of PDDA particles and the photoelectric properties of catalysts. Among these catalysts, the PDDA@NPT-EGC with 0.2 wt% PDDA (0.2PDDA@NPT-EGC) shows the highest adsorption and photocatalytic activity. Compared with the NPT-EGC, the dark adsorption efficiency for the 0.2PDDA@NPT-EGC after 3 h increases from 70.4% to 88.9%, and the total removal efficiency after visible light irradiation for 2 h increases from 77.8% to 92.6%. In addition, the 0.2PDDA@NPT-EGC exhibits a removal efficiency of 96.55% for photocatalytic degradation of MC-LR after irradiation for 3 h. The Adda side chain of MC-LR molecule is found to degradate gradually in the photocatalytic degradation process, indicative of the elimination of biotoxicity for MC-LR molecule in the reaction. We demonstrate that the 0.2PDDA@NPT-EGC is remarkably competitive in both algae inactivation and MC-LR removal, which shall hold substantial promise in remediation of algae pollution in eutrophic waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Photocatalytic degradation and mineralization of microcystin-LR under UV-A, solar and visible light using nanostructured nitrogen doped TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triantis, T.M.; Fotiou, T.; Kaloudis, T.; Kontos, A.G.; Falaras, P.; Dionysiou, D.D.; Pelaez, M.; Hiskia, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► N-TiO 2 exhibited effective degradation of MC-LR under UV-A, solar and visible light. ► Complete photocatalytic mineralization of MC-LR was achieved under UV-A and solar light. ► The organic nitrogen is mainly released as ammonium and nitrate ions. - Abstract: In an attempt to face serious environmental hazards, the degradation of microcystin-LR (MC-LR), one of the most common and more toxic water soluble cyanotoxin compounds released by cyanobacteria blooms, was investigated using nitrogen doped TiO 2 (N-TiO 2 ) photocatalyst, under UV-A, solar and visible light. Commercial Degussa P25 TiO 2 , Kronos and reference TiO 2 nanopowders were used for comparison. It was found that under UV-A irradiation, all photocatalysts were effective in toxin elimination. The higher MC-LR degradation (99%) was observed with Degussa P25 TiO 2 followed by N-TiO 2 with 96% toxin destruction after 20 min of illumination. Under solar light illumination, N-TiO 2 nanocatalyst exhibits similar photocatalytic activity with that of commercially available materials such as Degussa P25 and Kronos TiO 2 for the destruction of MC-LR. Upon irradiation with visible light Degussa P25 practically did not show any response, while the N-TiO 2 displayed remarkable photocatalytic efficiency. In addition, it has been shown that photodegradation products did not present any significant protein phosphatase inhibition activity, proving that toxicity is proportional only to the remaining MC-LR in solution. Finally, total organic carbon (TOC) and inorganic ions (NO 2 − , NO 3 − and NH 4 + ) determinations confirmed that complete photocatalytic mineralization of MC-LR was achieved under both UV-A and solar light.

  10. Cocatalyzing Pt/PtO Phase-Junction Nanodots on Hierarchically Porous TiO2for Highly Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiao-Ning; Hu, Zhi-Yi; Jin, Jun; Wu, Liang; Wang, Chao; Liu, Jing; Liu, Fu; Wu, Min; Li, Yu; Tendeloo, Gustaaf Van; Su, Bao-Lian

    2017-09-06

    Phase-junctions between a cocatalyst and its semiconductor host are quite effective to enhance the photocatalytic activity and are widely studied, while reports on the phase-juncted cocatalyst are still rare. In this work, we report the deposition of the Pt/PtO phase-juncted nanodots as cocatalyst via NaOH modification of an interconnected meso-macroporous TiO 2 network with high surface area and inner-particle mesopores to enhance the performance of photocatalytic H 2 production. Our results show that NaOH modification can largely influence Pt/PtO phase-juncted nanodot formation and dispersity. Compared to the TiO 2 nanoparticles, the hierarchically meso-macroporous TiO 2 network containing 0.18 wt % Pt/PtO phase-juncted cocatalyst demonstrates a highest photocatalytic H 2 rate of 13 mmol g -1 h -1 under simulated solar light, and possesses a stable cycling activity without obvious decrease after five cycles. Such high H 2 production performance can be attributed to both the phase-juncted Pt/PtO providing more active sites while PtO suppresses the undesirable hydrogen back reaction, and the special hierarchically porous TiO 2 network with inner-particle mesopores presenting short diffusion path lengths for photogenerated electrons and enhanced light harvesting efficiency. This work suggests that Pt/PtO phase-juncted cocatalyst on hierarchically porous TiO 2 nanostructures is a promising strategy for advanced photocatalytic H 2 production.

  11. Enhanced photocatalytic H2-production activity of C-dots modified g-C3N4/TiO2nanosheets composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Feng, Xionghan; Lu, Zhexue; Yin, Hui; Liu, Fan; Xiang, Quanjun

    2017-12-05

    As a new carbon-based material, carbon dots (C-dots) have got widely preference because of its excellent electronic transfer capability. In this work, a novel ternary layered C-dots/g-C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 nanosheets (CGT) composite photocatalysts were prepared by impregnation precipitation methods. The optimal ternary CGT composite samples revealed high photocatalytic hydrogen evolution rate in triethanolamine aqueous solutions, which exceeded the rate of the optimal g-C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 composite sample by a factor of 5 times. The improved photocatalytic activity is owed to the positive effects of C-dots and layered heterojunction structure of TiO 2 nanosheets and g-C 3 N 4 sheets. C-dots in the CGT composites can serve as electron reservoirs to capture the photo-induced electrons. The well-defined layered heterojunction structure of CGT provides the intimate contact and the strong interaction of anatase TiO 2 nanosheets and g-C 3 N 4 sheets via face-to-face orientation, which restrains the recombination of photogenerated charge carriers, and thus enhances the photocatalytic H 2 -production activity. Electron paramagnetic resonance and transient photocurrent response proved the strong interaction and improved interfacial charge transfer of TiO 2 nanosheets and g-C 3 N 4 sheets, respectively. The mechanism of improving the photocatalytic H 2 -evolution activity was further confirmed by time-resolved fluorescence, electron paramagnetic resonance, transient photocurrent response and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Simple Method for the Preparation of TiO2 /Ag-AgCl@Polypyrrole Composite and Its Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tongjie; Shi, Lei; Wang, Hao; Wang, Fangxiao; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Xiao; Sun, Jianmin; Cui, Tieyu

    2016-01-01

    A novel and facile method was developed to prepare a visible-light driven TiO2 /Ag-AgCl@polypyrrole (PPy) photocatalyst with Ag-AgCl nanoparticles supported on TiO2 nanofibers and covered by a thin PPy shell. During the synthesis, the PPy shell and Ag-AgCl nanoparticles were prepared simultaneously onto TiO2 nanofibers, which simplified the preparation procedure. In addition, because Ag-AgCl aggregates were fabricated via partly etching the Ag nanoparticles, their size was well controlled at the nanoscale, which was beneficial for improvement of the contact surface area. Compared with reference photocatalysts, the TiO2 /Ag-AgCl@PPy composite exhibited an enhanced photodegradation activity towards rhodamine B under visible-light irradiation. The superior photocatalytic property originated from synergistic effects between TiO2 nanofibers, Ag-AgCl nanoparticles and the PPy shell. Furthermore, the TiO2 /Ag-AgCl@PPy composite could be easily separated and recycled without obvious reduction in activity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of Bisphenol A on Immobilized ZnO or TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Zacharakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of bisphenol A (BPA under simulated solar irradiation and in the presence of either TiO2 or ZnO catalysts immobilized onto glass plates was investigated. The effect of various operating conditions on degradation was assessed including the amount of the immobilized catalyst (36.1–150.7 mg/cm2 for TiO2 and 0.5–6.8 mg/cm2 for ZnO, initial BPA concentration (50–200 μg/L, treatment time (up to 90 min, water matrix (wastewater, drinking water, and pure water, the addition of H2O2 (25–100 mg/L, and the presence of other endocrine disruptors in the reaction mixture. Specifically, it was observed that increasing the amount of immobilized catalyst increases BPA conversion and so does the addition of H2O2 up to 100 mg/L. Moreover, BPA degradation follows first-order reaction kinetics indicating that the final removal is not practically affected by the initial BPA concentration. Degradation in wastewater is slower than that in pure water up to five times, implying the scavenging behavior of effluent’s constituents against hydroxyl radicals. Finally, the presence of other endocrine disruptors, such as 17α-ethynylestradiol, spiked in the reaction mixture at low concentrations usually found in environmental samples (i.e., 100 μg/L, neither affects BPA degradation nor alters its kinetics to a considerable extent.

  14. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of aqueous phenol and Cr(VI) over visible-light-driven TbxOy loaded TiO2-oriented nanosheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Dingze; Yang, Minchen; Fang, Pengfei; Li, Chunhe; Jiang, Lulu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Tb-TNSs with high stability and regeneration behavior were prepared by one-pot method. • Loaded Tb x O y nanoparticles lead to obvious increase of the Ti 3+ ions content. • Loaded Tb x O y results in the changes in the structure of the TNSs and red shift. • Loaded Tb x O y can effectively trap electrons to enhance the separation of charges. • Tb-TNSs exhibit excellent synergistic photocatalytic activities for Cr(VI) and phenol. - Abstract: A visible-light-driven Tb x O y loaded TiO 2 -oriented nanosheets (Tb-TNSs) of 3.6 nm thick and specific surface area of 240–350 m 2 /g provided with highly dispersed Tb x O y nanoparticles of 1–2 nm over the surfaces were synthesized using a one-pot hydrothermal route. Loaded Tb x O y nanoparticles influenced morphology, structure, and optical properties of the TNSs. The XPS results showed that Tb 3+ and Tb 4+ co-exist in Tb-TNSs, and loaded Tb x O y resulted in changes in binding energies of Ti and O. The amount of Ti 3+ increased gradually with the amount of loaded Tb x O y nanoparticles. FL and surface photocurrent spectra results indicated that an appropriate amount of Tb x O y (≤1.0 at.%) loading can effectively improve the separation efficiency of charge carriers. The visible-light-driven photocatalysis could be measured by the removal of phenol or dichromate separately along with synergistic degradation in phenol-Cr(VI) coexistence system. The optimum photocatalytic activity was obtained at Tb/Ti = 1.0 at.% under degradation of aqueous phenol or Cr(VI) solution. Besides, the desorbed Tb-TNSs could be easily regenerated by remedying the damaged structure and reused with excellent performance. High regeneration and stability of photocatalysts were confirmed by seven cyclic tests. An alternant mechanism for the enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity was also considered.

  15. Potassium ions intercalated g-C3N4 modified TiO2 nanobelts for enhancement of photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activity under visible-light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Zhou, Wei; Tan, Xin; Yu, Tao

    2018-03-09

    Solar-to-chemical energy conversion is a challenging photochemical reaction for renewable energy storage. In the past decades, photocatalytic hydrogen evolution has been studied extensively. TiO2 is a classic semiconductor in photocatalytic H2 production area; however, its low efficiency for solar energy utilization and high recombination rate of photocarriers restricted its photocatalytic efficiency. Here, a series of K intercalated g-C3N4 modified TiO2 nanobelts (TCN-Kx) with different dosage of K atoms were fabricated by using a hydrothermal method followed by a calcinations process. XRD, TEM and XPS tests indicate that tight interfacial connection has been formed between K-g-C3N4 and TiO2 nanobelts. DFT calculation indicated that K dopants prefer to be at the interlayer sites of g-C3N4, which is in favor of increasing the charge transfer efficiency. The H2 production efficiency of the TCN-Kx composite materials from water splitting under visible light irradiation was obviously improved. Steady fluorescence spectroscopy and photocurrent measurements confirmed that the improvement of photocatalytic H2 production activity was due to the superior charge separation and electron transfer efficiency of TCN-Kx composite materials. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  16. Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Thin Films Obtained by the Sputtering RF in Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona Bedoya, Jairo Armando; Sanchez Velandia, Wilmer Asmed; Delgado Rosero, Miguel Iban; Florido Cuellar, Alex Enrique; Zelaya Angel, Orlando; Mendoza Alvarez, Julio G.

    2011-03-01

    The photocatalytic activity of Ti O2 thin films in wastewater, under an UV irradiation, is studied. The films were prepared on corning glass substrates by the sputtering RF technique. We present evidence on the photocatalytic degradation, carried out by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in domestic wastewater pretreated with UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactors. Ti O2 films were illuminated with ultraviolet light during a time of 4 hours (λ ≅ 264 nm). We could see the effect of degraded operation in the absorbance measurement using UV-VIS spectrophotometry. The results show an increased rate of degradation of the wastewater by 30% compared to the values reflected biologically treated wastewater by anaerobic reactors.

  17. Effect of TiO2 photocatalytic preservation on quality of kiwifruit during shelf life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chengjie; Jiang, Yong; Qi, Shasha; Zhang, Changfeng; Guo, Fengjun

    2018-04-01

    In order to study the effect of titanium dioxide photocatalysis technology on the quality of kiwifruit during shelf life, the texture properties of kiwifruit during shelf life were measured by simulating the effect of cross-ripening among fruits and vegetables under the mixed environment of different fruits and vegetables. The results showed that the kiwifruit after photocatalytic preservation maintained a more mature state in the middle and preliminary stage of shelf life, chewiness is better than the control group and the blank group, compared with the over-ripen control group and low-maturity blank group, experimental group has the best commodity value. Therefore, using nanometer photocatalytic preservation can effectively reduce the ripening effect of kiwifruit in the mixed environment, control the after-ripening of kiwifruit, and meanwhile maintain the commodity value of the kiwifruit during the shelf life.iO2, Photocatalysis, Kiwifruit, Shelf-life.

