WorldWideScience

Sample records for tio spectral line

  1. Spectral Line Shapes. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppi, M.; Ulivi, L.

    1997-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the 13th International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes which was held in Firenze,Italy from June 16-21, 1996. The topics covered a wide range of subjects emphasizing the physical processes associated with the formation of line profiles: high and low density plasma; atoms and molecules in strong laser fields, Dopple-free and ultra-fine spectroscopy; the line shapes generated by the interaction of neutrals, atoms and molecules, where the relavant quantities are single particle properties, and the interaction-induced spectroscopy. There were 131 papers presented at the conference, out of these, 6 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  2. Deconvolution of spectral line profile by FTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lego, J.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility is studied of determining the components of the spectral line profile using Fourier transformation. The different types of the spectral line profiles are described and the conditions for their generation discussed. The main result is the discovery of the possibility to obtain the parameters of the different components directly from the interferogram without using the Fourier transformation. The method under discussion strongly simplifies evaluation while preserving or increasing accuracy. (author)

  3. Spectral Line Shapes in Plasmas and Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oks, E.; Dalimier, D.; Stamm, R.; Stehle, CH.; Gonzalez, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The subject of spectral line shapes (SLS), a.k.a. spectral line broadening, which embraces both shapes and shifts of spectral lines, is of both fundamental and practical importance. On the fundamental side, the study of the spectral line profiles reveals the underlying atomic and molecular interactions. On the practical side, the spectral line profiles are employed as powerful diagnostic tools for various media, such as neutral gases, technological gas discharges, magnetically confined plasmas for fusion, laser- and Z-pinch-produced plasmas (for fusion and other purposes), astrophysical plasmas (most importantly, solar plasmas), and planetary atmospheres. The research area covered by this special issue includes both the SLS dominated by various electric fields (including electron and ion micro fields in strongly ionized plasmas) and the SLS controlled by neutral particles. In the physical slang, the former is called plasma broadening while the latter is called neutral broadening (of course, the results of neutral broadening apply also to the spectral line broadening in neutral gases)

  4. GOSAT-2014 methane spectral line list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, A.V.; Lyulin, O.M.; Mikhailenko, S.N.; Perevalov, V.I.; Filippov, N.N.; Grigoriev, I.M.; Morino, I.; Yoshida, Y.; Matsunaga, T.

    2015-01-01

    The updated methane spectral line list GOSAT-2014 for the 5550–6240 cm −1 region with the intensity cutoff of 5×10 –25 cm/molecule at 296 K is presented. The line list is based on the extensive measurements of the methane spectral line parameters performed at different temperatures and pressures of methane without and with buffer gases N 2 , O 2 and air. It contains the following spectral line parameters of about 12150 transitions: line position, line intensity, energy of lower state, air-induced and self-pressure-induced broadening and shift coefficients and temperature exponent of air-broadening coefficient. The accuracy of the line positions and intensities are considerably improved in comparison with the previous version GOSAT-2009. The improvement of the line list is done mainly due to the involving to the line position and intensity retrieval of six new spectra recorded with short path way (8.75 cm). The air-broadening and air-shift coefficients for the J-manifolds of the 2ν 3 (F 2 ) band are refitted using the new more precise values of the line positions and intensities. The line assignment is considerably extended. The lower state J-value was assigned to 6397 lines representing 94.4% of integrated intensity of the considering wavenumber region. The complete assignment was done for 2750 lines. - Highlights: • The upgrade of the GOSAT methane line list in the 5550–6240 cm −1 region is done. • 12,146 experimental methane line positions and intensities are retrieved. • 6376 lower energy levels for methane lines are determined

  5. Chemical exchange effects in spectral line shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, M.A.; Veguillas, J.

    1990-01-01

    A theory of spectral-line shapes has been extended to the case in which relaxation broadening may be influenced by reactive interactions. This extension is valid for gaseous systems in the same way it is valid for condensed media, and particularly, for such chemical mechanisms as isomerizations. The dependence of the spectral rate on the chemical exchange rate is clarified. Finally, a discussion concerning the above aspects and their applications has been included. (author)

  6. Constancy of spectral-line bisectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, D.F.

    1983-01-01

    Bisectors of spectral line profiles in cool stars indicate the strength of convection in the photospheres of these objects. The present investigation is concerned with the feasibility of studying time variations in line bisectors, the reality of apparent line-to-line differences within the same stellar spectrum, and bisector differences between stars of identical spectral types. The differences considered pertain to the shape of the bisector. The material used in the investigation was acquired at the McDonald Observatory using a 1728 diode Reticon array at the coudefocus of the 2.1-m telescope. Observed bisector errors are discussed. It is established that different lines in the same star show significantly different bisectors. The observed error bands are shown by the shaded regions. The slope and curvature are unique for each case

  7. An Interferometric Spectral-Line and Imaging Survey of VY Canis Majoris in the 345 GHz Band

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminski, T.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Young, K. H.; Menten, K. M.; Patel, N. A.

    2013-01-01

    A spectral line survey of the oxygen-rich red supergiant VY Canis Majoris was made between 279 and 355 GHz with the Submillimeter Array. Two hundred twenty three spectral features from 19 molecules (not counting isotopic species of some of them) were observed, including the rotational spectra of TiO, TiO2, and AlCl for the first time in this source. The parameters and an atlas of all spectral features is presented. Observations of each line with a synthesized beam of ~0.9 arcsec, reveal the c...

  8. Spectral line polarimetry with a channeled polarimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Harten, Gerard; Snik, Frans; Rietjens, Jeroen H H; Martijn Smit, J; Keller, Christoph U

    2014-07-01

    Channeled spectropolarimetry or spectral polarization modulation is an accurate technique for measuring the continuum polarization in one shot with no moving parts. We show how a dual-beam implementation also enables spectral line polarimetry at the intrinsic resolution, as in a classic beam-splitting polarimeter. Recording redundant polarization information in the two spectrally modulated beams of a polarizing beam-splitter even provides the possibility to perform a postfacto differential transmission correction that improves the accuracy of the spectral line polarimetry. We perform an error analysis to compare the accuracy of spectral line polarimetry to continuum polarimetry, degraded by a residual dark signal and differential transmission, as well as to quantify the impact of the transmission correction. We demonstrate the new techniques with a blue sky polarization measurement around the oxygen A absorption band using the groundSPEX instrument, yielding a polarization in the deepest part of the band of 0.160±0.010, significantly different from the polarization in the continuum of 0.2284±0.0004. The presented methods are applicable to any dual-beam channeled polarimeter, including implementations for snapshot imaging polarimetry.

  9. Handbook of spectral lines in diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Dischler, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    This handbook is a breakthrough in the understanding of the large number of spectral lines in diamond. Data on more than 2000 lines and bands are presented in 200 tables, including many unpublished results. With a novel organization scheme, the search for a specific line is greatly simplified as a benefit for researchers and students. In order to meet the interest in the understanding of the spectra, structure assignments for 80 % of the lines are given, of which 15 % only were published before. The majority of the structures for the 300 centers is explained in most cases for the first time. A key instrument in the interpretation is the analysis by donor-acceptor pair transitions. In a special chapter 95 such centers are listed and discussed, of which only two have been published before, the first one by the present author in 1994.

  10. Autoionization spectral line shapes in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosmej, F.B.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A.; Suess, W.; Geissel, M.

    2001-01-01

    The distortion of resonance line shapes due to the accumulation of a large number of satellite transitions is discovered by means of X-ray optical methods with simultaneous high spectral (λ/δλ≅8000) and spatial resolution (δx≅7 μm). Disappearance of the He α resonance line emission near the target surface is observed while Rydberg satellite intensity accumulates near the resonance line position. He β and He γ resonance line shapes are also shown to be seriously affected by opacity, higher-order line emissions from autoionizing states and inhomogeneous spatial emission. Opposite to resonance line emissions the He β satellites originate only from a very narrow spatial interval. New temperature and density diagnostics employing the 1s2131' and 1s3131'-satellites are developed. Moreover, even-J components of the satellite line emissions were resolved in the present high resolution experiments. Line transitions from the autoionizing states 1s2131' are therefore also proposed for space resolved Stark broadening analysis and local high density probing. Theorists are encouraged to provide accurate Stark broadening data for the transitions 1s2131 ' →1s 2 21+hv

  11. An Interferometric Spectral Line and Imaging Survey of VY Canis Majoris in the 345 GHz Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiński, T.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Young, K. H.; Menten, K. M.; Patel, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    A spectral line survey of the oxygen-rich red supergiant VY Canis Majoris was made between 279 and 355 GHz with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). Two hundred twenty-three spectral features from 19 molecules (not counting isotopic species of some of them) were observed, including the rotational spectra of TiO, TiO2, and AlCl for the first time in this source. The parameters and an atlas of all spectral features are presented. Observations of each line with a synthesized beam of ~0.''9, reveal the complex kinematics and morphology of the nebula surrounding VY CMa. Many of the molecules are observed in high-lying rotational levels or in excited vibrational levels. From these, it was established that the main source of the submillimeter-wave continuum (dust) and the high-excitation molecular gas (the star) are separated by about 0.''15. Apparent coincidences between the molecular gas observed with the SMA, and some of the arcs and knots observed at infrared wavelengths and in the optical scattered light by the Hubble Space Telescope are identified. The observations presented here provide important constraints on the molecular chemistry in oxygen-dominated circumstellar environments and a deeper picture of the complex circumstellar environment of VY CMa.

  12. Relative spectral response calibration using Ti plasma lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, FEI; Congyuan, PAN; Qiang, ZENG; Qiuping, WANG; Xuewei, DU

    2018-04-01

    This work introduces the branching ratio (BR) method for determining relative spectral responses, which are needed routinely in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Neutral and singly ionized Ti lines in the 250–498 nm spectral range are investigated by measuring laser-induced micro plasma near a Ti plate and used to calculate the relative spectral response of an entire LIBS detection system. The results are compared with those of the conventional relative spectral response calibration method using a tungsten halogen lamp, and certain lines available for the BR method are selected. The study supports the common manner of using BRs to calibrate the detection system in LIBS setups.

  13. Deconvolution of EPR spectral lines with an approximate method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez D, H.; Cabral P, A.

    1990-10-01

    A recently reported approximation expression to deconvolution Lorentzian-Gaussian spectral lines. with small Gaussian contribution, is applied to study an EPR line shape. The potassium-ammonium solution line reported in the literature by other authors was used and the results are compared with those obtained by employing a precise method. (Author)

  14. Spectral line profiles in weakly turbulent plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capes, H.; Voslamber, D.

    1976-07-01

    The unified theory of line broadening by electron perturbers is generalized to include the case of a weakly turbulent plasma. The collision operator in the line shape expression is shown to be the sum of two terms, both containing effects arising from the non-equilibrium nature of the plasma. One of the two terms represents the influence of individual atom-particle interactions occuring via the nonequilibrium dielectric plasma medium. The other term is due to the interaction of the atom with the turbulent waves. Both terms contain damping and diffusion effects arising from the plasma turbulence

  15. Spectral classification of emission-line galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veilleux, S.; Osterbrock, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    A revised method of classification of narrow-line active galaxies and H II region-like galaxies is proposed. It involves the line ratios which take full advantage of the physical distinction between the two types of objects and minimize the effects of reddening correction and errors in the flux calibration. Large sets of internally consistent data are used, including new, previously unpublished measurements. Predictions of recent photoionization models by power-law spectra and by hot stars are compared with the observations. The classification is based on the observational data interpreted on the basis of these models. 63 references

  16. Detecting Weak Spectral Lines in Interferometric Data through Matched Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Ryan A.; Öberg, Karin I.; Andrews, Sean M.; Walsh, Catherine; Czekala, Ian; Huang, Jane; Rosenfeld, Katherine A.

    2018-04-01

    Modern radio interferometers enable observations of spectral lines with unprecedented spatial resolution and sensitivity. In spite of these technical advances, many lines of interest are still at best weakly detected and therefore necessitate detection and analysis techniques specialized for the low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) regime. Matched filters can leverage knowledge of the source structure and kinematics to increase sensitivity of spectral line observations. Application of the filter in the native Fourier domain improves S/N while simultaneously avoiding the computational cost and ambiguities associated with imaging, making matched filtering a fast and robust method for weak spectral line detection. We demonstrate how an approximate matched filter can be constructed from a previously observed line or from a model of the source, and we show how this filter can be used to robustly infer a detection significance for weak spectral lines. When applied to ALMA Cycle 2 observations of CH3OH in the protoplanetary disk around TW Hya, the technique yields a ≈53% S/N boost over aperture-based spectral extraction methods, and we show that an even higher boost will be achieved for observations at higher spatial resolution. A Python-based open-source implementation of this technique is available under the MIT license at http://github.com/AstroChem/VISIBLE.

  17. Neutral helium spectral lines in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, Banaz; Wierling, August; Roepke, Gerd; Guenter, Sibylle

    2006-01-01

    Shift and broadening of isolated neutral helium lines 7281 A ring (2 1 P-3 1 S), 7065 A ring (2 3 P-3 3 S), 6678 A ring (2 1 P-3 1 D), 5048 A ring (2 1 P-4 1 S), 4922 A ring (2 1 P-4 1 D), and 4713 A ring (2 3 P-4 3 S) in a dense plasma are investigated. Based on a quantum statistical theory, the electronic contributions to the shift and width are considered, using the method of thermodynamic Green functions. Dynamic screening of the electron-atom interaction is included. Compared to the width, the electronic shift is more affected by dynamical screening. This effect increases at high density. A cut-off procedure for strong collisions is used. The contribution of the ions is taken into account in a quasi-static approximation, with both the quadratic Stark effect and the quadrupole interaction included. The results for shift and width agree well with the available experimental and theoretical data

  18. Analysis of visible spectral lines in LHD helium discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, B.N.; Goto, M.; Morita, S.

    1999-06-01

    In this study, visible spectral lines in LHD helium discharges are analyzed and it was found that they could be well fitted with gaussian profile. The results reveal a simple mechanism of helium atom recycling. Ion temperatures were also derived from the fitting. A typical value of the ion temperature obtained was about 6 eV. (author)

  19. Spectral line intensity irreversibility in circulatory plasma magnetization processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Z. Q.; Dun, G. T.

    2012-01-01

    Spectral line intensity variation is found to be irreversible in circulatory plasma magnetization process by experiments described in this paper, i.e., the curves illustrating spectral line photon fluxes irradiated from a light source immerged in a magnetic field by increasing the magnetic induction cannot be reproduced by decreasing the magnetic induction within the errors. There are two plasma magnetization patterns found. One shows that the intensities are greater at the same magnetic inductions during the magnetic induction decreasing process after the increasing, and the other gives the opposite effect. This reveals that the magneto-induced excitation and de-excitation process is irreversible like ferromagnetic magnetization. But the two irreversible processes are very different in many aspects stated in the text.

  20. Opacity of expanding media: The effect of spectral lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, A.H.; Lasher, G.; Chan, K.L.; Salpeter, E.E.

    1977-01-01

    Spectral lines are more effective in slowing the transport of radiation in expanding (or contracting) objects than in static ones. The velocity gradient associated with the expansion causes the frequency of the photons to be continuously redshifted relative to the rest frame of the gas through which they travel. Those photons which are redshifted to the frequency of a sufficiently strong line will be absorbed by the corresponding bound-bound transition, and the net effect will be to increase the effective opacity of the gas. In certain cases the effect can be taken into account by using an effective opacity, the expansion opacity, which is a function not only of the temperature and density but also of the velocity gradient.Practical formulae for computing the expansion opacity and its Rosseland mean in terms of sums over spectral lines are derived. It is shown that the cumulative effect of many weak lines can be important, implying that a large list of spectral lines is required to obtain results of even modest accuracy. Numerical computations using the 260,000-entry line list of Kurucz and Peytremann have been completed and some samples of the result are given. The general effect may be important in many astronomical objects, but only in some of these will be detailed approach of this paper be appropriate. In optically thick supernova shells, the effect is important both in maintaining the radiation in thermal equilibrium as it diffuses out of the shell and in increasing the value of the total opacity. The enhancement of the opacity ranges from less than 1% to more than an order of magnitude, depending on the temperature, density, and velocity gradient

  1. Modern quantum kinetic theory and spectral line shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monchick, L.

    1991-01-01

    The modern quantum kinetic theory of spectral line shapes is outlined and a typical calculation of a Raman scattered line shape described. The distinguishing feature of this calculation is that it was completely ab initio and therefore constituted a test of modern quantum kinetic theory, the state of the art in computing molecular-scattering cross sections, and novel methods of solving kinetic equations. The computation employed a large assortment of tools: group theory, finite-element methods, classic methods of solving coupled sets of ordinary differential equations, graph methods of combining angular momenta, and matrix methods of solving integral equations. Agreement with experimental results was excellent. 13 refs

  2. AN INTERFEROMETRIC SPECTRAL LINE AND IMAGING SURVEY OF VY CANIS MAJORIS IN THE 345 GHz BAND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiński, T.; Menten, K. M.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Young, K. H.; Patel, N. A.

    2013-01-01

    A spectral line survey of the oxygen-rich red supergiant VY Canis Majoris was made between 279 and 355 GHz with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). Two hundred twenty-three spectral features from 19 molecules (not counting isotopic species of some of them) were observed, including the rotational spectra of TiO, TiO 2 , and AlCl for the first time in this source. The parameters and an atlas of all spectral features are presented. Observations of each line with a synthesized beam of ∼0.''9, reveal the complex kinematics and morphology of the nebula surrounding VY CMa. Many of the molecules are observed in high-lying rotational levels or in excited vibrational levels. From these, it was established that the main source of the submillimeter-wave continuum (dust) and the high-excitation molecular gas (the star) are separated by about 0.''15. Apparent coincidences between the molecular gas observed with the SMA, and some of the arcs and knots observed at infrared wavelengths and in the optical scattered light by the Hubble Space Telescope are identified. The observations presented here provide important constraints on the molecular chemistry in oxygen-dominated circumstellar environments and a deeper picture of the complex circumstellar environment of VY CMa

  3. An ultrafast line-by-line algorithm for calculating spectral transmittance and radiance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, X.

    2013-01-01

    An ultrafast line-by-line algorithm for calculating spectral transmittance and radiance of gases is presented. The algorithm is based on fast convolution of the Voigt line profile using Fourier transform and a binning technique. The algorithm breaks a radiative transfer calculation into two steps: a one-time pre-computation step in which a set of pressure independent coefficients are computed using the spectral line information; a normal calculation step in which the Fourier transform coefficients of the optical depth are calculated using the line of sight information and the coefficients pre-computed in the first step, the optical depth is then calculated using an inverse Fourier transform and the spectral transmittance and radiance are calculated. The algorithm is significantly faster than line-by-line algorithms that do not employ special speedup techniques by a factor of 10 3 –10 6 . A case study of the 2.7 μm band of H 2 O vapor is presented. -- Highlights: •An ultrafast line-by-line model based on FFT and a binning technique is presented. •Computationally expensive calculations are factored out into a pre-computation step. •It is 10 3 –10 8 times faster than LBL algorithms that do not employ speedup techniques. •Good agreement with experimental data for the 2.7 μm band of H 2 O

  4. SPECTRALLY RESOLVED PURE ROTATIONAL LINES OF WATER IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontoppidan, Klaus M.; Salyk, Colette; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Kaeufl, Hans Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    We present ground-based high-resolution N-band spectra (Δv = 15 km s -1 ) of pure rotational lines of water vapor in two protoplanetary disks surrounding the pre-main-sequence stars AS 205N and RNO 90, selected based on detections of rotational water lines by the Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph. Using VISIR on the Very Large Telescope, we spectrally resolve individual lines and show that they have widths of 30-60 km s -1 , consistent with an origin in Keplerian disks at radii of ∼1 AU. The water lines have similar widths to those of the CO at 4.67 μm, indicating that the mid-infrared water lines trace similar radii. The rotational temperatures of the water are 540 and 600 K in the two disks, respectively. However, the line ratios show evidence of non-LTE excitation, with low-excitation line fluxes being overpredicted by two-dimensional disk LTE models. Due to the limited number of observed lines and the non-LTE line ratios, an accurate measure of the water ortho/para (O/P) ratio is not available, but a best estimate for AS 205N is O/P =4.5 ± 1.0, apparently ruling out a low-temperature origin of the water. The spectra demonstrate that high-resolution spectroscopy of rotational water lines is feasible from the ground, and further that ground-based high-resolution spectroscopy is likely to significantly improve our understanding of the inner disk chemistry revealed by recent Spitzer observations.

  5. Laser line shape and spectral density of frequency noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, G.M.; Blin, S.; Besnard, P.; Tam, T.T.; Tetu, M.

    2005-01-01

    Published experimental results show that single-mode laser light is characterized in the microwave range by a frequency noise which essentially includes a white part and a 1/f (flicker) part. We theoretically show that the spectral density (the line shape) which is compatible with these results is a Voigt profile whose Lorentzian part or homogeneous component is linked to the white noise and the Gaussian part to the 1/f noise. We measure semiconductor laser line profiles and verify that they can be fit with Voigt functions. It is also verified that the width of the Lorentzian part varies like 1/P where P is the laser power while the width of the Gaussian part is more of a constant. Finally, we theoretically show from first principles that laser line shapes are also described by Voigt functions where the Lorentzian part is the laser Airy function and the Gaussian part originates from population noise

  6. Phase coherence and Rabi frequency induced ultranarrow spectral line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Bibhas Kumar; Panchadhyayee, Pradipta; Mahapatra, Prasanta Kumar

    2012-01-01

    A scheme is proposed to achieve ultranarrow spectral line in the fluorescence spectrum of a lifetime broadened multilevel phase-coherent atom. It is shown that for weak-field coupling, ultranarrow spectral feature in the fluorescence spectrum can be generated by controlling the values of the Rabi frequencies involved in the coherent mechanism of the system. For fixed values of the Rabi frequencies in the weak-field limit, ultranarrow feature appears in the spectrum through the adjustment of the relative phase of the coherent fields. The results highlight that, larger the values of the decay rates associated with the field-driven channels, more pronounced is the phenomenon of narrowing in the spectrum.

  7. Spectral Sensitization of TiO2 Substrates by Monolayers of Porphyrin Heterodimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koehorst, R.B.M.; Boschloo, G.K.; Savenije, T.J.; Goossens, A.; Schaafsma, T.J.

    2000-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical cells have been constructed by depositing monolayers of oriented covalently linked zinc/free base porphyrin heterodimers onto ~30 nm nonporous layers of TiO2 on ITO, deposited by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MO-CVD), and onto ~100 nm porous, nanostructured TiO2

  8. Stark Broadening of Cr III Spectral Lines: DO White Dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan S. Dimitrijević

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Using the modified semiempirical method of Dimitrijević and Konjević, Stark widths have been calculated for six Cr III transitions, for an electron density of 10 17 cm ‒ 3 and for temperatures from 5000–80,000 K. Results have been used for the investigation of the influence of Stark broadening on spectral lines in cool DO white dwarf atmospheres. Calculated Stark widths will be implemented in the STARK-B database, which is also a part of the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center (VAMDC.

  9. PREFACE: XXII International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parigger, C. G.

    2014-11-01

    The 22nd International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes (ICSLS) was convened at The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) at Tullahoma, Tennessee, USA, during June 1 to 6, 2014. A variety of topics of interest to the line shape community were addressed during invited and contributed oral and poster presentations. General categories of the ICSLS 2014 scientific contents included Astrophysics, Biomedical Physics, High and Low Temperature Plasma Physics, Magnetic Fusion Physics, Neutrals Atomic-Molecular-Optical (AMO) Physics, and Applied Physics. Research interests at UTSI and at the Center for Laser Applications (CLA) focus on Applied Physics and Plasma Physics areas such as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, spectroscopy with ultra-short light pulses, combustion diagnostics, to name a few. Consequently, the presentations during the conference addressed a variety of these topics. Attendance at the conference included researchers from North America, Africa, Asia and Europe, with an international representation showing 250 authors and co-authors with over 25 different citizenships, and 100 participants at the Conference. Figure 1 shows a photo of Conference attendees. The schedule included 82 contributions, 41 oral and 41 poster presentations. The 29 invited, 12 contributed oral and 41 contributed poster presentations were selected following communication with the international organizing committee members. A smart phone ''app'' was also utilized, thanks to Elsevier, to communicate electronic versions of the posters during the conference. Special thanks go to the members of the international and local committees for their work in organizing the 22nd ICSLS. In addition, thank you notes also go to the peer reviewers for the proceedings. Following the success of the IOP: Journal of Physics Conference Series selected for the 21st ICSLS publication, the proceedings papers report ongoing research activities. Papers submitted amount to 68 in number, or 83% of

  10. Theoretical profiles of the spectral lines of the hydrogen atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, H.; Herman, L.; Drawin, H.W.

    1965-01-01

    The line-broadening problem of the hydrogen lines has been formulated in the quasistatic approximation as far as the ions are concerned, and in the classical path approximation as far as the broadening due to collisions with electrons is concerned. These electrons interfere in different numerical results only by the self-correlation function of the fluctuating electrical field strength created at each point in the plasma. The Lewis correction has been applied, but using the whole velocity distribution function of the electrons. The formula which represents the usual impact profile, valid only for frequencies much smaller than the plasma frequency, has been extended using another formula which will be valid up to the neighbourhood of that spectral region where the quasi-static approximation begins to be valid also for the electrons. As an example, the line profile of Ly α is given by some graphs for T = 10 4 deg. K and electron densities N = 10 17 cm -3 and N = 10 18 cm -3 . (authors) [fr

  11. Overlapping communities detection based on spectral analysis of line graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Chun; Zhang, Ruisheng; Hu, Rongjing; Huang, Guoming; Wei, Jiaxuan

    2018-05-01

    Community in networks are often overlapping where one vertex belongs to several clusters. Meanwhile, many networks show hierarchical structure such that community is recursively grouped into hierarchical organization. In order to obtain overlapping communities from a global hierarchy of vertices, a new algorithm (named SAoLG) is proposed to build the hierarchical organization along with detecting the overlap of community structure. SAoLG applies the spectral analysis into line graphs to unify the overlap and hierarchical structure of the communities. In order to avoid the limitation of absolute distance such as Euclidean distance, SAoLG employs Angular distance to compute the similarity between vertices. Furthermore, we make a micro-improvement partition density to evaluate the quality of community structure and use it to obtain the more reasonable and sensible community numbers. The proposed SAoLG algorithm achieves a balance between overlap and hierarchy by applying spectral analysis to edge community detection. The experimental results on one standard network and six real-world networks show that the SAoLG algorithm achieves higher modularity and reasonable community number values than those generated by Ahn's algorithm, the classical CPM and GN ones.

