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Sample records for tio2 photocatalytic oxidation

  1. How Pt nanoparticles affect TiO2-induced gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraters, B.D.; Amrollahi Buky, Rezvaneh; Mul, Guido

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Pt nanoparticles on the gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation activity of TiO2 is shown to be largely dependent on the molecular functionality of the substrate. We demonstrate that Pt nanoparticles decrease rates in photocatalytic oxidation of propane, whereas a strong beneficial effect

  2. Photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization of dibenzothiophene catalyzed by amorphous TiO2 in ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wenshuai; Xu, Yehai; Li, Huaming; Dai, Bilian; Xu, Hui; Wang, Chao; Chao, Yanhong; Liu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Three types of TiO 2 were synthesized by a hydrolysis and calcination method. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS), Raman spectra, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XRD and Raman spectra indicated that amorphous TiO 2 was successfully obtained at 100 .deg. C. The results indicated that amorphous TiO 2 achieved the highest efficiency of desulfurization. The photocatalytic oxidation of dibenzothiophene (DBT), benzothiophene (BT), 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) and dodecanethiol (RSH) in model oil was studied at room temperature (30 .deg. C) with three catalysts. The system contained amorphous TiO 2 , H 2 O 2 , and [Bmim]BF 4 ionic liquid, ultraviolet (UV), which played vitally important roles in the photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization. Especially, the molar ratio of H 2 O 2 and sulfur (O/S) was only 2 : 1, which corresponded to the stoichiometric reaction. The sulfur removal of DBT-containing model oil with amorphous TiO 2 could reach 96.6%, which was apparently superior to a system with anatase TiO 2 (23.6%) or with anatase - rutile TiO 2 (18.2%). The system could be recycled seven times without a signicant decrease in photocatalytic activity

  3. Reduced graphene oxide is not a universal promoter for photocatalytic activities of TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ling Tan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Addition of reduced graphene oxide (RGO to P25 TiO2 was made and its impacts on photocatalytic oxidation of various organic substances were studied. Although the presence of RGO in TiO2 can enhance certain TiO2-based photocatalytic reactions, it is not a universal observation that can be expected in all types of organic substances. The factor of photocatalytic activity enhancement is strongly affected by the various functional groups appeared in the organic substances. In this work, it is realised that the length of alkyl chain in alcohols and carboxylic acids have the minimum influence on the overall activity while the number of hydroxyl groups can promote the further activity enhancement in the presence of RGO.

  4. Microporous TiO2-WO3/TiO2 films with visible-light photocatalytic activity synthesized by micro arc oxidation and DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Kee-Rong; Hung, Chung-Hsuang; Yeh, Chung-Wei; Wu, Jiing-Kae

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A simple MAO is used to prepare porous WO 3 /TiO 2 layer on Ti sheet as a visible-light enabled catalyst. ► The photocatalytic activity of the WO 3 /TiO 2 is enhanced by sputtering over an N,C-TiO 2 layer. ► This is ascribed to the synergetic effect of hybrid sample prepared by two-step method. - Abstract: This study reports the preparation of microporous TiO 2 -WO 3 /TiO 2 films with a high surface area using a two-step approach. A porous WO 3 /TiO 2 template was synthesized by oxidizing a titanium sheet using a micro arc oxidation (MAO) process. This sheet was subsequently overlaid with a visible light (Vis)-enabled TiO 2 (N,C-TiO 2 ) film, which was deposited by codoping nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) ions into a TiO 2 lattice using direct current magnetron sputtering. The resulting microporous TiO 2 -WO 3 /TiO 2 film with a 0.38-μm-thick N,C-TiO 2 top-layer exhibited high photocatalytic activity in methylene blue (MB) degradation among samples under ultraviolet (UV) and Vis irradiation. This is attributable to the synergetic effect of two-step preparation method, which provides a highly porous microstructure and the well-crystallized N,C-TiO 2 top-layer. This is because a higher surface area with high crystallinity favors the adsorption of more MB molecules and more photocatalytic active areas. Thus, the microporous TiO 2 -WO 3 /TiO 2 film has promising applications in the photocatalytic degradation of dye solution under UV and Vis irradiation. These results imply that the microporous WO 3 /TiO 2 can be used as a template of hybrid electrode because it enables rapid fabrication.

  5. Role of Platinum Deposited on TiO2 in Photocatalytic Methanol Oxidation and Dehydrogenation Reactions

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    Luma M. Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Titania modified nanoparticles have been prepared by the photodeposition method employing platinum particles on the commercially available titanium dioxide (Hombikat UV 100. The properties of the prepared photocatalysts were investigated by means of the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and UV-visible diffuse spectrophotometry (UV-Vis. XRD was employed to determine the crystallographic phase and particle size of both bare and platinised titanium dioxide. The results indicated that the particle size was decreased with the increasing of platinum loading. AFM analysis showed that one particle consists of about 9 to 11 crystals. UV-vis absorbance analysis showed that the absorption edge shifted to longer wavelength for 0.5% Pt loading compared with bare titanium dioxide. The photocatalytic activity of pure and Pt-loaded TiO2 was investigated employing the photocatalytic oxidation and dehydrogenation of methanol. The results of the photocatalytic activity indicate that the platinized titanium dioxide samples are always more active than the corresponding bare TiO2 for both methanol oxidation and dehydrogenation processes. The loading with various platinum amounts resulted in a significant improvement of the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. This beneficial effect was attributed to an increased separation of the photogenerated electron-hole charge carriers.

  6. Composite TiO2/clays materials for photocatalytic NOx oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, N.; Giannakopoulou, T.; Karapati, S.; Petridis, D.; Vaimakis, T.; Trapalis, C.

    2014-11-01

    TiO2 photocatalyst received much attention for air purification applications especially for removal of air pollutants like NOx, VOCs etc. It has been established that the activity of the photocatalyst can be significantly enhanced by its immobilization onto suitable substrates like inorganic minerals, porous silica, hydroxyapatite, adsorbent materials like activated carbon, various co-catalysts such as semiconductors, graphene, reduced graphite oxide, etc. In the present work, photocatalytic composite materials consisted of mineral substrate and TiO2 in weight ratio 1:1 were manufactured and examined for oxidation and removal of nitric oxides NOx (NO and NO2). Commercial titania P25 (Evonik-Degussa) and urea-modified P25 were used as photocatalytically active components. Inorganic minerals, namely kunipia, talk and hydrotalcite were selected as supporting materials due to their layered structure and expected high NOx adsorption capability. Al3+ and Ca2+ intercalation was applied in order to improve the dispersion of TiO2 and its loading into the supporting matrix. The X-ray diffraction analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed the binary structure of the composites and homogeneous dispersion of the photocatalyst into the substrates. The photocatalytic behavior of the materials in NOx oxidation and removal was investigated under UV and visible light irradiation. The composite materials exhibited superior photocatalytic activity than the bare titania under both types of irradiation. Significant visible light activity was recorded for the composites containing urea-modified titania that was accredited to the N-doping of the semiconductor. Among the different substrates, the hydrotalcite caused highest increase in the NOx removal, while among the intercalation ions the Ca2+ was more efficient. The results were related to the improved dispersion of the TiO2 and the synergetic activity of the substrates as NOx adsorbers.

  7. Ag-loaded TiO2/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilaki, E.; Georgaki, I.; Vernardou, D.; Vamvakaki, M.; Katsarakis, N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag nanoparticles were loaded on TiO 2 by chemical reduction. • TiO 2 /Ag and TiO 2 samples were deposited on reduced graphene oxide (rGO). • Their performance was evaluated via methylene blue removal under visible-light. • TiO 2 /Ag/rGO presented superior activity compared to TiO 2 , TiO 2 /Ag and TiO 2 /rGO. - Abstract: In this work, Ag nanoparticles were loaded by chemical reduction onto TiO 2 P25 under different loadings ranging from 1 up to 4 wt% and hydrothermally deposited on reduced graphene oxide sheets. Chemical reduction was determined to be an effective preparation approach for Ag attachment to titania, leading to the formation of small silver nanoparticles with an average diameter of 4.2 nm. The photocatalytic performance of the hybrid nanocomposite materials was evaluated via methylene blue (MB) dye removal under visible-light irradiation. The rate of dye decolorization was found to depend on the metal loading, showing an increase till a threshold value of 3 wt%, above which the rate drops. Next, the as prepared sample of TiO 2 /Ag of better photocatalytic response, i.e., at a 3 wt% loading value, was hydrothermally deposited on a platform of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) of tunable content (mass ratio). TiO 2 /Ag/rGO coupled nanocomposite presented significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to the TiO 2 /Ag, TiO 2 /rGO composites and bare P25 titania semiconductor photocatalysts. In particular, after 45 min of irradiation almost complete decolorization of the dye was observed for the TiO 2 /Ag/rGO nanocatalyst, while the respective removal efficiency was 92% for TiO 2 /Ag, 93% for TiO 2 /rGO and only 80% for the bare TiO 2 nanoparticles. This simple step by step preparation strategy allows for optimum exploitation of the advanced properties of metal plasmonic effect and reduced graphene oxide as the critical host for boosting the overall photocatalytic activity towards visible-light.

  8. Photocatalytic oxidation dynamics of acetone on TiO2: tight-binding quantum chemical molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Chen; Wang Xiaojing; Agalya, Govindasamy; Koyama, Michihisa; Kubo, Momoji; Miyamoto, Akira

    2005-01-01

    The clarification of the excited states dynamics on TiO 2 surface is important subject for the design of the highly active photocatalysts. In the present study, we applied our novel tight-binding quantum chemical molecular dynamics method to the investigation on the photocatalytic oxidation dynamics of acetone by photogenerated OH radicals on the hydrated anatase TiO 2 surface. The elucidated photocatalytic reaction mechanism strongly supports the previous experimental proposal and finally the effectiveness of our new approach for the clarification of the photocatalytic reaction dynamics employing the large simulation model was confirmed

  9. Preparation of an antibacterial, hydrophilic and photocatalytically active polyacrylic coating using TiO2 nanoparticles sensitized by graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrati, Rahimeh; Olad, Ali; Shakoori, Sahar

    2017-11-01

    In recent years more attentions have been paid for preparation of coatings with self-cleaning and antibacterial properties. These properties allow the surface to maintain clean and health over long times without any need to cleaning or disinfection. Acrylic coatings are widely used on various surfaces such as automotive, structural and furniture which their self-cleaning and antibacterial ability is very important. The aim of this work is the preparation of a polyacrylic based self-cleaning and antibacterial coating by the modification of TiO 2 as a coating additive. TiO 2 nanoparticles were sensitized to the visible light irradiation using graphene oxide through the preparation of TiO 2 /graphene oxide nanocomposite. Graphene oxide was prepared via a modified Hummers method. TiO 2 /graphene oxide nanocomposite was used as additive in a polyacrylic coating formulation. Hydrophilicity, photocatalytic and antibacterial activities as well as coating stability were evaluated for TiO 2 /graphene oxide modified polyacrylic coating and compared with that of pristine TiO 2 modified and unmodified polyacrylic coatings. TiO 2 /graphene oxide nanocomposite and polyacrylic coating modified by TiO 2 /graphene oxide additive were characterized using FT-IR, UV-Vis, XRD, and FESEM techniques. The effect of TiO 2 /graphene oxide composition and its percent in the coating formulation was evaluated on the polyacrylic coating properties. Results showed that polyacrylic coating having 3% W TiO 2 /graphene oxide nanocomposite additive with TiO 2 to graphene oxide ratio of 100:20 is the best coating considering most of beneficial features such as high photodecolorization efficiency of organic dye contaminants, high hydrophilicity, and stability in water. According to the results, TiO 2 is effectively sensitized by graphene oxide and the polyacrylic coating modified by TiO 2 /graphene oxide nanocomposite shows good photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation. Copyright © 2017

  10. Photocatalytic Oxidation of Acetone Over High Thermally Stable TiO2 Nanosheets With Exposed (001) Facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ting; Duan, Youyu; Lv, Kangle; Hu, Zhao; Li, Qin; Li, Mei; Li, Xiaofang

    2018-01-01

    Anatase TiO 2 (A-TiO 2 ) usually exhibits superior photocatalytic activity than rutile TiO 2 (R-TiO 2 ). However, the phase transformation from A-TiO 2 to R-TiO 2 will inevitably happens when the calcination temperature is up to 600°C, which hampers the practical applications of TiO 2 photocatalysis in hyperthermal situations. In this paper, high energy faceted TiO 2 nanosheets (TiO 2 -NSs) with super thermal stability was prepared by calcination of TiOF 2 cubes. With increase in the calcination temperature from 300 to 600°C, TiOF 2 transforms into TiO 2 hollow nanoboxes (TiO 2 -HNBs) assembly from TiO 2 -NSs via Ostwald Rippening process. Almost all of the TiO 2 -HNBs are disassembled into discrete TiO 2 -NSs when calcination temperature is higher than 700°C. Phase transformation from A-TiO 2 to R-TiO 2 begins at 1000°C. Only when the calcination temperature is higher than 1200°C can all the TiO 2 -NSs transforms into R-TiO 2 . The 500°C-calcined sample (T500) exhibits the highest photoreactivity toward acetone oxidation possibly because of the production of high energy TiO 2 -NSs with exposed high energy (001) facets and the surface adsorbed fluorine. Surface oxygen vacancy, due to the heat-induced removal of surface adsorbed fluoride ions, is responsible for the high thermal stability of TiO 2 -NSs which are prepared by calcination of TiOF 2 cubes.

  11. The effect of water on the performance of TiO2 in photocatalytic selective alkane oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro, J.T.; Carneiro, Joana T.; Yang, Chieh-Chao; Moulijn, Jacob A.; Mul, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Deactivation of TiO2 is hampering practical implementation of photocatalytic alternatives for energetically intensive selective oxidation processes. In the present study, humidification of the air stream is demonstrated to be a solution to this problem for well-defined photocatalysts, such as

  12. The Effects of Oxidation Temperature on the Microstructure and Photocatalytic Activity of the TiO2 Coating

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    Xinxin TANG

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Titanium coatings were prepared on the surface of 1mm ZrO2 balls by mechanical ball mill, then the coatings were oxidized to photocatalytic TiO2 films at 400 ~ 600 °C. X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy and Optical Microscope were used to analyze the microstructure and crystal form of the films. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was also evaluated. After that, the effects of oxidation temperature on the microstructure and photocatalytic activity of the films were discussed. The results show that the fabricated coatings are uneven, with average thickness of 60 μm. In the process of oxidation, oxygen is imported into the inner coatings by the gaps existed in the Ti coatings, which makes the Ti particles oxidize from surface to core, finally the films with TiO2 + Ti composite microstructure are obtained. The films oxidized at 500 °C have the best photocatalytic performance with the degradation rate of methyl orange solution 79.08 %, this owing to the existence of anatase and the TiO2+Ti composite microstructure. The result will provide theoretical basis for the fabrication of efficient photocatalytic film.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.2.15590

  13. Evaluating the Catalytic Effects of Carbon Materials on the Photocatalytic Reduction and Oxidation Reactions of TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Gulzar; Kim, Young Kwang; Choi, Sung Kyu; Han, Dong Suk; Abdelwahab, Ahmed; Park, Hyunwoong

    2013-01-01

    TiO 2 composites with seven different carbon materials (activated carbons, graphite, carbon fibers, single-walled carbon nanotubes, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, graphene oxides, and reduced graphene oxides) that are virgin or treated with nitric acid are prepared through an evaporation method. The photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared samples are evaluated in terms of H 2 production from aqueous methanol solution (photo-catalytic reduction: PCR) and degradation of aqueous pollutants (phenol, methylene blue, and rhodamine B) (photocatalytic oxidation: PCO) under AM 1.5-light irradiation. Despite varying effects depending on the kinds of carbon materials and their surface treatment, composites typically show enhanced PCR activity with maximum 50 times higher H 2 production as compared to bare TiO 2 . Conversely, the carbon-induced synergy effects on PCO activities are insignificant for all three substrates. Colorimetric quantification of hydroxyl radicals supports the absence of carbon effects. However, platinum deposition on the binary composites displays the enhanced effect on both PCR and PCO reactions. These differing effects of carbon materials on PCR and PCO reactions of TiO 2 are discussed in terms of physicochemical properties of carbon materials, coupling states of TiO 2 /carbon composites, interfacial charge transfers. Various surface characterizations of composites (UV-Vis diffuse reflectance, SEM, FTIR, surface area, electrical conductivity, and photoluminescence) are performed to gain insight on their photocatalytic redox behaviors

  14. Enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity for selective oxidation of amines into imines over TiO2(B)/anatase mixed-phase nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Jun; Yang, Juan; Wang, Xiaohan; Zhang, Lei; Li, Yingjie

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Visible-light photocatalytic activities for selective oxidation of amines into imines are greatly affected by the crystal structure of TiO 2 catalysts and mixed-phase TiO 2 (B)/anatase possess higher photoactivity because of the moderate adsorption ability and efficient charge separation. - Highlights: • Visible-light photocatalytic oxidation of amines to imines is studied over different TiO 2 . • Photocatalytic activities are greatly affected by the crystal structure of TiO 2 nanowires. • Mixed-phase TiO 2 (B)/anatase exhibits higher catalytic activity than single-phase TiO 2 . • Enhanced activity is ascribed to efficient adsorption ability and interfacial charge separation. • Photoinduced charge transfer mechanism on TiO 2 (B)/anatase catalysts is also proposed. - Abstract: Wirelike catalysts of mixed-phase TiO 2 (B)/anatase TiO 2 , bare anatase TiO 2 and TiO 2 (B) are synthesized via calcining precursor hydrogen titanate obtained from hydrothermal process at different temperatures between 450 and 700 °C. Under visible light irradiation, mixed-phase TiO 2 (B)/anatase TiO 2 catalysts exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity in comparison with pure TiO 2 (B) and anatase TiO 2 toward selective oxidation of benzylamines into imines and the highest photocatalytic activity is achieved by TW-550 sample consisting of 65% TiO 2 (B) and 35% anatase. The difference in photocatalytic activities of TiO 2 samples can be attributed to the different adsorption abilities resulted from their crystal structures and interfacial charge separation driven by surface-phase junctions between TiO 2 (B) and anatase TiO 2 . Moreover, the photoinduced charge transfer mechanism of surface complex is also proposed over mixed-phase TiO 2 (B)/anatase TiO 2 catalysts. Advantages of this photocatalytic system include efficient utilization of solar light, general suitability to amines, reusability and facile separation of nanowires catalysts

  15. TiO2-CdS Nanocomposites: Effect of CdS Oxidation on the Photocatalytic Activity

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    A. Hamdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites TiO2-CdS with different relative contents of CdS (molar ratios Cd/Ti = 0.02, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 were studied. The structural, photophysical, and chemical properties were investigated using XRD, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, GSDR, and LIL. XRD and Raman results confirmed the presence of TiO2 and CdS with intensities dependent on the ratio Cd/Ti. The presence of CdSO4 was detected by XPS at the surface of all TiO2-CdS composites. The relative amount of sulphate was dependent on the CdS loading. Luminescence time-resolved spectra clearly proved the existence of an excitation transfer process from CdS to TiO2 through the luminescence emission from TiO2 after excitation of CdS at λexc=410 nm, where no direct excitation of TiO2 occurs. Photodegradation of a series of aromatic carboxylic acids—benzoic, salicylic, 4-bromobenzoic, 3-phenylpropionic, and veratric acids—showed a great enhancement in the photocatalytic efficiency of the TiO2-CdS composites, which is due, mainly, to the effect of the charge carriers’ increased lifetime. In addition, it was shown that the oxidation of CdS to CdSO4 did not result in the deactivation of the photocatalytic properties and even contributed to enhance the degradation efficiency.

  16. Hydrothermal synthesis of fluorinated anatase TiO_2/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites and their photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Lijun; Yang, Ye; Zhang, Ali; Wang, Min; Liu, Yongjun; Bian, Longchun; Jiang, Fengzhi; Pan, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • F–TiO_2–RGO nanocomposites were synthesized via hydrothermal method. • Presence of F ion prevents phase transformation from anatase to rutile. • The adsorbed F"− and RGO improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO_2 synergistically. • The F–TiO_2–RGO nanocomposites were applied to degrade bisphenol A. - Abstract: The surface fluorinated TiO_2/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites (denoted as F–TiO_2–RGO) were synthesized via hydrothermal method. The as-prepared materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The results showed that pure anatase TiO_2 particles were anchored on the surface of reduced graphene oxide. And the HF added during the preparation process can not only prevent phase transformation from anatase to rutile, but also the F"− ion adsorbed on the surface of TiO_2–RGO surface can enhance photocatalytic activity of F–TiO_2–RGO. The photocatalytic activities of F–TiO_2–RGO nanocomposites were evaluated by decomposing bisphenol A under UV light illumination. Under optimal degradation condition, the degradation rate constant of BPA over F–TiO_2–10RGO (0.01501 min"−"1) was 3.41 times than that over P25 (0.00440 min"−"1). The result indicated that the enhanced photocatalytic activity of F–TiO_2–10RGO was ascribed to the adsorbed F ion and RGO in F–TiO_2–RGO composite, which can reduce the recombination rate of the photo-generated electrons and holes synergistically.

  17. Photocatalytic Activity of Nanotubular TiO2 Films Obtained by Anodic Oxidation: A Comparison in Gas and Liquid Phase

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    Beatriz Eugenia Sanabria Arenas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The availability of immobilized nanostructured photocatalysts is of great importance in the purification of both polluted air and liquids (e.g., industrial wastewaters. Metal-supported titanium dioxide films with nanotubular morphology and good photocatalytic efficiency in both environments can be produced by anodic oxidation, which avoids release of nanoscale materials in the environment. Here we evaluate the effect of different anodizing procedures on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanostructures in gas and liquid phases, in order to identify the most efficient and robust technique for the production of TiO2 layers with different morphologies and high photocatalytic activity in both phases. Rhodamine B and toluene were used as model pollutants in the two media, respectively. It was found that the role of the anodizing electrolyte is particularly crucial, as it provides substantial differences in the oxide specific surface area: nanotubular structures show remarkably different activities, especially in gas phase degradation reactions, and within nanotubular structures, those produced by organic electrolytes lead to better photocatalytic activity in both conditions tested.

  18. TiO2 on magnesium silicate monolith: effects of different preparation techniques on the photocatalytic oxidation of chlorinated hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardona, Ana I.; Candal, Roberto; Sanchez, Benigno; Avila, Pedro; Rebollar, Moises

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the comparative results of the photocatalytic oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE) alone and a mixture of chlorinated hydrocarbons (trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene and chloroform) in gas phase, obtained with three different monolithic catalysts in a flat reactor frontally illuminated with a Xenon lamp are presented. The three catalysts incorporate titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) as active phase on a magnesium silicate support, by means of different procedures: (i) incorporation of commercial TiO 2 powder into the silicate matrix ('massic monolith'); (ii) sol-gel coating of the silicate support; (iii) impregnation with a commercial TiO 2 aqueous suspension of the same silicate support. In the first case, the massic monolith was made from a 50:50 w/w mixture of magnesium silicate and 'Titafrance G5' TiO 2 powder. In the second case, a magnesium silicate monolith was coated with several layers of an aqueous TiO 2 sol prepared from hydrolysis and condensation of titanium tetra-isopropoxide (Ti(OC 3 H 7 ) 4 ) in excess of acidified water (acid catalysis). The third catalyst was prepared by impregnating the same silicate support with several layers of 'Titafrance G5' TiO 2 powder water suspension. All the catalysts were thermal treated under comparable conditions in order to fix the TiO 2 active phase to the silicate support. Although the performance of the massic monolith was better than the sol-gel monolith, the latter is of great interest because this technique allows the chemical composition of the active films to be easily modified

  19. A metallic metal oxide (Ti5O9)-metal oxide (TiO2) nanocomposite as the heterojunction to enhance visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L H; Deng, Z X; Xiao, J X; Yang, G W

    2015-01-26

    Coupling titanium dioxide (TiO2) with other semiconductors is a popular method to extend the optical response range of TiO2 and improve its photon quantum efficiency, as coupled semiconductors can increase the separation rate of photoinduced charge carriers in photocatalysts. Differing from normal semiconductors, metallic oxides have no energy gap separating occupied and unoccupied levels, but they can excite electrons between bands to create a high carrier mobility to facilitate kinetic charge separation. Here, we propose the first metallic metal oxide-metal oxide (Ti5O9-TiO2) nanocomposite as a heterojunction for enhancing the visible-light photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles and we demonstrate that this hybridized TiO2-Ti5O9 nanostructure possesses an excellent visible-light photocatalytic performance in the process of photodegrading dyes. The TiO2-Ti5O9 nanocomposites are synthesized in one step using laser ablation in liquid under ambient conditions. The as-synthesized nanocomposites show strong visible-light absorption in the range of 300-800 nm and high visible-light photocatalytic activity in the oxidation of rhodamine B. They also exhibit excellent cycling stability in the photodegrading process. A working mechanism for the metallic metal oxide-metal oxide nanocomposite in the visible-light photocatalytic process is proposed based on first-principle calculations of Ti5O9. This study suggests that metallic metal oxides can be regarded as partners for metal oxide photocatalysts in the construction of heterojunctions to improve photocatalytic activity.

  20. CNTs threaded (001) exposed TiO2 with high activity in photocatalytic NO oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shuning; Zhu, Wei; Liu, Peijue; Liu, Fanfan; Dai, Wenrui; Zhang, Dieqing; Chen, Wei; Li, Hexing

    2016-02-07

    A microwave-ionothermal strategy was developed for in situ synthesis of CNTs threaded TiO2 single crystal with a tunable percentage of surface exposed (001) active facets. The CNTs were used as microwave antennas to create local "super hot" dots to induce Ti(3+) adsorption and hydrolysis, thereby leading to a good assembly of (001) facets exposed single crystalline TiO2 threaded by the CNTs in the presence of Hmim[BF4] ionic liquid. Due to the high percentage of the active (001) facets of single crystal TiO2 and the direct electron transfer property of the CNTs, the as-prepared CNTs-TiO2 composite showed a photocatalytic NO removal ratio of up to 76.8% under UV irradiation. In addition, with self-doped Ti(3+), the CNTs-TiO2 composite also exhibited an enhanced activity under irradiation with either solar lights or visible lights, showing good potential in practical applications for environmental remediation.

  1. TiO2-Based Photocatalytic Geopolymers for Nitric Oxide Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strini, Alberto; Roviello, Giuseppina; Ricciotti, Laura; Ferone, Claudio; Messina, Francesco; Schiavi, Luca; Corsaro, Davide; Cioffi, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    This study presents an experimental overview for the development of photocatalytic materials based on geopolymer binders as catalyst support matrices. Particularly, geopolymer matrices obtained from different solid precursors (fly ash and metakaolin), composite systems (siloxane-hybrid, foamed hybrid), and curing temperatures (room temperature and 60 °C) were investigated for the same photocatalyst content (i.e., 3% TiO2 by weight of paste). The geopolymer matrices were previously designed for different applications, ranging from insulating (foam) to structural materials. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated as NO degradation in air, and the results were compared with an ordinary Portland cement reference. The studied matrices demonstrated highly variable photocatalytic performance depending on both matrix constituents and the curing temperature, with promising activity revealed by the geopolymers based on fly ash and metakaolin. Furthermore, microstructural features and titania dispersion in the matrices were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) analyses. Particularly, EDS analyses of sample sections indicated segregation effects of titania in the surface layer, with consequent enhancement or depletion of the catalyst concentration in the active sample region, suggesting non-negligible transport phenomena during the curing process. The described results demonstrated that geopolymer binders can be interesting catalyst support matrices for the development of photocatalytic materials and indicated a large potential for the exploitation of their peculiar features. PMID:28773634

  2. TiO2-Based Photocatalytic Geopolymers for Nitric Oxide Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Strini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an experimental overview for the development of photocatalytic materials based on geopolymer binders as catalyst support matrices. Particularly, geopolymer matrices obtained from different solid precursors (fly ash and metakaolin, composite systems (siloxane-hybrid, foamed hybrid, and curing temperatures (room temperature and 60 °C were investigated for the same photocatalyst content (i.e., 3% TiO2 by weight of paste. The geopolymer matrices were previously designed for different applications, ranging from insulating (foam to structural materials. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated as NO degradation in air, and the results were compared with an ordinary Portland cement reference. The studied matrices demonstrated highly variable photocatalytic performance depending on both matrix constituents and the curing temperature, with promising activity revealed by the geopolymers based on fly ash and metakaolin. Furthermore, microstructural features and titania dispersion in the matrices were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS analyses. Particularly, EDS analyses of sample sections indicated segregation effects of titania in the surface layer, with consequent enhancement or depletion of the catalyst concentration in the active sample region, suggesting non-negligible transport phenomena during the curing process. The described results demonstrated that geopolymer binders can be interesting catalyst support matrices for the development of photocatalytic materials and indicated a large potential for the exploitation of their peculiar features.

  3. Photocatalytic oxidation of NOx gases using TiO2: a surface spectroscopic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, J.S.; Janes, P.A.; Jones, N.G.; Nicholson, J.A.; Hallam, K.R.; Allen, G.C.

    2002-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy were used to study surface reactions between nitrogen oxides and TiO 2 on surfaces. - The bandgap of solid-state TiO 2 (3.2 eV) enables it to be a useful photocatalyst in the ultraviolet (λ 2 surface in the presence of sunlight therefore enables the removal of harmful NO x gases from the atmosphere by oxidation to nitrates. These properties, in addition to the whiteness, relative cheapness and non-toxicity, make TiO 2 ideal for the many de-NOX catalysts that are currently being commercially exploited both in the UK and Japan for concrete paving materials in inner cities. There is need, however, for further academic understanding of the surface reactions involved. Hence, we have used surface specific techniques, including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, to investigate the NO x adsorbate reaction at the TiO 2 substrate surface

  4. A photocatalytic approach in micro arc oxidation of WO3-TiO2 nano porous semiconductors under pulse current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayati, M.R.; Golestani-Fard, F.; Moshfegh, A.Z.; Molaei, R.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: WO3-TiO2 layers were fabricated via microarc oxidation process and effect of the electrical current type on their photocatalytic performance under UV and visible illuminations was investigated. Highlights: → WO3-TiO2 layers were grown by MAO under pulse current for the first time. → Effect of the frequency and duty cycle on properties of the layers was studied. → A correlation between catalytic performance and growth conditions was proposed. - Abstract: Since ultraviolet (UV) irradiation cannot be applied for a long time in practical applications, it is necessary to develop a narrow band gap photocatalyst to decompose environmental pollutants under visible irradiation. In this research, (WO 3 ) x -(TiO 2 ) 1-x nano-porous layers were fabricated by micro arc oxidation (MAO) and influence of the electrical current type on their physical and chemical properties was investigated. Morphological studies, performed by SEM technique, revealed that pore size and roughness decreased with the frequency and increased with the duty cycle. The pulse-grown layers had a finer structure when compared to those fabricated under direct current. XRD and XPS results showed that the layers consisted of anatase, rutile, and tungsten oxide phases. Applying pulse current resulted in higher anatase relative contents. Band gap energies of the MAO-grown TiO 2 and WO 3 -TiO 2 layers were respectively measured as 3.14 and 2.96 eV. The layers fabricated under pulse current exhibited higher photoactivity under ultraviolet and visible illuminations as compared to the layers grown under direct current. Methylene blue (MB) was used as a model material to examine photocatalytic performance of the layers. Maximum MB-photodegradation reaction rate constants over the pulse-synthesized WO 3 -TiO 2 layers were measured as 0.0269 and 0.0129 min -1 for ultraviolet and visible irradiations. For layers grown under direct current, the rate constants were lower, i.e. 0.0228 and 0

  5. Electrospun cerium-based TiO2 nanofibers for photocatalytic oxidation of elemental mercury in coal combustion flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lulu; Zhao, Yongchun; Zhang, Junying

    2017-10-01

    Photocatalytic oxidation is an attractive method for Hg-rich flue gas treatment. In the present study, a novel cerium-based TiO 2 nanofibers was prepared and selected as the catalyst to remove mercury in flue gas. Accordingly, physical/chemical properties of those nanofibers were clarified. The effects of some important parameters, such as calcination temperature, cerium dopant content and different illumination conditions on the removal of Hg 0 using the photocatalysis process were investigated. In addition, the removal mechanism of Hg 0 over cerium-based TiO 2 nanofibers focused on UV irradiation was proposed. The results show that catalyst which was calcined at 400 °C exhibited better performance. The addition of 0.3 wt% Ce into TiO 2 led to the highest removal efficiency at 91% under UV irradiation. As-prepared samples showed promising stability for long-term use in the test. However, the photoluminescence intensity of nanofibers incorporating ceria was significantly lower than TiO 2 , which was attributed to better photoelectron-hole separation. Although UV and O 2 are essential factors, the enhancement of Hg 0 removal is more obviously related to the participation of catalyst. The coexistence of Ce 3+ and Ce 4+ , which leads to the efficient oxidation of Hg 0 , was detected on samples. Hg 2+ is the final product in the reaction of Hg 0 removal. As a consequence, the emissions of Hg 0 from flue gas can be significantly suppressed. These indicate that combining photocatalysis technology with cerium-based TiO 2 nanofibers is a promising strategy for reducing Hg 0 efficiently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mesoporous anatase TiO2/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites: A simple template-free synthesis and their high photocatalytic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Qi; Zhong, Yong-Hui; Chen, Xing; Huang, Xing-Jiu; Wu, Yu-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mesoporous TiO 2 nanoparticles with anatase phase were assembled on reduced graphene oxide via a template-free one-step hydrothermal method. • The TiO 2 /rGO nanocomposites have better adsorption capacity and photocatalytic degradation efficiency for dyes removal. • Improved dye adsorption and photogenerated charge separation are responsible for enhanced activity. - Abstract: Mesoporous anatase phase TiO 2 was assembled on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) using a template-free one-step hydrothermal process. The nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area. Morphology of TiO 2 was related to the content of graphene oxide. TiO 2 /rGO nanocomposites exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity for the photo-degradation of methyl orange. The degradation rate was 4.5 times greater than that of pure TiO 2 nanoparticles. This difference was attributed to the thin two-dimensional graphene sheet. The graphene sheet had a large surface area, high adsorption capacity, and acted as a good electron acceptor for the transfer of photo-generated electrons from the conduction band of TiO 2 . The enhanced surface adsorption characteristics and excellent charge transport separation were independent properties of the photocatalytic degradation process

  7. Unconventionally prepared TiO2/g-C3N4 photocatalysts for photocatalytic decomposition of nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troppová, Ivana; Šihor, Marcel; Reli, Martin; Ritz, Michal; Praus, Petr; Kočí, Kamila

    2018-02-01

    The TiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites with the various TiO2:g-C3N4 weight ratios from 1:1 to 1:3 were prepared unconventionally by pressurized hot water processing in a flow regime. The parent TiO2 and g-C3N4 was prepared by thermal hydrolysis and thermal annealing, respectively. The nanocomposites as well as parent TiO2 and g-C3N4 were characterized using several complementary characterization methods and investigated in the photocatalytic decomposition of N2O under UVA (λ = 365 nm) irradiation. All the prepared TiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites showed higher photocatalytic activity in comparison with the pure g-C3N4 and chiefly pure TiO2. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites was decreasing in the following sequence: TiO2/g-C3N4 (1:3) > TiO2/g-C3N4 (1:2) > TiO2/g-C3N4 (1:1). In comparison with the parent TiO2 or g-C3N4, the TiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites' photocatalytic capability was significantly enhanced by coupling TiO2 with g-C3N4. The generation of TiO2/g-C3N4 Z-scheme photocatalyst mainly benefited from the effective separation of photoinduced electron-hole pairs and the extended optical absorption range. The TiO2/g-C3N4 (1:3) nanocomposite showed the best photocatalytic behavior in a consequence of the optimal weight ratio of TiO2:g-C3N4 and the lowest band gap energy from all nanocomposites. The N2O conversion in its presence was 70.6% after 20 h of UVA irradiation.

  8. Cyclohexane selective photocatalytic oxidation by anatase TiO2: influence of particle size and crystallinity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro, J.T.; Carneiro, Joana T.; Almeida, A.R.; Almeida, Ana R.; Moulijn, Jacob A.; Mul, Guido

    2010-01-01

    A systematic study is presented on the effect of crystallite size of Anatase (Hombikat, Sachtleben), varied by calcination at different temperatures up to 800 °C, on photocatalytic activity in cyclohexane selective oxidation. Two different reactors were used to test the materials: a top illumination

  9. Effect of interfacial oxide thickness on the photocatalytic activity of magnetron-sputtered TiO2coatings on aluminum substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daviðsdóttir, Svava; Petit, Jean-Pierre; Shabadi, Rajashekhara

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the coating/substrate interface on the photocatalytic behavior of Al-TiO2 coatings was investigated. The TiO2 coatings were prepared by magnetron sputtering. The nanoscale structure of the coating was analyzed using X-ray diffraction; atomic force microscopy; scanning electron...... transport between the coating and the metallic substrate. The highest photocurrents were indeed obtained when the thickness of interfacial aluminum oxide could be reduced by sputtering a thin Ti layer prior to TiO2 coating. Photocurrent plotted for different photon energy for a TiO2 coating on a Ti...

  10. Formation of hydroxyl radicals and kinetic study of 2-chlorophenol photocatalytic oxidation using C-doped TiO2, N-doped TiO2, and C,N Co-doped TiO2 under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananpattarachai, Jirapat; Seraphin, Supapan; Kajitvichyanukul, Puangrat

    2016-02-01

    This work reports on synthesis, characterization, adsorption ability, formation rate of hydroxyl radicals (OH(•)), photocatalytic oxidation kinetics, and mineralization ability of C-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2), N-doped TiO2, and C,N co-doped TiO2 prepared by the sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-visible spectroscopy were used to analyze the titania. The rate of formation of OH(•) for each type of titania was determined, and the OH-index was calculated. The kinetics of as-synthesized TiO2 catalysts in photocatalytic oxidation of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) under visible light irradiation were evaluated. Results revealed that nitrogen was incorporated into the lattice of titania with the structure of O-Ti-N linkages in N-doped TiO2 and C,N co-doped TiO2. Carbon was joined to the Ti-O-C bond in the C-doped TiO2 and C,N co-doped TiO2. The 2-CP adsorption ability of C,N co-doped TiO2 and C-doped TiO2 originated from a layer composed of a complex carbonaceous mixture at the surface of TiO2. C,N co-doped TiO2 had highest formation rate of OH(•) and photocatalytic activity due to a synergistic effect of carbon and nitrogen co-doping. The order of photocatalytic activity per unit surface area was the same as that of the formation rate of OH(•) unit surface area in the following order: C,N co-doped TiO2 > C-doped TiO2 > N-doped TiO2 > undoped TiO2.

  11. Sonochemical synthesis and photocatalytic activity of meso- and macro-porous TiO2 for oxidation of toluene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Liu; Yan Li; Wang Yuntao; Xie Lei; Zheng Jie; Li Xingguo

    2008-01-01

    Meso-and macro-porous TiO 2 were synthesized by ultrasonic induced solvothermal method. Octadecylamine as a soft template was used to direct the formation of porous structure. The as-prepared porous TiO 2 was characterized by low angle and wide angle X-ray diffraction, N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherms and BET surface area. The energy influence of ultrasound and heat and concentration of nitric acid for post extraction on formation of porous structure were investigated. The photocatalytic activities of TiO 2 were investigated by degrading toluene gas under UV light. The results revealed that proper energy facilitates the formation of porous structure and too low concentration of nitric acid cannot extract template from pores. The photocatalytic activities of TiO 2 with porous structure are higher than those of nonporous ones

  12. TiO2 structures doped with noble metals and/or graphene oxide to improve the photocatalytic degradation of dichloroacetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribao, Paula; Rivero, Maria J; Ortiz, Inmaculada

    2017-05-01

    Noble metals have been used to improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 . Noble metal nanoparticles prevent charge recombination, facilitating electron transport due to the equilibration of the Fermi levels. Furthermore, noble metal nanoparticles show an absorption band in the visible region due to a high localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect, which contributes to additional electron movements. Moreover, systems based on graphene, titanium dioxide, and noble metals have been used, considering that graphene sheets can carry charges, thereby reducing electron-hole recombination, and can be used as substrates of atomic thickness. In this work, TiO 2 -based nanocomposites were prepared by blending TiO 2 with noble metals (Pt and Ag) and/or graphene oxide (GO). The nanocomposites were mainly characterized via transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and photocurrent analysis. Here, the photocatalytic performance of the composites was analyzed via oxidizing dichloroacetic acid (DCA) model solutions. The influence of the noble metal load on the composite and the ability of the graphene sheets to improve the photocatalytic activity were studied, and the composites doped with different noble metals were compared. The results indicated that the platinum structures show the best photocatalytic degradation, and, although the presence of graphene oxide in the composites is supposed to enhance their photocatalytic performance, graphene oxide does not always improve the photocatalytic process. Graphical abstract It is a schematic diagram. Where NM is Noble Metal and LSPR means Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance.

  13. Fabrication of TiO2-Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanorod Composition Spreads Using Combinatorial Hydrothermal Synthesis and Their Photocatalytic and Photoelectrochemical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Chung; Tseng, Li-Chun; Chang, Kao-Shuo

    2017-09-11

    This study is the first to employ combinatorial hydrothermal synthesis and facile spin-coating technology to fabricate TiO 2 -reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanorod composition spreads. The features of this study are (1) the development of a self-designed spin-coating wedge, (2) the systemic investigation of the structure-property relationship of the system, (3) the high-throughput screening of the optimal ratio from a wide range of compositions for photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical (PEC) applications, and (4) the effective coupling between the density gradient TiO 2 nanorod array and the thickness gradient rGO. The formation of rGO in the fabricated TiO 2 -rGO sample was monitored through Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Transmission electron microscopy images also suggested that the TiO 2 nanorod surfaces were covered with a thin layer of amorphous rGO. The rutile TiO 2 plane evolution along the composition variation was verified through X-ray diffraction. 7% TiO 2 -93% rGO on the nanorod composition spread exhibited the most promising photocatalytic ability; the corresponding photodegradation kinetics, denoted by the photodegradation rate constant (k), was determined to be approximately 12.7 × 10 -3 min -1 . The excellent performance was attributed to the effective coupling between the TiO 2 and rGO, which improved the charge carrier transport, thus inhibiting electron-hole pair recombination. A cycling test implied that 7% TiO 2 -93% rGO is a reliable photocatalyst. A photoluminescence spectroscopy study also supported the superior photocatalytic ability of the sample, which was attributed to its markedly poorer recombination behavior. In addition, without further treatment, the sample exhibited excellent PEC stability; the photocurrent density was more than three times higher than that exhibited by the density gradient TiO 2 nanorods.

  14. Effects of donor doping and acceptor doping on rutile TiO2 particles for photocatalytic O2 evolution by water oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Fumiaki; Tosaki, Ryosuke; Sato, Kyosuke; Higuchi, Yamato

    2018-02-01

    Crystalline defects of photocatalyst particles may be considered to be the recombination center of photoexcited electrons and holes. In this study, we investigated the photocatalytic activity of cation-doped rutile TiO2 photocatalysts for O2 evolution from an aqueous silver nitrate solution under ultraviolet light irradiation. The photocatalytic activity of rutile TiO2 was enhanced by donor doping of Ta5+ and Nb5+ with a valence higher than that of Ti4+, regardless of increased density of electrons and Ti3+ species (an electron trapped in Ti4+ sites). Conversely, acceptor doping of lower valence cations such as In3+ and Ga3+ decreased photocatalytic activity for O2 evolution by water oxidation. The doping of equal valence cations such as Sn4+ and Ge4+ hardly changed the activity of non-doped TiO2. This study demonstrates that Ti3+ species, which is a crystalline defect, enhanced the photocatalytic activity of semiconductor oxides, for example rutile TiO2 with large crystalline size.

  15. Characterization and Comparison of Photocatalytic Activity Silver Ion doped on TiO2(TiO2/Ag+) and Silver Ion doped on Black TiO2(Black TiO2/Ag+)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Yi; Sim, Ho Hyung; Song, Sinae; Noh, Yeoung Ah; Lee, Hong Woon; Taik Kim, Hee

    2018-03-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the representative ceramic materials containing photocatalyst, optic and antibacterial activity. The hydroxyl radical in TiO2 applies to the intensive oxidizing agent, hence TiO2 is suitable to use photocatalytic materials. Black TiO2was prepared through reduction of amorphous TiO2 conducting under H2 which leads to color changes. Its black color is proven that absorbs 100% light across the whole-visible light, drawing enhancement of photocatalytic property. In this study, we aimed to compare the photocatalytic activity of silver ion doped on TiO2(TiO2/Ag+) and silver ion doped on black TiO2(black TiO2/Ag+) under visible light range. TiO2/Ag+ was fabricated following steps. 1) TiO2 was synthesized by a sol-gel method from Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). 2) Then AgNO3 was added during an aging process step for silver ion doping on the surface of TiO2. Moreover, Black TiO2/Ag+ was obtained same as TiO2/Ag+ except for calcination under H2. The samples were characterized X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible reflectance (UV-vis DRS), and Methylene Blue degradation test. XRD analysis confirmed morphology of TiO2. The band gap of black TiO2/Ag+ was confirmed (2.6 eV) through UV-vis DRS, which was lower than TiO2/Ag+ (2.9 eV). The photocatalytic effect was conducted by methylene blue degradation test. It demonstrated that black TiO2/Ag+ had a photocatalytic effect under UV light also visible light.

  16. Photocatalytic growth of Ag nanocrystals on hydrothermally synthesized multiphasic TiO2/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposites and their SERS performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tian-Long; Li, Ji-Guang; Sun, Xudong; Sakka, Yoshio

    2017-11-01

    TiO2/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposites were prepared via a facile one-step hydrothermal method using TiCl3 as the TiO2 precursor. Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was introduced as a stabilizer for GO in solution. The effects of GO content, Ti3+ concentration and urea additive on phase constituent and morphology of the TiO2 crystallites in the nanocomposites were systematically investigated. UV-vis absorption ability of the as-made composites was further tested and discussed. Ag nanocrystals (NCs) were photocatalytically grown on the surfaces of biphasic (anatase + brookite) and triphasic (anatase + brookite + rutile) TiO2/rGO nanocomposites to evaluate their surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) performances. Morphology evolution of the Ag NCs in response to different photocatalytic ability of the TiO2/rGO nanocomposite was also investigated in detail. The nanocomposite with triphasic TiO2 of proper phase constituents was confirmed to favor the growth of Ag particles of two distinctly different sizes and to produce SERS substrates of substantially better performance.

  17. Reduced graphene oxide enwrapped pinecone-liked Ag3PO4/TiO2 composites with enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability under visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ni; Qiu, Yiwei; Zhang, Yichao; Liu, Hanyang; Yang, Yana; Wang, Jingwei; Li, Xiaoyun; Cui, Can

    2015-01-01

    Ag 3 PO 4 possesses high photocatalytic activity under visible light, but its application is limited by photogenerated charges recombination, photocorrosion as well as consumption of noble Ag. It is of great interesting to develop new Ag 3 PO 4 -based photocatalysts with high charges separation efficiency, good stability and low content of Ag. In this paper, we report a novel Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 /reduced graphene oxide (Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 /rGO) photocatalyst. It exhibits advantages on both the microstructure and the charges separation. The microstructure shows that TiO 2 spheres of hundreds of nanometers in size are decorated with dense nano-sized Ag 3 PO 4 to form pinecone-liked particles, which are enwrapped by rGO sheets. This novel structure effectively prevents aggregation of nano-sized Ag 3 PO 4 , which not only suppresses the charges recombination in Ag 3 PO 4 but also significantly reduces the content of Ag. Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 /rGO also favors separation of photogenerated charges owing to its two pathways for charges transportation, i.e., the electrons in Ag 3 PO 4 can be transferred to rGO, while the holes in Ag 3 PO 4 can be transferred to TiO 2 . The dual-pathway for charges separation as well as the pinecone-liked Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 microstructure ultimately leads to enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability of Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 /rGO. The photocatalytic performance varies with different contents of Ag 3 PO 4 in the composites, because low content of Ag 3 PO 4 induces weak light absorption while excess Ag 3 PO 4 results in serious charges recombination due to the aggregation of Ag 3 PO 4 nanoparticles. In this work, Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 /rGO with weight ratio of Ag 3 PO 4 against TiO 2 /rGO equals to 0.6 exhibits the highest photocatalytic activity. The percentage of Ag in this composite is around 29 wt%, much lower than 77 wt% in pure Ag 3 PO 4 . - Highlights: • Nano-sized Ag 3 PO 4 were decorated on TiO 2 particles. • Pinecone-liked Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2

  18. Iron promotion of the TiO2 photosensitization process towards the photocatalytic oxidation of azo dyes under solar-simulated light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Camilo A.; Centeno, Aristobulo; Giraldo, Sonia A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Azo dye photooxidation occurs under strict combination of ultraviolet and visible irradiation of Fe-TiO 2 . → Fe 3+ enhances the TiO 2 photooxidation of azo dyes while decreases that of phenol. → UV irradiation leads to a decrease in photooxidation activity of Fe-TiO 2 photocatalysts. - Abstract: The photocatalytic oxidation of the azo dye Orange-II (Or-II) using Fe loaded TiO 2 (Fe-TiO 2 ) was studied under ultraviolet (UV), visible (vis) and simultaneous UV-vis irradiations using a solar light simulator. Photocatalysts were characterized by means of XRD, SEM-EDX, FTIR and DRS. Fe 3+ species, identified in XPS analyses, were responsible of the increased absorption of visible light. Moreover, DRS analyses showed a decrease in the bandgap due to Fe 3+ loading. Photocatalystic tests proved that Fe modification enhanced the TiO 2 photocatalytic activity towards Or-II photodegradation under simultaneous UV-vis irradiation. Even so, the performance of the Fe-TiO 2 samples towards the photodegradation of phenol, under UV irradiation, was lower than TiO 2 suggesting the recombination of the UV photogenerated electron-hole pair. Therefore, results evidence a Fe 3+ promotion of the electron caption in the photosensitization process of TiO 2 by Or-II acting as a sensitizer. Such process leads to the Or-II photooxidation under UV-vis irradiation by losing energy in electron transferring processes to sensitize TiO 2 , and, the formation of reactive oxygen species promoted by the injected electron to the TiO 2 conduction band.

  19. Synthesis of Nb doped TiO2 nanotube/reduced graphene oxide heterostructure photocatalyst with high visible light photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaoyou; Yan, Weijing; Zhao, Hongli; Yang, Jingkai

    2018-05-01

    Limited by the narrowed photoresponse range and unsatisfactory recombination of photoinduced electron-hole pairs, the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 is still far below what is expected. Here, we initially doped TiO2 nanotubes (TNTS) by transition metal ion Nb, then it is coupled with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) to construct a heterostructure photocatalyst. The defect state presented in TiO2 leading to the formation of localized midgap states (MS) in the bandgap, which regulating the band structure of TiO2 and extending the optical absorption to visible light region. The internal charge transport and transfer behavior analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) reveal that the coupling of rGO with TNTS results in the formation of electron transport channel in the heterostructure, which makes a great contribution to the photoinduced charge separation. As expected, the Nb-TNTS/rGO exhibits a stable and remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activity in the visible-light irradiation degradation of methylene blue (MB), up to ∼5 times with respect to TNTS, which is attributed to the effective inhibition of charge recombination, the reduction of bandgap and higher redox potential, as well as the great adsorptivity.

  20. Photocatalytic production of 1O2 and ·OH mediated by silver oxidation during the photoinactivation of Escherichia coli with TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Camilo A.; Osorio, Paula; Sienkiewicz, Andrzej; Pulgarin, Cesar; Centeno, Aristóbulo; Giraldo, Sonia A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Metallic silver enhances the Ag–TiO 2 photoinactivation of Escherichia coli under Vis irradiation. ► 1 O 2 and ·OH were identified in Vis irradiated Ag–TiO 2 suspensions. ► UV oxidized the Ag metallic species in the material decreasing photoactivity. ► Dark contact of the UV oxidized material with E. coli regenerates the photocatalyst. - Abstract: Ag loaded TiO 2 was applied in the photocatalytic inactivation of Escherichia coli under ultraviolet (UV) and visible (Vis) light irradiations. Ag enhanced the TiO 2 photodisinfecting effect under Vis irradiation promoting the formation of singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radicals as identified by EPR analyses. Ag nanoparticles, determined on TEM analyses, undergo an oxidation process on the TiO 2 's surface under UV or Vis irradiation as observed by XPS. In particular, UV pre-irradiation of the material totally diminished its photodisinfection activity under a subsequent Vis irradiation test. Under UV, photodegradation of dichloroacetic acid (DCA), attributed to photoproduced holes in TiO 2 , was inhibited by the presence of Ag suggesting that oxidation of Ag 0 to Ag + and Ag 2+ is faster than the oxidative path of the TiO 2 's holes on DCA molecules. Furthermore, photoassisted increased of Ag + concentration on TiO 2 's surface enhances the bacteriostatic activity of the material in dark periods. Indeed, this latter dark contact of Ag + –TiO 2 and E. coli seems to induce recovering of the Vis light photoactivity promoted by the surface Ag photoactive species.

  1. TiO2-graphene oxide nanocomposite as advanced photocatalytic materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Bludská, Jana; Kormunda, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, FEB (2013), s. 41 ISSN 1752-153X Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : graphene * titanium(IV) oxide * graphene oxide * photocatalysis Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.663, year: 2013

  2. The effect of Au on TiO2 catalyzed selective photocatalytic oxidation of cyclohexane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro, J.T.; Carneiro, Joana T.; Savenije, Tom J.; Moulijn, Jacob A.; Mul, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Gold does not induce visible light activity of anatase Hombikat UV100 in the selective photo-oxidation of cyclohexane, as can be concluded from in situ attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) measurements. Extremely small conductance values measured at 530 nm in Time

  3. Defective TiO2 with oxygen vacancies: synthesis, properties and photocatalytic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoyang; Yang, Min-Quan; Fu, Xianzhi; Zhang, Nan; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2013-04-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2), as an important semiconductor metal oxide, has been widely investigated in the field of photocatalysis. The properties of TiO2, including its light absorption, charge transport and surface adsorption, are closely related to its defect disorder, which in turn plays a significant role in the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. Among all the defects identified in TiO2, oxygen vacancy is one of the most important and is supposed to be the prevalent defect in many metal oxides, which has been widely investigated both by theoretical calculations and experimental characterizations. Here, we give a short review on the existing strategies for the synthesis of defective TiO2 with oxygen vacancies, and the defect related properties of TiO2 including structural, electronic, optical, dissociative adsorption and reductive properties, which are intimately related to the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. In particular, photocatalytic applications with regard to defective TiO2 are outlined. In addition, we offer some perspectives on the challenge and new direction for future research in this field. We hope that this tutorial minireview would provide some useful contribution to the future design and fabrication of defective semiconductor-based nanomaterials for diverse photocatalytic applications.Titanium dioxide (TiO2), as an important semiconductor metal oxide, has been widely investigated in the field of photocatalysis. The properties of TiO2, including its light absorption, charge transport and surface adsorption, are closely related to its defect disorder, which in turn plays a significant role in the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. Among all the defects identified in TiO2, oxygen vacancy is one of the most important and is supposed to be the prevalent defect in many metal oxides, which has been widely investigated both by theoretical calculations and experimental characterizations. Here, we give a short review on the existing strategies for the

  4. Influence of inlet concentration and light intensity on the photocatalytic oxidation of nitrogen(II) oxide at the surface of Aeroxide® TiO2 P25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillert, Ralf; Stötzner, Julia; Engel, Astrid; Bahnemann, Detlef W.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The photocatalytic oxidation of nitrogen(II) oxide at the TiO 2 surface was studied. ► The effect of the UV(A) light intensity on the reaction rate was evaluated. ► The effect of the NO concentration on the reaction rate was evaluated. ► A mechanistic model for the heterogeneous NO oxidation is presented. ► A rate law describing the influence of NO concentration and light intensity is given. - Abstract: Air pollution by nitrogen oxides represents a serious environmental problem in urban areas where numerous sources of these pollutants are concentrated. One approach to reduce the concentration of these air pollutants is the light-induced oxidation in the presence of molecular oxygen and a photocatalytically active building material, e.g., paints, roof tiles, or pavement stones. Herein, results of an investigation concerning the photocatalytic oxidation of nitrogen(II) oxide (NO) in the presence of molecular oxygen and UV(A) irradiated TiO 2 powder are presented. The standard operating procedure described in ISO 22197-1 which was developed to characterize the photocatalytic activity of air-cleaning products was successfully applied to determine the photocatalytic activity of a bare TiO 2 powder. The experimental data reveal that at the light intensity stipulated by the operation procedure the amount of NO removed from the gas phase by photocatalytic oxidation is strongly affected by small changes of this light intensity as well as of the NO concentration in the gas stream in the photoreactor. Therefore, these parameters have to be controlled very carefully. Based upon the experimental data obtained in this study a rate law for the photocatalytic NO oxidation inside the photoreactor is derived.

  5. Comparison of modification strategies towards enhanced charge carrier separation and photocatalytic degradation activity of metal oxide semiconductors (TiO2, WO3 and ZnO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. Girish; Rao, K. S. R. Koteswara

    2017-01-01

    Metal oxide semiconductors (TiO2, WO3 and ZnO) finds unparalleled opportunity in wastewater purification under UV/visible light, largely encouraged by their divergent admirable features like stability, non-toxicity, ease of preparation, suitable band edge positions and facile generation of active oxygen species in the aqueous medium. However, the perennial failings of these photocatalysts emanates from the stumbling blocks like rapid charge carrier recombination and meager visible light response. In this review, tailoring the surface-bulk electronic structure through the calibrated and veritable approaches such as impurity doping, deposition with noble metals, sensitizing with other compounds (dyes, polymers, inorganic complexes and simple chelating ligands), hydrogenation process (annealing under hydrogen atmosphere), electronic integration with other semiconductors, modifying with carbon nanostructures, designing with exposed facets and tailoring with hierarchical morphologies to overcome their critical drawbacks are summarized. Taking into account the materials intrinsic properties, the pros and cons together with similarities and striking differences for each strategy in specific to TiO2, WO3 & ZnO are highlighted. These subtlety enunciates the primacy for improving the structure-electronic properties of metal oxides and credence to its fore in the practical applications. Future research must focus on comparing the performances of ZnO, TiO2 and WO3 in parallel to get insight into their photocatalytic behaviors. Such comparisons not only reveal the changed surface-electronic structure upon various modifications, but also shed light on charge carrier dynamics, free radical generation, structural stability and compatibility for photocatalytic reactions. It is envisioned that these cardinal tactics have profound implications and can be replicated to other semiconductor photocatalysts like CeO2, In2O3, Bi2O3, Fe2O3, BiVO4, AgX, BiOX (X = Cl, Br & I), Bi2WO6, Bi2MoO6

  6. Preparation of Porous F-WO3/TiO2 Films with Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity by Microarc Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Wei Yeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous F-WO3/TiO2 (mTiO2 films are prepared on titanium sheet substrates using microarc oxidation (MAO technique. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that visible-light (Vis enabling mTiO2 films with a very high content of anatase TiO2 and high loading of WO3 are successfully synthesized at a low applied voltage of 300 V using electrolyte contenting NaF and Na2WO4 without subsequent heat treatment. The cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy micrograph reveals that the mTiO2 films feature porous networks connected by many micron pores. The diffused reflection spectrum displays broad absorbance across the UV-Vis regions and a significant red shift in the band gap energy (∼2.23 eV for the mTiO2 film. Owing to the high specific surface area from the porous microstructure, the mTiO2 film shows a 61% and 50% rate increase in the photocatalytic dye degradation, as compared with the N,C-codoped TiO2 films under UV and Vis irradiation, respectively.

  7. Photocatalytic activities of heterostructured TiO2-graphene porous microspheres prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jikai; Zhang, Xintong; Li, Bing; Liu, Hong; Sun, Panpan; Wang, Changhua; Wang, Lingling; Liu, Yichun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • USP method is used to prepare TiO 2 -graphene porous microspheres. • XPS shows GO sheets in the composites has been reduced to graphene. • TiO 2 -graphene microspheres display a red-shifted absorption edge. • PL spectra indicate graphene can accept the photoexcited electrons from TiO 2 . • TiO 2 -graphene shows higher photocatalytic activity than TiO 2 under solar light. -- Abstract: TiO 2 -graphene porous microspheres were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) of aqueous suspension of graphene oxide containing TiO 2 nanoparticles (Degussa P25). The composite microspheres were characterized with SEM, XPS, photoluminescence, Raman and UV–Vis absorption spectra. TiO 2 -graphene porous microspheres displayed higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue solution than pristine TiO 2 microspheres under the irradiation of Xe lamp, and the highest activity was obtained at a weight percentage of graphene around 1%. The effect of graphene on photocatalytic activity of porous microsphere was discussed in terms of the enhanced charge separation by TiO 2 -graphene heterojunction, increased absorption of the visible light, as well as the possible hindrance of mass transportation in microspheres

  8. Enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activity of WO3-surface modified TiO2 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Mohammad; Drmosh, Qasem; Ahmed, Muhammad I.; Qamaruddin, Muhammad; Yamani, Zain H.

    2015-02-01

    Development of nanostructured photocatalysts for harnessing solar energy in energy-efficient and environmentally benign way remains an important area of research. Pure and WO3-surface modified thin films of TiO2 were prepared by magnetron sputtering on indium tin oxide glass, and photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activities of these films were studied. TiO2 particles were <50 nm, while deposited WO3 particles were <20 nm in size. An enhancement in the photocurrent was observed when the TiO2 surface was modified WO3 nanoparticles. Effect of potential, WO3 amount, and radiations of different wavelengths on the photoelectrochemical activity of TiO2 electrodes was investigated. Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 and WO3-modified TiO2 for the decolorization of methyl orange was tested.

  9. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of graphene based doped TiO2 nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Yongji; Xing, Mingyang; Zhang, Jinlong

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Graphene based doped TiO 2 nanocomposites were prepared. • The intimate contact between doped TiO 2 and graphene is achieved simultaneously. • These nanocomposites showed higher photocatalytic activity than TiO 2 and doped TiO 2 . • Photocatalytic mechanism was explained thoroughly. - Abstract: The nanocomposites of reduced graphene oxide based nitrogen doped TiO 2 (N–TiO 2 –RGO) and reduced graphene oxide based nitrogen and vanadium co-doped TiO 2 (N, V–TiO 2 –RGO) were prepared via a facile hydrothermal reaction of graphene oxide and TiO 2 in a water solvent. In this hydrothermal treatment, the reduction of graphene oxide and the intimate contact between nitrogen doped TiO 2 (N–TiO 2 ) or nitrogen and vanadium co-doped TiO 2 (N,V–TiO 2 ) and the RGO sheet is achieved simultaneously. Both N–TiO 2 –RGO and N,V–TiO 2 –RGO nanocomposites exhibit much higher visible light photocatalytic activity than N–TiO 2 and N,V–TiO 2 , and the order of visible light photocatalytic activity is N,V–TiO 2 –RGO > N–TiO 2 –RGO > N,V–TiO 2 > N–TiO 2 > TiO 2 . According to the characterization, the enhanced photocatalytic activity of the nanocomposites is attributed to reasons, such as enhancement of adsorption of pollutants, light absorption intensity, minimizing the recombination of photoinduced electrons and holes and more excited states of these nanocomposites under visible light irradiation. Overall, this work provides a more marked contrast of graphene based semiconductor nanocomposites and a more comprehensive explanation of the mechanism

  10. Sol-gel synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles and photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange in aqueous TiO2 suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Huaming; Zhang Ke; Shi Rongrong; Li Xianwei; Dong Xiaodan; Yu Yongmei

    2006-01-01

    Anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles of about 16 nm in crystal size have been successfully synthesized via a sol-gel method. Thermal treatment of the precursor at 500-600 deg. C results in the formation of different TiO 2 phase compositions. The samples were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Effects of the pH value of the solution, H 2 O 2 addition, TiO 2 phase composition and recycled TiO 2 on the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MeO) in TiO 2 suspensions under ultraviolet (UV) illumination were primarily investigated. The results indicate that a low pH value, proper amount of H 2 O 2 and pure anatase TiO 2 will facilitate the photocatalytic oxidation of the MeO solution. The photodegradation degree decreases with increasing the pH value of the solution and varies with different amounts of H 2 O 2 . Pure anatase TiO 2 shows better photocatalytic activity for MeO decolorization than biphase TiO 2 . The photocatalytic mechanism of the as-synthesized TiO 2 nanoparticles was discussed

  11. Preparation and performance of photocatalytic TiO2 immobilized on palladium-doped carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yaofeng; Fu Yaqin; Ni Qingqing

    2011-01-01

    Pd-modified carbon fibers (CFs) are obtained by a facile oxidation-reduction method and then dip-coated in a sol-gel of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) to form supported TiO 2 /Pd-CF photocatalysts. The morphology of the Pd-modified CFs and the amount Pd deposited are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic absorption spectrometry, respectively. X-ray diffraction is used to investigate the crystal structures of the TiO 2 photocatalyst. Acid orange II is used as a model contaminant to evaluate the photocatalytic properties of the photocatalyst under UV irradiation. TiO 2 /Pd-CF exhibits higher catalytic activity than TiO 2 /CF towards the degradation of acid orange II. Optimum photocatalytic performance and support properties are achieved when the Pd particle loading is about 10.8 mg/g.

  12. Preparation and solar-light photocatalytic activity of TiO2 composites: TiO2/kaolin, TiO2/diatomite, and TiO2/zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Li, S. G.; Wang, J.; Li, Y.; Ma, C. H.; Zhang, L.

    2014-12-01

    Three TiO2 loaded composites, TiO2/kaolin, TiO2/diatomite, and TiO2/zeolite, were prepared in order to improve the solar-light photocatalytic activity of TiO2. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity could obviously be enhanced by loading appropriate amount of inorganic mineral materials. Meanwhile, TiO2 content, heat-treatment temperature and heat-treatment time on the photocatalytic activity were reviewed. Otherwise, the effect of solar light irradiation time and dye concentration on the photocatalytic degradation of Acid Red B was investigated. Furthermore, the degradation mechanism and adsorption process were also discussed.

  13. Novel preparation and photocatalytic activity of one-dimensional TiO2 hollow structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Huogen; Yu Jiaguo; Cheng Bei; Liu Shengwei

    2007-01-01

    Usually, templated methods include two important steps: the coating of nanocrystals on the surface of the templates and the removal of the templates. In this study, one-dimensional TiO 2 hollow structures, based on the template-directed deposition and then in situ template-sacrificial reaction (or dissolution), were prepared by a one-step template method using vanadium oxide nanobelts as the templates and TiF 4 as the precursor at 60 deg. C. The coating of TiO 2 nanoparticles on the surface of the templates was accompanied with the dissolution of vanadium oxide nanobelts by HF produced during the hydrolysis of TiF 4 in the reaction solution. It was found that the prepared one-dimensional TiO 2 hollow structures with a mesoporous wall were composed of TiO 2 nanoparticles with a diameter of 10-55 nm, resulting in a large specific surface area (77.2 m 2 g -1 ) and high pore volume (0.13 cm 3 g -1 ), and the wall thickness of the TiO 2 hollow structures could be easily controlled by adjusting the precursor concentration of TiF 4 . The photocatalytic activity experiment indicated that the prepared one-dimensional TiO 2 hollow structures, which could be readily separated from a slurry system after photocatalytic reaction, exhibited obvious photocatalytic activity for the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange aqueous solution

  14. Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of La3+-Doped TiO2 Nanotubes with Full Wave-Band Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Minghao; Huang, Lingling; Zhang, Yubo; Wang, Yongqian

    2018-06-01

    TiO2 nanotubes doped with La3+ were synthesized by anodic oxidation method and the photocatalytic activity was detected by photodegrading methylene blue. As-prepared samples improved the absorption of both ultraviolet light and visible light and have a great enhancement on the photocatalytic activity while contrasting with the pristine TiO2 nanotubes. A tentative mechanism for the enhancement of photocatalytic activity with full wave-band absorption is proposed.

  15. In-situ investigations of the photoluminescence properties of SiO2/TiO2 binary and Boron-SiO2/TiO2 ternary oxides prepared by the sol-gel method and their photocatalytic reactivity for the oxidative decomposition of trichloroethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeong Youl Jung

    2003-01-01

    oxygen. It was found that the photocatalytic reactivity of TiO2-based photocatalysts for the decomposition of trichloroethylene was clearly associated with their relative quenching efficiencies of photoluminescence; photocatalyst showing high quenching efficiency exhibited a high photocatalytic reactivity.

  16. Hierarchically multifunctional K-OMS-2/TiO2/Fe3O4 heterojunctions for the photocatalytic oxidation of humic acid under solar light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Yan, Xiaoli; Sun, Darren Delai

    2012-12-01

    A multifunctional heterojunctioned K-OMS-2/TiO(2)/Fe(3)O(4) (KTF) nanocomposite was successfully synthesized using a combination of hydrothermal and co-precipitation techniques. The resultant sample was characterized by XRD, FESEM, TEM, N(2) adsorption, XPS and VSM. Its photocatalytic activity was demonstrated in the photocatalytic degradation of humic acid (HA). Morphology characterization showed the hierarchical structure of the synthesized material, and XRD results revealed that both the rutile and anatase TiO(2) structures are present in the sample. The average pore diameters and BET surface area of the synthesized KTF heterojunctions were 40 nm and 134.42 m(2)/g, respectively. XPS spectra confirmed the presence of Fe(3)O(4) and TiO(2) in the synthesized material, and the valences of Mn were kept at +3 and +4 after the grafting of Fe(3)O(4) and TiO(2). The synthesized material showed good magnetic response and photocatalytic activity under simulated solar light irradiation, and 85.7% of HA was decomposed after 120 min in the presence of KTF nanocomposites. The reusability study suggested that the magnetic recovered material was stable enough for multiple recycling usages, verifying its potential application in water purification. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Immobilization of glucose oxidase onto a novel platform based on modified TiO2 and graphene oxide, direct electrochemistry, catalytic and photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighi, Nasibeh; Hallaj, Rahman; Salimi, Abdollah

    2017-01-01

    In this work a new organic–inorganic nanocomposite has been introduced for enzyme immobilization. The composite consisting of graphene oxide (GO) and titanium oxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 ) modified with 2, 2′-dithioxo-3, 3′-bis (3-(triethoxysilyl) propyl)-2H, 2′H-[5, 5′-bithiazolylidene]-4, 4′(3H, 3′H)-dione as Organic-Inorganic Supporting Ligand (OISL). The OISL was covalently attached to TiO 2 nanoparticles and employed for obtaining a suitable solid surface to enzyme attachment. The glucose oxidase (GOD) was irreversibly loaded on the GC/GO/TiO 2 -OISL using consecutive cyclic voltammetry. The enzyme immobilization and the enzymatic activity were determined by electrochemical methods. The cyclic voltammogram displayed a pair of well-defined and nearly symmetric redox peaks with a formal potential of − 0.465 V and an apparent electron transfer rate constant of 1.74 s −1 . The GO/TiO 2 -OISL can catalyze the electroreduction and electrooxidation of hydrogen peroxide. The GC/GO/TiO 2 -OISL/GOD electrode was used in the hydrogen peroxide determination. The fabricated nanobiocomposite shows dramatic photoelectrocatalytic activity which evaluated by studying the electrocatalytic activity of the fabricated electrode toward hydrogen peroxide in darkness and in the presences of light. - Highlights: • In this work a novel platform used to successful immobilization of glucose oxidase. Due to its large functional group this modified nanoparticles load enzyme (GOD) and remain enzyme whit out denaturation for a long time. • The loaded enzyme shows direct electron transfer and excellent charge transfer kinetic. Also the fabricated nano-bio-composite has good catalytic activity toward hydrogen peroxide during electrooxidation and electro reduction process. • The nano-bio-composite shows excellent photocatalytic activity.

  18. Photocatalytic oxidation of low concentration 2,4-D solution with new TiO2 fiber catalyst in a continuous flow reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Y; Ozaki, H; Giri, R R; Tano, T; Nakatsuji, S; Takanami, R; Taniguchi, S

    2006-01-01

    Environmental pollution by low concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a concern these days due to ever increasingly stringent regulations. Photocatalysis with immobilized TiO2 fiber is a promising oxidation method. Laboratory experiments on photocatalytic degradation of 0.045 mmol l(-1) 2,4-D with the world's first high-strength TiO2 fiber catalyst were carried out in a continuous flow reactor in which the degradations were, in general, similar to those with high 2,4-D concentrations investigated elsewhere. Degradation and mineralization of 2,4-D were significantly enhanced with no initial pH adjustments. The rate constants for total organic carbon (TOC) without pH adjustment were about two-fold bigger than the pH adjustment cases. CO2 gas measurement and carbon mass-balance were carried out for the first time, where about 34% organic carbon converted into CO2 gas during four-hour oxidation. 2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), phenol, benzyl alcohol and two unknowns (RT = 2.65 and 3.78 min.) were detected as aromatic intermediates while Phenol was the new aromatic in HPLC analysis. Dechlorination efficiencies were high (> 70%) in all the cases, and more than 90% efficiencies were observed in chloride mass balance. Bigger flow rates and solution temperature fixed at 20 degrees C without pH adjustment greatly enhanced 2,4-D mineralization. These results can be an important basis in applying the treatment method for dioxin-contaminated water and wastewater.