  18. Pr3+ doped biphasic TiO2 (rutile-brookite) nanorod arrays grown on activated carbon fibers: Hydrothermal synthesis and photocatalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Zhang, Xiaomei; Liu, Ying; Yang, Yi

    2018-05-01

    Praseodymium-doped biphasic TiO2 (rutile-brookite) nanorod arrays (Pr-TiO2 NRAs) were successfully prepared via a two-step hydrothermal reaction on activated carbon fibers (ACFs) which pre-coated with TiO2 nanoparticles at first step. The bicrystalline arrays grown on ACFs are primarily constructed by the well-aligned TiO2 nanorods growing along [0 0 1] direction, which were indicated by the results of SEM and XRD. The nanorods are uniform in diameter and length with about 250 nm and 2.5 μm. The composite photocatalyst with high specific surface area and well-aligned nanostructure are beneficial to enhance the adsorption capacity and even help to suppress electron-hole recombination effectively, which consequently revealed much better (2 times) catalytic performance than that of commercially available P25 TiO2 on methylene blue(MB) photodegradation. In addition, the existence of praseodymium in TiO2 gives rise to shift of absorption edge towards long wavelength, which was indicated by the results of UV-vis DRS. Photodegradation results reveal that Pr-doping significantly improves the activity of TiO2, which was 20% higher than that of undoped TiO2 NRAs for the photodegradation of MB in aqueous medium under visible light irradiation. Meanwhile, the doped amount of Pr had a tiny influence on the photocatalytic performance of the composites. In our experiment, 3% Pr-doped molar concentration was proven to be the relatively optimal dopant concentration for the doping of TiO2 NRAs. Moreover, the photocatalyst grown on ACFs substrates is favorable to reuse and photodegradation rate kept on 76% even after 4 times of reuse.

  19. In situ construction of g-C3N4/TiO2 heterojunction films with enhanced photocatalytic activity over magnetic-driven rotating frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chao; Jia, Jia; Hu, Xiaoyun; Fan, Jun; Liu, Enzhou

    2018-02-01

    Corn-shaped TiO2 nanofilms were fabricated by a glycerol-assisted hydrothermal method, and then g-C3N4 was deposited on the surface of TiO2 films using melamine as precursor under air atmosphere by an in site microwave-heating technique. The investigations indicate that microwave-heating process is a facile strategy to obtain g-C3N4 by thermal polymerization of melamine, which can achieve in situ constructing of g-C3N4/TiO2 heterojunction films with high stability. The as-prepared TiO2 films with crack and holes have visible light scattering capability, and the scattering light overlaps with the intrinsic absorption of g-C3N4, leading to an absorption plateau in the range of 400-550 nm. Besides, a magnetic-driven rotating frame was developed to enhance the mass transfer processes during the photocatalytic water splitting. The result shows that g-C3N4/TiO2 films exhibit excellent activities under simulated-sunlight irradiation, in addition to the enhanced mass transfer, the overlapped visible light absorption, stable contact and effective charge transfer between g-C3N4 and TiO2 can facilitate the hydrogen production and light utilization efficiency as well. The hydrogen production rate can reach 13.8 mmol h-1 m-2 over g-C3N4/TiO2 films prepared using 0.5 g of melamine and 16.0 cm2 of TiO2.

  20. Development of Titanium Dioxide (TiO2 ) Nanocoatings on Food Contact Surfaces and Method to Evaluate Their Durability and Photocatalytic Bactericidal Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemmireddy, Veerachandra K; Farrell, Glenn D; Hung, Yen-Con

    2015-08-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) is a well-known photocatalyst for its excellent bactericidal property under UVA light. The purpose of this study was to develop physically stable TiO2 coatings on food contact surfaces using different binding agents and develop methods to evaluate their durability and microbicidal property. Several types of organic and inorganic binders such as polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol, polyurethane, polycrylic, sodium and potassium silicates, shellac resin, and other commercial binders were used at 1:1 to 1:16 nanoparticle to binder weight ratios to develop a formulation for TiO2 coating on stainless steel surfaces. Among the tested binders, polyurethane, polycrylic, and shellac resin were found to be physically more stable when used in TiO2 coating at 1:4 to 1:16 weight ratio. The physical stability of TiO2 coatings was determined using adhesion strength and scratch hardness tests by following standard ASTM procedures. Further, wear resistance of the coatings was evaluated based on a simulated cleaning procedure used in food processing environments. TiO2 coating with polyurethane at a 1:8 nanoparticle to binder weight ratio showed the highest scratch hardness (1.08 GPa) followed by coating with polycrylic (0.68 GPa) and shellac (0.14 GPa) binders. Three different techniques, namely direct spreading, glass cover-slip, and indented coupon were compared to determine the photocatalytic bactericidal property of TiO2 coatings against Escherichia coli 0157:H7 at 2 mW/cm(2) UVA light intensity. Under the tested conditions, the indented coupon technique was found to be the most appropriate method to determine the bactericidal property of TiO2 coatings and showed a reduction of 3.5 log CFU/cm(2) in 2 h. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Electrochemically Assisted Photocatalytic Degradation of Oxalic Acid on Particulate TiO2 Film in a Batch Mode Plate Photoreactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krýsa, J.; Jirkovský, Jaromír

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 32, - (2002), s. 591-596 ISSN 0021-891X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/99/0763 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : degradation * electrochemical * photocatalytic Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.117, year: 2002

  2. Solvothermal fabrication of TiO2/sepiolite composite gel with exposed {0 0 1} and {1 0 1} facets and its enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruirui; Ji, Zhijiang; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Jinjun

    2018-05-01

    A novel TiO2/sepiolite composite gel (TiSG) was fabricated in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) through a simple solvothermal reaction in an acetic acid-water solvent. A homogeneous anchoring of TiO2 nanoparticles with exposed {0 0 1} and {1 0 1} facets on sepiolite nanofibers was achieved. CTAB content, solvothermal temperature/time, and HAc content play crucial roles in the morphological and facet formation of TiSG. A possible mechanism for the formation of TiSG was further proposed. CTAB as capping/shape-controlling agent can strongly bind to the more reactive (0 0 1) facet of TiO2 and then mitigate the thermodynamically favored (0 0 1) plane growth. Eventually, the truncated octahedral TiO2 was obtained by controlling the growth rates in 〈0 0 1〉 and 〈1 0 1〉 directions. Sepiolite as a cross-linking agent provides sufficient crosslinking sites for TiO2 to induce three-dimensional (3D) network formation, thereby generating the composite gel. The synthesized TiSG samples were then used as photocatalysts, which exhibited increased methyl orange removal under UV-vis light (350-780 nm) by the synergistic effect of adsorption and in-situ photocatalytic degradation as compared to P25 and bare TiO2. The excellent photocatalytic performance of TiSG was mainly ascribed to the formations of 3D gel structure and surface heterojunctions between (0 0 1) and (1 0 1) facets.

  3. Photocatalytic Oxidation of Oil Contaminated Water Using TiO2/UV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Solla, Monica; Romero Rojas, Jairo

    2017-04-01

    Currently, oil is one of the most used energy sources all around the world, for example to make motor engines work. That prevailing usage of oil is the reason why water sources are under serious pollution risks with compounds that are hard to remove, such as hydrocarbons. There are a few water treatment processes known as Advanced Oxidation Processes, which search for a way to treat polluted water with toxic refractory compounds, to make its reuse more feasible and to avoid or at least appease the injurious effects of pollution over ecosystems. A heterogeneous photocatalysis water treatment technology, sorted as an Advanced Oxidation Process, which is intended to treat refractory compound polluted water by the use of TiO2 and UV light, is presented in this investigation. The evidence about its efficiency in hydrocarbon removal from used motor oil polluted water, since it is an extremely important pollutant due to its complexity, toxicity and recalcitrant characteristics, is also presented through COD, Oil and Grease and Hydrocarbons analysis.

  4. Photocatalytic oxidation of toluene in presence of water vapor using sol-gel synthesized N-doped TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sau, Nguyen; An, Ngo Thanh; Long, Nguyen Quang

    2017-09-01

    Toluene removal by photocatalytic oxidation in presence of water vapor was investigated on N-doped TiO2. The photocatalyst was prepared by a sol-gel method and characterized by various techniques. The conversion of toluene by photocatalytic oxidation in the presence of water vapor was reported at different reaction conditions, such as various reaction temperatures, various toluene/ water vapor concentrations. By using Langmuir- Hinshelwood model the activation energy (Ea) of the reaction of 1.33 kcal/mol was obtained. The heat of toluene adsorption and the heat of water vapor adsorption on the N-doped TiO2 catalyst were approximately -3.47 kcal/mol and -3.30 kcal/mol, respectively.

  5. Facile preparation of TiO2 quantum dots (QDs) / graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) heterojunction with highly efficient photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Jiang, Subin; Huo, Xuejian; Xia, Rui; Muhire, Elisée; Gao, Meizhen

    2018-02-23

    In this article, mechanical grinding - an effortless and super effective synthetic strategy is used to successfully synthesis TiO2QDs/g-C3N4 heterostructure. The XPS results together with TEM reveal the formation of TiO2QDs/g-C3N4 heterostructure with strong interfacial interaction. Because of the advantage of this characteristic, the prepared heterostructures exhibit excellent property for photocatalytic wastewater treatment. Noticeably, the optimum photocatalytic activity of TiO2QDs/g-C3N4 heterostructures is nearly 3.4 times higher than that of g-C3N4 nanosheet used for the photodegradation of rhodamine B pollutant. Also the stability and possible degradation mechanism of TiO2QDs/g-C3N4 heterojunction are in-depth studied. This method may stimulate an effective approach to synthesize quantum dots sensitized semiconductor materials and facilitate their application in environmental protection. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  6. Novel hydrophobic/hydrophilic patterning process by photocatalytic Ag nucleation on TiO2 thin film and electroless Cu deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, Shunsuke; Kubo, Atsushi; Zhang, Xintong; Liu, Zhaoyue; Taneichi, Noriaki; Okui, Toshiki; Murakami, Taketoshi; Komine, Takashi; Fujishima, Akira

    2008-01-01

    A hydrophobic/super-hydrophilic pattern was prepared on a TiO 2 thin film by a new fabrication process. The process consists of five key steps: (1) photocatalytic reduction of Ag + to Ag (nucleation), (2) electroless Cu deposition, (3) oxidation of Cu to CuO, (4) deposition of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM), and (5) photocatalytic decomposition of selected areas of the SAM. A hydrophobic/super-hydrophilic pattern with 500-μm 2 hydrophilic areas was obtained in this process. It is particularly noteworthy that a UV irradiation time of only 1 s was sufficient for the nucleation step in the patterning process

  7. Facile synthesis and characterization of N-doped TiO2/C nanocomposites with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Tiekun; Fu, Fang; Yu, Dongsheng; Cao, Jianliang; Sun, Guang

    2018-02-01

    Ultrafine anatase N-doped TiO2 nanocrystals modified with carbon (denoted as N-doped TiO2/C) were successfully prepared via a facile and low-cost approach, using titanium tetrachloride, aqueous ammonia and urea as starting materials. The phase composition, surface chemical composition, morphological structure, electronic and optical properties of the as-prepared photocatalysts were well characterized and analyzed. On the basis of Raman spectral characterization combining with the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), it could be concluded that N dopant ions were successfully introduced into TiO2 crystal lattice and carbon species were modified on the surface or between the nanoparticles to form N-doped TiO2/C nanocomposites. Compared with that of bare TiO2, the adsorption band edge of N-doped TiO2/C nanocomposites were found to have an evident red-shift toward visible light region, implying that the bandgap of N-doped TiO2/C nanocomposites is narrowed and the visible light absorption capacity is significantly enhanced due to N doping and carbon modification. The photoactivity of the as-prepared photocatalytsts was tested by the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light (λ > 420 nm), and the results showed that the N-doped TiO2/C nanocomposites exhibited much higher photodegradation rate than pure TiO2 and N-doped TiO2, which was mainly attributed to the synergistic effect of the enhanced light harvesting, augmented catalytic active sites and efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs.

  8. Photocatalytic degradation with immobilised TiO(2) of three selected neonicotinoid insecticides: imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and clothianidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabar, Romina; Komel, Tilen; Fabjan, Jure; Kralj, Mojca Bavcon; Trebše, Polonca

    2012-09-01

    This research focused on photocatalytic degradation of imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and clothianidin employing a tailor-made photoreactor with six polychromatic fluorescent UVA (broad maximum at 355 nm) lamps and immobilised titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) on glass slides. The disappearance was followed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD) analyses, wherein the efficiency of mineralization was monitored by measurements of total organic carbon (TOC). Within 2h of photocatalysis, all three neonicotinoids were degraded following first order kinetics with rate constants k=0.035 ± 0.001 min(-1) for imidacloprid, k=0.019 ± 0.001 min(-1) for thiamethoxam and k=0.021 ± 0.000 min(-1) for clothianidin. However, the rate of mineralization was low, i.e. 19.1 ± 0.2% for imidacloprid, 14.4 ± 2.9% for thiamethoxam and 14.1 ± 0.4% for clothianidin. This indicates that several transformation products were formed instead. Some of them were observed within HPLC-DAD analyses and structures were proposed according to the liquid chromatography-electro spray ionization tandem mass spectrometry analyses (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The formation of clothianidin, as thiamethoxam transformation product, was reported for the first time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. High Photocatalytic Activity of Fe3O4-SiO2-TiO2 Functional Particles with Core-Shell Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyang Xue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel method of synthesizing Fe3O4-SiO2-TiO2 functional nanoparticles with the core-shell structure. The Fe3O4 cores which were mainly superparamagnetic were synthesized through a novel carbon reduction method. The Fe3O4 cores were then modified with SiO2 and finally encapsulated with TiO2 by the sol-gel method. The results of characterizations showed that the encapsulated 700 nm Fe3O4-SiO2-TiO2 particles have a relatively uniform size distribution, an anatase TiO2 shell, and suitable magnetic properties for allowing collection in a magnetic field. These magnetic properties, large area, relative high saturation intensity, and low retentive magnetism make the particles have high dispersibility in suspension and yet enable them to be recovered well using magnetic fields. The functionality of these particles was tested by measuring the photocatalytic activity of the decolouring of methyl orange (MO and methylene blue (MB under ultraviolet light and sunlight. The results showed that the introduction of the Fe3O4-SiO2-TiO2 functional nanoparticles significantly increased the decoloration rate so that an MO solution at a concentration of 10 mg/L could be decoloured completely within 180 minutes. The particles were recovered after utilization, washing, and drying and the primary recovery ratio was 87.5%.