  12. GBTIDL: Reduction and Analysis of GBT Spectral Line Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marganian, P.; Garwood, R. W.; Braatz, J. A.; Radziwill, N. M.; Maddalena, R. J.

    2013-03-01

    GBTIDL is an interactive package for reduction and analysis of spectral line data taken with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The package, written entirely in IDL, consists of straightforward yet flexible calibration, averaging, and analysis procedures (the "GUIDE layer") modeled after the UniPOPS and CLASS data reduction philosophies, a customized plotter with many built-in visualization features, and Data I/O and toolbox functionality that can be used for more advanced tasks. GBTIDL makes use of data structures which can also be used to store intermediate results. The package consumes and produces data in GBT SDFITS format. GBTIDL can be run online and have access to the most recent data coming off the telescope, or can be run offline on preprocessed SDFITS files.

  13. Initial analyses of surface spectral radiance between observations and Line-By-Line calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, P.D.; Clough, S.A. [Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Miller, N.E.; Shippert, T.R.; Turner, D.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    The evaluation an improvement of radiative transfer calculations are essential to attain improved performance of general circulation models (GCMs) for climate change applications. A Quality Measurement Experiment (QME) is being conducted to analyze the spectral residuals between the downwelling longwave radiance measured by the University of Wisconsin Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) and spectral radiance calculated by the Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM). The three critical components of this study are (1) the assessment of the quality of the high resolution AERI measurements, (2) the assessment of the ability to define the atmospheric state in the radiating column, and (3) the evaluation of the capability of LBLRTM. Validations have been performed on spectral radiance data, obtained from April 1994 through July 1994, through the analysis of the spectral interval and physical process. The results are archived as a function of time, enabling the retrieval of specific data and facilitating investigations and diurnal effects, seasonal effects, and longer-term trends. While the initial focus is restricted to clear-sky analyses, efforts are under way to include the effects of clouds and aerosols. Plans are well formulated for the extension of the current approach to the shortwave. An overview of the concept of the QME is described by Miller et al. (1994), and a detailed description of this study is provided by Clough et al. (1994).

  14. Atomic data and spectral line intensities for Ne III

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, A K; Landi, E

    2003-01-01

    Electron impact collision strengths, energy levels, oscillator strengths and spontaneous radiative decay rates are calculated for Ne III. The configurations used are 2s sup 2 2p sup 4 , 2s2p sup 5 , 2s sup 2 2p sup 3 3s, and 2s sup 2 2p sup 3 3d giving rise to 57 fine-structure levels in intermediate coupling. Collision strengths are calculated at five incident energies, 5, 15, 25, 35, and 45 Ry. Excitation rate coefficients are calculated by assuming a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution at an electron temperature of logT sub e (K)=5.0, corresponding to maximum abundance of Ne III. Using the excitation rate coefficients and the radiative transition rates, statistical equilibrium equations for level populations are solved at electron densities covering the range of 10 sup 8 -10 sup 1 sup 4 cm sup - sup 3. Relative spectral line intensities are calculated. Proton excitation rates between the lowest three levels have been included in the statistical equilibrium equations. The predicted Ne III line intensi...

  15. TiO(2) doping by hydroxyurea at the nucleation stage: towards a new photocatalyst in the visible spectral range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azouani, R; Tieng, S; Chhor, K; Bocquet, J-F; Eloy, P; Gaigneaux, E M; Klementiev, K; Kanaev, A V

    2010-10-07

    We report an original method of preparation of OCN-doped TiO(2) for photocatalysis in the visible spectral range. The preparation is achieved by a sol-gel route using titanium tetraisopropoxide precursor. Special attention was paid to fluid micromixing, which enables homogeneous reaction conditions in the reactor bulk and monodispersity of the produced clusters/nanoparticles. The dopant hydroxyurea (HyU, CH(4)N(2)O(2)) is injected into the reactive fluid at the nucleation stage, which lasts tens of milliseconds. The doping results in a strong yellow coloration of the nanocolloids due to the absorption band in the spectral range 380-550 nm and accelerates the aggregation kinetics of both nuclei at the induction stage and sub-nuclei units (clusters) at the nucleation stage. FTIR, Raman and UV-visible absorption analyses show the formation of a stable HyU-TiO(2) complex. EXAFS spectra indicate no appreciable changes of the first-shell Ti atom environment. The doping agent takes available surface sites of TiO(2) clusters/nanoparticles attaining ∼10% molar loading. The reaction kinetics then accelerates due to a longer collisional lifetime between nanoparticles induced by the formation of a weak [double bond, length as m-dash]OTi bond. The OCN-group bonding to titanium atoms produces a weakening of the C[double bond, length as m-dash]O double bond and a strengthening of the C-N and N-O bonds.

  16. PREFACE: XXI International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes (ICSLS 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devdariani, Alexander Z.

    2012-12-01

    The 21st International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes, ICSLS, was held in the historic main building of St Petersburg State University (St. Petersburg, Russia) on 3-9 June 2012. The event continued the tradition started in 1978 in Meudon Observatory in Paris. Representatives of line shape physics have since met every two years in different locations in Europe and North America. The most recent events were held in St John's, Newfoundland, Canada (2010), Valladolid, Spain (2008), and Auburn, AL (USA). Traditionally, the conferences consider experimental and theoretical issues of studying spectral line shapes, diagnostic utilization of spectral line profiles observed in absorption, emission or scattering of electromagnetic radiation by atoms, molecules, and clusters in different environments, including neutral environments, laboratory low and fusion plasmas, astrophysical conditions, and planetary atmospheres. The Conference was attended by over 100 professionals from Europe, Asia, America, Africa and New Zealand. The conference program was put together in such a way so as to exclude any parallel sessions. Five afternoon sessions featured 19 invited talks and 20 oral contributions, and two evening sessions offered 61 poster presentations, including post-deadline posters. This setup allowed for a relaxed and unhurried discussion of results and facilitated productive networking. The invited talks were selected by recommendation of members of the International Scientific Committee. The Organizers would like to thank all the members of the International Scientific Committee for their proposals on the agenda and their valuable advice. When considering candidates for oral contributions, the organizers took into account the suggestions and preferences of potential conference participants. When selecting the theses of poster presentations, the organizers focused on the topics in line with the theme of the conference and studies with well-formulated results. It must be

  17. Atomic data and spectral line intensities for Fe XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, A.K.; Doschek, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    Electron impact collision strengths and spontaneous radiative decay rates are calculated for Fe XVII. The data pertain to the 73 levels of the configurations, 2s 2 2p 6 , 2s 2 2p 5 3s, 2s 2 2p 5 3p 2s 2 2p 5 3d, 2s2p 6 3s, 2s2p 6 3p, 2s2p 6 3d, 2s 2 2p 5 4s, 2s 2 2p 5 4p, 2s 2 2p 5 4d, 2s2p 6 4s, 2s2p 6 4p, and 2s2p 6 4d. Collision strengths are calculated at 11 incident electron energies: 58.5, 65.0, 70.0, 76.0, 85.0, 127.5, 170.0, 212.5, 255.0, 340.0, and 425.0 Ry. This work is an improvement over our earlier work on Fe XVII in two respects: (1) configurations involving 4s, 4p, and 4d electrons have been added and (2) a broader range of incident electron energies is used in the computation of collision strengths and excitation rate coefficients. Relative spectral line intensities are calculated for astrophysically important transitions. These are obtained by computing the excitation rate coefficients (cm 3 s -1 ), i.e., the collision strengths integrated over a Maxwellian electron distribution, and then solving the equations of detailed balance for the populations of the 73 energy levels, assuming a collisional excitation model and an electron temperature of 4 x 10 6 K. This temperature is typical for Fe XVII when formed in equilibrium by collisional ionization and recombination. Using the excitation rate coefficients and the radiative decay rates, level populations are computed for five electron densities and are given in this paper

  18. Heterodyne detection using spectral line pairing for spectral phase encoding optical code division multiple access and dynamic dispersion compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Foster, Mark; Khurgin, Jacob B; Cooper, A Brinton

    2012-07-30

    A novel coherent optical code-division multiple access (OCDMA) scheme is proposed that uses spectral line pairing to generate signals suitable for heterodyne decoding. Both signal and local reference are transmitted via a single optical fiber and a simple balanced receiver performs sourceless heterodyne detection, canceling speckle noise and multiple-access interference (MAI). To validate the idea, a 16 user fully loaded phase encoded system is simulated. Effects of fiber dispersion on system performance are studied as well. Both second and third order dispersion management is achieved by using a spectral phase encoder to adjust phase shifts of spectral components at the optical network unit (ONU).

  19. Uniform TiO2 nanoparticles induce apoptosis in epithelial cell lines in a size-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qingqing; Ishii, Takayuki; Kanehira, Koki; Sato, Takeshi; Taniguchi, Akiyoshi

    2017-05-02

    The size of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles is a vital parameter that determines their cytotoxicity. However, most reported studies have employed irregular shapes and sizes of TiO 2 nanoparticles, as it is difficult to produce nanoparticles of suitable sizes for research. We produced good model TiO 2 nanoparticles of uniform shape and size for use in studying their cytotoxicity. In this work, spherical, uniform polyethylene glycol-modified TiO 2 (TiO 2 -PEG) nanoparticles of differing sizes (100, 200, and 300 nm) were prepared using the sol-gel method. A size-dependent decrease in cell viability was observed with increasing nanoparticle size. Furthermore, apoptosis was found to be positively associated with nanoparticle size, as evidenced by an increase in caspase-3 activity with increasing nanoparticle size. Larger nanoparticles exhibited higher cellular uptake, suggesting that larger nanoparticles more strongly induce apoptosis. In addition, the cellular uptake of different sizes of nanoparticles was energy dependent, suggesting that there are size-dependent uptake pathways. We found that 100 and 200 nm (but not 300 nm) nanoparticles were taken up via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. These results utilizing uniform nanoparticles suggest that the size-dependent cytotoxicity of nanoparticles involves active cellular uptake, caspase-3 activation, and apoptosis in the epithelial cell line (NCI-H292). These findings will hopefully aid in the future design and safe use of nanoparticles.

  20. Theoretical description of spectral line profiles of parent molecules in cometary comae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Hong-Yao; Larson, H.P.; Hsieh, K.C.

    1991-01-01

    The present overview of cometary spectral-line profiles obtainable through advancements in high-resolution spectroscopic studies, which allow the retrieval of coma kinematic properties from velocity-resolved spectral-line profiles, incorporates the most important gas dynamic processes into an outflow model which is tailored to the interpretation of spectroscopic observations of parent molecules. The model is then used to study the influence on parent-molecule spectral line profile formation of the field-of-view, the expansion velocity, the kinetic temperature, and the anisotropic outflow distributions. 31 refs

  1. Spectral function for a nonsymmetric differential operator on the half line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuqing Ning

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we study the spectral function for a nonsymmetric differential operator on the half line. Two cases of the coefficient matrix are considered, and for each case we prove by Marchenko's method that, to the boundary value problem, there corresponds a spectral function related to which a Marchenko-Parseval equality and an expansion formula are established. Our results extend the classical spectral theory for self-adjoint Sturm-Liouville operators and Dirac operators.

  2. THE GBT 67–93.6 GHz SPECTRAL LINE SURVEY OF ORION-KL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frayer, D. T.; Maddalena, Ronald J.; Meijer, M.; Hough, L.; White, S.; Norrod, R.; Watts, G.; Stennes, M.; Simon, R.; Woody, D.; Whitehead, M.; Ford, P.; Mello, M.; Bloss, M.; Srikanth, S.; Pospieszalski, M.; Bryerton, E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a 67–93.6 GHz spectral line survey of Orion-KL with the new 4 mm Receiver on the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The survey reaches unprecedented depths and covers the low-frequency end of the 3 mm atmospheric window which has been relatively unexplored previously. The entire spectral-line survey is published electronically for general use by the astronomical community. The calibration and performance of the 4 mm Receiver on the GBT is also summarized

  3. LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS OF WHITE DWARF PHOTOSPHERIC SPECTRAL LINES: Hβ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcon, Ross E.; Gomez, T. A.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.; Rochau, G. A.; Bailey, J. E.; Nagayama, T.

    2015-01-01

    We spectroscopically measure multiple hydrogen Balmer line profiles from laboratory plasmas to investigate the theoretical line profiles used in white dwarf (WD) atmosphere models. X-ray radiation produced at the Z Pulsed Power Facility at Sandia National Laboratories initiates plasma formation in a hydrogen-filled gas cell, replicating WD photospheric conditions. Here we present time-resolved measurements of Hβ and fit this line using different theoretical line profiles to diagnose electron density, n e , and n = 2 level population, n 2 . Aided by synthetic tests, we characterize the validity of our diagnostic method for this experimental platform. During a single experiment, we infer a continuous range of electron densities increasing from n e ∼ 4 to ∼30 × 10 16 cm −3 throughout a 120-ns evolution of our plasma. Also, we observe n 2 to be initially elevated with respect to local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE); it then equilibrates within ∼55 ns to become consistent with LTE. This supports our electron-temperature determination of T e ∼ 1.3 eV (∼15,000 K) after this time. At n e ≳ 10 17 cm −3 , we find that computer-simulation-based line-profile calculations provide better fits (lower reduced χ 2 ) than the line profiles currently used in the WD astronomy community. The inferred conditions, however, are in good quantitative agreement. This work establishes an experimental foundation for the future investigation of relative shapes and strengths between different hydrogen Balmer lines

  4. Herschel SPIRE FTS spectral line source calibrators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopwood, Rosalind; Polehampton, Edward; Valtchanov, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    We present a summary of the Herschel SPIRE/FTS calibration programme to monitor the repeatability of spectral lines. Observations of planetary nebulae and post-AGB stars are used to assess repeatability and model the asymmetry of the instrument line shape.......We present a summary of the Herschel SPIRE/FTS calibration programme to monitor the repeatability of spectral lines. Observations of planetary nebulae and post-AGB stars are used to assess repeatability and model the asymmetry of the instrument line shape....

  5. Improved documentation of spectral lines for inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doidge, Peter S.

    2018-05-01

    An approach to improving the documentation of weak spectral lines falling near the prominent analytical lines used in inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) is described. Measurements of ICP emission spectra in the regions around several hundred prominent lines, using concentrated solutions (up to 1% w/v) of some 70 elements, and comparison of the observed spectra with both recent published work and with the output of a computer program that allows calculation of transitions between the known energy levels, show that major improvements can be made in the coverage of spectral atlases for ICP-OES, with respect to "classical" line tables. It is argued that the atomic spectral data (wavelengths, energy levels) required for the reliable identification and documentation of a large majority of the weak interfering lines of the elements detectable by ICP-OES now exist, except for most of the observed lines of the lanthanide elements. In support of this argument, examples are provided from a detailed analysis of a spectral window centered on the prominent Pb II 220.353 nm line, and from a selected line-rich spectrum (W). Shortcomings in existing analyses are illustrated with reference to selected spectral interferences due to Zr. This approach has been used to expand the spectral-line library used in commercial ICP-ES instruments (Agilent 700-ES/5100-ES). The precision of wavelength measurements is evaluated in terms of the shot-noise limit, while the absolute accuracy of wavelength measurement is characterised through comparison with a small set of precise Ritz wavelengths for Sb I, and illustrated through the identification of Zr III lines; it is further shown that fractional-pixel absolute wavelength accuracies can be achieved. Finally, problems with the wavelengths and classifications of certain Au I lines are discussed.

  6. A universal representation of Rydberg spectral line shapes in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosse, C.; Calisti, A.; Stamm, R.; Talin, B.; Bureyeva, L.; Lisitsa, V. S.

    2001-01-01

    A universal representation of Rydberg atom line shapes in plasmas is obtained. It bases on analytical formulas for intensity distribution in radiation transitions n→n' between highly excited atomic states with large values of principle quantum numbers n, n'>>1, Δn=n-n'<< n and the frequency fluctuation model (FFM) for account of ion thermal motion effects. The line shapes are presented in a universal manner as functions of plasma temperatures and densities

  7. Stark broadening measurements of Xe III spectral lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelaez, R J; Cirisan, M; Djurovic, S; Aparicio, J A; Mar, S

    2006-01-01

    This work reports measured Stark widths of doubly ionized xenon lines. Pulsed arc was used as a plasma source. Measured electron densities and temperatures were in the ranges of (0.2 - 1.6) x 10 23 m -3 and 18 300-25 500 K, respectively. Stark halfwidths of lines from 6s-6p, 6s-4f and 5d-6p transitions have been measured and compared with available experimental and theoretical data

  8. SPECTRAL OPTICAL MONITORING OF THE NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXY Ark 564

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapovalova, A. I.; Burenkov, A. N.; Popović, L. Č.; Kovačević, J.; Chavushyan, V. H.; Valdes, J. R.; Torrealba, J.; Carrasco, L.; Ilić, D.; Kovačević, A.; Kollatschny, W.; Bochkarev, N. G.; León-Tavares, J.; Mercado, A.; Benítez, E.; Dultzin, D.; De la Fuente, E.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a long-term (1999-2010) spectral optical monitoring campaign of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) Ark 564, which shows a strong Fe II line emission in the optical. This AGN is a narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxy, a group of AGNs with specific spectral characteristics. We analyze the light curves of the permitted Hα, Hβ, optical Fe II line fluxes, and the continuum flux in order to search for a time lag between them. Additionally, in order to estimate the contribution of iron lines from different multiplets, we fit the Hβ and Fe II lines with a sum of Gaussian components. We find that during the monitoring period the spectral variation (F max /F min ) of Ark 564 is between 1.5 for Hα and 1.8 for the Fe II lines. The correlation between the Fe II and Hβ flux variations is of higher significance than that of Hα and Hβ (whose correlation is almost absent). The permitted-line profiles are Lorentzian-like and do not change shape during the monitoring period. We investigate, in detail, the optical Fe II emission and find different degrees of correlation between the Fe II emission arising from different spectral multiplets and the continuum flux. The relatively weak and different degrees of correlations between permitted lines and continuum fluxes indicate a rather complex source of ionization of the broad-line emission region.

  9. Stark broadening of Ca IV spectral lines of astrophysical interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Medina, A.; Colón, C.

    2014-12-01

    Ca IV emission lines are under the preview of Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation device aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. Also, lines of the Ca IV in planetary nebulae NGC 7027 were detected with the Short Wavelength Spectrometer on board the Infrared Space Observatory. These facts justify an attempt to provide new spectroscopic parameters of Ca IV. There are no theoretical or experimental Stark broadening data for Ca IV. Using the Griem semi-empirical approach and the COWAN code, we report in this paper calculated values of the Stark broadening parameters for 467 lines of Ca IV. They were calculated using a set of wavefunctions obtained by using Hartree-Fock relativistic calculations. These lines arising from 3s23p4ns (n = 4, 5), 3s23p44p, 3s23p4nd (n = 3, 4) configurations. Stark widths and shifts are presented for an electron density of 1017 cm-3 and temperatures T = 10 000, 20 000 and 50 200 K. As these data cannot be compared to others in the literature, we present an analysis of the different regularities of the values presented in this work.

  10. THE SDSS-III APOGEE SPECTRAL LINE LIST FOR H-BAND SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetrone, M. [University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory (United States); Bizyaev, D.; Chojnowski, D. [Apache Point Observatory and New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM, 88349-0059 (United States); Lawler, J. E. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Prieto, C. Allende; Zamora, O.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Souto, D. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Calle Vía Lactea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Johnson, J. A. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Smith, V. V. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Cunha, K. [Observatório Nacional, Rua General Jose Cristino, 77, 20921-400 São Cristóvão, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Holtzman, J. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Pérez, A. E. García; Sobeck, J.; Majewski, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Mészáros, Sz. [ELTE Gothard Astrophysical Observatory, H-9704 Szombathely, Szent Imre herceg st. 112 (Hungary); Koesterke, L. [The University of Texas at Austin, Texas Advanced Computing Center (United States); Zasowski, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    We present the H-band spectral line lists adopted by the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE). The APOGEE line lists comprise astrophysical, theoretical, and laboratory sources from the literature, as well as newly evaluated astrophysical oscillator strengths and damping parameters. We discuss the construction of the APOGEE line list, which is one of the critical inputs for the APOGEE Stellar Parameters and Chemical Abundances Pipeline, and present three different versions that have been used at various stages of the project. The methodology for the newly calculated astrophysical line lists is reviewed. The largest of these three line lists contains 134,457 molecular and atomic transitions. In addition to the format adopted to store the data, the line lists are available in MOOG, Synspec, and Turbospectrum formats. The limitations of the line lists along with guidance for its use on different spectral types are discussed. We also present a list of H-band spectral features that are either poorly represented or completely missing in our line list. This list is based on the average of a large number of spectral fit residuals for APOGEE observations spanning a wide range of stellar parameters.

  11. Stark broadening of several Bi IV spectral lines of astrophysical interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón, C.; Moreno-Díaz, C.; de Andrés-García, I.; Alonso-Medina, A.

    2017-09-01

    The presence of spectral lines of bismuth in stellar atmospheres has been reported in different stars. The anomalous values of the spectral intensities of Bi II and Bi III, compared to the theoretical Local Termodinamic Equilibrium (LTE) standards of Bi I/Bi II/Bi III, have been reported in the spectra obtained with the High Resolution Spectrograph of the Hubble/Goddard Space Telescope in the chemically peculiar stars HgMn stars χ Lupi and HR 7775. Spectral lines of 1436.8, 1902.3, 2630.9 and 2936.7 Å of Bi II and 1423.4 Å of Bi III were reported and their relative intensities were measured in these studies Litzén & Wahlgren 2002. These lines are overlapped with spectral lines of 1437.65, 2630.1 and 2937.1 Å of Bi IV. A study of the Stark broadening parameters of Bi IV spectral lines can help to study these overlaps. In this paper, using the Griem semi-empirical approach, we report calculated values of the Stark parameters for 64 spectral lines of Bi IV. The matrix elements used in these calculations have been determined from 17 configurations of Bi IV. They were calculated using the cowan code including core polarization effects. Data are displayed for an electron density of 1017 cm-3 and temperatures T = 10 000-160 000 K. Also calculated radiative lifetimes for 12 levels with experimental lifetime are presented, in order to test the goodness of our calculations. Theoretical trends of the Stark width and shift parameters versus the temperature for spectral lines of astrophysical interest are displayed.

  12. Kinetic theory of spectral line broadening in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussey, T.W.

    1974-01-01

    A formal kinetic theory is used to cast the line shape function into a form that, while similar to the ''unified'' theories of Smith, Cooper, and Vidal and of Voslamber, does not introduce some of the usual approximations. The resulting line shape function explicitly includes the initial correlations between the atom and perturbers, and also demonstrates the natural separation of plasma mean field and collisional effects. The classical path and no-quenching approximations are discussed and ultimately employed; however, they are not required in the formal development. The weak coupling limit is considered as a systematic approximation to the formal results. It is shown tha different ways of applying this limit lead to different expressions for the memory operator, some of which correspond to existing theories. One approximation is considered which systematically incorporates the effects of electron correlations within the framework of a unified theory. In addition, a practical approximation suitable for a strongly interacting plasma is discussed

  13. Suitable spectral line shape calculations for inertial confinement plasma diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, D.; Louis-Jacquet, M.

    1982-09-01

    In plasma confinement experiments, the knowledge of the plasma state at the maximum compression time would be of utmost interest. For quite many experiments, this time can correspond to a stationary state during which the X emission conditions for a moderate Z element are maximum. Since this diagnosis mean deals with emission only, we need to get rid of reabsorption problems, since their calculation depends on the use of an ionization-excitation plasma model. That is the reason why we focus our attention onto the aspects of spectroscopic theory which control the low reabsorption line shapes - from high values of n - and more precisely the lesser reabsorbed parts of the line shapes - the wings instead of the center

  14. Correlation function and electronic spectral line broadening in relativistic plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douis S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrons dynamics and the time autocorrelation function Cee(t for the total electric microfield of the electrons on positive charge impurity embedded in a plasma are considered when the relativistic dynamic of the electrons is taken into account. We have, at first, built the effective potential governing the electrons dynamics. This potential obeys a nonlinear integral equation that we have solved numerically. Regarding the electron broadening of the line in plasma, we have found that when the plasma parameters change, the amplitude of the collision operator changes in the same way as the time integral of Cee(t. The electron-impurity interaction is taken at first time as screened Deutsh interaction and at the second time as Kelbg interaction. Comparisons of all interesting quantities are made with respect to the previous interactions as well as between classical and relativistic dynamics of electrons.

  15. Role of noise in the diode-laser spectroscopy of the spectral line profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadezhdinskii, Aleksandr I; Plotnichenko, V V; Ponurovskii, Ya Ya; Spiridonov, Maksim V

    2000-01-01

    Questions concerning precise measurements of the spectral-line-profile parameters by diode-laser spectroscopic methods were examined. The instrumental function of a distributed-feedback diode laser (λ =1.53 μm), consisting of the additive contributions of the noise due to spontaneous emission, frequency fluctuations, and intensity fluctuations, was investigated. An analytical formula was obtained for the spectrum of the diode-laser field formed by frequency fluctuations. The spectral density g 0 of the frequency fluctuations, determining the width of the central part of the emission line profile of a diode laser, was found by two independent methods (by fitting to a Doppler-broadened absorption line profile and by finding the intensity of the residual radiation and the saturated-absorption line width). The parameters Ω and Γ of the spectral density of the frequency fluctuations, coupled to the relaxation oscillations and determining the wing of the diode-laser emission line profile, were determined experimentally. By taking into account the instrumental function of the diode laser, involving successive convolution with the recorded emission spectra, it was possible to reproduce correctly the spectral line profile and to solve accurately the problem of the 'optical zero'. The role of the correlation between the intensity noise and the diode-laser frequency was considered. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  16. Effects of self-similar correlations on the spectral line shape in the neutral gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharintsev, S.S.; Salakhov, M.Kh.

    2001-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the study of the influence of self-similar correlations on the Doppler and pressure broadening within the non-equilibrium Boltzmann gas. The diffuse model for the thermal motion of the radiator and the self-similar mechanism of interference of scalar perturbations for phase shifts of an atomic oscillator are developed. It is shown that taking into account self-similar correlation in a description of the spectral line shape allows one to explain, on the one hand, the additional spectral line Dicke-narrowing in the Doppler regime, and, on the other hand, the asymmetry in wings of the spectral line in a high pressure region

  17. Remote sensing of potential lunar resources. 2: High spatial resolution mapping of spectral reflectance ratios and implications for nearside mare TiO2 content`

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendrez, David E.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Larson, Stephen M.; Singer, Robert B.