  19. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange with W-doped TiO2 synthesized by a hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Hua; Ma Junfeng; Li Kang; Li Jinjun

    2008-01-01

    Nanosized W-doped TiO 2 photocatalysts were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method, and characterized by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and BET surface area analyzer. The photocatalytic activity of undoped TiO 2 and W-doped TiO 2 photocatalysts was evaluated by the photocatalytic oxidation degradation of methyl orange in aqueous solution. The results show that the photocatalytic activity of the W-doped TiO 2 photocatalyst is much higher than that of undoped TiO 2 , and the optimum percentage of W doped is 2.0 mol%. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the doped photocatalyst may be attributed to the increase in the charge separation efficiency and the presence of surface acidity

  20. Photocatalytic degradation of an azo-dye on TiO2/activated carbon composite material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriantsiferana, C; Mohamed, E F; Delmas, H

    2014-01-01

    A sequential adsorption/photocatalytic regeneration process to remove tartrazine, an azo-dye in aqueous solution, has been investigated. The aim ofthis work was to compare the effectiveness of an adsorbent/photocatalyst composite-TiO2 deposited onto activated carbon (AC) - and a simple mixture of powders of TiO2 and AC in same proportion. The composite was an innovative material as the photocatalyst, TiO2, was deposited on the porous surface ofa microporous-AC using metal-organic chemical vapour deposition in fluidized bed. The sequential process was composed of two-batch step cycles: every cycle alternated a step of adsorption and a step of photocatalytic oxidation under ultra-violet (365 nm), at 25 degreeC and atmospheric pressure. Both steps, adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation, have been investigated during four cycles. For both materials, the cumulated amounts adsorbed during four cycles corresponded to nearly twice the maximum adsorption capacities qmax proving the photocatalytic oxidation to regenerate the adsorbent. Concerning photocatalytic oxidation, the degree of mineralization was higher with the TiO2/AC composite: for each cycle, the value of the total organic carbon removal was 25% higher than that obtained with the mixture powder. These better photocatalytic performances involved better regeneration than higher adsorbed amounts for cycles 2, 3 and 4. Better performances with this promising material - TiO2 deposited onto AC - compared with TiO2 powder could be explained by the vicinity of photocatalytic and AC adsorption sites.

  1. Enhanced Photocatalytic Properties of Ag-Loaded N-Doped Tio2 Nanotube Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Dawei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube (TiO2 NT arrays were prepared by anodic oxidizing method on the surface of the Ti substrate. Nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanotube (N-TiO2 NT arrays were carried out by ammonia solution immersion, and Ag nanoparticles loaded N-doped TiO2 nanotube (Ag/N-TiO2 NT arrays were obtained by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR technique. The samples were characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, photoluminescence (PL emission spectra, ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS. The result indicated that the diameter and wall thickness of the TiO2 NT are 100–120 and 20–30 nm, respectively. Moreover, the morphology and structure of the highly ordered TiO2 NTs were not affected by N-doping. Furthermore, Ag nanoparticles were evenly deposited on the surface of TiO2 NTs in the form of elemental silver. Finally, the photocatalytic activity of Ag/N-TiO2 NTs was evaluated by degradation of methyl orange (MO under visible-light irradiation. The Ag/N-TiO2 NTs exhibited enhanced photocatalytic properties, which could reach 95% after 90-min irradiation.

  2. Characterization and photocatalytic activity of boron-doped TiO2 thin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Chen Daimai, Wang Dong Yang and Jiang Zhongyi 2006 Ind. Eng. Chem. 45 4110. Cheng Jen-hao 2003 A study on photocatalytic oxidation of aque- ous chlorobenzene solution by nanostructured film of TiO2,. Master Thesis, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Taiwan. Deki S, Henin Yu Yu Ko, Fujita T, Akamatsu K, Mizuhata ...

  3. Photocatalytic methane decomposition over vertically aligned transparent TiO2 nanotube arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In, Su-il; Nielsen, Morten Godtfred; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard

    2011-01-01

    Vertically aligned transparent TiO2 nanotube arrays grown by the one-step anodic oxidation technique (on non-conductive supports such as Pyrex) and their photocatalytic performance for methane decomposition in a single-pass micro-fabricated reactor under UV light....

  4. Understanding promotion of photocatalytic activity of TiO2 by Au nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amrollahi Buky, Rezvaneh; Hamdy, Mohamed S.; Mul, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Au nanoparticles prepared by deposition–precipitation were evaluated in promoting photocatalytic activity of TiO2 (P25) in the oxidation of methylcyclohexane. At 375 nm and in particular at 425 nm, Au was found to significantly enhance the rate induced by P25. Illumination of Au-promoted P25 at 525

  5. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of Ce-doped TiO2 and TiO2 nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda, L.B.; Pereira, E.A.; Paula, F.R.; Lisboa Filho, P.N. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: One-dimensional nanostructures have been intensively studied, from the point of view of their synthesis and mechanisms of formation, as well as their applications in photonics, solar energy conversion, environmental and photocatalysis, since their properties due high surface area, electrical conductivity and light dispersion effects. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles have been demonstrated to be an effective multifunctional material especially when the particle size is less than 50 nm exhibit photoinduced activities that originate from the semiconductor band gap. TiO2 is semiconductor more used in photocatalysis, for this reason various properties have been thoroughly investigated in order to show that the photocatalytic activity and TiO2 reaction mechanism are influenced by structure, defects and impurities, surface morphology. and interfaces in addition to the concentration of dopants, such as rare-earth elements. Cerium ions, for example, vary between Ce4+ and Ce3 + oxidation state making the cerium oxide appear as CeO2 and Ce2O3 under oxidation and reduction conditions. These different electronic structures of Ce3+ (4f15d0) and Ce4+ (4f05d0) provide different catalytic and optical properties at the TiO2. In this work, samples of Ce-doped TiO2 and TiO2 were synthesized by alkali route, and its photocatalytic activity analyzed in order to create a relationship between the response obtained and the structure and morphology of each sample. Alkali route consists in submitting TiO2 (anatase) powder directly in medium of the NaOH (10M) and maintained at 120°C/20 hours by a glycerin bath with subsequent washed with water and HCl (0.1M) until reaching the desired pH. The synthesized samples were then studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic decomposition of rhodamine B (Rh.B) it was performed under UV irradiation and visible light in air. For the obtained

  6. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of Ce-doped TiO2 and TiO2 nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arruda, L.B.; Pereira, E.A.; Paula, F.R.; Lisboa Filho, P.N.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: One-dimensional nanostructures have been intensively studied, from the point of view of their synthesis and mechanisms of formation, as well as their applications in photonics, solar energy conversion, environmental and photocatalysis, since their properties due high surface area, electrical conductivity and light dispersion effects. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles have been demonstrated to be an effective multifunctional material especially when the particle size is less than 50 nm exhibit photoinduced activities that originate from the semiconductor band gap. TiO2 is semiconductor more used in photocatalysis, for this reason various properties have been thoroughly investigated in order to show that the photocatalytic activity and TiO2 reaction mechanism are influenced by structure, defects and impurities, surface morphology. and interfaces in addition to the concentration of dopants, such as rare-earth elements. Cerium ions, for example, vary between Ce4+ and Ce3 + oxidation state making the cerium oxide appear as CeO2 and Ce2O3 under oxidation and reduction conditions. These different electronic structures of Ce3+ (4f15d0) and Ce4+ (4f05d0) provide different catalytic and optical properties at the TiO2. In this work, samples of Ce-doped TiO2 and TiO2 were synthesized by alkali route, and its photocatalytic activity analyzed in order to create a relationship between the response obtained and the structure and morphology of each sample. Alkali route consists in submitting TiO2 (anatase) powder directly in medium of the NaOH (10M) and maintained at 120°C/20 hours by a glycerin bath with subsequent washed with water and HCl (0.1M) until reaching the desired pH. The synthesized samples were then studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic decomposition of rhodamine B (Rh.B) it was performed under UV irradiation and visible light in air. For the obtained

  7. The Photocatalytic Activity and Compact Layer Characteristics of TiO2 Films Prepared Using Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 compact layers are used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs to prevent charge recombination between the electrolyte and the transparent conductive substrate (indium tin oxide, ITO; fluorine-doped tin oxide, FTO. Thin TiO2 compact layers are deposited onto ITO/glass by means of radio frequency (rf magnetron sputtering, using deposition parameters that ensure greater photocatalytic activity and increased DSSC conversion efficiency. The photoinduced decomposition of methylene blue (MB and the photoinduced hydrophilicity of the TiO2 thin films are also investigated. The photocatalytic performance characteristics for the deposition of TiO2 films are improved by using the Grey-Taguchi method. The average transmittance in the visible region exceeds 85% for all samples. The XRD patterns of the TiO2 films, for sol-gel with spin coating of porous TiO2/TiO2 compact/ITO/glass, show a good crystalline structure. In contrast, without the TiO2 compact layer (only porous TiO2, the peak intensity of the anatase (101 plane in the XRD patterns for the TiO2 film has a lower value, which demonstrates inferior crystalline quality. With a TiO2 compact layer to prevent charge recombination, a higher short-circuit current density is obtained. The DSSC with the FTO/glass and Pt counter electrode demonstrates the energy conversion efficiency increased.

  8. One-step preparation and photocatalytic performance of vanadium doped TiO2 coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilić, R.; Stojadinović, S.; Radić, N.; Stefanov, P.; Dohčević-Mitrović, Z.; Grbić, B.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated one-step preparation of vanadium doped TiO 2 coatings formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) of titanium in electrolyte containing 10 g/L Na 3 PO 4 ·12H 2 O + 0.5 g/L NH 4 VO 3 . The morphology, phase structure, and elemental composition of the formed coatings were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. Ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–Vis DRS) was employed to evaluate the band gap energy of obtained coatings. Vanadium doped TiO 2 coatings are partly crystallized and mainly composed of anatase phase TiO 2 , with up to about 2 wt% of vanadium present in the surface layer of the oxide. The valence band photoelectron spectra and UV–Vis DRS showed that vanadium doped TiO 2 coatings exhibit notable red shift with respect to the pure TiO 2 coatings. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by monitoring the degradation of methyl orange under simulated sunlight conditions. Photocatalytic activity of vanadium doped TiO 2 coatings increases with PEO time. Prolonged PEO times result in higher roughness of obtained coatings, thus increasing surface area available for methyl orange degradation. Vanadium doped TiO 2 coatings obtained after 180 s of PEO time exhibit the best photocatalytic activity and about 67% of methyl orange is degraded after 12 h of irradiation under simulated sunlight. - Highlights: • One-step preparation of V-doped TiO 2 coatings in 10 g/L Na 3 PO 4 ·12H 2 O + 0.5 g/L NH 4 VO 3 . • Properties of obtained coatings strongly depend on microdischarge characteristics. • Band gap of V-doped TiO 2 coatings is shifted towards red side of the spectrum. • V-doped TiO 2 coatings have better photocatalytic activity than pure TiO 2 . • After 12 h of simulated sunlight irradiation, 67% of methyl orange was decomposed

  9. Visible-light photocatalytic activity of nitrided TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camps, Enrique; Escobar-Alarcon, L.; Camacho-Lopez, Marco Antonio; Casados, Dora A. Solis

    2010-01-01

    TiO 2 thin films have been applied in UV-light photocatalysis. Nevertheless visible-light photocatalytic activity would make this material more attractive for applications. In this work we present results on the modification of titanium oxide (anatase) sol-gel thin films, via a nitriding process using a microwave plasma source. After the treatment in the nitrogen plasma, the nitrogen content in the TiO 2 films varied in the range from 14 up to 28 at%. The titanium oxide films and the nitrided ones were characterized by XPS, micro-Raman spectroscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy. Photocatalytic activity tests were done using a Methylene Blue dye solution, and as catalyst TiO 2 and nitrided TiO 2 films. The irradiation of films was carried out with a lamp with emission in the visible (without UV). The results showed that the nitrided TiO 2 films had photocatalytic activity, while the unnitrided films did not.

  10. Understanding the effect of surface/bulk defects on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2: anatase versus rutile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Junqing; Wu, Guangjun; Guan, Naijia; Li, Landong; Li, Zhuoxin; Cao, Xingzhong

    2013-07-14

    The sole effect of surface/bulk defects of TiO2 samples on their photocatalytic activity was investigated. Nano-sized anatase and rutile TiO2 were prepared by hydrothermal method and their surface/bulk defects were adjusted simply by calcination at different temperatures, i.e. 400-700 °C. High temperature calcinations induced the growth of crystalline sizes and a decrease in the surface areas, while the crystalline phase and the exposed facets were kept unchanged during calcination, as indicated by the characterization results from XRD, Raman, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, TEM and UV-Vis spectra. The existence of surface/bulk defects in calcined TiO2 samples was confirmed by photoluminescence and XPS spectra, and the surface/bulk defect ratio was quantitatively analyzed according to positron annihilation results. The photocatalytic activity of calcined TiO2 samples was evaluated in the photocatalytic reforming of methanol and the photocatalytic oxidation of α-phenethyl alcohol. Based on the characterization and catalytic results, a direct correlation between the surface specific photocatalytic activity and the surface/bulk defect density ratio could be drawn for both anatase TiO2 and rutile TiO2. The surface defects of TiO2, i.e. oxygen vacancy clusters, could promote the separation of electron-hole pairs under irradiation, and therefore, enhance the activity during photocatalytic reaction.

  11. Photocatalytic Water Treatment on TiO2 Thin Layers.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolcová, Olga; Spáčilová, L.; Maléterová, Ywetta; Morozová, Magdalena; Ezechiáš, Martin; Křesinová, Zdena

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 25 (2016), s. 11631-11638 ISSN 1944-3994. [International Conference on Protection and Restoration of the Environment /12./. Skiathos Island, 29.06.2014-03.07.2014] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01020804 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : water purification * endocrine disruptor * photocatalytic * TiO2 layers Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 1.631, year: 2016

  12. Photocatalyzed oxidation of alcohols and organochlorides in the presence of native TiO2 and metallized TiO2 suspensions. Part(I):Photocatalytic activity and pH influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jian Chen,; Ollis, D.F.; Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.

    1999-01-01

    Photocatalytic oxidations of methanol, ethanol and chloroform, trichloroethylene (TCE), and dichloropropionic acid (DCP) in M/TiO2 aqueous slurries are studied. In the presence of oxygen, the intermediates of methanol oxidation, such as formaldehyde and formic acid, were not detected by GC in the

  13. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of porous WO3/TiO2 hollow microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Liuyang; Si, Zhichun; Weng, Duan; Yao, Youwei

    2014-01-01

    Porous WO 3 /TiO 2 hollow microspheres were prepared by a spray drying method for photodegradation of methylene blue and phenol. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope, N 2 adsorption–desorption measurements, Raman spectrometer, UV–Vis Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy and Zeta-Meter measurements. The results showed that the tungsten oxides mainly existed in highly dispersed amorphous form on anatase when the loading amount of tungsten oxide was below 3 mol%. The improved photocatalytic activity under UV light irradiation of the WO 3 /TiO 2 catalyst mainly arises from the enhanced charge separation efficiency rather than the improved light absorbance by highly dispersed amorphous tungsten oxides. Highly dispersed amorphous WO x can form a shallowly trapped site due to its similar band structure with TiO 2 . The strongly electron-withdrawing of tungsten oxide in highly dispersed state facilitates the electron transition between titanium and WO x , and consequently improves the charge separation. The enhanced acidity of catalyst by WO x in reactant environment also improved the charge separation efficiency due to the timely transition of holes and electrons accumulated on TiO 2 and WO x , respectively. However, the improved photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation of the WO 3 /TiO 2 catalyst mainly arises from light harvest. TiO 2 containing 3 mol% WO 3 displayed the highest photocatalytic activity under UV light irradiation while that containing 4 mol% WO 3 present highest activity under visible light irradiation

  14. Preparation of Porous F-WO3/TiO2 Films with Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity by Microarc Oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, Chung-Wei; Wu, Kee-Rong; Hung, Chung-Hsuang; Chang, Hao-Cheng; Hsu, Chuan-Jen

    2012-01-01

    Porous F-WO3/TiO2 (mTiO2) films are prepared on titanium sheet substrates using microarc oxidation (MAO) technique. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that visible-light (Vis) enabling mTiO2 films with a very high content of anatase TiO2 and high loading of WO3 are successfully synthesized at a low applied voltage of 300 V using electrolyte contenting NaF and Na2WO4 without subsequent heat treatment. The cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy micrograph reveals that the mTiO2 films...

  15. Defects improved photocatalytic ability of TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lei; Tian, Hong-Wei; Meng, Fan-Ling; Hu, Xiao-Ying; Zheng, Wei-Tao; Sun, Chang Q.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Defect improves the photocatalytic ability by band gap narrowing and carrier life prolonging. • Atomic undercoordination shortens the local bonds, entraps, and polarizes electrons. • Polarization lowers the local workfunction and lengthens carrier life. • Entrapment and polarization narrows the band gap tuning the wavelength of absorption. - Abstract: Defect generation forms an important means modulating the photocatalytic ability of TiO 2 with mechanisms that remain yet unclear. Here we show that a spectral distillation clarifies the impact of defect on modulating the band gap, electroaffinity, and work function of the substance. Firstly, by analyzing XPS measurements, we calibrated the 2p 3/2 level of 451.47 eV for an isolated Ti atom and its shifts by 2.14 and 6.94 eV, respectively, upon Ti and TiO 2 bulk formation. Spectral difference between the defected and the un-defected TiO 2 skin revealed then that the 2p 3/2 level shifts further from 6.94 to 9.67 eV due to the defect-induced quantum entrapment. This entrapment is associated with an elevation of the upper edges of both the 2p 3/2 and the conduction band by polarization. The shortening and strengthening of bonds between undercoordinated atoms densify and entrap the core electrons, which in turn polarize the dangling bond electrons of defect atoms. The entrapment and polarization mediate thus the band gap, the electroaffinity, the work function, and the photocatalytic ability of TiO 2

  16. Production and Characterization of TiO2 Nanofilms for Hemocompatible and Photocatalytic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schvezov, C. E.; Vera, M. L.; Schuster, J. M.; Rosenberger, M. R.

    2017-10-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) coatings are currently produced for hemocompatible and photocatalytic applications by using two techniques: sol-gel and anodic oxidation. In this review, the research advances on TiO2 nanofilms produced with these techniques are presented, with a focus on different aspects such as process parameters, morphology, roughness, crystal structure, adhesion, wear and erosion resistance, corrosion resistance, hemocompatibility, toxicity, plaque and bacterial adhesion, and heterogeneous photocatalysis of immobilized porous material. This review was presented at the 3rd Pan American Materials Congress at the 2017 TMS Annual Meeting and Exhibition in San Diego, California, USA.

  17. Photocatalytic Hydrogen or Oxygen Evolution from Water over S- or N-Doped TiO2 under Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumoto Nishijima

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available S- or N-doping of TiO2 powder having an anatase or rutile phase extended the photocatalytic activity for water oxidation and reduction under UV light and visible light irradiation. For the reduction of water, anatase-doped TiO2 showed higher level of activity than that of doped TiO2 having a rutile phase using ethanol as an electron donor. Furthermore, the activity level of S-doped TiO2 for hydrogen evolution was higher than that of N-doped TiO2 photocatalysts under visible light. Photocatalytic oxidation of water on doped TiO2 having a rutile phase proceeded with fairly high efficiency when Fe3+ ions were used as electron acceptors compared to that on doped TiO2 having an anatase phase. In addition, water splitting under visible light irradiation was achieved by construction of a Z-scheme photocatalysis system employing the doped TiO2 having anatase and rutile phases for H2 and O2 evolution and the I−/IO3− redox couple as an electron relay.

  18. Photocatalytic decomposition of selected estrogens and their estrogenic activity by UV-LED irradiated TiO_2 immobilized on porous titanium sheets via thermal-chemical oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlos, Maricor J.; Liang, Robert; Hatat-Fraile, Melisa M.; Bragg, Leslie M.; Zhou, Norman Y.; Servos, Mark R.; Andrews, Susan A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO_2 self-assembled on oxidized porous titanium sheets. • UV-LED/TiO_2 membrane treatment reduced the concentrations of estrogens. • Different pH conditions affect treatment efficiency. • The estrogenic activity removal was similar to the chemical disappearance. - Abstract: The removal of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) remains a big challenge in water treatment. Risks associated with these compounds are not clearly defined and it is important that the water industry has additional options to increase the resiliency of water treatment systems. Titanium dioxide (TiO_2) has potential applications for the removal of EDCs from water. TiO_2 has been immobilized on supports using a variety of synthesis methods to increase its feasibility for water treatment. In this study, we immobilized TiO_2 through the thermal-chemical oxidation of porous titania sheets. The efficiency of the material to degrade target EDCs under UV-LED irradiation was examined under a wide range of pH conditions. A yeast-estrogen screen assay was used to complement chemical analysis in assessing removal efficiency. All compounds but 17β-estradiol were degraded and followed a pseudo first-order kinetics at all pH conditions tested, with pH 4 and pH 11 showing the most and the least efficient treatments respectively. In addition, the total estrogenic activity was substantially reduced even with the inefficient degradation of 17β-estradiol. Additional studies will be required to optimize different treatment conditions, UV-LED configurations, and membrane fouling mitigation measures to make this technology a more viable option for water treatment.

  19. Photocatalytic effects for the TiO2-coated phosphor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Jung-Sik

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The photocatalytic behavior of the coupling of TiO 2 with phosphorescent materials. → The photobleaching of an MB aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. → The ALD TiO 2 -coated phosphor composite showed much higher photocatalytic reactivity. → The light emitted from the phosphors contributed to the photo-generation. - Abstract: This study investigated the photocatalytic behavior of the coupling of TiO 2 with phosphorescent materials. A TiO 2 thin film was deposited on CaAl 2 O 4 :Eu 2+ ,Nd 3+ phosphor particles by using atomic layer deposition (ALD), and its photocatalytic reaction was investigated by the photobleaching of an aqueous solution of methylene-blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. To clarify the mechanism of the TiO 2 -phosphorescent materials, two different samples of TiO 2 -coated phosphor and TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -coated phosphor particles were prepared. The photocatalytic mechanisms of the ALD TiO 2 -coated phosphor powders were different from those of the pure TiO 2 and TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -coated phosphor. The absorbance in a solution of the ALD TiO 2 -coated phosphor decreased much faster than that of pure TiO 2 under visible irradiation. In addition, the ALD TiO 2 -coated phosphor showed moderately higher photocatalytic degradation of MB solution than the TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -coated phosphor did. The TiO 2 -coated phosphorescent materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS).

  20. Nano titanium dioxide photocatalytic protein tyrosine nitration: A potential hazard of TiO2 on skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Naihao; Zhu Zhening; Zhao Xuqi; Tao Ran; Yang Xiangliang; Gao Zhonghong

    2008-01-01

    Protein tyrosine nitration is a prevalent post-translational modification which occurs as a result of oxidative and nitrative stress, it may be directly involved in the onset and/or progression of diseases. Considering the existence of nano titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) in environment and sunscreen products along with the high content of nitrite in sweat, the UV-exposed skin may be a significant target for the photosensitized damage. In this paper, tyrosine nitration of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was initiated in the UV-irradiated reaction mixture containing 0.2-3.0 mg/ml of three commercially nano TiO 2 products and 0.25-1.0 mM NO 2 - . It was found that anatase TiO 2 and Degussa P25 TiO 2 showed prominent photocatalytic activity on promoting the formation of protein tyrosine nitration, and the optimum condition for the reaction was around physiological pH. Meanwhile, the photocatalytic effect of rutile on protein tyrosine nitration was subtle. The potential physiological significance of nano TiO 2 -photocatalytic protein nitration was also demonstrated in mouse skin homogenate. Although the relationship between photocatalytic protein tyrosine nitration and chronic cutaneous diseases needs further study, the toxicity of nano TiO 2 to the skin disease should be paid more attention in the production and utilization process

  1. The design, fabrication, and photocatalytic utility of nanostructured semiconductors: focus on TiO2-based nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Arghya Narayan

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in basic fabrication techniques of TiO2-based nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanowires, nanoplatelets, and both physical- and solution-based techniques have been adopted by various research groups around the world. Our research focus has been mainly on various deposition parameters used for fabricating nanostructured materials, including TiO2-organic/inorganic nanocomposite materials. Technically, TiO2 shows relatively high reactivity under ultraviolet light, the energy of which exceeds the band gap of TiO2. The development of photocatalysts exhibiting high reactivity under visible light allows the main part of the solar spectrum to be used. Visible light-activated TiO2 could be prepared by doping or sensitizing. As far as doping of TiO2 is concerned, in obtaining tailored material with improved properties, metal and nonmetal doping has been performed in the context of improved photoactivity. Nonmetal doping seems to be more promising than metal doping. TiO2 represents an effective photocatalyst for water and air purification and for self-cleaning surfaces. Additionally, it can be used as an antibacterial agent because of its strong oxidation activity and superhydrophilicity. Therefore, applications of TiO2 in terms of photocatalytic activities are discussed here. The basic mechanisms of the photoactivities of TiO2 and nanostructures are considered alongside band structure engineering and surface modification in nanostructured TiO2 in the context of doping. The article reviews the basic structural, optical, and electrical properties of TiO2, followed by detailed fabrication techniques of 0-, 1-, and quasi-2-dimensional TiO2 nanomaterials. Applications and future directions of nanostructured TiO2 are considered in the context of various photoinduced phenomena such as hydrogen production, electricity generation via dye-sensitized solar cells, photokilling and self-cleaning effect, photo-oxidation of organic pollutant, wastewater management, and

  2. Photocatalytic properties and selective antimicrobial activity of TiO2(Eu)/CuO nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Robert; Dworniczek, Ewa; Caplovicova, Maria; Monfort, Olivier; Lianos, Panagiotis; Caplovic, Lubomir; Plesch, Gustav

    2016-05-01

    TiO2(Eu)/CuO nanocomposites were prepared by precipitation method. The anatase nanocrystallites with a size of 26 nm exhibited well crystallized and characteristical dipyramidal morphology and {1 0 1} and {0 0 1} faceting. Transmission electron microscopy photographs with atomic resolution showed that the Eu(III) dopants were bounded on surface of titania. In the composites, the CuO nanocrystals exhibiting a monoclinic tenorite structure with a size in the range from 2 to 5 nm were grafted to the surface of titania. The influence of copper(II) oxide led to distinct selectivity in the photocatalytic and antimicrobial properties of the investigated TiO2(Eu)/CuO nanocomposites. While the presence of CuO nanocrystals strongly increased the photocatalytic production of hydrogen by ethanol reforming, it decreased the activity in photoinduced total mineralization of phenol comparing with non-modified TiO2(Eu). In investigated TiO2(Eu)/CuO powders, the photoinduced antimicrobial activity against membranes of Enterococcus species was influenced by the selective binding of CuO to the surface of the microorganism leading to distinct selectivity in their action. The activity against Enterococcus faecalis was higher than against Enterococcus faecium.

  3. Photocatalytic degradation of NOx gases using TiO2-containing paint: a real scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggos, Th; Bartzis, J G; Liakou, M; Gobin, C

    2007-07-31

    An indoor car park was appropriately equipped in order to test the de-polluting efficiency of a TiO(2)-containing paint in an indoor polluted environment, under real scale configuration. Depollution tests were performed in an artificially closed area of the parking, which was polluted by a car exhaust during the testing period. The ceiling surface of the car park was covered with white acrylic TiO(2)-containing paint (PP), which was developed in the frame of the EU project 'PICADA' (Photocatalytic Innovative Coverings Application for Depollution Assessment). The closed area was fed with car exhaust gases. As soon as the system reached steady state, the UV lamps were turned on for 5h. The difference between the final and the initial steady state concentration indicates the removal of the pollutants due to both the photocatalytic paint and car emission reduction. Results showed a significant photocatalytic oxidation of NO(x) gases. The photocatalytic removal of NO and NO(2) was calculated to 19% and 20%, respectively, while the photocatalytic rate (microgm(-2)s(-1)) ranged between 0.05 and 0.13 for NO and between 0.09 and 0.16 for NO(2).

  4. Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue under UV Light Irradiation on Prepared Carbonaceous TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zatil Amali Che Ramli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study involves the investigation of altering the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 using composite materials. Three different forms of modified TiO2, namely, TiO2/activated carbon (AC, TiO2/carbon (C, and TiO2/PANi, were compared. The TiO2/carbon composite was obtained by pyrolysis of TiO2/PANi prepared by in situ polymerization method, while the TiO2/activated carbon (TiO2/AC was obtained after treating TiO2/carbon with 1.0 M KOH solution, followed by calcination at a temperature of 450°C. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TG-DTA, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET, and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used to characterize and evaluate the prepared samples. The specific surface area was determined to be in the following order: TiO2/AC > TiO2/C > TiO2/PANi > TiO2 (179 > 134 > 54 > 9 m2 g−1. The evaluation of photocatalytic performance for the degradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation was also of the same order, with 98 > 84.7 > 69% conversion rate, which is likely to be attributed to the porosity and synergistic effect in the prepared samples.

  5. Photocatalytic Decolorization Study of Methyl Orange by TiO2–Chitosan Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imelda Fajriati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic decolorization of methyl orange (MO by TiO2-chitosan nanocomposite has been studied. This study was started by synthesizing TiO2-chitosan nanocomposites using sol-gel method with various concentrations of Titanium(IV isopropoxide (TTIP as the TiO2 precursor. The structure, surface morphology, thermal and optical property of TiO2-chitosan nanocomposite were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, fourier transform infra red (FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and diffuse reflectance ultra violet (DRUV spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2-chitosan nanocomposite was evaluated by photocatalytic decolorization of methyl orange as a model pollutant. The results indicate that the particle size of TiO2 increases with increasing ofthe concentration of TTIP, in which TiO2 with smallest particle size exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity. The highest photocatalytic decolorization was obtained at 5 h of contact time, initial concentration of MO at 20 ppm and at solution pH of 4. Using these conditions, over 90% of MO was able to be decolorized using 0.02 g of TiO2-chitosan nanocomposite under UV light irradiation. The TiO2-chitosan nanocomposite could be reused, which meant that the TiO2-chitosan nanocomposites can be developed as an effective and economical photocatalyst to decolorize or treat dye in wastewater.

  6. Chromate enhanced visible light driven TiO2 photocatalytic mechanism on Acid Orange 7 photodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeoung-Sheng; Shen, Jyun-Hong; Horng, Jao-Jia

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Photocatalysis of Cr(VI) and TiO 2 were studied by ESR analysis on DMPO-OH signals. • Mechanism of Cr(VI)-enhanced by visible light was different from that by UV. • O 2 adsorbed on TiO 2 surfaces could react with Cr(VI) to lower photoenergy needed. • Even by UV, no TiO 2 photocatalysis was observed without O 2 solution. • Visible light and Cr(VI) redox reaction could activate TiO 2 and would yield ·OH. - Abstract: When hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is added to a TiO 2 photocatalytic reaction, the decolorization and mineralization efficiencies of azo dyes Acid Orange 7 (AO7) are enhanced even though the mechanism is unclear. This study used 5,5-dimethyl-L-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) as the scavenger and the analysis of Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) to investigate this enhancement effect by observing the hydroxyl radical (·OH) generation of the Cr(VI)/TiO 2 system under UV and visible light (Vis) irradiation. With Cr(VI), the decolorization efficiencies were approximately 95% and 62% under UV and Vis, and those efficiencies were 25% less in the absence of Cr(VI). The phenomena of the DMPO-OH signals during the ESR analysis under Vis 405 and 550 nm irradiation were obviously the enhancement effects of Cr(VI) in aerobic conditions. In anoxic conditions, the catalytic effects of Cr(VI) could not be achieved due to the lack of a redox reaction between Cr(VI) and the adsorbed oxygen at the oxygen vacancy sites on the TiO 2 surfaces . The results suggest that by introducing the agents of redox reactions such as chromate ions, we could lower the photoenergy of TiO 2 needed and allow Vis irradiation to activate photocatalysis

  7. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TiO2-ZEOLITE AND ITS APPLICATION TO DEGRADE TEXTILLE WASTEWATER BY PHOTOCATALYTIC METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeslia Utubira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of titanium oxide-zeolite composite (TiO2-zeolite has been done. Preparation was initiated by dispersing oligocation of titanium solution into suspension of natural zeolite. The suspension was stirred and then filtered to separate the solid phase from the filtrate. The solid phase was heated by microwave oven to convert the oligocations into its oxide forms and the resulting material (called as TiO2-zeolite then was used to photodegrade the wastewater of PT.Jogjatex The TiO2-zeolite and unmodified zeolite were characterized using X-ray diffractometry, FT-IR spectro-photometry, X-ray fluorescence (XRF and gas sorption analysis (GSA methods to determine their physicochemical properties. Photocatalytic activity of TiO2-Zeolite was tested by exposing the suspension of TiO2-Zeolite/wastewater by the UV light of 366 nm at room temperature for 15 - 75 minutes. Characterization results exhibited that the formation of TiO2 on internal as well as external surfaces of Zeolite could not be detected  with X-ray diffractometry as well as  FT-IR spectrophotometry, however elemental analysis result with XRF indicated that titanium concentration in zeolite increased due to the inclusion, i.e from 0.26% (w/w in zeolite to 2.80% (w/w in TiO2-zeolite. Characterization result by GSA exhibited the increased of specific surface area from 19.57 m2/g in zeolite to 67.96 m2/g in TiO2-zeolite; total pore volume from 20.64 x 10-3 mL/g in zeolite to 49.561 x 10-3 mL/g in TiO2-Zeolite; pore radius average decreased from 21.10 Å in zeolite to 14.58 Å in TiO2-zeolite. Photocatalytic activity test of TiO2-zeolite on wastewater of PT. Jogjatex showed that UV radiation for 75 minutes on the mixture of TiO2-zeolite and wastewater resulted in the decreased of  COD number up to 57.85%. Meanwhile the sorption study showed that zeolite and TiO2-zeolite could decrease COD number of wastewater up to 43.95% and 57.85%, respectively.   Keywords: TiO2-zeolite

  8. The design, fabrication, and photocatalytic utility of nanostructured semiconductors: focus on TiO2-based nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arghya Narayan Banerjee

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Arghya Narayan BanerjeeSchool of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, South KoreaAbstract: Recent advances in basic fabrication techniques of TiO2-based nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanowires, nanoplatelets, and both physical- and solution-based techniques have been adopted by various research groups around the world. Our research focus has been mainly on various deposition parameters used for fabricating nanostructured materials, including TiO2-organic/inorganic nanocomposite materials. Technically, TiO2 shows relatively high reactivity under ultraviolet light, the energy of which exceeds the band gap of TiO2. The development of photocatalysts exhibiting high reactivity under visible light allows the main part of the solar spectrum to be used. Visible light-activated TiO2 could be prepared by doping or sensitizing. As far as doping of TiO2 is concerned, in obtaining tailored material with improved properties, metal and nonmetal doping has been performed in the context of improved photoactivity. Nonmetal doping seems to be more promising than metal doping. TiO2 represents an effective photocatalyst for water and air purification and for self-cleaning surfaces. Additionally, it can be used as an antibacterial agent because of its strong oxidation activity and superhydrophilicity. Therefore, applications of TiO2 in terms of photocatalytic activities are discussed here. The basic mechanisms of the photoactivities of TiO2 and nanostructures are considered alongside band structure engineering and surface modification in nanostructured TiO2 in the context of doping. The article reviews the basic structural, optical, and electrical properties of TiO2, followed by detailed fabrication techniques of 0-, 1-, and quasi-2-dimensional TiO2 nanomaterials. Applications and future directions of nanostructured TiO2 are considered in the context of various photoinduced phenomena such as hydrogen production, electricity generation via

  9. FTIR study of formic acid interaction with TiO2 and TiO2 doped with Pd and Cu in photocatalytic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arana, J.; Garriga i Cabo, C.; Dona-Rodriguez, J.M.; Gonzalez-Diaz, O.; Herrera-Melian, J.A.; Perez-Pena, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this study the different processes occurring on the TiO 2 and Pd and Cu doped TiO 2 surfaces during the photocatalytic formic acid degradation in the presence or absence of S 2 O 8 2- or H 2 O 2 have been investigated. FTIR studies have shown the relevance of the H-bounded hydroxyl groups. It has been observed that formate molecules interact simultaneously with the dopants and surfacial Ti atoms yielding an intermediate species which plays an important role in the phototacatalytic degradation mechanism. Also, it has been determined that Pd or Cu oxides may act as receptors or transmitters of the TiO 2 photogenerated electrons and thus modify the degradation mechanism. Different redox reactions have been proposed according to the obtained results

  10. TiO2 promoted by two different non-noble metal cocatalysts for enhanced photocatalytic H2 evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jing-Dong; Yan, Shi; Huang, Qin-Dong; Fan, Mei-Ting; Yuan, You-Zhu; Tan, Timothy Thatt-Yang; Liao, Dai-Wei

    2014-01-01

    TiO 2 photocatalysts modified by cobalt and nickel cocatalysts were prepared via polymerized complex method (PCM) and evaluated by photocatalytic hydrogen evolution. Hydrogen generation in 6 h for the TiO 2 promoted by cobalt and nickel (0.1%Co + 0.2%Ni/TiO 2 ) is about two times (2456 μmol H 2 ) compared to that of TiO 2 promoted only by cobalt (1180 μmol H 2 for 0.1%Co/TiO 2 ) or nickel (1127 μmol H 2 for 0.2%Ni/TiO 2 ), and mechanically mixed TiO 2 promoted by cobalt and TiO 2 promoted by nickel (0.1%Co/TiO 2 :0.2%Ni/TiO 2 = 1:1 (m/m), 1282 μmol H 2 ). The high photocatalytic H 2 evolution activity over TiO 2 promoted by cobalt and nickel is ascribed to enhanced photo response due to the presence of cobalt and nickel impurity level, and effective separation of photogenerated electrons and holes due to the synergistic effect of cobalt and nickel, which serve as active sites for H 2 evolution reaction (HER) and oxidation reaction (OR) respectively. This study demonstrates a viable strategy to design more active photocatalysts for photocatalytic H 2 evolution by substituting noble metals with more abundant elements using as HER and OR cocatalysts, respectively.

  11. Immobilization of TiO2 nanoparticles on Fe-filled carbon nanocapsules for photocatalytic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.-C.; Huang, G.-L.; Chen, H.-L.; Lee, Y.-D.

    2006-01-01

    Using a simple sol-gel method, a novel magnetic photocatalyst was produced by immobilization of TiO 2 nano-crystal on Fe-filled carbon nanocapsules (Fe-CNC). High resolution TEM images indicated that the immobilization of TiO 2 on Fe-CNC was driven primarily by heterogeneous coagulation, whereas surface nucleation and growth was the dominant mechanism for immobilizing TiO 2 on acid-functionalized hollow CNC. The TiO 2 immobilized on Fe-CNC exhibited the anatase phase as revealed by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. In comparison with free TiO 2 and TiO 2 -coated CNC, TiO 2 -coated Fe-CNC displayed good performance in the removal of NO gas under UV exposure. Due to the advantages of easy recycling and good photocatalytic efficiency, the novel magnetic photocatalyst developed here has potential use in photocatalytic applications for pollution prevention

  12. Chelated Nitrogen-Sulphur-Codoped TiO2: Synthesis, Characterization, Mechanistic, and UV/Visible Photocatalytic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayat Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents in detail the physicochemical, photoluminescent, and photocatalytic properties of carboxylic acid chelated nitrogen-sulphur-codoped TiO2. From the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study, it was revealed that the formate group formed bidentate bridging linkage while the acetate group coordinated in a bidentate chelating mode with a titanium precursor. In compliance with X-ray diffraction data, the anatase to rutile transformation temperature was extended due to carboxylic acid chelation and NS codoping. Raman analysis indicated four Raman peaks at 146, 392, 512, and 632 cm−1 for the precalcined chelated TiO2; on incorporation with NS dopants, an increase in Raman intensity for these peaks was recorded, indicating the structure stability of the anatase phase. Furthermore, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic study revealed the presence of anionic doping of nitrogen and cationic doping of sulphur in the lattice of TiO2. When evaluating the UV-visible photodegradation rate of 4-chlorophenol, the modified TiO2 (NS0.06-TFA showed the highest photocatalytic activity. In connection with the activity tests, several scavenger agents were employed to elucidate the significance of the different reactive oxidizing species during the photocatalytic process. Moreover, the transfer pathways of photogenerated carriers and the photocatalytic reaction mechanism of modified TiO2 were also explained in detail.

  13. Photocatalytic properties and selective antimicrobial activity of TiO2(Eu)/CuO nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michal, Robert; Dworniczek, Ewa; Caplovicova, Maria; Monfort, Olivier; Lianos, Panagiotis; Caplovic, Lubomir; Plesch, Gustav

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanocomposites composed of Eu-doped anatase grafted with CuO. • Increase in photocatalytic hydrogen production due to CuO acting as electrons sink. • CuO in composites decreasing the photoinduced total mineralization of phenol. • Selective photoinduced antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus species. - Abstract: TiO 2 (Eu)/CuO nanocomposites were prepared by precipitation method. The anatase nanocrystallites with a size of 26 nm exhibited well crystallized and characteristical dipyramidal morphology and {1 0 1} and {0 0 1} faceting. Transmission electron microscopy photographs with atomic resolution showed that the Eu(III) dopants were bounded on surface of titania. In the composites, the CuO nanocrystals exhibiting a monoclinic tenorite structure with a size in the range from 2 to 5 nm were grafted to the surface of titania. The influence of copper(II) oxide led to distinct selectivity in the photocatalytic and antimicrobial properties of the investigated TiO 2 (Eu)/CuO nanocomposites. While the presence of CuO nanocrystals strongly increased the photocatalytic production of hydrogen by ethanol reforming, it decreased the activity in photoinduced total mineralization of phenol comparing with non-modified TiO 2 (Eu). In investigated TiO 2 (Eu)/CuO powders, the photoinduced antimicrobial activity against membranes of Enterococcus species was influenced by the selective binding of CuO to the surface of the microorganism leading to distinct selectivity in their action. The activity against Enterococcus faecalis was higher than against Enterococcus faecium.

  14. Photocatalytic decomposition of N2O over TiO2/g-C3N4 photocatalysts heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kočí, K.; Reli, M.; Troppová, I.; Šihor, M.; Kupková, J.; Kustrowski, P.; Praus, P.

    2017-02-01

    TiO2/g-C3N4 photocatalysts with the various TiO2/g-C3N4 weight ratios from 1:2 to 1:6 were fabricated by mechanical mixing in water suspension followed by calcination. Pure TiO2 was prepared by thermal hydrolysis and pure g-C3N4 was prepared from commercial melamine by thermal annealing at 620 °C. All the nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, photoelectrochemical measurements and nitrogen physisorption. The prepared mixtures along with pure TiO2 and g-C3N4 were tested for the photocatalytic decomposition of nitrous oxide under UVC (λ = 254 nm), UVA (λ = 365 nm) and Vis (λ > 400 nm) irradiation. The TiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites showed moderate improvement compared to pure g-C3N4 but pure TiO2 proved to be a better photocatalyst under UVC irradiation. However, under UVA irradiation conditions, the photocatalytic activity of TiO2/g-C3N4 (1:2) nanocomposite exhibited an increase compared to pure TiO2. Nevertheless, further increase of g-C3N4 amount leads/led to a decrease in reactivity. These results are suggesting the nanocomposite with the optimal weight ratio of TiO2 and g-C3N4 have shifted absorption edge energy towards longer wavelengths and decreased the recombination rate of charge carriers compared to pure g-C3N4. This is probably due to the generation of heterojunction on the TiO2/g-C3N4 interface.

  15. The role played by different TiO2 features on the photocatalytic degradation of paracetamol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Luca; Meroni, Daniela; Falletta, Ermelinda; Ferretti, Anna Maria; Gervasini, Antonella; Cappelletti, Giuseppe; Ardizzone, Silvia

    2017-12-01

    Photocatalytic reactions promoted by TiO2 can be affected by a large number of oxide features (e.g. surface area, morphology and phase composition). In this context, the role played by the surface characteristics (e.g. surface acidity, wettability, etc.) has been often disregarded. In this work, pristine and Ta-doped TiO2 nanomaterials with different phase composition (pure anatase and anatase/brookite mixture) were synthesized by sol-gel and characterized under the structural and morphological point of view. A careful characterization of the acid properties of the materials has been performed by liquid-solid acid-base titration by means of 2-phenylethylamine (PEA) adsorption to determine the acid site density and average acid strength. Photocatalytic tests were performed in the degradation of paracetamol (acetaminophen) under UV irradiation and results were discussed in the light of the detailed scenarios describing the different oxides. The surface acidity of the samples, was recognized as one of the key parameters controlling the photocatalytic activity. A possible molecule degradation route is proposed on the ground of GC-MS and ESI-MS analyses.

  16. Graphene-spindle shaped TiO2 mesocrystal composites: Facile synthesis and enhanced visible light photocatalytic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaofei; Qin, Jieling; Li, Yang; Zhang, Rongxian; Tang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene-TiO 2 mesocrystal composites were fabricated via a facile approach. • Graphene sheets were decorated with spindle-like TiO 2 mesocrystals. • Graphene causes enhanced light absorbance and visible light photocatalytic activity. • Oxygen-containing radicals are believed to responsible for its improved activity. -- Abstract: Graphene (GR)-TiO 2 mesocrystal composites were prepared by a facile template-free process based on the combination of sol–gel and solvothermal methods, and were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–vis DRS), nitrogen absorption and electron spin resonance (ESR). Visible light photocatalytic performance of GR-TiO 2 composites was evaluated for photocatalytic degradation of organic dye Rhodamine B. It was found that the amount of graphene oxide (GO) added obviously affects morphologies of TiO 2 mesocrystals and photocatalytic activities of as-prepared nanocomposites. Composites prepared in the presence of different amounts of GO all exhibit higher photocatalytic activity than pure TiO 2 mesocrystals and P25, the composite obtained by using 20 mg GO presents the most uniform TiO 2 mesocrystals in the composite and shows the highest photocatalytic efficiency. The mechanism for the generation of TiO 2 mesocrystals in the GR-TiO 2 composite is proposed and possible reasons for the enhancement in visible light photocatalytic efficiency are also discussed

  17. PHOTOCATALYTIC DECOMPOSITION OF GASEOUS TOLUENE BY TIO2 NANOPARTICLES COATED ON ACTIVATED CARBON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rezaee ، Gh. H. Pourtaghi ، A. Khavanin ، R. Sarraf Mamoory ، M. T. Ghaneian ، H. Godini

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds are considered as a group of major environmental pollutants and toluene is recognized as one of the representatives. In this research, the photocatalytic activity for toluene removal was studied over TiO2 nanoparticles embeded on activated carbon. Laboratory-scale experiments were conducted in a fixed-bed reactor equipped with 4 w and 8 w UV lamps (peak wavelength at 365 nm to determine the oxidation rates of toluene. The photocatalyst was extensively characterized by means of X- ray diffraction and scan electronmicroscopy. Experiments were conducted under general laboratory temperature (25ºC±2 while the irradiation was provided by the UV lamps. The dependence of the reaction rate on light intensity as well as the deactivation of the catalyst were determined. The results indicated that the rate of the photocatalytic process increased with increasing the intensity of UV irradiation. Using the UV-A lamps, the decomposition rate of toluene was 98%. The stabilized photocatalyst presented remarkable stability (no deactivation and excellent repeatability. The catalyst could be regenerated by UV irradiation in the absence of gas phase. The control experiments confirmed that the photocatalytic effects of toluene onto the TiO2/activated carbon catalysts in the dark conditions were negligible. Reproducibility tests proved that the photocatalytic activity of the photocatalyst remains intact even after several experiments of new added toluene quantities. The study demonstrated that the TiO2/activated carbon catalyst may be a practical and promising way to degrade the toluene under ultraviolet irradiation.

  18. Photocatalytic activity of TiO2/Nb2O5/PANI and TiO2/Nb2O5/RGO as new nanocomposites for degradation of organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrin, Saviz; Heshmatpour, Felora

    2018-06-05

    In this study, highly active titanium dioxide modified by niobium oxide (Nb 2 O 5 ), polymer (PANI) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) were successfully prepared. The morphology, structure, surface area and light absorption properties of the present nanocomposites for removal of methylene blue (MB) and methyl orange (MO) were investigated and compared with those of TiO 2 /Nb 2 O 5 and TiO 2 nanoparticles. The characterization techniques such as XRD, FT-IR, UV-vis, SEM, EDX, BET and TEM were employed in order to identify the nanocomposites. Also, photocatalytic properties of TiO 2 /Nb 2 O 5 /PANI and TiO 2 /Nb 2 O 5 /RGO nanocomposites under visible light irradiation were studied. In this way, the obtained results were compared to each other and also compared to TiO 2 /Nb 2 O 5 and TiO 2 nanoparticles. In this context, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal follows the photodegradation in observed performance. The results indicate that reduced TiO 2 /Nb 2 O 5 nanocomposite is effectively modified by graphene oxide to give TiO 2 /Nb 2 O 5 /RGO composite. The TiO 2 /Nb 2 O 5 /RGO exhibits significantly higher photocatalytic activity in degradation of organic dyes under visible light rather than that of TiO 2 /Nb 2 O 5 /PANI, TiO 2 /Nb 2 O 5 and pure TiO 2 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. SiO2@TiO2 Coating: Synthesis, Physical Characterization and Photocatalytic Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rosales

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Use of silicon dioxide (SiO2 and titanium dioxide (TiO2 have been widely investigated individually in coatings technology, but their combined properties promote compatibility for different innovative applications. For example, the photocatalytic properties of TiO2 coatings, when exposed to UV light, have interesting environmental applications, such as air purification, self-cleaning and antibacterial properties. However, as reported in different pilot projects, serious durability problems, associated with the adhesion between the substrate and TiO2, have been evidenced. Thus, the aim of this work is to synthesize SiO2 together with TiO2 to increase the durability of the photocatalytic coating without affecting its photocatalytic potential. Therefore, synthesis using sonochemistry, synthesis without sonochemistry, physical characterization, photocatalytic evaluation, and durability of the SiO2, SiO2@TiO2 and TiO2 coatings are presented. Results indicate that using SiO2 improved the durability of the TiO2 coating without affecting its photocatalytic properties. Thus, this novel SiO2@TiO2 coating shows potential for developing long-lasting, self-cleaning and air-purifying construction materials.

  20. Effect of porphyrin on photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles toward Rhodamine B photodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M A; Abou-Gamra, Z M; Medien, H A A; Hamza, M A

    2017-11-01

    As known, porphyrins have central role in photosynthesis, biological oxidation and reduction and oxygen transport beside to their intensive color which qualify them to be good photosensitizers. Herein, tetra (4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin (TCPP) was prepared by a simple one-pot synthesis to use as a visible antenna for TiO 2 nanoparticles that were prepared via a simple template-free sol-gel method. Various loading percentages of TCPP (0.05-1%) were incorporated on the surface of TiO 2 as photosensitizer for photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (Rh B) dye as a primary cationic pollutant model. Among them, 0.1% TCPP-TiO 2 was the most reactive sample. It was found that the photoactivity of 0.1% TCPP-TiO 2 sample (0.5g/L) was approximately 1.5 times greater than that of pure TiO 2 (0.5g/L) toward the degradation of Rh B (1×10 -5 M) under UV-A irradiation. Transient fluorescence decay measurements showed that the life time of TiO 2 excited state has doubled after anchoring TCPP, thus the probability of electron-hole recombination has decreased. The samples were characterized by XRD, HR-TEM, DRS and N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. The XRD patterns confirmed the successful preparation of TiO 2 nanoparticles with average crystalline size of 25.7nm. Also, XRD patterns suggested the presence of mixed phase TiO 2 nanoparticles of 77% anatase and 23% rutile. DRS showed that the characteristic peaks of TCPP covered the whole visible range 400-700nm. HR-TEM images showed the spheroids shape of TiO 2 nanoparticles and confirmed the presence of anatase and rutile phases as suggested from XRD data. The different parameters affecting the photodegradation of Rh B dye such as catalyst dose, dye concentration and pH were studied to obtain the optimum conditions. Almost complete degradation of Rh B was obtained which confirmed by HPLC and TOC measurements. The effect of scavengers was studied to indicate the most active species. TCPP-TiO 2 gave a good response toward the

  1. Quantitative Measurements of Photocatalytic CO-Oxidation as a Function of Light Intensity and Wavelength over TiO2 Nanotube Thin Films in mu-Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard; In, Su-il; Olsen, Jacob L.

    2010-01-01

    Gas-phase photooxidation of CO over TiO2 catalysts (P25 and TiO2 nanotubes) in mu-reactors with quantitative product detection was used to study turnover as a function of illumination intensity over 4 orders of magnitude. Turnover was found to be of order 0.84 in illumination intensity. A CO phot...

  2. A comparative study of two techniques for determining photocatalytic activity of nitrogen doped TiO2 nanotubes under visible light irradiation: Photocatalytic reduction of dye and photocatalytic oxidation of organic molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In, Su-Il; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard; Abrams, Billie

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen-doping (N-doping) is a popular strategy for promoting the absorption of visible light in TiO2 and other photocatalysts. We have grown TiO2 nanotubes onto non-conducting Pyrex in a one step process via single layer titanium films. In an attempt to improve the self-cleaning ability of vert...

  3. Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity of Anatase TiO2 Nanoparticles-coated Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Yi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A simple and straightforward approach to prepare TiO2-coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs is presented. Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs with the average size ~8 nm were coated on CNTs from peroxo titanic acid (PTA precursor even at low temperature of 100 °C. We demonstrate the effects of CNTs/TiO2 molar ratio on the adsorption capability and photocatalytic efficiency under UV–visible irradiation. The samples showed not only good optical absorption in visible range, but also great adsorption capacity for methyl orange (MO dye molecules. These properties facilitated the great enhancement of photocatalytic activity of TiO2 NPs-coated CNTs photocatalysts. The TiO2 NPs-coated CNTs exhibited 2.45 times higher photocatalytic activity for MO degradation than that of pure TiO2.

  4. OXIDACIÓN DE p -NITROFENOL USANDO TiO 2 -ADENOSINA MONOFOSFATO I OXIDATION OF p -NITROPHENOL USING TiO 2 -ADENOSIN MONOPHOSPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Rivas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The surface of TiO2 was modified with the nucleotides adenosine 3’-monophosphate (AMP’3 and Adenosine 5’-monophosphate (AMP’5. The adsorption of nucleotides was adjusted to Langmuir ́s adsorption model, determining that the optimal condition for TiO 2 modification was at neutral pH. UV-Visible Diffuse Reflectance and IR Attenuated Total Reflectance spectra show that the chemisorption of nucleotides take placed on TiO 2 anatase. The new catalysts (TiO 2 -nucleotide improved the photodegradation of p -nitrophenol in a wide range of pH as compared with the titanium dioxide precursor. Most photoactivity was generated by using the new photocatalytic in the degradation of p -nitrophenol at pH = 6, obtaining high values for the pseudo first order kinetic constant (0.0254 min -1 and 0.0244 min -1 for TiO 2 -AMP’3 and TiO 2 -AMP’5, respectively. For all pH, the trend obtained for the photodegradation was: TiO 2 -AMP ́3 @ TiO 2 -AMP’5 > TiO 2 . Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics shows that the contribution of the surface reac tion rate governs the oxidation of the contaminant.

  5. Non-noble metal Cu-loaded TiO2 for enhanced photocatalytic H2 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Wei Jian; Zhang, Chun; Ho, Ghim Wei

    2013-01-21

    Here we have demonstrated the preparation of high-quality, monodispersed and tunable phases of Cu nanoparticles. Structural and chemical composition studies depict the evolution of Cu-Cu(2)O-CuO nanoparticles at various process stages. The loading of Cu and Cu oxide nanoparticles on TiO(2) catalyst has enhanced the photocatalytic H(2) production. Comparatively, H(2) treatment produces well-dispersed Cu nanoparticles with thin oxide shells that show the highest H(2) production amongst the samples. The relatively higher photocatalytic performance is deemed to result from reduced structural defects, higher surface area and dispersivity as well as favorable charge transfer, which inhibits recombination. The Cu nanoparticles are shown to be a promising alternative to noble metal-loaded TiO(2) catalyst systems due to their low cost and high performance in photocatalytic applications.

  6. Photocatalytic Degradation of Chlorobenzene by TiO2 in High-Temperature and High-Pressure Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kometani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A fluidized-bed-type flow reactor available for the photocatalytic treatment of the suspension of model soil under high-temperature, high-pressure conditions was designed. An aqueous suspension containing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as an oxidizer and inorganic oxides as a model soil, titania (TiO2, silica (SiO2, or kaoline (Al2Si2O5(OH4 was continuously fed into the reactor with the temperature and the pressure controlled to be T=20–400∘C and P = 30 MPa, respectively. The degradation of chlorobenzene (CB in water was chosen as a model oxidation reaction. It appeared that most of the model soils are not so harmful to the SCWO treatment of CB in solutions. When the TiO2 suspension containing H2O2 was irradiated with near-UV light, the promotion of the degradation caused by photocatalytic actions of TiO2 was observed at all temperatures. Persistence of the photocatalytic activity in the oxidation reaction in high-temperature, high-pressure water would open up a possibility of the development of the hybrid process based on the combination of SCWO process and TiO2 photocatalysis for the treatment of environmental pollutants in soil and water, which are difficult to handle by conventional SCWO process or catalytic SCWO process alone.

  7. One-step synthesis of hierarchically porous hybrid TiO2 hollow spheres with high photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiping; Ren, Feng; Yang, Jinlin; Su, Weiming; Sun, Zhiming; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Chang-an

    2016-03-01

    Hierarchically porous hybrid TiO2 hollow spheres were solvothermally synthesized successfully by using tetrabutyl titanate as titanium precursor and hydrated metal sulfates as soft templates. The as-prepared TiO2 spheres with hierarchically pore structures and high specific surface area and pore volume consisted of highly crystallized anatase TiO2 nanocrystals hybridized with a small amount of metal oxide from the hydrated sulfate. The proposed hydrated-sulfate assisted solvothermal (HAS) synthesis strategy was demonstrated to be widely applicable to various systems. Evaluation of the hybrid TiO2 hollow spheres for the photo-decomposition of methyl orange (MO) under visible-light irradiation revealed that they exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity and durability.

  8. A Novel Oxidation-Reduction Route for Layer-by-Layer Synthesis of TiO2 Nanolayers and Investigation of Its Photocatalytical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Semishchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Layer-by-layer (LbL synthesis of titanium dioxide was performed by an oxidation-reduction route using a Ti(OH3 colloid and NaNO2 solutions. A model of chemical reactions was proposed based on the results of an investigation of synthesized nanolayers by scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and studying colloidal solution of Ti(OH3 with laser Doppler microelectrophoresis. At each cycle, negatively charged colloidal particles of [Ti(OH3]HSO4- adsorbed onto the surface of substrate. During the next stage of treatment in NaNO2 solution, the particles were oxidized to Ti(OH4. Photocatalytic activity was studied by following decomposition of methylene blue (MB under UV irradiation. Sensitivity of the measurements was increased using a diffuse transmittance (DT method. The investigation revealed strong photocatalytical properties of the synthesized layers, caused by their high area per unit volume and uniform globular structure.

  9. Thiourea-Modified TiO2 Nanorods with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Wu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor TiO2 photocatalysis has attracted much attention due to its potential application in solving the problems of environmental pollution. In this paper, thiourea (CH4N2S modified anatase TiO2 nanorods were fabricated by calcination of the mixture of TiO2 nanorods and thiourea at 600 °C for 2 h. It was found that only N element was doped into the lattice of TiO2 nanorods. With increasing the weight ratio of thiourea to TiO2 (R from 0 to 8, the light-harvesting ability of the photocatalyst steady increases. Both the crystallization and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanorods increase first and then decrease with increase in R value, and R2 sample showed the highest crystallization and photocatalytic activity in degradation of Brilliant Red X3B (X3B and Rhodamine B (RhB dyes under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm. The increased visible-light photocatalytic activity of the prepared N-doped TiO2 nanorods is due to the synergistic effects of the enhanced crystallization, improved light-harvesting ability and reduced recombination rate of photo-generated electron-hole pairs. Note that the enhanced visible photocatalytic activity of N-doped nanorods is not based on the scarification of their UV photocatalytic activity.

  10. Favorable recycling photocatalyst TiO2/CFA: Effects of loading percent of TiO2 on the structural property and photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jianwen; Chen Shaohua; Ye Zhilong; Wang Shumei; Wu Peng

    2010-01-01

    A series of photocatalysts TiO 2 /CFA were prepared using coal fly ash (CFA), waste discharged from coal-fired power plant, as substrate, and then these photocatalysts were characterized by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction analysis, nitrogen adsorption test and ultraviolet-visible absorption analysis. The effects of loading percent of TiO 2 on the photocatalytic activity and re-use property of TiO 2 /CFA were evaluated by the photocatalytic decoloration and mineralization of methyl orange solution. The results show that the pore volume and the specific surface area of the TiO 2 /CFA both increased with the increase in the loading percent of TiO 2 , which improved the photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 /CFA. However, when the loading percent of TiO 2 was too high (up to 54.51%), superfluous TiO 2 was easy to break away from CFA in the course of water treatment, which was disadvantaged to the recycling property of TiO 2 /CFA. In this study, the optimal loading percent of TiO 2 was 49.97%, and the efficiencies of photocatalytic decoloration and mineralization could be maintained above 99% and 90%, respectively, when the photocatalyst was used repeatedly, without any decline, even at the sixth cycle.

  11. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of chemically-bonded phosphate ceramics containing TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Monize Aparecida; de Lima, Bruna de Oliveira; Ferreira, Leticia Patrício; Colonetti, Emerson; Feltrin, Jucilene; De Noni, Agenor

    2017-05-01

    Titanium dioxide was incorporated into chemically-bonded phosphate ceramic for use as photocatalytic inorganic coating. The coatings obtained were applied to unglazed ceramic tiles and cured at 350 °C. The surfaces were characterized by photocatalytic activity, determined in aqueous medium, based on the degradation of methylene blue dye. The effects of the percentage of TiO2 and the thickness of the layer on the photocatalytic efficiency were evaluated. The influence of the incorporation of TiO2 on the consolidation of the phosphate matrix coating was investigated using the wear resistance test. The crystalline phases of the coatings obtained were determined by XRD. The microstructure of the surfaces was analyzed by SEM. The thermal curing treatment did not cause a phase transition from anatase to rutile. An increase in the photocatalytic activity of the coating was observed with an increase in the TiO2 content. The dye degradation indices ranged from 14.9 to 44.0%. The photocatalytic efficiency was not correlated with the thickness of the coating layer deposited. The resistance to wear decreased with an increase in the TiO2 content. Comparison with a commercial photocatalytic ceramic coating indicated that there is a range of values for the TiO2 contents which offer potential for photocatalytic applications.

  12. Highly-efficient photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by PoPD-modified TiO 2 nanocomposites due to photosensitization-synergetic effect of TiO2 with PoPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuanxi; Dong, Wenping; Cui, Guanwei; Zhao, Yingqiang; Shi, Xifeng; Xia, Xinyuan; Tang, Bo; Wang, Weiliang

    2017-06-21

    Poly-o-phenylenediamine modified TiO 2 nanocomposites were successfully synthesized via an 'in situ' oxidative polymerization method. The modified nanocomposites were characterized by BET, XRD, TEM, FT-IR, TGA, XPS, EA and UV-Vis DRS. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue was chosen as a model reaction to evaluate the photocatalytic activities of TiO 2 and PoPD/TiO 2 . The results indicated that PoPD/TiO 2 nanocomposites exhibited good photocatalytic activity and stability. The photocatalytic activity of PoPD/TiO 2 increased as the initial pH increased because of electrostatic adsorption between the photocatalyst and MB as well as the generation of ·OH, whereas it exhibited an earlier increasing and later decreasing trend as the concentration of the photocatalyst increased owing to the absorption of visible light. The photocatalytic stability of the PoPD/TiO 2 nanocomposite was dependent on the stability of its structure. Based on radical trapping experiments and ESR measurements, the origin of oxidizing ability of PoPD/TiO 2 nanocomposites on photocatalytic degradation of MB was proposed, which taking into account of ·OH and ·O 2 - were the first and second important ROS, respectively. The possible photocatalytic mechanism and photocatalytic activity enhanced mechanism has been proposed, taking into account the photosensitization effect and synergetic effect of TiO 2 with PoPD.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of WO3/TiO2 for NO removal under UV and visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luévano-Hipólito, E.; Martínez-de la Cruz, A.; López-Cuellar, E.; Yu, Q.L.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Samples with different proportions WO 3 /TiO 2 were prepared by co-precipitation method followed by a heat treatment. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and adsorption–desorption N 2 isotherms (BET). The photocatalytic properties of WO 3 /TiO 2 samples were evaluated in the photo-oxidation reaction of nitric oxide (NO) under UV and visible light irradiation. The highest photocatalytic activity was observed in the WO 3 /TiO 2 sample with a composition of 80% mole of TiO 2 . Among the different substrates used for supporting the photocatalyst, the best results were reached over concrete and glass when it was exposed to UV and visible light irradiation, respectively. In overall, the photocatalytic efficiency of the synthesized materials was higher under UV than visible light irradiation. - Highlights: • WO 3 /TiO 2 prepared in simple way show high photocatalytic activity for NO removal. • The concrete was the best substrate to the performance of WO 3 /TiO 2 with UV radiation. • The glass was the best substrate to the performance of WO 3 /TiO 2 with visible radiation

  14. Synthesis, structure and photocatalytic activity of nano TiO2 and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The material shows higher photocatalytic activity both in UV and visible region of the solar radiation compared to commercial Degussa P25 TiO2. Transition metal ion substitution for Ti4+ creates mid-gap states which act as recombination centers for electron{hole induced by photons thus reducing photocatalytic activity.

  15. Comparing the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 at macro- and microscopic scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torras-Rosell, Antoni; Johannsen, Sabrina Rostgaard; Dirscherl, Kai

    2016-01-01

    . The photocatalytic properties of TiO2 at macro- and microscopic scales are investigated by comparing photocatalytic degradation of acetone and electrochemical experiments to Kelvin probe force microscopy. The good agreement between the macro- and microscopic experiments suggests that Kelvin probe force microscopy...

  16. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Photocatalyst; TiO2 nanoparticle; polyaniline; conducting polymer; core-shell nanocomposite. 1. Introduction ..... tine TiO2 nanoparticles, HCl-doped PANI and PANI/TiO2 ..... Karim M R, Lim K T, Lee M S, Kim K and Yeum J H 2009 Synth. Met.

  17. Photocatalytic characteristics of single phase Fe-doped anatase TiO2 nanoparticles sensitized with vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharagozlou, Mehrnaz; Bayati, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Anatase TiO 2 /B 12 hybrid nanostructured catalyst was successfully synthesized by sol–gel technique. • The nanoparticle catalyst was doped with iron at several concentrations. • Nanoparticles were characterized in detail by XRD, Raman, TEM, EDS, and spectroscopy techniques. • The formation mechanism and role of point defects on photocatalytic properties were discussed. • A structure-property-processing correlation was established. - Abstract: We report a processing-structure-property correlation in B 12 -anatase titania hybrid catalysts doped with several concentrations of iron. Our results clearly show that low-level iron doping alters structure, defect content, and photocatalytic characteristics of TiO 2 . XRD and Raman studies revealed formation of a single-phase anatase TiO 2 where no iron based segregation in particular iron oxide, was detected. FT-IR spectra clearly confirmed sensitization of TiO 2 nanoparticles with vitamin B 12 . TEM micrographs and diffraction patterns confirmed crystallization of anatase nanoparticles with a radius of 15–20 nm. Both XRD and Raman signals showed a peak shift and a peak broadening which are surmised to originate from creation of point defects, namely oxygen vacancy and titanium interstitial. The doped samples revealed a narrower band gap as compared to undoped samples. Photocatalytic activity of the samples was assessed through measuring the decomposition rate of rhodamine B. It was found that sensitization with vitamin B 12 and Fe-doping significantly enhances the photocatalytic efficiency of the anatase nanoparticles. We also showed that there is an optimum Fe-doping level where the maximum photocatalytic activity is achieved. The boost of photocatalytic activity was qualitatively understood to originate from a more effective use of the light photons, formation of point defects, which enhance the charge separation, higher carrier mobility

  18. Engineering the TiO2 -graphene interface to enhance photocatalytic H2 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lichen; Liu, Zhe; Liu, Annai; Gu, Xianrui; Ge, Chengyan; Gao, Fei; Dong, Lin

    2014-02-01

    In this work, TiO2 -graphene nanocomposites are synthesized with tunable TiO2 crystal facets ({100}, {101}, and {001} facets) through an anion-assisted method. These three TiO2 -graphene nanocomposites have similar particle sizes and surface areas; the only difference between them is the crystal facet exposed in TiO2 nanocrystals. UV/Vis spectra show that band structures of TiO2 nanocrystals and TiO2 -graphene nanocomposites are dependent on the crystal facets. Time-resolved photoluminescence spectra suggest that the charge-transfer rate between {100} facets and graphene is approximately 1.4 times of that between {001} facets and graphene. Photoelectrochemical measurements also confirm that the charge-separation efficiency between TiO2 and graphene is greatly dependent on the crystal facets. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that Ti-C bonds are formed between {100} facets and graphene, while {101} facets and {001} facets are connected with graphene mainly through Ti-O-C bonds. With Ti-C bonds between TiO2 and graphene, TiO2 -100-G shows the fastest charge-transfer rate, leading to higher activity in photocatalytic H2 production from methanol solution. TiO2 -101-G with more reductive electrons and medium interfacial charge-transfer rate also shows good H2 evolution rate. As a result of its disadvantageous electronic structure and interfacial connections, TiO2 -001-G shows the lowest H2 evolution rate. These results suggest that engineering the structures of the TiO2 -graphene interface can be an effective strategy to achieve excellent photocatalytic performances. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Charge transfer between biogenic jarosite derived Fe3+and TiO2 enhances visible light photocatalytic activity of TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mahabubur; Shoko, Sipiwe; Cummings, Fransciuos; Fester, Veruscha; Ojumu, Tunde Victor

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we have shown that mining waste derived Fe 3+ can be used to enhance the photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 . This will allow us to harness a waste product from the mines, and utilize it to enhance TiO 2 photocatalytic waste water treatment efficiency. An organic linker mediated route was utilized to create a composite of TiO 2 and biogenic jarosite. Evidence of FeOTi bonding in the TiO 2 /jarosite composite was apparent from the FTIR, EFTEM, EELS and ELNEFS analysis. The as prepared material showed enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to pristine TiO 2 , biogenic jarosite and mechanically mixed sample of jarosite and TiO 2 under both simulated and natural solar irradiation. The prepared material can reduce the electrical energy consumption by 4 times compared to pristine P25 for degradation of organic pollutant in water. The material also showed good recyclability. Results obtained from sedimentation experiments showed that the larger sized jarosite material provided the surface to TiO 2 nanoparticles, which increases the settling rate of the materials. This allowed simple and efficient recovery of the catalyst from the reaction system after completion of photocatalysis. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of the composite material was due to effective charge transfer between TiO 2 and jarosite derived Fe 3+ as was shown from the EELS and ELNEFS. Generation of OH was supported by photoluminesence (PL) experiments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. NOx photocatalytic degradation on gypsum plates modified by TiO2-N,C photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janus Magdalena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In presented studies the photocatalytic decomposition of NOx on gypsum plates modified by TiO2-N,Cphotocatalysts were presented. The gypsum plates were obtained by addition of 10 or 20 wt.% of different types of titanium dioxide, such as: pure TiO2 and carbon and nitrogen co-modified TiO2 (TiO2-N,C to gypsum. TiO2-N,C photocatalysts were obtained by heating up the starting TiO2 (Grupa Azoty Zakłady Chemiczne Police S.A in the atmosphere of ammonia and carbon at the temperature: 100, 300 i 600ºC. Photocatalyst were characterized by FTIR/DRS, UVVis/DR, BET and XRD methods. Moreover the compressive strength tests of modified gypsum were also done. Photocatalytic activity of gypsum plates was done during NOx decomposition. The highest photocatalytic activity has gypsum with 20 wt.% addition of TiO2-N,C obtained at 300ºC.

  1. Probing Photocatalytic Characteristics of Sb-Doped TiO2 under Visible Light Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjing Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sb-doped TiO2 nanoparticle with varied dopant concentrations was synthesized using titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4 and antimony chloride (SbCl3 as the precursors. The properties of Sb-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, fluorescence spectrophotometer, and Uv-vis spectrophotometer. The absorption edge of TiO2 nanoparticles could be extended to visible region after doping with antimony, in contrast to the UV absorption of pure TiO2. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity of Sb-doped TiO2 nanoparticles was much more active than pure TiO2. The 0.1% Sb-doped TiO2 nanoparticles demonstrated the best photocatalytic activity which was better than that of the Degussa P25 under visible light irradiation using terephthalic acid as fluorescent probe. The effects of Sb dopant on the photocatalytic activity and the involved mechanism were extensively investigated in this work as well.

  2. Photocatalytic properties of porous TiO2/Ag thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.-C.; Chen, J.-Y.; Hsu, T.-L.; Lin, C.-K.; Chan, C.-C.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, nanocrystalline TiO 2 /Ag composite thin films were prepared by a sol-gel spin-coating technique. By introducing polystyrene (PS) spheres into the precursor solution, porous TiO 2 /Ag thin films were prepared after calcination at a temperature of 500 deg. C for 4 h. Three different sizes (50, 200, and 400 nm) of PS spheres were used to prepare porous TiO 2 films. The as-prepared TiO 2 and TiO 2 /Ag thin films were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and by scanning electron microscopy to reveal structural and morphological differences. In addition, the photocatalytic properties of these films were investigated by degrading methylene blue under UV irradiation. When PS spheres of different sizes were introduced after calcination, the as-prepared TiO 2 films exhibited different porous structures. XRD results showed that all TiO 2 /Ag films exhibited a major anatase phase. The photodegradation of porous TiO 2 thin films prepared with 200 nm PS spheres and doped with 1 mol% Ag exhibited the best photocatalytic efficiency where ∼ 100% methylene blue was decomposed within 8 h under UV exposure

  3. Fabrication, characterization and photocatalytic properties of Ag nanoparticles modified TiO2 NTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qingyao; Yang Xiuchun; Liu Dan; Zhao Jianfu

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The TiO 2 NTs were first treated with bi-functional mercaptoacetic acid linkers (HOOC–R–S). The –OH group on the surface of TiO 2 NT provides a strong affinity with the carboxylate group in the linker molecules. The thiol functional group in the linker molecules facilitates the binding with Ag from AgNO 3 solution. After Ag + ions were reduced by NaBH 4 , Ag nanoparticles formed by nucleation and growth. Highlights: ► Ag nanoparticles with an average diameter of 9.2 nm were filled in the TiO 2 nanotubes by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. ► Bi-functional mercaptoacetic acid linkers were used to bind TiO 2 nanotubes with Ag nanoparticles. ► Ag nanoparticles modification of TiO 2 NTs largely enhanced the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange under ultraviolet light irradiation. - Abstract: Ordered anatase TiO 2 nanotubes (TiO 2 NTs) on Ti substrate were synthesized by electrochemical anodization and subsequently vapor-thermal treatment. Ag nanoparticles were decorated on TiO 2 NTs by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used for the characterization of surface morphology, phase composition, and microstructure of the original TiO 2 NTs, the vapor-thermally treated TiO 2 NTs and the Ag nanoparticles decorated TiO 2 NTs. The results indicate that vapor-thermal treatment favors to the transformation of amorphous TiO 2 into anatase phase. Increasing the SILAR cycle times favors to increase the loaded amounts of Ag nanoparticles in TiO 2 NTs. Ag nanoparticles are uniformly distributed in the TiO 2 NTs, and the SILAR process does not damage the ordered tubular structure. A possible formation mechanism of Ag/TiO 2 NTs has also been proposed. The

  4. Parameters affecting the photocatalytic degradation of dyes using TiO2: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Khan Mamun; Kurny, ASW; Gulshan, Fahmida

    2017-07-01

    Traditional chemical, physical and biological processes for treating wastewater containing textile dye have such disadvantages as high cost, high energy requirement and generation of secondary pollution during treatment process. The advanced oxidation processes technology has been attracting growing attention for the decomposition of organic dyes. Such processes are based on the light-enhanced generation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals, which oxidize the organic matter in solution and convert it completely into water, CO2 and inorganic compounds. In this presentation, the photocatalytic degradation of dyes in aqueous solution using TiO2 as photocatalyst under solar and UV irradiation has been reviewed. It is observed that the degradation of dyes depends on several parameters such as pH, catalyst concentration, substrate concentration and the presence of oxidants. Reaction temperature and the intensity of light also affect the degradation of dyes. Particle size, BET-surface area and different mineral forms of TiO2 also have influence on the degradation rate.