  10. N-Doped TiO2 Nanobelts with Coexposed (001) and (101) Facets and Their Highly Efficient Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuchao; Gao, Peng; Yang, Yurong; Yang, Piaoping; Chen, Yujin; Wang, Yanbo

    2016-07-20

    To narrow the band gap (3.2 eV) of TiO2 and extend its practical applicability under sunlight, the doping with nonmetal elements has been used to tune TiO2 electronic structure. However, the doping also brings new recombination centers among the photoinduced charge carriers, which results in a quantum efficiency loss accordingly. It has been proved that the {101} facets of anatase TiO2 are beneficial to generating and transmitting more reductive electrons to promote the H2-evolution in the photoreduction reaction, and the {001} facets exhibit a higher photoreactivity to accelerate the reaction involved of photogenerated hole. Thus, it was considered by us that using the surface heterojunction composed of both {001} and {101} facets may depress the disadvantage of N doping. Fortunately, we successfully synthesized anatase N-doped TiO2 nanobelts with a surface heterojunction of coexposed (101) and (001) facets. As expected, it realized the charge pairs' spatial separation and showed higher photocatalytic activity under a visible-light ray: a hydrogen generation rate of 670 μmol h(-1) g(-1) (much higher than others reported previously in literature of N-doped TiO2 nanobelts).

  11. The Effect of TiO2 Doped Photocatalytic Nano-Additives on the Hydration and Microstructure of Portland and High Alumina Cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pérez-Nicolás

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mortars with two different binders (Portland cement (PC and high alumina cement (HAC were modified upon the bulk incorporation of nano-structured photocatalytic additives (bare TiO2, and TiO2 doped with either iron (Fe-TiO2 or vanadium (V-TiO2. Plastic and hardened state properties of these mortars were assessed in order to study the influence of these nano-additives. Water demand was increased, slightly by bare TiO2 and Fe-TiO2, and strongly by V-TiO2, in agreement with the reduction of the particle size and the tendency to agglomerate. Isothermal calorimetry showed that hydration of the cementitious matrices was accelerated due to additional nucleation sites offered by the nano-additives. TiO2 and doped TiO2 did not show pozzolanic reactivity in the binding systems. Changes in the pore size distribution, mainly the filler effect of the nano-additives, accounted for the increase in compressive strengths measured for HAC mortars. A complex microstructure was seen in calcium aluminate cement mortars, strongly dependent on the curing conditions. Fe-TiO2 was found to be homogeneously distributed whereas the tendency of V-TiO2 to agglomerate was evidenced by elemental distribution maps. Water absorption capacity was not affected by the nano-additive incorporation in HAC mortars, which is a favourable feature for the application of these mortars.

  12. Porous TiO2 nanofibers decorated CdS nanoparticles by SILAR method for enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Fengyu; Hou, Dongfang; Hu, Fuchao; Xie, Kui; Qiao, Xiuqing; Li, Dongsheng

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A heterojunction photocatalyst with CdS Nanoparticles self-assembled via SILAR Method at surfaces of electrospun TiO2 nanofibers shows enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activities. - Highlights: • Combined electrospinning and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction process. • Pouous TiO 2 nanofibers decorated CdS nanoparticles. • Synergetic effect of photosensitization and heterojunction. - Abstract: 1D porous CdS nanoparticles/TiO 2 nanofibers heterostructure has been fabricated via simple electrospinning and a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) process. The morphology, composition, and optical properties of the resulting CdS/TiO 2 heterostructures can be rationally tailored through changing the SILAR cycles. The photocatalytic hydrogen evolution and decomposition of rhodamine B (RhB) of the as-synthesized heterostructured photocatalysts were investigated under visible light irradiation. Compared to TiO 2 nanofibers,the as-obtained CdS/TiO 2 heterostructures exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity for hydrogen production and decomposition of RhB under visible-light irradiation. The heterojunction system performs best with H 2 generation rates of 678.61 μmol h −1 g −1 under visible light irradiation which benefits from the two effects: (a) the 1D porous nanofibrous morphology contributes to not only more active sites but also more efficient transfer of the photogenerated charges (b) the synergetic effect of heterojunction and photosensitization reducing the recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes.

  13. Co-electrospinning fabrication and photocatalytic performance of TiO2/SiO2 core/sheath nanofibers with tunable sheath thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Houbao; Du, Pingfan; Song, Lixin; Xiong, Jie; Yang, Junjie; Xing, Tonghai; Liu, Xin; Wu, Rongrong; Wang, Minchao; Shao, Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The core–sheath TiO 2 /SiO 2 nanofibers were fabricated by co-electrospinning technique. • The catalytic property of nanofibers with different sheath thickness was studied. • The potential methods of improving catalytic efficiency are suggested. - Abstract: In this paper, core/sheath TiO 2 /SiO 2 nanofibers with tunable sheath thickness were directly fabricated via a facile co-electrospinning technique with subsequent calcination at 500 °C. The morphologies and structures of core/sheath TiO 2 /SiO 2 nanofibers were characterized by TGA, FESEM, TEM, FTIR, XPS and BET. It was found that the 1D core/sheath nanofibers are made up of anatase–rutile TiO 2 core and amorphous SiO 2 sheath. The influences of SiO 2 sheath and its thickness on the photoreactivity were evaluated by observing photo-degradation of methylene blue aqueous solution under the irradiation of UV light. Compared with pure TiO 2 nanofibers, the core/sheath TiO 2 /SiO 2 nanofibers performed a better catalytic performance. That was attributed to not only efficient separation of hole–electron pairs resulting from the formation of heterojunction but also larger surface area and surface silanol group which will be useful to provide higher capacity for oxygen adsorption to generate more hydroxyl radicals. And the optimized core/sheath TiO 2 /SiO 2 nanofibers with a sheath thickness of 37 nm exhibited the best photocatalytic performance

  14. Characterization and photocatalytic performance evaluation of various metal ion-doped microstructured TiO2 under UV and visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Chittaranjan; Gupta, Ashok K

    2015-01-01

    Commercially available microcrystalline TiO2 was doped with silver, ferrous and ferric ion (1.0 mol %) using silver nitrate, ferrous sulfate and ferric nitrate solutions following the liquid impregnation technology. The catalysts prepared were characterised by FESEM, XRD, FTIR, DRS, particle size and micropore analysis. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared catalysts was tested on the degradation of two model dyes, methylene blue (3,7-bis (Dimethylamino)-phenothiazin-5-ium chloride, a cationic thiazine dye) and methyl blue (disodium;4-[4-[[4-(4-sulfonatoanilino)phenyl]-[4-(4-sulfonatophenyl)azaniumylidenecyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ylidene]methyl]anilino]benzene sulfonate, an anionic triphenyl methane dye) under irradiation by UV and visible light in a batch reactor. The efficiency of the photocatalysts under UV and visible light was compared to ascertain the light range for effective utilization. The catalysts were found to have the anatase crystalline structure and their particle size is in a range of 140-250 nm. In the case of Fe(2+) doped TiO2 and Fe(3+) doped TiO2, there was a greater shift in the optical absorption towards the visible range. Under UV light, Ag(+) doped TiO2 was the most efficient catalyst and the corresponding decolorization was more than 99% for both the dyes. Under visible light, Fe(3+) doped TiO2 was the most efficient photocatalyst with more than 96% and 90% decolorization for methylene blue and methyl blue, respectively. The kinetics of the reaction under both UV and visible light was investigated using the Langmuir-Hinshelwood pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Kinetic measurements confirmed that, Ag(+) doped TiO2 was most efficient in the UV range, while Fe(3+) doped TiO2 was most efficient in the visible range.

  15. Role of active species on photocatalytic degradation of remazol golden yellow textile dye employing SrSnO3 or TiO2 as catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Ana Rita Ferreira Alves

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis is an important alternative for environmental remediation, with the possibility of its use for degradation of textile dyes effluents, as remazol golden yellow (RNL). Many semiconductors can be employed as photocatalysts, highlighting commercial TiO 2 P25 Evonik, a mixture of anatase and rutile phases. Other materials have been studied for such application, including SrSnO 3 . In this work, strontium stannate was synthesized by the modified Pechini method and its photocatalytic activity on the degradation of the RNL textile was evaluated, as well as the activity for the commercial P25. The aim of this study was determining the role of each active specie on the photodegradation of the RNL system. In order to achieve such objective, some experiments were carried out in the presence of hydroxyl radical, hole and electron scavengers (isopropanol, formic acid and silver, respectively). The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XDR), infrared spectroscopy (IV), Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, surface area by BET method, and zero charge potential. SrSnO 3 obtained showed strontium carbonate as secondary phase, and this may have caused a short-range disorder for the material. The photocatalytic performance was evaluated by UV-Vis spectroscopy analysis of the RNL solutions before and after UVC irradiation in the presence of catalysts. The use of scavengers showed that, for both catalysts, hydroxyl radical play a major role, holes have an important participation on the formation of these radicals while electrons have no considerable participation. The results confirm that recombination is a limiting factor for SrSnO 3 and P25. (author)

  16. Optimized photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Blue 2 by TiO2/UV process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Sepideh; Nikazar, Manouchehr; Yazdi, Ali Vaziri; Fazaeli, Reza

    2014-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of synthetic dye solution of Reactive Blue 2 was investigated using UV irradiation in aqueous suspension of nanotitania as photocatalyst and H2O2 as electron acceptor in a slurry photoreactor. To determine the optimum condition of decolorization, the influential parameters including initial dye concentration, catalyst quantity, hydrogen peroxide concentration, pH value and UV light intensity were evaluated using the Taguchi statistical method. The results indicated that compared to the other parameters, UV light intensity was the most effective. The theoretically predicted value of decolorization efficiency (95.48%) was confirmed by the experimental value (95.22%). The mineralization was considered significant with regard to the obtained values of total organic carbon (TOC) analysis (92.52%) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) analysis (94.05%) in the optimum condition. Investigations were also carried out to determine the appropriate adsorption isotherm and kinetic model in the optimum condition. The obtained optimum condition for dye removal was finally examined applying a real sample of textile wastewater containing the dye.

  17. Photocatalytic Property of Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 Core-Shell Nanoparticle with Different Functional Layer Thicknesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the different properties of Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 (FST core-shell nanoparticles encapsulated for one to five different times, represented as FST1 to FST5, respectively. These FST nanoparticles were obtained using the carbon reduction and sol-gel methods, and their properties were characterized by various tools, such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, vibratory sample magnetometer, laser granularity apparatus, and specific surface area analyzer. The relationship between irradiation time and decoloration ratio indicates that FST2 demonstrated significant efficiency in the decolorization of methyl orange (MO under UV light. Further study on recycle activity showed that FST2 had a high decoloration rate after four cycles of photocatalysis, and its degradation of MO was well aligned with the apparent first-order kinetic equation. Furthermore, FST2 exhibited the highest apparent rate in the first cycle. All these results demonstrate that the recoverable FST2 possessed excellent photocatalytic activity while maintaining outstanding stability for further applications, such as managing environmental pollution.

  18. Direct evidence and enhancement of surface plasmon resonance effect on Ag-loaded TiO2 nanotube arrays for photocatalytic CO2 reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Jingxiang; Qiu, Shuoqi; Xu, Difa; Jiang, Chuanjia; Cheng, Bei

    2018-03-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect has been utilized in many solar conversion applications because of its ability to convert visible photons into "hot electron" energy. However, the direct evidence and enhancement of this unique effect are still great challenges, limiting its practical applications. Here we present the direct evidence and enhancement of SPR effect using TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs) loaded with Ag nanoparticles (NPs) as a proof-of-concept example. Particularly, electrochemical deposition method is applied to deposit Ag NPs into the inner space of TNTAs for enhancing SPR effect of Ag NPs, as demonstrated by Raman and light absorption spectroscopies. This enhanced SPR effect is because multi-scattered light within TNTAs can be effectively utilized by Ag NPs in the inner space of TNTAs. Moreover, combining synchronous-illumination X-ray photoelectron and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy characterization, we confirm that the SPR effect of Ag NPs can enhance photocatalytic performance of TNTAs mainly from two aspects: (i) injection of "hot electrons" from Ag NPs to TNTAs and (ii) acceleration of charge carrier migration on the TNTAs through a unique near field effect. The direct evidence and enhancement of SPR effect open new perspectives in design of functional plasmonic nanomaterials with high solar conversion efficiency.