    1994-01-01

    High spatial resolution maps illustrating variations in spectral reflectance 400/560 nm ratio values have been generated for the following mare regions: (1) the border between southern Mare Serenitatis and northern Mare Tranquillitatis (including the MS-2 standard area and Apollo 17 landing site), (2) central Mare Tranquillitatis, (3) Oceanus Procellarum near Seleucus, and (4) southern Oceanus Procellarum and Flamsteed. We have also obtained 320-1000 nm reflectance spectra of several sites relative to MS-2 to facilitate scaling of the images and provide additional information on surface composition. Inferred TiO2 abundances for these mare regions have been determined using an empirical calibration which relates the weight percent TiO2 in mature mare regolith to the observed 400/560 nm ratio. Mare areas with high TiO2 abundances are probably rich in ilmenite (FeTiO3) a potential lunar resource. The highest potential TiO2 concentrations we have identified in the nearside maria occur in central Mare Tranquillitatis. Inferred TiO2 contents for these areas are greater than 9 wt% and are spatially consistent with the highest-TiO2 regions mapped previously at lower spatial resolution. We note that the morphology of surface units with high 400/560 nm ratio values increases in complexity at higher spatial resolutions. Comparisons have been made with previously published geologic maps, Lunar Orbiter IV, and ground-based images, and some possible morphologic correlatins have been found between our mapped 400/560 nm ratio values and volcanic landforms such as lava flows, mare domes, and collapse pits.

  18. A new method of organizing spectral line intensity ratio fluctuations of nightglow emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thelin, B.

    1986-02-01

    In this paper a new kind of linearization effect between the atmospheric night airglow emissions is presented. The same kind of linearization effect has previously been studied with spectrochemical light sources together with a spectrometer. A linear graph was obtained for atomic spectral lines and vibrational bandspectra when the spectral line intensity ratio fluctuations were plotted versus the photon energies of these emissions. To study this effect data from a number of different photometer investigations of night airglow emissions at different times and places have been used. (author)

  19. Indium determination by spectral overlappings of lines in atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, J.J.; Huicque, L. d'; Garcia Vior, L.O.

    1991-01-01

    A molybdenum hollow-cathode lamp filled with neon can be used to determine indium. Characteristic concentration for this element is 4.5 mg/L in the 325 nm spectral region for the Mo(I) 325.621 nm line. In addition, values of 0.4 mg/L and 0.3 mg/L are obtained with the Mo(I) 410.215 nm and Ne(I) 451.151 nm lines, respectively. These spectral overlappings allow the determination of indium in silver-cadmium-indium alloys. (Author) [es

  20. Temporal evolution of the spectral lines emission and temperatures in laser induced plasmas through characteristic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredice, F.; Pacheco Martinez, P.; Sánchez-Aké, C.; Villagrán-Muniz, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose an extended Boltzmann plot method to determine the usefulness of spectral lines for plasma parameter calculations. Based on the assumption that transient plasmas are under ideal conditions during an specific interval of time Δt, (i.e. thin, homogeneous and in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE)), the associated Boltzmann plots describe a surface in the space defined by the coordinates X = Energy, Y = Time and Z = ln (λ jl I j /g j A jl ), where I j is the integrated intensity of the spectral line, g j is the statistical weight of the level j, λ jl is the wavelength of the considered line and A jl is its transition rate. In order to express the Boltzmann plot surface in terms of a reduced set of constants B i , and δ i , we developed as a power series of time, the logarithm of I n (t)/I n (t 0 ), where I n (t) is the integrated intensity of any spectral line at time t, and I n (t 0 ) at initial time. Moreover, the temporal evolution of the intensity of any spectral line and consequently the temperature of the plasma can be also expressed with these constants. The comparison of the temporal evolution of the line intensity calculated using these constants with their experimental values, can be used as a criterion for selecting useful lines in plasma analysis. Furthermore, this method can also be applied to determine self-absorption or enhancement of the spectral lines, to evaluate a possible departure of LTE, and to check or estimate the upper level energy value of any spectral line. An advantage of this method is that the value of these constants does not depend on the spectral response of the detection system, the uncertainty of the transition rates belonging to the analyzed spectral lines or any other time-independent parameters. In order to prove our method, we determined the constants B i and δ i and therefore the Boltzmann plot surface from the temporal evolution of carbon lines obtained from a plasma generated by a Nd:YAG laser

  1. Temporal evolution of the spectral lines emission and temperatures in laser induced plasmas through characteristic parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredice, F., E-mail: faustob@ciop.unlp.edu.ar [Centro de Investigaciones Ópticas, P.O. Box 3 C. P.1897 Gonnet, La Plata (Argentina); Pacheco Martinez, P. [Grupo de Espectroscopía Óptica de Emisión y Láser, Universidad del Atlántico, Barranquilla (Colombia); Sánchez-Aké, C.; Villagrán-Muniz, M. [Laboratorio de Fotofísica, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-186, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we propose an extended Boltzmann plot method to determine the usefulness of spectral lines for plasma parameter calculations. Based on the assumption that transient plasmas are under ideal conditions during an specific interval of time Δt, (i.e. thin, homogeneous and in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE)), the associated Boltzmann plots describe a surface in the space defined by the coordinates X = Energy, Y = Time and Z = ln (λ{sub jl}I{sub j}/g{sub j}A{sub jl}), where I{sub j} is the integrated intensity of the spectral line, g{sub j} is the statistical weight of the level j, λ{sub jl} is the wavelength of the considered line and A{sub jl} is its transition rate. In order to express the Boltzmann plot surface in terms of a reduced set of constants B{sub i}, and δ{sub i}, we developed as a power series of time, the logarithm of I{sub n}(t)/I{sub n}(t{sub 0}), where I{sub n}(t) is the integrated intensity of any spectral line at time t, and I{sub n}(t{sub 0}) at initial time. Moreover, the temporal evolution of the intensity of any spectral line and consequently the temperature of the plasma can be also expressed with these constants. The comparison of the temporal evolution of the line intensity calculated using these constants with their experimental values, can be used as a criterion for selecting useful lines in plasma analysis. Furthermore, this method can also be applied to determine self-absorption or enhancement of the spectral lines, to evaluate a possible departure of LTE, and to check or estimate the upper level energy value of any spectral line. An advantage of this method is that the value of these constants does not depend on the spectral response of the detection system, the uncertainty of the transition rates belonging to the analyzed spectral lines or any other time-independent parameters. In order to prove our method, we determined the constants B{sub i} and δ{sub i} and therefore the Boltzmann plot surface from the temporal

  2. SPECTRAL OPTICAL MONITORING OF THE NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXY Ark 564

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapovalova, A. I.; Burenkov, A. N. [Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian AS, Nizhnij Arkhyz, Karachaevo-Cherkesia 369167 (Russian Federation); Popovic, L. C.; Kovacevic, J. [Astronomical Observatory, Volgina 7, 11160 Belgrade 74 (Serbia); Chavushyan, V. H.; Valdes, J. R.; Torrealba, J.; Carrasco, L. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Apartado Postal 51-216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Ilic, D.; Kovacevic, A. [Isaac Newton Institute of Chile, Yugoslavia Branch, Belgrade (Serbia); Kollatschny, W. [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universitaet, Goettingen (Germany); Bochkarev, N. G. [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Leon-Tavares, J. [Aalto University Metsaehovi Radio Observatory, Metsaehovintie 114, FIN-02540 Kylmaelae (Finland); Mercado, A. [Universidad Politecnica de Baja California, Av. de la Industria 291, 21010 Mexicali, B.C. (Mexico); Benitez, E.; Dultzin, D. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-264, Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); De la Fuente, E., E-mail: ashap@sao.ru [Instituto de Astronomia y Meteorologia, Dpto. de Fisica CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara, Av. Vallarta 2602, 44130 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2012-09-15

    We present the results of a long-term (1999-2010) spectral optical monitoring campaign of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) Ark 564, which shows a strong Fe II line emission in the optical. This AGN is a narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxy, a group of AGNs with specific spectral characteristics. We analyze the light curves of the permitted H{alpha}, H{beta}, optical Fe II line fluxes, and the continuum flux in order to search for a time lag between them. Additionally, in order to estimate the contribution of iron lines from different multiplets, we fit the H{beta} and Fe II lines with a sum of Gaussian components. We find that during the monitoring period the spectral variation (F{sub max}/F{sub min}) of Ark 564 is between 1.5 for H{alpha} and 1.8 for the Fe II lines. The correlation between the Fe II and H{beta} flux variations is of higher significance than that of H{alpha} and H{beta} (whose correlation is almost absent). The permitted-line profiles are Lorentzian-like and do not change shape during the monitoring period. We investigate, in detail, the optical Fe II emission and find different degrees of correlation between the Fe II emission arising from different spectral multiplets and the continuum flux. The relatively weak and different degrees of correlations between permitted lines and continuum fluxes indicate a rather complex source of ionization of the broad-line emission region.

  3. Novel plasma source for safe beryllium spectral line studies in the presence of beryllium dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, B. D.; Vinić, M.; Gavrilović Božović, M. R.; Ivković, M.

    2018-05-01

    Plasma source for beryllium spectral line studies in the presence of beryllium dust particles was realised. The guideline during construction was to prevent exposure to formed dust, considering the toxicity of beryllium. Plasma source characterization through determination of optimal working conditions is described. The necessary conditions for Be spectral line appearance and optimal conditions for line shape measurements are found. It is proven experimentally that under these conditions dust appears coincidently with the second current maximum. The electron density measured after discharge current maximum is determined from the peak separation of the hydrogen Balmer beta spectral line, and the electron temperature is determined from the ratios of the relative intensities of Be spectral lines emitted from successive ionized stages of atoms. Maximum values of electron density and temperature are measured to be 9.3 × 1022 m-3 and 16 800 K, respectively. Construction details and testing of the BeO discharge tube in comparison with SiO2 and Al2O3 discharge tubes are also presented in this paper.

  4. Stochastic theory of relaxation and collisional broadening of spectral line shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faid, K.

    1986-01-01

    A complete stochastic theory of relaxation is developed in terms of a homogeneous equation for the averaged density matrix of a system immersed in a thermal bath. This theory is then used as the basis of a new stochastic approach to the phenomenon of collisional broadening of spectral line shapes. Single-photon and multiphoton processes are studied. The features of a line shape are linked by simple expressions to the statistical properties of a stochastic hermitian Hamiltonian. The ordinary line shape predicted by Kubo's approach is generalized. The present approach predicts broadening as well as asymmetry and shift. A representation of line shapes in multiphoton processes by diagrams is also developed

  5. Infrared spectral line parameters of HBr and DBr at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, R.N.; Goldman, A.

    1976-01-01

    The electric dipole matrix elements for pure rotation and vibration-rotation transitions, with /m/<=40 and v<=v'<=6, having derived for HBr and DBr by using the Rydberg-Klein-Rees (RKR) potentials and numerical solutions of the Schroedinger equation. An improved dipole-moment expansion was determined by fitting these matrix elements to the available experimental data on line intensities. A least squares analysis of the available line position constants gave an improved set of Dunham coefficients good for spectral lines with both large and small quantum numbers v and J. The results were then used to generate a compilation of individual line parameters for the Δv = 1 bands of HBr and DBr at temperatures up to 3000 K. These parameters, together with previously compiled line parameters for HCl, HF, CO and NO, are being used for line-by-line calculations of radiance from a hot source as seen through an atmospheric path. (author)

  6. [Analysis of software for identifying spectral line of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy based on LabVIEW].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhi-yu; Zhang, Lei; Ma, Wei-guang; Yan, Xiao-juan; Li, Zhi-xin; Zhang, Yong-zhi; Wang, Le; Dong, Lei; Yin, Wang-bao; Jia, Suo-tang

    2012-03-01

    Self-designed identifying software for LIBS spectral line was introduced. Being integrated with LabVIEW, the soft ware can smooth spectral lines and pick peaks. The second difference and threshold methods were employed. Characteristic spectrum of several elements matches the NIST database, and realizes automatic spectral line identification and qualitative analysis of the basic composition of sample. This software can analyze spectrum handily and rapidly. It will be a useful tool for LIBS.

  7. Detection of the power lines in UAV remote sensed images using spectral-spatial methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhola, Rishav; Krishna, Nandigam Hari; Ramesh, K N; Senthilnath, J; Anand, Gautham

    2018-01-15

    In this paper, detection of the power lines on images acquired by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) based remote sensing is carried out using spectral-spatial methods. Spectral clustering was performed using Kmeans and Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm to classify the pixels into the power lines and non-power lines. The spectral clustering methods used in this study are parametric in nature, to automate the number of clusters Davies-Bouldin index (DBI) is used. The UAV remote sensed image is clustered into the number of clusters determined by DBI. The k clustered image is merged into 2 clusters (power lines and non-power lines). Further, spatial segmentation was performed using morphological and geometric operations, to eliminate the non-power line regions. In this study, UAV images acquired at different altitudes and angles were analyzed to validate the robustness of the proposed method. It was observed that the EM with spatial segmentation (EM-Seg) performed better than the Kmeans with spatial segmentation (Kmeans-Seg) on most of the UAV images. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The measurement and interpretation of Ne VII spectral line intensity ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, J.

    1983-03-01

    Results are presented for the measurement, using the branching ratios calibration method, of the spectral intensities of Ne VII lines emitted from a theta-pinch plasma whose electron temperature and density have been found by laser scattering and alternate techniques. (author)

  9. Intensity and shape of spectral lines from laser-produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamelot, G; Jaegle, P; Carillon, A; Wehenkel, C [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 91 - Orsay (France); Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France))

    1979-01-01

    In starting from spectral studies of multicharged ions in dense laser-produced plasmas, the main processes which determine the intensity and the shape of lines in the X-UV range are described. The role of radiation transfer is underlined. Intensity anomalies resulting from occurrence of population inversions are considered and a recent experiment performed for investigating such anomalies is described.

  10. The gravitational microlens influence on X-ray spectral line generated by an AGN accretion disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović L.Č.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of gravitational microlensing on the X-ray spectral line profiles originated from a relativistic accretion disc has been studied. Using a disc model, we show that microlensing can induce noticeable changes in the line shapes when the Einstein ring radius associated with the microlens is of a size comparable to that of the accretion disc. Taking into account the relatively small size of the X-ray accretion disc, we found that compact objects (of about a Solar mass which belong to the bulge of the host galaxy can produce significant changes in the X-ray line profile of AGN.

  11. Stark shift measurements of Xe II and Xe III spectral lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirisan, M; Pelaez, R J; Djurovic, S; Aparicio, J A; Mar, S

    2007-01-01

    Stark shift measurements of singly and doubly ionized Xe spectral lines are presented in this paper. Shifts of 110 Xe II lines and 42 Xe III lines are reported, including a significant number of new results. A low-pressure-pulsed arc with 95% of He and 5% of Xe was used as a plasma source. All measurements were performed under the following plasma conditions: electron density (0.2-1.4) x 10 23 m -3 and electron temperature 18 000-23 000 K. The measured Stark shifts are compared with other experimental and theoretical data

  12. Ultrafast method of calculating the dynamic spectral line shapes for integrated modelling of plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisitsa, V.S.

    2009-01-01

    An ultrafast code for spectral line shape calculations is presented to be used in the integrated modelling of plasmas. The code is based on the close analogy between two mechanisms: (i) Dicke narrowing of the Doppler-broadened spectral lines and (ii) transition from static to impact regime in the Stark broadening. The analogy makes it possible to describe the dynamic Stark broadening in terms of an analytical functional of the static line shape. A comparison of new method with the widely used Frequency Fluctuating Method (FFM) developed by the Marseille University group (B. Talin, R. Stamm, et al.) shows good agreement, with the new method being faster than the standard FFM by nearly two orders of magnitude. The method proposed may significantly simplify the radiation transport modeling and opens new possibilities for integrated modeling of the edge and divertor plasma in tokamaks. (author)

  13. Utilize the spectral line pair of the same ionized state ion to measure the ion temperature of tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Xiaodong

    2000-01-01

    Making use of a Fabry-Perot interferometer driven by a piezoelectric crystal and selecting the suitable separation of plates, the ion temperature is defined by measuring the superimposed profile of the spectral line pair of the same ionized state ions in Tokamak. The advantage of this method is to higher spectral resolution and wider spectral range select

  14. Oxidative Stress and Nano-Toxicity Induced by TiO2 and ZnO on WAG Cell Line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhilesh Dubey

    Full Text Available Metallic nanoparticles are widely used in cosmetics, food products and textile industry. These particles are known to cause respiratory toxicity and epithelial inflammation. They are eventually released to aquatic environment necessitating toxicity studies in cells from respiratory organs of aquatic organisms. Hence, we have developed and characterized a new cell line, WAG, from gill tissue of Wallago attu for toxicity assessment of TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles. The efficacy of the cell line as an in vitro system for nanoparticles toxicity studies was established using electron microscopy, cytotoxicity assays, genotoxicity assays and oxidative stress biomarkers. Results obtained with MTT assay, neutral red uptake assay and lactate dehydrogenase assay showed acute toxicity to WAG cells with IC50 values of 25.29 ± 0.12, 34.99 ± 0.09 and 35.06 ± 0.09 mg/l for TiO2 and 5.716 ± 0.1, 3.160 ± 0.1 and 5.57 ± 0.12 mg/l for ZnO treatment respectively. The physicochemical properties and size distribution of nanoparticles were characterized using electron microscopy with integrated energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Zetasizer. Dose dependent increase in DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation along with a significant decrease in activity of Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase, total Glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity with increasing concentration of exposed nanoparticles indicated that the cells were under oxidative stress. The study established WAG cell line as an in vitro system to study toxicity mechanisms of nanoparticles on aquatic organisms.

  15. X-ray spectral line coincidences between fluorine VIII (and IX) and transition metal lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charatis, G.; Rockett, P.D.; Burkhalter, P.G.

    1983-01-01

    X-ray spectroscopy was performed in the 12 to 15 A region, recording L-shell lines from selected laser-irradiated transition metals. Line coincidences and near coincidences were identified between Fe, Cr, Mn, and Ni L-spectra, and F VIII and F IX K-shell lines. Wavelengths were determined to accuracies of 1 to 3 mA and will be utilized in selecting potential pumping candidates in future x-ray lasing schemes. High-resolution x-ray spectra were collected under controlled illumination and target conditions using 1.05 μm and 0.527 μm laser excitation with the KMS CHROMA laser

  16. Universal FFM Hydrogen Spectral Line Shapes Applied to Ions and Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossé, C.; Calisti, A.; Ferri, S.; Talin, B.; Bureyeva, L. A.; Lisitsa, V. S.

    2008-10-01

    We present a method for the calculation of hydrogen spectral line shapes based on two combined approaches: Universal Model and FFM procedure. We start with the analytical functions for the intensities of the Stark components of radiative transitions between highly excited atomic states with large values of principal quantum numbers n,n'γ1, with Δn = n-n'≪n for the specific cases of Hn-α line (Δn = 1) and Hn-β line (Δn = 2). The FFM line shape is obtained by averaging on the electric field of the Hooper's field distribution for ion and electron perturber dynamics and by mixing the Stark components with a jumping frequency rate ve (vi) where v = N1/3u (N is electron density and u is the ion or electron thermal velocity). Finally, the total line shape is given by convolution of ion and electron line shapes. Hydrogen line shape calculations for Balmer Hα and Hβ lines are compared to experimental results in low density plasma (Ne˜1016-1017cm-3) and low electron temperature in order of 10 000K. This method relying on analytic expressions permits fast calculation of Hn-α and Hn-β lines of hydrogen and could be used in the study of the Stark broadening of radio recombination lines for high principal quantum number.

  17. An Interferometric 270--355 GHz Spectral Line Survey of the Red Supergiant VY CMa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menten, K. M.; Young, K. H.; Patel, N. A.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Thaddeus, P.; McCarthy, M. C.; Gurwell, M. A.; Belloche, A.; Kaminski, T.; Verheyen, L.; Decin, L.; Brunken, S.; Holger, S. P. M.

    2011-05-01

    We have used the Submillimeter Array to image the molecular line emission in the circumstellar envelope of the peculiar red supergiant star VY Canis Majoris over the whole 870 μm atmospheric window. Employing adaptive calibration using the object's continuum emission we achieve high quality one arcsecond resolution imaging of the whole 280--355 GHz range within which we find 211 distinct spectral lines from 33 molecules (including isotopologues) plus 40 unidentified lines. From the distribution of molecules we are obtaining their abundances and isotopologic abundance ratios. Using data for multiple transitions in a number of molecules we are deriving the physical conditions in the circumstellar envelope to reach a picture of the star's chemistry that can be compared with models. Our legacy survey is accompanied by a strong laboratory effort that helps with the identification of possibly newly found molecules traced by unidentified lines. We shall create a publicly accessible database of spectral-line channel-maps of the emission from all the lines detected in the survey.

  18. A new method of organizing spectral line intensity ratio fluctuations of auroral emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thelin, B.

    1986-02-01

    In this paper a new kind of linearization effect between the atmospheric auroral emissions is presented. The same kind of linearization effect has previously been found in nightglow emissions from photometer measurements and in the spectrochemical field from studies of optical light sources. Linear graphs have been obtained for atomic spectral lines and vibrational bandspectra when the spectral line ratio fluctuations were plotted versus the photon energies of these emissions. This new effect has been studied with a spectrophotometer in auroral emissions, where linear graphs have been obtained on different auroral occasions. By doing such studies of auroral light it is possible to see the importance of the inelastic scattering cross section between electrons - atoms and electrons - molecules. In this way it has shown to be possible to determine the mean energy of the interacting thermal electrons that are active in the different auroral phases. (author)

  19. Solar Spectral Lines with Special Polarization Properties for the Calibration of Instrument Polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, W.; Casini, R.; Alemán, T. del Pino; Judge, P. G. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research 1, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States)

    2017-10-20

    We investigate atomic transitions that have previously been identified as having zero polarization from the Zeeman effect. Our goal is to identify spectral lines that can be used for the calibration of instrumental polarization of large astronomical and solar telescopes, such as the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope, which is currently under construction on Haleakala. We use a numerical model that takes into account the generation of scattering polarization and its modification by the presence of a magnetic field of arbitrary strength. We adopt values for the Landé factors from spectroscopic measurements or semi-empirical results, thus relaxing the common assumption of LS-coupling previously used in the literature. The mechanisms dominating the polarization of particular transitions are identified, and we summarize groups of various spectral lines useful for the calibration of spectropolarimetric instruments, classified according to their polarization properties.

  20. Investigation of Tree Spectral Reflectance Characteristics Using a Mobile Terrestrial Line Spectrometer and Laser Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eetu Puttonen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In mobile terrestrial hyperspectral imaging, individual trees often present large variations in spectral reflectance that may impact the relevant applications, but the related studies have been seldom reported. To fill this gap, this study was dedicated to investigating the spectral reflectance characteristics of individual trees with a Sensei mobile mapping system, which comprises a Specim line spectrometer and an Ibeo Lux laser scanner. The addition of the latter unit facilitates recording the structural characteristics of the target trees synchronously, and this is beneficial for revealing the characteristics of the spatial distributions of tree spectral reflectance with variations at different levels. Then, the parts of trees with relatively low-level variations can be extracted. At the same time, since it is difficult to manipulate the whole spectrum, the traditional concept of vegetation indices (VI based on some particular spectral bands was taken into account here. Whether the assumed VIs capable of behaving consistently for the whole crown of each tree was also checked. The specific analyses were deployed based on four deciduous tree species and six kinds of VIs. The test showed that with the help of the laser scanner data, the parts of individual trees with relatively low-level variations can be located. Based on these parts, the relatively stable spectral reflectance characteristics for different tree species can be learnt.

  1. Critically Evaluated Energy Levels, Spectral Lines, Transition Probabilities, and Intensities of Neutral Vanadium (V i)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saloman, Edward B. [Dakota Consulting, Inc., 1110 Bonifant Street, Suite 310, Silver Spring, MD 20910 (United States); Kramida, Alexander [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The energy levels, observed spectral lines, and transition probabilities of the neutral vanadium atom, V i, have been compiled. Also included are values for some forbidden lines that may be of interest to the astrophysical community. Experimental Landé g -factors and leading percentage compositions for the levels are included where available, as well as wavelengths calculated from the energy levels (Ritz wavelengths). Wavelengths are reported for 3985 transitions, and 549 energy levels are determined. The observed relative intensities normalized to a common scale are provided.

  2. Techniques for obtaining velocity distributions of atoms or ions from Doppler-broadened spectral line profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, T.G.

    1986-12-01

    Analysis of the doppler-broadened profiles of spectral lines radiated by atoms or ions in plasmas yields information about their velocity distributions. Researchers have analysed profiles of lines radiated by atoms in isotropic velocity distributions in several ways, one being the inversion of the integral equation which relates the velocity distribution to the line profile. This inversion formula was derived for a separate application and was given to within an arbitrary multiplicative constant. This paper presents a new derivation which obtains the inversion exactly, using a method which is easily generalized for determination of anisotropic velocity distribution functions. The technique to obtain an anisotropic velocity distribution function from line profiles measured at different angles is outlined

  3. Deep, Broadband Spectral Line Surveys of Molecule-rich Interstellar Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widicus Weaver, Susanna L.; Laas, Jacob C.; Zou, Luyao; Kroll, Jay A.; Rad, Mary L.; Hays, Brian M.; Sanders, James L.; Cross, Trevor N.; Wehres, Nadine; McGuire, Brett A. [Department of Chemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Lis, Dariusz C.; Sumner, Matthew C., E-mail: susanna.widicus.weaver@emory.edu [California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics 301-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Spectral line surveys are an indispensable tool for exploring the physical and chemical evolution of astrophysical environments due to the vast amount of data that can be obtained in a relatively short amount of time. We present deep, broadband spectral line surveys of 30 interstellar clouds using two broadband λ  = 1.3 mm receivers at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. This information can be used to probe the influence of physical environment on molecular complexity. We observed a wide variety of sources to examine the relative abundances of organic molecules as they relate to the physical properties of the source (i.e., temperature, density, dynamics, etc.). The spectra are highly sensitive, with noise levels ≤25 mK at a velocity resolution of ∼0.35 km s{sup −1}. In the initial analysis presented here, column densities and rotational temperatures have been determined for the molecular species that contribute significantly to the spectral line density in this wavelength regime. We present these results and discuss their implications for complex molecule formation in the interstellar medium.

  4. Determining fast orientation changes of multi-spectral line cameras from the primary images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfeil, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Fast orientation changes of airborne and spaceborne line cameras cannot always be avoided. In such cases it is essential to measure them with high accuracy to ensure a good quality of the resulting imagery products. Several approaches exist to support the orientation measurement by using optical information received through the main objective/telescope. In this article an approach is proposed that allows the determination of non-systematic orientation changes between every captured line. It does not require any additional camera hardware or onboard processing capabilities but the payload images and a rough estimate of the camera's trajectory. The approach takes advantage of the typical geometry of multi-spectral line cameras with a set of linear sensor arrays for different spectral bands on the focal plane. First, homologous points are detected within the heavily distorted images of different spectral bands. With their help a connected network of geometrical correspondences can be built up. This network is used to calculate the orientation changes of the camera with the temporal and angular resolution of the camera. The approach was tested with an extensive set of aerial surveys covering a wide range of different conditions and achieved precise and reliable results.