  5. Copper doping enhanced the oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles in A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, J; Siddiqui, M A; Akhtar, M J; Alhadlaq, H A; Alshamsan, A; Khan, S T; Wahab, R; Al-Khedhairy, A A; Al-Salim, A; Musarrat, J; Saquib, Q; Fareed, M; Ahamed, M

    2018-05-01

    Physicochemical properties of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs) can be tuned by doping with metals or nonmetals. Copper (Cu) doping improved the photocatalytic behavior of TiO 2 NPs that can be applied in various fields such as environmental remediation and nanomedicine. However, interaction of Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs with human cells is scarce. This study was designed to explore the role of Cu doping in cytotoxic response of TiO 2 NPs in human lung epithelial (A549) cells. Characterization data demonstrated the presence of both TiO 2 and Cu in Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs with high-quality lattice fringes without any distortion. The size of Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs (24 nm) was lower than pure TiO 2 NPs (30 nm). Biological results showed that both pure and Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. Low mitochondrial membrane potential and higher caspase-3 enzyme (apoptotic markers) activity were also observed in A549 cells exposed to pure and Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs. We further observed that cytotoxicity caused by Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs was higher than pure TiO 2 NPs. Moreover, antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine effectively prevented the reactive oxygen species generation, glutathione depletion, and cell viability reduction caused by Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs. This is the first report showing that Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in A549 cells. This study warranted further research to explore the role of Cu doping in toxicity mechanisms of TiO 2 NPs.

  6. Carbamazepine degradation using a N-doped TiO_2 coated photocatalytic membrane reactor: Influence of physical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horovitz, Inna; Avisar, Dror; Baker, Mark A.; Grilli, Rossana; Lozzi, Luca; Di Camillo, Daniela; Mamane, Hadas

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • UV–vis N-doped TiO_2 was deposited by sol-gel onto Al_2O_3 microfiltration membranes. • Coating decreased permeability by 50 and 12% for 200- and 800-nm Al_2O_3 membranes. • Flow through membrane results in higher reaction rates compared to flow on top. • Higher vis photocatalytic activity for N-doped TiO_2 vs. non-doped TiO_2 membranes. • Mass transfer is a critical parameter for the design of immobilized PMR. - Abstract: Commercial α-Al_2O_3 photocatalytic membranes with a pore size of 200 and 800-nm were coated with N-doped TiO_2 photocatalytic film using a sol-gel technique for concurrent bottom-up filtration and photocatalytic oxidation. X-ray diffraction confirmed that the deposited N-doped TiO_2 films are in the form of anatase with 78–84% coverage of the membrane surface. The concentration of N found by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was in the range of 0.3–0.9 atomic percentage. Membrane permeability after coating decreased by 50% and 12% for the 200- and 800-nm membrane substrates, respectively. The impact of operational parameters on the photocatalytic activity (PCA) of the N-doped TiO_2-coated membranes was examined in a laboratory flow cell based on degradation of the model micropollutant carbamazepine, using a solar simulator as the light source. The significant gap in degradation rate between flow through the membrane and flow on the surface of the membrane was attributed both to the hydraulic effect and in-pore PCA. N-doped TiO_2-coated membranes showed enhanced activity for UV wavelengths, in addition to activity under visible light. Experiments of PCA under varying flow rates concluded that the process is in the mass-transfer control regime. Carbamazepine removal rate increased with temperature, despite the decrease in dissolved oxygen concentration.

  7. Effect of chemisorbed surface species on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticulate films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yaan; Yang Wensheng; Chen Yongmei; Du Hui; Yue, Polock

    2004-01-01

    TiO 2 sols prepared in acidic and basic medium were deposited into films by a spin coating method. Photodegradation experiments showed that photocatalytic activity of the films prepared from acidic sol was much higher than that from basic sol. It is identified that there are more chemisorbed species of CO 2 on the surface of the TiO 2 films from the basic sol than on the surface of the TiO 2 films from the acidic sol. The chemisorbed species of CO 2 reduce the concentration of active species such as hydroxyl group and bridging oxygen on surface of the TiO 2 film and contribute to the formation of surface electron traps in the band gap which are detrimental to charge separation, thus lowering the photocatalytic activity

  8. Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Using TiO2 Impregnated Diatomite

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, Ranfang; Du, Gaoxiang; Zhang, Weiwei; Liu, Lianhua; Liu, Yanming; Mei, Lefu; Li, Zhaohui

    2014-01-01

    Nano-TiO2 showed a good catalytic activity, but it is easy to agglomerate, resulting in the reduction or even complete loss of photocatalytic activity. The dispersion of TiO2 particles on porous materials was a potential solution to this problem. Diatomite has high specific surface and absorbability because of its particular shell structure. Thus, TiO2/diatomite composite, prepared by loading TiO2 on the surface of diatomite, was a good photocatalyst, through absorbing organic compounds with ...

  9. Photocatalytic properties of nano-structured TiO2-carbon films obtained by means of electrophoretic deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta-Hernandez, J.M.; Manriquez, J.; Meas-Vong, Y.; Rodriguez, Francisco J.; Chapman, Thomas W.; Maldonado, Manuel I.; Godinez, Luis A.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the light-absorption and photocatalytic efficiencies of TiO 2 can be improved by coupling TiO 2 nano-particles with nonmetallic dopants, such as carbon. In this paper, we describe the electrophoretic preparation of a novel TiO 2 -carbon nano-composite photocatalyst on a glass indium thin oxide (ITO) substrate. The objective is to take better advantage of the (e - /h + ) pair generated by photoexcitation of semiconducting TiO 2 particles. The transfer of electrons (e - ) into adjacent carbon nano-particles promotes reduction of oxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) which, in the presence of iron ions, can subsequently form hydroxyl radicals ( · OH) via the Fenton reaction. At the same time, · OH is formed from water by the (h + ) holes in the TiO 2 . Thus, the · OH oxidant is produced by two routes. The efficiency of this photolytic-Fenton process was tested with a model organic compound, Orange-II (OG-II) azo dye, which is employed in the textile industry

  10. Core–shell TiO2 microsphere with enhanced photocatalytic activity and improved lithium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Hong; Tian, Dongxue; Liu, Lixiang; Wang, Yapeng; Guo, Yuan; Yang, Xiangjun

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic hollow core–shell spheres have attracted considerable interest due to their singular properties and wide range of potential applications. Herein a novel facile generic strategy of combining template assisted and solvothermal alcoholysis is employed to prepare core–void–shell anatase TiO 2 nanoparticle aggregates with an excellent photocatalytic activity, and enhanced lithium storage in large quantities. Amorphous carbon can be loaded on the TiO 2 nanoparticles uniformly under a suitably formulated ethanol/water system in the solvothermal alcoholysis process, and the subsequent calcination results of the formation of core–shell–shell anatase TiO 2 nanoparticle aggregates. The intrinsic core–void–shell nature as well as high porosity of the unique nanostructures contributes greatly to the superior photocatalytic activity and improved performance as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. - Graphical abstract: A novel strategy of combining template assisted and solvothermal alcoholysis is employed to prepare unique core–void–shell anatase TiO 2 nanoparticle aggregates with the superior photocatalytic activity and improved lithium storage. Highlights: ► TiO 2 mesospheres are synthesized by solvothermal alcoholysis. ► It is core–void–shell structure and the thickness of shell is estimated to 80 nm. ► It exhibits a remarkable photocatalytic activity and improved lithium storage

  11. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of TiO2/conjugated polymer complex nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Xiong Min; Fang Wang; Lei Feng; Yong Chun Tong; Zi Rong Yang

    2008-01-01

    A photocatalyst of nanometer TiO2/conjugated polymer complex was successfully synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic methods and photocatalytic experiments. The complex photocatalyst could be activated by absorbing both ultraviolet and visible light (λ=190-800nm). Methylene blue (MB) could be degraded more efficiently on the complex photocatalyst than on the TiO2 under natural light. The conjugated polymer played a promoting role in the photocatalytic degradation of MB. The calcination temperature had an important effect in degradation of dye and could be summarized as 260℃>300℃>340℃>220℃>180℃.

  12. Continuous-Flow Photocatalytic Degradation of Organics Using Modified TiO2 Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Ali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs were fabricated on a Ti sheet following the anodic oxidation method and were decorated with reduced graphene oxide (RGO, graphene oxide (GO, and bismuth (Bi via electrodeposition. The surface morphologies, crystal structures, and compositions of the catalyst were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, photoluminance spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The TNTs loaded with RGO, GO, and Bi were used in a continuous-flow system as photocatalysts for the degradation of methylene blue (MB dye. It was found that the TNTs are efficient photocatalysts for the removal of color from water; upon UV irradiation on TNTs, the MB removal ratio was ~89%. Moreover, the photocatalytic activities of the decorated TNTs were higher than that of pristine TNTs in visible light. In comparison with TNTs, the rate of MB removal in visible light was increased by a factor of 3.4, 3.2, and 2.9 using RGO-TNTs, Bi-TNTs, and GO-TNTs, respectively. The reusability of the catalysts were investigated, and their quantum efficiencies were also calculated. The cylindrical anodized TNTs were excellent photocatalysts for the degradation of organic pollutants. Thus, it was concluded that the continuous-flow photocatalytic reactor comprising TNTs and modified TNTs is suitable for treating wastewater in textile industries.

  13. Alternative photocatalysts to TiO2 for the photocatalytic reduction of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikokavoura, Aspasia; Trapalis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    The increased concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, originating from the burning of fossil fuels in stationary and mobile sources, is referred as the "Anthropogenic Greenhouse Effect" and constitutes a major environmental concern. The scientific community is highly concerned about the resulting enhancement of the mean atmospheric temperature, so a vast diversity of methods has been applied. Thermochemical, electrochemical, photocatalytic, photoelectrochemical processes, as well as combination of solar electricity generation and water splitting processes have been performed in order to lower the CO2 atmospheric levels. Photocatalytic methods are environmental friendly and succeed in reducing the atmospheric CO2 concentration and producing fuels or/and useful organic compounds at the same time. The most common photocatalysts for the CO2 reduction are the inorganic, the carbon based semiconductors and the hybrids based on semiconductors, which combine stability, low cost and appropriate structure in order to accomplish redox reactions. In this review, inorganic semiconductors such as single-metal oxide, mixed-metal oxides, metal oxide composites, layered double hydroxides (LDHs), salt composites, carbon based semiconductors such as graphene based composites, CNT composites, g-C3N4 composites and hybrid organic-inorganic materials (ZIFs) were studied. TiO2 and Ti based photocatalysts are extensively studied and therefore in this review they are not mentioned.

  14. Photocatalytic Degradation of Aniline Using TiO2 Nanoparticles in a Vertical Circulating Photocatalytic Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Shahrezaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic degradation of aniline in the presence of titanium dioxide (TiO2 and ultraviolet (UV illumination was performed in a vertical circulating photocatalytic reactor. The effects of catalyst concentration (0–80 mg/L, initial pH (2–12, temperature (293–323 K, and irradiation time (0–120 min on aniline photodegradation were investigated in order to obtain the optimum operational conditions. The results reveal that the aniline degradation efficiency can be effectively improved by increasing pH from 2 to 12 and temperature from 313 to 323 K. Besides, the effect of temperature on aniline photo degradation was found to be unremarkable in the range of 293–313 K. The optimum catalyst concentration was about 60 mg/L. The Langmuir Hinshelwood kinetic model could successfully elucidate the effects of the catalyst concentration, pH, and temperature on the rate of heterogeneous photooxidation of aniline. The data obtained by applying the Langmuir Hinshelwood treatment are consistent with the available kinetic parameters. The activated energy for the photocatalytic degradation of aniline is 20.337 kj/mol. The possibility of the reactor use in the treatment of a real petroleum refinery wastewater was also investigated. The results of the experiments indicated that it can therefore be potentially applied for the treatment of wastewater contaminated by different organic pollutants.

  15. Are TiO2 nanotubes worth using in photocatalytic purification of air and water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichat, Pierre

    2014-09-19

    Titanium dioxide nanotubes (TNT) have mainly been used in dye sensitized solar cells, essentially because of a higher transport rate of electrons from the adsorbed photo-excited dye to the Ti electrode onto which TNT instead of TiO2 nanoparticles (TNP) are attached. The dimension ranges and the two main synthesis methods of TNT are briefly indicated here. Not surprisingly, the particular and regular texture of TNT was also expected to improve the photocatalytic efficacy for pollutant removal in air and water with respect to TNP. In this short review, the validity of this expectation is checked using the regrettably small number of literature comparisons between TNT and commercialized TNP referring to films of similar thickness and layers or slurries containing an equal TiO2 mass. Although the irradiated geometrical area differed for each study, it was identical for each comparison considered here. For the removal of toluene (methylbenzene) or acetaldehyde (ethanal) in air, the average ratio of the efficacy of TNT over that of TiO2 P25 was about 1.5, and for the removal of dyes in water, it was around 1. This lack of major improvement with TNT compared to TNP could partially be due to TNT texture disorders as seems to be suggested by the better average performance of anodic oxidation-prepared TNT. It could also come from the fact that the properties influencing the efficacy are more numerous, their interrelations more complex and their effects more important for pollutant removal than for dye sensitized solar cells and photoelectrocatalysis where the electron transport rate is the crucial parameter.

  16. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of mesoporous – (001) facets TiO_2 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Yeshuo; Fei, Xuening; Zhou, Yongzhu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The (001) facets of TiO_2 single crystals with mesoporous structure. • The (010) and (100) facets of TiO_2 single crystals were covered by the flower – shaped TiO_2 crystals. • This special structure could promote charge separation and provide more active sites, which will lead to a substantial increase in photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: In this work, the mesoporous – (001) facets TiO_2 single crystals have been successfully synthesized through a two-step solvothermal route without any template. Their structure and morphology were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet-visible (UV–vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX). Based on the different characteristics and atomic arrangements on each facet of anatase TiO_2 single crystals, we synthesized these mesoporous – (001) facets TiO_2 single crystals by controlling the interaction characteristics of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and isopropanol (i-PrOH) on the crystal facets. It can been seen that the (001) facets of these as-synthesized TiO_2 single crystals have a clear mesoporous structure through the SEM images and BET methods. Moreover, the other four facets were covered by the flower – shaped TiO_2 crystals with the generation of the mesoporous – (001) facets. This special and interesting morphology could promote charge separation and provide more active sites, which will lead to a substantial increase in photocatalytic activity. Moreover, it is more intuitive to reflect that the different crystal facets possess the different properties due to their atomic arrangement. Besides, according to the different synthetic routes, we proposed and discussed a plausible synthesis mechanism of these mesoporous – (001) facets TiO_2 single crystals.

  17. Preparation and enhanced photocatalytic activity of carbon nitride/titania(001 vs 101 facets)/reduced graphene oxide (g-C3N4/TiO2/rGO) hybrids under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meina; Yu, Jianhua; Hu, Qun; Su, Wenli; Fan, Minguang; Li, Bin; Dong, Lihui

    2016-12-01

    Herein, a novel photocatalyst, anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with both exposed (101) and (001) facets synchronously incorporated with g-C3N4 and graphene, was successfully prepared via a simple one-step solvothermal route. The morphology and structure of as-prepared composites were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS). Efficiency of the prepared samples was investigated by monitoring the degradation of Methyl Orange (MO), Rhodamine B (RhB) and phenol under visible light irradiation. Improved photocatalytic activity in g-C3N4/TiO2/rGO is observed owing to higher specific surface area and enhanced visible light absorption capability. Most importantly, the in situ g-C3N4 and rGO doping might enhance the interaction among g-C3N4, TiO2 (001 vs 101) and rGO, which generates more synergistic heteroconjunctions in g-C3N4/TiO2/rGO facilitating a fast electron transfer at the interface among them. This synergistic approach could prove useful for the design and development of other visible light active photocatalysts with high chemical stability.

  18. Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity of Mo-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-guo Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The undoped and Mo-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, diffuse reflectance UV-visible absorption spectra (UV-vis DRS, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under irradiation of a 500 W xenon lamp and natural solar light outdoor. Effects of calcination temperatures and Mo doping amounts on crystal phase, crystallite size, lattice distortion, and optical properties were investigated. The results showed that most of Mo6+ took the place of Ti4+ in the crystal lattice of TiO2, which inhibited the growth of crystallite size, suppressed the transformation from anatase to rutile, and led to lattice distortion of TiO2. Mo doping narrowed the band gap (from 3.05 eV of TiO2 to 2.73 eV of TiMo0.02O and efficiently increased the optical absorption in visible region. Mo doping was shown to be an efficient method for degradation of methylene blue under visible light, especially under solar light. When the calcination temperature was 550°C and the Mo doping amount was 2.0%, the Mo-doped TiO2 sample exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity.

  19. Nanostructured Photocatalytic TiO2 Coating Deposited by Suspension Plasma Spraying with Different Injection Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuezhang; Wen, Kui; Deng, Chunming; Yang, Kun; Deng, Changguang; Liu, Min; Zhou, Kesong

    2018-02-01

    High plasma power is beneficial for the deposition efficiency and adhesive strength of suspension-sprayed photocatalytic TiO2 coatings, but it confronts two challenges: one is the reduced activity due to the critical phase transformation of anatase into rutile, and the other is fragmented droplets which cannot be easily injected into the plasma core. Here, TiO2 coatings were deposited at high plasma power and the position of suspension injection was varied with the guidance of numerical simulation. The simulation was based on a realistic three-dimensional time-dependent numerical model that included the inside and outside of torch regions. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to study the microstructure of the TiO2 coatings, whereas x-ray diffraction was adopted to analyze phase composition. Meanwhile, photocatalytic activities of the manufactured TiO2 coatings were evaluated by the degradation of an aqueous solution of methylene blue dye. Fragmented droplets were uniformly injected into the plasma jet, and the solidification pathway of melting particles was modified by varying the position of suspension injection. A nanostructured TiO2 coating with 93.9% anatase content was obtained at high plasma power (48.1 kW), and the adhesive coating bonding to stainless steel exhibited the desired photocatalytic activity.

  20. Photocatalytic decolorization of basic dye by TiO2 nanoparticle in photoreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutaporn Chanathaworn1

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic decolorization of rhodamine B (RB and malachite green (MG basic dyes in aqueous solution wasevaluated using TiO2 powder as a semiconductor photocatalyst under UV black light irradiation. A 0.5 L batch photoreactorcontaining dyeing solution was installed in a stainless steel chamber with air cooling under irradiation. The TiO2 powder wascharacterized by XRD observation and it was shown that the nanoparticles could be identified as 73 nm anatase crystals. Theeffects of operational parameters such as light intensity (0-114 W/m2, initial dye concentration (10-30 mg/L, and TiO2 powderloading (0.5-1.5 g/L on the decolorization of dye samples were examined. The photocatalytic decolorization rate depended onthe pollutant’s structure, such that the MG dye could be removed faster than the RB dye. Decolorization efficiency (% of thephotocatalytic system increased with increasing TiO2 loading and light intensity; however, it decreased with increasing initialdye concentration. A loading of 1.5 g TiO2/L, initial dye concentration of 20 mg/L, and light intensity of 114 W/m2 were foundto yield the highest removal efficiency of dye solution based on time requirement. The kinetics are of first order and dependon the TiO2 powder loading and dye structure. The research had a perfect application foreground.

  1. Photocatalytic properties of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin film with Ag additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.-C.; Lin, C.-K.; Chan, C.-C.; Hsu, C.-S.; Chen, C.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, nanocrystalline TiO 2 /Ag composite thin films were prepared by a sol-gel spin coating technique. While, by introducing polystyrene (PS) microspheres, porous TiO 2 /Ag films were obtained after calcining at a temperature of 500 o C. The as-prepared TiO 2 and TiO 2 /Ag thin films were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, and scanning electron microscopy to reveal the structural and morphological differences. In addition, the photocatalytic properties of these films were investigated by degrading methylene blue under UV irradiation. After 500 o C calcination, the microstructure of PS-TiO 2 film without Ag addition exhibited a sponge-like microstructure while significant sintering effect was noticed with Ag additions and the films exhibited a porous microstructure. Meanwhile, coalescence of nanocrystalline anatase-phase TiO 2 can be observed with respect to the sharpening of XRD diffraction peaks. The photodegradation of porous TiO 2 doped with 1 mol% Ag exhibited the best photocatalytic efficiency where 72% methylene blue can be decomposed after UV exposure for 12 h

  2. Correlation between donating or accepting electron behavior of the adsorbed CO or H_2 and its oxidation over TiO_2 under ultraviolet light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Xiaoying; He, Zhoujun; Yang, Kai; Chen, Xun; Wang, Xuxu; Dai, Wenxin; Fu, Xianzhi

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Although both H_2 and CO can be thermodynamically oxidized by O_2 over TiO_2 under UV irradiation, only CO was oxidized by O_2 over TiO_2 due to its donating electrons to TiO_2, while H_2 was not oxidized by O_2 under the same condition due to its accepting electrons from TiO_2. - Highlights: • CO could but H_2 could not be oxidized over TiO_2 under UV irradiation. • Electron transfer behaviors of species adsorbed at TiO_2 were characterized by gas sensing testing. • Adsorbed CO donated electrons to TiO_2 but adsorbed H_2 accepted electrons from TiO_2 under UV irradiation. • Photocatalytic oxidation of species over TiO_2 maybe depends on the electron transfer direction between species and TiO_2. - Abstract: Although both H_2 and CO can be thermodynamically oxidized by O_2 over TiO_2 under ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation, it was found that CO not H_2 could be oxidized over an anatase TiO_2 in this work. The chemisorption results of CO and H_2 at TiO_2 surface under UV irradiation, investigated by a gas sensing testing, showed that CO adsorption at TiO_2 would cause the decrease of TiO_2 surface impedance, whereas H_2 adsorption would cause its increase. It is proposed that the CO adsorbed at TiO_2 donate electrons to TiO_2 (as a process of CO pre-oxidation), resulting in its oxidation. In contrast, the H_2 adsorbed at TiO_2 accept electrons from TiO_2 (as a process of H_2 pre-reduction), which makes it difficult to be oxidized. This result indicates that the photocatalytic oxidation of a reactant over TiO_2 not only depends on the formation of the photo-generated carriers and the subsequent activated oxidizing species, but maybe also depends on the electron transfer behavior at the interface of the adsorbed reactant and TiO_2.

  3. Bare TiO2 and graphene oxide TiO2 photocatalysts on the degradation of selected pesticides and influence of the water matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Marta; Gomez, Cristina; Duran-Valle, Carlos J.; Pastrana-Martínez, Luisa M.; Faria, Joaquim L.; Silva, Adrián M. T.; Faraldos, Marisol; Bahamonde, Ana

    2017-09-01

    The photocatalytic activity of a home-made titanium dioxide (TiO2) and its corresponding composite based on graphene oxide (GO), the GO-TiO2 catalyst, has been investigated under UV-vis in the photodegradation of a mixture of four pesticides classified by the European Union as priority pollutants: diuron, alachlor, isoproturon and atrazine. The influence of two water matrices (ultrapure or natural water) was also studied. Natural water led to a decrease on the degradation of the studied pollutants when the bare TiO2 photocatalyst was employed, since this water contains both inorganic and organic species that are dissolved and commonly restrain the photocatalytic process. On the contrary, the photo-efficiency of the GO-TiO2 composite seems to be less affected by water matrix variation, with very good initial pesticide photodegradation rates under both natural and ultrapure water matrices. A comparative study between GO-TiO2 and the commercial Evonik TiO2 P25 catalyst was also carried out to analyze the photocatalytic degradation of these pesticides under visible light illumination conditions. Once again, a higher photocatalytic activity was found for the GO-TiO2 composite.

  4. Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 doped with boron and vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettinelli, M.; Dallacasa, V.; Falcomer, D.; Fornasiero, P.; Gombac, V.; Montini, T.; Romano, L.; Speghini, A.

    2007-01-01

    Boron (B)- and vanadium (V)-doped TiO 2 photocatalysts were synthesized using modified sol-gel reaction processes and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and N 2 physisorption (BET). The photocatalytic activities were evaluated by monitoring the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The results showed that the materials possess high surface area. The addition of B favored the transformation of anatase to rutile, while in the presence of V, anatase was the only phase detected. The MB degradation on V-doped TiO 2 was significantly affected by the preparation method. In fact while the presence of V in the bulk did not influence strongly the photoreactivity under visible irradiation, an increase of surface V doping lead to improved photodegradation of MB. The degradation of MB dye indicated that the photocatalytic activities of TiO 2 increased as the boron doping increased, with high conversion efficiency for 9 mol% B doping

  5. Interfacial Structure and Photocatalytic Activity of Magnetron Sputtered TiO2 on Conducting Metal Substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daviðsdóttir, Svava; Petit, Jean-Pierre; Mermoux, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The photocatalytic behavior of magnetron sputtered anatase TiO2 coatings on copper, nickel, and gold was investigated with the aim of understanding the effect of the metallic substrate and coating-substrate interface structure. Stoichiometry and nanoscale structure of the coating were investigated...

  6. Photocatalytic degradation of crystal violet by thiourea-doped TiO2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, optimisation of the photocatalytic behaviour of crystal violet (CV) by thiourea (Tu)-codoped TiO2 thin film in fixed bed photoreactor was investigated by central composite designs (CCDs). The effective variables were pH, the concentration of CV dye, flow rate and reaction time. The results of the CCD model ...

  7. Production of TiO_2 particles by sol-gel ultrasound assisted for photocatalytic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Rojas, Vanessa; Solis Veliz, Jose; Gomez Leon, Monica; Matejova, Lenka; Lopez, Alcides; Cruz, Gerardo J.

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis of TiO_2 particles was made by sol-gel technique assisted of ultrasonic radiation from an alcoholic solution of titanium isopropoxide. Then was subjected to a heat treatment in air at 350 °C for 1 h. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the size of the crystalline domains is between 10 and 37 nm. Infrared spectroscopy study confirms the presence of -OH groups on the surface of TiO_2. Modification of the morphology and surface area, due to the influence of exposure time to the ultrasonic radiation, is evidenced by studies of SEM and BET respectively. Properties of TiO_2 obtained were studied by monitoring the degradation of solutions of methyl orange in the presence of UV-A radiation. It was observed that larger the ultrasonic radiation exposure during the TiO_2 synthesis larger the constant velocity for the photocatalytic reaction for the methyl orange. (author)

  8. TiO2 assisted photo-oxidative pretreatment of wheat straw for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awais, Muhammad; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Tsapekos, Panagiotis

    Photo-catalytic oxidation is an advanced oxidation process in which a catalyst is used to absorb light energy and oxidize the target substrates such as organic polymers. A number of metal oxides and metal ions can efficiently increase substrate’s depolymerisation during the process of photo...... to be markedly higher in the pretreated samples that were exposed for 180min with 1.5 wt% and 2 wt% of TiO2 compared to the untreated wheat straw. Moreover, it was concluded that the products of lignin oxidation and also, the presence of TiO2 did not inhibit the AD process. Finally, UV treatment or TiO2 alone......-catalytic oxidation. Titanium oxide (TiO2) is a photo-catalyst that in its rutile and anatase forms presents the property to enhance the photo-oxidation of lignin-containing substrates. Due to lignin is one of the major obstacles in methane production from lignocellulosic biomass, its destruction is a necessary step...

  9. Antibacterial photocatalytic activity of different crystalline TiO2 phases in oral multispecies biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaroto, Heloisa N; Ricomini-Filho, Antonio P; Bertolini, Martinna M; Dias da Silva, José Humberto; Azevedo Neto, Nilton F; Sukotjo, Cortino; Rangel, Elidiane C; Barão, Valentim A R

    2018-07-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) incorporation in biomaterials is a promising technology due to its photocatalytic and antibacterial activities. However, the antibacterial potential of different TiO 2 crystalline structures on a multispecies oral biofilm remains unknown. We hypothesized that the different crystalline TiO 2 phases present different photocatalytic and antibacterial activities. Three crystalline TiO 2 films were deposited by magnetron sputtering on commercially pure titanium (cpTi), in order to obtain four groups: (1) machined cpTi (control); (2) A-TiO 2 (anatase); (3) M-TiO 2 (mixture of anatase and rutile); (4) R-TiO 2 (rutile). The morphology, crystalline phase, chemical composition, hardness, elastic modulus and surface free energy of the surfaces were evaluated. The photocatalytic potential was assessed by methylene blue degradation assay. The antibacterial activity was evaluated on relevant oral bacteria, by using a multispecies biofilm (Streptococcus sanguinis, Actinomyces naeslundii and Fusobacterium nucleatum) formed on the treated titanium surfaces (16.5h) followed by UV-A light exposure (1h) to generate reactive oxygen species production. All TiO 2 films presented around 300nm thickness and improved the hardness and elastic modulus of cpTi surfaces (p0.05 vs. control). This study brings new insights on the development of extra oral protocols for the photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 in oral biofilm-associated disease. Anatase and mixture-TiO 2 showed antibacterial activity on this oral bacterial biofilm, being promising surface coatings for dental implant components. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.

  10. Uniformly distributed anatase TiO2 nanoparticles on graphene: Synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Xue; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Hua, Zulin; Ma, Wenqiang; Dai, Zhangyan; Huang, Xin; Gu, Haixin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Uniform distributed TiO 2 nanoparticles on graphene by a modified method. • Reduced recombination rate of photogenerated electron–hole pairs. • Effective charge transfer from TiO 2 to graphene. • Better photocatalytic activity upon UV and visible irradiation. • A mechanism of bisphenol A degradation process is proposed. - Abstract: Graphene (GR)/TiO 2 nanocomposites are successfully synthesized using a simple and efficient hydrothermal method. Even-sized anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles are uniformly distributed on GR. The GR/TiO 2 nanocomposites exhibit an extended light absorption range and decreased electron–hole recombination rates. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared GR/TiO 2 nanocomposites for bisphenol A (BPA) degradation is investigated under UV (λ = 365 nm) and visible (λ ⩾ 400 nm) light irradiation. The results show that GR/TiO 2 nanocomposites have significantly higher photocatalytic activity than P25 (pure TiO 2 ). The large increase in photocatalytic activity is mostly attributed to effective charge transfer from TiO 2 nanoparticles to GR, which suppresses charge recombination during the photocatalytic process. After five successive cycles, the photodegradation activity of the GR/TiO 2 nanocomposites shows no significant decrease, which indicates that the nanocomposites are stable under UV and visible light. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to investigate the chemical bonds of GR/TiO 2 nanocomposites before and after degradation to determine the degradation intermediate products of BPA under irradiation. A proposed degradation reaction pathway of BPA is also established. This study provides new insights into the fabrication and practical application of high-performance photocatalysts in wastewater treatment

  11. Photocatalytic degradation of diuron in aqueous solution by platinized TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumata, Hideyuki; Sada, Maki; Nakaoka, Yusuke; Kaneco, Satoshi; Suzuki, Tohru; Ohta, Kiyohisa

    2009-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of diuron, which is one of phenylurea herbicides, was carried out in the presence of platinized TiO 2 photocatalyst. Platinization was found to increase the rate of diuron degradation. When 0.2 wt.% of platinum was deposited onto the surface of TiO 2 , an initial diuron concentration of 10 mg L -1 was completely degraded after 20 min. Furthermore, the first-order rate constant for diuron degradation by Pt-TiO 2 was ca. 4 times higher than P-25 TiO 2 . In addition, the photocatalytic activity of Pt-TiO 2 was appeared under visible light. The decrease of TOC as a result of mineralization of diuron was observed during the photocatalytic process. The degree of diuron mineralization was about 97% under UV irradiation after 8 h. The formations of chloride, nitrate and ammonium ions as end-products were observed during the photocatalytic system. The decomposition of diuron gave four kinds of intermediate products. The degradation mechanism of diuron was proposed on the base of the evidence of the identified intermediates. Based on these results, the photocatalytic reaction by Pt-TiO 2 could be useful technology for the treatment of wastewater containing diuron.

  12. Investigation of the photocatalytic transformation of acesulfame K in the presence of different TiO2-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Muňoz, M J; Daniele, A; Zorzi, M; Medana, C; Calza, P

    2018-02-01

    The photocatalytic transformation of acesulfame K - an artificial sweetener that has gained popularity over the last decades for being a calorie-free additive in food, beverages and several pharmaceutical products - was studied using three different photocatalysts, the benchmark TiO 2 -P25 and two other forms of synthetized titanium oxides named TiO 2 -SG1 and TiO 2 -SG2. The two latter materials were synthesized by a sol gel process in which the hydrolysis rate of titanium n-butoxide was controlled by the water formed in situ through an esterification reaction between ethanol and acetic acid. The investigation included monitoring the sweetener disappearance, identifying its intermediate compounds, assessing mineralization and evaluating toxicity. The analyses were carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a LTQ-Orbitrap analyzer via an electrospray ionization (ESI) in the negative ion mode. This is a powerful tool for the identification, characterization and measurement of the transformation products (TPs); overall 13 species were identified. The use of several semiconductors has pointed out differences in terms of both photocatalytic efficiency and mechanism: the assessment of the evolution kinetics of each species (TPs, total organic carbon and inorganic ions) has brought to the elaboration of a general transformation pathway of acesulfame K. TiO 2 -SG2 proved to be the most efficient material in degrading the artificial sweetener and leads to the complete mineralization within 6 h of irradiation, while up to 16 h are required for TiO 2 -P25. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Suppressing the Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Nanoparticles by Extremely Thin Al2O3 Films Grown by Gas-Phase Deposition at Ambient Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, J.; Bui, H.V.; Valdesueiro Gonzalez, D.; Yuan, Shaojun; Liang, Bin; van Ommen, J.R.

    2018-01-01

    This work investigated the suppression of photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigment powders by extremely thin aluminum oxide (Al2O3) films deposited via an atomic-layer-deposition-type process using trimethylaluminum (TMA) and H2O as precursors. The deposition was performed on

  14. Wet-Chemical Preparation of TiO2-Based Composites with Different Morphologies and Photocatalytic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Xiang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available TiO2-based composites have been paid significant attention in the photocatalysis field. The size, crystallinity and nanomorphology of TiO2 materials have an important effect on the photocatalytic efficiency. The synthesis and photocatalytic activity of TiO2-based materials have been widely investigated in past decades. Based on our group’s research works on TiO2 materials, this review introduces several methods for the fabrication of TiO2, rare-earth-doped TiO2 and noble-metal-decorated TiO2 particles with different morphologies. We focused on the preparation and the formation mechanism of TiO2-based materials with unique structures including spheres, hollow spheres, porous spheres, hollow porous spheres and urchin-like spheres. The photocatalytical activity of urchin-like TiO2, noble metal nanoparticle-decorated 3D (three-dimensional urchin-like TiO2 and bimetallic core/shell nanoparticle-decorated urchin-like hierarchical TiO2 are briefly discussed.

  15. Photocatalytic sterilization of TiO2 films coated on Al fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Li; Miao Lei; Tanemura, Sakae; Tanemura, Masaki

    2008-01-01

    Photocatalytic TiO 2 films were coated on Al fiber by sol-gel dip-coating method, and then annealed. The crystal structure and morphology of the films were performed by XRD, TEM and SEM. Photocatalytic sterilization of the films was investigated in O 2 atmosphere through purifying the aqueous solution with facultative aerobe (Bacillus cereus), aerobe (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and anaerobe (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli). In the presence of O 2 , it benefits to generate O 2 · - and ·OH at the first stage of the photocatalytic reaction, while the excess O 2 restrains the anaerobe from reproducing and accelerates the reproducing for the aerobe at the second stage of reaction. As a result, it was found that the crystal of TiO 2 films is anatase phase and the films have excellent sterilization effect against facultative aerobe and anaerobe. Nevertheless, it only decreased the bioactivity against aerobe in a short time

  16. Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Nanoparticles Supported on Electrically Polarized Hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuefei; Yates, Matthew Z

    2018-05-23

    Fast recombination of photogenerated charge carriers in titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) remains a challenging issue, limiting the photocatalytic activity. This study demonstrates increased photocatalytic performance of TiO 2 nanoparticles supported on electrically polarized hydroxyapatite (HA) films. Dense and thermally stable yttrium and fluorine co-doped HA films with giant internal polarization were synthesized as photocatalyst supports. TiO 2 nanoparticles deposited on the support were then used to catalyze the photochemical reduction of aqueous silver ions to produce silver nanoparticles. It was found that significantly more silver nanoparticles were produced on polarized HA supports than on depolarized HA supports. In addition, the photodegradation of methyl orange with TiO 2 nanoparticles on polarized HA supports was found to be much faster than with TiO 2 nanoparticles on depolarized HA supports. It is proposed that separation of photogenerated electrons and holes in TiO nanoparticles is promoted by the internal polarization of the HA support, and consequently, the recombination of charge carriers is mitigated. The results imply that materials with large internal polarization can be used in strategies for enhancing quantum efficiency of photocatalysts.

  17. Photosensitization of TiO2 P25 with CdS Nanoparticles for Photocatalytic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trenczek-Zając A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A TiO2/CdS coupled system was prepared by mixing the TiO2 P25 with CdS synthesized by means of the precipitation method. It was found that the specific surface area (SSA of both components is extremely different and equals 49.5 for TiO2 and 145.4 m2·g−1 for CdS. The comparison of particle size distribution and images obtained by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM showed agglomeration of nanocomposites. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns suggest that CdS crystallizes in a mixture of cubic and hexagonal phases. Optical reflectance spectra revealed a gradual shift of the fundamental absorption edge towards longer wavelengths with increasing CdS molar fraction, which indicates an extension of the absorption spectrum of TiO2. The photocatalytic activity in UV and UV-vis was tested with the use of methyl orange (MO. The Langmuir–Hinshelwood model described well the photodegradation process of MO. The results showed that the photocatalytic behaviour of the TiO2/CdS mixture is significantly better than that of pure nanopowders.

  18. Surface effect of natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fangfei; Jiang Yinshan; Yu Lixin; Yang Zhengwen; Hou Tianyi; Sun Shenmei

    2005-01-01

    The surface interaction between TiO 2 and natural zeolite, clinoptilolite, has been investigated by means of transmission electron microscope (TEM), atom force microscope (AFM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) and far Fourier transform infrared ray (FTIR) spectroscopy. And the photocatalytic degradation (PCD) rate of methyl orange (MO), a model of recalcitrant azo dye, in aqueous system has been measured to compare the photocatalytic activities of different photocatalysts. A model has been carried out to explain the incorporation between TiO 2 particles and natural zeolite. The results show that the TiO 2 particles loaded on zeolite are 50 nm or so, smaller than the pure one, and combine with zeolite via chemical force. Since the reserved adsorption ability and the existence of electron trapper, the TiO 2 -zeolite performed more efficient at low initial concentration and in the later period of PCD process, as compared with pure TiO 2 nanopowders

  19. Solar photocatalytic degradation of isoproturon over TiO2/H-MOR composite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Mangalampalli V. Phanikrishna; Durgakumari, Valluri; Subrahmanyam, Machiraju

    2008-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation and mineralization of isoproturon herbicide was investigated in aqueous solution containing TiO 2 over H-mordenite (H-MOR) photocatalysts under solar light. The catalysts are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis diffused reflectance spectra (UV-Vis DRS), Fourier transform-infra red spectra (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The effect of TiO 2 , H-MOR support and different wt% of TiO 2 over the support on the photocatalytic degradation and influence of parameters such as TiO 2 loading, catalyst amount, pH and initial concentration of isoproturon on degradation are evaluated. 15 wt% TiO 2 /H-MOR composite is found to be optimum. The degradation reaction follows pseudo-first order kinetics and is discussed in terms of Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) kinetic model. The extent of isoproturon mineralization studied with chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) measurements and ∼80% mineralization occurred in 5 h. A plausible mechanism is proposed based on the intermediates identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS)

  20. Solar photocatalytic degradation of isoproturon over TiO2/H-MOR composite systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mangalampalli V Phanikrishna; Durgakumari, Valluri; Subrahmanyam, Machiraju

    2008-12-30

    The photocatalytic degradation and mineralization of isoproturon herbicide was investigated in aqueous solution containing TiO2 over H-mordenite (H-MOR) photocatalysts under solar light. The catalysts are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis diffused reflectance spectra (UV-Vis DRS), Fourier transform-infra red spectra (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The effect of TiO2, H-MOR support and different wt% of TiO2 over the support on the photocatalytic degradation and influence of parameters such as TiO2 loading, catalyst amount, pH and initial concentration of isoproturon on degradation are evaluated. 15wt% TiO2/H-MOR composite is found to be optimum. The degradation reaction follows pseudo-first order kinetics and is discussed in terms of Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) kinetic model. The extent of isoproturon mineralization studied with chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) measurements and approximately 80% mineralization occurred in 5h. A plausible mechanism is proposed based on the intermediates identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS).

  1. Ternary composite of TiO2 nanotubes/Ti plates modified by g-C3N4 and SnO2 with enhanced photocatalytic activity for enhancing antibacterial and photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Masoud; Mohaghegh, Neda; Abedini, Amir

    2018-01-01

    A series of g-C 3 N 4 -SnO 2 /TiO 2 nanotubes/Ti plates were fabricated via simple dipping of TiO 2 nanotubes/Ti in a solution containing SnCl 2 and g-C 3 N 4 nanosheets and finally annealing of the plates. Synthesized plates were characterized by various techniques. The SEM analysis revealed that the g-C 3 N 4 -SnO 2 nanosheets with high physical stability have been successfully deposited onto the surface of TiO 2 nanotubes/Ti plate. Photocatalytic activity was investigated using two probe chemical reactions: oxidative decomposition of acetic acid and oxidation of 2-propanol under irradiation. Antibacterial activities for Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria were also investigated in dark and under UV/Vis illuminations. Detailed characterization and results of photocatalytic and antibacterial activity tests revealed that semiconductor coupling significantly affected the photocatalyst properties synthesized and hence their photocatalytic and antibacterial activities. Modification of TiO 2 nanotubes/Ti plates with g-C 3 N 4 -SnO 2 deposits resulted in enhanced photocatalytic activities in both chemical and microbial systems. The g-C 3 N 4 -SnO 2 /TiO 2 nanotubes/Ti plate exhibited the highest photocatalytic and antibacterial activity, probably due to the heterojunction between g-C 3 N 4 -SnO 2 and TiO 2 nanotubes/Ti in the ternary composite plate and thus lower electron/hole recombination rate. Based on the obtained results, a photocatalytic and an antibacterial mechanism for the degradation of E. coli bacteria and chemical pollutants over g-C 3 N 4 -SnO 2 /TiO 2 nanotubes/Ti plate were proposed and discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. TiO2/carbon nanotube hybrid nanostructures: Solvothermal synthesis and their visible light photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Lihong; Ye Liqun; Deng Kejian; Zan Ling

    2011-01-01

    MWCNT/TiO 2 hybrid nanostructures were prepared via solvothermal synthesis and sol-gel method with benzyl alcohol as a surfactant. As-prepared hybrid materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that MWCNTs were uniformly decorated with anatase nanocrystals in solvothermal condition, but MWCNTs were embedded in a majority of TiO 2 nanoparticles by sol-gel method. When the weight ratio of MWCNTs to TiO 2 was 20%, MWCNT/TiO 2 hybrid nanostructures prepared by solvothermal synthesis exhibited higher visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity than that prepared by sol-gel method. Post-annealing of MWCNT/TiO 2 nanostructures at 400 deg. C resulted in the formation of the carbonaceous Ti-C bonds on the interface between TiO 2 and MWCNTs, which enhanced the photoabsorbance of the hybrid materials in the visible light region and improved the visible-light degradation efficiency of methylene blue. - Graphical abstract: MWCNT/TiO 2 nanostructures have been prepared by solvothermal method, which exhibited higher visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity than that prepared by sol-gel method. The carbonaceous Ti-C bonds on the interface between TiO 2 and MWCNTs enhanced the photoabsorbance of the hybrid materials in the visible light region. Highlights: → Anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles were anchored on CNTs surface uniformly via solvothermal method → The morphology facilitated the electron transfer between CNTs and TiO 2 → Ti-C bonds extended the absorption of MWCNT/TiO 2 to the whole visible light region. → The hybrid nanostructures showed enhanced visible-light induced photocatalytic activity.

  3. One-pot engineering TiO2/graphene interface for enhanced adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of multiple organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jianhua; Ling, Yun; Xie, Yu; Liu, Lianjun; Zhu, Huihua

    2018-06-13

    It is challenging to design a multifunctional structure or composite for simultaneously adsorb and photocatalytic degrade organic pollutants in water. Towards this goal, this work innovatively engineered interfacial sites between TiO2 particles and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets by employing in situ one-pot one-step solvothermal method. The interface was associated with the content of RGO, solvothermal time and solvent ratio of n-pentanol to n-hexane. It was found that when at a moderate amount of RGO (25%), TiO2 nanoparticles were well dispersed on the surface of RGO or wrapped by RGO, thus leading to a fully contact and strong interaction to form Ti - O - C interfacial structure. But when at a low content of RGO (6%), TiO2 aggregates were mixture of nanosheets, nanoparticles and nanorods. 25%RGO/TiO2 also had 175% higher surface area (146m2/g), 95% larger volume (0.339 cm3/g) and smaller band gap than 6%RGO/TiO2. More importantly, 25%RGO/TiO2 demonstrated higher adsorption efficiency (25%) and 4 times faster degradation rate than TiO2 (0%). It also exhibited good capability to eliminate multiple organics and stable long-term cycle performance (up to 93% retention after 30 cycles). Its superiority was attributed to the large surface area and unique interface between TiO2 and RGO, which not only provided more active sites to capture pollutants but also enhanced charge transfer (3 µA/cm2, 5 times higher than TiO2). This work offered a promising way to purify water through engineering new materials structure and integrating adsorption and photodegradation technologies. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of dyes under sunlight using biocompatible TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, B.; Sonkar, A. K.; Singh, N.; Dash, D.; Rath, Chandana

    2017-08-01

    As TiO2 is one of the most popular photocatalysts, we have studied here the photocatalytic degradation of the most common dyestuffs like rhodamine B (RhB), congo red (CR) and methylene blue (MB), which mainly come from the textile and photographic industries using nanoparticles of TiO2. Nanoparticles of TiO2 synthesized through a simple and cost effective sol-gel technique crystallizes in the anatase phase, showing a band gap less than that of bulk value. Particles consisting of coherently scattered domains of size 33 nm are found to be agglomerated and polycrystalline in nature. While the degradation rates of MB, CR and RhB after irradiating with a renewable source of energy, i.e. sunlight, show 100% degradation, TiO2 irradiated with UV light of 4.8 eV shows a much slower degradation rate. To use the waste water after photocatalysis, we examine further the biocompatibile nature of the TiO2 nanoparticles by platelet interaction activity, hemolysis effect and MTT assay. It is worth mentioning here that TiO2 nanoparticles are found to be highly hemocompatible, show no platelet aggregation, and the level of intracellular ROS in human platelets does not show significant change in ROS level. We conclude that TiO2 nanoparticles constitute an excellent photocatalyst and biocompatible material, and that after photocatalytic degradation of dye effluents obtained from textile industries, purified water can be used in agriculture and domestic sectors.

  5. Enhanced TiO2 Photocatalytic Processing of Organic Wastes for Green Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udom, I.; Goswami, D. Y.; Ram, M. K.; Stefanakos, E. K.; Heep, A. F.; Kulis, M. J.; McNatt, J. S.; Jaworske, D. A.; Jones, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of transition metal co-catalysts on the photocatalytic properties of TiO2 was investigated. Ruthenium (Ru), palladium, platinum, copper, silver, and gold, were loaded onto TiO2 powders (anatase and mixed-phase P25) and screened for the decomposition of rhodamine B (RhB) under broad-band irradiation. The morphology and estimated chemical composition of photocatalysts were determined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy, respectively. Brunhauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) analysis measured mass-specific surface area(s). X-ray diffraction analysis was performed to confirm the identity of titania phase(s) present. The BET surface area of anatase TiO2/Ru 1% (9.2 sq m/gm) was one of the highest measured of all photocatalysts prepared in our laboratory. Photolyses conducted under air-saturated and nitrogen-saturated conditions revealed photodegradation efficiencies of 85 and 2 percent, respectively, after 60 min compared to 58 percent with no catalyst. The cause of low photocatalytic activity under an inert atmosphere is discussed. TiO2/Ru 1% showed a superior photocatalytic activity relative to P25-TiO2 under broad-band irradiation. A potential deployment of photocatalytic technologies on a mission could be a reactor with modest enhancement in solar intensity brought about by a trough-style reactor, with reactants and catalyst flowing along the axis of the trough and therefore being illuminated for a controlled duration based on the flow rate.

  6. TiO2 thin-films on polymer substrates and their photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae-Hun; Han, Yang-Su; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2006-01-01

    We have developed dip-coating process for TiO 2 -thin film on polymer substrates (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer: ABS, polystyrene: PS). At first, a monodispersed and transparent TiO 2 nano-sol solution was prepared by the controlled hydrolysis of titanium iso-propoxide in the presence of acetylacetone and nitric acid catalyst at 80 deg. C. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns of the dried particles are indicative of crystalline TiO 2 with anatase-type structure. According to the XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies, the mean particle size was estimated to be ca. 5 nm. The transparent thin films on ABS and PS substrates were fabricated by dip-coating process by changing the processing variables, such as the number of dip-coating and TiO 2 concentration in nano-sol solution. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis for the thin film samples reveals that the acetylacetone-modified TiO 2 nano-sol particles are effective for enhancing the interfacial adherence between films and polymeric substrates compared to the unmodified one. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) on the TiO 2 thin-films has also been systematically investigated

  7. Photoetching of Immobilized TiO2-ENR50-PVC Composite for Improved Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Nawi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercially acquired TiO2 photocatalyst (99% anatase powder was mixed with epoxidized natural rubber-50 (ENR50/polyvinyl chloride (PVC blend by ultrasonication and immobilized onto glass plates as TiO2-ENR50-PVC composite via a dip-coating method. Photoetching of the immobilized TiO2-ENR50-PVC composite was investigated under the irradiation of a 45 W compact fluorescent lamp and characterized by chemical oxygen demand (COD analysis, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX spectrometry, thermogravimetry analysis (TGA, and fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The BET surface area of the photoetched TiO2 composite was observed to be larger than the original TiO2 powder due to the systematic removal of ENR50 while PVC was retained within the composite. It also exhibited better photocatalytic efficiency than the TiO2 powder in a slurry mode and was highly reproducible and reusable. More than 98% of MB removal was consistently achieved for 10 repeated runs of the photo-etched photocatalyst system. About 93% of the 20 mg L−1 MB was mineralized over a period of 480 min. The presence of SO42−, NO3−, and Cl− anions was detected in the mineralized solution where the solution pH was reduced from 7 to 4.

  8. The Effects of Doping Copper and Mesoporous Structure on Photocatalytic Properties of TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a system for the synthesis of Cu-doped mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticles by a hydrothermal method at relatively low temperatures. The technique used is to dope the as-prepared mesoporous TiO2 system with copper. In this method, the copper species with the form of Cu1+, which was attributed to the reduction effect of dehydroxylation and evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and X-ray diffraction (XRD, was well dispersed in the optimal concentration 1 wt.% Cu-doped mesoporous TiO2. In this as-prepared mesoporous TiO2 system, original particles with a size of approximately 20 nm are aggregated together to shapes of approximately 1100 nm, which resulted in the porous aggregate structure. More importantly, the enhancement of the photocatalytic activity was discussed as effects due to the formation of stable Cu(I and the mesoporous structure in the Cu-doped mesoporous TiO2. Among them, Cu-doped mesoporous TiO2 shows the highest degradation rate of methyl orange (MO. In addition, the effects of initial solution pH on degradation of MO had also been investigated. As a result, the optimum values of initial solution pH were found to be 3.

  9. Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Using TiO2 Impregnated Diatomite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranfang Zuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nano-TiO2 showed a good catalytic activity, but it is easy to agglomerate, resulting in the reduction or even complete loss of photocatalytic activity. The dispersion of TiO2 particles on porous materials was a potential solution to this problem. Diatomite has high specific surface and absorbability because of its particular shell structure. Thus, TiO2/diatomite composite, prepared by loading TiO2 on the surface of diatomite, was a good photocatalyst, through absorbing organic compounds with diatomite and degrading them with TiO2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive spectrum (EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, chemical analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR indicated that TiO2 was impregnated well on the surface of diatomite. Furthermore, TiO2/diatomite was more active than nano-TiO2 for the degradation of methylene blue (MB in solution. MB at concentrations of 15 and 35 ppm can be completely degraded in 20 and 40 min, respectively.

  10. Construction of anatase/rutile TiO2 hollow boxes for highly efficient photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Changchao; Zhang, Xiao; Yang, Ping

    2018-02-01

    Hollow TiO2 hierarchical boxes with suitable anatase and rutile ratios were designed for photocatalysis. The unique hierarchical structure was fabricated via a Topotactic synthetic method. CaTiO3 cubes were acted as the sacrificial templates to create TiO2 hollow hierarchical boxes with well-defined phase distribution. The phase composition of the hollow TiO2 hierarchical boxes is similar to that of TiO2 P25 nanoparticles (∼80% anatase, and 20% rutile). Compared with nanaoparticles, TiO2 hollow boxes with hierarchical structures exhibited an excellent performance in the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue organic pollutant. Quantificationally, the degradation rate of the hollow boxes is higher than that of TiO2 P25 nanoparticles by a factor of 2.7. This is ascribed that hollow structure provide an opportunity for using incident light more efficiently. The surface hierarchical and well-organized porous structures are beneficial to supply more active sites and enough transport channels for reactant molecules. The boxes consist of single crystal anatase and rutile combined well with each other, which gives photon-generated carriers transfer efficiently.

  11. Photocatalytic degradation of p-phenylenediamine with TiO2-coated magnetic PMMA microspheres in an aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.-H.; Liu, Y.-Y.; Lin, R.-H.; Yen, F.-S.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the photocatalytic degradation of p-phenylenediamine (PPD) with titanium dioxide-coated magnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) (TiO 2 /mPMMA) microspheres. The TiO 2 /mPMMA microspheres are employed as novel photocatalysts with the advantages of high photocatalytic activity, magnetic separability, and good durability. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of the TiO 2 /mPMMA microspheres are used to characterize the morphology, element content, and distribution patterns of magnetite and TiO 2 nanoparticles. The BET-specific surface area and saturation magnetization of the TiO 2 /mPMMA microspheres are observed as 2.21 m 2 /g and 4.81 emu/g, respectively. The photocatalytic degradation of PPD are performed under various experimental conditions to examine the effects of initial PPD concentration, TiO 2 /mPMMA microsphere dosage, and illumination condition on the eliminations of PPD and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations. Good repeatability of photocatalytic performance with the use of the TiO 2 /mPMMA microspheres has been demonstrated in the multi-run experiments. The photocatalytic kinetics for the reductions of PPD and COD associated with the initial PPD concentration, UV radiation intensity, and TiO 2 /mPMMA microsphere dosage are proposed. The relationships between the reduction percentages of COD and PPD are clearly presented

  12. Tuning the morphology, stability and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanocrystal colloids by tungsten doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Haiping; Liao, Jianhua; Yuan, Shuai; Zhao, Yin; Zhang, Meihong; Wang, Zhuyi; Shi, Liyi

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • W 6+ -doped TiO 2 nanocrystal colloids were prepared by hydrothermal methods. • The properties of TiO 2 nanocrystal colloids can be tuned by tungsten doping. • W 6+ -doped TiO 2 nanocrystal colloids show higher stability and dispersity. • W 6+ -doped TiO 2 nanocrystal colloids show higher photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: The effects of tungsten doping on the morphology, stability and photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 nanocrystal colloids were investigated. The nanostructure, chemical state of Ti, W, O, and the properties of tungsten doped TiO 2 samples were investigated carefully by TEM, XRD, XPS, UV–vis, PL and photocatalytic degradation experiments. And the structure–activity relationship was discussed according to the analysis and measurement results. The analysis results reveal that the morphology, zeta potential and photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 nanocrystals can be easily tuned by changing the tungsten doping concentration. The tungsten doped TiO 2 colloid combines the characters of high dispersity and high photocatalytic activity

  13. Dependence of Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2-SiO2 Nanopowders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Riazian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Structural properties and chemical composition change the photocatalytic activity in TiO2-SiO2 nanopowder composite. The SiO2-TiO2 nanostructure is synthesized based on sol–gel method. The nanoparticles are characterized by x-ray fluorescents (XRF, x- ray diffraction (XRD, tunneling electron microscopy (TEM, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, UV-vis. Spectrophotometer and furrier transmission create infrared absorption (FTIR techniques. The rate constant k for the degradation of methylen blue in its aqueous solution under UV irradiation is determined as a measure of photocatalytic activity. Dependence between photocatalytic activity and SiO2 content in the composite is determined. Rate constant k is found dependent on the content of SiO2 in the composite that calcined at 900 oC. The addition of low composition SiO2 to the TiO2 matrix (lower than 45% enhances the photocatalytic activity due to thermal stability and increasing in the surface area. The effects of chemical compositions on the surface topography and the crystallization of phases are studied.

  14. Investigation on Parameters Affecting the Effectiveness of Photocatalytic Functional Coatings to Degrade NO: TiO2 Amount on Surface, Illumination, and Substrate Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hot

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the degradation of NO by photocatalytic oxidation using TiO2-based coatings. Tests are conducted at a laboratory scale through an experimental setup inspired from ISO 22197-1 standard. Various parameters are explored to evaluate their influence on photocatalysis efficiency: TiO2 dry matter content applied to the surface, nature of the substrate, and illumination conditions (UV and visible light. This article points out the different behaviors between three kinds of substrates which are common building materials: normalized mortar, denser mortar, and commercial wood. The illumination conditions are of great importance in the photocatalytic process with experiments under UV light showing the best results. However, a significant decrease in NO concentration under visible light is also observed provided that the TiO2 dry matter content on the surface is high enough. The nature of the substrate plays an important role in the photocatalytic activity with rougher substrates being more efficient to degrade NO. However, limiting the roughness of the substrate seems to be of utmost interest to obtain the highest exposed surface area and thus the optimal photocatalytic efficiency. A higher roughness promotes the surface contact between TiO2 and NO but does not necessarily increase the photochemical oxidation.

  15. Photocatalytic degradation of paracetamol on TiO2 nanoparticles and TiO2/cellulosic fiber under UV and sunlight irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Jallouli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, photocatalytic degradation of acetaminophen ((N-(4-hydroxyphe-nylacetamide, an analgesic drug has been investigated in a batch reactor using TiO2 P25 as a photocatalyst in slurry and under UV light. Using TiO2 P25 nanoparticles, much faster photodegradation of paracetamol and effective mineralization occurred, more than 90% of 2.65 × 10−4 M paracetamol was degraded under UV irradiation. Changes in pH values affected the adsorption and the photodegradation of paracetamol. pH 9.0 is found to be the optimum for the photodegradation of paracetamol. HPLC detected hydroquinone, benzoquinone, p-nitrophenol, and 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene during the TiO2-assisted photodegradation of paracetamol among which some pathway products are disclosed for the first time. The results showed that TiO2 suspension/UV system is more efficient than the TiO2/cellulosic fiber mode combined to solar light for the photocatalytic degradation of paracetamol. Nerveless the immobilization of TiO2 showed many advantages over slurry system because it can enhance adsorption properties while allowing easy separation of the photocatalyst from the treated solution with improved reusable performance.

  16. Photocatalytic Study of New Immobilized TiO2 Technique Towards Degradation of Reactive Red 4 Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ain S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study on TiO2 for wastewater remediation has gained interest among researchers. However, the application of this photocatalyst is limited due to non-recyclability of conventional TiO2. Thus, immobilization technique has been developed to solve this issue. Hence, a comparison study between two types of immobilized photocatalysts namely titanium dioxide (TiO2 and TiO2 mixed with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA has been conducted in this work to observe the significant effect of PVA polymer in photocatalysis reaction of reactive red 4 (RR4 dye. Double sided adhesive tape (DSAT was used as thin layer binder in this immobilization system. The result shows that the photocatalytic performance of TiO2-PVA/DSAT was higher than that of TiO2/DSAT under both normal UV and visible light irradiations due to the conjugated unsaturated polymer from PVA serve as electron donor for TiO2 thus increase the photocatalysis process. Besides, TiO2-PVA/DSAT was also found to possess much better adhesion strength to the support material compared to TiO2/DSAT. Based on the findings, this TiO2 immobilization system is expected to be beneficial in the industrial wastewater treatment. Thus, further study to improve the photocatalytic activity of this immobilized TiO2 will be in our future work.

  17. Improved Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity for TiO2 Nanomaterials by Codoping with Zinc and Sulfur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianzhi Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available S/Zn codoped TiO2 nanomaterials were synthesized by a sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the morphology, structure, and optical properties of the prepared samples. The introduction of Zn and S resulted in significant red shift of absorption edge for TiO2-based nanomaterials. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degrading reactive brilliant red X-3B solution under simulated sunlight irradiation. The results showed S/Zn codoped TiO2 exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than pure TiO2 and commercial P25, due to the photosynergistic effect of obvious visible light absorption, efficient separation of photoinduced charge carriers, and large surface area. Moreover, the content of Zn and S in the composites played important roles in photocatalytic activity of TiO2-based nanomaterials.

  18. A Facile Approach to Prepare Black TiO2 with Oxygen Vacancy for Enhancing Photocatalytic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shihao; Xiao, Yang; Hu, Zhengfa; Zhao, Hui; Xie, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Black TiO2 has triggered worldwide research interest due to its excellent photocatalytic properties. However, the understanding of its structure–property relationships and a more effective, facile and versatile method to produce it remain great challenges. We have developed a facile approach to synthesize black TiO2 nanoparticles with significantly improved light absorption in the visible and infrared regions. The experimental results show that oxygen vacancies are the major factors responsible for black coloration. More importantly, our black TiO2 nanoparticles have no Ti3+ ions. These oxygen vacancies could introduce localized states in the bandgap and act as trap centers, significantly decreasing the electron–hole recombination. The photocatalytic decomposition of both rhodamine B and methylene blue demonstrated that, under ultraviolet light irradiation, better photocatalytic performance is achieved with our black TiO2 nanoparticles than with commercial TiO2 nanoparticles. PMID:29659500

  19. Photocatalytic decomposition of diclofenac potassium using silver-modified TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalheiro, A.A.; Bruno, J.C.; Saeki, M.J.; Valente, J.P.S.; Florentino, A.O.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of silver insertion on the TiO 2 photocatalytic activity for the degradation of diclofenac potassium were reported here. Techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used to comprehend the relation between structure and properties of the silver-modified TiO 2 thin films obtained by the sol-gel method. The lattice parameters and the crystallinity of TiO 2 anatase phase were affected by inserted silver, and the film thickness increased about 4 nm for each 1 wt.% of silver inserted. The degradation of diclofenac potassium and by-products reached an efficiency of 4.6 mg C W -1 when the material was modified with silver. Although the first step of degradation involves only the photochemical process related to the loss of the chlorine and hydrogen atoms. This cyclization reaction leads to the formation of intermediate, which degradation is facilitated by the modified material

  20. Photocatalytic performance of pure anatase nanocrystallite TiO2 synthesized under low temperature hydrothermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayilkan, Funda; Erdemoglu, Sema; Asiltuerk, Meltem; Akarsu, Murat; Sener, Sadiye; Sayilkan, Hikmet; Erdemoglu, Murat; Arpac, Ertugrul

    2006-01-01

    Photocatalytic performance of a hydrothermally synthesized pure anatase TiO 2 with 8 nm average crystallite size for decomposition of Reactive Red 141 was examined by investigating the effects of UV-light irradiation time, irradiation power, amount of TiO 2 and initial dye concentration. Change in the UV absorbance of the dye during irradiation was monitored. One wt.% TiO 2 in 30 mg/l Reactive Red 141 aqueous solution was found adequate for complete decolorization in 70 min at 770 W/m 2 irradiation power. It was realized that, compared to Degussa P-25, the synthesized nano-TiO 2 can be repeatedly used as a new catalyst. The results also proved that Reactive Red 141 is decomposed catalytically due to the pseudo first-order reaction kinetics

  1. High quantum yield graphene quantum dots decorated TiO_2 nanotubes for enhancing photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Ailan; Xie, Haolong; Xu, Xinmei; Zhang, Yangyu; Wen, Shengwu; Cui, Yifan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • High concentration yellow GQDs and TiO_2 nanotubes were achieved by a simple and green method. • High quantum yield GQDs enhanced the photodegradation capacity of TiO_2 nanotube. • The catalytic performance of GQDs/TiO_2 depends on the GQDs loading. • The improved photocatalytic activity of GQDs/TiO_2 was attributed to three aspects. - Abstract: Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with high quantum yield (about 23.6% at an excitation wavelength of 320 nm) and GQDs/TiO_2 nanotubes (GQDs/TiO_2 NTs) composites were achieved by a simple hydrothermal method at low temperature. Photoluminescence characterization showed that the GQDs exhibited the down-conversion PL features at excitation from 300 to 420 nm and up-conversion photoluminescence in the range of 600–800 nm. The photocatalytic activity of prepared GQDs/TiO_2 NTs composites on the degradation of methyl orange (MO) was significantly enhanced compared with that of pure TiO_2 nanotubes (TiO_2 NTs). For the composites coupling with 1.5%, 2.5% and 3.5% GQDs, the degradation of MO after 20 min irradiation under UV–vis light irradiation (λ = 380–780 nm) were 80.52%, 94.64% and 51.91%, respectively, which are much higher than that of pure TiO_2 NTs (35.41%). It was inferred from the results of characterization that the improved photocatalytic activity of the GQDs/TiO_2 NTs composites was attributed to the synergetic effect of up-conversion properties of the GQDs, enhanced visible light absorption and efficient separation of photogenerated electron-holes of the GQDs/TiO_2 composite.

  2. Effective Electron Transfer Pathway of the Ternary TiO2/RGO/Ag Nanocomposite with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity under Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Tian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous TiO2/reduced graphene oxide/Ag (TiO2/RGO/Ag ternary nanocomposite with an effective electron transfer pathway is obtained by an electrostatic self-assembly method and photo-assisted treatment. Compared with bare mesoporous TiO2 (MT and mesoporous TiO2/RGO (MTG, the ternary mesoporous TiO2/RGO/Ag (MTGA nanocomposite exhibited superior photocatalytic performance for the degradation of methylene blue (MB under visible light, and the degradation rate reached 0.017 min−1, which was 3.4-times higher than that of MTG. What is more, the degradation rate of MTGA nanocomposite after three cycle times is 91.2%, and the composition is unchanged. In addition, we found that the OH•, h+ and especially O2•− contribute to the high photocatalytic activity of MTGA for MB degradation. It is proposed that Ag nanoparticles can form the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR to absorb the visible light and distract the electrons into MT, and RGO can accept the electrons from MT to accelerate the separation efficiency of photogenerated carriers. The establishment of MTGA ternary nanocomposite makes the three components act synergistically to enhance the photocatalytic performance.

  3. Interface actions between TiO2 and porous diatomite on the structure and photocatalytic activity of TiO2-diatomite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Yue; Li, Fangfei; Jiang, Yinshan; Xia, Maosheng; Xue, Bing; Li, Yanjuan

    2014-01-01

    TiO 2 -diatomite photocatalysts were prepared by sol–gel process with various pre-modified diatomite. In order to obtain diatomite with different surface characteristics, two modification approaches including calcination and phosphoric acid treatment on the micro-structure of diatomite are introduced. The photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, XPS, nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms and micromorphology analysis. The results indicate that, compared with pure TiO 2 , the anatase-to-rutile phase transition temperature of TiO 2 loaded on diatomite carrier is significantly increased to nearly 900 °C, depending on the different pretreatment method of diatomite. The photocatalytic activities of different samples were evaluated by their degradation rate of methyl orange (MO) dye under UV and visible-light irradiation. The samples prepared by phosphoric acid pretreatment method exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity. After 90 min of UV irradiation, about 90% of MO is decomposed by the best effective photocatalyst. And after 8 h visible-light irradiation, nearly 60% of MO is decomposed by the same sample. Further mechanism investigation reveals that the H 3 PO 4 pretreatment process can obviously change the surface features of diatomite carrier, cause the formation of Si–O–Ti bond, increase the binding strength between TiO 2 and diatomite, restrain crystal growth of loaded TiO 2 , and thus form thermal-stable mesoporous structure at the granular spaces. It helps to build micro-, meso- and macro-porous hierarchical porous structure in TiO 2 -diatomite, and improves the charge and mass transfer efficiency during catalyzing process, resulting in the significantly increased photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 -diatomite pretreated by phosphoric acid.

  4. Interface actions between TiO2 and porous diatomite on the structure and photocatalytic activity of TiO2-diatomite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yue; Li, Fangfei; Jiang, Yinshan; Xia, Maosheng; Xue, Bing; Li, Yanjuan

    2014-06-01

    TiO2-diatomite photocatalysts were prepared by sol-gel process with various pre-modified diatomite. In order to obtain diatomite with different surface characteristics, two modification approaches including calcination and phosphoric acid treatment on the micro-structure of diatomite are introduced. The photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, XPS, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms and micromorphology analysis. The results indicate that, compared with pure TiO2, the anatase-to-rutile phase transition temperature of TiO2 loaded on diatomite carrier is significantly increased to nearly 900 °C, depending on the different pretreatment method of diatomite. The photocatalytic activities of different samples were evaluated by their degradation rate of methyl orange (MO) dye under UV and visible-light irradiation. The samples prepared by phosphoric acid pretreatment method exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity. After 90 min of UV irradiation, about 90% of MO is decomposed by the best effective photocatalyst. And after 8 h visible-light irradiation, nearly 60% of MO is decomposed by the same sample. Further mechanism investigation reveals that the H3PO4 pretreatment process can obviously change the surface features of diatomite carrier, cause the formation of Si-O-Ti bond, increase the binding strength between TiO2 and diatomite, restrain crystal growth of loaded TiO2, and thus form thermal-stable mesoporous structure at the granular spaces. It helps to build micro-, meso- and macro-porous hierarchical porous structure in TiO2-diatomite, and improves the charge and mass transfer efficiency during catalyzing process, resulting in the significantly increased photocatalytic activity of TiO2-diatomite pretreated by phosphoric acid.

  5. Enhancing photocatalytic activity by using TiO2-MgO core-shell-structured nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hyun Suk; Lee, Jung-Kun; Nastasi, Michael; Kim, Jeong-Ryeol; Lee, Sang-Wook; Kim, Jin Young; Park, Jong-Sung; Hong, Kug Sun; Shin, Hyunho

    2006-01-01

    Hygroscopic Mg(OH) 2 gel was topotactically decomposed on TiO 2 particle surfaces, resulting in highly nanoporous MgO-coated TiO 2 particles. The highly hygroscopic and nanoporous MgO shell absorbed more water molecules and hydroxyl groups from the environment to yield an improved photocatalytic property of the core-shell particles as compared to the uncoated TiO 2 counterpart

  6. Electrodeposition of Ru in TiO_2 nanotubes: increase of photocatalytical activity and identification of deposition route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelhano, Douglas Iafrate; Rodrigues, Christiane de Arruda; Bertazzoli, Rodnei

    2014-01-01

    TiO2 nanotubes are semiconductors widely used in heterogeneous photocatalysis processes. It has a band gap energy (E_b_g) of 3,2 eV and an photoactive crystalline structure (anatase). To increase the photocatalytic activity of this oxide, by lowering the Ebg and reduction of charge recombination rate, a modification of oxide crystalline layer was made with ruthenium, using electrochemical deposition at constant potential. TiO_2 layer was made by anodization process at 20V, followed by thermic treatment in 450 deg C and electrodeposition of Ru at constant potential. Voltammetric studies showed that Ru electrodeposition occurs in two stages, and in the second stage is the deposition of metallic Ru. Photocurrent studies showed that the amount of Ru in the oxide layer varies according with the applied potential and a significant increase of semiconductor activity is obtained with the introduction of small quantities of Ru, increasing at least 70% in current values. Morphological and crystallinity analysis were made using SEM and XRD. To identify and quantify Ru in TiO_2 was used WDS. (author)

  7. Three-dimensional assembly structure of anatase TiO2 hollow microspheres with enhanced photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yihao; Zhan, Shuai; Wang, Li; Zhang, Bin; Ding, Minghui

    The pure anatase TiO2 hollow microspheres are synthesized by a one-step template-free hydrothermal route. By defining temperature and time limits, we produce TiO2 hollow microspheres with a fluoride-mediated self-transformation. The surface morphology of TiO2 hollow microspheres was studied by SEM. The hollow microspheres have diameters of about 800 nm and are remarkably uniform. The UV-light photocatalytic activity and the stability/multifunction of TiO2 hollow microspheres structure were evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue and photocatalytic hydrogen evolution. The excellent photocatalytic activity is attributed to large specific surface area, more active sites, unique hollow structures, and improved light scattering.