  19. Recent Advances in Graphene Based TiO2 Nanocomposites (GTiO2Ns for Photocatalytic Degradation of Synthetic Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Giovannetti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic dyes are widely used in textile, paper, food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. During industrial processes, some of these dyes are released into the wastewater and their successive release into rivers and lakes produces serious environmental problems. TiO2 is one of the most widely studied and used photocatalysts for environmental remediation. However, it is mainly active under UV-light irradiation due to its band gap of 3.2 eV, while it shows low efficiency under the visible light spectrum. Regarding the exploration of TiO2 activation in the visible light region of the total solar spectrum, the incorporation of carbon nanomaterials, such as graphene, in order to form carbon-TiO2 composites is a promising area. Graphene, in fact, has a large surface area which makes it a good adsorbent for organic pollutants removal through the combination of electrostatic attraction and π-π interaction. Furthermore, it has a high electron mobility and therefore it reduces the electron-hole pair recombination, improving the photocatalytic activity of the semiconductor. In recent years, there was an increasing interest in the preparation of graphene-based TiO2 photocatalysts. The present short review describes the recent advances in TiO2 photocatalyst coupling with graphene materials with the aim of extending the light absorption of TiO2 from UV wavelengths into the visible region, focusing on recent progress in the design and applications in the photocatalytic degradation of synthetic dyes.

  20. Photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Red 195 using anatase/brookite TiO2 mesoporous nanoparticles: optimization using response surface methodology (RSM) and kinetics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzikalos, Nikolaos; Belessi, Vassiliki; Lambropoulou, Dimitra

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, the photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Red 195 (RR195) from aqueous samples under UV-A irradiation by using anatase/brookite TiO2 (A/B TiO2) mesoporous nanoparticles has been investigated. Batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of the main parameters affecting the photocatalytic process. The effects and interactions of most influenced parameters, such as substrate concentration and catalyst load, were evaluated and optimized by using a central composite design model and a response surface methodology. The results indicated that the dye degradation efficiency in the experimental domain investigated was mainly affected by the tested variables, as well as their interaction effects. Analysis of variance showed a high coefficient of determination value (R(2) = 0.9947), thus ensuring a satisfactory adjustment of the first-order regression model (2FI model) with the experimental data. The obtained results also indicate that catalyst loading plays an important role in determining the removal efficiency of RR195 attributable to both photodegradation and adsorption process. Under optimal conditions (initial dye concentration (50 mg/L) and catalyst loading (2,000 mg/L), A/B TiO2 showed similar removal efficiency compared to that of commercial titania (Degussa P25). Also, at these conditions, complete degradation of RR195 can be achieved by both catalysts within 15 min under UV-A irradiation. The experiments demonstrated that dye removal on the prepared A/B TiO2 was facilitated by the synergistic effects between adsorption and photocatalysis. Photocatalytic mineralization of RR195 was monitored by total organic carbon. The recycling experiments confirmed the stability of the catalyst.

  1. Photocatalytic oxidation of the organic monolayers on TiO2 surface investigated by in-situ sum frequency generation spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujin Tong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In-situ vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG spectroscopy has been employed to investigate the photocatalytic oxidation of two types of well-ordered organic monolayers, namely, an arachidic acid (AA monolayer prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett method and an octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS monolayer prepared by the self-assembling method, on a TiO2 surface under ultraviolet (UV irradiation. The extremely high sensitivity and unique selectivity of the SFG spectroscopy enabled us to directly probe the structural changes in these monolayers during the surface photocatalytic oxidation and further elucidate their reaction mechanisms at a molecular level. It was revealed that the ordering of the monolayers during the photocatalytic reaction is strongly dependent on their interaction with the substrate; the AA monolayer maintains its ordered conformation until the final oxidation stage, while the OTS monolayer shows a large increase in disordering during the initial oxidation stage, indicating a different photocatalytic reaction mechanism of the two monolayers on the TiO2 surface.

  2. Development of efficiency improved polymer-modified TiO2 for the photocatalytic degradation of an organic dye from wastewater environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangareswari, Murugan; Meenakshi Sundaram, Mariappan

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the photocatalytic activity of polypyrrole-TiO2 nanocomposite was studied experimentally for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye under simulating solar light irradiation. To improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 under sunlight irradiation, conducting polymers such as polypyrrole (PPy) and its derivatives are generally used as photosensitizers. The PPy-TiO2 nanocomposite was prepared by the chemical oxidative polymerization method. The prepared nanocomposite showed better photocatalytic activity than bare TiO2 under sunlight irradiation for the degradation of MB dye. The prepared nanocomposite was subjected to characterization techniques such as SEM-EDAX, FT-IR, UV-DRS, XRD, TGA and PL spectral analysis. Different influencing operating parameters like initial concentration of dye, irradiation time, pH and amount of PPy-TiO2 nanocomposite used have also been studied. The optical density of the dye degradation was measured by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The repeatability of photocatalytic activity was also tested. A plausible mechanism was proposed and discussed on the basis of experimental results.

  3. Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity of V2O5 Cluster Modified N-Doped TiO2 for Degradation of Toluene in Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Dong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available V2O5 cluster-modified N-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2/V2O5 nanocomposites photocatalyst was prepared by a facile impregnation-calcination method. The effects of V2O5 cluster loading content on visible light photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared samples were investigated for degradation of toluene in air. The results showed that the visible light activity of N-doped TiO2 was significantly enhanced by loading V2O5 clusters. The optimal V2O5 loading content was found to be 0.5 wt.%, reaching a removal ratio of 52.4% and a rate constant of 0.027 min−1, far exceeding that of unmodified N-doped TiO2. The enhanced activity is due to the deposition of V2O5 clusters on the surface of N-doped TiO2. The conduction band (CB potential of V2O5 (0.48 eV is lower than the CB level of N-doped TiO2 (−0.19 V, which favors the photogenerated electron transfer from CB of N-doped TiO2 to V2O5 clusters. This function of V2O5 clusters helps promote the transfer and separation of photogenerated electrons and holes. The present work not only displays a feasible route for the utilization of low cost V2O5 clusters as a substitute for noble metals in enhancing the photocatalysis but also demonstrates a facile method for preparation of highly active composite photocatalyst for large-scale applications.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of SnO2, TiO2 and Ti0.5Sn0.5O2 nanoparticles as efficient materials for photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargougui, R.; Pichavant, A.; Hochepied, J.-F.; Berger, M.-H.; Gadri, A.; Ammar, S.

    2016-08-01

    This work reports the synthesis of polydispersible SnO2, TiO2 and Ti0.5Sn0.5O2 nanoparticles via microwave-assisted polyol as an efficient method using diethylene glycol (DEG) and triethylene glycol (TREG) as solvent. The properties of as-prepared samples were investigated by X-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, diffuse reflectance and FTIR spectrophotometery, photoluminescence spectroscopy and N2 physisorption. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the samples were indexed on the anatase phase of TiO2 and cassiterite phase of SnO2 and Ti0.5Sn0.5O2. The TEM images show uniform isotropic morphologies with average sizes close to10 nm. The band gap is reduced for Ti0.5Sn0.5O2 and enhances visible light absorption, a shift resulting in the absorption threshold towards the visible spectral range, compared to pure titania and tin. Slight shifts to longer wavelength are attributed to the change in the acceptor's level induced by the mixture of both oxides. The evaluation of the photocatalytic activity is carried out using indigo carmine (IC) as model of chemical pollutants in UV irradiation conditions. The photocatalytic decolorization of the dye follows a pseudo-first-order kinetics and the constant apparent rate was increased with the increase of the tin oxide content up to 50%.

  5. TiO2-graphene oxide nanocomposite as advanced photocatalytic materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Bludská, Jana; Kormunda, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, FEB (2013), s. 41 ISSN 1752-153X Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : graphene * titanium(IV) oxide * graphene oxide * photocatalysis Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.663, year: 2013

  6. New insights into the origin of visible-light photocatalytic activity in Se-modified anatase TiO2 from screened coulomb hybrid DFT calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Harb, Moussab

    2013-12-05

    We report a systematic study on the optoelectronic properties of Se-modified anatase TiO2 investigated by DFT (including the perturbation theory approach DFPT) within the screened coulomb hybrid HSE06 formalism to guarantee accurate band gap and electronic excitation predictions. Various selenium species at substitutional sites for O or Ti, at interstitial sites, as well as at mixed substitutional/interstitial sites are studied. Among the explored structures, Ti(1-2x)O2Se2x (containing Se4+ species), TiO(2-x)Sex (containing Se2- species), and TiO(2-x)Se2x (containing Se2 2- species) reveal significant enhanced visible-light optical absorption spectra with new absorption features appearing at 500, 600, and 690 nm, respectively. Our calculated spectra are found to be in good agreement with those obtained in available experimental works. The band gap narrowing in these materials originates from incorporation of newly occupied electronic levels within 0.5-1.5 eV above the original valence band of TiO 2, leading to new narrowed band gaps of 2.5, 2.0, and 1.8 eV respectively. Our calculations also reveal suitable band positions of Ti (1-2x)O2Se2x and TiO(2-x)Se x for overall water splitting, whereas TiO(2-x)Se 2x shows an unsuitable valence band position for the oxygen evolution reaction. In contrast, the localized electronic character of the new occupied states on the Se 4p orbitals and only on the O 2p orbitals linked to the Se species makes the holes mobility limited in this material and the recombination rate of charge carriers greatly increased in the bulk. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  7. Effective photodegradation of methomyl pesticide in concentrated solutions by novel enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 using CdSO4 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, N A M; Nassar, M M; Farrag, T E; Mahmoud, M S

    2014-01-01

    Annihilation of electrons-holes recombination process is the main remedy to enhance the photocatalytic activity of the semiconductors photocatalysts. Doping of this class of photocatalysts by foreign nanoparticles is usually utilized to create high Schottky barrier that facilitates electron capture. In the literature, because nonpolar nanoparticles (usually pristine metals, e.g., Ag, Pt, Au, etc.) were utilized in the doping process, the corresponding improvement was relatively low. In this study, CdSO4-doped TiO2 nanoparticles are introduced as a powerful and reusable photocatalyst for the photocatalytic degradation of methomyl pesticide in concentrated aqueous solutions. The utilized CdSO4 nanoparticles form polar grains in the TiO2 matrix due to the electrons leaving characteristic of the sulfate anion. The introduced nanoparticles could successfully eliminate the harmful pesticide under the sunlight radiation within a very short time (less than 1 h), with a removal capacity reaching 1,000 mg pesticide per gram of the introduced photocatalyst. Moreover, increase in the initial concentration of the methomyl did not affect the photocatalytic performance; typically 300, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/l solutions were completely treated within 30, 30, 40, and 60 min, respectively, using 100 mg catalyst. Interestingly, the photocatalytic efficiency was not affected upon multiple use of the photocatalyst. Moreover, negative activation energy was obtained which reveals super activity of the introduced photocatalyst. The distinct photocatalytic activity indicates the complete annihilation of the electrons-holes recombination process and abundant existence of electrons on the catalyst surfaces due to strong electrons capturing the operation of the utilized polar CdSO4 nanoparticles. The introduced photocatalyst has been prepared using the sol-gel technique. Overall, the simplicity of the synthesizing procedure and the obtained featured photocatalytic activity strongly

  8. Removal of Carbamazepine from Water by a Novel TiO2-Coconut Shell Powder/UV Process: Composite Preparation and Photocatalytic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khraisheh, Majeda; Kim, Jongkyu; Campos, Luiza; Al-Muhtaseb, Ala'a H; Walker, Gavin M; Alghouti, Mohammad

    2013-09-01

    A novel TiO 2 -coconut shell powder (TCNSP) composite, prepared by the controlled sol-gel method with a subsequent heat treatment, was investigated as an innovative photocatalytic absorbent for the removal of carbamazepine (CBZ). CBZ is used worldwide as an antiepileptic drug, which has recently been recognized as an important organic pollutant increasingly found in wastewaters from urban areas and other aquatic environments. The granulation process was performed by using a semiautomated mass production line to produce sufficient quantities of TCNSP composites, possessing sufficient crush strength for commercialization. Physical properties of the TCNSP composite such as crystallinity, morphology, crush strength, and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET)-specific surface area were controlled by the mass ratio of titanium dioxide sol and coconut shell powder (CNSP). Calcination at 700°C produced anatase phase TiO 2 in the TCNSP composites with a BET high surface area of 454 m 2 /g. Anatase crystallite size of the TCNSP composite increased from 2.37 to 15.11 nm with increasing calcination temperature from 500°C to 800°C. Calcinated TCNSP composites had higher CBZ removal efficiency (98%) than pure TiO 2 (23%) and CNSP (34%) within a 40-min reaction time. Optimization of this innovative adsorption/photocatalytic process was obtained by a response surface methodology and a central composite design model, which indicated that this novel and sustainable technology was successful in removing CBZ from a solution.

  9. Effect of TiO2 photocatalytic activity in a HDPE-based food packaging on the structural and microbiological stability of a short-ripened cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumiero, Matteo; Peressini, Donatella; Pizzariello, Andrea; Sensidoni, Alessandro; Iacumin, Lucilla; Comi, Giuseppe; Toniolo, Rosanna

    2013-06-01

    A high density polyethylene (HDPE)/calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) film containing TiO(2) was prepared via blown film extrusion process. The photocatalytic properties of this film were evaluated by voltammetric, UV-Vis spectrophotometric and gas chromatographic measurements following the decomposition rate of suitably selected molecular probes, such as 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and methylene blue. The film containing 1% w/w of TiO(2) displayed a profitable and reproducible photoinduced degradation activity towards target organic compounds. The effect of packaging photocatalytic activity on the structural and microbiological stability of a short-ripened cheese was studied. Cheese structure was assessed by dynamic, small deformation rheological tests. A container consisting of a multilayer material, where the layer brought in contact with the food, made from the HDPE+CaCO(3)+TiO(2) composite matrix, was able to provide a greater maintenance of the original cheese structure than a rigid container currently used, mainly due to the inhibition of lactic acid bacteria and coliforms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Interaction of New-Developed TiO2-Based Photocatalytic Nanoparticles with Pathogenic Microorganisms and Human Dermal and Pulmonary Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Cristina Nica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2-based photocatalysts were obtained during previous years in order to limit pollution and to ease human daily living conditions due to their special properties. However, obtaining biocompatible photocatalysts is still a key problem, and the mechanism of their toxicity recently received increased attention. Two types of TiO2 nanoparticles co-doped with 1% of iron and nitrogen (TiO2-1% Fe–N atoms were synthesized in hydrothermal conditions at pH of 8.5 (HT1 and 5.5 (HT2, and their antimicrobial activity and cytotoxic effects exerted on human pulmonary and dermal fibroblasts were assessed. These particles exhibited significant microbicidal and anti-biofilm activity, suggesting their potential application for microbial decontamination of different environments. In addition, our results demonstrated the biocompatibility of TiO2-1% Fe–N nanoparticles at low doses on lung and dermal cells, which may initiate oxidative stress through dose accumulation. Although no significant changes were observed between the two tested photocatalysts, the biological response was cell type specific and time- and dose-dependent; the lung cells proved to be more sensitive to nanoparticle exposure. Taken together, these experimental data provide useful information for future photocatalytic applications in the industrial, food, pharmaceutical, and medical fields.