  5. Investigation of oxygen impurity transport using the O4+ visible spectral line in the Aditya tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhuri, M.B.; Ghosh, J.; Banerjee, S.; Dey, Ritu; Manchanda, R.; Kumar, Vinay; Vasu, P.; Patel, K.M.; Atrey, P.K.; Shankara Joisa, Y.; Rao, C.V.S.; Tanna, R.L.; Raju, D.; Chattopadhyay, P.K.; Jha, R.; Gupta, C.N.; Bhatt, S.B.; Saxena, Y.C.

    2013-01-01

    Intense visible lines from Be-like oxygen impurity are routinely observed in the Aditya tokamak. The spatial profile of brightness of a Be-like oxygen spectral line (2p3p 3 D 3 –2p3d 3 F 4 ) at 650.024 nm is used to investigate oxygen impurity transport in typical discharges of the Aditya tokamak. A 1.0 m multi-track spectrometer (Czerny–Turner) capable of simultaneous measurements from eight lines of sight is used to obtain the radial profile of brightness of O 4+ spectral emission. The emissivity profile of O 4+ spectral emission is obtained from the spatial profile of brightness using an Abel-like matrix inversion. The oxygen transport coefficients are determined by reproducing the experimentally measured emissivity profiles of O 4+ , using a one-dimensional empirical impurity transport code, STRAHL. Much higher values of the diffusion coefficient compared with the neo-classical values are observed in both the high magnetic field edge region (D inboard max ∼30 m 2 s -1 ) and the low magnetic field edge region (D outboard max ∼45 m 2 s -1 ) of typical Aditya ohmic plasmas, which seems to be due to fluctuation-induced transport. The diffusion coefficient at the limiter radius in the low-field (outboard) region is typically ∼ twice as high as that at the limiter radius in the high-field (inboard) region. (paper)

  6. Nonlocal electron kinetics and spectral line emission in the positive column of an argon glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubovskii, Yu; Kalanov, D; Gorchakov, S; Uhrlandt, D

    2015-01-01

    Modern non-local electron kinetics theory predicts several interesting effects connected with spectral line emission from the positive column in the range of low and medium pressures and currents. Some theoretical works describe non-monotonic behavior of the radial profiles of line emission at intermediate pressures and currents between the validity ranges of the non-local and local approximation of the electron kinetics. Despite a great number of publications, there have been no systematic measurements attempting to confirm these theoretical predictions through experiments. In this work the radial profiles of the line emission from the positive column of an argon glow discharge have been measured with high spatial resolution and new effects caused by the narrowing and broadening of the spatial emission profiles with dependence on discharge conditions have been discovered. The effect of intensity maximum shift predicted by theory using a self-consistent model was not found in the experiment. The properties of the spectral line radiation are influenced by the peculiarities of the formation of the high-energy tail of the electron energy distribution function. An interpretation of the observed effects based on the non-local character of the electron kinetics in radially inhomogeneous fields is given. The obtained experimental data are compared with the results of calculations. (paper)

  7. THE ULTRAVIOLET-TO-MID-INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF WEAK EMISSION LINE QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, Ryan A.; Shemmer, Ohad; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan Xiaohui; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Plotkin, Richard M.; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope photometry of 18 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars at 2.7 ≤ z ≤ 5.9 which have weak or undetectable high-ionization emission lines in their rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectra (hereafter weak-lined quasars, or WLQs). The Spitzer data are combined with SDSS spectra and ground-based, near-infrared (IR) photometry of these sources to produce a large inventory of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of WLQs across the rest-frame ∼0.1-5 μm spectral band. The SEDs of our sources are inconsistent with those of BL Lacertae objects which are dominated by synchrotron emission due to a jet aligned close to our line of sight, but are consistent with the SED of ordinary quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts that exhibit a near-to-mid-IR 'bump', characteristic of hot dust emission. This indicates that broad emission lines in WLQs are intrinsically weak, rather than suffering continuum dilution from a jet, and that such sources cannot be selected efficiently from traditional photometric surveys.

  8. THE ULTRAVIOLET-TO-MID-INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF WEAK EMISSION LINE QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Ryan A.; Shemmer, Ohad [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Fan Xiaohui [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Anderson, Scott F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Plotkin, Richard M. [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Richards, Gordon T. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Strauss, Michael A., E-mail: RyanLane@my.unt.edu, E-mail: ohad@unt.edu [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2011-12-20

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope photometry of 18 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars at 2.7 {<=} z {<=} 5.9 which have weak or undetectable high-ionization emission lines in their rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectra (hereafter weak-lined quasars, or WLQs). The Spitzer data are combined with SDSS spectra and ground-based, near-infrared (IR) photometry of these sources to produce a large inventory of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of WLQs across the rest-frame {approx}0.1-5 {mu}m spectral band. The SEDs of our sources are inconsistent with those of BL Lacertae objects which are dominated by synchrotron emission due to a jet aligned close to our line of sight, but are consistent with the SED of ordinary quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts that exhibit a near-to-mid-IR 'bump', characteristic of hot dust emission. This indicates that broad emission lines in WLQs are intrinsically weak, rather than suffering continuum dilution from a jet, and that such sources cannot be selected efficiently from traditional photometric surveys.

  9. CO Spectral Line Energy Distributions of Infrared-Luminous Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Padeli P.; van der Werf, Paul; Isaak, Kate; Xilouris, Emmanuel M.

    2010-06-01

    We report on new sensitive CO J = 6-5 line observations of several luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L IR(8-1000 μm) >~ 1011 L sun), 36% (8/22) of them ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) (L IR>1012 L sun), and two powerful local active galactic nuclei (AGNs)—the optically luminous QSO PG 1119+120 and the powerful radio galaxy 3C 293—using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. We combine these observations with existing low-J CO data and dust emission spectral energy distributions in the far-infrared-submillimeter from the literature to constrain the properties of the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM) in these systems. We then build the first local CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) for the global molecular gas reservoirs that reach up to high J-levels. These CO SLEDs are neither biased by strong lensing (which affects many of those constructed for high-redshift galaxies), nor suffer from undersampling of CO-bright regions (as most current high-J CO observations of nearby extended systems do). We find: (1) a significant influence of dust optical depths on the high-J CO lines, suppressing the J = 6-5 line emission in some of the most IR-luminous LIRGs, (2) low global CO line excitation possible even in vigorously star-forming systems, (3) the first case of a shock-powered high-excitation CO SLED in the radio galaxy 3C 293 where a powerful jet-ISM interaction occurs, and (4) unusually highly excitated gas in the optically powerful QSO PG 1119+120. In Arp 220 and possibly other (U)LIRGs very faint CO J = 6-5 lines can be attributed to significant dust optical depths at short submillimeter wavelengths immersing those lines in a strong dust continuum, and also causing the C+ line luminosity deficit often observed in such extreme starbursts. Re-analysis of the CO line ratios available for submillimeter galaxies suggests that similar dust opacities also may be present in these high-redshift starbursts, with genuinely low

  10. CO SPECTRAL LINE ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF INFRARED-LUMINOUS GALAXIES AND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, Padeli P.; Van der Werf, Paul; Isaak, Kate; Xilouris, Emmanuel M.

    2010-01-01

    We report on new sensitive CO J = 6-5 line observations of several luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L IR (8-1000 μm) ∼> 10 11 L sun ), 36% (8/22) of them ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) (L IR >10 12 L sun ), and two powerful local active galactic nuclei (AGNs)-the optically luminous QSO PG 1119+120 and the powerful radio galaxy 3C 293-using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. We combine these observations with existing low-J CO data and dust emission spectral energy distributions in the far-infrared-submillimeter from the literature to constrain the properties of the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM) in these systems. We then build the first local CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) for the global molecular gas reservoirs that reach up to high J-levels. These CO SLEDs are neither biased by strong lensing (which affects many of those constructed for high-redshift galaxies), nor suffer from undersampling of CO-bright regions (as most current high-J CO observations of nearby extended systems do). We find: (1) a significant influence of dust optical depths on the high-J CO lines, suppressing the J = 6-5 line emission in some of the most IR-luminous LIRGs, (2) low global CO line excitation possible even in vigorously star-forming systems, (3) the first case of a shock-powered high-excitation CO SLED in the radio galaxy 3C 293 where a powerful jet-ISM interaction occurs, and (4) unusually highly excitated gas in the optically powerful QSO PG 1119+120. In Arp 220 and possibly other (U)LIRGs very faint CO J = 6-5 lines can be attributed to significant dust optical depths at short submillimeter wavelengths immersing those lines in a strong dust continuum, and also causing the C + line luminosity deficit often observed in such extreme starbursts. Re-analysis of the CO line ratios available for submillimeter galaxies suggests that similar dust opacities also may be present in these high-redshift starbursts, with genuinely low

  11. A search for spectral lines in gamma-ray bursts using TGRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurczynski, P.; Palmer, D.; Seifert, H.; Teegarden, B. J.; Gehrels, N.; Cline, T. L.; Ramaty, R.; Hurley, K.; Madden, N. W.; Pehl, R. H.

    1998-01-01

    We present the results of an ongoing search for narrow spectral lines in gamma-ray burst data. TGRS, the Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer aboard the Wind satellite is a high energy-resolution Ge device. Thus it is uniquely situated among the array of space-based, burst sensitive instruments to look for line features in gamma-ray burst spectra. Our search strategy adopts a two tiered approach. An automated 'quick look' scan searches spectra for statistically significant deviations from the continuum. We analyzed all possible time accumulations of spectra as well as individual spectra for each burst. Follow-up analysis of potential line candidates uses model fitting with F-test and χ 2 tests for statistical significance

  12. Improved Frequency Fluctuation Model for Spectral Line Shape Calculations in Fusion Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferri, S.; Calisti, A.; Mosse, C.; Talin, B.; Lisitsa, V.

    2010-01-01

    A very fast method to calculate spectral line shapes emitted by plasmas accounting for charge particle dynamics and effects of an external magnetic field is proposed. This method relies on a new formulation of the Frequency Fluctuation Model (FFM), which yields to an expression of the dynamic line profile as a functional of the static distribution function of frequencies. This highly efficient formalism, not limited to hydrogen-like systems, allows to calculate pure Stark and Stark-Zeeman line shapes for a wide range of density, temperature and magnetic field values, which is of importance in plasma physics and astrophysics. Various applications of this method are presented for conditions related to fusion plasmas.

  13. New assignment of 14N NQR spectral lines for tetrazoles derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamadazizov, Sultonazar; Shelyapina, Marina G.; Kupriyanova, Galina S.; Mozzhukhin, George V.

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, considerable interest has been shown in the study of tetrazole derivatives, which attract attention as highly nitrogenous compounds for use as an isosteric substitutes for various functional groups that leads to creation of novel biologically active substances. NQR techniques, being sensitive to the local environment of 14N nuclei, provide great opportunities to study these new substances. To make investigation of complex compounds containing tetrazoles derivatives easier and more reliable a correctly assigned 14N NQR spectra of tetrazoles are required. Here we report on the results of our DFT B3LYP calculations of 14N NQR spectral parameters (quadrupole coupling constant Qcc and the asymmetry parameter of the electric field gradient η) for tetrazole, 5-aminotetrazole and 5-aminotetrazole monohydrate. It has been found that the commonly accepted assignment of the 14N NQR spectral lines for these molecules is incorrect. A new assignment for these molecules is proposed.

  14. In-Flight Spectral Calibration of the APEX Imaging Spectrometer Using Fraunhofer Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Gerrit; Hueni, Andreas; Damm, Aalexander; Brunner, Dominik

    2015-11-01

    The Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) is an imaging spectrometer which allows to observe atmospheric trace gases such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Using a high resolution spectrum of solar Fraunhofer lines, APEX measurements collected during flight have been spectrally calibrated for centre wavelength positions (CW) and instrument slit function (ISF) and compared to the laboratory calibration. We find that CWs depend strongly on both across- and along-track position due to spectral smile and CWs dependency on ambient pressure. The width of the ISF is larger than estimated from the laboratory calibration but can be described by a linear scaling of the laboratory values. The ISF width depends on across- but not on along-track direction. The results demonstrate the importance of characterizing and monitoring the instrument performance during flight and will be used to improve the Empa APEX NO2 retrieval algorithm.

  15. Atlas of Atomic Spectral Lines of Neptunium Emitted by Inductively Coupled Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeKalb, E.L. and Edelson, M. C.

    1987-08-01

    Optical emission spectra from high-purity Np-237 were generated with a glovebox-enclosed inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source. Spectra covering the 230-700 nm wavelength range are presented along with general commentary on the methodology used in collecting the data. The Ames Laboratory Nuclear Safeguards and Security Program has been charged with the task of developing optical spectroscopic methods to analyze the composition of spent nuclear fuels. Such materials are highly radioactive even after prolonged 'cooling' and are chemically complex. Neptunium (Np) is a highly toxic by-product of nuclear power generation and is found, in low abundance, in spent nuclear fuels. This atlas of the optical emission spectrum of Np, as produced by an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopic source, is part of a general survey of the ICP emission spectra of the actinide elements. The ICP emission spectrum of the actinides originates almost exclusively from the electronic relaxation of excited, singly ionized species. Spectral data on the Np ion emission spectrum (i.e., the Np II spectrum) have been reported by Tomkins and Fred [1] and Haaland [2]. Tomkins and Fred excited the Np II spectrum with a Cu spark discharge and identified 114 Np lines in the 265.5 - 436.3 nm spectral range. Haaland, who corrected some spectral line misidentifications in the work of Tomkins and Fred, utilized an enclosed Au spark discharge to excite the Np II spectrum and reported 203 Np lines within the 265.4 - 461.0 nm wavelength range.

  16. Atlas of Atomic Spectral Lines of Neptunium Emitted by an Inductively Coupled Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeKalb, E.L.; Edelson, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    Optical emission spectra from high-purity Np-237 were generated with a glovebox-enclosed inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source. Spectra covering the 230-700 nm wavelength range are presented along with general commentary on the methodology used in collecting the data. The Ames Laboratory Nuclear Safeguards and Security Program has been charged with the task of developing optical spectroscopic methods to analyze the composition of spent nuclear fuels. Such materials are highly radioactive even after prolonged 'cooling' and are chemically complex. Neptunium (Np) is a highly toxic by-product of nuclear power generation and is found, in low abundance, in spent nuclear fuels. This atlas of the optical emission spectrum of Np, as produced by an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopic source, is part of a general survey of the ICP emission spectra of the actinide elements. The ICP emission spectrum of the actinides originates almost exclusively from the electronic relaxation of excited, singly ionized species. Spectral data on the Np ion emission spectrum (i.e., the Np II spectrum) have been reported by Tomkins and Fred (1) and Haaland (2). Tomkins and Fred excited the Np II spectrum with a Cu spark discharge and identified 114 Np lines in the 265.5 - 436.3 nm spectral range. Haaland, who corrected some spectral line misidentifications in the work of Tomkins and Fred, utilized an enclosed Au spark discharge to excite the Np II spectrum and reported 203 Np lines within the 265.4 - 461.0 nm wavelength range.

  17. Coulomb field strength measurement by electro-optic spectral decoding system at the CALIFES beam line

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, R; Lefevre, T; Gillepsie, WA; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    Electro-optic (EO) techniques are increasingly used for longitudinal bunch profile measurements. A bunch profile monitor, based on electro-optic spectral decoding(EOSD), has been developed and demonstrated on the CALIFES beam line at CERN. The EO response is analysed using a frequency domain description, and two methods for extraction of absolute Coulomb field strengths from the electron bunch are demonstrated. Measurements at field strengths up to 1.3 MV/m agree with the expectation based on independent charge measurements.

  18. PROBING THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE USING OSCILLATIONS OF INFRARED CO SPECTRAL LINES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penn, M. J.; Schad, T.; Cox, E.

    2011-01-01

    Oscillations were observed across the whole solar disk using the Doppler shift and line center intensity of spectral lines from the CO molecule near 4666 nm with the National Solar Observatory's McMath/Pierce solar telescope. Power, coherence, and phase spectra were examined, and diagnostic diagrams reveal power ridges at the solar global mode frequencies to show that these oscillations are solar p-modes. The phase was used to determine the height of formation of the CO lines by comparison with the IR continuum intensity phase shifts as measured in Kopp et al.; we find that the CO line formation height varies from 425 km μ > 0.5. The velocity power spectra show that while the sum of the background and p-mode power increases with height in the solar atmosphere as seen in previous work, the power in the p-modes only (background subtracted) decreases with height. The CO line center intensity weakens in regions of stronger magnetic fields, as does the p-mode oscillation power. Across most of the solar surface the phase shift is larger than the expected value of 90 0 for an adiabatic atmosphere. We fit the phase spectra at different disk positions with a simple atmospheric model to determine that the acoustic cutoff frequency is about 4.5 mHz with only small variations, but that the thermal relaxation frequency drops significantly from 2.7 to 0 mHz at these heights in the solar atmosphere.

  19. Spectral properties of X-ray selected narrow emission line galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Colmenero, E.

    1998-03-01

    This thesis reports a study of the X-ray and optical properties of two samples of X-ray selected Narrow Emission Line Galaxies (NELGs), and their comparison with the properties of broad line Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). One sample (18 NELGs) is drawn from the ROSAT International X-ray Optical Survey (RIXOS), the other (19 NELGs and 33 AGN) from the ROSAT UK Deep Survey. ROSAT multi-channel X-ray spectra have been extracted and fitted with power-law, bremsstrahlung and black body models for the brighter RIXOS sources. In most cases, power-law and bremsstrahlung models provide the best results. The average spectral energy index, alpha, of the RIXOS NELGs is 0.96 +/- 0.07, similar to that of AGN (alpha~1). For the fainter RIXOS NELGs, as well as for all the UK Deep Survey sources, counts in three spectral bands have been extracted and fitted with a power-law model, assuming the Galactic value for N_H. The brighter RIXOS sources demonstrated that the results obtained by these two different extraction and fitting procedures provide consistent results. Two average X-ray spectra, one for the NELGs and another for the AGN, were created from the UK Deep Survey sources. The power-law slope of the average NELG is alpha = 0.45 +/- 0.09, whilst that of the AGN is alpha = 0.96 +/- 0.03. ROSAT X-ray surveys have shown that the fractional surface density of NELGs increases with respect to AGN at faint fluxes (case for NELGs to be major contributors to the XRB at the fainter fluxes. The analysis of optical spectroscopy, obtained on La Palma and Hawaii, shows that NELGs form a very heterogeneous group, made up of a mixture of Seyfert 2, LINER and HII-region like galaxies. Seyfert 2 galaxies are found to possess in general the steepest X-ray slopes. Ways to explain this in the context of the unified model of AGN are discussed. The FWHM of some emission lines (Halpha, Hbeta, [NII]) in the NELGs appears to increase with steepening X-ray spectral slope. In the case of the Balmer lines

  20. Laboratory calibration of density-dependent lines in the extreme ultraviolet spectral region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepson, J. K.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Gu, M. F.; Desai, P.; Bitter, M.; Roquemore, L.; Reinke, M. L.

    2012-05-01

    We have been making spectral measurements in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) from different laboratory sources in order to investigate the electron density dependence of various astrophysically important emission lines and to test the atomic models underlying the diagnostic line ratios. The measurement are being performed at the Livermore EBIT-I electron beam ion trap, the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton, and the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which together span an electron density of four orders of magnitude and which allow us to test the various models at high and low density limits. Here we present measurements of Fe XXII and Ar XIV, which include new data from an ultra high resolution (λ/Δλ >4000) spectrometer at the EBIT-I facility. We found good agreement between the measurements and modeling calculations for Fe XXII, but poorer agreement for Ar XIV.

  1. Spitzer spectral line mapping of the HH211 outflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionatos, Odyssefs; Nisini, Brunella; Cabrit, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    of emission line diagnostics and an existing grid of molecular shock models. The physical properties of the warm gas are compared against other molecular jet tracers and to the results of a similar study towards the L1448-C outflow. Results: We have detected and mapped the v=0-0 S(0) - S(7) H2 lines and fine...... compared to solar abundances by a factor ~10-50. Conclusions: Spitzer spectral mapping observations reveal for the first time a cool H$_2$ component towards the CO jet of HH211 consistent with the CO material being fully molecular and warm at ~ 300 K. The maps also reveal for the first time the existence...... uncertainties on jet speed and shock conditions are too large for a definite conclusion....

  2. Spectral radiance of strong lines in positive column mercury discharges with argon carrier gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansonetti, Craig J; Reader, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    The spectral radiance of the 185 and 254 nm lines in two positive column mercury discharge lamps was measured over a wide range of operating conditions. The lamps had internal diameters of 5 and 23 mm. Argon was used as a carrier gas. The lamps were operated with cold spot temperatures of 20, 40 and 60 0 C. At each of these temperatures, results were obtained for five currents ranging from 20 to 100 mA for the 5 mm lamp and from 200 to 1000 mA for the 23 mm lamp. For each current studied, results were determined for argon pressures ranging from 66.6 to 666 Pa (0.5 to 5.0 Torr) in the 5 mm lamp and 26.6 to 666 Pa (0.2 to 5.0 Torr) in the 23 mm lamp. An argon miniarc was used as the radiometric standard. By calibrating the spectral response of the optical system with a well-characterized mercury pencil lamp, results were obtained for 12 additional Hg lines from 289 to 579 nm. For the 23 mm lamp the electric field in the positive column was measured. For this lamp the radiated power as a percentage of input power was also determined. The results provide an experimental basis for validating computer models of Hg fluorescent lamp discharges

  3. The multi-spectral line-polarization MSE system on Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumgaard, R. T.; Khoury, M.; Scott, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    A multi-spectral line-polarization motional Stark effect (MSE-MSLP) diagnostic has been developed for the Alcator C-Mod tokamak wherein the Stokes vector is measured in multiple wavelength bands simultaneously on the same sightline to enable better polarized background subtraction. A ten-sightline, four wavelength MSE-MSLP detector system was designed, constructed, and qualified. This system consists of a high-throughput polychromator for each sightline designed to provide large étendue and precise spectral filtering in a cost-effective manner. Each polychromator utilizes four narrow bandpass interference filters and four custom large diameter avalanche photodiode detectors. Two filters collect light to the red and blue of the MSE emission spectrum while the remaining two filters collect the beam pi and sigma emission generated at the same viewing volume. The filter wavelengths are temperature tuned using custom ovens in an automated manner. All system functions are remote controllable and the system can be easily retrofitted to existing single-wavelength line-polarization MSE systems.

  4. The multi-spectral line-polarization MSE system on Alcator C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumgaard, R. T., E-mail: mumgaard@psfc.mit.edu; Khoury, M. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Scott, S. D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    A multi-spectral line-polarization motional Stark effect (MSE-MSLP) diagnostic has been developed for the Alcator C-Mod tokamak wherein the Stokes vector is measured in multiple wavelength bands simultaneously on the same sightline to enable better polarized background subtraction. A ten-sightline, four wavelength MSE-MSLP detector system was designed, constructed, and qualified. This system consists of a high-throughput polychromator for each sightline designed to provide large étendue and precise spectral filtering in a cost-effective manner. Each polychromator utilizes four narrow bandpass interference filters and four custom large diameter avalanche photodiode detectors. Two filters collect light to the red and blue of the MSE emission spectrum while the remaining two filters collect the beam pi and sigma emission generated at the same viewing volume. The filter wavelengths are temperature tuned using custom ovens in an automated manner. All system functions are remote controllable and the system can be easily retrofitted to existing single-wavelength line-polarization MSE systems.

  5. On-line spectral diagnostic system for Dalian Coherent Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chaoyang; Wei, Shen; Du, Xuewei [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Du, Liangliang [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science & Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China); Wang, Qiuping, E-mail: qiuping@ustc.edu.cn [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Zhang, Weiqing; Wu, Guorong; Dai, Dongxu [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Yang, Xueming, E-mail: xmyang@dicp.ac.cn [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2015-05-21

    The Dalian Coherent Light Source (DCLS) is a Free electron laser (FEL) user facility currently under construction in the northeast of China. It is designed to work on high gain high harmonic principle with the capability of wavelength continuously tunable in the EUV regime of 50–150 nm. The light source has unique features such as the turntable radiation frequency, wide spectral range, high brightness and peak power, very short pulse time structure, etc. A key diagnostic task in DCLS is the on-line source spectral characteristic recording during the source development, and for the definition of the experimental conditions. For this purpose, an online grazing incidence spectrometer with a toroidal mirror and a variable-line-spacing plane grating is designed and presented in this paper to monitor each single FEL pulse. A circular stage is chosen to fit the focal curve and to realize the wavelength scanning. This scanning mechanics is simpler and stable. Resolving power (λ/Δλ) of this spectrometer is better than 12,000 in the whole wavelength range.

  6. On-line spectral diagnostic system for Dalian Coherent Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chaoyang; Wei, Shen; Du, Xuewei; Du, Liangliang; Wang, Qiuping; Zhang, Weiqing; Wu, Guorong; Dai, Dongxu; Yang, Xueming

    2015-01-01

    The Dalian Coherent Light Source (DCLS) is a Free electron laser (FEL) user facility currently under construction in the northeast of China. It is designed to work on high gain high harmonic principle with the capability of wavelength continuously tunable in the EUV regime of 50–150 nm. The light source has unique features such as the turntable radiation frequency, wide spectral range, high brightness and peak power, very short pulse time structure, etc. A key diagnostic task in DCLS is the on-line source spectral characteristic recording during the source development, and for the definition of the experimental conditions. For this purpose, an online grazing incidence spectrometer with a toroidal mirror and a variable-line-spacing plane grating is designed and presented in this paper to monitor each single FEL pulse. A circular stage is chosen to fit the focal curve and to realize the wavelength scanning. This scanning mechanics is simpler and stable. Resolving power (λ/Δλ) of this spectrometer is better than 12,000 in the whole wavelength range

  7. Spatiotemporal Evolution of Hanle and Zeeman Synthetic Polarization in a Chromospheric Spectral Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlin, E. S.; Bianda, M., E-mail: escarlin@irsol.es [Istituto Ricerche Solari Locarno, 6600, Locarno, Switzerland, associated to USI, Università della Svizzera Italiana (Switzerland)

    2017-07-01

    Due to the quick evolution of the solar chromosphere, its magnetic field cannot be inferred reliably without accounting for the temporal variations of its polarized light. This has been broadly overlooked in the modeling and interpretation of the polarization, due to technical problems (e.g., lack of temporal resolution or of time-dependent MHD solar models) and/or because many polarization measurements can apparently be explained without dynamics. Here, we show that the temporal evolution is critical for explaining the spectral-line scattering polarization because of its sensitivity to rapidly varying physical quantities and the possibility of signal cancellations and attenuation during extended time integration. For studying the combined effect of time-varying magnetic fields and kinematics, we solved the 1.5D non-LTE problem of the second kind in time-dependent 3D R-MHD solar models and synthesized the Hanle and Zeeman polarization in forward scattering for the chromospheric λ 4227 line. We find that the quiet-Sun polarization amplitudes depend on the periodicity and spectral coherence of the signal enhancements produced by kinematics, but that substantially larger linear polarization signals should exist all over the solar disk for short integration times. The spectral morphology of the polarization is discussed as a combination of Hanle, Zeeman, partial redistribution and dynamic effects. We give physical references for observations by degrading and characterizing our slit time series in different spatiotemporal resolutions. The implications of our results for the interpretation of the second solar spectrum and for the investigation of the solar atmospheric heatings are discussed.