  8. Dispersion and Stabilization of Photocatalytic TiO2 Nanoparticles in Aqueous Suspension for Coatings Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hajar Othman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To produce titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticle coatings, it is desirable that the nanoparticles are dispersed into a liquid solution and remain stable for a certain period of time. Controlling the dispersion and aggregation of the nanoparticles is crucial to exploit the advantages of the nanometer-sized TiO2 particles. In this work, TiO2 nanoparticles were dispersed and stabilized in aqueous suspensions using two common dispersants which were polyacrylic acid (PAA and ammonium polymethacrylate (Darvan C. The effect of parameters such as ultrasonication amplitude and type and amount of dispersants on the dispersibility and stability of the TiO2 aqueous suspensions were examined. Rupture followed by erosion was determined to be the main break up mechanisms when ultrasonication was employed. The addition of dispersant was found to produce more dispersed and more stabilized aqueous suspension. 3 wt.% of PAA with average molecular weight (Mw of 2000 g/mol (PAA 2000 was determined to produce the best and most stable dispersion. The suspensions were then coated on quartz glass, whereby the photocatalytic activity of the coatings was studied via the degradation of formaldehyde gas under UV light. The coatings were demonstrated to be photocatalytically active.

  9. Black TiO2 synthesized via magnesiothermic reduction for enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangdong; Fu, Rong; Yin, Qianqian; Wu, Han; Guo, Xiaoling; Xu, Ruohan; Zhong, Qianyun

    2018-04-01

    Utilizing solar energy for hydrogen evolution is a great challenge for its insufficient visible-light power conversion. In this paper, we report a facile magnesiothermic reduction of commercial TiO2 nanoparticles under Ar atmosphere and at 550 °C followed by acid treatment to synthesize reduced black TiO2 powders, which possesses a unique crystalline core-amorphous shell structure composed of disordered surface and oxygen vacancies and shows significantly improved optical absorption in the visible region. The unique core-shell structure and high absorption enable the reduced black TiO2 powders to exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity, including splitting of water in the presence of Pt as a cocatalyst and degradation of methyl blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. Photocatalytic evaluations indicate that the oxygen vacancies play key roles in the catalytic process. The maximum hydrogen production rates are 16.1 and 163 μmol h-1 g-1 under the full solar wavelength range of light and visible light, respectively. This facile and versatile method could be potentially used for large scale production of colored TiO2 with remarkable enhancement in the visible light absorption and solar-driven hydrogen production.

  10. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of B, Y co-doped nanosized TiO_2 catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石中亮; 刘富梅; 姚淑华

    2010-01-01

    The catalysts of un-doped, single-doped and co-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) powders were prepared by sol-gel method with Ti(OC4H9)4 as a raw material. The photocatalytic decomposition of phenol in aqueous solution under UV light was used as a probe reaction to evaluate their photocatalytic activities. The effects of B, Y co-doping on the crystallite sizes, crystal pattern, surface composition, and optical property of the catalyst were investigated by thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis, X-ray d...

  11. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of microwave treated TiO2 pillared montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Shenmei; Jiang Yinshan; Yu Lixin; Li Fangfei; Yang Zhengwen; Hou Tianyi; Hu Daqiang; Xia Maosheng

    2006-01-01

    TiO 2 pillared montmorillonite synthesized by microwave irradiation, exhibited good photocatalytic degradation performance of methyl orange, whose pseudo first order reaction rate constant was nearly four times than that of conventional method, because of its enhanced crystalline, preferred anatase phase and improved porosity performance, which were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), far Fourier transform infrared ray spectroscopy (FTIR) and nitrogen adsorption isotherms

  12. Ag3PO4-TiO2-Graphene Oxide Ternary Composites with Efficient Photodegradation, Hydrogen Evolution, and Antibacterial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Jye Sheu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ag3PO4-TiO2-graphene oxide ternary composite photocatalysts were fabricated by the photocatalytic reduction and ion exchange methods. The properties and photocatalytic activity of the composites were examined, and the photodegradation mechanism was investigated. More TiO2 nanoparticles in the composites were found to improve light absorption, but caused a larger impedance and inferior charge transport. Excess TiO2 nanoparticles distributed over the surfaces of Ag3PO4 and graphene oxide decreased the specific surface area and thus lowered light absorbance. An appropriate TiO2 content enhanced photocatalytic performance. When the molar ratio of Ag3PO4 to TiO2 was 0.6, the highest efficiency in photodegradation, hydrogen production (with a quantum efficiency of 8.1% and a hydrogen evolution rate of 218.7 μmole·g−1·h−1 and bacterial inactivation was achieved. Trapping experiments demonstrated that superoxide radicals and holes are the major active species involved in the photodegradation process.

  13. Preparation and Photocatalytic Activity of Nitrogen-doped Nano TiO2/Tourmaline Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Xin-wei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using Ti(OC4H94 as precursor, CO(NH22 as nitrogen source, tourmaline as support, the nitrogen-doped nano TiO2/tourmaline composites were synthesized by sol-gel method with ultrasound assisted.The structure and performance of composites were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, UV-Vis DRS, SEM, EDS.The effects of calcining temperature, nitrogen-doped content, tourmaline amount, catalyst system on the photocatalytic activity of nitrogen-doped nano TiO2/tourmaline composites were studied.The results show that the photocatalytic activity of nitrogen-doped nano TiO2/tourmaline composites calcined under 500℃, the nitrogen doped amount of 5% (mole fraction, tourmaline added in an amount of 10% (mass fraction, catalyst dosage of 3g/L, under 500W UV light irradiation conditions, the photocatalytic degradation effect of TNT(10mg/L is the best, and has a good recycling performance.

  14. Decolorization of Methylene Blue with TiO2 Sol via UV Irradiation Photocatalytic Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 sol was prepared for the degradation of methylene blue (MB solution under ultraviolet (UV irradiation. The absorption spectra of MB indicated that the maximum wavelength, 663 nm, almost kept the same. The performance of 92.3% for color removal was reached after 160 min. The particle size of TiO2 sol was about 22.5 nm. X-ray diffraction showed that TiO2 consisted of a single anatase phase. The small size and anatase phase probably resulted in high photocatalytic activity of TiO2 sol. The degradation ratio decreased as the initial concentration of MB increased. The photodegradation efficiency decreased in the order of pH 2>pH 9>pH 7. Regarding catalyst load, the degradation increased with the mass of catalyst up to an amount of 1.5 g⋅L−1 then decreased as the mass continued to increase. The addition of H2O2 to TiO2 sol resulted in an increase on the degradation ratio.

  15. Efficient silver modification of TiO2 nanotubes with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Ding, Lei; Xi, Yaoning; Shi, Liang; Su, Ge; Gao, Rongjie; Wang, Wei; Dong, Bohua; Cao, Lixin

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, Ag(CH3NH2)2+, Ag(NH3)2+ and Ag+ with different radii have been used as silver sources to find out the distribution of Ag ions on the H-TNT surface, which is critical to the final performance. The influence of this distribution on visible photocatalytic activity is further studied. The results indicate that, when Ag+ used as silver source with low concentration, these small sized silver ions mainly distribute on interlayer spacing of H-TNT. After heat-treatment and photo-reduction, the generated silver nanoparticles uniformly embed in the anatase TiO2 nanotube walls, and bring large interfacial area between Ag particles and TiO2 nanotubes. The separation effect of photogenerated electron-hole pair in TiO2 is enhanced by Ag particles, and achieves the best at 0.15 g/L, much higher than P25, TiO2/0, Ag-N@TiO2 and Ag-C-N@TiO2. This paper provides new ideas for the modification of TiO2 nanotubes.

  16. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles for degradation of methyl orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manmeet; Duklan, Neha; Singh, Pritpal; Sharma, Jeewan

    2018-05-01

    In present study, TiO2 nanoparticles, in anatase form, were successfully synthesized using TiCl4 as precursor. These nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method at room temperature (298 K). As prepared samples were characterized for phase structure, optical absorption and surface properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles sample was compared with one of the most efficient commercial photocatalyst Degussa TiO2 also known as P(25). The effect of phase composition of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles, as compared to P(25), on photocatalytic decomposition of organic dye, methyl orange (MO) was studies under UV light illumination. An enhanced degradation of hazardous dye was observed in the presence of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles as compared to P(25) due to slow recombination rate. Other possible reasons for this enhancement have also been discussed.

  17. Fabrication of doped TiO2 nanotube array films with enhanced photo-catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peighambardoust, Naeimeh-Sadat; Khameneh-asl, Shahin; Khademi, Adib

    2018-01-01

    In the present work, we investigate the N and Fe-doped TiO2 nanotube array film prepared by treating TiO2 nanotube array film with ammonia solution and anodizing in Fe(NO3)3 solution respectively. This method avoided the use of hazardous ammonia gas, or laborious ion implantation process. N and Fe-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiO2 NTs) were prepared by electrochemical anodization process in 0.5 wt % HF aqueous solution. The anodization was performed at the conditions of 20 V and 20 min, Followed by a wet immersion in NH3.H2O (1M) for N-doping for 2 hr and annealing post-treatment at 450 °C. The morphology and structure of the nanotube films were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and EDX. UV-vis. illumination test were done to observe photo-enhanced catalysis. The effect of different annealing temperature on the structure and photo-absorption property of the TiO2-TNTs was investigated. The results showed that N-TNTs nanotubes exhibited higher photocatalytic activity compared whit the Fe-doped and pure TNTs, because doping N promoted the separation of the photogenerated electrons and holes.

  18. Mesoporous TiO2 Micro-Nanometer Composite Structure: Synthesis, Optoelectric Properties, and Photocatalytic Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous anatase TiO2 micro-nanometer composite structure was synthesized by solvothermal method at 180°C, followed by calcination at 400°C for 2 h. The as-prepared TiO2 was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM, and Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR. The specific surface area and pore size distribution were obtained from N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm, and the optoelectric property of the mesoporous TiO2 was studied by UV-Vis absorption spectrum and surface photovoltage spectra (SPS. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photodegradation of sole rhodamine B (RhB and sole phenol aqueous solutions under simulated sunlight irradiation and compared with that of Degussa P-25 (P25 under the same conditions. The photodegradation preference of this mesoporous TiO2 was also investigated for an RhB-phenol mixed solution. The results show that the TiO2 composite structure consists of microspheres (∼0.5–2 μm in diameter and irregular aggregates (several hundred nanometers with rough surfaces and the average primary particle size is 10.2 nm. The photodegradation activities of this mesoporous TiO2 on both RhB and phenol solutions are higher than those of P25. Moreover, this as-prepared TiO2 exhibits photodegradation preference on RhB in the RhB-phenol mixture solution.

  19. Effect of sunlight irradiation on photocatalytic pyrene degradation in contaminated soils by micro-nano size TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Chien, S.W.; Chang, C.H.; Chen, S.H.; Wang, M.C.; Madhava Rao, M.; Satya Veni, S.

    2011-01-01

    The enhanced catalytic pyrene degradation in quartz sand and alluvial and red soils by micro-nano size TiO 2 in the presence and absence of sunlight was investigated. The results showed that the synergistic effect of sunlight irradiation and TiO 2 was more efficient on pyrene degradation in quartz sand and red and alluvial soils than the corresponding reaction system without sunlight irradiation. In the presence of sunlight irradiation, the photooxidation (without TiO 2 ) of pyrene was very pronounced in alluvial and red soils and especially in quartz sand. However, in the absence of sunlight irradiation, the catalytic pyrene degradation by TiO 2 and the photooxidation (without TiO 2 ) of pyrene were almost nil. This implicates that ultra-violet (UV) wavelength range of sunlight plays an important role in TiO 2 -enhanced photocatalytic pyrene degradation and in photooxidation (without TiO 2 ) of pyrene. The percentages of photocatalytic pyrene degradation by TiO 2 in quartz sand, alluvial and red soils under sunlight irradiation were 78.3, 23.4, and 31.8%, respectively, at 5 h reaction period with a 5% (w/w) dose of the amended catalyst. The sequence of TiO 2 -enhanced catalytic pyrene degradation in quartz sand and alluvial and red soils was quartz sand > red soil > alluvial soil, due to different texture and total organic carbon (TOC) contents of the quartz sand and other two soils. The differential Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of degraded pyrene in alluvial soil corroborate that TiO 2 -enhanced photocatalytic degradation rate of degraded pyrene was much greater than photooxidation (without TiO 2 ) rate of degraded pyrene. Based on the data obtained, the importance for the application of TiO 2 -enhanced photocatalytic pyrene degradation and associated organic contaminants in contaminated soils was elucidated. - Highlights: → Synergistic effect of sunlight irradiation and TiO 2 promoted degradation of pyrene. → Micro-nano size TiO 2 enhanced

  20. Basic aspects of photocatalytic detoxification of organic halogens by TiO2 nanocrystallites. Photolytic and radiolytic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabani, J.

    1998-01-01

    Various forms of TiO 2 (nanocrystallites in colloid solutions, powders and layers) are considered as promising photocatalysts for detoxification of persistent organic chemicals which are present as pollutants in waste water effluents from industrial manufacturers and even from regular households. Such pollutants penetrate and reach water sources and must be removed or destroyed in order to prevent damage to people or to the environment. Some of the toxins, such as organic halogenated compounds is difficult to remove by moderate chemical redox reactions, but can be mineralized by a free radical mechanism. Pilot plants for detoxification of industrial wastes on TiO 2 surface are currently being tested in several countries. In view of this recent development it is of particular interest to investigate yields of the reactive intermediates and reaction mechanisms of reactions of representative organic substrates. Such work is presently going on in many laboratories. In the present contribution we focus on the nature of the primary oxidizing species and the possible ways to increase photolytic yields, with particular attention to chain reactions in organic halogen compounds. Although the work concerns photocatalysis, radiation chemistry may provide useful results regarding kinetic parameters and comparative tests. Thus, comparison between photocatalytic (TiO 2 ), radiolytic and chemical hydroxylations of phenol provides evidence that the reactive hydroxylation agent is an OH· radical adsorbed to the TiO 2 surface. The initial photochemical products are conduction band electrons and valence band holes in the TiO 2 nanocrystallites, which become 'trapped' within less than 30 ps. (author)

  1. Rapid photo-degradation of 2-chlorophenol under visible light irradiation using cobalt oxide-loaded TiO2/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite from aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajit; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    The photocatalytic removal of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) from water environment was investigated by TiO2-RGO-CoO. Cobalt oxide-loaded TiO2 (TiO2-CoO) supported with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was synthesized using a sol-gel method and then annealed at 500 °C for 5 min. The material characteristics were analyzed by UV-Vis analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Incorporation of cobalt oxide and RGO into the TiO2 system (TiO2-RGO-CoO) lowered the band gap energy to 2.83 eV, which greatly enhanced the visible light absorption. The TiO2-RGO-CoO photocatalyst showed complete removal of 20 mg/L 2-CP within 8 h with the addition of 0.01% H2O2 under 100 W visible light irradiation. The photo-degradation efficiency of 2-CP (10 mg/L) was 35.2, 48.9, 58.9 and 98.2% for TiO2, TiO2-RGO, TiO2-CoO and TiO2-RGO-CoO, respectively, in the presence of visible light irradiation at solution pH of 6.0. The TiO2-RGO-CoO photocatalyst retained its high removal efficiency even after five photocatalytic cycles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of wool-ball-like TiO2 microspheres on carbon fabric and FTO substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Gu, Jian; Zhang, Mengqi

    2018-06-01

    The wool-ball-like TiO2 microspheres on carbon fabric (TiO2-CF) and FTO substrates (TiO2-FTO) have been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method in alkali environment, using commercial TiO2 (P25) as precursors. The XRD results indicate that the as-prepared TiO2 have good crystallinity. And the SEM images show that the wool-ball-like TiO2 microspheres with a diameter of 2-3 μm are composed of TiO2 nanowires, which have a diameter of 50 nm. The photocatalytic behavior of the wool-ball-like TiO2 microspheres, TiO2-CF and TiO2-FTO under ultraviolet light was investigated by a pseudo first-order kinetic model, using methyl orange (MO) as pollutant. The wool-ball-like TiO2 microspheres obtained a degradation rate constant (Kap) of 6.91×10-3 min-1 . The Kap values of TiO2-FTO and TiO2-CF reach 13.97×10-3 min-1 and 11.80×10-3 min-1, which are 2.0 and 1.7 times higher than that of pristine wool-ball-like TiO2 microspheres due to the "sum effect" between TiO2 and substrates. This study offers a facile hydrothermal method to prepare wool-ball-like TiO2 microspheres on CF and FTO substrates, which will improve the recyclability of phtocatalysts and can be extended to other fields.

  3. Photocatalytic and microwave absorbing properties of polypyrrole/Fe-doped TiO2 composite by in situ polymerization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qiaoling; Zhang Cunrui; Li Jianqiang

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Polypyrrole/Fe-doped TiO 2 composite is prepared by in situ polymerization of pyrrole on the Fe-doped TiO 2 template. → The Fe-doped TiO 2 microbelts are prepared by sol-gel method using the absorbent cotton template for the first time. → Then the Fe-doped TiO 2 microbelts are used as template for the preparation of polypyrrole/Fe-doped TiO 2 composites. → The structure, morphology and properties of the composites are characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), IR, Net-work Analyzer. → A possible formation mechanism of Fe-doped TiO 2 microbelts and polypyrrole/Fe-doped TiO 2 composites has been proposed. → The effect of the mol ratio of pyrrole/Fe-doped TiO 2 on the photocatalysis properties and microwave loss properties of the composites is investigated. - Abstract: The Fe-doped TiO 2 microbelts were prepared by sol-gel method using the absorbent cotton template for the first time. Then the Fe-doped TiO 2 microbelts were used as templates for the preparation of polypyrrole/Fe-doped TiO 2 composites. Polypyrrole/Fe-doped TiO 2 composites were prepared by in situ polymerization of pyrrole on the Fe-doped TiO 2 template. The structure, morphology and properties of the composites were characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), FTIR, Net-work Analyzer. The possible formation mechanisms of Fe-doped TiO 2 microbelts and polypyrrole/Fe-doped TiO 2 composites have been proposed. The effect of the molar ratio of pyrrole/Fe-doped TiO 2 on the photocatalytic properties and microwave loss properties of the composites was investigated.

  4. Transformation of hydrogen titanate nanoribbons to TiO2 nanoribbons and the influence of the transformation strategies on the photocatalytic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Rutar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the reaction conditions during the transformation of hydrogen titanate nanoribbons to TiO2 nanoribbons on the phase composition, the morphology, the appearance of the nanoribbon surfaces and their optical properties was investigated. The transformations were performed (i through a heat treatment in oxidative and reductive atmospheres in the temperature range of 400–650 °C, (ii through a hydrothermal treatment in neutral and basic environments at 160 °C, and (iii through a microwave-assisted hydrothermal treatment in a neutral environment at 200 °C. Scanning electron microscopy investigations showed that the hydrothermal processing significantly affected the nanoribbon surfaces, which became rougher, while the transformations based on calcination in either oxidative or reductive atmospheres had no effect on the morphology or on the surface appearance of the nanoribbons. The transformations performed in the reductive atmosphere, an NH3(g/Ar(g flow, and in the ammonia solution led to nitrogen doping. The nitrogen content increased with an increasing calcination temperature, as was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. According to electron paramagnetic resonance measurements the calcination in the reductive atmosphere also resulted in a partial reduction of Ti4+ to Ti3+. The photocatalytic performance of the derived TiO2 NRs was estimated on the basis of the photocatalytic oxidation of isopropanol. After calcinating in air, the photocatalytic performance of the investigated TiO2 NRs increased with an increased content of anatase. In contrast, the photocatalytic performance of the N-doped TiO2 NRs showed no dependence on the calcination temperature. An additional comparison showed that the N-doping significantly suppressed the photocatalytic performance of the TiO2 NRs, i.e., by 3 to almost 10 times, in comparison with the TiO2 NRs derived by calcination in air. On the other hand, the photocatalytic performance of the

  5. Enhanced photocatalytic performance of CeO2-TiO2 nanocomposite for degradation of crystal violet dye and industrial waste effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, Mehvish; Arshad, Amara; Khan, Yaqoob; Iqbal, Mazhar; Bajwa, Sadia Zafar; Soomro, Razium Ali; Ahmad, Ishaq; Butt, Faheem K.; Iqbal, M. Zubair; Wu, Aiguo; Khan, Waheed S.

    2018-03-01

    This study presents the synthesis of CeO2-TiO2 nanocomposite and its potential application for the visible light-driven photocatalytic degradation of model crystal violet dye as well as real industrial waste water. The ceria-titania (CeO2-TiO2) nanocomposite material was synthesised using facile hydrothermal route without the assistance of any template molecule. As-prepared composite was characterised by SEM, TEM, HRTEM, XRD, XPS for surface features, morphological and crystalline characters. The formed nanostructures were determined to possess crystal-like geometrical shape and average size less than 100 nm. The as-synthesised nanocomposite was further investigated for their heterogeneous photocatalytic potential against the oxidative degradation of CV dye taken as model pollutant. The photo-catalytic performance of the as-synthesised material was evaluated both under ultra-violet as well as visible light. Best photocatalytic performance was achieved under visible light with complete degradation (100%) exhibited within 60 min of irradiation time. The kinetics of the photocatalytic process were also considered and the reaction rate constant for CeO2-TiO2 nanocomposite was determined to be 0.0125 and 0.0662 min-1 for ultra-violet and visible region, respectively. In addition, the as-synthesised nanocomposite demonstrated promising results when considered for the photo-catalytic degradation of coloured industrial waste water collected from local textile industry situated in Faisalabad region of Pakistan. Enhanced photo-catalytic performance of CeO2-TiO2 nanocomposite was proposed owing to heterostructure formation leading to reduced electron-hole recombination.

  6. Solar photocatalytic activity of TiO2 modified with WO3 on the degradation of an organophosphorus pesticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos-Delgado, N.A.; Gracia-Pinilla, M.A.; Maya-Treviño, L.; Hinojosa-Reyes, L.; Guzman-Mar, J.L.; Hernández-Ramírez, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO 2 and WO 3 /TiO 2 (2 and 5%) were tested in the photocatalytic malathion degradation. • The use of solar radiation in the photocatalytic degradation process was evaluated. • Modified catalyst showed greater photocatalytic activity than pure TiO 2 . • The mineralization rate was improved when WO 3 content on TiO 2 was 2%. -- Abstract: In this study, the solar photocatalytic activity (SPA) of WO 3 /TiO 2 photocatalysts synthesized by the sol–gel method with two different percentages of WO 3 (2 and 5%wt) was evaluated using malathion as a model contaminant. For comparative purpose bare TiO 2 was also prepared by sol–gel process. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance UV–vis spectroscopy (DRUV–vis), specific surface area by the BET method (SSA BET ), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy with a high annular angle dark field detector (STEM-HAADF). The XRD, Raman, HRTEM and STEM-HAADF analyses indicated that WO 3 was present as a monoclinic crystalline phase with nanometric cluster sizes (1.1 ± 0.1 nm for 2% WO 3 /TiO 2 and 1.35 ± 0.3 nm for 5% WO 3 /TiO 2 ) and uniformly dispersed on the surface of TiO 2 . The particle size of the materials was 19.4 ± 3.3 nm and 25.6 ± 3 nm for 2% and 5% WO 3 /TiO 2 , respectively. The SPA was evaluated on the degradation of commercial malathion pesticide using natural solar light. The 2% WO 3 /TiO 2 photocatalyst exhibited the best photocatalytic activity achieving 76% of total organic carbon (TOC) abatement after 300 min compared to the 5% WO 3 /TiO 2 and bare TiO 2 photocatalysts, which achieved 28 and 47% mineralization, respectively. Finally, experiments were performed to assess 2% WO 3 /TiO 2 catalyst activity on repeated uses; after several successive cycles its photocatalytic activity was retained showing long-term stability

  7. Preparation and Use of Photocatalytically Active Segmented Ag|ZnO and Coaxial TiO2-Ag Nanowires Made by Templated Electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maijenburg, A. Wouter; Rodijk, Eddy J.B.; Maas, Michiel G.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2014-01-01

    Photocatalytically active nanostructures require a large specific surface area with the presence of many catalytically active sites for the oxidation and reduction half reactions, and fast electron (hole) diffusion and charge separation. Nanowires present suitable architectures to meet these requirements. Axially segmented Ag|ZnO and radially segmented (coaxial) TiO2-Ag nanowires with a diameter of 200 nm and a length of 6-20 µm were made by templated electrodeposition within the pores of polycarbonate track-etched (PCTE) or anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes, respectively. In the photocatalytic experiments, the ZnO and TiO2 phases acted as photoanodes, and Ag as cathode. No external circuit is needed to connect both electrodes, which is a key advantage over conventional photo-electrochemical cells. For making segmented Ag|ZnO nanowires, the Ag salt electrolyte was replaced after formation of the Ag segment to form a ZnO segment attached to the Ag segment. For making coaxial TiO2-Ag nanowires, a TiO2 gel was first formed by the electrochemically induced sol-gel method. Drying and thermal annealing of the as-formed TiO2 gel resulted in the formation of crystalline TiO2 nanotubes. A subsequent Ag electrodeposition step inside the TiO2 nanotubes resulted in formation of coaxial TiO2-Ag nanowires. Due to the combination of an n-type semiconductor (ZnO or TiO2) and a metal (Ag) within the same nanowire, a Schottky barrier was created at the interface between the phases. To demonstrate the photocatalytic activity of these nanowires, the Ag|ZnO nanowires were used in a photocatalytic experiment in which H2 gas was detected upon UV illumination of the nanowires dispersed in a methanol/water mixture. After 17 min of illumination, approximately 0.2 vol% H2 gas was detected from a suspension of ~0.1 g of Ag|ZnO nanowires in a 50 ml 80 vol% aqueous methanol solution. PMID:24837535

  8. Increased photocatalytic activity induced by TiO2/Pt/SnO2 heterostructured films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testoni, Glaucio O.; Amoresi, Rafael A. C.; Lustosa, Glauco M. M. M.; Costa, João P. C.; Nogueira, Marcelo V.; Ruiz, Miguel; Zaghete, Maria A.; Perazolli, Leinig A.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, a high photocatalytic activity was attained by intercalating a Pt layer between SnO2 and TiO2 semiconductors, which yielded a TiO2/Pt/SnO2 - type heterostructure used in the discoloration of blue methylene (MB) solution. The porous films and platinum layer were obtained by electrophoretic deposition and DC Sputtering, respectively, and were both characterized morphologically and structurally by FE-SEM and XRD. The films with the Pt interlayer were evaluated by photocatalytic activity through exposure to UV light. An increase in efficiency of 22% was obtained for these films compared to those without platinum deposition. Studies on the reutilization of the films pointed out high efficiency and recovery of the photocatalyst, rendering the methodology favorable for the construction of fixed bed photocatalytic reactors. A proposal associated with the mechanism is discussed in this work in terms of the difference in Schottky barrier between the semiconductors and the electrons transfer and trapping cycle. These are fundamental factors for boosting photocatalytic efficiency.

  9. Photocatalytic degradation of paracetamol on TiO2 nanoparticles and TiO2/cellulosic fiber under UV and sunlight irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Jallouli, Nabil; Elghniji, Kais; Trabelsi, Hassen; Ksibi, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, photocatalytic degradation of acetaminophen ((N-(4-hydroxyphe-nyl)acetamide)), an analgesic drug has been investigated in a batch reactor using TiO2 P25 as a photocatalyst in slurry and under UV light. Using TiO2 P25 nanoparticles, much faster photodegradation of paracetamol and effective mineralization occurred, more than 90% of 2.65 × 10−4 M paracetamol was degraded under UV irradiation. Changes in pH values affected the adsorption and the photodegradation of paracetam...

  10. TiO2 supported on rod-like mesoporous silica SBA-15: Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanjuan; Li, Nan; Tu, Jinchun; Li, Xiaotian; Wang, Beibei; Chi, Yue; Liu, Darui; Yang, Dianfan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Rod-like SBA-15 and normal SBA-15 were used to prepare TiO 2 /SBA-15 composites. ► TiO 2 /SBA-15 composites were studied as catalysts for methyl orange photodegradation. ► TiO 2 /Rod-SBA-15 exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than TiO 2 /Nor-SBA-15. ► The higher catalytic activity was a result of the controlled morphology of SBA-15. -- Abstract: TiO 2 nanoparticles have been successfully incorporated in the pores of mesoporous silica SBA-15 with different morphologies by a wet impregnation method. The composites were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) emission spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N 2 -sorption and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) was used to study their photocatalytic property. It is indicated that the morphology of SBA-15 had a great influence on the photocatalytic activity of the composites. When TiO 2 /SBA-15 composite was prepared by loading TiO 2 nanoparticles on uniform rod-like SBA-15 of 1 μm length, it showed higher photocatalytic degradation rate than that on less regular but much larger SBA-15 support. This difference was rationalized in terms of the homogeneously distributed and shorter channels of rod-like SBA-15, which favored mass transport and improved the efficient utilization of the pore surface.

  11. Enhancing the photocatalytic activity of nanocrystalline TiO2 by co-doping with fluorine and yttrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Huarong; Miao, Guashuai; Ma, Xingping; Wang, Bei; Zheng, Haiwu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • (F, Y)-codoped TiO 2 nanoparticles were prepared by a simple sol–gel method. • The highest photocatalytic activity (15 times of that over the pure TiO 2 ) was exhibited in the codoped TiO 2 with 0.05% Y doping level. • The Y doping induced oxygen vancancies played a duel role on the photocatalyic activity of the codoped TiO 2 . • The photocatalytic reactive oxygen species are critical to the photocatalytic degradation processes. - Abstract: Fluorine and yttrium codoped TiO 2 nanoparticles were prepared using a simple sol–gel method. The products were characterized with various spectroscopic and analytical techniques to determine their structural, morphological, optical absorption and photocatalytic properties. The results reveal that neither F nor Y doping causes obvious absorption edge shift in TiO 2 . Photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra present that the PL signal is enhanced, suggesting a decrease of photo-generated charge carrier separation efficiency, after the F or Y doping. The synergistic action by the F and Y doping leads to the highest photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue solution in the 0.05% (F, Y)-codoped sample (15 times of that over the pure TiO 2 ). With the increase of Y doping level, the photocatalytic performance in the codoped samples increases firstly and then decreases. The photocatalytic activity variations after the F and Y doping were interpreted by the formation of photocatalytic reactive oxygen species induced by the dopings

  12. Azo dyes degradation using TiO2-Pt/graphene oxide and TiO2-Pt/reduced graphene oxide photocatalysts under UV and natural sunlight irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosu, Marcela-Corina; Coros, Maria; Pogacean, Florina; Magerusan, Lidia; Socaci, Crina; Turza, Alexandru; Pruneanu, Stela

    2017-08-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of azo dyes with different structures (amaranth, sunset yellow and tartrazine) using TiO2-Pt nanoparticles (TPt), TiO2-Pt/graphene oxide (TPt-GO) and TiO2-Pt/reduced graphene oxide (TPt-rGO) composites were investigated in the presence of UV and natural sunlight irradiation. The composites were prepared by a combined chemical-thermal method and characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Infrared (FTIR) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The modification of TiO2-Pt with graphene oxide shifted its optical absorption edge towards the visible region and increased its photocatalytic activity under UV and natural sunlight irradiation. The efficiency of catalysts on azo dyes degradation (in similar conditions) reached high values (above 99%) under sunlight conditions, proving the remarkable photocatalytic activities of obtained composites. TPt-GO nanocomposite exhibited higher photoactivity than TPt or TPt-rGO, demonstrating degradation efficiencies of 99.56% for amaranth, 99.15% for sunset yellow and 96.23% for tartrazine. The dye photodegradation process follows a pseudo-first-order kinetic with respect to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood reaction mechanism. A direct dependence between azo dyes degradation rate and chemical structure of dyes has been observed.

  13. Photocatalytic Activity in CH3CN Related to the Surface Properties of TiO2 Powders Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    OpenAIRE

    Bettoni, Marta; Candori, Pietro; Marmottini, Fabio; Perenze, Nicoletta; Rol, Cesare; Sebastiani, Giovanni V.; Vecchiocattivi, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Some TiO2 powders, prepared from titanium(IV)tetraisopropoxide by the sol-gel method and thermally treated between 100 and 1000∘C, have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and by nitrogen adsorption and desorption at 77 K to calculate the BET-specific surface area, from which the micropore volume and the external surface area can be derived. The photocatalytic activity (ka) of the above powders has been evaluated considering the TiO2-sensitized photo-oxidation of 4-methoxybenzyl al...

  14. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity for TiO2 nanoparticles as air purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Adawiya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles (NP’s were prepared using sol-gel process from Titanium Tetrachloride (TiCl4 as a precursor with calcinations at two temperatures (500 and 900 °C. The effect of calcinations temperatures on the structural, optical, morphological and Root Mean Square (roughness properties were investigated by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM. Bacterial inactivation was evaluated using TiO2-coated Petri dishes. A thin layer of photocatalytic TiO2 powder was deposited on glass substrate in order to investigate the self-cleaning effect of TiO2 nanoparticles in indoor and outdoor applications. Ultra-hydrophilicity was assessed by measuring the contact angle and it evaluated photolysis properties through the degradation of potassium permanganate (KMnO4 under direct sunlight. XRD analysis indicated that the structure of TiO2 was anatase at 500 °C and rutile at 900 °C calcination temperatures. As the calcination temperature increases, the crystallinity is improved and the crystallite size becomes larger. Coated films of TiO2 made the has permeability, low water contact angle and good optical activity. These are properties essential for the application of the surface of the self-cleaning. The final results illustrate that titanium dioxide can be used in the build materials to produce coated surfaces in order to minimize air pollutants that are placed in microbiologically sensitive circumference like hospitals and the food factory.

  15. Photocatalytic activity of sonochemically prepared TiO_2 decorated with silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michal, R.

    2017-01-01

    A novel way of titanium dioxide synthesis using non-water environment was investigated. In synthesis, water causes aggregation of particles of titania thus reducing active surface significantly. To avoid this, a non- water environment such as toluene was employed. Reaction between solid precursor and gaseous ammonia was conducted in this environment using dried reactants in tempered glass reactor and irradiated by ultrasonic horn. As prepared powders were then calcinated and decorated with Ag nanoparticles. Photocatalytic activity was determined by TOC method and compared to P25 standard TiO_2. Samples were analysed by XRD and Raman spectroscopy and surface morphology was investigated by SEM. Powders prepared by this method had comparable or higher photocatalytic activity than P25. Ag nanoparticles seem to have no significant impact on photocatalytic activity whatsoever. (authors)

  16. Preparation, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2/ZnO Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles of the TiO2/ZnO composite photocatalysts were prepared via sol-gel process. The crystalline structure, morphology, thermal stability, and pore structure properties of the composite photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, TG-DTA, and N2 physical adsorption measurements. The photocatalytic activity of the composite catalysts was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation reaction of methyl orange (MO in aqueous solution. The best preparation parameters for the composite photocatalysts were obtained through systematical experiments. Furthermore, the photocatalytic degradation reaction of aqueous MO solution followed the first-order reaction kinetics; the relative equation can be described as ln(C0/C=0.5689t, and the calculated correlation constant (R2 is 0.9937 for the calibration curve.

  17. Preparation of surface modified TiO2/rGO microspheres and application in the photocatalytic decomposition of oleic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Zeng, Min; Tong, Xiaoling; Li, Fuyun; Xu, Youyou

    2018-05-01

    The comprehensive utilization of waste cooking oil is an important research topic in food science. In this study, the surface modified mesoporous anatase TiO2/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) microspheres with a high specific surface area have been successfully synthesized, through hydrothermal routes and hydrazine reduced graphene oxide. The photocatalytic decomposition of waste rapeseed oil has also been studied using TiO2/rGO microspheres as photocatalyst. The result shows that the reduced graphene oxide in these nanocomposites can act as adsorbent and photocatalyst, and the temperature and the oxygen amount also are the most important factors affecting the oleic acid decomposition products. There interesting results not only helpful for the study of the mechanism of photocatalytic, but also useful for the rational use of waste cooking oil.

  18. Photocatalytic removal of SO2 using natural zeolite modified by TiO2 and polyoxypropylene surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Nasibeh; Soleimani, Mohsen; Mirghaffari, Nourollah

    2018-01-25

    Air pollution due to emission of various hazardous gases such as SO 2 into the atmosphere and its control is an important environmental issue. Application of photocatalysts is considered as a suitable process to control the gaseous pollutants. In this study, the efficiency of clinoptilolite as a natural zeolite (Ze) modified by TiO 2 (Ze-Ti) and a polymeric surfactant polyoxypropylene (Ze-Ti-POP) for removal of SO 2 was investigated. The nanocomposites were characterized by SEM, EDX, and BET analyses. The photocatalytic oxidation experiments of SO 2 by the nanocomposites and natural zeolite were done under UV irradiation with initial SO 2 concentration of 500 ppm in a photoreactor. The effects of different factors including reaction time, catalyst dose, UV irradiation intensity, humidity content, and calcination temperature and dose of TiO 2 were studied. The modification of clinoptilolite by TiO 2 and POP increased considerably the BET specific surface area of the nanocomposites. The results showed that maximum removal efficiencies of SO 2 by Ze-Ti and Ze-Ti-POP under the optimum experimental conditions were 82.1 and 87.4%, respectively. Adsorption kinetics data well fitted with the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. Moreover, reusing of nanocomposites after three regeneration cycles indicated that application of Ze-Ti and Ze-Ti-POP nanocomposites could be a promising approach for SO 2 removal. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  19. Plasma-spraying synthesis of high-performance photocatalytic TiO2 coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yasuo; Maeda, Masakatsu; Ohmori, Akira; Shibata, Yoshitaka; Miyano, Yasuyuki; Murai, Kensuke

    2014-01-01

    Anatase (A-) TiO 2 is a photocatalytic material that can decompose air-pollutants, acetaldehyde, bacteria, and so on. In this study, three kinds of powder (A-TiO 2 without HAp, TiO 2 + 10mass%HAp, and TiO 2 +30mass%HAp, where HAp is hydroxyapatite and PBS is polybutylene succinate) were plasma sprayed on biodegradable PBS substrates. HAp powder was mixed with A-TiO 2 powder by spray granulation in order to facilitate adsorption of acetaldehyde and bacteria. The crystal structure was almost completely maintained during the plasma spray process. HAp enhanced the decomposition of acetaldehyde and bacteria by promoting adsorption. A 10mass% HAp content was the most effective for decomposing acetaldehyde when plasma preheating of the PBS was not carried out before the plasma spraying. The plasma preheating of PBS increased the yield rate of the spray process and facilitated the decomposition of acetaldehyde by A-TiO 2 coatings without HAp. HAp addition improved photocatalytic sterilization when plasma preheating of the PBS was performed

  20. Hydrothermal synthesis of core–shell TiO_2 to enhance the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Jinghui; Zhou, Han; Zhang, Fan; Fan, Tongxiang; Zhang, Di

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Core–shell TiO_2 with interior cavity was synthesized by a hydrothermal approach to enhance the photocatalytic performance. - Highlights: • Core–shell TiO_2 with interior cavity can be synthesized by hydrothermal approach. • Multiple reflection of incident light in cavity can increase the absorption. • Rutile can optimize the bandgap and delay the charge recombination. - Abstract: A hydrothermal approach was designed to synthesize core–shell TiO_2 with interior cavity by making sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS) as the surfactant and the mixture of water and ethanol as the solvent. The control experiment of solvent reveals ethanol and water are responsible for the formation of sphere and interior cavity, respectively. Besides, SDS can assist the growth of core–shell structure, and the sizes of sphere and interior cavity can be tuned by regulating the reaction time or temperature. UV–vis absorption proves core–shell structure with interior cavity can increase the absorption of incident light to enhance the optical activity of final product. The calculated bandgap and photoluminescence (PL) analyses reveal the coexistence of rutile in final product can optimize the bandgap to 3.03 eV and delay the charge recombination. As a result, an effective photocatalytic hydrogen evolution under full spectrum irradiation can be harvested by the as-synthesized core–shell spheres to reach a quantum yield, approximately 9.57% at 340 nm wavelength.

  1. Synthesis, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Microspheres Functionalized with Porphyrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hua Cai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to utilize visible light more efficiently in the photocatalytic reaction, TiO2 microspheres sensitized by 5-(4-allyloxyphenyl-10,15,20-tri(4-methylphenylporphyrin (APTMPP were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, nitrogen physisorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and so forth, The characterization results indicated that APTMPP-MPS-TiO2 was composed of the anatase crystal phase. The morphology of the composite materials was spheriform with size of 0.3–0.7 μm and the porphyrin was chemisorbed on the surface of TiO2 through a Si–O–Ti bond. The photooxidation of α-terpinene was employed as the model reaction to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of APTMPP-MPS-TiO2 microspheres under visible light. The results indicated that the photodegradation of α-terpinene was significantly enhanced in the presence of the APTMPP-MPS-TiO2 compared with the nonmodified TiO2 under visible light.

  2. Direct Z-scheme TiO2/CdS hierarchical photocatalyst for enhanced photocatalytic H2-production activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Aiyun; Zhu, Bicheng; Zhong, Bo; Zhang, Liuyang; Cheng, Bei

    2017-11-01

    Photocatalytic H2 evolution, which utilizes solar energy via water splitting, is a promising route to deal with concerns about energy and environment. Herein, a direct Z-scheme TiO2/CdS binary hierarchical photocatalyst was fabricated via a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique, and photocatalytic H2 production was measured afterwards. The as-prepared TiO2/CdS hybrid photocatalyst exhibited noticeably promoted photocatalytic H2-production activity of 51.4 μmol h-1. The enhancement of photocatalytic activity was ascribed to the hierarchical structure, as well as the efficient charge separation and migration from TiO2 nanosheets to CdS nanoparticles (NPs) at their tight contact interfaces. Moreover, the direct Z-scheme photocatalytic reaction mechanism was demonstrated to elucidate the improved photocatalytic performance of TiO2/CdS composite photocatalyst. The photoluminescence (PL) analysis of hydroxyl radicals were conducted to provide clues for the direct Z-scheme mechanism. This work provides a facile route for the construction of redox mediator-free Z-scheme photocatalytic system for photocatalytic water splitting.

  3. Preparation and Photocatalytic Property of TiO2/Diatomite-Based Porous Ceramics Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuilin Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The diatomite-based porous ceramics was made by low-temperature sintering. Then the nano-TiO2/diatomite-based porous ceramics composite materials were prepared by hydrolysis deposition method with titanium tetrachloride as the precursor of TiO2 and diatomite-based porous as the supporting body of the nano-TiO2. The structure and microscopic appearance of nano-TiO2/diatomite-based porous ceramics composite materials was characterized by XRD and SEM. The photocatalytic property of the composite was investigated by the degradation of malachite green. Results showed that, after calcination at 550°C, TiO2 thin film loaded on the diatomite-based porous ceramics is anatase TiO2 and average grain size of TiO2 is about 10 nm. The degradation ratio of the composite for 5 mg/L malachite green solution reached 86.2% after irradiation for 6 h under ultraviolet.

  4. Photocatalytic Anatase TiO2 Thin Films on Polymer Optical Fiber Using Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Kamal; Bulou, Simon; Choquet, Patrick; Boscher, Nicolas D

    2017-04-19

    Due to the undeniable industrial advantages of low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma processes, such as low cost, low temperature, easy implementation, and in-line process capabilities, they have become the most promising next-generation candidate system for replacing thermal chemical vapor deposition or wet chemical processes for the deposition of functional coatings. In the work detailed in this article, photocatalytic anatase TiO 2 thin films were deposited at a low temperature on polymer optical fibers using an atmospheric-pressure plasma process. This method overcomes the challenge of forming crystalline transition metal oxide coatings on polymer substrates by using a dry and up-scalable method. The careful selection of the plasma source and the titanium precursor, i.e., titanium ethoxide with a short alkoxy group, allowed the deposition of well-adherent, dense, and crystalline TiO 2 coatings at low substrate temperature. Raman and XRD investigations showed that the addition of oxygen to the precursor's carrier gas resulted in a further increase of the film's crystallinity. Furthermore, the films deposited in the presence of oxygen exhibited a better photocatalytic activity toward methylene blue degradation assumedly due to their higher amount of photoactive {101} facets.

  5. Suppressing the Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Nanoparticles by Extremely Thin Al2O3 Films Grown by Gas-Phase Deposition at Ambient Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the suppression of photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide (TiO2 pigment powders by extremely thin aluminum oxide (Al2O3 films deposited via an atomic-layer-deposition-type process using trimethylaluminum (TMA and H2O as precursors. The deposition was performed on multiple grams of TiO2 powder at room temperature and atmospheric pressure in a fluidized bed reactor, resulting in the growth of uniform and conformal Al2O3 films with thickness control at sub-nanometer level. The as-deposited Al2O3 films exhibited excellent photocatalytic suppression ability. Accordingly, an Al2O3 layer with a thickness of 1 nm could efficiently suppress the photocatalytic activities of rutile, anatase, and P25 TiO2 nanoparticles without affecting their bulk optical properties. In addition, the influence of high-temperature annealing on the properties of the Al2O3 layers was investigated, revealing the possibility of achieving porous Al2O3 layers. Our approach demonstrated a fast, efficient, and simple route to coating Al2O3 films on TiO2 pigment powders at the multigram scale, and showed great potential for large-scale production development.

  6. Fe-N co-doped SiO2@TiO2 yolk-shell hollow nanospheres with enhanced visible light photocatalytic degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hengcheng; Yao, Weitang; Zhu, Wenkun; Tang, Yi; Ge, Huilin; Shi, Xiaozhong; Duan, Tao

    2018-06-01

    SiO2@TiO2 yolk@shell hollow nanospheres (STNSs) is considered as an outstanding photocatalyst due to its tunable structure and composition. Based on this point, we present an unprecedentedly excellent photocatalytic property of STNSs toward tannic acid via a Fe-N co-doped strategy. Their morphologies, compositions, structure and properties are characterized. The Fe-N co-doped STNSs formed good hollow yolk@shell structure. The results show that the energy gap of the composites can be downgraded to 2.82 eV (pure TiO2 = 3.2 eV). Photocatalytic degradation of tannic acid (TA, 30 mg L-1) under visible light (380 nm TiO2 nanospheres, non-doped STNSs and N-doped STNSs, the Fe-N co-doped STNSs exhibits the highest activity, which can degrade 99.5% TA into CO2 and H2O in 80 min. The probable degradation mechanism of the composites is simultaneously proposed, the band gap of STNSs becomes narrow by co-doping Fe-N, so that the TiO2 shell can stimulate electrons under visible light exposure, generate the ions of radOH and radO2- with a strong oxidizing property. Therefore this approach works is much desired for radioactive organic wastewater photocatalytic degradation.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of high photocatalytic activity and stable Ag3PO4/TiO2 fibers for photocatalytic degradation of black liquor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Li; Long, Qiyi; Yin, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers were prepared via in situ Ag 3 PO 4 particles onto the surface of TiO 2 fiber. • Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers have stronger catalytic activity and excellent chemical stability. • Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers act as an efficient catalyst for the photocatalytic degradation of black liquor. - Abstract: The TiO 2 fiber was prepared by using cotton fiber as a template, and then Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers were synthesized via in situ Ag 3 PO 4 particles onto the surface of TiO 2 fiber. Their structure and physical properties were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), specific surface analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis absorption spectra and photoluminescence spectra (PL). SEM analysis indicated that the well-defined surface morphology of natural cotton fiber was mostly preserved in TiO 2 and Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers. Compared with TiO 2 fiber, the absorbance wavelengths of Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers were apparently red shifted and the PL intensities revealed a significant decrease. By using the photocatalytic degradation of black liquor as a model reaction, the visible light and ultraviolet light catalytic efficiencies of TiO 2 , Ag 3 PO 4 and Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers were evaluated. The reaction results showed that Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers had stronger photocatalytic activity and excellent chemical stability in repeated and long-term applications. Therefore, the prepared Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers could act as an efficient catalyst for the photocatalytic degradation of black liquor, which suggested their promising applications. It was proposed that the • OH radicals played the leading role in the photocatalytic degradation of the black liquor by Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers system

  8. Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange over Metalloporphyrins Supported on TiO2 Degussa P25

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Jiao Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic activity of meso-tetraphenylporphyrins with different metal centers (Fe, Co, Mn and Cu adsorbed on TiO2 (Degussa P25 surface has been investigated by carrying out the photodegradation of methyl orange (MO under visible and ultraviolet light irradiation. The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, diffuse reflectance UV (DRS-UV-vis and infrared spectra. Copper porphyrin-sensitized TiO2 photocatalyst (CuP-TiO2 showed excellent activity for the photodegradation of MO whether under visible or ultraviolet light irradiation. Natural Bond Orbital (NBO charges analysis showed that methyl orange ion is adsorbed easier by CuP-TiO2 catalyst due to the increase of induced interactions.

  9. Function of TiO2 Lattice Defects toward Photocatalytic Processes: View of Electronic Driven Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanan Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen vacancies and Ti-related defects (OTDs are the main lattice defects of TiO2, which have great influence on its photocatalytic activity. To understand the relationship between the defects and photocatalytic activities, detailed discussions based on the electronic driven force provided by these defects are carried out during the three commonly accepted processes in photocatalytic reactions. It is found that these defects inevitably (i influence the energy structure of the pristine TiO2 as the isolate acceptor/donor level or hybrid with the original orbital, (ii provide a disordered short-range force that confuses the charge carriers transferring to surface active sites, (iii act not only as the surface active sites for trapping the charge carriers but also as the main chemisorption sites for O2, H2O, and organic species. These effects of the defects make them one of the key factors that determine the efficiency of heterogeneous photocatalysis. Clarifying the role of the defects will further facilitate the exploration and the construction of high-performance photocatalysts for practical applications.

  10. Rapid and efficient photocatalytic reduction of hexavalent chromium by using “water dispersible” TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lei; Kang, Shi-Zhao; Li, Xiangqing; Qin, Lixia; Yan, Hao; Mu, Jin

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, “water dispersible” TiO 2 nanoparticles were prepared, and meanwhile, their photocatalytic activity was systematically tested for the reduction of aqueous Cr(VI) ions. It is found that the as-prepared “water dispersible” TiO 2 nanoparticles are a highly efficient photocatalyst for the reduction of Cr(VI) ions in water under UV irradiation, and suitable for the remediation of Cr(VI) ions wastewater with low concentration. Compared with commercial TiO 2 nanoparticles (P25), the “water dispersible” TiO 2 nanoparticles exhibit 3.8-fold higher photocatalytic activity. 100% Cr (VI) ions can be reduced into Cr(III) ions within 10 min when the Cr (VI) ions initial concentration is 10 mg L −1 . Moreover, the electrical energy consumption can be obviously decreased using the “water dispersible” TiO 2 nanoparticles. These results suggest that the “water dispersible” TiO 2 nanoparticles are a promising photocatalyst for rapid removal of Cr (VI) in environmental therapy. - Highlights: • “Water dispersible” TiO 2 nanoparticles with high photocatalytic activity. • 100% Cr (VI) (10 mg L −1 ) can be reduced within 10 min. • Obvious decrease of electrical energy consumption.

  11. Synthesis of mesoporous TiO2 in aqueous alcoholic medium and evaluation of its photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaresan, L.; Prabhu, A.; Palanichamy, M.; Murugesan, V.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Mesoporous TiO 2 synthesized using P123 as soft template in sol-gel method. → Nanoparticle aggregates are better for photocatalytic activity than free nanoparticles. → Particle to particle transport of electrons in the conduction band of aggregates are important factor. - Abstract: Mesoporous TiO 2 was synthesized using triblock copolymer as the structure directing template in ethanol/water, isopropanol/water or 1-butanol/water medium by sol-gel method. The presence of intense peak at low angle in the XRD patterns confirmed the orderly arrangement of mesopores in the material. Among the three different alcohols, ethanol had influenced better in controlling the particle size than others. The enhanced specific surface area also revealed the formation of mesopores. Aggregates of particles were clearly seen in the TEM images and the size of the particles was approximately 10 nm. The photocatalytic activity of mesoporous TiO 2 was evaluated using aqueous alachlor as a model pollutant. The activity of mesoporous TiO 2 synthesized in ethanol/water mole ratio of 50 was higher than other mesoporous TiO 2 and commercial TiO 2 (Degussa P-25). The transport of excited electrons from one particle to its neighboring nanoparticles of mesoporous TiO 2 is suggested to be the cause for enhanced photocatalytic activity.

  12. Effect of preparation conditions on the characteristics and photocatalytic activity of TiO2/purified diatomite composite photocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Zhiming; Hu, Zhibo; Yan, Yang; Zheng, Shuilin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO 2 /purified diatomite composites were synthesized under different conditions. • The optimum preparation conditions of composites were obtained. • The obtained photocatalyst showed good photocatalytic activity. • The dispersity and grain size of loaded TiO 2 NPs are the critical factors. - Abstract: TiO 2 /purified diatomite composite materials were prepared through a modified hydrolysis-deposition method under low temperature using titanium tetrachloride as precursor combined with a calcination crystallization process. The microstructure and crystalline phases of the obtained composites prepared under different preparation conditions were characterized by high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The photocatalytic performance of TiO 2 /purified diatomite composites was evaluated by Rhodamine B as the target pollutant under UV irradiation, and the optimum preparation conditions of composites were obtained. The TiO 2 crystal form in composites prepared under optimum conditions was anatase, the grain size of which was 34.12 nm. The relationships between structure and property of composite materials were analyzed and discussed. It is indicated that the TiO 2 nanoparticles uniformly dispersed on the surface of diatoms, and the photocatalytic performance of the composite materials was mainly determined by the dispersity and grain size of loaded TiO 2 nanoparticles

  13. Enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles by surface-capping DBS groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Baiqi; Jing Liqiang; Qu Yichun; Li Shudan; Jiang Baojiang; Yang Libin; Xin Baifu; Fu Honggang

    2006-01-01

    TiO 2 nanoparticles capped with sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS) are synthesized by a sol-hydrothermal process using tetrabutyl titanate and DBS as raw materials. The effects of surface-capping DBS on the surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS), photoluminescence (PL) and photocatalytic performance of TiO 2 nanoparticles are principally investigated together with their relationships. The results show that the surface of TiO 2 nanoparticles can be well capped by DBS groups while the pH value and added DBS amount are controlled at 5.0 and 2% of TiO 2 mass weight, respectively, and the linkage between DBS groups and TiO 2 surfaces is mainly by means of quasi-sulphonate bond. The intensities of SPS and PL spectra of TiO 2 obviously decrease after DBS-capping, while the activity can greatly increase during the photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) solution, which are mainly attributed to the electron-withdrawing character of the DBS groups. Moreover, the enhancement of photocatalytic activity of DBS-capped TiO 2 is also related to the increase in the capability for adsorbing RhB

  14. Photocatalytic enhancement of cesium removal by Prussian blue-deposited TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyuncheol; Kim, Minsun; Kim, Wooyul; Lee, Wanno; Kim, Soonhyun

    2018-06-19

    After the Fukushima nuclear accident, tremendous efforts were made to treat radiocesium, radiostrontium, and other radioactive materials. For the first time, we demonstrate that a TiO 2 photocatalyst can significantly enhance Cs adsorption by Prussian blue-deposited TiO 2 (PB/TiO 2 ) under UV irradiation. In this study, we synthesized PB/TiO 2 using the photodeposition method. After the Cs ions were adsorbed on the PB/TiO 2 in darkness, we then exposed the PB/TiO 2 to UV light irradiation. This resulted in a further increase in Cs ion adsorption of more than 10 times the amount adsorbed in darkness. This photocatalytic-enhanced adsorption of Cs ions was not observed on PB mixed with SiO 2 , nor under visible light irradiation. We investigated the effects of PB concentration, PB/TiO 2 concentration, and gas purging on both dark and photocatalytic-enhanced adsorption of Cs ions by PB/TiO 2 . Based on the results, we suggest that the photocatalytic-enhanced adsorption of Cs ions on PB/TiO 2 is due to photocatalytic reduction of PB, which leads to additional adsorption of Cs ions. The change in solution color before and after the reaction, and the change in solution pH in the dark and during UV irradiation strongly support this suggestion. The photocatalytic-enhanced adsorption of Cs ions was equivalent during radioactive 137 Cs removal, indicating important applications for pollutant removal from contaminated water. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Understanding the effect of morphology on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanotube array electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adán, C.; Marugán, J.; Sánchez, E.; Pablos, C.; Grieken, R. van

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive report on the correlation between the morphology and the photocatalytic (PC) and photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) activity of TiO 2 nanotubes (NTs) electrodes is presented. New insights are provided to support the effect of the anodization conditions on the photon-to-current efficiency of the electrodes based on the dimensional characteristics of the TiO 2 -NTs. Electrodes with promising properties based on the characterization data were scaled-up to test their activity on the PC and PEC oxidation of methanol. Results indicate that the length of the nanotubes significantly influences the photodegradation efficiency. The enhancement achieved in both PC and PEC processes with longer nanotubes can be explained by the higher surface area in contact with the electrolyte and the increase in the light absorption as the TiO 2 layer becomes thicker. However, as the length of the nanotubes increases, a reduction in the enhancement achieved by the application of a potential bias is observed. Kinetic constants of both reactions (PC and PEC) tend to get closer and the charge separation effect diminishes. In relative terms, the effect of the electric potential is more pronounced for electrodes with the shorter NTs. The reason is that once the TiO 2 layer is thick enough to absorb the available radiation, a further increase in the NTs length increases the resistance of the electrons to reach the back contact and the diffusional restrictions to the mass transport of the reactants/products along the tubes. Consequently, the existence of a compromise between reactivity and transport properties lead to the existence of an optimal NTs length.

  16. Effect of W doping level on TiO2 on the photocatalytic degradation of Diuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foura, Ghania; Soualah, Ahcène; Robert, Didier

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, three compositions of W-doped titania nano-photocatalyst are synthesized via the sol-gel method. The powders obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic performances of the different photocatalysts are tested with respect to the degradation of Diuron in water solutions under simulated solar light and visible light irradiation. The W 0.03 Ti 0.97 O 2 catalyst exhibits better photoactivity than the pure TiO 2 even under simulated solar light and visible light. This improvement in activity was attributed to photoelectron/hole separation efficiency.

  17. In situ growth of lamellar ZnTiO3 nanosheets on TiO2 tubular array with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yunyu; Ye, Yixing; Tian, Zhenfei; Liu, Jun; Liu, Yishu; Liang, Changhao

    2013-12-14

    We report a self-sacrificed in situ growth design toward preparation of ZnTiO3-TiO2 heterojunction structure. Highly reactive zinc oxide colloidal particles derived by laser ablation in liquids can react with TiO2 nanotubes to form a lamellar ZnTiO3 nanosheet structure in a hydrothermal-treatment process. Such hybrid structural product was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the hybrid structure toward degradation of methyl orange (MO) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) molecules was demonstrated and compared with single phase TiO2, as a result of the efficient separation of light excited electrons and holes at the hetero-interfaces in the two semiconductors.

  18. Photocatalytic Activity in CH3CN Related to the Surface Properties of TiO2 Powders Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Bettoni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Some TiO2 powders, prepared from titanium(IVtetraisopropoxide by the sol-gel method and thermally treated between 100 and 1000∘C, have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and by nitrogen adsorption and desorption at 77 K to calculate the BET-specific surface area, from which the micropore volume and the external surface area can be derived. The photocatalytic activity (ka of the above powders has been evaluated considering the TiO2-sensitized photo-oxidation of 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol in CH3CN as the test reaction. The decrease of ka have been related to the decrease of the BET surface area, the micropore volume, and the external surface area of the TiO2 powders, but a satisfactory linear correlation is observed only for the last superficial parameter.

  19. Visible light induced electron transfer process over nitrogen doped TiO2 nanocrystals prepared by oxidation of titanium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhongbiao; Dong Fan; Zhao Weirong; Guo Sen

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen doped TiO 2 nanocrystals with anatase and rutile mixed phases were prepared by incomplete oxidation of titanium nitride at different temperatures. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), core level X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (CL XPS), valence band X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (VB XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS), and visible light excited photoluminescence (PL). The photocatalytic activity was evaluated for photocatalytic degradation of toluene in gas phase under visible light irradiation. The visible light absorption and photoactivities of these nitrogen doped TiO 2 nanocrystals can be clearly attributed to the change of the additional electronic (N - ) states above the valence band of TiO 2 modified by N dopant as revealed by the VB XPS and visible light induced PL. A band gap structure model was established to explain the electron transfer process over nitrogen doped TiO 2 nanocrystals under visible light irradiation, which was consistent with the previous theoretical and experimental results. This model can also be applied to understand visible light induced photocatalysis over other nonmetal doped TiO 2

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Hierarchical Structured TiO2 Nanotubes and Their Photocatalytic Performance on Methyl Orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical structured TiO2 nanotubes were prepared by mechanical ball milling of highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays grown by electrochemical anodization of titanium foil. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, specific surface area analysis, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, photocurrent measurement, photoluminescence spectra, electrochemical impedance spectra, and photocatalytic degradation test were applied to characterize the nanocomposites. Surface area increased as the milling time extended. After 5 h ball milling, TiO2 hierarchical nanotubes exhibited a corn-like shape and exhibited enhanced photoelectrochemical activity in comparison to commercial P25. The superior photocatalytic activity is suggested to be due to the combined advantages of high surface area of nanoparticles and rapid electron transfer as well as collection of the nanotubes in the hierarchical structure. The hierarchical structured TiO2 nanotubes could be applied into flexible applications on solar cells, sensors, and other photoelectrochemical devices.

  1. Can TiO2-based photocatalytic textiles be used to improve the urban air quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ródenas, Mila; Fages, Eduardo; Fatarella, Enrico; Herrero, David; Castagnoli, Lidia; Borràs, Esther; Vera, Teresa; Gómez, Tatiana; Catota, Marlon; Carreño, Javier; Hernández, Daniel; Gimeno, Cristina; López, Ramón; Muñoz, Amalia

    2017-04-01

    Despite current legislation and efforts made to improve urban air quality, significant negative effects still persist. That is the case of traffic, which impact on air pollution is a growing problem. For this reason, depollution measures are necessary to reach safer air quality levels. Recently, the use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) based photocatalytic self-cleaning and de-polluting materials has been considered to remove air pollutants, especially NOx. TiO2 can be found in the market under different formats for environmental purposes, and its effectiveness depends not only on the support (concrete, paints, etc) but also on the impregnation method (layer, embedded, etc). By combining laboratory and field campaigns, the LIFE PHOTOCITYTEX project was conceived to demonstrate the effectiveness of using TiO2-based photocatalytic nanomaterials in textiles as a way of alleviating the air pollution in urban areas. Within the project, which is already within its last year, two one-year extensive passive dosimetric campaigns have already been completed to assess their impact on the selected urban sites, measuring before and after the installation of the photocatalytic textile prototypes, respectively. Also, intensive active measurement campaigns (using active dosimetry, monitors and instrumentation for physical parameters) have been conducted to account for winter and summer conditions. Besides, lab-tests have been concluded to determine optimal photocatalytic formulations on textiles, and these have been tested at the EUPHORE simulation chambers under typical environmental conditions of various European cities. Besides the effect on NOx, which has been the main focus of the study, VOCs formation and abatement has been assessed, yielding in a better overall understanding of the whole process and its implications. Very promising results on the deep reduction of NOx have been observed at EUPHORE. From the calculation of the uptake coefficient, a mathematical model tool foresees

  2. Photocatalytic and Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting on TiO2 via Photosensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saji Thomas Kochuveedu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for an alternative to replace conventional fuel has been going on for years due to the limited storage of fossil fuel and excess CO2 emission from the fuel. Using H2 as fuel has gained wide attention recently, as well as consequently splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen. Seminal semiconductors such as TiO2 and ZnO have their position of CB and VB in alignment with water reduction and oxidation potential, respectively, but their wide bandgap allows them to absorb only UV light of the solar spectrum. Combining narrow bandgap semiconductors or other visible light active sensitizers with TiO2/ZnO is a facile route to exploit the visible light region of the solar spectrum. In this review, I make an attempt to summarize the various photosensitizers used in combination with TiO2 for water splitting with recent reports as examples.

  3. Oxidation and photo-oxidation of water on TiO2 surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valdes, A.; Qu, Z.W.; Kroes, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    The oxidation and photo-oxidation of water on the rutile TiO2(110) surface is investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We investigate the relative stability of different surface terminations of TiO2 interacting with H2O and analyze the overpotential needed for the electrol...

  4. Low temperature fabrication of V-doped TiO2 nanoparticles, structure and photocatalytic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Baoshun; Wang Xuelai; Cai Guofa; Wen Liping; Song Yanbao; Zhao Xiujian

    2009-01-01

    V-doped TiO 2 nanoparticles were synthesized at low temperature and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, respectively. It is found the nanoparticle shape changed from needle, to short stick and then to cubic with the increase of doped V concentration, which was also accompanied by the improvement of crystallinity. The specific surface area (S BET ) decreased with increasing V content. It is confirmed that V ions can be doped in TiO 2 by substituting Ti 4+ ions, which suppressed the CB → VB and surface recombination of photoinduced electrons and holes, and a relation was found between the PL spectra and the UV photocatalytic activity. There was an optimum V content for the V-doped TiO 2 to present the best UV-light induced photoactivity, but they were visible-inactive. At last, the effect of the doping V as trapping centers on photocatalysis was investigated in detail, and used to explain the difference between the photocatalysis under the illumination of UV light and visible light.

  5. Polyaniline nanowires on TiO2 nano/microfiber hierarchical nano/microstructures: Preparation and their photocatalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qiaozhen; Wang Mang; Chen Hongzheng; Dai Zhengwei

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We fabricate PANI nanowire-on-TiO 2 nano/microfiber hierarchical nano/microstructure composite fiber films by electrospinning, calcinations and in situ polymerization. → PANI/TiO 2 composite fiber film exhibits high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of dye MB. → The photocatalytic activity and reusability of PANI/TiO 2 composite fiber film were lower than those of pure TiO 2 fiber film. - Abstract: TiO 2 /PANI composite fiber films were fabricated by electrospinning, calcinations and in situ polymerization. The morphology and structure of the resulting composites were analyzed by scanning electron micrograph, transmission electron micrograph, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. It was found that this composite fiber film has a PANI nanowire-on-TiO 2 nano/microfiber hierarchical nano/microstructure. The surface morphology of this hierarchical nano/microstructure was related to the structure of TiO 2 nano/microfiber film, the time and temperature of in situ polymerization. Its photocatalytic property on methylene blue (MB) was studied, and the results showed that TiO 2 /PANI composite fiber film with this hierarchical nano/microstructure exhibited high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of MB under natural light. But both its photocatalytic activity and reusability were lower than those of pure TiO 2 fiber film. To improve the stability and reusability of TiO 2 /PANI composite fiber film, a direct chemical bonding of PANI chains onto TiO 2 surface, such as, the surface-initiated graft polymerization, is a useful method.

  6. TiO2 film/Cu2O microgrid heterojunction with photocatalytic activity under solar light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junying; Zhu, Hailing; Zheng, Shukai; Pan, Feng; Wang, Tianmin

    2009-10-01

    Coupling a narrow-band-gap semiconductor with TiO(2) is an effective method to produce photocatalysts that work under UV-vis light irradiation. Usually photocatalytic coupled-semiconductors exist mainly as powders, and photocatalytic activity is only favored when a small loading amount of narrow-band-gap semiconductor is used. Here we propose a heavy-loading photocatalyst configuration in which 51% of the surface of the TiO(2) film is covered by a Cu(2)O microgrid. The coupled system shows higher photocatalytic activity under solar light irradiation than TiO(2) and Cu(2)O films. This improved performance is due to the efficient charge transfer between the two phases and the similar opportunity each has to be exposed to irradiation and adsorbates.

  7. Enhancing the photoresponse and photocatalytic properties of TiO2 by controllably tuning defects across {101} facets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Piaopiao; Hood, Zachary D.; Adhikari, Shiba P.; Xu, Yunfan; Yang, Shize; Wu, Sujuan

    2018-03-01

    Introducing defects into semiconductors with well-controlled exposed facets offers an effective route for the development of photocatalytic materials with greatly improved properties. Here, we report a facile ethylene glycol reduction procedure to make anatase titanium dioxide (TiO2) with different concentrations of exposed {001} and {101} facets, leading to different surficial defects. TiO2 with increased concentrations of {101} facets shows a 5-fold improvement in photocurrent generation as well as improved photocatalytic activity towards water splitting under visible light irradiation. The improved activity is ascribed to the oxygen vacancies as well as the variable surface chemical states, which collectively induce a slower recombination rate of photo-induced electron-hole pairs. This work also highlights a feasible strategy to obtain the defective TiO2 and explore the synergistic effect of surface defects and different concentrations of exposed {001} and {101} facets for photocurrent and photocatalytic properties under visible light irradiation.

  8. Low-temperature preparation and microwave photocatalytic activity study of TiO2-mounted activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yazi; Yang Shaogui; Hong Jun; Sun Cheng

    2007-01-01

    TiO 2 thin films were deposited on granular activated carbon by a dip-coating method at low temperature (373 K), using microwave radiation to enhance the crystallization of titania nanoparticles. Uniform and continuous anatase titania films were deposited on the surface of activated carbon. BET surface area of TiO 2 -mounted activated carbon (TiO 2 /AC) decreased a little in comparison with activated carbon. TiO 2 /AC possessed strong optical absorption capacity with a band gap absorption edge around 360 nm. The photocatalytic activity did not increase when the as-synthesized TiO 2 /AC was thermally treated, but was much higher than commercial P-25 in degradation of phenol by irradiation of electrodeless discharge lamps (EDLs)

  9. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue on Fe3+-doped TiO2 nanoparticles under visible light irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Bitao; WANG Ke; BAI Jie; MU Hongmei; TONG Yongchun; MIN Shixiong; SHE Shixiong; LEI Ziqiang

    2007-01-01

    Fe3+-doped TiO2 composite nanoparticles with different doping amounts were successfully synthesized using sol-gel method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue was used as a model reaction to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of Fe3+/TiO2 nanoparticles under visible light irradia-tion. The influence of doping amount of Fe3+ (ω: 0.00%-3.00%) on photocatalytic activities of TiO2 was investigated.Results show that the size of Fe3+/TiO2 particles decreases with the increase of the amount of Fe3+ and their absorptionspectra are broaden and absorption intensities are also increased. Doping Fe3+ can control the conversion of TiO2 from anatase to rutile. The doping amount of Fe3+ remarkably affects the activity of the catalyst, and the optimum efficiency occurs at about the doping amount of 0.3%. The appropriate doping of Fe3+ can markedly increase the catalytic activity of TiO2 under visible light irradiation.

  10. Kinetic analysis on photocatalytic degradation of gaseous acetaldehyde, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide on nanosized porous TiO2 films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iis Sopyan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the UV illumination-assisted degradation of gaseous acetaldehyde, hydrogen sulfide, and ammonia on highly active nanostructured-anatase and rutile films were investigated. It was found that the anatase film showed a higher photocatalytic activity than the counterpart did, however, the magnitude of difference in the photocatalytic activity of both films decreased in the order ammonia>acetaldehyde>hydrogen sulfide. To elucidate the reasons for the observation, the adsorption characteristics and the kinetics of photocatalytic degradation of the three reactants on both films were analyzed. The adsorption analysis examined using a simple Langmuir isotherm, showed that adsorbability on both films decreased in the order ammonia>acetaldehyde>hydrogen sulfide, which can be explained in terms of the decreasing electron-donor capacity. Acetaldehyde and ammonia adsorbed more strongly and with higher coverage on anatase film (1.2 and 5.6 molecules/nm2, respectively than on rutile (0.6 and 4.7 molecules/nm2, respectively. Conversely, hydrogen sulfide molecules adsorbed more strongly on rutile film (0.7 molecules/nm2 than on anatase (0.4 molecules/nm2. Exposure to UV light illumination brought about the photocatalytic oxidation of the three gases in contact with both TiO2 films, and the decrease in concentration were measured, and their kinetics are analyzed in terms of the Langmuir–Hinshelwood kinetic model. From the kinetic analysis, it was found that the anatase film showed the photocatalytic activities that were factors of ~8 and ~5 higher than the rutile film for the degradation of gaseous ammonia and acetaldehyde, respectively. However, the activity was only a factor of ~1.5 higher for the photodegradation of hydrogen sulfide. These observations are systematically explained by the charge separation efficiency and the adsorption characteristics of each catalyst as well as by the physical and electrochemical properties of each

  11. Photocatalytic hydrogen evolution of palladium nanoparticles decorated black TiO2 calcined in argon atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Chung; Hsiao, Kai-Chi; Chang, Yin-Hsuan; Chan, Shun-Hsiang

    2018-02-01

    Black TiO2 nanoparticles (BTN) was prepared by sol-gel derived precursor calcined in an argon atmosphere. The synthesized BTN with trivalent titanium ion, structural defect, and oxygen vacancy shows a remarkably high absorbance in the visible light spectrum. BTN thus behaves a higher visible-active nanoreactor than white TiO2 nanoparticles (WTN) in the aqueous solution for organic pollutant degradation. Moreover, palladium decoration on the BTN surface (Pd-BTN) demonstrates a fascinating clean energy application. The obtained Pd-BTN fulfills a satisfied green material demand in the photocatalytic hydrogen production application. Pd-BTN calcined at 400 °C (Pd-BTN-400) shows the high photocatalytic hydrogen generation rate of 5200 μmol/g h under UV-A irradiation and 9300 μmol/g h under UV-B irradiation, respectively. The well-developed material, Pd-BTN-400, could be one of the best solutions in the concern of clean energy and water-purification with regard to the continuous environmental issue.