  11. Interaction of New-Developed TiO2-Based Photocatalytic Nanoparticles with Pathogenic Microorganisms and Human Dermal and Pulmonary Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nica, Ionela Cristina; Stan, Miruna Silvia; Popa, Marcela; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Lazar, Veronica; Pircalabioru, Gratiela G.; Dumitrescu, Iuliana; Ignat, Madalina; Feder, Marcel; Tanase, Liviu Cristian; Mercioniu, Ionel; Diamandescu, Lucian; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2017-01-01

    TiO2-based photocatalysts were obtained during previous years in order to limit pollution and to ease human daily living conditions due to their special properties. However, obtaining biocompatible photocatalysts is still a key problem, and the mechanism of their toxicity recently received increased attention. Two types of TiO2 nanoparticles co-doped with 1% of iron and nitrogen (TiO2-1% Fe–N) atoms were synthesized in hydrothermal conditions at pH of 8.5 (HT1) and 5.5 (HT2), and their antimicrobial activity and cytotoxic effects exerted on human pulmonary and dermal fibroblasts were assessed. These particles exhibited significant microbicidal and anti-biofilm activity, suggesting their potential application for microbial decontamination of different environments. In addition, our results demonstrated the biocompatibility of TiO2-1% Fe–N nanoparticles at low doses on lung and dermal cells, which may initiate oxidative stress through dose accumulation. Although no significant changes were observed between the two tested photocatalysts, the biological response was cell type specific and time- and dose-dependent; the lung cells proved to be more sensitive to nanoparticle exposure. Taken together, these experimental data provide useful information for future photocatalytic applications in the industrial, food, pharmaceutical, and medical fields. PMID:28125053

  12. Face-to-Face Interfacial Assembly of Ultrathin g-C3N4and Anatase TiO2Nanosheets for Enhanced Solar Photocatalytic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wenli; Lu, Feixue; Wang, Chao; Kuga, Shigenori; Wu, Lizhu; Huang, Yong; Wu, Min

    2017-08-30

    Face-to-face interfacial assembly of TiO 2 -g-C 3 N 4 hybrid (2D TCN-A) is developed by surfactant-assisted hydrothermal treatment forming a sandwich structure of anatase TiO 2 nanosheets (TiO 2 -A, 5-6 monolayers) and g-C 3 N 4 nanosheets (∼3 monolayers). Post air-annealing is found effective for insertion of oxygen to the hybrid, which remedies the oxygen vacancies of TiO 2 (B) nanosheets and converts it to anatase nanosheets. The enhanced light adsorption, increased donor density, and prolonged life of charge carries are achieved by variation of bandgap and the formation of heterojuction between the two kinds of nanosheets, facilitating separation and transfer of charge carriers. The 2D TCN-A-70 nanosheets show a high photodegradation rate of methyl orange (k app ≈ 0.189 min -1 ) and photocatalytic evolution rate of hydrogen (18200 μmol g -1 h -1 ). This 2D nanosheets hybrid is potentially useful in alleviating environmental and energy issues.

  13. Nb-doped TiO2 thin films as photocatalytic materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    ) instrument was used for this purpose. The monochromatic X-ray radiation AlKα. (hν = 1486.7 eV) was the excitation source. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was carried out to investigate the surface morphology of the films, by ...

  14. Coupling of Nanocrystalline Anatase TiO2 to Porous Nanosized LaFeO3 for Efficient Visible-Light Photocatalytic Degradation of Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Humayun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have successfully fabricated nanocrystalline anatase TiO2/perovskite-type porous nanosized LaFeO3 (T/P-LFO nanocomposites using a simple wet chemical method. It is clearly demonstrated by means of atmosphere-controlled steady-state surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS responses, photoluminescence spectra, and fluorescence spectra related to the formed OH− radical amount that the photogenerated charge carriers in the resultant T/P-LFO nanocomposites with a proper mole ratio percentage of TiO2 display much higher separation in comparison to the P-LFO alone. This is highly responsible for the improved visible-light activities of T/P-LFO nanocomposites for photocatalytic degradation of gas-phase acetaldehyde and liquid-phase phenol. This work will provide a feasible route to synthesize visible-light responsive nano-photocatalysts for efficient solar energy utilization.

  15. Investigation of DC magnetron-sputtered TiO2 coatings: Effect of coating thickness, structure, and morphology on photocatalytic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daviðsdóttir, Svava; Shabadi, Rajashekhara; Galca, Aurelian Catalin

    2014-01-01

    The photocatalytic performance of magnetron-sputtered titanium dioxide (TiO2) coatings of different thickness in anatase crystalline structure deposited on aluminium 1050 alloy substrates was investigated using a combination of photo-electrochemistry, methylene blue decomposition, and microscopic...... and spectroscopic methods, such as high resolution scanning and transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and ellipsometry. The reaction resistance was measured by AC impedance, while photocurrent measurements were carried out using the zero resistance ammetry (ZRA) method. The results showed...... that the TiO2 grains grow in dipyramidal columns having a linear increase in surface area with increased coating thickness. The refractive index values indicate also an evolutionary growth. The refractive index values obtained for the thin coatings on aluminium substrate were well below the values reported...

  16. Enhanced Photocatalytic Reduction of CO2 to CO through TiO2 Passivation of InP in Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guangtong; Qiu, Jing; Hou, Bingya; Shi, Haotian; Lin, Yongjing; Hettick, Mark; Javey, Ali; Cronin, Stephen B

    2015-09-21

    A robust and reliable method for improving the photocatalytic performance of InP, which is one of the best known materials for solar photoconversion (i.e., solar cells). In this article, we report substantial improvements (up to 18×) in the photocatalytic yields for CO2 reduction to CO through the surface passivation of InP with TiO2 deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Here, the main mechanisms of enhancement are the introduction of catalytically active sites and the formation of a pn-junction. Photoelectrochemical reactions were carried out in a nonaqueous solution consisting of ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([EMIM]BF4), dissolved in acetonitrile, which enables CO2 reduction with a Faradaic efficiency of 99% at an underpotential of +0.78 V. While the photocatalytic yield increases with the addition of the TiO2 layer, a corresponding drop in the photoluminescence intensity indicates the presence of catalytically active sites, which cause an increase in the electron-hole pair recombination rate. NMR spectra show that the [EMIM](+) ions in solution form an intermediate complex with CO2(-), thus lowering the energy barrier of this reaction. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Immobilization of TiO2 nanopowder on glass beads for the photocatalytic decolorization of an azo dye C.I. Direct Red 23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshvar, N; Salari, D; Niaei, A; Rasoulifard, M H; Khataee, A R

    2005-01-01

    TiO2 supported on glass beads was prepared and its photocatalytic activity was determined by photooxidation of the commercial textile dye, C.I. Direct Red 23, in aqueous solution illuminated by a UV-C lamp (30 W). The progress of photocatalytic decolorization of the C.I. Direct Red 23 was studied by measuring the absorbance at lambda(max) = 507 nm by UV Vis spectrophotometer. The experiments indicated that both UV light and TiO2 were needed for the effective destruction of the dye. The effect of pH on the rate of decolorization efficiency was followed in the pH range 2-12. Acidic pH range was found to favor the decolorization rate. The addition of a proper amount of hydrogen peroxide improved the decolorization, whereas the excess hydrogen peroxide quenched the formation of hydroxyl radicals (*OH). The electrical energy consumption per order of magnitude for photocatalytic decolorization of the dye was lower in the UV/TiO2/H2O2 process than that in the UV/TiO2 process. In the real wastewater sample the efficiency of the method was determined by measuring the changes in the absorption spectra of the dye solution during photodegradation. Our results indicated that during the photooxidation process, the decolorization efficiency was more than 80% at irradiation time of 3 h.

  18. Electrical response of electron selective atomic layer deposited TiO2‑x heterocontacts on crystalline silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahiboz, Doğuşcan; Nasser, Hisham; Aygün, Ezgi; Bek, Alpan; Turan, Raşit

    2018-04-01

    Integration of oxygen deficient sub-stoichiometric titanium dioxide (TiO2‑x) thin films as the electron transporting-hole blocking layer in solar cell designs are expected to reduce fabrication costs by eliminating high temperature processes while maintaining high conversion efficiencies. In this paper, we conducted a study to reveal the electrical properties of TiO2‑x thin films grown on crystalline silicon (c-Si) substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. Effect of ALD substrate temperature, post deposition annealing, and doping type of the c-Si substrate on the interface states and TiO2‑x bulk properties were extracted by performing admittance (C-V, G-V) and current-voltage (J-V) measurements. Moreover, the asymmetry in C-V and J-V measurements between the p-n type and n-n TiO2‑x-c-Si heterojunction types were examined and the electron transport selectivity of TiO2‑x was revealed.

  19. Highly efficient visible-light driven photocatalytic hydrogen production from a novel Z-scheme Er3+:YAlO3/Ta2O5-V5+||Fe3+-TiO2/Au coated composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guowei; Ma, Xue; Wei, Shengnan; Li, Siyi; Qiao, Jing; Wang, Jun; Song, Youtao

    2018-01-01

    In this work, the preparation of a novel Z-scheme photocatalyst, Er3+:YAlO3/Ta2O5-V5+||Fe3+-TiO2/Au coated composite, for visible-light photocatalytic hydrogen production is reported for the first time. In this photocatalyst, Au nanoparticles as conduction band co-catalyst provide more active sites to enrich electrons. Ta2O5-V5+||Fe3+-TiO2 as composite redox cycle system thoroughly separates the photo-generated electrons and holes. In addition, Er3+:YAlO3 as up-conversion luminescence agent (from visible-light to ultraviolet-light) provides enough ultraviolet-light for satisfying the energy demand of wide band-gap semiconductors (TiO2 and Ta2O5). The photocatalytic hydrogen production can be achieved from methanol as sacrificial agent (electron donor) under visible-light irradiation. The main influence factors such as initial solution pH and molar ratio of TiO2 and Ta2O5 on visible-light photocatalytic hydrogen production activity of Er3+:YAlO3/Ta2O5-V5+||Fe3+-TiO2/Au coated composite are discussed in detail. The results show that the Er3+:YAlO3/Ta2O5-V5+||Fe3+-TiO2/Au coated composite with 1.0:0.5 M ratio of TiO2 and Ta2O5 in methanol aqueous solution at pH = 6.50 displays the highest photocatalytic hydrogen production activity. Furthermore, a high level of photocatalytic activity can be still maintained within three cycles under the same conditions. It implies that the prepared Z-scheme Er3+:YAlO3/Ta2O5-V5+||Fe3+-TiO2/Au coated composite may be a promising photocatalyst utilizing solar energy for hydrogen production.

  20. Solar-light photocatalytic disinfection using crystalline/amorphous low energy bandgap reduced TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmin; Hwang, Hee Min; Wang, Luyang; Kim, Ikjoon; Yoon, Yeoheung; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2016-04-28

    A generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from TiO2 under solar light has been long sought since the ROS can disinfect organic pollutants. We found that newly developed crystalline/amorphous reduced TiO2 (rTiO2) that has low energy bandgap can effectively generate ROS under solar light and successfully remove a bloom of algae. The preparation of rTiO2 is a one-pot and mass productive solution-process reduction using lithium-ethylene diamine (Li-EDA) at room temperature. Interestingly only the rutile phase of TiO2 crystal was reduced, while the anatase phase even in case of both anatase/rutile phased TiO2 was not reduced. Only reduced TiO2 materials can generate ROS under solar light, which was confirmed by electron spin resonance. Among the three different types of Li-EDA treated TiO2 (anatase, rutile and both phased TiO2), the both phased rTiO2 showed the best performance to produce ROS. The generated ROS effectively removed the common green algae Chlamydomonas. This is the first report on algae degradation under solar light, proving the feasibility of commercially available products for disinfection.

  1. Microbial fuel cell assisted band gap narrowed TiO2for visible light-induced photocatalytic activities and power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Ehtisham; Khan, Mohammad Mansoob; Min, Bong-Ki; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2018-01-29

    This paper reports a simple, biogenic and green approach to obtain narrow band gap and visible light-active TiO 2 nanoparticles. Commercial white TiO 2 (w-TiO 2 ) was treated in the cathode chamber of a Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC), which produced modified light gray TiO 2 (g-TiO 2 ) nanoparticles. The DRS, PL, XRD, EPR, HR-TEM, and XPS were performed to understand the band gap decline of g-TiO 2 . The optical study revealed a significant decrease in the band gap of the g-TiO 2 (E g  = 2.80 eV) compared to the w-TiO 2 (E g  = 3.10 eV). The XPS revealed variations in the surface states, composition, Ti 4+ to Ti 3+ ratio, and oxygen vacancies in the g-TiO 2 . The Ti 3+ and oxygen vacancy-induced enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of g-TiO 2 was confirmed by degrading different model dyes. The enhanced photoelectrochemical response under visible light irradiation further supported the improved performance of the g-TiO 2 owing to a decrease in the electron transfer resistance and an increase in charge transfer rate. During the TiO 2 treatment process, electricity generation in MFC was also observed, which was ~0.3979 V corresponding to a power density of 70.39 mW/m 2 . This study confirms narrow band gap TiO 2 can be easily obtained and used effectively as photocatalysts and photoelectrode material.