  8. Periodic TiO2 Nanostructures with Improved Aspect and Line/Space Ratio Realized by Colloidal Photolithography Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Berthod

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents substantial improvements of the colloidal photolithography technique (also called microsphere lithography with the goal of better controlling the geometry of the fabricated nano-scale structures—in this case, hexagonally arranged nanopillars—printed in a layer of directly photopatternable sol-gel TiO2. Firstly, to increase the achievable structure height the photosensitive layer underneath the microspheres is deposited on a reflective layer instead of the usual transparent substrate. Secondly, an increased width of the pillars is achieved by tilting the incident wave and using multiple exposures or substrate rotation, additionally allowing to better control the shape of the pillar’s cross section. The theoretical analysis is carried out by rigorous modelling of the photonics nanojet underneath the microspheres and by optimizing the experimental conditions. Aspect ratios (structure height/lateral structure size greater than 2 are predicted and demonstrated experimentally for structure dimensions in the sub micrometer range, as well as line/space ratios (lateral pillar size/distance between pillars greater than 1. These nanostructures could lead for example to materials exhibiting efficient light trapping in the visible and near-infrared range, as well as improved hydrophobic or photocatalytic properties for numerous applications in environmental and photovoltaic systems.

  9. Utilizing the ratio and the summation of two spectral lines for estimation of optical depth: Focus on thick plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Fatemeh; Tavassoli, Seyed Hassan

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a study is performed on the spectral lines of plasma radiations created from focusing of the Nd:YAG laser on Al standard alloys at atmospheric air pressure. A new theoretical method is presented to investigate the evolution of the optical depth of the plasma based on the radiative transfer equation, in LTE condition. This work relies on the Boltzmann distribution, lines broadening equations, and as well as the self-absorption relation. Then, an experimental set-up is devised to extract some of plasma parameters such as temperature from modified line ratio analysis, electron density from Stark broadening mechanism, line intensities of two spectral lines in the same order of ionization from similar species, and the plasma length from the shadowgraphy section. In this method, the summation and the ratio of two spectral lines are considered for evaluation of the temporal variations of the plasma parameters in a LIBS homogeneous plasma. The main advantage of this method is that it comprises the both of thin and thick laser induced plasmas without straight calculation of self-absorption coefficient. Moreover, the presented model can also be utilized for evaluation the transition of plasma from the thin condition to the thick one. The results illustrated that by measuring the line intensities of two spectral lines at different evolution times, the plasma cooling and the growth of the optical depth can be followed.

  10. Atomic structure calculations and identification of EUV and SXR spectral lines in Sr XXX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Arun; Khatri, Indu; Aggarwal, Sunny; Singh, A.K.; Mohan, Man

    2015-01-01

    We report an extensive theoretical study of atomic data for Sr XXX in a wide range with L-shell electron excitations to the M-shell. We have calculated energy levels, wave-function compositions and lifetimes for lowest 113 fine structure levels and wavelengths of an extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray (SXR) transitions. We have employed multi-configuration Dirac Fock method (MCDF) approach within the framework of Dirac–Coulomb Hamiltonian including quantum electrodynamics (QED) and Breit corrections. We have also presented the radiative data for electric and magnetic dipole (E1, M1) and quadrupole (E2, M2) transitions from the ground state. We have made comparisons with available energy levels compiled by NIST and achieve good agreement. But due to inadequate data in the literature, analogous relativistic distorted wave calculations have also been performed using flexible atomic code (FAC) to assess the reliability and accuracy of our results. Additionally, we have provided new atomic data for Sr XXX which is not published elsewhere in the literature and we believe that our results may be beneficial in fusion plasma research and astrophysical investigations and applications. - Highlights: • 113 Lowest levels for Sr XXX are calculated. • Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) and soft-X ray (SXR) spectral lines are identified. • Wavelengths of EUV and SXR spectral lines are reported. • E1, E2, M1 and M2 transition rates, oscillator strengths and lines strengths for lowest 113 levels are presented. • Lifetimes for lowest 113 fine structure levels are provided

  11. THE ALMA SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY IN THE HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD: IMPLICATIONS FOR SPECTRAL LINE INTENSITY MAPPING AT MILLIMETER WAVELENGTHS AND CMB SPECTRAL DISTORTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carilli, C. L.; Walter, F. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 0, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Chluba, J. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Decarli, R. [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Aravena, M. [Nucleo de Astronomia, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito 441, Santiago (Chile); Wagg, J. [Square Kilometre Array Organisation, Lower Withington, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Popping, G. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Cortes, P. [Joint ALMA Observatory—ESO, Av. Alonso de Cordova, 3104, Santiago (Chile); Hodge, J. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL2333 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Weiss, A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Bertoldi, F. [Argelander Institute for Astronomy, University of Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Riechers, D., E-mail: ccarilli@aoc.nrao.edu [Cornell University, 220 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2016-12-10

    We present direct estimates of the mean sky brightness temperature in observing bands around 99 and 242 GHz due to line emission from distant galaxies. These values are calculated from the summed line emission observed in a blind, deep survey for spectral line emission from high redshift galaxies using ALMA (the ALMA spectral deep field observations “ASPECS” survey). In the 99 GHz band, the mean brightness will be dominated by rotational transitions of CO from intermediate and high redshift galaxies. In the 242 GHz band, the emission could be a combination of higher order CO lines, and possibly [C ii] 158 μ m line emission from very high redshift galaxies ( z  ∼ 6–7). The mean line surface brightness is a quantity that is relevant to measurements of spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background, and as a potential tool for studying large-scale structures in the early universe using intensity mapping. While the cosmic volume and the number of detections are admittedly small, this pilot survey provides a direct measure of the mean line surface brightness, independent of conversion factors, excitation, or other galaxy formation model assumptions. The mean surface brightness in the 99 GHZ band is: T{sub B}  = 0.94 ± 0.09 μ K. In the 242 GHz band, the mean brightness is: T{sub B}  = 0.55 ± 0.033 μ K. These should be interpreted as lower limits on the average sky signal, since we only include lines detected individually in the blind survey, while in a low resolution intensity mapping experiment, there will also be the summed contribution from lower luminosity galaxies that cannot be detected individually in the current blind survey.

  12. Survey for C-Band High Spectral Lines with the Arecibo Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wei Siang

    High-mass stars have masses greater than 8 solar masses and are the main source of heavy elements such as iron in the interstellar medium. This type of stars form in giant molecular clouds. Studying the molecular environment in star-forming regions is crucial to understand the physical structure and conditions that lead to the formation of high-mass stars. This thesis presents observations conducted with the 305m Arecibo Telescope in Puerto Rico of twelve high-mass star forming regions. Every source was observed in multiple transitions of molecular species including CH, CH3OH, H2CS, and OH lines, and a radio recombination line. The observations were conducted with the C-Band High receiver of the Arecibo Telescope in the frequency range of 6.0 to 7.4GHz. The goals of the observations were to investigate the detectability of different molecular species (including new possible molecular masers) and obtain high sensitivity observations of the 6.7GHz CH3OH line to detect absorption and use it as a probe of the kinematics of the molecular material with respect to the ionized gas. Among the results of the observations, we report detection of 6.7GHz CH3OH masers toward nine regions, OH masers toward five sources, 6.7GHz CH3OH absorption toward four sources (including tentative detections), and detection of H2CS toward the star forming region G34.26+0.15. We also found a variable and recurrent 6.7GHz CH3OH maser in G45.12+0.13. The 6.7GHz CH 3OH and 6278.65MHz H2CS absorption lines were modeled using the radiative transfer code RADEX to investigate the physical conditions of the molecular clouds responsible for the absorption lines. Our analysis of the absorption lines supports the interpretation that the spectral lines are tracing molecular envelopes of HII regions. In the case of 6.7GHz CH 3OH absorption, our results and data from an extensive literature review indicate that absorption is rare, but that a population of 6.7GHz CH 3OH absorbers may be present at levels

  13. CO Spectral Line Energy Distributions in Galactic Sources: Empirical Interpretation of Extragalactic Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indriolo, Nick; Bergin, E. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Goicoechea, J. R.; Cernicharo, J. [Grupo de Astrofísica Molecular, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC) E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Gerin, M.; Gusdorf, A. [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, École normale supérieure, F-75005, Paris (France); Lis, D. C. [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, F-75014, Paris (France); Schilke, P., E-mail: nindriolo@stsci.edu [I. Physikalisches Institut der Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Köln (Germany)

    2017-02-10

    The relative populations in rotational transitions of CO can be useful for inferring gas conditions and excitation mechanisms at work in the interstellar medium. We present CO emission lines from rotational transitions observed with Herschel /HIFI in the star-forming cores Orion S, Orion KL, Sgr B2(M), and W49N. Integrated line fluxes from these observations are combined with those from Herschel /PACS observations of the same sources to construct CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) from 5≤ J{sub u} ≤ 48. These CO SLEDs are compared to those reported in other galaxies, with the intention of empirically determining which mechanisms dominate excitation in such systems. We find that CO SLEDs in Galactic star-forming cores cannot be used to reproduce those observed in other galaxies, although the discrepancies arise primarily as a result of beam filling factors. The much larger regions sampled by the Herschel beams at distances of several megaparsecs contain significant amounts of cooler gas, which dominate the extragalactic CO SLEDs, in contrast to observations of Galactic star-forming regions, which are focused specifically on cores containing primarily hot molecular gas.

  14. The influence of collisions with noble gases on spectral lines of hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermans, P.

    1982-01-01

    In this thesis measurements on the collisional broadening of the depolarized Rayleigh line and the broadening and shift of the rotational Raman lines (radiative transitions 0→2, 1→3 and 2→4) are presented. The experiments were carried out as a function of temperature from 23 K to 311 K for three systems, viz. H 2 -He, H 2 -Ne and H 2 -Ar. Also results of close coupled calculations on the broadening and shift are presented as a function of temperature for the four spectral lines mentioned. The calculations were performed for two systems, viz H 2 -He and H 2 -Ne. For the system H 2 -He two interaction potentials were used as a starting point, and a comparison between these potentials was made. Now that it is possible to do computations on effects related to the non-spherical interaction of the pure hydrogen isotopes, the availability of experimental data is of great importance. Many experiments on these effects have been performed over the last two decades, but their results are scattered throughout the literature. Therefore, in the last chapter of this thesis the experimental results for the pure hydrogen isotopes and in mixtures with noble gases are compiled to serve as comparing material for the calculations. The presentation is such that a direct comparison with calculations is facilitated. (Auth.)

  15. The Bernese atmospheric multiple catalog access tool (BEAMCAT): a tool for users of popular spectral line catalogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feist, D.G.Dietrich G.

    2004-01-01

    Users of spectroscopic data bases in the microwave region quickly realize that each existing spectral line catalog provide only part of the information that they would like to have. As a workaround for this problem, several merged spectral line data bases have been created by different groups. However, these merged data bases are usually very specific for a certain application and are difficult to maintain. The BEAMCAT data base takes a totally new approach that makes it possible to generate merged spectral line catalogs from any number of source catalogs in multiple user-defined formats. The current version of BEAMCAT contains the complete JPL and HITRAN catalog. Other catalogs like GEISA will soon be included, too. As a first application of the BEAMCAT data base, the author conducted a thorough intercomparison of spectral parameters for all the transitions that the JPL catalog and HITRAN have in common. The intercomparison shows that the spectral parameters in the catalogs are by no means identical. While the difference in center frequency is usually small, the differences in line intensity reach from almost exact match to discrepancies of several orders of magnitude. While it cannot be ruled out that some of the lines were matched incorrectly, this intercomparison might be helpful to identify problems with the original catalogs

  16. First application of the spectral difference method for lifetime measurements of doppler attenuated line shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckwitz, Hannah [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Koeln Univ. (Germany); Petkov, Pavel [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2016-07-01

    In this new approach to lifetime measurements via Doppler attenuated line shapes, the spectra of a feeding f and a deexciting transition d of the level of interest are used to determine the lifetime without any lineshape analysis of the feeding transition (direct or indirect). Similarly to the DDC method, the decay function λ{sub d}n{sub d}(t) of the deexciting transition is determined. The feeding of the level is included via the spectral difference of the two successive decays. Consequently, the determined lifetime is the real lifetime. After transforming both transitions into the same energy region, their spectral difference D(v{sub θ}) = S{sub d}(v{sub θ})-S{sub f}(v{sub θ}) = ∫{sub 0}{sup ∞}(∂P{sub θ}(t,v{sub θ}))/(∂t)n{sub d}(t) dt, is solved for n{sub d}(t). Dividing n{sub d}(t) by the decay function λ{sub d}n{sub d}(t) should yield a constant τ value for the level lifetime as a function of the time t. After the development and test of the procedure in 2015, it is now applied for the first time. Two level lifetimes are determined in {sup 86}Sr for the 2{sup +}{sub 2} and the 2{sup +}{sub 3} levels.

  17. Studying the complex spectral line profiles in the spectra of hot emission stars and quasars .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danezis, E.; Lyratzi, E.; Antoniou, A.; Popović, L. Č.; Dimitrijević, M. S.

    Some Hot Emission Stars and AGNs present peculiar spectral line profiles which are due to DACs and SACs phenomena. The origin and the mechanisms which are responsible for the creation of DACs/SACs is an important problem that has been studied by many researchers. This paper is a review of our efforts to study the origin and the mechanisms of these phenomena. At first we present a theoretic ad hoc picture for the structure of the plasma that surrounds the specific category of hot emission stars that present DACs or SACs. Then we present the mathematical model that we constructed, which is based on the properties of the above ad hoc theoretical structure. Finally, we present some results from our statistical studies that prove the consistency of our model with the classical physical theory.

  18. Towards realistic modelling of spectral line formation - lessons learnt from red giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Karin

    2015-08-01

    Many decades of quantitative spectroscopic studies of red giants have revealed much about the formation histories and interlinks between the main components of the Galaxy and its satellites. Telescopes and instrumentation are now able to deliver high-resolution data of superb quality for large stellar samples and Galactic archaeology has entered a new era. At the same time, we have learnt how simplifying physical assumptions in the modelling of spectroscopic data can bias the interpretations, in particular one-dimensional homogeneity and local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). I will present lessons learnt so far from non-LTE spectral line formation in 3D radiation-hydrodynamic atmospheres of red giants, the smaller siblings of red supergiants.

  19. Semifragile Speech Watermarking Based on Least Significant Bit Replacement of Line Spectral Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Nematollahi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various techniques for speech watermarking based on modifying the linear prediction coefficients (LPCs; however, the estimated and modified LPCs vary from each other even without attacks. Because line spectral frequency (LSF has less sensitivity to watermarking than LPC, watermark bits are embedded into the maximum number of LSFs by applying the least significant bit replacement (LSBR method. To reduce the differences between estimated and modified LPCs, a checking loop is added to minimize the watermark extraction error. Experimental results show that the proposed semifragile speech watermarking method can provide high imperceptibility and that any manipulation of the watermark signal destroys the watermark bits since manipulation changes it to a random stream of bits.

  20. Oxygen, nitrogen and air broadening of HCN spectral lines at terahertz frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chun; Buldyreva, Jeanna; Gordon, Iouli E.; Rohart, Francois; Cuisset, Arnaud; Mouret, Gael; Bocquet, Robin; Hindle, Francis

    2008-01-01

    The room-temperature nitrogen- and oxygen-broadening coefficients of hydrogen cyanide spectral lines have been measured in the 0.5-3 THz (17-100 cm -1 ) frequency range (purely rotational transitions with 5≤J≤36) by a continuous-wave terahertz spectrometer based on a photomixing source. An improved version of the Robert and Bonamy semiclassical formalism has been used to calculate the oxygen-broadening coefficients and resulted in a good agreement with these measurements. The nitrogen and oxygen data are combined to provide the air-broadening coefficients as used by the HITRAN database. A significant difference is observed between the measured and tabulated values for transitions with high values of the rotational quantum number. A new polynomial representation is suggested for inclusion in HITRAN. A similar polynomial expression has been derived for the nitrogen broadening to aid the studies of Titan's atmosphere

  1. Oxygen, nitrogen and air broadening of HCN spectral lines at terahertz frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Chun [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie de l' Atmosphere, UMR CNRS 8101, Universite du Littoral Cote d' Opale, 189A Av. Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Buldyreva, Jeanna [Institut UTINAM, UMR CNRS 6213, Universite de Franche-Comte, 16, Route de Gray, 25030 Besancon Cedex (France); Gordon, Iouli E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138-1516 (United States); Rohart, Francois [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, Atomes et Molecules, UMR CNRS 8523, Batiment P5-135, Universite de Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Cuisset, Arnaud; Mouret, Gael; Bocquet, Robin [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie de l' Atmosphere, UMR CNRS 8101, Universite du Littoral Cote d' Opale, 189A Av. Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Hindle, Francis [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie de l' Atmosphere, UMR CNRS 8101, Universite du Littoral Cote d' Opale, 189A Av. Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France)], E-mail: francis.hindle@univ-littoral.fr

    2008-11-15

    The room-temperature nitrogen- and oxygen-broadening coefficients of hydrogen cyanide spectral lines have been measured in the 0.5-3 THz (17-100 cm{sup -1}) frequency range (purely rotational transitions with 5{<=}J{<=}36) by a continuous-wave terahertz spectrometer based on a photomixing source. An improved version of the Robert and Bonamy semiclassical formalism has been used to calculate the oxygen-broadening coefficients and resulted in a good agreement with these measurements. The nitrogen and oxygen data are combined to provide the air-broadening coefficients as used by the HITRAN database. A significant difference is observed between the measured and tabulated values for transitions with high values of the rotational quantum number. A new polynomial representation is suggested for inclusion in HITRAN. A similar polynomial expression has been derived for the nitrogen broadening to aid the studies of Titan's atmosphere.

  2. Measurement of transition probabilities in Kr II UV and visible spectral lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mar, S; Val, J A del; RodrIguez, F; Pelaez, R J; Gonzalez, V R; Gonzalo, A B; Castro, A de; Aparicio, J A

    2006-01-01

    This work reports an extensive collection of 120 atomic transition probabilities of Kr II lines in the spectral region 350-720 nm, all of them measured in an emission experiment. For many of them, these are the first data up to the authors' knowledge. Relative intensity measurements have been obtained on a pulsed discharge lamp and the absolute A ki -values have been calculated by considering the available data from the literature as reference for the plasma temperature diagnosis. Excitation temperature (14 000-28 000 K) has been determined by using the Boltzmann-plot method. The plasma electron density (0.2-0.8 x 10 23 m -3 ) has been determined by two-wavelength interferometry. This work extends a previous one already published by our laboratory [1, 2]. Comparisons have also been made with previous literature values

  3. SPECTRAL LINE SURVEY TOWARD MOLECULAR CLOUDS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Yuri; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi [Department of Physics, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Shimonishi, Takashi [Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, Aramakiazaaoba 6-3, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8578 (Japan); Sakai, Nami [RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aikawa, Yuri [Center for Computational Sciences, The University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Kawamura, Akiko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan)

    2016-02-20

    Spectral line survey observations of seven molecular clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) have been conducted in the 3 mm band with the Mopra 22 m telescope to reveal chemical compositions in low metallicity conditions. Spectral lines of fundamental species such as CS, SO, CCH, HCN, HCO{sup +}, and HNC are detected in addition to those of CO and {sup 13}CO, while CH{sub 3}OH is not detected in any source and N{sub 2}H{sup +} is marginally detected in two sources. The molecular-cloud scale (10 pc scale) chemical composition is found to be similar among the seven sources regardless of different star formation activities, and hence, it represents the chemical composition characteristic of the LMC without influences by star formation activities. In comparison with chemical compositions of Galactic sources, the characteristic features are (1) deficient N-bearing molecules, (2) abundant CCH, and (3) deficient CH{sub 3}OH. Feature (1) is due to a lower elemental abundance of nitrogen in the LMC, whereas features (2) and (3) seem to originate from extended photodissociation regions and warmer temperature in cloud peripheries due to a lower abundance of dust grains in the low metallicity condition. In spite of general resemblance of chemical abundances among the seven sources, the CS/HCO{sup +} and SO/HCO{sup +} ratios are found to be slightly higher in a quiescent molecular cloud. An origin of this trend is discussed in relation to possible depletion of sulfur along the molecular cloud formation.

  4. Star formation relations and CO spectral line energy distributions across the J-ladder and redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greve, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Leonidaki, I.; Xilouris, E. M. [Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Penteli (Greece); Weiß, A.; Henkel, C. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Zhang, Z.-Y. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Van der Werf, P.; Meijerink, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Aalto, S. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Observatory, 43994 Onsala (Sweden); Armus, L.; Díaz-Santos, T. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Evans, A. S. [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Fischer, J. [Naval Research Laboratory, Remote Sensing Division, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Gao, Y. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); González-Alfonso, E. [Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Departamento de Fśica, Campus Universitario, E-28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Harris, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Naylor, D. A. [Institute for Space Imaging Science, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB T1K 3M4 (Canada); Smith, H. A. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Spaans, M., E-mail: t.greve@ucl.ac.uk [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); and others

    2014-10-20

    We present FIR [50-300 μm]–CO luminosity relations (i.e., log L{sub FIR}=αlog L{sub CO}{sup ′}+β) for the full CO rotational ladder from J = 1-0 up to J = 13-12 for a sample of 62 local (z ≤ 0.1) (Ultra) Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs; L {sub IR[8-1000} {sub μm]} > 10{sup 11} L {sub ☉}) using data from Herschel SPIRE-FTS and ground-based telescopes. We extend our sample to high redshifts (z > 1) by including 35 submillimeter selected dusty star forming galaxies from the literature with robust CO observations, and sufficiently well-sampled FIR/submillimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs), so that accurate FIR luminosities can be determined. The addition of luminous starbursts at high redshifts enlarge the range of the FIR–CO luminosity relations toward the high-IR-luminosity end, while also significantly increasing the small amount of mid-J/high-J CO line data (J = 5-4 and higher) that was available prior to Herschel. This new data set (both in terms of IR luminosity and J-ladder) reveals linear FIR–CO luminosity relations (i.e., α ≅ 1) for J = 1-0 up to J = 5-4, with a nearly constant normalization (β ∼ 2). In the simplest physical scenario, this is expected from the (also) linear FIR–(molecular line) relations recently found for the dense gas tracer lines (HCN and CS), as long as the dense gas mass fraction does not vary strongly within our (merger/starburst)-dominated sample. However, from J = 6-5 and up to the J = 13-12 transition, we find an increasingly sublinear slope and higher normalization constant with increasing J. We argue that these are caused by a warm (∼100 K) and dense (>10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}) gas component whose thermal state is unlikely to be maintained by star-formation-powered far-UV radiation fields (and thus is no longer directly tied to the star formation rate). We suggest that mechanical heating (e.g., supernova-driven turbulence and shocks), and not cosmic rays, is the more likely source of energy for

  5. Unexpected temporal evolution of atomic spectral lines of aluminum in a laser induced breakdown spectroscopy experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, Rawad; L'Hermite, Daniel; Bousquet, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The temporal evolution of the laser induced breakdown (LIBS) signal of a pure aluminum sample was studied under nitrogen and air atmospheres. In addition to the usual decrease of signal due to plasma cooling, unexpected temporal evolutions were observed for a spectral lines of aluminum, which revealed the existence of collisional energy transfer effects. Furthermore, molecular bands of AlN and AlO were observed in the LIBS spectra, indicating recombination of aluminum with the ambient gas. Within the experimental conditions reported in this study, both collisional energy transfer and recombination processes occurred around 1.5 μs after the laser shot. This highlights the possible influence of collisional and chemical effects inside the plasma that can play a role on LIBS signals. - Highlights: • Persistence of two Al I lines related to the 61,844 cm −1 energy level only under nitrogen atmosphere. • Collisional energy transfer effect exists between aluminum and nitrogen. • Observation of molecular band of AlN (under nitrogen) and AlO (under air) after a delay time of 1.5 µs. • 20% of oxygen in air is sufficient to annihilate both the collisional energy transfer effect and the AlN molecular formation

  6. Plasma density characterization at SPARC-LAB through Stark broadening of Hydrogen spectral lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippi, F.; Anania, M.P.; Bellaveglia, M.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Pompili, R.; Shpakov, V.; Vaccarezza, C.; Villa, F.; Zigler, A.

    2016-01-01

    Plasma-based acceleration techniques are of great interest for future, compact accelerators due to their high accelerating gradient. Both particle-driven and laser-driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration experiments are foreseen at the SPARC-LAB Test Facility (INFN National Laboratories of Frascati, Italy), with the aim to accelerate high-brightness electron beams. In order to optimize the efficiency of the acceleration in the plasma and preserve the quality of the accelerated beam, the knowledge of the plasma electron density is mandatory. The Stark broadening of the Hydrogen spectral lines is one of the candidates used to characterize plasma density. The implementation of this diagnostic for plasma-based experiments at SPARC-LAB is presented. - Highlights: • Stark broadening of Hydrogen lines has been measured to determine plasma density. • Plasma density diagnostic tool for plasma-based experiments at SPARC-LAB is presented. • Plasma density in tapered laser triggered ablative capillary discharge was measured. • Results of plasma density measurements in ablative capillaries are shown.