  12. Synergistic operation of photocatalytic degradation and Fenton process by magnetic Fe3O4 loaded TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiong; Hong, Yong; Liu, Qiuhong; Dong, Lifeng

    2018-02-01

    The magnetic Fe3O4 loaded anatase TiO2 photocatalysts with different mass ratios were successfully synthesized by a one-step convenient calcining method. The morphology and structure analysis revealed that Fe3O4 was formed in TiO2 with very fine-grained particles. After a small amount of Fe3O4 loaded onto TiO2, the photocatalytic property enhanced obviously for the degradation of organic dye. Furthermore, the photo-Fenton-like catalysis of the iron-containing samples could also be induced after the addition of hydrogen peroxide. The apparent kinetic constant of the reaction that catalyzed by Fe-TiO2 was about 5.3 and 8.3 times of that catalyzed by TiO2 or Fe3O4 only, respectively, proving an effective synergistic contribution of the photocatalysis and Fenton reaction in the composite. Compared with Fe3O4 or free Fe3+ ions, only 13% of iron in TiO2 dissolved into acidic solution (25% for Fe3O4 and 100% for Fe3+) after the reaction, which confirmed the iron had been well immobilized onto TiO2. In addition, the extremely stable photocatalytic activity in cycling experiments proved the immobilized iron had been tightly attached onto TiO2, indicating the great potential of the catalyst for practical applications.

  13. Visible-light photocatalytic performances of TiO2 nanoparticles modified by trace derivatives of PVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le SHI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the visible-light photocatalytic activity and catalysis stability of nanocomposites, a TiO2-based visible-light photocatalyst is prepared by surface-modification of TiO2 nanoparticles using trace conjugated derivatives from polyvinyl alcohol (DPVA via a facile method. The obtained DPVA/TiO2 nanocomposites are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared Spectra (FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. With Rhodamine B (RhB as a model pollutant, the visible-light photocatalytic activity and stability of DPVA/TiO2 nanocomposites are investigated by evaluating the RhB decomposition under visible light irradiation. The results reveal that the trace conjugated polymers on the TiO2 surface doesn’t change the crystalline and crystal size of TiO2 nanoparticles, but significantly enhances their visible-light absorbance and visible-light photocatalytic activity. The nanocomposite with the PVA and TiO2 mass ratio of 1∶200 exhibits the highest visible-light photocatalytic activity. The investigated nanocomposites exhibit well visible-light photoctatalytic stability. The photogenerated holes are thought as the main active species for the RhB photodegradation in the presence of the DPVA/TiO2 nanocomposites.

  14. Effect of surface Fe2O3 clusters on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 for phenol degradation in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Qiong; Leng, Wenhua; Li, Zhen; Xu, Yiming

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Surface modified TiO 2 with iron oxide clusters through adsorption and decomposition of a large Fe(III) complex shows an enhanced activity for phenol degradation in water under UV light. But it was only observed with the clusters in a small size and at very low coverage on anatase. Highlights: ► Iron oxide clusters are made by decomposition of a large Fe(III) complex on TiO 2 . ► The modified anatase shows an enhanced activity for phenol photodegradation. ► The composite catalyst is very stable during four repeated experiments. - Abstract: Surface modification of TiO 2 with Fe 2 O 3 clusters was made through chemisorption of ferric phthalocyaninetetracarboxylate onto TiO 2 , followed by sintering in air to remove organic moiety. Solid characterization with electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and other techniques showed that ferric oxides were highly dispersed on TiO 2 as a noncrystallized cluster, while TiO 2 phases remained unchanged. For phenol degradation in aerated aqueous suspension, only the sample containing less than 0.3 at.% Fe was more active than bare TiO 2 under UV light, whereas no activity was found under visible light. As anatase thermally transferred into rutile, the Fe-containing catalyst became less active than bare TiO 2 , mainly ascribed to the increased size of Fe 2 O 3 clusters. In the presence of H 2 O 2 , all Fe-containing catalysts were more active than bare TiO 2 . Moreover, similar trend in activity among different catalysts was also observed with the formation of hydroxyl radicals, and with the generation of photocurrent measured under N 2 with Fe/TiO 2 electrode. Present work clearly shows that only Fe 2 O 3 clusters in a small size and at low coverage on TiO 2 are beneficial to the photocatalytic reaction, while excess iron oxide is detrimental. Possible mechanism is discussed in the text.

  15. Photocatalytic Degradation of Alkyle Benzene Solfunate (LAS from Aqueous Solution Using TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Nabi Zadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Anionic detergents are synthetic organic chemicals used in high volumes in household cleaning products. Alkyle benzene Solfunate (LAS detergent is one of the most widely used anionic surfactants due to excellent cleaning properties. LAS can be toxic to aquatic organisms and bio-accumulated in some fish,and eventually spread through ecosystems using food chain. Thus it should be removed from wastewater before discharge direct to the environment. Photocatalyst degradation process is one the advanced technologies in removal of organic materials from water and wastewater.The aim of this study was the applicability of photodegradations of anionic detergent by use of TiO2 nanoparticles and their change in to the nontoxic materials such as H2O and CO2 in a slurry reactor. LAS solution (10mg/L was prepared and in separated stages was exposed to UV and TiO2 and a combination of them. Also the effect of initial LAS concentration, TiO2 loading, pH and various type of UV irradiation on degradation rate were studied. Maximum degradation was obtained at acidic pH, 50 mg/l of TiO2 and 30 min irradiation time, It was also found 99.5% of LAS was degradated in optimal conditions. Kinetics analysis indicated that photocatalytic degradation rates of LAS can be approximated by pseudo-first order model. The mineralization of LAS was reported by measuring the initial and final COD of illuminated solution. Based on the results, UV/TiO2 process may be effectively applied in LAS removal in low concentration but for high concentration not recommended due to economic reasons.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of Fe2O3-TiO2 nanoparticles and nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmadi Golsefidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this pepper Fe2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized via a fast microwave method. Then Fe2O3-TiO2 nanocomposites were synthesized by a sonochemical-assisted method. The prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The photocatalytic behaviour of Fe2O3-TiO2 nanocomposites was evaluated using the degradation of Rhodamine B under ultra violet irradiation. The results show that nanocomposites have applicable magnetic and photocatalytic performance.

  17. Photocatalytic TiO2 and Doped TiO2 Coatings to Improve the Hygiene of Surfaces Used in Food and Beverage Processing—A Study of the Physical and Chemical Resistance of the Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parnia Navabpour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 coatings deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering and spray coating methods, as well as Ag- and Mo-doped TiO2 coatings were investigated as self-cleaning surfaces for beverage processing. The mechanical resistance and retention of the photocatalytic properties of the coatings were investigated over a three-month period in three separate breweries. TiO2 coatings deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering showed better mechanical durability than the spray coated surfaces, whilst the spray-deposited coating showed enhanced retention of photocatalytic properties. The presence of Ag and Mo dopants improved the photocatalytic properties of TiO2 as well as the retention of these properties. The spray-coated TiO2 was the only coating which showed light-induced hydrophilicity, which was retained in the coatings surviving the process conditions.

  18. 1D TiO2 Nanostructures Prepared from Seeds Presenting Tailored TiO2 Crystalline Phases and Their Photocatalytic Activity for Escherichia coli in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Cabrera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanotubes were synthesized by alkaline hydrothermal treatment of TiO2 nanoparticles with a controlled proportion of anatase and rutile. Tailoring of TiO2 phases was achieved by adjusting the pH and type of acid used in the hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide (first step in the sol-gel synthesis. The anatase proportion in the precursor nanoparticles was in the 3–100% range. Tube-like nanostructures were obtained with an anatase percentage of 18 or higher while flake-like shapes were obtained when rutile was dominant in the seed. After annealing at 400°C for 2 h, a fraction of nanotubes was conserved in all the samples but, depending on the anatase/rutile ratio in the starting material, spherical and rod-shaped structures were also observed. The photocatalytic activity of 1D nanostructures was evaluated by measuring the deactivation of E. coli in stirred water in the dark and under UV-A/B irradiation. Results show that in addition to the bactericidal activity of TiO2 under UV-A illumination, under dark conditions, the decrease in bacteria viability is ascribed to mechanical stress due to stirring.

  19. Facile synthesis and enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of N and Zr co-doped TiO2 nanostructures from nanotubular titanic acid precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Yu, Xinluan; Lu, Dandan; Yang, Jianjun

    2013-12-01

    Zr/N co-doped TiO2 nanostructures were successfully synthesized using nanotubular titanic acid (NTA) as precursors by a facile wet chemical route and subsequent calcination. These Zr/N-doped TiO2 nanostructures made by NTA precursors show significantly enhanced visible light absorption and much higher photocatalytic performance than the Zr/N-doped P25 TiO2 nanoparticles. Impacts of Zr/N co-doping on the morphologies, optical properties, and photocatalytic activities of the NTA precursor-based TiO2 were thoroughly investigated. The origin of the enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity is discussed in detail.

  20. Low temperature synthesis of polyaniline-crystalline TiO2-halloysite composite nanotubes with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiping; Wang, Jie; Guo, Hong; Ding, Shujiang

    2015-11-15

    A series of one-dimensional polyaniline-crystalline TiO2-halloysite composite nanotubes with different mass ratio of polyaniline to TiO2 are facilely prepared by employing the low-temperature synthesis of crystalline TiO2 on halloysite nanotubes. The halloysite nanotubes can adsorb TiO2/polyaniline precursors and induce TiO2 nanocrystals/polyaniline to grow on the support in situ simultaneously. By simply adjusting the acidity of reaction system, PANI-crystalline TiO2-HA composite nanotubes composed of anatase, a mixed phase TiO2 and different PANI redox state are obtained. The XRD and UV-vis results show that the surface polyaniline sensitization has no effect on the crystalline structure of halloysite and TiO2 and the light response of TiO2 is extended to visible-light regions. Photocatalysis test results reveal the photocatalytic activity will be affected by the pH value and the volume ratio of ANI to TTIP. The highest photocatalytic activity is achieved with the composite photocatalysts prepared at pH 0.5 and 1% volume ratio of ANI and TTIP owing to the sensitizing effect of polyaniline and the charge transfer from the photoexcited PANI sensitizer to TiO2. Moreover, the PANI-TiO2-HA composite nanotubes synthesized by one-step at pH 0.5 with 1% volume ratio of ANI to TTIP exhibit higher visible light photocatalytic activity than those synthesized by the two-step. Heterogeneous PANI-TiO2-HA composite nanotubes prepared at pH 0.5 exhibit a higher degradation activity than that prepared at pH 1.5. The redoped experiment proves that the PANI redox state plays the main contribution to the enhanced visible light catalytic degradation efficiency of PANI-TiO2-HA prepared at pH 0.5. Furthermore, the heterogeneous PANI-crystalline TiO2-HA nanotubes have good photocatalytic stability and can be reused four times with only gradual loss of activity under visible light irradiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhanced Bonding of Silver Nanoparticles on Oxidized TiO2(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas Ørbæk; Salazar, Estephania Lira; Galliker, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of silver nanoclusters on TiO2(110) surfaces with on-top O adatoms (oxidized TiO2), surface O vacancies and H adatoms (reduced TiO2) have been studied. From the interplay of scanning tunneling microscopy/photoelectron spectroscopy experiments and density functional theor...

  2. Stable Water Oxidation in Acid Using Manganese-Modified TiO2 Protective Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Georges; Luo, Zhenya; Xie, Yujun; Pan, Zhenhua; Zhu, Qianhong; Röhr, Jason A; Cha, Judy J; Hu, Shu

    2018-06-06

    Accomplishing acid-stable water oxidation is a critical matter for achieving both long-lasting water-splitting devices and other fuel-forming electro- and photocatalytic processes. Because water oxidation releases protons into the local electrolytic environment, it becomes increasingly acidic during device operation, which leads to corrosion of the photoactive component and hence loss in device performance and lifetime. In this work, we show that thin films of manganese-modified titania, (Ti,Mn)O x , topped with an iridium catalyst, can be used in a coating stabilization scheme for acid-stable water oxidation. We achieved a device lifetime of more than 100 h in pH = 0 acid. We successfully grew (Ti,Mn)O x coatings with uniform elemental distributions over a wide range of manganese compositions using atomic layer deposition (ALD), and using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we show that (Ti,Mn)O x films grown in this manner give rise to closer-to-valence-band Fermi levels, which can be further tuned with annealing. In contrast to the normally n-type or intrinsic TiO 2 coatings, annealed (Ti,Mn)O x films can make direct charge transfer to a Fe(CN) 6 3-/4- redox couple dissolved in aqueous electrolytes. Using the Fe(CN) 6 3-/4- redox, we further demonstrated anodic charge transfer through the (Ti,Mn)O x films to high work function metals, such as iridium and gold, which is not previously possible with ALD-grown TiO 2 . We correlated changes in the crystallinity (amorphous to rutile TiO 2 ) and oxidation state (2+ to 3+) of the annealed (Ti,Mn)O x films to their hole conductivity and electrochemical stability in acid. Finally, by combining (Ti,Mn)O x coatings with iridium, an acid-stable water-oxidation anode, using acid-sensitive conductive fluorine-doped tin oxides, was achieved.

  3. Hierarchical FeTiO3-TiO2 hollow spheres for efficient simulated sunlight-driven water oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Taoran; Chen, Yajie; Tian, Guohui; Wang, Jian-Qiang; Ren, Zhiyu; Zhou, Wei; Fu, Honggang

    2015-10-14

    Oxygen generation is the key step for the photocatalytic overall water splitting and considered to be kinetically more challenging than hydrogen generation. Here, an effective water oxidation catalyst of hierarchical FeTiO3-TiO2 hollow spheres are prepared via a two-step sequential solvothermal processes and followed by thermal treatment. The existence of an effective heterointerface and built-in electric field in the surface space charge region in FeTiO3-TiO2 hollow spheres plays a positive role in promoting the separation of photoinduced electron-hole pairs. Surface photovoltage, transient-state photovoltage, fluorescence and electrochemical characterization are used to investigate the transfer process of photoinduced charge carriers. The photogenerated charge carriers in the hierarchical FeTiO3-TiO2 hollow spheres with a proper molar ratio display much higher separation efficiency and longer lifetime than those in the FeTiO3 alone. Moreover, it is suggested that the hierarchical porous hollow structure can contribute to the enhancement of light utilization, surface active sites and material transportation through the framework walls. This specific synergy significantly contributes to the remarkable improvement of the photocatalytic water oxidation activity of the hierarchical FeTiO3-TiO2 hollow spheres under simulated sunlight (AM1.5).

  4. Fabrication of predominantly Mn4+ -doped TiO2 nanoparticles under equilibrium conditions and their application as visible-light photocatalyts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijie; Fan, Jiajie; Cao, Zetan; Zheng, Yichao; Yao, Zhiqiang; Shao, Guosheng; Hu, Junhua

    2014-07-01

    The chemical state of a transition-metal dopant in TiO(2) can intrinsically determine the performance of the doped material in applications such as photocatalysis and photovoltaics. In this study, manganese-doped TiO2 is fabricated by a near-equilibrium process, in which the TiO(2) precursor powder precipitates from a hydrothermally obtained transparent mother solution. The doping level and subsequent thermal treatment influence the morphology and crystallization of the TiO(2) samples. FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses indicate that the manganese dopant is substitutionally incorporated by replacing Ti(4+) cations. The absorption band edge can be gradually shifted to 1.8 eV by increasing the nominal manganese content to 10 at %. Manganese atoms doped into the titanium lattice are associated with the dominant 4+ valence oxidation state, which introduces two curved, intermediate bands within the band gap and results in a significant enhancement in photoabsorption and the quantity of photogenerated hydroxyl radicals. Additionally, the high photocatalytic performance of manganese-doped TiO(2) is also attributed to the low oxygen content, owing to the equilibrium fabrication conditions. This work provides an important strategy to control the chemical and defect states of dopants by using an equilibrium fabrication process. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Nano cobalt oxides for photocatalytic hydrogen production

    KAUST Repository

    Mangrulkar, Priti A.

    2012-07-01

    Nano structured metal oxides including TiO 2, Co 3O 4 and Fe 3O 4 have been synthesized and evaluated for their photocatalytic activity for hydrogen generation. The photocatalytic activity of nano cobalt oxide was then compared with two other nano structured metal oxides namely TiO 2 and Fe 3O 4. The synthesized nano cobalt oxide was characterized thoroughly with respect to EDX and TEM. The yield of hydrogen was observed to be 900, 2000 and 8275 mmol h -1 g -1 of photocatalyst for TiO 2, Co 3O 4 and Fe 3O 4 respectively under visible light. It was observed that the hydrogen yield in case of nano cobalt oxide was more than twice to that of TiO 2 and the hydrogen yield of nano Fe 3O 4 was nearly four times as compared to nano Co 3O 4. The influence of various operating parameters in hydrogen generation by nano cobalt oxide was then studied in detail. Copyright © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigation on the photocatalytic degradation of pyrene on soil surfaces using nanometer anatase TiO2 under UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Dianbo; Li Peijun; Li Xiaojun; Zhao Qing; Zhang Yinqiu; Jia Chunyun; Li Peng

    2010-01-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of pyrene on soil surfaces was investigated in the presence of nanometer anatase TiO 2 under a variety of conditions. After being spiked with pyrene, soil samples loaded with different amounts of TiO 2 (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%, w/w) were exposed to UV irradiation for 25 h. The results indicated that the photocatalytic degradation of pyrene followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. TiO 2 accelerated the degradation of pyrene generally as indicated by the half-life reduction from 45.90 to 31.36 h, corresponding to the TiO 2 amounts from 0% to 4%, respectively. The effects of H 2 O 2 , light intensity and humic acids on the degradation of pyrene were also investigated. The degradation of pyrene increased along with increasing the concentration of H 2 O 2 , light intensity and the concentration of humic acids. All results indicated that the photocatalytic method in the presence of nanometer anatase TiO 2 was an advisable choice for the treatments of PAHs polluted soil in the future.

  7. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic properties of Fe-doped TiO2 nanorod clusters and monodispersed nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Wei, J.H.; Xiong, R.; Pan, C.X.; Shi, J.

    2011-01-01

    In order to get photocatalysts with desired morphologies and enhanced visible light responses, the Fe-doped TiO 2 nanorod clusters and monodispersed nanoparticles were prepared by modified hydrothermal and solvothermal method, respectively. The microstructures and morphologies of TiO 2 crystals can be controlled by restraining the hydrolytic reaction rates. The Fe-doped photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis), N 2 adsorption-desorption measurement (BET), and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The refinements of the microstructures and morphologies result in the enhancement of the specific surface areas. The Fe 3+ -dopants in TiO 2 lattices not only lead to the significantly extending of the optical responses from UV to visible region but also diminish the recombination rates of the electrons and holes. The photocatalytic activities were evaluated by photocatalytic decomposition of formaldehyde in air under visible light illumination. Compared with P25 (TiO 2 ) and N-doped TiO 2 nanoparticles, the Fe-doped photocatalysts show high photocatalytic activities under visible light.

  8. Simple method of preparing nitrogen - doped nanosized TiO2 powders of high photocatalytic activity under visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Van Hung; Dang Thi Thanh Le

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped nanosized TiO 2 powders were prepared by a simple thermal treatment method of the mixture of titanium dioxide and urea. The prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-Vis-DRS) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results showed that the crystal structure of N-TiO 2 was a mixture of anatase and rutile phases, and the average particle size was 31 nm calculated from XRD results. The UV-vis spectra indicate an increase in absorption of visible light when compared to undoped TiO 2 . The photocatalytic activity of nitrogen-doped TiO 2 powder was evaluated by the decomposition of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. And it was found that nitrogen-doped TiO 2 powders exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity than undoped TiO 2 . Moreover, the study also showed that, the doping N atoms improve the growth of the TiO 2 crystal and phase transformation. (author)

  9. Photocatalytic and antibacterial properties of a TiO2/nylon-6 electrospun nanocomposite mat containing silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, Hem Raj; Pandeya, Dipendra Raj; Nam, Ki Taek; Baek, Woo-il; Hong, Seong Tshool; Kim, Hak Yong

    2011-01-01

    Silver-impregnated TiO 2 /nylon-6 nanocomposite mats exhibit excellent characteristics as a filter media with good photocatalytic and antibacterial properties and durability for repeated use. Silver nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully embedded in electrospun TiO 2 /nylon-6 composite nanofibers through the photocatalytic reduction of silver nitrate solution under UV-light irradiation. TiO 2 NPs present in nylon-6 solution were able to cause the formation of a high aspect ratio spider-wave-like structure during electrospinning and facilitated the UV photoreduction of AgNO 3 to Ag. TEM images, UV-visible and XRD spectra confirmed that monodisperse Ag NPs (approximately 4 nm in size) were deposited selectively upon the TiO 2 NPs of the prepared nanocomposite mat. The antibacterial property of a TiO 2 /nylon-6 composite mat loaded with Ag NPs was tested against Escherichia coli, and the photoactive property was tested against methylene blue. All of the results showed that TiO 2 /nylon-6 nanocomposite mats loaded with Ag NPs are more effective than composite mats without Ag NPs. The prepared material has potential as an economically friendly photocatalyst and water filter media because it allows the NPs to be reused.

  10. Highly photocatalytic TiO_2 interconnected porous powder fabricated by sponge-templated atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Shengqiang; Zhao, Yuting; Huang, Gaoshan; Li, Menglin; Mei, Yongfeng; Wang, Jiao; Zheng, Lirong; Baunack, Stefan; Schmidt, Oliver G; Gemming, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A titanium dioxide (TiO_2) interconnected porous structure has been fabricated by means of atomic layer deposition of TiO_2 onto a reticular sponge template. The obtained freestanding TiO_2 with large surface area can be easily taken out of the water to solve a complex separation procedure. A compact and conformal nanocoating was evidenced by morphologic characterization. A phase transition, as well as production of oxygen vacancies with increasing annealing temperature, was detected by x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The photocatalytic experimental results demonstrated that the powder with appropriate annealing treatment possessed excellent photocatalytic ability due to the co-action of high surface area, oxygen vacancies and the optimal crystal structure. (paper)

  11. A simple UV-ozone surface treatment to enhance photocatalytic performance of TiO 2 loaded polymer nanofiber membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Dilpazir, S.; Usman, M.; Rasul, Shahid; Arshad, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    . The photocatalytic activity improved by a factor of ∼2 and the kinetics of photodegradation switched from pseudo-first order to pseudo-second order with increasing TiO2 content with a maximum rate constant of 20.7 h-1. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  12. Analysis of the activity of photocatalytic TiO_2 nanofilms of pure tungsten doped

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, L.G.; Bergmann, C.P.; Alves, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Titanium oxide semiconductor is an n-type widely used in advanced oxidation processes and purification processes of the environment. However, due to the fact that their structures are activated only under UV irradiation, limiting the use of sunlight, several alternatives are being sought aiming to overcome this limitation. Among them, the construction of bicomponent films of TiO_2 (3.0-3.2 eV) coupled to a lower band gap semiconductor such as WO_3 (2.5-2.8 eV) semiconductors such as oxides have electronic properties, optical and photoelectrochemical complementary, forming a film with the possibility of photoexcitation in a wider region of the spectrum. In this work nanofilms TiO_2 and TiO_2/WO_3 were obtained by a spin coater and photoactivity was assessed. The technique of X-ray diffraction (XRD) was employed in determining the formed crystallite size and the morphology and crystal structure of the films was analyzed by scanning (SEM) electron microscopy. (author)

  13. Photocatalytic activity of Sulfer-doped TiO2 fiber under visible light illumination (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeyama, Akinori; Yamamoto, Shunya; Yoshikawa, Masahito; Hasegawa, Yoshio; Awatsu, Satoshi

    2007-03-01

    The Sol-Gel derived precursor fiber was annealed under hydrogen disulfeid (H 2 S) following oxygen atmosphere, Sulfur-doped TiO 2 fiber was obtained. Crystal structure of the fiber was identified as anatase phase of TiO 2 . The energy band gap of the fiber was narrower by about 0.06 eV than that of anatase, which showed that it could absorb visible light. The fiber contains about 0.58 atomic % of Sulfur, and they located at the oxygen lattice site of TiO 2 . Under visible light illumination, the fiber degraded Trichloroethylen (TCE) and produced carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). This shows Sulfur-doped TiO 2 fiber has the photocatalytic activity under visible light illumination. (author)

  14. Immobilized TiO2 for Phenol Degradation in a Pilot-Scale Photocatalytic Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Mozia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenol degradation was carried out in a photocatalytic pilot plant reactor equipped with a UV/vis mercury lamp. The total volume of treated water was equal to 1.35 m3. TiO2 P25 was used as a photocatalyst and it was immobilized on two different supports: (i a steel mesh and (ii a fiberglass cloth. Moreover, the performance of commercially available Photospheres-40 was examined. In addition, an experiment in the absence of a photocatalyst was conducted. The commercially available Photospheres-40 were found to be inadequate for the presented application due to their fragility, which in connection with vigorous mixing and pumping led to their mechanical destruction and loss of floating abilities. The highest effectiveness of phenol decomposition and mineralization was observed in the presence of TiO2 supported on the fiberglass cloth. After 15 h of the process, phenol and total organic carbon concentrations decreased by ca. 80% and 50%, respectively.

  15. Influence factors of photocatalytic activity of the filter media modified by TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Rongyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The gangue filter media was modified by the titanium dioxide (TiO2 through the liquid phase deposition method. Some influence factors of photocatalytic activity were investigated, including the mole ratio of initial solution, the water bath temperature, the deposition time, the calcination temperature, and the heat preservation time of calcination. The morphology of the film was examined by SEM, EDS, and crystallite structure by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD. The SEM, EDS, and XRD data showed that new TiO2 crystal was found in the modified filter media. And the specific surface area of the modified filter media greatly increased. By the orthogonal experiment, the optimum parameters of modification were (NH42TiF6:H3BO3=1:2, water bath temperature of 80ºC, deposition time of 5h, calcination temperature of 500ºC, and 1h heat preservation time of calcination. Under above conditions, the heavy nitrogen wastewater of 1589.94 mg/L COD and 18750 times chroma was treated by the modified filter media. After 1h catalytic reaction, the decolorization rate and COD removal rate reached 65.89% and 47.87%, respectively.

  16. Hydrothermal synthesis, characterization, photocatalytic activity and dye-sensitized solar cell performance of mesoporous anatase TiO2 nanopowders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavasupree, Sorapong; Jitputti, Jaturong; Ngamsinlapasathian, Supachai; Yoshikawa, Susumu

    2008-01-01

    Mesoporous anatase TiO 2 nanopowder was synthesized by hydrothermal method at 130 deg. C for 12 h. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), HRTEM, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area. The as-synthesized sample with narrow pore size distribution had average pore diameter about 3-4 nm. The specific BET surface area of the as-synthesized sample was about 193 m 2 /g. Mesoporous anatase TiO 2 nanopowders (prepared by this study) showed higher photocatalytic activity than the nanorods TiO 2 , nanofibers TiO 2 mesoporous TiO 2 , and commercial TiO 2 nanoparticles (P-25, JRC-01, and JRC-03). The solar energy conversion efficiency (η) of the cell using the mesoporous anatase TiO 2 was about 6.30% with the short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 13.28 mA/cm 2 , the open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.702 V and the fill factor (ff) of 0.676; while η of the cell using P-25 reached 5.82% with Jsc of 12.74 mA/cm 2 , Voc of 0.704 V and ff of 0.649

  17. Kinetic study of photocatalytic degradation of carbamazepine, clofibric acid, iomeprol and iopromide assisted by different TiO2 materials--determination of intermediates and reaction pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Tusnelda E; Frimmel, Fritz H

    2004-02-01

    The light-induced degradation of clofibric acid, carbamazepine, iomeprol and iopromide under simulated solar irradiation has been investigated in aqueous solutions suspended with different TiO2 materials (P25 and Hombikat UV100). Kinetic studies showed that P25 had a better photocatalytic activity for clofibric acid and carbamazepine than Hombikat UV100. For photocatalytic degradation of iomeprol Hombikat UV100 was more suitable than P25. The results can be explained by the higher adsorption capacity of Hombikat UV100 for iomeprol. The study also focuses on the identification and quantification of possible degradation products. The degradation process was monitored by determination of sum parameters and inorganic ions. In case of clofibric acid various aromatic and aliphatic degradation products have been identified and quantified. A possible multi-step degradation scheme for clofibric acid is proposed. This study proves the high potential of the photocatalytic oxidation process to transform and mineralize environmentally relevant pharmaceuticals and contrast media in water.

  18. High Photocatalytic Performance of Two Types of Graphene Modified TiO2 Composite Photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Sen; Tang, Bo; Wang, Zhengwei; Ji, Guojian; Huang, Weiqiu; Wang, Jinping

    2017-07-01

    High quality and naturally continuous structure of three-dimensional graphene network (3DGN) endow it a promising candidate to modify TiO2. Although the resulting composite photocatalysts display outstanding performances, the lacking of active sites of the 3DGN not only goes against a close contact between the graphene basal plane and TiO2 nanoparticles (weaken electron transport ability) but also limits the efficient adsorption of pollutant molecules. Similar with surface functional groups of the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets, surface defects of the 3DGN can act as the adsorption sites. However, the defect density of the 3DGN is difficult to control (a strict cool rate of substrate and a strict flow of precursor gas are necessary) because of its growth approach (chemical vapor deposition method). In this study, to give full play to the functions of graphene, the RGO nanosheets and 3DGN co-modified TiO2 composite photocatalysts are prepared. After optimizing the mass fraction of the RGO nanosheets in the composite photocatalyst, the resulting chemical adsorption ability and yields of strong oxidizing free radicals increase significantly, indicating the synergy of the RGO nanosheets and 3DGN.

  19. Improved optical response and photocatalysis for N-doped titanium oxide (TiO2) films prepared by oxidation of TiN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, L.; Li, J.F.; Feng, J.Y.; Sun, W.; Mao, Z.Q.

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the photocatalytic activity, N-doped titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) films were obtained by thermal oxidation of TiN films, which were prepared on Ti substrates by ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD). The dominating rutile TiO 2 phase was found in films after thermal oxidation. According to the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the residual N atoms occupied O-atom sites in TiO 2 lattice to form Ti-O-N bonds. UV-vis spectra revealed the N-doped TiO 2 film had a red shift of absorption edge. The maximum red shift was assigned to the sample annealed at 750 deg. C, with an onset wavelength at 600 nm. The onset wavelength corresponded to the photon energy of 2.05 eV, which was nearly 1.0 eV below the band gap of pure rutile TiO 2 . The effect of nitrogen was responsible for the enhancement of photoactivity of N-doped TiO 2 films in the range of visible light

  20. Photocatalytic degradation of sulfamethoxazole in aqueous solution using a floating TiO2-expanded perlite photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Długosz, Maciej; Żmudzki, Paweł; Kwiecień, Anna; Szczubiałka, Krzysztof; Krzek, Jan; Nowakowska, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sulfamethoxazole was degraded using a floating photocatalyst under UV irradiation. • The photocatalyst was obtained by supporting TiO 2 onto expanded perlite. • The mechanism of sulfamethoxazole photodegradation in water was proposed. • The photodegradation rate of sulfamethoxazole is greater at higher pH. - Abstract: Photocatalytic degradation of an antibiotic, sulfamethoxazole (SMX), in aqueous solution using a novel floating TiO 2 -expanded perlite photocatalyst (EP-TiO 2 -773) and radiation from the near UV spectral range was studied. The process is important considering that SMX is known to be a widespread and highly persistent pollutant of water resources. SMX degradation was described using a pseudo-first-order kinetic equation according to the Langmuir–Hinshelwood model. The products of the SMX photocatalytic degradation were identified. The effect of pH on the kinetics and mechanism of SMX photocatalytic degradation was explained

  1. Facet-dependent photocatalytic mechanisms of anatase TiO2: A new sight on the self-adjusted surface heterojunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Shujun; Wang, Wei; Ni, Yaru; Lu, Chunhua; Xu, Zhongzi

    2015-01-01

    Efficient separation of photo-generated electrons and holes is crucial for improving the photocatalytic activity of semiconductor photocatalysts. In the present study, we show surface heterojunction is existed on anatase TiO 2 with exposed {101}, {010}, {001}, and {110} facets. With the help of selective Pt deposition, it is found the Schottky junction together with proper surface heterojunction is helpful to separate the photo-generated electrons and holes. Moreover, the photo-reduction and photo-oxidation activities of the facets are depended on the reaction systems, resulting in self-adjusted surface heterojunction. The as-prepared photocatalyst will give the highest phenol degradation efficiency when Pt nanoparticles are only deposited on the {101} and {010} facets. In contrast, more Pt deposited on the {001} and {110} facets will decrease the photocatalytic activity. The average phenol degradation rate, which will gradually reduce along with the increased phenol concentration, of TiO 2 (20 mg) is ca. 1.59 mg/min when its concentration is lower than 8 mg/L. However, similar results have not been observed in P25-based reaction systems, evidencing the great influence of self-adjusted surface heterojunction. This study may be helpful to understand the photocatalytic mechanisms of semiconductor photocatalysts with exposed different facets. Thus more efficient practical application of the photocatalysts for environment protection can be reached. - Highlights: • Surface heterojunction is systematically discussed on TiO 2 with various facets. • The surface heterojunction is found to be closely related to the reaction systems. • Proper surface heterojunction and Schottky junction is positive for photocatalysis. • A new sight is given to sufficiently unleash the fascinating properties of TiO 2 . • More efficient practical application can be reached

  2. Ecotoxic effect of photocatalytic active nanoparticles (TiO2) on algae and daphnids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund-Rinke, Kerstin; Simon, Markus

    2006-07-01

    Due to their large potential for manifold applications, the use of nanoparticles is of increasing importance. As large amounts of nanoparticles may reach the environment voluntarily or by accident, attention should be paid on the potential impacts on the environment. First studies on potential environmental effects of photocatalytic TiO2 nanoparticles have been performed on the basis of widely accepted, standardized test systems which originally had been developed for the characterization of chemicals. The methods were adapted to the special requirements of testing photocatalytic nanoparticles. Suspensions of two different nanoparticles were illuminated to induce their photocatalytic activity. For testing, the growth inhibition test with the green alga Desmodesmus subspicatus and the immobilization test with the daphnid Daphnia magna were selected and performed following the relevant guidelines (algae: ISO 8692, OECD 201, DIN 38412-33; daphnids: ISO 6341, OECD 202, DIN 38412-30). The guidelines were adapted to meet the special requirements for testing photocatalytic nanoparticles. The results indicate that it is principally possible to determine the ecotoxicity of nanoparticles. It was shown that nanoparticles may have ecotoxicological effects which depend on the nature of the particles. Both products tested differ in their toxicity. Product 1 shows a clear concentration-effect curve in the test with algae (EC50: 44 mg/L). It could be proven that the observed toxicity was not caused by accompanying contaminants, since the toxic effect was comparable for the cleaned and the commercially available product. For product 2, no toxic effects were determined (maximum concentration: 50 mg/L). In the tests with daphnids, toxicity was observed for both products, although the concentration effect-curves were less pronounced. The two products differed in their toxicity; moreover, there was a difference in the toxicity of illuminated and non-illuminated products. Both products

  3. Influences of air calcination and steam activation on microstructure and photocatalytic activity of continuous TiO2 fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Yang; Zhang, Shiying; Xu, Difa

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Effects of air calcination and steam activation on TiO 2 fibers were studied. ► The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degradation of formaldehyde. ► Steam activation promoted the anatase–rutile phase transformation. ► Steam activation decreased grain size and increased special surface area. ► Steam activation improved photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 fibers. -- Abstract: Effects of air calcination and steam activation, on phase transformation, microstructure and photocatalytic activity of continuous TiO 2 fibers prepared by sol–gel method were studied. The fibers were characterized by XRD, SEM, and N 2 adsorption–desorption. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of formaldehyde. Results showed that 100% rutile fibers heat-treated in air and steam were obtained at 800 °C and 600 °C, respectively. The anatase grain sizes and special surface areas of the fibers heat-treated at 500 °C in air and steam were 31.6 nm, 22.7 nm, 26.7 m 2 /g and 32.3 m 2 /g, respectively. The degradation rates of formaldehyde over the fibers heat-treated at 500 °C in air and steam were 92.3% and 98.6% after 14 h under UV irradiation, respectively. Compared with the air calcination, the steam activation promoted the anatase–rutile phase transformation, reduced the grain size, increased the special surface area, and improved photocatalytic activity of continuous TiO 2 fibers.

  4. Structure and photocatalytic activity studies of TiO2-supported over Ce-modified Al-MCM-41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna Reddy, Jakkidi; Durgakumari, Valluri; Subrahmanyam, Machiraju; Sreedhar, Bojja

    2009-01-01

    Ce-Al-MCM-41, TiO 2 /Al-MCM-41 and TiO 2 /Ce-Al-MCM-41 materials with varying contents of Ce (by impregnation) and TiO 2 loaded (by solid-state dispersion) on Al-MCM-41 support are prepared. The Ce modified and TiO 2 loaded composite systems are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. The DRS and XPS of low Ce content (0.2-0.5 wt.%) modified Al-MCM-41 samples are showing more characteristic of Ce 3+ species wherein cerium in interaction with Al-MCM-41 and that of high Ce (0.8, 3.0 wt.%) content modified samples are showing the characteristic of both Ce 4+ and Ce 3+ species. A series of Ce-modified Al-MCM-41 and TiO 2 loaded composite catalysts are evaluated for photocatalytic degradation of phenol under UV irradiation. Low Ce content in Ce 3+ state on Al-MCM-41 is showing good photoactivity in comparison with high Ce content samples and pure ceria. The composite TiO 2 /Ce-Al-MCM-41 is showing enhanced degradation activity due decreased rate of electron-hole recombination on TiO 2 surface by the redox properties of cerium. The photocatalyst TiO 2 /Ce-Al-MCM-41 with an optimum of 10 wt.% TiO 2 and 0.3 wt.% Ce is showing maximum phenol degradation activity. The possible mechanism of phenol degradation on the composite photocatalyst is proposed.

  5. Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of Vacuum-activated TiO2 Induced by Oxygen Vacancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guoyan; Wang, Xin; Chen, Zhiwu; Lu, Zhenya

    2018-05-01

    TiO 2 (Degussa P25) photocatalysts harboring abundant oxygen vacancies (Vacuum P25) were manufactured using a simple and economic Vacuum deoxidation process. Control experiments showed that temperature and time of vacuum deoxidation had a significant effect on Vacuum P25 photocatalytic activity. After 240 min of visible light illumination, the optimal Vacuum P25 photocatalysts (vacuum deoxidation treated at 330 °C for 3 h) reach as high as 94% and 88% of photodegradation efficiency for rhodamine B (RhB) and tetracycline, respectively, which are around 4.5 and 4.9 times as that of pristine P25. The XPS, PL and EPR analyses indicated that the oxygen vacancies were produced in the Vacuum P25 during the vacuum deoxidation process. The oxygen vacancy states can produce vacancy energy level located below the conduction band minimum, which resulting in the bandgap narrowing, thus extending the photoresponse wavelength range of Vacuum P25. The positron annihilation analysis indicated that the concentrations ratio of bulk and surface oxygen vacancies could be adjusted by changing the vacuum deoxidation temperature and time. Decreasing the ratio of bulk and surface oxygen vacancies was shown to improve photogenerated electron-hole pair separation efficiency, which leads to an obvious enhancement of the visible photocatalytic activities of Vacuum P25. © 2017 The American Society of Photobiology.

  6. Low-Temperature Synthesis of Anatase TiO2 Nanoparticles with Tunable Surface Charges for Enhancing Photocatalytic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Qin, Zhenping; Guo, Hongxia; Yang, Hanxiao; Zhang, Guojun; Ji, Shulan; Zeng, Tingying

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the positively or negatively charged anatase TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized via a low temperature precipitation-peptization process (LTPPP) in the presence of poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) and poly(sodium4- styrenesulfonate) (PSS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) confirmed the anatase crystalline phase. The charges of the prepared TiO2, PEI-TiO2 and PSS-TiO2 nanoparticles were investigated by zeta potentials. The results showed that the zeta potentials of PEI-TiO2 nanoparticles can be tuned from +39.47 mV to +95.46 mV, and that of PSS-TiO2 nanoparticles can be adjusted from −56.63 mV to −119.32 mV. In comparison with TiO2, PSS-TiO2 exhibited dramatic adsorption and degradation of dye molecules, while the PEI modified TiO2 nanoparticles showed lower photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic performances of these charged nanoparticles were elucidated by the results of UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and the photoluminescence (PL) spectra, which indicated that the PSS-TiO2 nanoparticles showed a lower recombination rate of electron-hole pairs than TiO2 and PEI-TiO2. PMID:25506839

  7. An impact of the copper additive on photocatalytic and bactericidal properties of TiO2 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojcieszak Damian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The biological and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 and TiO2:Cu in relation to their structure, surface topography, wettability and optical properties of the thin films was investigated. Thin-film coatings were prepared by magnetron sputtering method in oxygen plasma with use of metallic targets (Ti and Ti-Cu. The results of structural studies revealed that addition of Cu into titania matrix (during the deposition process resulted in obtaining of an amorphous film, while in case of undoped TiO2, presence of nanocrystalline anatase (with crystallites size of 20 nm was found. Moreover, an addition of cooper had also an effect on surface diversification and decrease of its hydrophilicity. The roughness of TiO2:Cu film was 25 % lower (0.6 nm as-compared to titania (0.8 nm. These modifications of TiO2:Cu had an impact on the decrease of its photocatalytic activity, probably as a result of the active surface area decrease. Antibacterial and antifungal properties of the thin films against bacteria (Enterococcus hirae, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and yeast (Candida albicans were also examined. For the purpose of this work the method dedicated for the evaluation of antimicrobial properties of thin films was developed. It was revealed that Cu-additive has a positive impact on neutralization of microorganisms.

  8. Photocatalytical Properties and Theoretical Analysis of N, Cd-Codoped TiO2 Synthesized by Thermal Decomposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Gao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available N, Cd-codoped TiO2 have been synthesized by thermal decomposition method. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET specific surface area analysis, respectively. The products represented good performance in photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange. The effect of the incorporation of N and Cd on electronic structure and optical properties of TiO2 was studied by first-principle calculations on the basis of density functional theory (DFT. The impurity states, introduced by N 2p or Cd 5d, lied between the valence band and the conduction band. Due to dopants, the band gap of N, Cd-codoped TiO2 became narrow. The electronic transition from the valence band to conduction band became easy, which could account for the observed photocatalytic performance of N, Cd-codoped TiO2. The theoretical analysis might provide a probable reference for the experimentally element-doped TiO2 synthesis.

  9. Facile preparation of a TiO2 quantum dot/graphitic carbon nitride heterojunction with highly efficient photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Jiang, Subin; Huo, Xuejian; Xia, Rui; Muhire, Elisée; Gao, Meizhen

    2018-05-01

    In this article, mechanical grinding, an effortless and super-effective synthetic strategy, is used to successfully synthesize a TiO2 quantum dot (TiO2QD)/graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) heterostructure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results together with transmission electron microscopy reveal the formation of the TiO2QD/g-C3N4 heterostructure with strong interfacial interaction. Because of the advantages of this characteristic, the prepared heterostructure exhibits excellent properties for photocatalytic wastewater treatment. Notably, the optimum photocatalytic activity of the TiO2QD/g-C3N4 heterostructure is nearly 3.4 times higher than that of the g-C3N4 nanosheets used for the photodegradation of rhodamine B pollutant. In addition, the stability and possible degradation mechanism of the TiO2QD/g-C3N4 heterojunction are studied in detail. This method may stimulate an effective approach to synthesizing QD-sensitized semiconductor materials and facilitate their application in environmental protection.

  10. Influence of Nd-Doping on Photocatalytic Properties of TiO2 Nanoparticles and Thin Film Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Wojcieszak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural, optical, and photocatalytic properties of TiO2 and TiO2:Nd nanopowders and thin films composed of those materials have been compared. Titania nanoparticles with 1, 3, and 6 at. % of Nd-dopant were synthesized by sol-gel method. Additionally, thin films with the same material composition were prepared with the aid of spin-coating method. The analysis of structural investigations revealed that all as-prepared nanopowders were nanocrystalline and had TiO2-anatase structure. The average size of crystallites was ca. 4-5 nm and the correlation between the amount of neodymium and the size of TiO2 crystallites was observed. It was shown that the dopant content influenced the agglomeration of the nanoparticles. The results of photocatalytic decomposition of MO showed that doping with Nd (especially in the amount of 3 at. % increased self-cleaning activity of the prepared titania nanopowder. Similar effect was received in case of the thin films, but the decomposition rate was lower due to their smaller active surface area. However, the as-prepared TiO2:Nd photocatalyst in the form of thin films or nanopowders seems to be a very attractive material for various applications.

  11. Effect of preparation conditions on the characteristics and photocatalytic activity of TiO2/purified diatomite composite photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhiming; Hu, Zhibo; Yan, Yang; Zheng, Shuilin

    2014-09-01

    TiO2/purified diatomite composite materials were prepared through a modified hydrolysis-deposition method under low temperature using titanium tetrachloride as precursor combined with a calcination crystallization process. The microstructure and crystalline phases of the obtained composites prepared under different preparation conditions were characterized by high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The photocatalytic performance of TiO2/purified diatomite composites was evaluated by Rhodamine B as the target pollutant under UV irradiation, and the optimum preparation conditions of composites were obtained. The TiO2 crystal form in composites prepared under optimum conditions was anatase, the grain size of which was 34.12 nm. The relationships between structure and property of composite materials were analyzed and discussed. It is indicated that the TiO2 nanoparticles uniformly dispersed on the surface of diatoms, and the photocatalytic performance of the composite materials was mainly determined by the dispersity and grain size of loaded TiO2 nanoparticles.

  12. Self-Assembly of TiO2/CdS Mesoporous Microspheres with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity via Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujing Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Self assembly of TiO2/CdS mesoporous microspheres was synthesized via hydrothermal method. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis (EDS, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and photoluminescence spectra (PL. The as-synthesized TiO2/CdS mesoporous microspheres showed superior photocatalytic activity for the degradation of RhB under either visible light or simulated sunlight irradiation; the 10 wt% TiO2/CdS sample showed the best performance. Moreover, this catalyst showed improved stability, and the activity did not decrease significantly after four recycles. The heterojunction between TiO2 and CdS may be favorable for the transport of photoinduced electrons from CdS to TiO2. In addition, the mesoporous structure could increase the utilization of light energy and facilitate the diffusion of reactants and products during the photocatalytic reaction.

  13. An enhanced photocatalytic response of nanometric TiO2 wrapping of Au nanoparticles for eco-friendly water applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuderi, Viviana; Impellizzeri, Giuliana; Romano, Lucia; Scuderi, Mario; Brundo, Maria V; Bergum, Kristin; Zimbone, Massimo; Sanz, Ruy; Buccheri, Maria A; Simone, Francesca; Nicotra, Giuseppe; Svensson, Bengt G; Grimaldi, Maria G; Privitera, Vittorio

    2014-10-07

    We propose a ground-breaking approach by an upside-down vision of the Au/TiO2 nano-system in order to obtain an enhanced photocatalytic response. The system was synthesized by wrapping Au nanoparticles (∼8 nm mean diameter) with a thin layer of TiO2 (∼4 nm thick). The novel idea of embedding Au nanoparticles with titanium dioxide takes advantage of the presence of metal nanoparticles, in terms of electron trapping, without losing any of the TiO2 exposed surface, so as to favor the photocatalytic performance of titanium dioxide. A complete structural characterization was made by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The remarkable photocatalytic performance together with the stability of the nano-system was demonstrated by degradation of the methylene blue dye in water. The non-toxicity of the nano-system was established by testing the effect of the material on the reproductive cycle of Mytilus galloprovincialis in an aquatic environment. The originally synthesized material was also compared to conventional TiO2 with Au nanoparticles on top. The latter system showed a dispersion of Au nanoparticles in the liquid environment, due to their instability in the aqueous solution that clearly represents an environmental contamination issue. Thus, the results show that nanometric TiO2 wrapping of Au nanoparticles has great potential in eco-friendly water/wastewater purification.

  14. Synergistic effect of N- and F-codoping on the structure and photocatalytic performance of TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiemei; Liu, Zongming; Zhang, Haitao; Huang, Taizhong; Han, Jitian; Zhang, Yihe; Chong, Daohuang

    2015-02-01

    Three types of TiO2 nanostructures were synthesized via a facile hydrolysis method at 195°C. Effects of the preparation method and doping with N and F on the crystal structure and photocatalytic performance of TiO2 were investigated. The nanomaterials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller porosimetry, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and fluorescent emission spectra. Their photo-catalytic activity was examined by the photodegradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution under both ultra-violet and visible light irradiation. The results show that nitrogen and fluorine co-doped anatase TiO2 had the characteristics of a smaller crystalline size, broader light absorption spectrum and lower charge recombination than pure TiO2. Most importantly, more efficient photocatalytic activity under both ultra-violet and visible light was observed. The obtained N-F-TiO2 nanomaterial shows considerable potential for water treatment under sunlight irradiation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Blue to Yellow Photoluminescence Emission and Photocatalytic Activity of Nitrogen Doping in TiO2 Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Byzynski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The defects caused by doping are important for understanding the increased photocatalytic activities of TiO2:N in organic reactions and in the evaluation of OH radical production after doping. TiO2:N was therefore synthesized using a modified polymeric method and N doping was performed by calcination with urea. The resulting powders were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, and photoluminescence emission spectroscopy (PL. N doping did not alter the morphology of the nanoparticles, and the anatase phase predominated, with the retention of the rutile phase. The band gap values, superficial areas, and crystallite sizes of the powders decreased after doping. The PL results showed an additional energy level in the TiO2:N band gap structure as a result of TiO2 lattice defects caused by doping. At low N contents, the powders showed continuous emissions from the blue region to the yellow region and a high N content shifted the PL emissions to the red region. These results suggest that the use of these powders could increase the efficiencies of solar cells and water-splitting processes. The photocatalytic activity of the powders under UVC illumination was confirmed for different organic dye molecules. The OH radical production did not change extensively after doping, as shown by experiments with terephthalic acid, and higher photocatalytic efficiencies in Rhodamine-B degradation under UVC illumination were achieved using the doped samples.

  16. Phosphorous-doped TiO2 nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and visible photocatalytic evaluation on sulfamethazine degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiola-Alvarez, Sandra Yadira; Hernández-Ramírez, Ma Aracely; Guzmán-Mar, Jorge Luis; Garza-Tovar, Lorena Leticia; Hinojosa-Reyes, Laura

    2018-05-24

    Mesoporous phosphorous-doped TiO 2 (TP) with different wt% of P (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5) was synthetized by microwave-assisted sol-gel method. The obtained materials were characterized by XRD with cell parameters refinement approach, Raman, BET-specific surface area analysis, SEM, ICP-OES, UV-Vis with diffuse reflectance, photoluminescence, FTIR, and XPS. The photocatalytic activity under visible light was evaluated on the degradation of sulfamethazine (SMTZ) at pH 8. The characterization of the phosphorous materials (TP) showed that incorporation of P in the lattice of TiO 2 stabilizes the anatase crystalline phase, even increasing the annealing temperature. The mesoporous P-doped materials showed higher surface area and lower average crystallite size, band gap, and particle size; besides, more intense bands attributed to O-H bond were observed by FTIR analysis compared with bare TiO 2 . The P was substitutionally incorporated in the TiO 2 lattice network as P 5+ replacing Ti 4+ to form Ti-O-P bonds and additionally present as PO 4 3-  on the TiO 2 surface. All these characteristics explain the observed superior photocatalytic activity on degradation (100%) and mineralization (32%) of SMTZ under visible radiation by TP catalysts, especially for P-doped TiO 2 1.0 wt% calcined at 450 °C (TP1.0-450). Ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate ions released during the photocatalytic degradation were quantified by ion chromatography; the nitrogen and sulfur mass balance evidenced the partial mineralization of this recalcitrant molecule.

  17. Hierarchical Honeycomb Br-, N-Codoped TiO2 with Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic H2 Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhou, Yuming; Bao, Jiehua; Sheng, Xiaoli; Fang, Jiasheng; Zhao, Shuo; Zhang, Yiwei; Chen, Wenxia

    2018-06-06

    The halogen elements modification strategy of TiO 2 encounters a bottleneck in visible-light H 2 production. Herein, we have for the first time reported a hierarchical honeycomb Br-, N-codoped anatase TiO 2 catalyst (HM-Br,N/TiO 2 ) with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic H 2 production. During the synthesizing process, large amounts of meso-macroporous channels and TiO 2 nanosheets were fabricated in massive TiO 2 automatically, constructing the hierarchical honeycomb structure with large specific surface area (464 m 2 g -1 ). cetyl trimethylammonium bromide and melamine played a key role in constructing the meso-macroporous channels. Additionally, HM-Br,N/TiO 2 showed a high visible-light H 2 production rate of 2247 μmol h -1 g -1 , which is far more higher than single Br- or N-doped TiO 2 (0 or 63 μmol h -1 g -1 , respectively), thereby demonstrating the excellent synergistic effects of Br and N elements in H 2 evolution. In HM-Br,N/TiO 2 catalytic system, the codoped Br-N atoms could reduce the band gap of TiO 2 to 2.88 eV and the holes on acceptor levels (N acceptor) can passivate the electrons on donor levels (Br donor), thereby preventing charge carriers recombination significantly. Furthermore, the proposed HM-Br,N/TiO 2 fabrication strategy had a wide range of choices for N source (e.g., melamine, urea, and dicyandiamide) and it can be applied to other TiO 2 materials (e.g., P25) as well, thereby implying its great potential application in visible-light H 2 production. Finally, on the basis of experimental results, a possible photocatalytic H 2 production mechanism for HM-Br,N/TiO 2 was proposed.

  18. Synthesis of Cr3+-doped TiO2 nanoparticles: characterization and evaluation of their visible photocatalytic performance and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiola-Alvarez, Sandra Yadira; Guzmán-Mar, Jorge Luis; Turnes-Palomino, Gemma; Maya-Alejandro, Fernando; Caballero-Quintero, Adolfo; Hernández-Ramírez, Aracely; Hinojosa-Reyes, Laura

    2017-09-28

    Cr 3+ -doped TiO 2 nanoparticles (Ti-Cr) were synthesized by microwave-assisted sol-gel method. The Ti-Cr catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, N 2 adsorption-desorption analysis, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and zetametry. The anatase mesoporous Ti-Cr material exhibited a specific surface area of 54.5 m 2 /g. XPS analysis confirmed the proper substitution of Ti 4+ cations by Cr 3+ cations in the TiO 2 matrix. The particle size was of average size of 17 nm for the undoped TiO 2 but only 9.5 nm for Ti-Cr. The Cr atoms promoted the formation of hydroxyl radicals and modified the surface adsorptive properties of TiO 2 due to the increase in surface acidity of the material. The photocatalytic evaluation demonstrated that the Ti-Cr catalyst completely degraded (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy) acetic acid under visible light irradiation, while undoped TiO 2 and P25 allowed 45.7% and 31.1%, respectively. The rate of degradation remained 52% after three cycles of catalyst reuse. The higher visible light photocatalytic activity of Ti-Cr was attributed to the beneficial effect of Cr 3+ ions on the TiO 2 surface creating defects within the TiO 2 crystal lattice, which can act as charge-trapping sites, reducing the electron-hole recombination process.

  19. Photo-Catalytic Properties of TiO2 Supported on MWCNTs, SBA-15 and Silica-Coated MWCNTs Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoraswi, Nteseng O; Ndungu, Patrick G

    2015-12-01

    Mesoporous silica, specifically SBA-15, acid-treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes and a hybrid nanocomposite of SBA-15 coated onto the sidewalls acid-treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared and used as supports for anatase TiO2. Sol-gel methods were adapted for the synthesis of selected supports and for coating the materials with selected wt% loading of titania. Physical and chemical properties of the supports and catalyst composite materials were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. The photo-activity of the catalyst composites were evaluated on the decolorisation of methylene blue as a model pollutant. Coating CNTs with SBA-15 improved the thermal stability and textural properties of the nanotubes. All supported titania composites had high surface areas (207-301 m(2)/g), altered band gap energies and reduced TiO2 crystallite sizes. The TiO2/SBA-CNT composite showed enhanced photo-catalytic properties and activity than the TiO2/SBA-15 and TiO2/CNT composites. In addition, an interesting observation was noted with the TiO2/SBA-15 nanocomposites, which had a significantly greater photo-catalytic activity than the TiO2/CNT nanocomposites in spite of the high electron-hole recombination phenomena observed with the photoluminescence results. Discussions in terms of morphological, textural and physical-chemical aspects to account for the result are presented.

  20. Data on the effect of the dispersion of functionalized nanoparticles TiO2 with photocatalytic activity in LDPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarado Jahell

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article contains the dataset referring to the article ''Study of the effect of the dispersion of functionalized nanoparticles TiO2 with photocatalytic activity in LDPE'' (Jahell et al., 2016 [1]. It includes the FT-IR data of the functionalized nanoparticles of TiO2 with Hexadecyltrimethoxysilane in different degrees of functionalization, thermogravimetric analysis, distribution and particle size in the polymer matrix by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, carbonyl index, gravimetry and scanning electron microscopy of the nanocomposite degraded by UV radiation.

  1. Preparation of thermally stable anatase TiO2 photocatalyst from TiOF2 precursor and its photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Kangle; Yu Jiaguo; Cui Longzhe; Chen Shulin; Li Mei

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The prepared anatase TiO 2 from TiOF 2 shows very high thermal stability (up to 1000 o C) and the 700 o C-calcined sample showed the highest photocatalytic activity. Display Omitted Research highlights: → TiOF 2 was prepared by a simple microwave assisted hydrothermal rout. → Anatase TiO 2 prepared by calcination of TiOF 2 shows high thermal stability. → F - play an important role in the improvement thermal stability of anatase TiO 2 . → The 700 o C-calcined sample shows the highest photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Preparation of anatase TiO 2 with high themal stability is of great importance for its environmental application. In this work, TiOF 2 was first synthesized by a simple microwave-assisted hydrothermal route using tetrabutyl titanate and hydrofluoric acid as precursors at 200 o C for 20 min. Then the resulted precipitates were calcined at different temperatures (300-1000 o C) for 2 h. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectrum, scanning electron microscopy, N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherms and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated using Brilliant Red X3B, an anionic azo dye, as the target organic molecule under UV light irradiation. The results showed that the prepared TiOF 2 exhibited weak or no photocatalytic activity. The phase transformation of TiOF 2 to anatase TiO 2 occurred at about 300 o C. The prepared anatase TiO 2 from TiOF 2 showed very high thermal stability and the anatase-to-rutile phase transformation temperature was up to 1000 o C. Fluoride ions played an important role in the improvement of thermal stability of anatase TiO 2 by strongly adsorbing on the crystal planes of anatase to stabilize the anatase structure. The 700 o C-calcined sample showed the highest photocatalytic activity due to its relative good crystallization and high specific surface areas.

  2. Photocatalytic degradation of clofibric acid, carbamazepine and iomeprol using conglomerated TiO2 and activated carbon in aqueous suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegmann, Markus; Frimmel, Fritz H

    2010-01-01

    The combination of powdered activated carbon (PAC) and TiO(2) has been tested for synergistic/antagonistic effects in the photocatalytic degradation of carbamazepine, clofibric acid and iomeprol. Synergistic effects are thought to be caused by rapid adsorption on the PAC surface followed by diffusion to the TiO(2) surface and photocatalytic degradation. The Freundlich constant K(F) was used for comparing the sorption properties of the three substances and it was found that K(F) for clofibric acid was 3 times lower than for carbamazepine and iomeprol, regardless of the kind of PAC used. A PAC with a distinct tendency to form conglomerates was selected so that a high percentage of the PAC surface was in direct proximity to the TiO(2) surface. The photocatalytic degradation of the pharmaceutically active compounds studied followed pseudo-first order kinetics. Synergistic effects only occurred for clofibric acid (factor 1.5) and an inverse relationship between adsorption affinity and synergistic effects was found. High affinity of the target substances to the PAC surface seemed to be counterproductive for the photocatalytic degradation.

  3. Enhancing lipid productivity of Chlorella vulgaris using oxidative stress by TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Nam Kyu; Lee, Bongsoo; Choi, Gang-Guk; Moon, Myounghoon; Park, Min S.; Yang, Ji-Won; Lim, JitKang

    2014-01-01

    Ability to increase the lipid production in microalgae is one of the heavily sought-after ideas to improve the economic feasibility of microalgae-derived transportation fuels for commercial applications. We used the oxidative stress by TiO 2 nanoparticles, a well-known photocatalyst, to induce lipid production in microalgae. Chlorella vulgaris UTEX 265 was cultivated under various concentrations of TiO 2 ranging from 0.1 to 5 g/L under UV-A illumination. Maximum specific growth rate was affected in responding to TiO 2 concentrations. In the presence of UV-A, chlorophyll concentration was decreased at the highest concentration of TiO 2 (5 g/L TiO 2 ) by oxidative stress. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) composition analysis suggested that oxidative stress causes the accumulation and decomposition of lipids. The highest FAME productivity was 18.2 g/L/d under low concentrations of TiO 2 (0.1 g/L) and a short induction time (two days). The controlled condition of TiO 2 /UV-A inducing oxidative stress (0.1 g/L TiO 2 and two days induction) could be used to increase the lipid productivity of C. vulgaris UTEX 265. Our results show the possibility of modulating the lipid induction process through oxidative stress with TiO 2 /UV-A

  4. Photocatalytic deposition of Ag nanoparticles on TiO2: Metal precursor effect on the structural and photoactivity properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Albiter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of 1 wt.% Ag–TiO2 photocatalysts were obtained by photodeposition using different organic (acetylacetonate, Ag-A and inorganic (nitrate, Ag-N, and perchlorate, Ag-C silver precursors in order to determinate the influence of the silver precursor on final properties of the photocatalysts. The resulting photocatalytic materials were characterized by different techniques (UV–Vis DRS, TEM/HRTEM and XPS and their photocatalytic activity was evaluated in the degradation of rhodamine B (used as model pollutant in aqueous solution under simulated solar light. The photocatalytic reduction of Ag species to Ag0 on TiO2 was higher with silver nitrate as precursor compared to acetylacetonate or perchlorate. All the Ag-modified TiO2 photocatalysts exhibited a surface plasmon resonance effect in the visible region (400–530 nm indicating different metal particle sizes depending on the Ag precursor used in their synthesis. A higher photocatalytic activity was obtained with all the Ag/TiO2 samples compared with non-modified TiO2. The descending order of photocatalytic activity was as follows: Ag-A/TiO2 ≈ Ag-N/TiO2 > Ag-C/TiO2 > TiO2-P25. The enhanced photoactivity was attributed to the presence of different amounts Ag0 nanoparticles homogeneously distributed on Ag2O and TiO2, trapping the photogenerated electrons and avoiding charge recombination.

  5. TIO2 based photocatalytic gas purification: the effects of co-catalysts and process conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraters, B.D.

    2015-01-01

    Photocatalysis is highly promising as a technology to mitigate environmental pollution. In this thesis the focus will be on air purification by photocatalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOC’s). A major challenge in photocatalysis is the low photonic efficiency, due to high electron

  6. Improved visible-light photocatalytic activity of TiO2 co-doped with copper and iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorraj, Masoumeh; Goh, Boon Tong; Sairi, Nor Asrina; Woi, Pei Meng; Basirun, Wan Jefrey

    2018-05-01

    Cu-I-co-doped TiO2 photocatalysts active to visible light absorption were prepared by hydrothermal method and calcined at various temperatures (350 °C, 450 °C, and 550 °C). The co-doped powders at 350 °C displayed the highest experimental Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area and lowest photoluminescence intensity, which demonstrated that a decrease in electron-hole recombination process. The synthesis of co-doped TiO2 was performed at this optimized temperature. In the co-doped sample, the Cu2+ doped TiO2 lattice created a major "red-shift" in the absorption edge due to the presence of the 3d Cu states, whereas the amount of red-shift from the I5+ doping in the TiO2 lattice was minor. Interestingly, the presence of Cu2+ species also boosted the reduction of I5+ ions to the lower multi-valance state I- in the TiO2 lattice by trapping the photogenerated electrons, which resulted in effective separation of the photogenerated charges. The Cu-I-co-doped TiO2 was able to degrade methyl orange dye under visible-light irradiation with improved photocatalytic activity compared with the single metal-doped TiO2 and pure TiO2 because of the strong visible light absorption and effective separation of photogenerated charges caused by the synergistic effects of Cu and I co-dopants.

  7. A Cost-Effective Solid-State Approach to Synthesize g-C3N4 Coated TiO2 Nanocomposites with Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Fu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4 coated TiO2 nanocomposites were prepared by a facile and cost-effective solid-state method by thermal treatment of the mixture of urea and commercial TiO2. Because the C3N4 was dispersed and coated on the TiO2 nanoparticles, the as-prepared g-C3N4/TiO2 nanocomposites showed enhanced absorption and photocatalytic properties in visible light region. The as-prepared g-C3N4 coated TiO2 nanocomposites under 450°C exhibited efficient visible light photocatalytic activity for degradation of aqueous MB due to the increased visible light absorption and enhanced MB adsorption. The g-C3N4 coated TiO2 nanocomposites would have wide applications in both environmental remediation and solar energy conversion.

  8. Effect of Cu2O morphology on photocatalytic hydrogen generation and chemical stability of TiO2/Cu2O composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lihong; Zhang, Junying; Chen, Ziyu; Liu, Kejia; Gao, Hong

    2013-07-01

    Improving photocatalytic activity and stability of TiO2/Cu2O composite is a challenge in generating hydrogen from water. In this paper, the TiO2 film/Cu2O microgrid composite was prepared via a microsphere lithography technique, which possesses a remarkable performance of producing H2 under UV-vis light irradiation, in comparison with pure TiO2 film, Cu2O film and TiO2 film/Cu2O film. More interesting is that in TiO2 film/Cu2O microgrid, photo-corrosion of Cu2O can be retarded. After deposition of Pt on its surface, the photocatalytic activity of TiO2/Cu2O microgrid in producing H2 is improved greatly.

  9. Silver Nanoparticles Influence on Photocatalytic Activity of Hybrid Materials Based on TiO2 P25

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomkouani Kodom

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study consists in the obtaining of a hybrid material film, obtained using TiO2 P25 and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs. The film manufacturing process involved realization of physical mixtures of TiO2 P25 and AgNPs dispersions. The size distribution of the AgNPs proved to be a key factor determining the photodegradation activity of the materials measured using methyl orange. The best result was 33% degradation of methyl orange (MO after 150 min. The second approach was the generation of AgNPs on the surface of TiO2 P25. The obtained hybrid material presents photocatalytic activity of 45% MO degradation after 150 min. The developed materials were characterized by UV-VIS, SEM, and DLS analyses.

  10. Effect of sulfate ions on the crystallization and photocatalytic activity of TiO2/diatomite composite photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinjun; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jimei; Wang, Jing; Ji, Zhijiang

    2016-01-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles were immobilized on diatomite by hydrolysis-deposition method using titanium tetrachloride as precursor. The effect of sulfate ions on the crystallization and photocatalytic activity of TiO2/diatomite composite photocatalyst was characterized by TG-DSC, XRD, BET surface area, SEM, FT-IR spectroscopy, XPS and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra. The results indicate that addition of a small amount of sulfate ions promotes the formation of anatase phase and inhibits the transformation from anatase to rutile. On the other hand, sulfate ions immobilized on the surface of TiO2/diatomite have strong affinity for electrons, capturing the photo-generated electrons, which hinders the recombination of electrons and holes.

  11. Effect of photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide by N-Zr co-doped nano TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ru; Wang, Li; Kang, Zhuo; Li, Qiang; Pan, Huixian

    2017-11-01

    Modified sol-gel method was adopted to prepare TiO 2 , Zr-TiO 2 and N/Zr-TiO 2 composite catalyst. The as-synthesized photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Brunner- Emmet- Teller measurement and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. And the photocatalytic performance toward CO 2 reduction was evaluated under ultraviolet light. The catalyst particles were demonstrated in the nanometer level size. When N and Zr are co-doped, on the one hand, Ti 4+ can be replaced by Zr 4  +, which leads to lattice distortion and inhibits electron-hole recombination. On the other hand, N enters into TiO 2 lattice gap to form O-Ti-N bond structure, and partial Ti 4+ are reduced to Ti 3+ . Compared with pristine TiO 2 , the specific surface area and the band gap of N/Zr-TiO 2 were improved and reduced, respectively. The N and Zr synergistically contribute to the obviously strengthened absorption intensity in visible region, as well as significantly improved photocatalytic activity. In the gas phase reactor, when the calcination temperature was 550°C, 0.125N/0.25Zr-TiO 2 composite performed the highest photocatalytic activity UV irradiation for 8 h, and the corresponding CH 4 yield was 11.837 µmol/g, which was 87.8% higher than that of pristine TiO 2 . For the visible light, the CH 4 yield was 9.003 µmol/g after 8 h irradiation, which was 83.9% higher than that of pristine TiO 2 .

  12. Uniform Gold-Nanoparticle-Decorated {001}-Faceted Anatase TiO2 Nanosheets for Enhanced Solar-Light Photocatalytic Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huimin; Zhang, Shi; Zhu, Xupeng; Liu, Yu; Wang, Tao; Jiang, Tian; Zhang, Guanhua; Duan, Huigao

    2017-10-25

    The {001}-faceted anatase TiO 2 micro-/nanocrystals have been widely investigated for enhancing the photocatalysis and photoelectrochemical performance of TiO 2 nanostructures, but their practical applications still require improved energy conversion efficiency under solar-light and enhanced cycling stability. In this work, we demonstrate the controlled growth of ultrathin {001}-faceted anatase TiO 2 nanosheets on flexible carbon cloth for enhancing the cycling stability, and the solar-light photocatalytic performance of the synthesized TiO 2 nanosheets can be significantly improved by decorating with vapor-phase-deposited uniformly distributed plasmonic gold nanoparticles. The fabricated Au-TiO 2 hybrid system shows an 8-fold solar-light photocatalysis enhancement factor in photodegrading Rhodamine B, a high photocurrent density of 300 μA cm -2 under the illumination of AM 1.5G, and 100% recyclability under a consecutive long-term cycling measurement. Combined with electromagnetic simulations and systematic control experiments, it is believed that the tandem-type separation and transition of plasmon-induced hot electrons from Au nanoparticles to the {001} facet of anatase TiO 2 , and then to the neighboring {101} facet, is responsible for the enhanced solar-light photochemical performance of the hybrid system. The Au-TiO 2 nanosheet system addresses well the problems of the limited solar-light response of anatase TiO 2 and fast recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, representing a promising high-performance recyclable solar-light-responding system for practical photocatalytic reactions.

  13. Preparation of Fe-Doped TiO2 Nanotubes and Their Photocatalytic Activities under Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghui Teng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe-doped TiO2 nanotubes (Fe-TNTs have been prepared by ultrasonic-assisted hydrothermal method. The structure and composition of the as-prepared TiO2 nanotubes were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. Their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by the degradation of MO under visible light. The UV-visible absorption spectra of the Fe-TNT showed a red shift and an enhancement of the absorption in the visible region compared to the pure TNT. The Fe-TNTs were provided with good photocatalytic activities and photostability and under visible light irradiation, and the optimum molar ratio of Ti : Fe was found to be 100 : 1 in our experiments.

  14. Multi-modal TiO2-LaFeO3 composite films with high photocatalytic activity and hydrophilicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Kun; Li Shudan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a series of multi-modal TiO 2 -LaFeO 3 composite films have been successfully synthesized through a two-step method. The resultant films were characterized in detail by several testing techniques, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectrum (UV-vis DRS), photoluminescence spectrum (PL), surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) and water contact angle measurements. The photocatalytic activity of different films was evaluated for degrading Methylene Blue (MB) aqueous solution. Hydrophilicity of the obtained TiO 2 -LaFeO 3 composite films was also investigated. The results show that TL film and LT film exhibited superior photocatalytic activity and hydrophilicity.

  15. The comparison of photocatalytic activity of synthesized TiO2 and ZrO2 nanosize onto wool fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moafi, Hadi Fallah; Shojaie, Abdollah Fallah; Zanjanchi, Mohammad Ali

    2010-01-01

    TiO 2 and ZrO 2 nanocrystals were successfully synthesized and deposited onto wool fibers using the sol-gel technique at low temperature. The photocatalytic activities of TiO 2 -coated and ZrO 2 -coated wool fibers were measured by studying photodegradation of methylene blue and eosin yellowish dyes. The initial and the treated samples were characterized by several techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and X-ray diffraction. The TEM study shows dispersed particles with 10-30 nm in size for TiO 2 -coated and 20-40 nm in size for ZrO 2 -coated samples on the fiber surface. Comparison of the photocatalytic activity of the coated samples reveals superiority of TiO 2 modified sample with respect to that of ZrO 2 for degradation of both dyes. Our observations indicate that by applying this technique to the fabrics, self-cleaning materials could be designed for practical application.

  16. Investigation of E. coli bacteria inactivation by photocatalytic activity of TiO2 coated expanded polystyrene foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnagiris, S.; Sakalauskaite, S.; Tuckute, S.; Lelis, M.; Daugelavicius, R.; Milcius, D.

    2017-03-01

    Photocatalytic properties of anatase and other TiO2 polymorphs are widely researched and applied in practical application. In current study TiO2 films on the plasma pre-treated expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam were deposited using magnetron sputtering technique. Main properties of the films were characterised using combination of XRD, XPS and SEM techniques. Photocatalytic properties of the observed crystalline anatase phase were tested by investigating bleaching of the methylene blue (MB) aqueous solution and by testing Escherichia coli (E. coli) viability after incubation under UV-B irradiation. E. coli viability experiments indicated that there are two mechanisms of E. coli bacteria inactivation. UV irradiation alone causes rapid damage to the outer membrane of E. coli bacteria. The second mechanism of E. coli inactivation is invoked only with synergistic combination of TiO2 and UV. Acting as photocatalyst TiO2 generates active radicals who initiate the chain peroxidation of organic molecules and within 45 min reduce E. coli bacteria viability by nearly 90%.

  17. Synthesis of TiO2/Bi2S3 heterojunction with a nuclear-shell structure and its high photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Juan; Han, Qiaofeng; Wang, Zuoshan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Bi 2 S 3 was doped into TiO 2 and it was clearly proved by the expander of the crystalline lattice in XRD result. ► As-prepared TiO 2 /Bi 2 S 3 heterojunctions have a nuclear-shell structure which has not been reported. ► As-prepared TiO 2 /Bi 2 S 3 heterojunctions have the excellent photocatalytic activity. -- Abstract: TiO 2 /Bi 2 S 3 heterojunctions with a nuclear-shell structure were prepared by the coprecipitation method. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, Raman spectra, transmission electron microscope images and energy dispersion X-ray spectra. Results showed that as-prepared Bi 2 S 3 was urchin-like, made from many nanorods, and TiO 2 /Bi 2 S 3 heterojunctions have a similar nuclear-shell structure, with Bi 2 S 3 as the shell and TiO 2 as the nuclear. The photocatalytic experiments performed under UV irradiation using methyl orange as the pollutant revealed that the photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 could be improved by introduction of an appropriate amount of Bi 2 S 3 . However, excessive amount of Bi 2 S 3 would result in the decrease of photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 . The relative mechanism was proposed.