  2. Alcohol solvents evaporation-induced self-assembly synthesis of mesoporous TiO2−x−yCxNy nanoparticles toward visible-light driven photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shou-Heng; Syu, Han-Ren; Wu, Chung-Yi

    2014-01-01

    A one-step solvent evaporation-induced self-assembly (SEISA) process was demonstrated to prepare carbon and nitrogen co-doping mesoporous TiO 2 nanoparticles (MesoTiO 2−x−y C x N y -S) using an ionic liquid as carbon and nitrogen sources as well as mesoporous template. After the evaporation of different solvents (methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol) and subsequent calcinations at 773 K, the obtained MesoTiO 2−x−y C x N y -S samples were systematically characterized by a variety of spectroscopic and analytical techniques, including small- and large-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N 2 adsorption–desorption isotherms, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopies. The results indicate that the solvents play an essential role on the chemical microstructure, doping elemental states, and photocatalytic performance of catalysts. The MesoTiO 2−x−y C x N y -I samples have the lowest band gap of ca. 2.75 eV and strongest absorbance of visible light in the range of 400–600 nm. Among the MesoTiO 2−x−y C x N y -S photocatalysts, the MesoTiO 2−x−y C x N y -M catalysts show superior photocatalytic activity of hydrogen generation in methanol aqueous solution under visible light irradiation as compared to MesoTiO 2−x−y C x N y -E, MesoTiO 2−x−y C x N y -I, and commercial Degussa TiO 2 . This result could be attributed to the moderate C,N co-doping amounts on their developed mesoporous texture (pore size = 8.0 nm) and high surface area (107 m 2  g −1 ) of TiO 2 (crystallite size = 9.9 nm) in the MesoTiO 2−x−y C x N y -M catalysts

  3. Influence of Co-Doping of Ni (II on Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 for Pathogenic Bacteria Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baharuddin Shaleh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle titanium dioxide (TiO2 has most attention in the past decade, since it can be applied as alternative material on sterilization photocatalyst process. This research focused on increasing performance of titania such as structure, particles size and surface area through Ni ion doped on TiO2 surface by sol-gel technique. Product were used to design of a photobioreactor for sterilization process from pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. Product were characterized using TG-DTA, XRD, TEM, SEM-EDS and BET. Titanium dioxide with anatase structure have 12.1 nm in particles size and surface area 49.6 m2/ g that have higher inhibition rate to bacteria cell. Photobiocatalytic reaction was carried out in various TiO2-Ni concentration and UV irradiation times. The anti bacteria from TiO2-Ni to all bacteria cell suspension after UV irradiated at λm : 365 nm has good synergistic effect. Effect of mechanical treatment by sonicator showed the increasing inhibition rate around 4% for 120 minute irradiation. Inhibition rate optimization for each bacteria gave different efficiency inhibition to TiO2-Ni concentration 1.5-2.0 g/L. TiO2-Ni inhibited growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus around ≥ 95% for 120 minute irradiation, while Bacillus subtilis resistance with inhibition percentage rate only 88.1%.

  4. Photocatalytic performance of Sn-doped and undoped TiO2 nanostructured thin films under UV and vis-lights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arpac, E.; Sayilkan, F.; Asiltuerk, M.; Tatar, P.; Kiraz, Nadir; Sayilkan, H.

    2007-01-01

    Sn-doped and undoped nano-TiO 2 particles have been synthesized by hydrotermal process without solvent at 200 deg. C in 1 h. Nanostructure-TiO 2 based thin films have been prepared on glass substrate by spin-coating technique. The structure, surface morphology and optical properties of the thin films and the particles have been investigated by element analysis and XRD, SEM, BET and UV-vis-NIR techniques. The photocatalytic performance of the films were tested for degradation of Malachite Green dye in solution under UV and vis-lights. The results showed that (a) hydrothermally synthesized nano-TiO 2 particles are fully anatase crystalline form and are easily dispersed in water, (b) the coated surfaces have nearly super-hydrophilic properties and (c) the doping of transition metal ion efficiently improved the photocatalytic performance of the TiO 2 thin film

  5. Photocatalytic activity of Al2O3-doped TiO2 thin films activated with visible light on the bacteria Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barajas-Ledesma, E.; Garcia-Benjume, M.L.; Espitia-Cabrera, I.; Bravo-Patino, A.; Espinoza-Beltran, F.J.; Mostaghimi, J.; Contreras-Garcia, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Al 2 O 3 -doped TiO 2 thin films were prepared by combining electrophoretic deposition (EPD) with sputtering. A Corning* glass was used as a substrate, in which a titanium film was deposited by sputtering. Then, a precursor sol was prepared with Ti(n-OBu) 4 and Al(s-OBu) 3 and used as the medium for EPD. Next, the thin films were sintered and, finally, characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Several cultures of Escherichia coli, strain XL1-Blue, were prepared. Nine experiments were carried out. In three of them, an inoculum (a low amount of a product that contains bacteria) was prepared without a film; in the other six Al 2 O 3 -doped TiO 2 film-coated glass substrates were irradiated with visible light before they were introduced in the inoculum. The SEM and EDS results showed that TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 films were obtained, covering all the glass substrate and with uniform size of particles forming them, and that the aluminium was distributed uniformly on the film. XRD results showed that rutile phase was obtained. By TEM, the structure of TiO 2 was demonstrated. Al 2 O 3 -doped TiO 2 thin films were successful at eliminating E. coli.

  6. Constructing 2D layered MoS2 nanosheets-modified Z-scheme TiO2/WO3 nanofibers ternary nanojunction with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiangtao; Zhang, Peng; Fan, Jiajie; Hu, Junhua; Shao, Guosheng

    2018-02-01

    Advanced materials for photoelectrochemical H2 production are important to the field of renewable energy. Despite great efforts have been made, the present challenge in materials science is to explore highly active photocatalysts for splitting of water at low cost. In this work, we report a new composite material consisting of 2D layered MoS2 nanosheets grown on the presence of TiO2/WO3 nanofibers (TW) as a high-performance photocatalyst for H2 evolution. This composite material was prepared by a two-step simple process of electrospinning and hydrothermal. We found that the as-prepared TiO2/WO3@MoS2 (TWM) hybrid exhibited superior photocatalytic activity in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) even without the noble metal-cocatalyst. Importantly, the TiO2/WO3@MoS2 heterostructure with 60 wt% of MoS2 exhibits the highest hydrogen production rate. This great improvement is attributed to the positive synergetic effect between the WO3 and MoS2 components in this hybrid cocatalyst, which serve as hole collector and electron collector, respectively. Moreover, the effective charge separation was directly proved by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and photocurrent analysis.

  7. Photocatalytic H2 Evolution Using Different Commercial TiO2 Catalysts Deposited with Finely Size-Tailored Au Nanoparticles: Critical Dependence on Au Particle Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ákos Kmetykó

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available One weight percent of differently sized Au nanoparticles were deposited on two commercially available TiO2 photocatalysts: Aeroxide P25 and Kronos Vlp7000. The primary objective was to investigate the influence of the noble metal particle size and the deposition method on the photocatalytic activity. The developed synthesis method involves a simple approach for the preparation of finely-tuned Au particles through variation of the concentration of the stabilizing agent. Au was deposited on the TiO2 surface by photo- or chemical reduction, using trisodium citrate as a size-tailoring agent. The Au-TiO2 composites were synthetized by in situ reduction or by mixing the titania suspension with a previously prepared gold sol. The H2 production activities of the samples were studied in aqueous TiO2 suspensions irradiated with near-UV light in the absence of dissolved O2, with oxalic acid or methanol as the sacrificial agent. The H2 evolution rates proved to be strongly dependent on Au particle size: the highest H2 production rate was achieved when the Au particles measured ~6 nm.

  8. Photocatalytic H2 Evolution Using Different Commercial TiO2 Catalysts Deposited with Finely Size-Tailored Au Nanoparticles: Critical Dependence on Au Particle Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmetykó, Ákos; Mogyorósi, Károly; Pusztai, Péter; Radu, Teodora; Kónya, Zoltán; Dombi, András; Hernádi, Klára

    2014-01-01

    One weight percent of differently sized Au nanoparticles were deposited on two commercially available TiO2 photocatalysts: Aeroxide P25 and Kronos Vlp7000. The primary objective was to investigate the influence of the noble metal particle size and the deposition method on the photocatalytic activity. The developed synthesis method involves a simple approach for the preparation of finely-tuned Au particles through variation of the concentration of the stabilizing agent. Au was deposited on the TiO2 surface by photo- or chemical reduction, using trisodium citrate as a size-tailoring agent. The Au-TiO2 composites were synthetized by in situ reduction or by mixing the titania suspension with a previously prepared gold sol. The H2 production activities of the samples were studied in aqueous TiO2 suspensions irradiated with near-UV light in the absence of dissolved O2, with oxalic acid or methanol as the sacrificial agent. The H2 evolution rates proved to be strongly dependent on Au particle size: the highest H2 production rate was achieved when the Au particles measured ~6 nm. PMID:28788264

  9. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of noble metal-modified TiO2 nanosheets with exposed {0 0 1} facets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diak, Magdalena; Grabowska, Ewelina; Zaleska, Adriana

    2015-08-01

    Pt, Pd, Ag and Au nanoparticles were photodeposited on the {0 0 1} crystal facets of the TiO2 anatase nanosheets. Morphological and surface characterization of the samples as well as photocatalytic activity were studied. The influence of metal precursor concentration used during photodeposition (0.05-0.5%) on size of formed metal nanoparticles together with UV and vis-mediated activity of Pt, Pd, Ag or Au-TiO2 was investigated. Generally, samples obtained by photodeposition of noble metal nanoparticles using their 0.2% precursor solutions revealed highest activity in phenol degradation reaction under visible light (λ > 420 nm). The photoactivity of the as-prepared samples with respect to the modified metal species was ordered Ag≅Pd > Au > Pt. TEM analysis showed that photodeposited metal nanoparticles appeared only on {0 0 1} facets of TiO2. The average degradation rate of phenol in the presence of Pd and Ag-TiO2 was 0.5 μmol dm-3 min-1 after 60 min of irradiation under visible light, and was five times higher than that of pure TiO2 nanosheets.

  10. Effect of the calcination temperature on the photocatalytic efficiency of acidic sol-gel synthesized TiO2nanoparticles in the degradation of alprazolam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeiro, Andreia; Freitas, Diana; Emília Azenha, M; Canle, Moisés; Burrows, Hugh D

    2017-06-14

    We report a comparative study on the photodegradation of the widely used benzodiazepine psychoactive drug alprazolam (8-chloro-1-methyl-6-phenyl-4H-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a][1,4]benzodiazepine, ALP) using direct photolysis, and titanium dioxide photocatalyzed reaction. Titanium dioxide photocatalysts were prepared as nanoparticles by acidic sol-gel methods, calcined at two different temperatures, and their behavior compared with P25 (Degussa type) TiO 2 . Efficient photodegradation was observed in the photocatalytic process, with over 90% degradation after 90 minutes under optimized conditions. Triazolaminoquinoline, 5-chloro-(5-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)benzophenone, triazolbenzophenone, and α-hydroxyalprazolam were identified as the degradation products by fluorescence spectroscopy and HPLC-MS. A comparison with the literature suggests that 8H-alprazolam may also be formed. Good mineralization was observed with TiO 2 photocatalysts. ALP photodegradation with TiO 2 follows pseudo-first order kinetics, with rates depending on the photocatalyst used. The effects of the quantity of the photocatalyst and concentration of alprazolam were studied.

  11. The synthesis of nitrogen/sulfur co-doped TiO2 nanocrystals with a high specific surface area and a high percentage of {001} facets and their enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen/sulfur co-doped anatase TiO2 nanocrystals with a high specific surface area and a high percentage of {001} facets were synthesized by a solvent-thermal process followed by the calcination with thiourea at an optimum heat treatment temperature. Under current experimental conditions, the optimum heat treatment temperature was found at 300°C, which successfully introduced nitrogen and sulfur dopants into the anatase lattice to replace a small portion of oxygen atoms while preserving the geometry of these anatase TiO2 nanocrystals to maintain a high percentage of {001} facets. These nitrogen/sulfur co-doped anatase TiO2 nanocrystals demonstrated a largely enhanced light absorption in the whole visible-light range and exhibited much higher photocatalytic performance than both P25 TiO2 nanoparticles and anatase TiO2 nanocrystals with a high percentage of {001} facets under visible-light illumination. PMID:23095371

  12. Expanding the applications of the ilmenite mineral to the preparation of nanostructures: TiO2 nanorods and their photocatalytic properties in the degradation of oxalic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Tao; Chen, Ying; Zhou, Dan; Zhang, Hongzhou; Liu, Sanly; Amal, Rose; Sharma, Neeraj; Glushenkov, Alexey M

    2013-01-14

    The mineral ilmenite is one of the most abundant ores in the Earth's crust and it is the main source for the industrial production of bulk titanium oxide. At the same time, methods to convert ilmenite into nanostructures of TiO(2) (which are required for new advanced applications, such as solar cells, batteries, and photocatalysts) have not been explored to any significant extent. Herein, we describe a simple and effective method for the preparation of rutile TiO(2) nanorods from ball-milled ilmenite. These nanorods have small dimensions (width: 5-20 nm, length: 50-100 nm, thickness: 2-5 nm) and possess large specific surface areas (up to 97 m(2)  g(-1)). Dissolution/hydrolysis/precipitation is proposed as a growth mechanism. The nanorods were found to have attractive photocatalytic properties in the degradation of oxalic acid. Their photocatalytic activity is close to that of the benchmark Degussa P25 material and better than that of a commercial high-surface-area rutile powder. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Pure Rutile TiO2 Nanoparticles for Photocatalytic Study and Thin Films for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Siou Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure rutile-phase TiO2 (r-TiO2 was synthesized by a simple one pot experiment under hydrothermal condition using titanium (IV n-butoxide as a Ti-precursor and HCl as a peptizer. The TiO2 products were characterized by XRD, TEM, ESCA, and BET surface area measurement. The r-TiO2 were rodlike in shape with average size of ∼61×32 nm at hydrothermal temperature of 220°C for 10 h. Hydrothermal treatment at longer reaction time increased the tendency of crystal growth and also decreased the BET surface area. The degradation of methylene blue was selected as a test reaction to confer the photocatalytic activity of as-obtained r-TiO2. The results showed a strong correlation between the structure evolution, particle size, and photocatalytic performance of r-TiO2. Furthermore, the r-TiO2-based solar cell was prepared for the photovoltaic characteristics study, and the best efficiency of ~3.16% was obtained.