  7. Plasma density characterization at SPARC-LAB through Stark broadening of Hydrogen spectral lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippi, F., E-mail: francesco.filippi@roma1.infn.it [Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per l' Ingegneria (SBAI), ‘Sapienza’ Università di Roma, Via A. Scarpa 14-16, 00161 Roma (Italy); INFN-Roma1, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2 00161 Roma (Italy); Anania, M.P.; Bellaveglia, M.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Via E. Fermi, Frascati (Italy); Cianchi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Via E. Fermi, Frascati (Italy); Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per l' Ingegneria (SBAI), ‘Sapienza’ Università di Roma, Via A. Scarpa 14-16, 00161 Roma (Italy); INFN-Roma1, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2 00161 Roma (Italy); Pompili, R.; Shpakov, V.; Vaccarezza, C.; Villa, F. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Via E. Fermi, Frascati (Italy); Zigler, A. [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2016-09-01

    Plasma-based acceleration techniques are of great interest for future, compact accelerators due to their high accelerating gradient. Both particle-driven and laser-driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration experiments are foreseen at the SPARC-LAB Test Facility (INFN National Laboratories of Frascati, Italy), with the aim to accelerate high-brightness electron beams. In order to optimize the efficiency of the acceleration in the plasma and preserve the quality of the accelerated beam, the knowledge of the plasma electron density is mandatory. The Stark broadening of the Hydrogen spectral lines is one of the candidates used to characterize plasma density. The implementation of this diagnostic for plasma-based experiments at SPARC-LAB is presented. - Highlights: • Stark broadening of Hydrogen lines has been measured to determine plasma density. • Plasma density diagnostic tool for plasma-based experiments at SPARC-LAB is presented. • Plasma density in tapered laser triggered ablative capillary discharge was measured. • Results of plasma density measurements in ablative capillaries are shown.

  8. Critically Evaluated Energy Levels, Spectral Lines, Transition Probabilities, and Intensities of Singly Ionized Vanadium (V ii)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saloman, Edward B. [Dakota Consulting, Inc., 1110 Bonifant Street, Suite 310, Silver Spring, MD 20910 (United States); Kramida, Alexander [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The energy levels, observed spectral lines, and transition probabilities of singly ionized vanadium, V ii, have been compiled. The experimentally derived energy levels belong to the configurations 3 d {sup 4}, 3 d {sup 3} ns ( n  = 4, 5, 6), 3 d {sup 3} np , and 3 d {sup 3} nd ( n  = 4, 5), 3 d {sup 3}4 f , 3 d {sup 2}4 s {sup 2}, and 3 d {sup 2}4 s 4 p . Also included are values for some forbidden lines that may be of interest to the astrophysical community. Experimental Landé g -factors and leading percentages for the levels are included when available, as well as Ritz wavelengths calculated from the energy levels. Wavelengths and transition probabilities are reported for 3568 and 1896 transitions, respectively. From the list of observed wavelengths, 407 energy levels are determined. The observed intensities, normalized to a common scale, are provided. From the newly optimized energy levels, a revised value for the ionization energy is derived, 118,030(60) cm{sup −1}, corresponding to 14.634(7) eV. This is 130 cm{sup −1} higher than the previously recommended value from Iglesias et al.

  9. No Photon Left Behind: How Billions of Spectral Lines are Transforming Planetary Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Geronimo L.

    2014-06-01

    With the advent of realistic potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment surface (DMS) descriptions, theoretically computed linelists can now synthesize accurate spectral parameters for billions of spectral lines sampling the untamed high-energy molecular domain. Being the initial driver for these databases the characterization of stellar spectra, these theoretical databases, in combination with decades of precise experimental studies (nicely compiled in community databases such as HITRAN and GEISA), are leading to unprecedented precisions in the characterization of planetary atmospheres. Cometary sciences are among the most affected by this spectroscopic revolution. Even though comets are relatively cold bodies (T˜100 K), their infrared molecular emission is mainly defined by non-LTE solar fluorescence induced by a high-energy source (Sun, T˜5600 K). In order to interpret high-resolution spectra of comets acquired with extremely powerful telescopes (e.g., Keck, VLT, NASA-IRTF), we have developed advanced non-LTE fluorescence models that integrate the high-energy dynamic range of ab-initio databases (e.g., BT2, VTT, HPT2, BYTe, TROVE) and the precision of laboratory and semi-empirical compilations (e.g., HITRAN, GEISA, CDMS, WKMC, SELP, IUPAC). These new models allow us to calculate realistic non-LTE pumps, cascades, branching-ratios, and emission rates for a broad range of excitation regimes for H2O, HDO, HCN, HNC and NH3. We have implemented elements of these compilations to the study of Mars spectra, and we are now exploring its application to modeling non-LTE emission in exoplanets. In this presentation, we present application of these advanced models to interpret highresolution spectra of comets, Mars and exoplanets.

  10. TIMASSS: the IRAS 16293-2422 millimeter and submillimeter spectral survey. I. Observations, calibration, and analysis of the line kinematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caux, E.; Kahane, C.; Castets, A.; Coutens, A.; Ceccarelli, C.; Bacmann, A.; Bisschop, S.; Bottinelli, S.; Comito, C.; Helmich, F. P.; Lefloch, B.; Parise, B.; Schilke, P.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; van Dishoeck, E.; Vastel, C.; Wakelam, V.; Walters, A.

    Context. Unbiased spectral surveys are powerful tools to study the chemistry and the physics of star forming regions, because they can provide a complete census of the molecular content and the observed lines probe the physical structure of the source. Aims. While unbiased surveys at the millimeter

  11. Stark broadening of resonant Cr II 3d5-3d44p spectral lines in hot stellar atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simić, Z.; Dimitrijević, M. S.; Sahal-Bréchot, S.

    2013-07-01

    New Stark broadening parameters of interest for the astrophysical, laboratory and technological plasma modelling, investigations and analysis for nine resonant Cr II multiplets have been determined within the semiclassical perturbation approach. In order to demonstrate one possibility for their usage in astrophysical plasma research, obtained results have been applied to the analysis of the Stark broadening influence on stellar spectral line shapes.

  12. On the Origin of the Flare Emission in IRIS ’ SJI 2832 Filter:Balmer Continuum or Spectral Lines?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleint, Lucia; Krucker, Säm [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Bahnhofstrasse 6, 5210 Windisch (Switzerland); Heinzel, Petr [Astronomical Institute, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Fričova 298, 25165 Ondřejov (Czech Republic)

    2017-03-10

    Continuum (“white-light,” WL) emission dominates the energetics of flares. Filter-based observations, such as the IRIS SJI 2832 filter, show WL-like brightenings during flares, but it is unclear whether the emission arises from real continuum emission or enhanced spectral lines, possibly turning into emission. The difficulty in filter-based observations, contrary to spectral observations, is to determine which processes contribute to the observed brightening during flares. Here we determine the contribution of the Balmer continuum and the spectral line emission to IRIS ’ SJI 2832 emission by analyzing the appropriate passband in simultaneous IRIS NUV spectra. We find that spectral line emission can contribute up to 100% to the observed slitjaw images (SJI) emission, that the relative contributions usually temporally vary, and that the highest SJI enhancements that are observed are most likely because of the Balmer continuum. We conclude that care should be taken when calling SJI 2832 a continuum filter during flares, because the influence of the lines on the emission can be significant.

  13. On the Origin of the Flare Emission in IRIS ’ SJI 2832 Filter:Balmer Continuum or Spectral Lines?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleint, Lucia; Krucker, Säm; Heinzel, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Continuum (“white-light,” WL) emission dominates the energetics of flares. Filter-based observations, such as the IRIS SJI 2832 filter, show WL-like brightenings during flares, but it is unclear whether the emission arises from real continuum emission or enhanced spectral lines, possibly turning into emission. The difficulty in filter-based observations, contrary to spectral observations, is to determine which processes contribute to the observed brightening during flares. Here we determine the contribution of the Balmer continuum and the spectral line emission to IRIS ’ SJI 2832 emission by analyzing the appropriate passband in simultaneous IRIS NUV spectra. We find that spectral line emission can contribute up to 100% to the observed slitjaw images (SJI) emission, that the relative contributions usually temporally vary, and that the highest SJI enhancements that are observed are most likely because of the Balmer continuum. We conclude that care should be taken when calling SJI 2832 a continuum filter during flares, because the influence of the lines on the emission can be significant.

  14. RECEIVER OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS MEASURE FOR THE RECOGNITION OF STUTTERING DYSFLUENCIES USING LINE SPECTRAL FREQUENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahrul Khair Alang Rashid

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Stuttering is a motor-speech disorder, having common features with other motor control disorders such as dystonia, Parkinson’s disease and Tourette’s syndrome. Stuttering results from complex interactions between factors such as motor, language, emotional and genetic. This study used Line Spectral Frequency (LSF for the feature extraction, while using three classifiers for the identification purpose, Multilayer Perceptron (MLP, Recurrent Neural Network (RNN and Radial Basis Function (RBF. The UCLASS (University College London Archive of Stuttered Speech release 1 was used as database in this research. These recordings were from people of ages 12y11m to 19y5m, who were referred to clinics in London for assessment of their stuttering. The performance metrics used for interpreting the results are sensitivity, accuracy, precision and misclassification rate. Only M1 and M2 had below 100% sensitivity for RBF. The sensitivity of M1 was found to be between 40 & 60%, therefore categorized as moderate, while that of M2 falls between 60 & 80%, classed as substantial. Overall, RBF outperforms the two other classifiers, MLP and RNN for all the performance metrics considered.

  15. Voigt equivalent widths and spectral-bin single-line transmittances: Exact expansions and the MODTRAN®5 implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Alexander

    2013-03-01

    Exact expansions for Voigt line-shape total, line-tail and spectral bin equivalent widths and for Voigt finite spectral bin single-line transmittances have been derived in terms of optical depth dependent exponentially-scaled modified Bessel functions of integer order and optical depth independent Fourier integral coefficients. The series are convergent for the full range of Voigt line-shapes, from pure Doppler to pure Lorentzian. In the Lorentz limit, the expansion reduces to the Ladenburg and Reiche function for the total equivalent width. Analytic expressions are derived for the first 8 Fourier coefficients for pure Lorentzian lines, for pure Doppler lines and for Voigt lines with at most moderate Doppler dependence. A strong-line limit sum rule on the Fourier coefficients is enforced to define an additional Fourier coefficient and to optimize convergence of the truncated expansion. The moderate Doppler dependence scenario is applicable to and has been implemented in the MODTRAN5 atmospheric band model radiative transfer software. Finite-bin transmittances computed with the truncated expansions reduce transmittance residuals compared to the former Rodgers-Williams equivalent width based approach by ∼2 orders of magnitude.

  16. ON THE ANTI-CORRELATION BETWEEN SPECTRAL LINE BROADENING AND INTENSITY IN CORONAL STRUCTURES OBSERVED WITH EIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J. T.; Martens, P. C. H.

    2011-01-01

    The advance in spectral resolution of the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging (EIS) spectrometer on board Hinode has allowed for more detailed analysis of coronal spectral lines. Large line broadening and blueshifted velocities have been found in the periphery of active region (AR) cores and near the footpoints of coronal loops. This line broadening is yet to be understood. We study the correlation of intensity and line width for entire ARs and sub-regions selected to include coronal features. The results show that although a slight positive correlation can be found when considering whole images, many sub-regions have a negative correlation between intensity and line width. Sections of a coronal loop display some of the largest anti-correlations found for this study with the increased line broadening occurring directly adjacent to the footpoint section of the loop structure, not at the footpoint itself. The broadened lines may be due to a second Doppler-shifted component that is separate from the main emitting feature such as a coronal loop, but related in their excitation. The small size of these features forces the considerations of investigator and instrumental effects. Preliminary analyses are shown that indicate the possibility of a point-spread function that is not azimuthally symmetric and may affect velocity and line profile measurements.

  17. On the influence of density and temperature fluctuations on the formation of spectral lines in stellar atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahlberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    A method taking into account the influence of temperature and density fluctuations generated by the velocity field in stellar atmospheres on the formation of spectral lines is presented. The influenced line profile is derived by exchanging the values in a static atmosphere by a mean value and a fluctuating one. The correlations are calculated with the help of the well-know hydrodynamic eqs. It results, that in normal stellar atmospheres the visual lines are only very weakly influenced by such fluctuations due to the small values of the gradients of the pressure and density and of the velocity dispersion. (author)

  18. Generation of doublet spectral lines at self-seeded X-ray FELs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Self-seeding schemes, consisting of two undulators with a monochromator in between, aim to reduce the bandwidth of SASE X-ray FELs. We recently proposed to use a new method of monochromatization exploiting a single crystal in Braggtransmission geometry for self-seeding in the hard X-ray range. The obvious and technically possible extension is to use such kind of monochromator setup with two -or more- crystals arranged in a series to spectrally filter the SASE radiation at two -or more- closely-spaced wavelengths within the FEL gain band. This allows for the production of doublet- or multiplet-spectral lines. Applications exist over a broad range of hard X-ray wavelengths involving any process where there is a large change in cross section over a narrow wavelength range, as in multiple wavelength anomalous diffraction techniques (MAD). In this paper we consider the simultaneous operation of the LCLS hard X-ray FEL at two closely spaced wavelengths. We present simulation results for the LCLS baseline, and we show that this method can produce fully coherent radiation shared between two longitudinal modes. Mode spacing can be easily tuned within the FEL gain band, i.e. within 10 eV. An interesting aspect of the proposed scheme is a way of modulating the electron bunch at optical frequencies without a seed quantum laser. In fact, the XFEL output intensity contains an oscillating ''mode-beat'' component whose frequency is related to the frequency difference between the pair of longitudinal modes considered. Thus, at saturation one obtains FEL-induced modulations of energy loss and energy spread in the electron bunch at optical frequency. These modulations can be converted into density modulation at the same optical frequency with the help of a weak chicane installed behind the baseline undulator. Powerful coherent radiation can then be generated with the help of an optical transition radiation (OTR) station,which have important applications. In this paper we briefly

  19. Generation of doublet spectral lines at self-seeded X-ray FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2010-11-01

    Self-seeding schemes, consisting of two undulators with a monochromator in between, aim to reduce the bandwidth of SASE X-ray FELs. We recently proposed to use a new method of monochromatization exploiting a single crystal in Braggtransmission geometry for self-seeding in the hard X-ray range. The obvious and technically possible extension is to use such kind of monochromator setup with two -or more- crystals arranged in a series to spectrally filter the SASE radiation at two -or more- closely-spaced wavelengths within the FEL gain band. This allows for the production of doublet- or multiplet-spectral lines. Applications exist over a broad range of hard X-ray wavelengths involving any process where there is a large change in cross section over a narrow wavelength range, as in multiple wavelength anomalous diffraction techniques (MAD). In this paper we consider the simultaneous operation of the LCLS hard X-ray FEL at two closely spaced wavelengths. We present simulation results for the LCLS baseline, and we show that this method can produce fully coherent radiation shared between two longitudinal modes. Mode spacing can be easily tuned within the FEL gain band, i.e. within 10 eV. An interesting aspect of the proposed scheme is a way of modulating the electron bunch at optical frequencies without a seed quantum laser. In fact, the XFEL output intensity contains an oscillating ''mode-beat'' component whose frequency is related to the frequency difference between the pair of longitudinal modes considered. Thus, at saturation one obtains FEL-induced modulations of energy loss and energy spread in the electron bunch at optical frequency. These modulations can be converted into density modulation at the same optical frequency with the help of a weak chicane installed behind the baseline undulator. Powerful coherent radiation can then be generated with the help of an optical transition radiation (OTR) station,which have important applications. In this paper we briefly

  20. Experimental determination of the Stark broadening of Cu I spectral lines in a plasma of a capillary discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandolache, G.; Zoita, V.; Bauchire, M.; Le Menn, E.; Gentils, F.; Fleurier, C.

    2001-01-01

    Copper lines are frequently observed in various types of plasma device and industrial plasmas and then it is desirable to develop methods of plasma diagnostics using the emission spectrum of copper lines. The aim of this work is to create a database for the neutral copper spectral lines directly usable for the diagnostic of plasmas with metal vapors. An experimental device has been developed to create a metal plasma having the required metrological properties to facilitate the spectroscopic measurements. A capillary discharge technique has been used to create a plasma jet representing a radially symmetric light source. The copper-hydrogen plasma jet was produced by the ablation of the capillary wall consisting of a copper-embedded elastomer. The plasma jet was observed side-on using the high-resolution spectrometers equipped with ICCD detectors. The 2D square matrix ICCD detectors have permitted the observation of cross sections of the plasma jet. The high-speed time resolved camera equipped with interference filters has been used to check the cylindrical shape and the homogeneity of the plasma jet. The electron density of the plasma jet was obtained by using the H α spectral line of the hydrogen component plasma. The temperature was determined by applying the relative intensity method to the measured intensities of the neutral copper spectral lines emitted by the plasma jet. The hydrogen and copper lines were broadened principally by the Stark effect. The measured temperatures were about 15,000 K and the electron density of about 2x10 17 cm -3 . The results of the Stark broadening of the neutral cooper concerned particularly the lines 453.9 nm, 465.1 nm, 515.3 nm and 529.2 nm. (authors)

  1. Spectral lines and characteristic of temporal variations in photoionized plasmas induced with laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, I.; Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Skrzeczanowski, W.; Jarocki, R.; Fiedorowicz, H.

    2017-11-01

    Spectral lines for Kr/Ne/H2 photoionized plasma in the ultraviolet and visible (UV/Vis) wavelength ranges have been created using a laser-produced plasma (LPP) EUV source. The source is based on a double-stream gas puff target irradiated with a commercial Nd:YAG laser. The laser pulses were focused onto a gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the EUV pulses. Spectral lines from photoionization in neutral Kr/Ne/H2 and up to few charged states were observed. The intense emission lines were associated with the Kr transition lines. Experimental and theoretical investigations on intensity variations for some ionic lines are presented. A decrease in the intensity with the delay time between the laser pulse and the spectrum acquisition was revealed. Electron temperature and electron density in the photoionized plasma have been estimated from the characteristic emission lines. Temperature was obtained using Boltzmann plot method, assuming that the population density of atoms and ions are considered in a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Electron density was calculated from the Stark broadening profile. The temporal evaluation of the plasma and the way of optimizing the radiation intensity of LPP EUV sources is discussed.

  2. Silhouette and spectral line profiles in the special modification of the Kerr black hole geometry generated by quintessential fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schee, Jan; Stuchlik, Zdenek [Silesian University in Opava, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Institute of Physics and Research Centre for Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Opava (Czech Republic)

    2016-11-15

    We study optical effects in quintessential Kerr black hole spacetimes corresponding to the limiting case of the equation-of-state parameter ω{sub q} = -1/3 of the quintessence. In dependence on the dimensionless quintessential field parameter c, we determine the black hole silhouette and the spectral line profiles of Keplerian disks generated in this special quintessential Kerr geometry, representing an extension of the general modifications of the Kerr geometry introduced recently by Ghasemi-Nodehi and Bambi (Eur. Phys. J. C 56:290, 2016). We demonstrate that due to the influence of the parameter c, the silhouette is almost homogeneously enlarged, and the spectral line profiles are redshifted with almost conserved shape. (orig.)

  3. WHY IS NON-THERMAL LINE BROADENING OF SPECTRAL LINES IN THE LOWER TRANSITION REGION OF THE SUN INDEPENDENT OF SPATIAL RESOLUTION?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Pontieu, B.; Martinez-Sykora, J.; McIntosh, S.; Peter, H.; Pereira, T. M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Spectral observations of the solar transition region (TR) and corona show broadening of spectral lines beyond what is expected from thermal and instrumental broadening. The remaining non-thermal broadening is significant (5–30 km s −1 ) and correlated with intensity. Here we study spectra of the TR Si iv 1403 Å line obtained at high resolution with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). We find that the large improvement in spatial resolution (0.″33) of IRIS compared to previous spectrographs (2″) does not resolve the non-thermal line broadening which, in most regions, remains at pre-IRIS levels of about 20 km s −1 . This invariance to spatial resolution indicates that the processes behind the broadening occur along the line-of-sight (LOS) and/or on spatial scales (perpendicular to the LOS) smaller than 250 km. Both effects appear to play a role. Comparison with IRIS chromospheric observations shows that, in regions where the LOS is more parallel to the field, magneto-acoustic shocks driven from below impact the TR and can lead to significant non-thermal line broadening. This scenario is supported by MHD simulations. While these do not show enough non-thermal line broadening, they do reproduce the long-known puzzling correlation between non-thermal line broadening and intensity. This correlation is caused by the shocks, but only if non-equilibrium ionization is taken into account. In regions where the LOS is more perpendicular to the field, the prevalence of small-scale twist is likely to play a significant role in explaining the invariance and correlation with intensity. (letters)

  4. On increasing the spectral efficiency and transmissivity in the data transmission channel on the spacecraft-ground tracking station line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianov, M. N.; Kostenko, V. I.; Likhachev, S. F.

    2018-01-01

    The algorithms for achieving a practical increase in the rate of data transmission on the space-craft-ground tracking station line has been considered. This increase is achieved by applying spectral-effective modulation techniques, the technology of orthogonal frequency compression of signals using millimeterrange radio waves. The advantages and disadvantages of each of three algorithms have been revealed. A significant advantage of data transmission in the millimeter range has been indicated.

  5. Welcome to the 21st International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    organizing committee of the conference has not forgotten about the cultural and tourism significance of the host city, with Hermitage and the Russian Museum, memorial museums of Pushkin and Dostoevsky, Mariinsky and Mikhailovsky Theaters being only a few of the many places to visit. Early June is the time of white nights, the best time to visit the environs of St. Petersburg with its many imperial palaces and parks, and attend multiple music and theater festivals. This is just the right time to take a break from physics overall and spectral line shapes in particular. On behalf of the Rector's Office let me wish the Conference every success, and do not forget to take some time out to enjoy your visit. Welcome! Professor N G Skvortsov Vice-Rector for Research St. Petersburg University

  6. IDEN2-A program for visual identification of spectral lines and energy levels in optical spectra of atoms and simple molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarov, V. I.; Kramida, A.; Vokhmentsev, M. Ya.

    2018-04-01

    The article describes a Java program that can be used in a user-friendly way to visually identify spectral lines observed in complex spectra with theoretically predicted transitions between atomic or molecular energy levels. The program arranges various information about spectral lines and energy levels in such a way that line identification and determination of positions of experimentally observed energy levels become much easier tasks that can be solved fast and efficiently.

  7. The strongest spectral lines of stable elements with other interfering elements in compiled and plotted version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.; Weitkamp, C.

    1977-01-01

    The strongest spectra lines of the 85 stable chemical elements have been compiled and plotted along with lines from other elements that may interfere in applications like spectroscopic multielement analysis. For each line a wavelength range of +- 0.25 A.U. around the line of interest has been considered. The tables contain the wavelength, intensity and assignment to an ionization state of the emitting atom, the plots visualize the lines with a doppler broadening corresponding to 8,000 K. (orig.) [de

  8. Full-zone spectral envelope function formalism for the optimization of line and point tunnel field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verreck, Devin, E-mail: devin.verreck@imec.be; Groeseneken, Guido [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering, KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Verhulst, Anne S.; Mocuta, Anda; Collaert, Nadine; Thean, Aaron [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Van de Put, Maarten; Magnus, Wim [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Physics, Universiteit Antwerpen, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Sorée, Bart [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Physics, Universiteit Antwerpen, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering, KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2015-10-07

    Efficient quantum mechanical simulation of tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) is indispensable to allow for an optimal configuration identification. We therefore present a full-zone 15-band quantum mechanical solver based on the envelope function formalism and employing a spectral method to reduce computational complexity and handle spurious solutions. We demonstrate the versatility of the solver by simulating a 40 nm wide In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As lineTFET and comparing it to p-n-i-n configurations with various pocket and body thicknesses. We find that the lineTFET performance is not degraded compared to semi-classical simulations. Furthermore, we show that a suitably optimized p-n-i-n TFET can obtain similar performance to the lineTFET.

  9. Improved phase sensitivity in spectral domain phase microscopy using line-field illumination and self phase-referencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqoob, Zahid; Choi, Wonshik; Oh, Seungeun; Lue, Niyom; Park, Yongkeun; Fang-Yen, Christopher; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Badizadegan, Kamran; Feld, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    We report a quantitative phase microscope based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography and line-field illumination. The line illumination allows self phase-referencing method to reject common-mode phase noise. The quantitative phase microscope also features a separate reference arm, permitting the use of high numerical aperture (NA > 1) microscope objectives for high resolution phase measurement at multiple points along the line of illumination. We demonstrate that the path-length sensitivity of the instrument can be as good as 41 pm/Hz, which makes it suitable for nanometer scale study of cell motility. We present the detection of natural motions of cell surface and two-dimensional surface profiling of a HeLa cell. PMID:19550464

  10. Hydrogen Atom Collision Processes in Cool Stellar Atmospheres: Effects on Spectral Line Strengths and Measured Chemical Abundances in Old Stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barklem, Paul S

    2012-01-01

    The precise measurement of the chemical composition of stars is a fundamental problem relevant to many areas of astrophysics. State-of-the-art approaches attempt to unite accurate descriptions of microphysics, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) line formation and 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres. In this paper I review progress in understanding inelastic collisions of hydrogen atoms with other species and their influence on spectral line formation and derived abundances in stellar atmospheres. These collisions are a major source of uncertainty in non-LTE modelling of spectral lines and abundance determinations, especially for old, metal-poor stars, which are unique tracers of the early evolution of our galaxy. Full quantum scattering calculations of direct excitation processes X(nl) + H ↔ X(n'l') + H and charge transfer processes X(nl) + H ↔ X + + H − have been done for Li, Na and Mg [1,2,3] based on detailed quantum chemical data, e.g. [4]. Rate coefficients have been calculated and applied to non-LTE modelling of spectral lines in stellar atmospheres [5,6,7,8,9]. In all cases we find that charge transfer processes from the first excited S-state are very important, and the processes affect measured abundances for Li, Na and Mg in some stars by as much as 60%. Effects vary with stellar parameters (e.g. temperature, luminosity, metal content) and so these processes are important not only for accurate absolute abundances, but also for relative abundances among dissimilar stars.