  18. A simple UV-ozone surface treatment to enhance photocatalytic performance of TiO 2 loaded polymer nanofiber membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Dilpazir, S.

    2016-01-29

    Homogeneously dispersed titanium dioxide loaded polyacrylonitrile nanofiber membranes with increased active mass loading, Ti3+ surface defects and hydrophilicity were fabricated by combining electrospinning and UV-ozone surface treatment. The photocatalytic activity improved by a factor of ∼2 and the kinetics of photodegradation switched from pseudo-first order to pseudo-second order with increasing TiO2 content with a maximum rate constant of 20.7 h-1. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  19. Self-organized nanocrack networks: a pathway to enlarge catalytic surface area in sputtered ceramic thin films, showcased for photocatalytic TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, B.; Vahl, A.; Aktas, O. C.; Strunskus, T.; Faupel, F.

    2018-01-01

    Sputter deposited photocatalytic thin films offer high adherence and mechanical stability, but typically are outperformed in their photocatalytic properties by colloidal TiO2 nanostructures, which in turn typically suffer from problematic removal. Here we report on thermally controlled nanocrack formation as a feasible and batch applicable approach to enhance the photocatalytic performance of well adhering, reactively sputtered TiO2 thin films. Networks of nanoscopic cracks were induced into tailored columnar TiO2 thin films by thermal annealing. These deep trenches are separating small bundles of TiO2 columns, adding their flanks to the overall catalytically active surface area. The variation of thin film thickness reveals a critical layer thickness for initial nanocrack network formation, which was found to be about 400 nm in case of TiO2. The columnar morphology of the as deposited TiO2 layer with weak bonds between respective columns and with strong bonds to the substrate is of crucial importance for the formation of nanocrack networks. A beneficial effect of nanocracking on the photocatalytic performance was experimentally observed. It was correlated by a simple geometric model for explaining the positive impact of the crack induced enlargement of active surface area on photocatalytic efficiency. The presented method of nanocrack network formation is principally not limited to TiO2 and is therefore seen as a promising candidate for utilizing increased surface area by controlled crack formation in ceramic thin films in general.

  20. Tuning the relative concentration ratio of bulk defects to surface defects in TiO2 nanocrystals leads to high photocatalytic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ming; Li, Yuanzhi; Chen, Xiong; Tian, Tingting; Fang, Pengfei; Zheng, Feng; Zhao, Xiujian

    2011-10-19

    TiO(2) nanocrystals with tunable bulk/surface defects were synthesized and characterized with TEM, XRD, BET, positron annihilation, and photocurrent measurements. The effect of defects on photocatalytic activity was studied. It was found for the first time that decreasing the relative concentration ratio of bulk defects to surface defects in TiO(2) nanocrystals could significantly improve the separation efficiency of photogenerated electrons and holes, thus significantly enhancing the photocatalytic efficiency.

  1. Solvothermal synthesis of TiO2 nanocrystals with {001} facets using titanic acid nanobelts for superior photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuhui; Zong, Lanlan; Li, Qiuye; Li, Chen; Li, Junli; Yang, Jianjun

    2017-01-01

    Anatase TiO2 nanocrystals exposed with {001} facets were fabricated by solvothermal strategy in HF-C4H9OH mixed solution, using titanic acid nanobelts (TAN) as a precursor. The shape of TAN is a long flat plane with a high aspect ratio, and F- is easily adsorbed on the surface of the nanobelts, inducing a higher exposure of {001} facet of TiO2 nanoparticles during the structure reorganization. The exposed percentage of {001} facets could vary from 40 to 77% by adjusting the amount of HF. The as-prepared samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. The photocatalytic measurement showed that TiO2 nanocrystals with 77% {001} facets exhibited much superior photocatalytic activity for photodegradation of methyl orange, methylene blue, and rhodamine B. And what's more, the mineralization rate of methyl orange was as high as 96% within 60 min. The photocatalytic enhancement is due to a large amount of the high energetic {001} facets exposing, the special truncated octahedral morphology and a stronger ability for dyes adsorption.

  2. Preparation and photocatalytic performance of fibrous Tb3+-doped TiO2 using collagen fiber as template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ting; Wan, Xiang-Jun; Jiang, Shang-Xuan; Zhang, Li-Yuan; Hong, Zheng-Qu; Liu, Jiao

    2018-04-01

    Fibrous Tb3+-doped TiO2 were prepared using collagen fiber as template. Morphology, crystalline structure, surface area, element content, chemical composition and elemental chemical status, microstructure and element distribution of the prepared samples were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, specific surface area analysis, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope and element mapping, respectively. The photocatalytic activities were evaluated by following degradation of methyl orange. The results showed that the fiber structure of collagen template was fully preserved when the calcination temperature was 500-800 °C. However, with the increase of calcination temperature, crystallinity and average particle size were increased, and the photocatalytic performance was decreased. For 2% Tb3+-TiO2 calcined at 500 °C, the degradation rate of methyl orange reached 93.87% after 6 h when a high-pressure mercury lamp (150 W) was used as the light source for photocatalytic degradation. Titanium tanning agent performance was excellent, the yield of TiO2 was high, and the fiber structure was presented when 0.2 mol/L citric acid/sodium citrate buffer solution was used.

  3. Improved Solar-Driven Photocatalytic Performance of Highly Crystalline Hydrogenated TiO2 Nanofibers with Core-Shell Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Chung; Chen, Ching-Hsiang; Huang, Wei-Kang; Hsiao, Kai-Chi; Lin, Ting-Han; Chan, Shun-Hsiang; Wu, Po-Yeh; Lu, Chun-Fu; Chang, Yin-Hsuan; Lin, Tz-Feng; Hsu, Kai-Hsiang; Hsu, Jen-Fu; Lee, Kun-Mu; Shyue, Jing-Jong; Kordás, Krisztián; Su, Wei-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogenated titanium dioxide has attracted intensive research interests in pollutant removal applications due to its high photocatalytic activity. Herein, we demonstrate hydrogenated TiO2 nanofibers (H:TiO2 NFs) with a core-shell structure prepared by the hydrothermal synthesis and subsequent heat treatment in hydrogen flow. H:TiO2 NFs has excellent solar light absorption and photogenerated charge formation behavior as confirmed by optical absorbance, photo-Kelvin force probe microscopy and photoinduced charge carrier dynamics analyses. Photodegradation of various organic dyes such as methyl orange, rhodamine 6G and brilliant green is shown to take place with significantly higher rates on our novel catalyst than on pristine TiO2 nanofibers and commercial nanoparticle based photocatalytic materials, which is attributed to surface defects (oxygen vacancy and Ti3+ interstitial defect) on the hydrogen treated surface. We propose three properties/mechanisms responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity, which are: (1) improved absorbance allowing for increased exciton generation, (2) highly crystalline anatase TiO2 that promotes fast charge transport rate, and (3) decreased charge recombination caused by the nanoscopic Schottky junctions at the interface of pristine core and hydrogenated shell thus promoting long-life surface charges. The developed H:TiO2 NFs can be helpful for future high performance photocatalysts in environmental applications.

  4. Photocatalytic Degradation of Bisphenol A from Aqueous Solutions using TiO2 Nanoparticles and UV Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzan ali Dianati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Bisphenol A (BPA is used to make certain plastics and epoxy resins. It is a non-biodegradable compound, and poses health risks to both humans and animals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate decomposition efficiency of BPA from aqueous solutions using UV irradiation. Materials and Methods: In this study, the photodegradation of BPA in water were carried out in a reactor equipped 6 W UV lamp. In order to obtain the optimum operational conditions, parameters such as BPA concentration (1-50 mg/l, TiO2 dosage (0.025-2 g/l, and pH (3-11 were evaluated. BPA concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: The highest degradation was 90% and achieved in 60 min. BPA degradation efficiency can be effectively improved by increasing pH, decreasing the initial concentration and increasing TiO2 dosage. The optimal dose of TiO2 was measured at 0.5 g/l. The degradation decreases with increasing TiO2 dosage. Conclusion: Photocatalytic degradation by using TiO2 and low power UV lamp is applicable.

  5. Synthesis and photocatalytic properties of porous TiO2 films prepared by ODA/sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wenjie; Bai Jiawei

    2012-01-01

    Porous TiO 2 films were deposited on SiO 2 pre-coated glass-slides by sol-gel method using octadecylamine (ODA) as template. The amount of ODA in the sol played an important role on the physicochemical properties and photocatalytic performance of the TiO 2 films. The films prepared at different conditions were all composed of anatase titanium dioxide crystals, and TiO 2 crystalline size got larger with increasing ODA amount. The maximum specific surface area of 41.5 m 2 /g was obtained for TiO 2 powders prepared from titanium sol containing 2.0 g ODA. Methyl orange degradation rate was enhanced along with increasing ODA amount and reached the maximal value at 2.0 g addition of ODA. After 40 min of UV-light irradiation, methyl orange degradation rate reached 30.5% on the porous film, which was about 10% higher than that on the smooth film. Porous TiO 2 film showed almost constant activity with slight decrease from 30.5% to 28.5% after 4 times of recycles.

  6. Photocatalytic decouloration of malachite green dye by application of TiO2 nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, Alexandre G.S.; Costa, Leonardo L.

    2009-01-01

    The nanotubes of titania were synthesized in a hydrothermal system and characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), FT-IR, FT-Raman, and surface charge density by surface area analyzer. These nanomaterials were applied to photocatalyse malachite green dye degradation. Photodegradation capacity of TiO 2 nanotubes was compared to TiO 2 anatase photoactivity. Malachite dye was completely degraded in 75 and 105 min of reaction photocatalysed by TiO 2 nanotubes and TiO 2 anatase, respectively. Catalysts displayed high photodegradation activity at pH 4. TiO 2 nanotubes were easily recycled whereas the reuse of TiO 2 anatase was not effective. Nanotubes maintained 80% of their activity after 10 catalytic cycles and TiO 2 anatase presented only 8% of its activity after 10 cycles.

  7. Synthesis, characterization, and analysis of enhanced photocatalytic activity of Zr-doped TiO2 nanostructured powders under UV light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, M. Chandra; Purusottam Reddy, B.; Mallikarjuna, K.; Shanmugam, Gnanendra; Ahn, Chang-Hoi; Park, Si-Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Zr-doped and pure TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized using a simple inexpensive sol-gel method. X-ray powder diffractometry and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry revealed the presence of anatase-phase TiO2 NPs. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the average nanocrystalline size of approximately 15 nm. The photocatalytic activities of these materials were evaluated using Rhodamine B (Rh B) as an organic contaminant. The photocatalytic activity of pure and Zr-doped TiO2 NPs (with at% 4, 8, 12 and 16) was measured in terms of the degradation of Rh B under UV light. The antibacterial activities of pure and Zr-doped (with 8 at%) TiO2 NPs were evaluated against Bacillus subtillis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A maximum inhibition zone (19 mm) was observed for pure TiO2 NPs, against Bacillus subtillis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while Zr-doped TiO2 (8 at%) exhibited a lesser inhibition zone (18 mm) against the same Bacillus subtillis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18 mm). However, Zr-doped TiO2 (8 at%) NPs exhibited a greater inhibition zone against Escherichia coli (17 mm), while the activity of pure TiO2 NPs against Escherichia coli (15 mm) was retarded. Thus, pure TiO2 NPs and Zr-doped TiO2 (8 at%) NPs have competent activities and can be used as antibacterial agents against different bacteria.

  8. TiO2-Based Advanced Oxidation Nanotechnologies For Water Purification And Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    TiO2 photocatalysis, one of the UV-based advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs) and nanotechnologies (AONs), has attracted great attention for the development of efficient water treatment and purification systems due to the effectiveness of TiO2 to generate ...

  9. Synthesis of TiO2 nanorod-decorated graphene sheets and their highly efficient photocatalytic activities under visible-light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eunwoo; Hong, Jin-Yong; Kang, Haeyoung; Jang, Jyongsik

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► TiO 2 nanorods were successfully decorated on the surface of graphene sheets. ► Population of TiO 2 nanorods can be controlled by changing experimental conditions. ► TiO 2 nanorod-decorated graphene sheets have an expanded light absorption range. ► TiO 2 nanorod-decorated graphene sheets showed unprecedented photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: The titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanorod-decorated graphene sheets photocatalysts with different TiO 2 nanorods population have been synthesized by a simple non-hydrolytic sol–gel approach. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the TiO 2 nanorods are well-dispersed and successfully anchored on the graphene sheet surface through the formation of covalent bonds between Ti and C atoms. The photocatalytic activities are evaluated in terms of the efficiencies of photodecomposition and adsorption of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution under visible-light irradiation. The as-synthesized TiO 2 nanorod-decorated graphene sheets showed unprecedented photodecomposition efficiency compared to the pristine TiO 2 nanorods and the commercial TiO 2 (P-25, Degussa) under visible-light. It is believed that this predominant photocatalytic activity is due to the synergistic contribution of both a retarded charge recombination rate caused by a high electronic mobility of graphene and an increased surface area originated from nanometer-sized TiO 2 nanorods. Furthermore, photoelectrochemical study is performed to give deep insights into the primary roles of graphene that determines the photocatalytic activity.

  10. Glutaraldehyde assisted synthesis of collagen derivative modified Fe3+/TiO2 nanocomposite and their enhanced photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chongyi; Xue, Feng; Ding, Enyong; He, Xiaoling

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Collagen-g-PDMC was successfully designed by grafting DMC monomers onto the collagen backbone. • Fe 3+ /TiO 2 nanospheres highly capable of responding to visible light were successfully prepared. • Collagen-g-PDMC was firmly immobilized onto the Fe 3+ /TiO 2 surface by virtue of glutaraldehyde. • CFT-3 performed the best in the photocatalytic degradation of MO solution under solar irradiation. - Abstract: A unique organic–inorganic hybrid nanocomposite was designed and synthesized by chemically anchoring the cationic collagen-based derivatives onto the surface of Fe 3+ /TiO 2 nanospheres for the significant enhancement in photocatalytic activity under the visible light irradiation. The NMR analysis suggested the successful fabrication of cationic collagen-g-PDMC as grafted materials. In addition, the chemical structures, morphologies and properties of these samples were systematically characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrum, ultra violet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and photoluminescence (PL). And obtained results clearly demonstrated that Fe 3+ ions diffusing into TiO 2 lattice could be responsible for slightly reducing the average diameter of nanospheres to about 125 nm, promoting phase transition from anatase to rutile to some extent and extending the light harvesting range into visible region markedly. Meanwhile, the achievement that collagen-g-PDMC molecules had been covalently immobilized onto the surface of Fe 3+ /TiO 2 nanoparticles was also well supported by the information acquired. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activities of all the as-prepared products were carefully evaluated by adopting photocatalytic decoloration of methyl orange (MO) solution under the solar direct irradiation, and the sample CFT-3 performed the best in

  11. Effect of food processing organic matter on photocatalytic bactericidal activity of titanium dioxide (TiO2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemmireddy, Veerachandra K; Hung, Yen-Con

    2015-07-02

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of food processing organic matter on photocatalytic bactericidal activity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs). Produce and meat processing wash solutions were prepared using romaine lettuce and ground beef samples. Physico-chemical properties such as pH, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phenolics (for produce) and protein (for meat) content of the extracts were determined using standard procedures. The photocatalytic bactericidal activity of TiO2 (1 mg/mL) in suspension with or without organic matter against Escherichia coli O157:H7 (5-strain) was determined over a period of 3h. Increasing the concentration of organic matter (either produce or meat) from 0% to 100% resulted in 85% decrease in TiO2 microbicidal efficacy. 'Turbidity, total phenolics, and protein contents in wash solutions had significant effect on the log reduction. Increasing the total phenolics content in produce washes from 20 to 114 mg/L decreased the log reduction from 2.7 to 0.38 CFU/mL, whereas increasing the protein content in meat washes from 0.12 to 1.61 mg/L decreased the log reduction from and 5.74 to 0.87 CFU/mL. Also, a linear correlation was observed between COD and total phenolics as well as COD and protein contents. While classical disinfection kinetic models failed to predict, an empirical equation in the form of "Y=me(nX)" (where Y is log reduction, X is COD, and m and n are reaction rate constants) predicted the disinfection kinetics of TiO2 in the presence of organic matter (R(2)=94.4). This study successfully identified an empirical model with COD as a predictor variable to predict the bactericidal efficacy of TiO2 when used in food processing environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Photocatalytic oxidation of a reactive azo dye and evaluation of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the photocatalytic oxidation of a reactive azo dye and determine the improvement in the biodegradability when photocatalytic oxidation was used as a pretreatment step prior to biological treatment. The results obtained from the experiments adding H2O2/TiO2 show that the ...

  13. A one-step thermal decomposition method to prepare anatase TiO2 nanosheets with improved adsorption capacities and enhanced photocatalytic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wenting; Shang, Chunli; Li, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Anatase TiO 2 nanosheets (NSs) with high surface area have been prepared. • Only one type of surfactant, oleylamine (OM), is used as capping agents. • TiO 2 NSs possess high adsorption capacities MB and high photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Anatase TiO 2 nanosheets (NSs) with high surface area have been prepared via a one-step thermal decomposition of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) in oleylamine (OM), and their adsorption capacities and photocatalytic activities are investigated by using methylene blue (MB) and methyl orange (MO) as model pollutants. During the synthesis procedure, only one type of surfactant, oleylamine (OM), is used as capping agents and no other solvents are added. Structure and properties of the TiO 2 NSs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N 2 adsorption analysis, UV–vis spectrum, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Photoluminescence (PL) methods. The results indicate that the TiO 2 NSs possess high surface area up to 378 m 2 g −1 . The concentration of capping agents is found to be a key factor controlling the morphology and crystalline structure of the product. Adsorption and photodegradation experiments reveal that the prepared TiO 2 NSs possess high adsorption capacities of model pollutants MB and high photocatalytic activity, showing that TiO 2 NSs can be used as efficient pollutant adsorbents and photocatalytic degradation catalysts of MB in wastewater treatment.

  14. Facile Synthesis and Characterization of N-Doped TiO2 Photocatalyst and Its Visible-Light Activity for Photo-Oxidation of Ethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hao Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A facile wet chemical method was adopted for preparing highly photoactive nitrogen doped TiO2 (N-TiO2 powders with visible responsive capability, which could be achieved by the hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide (TTIP in the ammonium hydroxide precursor solution in various concentrations and then calcined at different temperatures. The N-TiO2 powders were characterized, and the photocatalytic activity was evaluated for the photocatalytic oxidation of ethylene gas under visible light irradiation to optimize the synthesizing conditions of N-TiO2 catalyst. The N-TiO2 photocatalytic powders were calcined in a range of temperatures from 300 to 600°C and obviously found to have greater photocatalytic activities than commercial TiO2 P25. The strong absorption in the visible light region could be ascribed to good crystallization and adapted sinter temperature of as prepared sample. XPS test demonstrated that the N was doped into TiO2 lattice and made an interstitial formation (Ti-O-N, and N doping also retarded the phase transformation from anatase to rutile as well. The N-TiO2 catalyst prepared with 150 mL ammonium hydroxide added and calcined at 500°C showed the best photocatalytic activity. The experimental results also proved the enhanced photoactivity of N-TiO2 material depends on the synthesizing conditions.

  15. Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Thin Films Obtained by the Sputtering RF in Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona Bedoya, Jairo Armando; Sanchez Velandia, Wilmer Asmed; Delgado Rosero, Miguel Iban; Florido Cuellar, Alex Enrique; Zelaya Angel, Orlando; Mendoza Alvarez, Julio G.

    2011-03-01

    The photocatalytic activity of Ti O2 thin films in wastewater, under an UV irradiation, is studied. The films were prepared on corning glass substrates by the sputtering RF technique. We present evidence on the photocatalytic degradation, carried out by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in domestic wastewater pretreated with UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactors. Ti O2 films were illuminated with ultraviolet light during a time of 4 hours (λ ≅ 264 nm). We could see the effect of degraded operation in the absorbance measurement using UV-VIS spectrophotometry. The results show an increased rate of degradation of the wastewater by 30% compared to the values reflected biologically treated wastewater by anaerobic reactors.

  16. Novel-structured electrospun TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers for high efficient photocatalytic cogeneration of clean water and energy from dye wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siew Siang; Bai, Hongwei; Liu, Zhaoyang; Sun, Darren Delai

    2013-08-01

    It is still a challenge to photocatalytically cogenerate clean water and energy from dye wastewater owing to the relatively low photocatalytic efficiency of photocatalysts. In this study, novel-structured TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers were successfully fabricated via facile electrospinning. For the first time, the TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers demonstrated multifunctional ability for concurrent photocatalytic organic degradation and H2 generation from dye wastewater. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers was ascribed to its excellent synergy of physicochemical properties: 1) mesoporosity and large specific surface area for efficient substrate adsorption, mass transfer and light harvesting; 2) red-shift of the absorbance spectra for enhanced light utilization; 3) long nanofibrous structure for efficient charge transfer and ease of recovery, 4) TiO2/CuO heterojunctions which enhance the separation of electrons and holes and 5) presence of CuO which serve as co-catalyst for the H2 production. The TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers also exhibited rapid settleability by gravity and uncompromised reusability. Thus, the as-synthesized TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers represent a promising candidate for highly efficient concurrent photocatalytic organic degradation and clean energy production from dye wastewater. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mesoporous titanium dioxide (TiO2) with hierarchically 3D dendrimeric architectures: formation mechanism and highly enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Yun; Chen, Li-Hua; Rooke, Joanna Claire; Deng, Zhao; Hu, Zhi-Yi; Wang, Shao-Zhuan; Wang, Li; Li, Yu; Krief, Alain; Su, Bao-Lian

    2013-03-15

    Mesoporous TiO(2) with a hierarchically 3D dendrimeric nanostructure comprised of nanoribbon building units has been synthesized via a spontaneous self-formation process from various titanium alkoxides. These hierarchically 3D dendrimeric architectures can be obtained by a very facile, template-free method, by simply dropping a titanium butoxide precursor into methanol solution. The novel configuration of the mesoporous TiO(2) nanostructure in nanoribbon building units yields a high surface area. The calcined samples show significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity and degradation rates owing to the mesoporosity and their improved crystallinity after calcination. Furthermore, the 3D dendrimeric architectures can be preserved after phase transformation from amorphous TiO(2) to anatase or rutile, which occurs during calcination. In addition, the spontaneous self-formation process of mesoporous TiO(2) with hierarchically 3D dendrimeric architectures from the hydrolysis and condensation reaction of titanium butoxide in methanol has been followed by in situ optical microscopy (OM), revealing the secret on the formation of hierarchically 3D dendrimeric nanostructures. Moreover, mesoporous TiO(2) nanostructures with similar hierarchically 3D dendrimeric architectures can also be obtained using other titanium alkoxides. The porosities and nanostructures of the resultant products were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, and N(2) adsorption-desorption measurements. The present work provides a facile and reproducible method for the synthesis of novel mesoporous TiO(2) nanoarchitectures, which in turn could herald the fabrication of more efficient photocatalysts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Photocatalytic degradation of an organophosphorus pesticide from agricultural waste by immobilized TiO2 under solar radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Regina Assalin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes solar heterogeneous photocatalysis using immobilized TiO2 applied in the treatment of agricultural waste resulting from the application of commercial formulations of methyl parathion. The disappearance of the insecticide, as well as the formation of its metabolite, was monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, while mineralization efficiency was monitored by measurements of total organic carbon (TOC. Toxicity studies were performed using the microcrustacean Artemia salina. The TOC removal efficiency by photocatalytic process was 48.5%. After 45 minutes of treatment, the removal efficiency of methyl parathion was 90%, being completely mineralized at the end of treatment. The formation and removal of the metabolite methyl paraoxon was observed during the photocatalytic process. The photocatalytic treatment resulted in increased microcrustacean mobility, indicating a reduction of acute toxicity.

  19. The effects of solvent on photocatalytic properties of Bi2WO6/TiO2 heterojunction under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiyao; Huang, Yunfang; Xu, Hui; Luo, Dan; Huang, Feiyue; Gu, Lin; Wei, Yuelin; Zhao, Huang; Fan, Leqing; Wu, Jihuai

    2018-04-01

    Bi2WO6/TiO2 heterojunction photocatalysts with two different microstructures were controllably fabricated via a facile two-step synthetic route. XRD, XPS, SEM, TEM, BET-surface, DRS, PL spectra, photoelectrochemical measurement (Mott-Schottky), and zeta-potential analyzer were employed to clarify structural and morphological characteristics of the obtained products. The results showed that Bi2WO6 nanoparticles/nanosheets grew on the primary TiO2 nanorods. The TiO2 nanorods used as a synthetic template inhibit the growth of Bi2WO6 crystals along the c-axis, resulting in Bi2WO6/TiO2 heterostructure with one-dimensional (1D) morphology. The photocatalytic properties of Bi2WO6/TiO2 heterojunction photocatalysts were strongly dependent on their shapes and structures. Compared with bare Bi2WO6 and TiO2, Bi2WO6/TiO2 composite have stronger adsorption ability and better visible light photocatalytic activities towards organic dyes. The Bi2WO6/TiO2 composite prepared in EG solvent with optimal Bi:Ti ratio of 2:12 (S-TB2) showed the highest photocatalytic activity, which could totally decompose Rhodamine B within 10 min upon irradiation with visible light (λ > 422 nm), and retained the high photocatalytic performance after five recycles, confirming its stability and practical usability. The results of PL indicated that Bi2WO6 and TiO2 could combine well to form a heterojunction structure which facilitated electron-hole separation, and lead to the increasing photocatalytic activity.

  20. Flexible Bench-Scale Recirculating Flow CPC Photoreactor for Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Using Removable TiO2 Immobilized on PET Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa M. EL-Mekkawi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 immobilized on polyethylene (PET nonwoven sheet was used in the solar photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB. TiO2 Evonik Aeroxide P25 was used in this study. The amount of loaded TiO2 on PET was approximately 24%. Immobilization of TiO2 on PET was conducted by dip coating process followed by exposing to mild heat and pressure. TiO2/PET sheets were wrapped on removable Teflon rods inside home-made bench-scale recirculating flow Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC photoreactor prototype (platform 0.7 × 0.2 × 0.4 m3. CPC photoreactor is made up of seven low iron borosilicate glass tubes connected in series. CPC reflectors are made of stainless steel 304. The prototype was mounted on a platform tilted at 30°N local latitude in Cairo. A centrifugal pump was used to circulate water containing methylene blue (MB dye inside the glass tubes. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of MB using TiO2/PET was achieved upon the exposure to direct sunlight. Chemical oxygen demand (COD analyses reveal the complete mineralization of MB. Durability of TiO2/PET composite was also tested under sunlight irradiation. Results indicate only 6% reduction in the amount of TiO2 after seven cycles. No significant change was observed for the physicochemical characteristics of TiO2/PET after the successive irradiation processes.

  1. TiO2/Bi2(BDC)3/BiOCl nanoparticles decorated ultrathin nanosheets with excellent photocatalytic reaction activity and selectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Shu-Mei; Ma, De-Kun; Cai, Ping; Chen, Wei; Huang, Shao-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: TiO 2 /Bi 2 (BDC) 3 /BiOCl nanoparticles decorated ultrathin nanosheets showed excellent photocatalytic reaction activity and selectivity. - Highlights: • TiO 2 /Bi 2 (BDC) 3 /BiOCl nanoparticles decorated ultrathin nanosheets were synthesized through a facile hydrothermal process. • The products showed excellent photocatalytic activities for the degradation of various dyes. • The photocatalytic activities of the composite materials could be easily adjusted through tuning the content of TiO 2 . • TiO 2 /Bi 2 (BDC) 3 /BiOCl displayed obvious photocatalytic selectivity in mixed dyes systems of rhodamine B and eosin Y. - Abstract: Photocatalysts with excellent photocatalytic reaction activity and ideal selectivity are highly desirable for pollutants clearance and purification of targeted organics from a mixture. Continued efforts toward the goal, we here present a facile hydrothermal route to synthesize TiO 2 /Bi-benzenedicarboxylate/BiOCl nanoparticles decorated ultrathin nanosheets with a thickness less than 5 nm on a large scale. The as-synthesized products showed excellent photocatalytic activities for the degradation of various dyes such as rhodamine B, eosin Y and methylene blue in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic activities of TiO 2 /Bi-benzenedicarboxylate/BiOCl nanocomposites for the degradation of rhodamine B and eosin Y could be adjusted through tuning the content of TiO 2 . With increasing the amount of TiO 2 , the composites showed declining photocatalytic activities in decomposing of rhodamine B while on the contrary they displayed enhanced photocatalytic activities in decomposing of eosin Y. Interestingly, TiO 2 /Bi-benzenedicarboxylate/BiOCl composite nanosheets showed obvious photocatalytic selectivity in a mixed dyes system. The photocatalytic reaction and selectivity mechanisms of the nanocomposites for the degradation of the dyes were discussed on the basis of experimental results. The

  2. Synthesis of CdS Sensitized TiO2 Photocatalysts: Methylene Blue Adsorption and Enhanced Photocatalytic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Makama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of CdS/TiO2 nanocomposites with different Cd to Ti molar ratio were synthesized from P25-TiO2 nanopowder using microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The as-produced powders were characterized by XRD, electron microscopy, EDX, and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The adsorption capacity and photocatalytic activity of the samples were investigated using methylene blue as a model pollutant. Sorption tests revealed that the adsorption of MB onto the samples obeys the Freundlich-Langmuir isotherm model. The sorption capacity decreased as follows: TiO2>TCd2>TCd1>TCd3>TCd4. The results of the photocatalytic tests under high-intensity discharge (HID lamp revealed that CdS/TiO2 powders with low Cd to Ti molar ratios exhibited much higher activities than P25-TiO2. The CdS/TiO2 sample with 20% CdS/(TCd2 showed the most activity among all these samples. The results also show that the Cd to Ti molar ratio of the nanocomposite has a significant effect on the photodegradation of MB and the enhanced activities exhibited by the nanocomposites are because of the low rate of electron-hole recombination.

  3. Atmospheric plasma sprayed (APS) coatings of Al2O3-TiO2 system for photocatalytic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengl, V; Ageorges, H; Ctibor, P; Murafa, N

    2009-05-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the photocatalytic ability of coatings produced by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). The plasma gun used is a common gas-stabilized plasma gun (GSP) working with a d.c. current and a mixture of argon and hydrogen as plasma-forming gas. The TiO(2) powders are particles of about 100 nm which were agglomerated to a mean size of about 55 mum, suitable for spraying. Composition of the commercial powder is 13 wt% of TiO(2) in Al(2)O(3), whereas also in-house prepared powder with the same nominal composition but with agglomerated TiO(2) and conventional fused and crushed Al(2)O(3) was sprayed. The feedstock materials used for this purpose are alpha-alumina and anatase titanium dioxide. The coatings are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion probe (EDS) and X-ray diffraction. Photocatalytic degradation of acetone is quantified for various coatings. All plasma sprayed coatings show a lamellar structure on cross section, as typical for this process. Anatase titania from feedstock powder is converted into rutile titania and alpha-alumina partly to gamma-alumina. Coatings are proven to catalyse the acetone decomposition when irradiated by UV rays.

  4. Fast and simple microwave synthesis of TiO2/Au nanoparticles for gas-phase photocatalytic hydrogen generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Masnou, Anna; Soler, Lluís; Torras, Miquel; Salles, Pol; Llorca, Jordi; Roig, Anna

    2018-04-01

    The fabrication of small anatase titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) attached to larger anisotropic gold (Au) morphologies by a very fast and simple two-step microwave-assisted synthesis is presented. The TiO2/Au NPs are synthesized using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as reducing, capping and stabilizing agent through a polyol approach. To optimize the contact between the titania and the gold and facilitate electron transfer, the PVP is removed by calcination at mild temperatures. The nanocatalysts activity is then evaluated in the photocatalytic production of hydrogen from water/ethanol mixtures in gas-phase at ambient temperature. A maximum value of 5.3 mmol·gcat-1·h-1 (7.4 mmol·gTiO2-1·h-1) of hydrogen is recorded for the system with larger gold particles at an optimum calcination temperature of 450 °C. Herein we demonstrate that TiO2-based photocatalysts with high Au loading and large Au particle size (≈ 50 nm) NPs have photocatalytic activity.

  5. Photocatalytic degradation of some organic dyes under solar light irradiation using TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Amini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles of the ZnO and TiO2 were synthesized and the physicochemical properties of the compounds were characterized by IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The XRD patterns of the ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles could be indexed to hexagonal and rutile phase, respectively. Aggregated nanoparticles of ZnO and TiO2 with spherical-like shapes were observed with particle diameter in the range of 80-100 nm. These nanoparticles were used for photocatalytic degradation of various dyes, Rhodamine B (RhB, Methylene blue (MB and Acridine orange (AO under solar light irradiation at room temperature. Effect of the amount of catalyst on the rate of photodegradation was investigated. In general, because ZnO is unstable, due to incongruous dissolution to yield Zn(OH2 on the ZnO particle surfaces and thus leading to catalyst inactivation,the catalytic activity of the system for photodegradation of dyes decreased dramatically when TiO2 was replaced by ZnO.

  6. Highly Efficient Low-Temperature N-Doped TiO2 Catalysts for Visible Light Photocatalytic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahy, Julien G.; Cerfontaine, Vincent; Devred, François; Gaigneaux, Eric M.; Heinrichs, Benoît; Lambert, Stéphanie D.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, TiO2 prepared with an aqueous sol-gel synthesis by peptization process is doped with nitrogen precursor to extend its activity towards the visible region. Three N-precursors are used: urea, ethylenediamine and triethylamine. Different molar N/Ti ratios are tested and the synthesis is adapted for each dopant. For urea- and trimethylamine-doped samples, anatase-brookite TiO2 nanoparticles of 6–8 nm are formed, with a specific surface area between 200 and 275 m2·g−1. In ethylenediamine-doped samples, the formation of rutile phase is observed, and TiO2 nanoparticles of 6–8 nm with a specific surface area between 185 and 240 m2·g−1 are obtained. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and diffuse reflectance measurements show the incorporation of nitrogen in TiO2 materials through Ti–O–N bonds allowing light absorption in the visible region. Photocatalytic tests on the remediation of water polluted with p-nitrophenol show a marked improvement for all doped catalysts under visible light. The optimum doping, taking into account cost, activity and ease of synthesis, is up-scaled to a volume of 5 L and compared to commercial Degussa P25 material. This up-scaled sample shows similar properties compared to the lab-scale sample, i.e., a photoactivity 4 times higher than commercial P25. PMID:29642626

  7. Photocatalytic degradation kinetics and mechanism of phenobarbital in TiO(2) aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hua; Lin, Xiulian; Zhan, Haiying; Zhang, Hong; Lin, Jingxin

    2013-01-01

    5-Ethyl-5-phenylpyrimidine-2,4,6(1H, 3H, 5H)-trione is an anti-convulsant used to treat disorders of movement, e.g. tremors. This work deals with the transformation of phenobarbital by UV/TiO(2) heterogeneous photocatalysis, to assess the decomposition of the pharmaceutical compound, to identify intermediates, as well as to elucidate some mechanistic details of the degradation. The photocatalytic removal efficiency of 100 μm phenobarbital is about 80% within 60 min, while the degradation efficiency of phenobarbital was better in alkaline solution. The study on contribution of reactive oxidative species (ROSs) has shown that ()OH is responsible for the major degradation of phenobarbital, while the photohole, photoelectrons and the other ROSs have the minor contribution to the degradation. Finally, based on the identification of degradation intermediates, two main photocatalytic degradation pathways have been tentatively proposed, including the hydroxylation and cleavage of pyrimidine ring in the phenobarbital molecule respectively. Certainly, the phenobarbital can be mineralized when the photocatalytic reaction time prolongs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthesis, structure and photocatalytic activity of nano TiO2 and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    salicylic acid over combustion-synthesized nano TiO2 under UV and solar exposure has been carried out. Under identical conditions of UV exposure, the initial degra- dation rate of phenol with combustion-synthesized TiO2 is two times higher than the initial degradation rate of phenol with Degussa P25, the commercial ...

  9. Nanoscale surface potential imaging of the photocatalytic TiO2 films on aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daviðsdóttir, Svava; Dirscherl, Kai; Canulescu, Stela

    2013-01-01

    in the surface potential of TiO2 coatings upon UV-illumination are closely correlated to the band gap and thickness of the coatings. The inhomogeneity surface potential distribution of a 100 nm TiO2 film indicates a heterogeneous coating. Transition to a homogeneous surface potential distribution was observed...

  10. Intrinsic Photocatalytic Assessment of Reactively Sputtered TiO2 Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rafieian Boroujeni, Damon; Driessen, Rick Theodorus; Driessen, Rick T.; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2015-01-01

    Thin TiO2 films were prepared by DC magnetron reactive sputtering at different oxygen partial pressures. Depending on the oxygen partial pressure during sputtering, a transition from metallic Ti to TiO2 was identified by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The crystalline nature of the film developed during

  11. Facile synthesis of Ag nanoparticles supported on TiO2 inverse opal with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongxun; Yang Beifang; Xu Jiao; Fu Zhengping; Wu Min; Li Feng

    2012-01-01

    TiO 2 inverse opal films loaded with silver nanoparticles (ATIO) were synthesized on glass substrates. TiO 2 inverse opal (TIO) films were prepared via a sol–gel process using self-assembly of SiO 2 colloidal crystal template and a facile wet chemical route featuring an AgNO 3 precursor solution to fabricate silver nanoparticles on the TIO films. The inverse opal structure and Ag deposition physically and chemically modify titania, respectively. The catalysts were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), UV–vis absorption spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The HRTEM results show that Ag nanoparticles measuring 5–10 nm were evenly distributed on TIO. Both the UV- and visible-light photocatalytic activities of the samples were evaluated by analyzing the degradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution. The results reveal that the apparent reaction rate constant (k app ) of MB degradation of the sample ATIO under UV-light irradiation is approximately 1.5 times that of the conventional Ag-loaded TiO 2 film (ATF) without an ordered porous structure at an AgNO 3 concentration of 5 mM in the precursor solution. At an AgNO 3 concentration of 10 mM, the sample exhibits a k app value approximately 4.2 times that of ATF under visible-light irradiation. This enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performance can be attributed to the synergistic effect of optimized Ag nanoparticle deposition and an ordered macroporous TIO structure. Repeated cycling tests revealed that the samples showed stable photocatalytic activity, even after six repeated cycles. - Highlights: ►TiO 2 inverse opal films loaded with silver nanoparticles were synthesized. ►Physical and chemical modifications of TiO 2 were achieved simultaneously. ►The catalysts exhibited enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity. ►The mechanism for enhanced

  12. Photocatalytic degradation of RhB over MgFe2O4/TiO2 composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; He, Yiming; Wu Ying; Wu Tinghua

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Novel composite MgFe 2 O 4 /TiO 2 as catalyst. → Higher activity for the photodegradation of RhB under visible light irradiation. → Calcination temperature of catalyst has effect on photocatalytic activity. → Different photocatalysis mechanism under UV and visible light irradiation. - Abstract: MgFe 2 O 4 /TiO 2 (MFO/TiO 2 ) composite photocatalysts were successfully synthesized using a mixing-annealing method. The synthesized composites exhibited significantly higher photocatalytic activity than a naked semiconductor in the photodegradation of Rhodamine B. Under UV and visible light irradiation, the optimal percentages of doped MgFe 2 O 4 (MFO) were 2 wt.% and 3 wt.%, respectively. The effects of calcination temperature on photocatalytic activity were also investigated. The origin of the high level of activity was discussed based on the results of X-ray diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and nitrogen physical adsorption. The enhanced activity of the catalysts was mainly attributed to the synergetic effect between the two semiconductors, the band potential of which matched suitably.

  13. A weak-light-responsive TiO2/g-C3N4 composite film: photocatalytic activity under low-intensity light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peifang; Guo, Xiang; Rao, Lei; Wang, Chao; Guo, Yong; Zhang, Lixin

    2018-05-10

    A TiO 2 /g-C 3 N 4 composite photocatalytic film was prepared by in situ synthesis method and its photocatalytic capability under weak-visible-light condition was studied. The co-precursor with different ratio of melamine and TiO 2 sol-gel precursor were treated using ultrasonic mixing, physical deposition, and co-sintering method to form the smooth, white-yellow, and compact TiO 2 /g-C 3 N 4 composite films. The prepared TiO 2 /g-C 3 N 4 materials were characterized by SEM, TEM, EDS, XRD, BET, VBXPS, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra. The results of composite showed that TiO 2 and g-C 3 N 4 have close interfacial connections which are favorable to charge transfer between these two semiconductors with suitable band structure, g-C 3 N 4 retard the anatase-to-rutile phase transition of TiO 2 significantly, the specific surface area were increased with g-C 3 N 4 ratio raised. Under weak-light irradiation, composite films photocatalytic experiments exhibited RhB removal efficiency approaching 90% after three recycles. Powders suspension degradation experiments revealed the removal efficiency of TiO 2 /g-C 3 N 4 (90.8%) was higher than pure TiO 2 (52.1%) and slightly lower than pure g-C 3 N 4 (96.6%). By control experiment, the enhanced photocatalysis is ascribed to the combination of TiO 2 and g-C 3 N 4 , which not only produced thin films with greater stability but also formed heterojunctions that can be favorable to charge transfer between these two semiconductors with suitable band structure. This study presents the potential application of photocatalytic film in the wastewater treatment under weak-light situation.

  14. Photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B dye using Fe doped TiO2 nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhade, Tejal; Banerjee, Indrani

    2018-05-01

    The unique properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) such as high photo catalytic activity, high chemical stability and low toxicity have made it a suitable photocatalyst in recent decades. The effect of modification of TiO2 with doping of iron on its characteristics and photo catalytic efficiency was studied. The change in band gap energy of TiO2 nanoparticles after doping with Fe has been studied. Significant enhancement in photo catalytic property of TiO2 after Fe doping under light exposure conditions has been investigated. Acute exposure to non-biodegradable Rhodamine B resulted in many health problems like burning of eyes, skin irritation, nasal burning, and chest pain etc. Therefore, degradation of this dye is needed to save environment and animals. Considering the similar radius of Fe3+ and Ti4+ ions (respectively 0.64 Å and 0.68 Å), titanium position in the lattice of TiO2 can be replaced by iron cations easily. The undoped and Fe doped TiO2 nano composites were synthesized by sol-gel method, in which 1.0M% of Fe was doped with TiO2 and then the samples were characterized by using FE-SEM, UV-Visible diffuse spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, and FTIR. Photo catalytic degradation of Rhodamine B dye experiment was carried out in visible light range. After 90 min time duration pink colour of dye turned colourless, indicating significant degradation rate with time.

  15. Enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic behaviors of MFe2O4 (M = Ni, Co, Zn and Sr) modified TiO2 nanorod arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Liu, Xiangxuan; Zhu, Zuoming; Wang, Xuanjun; Xie, Zheng

    2016-07-01

    Modified TiO2 nanomaterials are considered to be promising in energy conversion and ferrites modification may be one of the most efficient modifications. In this research, various ferrites, incorporated with various cations (MFe2O4, M = Ni, Co, Zn, and Sr), are utilized to modify the well aligned TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRAs), which is synthesized by hydrothermal method. It is found that all MFe2O4/TiO2 NRAs show obvious red shift into the visible light region compared with the TiO2 NRAs. In particular, NiFe2O4 modification is demonstrated to be the best way to enhance the photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 NRAs. Furthermore, the separation and transfer of charge carriers after MFe2O4 modification are clarified by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Finally, the underlying mechanism accounting for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of MFe2O4/TiO2 NRAs is proposed. Through comparison among different transition metals modified TiO2 with the same synthesis process and under the same evaluating condition, this work may provide new insight in designing modified TiO2 nanomaterials as visible light active photocatalysts.

  16. Photocatalytic degradation of commercial phoxim over La-doped TiO2 nanoparticles in aqueous suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ke; Peng, Tianyou; Chen, Hao; Liu, Juan; Zan, Lin

    2009-03-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of commercial phoxim emulsion in aqueous suspension was investigated by using La-doped mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticles (m-TiO2) as the photocatalyst under UV irradiation. Effects of La-doping level, calcination temperature, and additional amount of the photocatalyst on the photocatalytic degradation efficiency were investigated in detail. Experimental results indicate that 20 mg L(-1) phoxim in 0.5 g L(-1) La/m-TiO2 suspension (the initial pH 4.43) can be decomposed as prolonging the irradiation time. Almost 100% phoxim was decomposed after 4 h irradiation according to the spectrophotometric analyses, whereas the mineralization rate of phoxim just reached ca. 80% as checked by ion chromatography (IC) analyses. The elimination of the organic solvent in the phoxim emulsion as well as the formation and decomposition of some degradation intermediates were observed by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS). On the basis of the analysis results on the photocatalytic degradation intermediates, two possible photocatalytic degradation pathways are proposed under the present experimental conditions, which reveal that both the hydrolysis and adsorption of phoxim under UV light irradiation play important roles during the photocatalytic degradation of phoxim.

  17. A short literature survey on iron and cobalt ion doped TiO2 thin films and photocatalytic activity of these films against fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatlıdil, İlknur; Bacaksız, Emin; Buruk, Celal Kurtuluş; Breen, Chris; Sökmen, Münevver

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Co or Fe doped TiO 2 thin films were prepared by sol–gel method. ► We obtained lower E g values for Fe-doped and Co-TiO 2 thin films. ► Doping greatly affected the size and shape of the TiO 2 nanoparticles. ► Photocatalytic killing effect of the doped TiO 2 thin films on C. albicans and A. niger was significantly higher than undoped TiO 2 thin film for short exposure periods. - Abstract: In this study, a short recent literature survey which concentrated on the usage of Fe 3+ or Co 2+ ion doped TiO 2 thin films and suspensions were summarized. Additionally, a sol–gel method was used for preparation of the 2% Co or Fe doped TiO 2 thin films. The surface of the prepared materials was characterised using scanning-electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and band gap of the films were calculated from the transmission measurements that were taken over the range of 190 and 1100 nm. The E g value was 3.40 eV for the pure TiO 2 , 3.00 eV for the Fe-doped TiO 2 film and 3.25 eV for Co-TiO 2 thin film. Iron or cobalt doping at lower concentration produce more uniformed particles and doping greatly affected the size and shape of the TiO 2 nanoparticles. Photocatalytic killing effect of the 2% Co doped TiO 2 thin film on Candida albicans was significantly higher than Fe doped TiO 2 thin film for short and long exposure periods. Doped thin films were more effective on Aspergillus niger for short exposure periods.

  18. Monitoring of TiO2-catalytic UV-LED photo-oxidation of cyanide contained in mine wastewater and leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Hee; Lee, Sang Woo; Lee, Gye Min; Lee, Byung-Tae; Yun, Seong-Taek; Kim, Soon-Oh

    2016-01-01

    A photo-oxidation process using UV-LEDs and TiO2 was studied for removal of cyanide contained in mine wastewater and leachates. This study focused on monitoring of a TiO2-catalyzed LED photo-oxidation process, particularly emphasizing the effects of TiO2 form and light source on the efficiency of cyanide removal. The generation of hydroxyl radicals was also examined during the process to evaluate the mechanism of the photo-catalytic process. The apparent removal efficiency of UV-LEDs was lower than that achieved using a UV-lamp, but cyanide removal in response to irradiation as well as consumption of electrical energy was observed to be higher for UV-LEDs than for UV-lamps. The Degussa P25 TiO2 showed the highest performance of the TiO2 photo-catalysts tested. The experimental results indicate that hydroxyl radicals oxidize cyanide to OCN(-), NO2(-), NO3(-), HCO3(-), and CO3(2-), which have lower toxicity than cyanide. In addition, the overall efficacy of the process appeared to be significantly affected by diverse operational parameters, such as the mixing ratio of anatase and rutile, the type of gas injected, and the number of UV-LEDs used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hierarchical architectures of ZnS–In2S3 solid solution onto TiO2 nanofibers with high visible-light photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chengbin; Meng, Deshui; Li, Yue; Wang, Longlu; Liu, Yutang; Luo, Shenglian

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A unique hierarchical architecture of ZnS–In 2 S 3 solid solution onto TiO 2 nanofibers was fabricated. The hierarchical heterostructures exhibit high visible light photocatalytic activity and outstanding recycling performance. - Highlights: • Novel hierarchical heterostructure of TiO 2 @ZnS–In 2 S 3 solid solution. • Efficient inhibition of ZnS–In 2 S 3 solid solution aggregation. • High visible light photocatalytic activity. • Highly stable recycling performance. - Abstract: A unique hierarchical architecture of ZnS–In 2 S 3 solid solution nanostructures onto TiO 2 nanofibers (TiO 2 @ZnS–In 2 S 3 ) has been successfully fabricated by simple hydrothermal method. The ZnS–In 2 S 3 solid solution nanostructures exhibit a diversity of morphologies: nanosheet, nanorod and nanoparticle. The porous TiO 2 nanofiber templates effectively inhibit the aggregation growth of ZnS–In 2 S 3 solid solution. The formation of ZnS–In 2 S 3 solid solution is proved by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the intimate contact between TiO 2 nanofibers and ZnS–In 2 S 3 solid solution favors fast transfer of photogenerated electrons. The trinary TiO 2 @ZnS–In 2 S 3 heterostructures exhibit high adsorption capacity and visible light photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B dye (RhB), remarkably superior to pure TiO 2 nanofibers or binary structures (ZnS/TiO 2 nanofibers, In 2 S 3 /TiO 2 nanofibers and ZnS–In 2 S 3 solid solution). Under visible light irradiation the RhB photocatalytic degradation rate over TiO 2 @ZnS–In 2 S 3 heterostructures is about 16.7, 12.5, 6.3, 5.9, and 2.2 times that over pure TiO 2 nanofibers, ZnS nanoparticles, In 2 S 3 /TiO 2 nanofibers, ZnS/TiO 2 nanofibers, and ZnS-In 2 S 3 solid solution, respectively. Furthermore, the TiO 2 @ZnS–In 2 S 3 heterostructures show highly stable recycling performance

  20. Physicochemical Study of Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Supported Palygorskite Clay Mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahcen Bouna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the influence of physicochemical parameters, namely, the photocatalyst loading, dye concentration, and pH of polluted solutions, on the degradation efficiency of Orange G (OG solutions containing TiO2 nanoparticles supported on palygorskite clay mineral (TiO2-Pal. The TiO2 photocatalyst attached to natural palygorskite fibers was elaborated by colloidal sol-gel route. It exhibits the anatase structure that is the most photoactive crystallographic form. The highest performances of supported photocatalyst on OG degradation were found using an optimum amount of TiO2-Pal around 0.8 g·L−1, which corresponds properly to ca. 0.4 g·L−1 of TiO2. This amount is interestingly lower than the 2.5 g·L−1 generally reported when using pure unsupported TiO2 powder. The photodegradation rate increases by decreasing OG initial concentration, and it was found significantly higher when the OG solution is either acidic (pH<4 or basic (pH≈11. For OG concentrations in the range 5×10-6– 5×10-4 M, the kinetic law of the OG degradation in presence of TiO2-Pal is similar to that reported for unsupported TiO2 nanopowder. It follows a Langmuir-Hinshelwood model with a first-order reaction and an apparent rate constant of about 2.9×10-2 min−1.

  1. One-Step Nonaqueous Synthesis of Pure Phase TiO2 Nanocrystals from TiCl4 in Butanol and Their Photocatalytic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tieping Cao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure phase TiO2 nanomaterials were synthesized by an autoclaving treatment of TiCl4 with butanol as a single alcohol source. It was found that the control of molar ratio of TiCl4 to butanol played an important role in determining the TiO2 crystal phase and morphology. A high molar ratio of TiCl4 to butanol favored the formation of anatase nanoparticles, whereas rutile nanorods were selectively obtained at a low molar ratio of TiCl4 to butanol. Evaluation of the photocatalytic activity of the synthesized TiO2 was performed in terms of decomposition of organic dye rhodamine B under ultraviolet irradiation. It turned out that the as-synthesized TiO2 crystallites possessed higher photocatalytic activities toward bleaching rhodamine B than Degussa P25, benefiting from theirhigh surface area, small crystal size as well as high crystallinity.

  2. TiO2-based photocatalytic disinfection of microbes in aqueous media: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxma Reddy, P Venkata; Kavitha, Beluri; Kumar Reddy, Police Anil; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2017-04-01

    The TiO 2 based photocatalyst has great potential for the disinfection/inactivation of harmful pathogens (such as E.coli in aqueous media) along with its well-known usefulness on various chemical pollutants. The disinfection property of TiO 2 is primarily attributed to surface generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as free metal ions formation. Furthermore, its disinfection capacity and overall performance can be significantly improved through modifications of the TiO 2 material. In this review, we provide a brief survey on the effect of various TiO 2 materials in the disinfection of a wide range of environmentally harmful microbial pathogens (e.g., bacteria, fungi, algae, and viruses) in aqueous media. The influencing factors (such as reactor design, water chemistry, and TiO 2 modifications) of such processes are discussed along with the mechanisms of such disinfection. It is believed that the combined application of disinfection and decontamination will greatly enhance the utilization of TiO 2 photocatalyst as a potential alternative to conventional methods of water purification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. TiO2-ITO and TiO2-ZnO nanocomposites: application on water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessais B.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most promising ideas to enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of the TiO2 is to couple this photocatalyst with other semiconductors. In this work, we report on the development of photo-catalytic properties of two types of composites based on TiO2 – ITO (Indium Tin Oxide and TiO2 – ZnO deposited on conventional ceramic substrates. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM. The photo-catalytic test was carried out under UV light in order to reduce/oxidize a typical textile dye (Cibacron Yellow. The experiment was carried out in a bench scale reactor using a solution having a known initial dye concentration. After optimization, we found that both nanocomposites exhibit better photocatalytic activity compared to the standard photocatalyst P25 TiO2.

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis of TiO2-ZnO-graphene nanocomposite towards photocatalytic and photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayathri, S.; Jayabal, P.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) - Zinc oxide (ZnO) - Graphene (G) nanocomposite was successfully synthesized through facile hydrothermal method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and the micro-Raman spectroscopic technique revealed the formation of TiO 2 -ZnO-Graphene (TZG) nanocomposite. The ZnO and TiO 2 nanoparticles decorated graphene sheets were clearly noticeable in the Field Emission Scanning Electron Micrograph (FE-SEM). The UV-Visible absorption spectra clearly indicated that the formation of TZG nanocomposite enriched the absorption in the visible region. Hence, the prepared nanocomposite can be used as photocatalyst to remove organic dyes from water and as photoanode in the fabrication of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs)

  5. Hydrothermal synthesis of TiO2-ZnO-graphene nanocomposite towards photocatalytic and photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri, S.; Jayabal, P.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2015-06-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) - Zinc oxide (ZnO) - Graphene (G) nanocomposite was successfully synthesized through facile hydrothermal method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and the micro-Raman spectroscopic technique revealed the formation of TiO2-ZnO-Graphene (TZG) nanocomposite. The ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles decorated graphene sheets were clearly noticeable in the Field Emission Scanning Electron Micrograph (FE-SEM). The UV-Visible absorption spectra clearly indicated that the formation of TZG nanocomposite enriched the absorption in the visible region. Hence, the prepared nanocomposite can be used as photocatalyst to remove organic dyes from water and as photoanode in the fabrication of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs).

  6. Photocatalytic oxide films in the built environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österlund, Lars; Topalian, Zareh

    2014-11-01

    The possibility to increase human comfort in buildings is a powerful driving force for the introduction of new technology. Among other things our sense of comfort depends on air quality, temperature, lighting level, and the possibility of having visual contact between indoors and outdoors. Indeed there is an intimate connection between energy, comfort, and health issues in the built environment, leading to a need for intelligent building materials and green architecture. Photocatalytic materials can be applied as coatings, filters, and be embedded in building materials to provide self-cleaning, antibacterial, air cleaning, deodorizing, and water cleaning functions utilizing either solar light or artificial illumination sources - either already present in buildings, or by purposefully designed luminaries. Huge improvements in indoor comfort can thus be made, and also alleviate negative health effects associated with buildings, such as the sick-house syndrome. At the same time huge cost savings can be made by reducing maintenance costs. Photocatalytic oxides can be chemically modified by changing their acid-base surface properties, which can be used to overcome deactivation problems commonly encountered for TiO2 in air cleaning applications. In addition, the wetting properties of oxides can be tailored by surface chemical modifications and thus be made e.g. oleophobic and water repellent. Here we show results of surface acid modified TiO2 coatings on various substrates by means of photo-fixation of surface sulfate species by a method invented in our group. In particular, we show that such surface treatments of photocatalytic concrete made by mixing TiO2 nanoparticles in reactive concrete powders result in concrete surfaces with beneficial self-cleaning properties. We propose that such approaches are feasible for a number of applications in the built environment, including glass, tiles, sheet metals, plastics, etc.

  7. Photocatalytic oxide films in the built environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Österlund, Lars; Topalian, Zareh

    2014-01-01

    The possibility to increase human comfort in buildings is a powerful driving force for the introduction of new technology. Among other things our sense of comfort depends on air quality, temperature, lighting level, and the possibility of having visual contact between indoors and outdoors. Indeed there is an intimate connection between energy, comfort, and health issues in the built environment, leading to a need for intelligent building materials and green architecture. Photocatalytic materials can be applied as coatings, filters, and be embedded in building materials to provide self-cleaning, antibacterial, air cleaning, deodorizing, and water cleaning functions utilizing either solar light or artificial illumination sources – either already present in buildings, or by purposefully designed luminaries. Huge improvements in indoor comfort can thus be made, and also alleviate negative health effects associated with buildings, such as the sick-house syndrome. At the same time huge cost savings can be made by reducing maintenance costs. Photocatalytic oxides can be chemically modified by changing their acid-base surface properties, which can be used to overcome deactivation problems commonly encountered for TiO 2 in air cleaning applications. In addition, the wetting properties of oxides can be tailored by surface chemical modifications and thus be made e.g. oleophobic and water repellent. Here we show results of surface acid modified TiO 2 coatings on various substrates by means of photo-fixation of surface sulfate species by a method invented in our group. In particular, we show that such surface treatments of photocatalytic concrete made by mixing TiO 2 nanoparticles in reactive concrete powders result in concrete surfaces with beneficial self-cleaning properties. We propose that such approaches are feasible for a number of applications in the built environment, including glass, tiles, sheet metals, plastics, etc

  8. Enhanced oxidation of naphthalene using plasma activation of TiO2/diatomite catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zuliang; Zhu, Zhoubin; Hao, Xiaodong; Zhou, Weili; Han, Jingyi; Tang, Xiujuan; Yao, Shuiliang; Zhang, Xuming

    2018-04-05

    Non-thermal plasma technology has great potential in reducing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emission. But in plasma-alone process, various undesired by-products are produced, which causes secondary pollutions. Here, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor has been developed for the oxidation of naphthalene over a TiO 2 /diatomite catalyst at low temperature. In comparison to plasma-alone process, the combination of plasma and TiO 2 /diatomite catalyst significantly enhanced naphthalene conversion (up to 40%) and CO x selectivity (up to 92%), and substantially reduced the formation of aerosol (up to 90%) and secondary volatile organic compounds (up to near 100%). The mechanistic study suggested that the presence of the TiO 2 /diatomite catalyst intensified the electron energy in the DBD. Meantime, the energized electrons generated in the discharge activated TiO 2 , while the presence of ozone enhanced the activity of the TiO 2 /diatomite catalyst. This plasma-catalyst interaction led to the synergetic effect resulting from the combination of plasma and TiO 2 /diatomite catalyst, consequently enhanced the oxidation of naphthalene. Importantly, we have demonstrated the effectiveness of plasma to activate the photocatalyst for the deep oxidation of PAH without external heating, which is potentially valuable in the development of cost-effective gas cleaning process for the removal of PAHs in vehicle applications during cold start conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of electromechanical resonance on photocatalytic reduction of the free-hanging graphene oxide sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostovari, F.; Abdi, Y.; Darbari, S.; Ghasemi, F.

    2013-01-01

    In this report we present a simple, low-temperature method which is compatible with standard technology, to achieve graphene-based devices in large quantity. In this approach we take advantage of photocatalytic behavior of TiO 2 to achieve photocatalytic reduction of chemically synthesized graphene oxide (GO) sheets. TiO 2 nanoparticles have been deposited on GO sheets hanging from Au/SiO 2 /Si interdigital electrodes to realize TiO 2 /GO heterostructures. We investigated photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 nanoparticles in the presence of UV-illumination, to reduce the GO sheets. Based on the Raman spectroscopy, the photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 nanoparticles resulted in a decrease in the number of C–O bonds. Electrical measurements show that graphene sheets with the controlled electrical conductivity were obtained, so that higher illumination time led to higher conductivity and better reduction of GO sheets. Also, strain-induced photocatalytic reduction of the GO sheets has been investigated by their electrical characteristics. It has been shown for the first time that the electromechanical-induced strain enhances the photocatalytic behavior of the fabricated TiO 2 /GO heterostructure significantly.

  10. Ease synthesis of mesoporous WO3-TiO2 nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic performance for photodegradation of herbicide imazapyr under visible light and UV illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Adel A; Abdelfattah, Ibrahim; Helal, Ahmed; Al-Sayari, S A; Robben, L; Bahnemann, D W

    2016-04-15

    Herein, we report the ease synthesis of mesoporous WO3-TiO2 nanocomposites at different WO3 contents (0-5wt%) together with their photocatalytic performance for the degradation of the imazapyr herbicide under visible light and UV illumination. XRD and Raman spectra indicated that the highly crystalline anatase TiO2 phase and monoclinic and triclinic of WO3 were formed. The mesoporous TiO2 exhibits large pore volumes of 0.267cm(3)g-1 and high surface areas of 180m(2)g(-1) but they become reduced to 0.221cm(3)g(-1) and 113m(2)g(-1), respectively upon WO3 incorporation, with tunable mesopore diameter in the range of 5-6.5nm. TEM images show WO3-TiO2 nanocomposites are quite uniform with 10-15nm of TiO2 and 5-10nm of WO3 sizes. Under UV illumination, the overall photocatalytic efficiency of the 3% WO3-TiO2 nanocomposite is 3.5 and 6.6 times higher than that of mesoporous TiO2 and commercial UV-100 photocatalyst, respectively. The 3% WO3-TiO2 nanocomposite is considered to be the optimum photocatalyst which is able to degrade completely (100% conversion) of imazapyr herbicide along 120min with high photonic efficiency ∼8%. While under visible light illumination, the 0.5% WO3-TiO2 nanocomposite is the optimum photocatalyst which achieves 46% photocatalytic efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Surface modification of TiO2 with g-C3N4 for enhanced UV and visible photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Juying; Chen, Ying; Shen, Fan; Wang, Lingzhi; Liu, Yongdi; Zhang, Jinlong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • g-C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 was prepared by a one-step preparation under mild conditions. • Photocatalysts showed excellent activity under both UV and visible light. • A neat surface modification process is proved, excluding influence of N doping. • Two photocatalytic mechanisms under different wavelengths are proposed. • A wide range of available wavelengths would greatly improve practicability of TiO 2 . - Abstract: g-C 3 N 4 modified TiO 2 composites were prepared through a simple calcination process of anatase and cyanamide. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry (DRS), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetry differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), proving a successful modification of TiO 2 with g-C 3 N 4 . Photodegradation of acid orange 7 (AO7) was used to evaluate the photocatalytic activities of the composites, showing excellent activity of them under both visible and UV light. In addition, base treatment was then introduced to investigate the interaction between g-C 3 N 4 and TiO 2 . After removing the g-C 3 N 4 modified on TiO 2 by base, no nitrogen doping is found in TiO 2 lattice, demonstrating the g-C 3 N 4 was surface attached on TiO 2 and attributing all improvement of photocatalytic activity of g-C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 composite to the synergy between the two semiconductors

  12. Evaluation of the antifouling and photocatalytic properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) plasma-grafted poly(acrylic acid) membrane with self-assembled TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Sheng-Jie; Semblante, Galilee Uy; Lu, Shao-Chung; Damodar, Rahul A.; Wei, Ta-Chin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Plasma and grafting parameters that maximized TiO 2 binding sites were found. ► PVDF hydrophilicity was vastly improved compared to other modification techniques. ► At least 1.5% TiO 2 and 30 min UV exposure were needed to attain full flux recovery. ► Photocatalytic membranes could remove up to 42% of 50 mg/l RB5 dye. - Abstract: Immobilization of TiO 2 is a promising approach that produces antifouling and photocatalytic membranes that could help advance wastewater treatment and re-use processes. In this study, poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) was plasma-grafted on commercial poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) to introduce functional groups on the membrane surface that can support the nanoparticles. It was found that plasma treatment at 100 W for 120 s followed by liquid grafting with 70% aqueous AA at 60 °C for 2 h maximized the number of TiO 2 binding sites. Membrane hydrophilicity was tremendously enhanced by the self-assembly of TiO 2 , following a direct proportionality to TiO 2 loading. The membrane with 0.5% TiO 2 loading maintained the highest pure water flux and the best protein antifouling property. UV irradiation triggered the photodegradation of strongly bound foulants, but at least 1.5% TiO 2 and 30 min cumulative irradiation were necessary to completely recover the membrane's original performance. The TiO 2 -modified membranes removed 30–42% of 50 mg/l aqueous Reactive Black 5 (RB5) dye. The fabricated membranes demonstrate huge potential for use in membrane reactors with high hydrophilicity, fouling mitigation, and photocatalytic capability.

  13. Photocatalytic degradation of malathion using Zn2+-doped TiO2 nanoparticles: statistical analysis and optimization of operating parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseri, Simin; Omidvar Borna, Mohammad; Esrafili, Ali; Rezaei Kalantary, Roshanak; Kakavandi, Babak; Sillanpää, Mika; Asadi, Anvar

    2018-02-01

    A Zn2+-doped TiO2 is successfully synthesized by a facile photodeposition method and used in the catalytic photo-degradation of organophosphorus pesticide, malathion. The obtained photocatalysts are characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD results confirm the formation of the anatase and rutile phases for the Zn2+-doped TiO2 nanoparticles, with crystallite sizes of 12.9 nm. Zn2+-doped TiO2 that was synthesized by 3.0%wt Zn doping at 200 °C exhibited the best photocatalytic activity. 60 sets of experiments were conducted using response surface methodology (RSM) by adjusting five operating parameters, i.e. initial malathion concentration, catalyst dose, pH, reaction time at five levels and presence or absence of UV light. The analysis revealed that all considered parameters are significant in the degradation process in their linear terms. The optimum values of the variables were found to be 177.59 mg/L, 0.99 g/L, 10.99 and 81.04 min for initial malathion concentration, catalyst dose, pH and reaction time, respectively, under UV irradiation (UV ON). Under the optimized conditions, the experimental values of degradation and mineralization were 98 and 74%, respectively. Moreover, the effects of competing anions and H2O2 on photocatalyst process were also investigated.

  14. Photocatalytic behaviors and structural characterization of nanocrystalline Fe-doped TiO2 synthesized by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Hong, Hyun Seon; Kim, Sun Jae; Song, Jae Sung; Lee, Kyung Sub

    2004-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Fe-doped TiO 2 powders were synthesized by mechanical alloying (MA) with varying Fe contents from 0 up to 4.8 wt.% to shift the absorption threshold into the visible light region. The photocatalytic feasibility of the Fe-doped TiO 2 powder was evaluated by quantifying the visible light absorption capacity using ultraviolet and visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Effects of Fe additions on the crystal structures and the morphologies of the Fe-doped powders were also investigated as a function of the doping content using transmission electron microscopy-electron diffraction pattern (TEM-EDP), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The UV-Vis study showed that the UV absorption for the Fe-doped powder moved to a longer wavelength (red shift) and the photoefficiency was enhanced. Based on the analysis of the photoluminescence spectra, the red shift was believed to be induced by localizing the dopant level near the valence band of TiO 2 . The UV-Vis absorption depended on the Fe concentration. TEM-EDP and XRD investigations showed that the Fe-doped powder had a rutile phase in which the added Fe atoms were dissolved. The rutile phase was composed of spherical particles and chestnut bur shaped particles, resulting in a larger surface area than the spherical P-25 powder

  15. Influence of Operational Parameters on the Photocatalytic Activity of Powdered TiO2 for the Reduction of CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oman Zuas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this report, the results from a study on the influence of operational parameters on TiO2 photocatalytic activity for CO2 reduction under an ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis illumination are presented. The results indicated that the TiO2 was found to be active for CO2 reduction with CH3OH as the major products, while other minor products (CO, CH4, and C2H4 were also detected. In addition, the formation of such reduction products was obviously influenced by the operational parameters. Under this study, the optimum operational parameters for CO2 reduction at 298 °K were determined to be: NaOH concentration 0.2 M, TiO2 dosage 2 g/L, volume of the reaction media 75 mL, the pressure of system 800 kPa. It was also found that the increase in UV-vis illumination time have increased the yield of product formation. A possible reaction pathway for the formation of the reduction products is also discussed.

  16. Application of carbon-coated TiO2 for decomposition of methylene blue in a photocatalytic membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozia, Sylwia; Toyoda, Masahiro; Inagaki, Michio; Tryba, Beata; Morawski, Antoni W.

    2007-01-01

    An application of carbon-coated TiO 2 for decomposition of methylene blue (MB) in a photocatalytic membrane reactor (PMR), coupling photocatalysis and direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) was investigated. Moreover, photodegradation of a model pollutant in a batch reactor without membrane distillation (MD) was also examined. Carbon-modified TiO 2 catalysts containing different amount of carbon and commercially available TiO 2 (ST-01) were used in this study. The carbon-coated catalyst prepared from a mixture of ST-01 and polyvinyl alcohol in the mass ratio of 70/30 was the most effective in degradation of MB from all of the photocatalysts applied. Photodecomposition of MB on the recovered photocatalysts was lower than on the fresh ones. The photodegradation of MB in the PMR was slower than in the batch reactor, what probably resulted from shorter time of exposure of the catalyst particles to UV irradiation. The MD process could be successfully applied for separation of photocatalyst and by-products from the feed solution

  17. Enhancement of photocatalytic degradation of polyethylene plastic with CuPc modified TiO2 photocatalyst under solar light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xu; Li Zongwei; Chen Yi; Shi Liyi; Zhu Yongfa

    2008-01-01

    Solid-phase photocatalytic degradation of polyethylene (PE) plastic, one of the most common commercial plastic, over copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) modified TiO 2 (TiO 2 /CuPc) photocatalyst was investigated in the ambient air under solar light irradiation. Higher PE weight loss rate, greater texture change; more amount of generated CO 2 , which is the main product of the photocatalytic degradation of the composite PEC plastic can be achieved in the system of PE-(TiO 2 /CuPc) in comparison with PE-TiO 2 system. The CuPc promoted charge separation of TiO 2 and enhanced the photocatalytic degradation of PE based on the analysis of surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS). During the photodegradation of PE plastic, the reactive oxygen species generated on TiO 2 or TiO 2 /CuPc particle surfaces play important roles. The present study demonstrates that the combination of polymer plastic with TiO 2 /CuPc composite photocatalyst in the form of thin film is a practical and useful way to photodegrade plastic contaminants under solar light irradiation

  18. Graphene and TiO_2 co-modified flower-like Bi_2O_2CO_3: A novel multi-heterojunction photocatalyst with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ao, Yanhui; Xu, Liya; Wang, Peifang; Wang, Chao; Hou, Jun; Qian, Jin; Li, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel multi-heterojunction photocatalyst (graphene and TiO_2 co-modified flower-like Bi_2O_2CO_3) was prepared for the first time. The as-obtained samples showed much higher activity compared to pure Bi_2O_2CO_3, TiO_2 and GR–Bi_2O_2CO_3 for dye degradation, which is almost 14 times higher than that of pure Bi_2O_2CO_3 and also much higher than the sum of graphene–Bi_2O_2CO_3 and TiO_2. - Highlights: • Graphene and TiO_2 co-modified flower-like Bi_2O_2CO_3 was prepared for the first time. • The sample shows enhanced photocatalytic activity due to the formation of multi-heterojunction. • The sample also exhibits a synergetic effect of graphene and TiO_2. • The composite photocatalyst shows a good stability for dye degradation. - Abstract: In this paper, graphene (GR) and titania co-modified flower-like Bi_2O_2CO_3 multi-heterojunction composite photocatalysts were prepared by a simple and feasible two step hydrothermal process. The prepared samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectrometry (DRS), photoluminescence (PL), N_2 adsorption–desorption isotherm, and photo-induced current. The photocatalytic activity was investigated by the degradation of MO under UV light irradiation. The as prepared multi-heterojunction GR/Bi_2O_2CO_3/TiO_2 composites exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity than pure Bi_2O_2CO_3, TiO_2 and GR–Bi_2O_2CO_3. The higher performance of GR/Bi_2O_2CO_3/TiO_2 can be ascribed to the formation of multi-heterojunctions, which promote the effective separation of photo-induced electron–hole pairs. Moreover, the higher photocatalytic activity can also be ascribed to the high surface area of GR and TiO_2, which offers more active sites for the photodegradation reaction. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity of GR/Bi_2O_2CO_3/TiO_2 remained without striking decrease after five cycles

  19. Fabrication of TiO2/MoS2@zeolite photocatalyst and its photocatalytic activity for degradation of methyl orange under visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Weiping; Xiao, Xinyan; Zheng, Lili; Wan, Caixia

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel approach was developed for fabrication of TiO 2 /MoS 2 @zeolite photocatalyst using bulk MoS 2 as a photosensitizer and zeolite as carrier. The as-prepared TiO 2 /MoS 2 @zeolite composite exhibited excellent photocatalytic performance for degradation of methyl orange under visible-light irradiation. - Highlights: • Ultrasound-exfoliation and hydrothermal reforming technique were employed for generating nano-MoS 2 from micro-MoS 2 . • The embedded sensitizer composite mode of (TiO 2 /MoS 2 /TiO 2 ) was used in the fabrication of TiO 2 /MoS 2 @zeolite composite photocatalyst. • The photocatalytic mechanism of TiO 2 /MoS 2 @zeolite photocatalyst was presented. - Abstract: TiO 2 /MoS 2 @zeolite composite photocatalysts with visible-light activity were fabricated via a simple ultrasonic-hydrothermal synthesis method, using TiCl 4 as Ti source, MoS 2 as a direct sensitizer, glycerol water solution with certain dispersion agent as hydrolytic agent, and zeolite as carrier. The structure, morphology, composition, optical properties, and specific surface area of the as-prepared photocatalysts were characterized by using XRD, FTIR, SEM–EDS, TEM, XPS, UV–vis, PL and BET analyzer, respectively. And the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) in aqueous suspension has been employed to evaluate the photocatalytic activity and degradation kinetics of as-prepared photocatalysts with xenon lamp as irradiation source. The results indicate that: (1) TiO 2 /MoS 2 @zeolite composite photocatalysts exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activities for methyl orange (MO) degradation compared to Degussa P25; (2) photocatalytic degradation of MO obeys Langmuir–Hinshelwood kinetic model (pseudo-first order reaction), and its degradation rate constant (k app ) (2.304 h −1 ) is higher than that of Degussa P25 (0.768 h −1 ); (3) the heterostructure consisted of zeolite, MoS 2 and TiO 2 nanostructure could provide synergistic effect for degradation

  20. Influence of Se/N Codoping on the Structural, Optical, Electronic and Photocatalytic Properties of TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelda Y. Gurkan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Se4+ and N3− ions were used as codopants to enhance the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 under sunlight irradiation. The Se/N codoped photocatalysts were prepared through a simple wet-impregnation method followed by heat treatment using SeCl4 and urea as the dopant sources. The prepared photocatalysts were well characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, UV-diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-DRS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Raman spectroscopy. The codoped samples showed photoabsorption in the visible light range from 430 nm extending up to 580 nm. The photocatalytic activity of the Se/N codoped photocatalysts was evaluated by degradation of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP. The degradation of 4-NP was highly increased for the Se/N codoped samples compared to the undoped and single doped samples under both UV-A and sunlight irradiation. Aiming to determine the electronic structure and dopant locations, quantum chemical modeling of the undoped and Se/N codoped anatase clusters was performed using Density Functional Theory (DFT calculations with the hybrid functional (B3LYP and double-zeta (LanL2DZ basis set. The results revealed that Se/N codoping of TiO2 reduces the band gap due to mixing of N2p with O2p orbitals in the valence band and also introduces additional electronic states originating from Se3p orbitals in the band gap.