  14. TiO2 Solar Photocatalytic Reactor Systems: Selection of Reactor Design for Scale-up and Commercialization—Analytical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmine Abdel-Maksoud

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For the last four decades, viability of photocatalytic degradation of organic compounds in water streams has been demonstrated. Different configurations for solar TiO2 photocatalytic reactors have been used, however pilot and demonstration plants are still countable. Degradation efficiency reported as a function of treatment time does not answer the question: which of these reactor configurations is the most suitable for photocatalytic process and optimum for scale-up and commercialization? Degradation efficiency expressed as a function of the reactor throughput and ease of catalyst removal from treated effluent are used for comparing performance of different reactor configurations to select the optimum for scale-up. Comparison included parabolic trough, flat plate, double skin sheet, shallow ponds, shallow tanks, thin-film fixed-bed, thin film cascade, step, compound parabolic concentrators, fountain, slurry bubble column, pebble bed and packed bed reactors. Degradation efficiency as a function of system throughput is a powerful indicator for comparing the performance of photocatalytic reactors of different types and geometries, at different development scales. Shallow ponds, shallow tanks and fountain reactors have the potential of meeting all the process requirements and a relatively high throughput are suitable for developing into continuous industrial-scale treatment units given that an efficient immobilized or supported photocatalyst is used.

  15. Color and COD degradation in photocatalytic process of procion red by using TiO2 catalyst under solar irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Melati Ireng; Agustina, Tuty Emilia; Melwita, Elda; Aprianti, Tine

    2017-11-01

    Increasing textile industries in Indonesia resulted in increasing the utilization of dyes. The use of synthetic dyes are still dominating because they have many advantages. But, synthetic dyes are difficult to decompose in nature so they can cause potential pollution if discharged directly into the environment. In this study, Procion Red was used as a model of synthetic dye wastewater. The objective of this research is to study the effect of TiO2 catalyst concentration and irradiation time on the degradation of Procion Red under solar irradiation. Photo degradation takes place by using TiO2 catalyst powder in the various concentration of Procion Red of 150-300 ppm. The various concentrations of TiO2 catalyst of 0.5-8 g/l were used. The color and COD degradation of Procion Red for 12 hours of solar irradiation were investigated. Color degradation was measured by using a spectrophotometer. While COD degradation was measured by using Ferrous Ammonium Sulfate (FAS) analysis method. The result showed when using Procion Red of 150 ppm, the highest color degradation of 100% was achieved by using TiO2 catalyst of 6 g/l and the highest COD degradation of 62% was obtained by using TiO2 catalyst of 8 g/l, under 12 hours of solar irradiation

  16. The Equation R[subscript n]x = b over Rhotrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminu, Abdulhadi

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we consider the concept of rhotrices and present one-sided system of the form R[subscript n]x = b, where R[subscript n] is an n-dimensional rhotrix, x the unknown n-dimensional rhotrix vector and b the right-hand-side rhotrix vector.

  17. Degradation of a textile reactive azo dye by a combined biological-photocatalytic process: Candida tropicalis Jks2 -Tio2/Uv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Narjes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present study, the decolorization and degradation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5 azo dye was investigated by biological, photocatalytic (UV/TiO2 and combined processes. Application of Candida tropicalis JKS2 in treatment of the synthetic medium containing RB5 indicated complete decolorization of the dye with 200 mg/L in less than 24 h. Degradation of the aromatic rings, resulting from the destruction of the dye, did not occur during the biological treatment. Mineralization of 50 mg/L RB5 solution was obtained after 80 min by photocatalytic process (in presence of 0.2 g/L TiO2. COD (chemical oxygen demand was not detectable after complete decolorization of 50 mg/L RB5 solution. However, photocatalytic process was not effective in the removal of the dye at high concentrations (≥200 mg/L. With 200 mg/L concentration, 74.9% of decolorization was achieved after 4 h illumination under photocatalytic process and the absorbance peak in UV region (attributed to aromatic rings was not completely removed. A two-step treatment process, namely, biological treatment by yeast followed by photocatalytic degradation, was also assessed. In the combined process (with 200 mg/L RB5, absorbance peak in UV region significantly disappeared after 2 h illumination and about 60% COD removal was achieved in the biological step. It is suggested that the combined process is more effective than the biological and photocatalytic treatments in the remediation of aromatic rings.

  18. Degradation of a textile reactive azo dye by a combined biological-photocatalytic process: Candida tropicalis Jks2 -Tio2/Uv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjes Jafari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the decolorization and degradation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5 azo dye was investigated by biological, photocatalytic (UV/TiO2 and combined processes.Application of Candida tropicalis JKS2 in treatment of the synthetic medium containing RB5 indicated complete decolorization of the dye with 200 mg/L in less than 24 h. Degradation ofthe aromatic rings, resulting from the destruction of the dye, did not occur during the biological treatment. Mineralization of 50 mg/L RB5 solution was obtained after 80 min by photocatalytic process (in presence of 0.2 g/L TiO2. COD (chemical oxygen demand wasnot detectable after complete decolorization of 50 mg/L RB5 solution. However,photocatalytic process was not effective in the removal of the dye at high concentrations (≥200 mg/L. With 200 mg/L concentration, 74.9% of decolorization was achieved after 4 hillumination under photocatalytic process and the absorbance peak in UV region (attributed to aromatic rings was not completely removed. A two-step treatment process, namely,biological treatment by yeast followed by photocatalytic degradation, was also assessed. In the combined process (with 200 mg/L RB5, absorbance peak in UV region significantly disappeared after 2 h illumination and about 60 % COD removal was achieved in the biological step. It is suggested that the combined process is more effective than the biological and photocatalytic treatments in the remediation of aromatic rings.

  19. Copper modified TiO2 catalysts: application to nitrobenzenes degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyu Shui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper doped TiO2 by the method of sol-gel preparation was conducted to stimulate the TiO2 visible light response and enhance the performance of photocatalytic degradation. By XRD, SEM and EDS analysis, molar ratio of 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0% and 1.0% Cu doped TiO2 presented smaller grain sizes (20-50 nm than German P25 TiO2 (50-100 nm. Especially, 1.5% Cu doped TiO2 presented the highest and finest degree of crystallinity from XRD peak. Its reunion phenomenon was the weakest among all Cu doped TiO2. Combined with Cu doping structure, micro stress changes as well as the performance of the degradation of nitrobenzenes (NBs, the optimum mol ratio of Cu doped TiO2 was 1.5%. With 1.5% Cu doped TiO2 for 180 min UV light degradation of NBs, the removal efficiency was 60.02%, two times higher than that of Germany P25 TiO2. The reaction of NBs photocatalytic degradation by CuxTi(1-xO2 followed first order kinetics. Synthetically, SEM, ESD and performances of NBs degradation confirmed that the optimal formula of CuxTi(1-xO2 for degradation of NBs was Cu0.0183Ti0.9817O2.

  20. Photocatalytic process of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification of flue gas by TiO2-polyacrylonitrile nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chunyan; Ran, Xu; Hu, Jianglei; Shao, Changlu

    2013-10-15

    TiO2 nanoparticles were successfully fabricated on electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers via the coupling of electrospinning and hydrothermal pathway. A straightforward photocatalysis oxidation process has been developed for simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification of flue gas using the TiO2-PAN photocatalyst. Also, the influences of some important operating parameters, such as titanium loading content of catalyst, flue gas humidity, flue gas flow, and inlet flue gas temperature on removal efficiencies of SO2 and NO were investigated. The results demonstrated that removal efficiencies of 99.3% for SO2 and 71.2% for NO were attained under the following optimal experiment conditions: titanium loading content, 6.78 At %; gas flow rate, 200 mL/min; flue gas humidity, 5%; inlet flue gas temperature, 40 °C. Furthermore, the presumed reaction mechanism of SO2 and NO removal using TiO2-PAN photocatalyst under UV light was proposed.

  1. Synthesis of surface molecular imprinted TiO2/graphene photocatalyst and its highly efficient photocatalytic degradation of target pollutant under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Cui; Wang, Man-Man; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Liu, Yun-Guo; Huang, Dan-Lian; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Rong-Zhong; Xu, Piao; Cheng, Min; Huang, Chao; Wu, Hai-Peng; Qin, Lei

    2016-12-01

    The molecular imprinted TiO2/graphene photocatalyst (MIP-TiO2/GR) was successfully prepared with bisphenol A (BPA) as the template molecule (target pollutant) and o-phenylenediamine (OPDA) as functional monomers by the surface molecular imprinting method. The combination between BPA and OPDA led to the formation of the precursor, and the subsequent polymerization of OPDA initiated by ultraviolet radiation can ensure the realization of MIP-TiO2/GR. The samples were characterized by SEM, EDS, XRD, BET, UV-vis DRS and Zeta potential. In addition, adsorption capacities, adsorption selectivity and visible light photocatalytic performances of MIP-TiO2/GR and non-imprinted TiO2/graphene (NIP-TiO2/GR) were evaluated. Moreover, the effects of pH and initial BPA concentration on removal efficiency of BPA were also investigated. The results showed that MIP-TiO2/GR exhibited better adsorption capacity and adsorption selectivity towards the template molecule compared to NIP-TiO2/GR due to the imprinted cavities on the surface of MIP-TiO2/GR. Moreover, the photocatalytic activity of MIP-TiO2/GR toward the target molecules was stronger than that of NIP-TiO2/GR as a result of large adsorption capacity to target molecules and narrow band gap energy on MIP-TiO2/GR. Therefore, modifying the photocatalyst by the surface molecular imprinting is a promising method to improve the molecule recognition and photocatalytic efficiency of photocatalyst for target pollutant.

  2. Photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical properties of sol–gel TiO2 films of controlled thickness and porosity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krýsa, J.; Baudyš, M.; Zlámal, M.; Krýsová, Hana; Morozová, Magdalena; Klusoň, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 230, JUL 2014 (2014), s. 2-7 ISSN 0920-5861 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : TiO2 film * Sol-gel * Thickness Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.893, year: 2014

  3. Selective Photocatalytic Reduction of NOx with Fe-doped TiO2 : A New Approach Towards Photocatalyst Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional TiO2 based photocatalysts oxidize NOx to nitrates which do not automatically desorb and have to be washed away from the catalyst surface. To avoid this, the research described in this thesis aims to design new photocatalysts that can photo-reduce NO into N2 and O2. Previous efforts in

  4. Facile synthesis of TiO2/microcrystalline cellulose nanocomposites: photocatalytically active material under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doped TiO2 nanocomposites were prepared in situ by a facile and simple synthesis utilizing benign and renewable precursors such as microcrystalline cellulose (MC) and TiCl4 through hydrolysis in alkaline medium without the addition of organic solvents. The as-prepared nanocompos...

  5. Photocatalytic inactivation of bacteria from spoiled raw chicken carcasses in aqueous suspensions by TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial spoilage is a major cause of reduced shelf life of fresh poultry; therefore, decreasing contamination by spoilage bacteria could increase the shelf life of these products. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in the presence of UVA light possess antibacterial activities towards several ba...

  6. Enhanced Adsorption and Photocatalytic Activities of Co-Doped TiO2 Immobilized on Silica for Paraquat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghia, Nguyen Manh; Negishi, Nobuaki; Hue, Nguyen Thi

    2018-01-01

    We studied the adsorption and photocatalysis of paraquat in an aqueous solution with cobalt-doped TiO2 supported on mesoporous silica gel. With Co concentration increasing from 0% to 9%, it was found that the TiO2 anatase phase remained unchanged and the Co was uniformly distributed, while the band gap energy decreased from 3.32 eV to 2.64 eV. The drop in band gap energy leads to the Co-TiO2/silica gel photocatalyst oxidation of paraquat to NH4 + and NO3 - products under visible light. Relative to TiO2, the incorporation of Co into TiO2 led to an increase in the adsorption ability against the paraquat. A possible mechanism of the paraquat degradation may be that the paraquat was selectively adsorbed onto the Co-TiO2/silica gel photocatalyst before light irradiation and after that the paraquat was continuously photodecomposed.