  11. Spectral Analysis of a Quantum System with a Double Line Singular Interaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kondej, S.; Krejčiřík, David

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 4 (2013), s. 831-859 ISSN 0034-5318 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP203/11/0701 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Schrödinger operator * singular perturbation * spectral analysis * Hardy inequality * resonance Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.614, year: 2013

  12. Solar spectral irradiance variability of some chromospheric emission lines through the solar activity cycles 21-23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göker Ü.D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of variations of solar spectral irradiance (SSI in the wave-length ranges 121.5 nm-300.5 nm for the period 1981-2009 is presented. We used various data for ultraviolet (UV spectral lines and international sunspot number (ISSN from interactive data centers such as SME (NSSDC, UARS (GDAAC, SORCE (LISIRD and SIDC, respectively. We reduced these data by using the MATLsoftware package. In this respect, we revealed negative correlations of intensities of UV (289.5 nm-300.5 nm spectral lines originating in the solar chromosphere with the ISSN index during the unusually prolonged minimum between the solar activity cycles (SACs 23 and 24. We also compared our results with the variations of solar activity indices obtained by the ground-based telescopes. Therefore, we found that plage regions decrease while facular areas are increasing in SAC 23. However, the decrease in plage regions is seen in small sunspot groups (SGs, contrary to this, these regions in large SGs are comparable to previous SACs or even larger as is also seen in facular areas. Nevertheless, negative correlations between ISSN and SSI data indicate that these variations are in close connection with the classes of sunspots/SGs, faculae and plage regions. Finally, we applied the time series analysis of spectral lines corresponding to the wavelengths 121.5 nm-300.5 nm and made comparisons with the ISSN data. We found an unexpected increase in the 298.5 nm line for the Fe II ion. The variability of Fe II ion 298.5 nm line is in close connection with the facular areas and plage regions, and the sizes of these solar surface indices play an important role for the SSI variability, as well. So, we compared the connection between the sizes of faculae and plage regions, sunspots/SGs, chemical elements and SSI variability. Our future work will be the theoretical study of this connection and developing of a corresponding model.

  13. Testing of the method for water microleakage detection from OH hydroxyl spectral lines at the L-2M stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronov, G. S.; Berezhetskii, M. S.; Bondar’, Yu. F.; Vafin, I. Yu.; Vasil’kov, D. G.; Voronova, E. V.; Grebenshchikov, S. E.; Grishina, I. A.; Larionova, N. F.; Letunov, A. A.; Logvinenko, V. P.; Meshcheryakov, A. I.; Pleshkov, E. I.; Khol’nov, Yu. V.; Fedyanin, O. I.; Tsygankov, V. A.; Shchepetov, S. V.; Kurnaev, V. A.; Vizgalov, I. V.; Urusov, V. A.

    2013-01-01

    Results are presented from L-2M stellarator experiments on testing a possible method for detection of water microleakages in the cooling system of the first wall and vacuum chamber of ITER. The method consists in the spectroscopic detection of spectral lines of the OH hydroxyl, which forms via the dissociation of water molecules in plasma. Emission in the spectral band of 305–310 nm can be detected even at water leakage rates less than 10 −4 Pa m 3 /s. Chemical reactions between water and boron compounds on the vacuum chamber wall delay the detection of leakages up to ∼2000 s. A similar phenomenon can be expected when a leakage will occur in ITER, where the materials suggested for the first wall (Be, Li) can also chemically react with water.

  14. Spectral line shapes in linear absorption and two-dimensional spectroscopy with skewed frequency distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farag, Marwa H.; Hoenders, Bernhard J.; Knoester, Jasper; Jansen, Thomas L. C.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of Gaussian dynamics on the line shapes in linear absorption and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy is well understood as the second-order cumulant expansion provides exact spectra. Gaussian solvent dynamics can be well analyzed using slope line analysis of two-dimensional

  15. Theoretical profiles of the spectral lines of the hydrogen atom; Profils theoriques des raies spectrales de l'atome d'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, H; Herman, L [Universite de la Sorbonne, Lab. de Recherche Physique, 75 - Paris (France); Drawin, H W [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses, Association Euratom-CEA, Groupe de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The line-broadening problem of the hydrogen lines has been formulated in the quasistatic approximation as far as the ions are concerned, and in the classical path approximation as far as the broadening due to collisions with electrons is concerned. These electrons interfere in different numerical results only by the self-correlation function of the fluctuating electrical field strength created at each point in the plasma. The Lewis correction has been applied, but using the whole velocity distribution function of the electrons. The formula which represents the usual impact profile, valid only for frequencies much smaller than the plasma frequency, has been extended using another formula which will be valid up to the neighbourhood of that spectral region where the quasi-static approximation begins to be valid also for the electrons. As an example, the line profile of Ly {alpha} is given by some graphs for T = 10{sup 4} deg. K and electron densities N = 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} and N = 10{sup 18}cm{sup -3}. (authors) [French] Le probleme d'elargissement des raies de l'atome H est formule dans l'approximation quasi-statique en ce qui concerne les ions et dans l'approximation du chemin classique en ce qui concerne les electrons. Ceux-ci interviennent dans differents resultats uniquement par la fonction auto-correlation du champ electrique fluctuant qu'ils creent en chaque point du plasma. La correction de Lewis a ete appliquee mais en tenant compte de la distribution des vitesses electroniques. La formule donnant les profils d'impact habituels, valable seulement pour des frequences tres inferieures a la frequence du plasma, est ainsi prolongee de maniere continue par une autre formule, valable jusqu'au voisinage de la region spectrale ou l'approximation quasistatique commence a etre egalement justifiee pour les electrons. A titre d'illustration on represente graphiquement le profil de la raie Ly {alpha} pour T = 10{sup 4} deg. K et des densites electroniques de N = 10{sup

  16. Quantum Spectral Curve for a cusped Wilson line in N=4 SYM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromov, Nikolay [King’s College London, Department of Mathematics, The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); St. Petersburg INP,Gatchina, 188 300, St.Petersburg (Russian Federation); Levkovich-Maslyuk, Fedor [King’s College London, Department of Mathematics, The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-20

    We show that the Quantum Spectral Curve (QSC) formalism, initially formulated for the spectrum of anomalous dimensions of all local single trace operators in N=4 SYM, can be extended to the generalized cusp anomalous dimension for all values of the parameters. We find that the large spectral parameter asymptotics and some analyticity properties have to be modified, but the functional relations are unchanged. As a demonstration, we find an all-loop analytic expression for the first two nontrivial terms in the small |ϕ±θ| expansion. We also present nonperturbative numerical results at generic angles which match perfectly 4-loop perturbation theory and the classical string prediction. The reformulation of the problem in terms of the QSC opens the possibility to explore many open questions. We attach to this paper several Mathematica notebooks which should facilitate future studies.

  17. Quantum Spectral Curve for a cusped Wilson line in N=4 SYM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromov, Nikolay; Levkovich-Maslyuk, Fedor

    2016-01-01

    We show that the Quantum Spectral Curve (QSC) formalism, initially formulated for the spectrum of anomalous dimensions of all local single trace operators in N=4 SYM, can be extended to the generalized cusp anomalous dimension for all values of the parameters. We find that the large spectral parameter asymptotics and some analyticity properties have to be modified, but the functional relations are unchanged. As a demonstration, we find an all-loop analytic expression for the first two nontrivial terms in the small |ϕ±θ| expansion. We also present nonperturbative numerical results at generic angles which match perfectly 4-loop perturbation theory and the classical string prediction. The reformulation of the problem in terms of the QSC opens the possibility to explore many open questions. We attach to this paper several Mathematica notebooks which should facilitate future studies.

  18. Herschel/HIFI spectral line survey of the Orion Bar. Temperature and density differentiation near the PDR surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Z.; Choi, Y.; Ossenkopf-Okada, V.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Bergin, E. A.; Gerin, M.; Joblin, C.; Röllig, M.; Simon, R.; Stutzki, J.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Photon dominated regions (PDRs) are interfaces between the mainly ionized and mainly molecular material around young massive stars. Analysis of the physical and chemical structure of such regions traces the impact of far-ultraviolet radiation of young massive stars on their environment. Aims: We present results on the physical and chemical structure of the prototypical high UV-illumination edge-on Orion Bar PDR from an unbiased spectral line survey with a wide spectral coverage which includes lines of many important gas coolants such as [Cii], [Ci], and CO and other key molecules such as H2CO, H2O, HCN, HCO+, and SO. Methods: A spectral scan from 480-1250 GHz and 1410-1910 GHz at 1.1 MHz resolution was obtained by the HIFI instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory. We obtained physical parameters for the observed molecules. For molecules with multiple transitions we used rotational diagrams to obtain excitation temperatures and column densities. For species with a single detected transition we used an optically thin LTE approximation. In the case of species with available collisional rates, we also performed a non-LTE analysis to obtain kinetic temperatures, H2 volume densities, and column densities. Results: About 120 lines corresponding to 29 molecules (including isotopologues) have been detected in the Herschel/HIFI line survey, including 11 transitions of CO, 7 transitions of 13CO, 6 transitions of C18O, 10 transitions of H2CO, and 6 transitions of H2O. The rotational temperatures are in the range between 22 and 146 K and the column densities are in the range between 1.8 × 1012 cm-2 and 4.5 × 1017 cm-2. For species with at least three detected transitions and available collisional excitation rates we derived a best fit kinetic temperature and H2 volume density. Most species trace kinetic temperatures in the range between 100 and 150 K and H2 volume densities in the range between 105 and 106 cm-3. The species with temperatures and

  19. Instrumental broadening of spectral line profiles due to discrete representation of a continuous physical quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulov, E.N.; Khripunov, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    It is the usual situation in spectroscopy that a continuous physical quantity, which plays the role of a spectral function argument (i.e. the abscissa of a spectrum), is sampled electronically as discrete point clouds or channels. Each channel corresponds to the midpoint of a small interval of the continuous argument. The experimentally registered value of intensity in the channel describes the averaged spectral intensity in this interval. However, an approximation of spectra by a continuous theoretical model function often assumes that the interval is small enough, and tabulation of the theoretical model function may be used without appreciable disadvantages for the fitting results. At this point, a new type of approximation error appears, such as the error of midpoint approximation to a definite integral in the rectangle method of numeric integration. This paper aims at quantitative estimation of this error in the cases of a pure Lorentz lineshape and a generalized Voigt contour. It is shown that discrete representation of continuous spectral data leads to some non-physical broadening in comparison with the tabulated model function. As a first approximation it is normal broadening. We show that even in the case of a Lorentz true lineshape we must use the tabulated Voigt function measured in channels fixed Gauss linewidth rather than a tabulated Lorentzian. Application of the results of this paper is demonstrated on Moessbauer spectra

  20. Collision-induced stimulated photon echo generated at transition 0-1 on broad spectral line conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubtsova, N. N.; Gol'dort, V. G.; Ishchenko, V. N.; Khvorostov, E. B.; Kochubei, S. A.; Borisov, G. M.; Ledovskikh, D. V.; Reshetov, V. A.

    2018-04-01

    For the first time, the collision induced stimulated photon echo generated at transition 1S0 → 3 P1 of 174Yb (type 0-1) in the mixture of gases Yb  +  Xe was investigated in the presence of weak longitudinal magnetic field, with experimental parameters corresponding to broad spectral line conditions. Comparison of the experimental echo amplitude versus magnetic field strength dependence with the theoretical curve shows a very good agreement, giving rise to an improved estimate for the difference between alignment and orientation decay rates.

  1. High spectral resolution observations of the H2 2.12 micron line in Herbig-Haro objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinnecker, H.; Mundt, R.; Geballe, T.R.; Zealey, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    High-spectral-resolution Fabry-Perot observations of the H 2 2.12-micron line emissions of several Herbig-Haro (HH) objects are discussed. It is shown that H 2 emission by the shock heating of external molecular gas in the wings of the bow shock associated with the working surface of a high-velocity jet may occur for HH objects associated with the jet's end. The shock heating of external molecular gas entrained in the flow by internal shocks occurring in the jet itself and/or in its boundary layer may be the H 2 emission mechanism for HH objects observed along the flow axis. 59 refs

  2. Solar monochromatic images in magneto-sensitive spectral lines and maps of vector magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihui, Y.; Jiehai, J.; Minhan, J.

    1985-01-01

    A new method which allows by use of the monochromatic images in some magneto-sensitive spectra line to derive both the magnetic field strength as well as the angle between magnetic field lines and line of sight for various places in solar active regions is described. In this way two dimensional maps of vector magnetic fields may be constructed. This method was applied to some observational material and reasonable results were obtained. In addition, a project for constructing the three dimensional maps of vector magnetic fields was worked out.

  3. Spectral line shape simulation for electron stark-broadening of ion emitters in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufour, Emmanuelle; Calisti, Annette; Talin, Bernard; Gigosos, Marco A.; Gonzalez, Manuel A.; Dufty, Jim W.

    2002-01-01

    Electron broadening for ions in plasmas is investigated in the framework of a simplified semi-classical model involving an ionic emitter imbedded in an electron gas. A regularized Coulomb potential that removes the divergence at short distances is postulated for the ion-electron interaction. Line shape simulations based on Molecular Dynamics for the ion impurity and the electrons, accounting for all the correlations, are reported. Comparisons with line shapes obtained with a quasi-particle model show expected correlation effects. Through an analysis of the results with the line shape code PPP, it is inferred that the correlation effect results mainly from the microfield dynamic properties

  4. Collisional broadening of depolarized spectral lines of hydrogen gases at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hout, K.D. van den.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for the collisional broadening and shift of H 2 , D 2 and HD rotational Raman and depolarized Rayleigh lines at various temperatures between 25 K and 300 K. These are then discussed within the context of current theoretical concepts. For a few temperatures the line broadening cross sections are also reported as a function of the ortho-para composition for H 2 and D 2 . (C.F.)

  5. Spectral lines and coincidence tables for the determination of zirconium, niobium and tantalum with the ICP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuensch, G.; Wennemer, A.

    1987-01-01

    Coincidence tables for ICP-AES are given for 20 Zr lines, 9 Nb lines and 7 Ta lines. They include 582 interferent lines of 49 elements. The specified interference data (IEC and CCR) hold for a bandwidth FWHM = 16 pm and an interferent concentration of 1,000 mg/l. For trace determinations of Zr, Nb, Ta in a matrix of Fe, Z, Zr, Nb, Ta the dependence of the interference on the matrix concentration is specified up to 10,000 mg/l. Interference data CCR calculated for the ICP from the NBS tables often differ from the measured data by several orders of magnitude. The spectrum of Zr measured at a high concentration shows many weak lines most of which are not even listed in the MIT tables. They give rise to a quasi-continuous background the intensity of which increases nearly linearly with the matrix concentration. Therefore, an increase of sample concentration will not lead to an improved detection limit. The line intensities found in our investigations match well with those listed in the Wohlers tables. (orig.)

  6. High-resolution measurements and multichannel quantum defect analysis of spectral line shapes of autoionizing Rydberg series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Kiyoshi

    1997-01-01

    Spectral line shapes for autoionizing Rydberg series are briefly reviewed within the framework of multichannel quantum defect theory (MQDT). Recent high-resolution measurements and MQDT analysis for the spectra line shapes are reviewed for the mp 5 ( 2 P 1/2 )ns ' and nd ' J=1 odd spectra of the Ar, Kr, and Xe atoms (m=3,4,5 for Ar, Kr, and Xe) and the 3p 5 ( 2 P 1/2 )nd ' J=2 and 3 odd spectra of Ar*3p 5 4p excited atoms. Some results are also discussed for the Ca 4p( 2 P 1/2,3/2 )ns and nd J=1 odd spectrum and the Ba 5d( 2 P 5/2 )nd J=1 odd spectrum

  7. Modeling and identification of ARMG models for stochastic processes: application to on-line computation of the power spectral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwingelstein, Gilles; Thabet, Gabriel.

    1977-01-01

    Control algorithms for components of nuclear power plants are currently based on external diagnostic methods. Modeling and identification techniques for autoregressive moving average models (ARMA) for stochastic processes are described. The identified models provide a means of estimating the power spectral density with improved accuracy and computer time compared with the classical methods. They are particularly will suited for on-line estimation of the power spectral density. The observable stochastic process y (t) is modeled assuming that it is the output of a linear filter driven by Gaussian while noise w (t). Two identification schemes were tested to find the orders m and n of the ARMA (m,n) models and to estimate the parameters of the recursion equation relating the input and output signals. The first scheme consists in transforming the ARMA model to an autoregressive model. The parameters of this AR model are obtained using least squares estimation techniques. The second scheme consists in finding the parameters of the ARMA by nonlinear programming techniques. The power spectral density of y(t) is instantaneously deduced from these ARMA models [fr

  8. A variable-tune spatial heterodyne spectrometer for broadband spectral line studies in the visible and near-UV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Olivia R.; Harris, Walter M.

    2017-11-01

    Reflective Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy (SHS) is an interferometric technique that combines high resolving power and a large input acceptance angle in a format that is compact enough for use at small telescope focal planes and in spacecraft observations of targets in the visible to far ultra-violet (FUV) spectral range. SHS instruments are well suited to the study of faint, extended emission line sources, particularly in the UV where stellar background continuum becomes weak. Their primary limitation comes from the limited spatial sampling of the output interference pattern generated by the incoming spectral source, which limits their use to narrow bandpass near the central tuning wavelength. We describe a the first light results from a broadband SHS that can be used to scan the tuning wavelength across a bandpass extending from 300 to 700 nm. The limitations on the bandpass are arbitrary and can easily be extended into the UV or near infrared. We discuss the results of these validation program and the potential improvements that could be used to expand and/or improve the broadband spectral response of the instrument.

  9. Convex relaxations of spectral sparsity for robust super-resolution and line spectrum estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yuejie

    2017-08-01

    We consider recovering the amplitudes and locations of spikes in a point source signal from its low-pass spectrum that may suffer from missing data and arbitrary outliers. We first review and provide a unified view of several recently proposed convex relaxations that characterize and capitalize the spectral sparsity of the point source signal without discretization under the framework of atomic norms. Next we propose a new algorithm when the spikes are known a priori to be positive, motivated by applications such as neural spike sorting and fluorescence microscopy imaging. Numerical experiments are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  10. Determination of edge plasma parameters by a genetic algorithm analysis of spectral line shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marandet, Y.; Genesio, P.; Godbert-Mouret, L.; Koubiti, M.; Stamm, R.; Capes, H.; Guirlet, R.

    2003-01-01

    Comparing an experimental and a theoretical line shape can be achieved by a genetic algorithm (GA) based on an analogy to the mechanisms of natural selection. Such an algorithm is able to deal with complex non-linear models, and can avoid local minima. We have used this optimization tool in the context of edge plasma spectroscopy, for a determination of the temperatures and fractions of the various populations of neutral deuterium emitting the D α line in 2 configurations of Tore-Supra: ergodic divertor and toroidal pumped limiter. Using the GA fit, the neutral emitters are separated into up to 4 populations which can be identified as resulting from molecular dissociation reactions, charge exchange, or reflection. In all the edge plasmas studied, a significant fraction of neutrals emit in the line wings, leading to neutrals with a temperature up to a few hundreds eV if a Gaussian line shape is assumed. This conclusion could be modified if the line wing exhibits a non Gaussian behavior

  11. On-line, continuous monitoring in solar cell and fuel cell manufacturing using spectral reflectance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, Bhushan; Rupnowski, Przemyslaw; Ulsh, Michael

    2016-01-12

    A monitoring system 100 comprising a material transport system 104 providing for the transportation of a substantially planar material 102, 107 through the monitoring zone 103 of the monitoring system 100. The system 100 also includes a line camera 106 positioned to obtain multiple line images across a width of the material 102, 107 as it is transported through the monitoring zone 103. The system 100 further includes an illumination source 108 providing for the illumination of the material 102, 107 transported through the monitoring zone 103 such that light reflected in a direction normal to the substantially planar surface of the material 102, 107 is detected by the line camera 106. A data processing system 110 is also provided in digital communication with the line camera 106. The data processing system 110 is configured to receive data output from the line camera 106 and further configured to calculate and provide substantially contemporaneous information relating to a quality parameter of the material 102, 107. Also disclosed are methods of monitoring a quality parameter of a material.

  12. Determination of edge plasma parameters by a genetic algorithm analysis of spectral line shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marandet, Y.; Genesio, P.; Godbert-Mouret, L.; Koubiti, M.; Stamm, R. [Universite de Provence (PIIM), Centre de Saint-Jerome, 13 - Marseille (France); Capes, H.; Guirlet, R. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    2003-07-01

    Comparing an experimental and a theoretical line shape can be achieved by a genetic algorithm (GA) based on an analogy to the mechanisms of natural selection. Such an algorithm is able to deal with complex non-linear models, and can avoid local minima. We have used this optimization tool in the context of edge plasma spectroscopy, for a determination of the temperatures and fractions of the various populations of neutral deuterium emitting the D{sub {alpha}} line in 2 configurations of Tore-Supra: ergodic divertor and toroidal pumped limiter. Using the GA fit, the neutral emitters are separated into up to 4 populations which can be identified as resulting from molecular dissociation reactions, charge exchange, or reflection. In all the edge plasmas studied, a significant fraction of neutrals emit in the line wings, leading to neutrals with a temperature up to a few hundreds eV if a Gaussian line shape is assumed. This conclusion could be modified if the line wing exhibits a non Gaussian behavior.

  13. Shape of argon spectral lines emitted from an electric arc (P=760 Torr). Study and application of pressure broadening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretzas, Dimitrios.

    1978-01-01

    We have studied the broadening and shift of argon spectral lines corresponding to 3p 5 5p-3p 5 4s and 3p 5 4p-3p 5 4s transitions emitted from an electric arc burning under atmospheric pressure. We have revealed the broadening due to neutral atoms pressure effect, distinguishing the transitions whose lower level is a metastable one (1s 3 and 1s 5 ) or a level of strong (1s 2 ) or feeble resonance (1s 4 ). In this study we have employed a mixture of argon (98%) and hydrogen (2%); hydrogen's feeble proportion does not perturb much the discharge and is very suitable for the measure of the electronic density. The important departure of L.T.E. has guided us to imagine and apply an original method to measure the temperature and the overpopulation of the neutral atoms in the fondamental state. Our method which is independent of the existence of L.T.E. is based on the different behavior of the spectral lines which are under the influence of the resonance or Van der Waals broadening. The measure of the broadening constants which in the resonance case are independent of the temperature and vary as Tsup(0,3) for V.d.W's broadening, give us a suitable tool to measure the density and the temperature of the neutral atoms [fr

  14. MAPPING THE LINEARLY POLARIZED SPECTRAL LINE EMISSION AROUND THE EVOLVED STAR IRC+10216

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girart, J. M. [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai, (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, C5p 2, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Patel, N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Vlemmings, W. H. T. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Rao, Ramprasad, E-mail: girart@ice.cat [Submillimeter Array, Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 645 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2012-05-20

    We present spectro-polarimetric observations of several molecular lines obtained with the Submillimeter Array toward the carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch star IRC+10216. We have detected and mapped the linear polarization of the CO 3-2, SiS 19-18, and CS 7-6 lines. The polarization arises at a distance of {approx_equal} 450 AU from the star and is blueshifted with respect to the Stokes I. The SiS 19-18 polarization pattern appears to be consistent with a locally radial magnetic field configuration. However, the CO 3-2 and CS 7-6 line polarization suggests an overall complex magnetic field morphology within the envelope. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using spectro-polarimetric observations to carry out tomographic imaging of the magnetic field in circumstellar envelopes.

  15. Fast analytic formulas for the modified Bessel functions of imaginary order for spectral line broadening calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poquerusse, A.; Alexiou, S.

    1999-01-01

    In this work we review the status of the standard line broadening theory for plasmas and fill in the existing gap, i.e., the partially overlapping case for ions lines, by deriving expressions as well as fast and accurate numerical approximations for the relevant functions, namely the modified Bessel function of imaginary order and its derivative with respect to argument. These functions also arise in the context of the theory of Coulomb excitation. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  16. TIMASSS: the IRAS 16293-2422 millimeter and submillimeter spectral survey. I. Observations, calibration, and analysis of the line kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caux, E.; Kahane, C.; Castets, A.; Coutens, A.; Ceccarelli, C.; Bacmann, A.; Bisschop, S.; Bottinelli, S.; Comito, C.; Helmich, F. P.; Lefloch, B.; Parise, B.; Schilke, P.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; van Dishoeck, E.; Vastel, C.; Wakelam, V.; Walters, A.

    2011-08-01

    Context. Unbiased spectral surveys are powerful tools to study the chemistry and the physics of star forming regions, because they can provide a complete census of the molecular content and the observed lines probe the physical structure of the source. Aims: While unbiased surveys at the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths observable from ground-based telescopes have previously been performed towards several high mass protostars, very little exists on low mass protostars, which are believed to resemble our own Sun's progenitor. To help fill up this gap in our understanding, we carried out a complete spectral survey of the bands at 3, 2, 1, and 0.9 mm towards the solar type protostar IRAS 16293-2422. Methods: The observations covered a range of about 200 GHz and were obtained with the IRAM-30 m and JCMT-15 m telescopes during about 300 h of observations. Particular attention was devoted to the inter-calibration of the acquired spectra with previous observations. All the lines detected with more than 3σ confidence-interval certainty and free from obvious blending effects were fitted with Gaussians to estimate their basic kinematic properties. Results: More than 4000 lines were detected (with σ ≥ 3) and identified, yielding a line density of approximatively 20 lines per GHz, comparable to previous surveys in massive hot cores. The vast majority (about two-thirds) of the lines are weak and produced by complex organic molecules. The analysis of the profiles of more than 1000 lines belonging to 70 species firmly establishes the presence of two distinct velocity components associated with the two objects, A and B, forming the IRAS 16293-2422 binary system. In the source A, the line widths of several species increase with the upper level energy of the transition, a behavior compatible with gas infalling towards a ~1 M⊙ object. The source B, which does not show this effect, might have a much lower central mass of ~0.1 M⊙. The difference in the rest velocities

  17. Experimental Line List of Water Vapor Absorption Lines in the Spectral Ranges 1850 - 2280 CM-1 and 2390-4000 CM-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Joep; Birk, Manfred; Wagner, Georg

    2017-06-01

    A new experimental line parameter list of water vapor absorption lines in the spectral ranges 1850 - 2280 cm-1 and 2390 - 4000 cm-1 is presented. The line list is based on the analysis of several transmittance spectra measured using a Bruker IFS 125 HR high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer. A total of 54 measurements of pure water and water/air-mixtures at 296 K as well as water/air-mixtures at high and low temperatures were performed. A multispectrum fitting approach was used applying a quadratic speed-dependent hard collision line shape model in the Hartmann-Tran implementation extended to account for line mixing in the Rosenkranz approximation in order to retrieve line positions, intensities, self- and air-broadening parameters, their speed-dependence, self- and air-shifts as well as line mixing and in some cases collisional narrowing parameters. Additionally, temperature dependence parameters for widths, shifts and in a few cases line mixing were retrieved. For every parameter an extensive error estimation calculation was performed identifying and specifying systematic error sources. The resulting parameters are compared to the databases HITRAN12 as well as experimental values. For intensities, a detailed comparison to results of recent ab initio calculations performed at University College London was done showing an agreement within 2 % for a majority of the data. However, for some bands there are systematic deviations attributed to ab initio calculation errors. .H. Ngo et al. JQSRT 129, 89-100 (2013) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.05.034; JQSRT 134, 105 (2014) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.10.016. H. Tran et al. JQSRT 129, 199-203 (2013) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.06.015; JQSRT 134, 104 (2014) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.10.015. L.S. Rothman et al. JQSRT 130, 4-50 (2013) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.07.002. N. Jacquinet-Husson et al. JMS 112, 2395-2445 (2016) doi:10.1016/j.jms.2016.06.007.