  1. Ni-Nanocluster Modified Black TiO2 with Dual Active Sites for Selective Photocatalytic CO2 Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billo, Tadesse; Fu, Fang-Yu; Raghunath, Putikam; Shown, Indrajit; Chen, Wei-Fu; Lien, Hsiang-Ting; Shen, Tzu-Hsien; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Chan, Ting-Shan; Huang, Kuo-You; Wu, Chih-I; Lin, M C; Hwang, Jih-Shang; Lee, Chih-Hao; Chen, Li-Chyong; Chen, Kuei-Hsien

    2018-01-01

    One of the key challenges in artificial photosynthesis is to design a photocatalyst that can bind and activate the CO 2 molecule with the smallest possible activation energy and produce selective hydrocarbon products. In this contribution, a combined experimental and computational study on Ni-nanocluster loaded black TiO 2 (Ni/TiO 2[Vo] ) with built-in dual active sites for selective photocatalytic CO 2 conversion is reported. The findings reveal that the synergistic effects of deliberately induced Ni nanoclusters and oxygen vacancies provide (1) energetically stable CO 2 binding sites with the lowest activation energy (0.08 eV), (2) highly reactive sites, (3) a fast electron transfer pathway, and (4) enhanced light harvesting by lowering the bandgap. The Ni/TiO 2[Vo] photocatalyst has demonstrated highly selective and enhanced photocatalytic activity of more than 18 times higher solar fuel production than the commercial TiO 2 (P-25). An insight into the mechanisms of interfacial charge transfer and product formation is explored. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Optimization of photocatalytic treatment of dye solution on supported TiO2 nanoparticles by central composite design: Intermediates identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khataee, A.R.; Fathinia, M.; Aber, S.; Zarei, M.

    2010-01-01

    Optimization of photocatalytic degradation of C.I. Basic Blue 3 (BB3) under UV light irradiation using TiO 2 nanoparticles in a rectangular photoreactor was studied. The investigated TiO 2 was Millennium PC-500 (crystallites mean size 5-10 nm) immobilized on non-woven paper. Central composite design was used for optimization of UV/TiO 2 process. Predicted values of decolorization efficiency were found to be in good agreement with experimental values (R 2 = 0.9686 and Adj-R 2 = 0.9411). Optimization results showed that maximum decolorization efficiency was achieved at the optimum conditions: initial dye concentration 10 mg/L, UV light intensity 47.2 W/m 2 , flow rate 100 mL/min and reaction time 120 min. Photocatalytic mineralization of BB3 was monitored by total organic carbon (TOC) decrease, and changes in UV-vis and FT-IR spectra. The photodegradation compounds were analyzed by UV-vis, FT-IR and GC-mass techniques. The degradation pathway of BB3 was proposed based on the identified compounds.

  3. Assembly, characterization, and photocatalytic activities of TiO2 nanotubes/CdS quantum dots nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Qiang; Fu Minglai; Yuan Baoling; Cui Haojie; Shi Jianwen

    2011-01-01

    The semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) can be very efficient to tune the response of photocatalyst of TiO 2 to visible light. In this study, CdS QDs formed in situ with about 8 nm have been successfully deposited onto the surfaces of TiO 2 nanotubes (TNTs) to form TNTs/CdS QDs nanocomposites by use of a simple bifunctional organic linker, thiolactic acid. The diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) spectra of as prepared samples showed that the absorption edge of the TNTs/CdS composite is extended to visible range, with absorption edge at 530 nm. The photocatalytic activity and stability of TNTs/CdS were also evaluated for the photodegradation of rhodamine B. The results showed that when TNTs/CdS QDs was used, photocatalytic degradation of RhB under visible light irradiation reached 91.6%, higher than 45.4 and 30.5% for P25 and TNTs, respectively. This study indicated that the TNTs/CdS QDs nanocomposites were superior catalysts for photodegradation under visible light irradiation compared with TNTs and P25 samples, which may find wide application as a powerful photocatalyst in environmental field.

  4. Low temperature synthesis of iodine-doped TiO2 nanocrystallites with enhanced visible-induced photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yi; Fu Jiwen; Tao Xia; Li Xin; Chen Jianfeng

    2011-01-01

    Iodine-doped TiO 2 nanocrystallites (denoted as I-TNCs) were prepared via a newly developed triblock copolymer-mediated sol-gel method at a temperature of 393 K. I-doping, crystallization and the formation of porous structure have been simultaneously achieved. The obtained particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-vis spectrophotometer. The results indicated that the as-prepared I-TNCs possessed a diameter of ca. 5 nm with anatase crystalline structure and a specific surface area of over 200 m 2 g -1 . The presence of iodine expanded the photoresponse in visible light range, and led to enrich in surface hydroxyl group on the TiO 2 surface. Compared with the commercial photocatalyst P25, the I-TNCs significantly enhanced the photocatalytic efficiency in the degradation of rhodamine B and 2,4-dichlorophenol, and the I-TNCs with 2.5 mol% doping ratio exhibited the best photocatalytic activity.

  5. Variable range hopping in TiO2 insulating layers for oxide electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Zhao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 thin films are of importance in oxide electronics, e.g., Pt/TiO2/Pt for memristors and Co-TiO2/TiO2/Co-TiO2 for spin tunneling devices. When such structures are deposited at a variety of oxygen pressures, how does TiO2 behave as an insulator? We report the discovery of an anomalous resistivity minimum in a TiO2 film at low pressure (not strongly dependent on deposition temperature. Hall measurements rule out band transport and in most of the pressure range the transport is variable range hopping (VRH though below 20 K it was difficult to differentiate between Mott and Efros-Shklovskii's (ES mechanism. Magnetoresistance (MR of the sample with lowest resistivity was positive at low temperature (for VRH but negative above 10 K indicating quantum interference effects.

  6. Graphene oxide (rGO)-metal oxide (TiO2/Fe3O4) based nanocomposites for the removal of methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Soma; Benjwal, Poonam; Singh, Milan; Kar, Kamal K.

    2018-05-01

    Herein, ternary nanocomposites based on titanium dioxide, ferric oxide and reduced graphene oxide (GO) have been developed for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue. The nanocomposites are prepared by simple sol-gel and wet assembly methods with varying weight ratio of each components to obtain efficient photocatalytic degradation. Due to the synergistic effect among the three components, a swift removal of methylene blue becomes possible under visible and UV light. The rGO-Fe3O4-TiO2 nanocomposite having composition 1:1:2 has achieved maximum degradation of methylene blue from the aqueous solution. About 99% of the dye has been removed within 6 min under UV irradiation, while in presence of visible light, 94% has been degraded from the wastewater. The enhancement of photocatalytic activity in this ternary system is attributed to the efficient separation of charge carriers from TiO2 to rGO under the exposure of light and the initiation of photo-Fenton reaction due to the incorporated Fe3O4 nanoparticles in presence of H2O2, which provides highly reactive hydroxyl ions that mineralize the pollutants. All these results indicate that these ternary nanocomposites possess great potential for both UV and visible light driven methylene blue destruction from the wastewater.

  7. Photocatalytic degradation of metoprolol tartrate in suspensions of two TiO2-based photocatalysts with different surface area. Identification of intermediates and proposal of degradation pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramović, Biljana; Kler, Sanja; Šojić, Daniela; Laušević, Mila; Radović, Tanja; Vione, Davide

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Kinetics and efficiency of photocatalytic degradation of the β 1 -blocker metoprolol tartrate (MET). ► Two TiO 2 specimens employed. ► Faster degradation of MET, but slower mineralization, obtained with the TiO 2 specimen having lower surface area. ► Photocatalytic transformation pathways of MET including mineralization. - Abstract: This study investigates the efficiency of the photocatalytic degradation of metoprolol tartrate (MET), a widely used β 1 -blocker, in TiO 2 suspensions of Wackherr's “Oxyde de titane standard” and Degussa P25. The study encompasses transformation kinetics and efficiency, identification of intermediates and reaction pathways. In the investigated range of initial concentrations (0.01–0.1 mM), the photocatalytic degradation of MET in the first stage of the reaction followed approximately a pseudo-first order kinetics. The TiO 2 Wackherr induced a significantly faster MET degradation compared to TiO 2 Degussa P25 when relatively high substrate concentrations were used. By examining the effect of ethanol as a scavenger of hydroxyl radicals (·OH), it was shown that the reaction with ·OH played the main role in the photocatalytic degradation of MET. After 240 min of irradiation the reaction intermediates were almost completely mineralized to CO 2 and H 2 O, while the nitrogen was predominantly present as NH 4 + . Reaction intermediates were studied in detail and a number of them were identified using LC–MS/MS (ESI+), which allowed the proposal of a tentative pathway for the photocatalytic transformation of MET as a function of the TiO 2 specimen.

  8. Photocatalytic performance of Cu-doped TiO2 nanofibers treated by the hydrothermal synthesis and air-thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Chung; Wu, Po-Yeh; Lin, Ting-Han; Lin, Tz-Feng

    2018-02-01

    Series of transition metal-doped TiO2 (metal/TiO2) is prepared by combining the hydrothermal synthesis and air-thermal treatment without any reduction process. The selected transition metal precursors, including Ag, Au, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pd, Pt, Y, and Zn, were individually doped into TiO2 nanofibers to evaluate the photocatalytic degradation activity and photocatalytic hydrogen generation. Consider the photocatalytic performance of these synthesized metal/TiO2 under UV-A irradiation, copper doped TiO2 nanofibers (Cu/TiO2 NFs) was chosen for further study due to its extraordinary reactivity. Systematical studies were spread to optimize the doping concentration and the calcination condition for much higher photocatalytic activity Cu/TiO2 NFs. In the photocatalytic degradation test, 0.5 mol%-Cu/TiO2 NFs calcined at 650 °C exhibits the highest activity, which is even higher than commercial TiO2-AEROXIDE® TiO2 P25 under UV-A irradiation. The synthesized 0.5 mol%-Cu/TiO2-650 NFs also have the capability in the photocatalytic hydrogen production. The hydrogen evolution rates are 200 μmol/g·h under UV-A irradiation and 280 μmol/g·h under UV-B irradiation. The density of state calculated by CASTEP for Cu/TiO2 indicates that Cu doping contributes to the states near valence band edge and narrows the band gap. The disclosed process in this study is industrial safe, convenient and cost-effective. We further produce a significant amount of TiO2-based catalysts without any hydrogen reduction treatment.

  9. Preparation of Ag deposited TiO2 (Ag/TiO2) composites and investigation on visible-light photocatalytic degradation activity in magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Ma, C. H.; Wang, J.; Li, S. G.; Li, Y.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, Ag deposited TiO2 (Ag/TiO2) composites were prepared by three different methods (Ultraviolet Irradiation Deposition (UID), Vitamin C Reduction (VCR) and Sodium Borohydride Reduction (SBR)) for the visible-light photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes in magnetic field. And then the prepared Ag deposited TiO2 (Ag/TiO2) composites were characterized physically by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The visible-light photocatalytic activities of these three kinds of Ag deposited TiO2 (Ag/TiO2) composites were examined and compared through the degradation of several organic dyes under visible-light irradiation in magnetic field. In addition, some influence factors such as visible-light irradiation time, organic dye concentration, revolution speed, magnetic field intensity and organic dye kind on the visible-light photocatalytic activity of Ag deposited TiO2 (Ag/TiO2) composite were reviewed. The research results showed that the presence of magnetic field significantly enhanced the visible-light photocatalytic activity of Ag deposited TiO2 (Ag/TiO2) composites and then contributed to the degradation of organic dyes.

  10. Advanced nanoporous TiO2 photocatalysts by hydrogen plasma for efficient solar-light photocatalytic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ha-Rim; Park, So Young; Kim, Hyeran; Lee, Che Yoon; Choi, Saehae; Lee, Soon Chang; Seo, Soonjoo; Park, Edmond Changkyun; Oh, You-Kwan; Song, Chan-Geun; Won, Jonghan; Kim, Youn Jung; Lee, Jouhahn; Lee, Hyun Uk; Lee, Young-Chul

    2016-01-01

    We report an effect involving hydrogen (H2)-plasma-treated nanoporous TiO2(H-TiO2) photocatalysts that improve photocatalytic performance under solar-light illumination. H-TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared by application of hydrogen plasma of assynthesized TiO2(a-TiO2) without annealing process. Compared with the a-TiO2, the H-TiO2 exhibited high anatase/brookite bicrystallinity and a porous structure. Our study demonstrated that H2 plasma is a simple strategy to fabricate H-TiO2 covering a large surface area that offers many active sites for the extension of the adsorption spectra from ultraviolet (UV) to visible range. Notably, the H-TiO2 showed strong ·OH free-radical generation on the TiO2 surface under both UV- and visible-light irradiation with a large responsive surface area, which enhanced photocatalytic efficiency. Under solar-light irradiation, the optimized H-TiO2 120(H2-plasma treatment time: 120 min) photocatalysts showed unprecedentedly excellent removal capability for phenol (Ph), reactive black 5(RB 5), rhodamine B (Rho B) and methylene blue (MB) — approximately four-times higher than those of the other photocatalysts (a-TiO2 and P25) — resulting in complete purification of the water. Such well-purified water (>90%) can utilize culturing of cervical cancer cells (HeLa), breast cancer cells (MCF-7), and keratinocyte cells (HaCaT) while showing minimal cytotoxicity. Significantly, H-TiO2 photocatalysts can be mass-produced and easily processed at room temperature. We believe this novel method can find important environmental and biomedical applications. PMID:27406992

  11. Synthesis of efficient silica supported TiO_2/Ag_2O heterostructured catalyst with enhanced photocatalytic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelekew, Osman Ahmed; Kuo, Dong-Hau; Yassin, Jemal Mohammed; Ahmed, Kedir Ebrahim; Abdullah, Hairus

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Proposed charge separation mechanism and degradation of dye with photocatalyst under light irradiation. - Highlights: • n-type TiO_2 inside and p-type Ag_2O outside was designed. • The p–n junction formation built in an electric field. • The p–n junction facilitates the electrons and holes separation. • The degradation of dye becomes more effective with Ag_2O/TiO_2 catalyst. - Abstract: We develop the n-type TiO_2 coated on SiO_2 support abbreviated as SiO_2/TiO_2 (ST) followed by deposition of p-type Ag_2O nanoparticles outside for the purpose of photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants. Different composite catalysts were prepared with changing the amount AgNO_3 (such as 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30%) and the composites were abbreviated as ST, STA-5, STA-10, STA-20, and STA-30, respectively. The composite catalysts were characterized with different techniques and tested for Rhodamine B (RhB) dye degradation under UV and visible light. Among the composite catalysts, the degradation efficiency of STA-20 was the highest and it degraded about 99% within 40 min under UV light-irradiation. However, the ST, STA-5, STA-10, and STA-30 composite catalysts could degrade about 21%, 47%, 58%, and 75% of the dye, respectively. Furthermore, the STA-5, STA-10, STA-20, and STA-30 composites were also tested and about 39%, 47%, 57%, and 42% of the dye, respectively, was degraded under visible light source. Hence, the formation of p–n junction heterostructure between n-type TiO_2 and p-type Ag_2O could enhance the degradation of RhB in both UV and visible light irradiation. It could be also potentially applicable photocatalyst for environmental remediation.

  12. Structural and photocatalytic properties of iron- and europium-doped TiO2 nanoparticles obtained under hydrothermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamandescu, L.; Vasiliu, F.; Tarabasanu-Mihaila, D.; Feder, M.; Vlaicu, A.M.; Teodorescu, C.M.; Macovei, D.; Enculescu, I.; Parvulescu, V.; Vasile, E.

    2008-01-01

    Iron- and europium-doped (≤1 at.%) TiO 2 nanoparticles powders have been synthesized by a hydrothermal route at 200 deg. C, starting with TiCl 4 , FeCl 3 .6H 2 O and EuCl 3 .6H 2 O. The structure, morphology and optical peculiarities were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), Moessbauer spectroscopy and UV-vis measurements. The photocatalytic performance was analysed in the photodegradation reaction of phenol. Rietveld refinements of XRD patterns reveal that the as-prepared samples consist in iron- and europium-doped TiO 2 in the tetragonal anatase structural shape, with particle size as low as 15 nm. By means of Moessbauer spectroscopy on both 57 Fe and 151 Eu isotopes as well as by EXAFS analyses, the presence of Fe 3+ and/or Eu 3+ ions in the nanosized powders has been evidenced. It was found that iron and europium ions can substitute for titanium in the anatase structure. From the UV-vis reflection spectra, by using the transformed Kubelka-Munk functions, the band gap energy (E g ) of the hydrothermal samples has been determined in comparison with that of Degussa P-25 photocatalyst. A decrease of E g from 2.9 eV found for Degussa photocatalyst to 2.8 eV for the titania doped with 1 at.% Fe has been evidenced, indicating a valuable absorption shift (∼20 nm) towards visible light region. However, the best photocatalytic activity in the photodegradation reaction of phenol was evidenced for the hydrothermal sample, TiO 2 : 1 at.% Fe, 0.5 at.% Eu, in both UV and visible light regions. The photocatalytic activities of iron-doped and iron-europium-codoped samples are high and practically the same only in visible light. The photocatalytic properties in correlation with the structural and optical peculiarities of the hydrothermal samples are discussed

  13. Revealing the relationship between the photocatalytic property and structure characteristic of reduced TiO2 by hydrogen and carbon monoxide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunpeng; Li, Yuhang; Yang, Siyuan; Lin, Yuan; Zuo, Jianliang; Liang, Hong; Peng, Feng

    2018-06-04

    The hydrogenation (reduction) has been considered as an effective method to improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO2, however, the underlying relationship between structure and photocatalytic performance has still not been adequately unveiled so far. Herein, to obtain insight into the effect of structure on photocatalytic activity, two types of reduced TiO2 were prepared by CO (CO-TiO2) and H2 (H-TiO2), respectively. For H-TiO2, Ti-H bonds and oxygen vacancies are formed on the surface of H-TiO2, resulting in a more disorder surface lattice. However, for CO-TiO2, the more Ti-OH bonds are formed on the surface and the more bulk oxygen vacancies are introduced, the disorder layer of CO-TiO2 is relatively thin owing to the most of surface vacancies repaired by Ti-OH bonds. Under the simulated solar irradiation, the photocatalytic H2 evolution rate of CO-TiO2 reaches 7.17 mmol g-1 h-1, which is 4.14 and 1.50 times those of TiO2 and H-TiO2, respectively. The photocatalytic degradation rate constant of methyl orange on CO-TiO2 is 2.45 and 6.39 times those on H-TiO2 and TiO2. The superior photocatalytic activity of CO-TiO2 is attributed to the effective separation and transfer of the photo-generated electron-hole pairs, due to the synergistic effects of oxygen vacancies and surface Ti-OH bonds. This study reveals the relation between the photocatalytic property and structure, and provides a new method to prepare highly active TiO2 for H2 production and environmental treatment. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Enhanced bonding between TiO2-Graphene oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naknikham, Usuma; Buffa, Vittorio; Yue, Yuanzheng

    analysis. Besides, the study of Ti-O-C and Ti-C interface bonding was carried out using XPS. The band-gap energy was determined using a UV-VIS spectrophotometer equipped with an integrating sphere. Thus, it was possible for us to determine the reactivity of the new photocatalysts under the visible light...... as photocatalysts, which can efficiently react with organic species under solar light and can enhance the adsorption of water pollutants [3]. Many studies have shown that TiO2-GO heterostructures can quickly mineralize organic dyes in solution under UV-light. However, it is not clear if these materials can provide...... the same performances under sunlight and with complex real water systems. Hence, this research aims to study the photocatalystic property on GO-TiO2 composites with aqueous solutions of selected emerging pollutants under visible light. The samples were synthesized via the in-situ sol-gel nucleation...

  15. Hybrid matrices of TiO2 and TiO2–Ag nanofibers with silicone for high water flux photocatalytic degradation of dairy effluent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmad; Alm, Martin; Thomsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    TiO2 and TiO2–Ag nanofibers were produced by electrospinning technique and surface coated on silicone elastomer (diameter: 10.0 mm; thickness: 2.0 mm) by dipcoating method. These coated hybrid nanoporous matrices were characterized by various morphological and physicochemical techniques (like SEM...

  16. Visible light photocatalytic disinfection of E. coli with TiO_2–graphene nanocomposite sensitized with tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi, Rahmatollah; Zargari, Solmaz; Yousefi, Azam; Yaghoubi Berijani, Marzieh; Ghaffarinejad, Ali; Morsali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: TiO_2–graphene nanocomposites with different content of graphene were synthesized via a facile one-step solvothermal method. Photoelectrochemical responses of prepared photocatalysts were measured to determine the optimum content of graphene in TG nanocomposites. The results show that the TG nanocomposite with 3% of graphene has the highest photoactivity. This compound was sensitized with tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin (TGP). The prepared photocatalysts were used for photocatalytic disinfection of E. coli. The results showed that the photocatalytic disinfection of the TG nanocomposite was increased after sensitization with porphyrin. The enhanced photocatalytic performance could be attributed to the synergistic effect between TiO_2, graphene and porphyrin sensitizer in the TGP photocatalyst. - Highlights: • TiO_2–graphene nanocomposites (TG) were synthesized with different content of graphene. • The TG nanocomposite with different content of graphene was sensitized with porphyrin (TGP). • The disinfection of E. coli using TGP was investigated in the visible light. • Porphyrin sensitizer increases effectively the photocatalytic disinfection efficiency of TGP. - Abstract: The present research deals with the development of a new heterogeneous photocatalysis system for disinfection of bacteria from wastewater by using TiO_2–graphene (TG) nanocomposite sensitized with tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin (TCPP). The disinfection of wastewater using this photocatalyst is not reported in the literature yet. All the synthesized materials were thoroughly characterized by Raman, XRD, DRS, BET, and SEM analysis. The optimum content of graphene in the TiO_2–graphene nanocomposite was determined by photocurrent responses of prepared photocatalysts. Subsequently, the photocurrent measurements demonstrate that the TiO_2–graphene nanocomposite with 3% graphene content has higher photoactivity. Furthermore, sensitization of the TiO_2

  17. Síntese, caracterização e atividade fotocatalítica de catalisadores nanoestruturados de TiO2 dopados com metais Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of nanostructured TiO2 catalysts doped with metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Leonardo da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide nanostructured catalysts (nanotubes doped with different metals (silver, gold, copper, palladium and zinc were synthesized by the hydrothermal method in order to promote an increase in their photocatalytic activity under visible light. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and specific area and pore volume determination. The materials' photocatalytic activity was evaluated by rhodamine B decomposition in a glass batch reactor. Under UV radiation, only nanotubes doped with palladium were more active than the TiO2 P25, but the samples doped with silver, palladium and gold exhibited better results than the undoped samples under visible light.

  18. Photocatalytic properties of aqueous systems containing TiO2 nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paušová, Š.; Krýsa, J.; Jirkovský, Jaromír; Forano, C.; Prevot, V.; Mailhot, G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 1 (2011), s. 140-146 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0577 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : TiO2 nanoparticles * photocatalysis * aging Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.407, year: 2011

  19. How phase composition influences optoelectronic and photocatalytic properties of TiO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro, J.T.; Carneiro, Joana T.; Savenije, Tom J.; Moulijn, Jacob A.; Mul, Guido

    2011-01-01

    In the present study the ratio of rutile and anatase phases in sol−gel-synthe-sized TiO2 was varied by calcination at temperatures ranging from 500 to 900 °C. Changes in opto-electronic properties were analyzed by time-resolved microwave conductance measurements (TRMC) and evaluated by comparison of

  20. Feasible synthesis of TiO2 deposited on kaolin for photocatalytic applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Henych, Jiří; Štengl, Václav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 61, 3-4 (2013), s. 165-176 ISSN 0009-8604 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/006 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Homogeneous Hydrolysis * Kaolin * Photocatalysis * TiO2 * Urea Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.398, year: 2013

  1. Influence of silver on photocatalytic activity of TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisen, Carla Yuri; Teodoro, Vinicius; Zaghete, Maria Ap.; Perazolli, Leinig Antonio; Longo, Elson

    2016-01-01

    Full text: This work studied the influence of silver on photo activity of TiO 2 , prepared by Pechini method, in the photodegradation of Rhodamine-B. The catalysts were prepared with different percentage of silver (0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 %) and different calcination temperatures (500, 600 and 700°C), characterized by X-ray diffraction (DRX) and field emission gun - scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM), The powders' photo catalytic activity was defined by Rhodamine-B decolorisation test. The solution containing the dye and the catalyst, in the concentration of 0,01 mmol L -1 e 1,0 g L -1 respectively, were submitted to radiation with 9W germicidal lamp for 120 minutes. The control samples, for comparison effects, were made with TiO 2 anatase (Synth brand) and photolysis tests. In the micrographs, obtained by SEM, all the temperatures and compositions employed presented similar morphologies, it is assumed the calcination temperature rise leads to a decreased apparent porosity and the generation of particles clusters. The X-ray diffractograms indicates the calcination temperature influence in the generation of distinct TiO 2 phases during the catalysts synthesis. Regardless of the TiO 2 proportions, the only actual phase with 500°C calcination is the anatase. At 600°C, the rutile phase coexisting with the anatase phase disappears, and the rutile phase predominates. Among the catalysts, what presented greater activity was the TiO 2 with 0.5% Ag and calcination temperature of 500°C, which degraded around 100% in 60 minutes. References: [1] P. Cozolli, E. Fanizza and A. Agostiano. J. Phys.Chem. B108, 9623-9630, 2004. (author)

  2. Photoelectrochemical oxidation of ibuprofen via Cu_2O-doped TiO_2 nanotube arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Qiannan; Peng, Yen-Ping; Chen, Hanlin; Chang, Ken-Lin; Qiu, Yang-Neng; Lai, Shiau-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A p–n junction material was synthesized to enhance photocatalytic ability. • Cu_2O-doped TiO_2 nanotube arrays works as a photoanode in a PEC system. • Recombination of photo-generated holes and electrons were greatly reduced. • Synergetic effect was quantified in PEC degradation. • Recombination of photogenerated holes and electrons was greatly enhanced. - Abstract: A p–n junction based Cu_2O-doped TiO_2 nanotube arrays (Cu_2O-TNAs) were synthesized and used as a working anode in a photoelectrochemical (PEC) system. The results revealed that the Cu_2O-TNAs were dominated by the anatase phase and responded significantly to visible light. XPS analyses indicated that with an amount of 24.79% Cu doping into the structure, the band gap of Cu_2O-TNAs was greatly reduced. SEM images revealed that the supported TiO_2 nanotubes had diameters of approximately 80 nm and lengths of about 2.63 μm. Upon doping with Cu_2O, the TiO_2 nanotubes maintained their structural integrity, exhibiting no significant morphological change, favoring PEC applications. Under illumination, the photocurrent from Cu_2O/TNAs was 2.4 times larger than that from TNAs, implying that doping with Cu_2O significantly improved electron mobility by reducing the rate of recombination of electron-hole pairs. The EIS and Bode plot revealed that the estimated electron lifetimes, τ_e_l, of TNAs and Cu_2O/TNAs were 6.91 and 26.26 ms, respectively. The efficiencies of degradation of Ibuprofen by photoelectrochemical, photocatalytic (PC), electrochemical (EC) and photolytic (P) methods were measured.

  3. Photocatalytic antibacterial effects on TiO2-anatase upon UV-A and UV-A/VIS threshold irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanyun; Geis-Gerstorfer, Jürgen; Scheideler, Lutz; Rupp, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Photocatalysis mediated by the anatase modification of titanium dioxide (TiO2) has shown antibacterial effects in medical applications. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of expanding the excitation wavelengths for photocatalytic antibacterial effects from ultraviolet (UV) into the visible light range. After deposition of salivary pellicle and adhesion of Streptococcus gordonii on anatase, different irradiation protocols were applied to induce photocatalysis: ultraviolet A (UV-A) > 320 nm; ultraviolet/visible (UV-A/VIS) light > 380 nm and > 390 nm; and VIS light 400-410 nm. A quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) tests and microscopic examination were used to observe the photoinduced antibacterial effects. Salivary pellicle could be photocatalytically decomposed under all irradiation protocols. In contrast, effective photocatalytic attack of bacteria could be observed by UV-A as well as by UV-A/VIS at 380 nm < λ < 390 nm only. Wavelengths above 380 nm show promise for in situ therapeutic antifouling applications.

  4. Synthesis of hierarchically meso-macroporous TiO2/CdS heterojunction photocatalysts with excellent visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haixin; Cui, Shu; Yang, Lan; Li, Guodong; Li, Nan; Li, Xiaotian

    2018-02-15

    Photocatalysts with a hierarchically porous structure have attracted considerable attention owing to their wide pore size distribution and high surface area, which enhance the efficiency of transporting species to active sites. In this study, hierarchically meso-macroporous TiO 2 photocatalysts decorated with highly dispersed CdS nanoparticles were synthesized via hydrolysis, followed by a hydrothermal treatment. The textural mesopores and interconnected pore framework provided more accessible active sites and efficient mass transport for the photocatalytic process. The light collection efficiency was enhanced because of multiple scattering of incident light in the macropores. Moreover, the formation of a heterojunction between the CdS and TiO 2 nanoparticles extended the photoresponse of TiO 2 to the visible-light range and enhanced the charge separation efficiency. Therefore, the hierarchically meso-macroporous TiO 2 /CdS photocatalysts exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodaming B under visible-light irradiation. Trapping experiments demonstrated that superoxide radicals (O 2 - ) and hydroxyl radicals (OH) were the main active species in photocatalysis. A reasonable photocatalytic mechanism of TiO 2 /CdS heterojunction photocatalysts was also presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cotton fabric coated with nano TiO2-acrylate copolymer for photocatalytic self-cleaning by in-situ suspension polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xue; Tian Xiuzhi; Gu Jian; Huang Dan; Yang Yiqi

    2011-01-01

    Two kinds of nano TiO 2 -polyacrylate hybrid dispersions, TBM-w and TBM-e were synthesized by in-situ suspension polymerization and solution polymerization respectively, in order to fix the nano TiO 2 on fabrics. The photocatalytic self-cleaning fabrics have received much attention in recent years for its water-saving and environment-protection advantages. However, the fixation of the photocatalyst on fabrics is still a key problem that inhibits industrialization of these eco-friendly fabrics. The cotton fabric was treated by the two hybrid dispersions. The photocatalytic self-cleaning property was characterized. Infrared spectroscopy, burning loss test and thermogravimetry showed that some copolymer chains entangled with the nano TiO 2 . Transmission electron microscope illustrated that there was a polymeric layer on the surface of nano TiO 2 . The average diameter of TBM-w was smaller than that of TBM-e based on size analysis. The photocatalytic decoloration of the grape syrup indicated that the fabric with TiO 2 -polymer hybrid had excellent self-cleaning property.

  6. Unique bar-like sulfur-doped C3N4/TiO2 nanocomposite: Excellent visible light driven photocatalytic activity and mechanism study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Xu, Shiping; Sun, Xiang; Xu, Xing; Gao, Baoyu

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a nanocomposite of TiO2 nanoparticles coupled with sulfur-doped C3N4 (S-C3N4) laminated layer was successfully fabricated using a facile impregnation method and the nanocomposite exhibited superior photocatalytic activity in pollutant removal under visible light irradiation, compared to bare TiO2, g-C3N4 and binary C3N4-TiO2 nanocomposite. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was benefited from the efficient migration and transformation of electron-hole (e--h+) pairs, improved visible light absorption capability, and relatively large specific surface area induce by sulfur doping. Interestingly, the introduction of sulfur changes regulated the morphology of g-C3N4 leading to the formation of ultrathin g-C3N4 layer nanosheet assemblies and unique bar-like g-C3N4/TiO2 nanocomposite, which is beneficial for the outstanding performance of the product. In addition, trapping experiment was carried out to identify the main active species in the photocatalytic reaction over the S-C3N4/TiO2 photocatalyst, and functional mechanism of the composite was proposed. This work may provide new ideas for the fabrication and utilization of highly efficient photocatalyst with excellent visible light response in environmental purification applications.

  7. High photocatalytic activity of hierarchical SiO2@C-doped TiO2 hollow spheres in UV and visible light towards degradation of rhodamine B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Chen, Juanrong; Hua, Li; Li, Songjun; Zhang, Xuanxuan; Sheng, Weichen; Cao, Shunsheng

    2017-10-15

    Ongoing research activities are targeted to explore high photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 -based photocatalysts for the degradation of environmental contaminants under UV and visible light irradiation. In this work, we devise a facile, cost-effective technique to in situ synthesize hierarchical SiO 2 @C-doped TiO 2 (SCT) hollow spheres for the first time. This strategy mainly contains the preparation of monodisperse cationic polystyrene spheres (CPS), sequential deposition of inner SiO 2 , the preparation of the sandwich-like CPS@SiO 2 @CPS particles, and formation of outer TiO 2 . After the one-step removal of CPS templates by calcination at 450°C, hierarchical SiO 2 @C-doped TiO 2 hollow spheres are in situ prepared. The morphology, hierarchical structure, and properties of SCT photocatalyst were characterized by TEM. SEM, STEM Mapping, BET, XRD, UV-vis spectroscopy, and XPS. Results strongly confirm the carbon doping in the outer TiO 2 lattice of SCT hollow spheres. When the as-synthesized SCT hollow spheres were employed as a photocatalyst for the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible-light and ultraviolet irradiation, the SCT photocatalyst exhibits a higher photocatalytic activity than commercial P25, effectively overcoming the limitations of poorer UV activity for many previous reported TiO 2 -based photocatalysts due to doping. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhanced photocatalytic activity for H2 evolution under irradiation of UV-vis light by Au-modified nitrogen-doped TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weirong; Ai, Zhuyu; Dai, Jiusong; Zhang, Meng

    2014-01-01

    Photocatalytic water splitting for hydrogen evolution is a potential way to solve many energy and environmental issues. Developing visible-light-active photocatalysts to efficiently utilize sunlight and finding proper ways to improve photocatalytic activity for H2 evolution have always been hot topics for research. This study attempts to expand the use of sunlight and to enhance the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 by N doping and Au loading. Au/N-doped TiO2 photocatalysts were synthesized and successfully used for photocatalytic water splitting for H2 evolution under irradiation of UV and UV-vis light, respectively. The samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), and photoelectrochemical characterizations. DRS displayed an extension of light absorption into the visible region by doping of N and depositing with Au, respectively. PL analysis indicated electron-hole recombination due to N doping and an efficient inhibition of electron-hole recombination due to the loaded Au particles. Under the irradiation of UV light, the photocatalytic hydrogen production rate of the as-synthesized samples followed the order Au/TiO2 > Au/N-doped TiO2 > TiO2 > N-doped TiO2. While under irradiation of UV-vis light, the N-TiO2 and Au/N-TiO2 samples show higher H2 evolution than their corresponding nitrogen-free samples (TiO2 and Au/TiO2). This inconsistent result could be attributed to the doping of N and the surface plasmonic resonance (SPR) effect of Au particles extending the visible light absorption. The photoelectrochemical characterizations further indicated the enhancement of the visible light response of Au/N-doped TiO2. Comparative studies have shown that a combination of nitrogen doping and Au loading enhanced the visible light response of TiO2 and increased the utilization of solar energy, greatly

  9. Enhanced photocatalytic activity for H2 evolution under irradiation of UV-vis light by Au-modified nitrogen-doped TiO2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weirong Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND PURPOSE: Photocatalytic water splitting for hydrogen evolution is a potential way to solve many energy and environmental issues. Developing visible-light-active photocatalysts to efficiently utilize sunlight and finding proper ways to improve photocatalytic activity for H2 evolution have always been hot topics for research. This study attempts to expand the use of sunlight and to enhance the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 by N doping and Au loading. METHODS: Au/N-doped TiO2 photocatalysts were synthesized and successfully used for photocatalytic water splitting for H2 evolution under irradiation of UV and UV-vis light, respectively. The samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS, photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL, and photoelectrochemical characterizations. RESULTS: DRS displayed an extension of light absorption into the visible region by doping of N and depositing with Au, respectively. PL analysis indicated electron-hole recombination due to N doping and an efficient inhibition of electron-hole recombination due to the loaded Au particles. Under the irradiation of UV light, the photocatalytic hydrogen production rate of the as-synthesized samples followed the order Au/TiO2 > Au/N-doped TiO2 > TiO2 > N-doped TiO2. While under irradiation of UV-vis light, the N-TiO2 and Au/N-TiO2 samples show higher H2 evolution than their corresponding nitrogen-free samples (TiO2 and Au/TiO2. This inconsistent result could be attributed to the doping of N and the surface plasmonic resonance (SPR effect of Au particles extending the visible light absorption. The photoelectrochemical characterizations further indicated the enhancement of the visible light response of Au/N-doped TiO2. CONCLUSION: Comparative studies have shown that a combination of nitrogen doping and Au loading enhanced the visible light response of

  10. Investigation of DC magnetron-sputtered TiO2 coatings: Effect of coating thickness, structure, and morphology on photocatalytic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daviðsdóttir, Svava; Shabadi, Rajashekhara; Galca, Aurelian Catalin

    2014-01-01

    The photocatalytic performance of magnetron-sputtered titanium dioxide (TiO2) coatings of different thickness in anatase crystalline structure deposited on aluminium 1050 alloy substrates was investigated using a combination of photo-electrochemistry, methylene blue decomposition, and microscopic...

  11. An efficient visible and UV-light-activated B–N-codoped TiO2 photocatalytic film for solar depollution prepared via a green method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Qingchi; Zhang Yan; He Ziming; Loo, Say Chye Joachim; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang

    2012-01-01

    This work reports an efficient visible and UV-light-activated boron and nitrogen codoped TiO 2 porous film prepared via a “green” and direct coating approach. Such photocatalyst is highly promising for solar depollution application due to its efficient photocatalytic activities in both visible and UV spectrum. The preparation method avoids the use of organic solvents, which are usually more expensive and hazardous compared with water. Using stearic acid as the model organic pollutant, the visible-light photocatalytic activity of optimized porous B–N-codoped TiO 2 film (p-3B–N–TiO 2 ) is 3 times higher than that of porous N-doped TiO 2 (p-N–TiO 2 ) film, while its UV photocatalytic activity is almost double that of p-N–TiO 2 film and comparable to that of porous TiO 2 . The enhancement in photocatalytic activity is attributed to higher surface area due to the porous structure, improved visible-light absorption attributed to interstitially substituted boron atoms, and coexistence of boron and nitrogen dopants which may reduce Ti 3+ recombination centers.

  12. Synergistic Effects of Sm and C Co-Doped Mixed Phase Crystalline TiO2 for Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchang Peng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mixed phase TiO2 nanoparticles with element doping by Sm and C were prepared via a facile sol-gel procedure. The UV-Vis light-diffuse reflectance spectroscopy analysis showed that the absorption region of co-doped TiO2 was shifted to the visible-light region, which was attributed to incorporation of samarium and carbon into the TiO2 lattice during high-temperature reaction. Samarium effectively decreased the anatase-rutile phase transformation. The grain size can be controlled by Sm doping to achieve a large specific surface area useful for the enhancement of photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic activities under visible light irradiation were evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB. The degradation rate of MB over the Sm-C co-doped TiO2 sample was the best. Additionally, first-order apparent rate constants increased by about 4.3 times compared to that of commercial Degusssa P25 under the same experimental conditions. Using different types of scavengers, the results indicated that the electrons, holes, and •OH radicals are the main active species for the MB degradation. The high visible-light photocatalytic activity was attributed to low recombination of the photo-generated electrons and holes which originated from the synergistic effect of the co-doped ions and the heterostructure.

  13. Seed-mediated photodeposition route to Ag-decorated SiO2@TiO2 microspheres with ideal core-shell structure and enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianqi; Guo, Xiaohua; Ge, Hongguang; Tian, Guanghui; Zhang, Qiang

    2018-03-01

    Ag-decorated SiO2@TiO2 microspheres (SiO2@TiO2-Ag) with ideal core-shell structure and enhanced photocatalytic activity were successfully fabricated by combining both coating anatase TiO2 on the surface of SiO2 spheres and subsequent depositing face-centered cubic Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on the coated TiO2 surface via novel sol-gel method and Ag-seed-mediated photodeposition (PD) route, respectively. The morphology, structure, composition and optical properties of the resulting composites were characterized in detail. The results reveal that the monodisperse SiO2 spheres of ∼260 nm were covered uniformly and perfectly by the TiO2 nanoparticle coating layer with the thickness of ca. 55 nm by the novel sol-gel method. Further, homogeneously and highly dispersed Ag NPs with an average size of 8 ± 1.5 nm were strongly anchored onto the TiO2 surface in SiO2@TiO2 core-shell spheres by the modified PD process (Ag-seed-mediated PD route), whereas polydispersed Ag aggregates and detached Ag NPs were irregularly deposited over the TiO2 surface in previous works, which is the inherent problem and has not been effectively solved for depositing noble metal NPs such as Au, Ag, Pt, Pd on TiO2 surface by conventional PD method. The formation mechanism of small and uniformly dispersed Ag NPs with narrow size distribution via the modified PD method is tentatively explained by both nucleation kinetics and growth kinetics. The key reason is that the pre-deposited seeds firmly tethered on SiO2@TiO2 spheres served as nucleation sites and anchoring points for the further nucleation and subsequent growth of Ag via photoreduction of Ag+.

  14. Photocatalytic properties of P25-doped TiO2 composite film synthesized via sol-gel method on cement substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiang; Rao, Lei; Wang, Peifang; Wang, Chao; Ao, Yanhui; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Wanzhong

    2018-04-01

    TiO 2 films have received increasing attention for the removal of organic pollutants via photocatalysis. To develop a simple and effective method for improving the photodegradation efficiency of pollutants in surface water, we herein examined the preparation of a P25-TiO 2 composite film on a cement substrate via a sol-gel method. In this case, Rhodamine B (RhB) was employed as the target organic pollutant. The self-generated TiO 2 film and the P25-TiO 2 composite film were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N 2 adsorption/desorption measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The photodegradation efficiencies of the two films were studied by RhB removal in water under UV (ultraviolet) irradiation. Over 4day exposure, the P25-TiO 2 composite film exhibited higher photocatalytic performance than the self-generated TiO 2 film. The photodegradation rate indicated that the efficiency of the P25-TiO 2 composite film was enhanced by the addition of the rutile phase Degussa P25 powder. As such, cooperation between the anatase TiO 2 and rutile P25 nanoparticles was beneficial for separation of the photo-induced electrons and holes. In addition, the influence of P25 doping on the P25-TiO 2 composite films was evaluated. We found that up to a certain saturation point, increased doping enhanced the photodegradation ability of the composite film. Thus, we herein demonstrated that the doping of P25 powders is a simple but effective strategy to prepare a P25-TiO 2 composite film on a cement substrate, and the resulting film exhibits excellent removal efficiency in the degradation of organic pollutants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Effect of Silver Doping on the TiO2 for Photocatalytic Reduction of CO2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočí, K.; Matějů, K.; Obalová, L.; Krejčíková, Simona; Lacný, Z.; Plachá, D.; Čapek, L.; Hospodková, Alice; Šolcová, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 96, 3-4 (2010), s. 239-244 ISSN 0926-3373 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD203/08/H032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : Ag doping * TiO2 * photocatalysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.749, year: 2010

  16. The Effect of SiO2 Shell on the Suppression of Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 and ZnO Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min Hee; Lee, Choon Soo; Patil, Umakant Mahadev; Kochuveedu, Saji Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the potential use of TiO 2 SiO 2 and ZnO SiO 2 core/shell nanoparticles (NPs) as effective UV shielding agent. In the typical synthesis, SiO 2 was coated over different types of TiO 2 (anatase and rutile) and ZnO by sol-gel method. The synthesized TiO 2 SiO 2 and ZnO SiO 2 Nps were characterized by UV-Vis, XRD, Sem and TEM. The UV-vis absorbance and transmittance spectra of core shell NPs showed an efficient blocking effect in the UV region and more than 90% transmittance in the visible region. XRD and SAED studies confirmed the formation of amorphous SiO 2 coated over the TiO 2 and ZnO NPs. The FESEM and TEM images shows that coating of SiO 2 over the surface of anatase, rutile TiO 2 and ZnO NPs resulted in the increase in particle size by ∼30 nm. In order to study the UV light shielding capability of the samples, photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye on TiO 2 SiO 2 and ZnO SiO 2 NPs was performed. Photocatalytic activity for both types of TiO 2 NPs was partially suppressed. In comparison, the photocatalytic activity of ZnO almost vanished after the SiO 2 coating

  17. Photocatalytic performance of Sn-doped TiO2 nanostructured thin films for photocatalytic degradation of malachite green dye under UV and VIS-lights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayilkan, F.; Asiltuerk, M.; Tatar, P.; Kiraz, N.; Sener, S.; Arpac, E.; Sayilkan, H.

    2008-01-01

    Sn-doped and undoped nano-TiO 2 particles have been synthesized by hydrotermal process without acid catalyst at 225 deg. C in 1 h. Nanostructure-TiO 2 based thin films, contain at different solid ratio of TiO 2 in coating, have been prepared on glass surfaces by spin-coating technique. The structure, surface morphology and optical properties of the thin films and the particles have been investigated by element analysis and XRD, BET and UV/VIS/NIR techniques. The photocatalytic performance of the films was tested for degradation of malachite green dye in solution under UV and VIS-lights. The results showed that the hydrothermally synthesized nano-TiO 2 particles are fully anatase crystalline form and are easily dispersed in water, the coated surfaces have nearly super-hydrophilic properties and, the doping of transition metal ion efficiently improved the photocatalytic performance of the TiO 2 thin film. The results also proved that malachite green is decomposed catalytically due to the pseudo first-order reaction kinetics

  18. Photocatalytic Removal of Azo Dye and Anthraquinone DyeUsing TiO2 Immobilised on Ceramic Tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Palanisamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic activity of TiO2 immobilized on different supports; cement and ceramic tile, was studied to decolorize two commercial dyes. The catalyst was immobilised by two different techniques, namely, slurry method on ceramic tile and powder scattering on cement. The degradation of the dyes was carried out using UV and solar irradiation. The comparative efficiency of the catalyst immobilised on two different supports was determined. The photodegradation process was monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The catalyst immobilised on ceramic tile was found to be better than the catalyst immobilised on cement. Experimental results showed that both illumination and the catalyst were necessary for the degradation of the dyes and UV irradiation is more efficient compared to solar irradiation.

  19. A study on heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of various organic compounds using N-Tio2 under Uv-light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srujana, Dhegam; Sailu, Chinta

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the photocatalytic degradation of mixture of four selected organic compounds are Congo Red (CR), Methylene Blue (MB), Diclofenaec (DC), 4-Chlorophenol (4-CP) have been subjected to Photo catalytic degradation by Ultraviolet (λ=254nm) radiation in presence of Nitrogen-doped Titanium dioxide (N-TiO2) catalyst. This paper focused on the enhancement of photo catalysis by modification of TiO2 employing non-metal ion (Nitrogen) doping. Experiments are conducted with a mixture of equal proportions of organic compounds (CR, MB, DC, and 4-CP) with combined concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/l in water in a batch reactor in presence of N-TiO2catalyst with UV light (λ=254nm). The rate of degradation of each compound is determined by using spectrophotometer. The kinetics of degradation of the selected organic compounds is followed first order rate.

  20. Biphasic TiO2 nanoparticles decorated graphene nanosheets for visible light driven photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamelu, K.; Raja, V.; Shiamala, L.; Jaffar Ali, B. M.

    2018-02-01

    We present characterization of biphasic TiO2 nanoparticles and its graphene nanocomposite synthesized by cost effective, hydrothermal method. The structural properties and morphology of the samples were characterized by series of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. Introducing high surface area graphene could suppress the electron hole pair recombination rate in the nanocomposite. Further, the nanocomposite shows red-shift of the absorption edge and contract of the band gap from 2.98 eV to 2.85 eV. We have characterized its photocatalytic activity under natural sunlight and UV filtered sunlight irradiation. Data reveal graphene-TiO2 composite exhibit about 15 and 3.5 folds increase in degradability of Congo red and Methylene Blue dyes, respectively, comparison to pristine TiO2. This underscores the marginal effect of UV component of sunlight on the degradation ability of composite, implying its increased efficiency in harnessing visible region of solar spectrum. We have thus developed a visible light active graphene composite catalyst that can degrade both cationic and anionic dyes and making it potentially useful in environmental remediation and water splitting applications, under direct sunlight.

  1. Synthesis of hierarchical anatase TiO 2 nanostructures with tunable morphology and enhanced photocatalytic activity

    KAUST Repository

    Rahal, Raed; Wankhade, Atul V.; Cha, Dong Kyu; Fihri, Aziz; Ould-Chikh, Samy; Patil, Umesh; Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    A facile one-pot method to prepare three-dimensional hierarchical nanostructures of titania with good control over their morphologies without the use of hydrofluoric acid is developed. The reaction is performed under microwave irradiation conditions in pure water, and enables enhanced photocatalytic activity. This study indicates that photocatalytic activity depends not only on the surface area but also on the morphology of the titania. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. Comparison of TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue and the correlated inactivation of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Robert J.; Molina, Rodrigo; Xu Jianbin; Dobson, Peter J.; Thompson, Ian P.

    2013-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles are important photocatalysts and as such have been extensively studied for the removal of organic compounds from contaminated air and water and for microbial disinfection. Despite much research on the effect of TiO 2 and ZnO nanoparticles on different bacterial species, uncertainties remain about which bacteria are more sensitive to these compounds. Very few studies have directly compared the toxicity of ZnO to TiO 2 under both light and dark conditions. In addition, authors investigating the photocatalytic inactivation of TiO 2 and ZnO nanoparticles on bacteria have failed to investigate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation of the nanoparticles, making it difficult to correlate killing action with the generation of ROS. In this study, three types of metal nanoparticle (ZnO 2 ) have been characterised and ROS production assessed through the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The photocatalytic killing potential of three nanoparticle concentrations (0.01, 0.1 and 1 g/L) was then assessed on four representative bacteria: two gram-positive (S. aureus and B. subtilis) and two gram-negative (E. coli and P. aeruginosa). Results showed that out of the three nanoparticles tested, the TiO 2 nanoparticles generated more ROS than the ZnO nanoparticles, corresponding to a greater photocatalytic inactivation of three of the four species of bacteria examined. The MB decomposition results correlated well with the bacterial inactivation results with higher TiO 2 nanoparticle concentrations leading to greater ROS production and increased loss of cell viability. Although producing less ROS than the TiO 2 nanoparticles under ultraviolet light, the ZnO nanoparticles were toxic to two of the bacterial species even under dark conditions. In this study, no correlation between cell wall type and bacterial inactivation was observed for any of the nanoparticles tested although both gram-positive bacteria were sensitive to

  3. Preparation of 13X from Waste Quartz and Photocatalytic Reaction of Methyl Orange on TiO2/ZSM-5, 13X and Y-Zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Jie; Jing, You-Hai; Ouyang, Tong; Chang, Chang-Tang

    2015-08-01

    TiO2 photocatalytic reactions not only remove a variety of organic pollutants via complete mineralization, but also destroy the bacterial cell wall and cell membrane, thus playing an important bactericidal role. However, the post-filtration procedures to separate nanometer-levels of TiO2 and the gradual inactivity of photocatalyst during continuous use are defects that limit its application. In this case, we propose loading TiO2 on zeolite for easy separation and 13X is considered as a promising one. In our study, 13X-zeolite was prepared by a hydrothermal method and the source of Si was extracted from waste quartz sand. For comparison, commercial zeolite with different microporous and mesoporous diameters (ZSM-5 and Y-zeolites) were also used as TiO2 supports. The pore size of the three kinds of zeolites are as follows: Y-zeolite > 13X > ZSM-5. Different TiO2 loading content over ZSM-5, 13X and Y-zeolite were prepared by the sol-gel method. XRD, FTIR, BET, UV-vis, TGA and SEM were used for investigation of material characteristics. In addition, the efficiencies of mineralization and photodegradation were studied in this paper. The effects of the loading ratio of TiO2 over zeolites, initial pH, and concentration on photocatalytic performance are investigated. The relationship between best loading content of TiO2 and pore size of the zeolite was studied. The possible roles of the ZSM-5, 13X-zeolites and Y-zeolites support on the reactions and the possible mechanisms of effects were also explored. The best loading content of TiO2 over ZSM-5, 13X and Y-zeolite was found to be 50 wt%, 12.5 wt% and 7 wt%, respectively. The optimum pH condition is 3 with TiO2 over ZSM-5, 13X-zeolites and Y-zeolites. The results showed that the degradation and mineralization efficiency of 12.5 wt%GT13X (TiO2 over 13X) after 90 min irradiation reached 57.9% and 22.0%, which was better than that of 7 wt%GTYZ (TiO2 over Y-zeolites) while much lower than that of 50 wt%GTZ (TiO2 over ZSM-5

  4. Photocatalytic performance of TiO2 catalysts modified by H3PW12O40, ZrO2 and CeO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Tiejun; LIAO Yuchao; PENG Zhenshan; LONG Yunfei; WEI Zongyuan; DENG Qian

    2009-01-01

    The binary composite photo-catalysts CeO2/TiO2, ZrO2/TiO2 and the ternary composite photo-catalysts H3PW12O40-CeO2/TiO2,H2PW12O40-ZrO2/TiO2 were prepared by sol-gel method. The catalysts were characterized by thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The photocatalyfic elimination of methanol was used as model reaction to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of the composite catalysts under ultraviolet light irradiation. The effects of doped content, activation temperature, time, initial concentration of methanol and gas flow rate on the catalytic activity were investigated. The results showed that after doping a certain amount of CeO2 and ZrO2, crystaniTation process of TiO2 was restrained, particles of catalysts are smaller and more uniform. Doping ZrO2 not only significantly improved the catalytic activity, but also increased thermal stability. Doping H3PW12O40 also enhanced the catalytic activity. The catalytic activities of binary and ternary composite photocatalysts were significantly higher than tin-doped TiO2. The dynamics law of photocatalytic reaction over the binary CeO2/TiO2 and ZrO2/TiO2 catalysts has been studied. The activation energy 15.627 and 15.631 kJ/mol and pre-exponential factors 0.5176 and 0.9899 s-1 over each corresponding catalyst were obtained. This reaction accords to the first order dynamics law.

  5. Alkaline hydrogen peroxide treatment for TiO_2 nanoparticles with superior water-dispersibility and visible-light photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chung-Yi; Tu, Kuan-Ju; Lo, Yu-Shiu; Pang, Yean Ling; Wu, Chien-Hou

    2016-01-01

    Alkaline hydrogen peroxide treatment was proposed as a simple and green way to improve the performance of commercial TiO_2 powder for water-dispersibility and visible-light photocatalytic activity on the degradation of dye pollutants. The performance of treated TiO_2 was evaluated as a function of NaOH concentration, H_2O_2 concentration, and treatment time. The optimal conditions were determined to be 24 h in 100 mM H_2O_2 and 8 M NaOH. The treated samples were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry. The analysis revealed that the crystal structure, morphology, and absorption band gap were retained, but the surface of the treated TiO_2 was dramatically changed. The treated TiO_2 was highly dispersible with a uniform hydrodynamic size of 41 ± 12 nm and stable over months in water at pH 3 without any stabilizing ligand and could significantly enhance the visible-light photodegradation of dye pollutants. The superior performance might be attributed to the formation of abundant surface hydroxyl groups. This treatment paves the way for developing water-dispersible TiO_2 with superior visible-light induced photocatalytic degradation of dye pollutants without any complicated and expensive surface modification. - Highlights: • Alkaline hydrogen peroxide is proposed to treat commercial TiO_2 powder. • The treated TiO_2 powder exhibits superior water-dispersibility with a uniform size distribution. • The treated TiO_2 powder can significantly enhance the visible-light photodegradation of dyes.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Mn–C–Codoped TiO2 Nanoparticles and Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange Dye under Sunlight Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel visible-light-active Mn–C–TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by modified sol-gel method based on the self-assembly technique using polyoxyethylenes orbitan monooleate (Tween 80 as template and carbon precursor and manganese acetate as manganese precursor. The samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR, UV-vis diffuse reflectance, XPS, and laser particle size analysis. The XRD results showed that Mn–C–TiO2 sample exhibited anatase phase and no other crystal phase was identified. High specific surface area, small crystallite size, and small particle size distribution could be obtained by manganese and carbon codoped and Mn–C–TiO2 exhibited greater red shift in absorption edge of samples in visible region than that of C–TiO2 and pure TiO2. The photocatalytic activity of synthesized catalyst was evaluated by photocatalytic oxidation of methyl orange (MO solution under the sunlight irradiation. The results showed that Mn–C–TiO2 nanoparticles have higher activity than other samples under sunlight, which could be attributed to the high specific surface area, smaller particle size, and lower band gap energy.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and visible light photocatalytic activity of Cr 3+ , Ce 3+ and N co-doped TiO 2 for the degradation of humic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Rashid, S. G.; Gondal, M. A.; Hameed, A.; Aslam, M.; Dastageer, M. A.; Yamani, Z. H.; Anjum, Dalaver H.

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of Cr3+ and Ce3+ co-doped TiON (N-doped TiO2) for the degradation of humic acid with exposure to visible light is reported. The synthesized bimetal (Cr3+ + Ce3+) modified TiON (Cr-Ce/TiON), with an evaluated bandgap of 2.1 eV, exhibited an enhanced spectral response in the visible region as compared to pure and Ce3+ doped TiON (Ce/TiON). The XRD analysis revealed the insertion of Cr3+ and Ce3+ in the crystal lattice along with Ti4+ and N that resulted in the formation of a strained TiON anatase structure with an average crystallite size of ∼10 nm. Raman analysis also supported the formation of stressed rigid structures after bimetal doping. HRTEM confirmed the homogeneous distribution of both the doped metallic components in the crystal lattice of TiON without the formation of surface oxides of either Cr3+ or Ce3+. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) analysis revealed no change in the oxidation of either Cr or Ce during the synthesis. The synthesized Cr-Ce/TiON catalyst exhibited appreciable photocatalytic activity for the degradation of humic acid on exposure to visible light. Additionally, a noticeable mineralization of carbon rich humic acid was also witnessed. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized catalyst was compared with pristine and Ce3+ doped TiON. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  8. Compact light-emitting diode optical fiber immobilized TiO2 reactor for photocatalytic water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal Tugaoen, Heather; Garcia-Segura, Sergi; Hristovski, Kiril; Westerhoff, Paul

    2018-02-01

    A key barrier to implementing photocatalysis is delivering light to photocatalysts that are in contact with aqueous pollutants. Slurry photocatalyst systems suffer from poor light penetration and require post-treatment to separate the catalyst. The alternative is to deposit photocatalysts on fixed films and deliver light onto the surface or the backside of the attached catalysts. In this study, TiO 2 -coated quartz optical fibers were coupled to light emitting diodes (OF/LED) to improve in situ light delivery. Design factors and mechanisms studied for OF/LEDs in a flow-through reactor included: (i) the influence of number of LED sources coupled to fibers and (ii) the use of multiple optical fibers bundled to a single LED. The light delivery mechanism from the optical fibers into the TiO 2 coatings is thoroughly discussed. To demonstrate influence of design variables, experiments were conducted in the reactor using the chlorinated pollutant para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA). From the degradation kinetics of pCBA, the quantum efficiencies (Φ) of oxidation and electrical energies per order (E EO ) were determined. The use of TiO 2 coated optical fiber bundles reduced the energy requirements to deliver photons and increased available surface area, which improved Φ and enhanced oxidative pollutant removal performance (E EO ). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Magneto-optical spectroscopy of diluted magnetic oxides TiO2-δ: Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan'shina, E.A.; Granovsky, A.B.; Orlov, A.F.; Perov, N.S.; Vashuk, M.V.

    2009-01-01

    We report an experimental study on transversal Kerr effect (TKE) in magnetic oxide semiconductors TiO 2-δ :Co. The TiO 2-δ : Co thin films were deposited on LaAlO 3 (0 0 1) substrates by magnetron sputtering in the argon-oxygen atmosphere at oxygen partial pressure of 2x10 -6 -2x10 -4 Torr. It was obtained that TKE spectra in ferromagnetic samples are extremely sensitive to the Co-volume fraction, the crystalline structure, and technology parameters. The observed well-pronounced peaks in TKE spectra for anatase Co-doped TiO 2-δ films at low Co ( 2-δ matrix that indicates on intrinsic ferromagnetism in these samples. With increase of Co-volume fraction up to 5-8% the fine structure of TKE spectra disappears and magneto-optical response in reflection mode becomes larger than that for thick Co films

  10. Influence of phosphorus and potassium impurities on the properties of vanadium oxide supported on TiO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hengstum, A.J.; Pranger, J.; van Ommen, J.G.; Gellings, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    The catalytic properties of vanadium oxide catalysts supported on TiO2 from Tioxide were strongly affected by phosphorus and potassium, present as impurities in the TiO2 support. The effects observed were stronaly dependent on the type of hydrocarbon oxidised. In the oxidation of toluene to benzoic

  11. Photocatalytic degradation of mixed gaseous carbonyl compounds at low level on adsorptive TiO2/SiO2 photocatalyst using a fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Maolin; An, Taicheng; Fu, Jiamo; Sheng, Guoying; Wang, Xinming; Hu, Xiaohong; Ding, Xuejun

    2006-06-01

    An adsorptive silica-supported titania photocatalyst TiO(2)/SiO(2) was prepared by using nanosized titania (anatase) immobilized on silica gel by the sol-gel technique with the titanium tetra isopropoxide as the main raw material and acetic acid as the acid catalyst. Meanwhile the structure and properties of the TiO(2)/SiO(2) photocatalyst were studied by means of many modern analysis techniques such as TEM, XRD, and BET. Gas-solid heterogeneous photocatalytic decomposition of four carbonyl compounds mixture at low concentration levels over ultraviolet irradiated TiO(2)/SiO(2) photocatalyst were carried out with high degradation efficiencies in a coaxial triple-cylinder-type fluidized bed photocatalytic reactor, which provided efficient continuous contact of ultraviolet photons, silica-supported titania photocatalyst, and gaseous reactants. Experimental results showed that the photocatalyst had a high adsorption performance and a good photocatalytic activity for four carbonyl compounds mixture. Some factors influencing the photocatalytic decomposition of the mixed carbonyl compounds, i.e. the gas flowrate, relative humidity, concentration of oxygen, and illumination time, were discussed in detail. It is found that the photocatalytic reaction rate of four carbonyl compounds decreased in this order: propionaldehyde, acetone, acetaldehyde and formaldehyde.

  12. Facile synthesis of bird's nest-like TiO2 microstructure with exposed (001) facets for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guozhong; Zhang, Shuqu; Wang, Longlu; Liu, Ran; Zeng, Yunxiong; Xia, Xinnian; Liu, Yutang; Luo, Shenglian

    2017-01-01

    The scrupulous design of hierarchical structure and highly active crystal facets exposure is essential for the creation of photocatalytic system. However, it is still a big challenge for scrupulous design of TiO2 architectures. In this paper, bird's nest-like anatase TiO2 microstructure with exposed highly active (001) surface has been successfully synthesized by a facile one-step solvothermal method. Methylene blue (MB) is chosen as a model pollutant to evaluate photocatalytic activity of as-obtained TiO2 samples. The results show that the photocatalytic activity of the bird's nest-like sample is more excellent than P25 in the degradation of MB due to high specific surface area and highly active (001) crystal facets exposure when tested under simulated solar light. Besides, it can be readily separated from the photocatalytic system by sedimentation after photocatalytic reaction, which is a significant advantage against conventional powder photocatalyst. The bird's nest-like microspheres with novel structure may have potential application in photocatalysis and other fields.

  13. Synergetic Enhancement of the Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 with Visible Light by Sensitization Using a Novel Push-Pull Zinc Phthalocyanine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Luna-Flores

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new one-pot synthesis of a novel A3B-type asymmetric zinc phthalocyanine (AZnPc was developed. The phthalocyanine complex was characterized unambiguously and used to prepare a TiO2 hybrid photocatalyst to enhance its photocatalytic activity in the visible range. Different compositions of the phthalocyanine dye were tested in order to find the optimum amount of sensitizer to get the highest activity during the photocatalytic tests. The hybrid photocatalyst was characterized by UV-Vis diffuse reflectance (DRS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and its photocatalytic activity was compared with that of the individual components considering the effects of sensitization on their efficiency to degrade Rhodamine B as a model reaction. A synergic improvement of the photocatalytic activity for the hybrid system was explained in terms of an improved electron injection from the photo-activated phthalocyanine to the TiO2. Considering the structural features of the phthalocyanine sensitizer and their effect on aggregation, some mechanistic aspects of its binding to TiO2 are suggested to account for the photocatalytic activity enhancement. Finally, the inhibitory effect on the sprouting of chia seeds (Salvia hispanica was evaluated in order to test the toxicity of the water effluent obtained after the photodegradation process. According to our growth inhibition assays, it was found that the Rh-B degradation by-products do not lead to an acute toxicity.

  14. The effect of O2 partial pressure on the structure and photocatalytic property of TiO2 films prepared by sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Baoshun; Zhao Xiujian; Zhao Qingnan; Li Chunling; He Xin

    2005-01-01

    The TiO 2 films were prepared on slide substrates by dc reactive magnetron sputtering at different oxygen partial pressure, and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR). The degradation of methyl orange aqueous solutions was used to evaluate the photocatalytic activity. The results show that all films show crystalline anatase structure irrespective of oxygen partial pressure. The surface oxygen element exists in three forms, the first one is TiO 2 , the second one is OH - and the last one is physical absorbed water. The films deposited at oxygen partial pressure of 0.035 and 0.040 mTorr present better photocatalytic activity, which shows clear tendency to increase with oxygen partial pressure. Such photocatalytic activity results are considered to correlate with the crystalline structure, grain sizes and the OH - concentration

  15. Photocatalytic activity of Ti3+ self-doped dark TiO2 ultrafine nanorods, grey SiO2 nanotwin crystalline, and their composite under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renhui; Yang, Yingchang; Leng, Senlin; Wang, Qing

    2018-04-01

    Efficient electron-holes separation is of crucial importance for the improvement of photocatalytic activity for photocatalytic reaction. In this work, dark TiO2 (D-TiO2) nanorods, grey SiO2 (G-SiO2) and D-TiO2/G-SiO2 composite with surface defects are synthesized. We report that the efficiency of photo-generated electrons and holes separation is well enhanced by introducing G-SiO2 into D-TiO2 lattice. Using first-principles method, we find that surface defects (O or Si vacancy) can be conducive to improving the optical absorption under visible-light region. Combination of the experimental results, for D-TiO2/G-SiO2 composite, the surface defects of TiO2 nanocrystallines can significantly improve the photocatalytic efficiency.

  16. Structural and photocatalytic characteristics of TiO2 coatings produced by various thermal spray techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Štengl, Václav; Pala, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2013), s. 218-226 ISSN 2226-4108 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1872 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : plasma spraying * high velocity oxy–fuel (HVOF) spraying * flame spraying * titanium dioxide (TiO2) * photocatalysis * band gap Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; CA - Inorganic Chemistry (UACH-T) http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&id=doi:10.1007/s40145-013-0063-z

  17. TiO2 Deposition on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Using Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon White

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO has been used in the past as a useful surface treatment technique to improve the anticorrosion properties of Mg alloys by forming protective layer. Coatings were prepared on AZ31 magnesium alloy in phosphate electrolyte with the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles using plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO. This present work focuses on developing a TiO2 functional coating to create a novel electrophotocatalyst while observing the surface morphology, structure, composition, and corrosion resistance of the PEO coating. Microstructural characterization of the coating was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM followed by image analysis and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX. The corrosion resistance of the PEO treated samples was evaluated with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and DC polarization tests in 3.5 wt.% NaCl. The XRD pattern shows that the components of the oxide film include Mg from the substrate as well as MgO and Mg2TiO4 due to the TiO2 nanoparticle addition. The results show that the PEO coating with TiO2 nanoparticles did improve the corrosion resistance when compared to the AZ31 substrate alloy.

  18. Study of the Photocatalytic Property of Polysulfone Membrane Incorporating TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingxing; Zhou, Weiqi; Chen, Zhe; Yao, Lei

    In order to investigate the effect of the incorporated nanoparticles on the photocatalytic property of the hybrid membranes, the uncovered and covered polysulfone/TiO2 hybrid membranes were prepared. Positron annihilation γ-ray spectroscopy coupled with a positron beam was utilized to examine the depth profiles of the two membranes. The photocatalytic activities of the membranes were evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) aqueous solution under the irradiation of Xe lamp. UV-Vis spectroscopy was applied to study the UV transmission through the polysulfone layer. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to detect the photo-generated charges by the covered membrane during the irradiation. It can be found that UV light can penetrate through the covered layer (about 230nm), and the incorporated nanoparticles can still generate charges under irradiation, which endows the photocatalytic ability of the covered membrane.

  19. Determination of photo-catalytic activity of un-doped and Mn-doped TiO2 anatase powders on acetaldehyde under UV and visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadimitriou, Vassileios C.; Stefanopoulos, Vassileios G.; Romanias, Manolis N.; Papagiannakopoulos, Panos; Sambani, Kyriaki; Tudose, Valentin; Kiriakidis, George

    2011-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) photocatalytic powder materials doped with various levels of manganese (Mn) were synthesized to be used as additives to wall painting in combating indoor and outdoor air pollution. The heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of gaseous acetaldehyde (CH 3 CHO) on Mn–TiO 2 surfaces under ultraviolet and visible (UV/Vis) irradiation was investigated, by employing the Photochemical Static Reactor coupled with Fourier-Transformed Infrared spectroscopy (PSR/FTIR) technique. Experiments were performed by exposing acetaldehyde (∼ 400 Pa) and synthetic air mixtures (∼ 1.01 × 10 5 Pa total pressure) on un-doped TiO 2 and doped with various levels of Mn (0.1–33% mole percentage) under UV and visible irradiation at room temperature. Photoactivation was initiated using either UV or visible light sources with known emission spectra. Initially, the photo-activity of CH 3 CHO under the above light sources, and the physical adsorption of CH 3 CHO on Mn–TiO 2 samples in the absence of light were determined prior to the photocatalytic experiments. The photocatalytic loss of CH 3 CHO on un-doped TiO 2 and Mn–TiO 2 samples in the absence and presence of UV or visible irradiation was measured over a long time period (≈ 60 min), to evaluate their relative photocatalytic activity. The gaseous photocatalytic end products were also determined using absorption FTIR spectroscopy. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) was identified as the main photocatalysis product. It was found that 0.1% Mn–TiO 2 samples resulted in the highest photocatalytic loss of CH 3 CHO under visible irradiation. This efficiency was drastically diminished at higher levels of Mn doping (1–33%). The CO 2 yields were the highest for 0.1% Mn–TiO 2 samples under UV irradiation, in agreement with the observed highest CH 3 CHO decomposition rates. It was demonstrated that low-level (0.1%) doping of TiO 2 with Mn results in a significant increase of their photocatalytic activity in the visible

  20. High performance nano-titania photocatalytic paper composite. Part I: Experimental design study for TiO2 composite sheet using a natural zeolite microparticle system and its photocatalytic property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Seonghyuk; Pekarovic, Jan; Fleming, Paul D.; Ari-Gur, Pnina

    2010-01-01

    Nanosized titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) photocatalytic papers were successfully prepared using a natural zeolite microparticle retention aid in papermaking. Applying a factorial experimental design, natural zeolite has been demonstrated to be the most significant and interactive factor for increasing the TiO 2 retention rate in paper stock. The photocatalysis of as-prepared sheets was evaluated with toluene as one of the representative volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Under UV irradiation, it was shown to be effective in removing gaseous toluene by photodecomposition, assisted by adsorption. It was revealed that natural zeolite plays an important role in both increasing retention rate of TiO 2 nanoparticles and enhancing photocatalytic efficiency of the paper. The photocatalytic paper can be potentially applied for environmental purification.