  7. Photocatalytic ozonation of urban wastewater and surface water using immobilized TiO2 with LEDs: Micropollutants, antibiotic resistance genes and estrogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Nuno F F; Sousa, José M; Macedo, Gonçalo; Ribeiro, Ana R; Barreiros, Luisa; Pedrosa, Marta; Faria, Joaquim L; Pereira, M Fernando R; Castro-Silva, Sérgio; Segundo, Marcela A; Manaia, Célia M; Nunes, Olga C; Silva, Adrián M T

    2016-05-01

    Photocatalytic ozonation was employed for the first time in continuous mode with TiO2-coated glass Raschig rings and light emitting diodes (LEDs) to treat urban wastewater as well as surface water collected from the supply area of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP). Different levels of contamination and types of contaminants were considered in this work, including chemical priority substances (PSs) and contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), as well as potential human opportunistic antibiotic resistant bacteria and their genes (ARB&ARG). Photocatalytic ozonation was more effective than single ozonation (or even than TiO2 catalytic ozonation) in the degradation of typical reaction by-products (such as oxalic acid), and more effective than photocatalysis to remove the parent micropollutants determined in urban wastewater. In fact, only fluoxetine, clarithromycin, erythromycin and 17-alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were detected after photocatalytic ozonation, by using solid-phase extraction (SPE) pre-concentration and LC-MS/MS analysis. In surface water, this treatment allowed the removal of all determined micropollutants to levels below the limit of detection (0.01-0.20 ng L(-1)). The efficiency of this process was then assessed based on the capacity to remove different groups of cultivable microorganisms and housekeeping (16S rRNA) and antibiotic resistance or related genes (intI1, blaTEM, qnrS, sul1). Photocatalytic ozonation was observed to efficiently remove microorganisms and ARGs. Although after storage total heterotrophic and ARB (to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, meropenem), fungi, and the genes 16S rRNA and intI1, increased to values close to the pre-treatment levels, the ARGs (blaTEM, qnrS and sul1) were reduced to levels below/close to the quantification limit even after 3-days storage of treated surface water or wastewater. Yeast estrogen screen (YES), thiazolyl blue tetrazolium reduction (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays were also performed

  8. Photocatalytic antibacterial effects are maintained on resin-based TiO2 nanocomposites after cessation of UV irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yanling; Strømme, Maria; Welch, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Photocatalysis induced by TiO2 and UV light constitutes a decontamination and antibacterial strategy utilized in many applications including self-cleaning environmental surfaces, water and air treatment. The present work reveals that antibacterial effects induced by photocatalysis can be maintained even after the cessation of UV irradiation. We show that resin-based composites containing 20% TiO2 nanoparticles continue to provide a pronounced antibacterial effect against the pathogens Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis for up to two hours post UV. For biomaterials or implant coatings, where direct UV illumination is not feasible, a prolonged antibacterial effect after the cessation of the illumination would offer new unexplored treatment possibilities.

  9. Photocatalytic antibacterial effects are maintained on resin-based TiO2 nanocomposites after cessation of UV irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Cai

    Full Text Available Photocatalysis induced by TiO2 and UV light constitutes a decontamination and antibacterial strategy utilized in many applications including self-cleaning environmental surfaces, water and air treatment. The present work reveals that antibacterial effects induced by photocatalysis can be maintained even after the cessation of UV irradiation. We show that resin-based composites containing 20% TiO2 nanoparticles continue to provide a pronounced antibacterial effect against the pathogens Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis for up to two hours post UV. For biomaterials or implant coatings, where direct UV illumination is not feasible, a prolonged antibacterial effect after the cessation of the illumination would offer new unexplored treatment possibilities.

  10. Photocatalytic performance of porous TiO2 layers prepared by quantitative electrophoretic deposition from organic solvents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žouželka, Radek; Remzová, Monika; Brabec, Libor; Rathouský, Jiří

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 227, JUL 2018 (2018), s. 70-78 ISSN 0926-3373 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-18972S Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_013/0001821 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : EPD * Photocatalysis * TiO2 Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 9.446, year: 2016

  11. The Influence of Fe(III) Speciation on Supported TiO2 Efficiency: Example of Monuron Photocatalytic Degradation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Měšťánková, Hana; Krýsa, J.; Jirkovský, Jaromír; Mailhot, G.; Bolte, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 58, 3-4 (2005), s. 185-191 ISSN 0926-3373 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/02/0662; GA ČR GA203/02/0983 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : supported TiO2 * Fe(OH)2+ * monuron * photodegradation Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.809, year: 2005

  12. Cyclohexane photo-catalytic oxidation on TiO2, an in situ ATR-FTIR mechanistic and kinetic study

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical processes are generally operated at elevated temperatures and pressures, and energy intensive separations are usually necessary. This thesis focuses on the production of cyclohexanone, which is an intermediate of high commercial importance as a result of its use in nylon-6 and nylon-6,6 production. Using TiO2 based photo-catalysis is a promising alternative to the inefficient commercial process of cyclohexanone production, producing cyclohexanone very selectively at ambient condition...

  13. Efficacy of the Reactive Oxygen Species Generated by Immobilized TiO2 in the Photocatalytic Degradation of Diclofenac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Di Credico

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the photodegradation of diclofenac (DCF by hydrothermal anatase nanocrystals either free or immobilized in porous silica matrix (TS in connection to the type and amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS, in order to have deeper insight into their role in the photocatalysis and to provide an effective tool to implement the DCF mineralization. TiO2 and TS exhibit a remarkable efficiency in the DCF abatement, supporting that the utilization of anatase nanoparticles with the highly reactive {001}, {010}, and {101} exposed surfaces can be an effective way for enhancing the photooxidation even of the persistent pollutants. Furthermore, the hydrothermal TiO2, when immobilized in silica matrix, preserves its functional properties, combining high photoactivity with an easy technical use and recovery of the catalyst. The catalysts performances have been related to the presence of OH•, O21, and O2-• species by electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trap technique. The results demonstrated that the ROS concentration increases with the increase of photoactivity and indicated a significant involvement of O21 in the DCF degradation. The efficacy of TiO2 when immobilized on a silica matrix was associated with the high ROS life time and with the presence of singlet oxygen, which contributes to the complete photomineralization of DCF.

  14. Hydrogen Evolution from Napiergrass by the Combination of Biological Treatment and a Pt-Loaded TiO2-Photocatalytic Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahide Yasuda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol and pentose were produced from lignocellulosic napiergrass by the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (SSF using hydrolytic enzyme and S. Cerevisiae. After the ethanol was removed, the pentose solution was subjected to photocatalytic hydrogen evolution with Pt-loaded TiO2 under UV-irradiation. This process converted 100 g of napiergrass into 12.3 g of ethanol and 1.76 g of hydrogen whose total combustion energy of (∆H was 615 kJ. This was close to the ∆H (639 kJ of the pentose (13.6 g and hexose (27.4 g obtained by the cellulose-saccharification of 100 g of napiergrass.

  15. Water adsorption on TiO2 surfaces probed by soft X-ray spectroscopies: bulk materials vs. isolated nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkoula, Safia; Sublemontier, Olivier; Patanen, Minna; Nicolas, Christophe; Sirotti, Fausto; Naitabdi, Ahmed; Gaie-Levrel, François; Antonsson, Egill; Aureau, Damien; Ouf, François-Xavier; Wada, Shin-Ichi; Etcheberry, Arnaud; Ueda, Kiyoshi; Miron, Catalin

    2015-01-01

    We describe an experimental method to probe the adsorption of water at the surface of isolated, substrate-free TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) based on soft X-ray spectroscopy in the gas phase using synchrotron radiation. To understand the interfacial properties between water and TiO2 surface, a water shell was adsorbed at the surface of TiO2 NPs. We used two different ways to control the hydration level of the NPs: in the first scheme, initially solvated NPs were dried and in the second one, dry NPs generated thanks to a commercial aerosol generator were exposed to water vapor. XPS was used to identify the signature of the water layer shell on the surface of the free TiO2 NPs and made it possible to follow the evolution of their hydration state. The results obtained allow the establishment of a qualitative determination of isolated NPs’ surface states, as well as to unravel water adsorption mechanisms. This method appears to be a unique approach to investigate the interface between an isolated nano-object and a solvent over-layer, paving the way towards new investigation methods in heterogeneous catalysis on nanomaterials. PMID:26462615

  16. Investigation of affecting operational parameters in photocatalytic degradation of reactive red 198 with TiO2: optimization through response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Asvadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dye-containing wastewater generated from textile industries is a major source of environmental pollution. Azo dyes, which are the largest group of coloring agents, are widely used in industries.This research investigated the photocatalytic decolorization and degradation of an azo dye Reactive Red 198 (RR198 in aqueous solution with TiO2-P25 (Degussa as photocatalyst in slurry form using UV light. There is a significant difference in adsorption of dye on TiO2 surface with the change in the solution pH. The effect of various parameters such as catalyst loading, pH and initial concentration of the dye on decolorization and degradation have been determined. The optimum conditions of the reactor were acquired at dye concentration = 62 ppm, pH = 3.7, catalyst concentration = 2.25 g.L-1, in which dye removal efficiency was 98%. Catalyst loading (relevant coefficient = 19.25 and pH (relevant coefficient = −2.62 were resulted respectively as the most and less effective parameters on dye removal

  17. Photocatalytic Degradation of Anionic Azo Dyes Acid Orange 7 and Acid Red 88 in Aqueous Solutions Using TiO2-containing Hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Bahram

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic degradation of two anionic azo dyes Acid Red88 (AR 88 and Acid Orange 7 (AO7 was investigated in aqueous solution using a TiO2-containing hydrogel and UV light. The pH-sensitive hydrogel poly (styrene-alt-maleic anhydride (PSMA, was synthesized and crosslinked in the presence of melamine and TiO2 nanoparticles which results in entrapment of TiO‌2 into the melamine-grafted PSMA (M-g-PSMA hydrogel. Potential application of this nanocomposite for removal of azo dyes from wastewater was studied and the effective parameters on degradation process including time, initial pH value of the solutions, temperature and amount of added nanocomposite were optimized. The optimized values for effective parameters are as follows: time: 30 min, initial pH of the solutions: 5.23 for AO7 and 5.3 for AR88, temperature: 24 ºC and amount of added nanocomposite: 250 mg. Results showed that in optimum experimental conditions the removal percentages are about %94 for AR88 and %71 for AO7 indicating good removal performance toward the method whilst pH-sensitivity of the nanocomposite facilitates retrieval of nanocatalyst at the end of the reaction.

  18. Pt‐Decorated g‐C3N4/TiO2 Nanotube Arrays with Enhanced Visible‐Light Photocatalytic Activity for H2 Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhi‐Da; Qu, Yong‐Fang; Zhou, Xuemei; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aligned TiO2 nanotube layers (TiNTs) grown by self‐organizing anodization of a Ti‐substrate in a fluoride‐based electrolyte were decorated with graphitic‐phase C3N4 (g‐C3N4) via a facile chemical vapor deposition approach. In comparison with classical TiO2 nanotubes (anatase), the g‐C3N4/TiNTs show an onset of the photocurrent at 2.4 eV (vs. 3.2 eV for anatase) with a considerably high photocurrent magnitude in the visible range. After further decoration with Pt nanoparticles, we obtained a visible‐light responsive platform that showed, compared with g‐C3N4‐free TiNTs, a strong enhancement for photoelectrochemical and bias‐free H2 evolution (15.62 μLh−1 cm−2), which was almost a 98‐fold increase in the H2 production rate of TiNTs (0.16 μLh−1 cm−2). In a wider context, the g‐C3N4‐combined 3 D nanoporous/nanotubular structure thus provides a platform with significant visible‐light response in photocatalytic applications. PMID:27891298

  19. Pt-Decorated g-C3N4/TiO2Nanotube Arrays with Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity for H2Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhi-Da; Qu, Yong-Fang; Zhou, Xuemei; Wang, Lei; Song, Yan-Yan; Schmuki, Patrik

    2016-06-01

    Aligned TiO 2 nanotube layers (TiNTs) grown by self-organizing anodization of a Ti-substrate in a fluoride-based electrolyte were decorated with graphitic-phase C 3 N 4 (g-C 3 N 4 ) via a facile chemical vapor deposition approach. In comparison with classical TiO 2 nanotubes (anatase), the g-C 3 N 4 /TiNTs show an onset of the photocurrent at 2.4 eV (vs. 3.2 eV for anatase) with a considerably high photocurrent magnitude in the visible range. After further decoration with Pt nanoparticles, we obtained a visible-light responsive platform that showed, compared with g-C 3 N 4 -free TiNTs, a strong enhancement for photoelectrochemical and bias-free H 2 evolution (15.62 μLh -1  cm -2 ), which was almost a 98-fold increase in the H 2 production rate of TiNTs (0.16 μLh -1  cm -2 ). In a wider context, the g-C 3 N 4 -combined 3 D nanoporous/nanotubular structure thus provides a platform with significant visible-light response in photocatalytic applications.

  20. Nanoscale self-recovery of resistive switching in Ar+ irradiated TiO2‑x films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, A.; Saini, C. P.; Sarkar, P. K.; Das, D.; Dhar, S.; Singh, M.; Sinha, A. K.; Kanjilal, D.; Gupta, M.; Phase, D. M.; Kanjilal, A.

    2017-11-01

    Nanoscale evidence of self-recovery in resistive switching (RS) behavior was found in TiO2‑x film by conductive atomic force microscopy when exposed to Ar+-ions above a threshold fluence of 1  ×  1016 ions cm‑2. This revealed an evolution and gradual disappearance of bipolar RS-loops, followed by reappearance with increasing number of voltage sweep. This was discussed in the realm of oxygen vacancy (OV) driven formation, dissolution and reformation of conducting filaments. The presence of OVs in ion-beam irradiated TiO2‑x films was evidenced by decreasing trend of work function in scanning-Kelvin probe microscopy, and was further verified by x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy at Ti and O-K edges.