  1. Photocatalytic application of TiO2/SiO2-based magnetic nanocomposite (Fe3O4@SiO2/TiO2 for reusing of textile wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Enayati Ahangar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research we have developed a treatment method for textile wastewater by TiO2/SiO2-based magnetic nanocomposite. Textile wastewater includes a large variety of dyes and chemicals and needs treatments. This manuscript presents a facile method for removing dyes from the textile wastewater by using TiO2/SiO2-based nanocomposite (Fe3O4@SiO2/TiO2 under UV irradiation. This magnetic nanocomposite, as photocatalytically active composite, is synthesized via solution method in mild conditions. A large range of cationic, anionic and neutral dyes including: methyl orange, methylene blue, neutral red, bromocresol green and methyl red are used for treatment investigations. Neutral red and bromocresol green have good results in reusing treatment. The high surface area of nanocomposites improve the kinetic of wastewater treatment. In this method, by using the magnetic properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, TiO2-based photocatalyst could be separated and reused for 3 times. The efficiency of this method is respectively 100% and 65% for low concentration (10 ppm and high concentration (50 ppm of neutral red and bromocrosol green after 3 h treatment. The efficiency of treatment using the second used nanocomposite was 90% for 10 ppm of the same dyes.

  2. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes decorated with nitrogen, palladium co-doped TiO2 (MWCNT/N, Pd co-doped TiO2) for visible light photocatalytic degradation of Eosin Yellow in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvarega, Alex T.; Krause, Rui W. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    2012-03-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT/N), Pd co-doped TiO2 nanocomposites were prepared by calcining the hydrolysis products of the reaction of titanium isopropoxide, Ti(OC3H7)4 containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes with aqueous ammonia. The prepared samples were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectrophotometry (DRUV-Vis), XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). DRUV-Vis analysis confirmed the red shift in the absorption edge at lower MWCNT percentages. SEM and TEM images showed the complete coverage of the MWCNTs with clusters of anatase TiO2 at low MWCNT percentages. Higher MWCNT levels led to their aggregation and consequently poor coverage by N, Pd co-doped TiO2. The photocatalytic activities of the nanocomposites were monitored by photodegradation of Eosin Yellow under simulated solar and visible light irradiation (λ > 450 nm). Irradiation with simulated solar radiation gave higher dye-degradation rates compared to visible radiation. The optimum MWCNT weight percentage in the composites was found to be 0.5. High degradation-rate constants of 3.42 × 10-2 and 5.18 × 10-3 min-1 were realised for the 0.5% MWCNT/N, Pd co-doped TiO2 composite, using simulated solar light and visible light, respectively.

  3. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of noble metal-modified TiO2 nanosheets with exposed {0 0 1} facets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diak, Magdalena; Grabowska, Ewelina; Zaleska, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TiO 2 nanosheets with exposed {0 0 1} facets were prepared by hydrothermal method. • Pd and Ag NPs-loaded enhanced the photocatalytic activity under visible irradiation. • Photodeposition is an effective method to obtain noble metal NPs on TiO 2 surface. - Abstract: Pt, Pd, Ag and Au nanoparticles were photodeposited on the {0 0 1} crystal facets of the TiO 2 anatase nanosheets. Morphological and surface characterization of the samples as well as photocatalytic activity were studied. The influence of metal precursor concentration used during photodeposition (0.05−0.5%) on size of formed metal nanoparticles together with UV and vis-mediated activity of Pt, Pd, Ag or Au−TiO 2 was investigated. Generally, samples obtained by photodeposition of noble metal nanoparticles using their 0.2% precursor solutions revealed highest activity in phenol degradation reaction under visible light (λ > 420 nm). The photoactivity of the as-prepared samples with respect to the modified metal species was ordered Ag≅Pd > Au > Pt. TEM analysis showed that photodeposited metal nanoparticles appeared only on {0 0 1} facets of TiO 2 . The average degradation rate of phenol in the presence of Pd and Ag−TiO 2 was 0.5 μmol dm −3 min −1 after 60 min of irradiation under visible light, and was five times higher than that of pure TiO 2 nanosheets

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic activity of mixed-phase TiO2 powders with controllable anatase/rutile ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Qiao, Zhi; Jiang, Peng; Kuang, Jianlei; Liu, Wenxiu; Cao, Wenbin

    2018-03-01

    In this study, mixed-phase TiO2 powders were novelly synthesized via a facile and mild hydrothermal method without any post-heat treatment. TiOSO4 and peroxide titanic acid (PTA) were used as inorganic titanium sources, while no special solvent or additive were introduced. The XRD and TEM results showed the mixed-phase TiO2 powders were composed of anatase and rutile phases, and the PTA sol played an important role on forming the rutile nucleus. The proportion of rutile in the mixed-phase TiO2 could be easily controlled in the range of 0%-70.5% by changing the amount of PTA sol used in the synthesis process. The UV-Visible absorption spectra indicated the prepared mixed-phase TiO2 showed enhanced visible light absorption with the increase of rutile ratio. The photodegradation experiments revealed the mixed-phase TiO2 exhibited the best photocatalytic activity at the rutile ratio of 41.5%, while a higher or lower rutile ratio both resulted in the decrease of photocatalytic activity.

  5. Photocatalytic mechanism of high-activity anatase TiO2 with exposed (001) facets from molecular-atomic scale: HRTEM and Raman studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Shi, Chentian; Zhang, Yupeng; Fu, Qiang; Pan, Chunxu

    2017-12-01

    Anatase TiO2 with a variant percentage of exposed (001) facets was prepared under hydrothermal processes by adjusting the volume of HF, and the photocatalytic mechanism was studied from atomic-molecular scale by HRTEM and Raman spectroscopy. It was revealed that: 1) From HRTEM observations, the surface of original TiO2 with exposed (001) facets was clean without impurity, and the crystal lattice was clear and completed; however, when mixed with methylene blue (MB) solution, there were many 1 nm molecular absorbed at the surface of TiO2; after the photocatalytic experiment, MB molecules disappeared and the TiO2 lattice image became fuzzy. 2) The broken path of the MB chemical bond was obtained by Raman spectroscopy, i.e., after the irradiation of the light, the vibrational mode of C-N-C disappeared due to the chemical bond breakage, and the groups containing C-N bond and carbon rings were gradually decomposed. Accordingly, we propose that the driving force for breaking the chemical bond and the disappearance of groups is from the surface lattice distortion of TiO2 during photocatalyzation.

  6. Correlating oxygen vacancies and phase ratio/interface with efficient photocatalytic activity in mixed phase TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Ranjana; Samdarshi, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The correlation of interfacial behavior and oxygen vacancies in mixed phase titania nanoparticles on their performance as photocatalyst has been investigated to explain the impact of photoactivity under UV and visible irradiation compared to pristine counterparts. The defects at the junction effectively reduce the band gap as well decrease the carrier recombination to enhance the photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: • Pristine and mixed phases (A/R ratio) TiO 2 synthesized by sol gel route. • Photoactivity variation has been correlated with the changes in the phase ratio. • Enhanced UV and visible activity attributable to oxygen vacancy present at the interface. • Role of A/R ratio and oxygen vacancy in the photoactivity of mixed TiO 2 depicted through a model. - Abstract: The photocatalytic activity is a result of the synergy of a succession of phenomena-photogeneration, separation, and participation of the charge carriers in redox reaction at the catalyst surface. While the extent of photogeneration is assessable in terms of absorption spectrum (band gap), the redox reaction can be correlated to specific surface area. However the respective change in the photocatalytic activity has not been rationally and consistently correlated with the above mentioned parameters. A satisfactory explanation of suppression of recombination based on separation of carriers due to differential mobility/diffusivity in the material phase(s) and/or intrinsic potential barrier exists but its correlation with common identifiable parameter/characteristics is still elusive. This paper attempts to address this issue by correlating the carrier separation with the phase ratio (phase interface) in mixed phase titania and generalizing it with the presence of oxygen vacancy at the phase interface. It essentially appears to complete the quest for identifiable parameters in the sequence of phenomena, which endow a photocatalyst with an efficient activity level. It has

  7. Significant enhancement in the photocatalytic activity of N, W co-doped TiO2 nanomaterials for promising environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thind, Sapanbir S; Wu Guosheng; Tian Min; Chen Aicheng

    2012-01-01

    In this work, a mesoporous N, W co-doped TiO 2 photocatalyst was synthesized via a one-step solution combustion method, which utilized urea as the nitrogen source and sodium tungstate as the tungsten source. The photocatalytic activity of the N, W co-doped TiO 2 photocatalyst was significantly enhanced by a facile UV pretreatment approach and was evaluated by measuring the rate of photodegradation of Rhodamine B under both UV and visible (λ > 420) light. Following the UV pretreatment, the UV photocatalytic activity of the N, W co-doped TiO 2 was doubled. In terms of visible light activity, the UV pretreatment resulted in an extraordinary >12 fold improvement. In order to gain insight into this substantial enhancement, the N, W co-doped TiO 2 photocatalysts were studied using x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, N 2 physisorption, UV–vis absorbance spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy prior to and following the UV pretreatment. Our experimental results have revealed that this significant augmentation of photocatalytic activity may be attributed to several synergetic factors, including increase of the specific surface area, reduction of the band gap energy and the removal of carbon impurities. (paper)

  8. Anatase TiO2 single crystals with dominant {0 0 1} facets: Synthesis, shape-control mechanism and photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Huifen; Zhou, Yingying; Chang, Gang; Li, Pai; Zhu, Ruizhi; He, Yunbin

    2018-06-01

    Anatase TiO2 micro-crystals with 51% surface exposing highly active {0 0 1} facets are prepared by hydrothermal synthesis using TiF4 as Ti resource and HF as morphology control agent. In addition, anatase TiO2 single crystals exposing large {0 0 1} crystal facets are facilely synthesized with "green" NaF plus HCl replacing HF for the morphology control. A series of comparative experiments are carried out for separately studying the effects of F- and H+ concentrations on the growth of TiO2 crystals, which have not been understood very much in depth so far. The results indicate that both F- and H+ synergistically affect the synthesis of truncated anatase octahedrons, where F- is preferentially adsorbed on the {0 0 1} facets resulting in lateral growth of these facets and H+ adjusts the growth rate of anatase TiO2 along different orientations by tuning the hydrolysis rate. Based on this information, anatase TiO2 single crystals with small size (1.3 μm) and large exposure of {0 0 1} facets (45%) are successfully prepared under optimal conditions ([H+]/[F-] = 20:1). Photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared products toward methylene blue photo-degradation are further tested. It is revealed that both crystal size and percentage of {0 0 1} facets are decisive for the photocatalytic performance, and the crystals with a small size (1.3 μm) and large exposure of {0 0 1} facets (45%) are catalytically most active. This work has clarified the main factors that control the growth process and morphology of anatase TiO2 single crystals for achieving superior photocatalytic properties.

  9. Preparation of TiO2-Fullerene Composites and Their Photocatalytic Activity under Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-ichi Katsumata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of visible light-sensitive photocatalytic materials is being investigated. In this study, the anatase and rutile-C60 composites were prepared by solution process. The characterization of the samples was conducted by using XRD, UV-vis, FT-IR, Raman, and TEM. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated by the decolorization of the methylene blue. From the results of the Raman, FT-IR, and XRD, the existence of the C60 was confirmed in the samples. The C60 was modified on the anatase or rutile particle as a cluster. The C60 didn't have the photocatalytic activity under UV and visible light. The anatase and rutile-C60 composites exhibited lower photocatalytic activity than the anatase and rutile under UV light. The anatase-C60 exhibited also lower activity than the anatase under visible light. On the other hand, the rutile-C60 exhibited higher activity than the rutile under visible light. It is considered that the photogenerated electrons can transfer from the C60 to the rutile under visible light irradiation.

  10. Kinetic Study of Photocatalytic Reduction of CO2 over TiO2.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočí, K.; Obalová, L.; Šolcová, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2010), s. 395-407 ISSN 0208-6425 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/0694 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : titania * photocatalytic reduction * methane Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 0.252, year: 2010

  11. Surface modified TiO2 floating photocatalyst with PDDA for efficient adsorption and photocatalytic inactivation of Microcystis aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Xuejiang; Zhao, Jianfu; Song, Jingke; Su, Chenliang; Wang, Zhongchang

    2017-12-27

    Microcystis aeruginosa, as the most common cyanobacteria, often grows uncontrollably in eutrophic lakes with the accumulation of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) in water, which heavily pollutes water and hence imposes tremendous threat to aquatic animals and human beings. To remediate the harmful algae polluted water, here we synthesize a series of poly dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride (PDDA) modified TiO 2 floating photocatalysts, PDDA@NPT-EGC, and apply them as a visible light driven multifunctional material. The fabricated PDDA@NPT-EGC composites have a worm-like structure with PDDA particles distributed on their surfaces, and the concentration of PDDA can affect the agglomerative condition and distribution of PDDA particles and the photoelectric properties of catalysts. Among these catalysts, the PDDA@NPT-EGC with 0.2 wt% PDDA (0.2PDDA@NPT-EGC) shows the highest adsorption and photocatalytic activity. Compared with the NPT-EGC, the dark adsorption efficiency for the 0.2PDDA@NPT-EGC after 3 h increases from 70.4% to 88.9%, and the total removal efficiency after visible light irradiation for 2 h increases from 77.8% to 92.6%. In addition, the 0.2PDDA@NPT-EGC exhibits a removal efficiency of 96.55% for photocatalytic degradation of MC-LR after irradiation for 3 h. The Adda side chain of MC-LR molecule is found to degradate gradually in the photocatalytic degradation process, indicative of the elimination of biotoxicity for MC-LR molecule in the reaction. We demonstrate that the 0.2PDDA@NPT-EGC is remarkably competitive in both algae inactivation and MC-LR removal, which shall hold substantial promise in remediation of algae pollution in eutrophic waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. TiO2/Halloysite Composites Codoped with Carbon and Nitrogen from Melamine and Their Enhanced Solar-Light-Driven Photocatalytic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengcheng Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon (C and nitrogen (N codoped anatase TiO2/amorphous halloysite nanotubes (C+N-TiO2/HNTs were fabricated using melamine as C and N source. The samples prepared by different weight ratios of melamine and TiO2 were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrometer. It is shown that the doping amounts of C and N could influence the photocatalytic performance of as-prepared composites. When the weight ratio of melamine/TiO2 is 4.5, the C+N-TiO2/HNTs exhibited the best photocatalytic degradation efficiency of methyl blue (MB under solar light irradiation. The obtained C+N-TiO2/HNTs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm (BET, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR. The results showed that the aggregation was effectively reduced, and TiO2 nanoparticles could be uniformly deposited on the surface of HNTs. This leads to an increase of their specific surface area. XPS and FT-IR analyses indicated TiO2 particles were doped successfully with C and N via the linkage of the Ti–O–N, O–Ti–N, and Ti–O–C. Photocatalytic experiments showed that C+N-TiO2/HNTs had higher degradation efficiency of MB than TiO2/HNTs. This makes the composite a potential candidate for the photocatalytic wastewater treatment.

  13. Photocatalytic degradation and mineralization of microcystin-LR under UV-A, solar and visible light using nanostructured nitrogen doped TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triantis, T.M.; Fotiou, T.; Kaloudis, T.; Kontos, A.G.; Falaras, P.; Dionysiou, D.D.; Pelaez, M.; Hiskia, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► N-TiO 2 exhibited effective degradation of MC-LR under UV-A, solar and visible light. ► Complete photocatalytic mineralization of MC-LR was achieved under UV-A and solar light. ► The organic nitrogen is mainly released as ammonium and nitrate ions. - Abstract: In an attempt to face serious environmental hazards, the degradation of microcystin-LR (MC-LR), one of the most common and more toxic water soluble cyanotoxin compounds released by cyanobacteria blooms, was investigated using nitrogen doped TiO 2 (N-TiO 2 ) photocatalyst, under UV-A, solar and visible light. Commercial Degussa P25 TiO 2 , Kronos and reference TiO 2 nanopowders were used for comparison. It was found that under UV-A irradiation, all photocatalysts were effective in toxin elimination. The higher MC-LR degradation (99%) was observed with Degussa P25 TiO 2 followed by N-TiO 2 with 96% toxin destruction after 20 min of illumination. Under solar light illumination, N-TiO 2 nanocatalyst exhibits similar photocatalytic activity with that of commercially available materials such as Degussa P25 and Kronos TiO 2 for the destruction of MC-LR. Upon irradiation with visible light Degussa P25 practically did not show any response, while the N-TiO 2 displayed remarkable photocatalytic efficiency. In addition, it has been shown that photodegradation products did not present any significant protein phosphatase inhibition activity, proving that toxicity is proportional only to the remaining MC-LR in solution. Finally, total organic carbon (TOC) and inorganic ions (NO 2 − , NO 3 − and NH 4 + ) determinations confirmed that complete photocatalytic mineralization of MC-LR was achieved under both UV-A and solar light.

  14. Interaction of TiO2 nanoparticles with the marine microalga Nitzschia closterium: Growth inhibition, oxidative stress and internalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Bin; Chen, Bijuan; Sun, Xuemei; Qu, Keming; Ma, Feifei; Du, Meirong

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity of TiO 2 engineered nanoparticles (NPs) to the marine microalga Nitzschia closterium was investigated by examining growth inhibition, oxidative stress and uptake. The results indicated that the toxicity of TiO 2 particles to algal cells significantly increased with decreasing nominal particle size, which was evidenced by the 96 EC 50 values of 88.78, 118.80 and 179.05 mg/L for 21 nm, 60 nm and 400 nm TiO 2 particles, respectively. The growth rate was significantly inhibited when the alga was exposed to 5 mg/L TiO 2 NPs (21 nm). Measurements of antioxidant enzyme activities showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities were first induced and subsequently inhibited following exposure to 5 mg/L TiO 2 NPs. The depletion of antioxidant enzymes with a concomitant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and reactive oxygen species (ROS) posed a hazard to membrane integrity. A combination of flow cytometry analysis, transmission electron microscopy and Ti content measurement indicated that TiO 2 NPs were internalized in N. closterium cells. The level of extracellular ROS, which was induced by TiO 2 NPs under visible light, was negligible when compared with the intracellular ROS level (accounting for less than 6.0% of the total ROS level). These findings suggest that elevated TiO 2 nanotoxicity in marine environments is related to increased ROS levels caused by internalization of TiO 2 NPs. - Highlights: • Inhibition of marine microalgae by TiO 2 NPs and bulk particles was evaluated. • Aggregation of TiO 2 NPs and bulk particles was observed in marine algal test medium. • TiO 2 NPs induced damage to algal cell membranes as detected by flow cytometry. • Increased TiO 2 nanotoxicity to algal cells was caused by internalization of NPs

  15. Visible-light-driven photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performances of Cr-doped SrTiO3/TiO2 heterostructured nanotube arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Zhengbo; Chen, Tao; Xiong, Jinyan; Wang, Teng; Lu, Gongxuan; Ye, Jinhua; Bi, Yingpu

    2013-01-01

    Well-aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays have become of increasing significance because of their unique highly ordered array structure, high specific surface area, unidirectional charge transfer and transportation features. However, their poor visible light utilization as well as the high recombination rate of photoexcited electron-hole pairs greatly limited their practical applications. Herein, we demonstrate the fabrication of visible-light-responsive heterostructured Cr-doped SrTiO3/TiO2 nanotube arrays by a simple hydrothermal method, which facilitate efficient charge separation and thus improve the photoelectrochemical as well as photocatalytic performances.

  16. Preparation and Photocatalytic Property of Sr(Zr1-xYx)O3/TiO2/CdS heterojunction photocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yonggang; Liu Suwen; Zhang Haiping; Xiu Zhiliang; Yu Xiaojun; Wang Enhua; Li Tanggang

    2010-01-01

    A novel composite heterojunction photocatalysts Sr(Zr 1-x Y x )O 3 /TiO 2 /CdS was prepared by sol-gel combustion method. Its photoatalytic properties under visible light were investigated through degradation of methyl orange. XRD, SEM, Uv-Vis and PL techniques were used to characterize the structure and optical properties of the sample. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity of prepared composite photocatalysts under visible light is 2.85 times of that of pure TiO 2 .

  17. Algae decorated TiO2/Ag hybrid nanofiber membrane with enhanced photocatalytic activity for Cr(VI) removal under visible light

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, L; Zhang, C; Gao, F; Mailhot, G; Pan, G

    2017-01-01

    Algae as an abundant natural biomass, more attention has been paid to explore its potential application in environmental pollutants treatment. This work prepared the algae-TiO2/Ag bionano hybrid material by loading algae cells on the ultrafine TiO2/Ag chitosan hybrid nanofiber mat. For the first time, the synergistic photocatalytic effect of fresh algae and TiO2/Ag nanomaterial was investigated by removal of Cr(VI). The addition of algae significantly improved the photo-removal of Cr(VI) in t...

  18. Photocatalytic oxidation of organic compounds via waveguide-supported titanium dioxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lawrence W.

    A photochemical reactor based on titanium dioxide (TiO2)-coated silica optical fibers was constructed to explore the use of waveguide-supported TiO2 films for photocatalytic oxidation of organic compounds. The reactor was used for the photocatalytic oxidation of 4-chlorophenol in water. It was confirmed that TiO2 films could be securely attached to silica optical fibers. The 4-chlorophenol (100 mumol/L in water) was successfully oxidized on the TiO2 surface when UV light (310 nm--380 nm) was propagated through the fibers to the films. Rates of 4-chlorophenol oxidation and UV light flux to the fibers were measured. The quantum efficiency of 4-chlorophenol oxidation [defined as the change in 4-chlorophenol concentration divided by the UV light absorbed by the catalyst] was determined as a function of TiO2 catalyst film thickness and internal incident angle of propagating UV light. A maximum quantum efficiency of 2.8% was measured when TiO2 film thickness was ca. 80 nm and the maximum internal incident angle of propagating light was 84°. Quantum efficiency increased with increasing internal angle of incidence of propagating light and decreased with TiO2 film thickness. UV-Visible internal reflection spectroscopy was used to determine whether UV light propagated through TiO2-coated silica waveguides in an ATR mode. Propagation of UV light in an ATR mode was confirmed by the similarities between internal reflection spectra of phenolphthalein obtained with uncoated and TiO2-coated silica crystals. Planar silica waveguides coated with TiO2 were employed in a photocatalytic reactor for the oxidation of formic acid (833 mumol/L in water). It was shown that the quantum yield of formic acid oxidation [defined as the moles of formic acid oxidized divided by the moles of UV photons absorbed by the catalyst] on the waveguide-supported TiO2 surface is enhanced when UV light propagates through the waveguides in an ATR mode. A maximum quantum yield of 3.9% was found for formic

  19. A Simple Method for the Preparation of TiO2 /Ag-AgCl@Polypyrrole Composite and Its Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tongjie; Shi, Lei; Wang, Hao; Wang, Fangxiao; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Xiao; Sun, Jianmin; Cui, Tieyu

    2016-01-01

    A novel and facile method was developed to prepare a visible-light driven TiO2 /Ag-AgCl@polypyrrole (PPy) photocatalyst with Ag-AgCl nanoparticles supported on TiO2 nanofibers and covered by a thin PPy shell. During the synthesis, the PPy shell and Ag-AgCl nanoparticles were prepared simultaneously onto TiO2 nanofibers, which simplified the preparation procedure. In addition, because Ag-AgCl aggregates were fabricated via partly etching the Ag nanoparticles, their size was well controlled at the nanoscale, which was beneficial for improvement of the contact surface area. Compared with reference photocatalysts, the TiO2 /Ag-AgCl@PPy composite exhibited an enhanced photodegradation activity towards rhodamine B under visible-light irradiation. The superior photocatalytic property originated from synergistic effects between TiO2 nanofibers, Ag-AgCl nanoparticles and the PPy shell. Furthermore, the TiO2 /Ag-AgCl@PPy composite could be easily separated and recycled without obvious reduction in activity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Synergistic Effect of Fluorinated and N Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles Leading to Different Microstructure and Enhanced Photocatalytic Bacterial Inactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Milosevic

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the development of a facile and scalable wet milling method followed by heat treatment to prepare fluorinated and/or N-doped TiO2 nanopowders with improved photocatalytic properties under visible light. The structural and electronic properties of doped particles were investigated by various techniques. The successful doping of TiO2 was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and the atoms appeared to be mainly located in interstitial positions for N whereas the fluorination is located at the TiO2 surface. The formation of intragap states was found to be responsible for the band gap narrowing leading to the faster bacterial inactivation dynamics observed for the fluorinated and N doped TiO2 particles compared to N-doped TiO2. This was attributed to a synergistic effect. The results presented in this study confirmed the suitability of the preparation approach for the large-scale production of cost-efficient doped TiO2 for effective bacterial inactivation.

  1. SYNTHESIS OF MAGNETIC NANOPARTICLES OF TiO2-NiFe2O4: CHARACTERIZATION AND PHOTOCATALYTIC ACTIVITY ON DEGRADATION OF RHODAMINE B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmayeni Rahmayeni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanoparticles of TiO2-(xNiFe2O4 with x = 0.01, 0.1, and 0.3have been synthesized by mixture of titanium isopropoxide (TIP and nitric metal as precursors. The particles were characterized by XRD, SEM-EDX, and VSM. XRD pattern show the peaks at 2q = 25.3°, 38.4° and 47.9° which are referred as anatase phase of TiO2. Meanwhile NiFe2O4 phase was observed clearly for x = 0.3. The present of NiFe2O4 can prevent the transformation of TiO2 from anatase to rutile when the calcination temperature increased. Microstructure analyses by SEM show the homogeneous form and size of particles. The magnetic properties analysis by VSM indicates that TiO2-NiFe2O4 is paramagnetic behavior. TiO2 doped NiFe2O4 has higher photocatalytic activity than TiO2 synthesized for degradation of Rhodamine B in aqueous solution under solar light irradiation.

  2. Towards TiO2 nanotubes modified by WO3 species: influence of ex situ crystallization of precursor on the photocatalytic activities of WO3/TiO2 composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Dong, Bohua; Su, Ge; Gao, Rongjie; Liu, Wei; Song, Liang; Cao, Lixin

    2015-09-01

    TiO2 nanotubes (TNT) crystallized at different temperatures were loaded with WO3 hydrate through the reaction between (NH4)6W7O24·6H2O and an aqueous solution of HCl. The photocatalytic activities of nanocomposites firstly increase and then decrease as a function of the crystallized temperature of the TNT precursor. The structural, morphologic and optical properties of WO3/TiO2 nanocomposites were also investigated in this study. The samples, initially anatase titania (573 K-773 K), presented phase transition to rutile titania at 873 K. With the crystallized temperature increasing, an evolution of samples morphology changing from nanotube-like structure to nanorod-like structure was observed. Meanwhile, the absorption edge of samples exhibited a red shift, and correspondingly their band gap decreased. Consistent with x-ray diffraction diffractograms, the existence of rutile titania as an impurity in the precursor TNT, crystallized at higher than 873 K, depressed photocatalytic activity evidently. As a result, the degradation rate of methyl orange (MO) increased with the samples crystallinity firstly, and then reduced due to the appearance of rutile titania. In our experimental conditions, the optimal photocatalytic activity was achieved for the sample crystalized at 773 K. Its degradation rate could reach 98.76% after 90 min UV light irradiation.

  3. Towards TiO2 nanotubes modified by WO3 species: influence of ex situ crystallization of precursor on the photocatalytic activities of WO3/TiO2 composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Hui; Dong, Bohua; Su, Ge; Gao, Rongjie; Liu, Wei; Cao, Lixin; Song, Liang

    2015-01-01

    TiO 2 nanotubes (TNT) crystallized at different temperatures were loaded with WO 3 hydrate through the reaction between (NH 4 ) 6 W 7 O 24 ·6H 2 O and an aqueous solution of HCl. The photocatalytic activities of nanocomposites firstly increase and then decrease as a function of the crystallized temperature of the TNT precursor. The structural, morphologic and optical properties of WO 3 /TiO 2 nanocomposites were also investigated in this study. The samples, initially anatase titania (573 K–773 K), presented phase transition to rutile titania at 873 K. With the crystallized temperature increasing, an evolution of samples morphology changing from nanotube-like structure to nanorod-like structure was observed. Meanwhile, the absorption edge of samples exhibited a red shift, and correspondingly their band gap decreased. Consistent with x-ray diffraction diffractograms, the existence of rutile titania as an impurity in the precursor TNT, crystallized at higher than 873 K, depressed photocatalytic activity evidently. As a result, the degradation rate of methyl orange (MO) increased with the samples crystallinity firstly, and then reduced due to the appearance of rutile titania. In our experimental conditions, the optimal photocatalytic activity was achieved for the sample crystalized at 773 K. Its degradation rate could reach 98.76% after 90 min UV light irradiation. (paper)

  4. Assessment of Microwave/UV/O3 in the Photo-Catalytic Degradation of Bromothymol Blue in Aqueous Nano TiO2 Particles Dispersions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sun-Jae

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, a microwave/UV/TiO2/ozone/H2O2 hybrid process system, in which various techniques that have been used for water treatment are combined, is evaluated to develop an advanced technology to treat non-biodegradable water pollutants efficiently. In particular, the objective of this study is to develop a novel advanced oxidation process that overcomes the limitations of existing single-process water treatment methods by adding microwave irradiation to maximize the formation of active intermediate products, e.g., OH radicals, with the aid of UV irradiation by microwave discharge electrodeless lamp, photo-catalysts, and auxiliary oxidants. The results of photo-catalytic degradation of BTB showed that the decomposition rate increased with the TiO2 particle dosages and microwave intensity. When an auxiliary oxidant such as ozone or hydrogen peroxide was added to the microwave-assisted photo-catalysis, however, a synergy effect that enhanced the reaction rate considerably was observed.

  5. Safety Profile of TiO2-Based Photocatalytic Nanofabrics for Indoor Formaldehyde Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixin Cui

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (TNPs are synthesized using the sol-gel method and loaded onto the surface of polyester-cotton (65/35 fabrics. The nanofabrics degrade formaldehyde at an efficiency of 77% in eight hours with visible light irradiation or 97% with UV light. The loaded TNPs display very little release from nanofabrics (~0.0% during a standard fastness to rubbing test. Assuming TNPs may fall off nanofabrics during their life cycles, we also examine the possible toxicity of TNPs to human cells. We found that up to a concentration of 220 μg/mL, they do not affect viability of human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 macrophages and human liver and kidney cells.

  6. Synergistic effect of single-electron-trapped oxygen vacancies and carbon species on the visible light photocatalytic activity of carbon-modified TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Xue, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Xiaogang; Xing, Xing; Li, Qiuye; Yang, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-modified TiO 2 (CT) nanoparticles were prepared via a two-step method of heat treatment without the resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) polymer. As-prepared CT nanoparticles were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–Vis/DRS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N 2 adsorption–desorption isotherms, thermal analysis (TA), electron spin resonance (ESR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The visible light photocatalytic activities were evaluated on the basis of the degradation of methyl orange (MO). The synergistic effect of single-electron-trapped oxygen vacancies (SETOVs) and the carbon species on the visible light photocatalytic activities of the CT nanoparticles were discussed. It was found that the crystalline phase, the morphology, and particle size of the CT nanoparticles depended on the second heat-treatment temperature instead of the first heat-treatment temperature. The visible light photocatalytic activities were attributed to the synergistic effect of SETOVs and the carbon species, and also depended on the specific surface area of the photocatalysts. - Highlights: • Carbon-modified TiO 2 particles have been prepared without RF polymer. • The visible light photocatalytic activities of the particles have been evaluated. • The band gap energy structure of the carbon-modified TiO 2 has been proposed. • Synergistic effect of SETOVs and carbon species has been discussed. • The activities also depend on the specific surface area of the catalysts

  7. Low temperature synthesis of N-doped TiO_2 with rice-like morphology through peroxo assisted hydrothermal route: Materials characterization and photocatalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakar, Shahzad Abu; Ribeiro, Caue

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The N:TiO_2 nanorice were prepared using facile peroxo-assisted hydrothermal method at low temperature. • The N:TiO_2 exhibited rice-like morphology. • The nitrogen doping favoured UV/visible light photocatalytic activity. • The RhB and Atrazine were chosen as model pollutants. - Abstract: Nanorice-shaped N:TiO_2 photocatalysts have been prepared by the peroxo assisted hydrothermal method using stabilized titanium complex as a precursor and urea as a N source. The N:TiO_2 nanorices were characterised by XRD, FE-SEM, HRTEM, XPS, UV–vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and measurements of photocatalytic degradation of organic molecules (atrazine and RhB dye) under the UV and visible-light irradiation. XRD analyses showed that pristine TiO_2 crystallizes into anatase polymorph and that the N-doping process at 5% introduced a degree of disorder on the TiO_2 crystalline structure. XPS study revealed the successful incorporation of the nitrogen atoms at the interstitial sites of the TiO_2 crystal lattice. Microscopy studies revealed that the particle size was in the range 50–80 nm for the pristine TiO_2. The photocatalysts were assembled in the form of nanorices with a high surface area (102 m"2 g"−"1). The successful incorporation of nitrogen atoms into the TiO_2 crystal lattice is expected to be responsible for enhanced photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared samples for the degradation of pollutants (RhB and atrazine) under UV and visible light irradiation. The rate of ·OH radicals formation under visible-light irradiation was examined and found to be correlated with the photocatalytic activity per unit surface area. The N:TiO_2 particles with nanorice morphology was efficient photocatalysts for decomposition of organic dyes under UV and visible-light exposure while pristine TiO_2 photocatalyst did not show any significant photocatalytic activity when stimulated by visible-light. The 3% doped N:TiO_2 sample exhibited the highest

  8. Effect of TiO2 photocatalytic preservation on quality of kiwifruit during shelf life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chengjie; Jiang, Yong; Qi, Shasha; Zhang, Changfeng; Guo, Fengjun

    2018-04-01

    In order to study the effect of titanium dioxide photocatalysis technology on the quality of kiwifruit during shelf life, the texture properties of kiwifruit during shelf life were measured by simulating the effect of cross-ripening among fruits and vegetables under the mixed environment of different fruits and vegetables. The results showed that the kiwifruit after photocatalytic preservation maintained a more mature state in the middle and preliminary stage of shelf life, chewiness is better than the control group and the blank group, compared with the over-ripen control group and low-maturity blank group, experimental group has the best commodity value. Therefore, using nanometer photocatalytic preservation can effectively reduce the ripening effect of kiwifruit in the mixed environment, control the after-ripening of kiwifruit, and meanwhile maintain the commodity value of the kiwifruit during the shelf life.iO2, Photocatalysis, Kiwifruit, Shelf-life.

  9. Development of Titanium Dioxide (TiO2 ) Nanocoatings on Food Contact Surfaces and Method to Evaluate Their Durability and Photocatalytic Bactericidal Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemmireddy, Veerachandra K; Farrell, Glenn D; Hung, Yen-Con

    2015-08-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) is a well-known photocatalyst for its excellent bactericidal property under UVA light. The purpose of this study was to develop physically stable TiO2 coatings on food contact surfaces using different binding agents and develop methods to evaluate their durability and microbicidal property. Several types of organic and inorganic binders such as polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol, polyurethane, polycrylic, sodium and potassium silicates, shellac resin, and other commercial binders were used at 1:1 to 1:16 nanoparticle to binder weight ratios to develop a formulation for TiO2 coating on stainless steel surfaces. Among the tested binders, polyurethane, polycrylic, and shellac resin were found to be physically more stable when used in TiO2 coating at 1:4 to 1:16 weight ratio. The physical stability of TiO2 coatings was determined using adhesion strength and scratch hardness tests by following standard ASTM procedures. Further, wear resistance of the coatings was evaluated based on a simulated cleaning procedure used in food processing environments. TiO2 coating with polyurethane at a 1:8 nanoparticle to binder weight ratio showed the highest scratch hardness (1.08 GPa) followed by coating with polycrylic (0.68 GPa) and shellac (0.14 GPa) binders. Three different techniques, namely direct spreading, glass cover-slip, and indented coupon were compared to determine the photocatalytic bactericidal property of TiO2 coatings against Escherichia coli 0157:H7 at 2 mW/cm(2) UVA light intensity. Under the tested conditions, the indented coupon technique was found to be the most appropriate method to determine the bactericidal property of TiO2 coatings and showed a reduction of 3.5 log CFU/cm(2) in 2 h. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Pr3+ doped biphasic TiO2 (rutile-brookite) nanorod arrays grown on activated carbon fibers: Hydrothermal synthesis and photocatalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Zhang, Xiaomei; Liu, Ying; Yang, Yi

    2018-05-01

    Praseodymium-doped biphasic TiO2 (rutile-brookite) nanorod arrays (Pr-TiO2 NRAs) were successfully prepared via a two-step hydrothermal reaction on activated carbon fibers (ACFs) which pre-coated with TiO2 nanoparticles at first step. The bicrystalline arrays grown on ACFs are primarily constructed by the well-aligned TiO2 nanorods growing along [0 0 1] direction, which were indicated by the results of SEM and XRD. The nanorods are uniform in diameter and length with about 250 nm and 2.5 μm. The composite photocatalyst with high specific surface area and well-aligned nanostructure are beneficial to enhance the adsorption capacity and even help to suppress electron-hole recombination effectively, which consequently revealed much better (2 times) catalytic performance than that of commercially available P25 TiO2 on methylene blue(MB) photodegradation. In addition, the existence of praseodymium in TiO2 gives rise to shift of absorption edge towards long wavelength, which was indicated by the results of UV-vis DRS. Photodegradation results reveal that Pr-doping significantly improves the activity of TiO2, which was 20% higher than that of undoped TiO2 NRAs for the photodegradation of MB in aqueous medium under visible light irradiation. Meanwhile, the doped amount of Pr had a tiny influence on the photocatalytic performance of the composites. In our experiment, 3% Pr-doped molar concentration was proven to be the relatively optimal dopant concentration for the doping of TiO2 NRAs. Moreover, the photocatalyst grown on ACFs substrates is favorable to reuse and photodegradation rate kept on 76% even after 4 times of reuse.

  11. Low temperature self-assembled growth of rutile TiO2/manganese oxide nanocrystalline films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhenya; Zhou, Daokun; Du, Jianhua; Xie, Yuxing

    2017-10-01

    We report formation of rutile TiO2 nanocrystal at low temperature range in the presence of α-MnO2 which self-assembled onto sulfanyl radical activated silicon oxide substrate. SEM, HRTEM, XPS and Raman spectroscopy were used to study the morphology and oxidation state of synthesised crystals. The results showed that when the α-MnO2 was reduced to Mn3O4, it induced the formation of rutile instead of anatase phase in the TiCl4-HCl aqueous system. The finding will promote the understanding of phase transformation mechanism when manganese oxide and titanium oxide co-exist in soil and water environment.

  12. Fabrication and assembly of two-dimensional TiO2/WO3·H2O heterostructures with type II band alignment for enhanced photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Wang, Yun; Zhou, Xiaofang; Zheng, Xiaoli; Xu, Qun; Chen, Zhimin; Ren, Yumei; Yan, Bo

    2017-05-01

    The recombination of photo-induced charges is one of the main issues to limit the large-scale applications in photocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis. To improve the charge separation, we fabricate a novel type II 2D ultrathin TiO2/WO3·H2O heterostructures with the assistance of supercritical CO2 (SC CO2) in this work. The as-fabricated heterostructures possess high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange(MO) and high photocurrent response under simulated solar light (AM 1.5). For the TiO2/WO3·H2O heterostructures, the MO solution could be degraded by 95.5% in 150 min, and the photocurrent density reaches to 6.5 μA cm-2, exhibiting a significant enhancement compared with pure TiO2 and WO3·H2O nanosheets.

  13. Response surface methodology modeling to improve degradation of Chlorpyrifos in agriculture runoff using TiO2 solar photocatalytic in a raceway pond reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Hoda; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Silva Martinez, Susana; Jamaleddin Shahtaheri, Seyed; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar; Badiei, Alireza; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Naddafi, Kazem

    2018-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of a raceway pond reactor (RPR) as an alternative photoreactor for solar photocatalytic applications. Raceway pond reactors are common low-cost reactors which can treat large volumes of water. The experiments were carried out with TiO 2 in the agriculture effluent spiked with Chlorpyrifos (CPF) at circumneutral pH. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to find the optimum process parameters to maximize CPF oxidation from the mathematical model equations developed in this study using R software. By ANOVA, p-value of lack of fit > 0.05 indicated that, the equation was well-fitted. The theoretical efficiency of CPF removal, under the optimum oxidation conditions with UV solar energy of around 697 ± 5.33 lux, was 84.01%, which is in close agreement with the mean experimental value (80 ± 1.42%) confirming that the response model was suitable for the optimization. As far as the authors know, this is the first study of CPF removal using RPR in agriculture runoff at circumneutral pH. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Carbon as amorphous shell and interstitial dopant in mesoporous rutile TiO2: Bio-template assisted sol-gel synthesis and photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Azuwa Mohamad; Wan Norharyati Wan Salleh; Juhana Jaafar; Mohamad Saufi Rosmi; Zul Adlan Mohd Hir; Muhazri Abd Mutalib; Ahmad Fauzi Ismail; Tanemura, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • RCM as bio-template and in-situ carbon shell and interstitial carbon doping. • Photo-sensitizers by carbonaceous layer grafted onto the surface of TiO 2 . • Visible light response could be tailored depending on the annealing temperature. • Photocatalytic properties and charge carrier transfer mechanism was proposed. - Abstract: Regenerated cellulose membrane was used as bio-template nanoreactor for the formation of rutile TiO 2 mesoporous, as well as in-situ carbon dopant in acidified sol-gel system. The effects of calcination temperature on the physicochemical characteristic of core-shell nanostructured of bio-templated C-doped mesoporous TiO 2 are highlighted in this study. By varying the calcination temperature, the thickness of the carbon shell coating on TiO 2 , crystallinity, surface area, and optical properties could be tuned as confirmed by HRTEM, nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurement, XRD and UV–vis-NIR spectroscopy. The results suggested that increment in the calcination temperature would lead to the band gap narrowing from 2.95 to 2.80 eV and the thickness of carbon shell increased from 0.40 to 1.20 nm. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the visible light absorption capability was mainly due to the incorporation of carbon dopant at interstitial position in the TiO 2 to form O−Ti−C or Ti−O−C bond. In addition, the formation of the carbon core-shell nanostructured was due to carbonaceous layer grafted onto the surface of TiO 2 via Ti−O−C and Ti−OCO bonds. The result indicated that bio-templated C-doped core-shell mesoporous TiO 2 prepared at 300 °C exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity. It is worthy to note that, the calcination temperature provided a huge impact towards improving the physicochemical and photocatalytic properties of the prepared bio-templated C-doped core-shell mesoporous TiO 2 .

  15. Bacterial adhesion and inactivation on Ag decorated TiO2-nanotubes under visible light: Effect of the nanotubes geometry on the photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjaji, A; Elabidi, M; Trabelsi, K; Assadi, A A; Bessais, B; Rtimi, S

    2018-06-05

    This study investigates the effect of the diameter of TiO 2 nanotubes and silver decorated nanotubes on optical properties and photocatalytic inactivation of Escherichia coli under visible light. The TiO 2 nanotubes (TiO 2 -NTs) were prepared using the electrochemical method varying the anodization potential starting from 20 V until 70 V. The Ag nanoparticles were carried out using the photoreduction process under the same experimental conditions. The diameter size was determined using the scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). TiO 2 -NTs diameter reached ∼100 nm at 70 V. Transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) imaging confirmed the TiO 2 -NTs surface decoration by silver nanoparticles. The Ag-NPs average size was found to be equal to 8 nm. The X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirm that all TiO 2 -NTs crystallize in the anatase phases regardless the used anodization potential. The decrease of the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of Ag NPs decorated TiO 2 -NTs indicates the decrease of the specific area when the nanotubes diameter increases. The UV-vis absorbance show that the absorption edges was bleu shifted with the increasing of nanotubes diameter, which can be explained by the increase of the crystallites average size. The bacterial adhesion and inactivation tests were carried in the dark and under light. Bacteria were seen to adhere on TiO 2 -NTs in the dark; however, under light the bacteria were killed before they establish a strong contact with the TiO 2 -NTs and Ag/TiO 2 -NTs surfaces. Bacterial inactivation kinetics were faster when the anodizing potential of the NTs-preparation increases. A total bacterial inactivation was obtained on ∼100 nm nanotubes diameter within 90 min. This result was attributed to the enhancement of the TNTs crystallinity leading to reduced surface defects. Redox catalysis was seen to occur under light on the TiO 2 -NTs and Ag/TiO 2 -NTs. the photo-induced antibacterial activity on the AgO/Ag 2 O decorated Ti

  16. Solvothermal fabrication of TiO2/sepiolite composite gel with exposed {0 0 1} and {1 0 1} facets and its enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruirui; Ji, Zhijiang; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Jinjun

    2018-05-01

    A novel TiO2/sepiolite composite gel (TiSG) was fabricated in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) through a simple solvothermal reaction in an acetic acid-water solvent. A homogeneous anchoring of TiO2 nanoparticles with exposed {0 0 1} and {1 0 1} facets on sepiolite nanofibers was achieved. CTAB content, solvothermal temperature/time, and HAc content play crucial roles in the morphological and facet formation of TiSG. A possible mechanism for the formation of TiSG was further proposed. CTAB as capping/shape-controlling agent can strongly bind to the more reactive (0 0 1) facet of TiO2 and then mitigate the thermodynamically favored (0 0 1) plane growth. Eventually, the truncated octahedral TiO2 was obtained by controlling the growth rates in 〈0 0 1〉 and 〈1 0 1〉 directions. Sepiolite as a cross-linking agent provides sufficient crosslinking sites for TiO2 to induce three-dimensional (3D) network formation, thereby generating the composite gel. The synthesized TiSG samples were then used as photocatalysts, which exhibited increased methyl orange removal under UV-vis light (350-780 nm) by the synergistic effect of adsorption and in-situ photocatalytic degradation as compared to P25 and bare TiO2. The excellent photocatalytic performance of TiSG was mainly ascribed to the formations of 3D gel structure and surface heterojunctions between (0 0 1) and (1 0 1) facets.

  17. Influence of Ce Doping on the Electrical and Optical Properties of TiO2 and Its Photocatalytic Activity for the Degradation of Remazol Brilliant Blue R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Malik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline TiO2 particles doped with different concentrations of Cerium (Ce, 1–10% have been synthesized using sol-gel method. The prepared particles were characterized by standard analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD, FTIR and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM. The XRD analysis shows no change in crystal structure of TiO2 after doping with different concentrations of Ce, which indicates the single-phase polycrystalline material. The SEM analysis shows the partial crystalline nature of undoped, and doped TiO2 and TEM analysis shows the particle sizes were in the range of 9–14 nm in size. The a.c. analysis shows that the dielectric constant ε and dielectric loss tan δ decrease with the increase in frequency. The dielectric property decreases with the increase in dopant concentration. It is also observed that the impedance increases with an increase in dopant concentration. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized particles (Ce-doped TiO2 with dopant concentration of 9% (Ce showed the highest photocatalytic activity for the degradation of the dye derivative Remazol Brilliant Blue R in an immersion well photochemical reactor with 500 W halogen linear lamp in the presence of atmospheric oxygen.

  18. Synthesis of TiO2-doped SiO2 composite films and its applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    structure of the titanium oxide species in the TiO2-doped SiO2 composite films and the photocatalytic reactiv- ity in order to ... gaku D-max γA diffractometer with graphite mono- chromized ... FT–IR absorption spectra of TiO2-doped SiO2 com-.

  19. High-rate deposition of photocatalytic TiO2 films by oxygen plasma assist reactive evaporation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Tetsuya; Kuniyoshi, Yuji; Aoki, Wataru; Ezoe, Sho; Endo, Tatsuya; Hoshi, Yoichi

    2008-01-01

    High-rate deposition of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) film was attempted using oxygen plasma assisted reactive evaporation (OPARE) method. Photocatalytic properties of the film were investigated. During the deposition, the substrate temperature was fixed at 400 deg. C. The film deposition rate can be increased by increasing the supply of titanium atoms to the substrate, although oversupply of the titanium atoms causes oxygen deficiency in the films, which limits the deposition rate. The film structure depends strongly on the supply ratio of oxygen molecules to titanium atoms O 2 /Ti and changes from anatase to rutile structure as the O 2 /Ti supply ratio increased. Consequently, the maximum deposition rates of 77.0 nm min -1 and 145.0 nm min -1 were obtained, respectively, for the anatase and rutile film. Both films deposited at such high rates showed excellent hydrophilicity and organic decomposition performance. Even the film with rutile structure deposited at 145.0 nm min -1 had a contact angle of less than 2.5 deg. by UV irradiation for 5.0 h and an organics-decomposition performance index of 8.9 [μmol l -1 min -1 ] for methylene blue

  20. Photocatalytic degradation with immobilised TiO(2) of three selected neonicotinoid insecticides: imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and clothianidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabar, Romina; Komel, Tilen; Fabjan, Jure; Kralj, Mojca Bavcon; Trebše, Polonca

    2012-09-01

    This research focused on photocatalytic degradation of imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and clothianidin employing a tailor-made photoreactor with six polychromatic fluorescent UVA (broad maximum at 355 nm) lamps and immobilised titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) on glass slides. The disappearance was followed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD) analyses, wherein the efficiency of mineralization was monitored by measurements of total organic carbon (TOC). Within 2h of photocatalysis, all three neonicotinoids were degraded following first order kinetics with rate constants k=0.035 ± 0.001 min(-1) for imidacloprid, k=0.019 ± 0.001 min(-1) for thiamethoxam and k=0.021 ± 0.000 min(-1) for clothianidin. However, the rate of mineralization was low, i.e. 19.1 ± 0.2% for imidacloprid, 14.4 ± 2.9% for thiamethoxam and 14.1 ± 0.4% for clothianidin. This indicates that several transformation products were formed instead. Some of them were observed within HPLC-DAD analyses and structures were proposed according to the liquid chromatography-electro spray ionization tandem mass spectrometry analyses (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The formation of clothianidin, as thiamethoxam transformation product, was reported for the first time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis of LaVO4/TiO2 heterojunction nanotubes by sol-gel coupled with hydrothermal method for photocatalytic air purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xuejun; Li, Xinyong; Zhao, Qidong; Liu, Shaomin

    2012-10-01

    With the aim of improving the effective utilization of visible light, the LaVO(4)/TiO(2) heterojunction nanotubes were fabricated by sol-gel coupled with hydrothermal method. The photocatalytic ability was demonstrated through catalytic removal of gaseous toluene species. The nanotube samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface photovoltage (SPV), Raman spectra and N(2) adsorption-desorption measurements. The characterization results showed that the samples with high specific surface areas were of typical nanotubular morphology, which would lead to the high separation and transfer efficiency of photo induced electron-hole pairs. The as-prepared nanotubes exhibited high photocatalytic activity in decomposing toluene species under visible light irradiation with fine photochemical stability. The enhanced photocatalytic performance of LaVO(4)/TiO(2) nanotubes might be attributed to the matching band potentials, the interconnected heterojunction of LaVO(4) versus TiO(2), and the large specific surface areas of nanotubes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Surfactant-free bio-synthesised Tio2 nanorods from Turbinaria conoides-a study on photocatalytic and anti-bacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhapriya, S.; Gomathipriya, P.

    2018-06-01

    In this study, Titania nanorods were synthesised from aqueous extract of Turbinaria conoides (brown seaweeds) (TiO2NRs-TC) under surfactant free medium. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesised nanorods was tested towards the photocatalytic decolourization using simulated dye wastewater containing Navy Blue HER (NBHER). The synthesised Titania nanorods were characterized by using x-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectrophotometer (EDS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). XRD pattern confirms the anatase phase formation and HR-SEM micrograph shows the presence of rod like structure with the size of about 50 nm. TEM analysis proves the rod like structure with a size of 45–50 nm which was in agreement with the XRD analysis and HR-SEM images. EDS and XDS confirmed the formation of Titania nanoparticles. The formation of TiO2NRs-TC has a beneficial influence on the dye Navy blue HER photodegradation. TiO2-TC nano rods also show superior photocatalytic ability in hydrogen generation (2.1 mmol/h‑1g‑1). The antibacterial activity of the synthesised nanoparticles was examined using disc diffusion method which showed diverse susceptibility of microorganisms to the Titania nanoparticles.

  3. Preparation and characterization of N-I co-doped nanocrystal anatase TiO2 with enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Liang; Deng Jian; Zhao Yubao; Liu Wanbing; An Lin; Chen Fei

    2009-01-01

    N-I co-doped TiO 2 nanoparticles were prepared by hydrolysis method, using ammonia and iodic acid as the doping sources and Ti(OBu) 4 as the titanium source. The prepared catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS). XRD spectra show that N-I-TiO 2 samples calcined at 673 K for 3 h are of anatase structure. XPS analysis of N-I-TiO 2 samples indicates that some N atoms replace O atoms in TiO 2 lattice, and I exist in I 7+ , I - and I 5+ chemical states in the samples. UV-vis DRS results reveal that N-I-TiO 2 had significant optical absorption in the region of 400-600 nm. The photocatalytic activity of catalysts was evaluated by monitoring the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO). Compared with P25 and mono-doped TiO 2 , N-I-TiO 2 powder shows higher photocatalytic activity under both visible-light (λ > 420 nm) and UV-vis light irradiation. Furthermore, N-I-TiO 2 also displays higher COD removal rate under UV-vis light irradiation.

  4. Photocatalytic Degradation of Rhodamine B Dye over Novel Porous TiO2-SnO2 Nanocomposites Prepared by Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B dye was successfully carried out under UV irradiation over porous TiO2-SnO2 nanocomposites with various molar ratios of Ti/Sn (4–12 synthesized by hydrothermal method using polystyrene microspheres as template. The combination of TiO2 with SnO2 can obtain high quantum yield of TiO2, and then achieve the high photocatalytic activity. And its porous structure can provide large surface area, leading to more adsorption and fast transfer of dye pollutant. Structural and textural features of the samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and N2 sorption techniques. Both adsorption and UV irradiation contribute to decolorization of about 100% of Rhodamine B dye over the sample TiSn10 after 30 min of the photocatalytic reaction, while the decomposition of Rhodamine B dye is only 62% over pure titania (Degussa P25.

  5. Well-defined copolymers synthesized by RAFT polymerization as effective modifiers to enhance the photocatalytic performance of TiO_2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilaki, E.; Kaliva, M.; Katsarakis, N.; Vamvakaki, M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Well-defined, random functional copolymers were synthesized by RAFT polymerization. • Novel TiO_2 particles in-situ modified with copolymers were synthesized. • The hybrid catalysts exhibited reduced aggregation and particle size. • The photocatalytic removal of methylene blue was higher for the hybrid catalysts. - Αbstract: The enhancement of the photocatalytic performance of anatase TiO_2 nanoparticles is demonstrated by a facile route, involving their in-situ surface modification with preformed polymer chains. Random copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate-co-methacrylic acid (PEGA-co-MAA) or poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate-co-dopamine methacrylamide (PEGA-co-DMA) were synthesized by reversible addition−fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization and were bound onto the surface of anatase titania nanoparticles via the “grafting to” method. The hybrid nanocatalysts were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, zeta-potential measurements, X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Their photocatalytic performance was evaluated by the decoloration of methylene blue (MB) dye in aqueous media under UV–vis light irradiation. The enhanced photoactivity and reusability of the polymer modified photocatalysts compared to that of bare TiO_2 nanoparticles was attributed to their improved dispersability and colloidal stability, the smaller particle size that leads to a larger surface area and the increased adsorption capacity of the dye onto the polymer modified nanoparticles.

  6. Effect of annealing ambience on the formation of surface/bulk oxygen vacancies in TiO2 for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lili; Zhang, Min; Guan, Zhongjie; Li, Qiuye; Yang, Jianjun

    2018-01-01

    The surface and bulk oxygen vacancy have a prominent effect on the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. In this study, TiO2 possessing different types and concentration of oxygen vacancies were prepared by annealing nanotube titanic acid (NTA) at various temperatures in air or vacuum atmosphere. TiO2 with the unitary bulk single-electron-trapped oxygen vacancies (SETOVs) formed when NTA were calcined in air. Whereas, TiO2 with both bulk and surface oxygen vacancies were obtained when NTA were annealed in vacuum. The series of TiO2 with different oxygen vacancies were systematically characterized by TEM, XRD, PL, XPS, ESR, and TGA. The PL and ESR analysis verified that surface oxygen vacancies and more bulk oxygen vacancies could form in vacuum atmosphere. Surface oxygen vacancies can trap electron and hinder the recombination of photo-generated charges, while bulk SETOVs act as the recombination center. The surface or bulk oxygen vacancies attributed different roles on the photo-absorbance and activity, leading that the sample of NTA-A400 displayed higher hydrogen evolution rate under UV light, whereas NTA-V400 displayed higher hydrogen evolution rate under visible light because bulk SETOVs can improve visible light absorption because sub-band formed by bulk SETOVs prompted the secondary transition of electron excited.

  7. High Photocatalytic Activity of Fe3O4-SiO2-TiO2 Functional Particles with Core-Shell Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyang Xue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel method of synthesizing Fe3O4-SiO2-TiO2 functional nanoparticles with the core-shell structure. The Fe3O4 cores which were mainly superparamagnetic were synthesized through a novel carbon reduction method. The Fe3O4 cores were then modified with SiO2 and finally encapsulated with TiO2 by the sol-gel method. The results of characterizations showed that the encapsulated 700 nm Fe3O4-SiO2-TiO2 particles have a relatively uniform size distribution, an anatase TiO2 shell, and suitable magnetic properties for allowing collection in a magnetic field. These magnetic properties, large area, relative high saturation intensity, and low retentive magnetism make the particles have high dispersibility in suspension and yet enable them to be recovered well using magnetic fields. The functionality of these particles was tested by measuring the photocatalytic activity of the decolouring of methyl orange (MO and methylene blue (MB under ultraviolet light and sunlight. The results showed that the introduction of the Fe3O4-SiO2-TiO2 functional nanoparticles significantly increased the decoloration rate so that an MO solution at a concentration of 10 mg/L could be decoloured completely within 180 minutes. The particles were recovered after utilization, washing, and drying and the primary recovery ratio was 87.5%.

  8. The Effect of TiO2 Doped Photocatalytic Nano-Additives on the Hydration and Microstructure of Portland and High Alumina Cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pérez-Nicolás

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mortars with two different binders (Portland cement (PC and high alumina cement (HAC were modified upon the bulk incorporation of nano-structured photocatalytic additives (bare TiO2, and TiO2 doped with either iron (Fe-TiO2 or vanadium (V-TiO2. Plastic and hardened state properties of these mortars were assessed in order to study the influence of these nano-additives. Water demand was increased, slightly by bare TiO2 and Fe-TiO2, and strongly by V-TiO2, in agreement with the reduction of the particle size and the tendency to agglomerate. Isothermal calorimetry showed that hydration of the cementitious matrices was accelerated due to additional nucleation sites offered by the nano-additives. TiO2 and doped TiO2 did not show pozzolanic reactivity in the binding systems. Changes in the pore size distribution, mainly the filler effect of the nano-additives, accounted for the increase in compressive strengths measured for HAC mortars. A complex microstructure was seen in calcium aluminate cement mortars, strongly dependent on the curing conditions. Fe-TiO2 was found to be homogeneously distributed whereas the tendency of V-TiO2 to agglomerate was evidenced by elemental distribution maps. Water absorption capacity was not affected by the nano-additive incorporation in HAC mortars, which is a favourable feature for the application of these mortars.

  9. Incorporating TiO2 nanotubes with a peptide of D-amino K122-4 (D) for enhanced mechanical and photocatalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L. Q.; Hu, Y. W.; Yu, B.; Davis, E.; Irvin, R.; Yan, X. G.; Li, D. Y.

    2016-02-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes are promising for a wide variety of potential applications in energy, biomedical and environmental sectors. However, their low mechanical strength and wide band gap limit their widespread technological use. This article reports our recent efforts to increase the mechanical strength of TiO2 nanotubes with lowered band gap by immobilizing a peptide of D-amino K122-4 (D) onto the nanotubes. Topographies and chemical compositions of the peptide-coated and uncoated TiO2 nanotubular arrays were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Properties of the peptide-coated and uncoated TiO2 nanotubular arrays, including hardness, elastic modulus, electron work function and photocurrent, were evaluated using micromechanical probe, Kelvin Probe and electrochemical system. Effect of the peptide on surface conductivity was also investigated through current mapping and I-V curve analysis with conductive atomic force microscopy. It is demonstrated that the peptide coating simultaneously enhances the mechanical strength, photocatalytic and electrical properties of TiO2 nanotubes.

  10. Co-electrospinning fabrication and photocatalytic performance of TiO2/SiO2 core/sheath nanofibers with tunable sheath thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Houbao; Du, Pingfan; Song, Lixin; Xiong, Jie; Yang, Junjie; Xing, Tonghai; Liu, Xin; Wu, Rongrong; Wang, Minchao; Shao, Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The core–sheath TiO 2 /SiO 2 nanofibers were fabricated by co-electrospinning technique. • The catalytic property of nanofibers with different sheath thickness was studied. • The potential methods of improving catalytic efficiency are suggested. - Abstract: In this paper, core/sheath TiO 2 /SiO 2 nanofibers with tunable sheath thickness were directly fabricated via a facile co-electrospinning technique with subsequent calcination at 500 °C. The morphologies and structures of core/sheath TiO 2 /SiO 2 nanofibers were characterized by TGA, FESEM, TEM, FTIR, XPS and BET. It was found that the 1D core/sheath nanofibers are made up of anatase–rutile TiO 2 core and amorphous SiO 2 sheath. The influences of SiO 2 sheath and its thickness on the photoreactivity were evaluated by observing photo-degradation of methylene blue aqueous solution under the irradiation of UV light. Compared with pure TiO 2 nanofibers, the core/sheath TiO 2 /SiO 2 nanofibers performed a better catalytic performance. That was attributed to not only efficient separation of hole–electron pairs resulting from the formation of heterojunction but also larger surface area and surface silanol group which will be useful to provide higher capacity for oxygen adsorption to generate more hydroxyl radicals. And the optimized core/sheath TiO 2 /SiO 2 nanofibers with a sheath thickness of 37 nm exhibited the best photocatalytic performance

  11. Characterization and photocatalytic performance evaluation of various metal ion-doped microstructured TiO2 under UV and visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Chittaranjan; Gupta, Ashok K

    2015-01-01

    Commercially available microcrystalline TiO2 was doped with silver, ferrous and ferric ion (1.0 mol %) using silver nitrate, ferrous sulfate and ferric nitrate solutions following the liquid impregnation technology. The catalysts prepared were characterised by FESEM, XRD, FTIR, DRS, particle size and micropore analysis. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared catalysts was tested on the degradation of two model dyes, methylene blue (3,7-bis (Dimethylamino)-phenothiazin-5-ium chloride, a cationic thiazine dye) and methyl blue (disodium;4-[4-[[4-(4-sulfonatoanilino)phenyl]-[4-(4-sulfonatophenyl)azaniumylidenecyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ylidene]methyl]anilino]benzene sulfonate, an anionic triphenyl methane dye) under irradiation by UV and visible light in a batch reactor. The efficiency of the photocatalysts under UV and visible light was compared to ascertain the light range for effective utilization. The catalysts were found to have the anatase crystalline structure and their particle size is in a range of 140-250 nm. In the case of Fe(2+) doped TiO2 and Fe(3+) doped TiO2, there was a greater shift in the optical absorption towards the visible range. Under UV light, Ag(+) doped TiO2 was the most efficient catalyst and the corresponding decolorization was more than 99% for both the dyes. Under visible light, Fe(3+) doped TiO2 was the most efficient photocatalyst with more than 96% and 90% decolorization for methylene blue and methyl blue, respectively. The kinetics of the reaction under both UV and visible light was investigated using the Langmuir-Hinshelwood pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Kinetic measurements confirmed that, Ag(+) doped TiO2 was most efficient in the UV range, while Fe(3+) doped TiO2 was most efficient in the visible range.

  12. High efficient photocatalytic activity from nanostructuralized photonic crystal-like p-n coaxial hetero-junction film photocatalyst of Cu3SnS4/TiO2 nanotube arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Liu, Fang-Ting; Chang, Yin; Wang, Jian; Wang, Cheng-Wei

    2017-12-01

    Structuring the materials in the form of photonic crystals is a new strategy for photocatalytic applications. Herein, a new concept of photonic crystal-induced p-n coaxial heterojunction film photocatalyst of Cu3SnS4/TiO2 (CTS/PhC-TNAs) was well-designed and successfully fabricated by combining periodic pulse anodic oxidation and in-situ self-assembling methods Such nanostructured CTS/PhC-TNAs exhibited significantly improved photocatalytic degradation activity under simulated sunlight irradiation with methyl orange (MO) as the target pollutants. Within 120 min, 82% of the MO (10 mg/L) was photodegraded and its kinetic constant per specific surface area reached 0.05332 μmol/m2h, which is 1.6 and 12.8 times more quickly than that of PhC-TNAs and CTS, respectively. Its significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity could be mainly attributed to a joint effect of the unique photonic crystal property of PhC-TNAs and the nanostructured hollow p-n coaxial hetero-junction, which result in an increased efficiency of charge separation and transfer and also an improved spectral response capability. This photonic crystal film photocatalyst has the potential for enhancing the photocatalytic activity via further optimizing the photonic stop band of PhC-TNAs. The study presents a new means to design the kind of photonic crystal structural-induced novel photocatalysts with high photocatalytic activities in pollution treatment.

  13. Enhancement of photocatalytic properties of TiO2 nanoparticles doped with CeO2 and supported on SiO2 for phenol degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Chunjing; Li, Jing; Zhang, Zailei; Ji, Yongjun; Zhan, Hanhui; Xiao, Fangxing; Wang, Dan; Liu, Bin; Su, Fabing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CeO 2 -TiO 2 /SiO 2 composites were prepared via a facile co-precipitation method. • Introduction of SiO 2 support increases the dispersion of CeO 2 -TiO 2 . • CeO 2 -TiO 2 /SiO 2 exhibits an enhanced photocatalytic efficiency for phenol degradation. • Ce 3+ /Ce 4+ pair coexisting in CeO 2 improves electron–hole pairs separation efficiency. - Abstract: A series of CeO 2 -TiO 2 and CeO 2 -TiO 2 /SiO 2 composites were prepared with TiCl 4 and Ce (NO 3 ) 3 ·6H 2 O as precursors via a facile co-precipitation method. The obtained samples were characterized by various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption (N 2 -BET), Fourier transformation infrared spectrum (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV–Vis spectroscopy measurements. The results indicated that TiO 2 doped with CeO 2 and supported on SiO 2 could reduce the crystallite size, inhibit the phase transformation, enhance the thermal stability, and effectively extend the spectral response from UV to visible range. When applied to the phenol photodegradation on a homemade batch reactor with an external cooling jacket, the CeO 2 -TiO 2 /SiO 2 catalysts exhibited significantly enhanced photodegradation efficiency in comparison with commercial Degussa P25 and CeO 2 -TiO 2 . The unique catalytic properties of CeO 2 -TiO 2 /SiO 2 were ascribed to improved electron–hole pairs separation efficiency and formation of more reactive oxygen species owing to the presence of Ce 3+ /Ce 4+ , as well as high dispersion of active component of CeO 2 -TiO 2 as a result of the introduction of SiO 2 support. Furthermore, the catalysts can be easily recovered from the reaction solution by centrifugation and reused for four cycles without significant loss of activity

  14. Enhanced adsorbability and photocatalytic activity of TiO2-graphene composite for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons removal in aqueous phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hongzhen; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Hongjian; Tang, Guping

    2017-02-01

    Photodegradation via titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) has been used to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from environmental media broadly. In this study, a series of TiO 2 -graphene composites (P25-GR) with different GR weight ratios were synthesized via hydrothermal reaction of graphene oxide (GO) and P25. Their structures were characterized and the proprieties were tested in aqueous phase. Phenanthrene (PHE), fluoranthene (FLAN), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were selected as models of PAHs. The experiment indicated that P25-2.5%GR exhibited enhancement in both adsorption and photodegradation, ∼80% of PAHs were removed after 2h photocatalysis. The influence of photodegradation rate was studied, including PAHs initial concentration and pH. Aromatic intermediates were identified during the reaction process and the degradation pathways were portrayed. This work explored the enhanced photocatalysis performance was attributed to the PAH-selective adsorbability and the strong electron transfer ability of the composite. The analysis of the degradation intermediates confirmed that the reaction proceeded with the formation of free radicals, leading to the gradual PAH mineralization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Growth of TiO2-ZrO2 Binary Oxide Electrode for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Than Than Win; Aye Myint Myat Kywe; Shwe Yee Win; Honey Thaw; Yin Maung Maung; Ko Ko Kyaw Soe

    2011-12-01

    TiO2-ZrO2 fine binary oxide was prepared by mechanochemical milling process to be homogeneous binary oxide powder. TiO2-ZrO2 paste was deposited on microscopic glass slide by rolling. It was immersed in the henna solution and annealed at 100C for 2h. It was deposited onto another glass slide and used as counter electrode (second electrode). Two glass slides were offset and two binder clips were used to hold the electrodes together. Photovoltaic properties of TiO2-ZrO2 cell were measured and it was expected to utilize the dye sensitized solar cells application.

  16. Indoor air purification using heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation. Part I: Experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Q.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) has shown to be a promising air purifying technology in outdoor conditions using TiO2 as photocatalyst activated with UV light. Also to indoor air quality more and more attention is paid because of the very important role it plays on human health, and it

  17. Indoor air purificaton using heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation, Part 2: Kinetic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Q.; Ballari, M.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    In part I to this article [1], the application of the heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) theory for the indoor air quality improvement was presented. With a modified TiO2 that can be activated by visible light as the photocatalyst coated on a special wall paper, and one typical indoor air

  18. Development of solar-driven electrochemical and photocatalytic water treatment system using a boron-doped diamond electrode and TiO2 photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Tsuyoshi; Nakata, Kazuya; Murakami, Taketoshi; Fujishima, Akira; Yao, Yanyan; Tryk, Donald A; Kubota, Yoshinobu

    2010-02-01

    A high-performance, environmentally friendly water treatment system was developed. The system consists mainly of an electrochemical and a photocatalytic oxidation unit, with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode and TiO(2) photocatalyst, respectively. All electric power for the mechanical systems and the electrolysis was able to be provided by photovoltaic cells. Thus, this system is totally driven by solar energy. The treatment ability of the electrolysis and photocatalysis units was investigated by phenol degradation kinetics. An observed rate constant of 5.1 x 10(-3)dm(3)cm(-2)h(-1) was calculated by pseudo-first-order kinetic analysis for the electrolysis, and a Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate constant of 5.6 microM(-1)min(-1) was calculated by kinetic analysis of the photocatalysis. According to previous reports, these values are sufficient for the mineralization of phenol. In a treatment test of river water samples, large amounts of chemical and biological contaminants were totally wet-incinerated by the system. This system could provide 12L/day of drinking water from the Tama River using only solar energy. Therefore, this system may be useful for supplying drinking water during a disaster. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Thermal catalytic oxidation of octachloronaphthalene over anatase TiO2 nanomaterial and its hypothesized mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Guijin; Li, Qianqian; Lu, Huijie; Zhang, Lixia; Huang, Linyan; Yan, Li; Zheng, Minghui

    2015-12-01

    As an environmentally-green technology, thermal catalytic oxidation of octachloronaphthalene (CN-75) over anatase TiO2 nanomaterials was investigated at 300 °C. A wide range of oxidation intermediates, which were investigated using various techniques, could be of three types: naphthalene-ring, single-benzene-ring, and completely ring-opened products. Reactive oxygen species on anatase TiO2 surface, such as O2-• and O2-, contributed to oxidative degradation. Based on these findings, a novel oxidation degradation mechanism was proposed. The reaction at (101) surface of anatase TiO2 was used as a model. The naphthalene-ring oxidative products with chloronaphthols and hydroxyl-pentachloronaphthalene-dione, could be formed via attacking the carbon of naphthalene ring at one or more positions by nucleophilic O2-. Lateral cleavage of the naphthalene ring at different C1-C10 and C4-C9, C1-C2 and C4-C9, C1-C2 or and C3-C4 bond positions by electrophilic O2-• could occur. This will lead to the formation of tetrachlorophenol, tetrachloro-benzoic acid, tetrachloro-phthalaldehyde, and tetrachloro-acrolein-benzoic acid, partially with further transformation into tetrachlorobenzene-dihydrodiol and tetrachloro-salicylic acid. Unexpectedly, the symmetric half section of CN-75 could be completely remained with generating the intricate oxidative intermediates characteristically containing tetrachlorobenzene structure. Complete cleavage of naphthalene ring could produce the ring-opened products, such as formic and acetic acids.

  20. Photoinduced Glycerol Oxidation over Plasmonic Au and AuM (M = Pt, Pd and Bi) Nanoparticle-Decorated TiO2 Photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedsukontorn, Trin; Saito, Nagahiro; Hunsom, Mali

    2018-01-01

    In this study, sol-immobilization was used to prepare gold nanoparticle (Au NP)-decorated titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalysts at different Au weight % (wt. %) loading (Aux/TiO2, where x is the Au wt. %) and Au–M NP-decorated TiO2 photocatalysts (Au3M3/TiO2), where M is bismuth (Bi), platinum (Pt) or palladium (Pd) at 3 wt. %. The Aux/TiO2 photocatalysts exhibited a stronger visible light absorption than the parent TiO2 due to the localized surface plasmon resonance effect. Increasing the Au content from 1 wt. % to 7 wt. % led to increased visible light absorption due to the increasing presence of defective structures that were capable of enhancing the photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared catalyst. The addition of Pt and Pd coupled with the Au3/TiO2 to form Au3M3/TiO2 improved the photocatalytic activity of the Au3/TiO2 photocatalyst by maximizing their light-absorption property. The Au3/TiO2, Au3Pt3/TiO2 and Au3Pd3/TiO2 photocatalysts promoted the formation of glyceraldehyde from glycerol as the principle product, while Au3Bi3/TiO2 facilitated glycolaldehyde formation as the major product. Among all the prepared photocatalysts, Au3Pd3/TiO2 exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity with a 98.75% glycerol conversion at 24 h of reaction time. PMID:29690645