  18. Spectral survey of helium lines in a linear plasma device for use in HELIOS imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, H. B., E-mail: rayhb@ornl.gov [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Biewer, T. M.; Fehling, D. T.; Isler, R. C.; Unterberg, E. A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Fast visible cameras and a filterscope are used to examine the visible light emission from Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Proto-MPEX. The filterscope has been configured to perform helium line ratio measurements using emission lines at 667.9, 728.1, and 706.5 nm. The measured lines should be mathematically inverted and the ratios compared to a collisional radiative model (CRM) to determine T{sub e} and n{sub e}. Increasing the number of measurement chords through the plasma improves the inversion calculation and subsequent T{sub e} and n{sub e} localization. For the filterscope, one spatial chord measurement requires three photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) connected to pellicle beam splitters. Multiple, fast visible cameras with narrowband filters are an alternate technique for performing these measurements with superior spatial resolution. Each camera contains millions of pixels; each pixel is analogous to one filterscope PMT. The data can then be inverted and the ratios compared to the CRM to determine 2-dimensional “images” of T{sub e} and n{sub e} in the plasma. An assessment is made in this paper of the candidate He I emission lines for an imaging technique.

  19. Spectral survey of helium lines in a linear plasma device for use in HELIOS imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, H. B.; Biewer, T. M.; Fehling, D. T.; Isler, R. C.; Unterberg, E. A.

    2016-11-01

    Fast visible cameras and a filterscope are used to examine the visible light emission from Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Proto-MPEX. The filterscope has been configured to perform helium line ratio measurements using emission lines at 667.9, 728.1, and 706.5 nm. The measured lines should be mathematically inverted and the ratios compared to a collisional radiative model (CRM) to determine Te and ne. Increasing the number of measurement chords through the plasma improves the inversion calculation and subsequent Te and ne localization. For the filterscope, one spatial chord measurement requires three photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) connected to pellicle beam splitters. Multiple, fast visible cameras with narrowband filters are an alternate technique for performing these measurements with superior spatial resolution. Each camera contains millions of pixels; each pixel is analogous to one filterscope PMT. The data can then be inverted and the ratios compared to the CRM to determine 2-dimensional "images" of Te and ne in the plasma. An assessment is made in this paper of the candidate He I emission lines for an imaging technique.

  20. Combined pseudo-spectral / actuator line model for wind turbine applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dag, Kaya Onur

    2017-01-01

    of the developed code is presented and verifications are carried out. In the second part, by using the new LES code, a comprehensive investigation is made for the well-known actuator line model (ALM), which is cost-efficient for investigation of the loading estimations on wind turbine blades. In ALM, the body...

  1. Getting Your Peaks in Line: A Review of Alignment Methods for NMR Spectral Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Nghia Vu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant challenges in the comparative analysis of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR metabolome profiles is the occurrence of shifts between peaks across different spectra, for example caused by fluctuations in pH, temperature, instrument factors and ion content. Proper alignment of spectral peaks is therefore often a crucial preprocessing step prior to downstream quantitative analysis. Various alignment methods have been developed specifically for this purpose. Other methods were originally developed to align other data types (GC, LC, SELDI-MS, etc., but can also be applied to NMR data. This review discusses the available methods, as well as related problems such as reference determination or the evaluation of alignment quality. We present a generic alignment framework that allows for comparison and classification of different alignment approaches according to their algorithmic principles, and we discuss their performance.

  2. UV and X-ray spectral lines of Be-like Fe ion for plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Takako; Dubau, J.

    1996-04-01

    We have calculated X-ray and UV spectra of the Be-like Fe (FeXXIII) ion using collisional-radiative model including all fine-structure transitions among the 2s 2 , 2s2p, 2p 2 , 2snl, and 2pnl levels where n = 3 and 4, adopting data for the collision strengths by Zhang and Sampson (1992) and by Sampson, Goett, and Clark (1984). Some line intensity ratios can be used for the temperature diagnostic. We show 5 ratios in UV region and 9 ratios in X-ray region as functions of electron temperature and density at 0.3keV e e = 1-10 25 cm -3 . The effect of cascade in these line ratios is discussed. (author)

  3. A Modified Generalized Laguerre Spectral Method for Fractional Differential Equations on the Half Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baleanu

    2013-01-01

    fractional derivatives is based on modified generalized Laguerre polynomials Li(α,β(x with x∈Λ=(0,∞, α>−1, and β>0, and i is the polynomial degree. We implement and develop the modified generalized Laguerre collocation method based on the modified generalized Laguerre-Gauss points which is used as collocation nodes for solving nonlinear multiterm FDEs on the half line.

  4. A Spectral-line Analysis of the G8 III Standard ε VIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, David F., E-mail: dfgray@uwo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2017-08-10

    Eleven seasons of spectroscopic data comprised of 107 exposures for the stable G8 III standard star, ε Vir are analyzed for projected rotation rate and granulation parameters. A Fourier analysis of the line shapes yield v sin i = 3.06 ± 0.20 km s{sup −1} and a radial-tangential macroturbulence dispersion ζ {sub RT} = 5.16 ± 0.08 km s{sup −1}. The radial velocity over nine seasons is constant to 18 m s{sup −1}. The absolute radial velocity with granulation blueshifts (but not gravitational redshift) removed is −14120 ± 75 m s{sup −1}. Line-depth ratios show the temperature to be constant to 0.7 K over 11 years, although a small secular rise or cyclic variation ∼1 K cannot be ruled out. The third-signature plot shows that the star has granulation velocities 10% larger than the Sun's. Mapping the Fe i λ 6253 line bisector on to the third-signature plot indicates a normal-for-giants flux deficit area of 12.8%, indicating ∼134 K temperature difference between granules and lanes. Deficit velocities of GK giants are seen to shift to higher values with higher luminosity, ∼0.75 km s{sup −1} over Δ M {sub V} ∼ 1.5, indicating larger velocity differences between granules and lanes for giants higher in the HR diagram.

  5. Infrared Line Intensities for Formaldehyde from Simultaneous Measurements in the Infrared and Far Infrared Spectral Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fissiaux, L.; Földes, T.; Tchana, F. Kwabia; Daumont, L.; Lepère, M.; Vander Auwera, J.

    2011-06-01

    Formaldehyde (H_2CO) is an important intermediate compound in the degradation of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including methane, in the terrestrial troposphere. Its observation using optical remote sensing in the infrared range relies on the 3.6 and 5.7 μm absorption bands. Band and individual line intensities have been reported in both ranges. With the present work, we aim to also derive infrared line intensities for formaldehyde, however relying on pure rotation line intensities and the known electric dipole moment to determine the particle density. Indeed, because formaldehyde polymerizes or degrades easily, the gas phase may contain polymerization or degradation products. Spectra of H_2CO diluted in 10 hPa of N_2 were therefore simultaneously recorded in the 20-60 Cm-1 and 3.6 μm ranges, respectively using a Bruker IFS125HR Fourier transform spectrometer and a tunable diode laser. see A. Perrin, D. Jacquemart, F. Kwabia Tchana, N. Lacome, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110 (2009) 700-716, and references therein

  6. Jupiter's Deep Cloud Structure Revealed Using Keck Observations of Spectrally Resolved Line Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjoraker, G. L.; Wong, M.H.; de Pater, I.; Adamkovics, M.

    2015-01-01

    Technique: We present a method to determine the pressure at which significant cloud opacity is present between 2 and 6 bars on Jupiter. We use: a) the strength of a Fraunhofer absorption line in a zone to determine the ratio of reflected sunlight to thermal emission, and b) pressure- broadened line profiles of deuterated methane (CH3D) at 4.66 meters to determine the location of clouds. We use radiative transfer models to constrain the altitude region of both the solar and thermal components of Jupiter's 5-meter spectrum. Results: For nearly all latitudes on Jupiter the thermal component is large enough to constrain the deep cloud structure even when upper clouds are present. We find that Hot Spots, belts, and high latitudes have broader line profiles than do zones. Radiative transfer models show that Hot Spots in the North and South Equatorial Belts (NEB, SEB) typically do not have opaque clouds at pressures greater than 2 bars. The South Tropical Zone (STZ) at 32 degrees South has an opaque cloud top between 4 and 5 bars. From thermochemical models this must be a water cloud. We measured the variation of the equivalent width of CH3D with latitude for comparison with Jupiter's belt-zone structure. We also constrained the vertical profile of H2O in an SEB Hot Spot and in the STZ. The Hot Spot is very dry for a probability less than 4.5 bars and then follows the H2O profile observed by the Galileo Probe. The STZ has a saturated H2O profile above its cloud top between 4 and 5 bars.

  7. Spectral line profile analysis for evaluation of Gaussian and Lorentzian widths and collisional broadening coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakhate, S.G.; Ahmad, S.A.; Pushpa; Rao, M.; Saksena, G.D.

    1991-01-01

    Deconvolution of atomic line profiles, recorded on PC interfaced recording Fabry-Perot spectrometer, into its Lorentzian and Gaussian component has been carried out. Effect of various parameters of hollow cathode discharge lamp (light source) such as discharge current, bath temperature and gas pressure on Lorentzian and Gaussian width has been studied. The value of the self-broadening coefficient for neon-neon atomic interaction for the transition 2p 5 4P-2P 5 3s (λ=3472.571 A) has been determined. (author). 15 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Operation of Small Radio Telescope (SRT) recorded 21 cm spectral line of Hydrogen at VATLY Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Ngoc Dong; Pham Tuan Anh; Pham Ngoc Diep; Pham Thi Tuyet Nhung; Nguyen Van Hiep

    2013-01-01

    A small radio telescope (SRT) has been installed on the roof of the Hanoi astrophysics laboratory VATLY. It is equipped with a 2.6 m diameter mobile parabolic dish remotely controlled in elevation and azimuth and with super-heterodyne detection around the 21 cm hydrogen line. They demonstrate the high quality of the telescope performance and are used to evaluate lobe size, signal to noise ratios, anthropogenic interferences and measurement accuracies. Particular attention is given to the measurement of the pointing accuracy. First results of observations of the Sun and of the centre of the Milky Way are presented. (author)

  9. X-ray spectral models of Galactic bulge sources - the emission-line factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrtilek, S.D.; Swank, J.H.; Kallman, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    Current difficulties in finding unique and physically meaningful models for the X-ray spectra of Galactic bulge sources are exacerbated by the presence of strong, variable emission and absorption features that are not resolved by the instruments observing them. Nine Einstein solid state spectrometer (SSS) observations of five Galactic bulge sources are presented for which relatively high resolution objective grating spectrometer (OGS) data have been published. It is found that in every case the goodness of fit of simple models to SSS data is greatly improved by adding line features identified in the OGS that cannot be resolved by the SSS but nevertheless strongly influence the spectra observed by SSS. 32 references

  10. Some new ideas for the study of the complex spectral line profiles of hot emission stars and quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danezis, E.

    2013-01-01

    Some Hot Emission Stars and AGNs present peculiar spectral line profiles which are due to DACs and SACs phenomena. The origin and the mechanisms which are responsible for the creation of DACs/SACs is an important problem that has been studied by many researchers. This paper is a review of our efforts to study the origin and the mechanisms of these phenomena. At first we present a theoretic ad hoc picture for the structure of the plasma that surrounds the specific category of hot emission stars that present DACs or SACs. Then we present the mathematical model that we constructed, which is based on the properties of the above ad hoc theoretical structure. Finally, we present some results from our statistical studies that prove the consistency of our model with the classical physical theory.

  11. On-line database of the spectral properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malloci, Giuliano; Joblin, Christine; Mulas, Giacomo

    2007-01-01

    We present an on-line database of computed molecular properties for a large sample of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in four charge states: -1, 0, +1, and +2. At present our database includes 40 molecules ranging in size from naphthalene and azulene (C 10 H 8 ) up to circumovalene (C 66 H 20 ). We performed our calculations in the framework of the density functional theory (DFT) and the time-dependent DFT to obtain the most relevant molecular parameters needed for astrophysical applications. For each molecule in the sample, our database presents in a uniform way the energetic, rotational, vibrational, and electronic properties. It is freely accessible on the web at (http://astrochemistry.ca.astro.it/database/) and (http://www.cesr.fr/~joblin/database/)

  12. X-ray spectral line shapes for the excimer-laser-produced high density plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magunov, A.; Faenov, A.; Skobelev, I.; Pikuz, T.; Batani, D.; Milani, M.; Conti, A.; Masini, A.; Costato, M.; Pozzi, A.; Turcu, E.; Allot, R.; Lisi, N.; Koenig, M.; Benuzzi, A.; Flora, F.; Letardi, T.; Palladino, L.; Reale, A.

    1997-01-01

    The time and space-integrated emission spectra measurements have been performed in plasma produced by 308 nm wavelength XeCl laser radiation (I L =(4-10)·10 12 W/cm 2 , τ=10 ns) and by 248 nm wavelength KrF laser pulse train radiation (I L =5·10 15 W/cm 2 , τ=7 ps, 16 pulses in train) on CF n plane target. The lines' shapes and intensities modeling of Lyman series and He-like ion resonance series of fluorine up to n=7 by fitting experimental data shows the considerable difference of plasma formation features for these two sets of the laser pulse parameters

  13. Python Radiative Transfer Emission code (PyRaTE): non-LTE spectral lines simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritsis, A.; Yorke, H.; Tassis, K.

    2018-05-01

    We describe PyRaTE, a new, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) line radiative transfer code developed specifically for post-processing astrochemical simulations. Population densities are estimated using the escape probability method. When computing the escape probability, the optical depth is calculated towards all directions with density, molecular abundance, temperature and velocity variations all taken into account. A very easy-to-use interface, capable of importing data from simulations outputs performed with all major astrophysical codes, is also developed. The code is written in PYTHON using an "embarrassingly parallel" strategy and can handle all geometries and projection angles. We benchmark the code by comparing our results with those from RADEX (van der Tak et al. 2007) and against analytical solutions and present case studies using hydrochemical simulations. The code will be released for public use.

  14. Spectral Line Shapes in the ν_3 Q Branch of ^{12}CH_4 Near 3.3 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Gamache, Robert R.; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Sams, Robert L.

    2017-06-01

    Detailed knowledge of spectroscopic parameters for prominent Q branches of methane is necessary for interpretation and modeling of high resolution infrared spectra of terrestrial and planetary atmospheres. We have measured air-broadened line shape parameters in the Q branch of ^{12}CH_4 in the ν_3 fundamental band for a large number of transitions in the 3000 to 3023 cm^{-1} region by analyzing 13 room-temperature laboratory absorption spectra. Twelve of these spectra were recorded with 0.01 cm^{-1} resolution using the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) of the National Solar Observatory (NSO) on Kitt Peak, and one higher-resolution (˜0.0011 cm^{-1}) low pressure (˜1 Torr) spectrum of methane was obtained using the Bruker IFS 120HR FTS at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, WA. The air-broadened spectra were recorded using various absorption cells with path lengths of 5, 20, 25, and 150 cm, total sample pressures between 50 and 500 Torr, and CH_4 volume mixing ratios of 0.01 or less. All 13 spectra were fit simultaneously covering the 3000-3023 cm^{-1} spectral region using a multispectrum nonlinear least squares technique to retrieve accurate line positions, absolute intensities, Lorentz air-broadened widths and pressure-shift coefficients. Line mixing using the off-diagonal relaxation matrix element formalism was measured for a number of pairs of transitions for the CH_4-air collisional system. The results will be compared to values reported in the literature. D. C. Benner, C. P. Rinsland, V. Malathy Devi, M. A. H. Smith, D. Atkins, JQSRT 53 (1995) 705-721. A. Levy, N. Lacome, C. Chackerian, Collisional line mixing, in Spectroscopy of the Earth's Atmosphere and Interstellar Medium, Academic Press, Inc., Boston (1992) 261-337.

  15. Fast algorithm for spectral processing with application to on-line welding quality assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirapeix, J.; Cobo, A.; Jaúregui, C.; López-Higuera, J. M.

    2006-10-01

    A new technique is presented in this paper for the analysis of welding process emission spectra to accurately estimate in real-time the plasma electronic temperature. The estimation of the electronic temperature of the plasma, through the analysis of the emission lines from multiple atomic species, may be used to monitor possible perturbations during the welding process. Unlike traditional techniques, which usually involve peak fitting to Voigt functions using the Levenberg-Marquardt recursive method, sub-pixel algorithms are used to more accurately estimate the central wavelength of the peaks. Three different sub-pixel algorithms will be analysed and compared, and it will be shown that the LPO (linear phase operator) sub-pixel algorithm is a better solution within the proposed system. Experimental tests during TIG-welding using a fibre optic to capture the arc light, together with a low cost CCD-based spectrometer, show that some typical defects associated with perturbations in the electron temperature can be easily detected and identified with this technique. A typical processing time for multiple peak analysis is less than 20 ms running on a conventional PC.

  16. An unbiased spectral line survey toward R CrA IRS7B in the 345 GHz window with ASTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Sakai, Nami; Lindberg, Johan

    2012-01-01

    We have conducted a spectral line survey in the 332-364 GHz region with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment 10 m telescope toward R CrA IRS7B, a low-mass protostar in the Class 0 or Class 0/I transitional stage. We have also performed some supplementary observations in the 450 GHz band...... corino. These results suggest a weak hot corino activity in R CrA IRS7B. On the other hand, the carbon-chain related molecules, CCH and c-C3H2, are found to be abundant. However, this source cannot be classified as a WCCC source, since long carbon-chain molecules are not detected. If WCCC and hot corino...... chemistry represent the two extremes in chemical compositions of low-mass Class 0 sources, R CrA IRS7B would be a source with a mixture of these two chemical characteristics. The UV radiation from the nearby Herbig Ae star R CrA may also affect the chemical composition. The present line survey demonstrates...

  17. Molecular-cloud-scale Chemical Composition. II. Mapping Spectral Line Survey toward W3(OH) in the 3 mm Band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Yuri [Institute of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Harada, Nanase [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Shimonishi, Takashi [Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, Aramakiazaaoba 6-3, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Sakai, Nami [RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aikawa, Yuri [Department of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kawamura, Akiko [Chile Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2017-10-10

    To study a molecular-cloud-scale chemical composition, we conducted a mapping spectral line survey toward the Galactic molecular cloud W3(OH), which is one of the most active star-forming regions in the Perseus arm. We conducted our survey through the use of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope, and observed the area of 16′ × 16′, which corresponds to 9.0 pc × 9.0 pc. The observed frequency ranges are 87–91, 96–103, and 108–112 GHz. We prepared the spectrum averaged over the observed area, in which eight molecular species (CCH, HCN, HCO{sup +}, HNC, CS, SO, C{sup 18}O, and {sup 13}CO) are identified. On the other hand, the spectrum of the W3(OH) hot core observed at a 0.17 pc resolution shows the lines of various molecules such as OCS, H{sub 2}CS CH{sub 3}CCH, and CH{sub 3}CN in addition to the above species. In the spatially averaged spectrum, emission of the species concentrated just around the star-forming core, such as CH{sub 3}OH and HC{sub 3}N, is fainter than in the hot core spectrum, whereas emission of the species widely extended over the cloud such as CCH is relatively brighter. We classified the observed area into five subregions according to the integrated intensity of {sup 13}CO, and evaluated the contribution to the averaged spectrum from each subregion. The CCH, HCN, HCO{sup +}, and CS lines can be seen even in the spectrum of the subregion with the lowest {sup 13}CO integrated intensity range (<10 K km s{sup −1}). Thus, the contributions of the spatially extended emission is confirmed to be dominant in the spatially averaged spectrum.

  18. AN UNBIASED SPECTRAL LINE SURVEY TOWARD R CrA IRS7B IN THE 345 GHz WINDOW WITH ASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Lindberg, Johan E.; Bisschop, Suzanne E.; Jørgensen, Jes K.

    2012-01-01

    We have conducted a spectral line survey in the 332-364 GHz region with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment 10 m telescope toward R CrA IRS7B, a low-mass protostar in the Class 0 or Class 0/I transitional stage. We have also performed some supplementary observations in the 450 GHz band. In total, 16 molecular species are identified in the 332-364 GHz region. Strong emission lines of CN and CCH are observed, whereas complex organic molecules and long carbon-chain molecules, which are characteristics of hot corino and warm carbon-chain chemistry (WCCC) source, respectively, are not detected. The rotation temperature of CH 3 OH is evaluated to be 31 K, which is significantly lower than that reported for the prototypical hot corino IRAS 16293-2422 (∼85 K). The deuterium fractionation ratios for CCH and H 2 CO are obtained to be 0.038 and 0.050, respectively, which are much lower than those in the hot corino. These results suggest a weak hot corino activity in R CrA IRS7B. On the other hand, the carbon-chain related molecules, CCH and c-C 3 H 2 , are found to be abundant. However, this source cannot be classified as a WCCC source, since long carbon-chain molecules are not detected. If WCCC and hot corino chemistry represent the two extremes in chemical compositions of low-mass Class 0 sources, R CrA IRS7B would be a source with a mixture of these two chemical characteristics. The UV radiation from the nearby Herbig Ae star R CrA may also affect the chemical composition. The present line survey demonstrates further chemical diversity in low-mass star-forming regions.

  19. Search for gamma-ray spectral lines with the Fermi Large Area Telescope and dark matter implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D’Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Essig, R.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Gomez-Vargas, G. A.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Inoue, Y.; Izaguirre, E.; Jogler, T.; Kamae, T.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Malyshev, D.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Romani, R. W.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Siegal-Gaskins, J.; Siskind, E. J.; Snyder, A.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.; Zaharijas, G.; Zimmer, S.

    2013-10-22

    Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are a theoretical class of particles that are excellent dark matter candidates. WIMP annihilation or decay may produce essentially monochromatic γ rays detectable by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) against the astrophysical γ -ray emission of the Galaxy. We have searched for spectral lines in the energy range 5–300 GeV using 3.7 years of data, reprocessed with updated instrument calibrations and an improved energy dispersion model compared to the previous Fermi-LAT Collaboration line searches. We searched in five regions selected to optimize sensitivity to different theoretically motivated dark matter density distributions. We did not find any globally significant lines in our a priori search regions and present 95% confidence limits for annihilation cross sections of self-conjugate WIMPs and decay lifetimes. Our most significant fit occurred at 133 GeV in our smallest search region and had a local significance of 3.3 standard deviations, which translates to a global significance of 1.5 standard deviations. We discuss potential systematic effects in this search, and examine the feature at 133 GeV in detail. We find that the use both of reprocessed data and of additional information in the energy dispersion model contributes to the reduction in significance of the linelike feature near 130 GeV relative to significances reported in other works. We also find that the feature is narrower than the LAT energy resolution at the level of 2 to 3 standard deviations, which somewhat disfavors the interpretation of the 133 GeV feature as a real WIMP signal.

  20. The application of the piecewise linear approximation to the spectral neighborhood of soil line for the analysis of the quality of normalization of remote sensing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulyanitsa, A. L.; Rukhovich, A. D.; Rukhovich, D. D.; Koroleva, P. V.; Rukhovich, D. I.; Simakova, M. S.

    2017-04-01

    The concept of soil line can be to describe the temporal distribution of spectral characteristics of the bare soil surface. In this case, the soil line can be referred to as the multi-temporal soil line, or simply temporal soil line (TSL). In order to create TSL for 8000 regular lattice points for the territory of three regions of Tula oblast, we used 34 Landsat images obtained in the period from 1985 to 2014 after their certain transformation. As Landsat images are the matrices of the values of spectral brightness, this transformation is the normalization of matrices. There are several methods of normalization that move, rotate, and scale the spectral plane. In our study, we applied the method of piecewise linear approximation to the spectral neighborhood of soil line in order to assess the quality of normalization mathematically. This approach allowed us to range normalization methods according to their quality as follows: classic normalization > successive application of the turn and shift > successive application of the atmospheric correction and shift > atmospheric correction > shift > turn > raw data. The normalized data allowed us to create the maps of the distribution of a and b coefficients of the TSL. The map of b coefficient is characterized by the high correlation with the ground-truth data obtained from 1899 soil pits described during the soil surveys performed by the local institute for land management (GIPROZEM).

  1. Review of Langmuir-wave-caused dips and charge-exchange-caused dips in spectral lines from plasmas and their applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dalimier, E.; Oks, E.; Renner, Oldřich

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2014), s. 178-194 ISSN 2218-2004 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101208 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Laser-matter interaction * spectral line profiles * Langmuir waves * plasma electron density * charge exchange rates Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  2. Influence of Laser Radiation Power Density on the Intensity of Spectral Lines for Main Components in a Clay Laser-Induced Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anufrik, S. S.; Kurian, N. N.; Znosko, K. F.; Belkov, M. V.

    2018-05-01

    We have studied the intensity of the spectral lines for the main components in clay: Al I 309.4 nm, Al II 358.7 nm, Mg II 279.6 nm, Ti II 323.6 nm vs. the position of the object relative to the focus of the optical system when the samples are exposed to single laser pulses from a YAG:Nd3+ laser. We have determined the permissible ranges for positioning the object relative to the focus of the optical system (positive and negative defocusing) for which there is practically no change in the reproducibility of the intensity for the spectral lines for red and white clay samples. We show that the position of the object relative to the focus of the optical system should be within the range ΔZ ±1.5 mm for optimal laser pulse energies for the analyte spectral lines. We have calculated the radiation flux density for different laser pulse energies and different distances from the focus to the object. We have shown experimentally that reducing the radiation flux density leads to a decrease in the intensity of the analyte spectral lines.

  3. Using RADMC-3D to model the radiative transfer of spectral lines in protoplanetary disks and envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, John; Terebey, Susan

    2018-06-01

    Protoplanetary disks are the birthplaces of planets in our universe. Observations of these disks with radio telescopes like the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) offer great insight into the star and planet formation process. Comparing theories of formation with observations requires tracing the energy transfer via electromagnetic radiation, known as radiative transfer. To determine the temperature distribution of circumstellar material, a Monte Carlo code (Whitney et al. [1]) was used to to perform the radiative transfer through dust. The goal of this research is to utilize RADMC-3D [2] to handle the spectral line radiative transfer computations. An existing model of a rotating ring was expanded to include emission from the C18O isotopologue of carbon monoxide using data from the Leiden Atomic and Molecular Database (LAMDA). This feature of our model compliments ALMA's ability to measure C18O line emission, a proxy for disk rotation. In addition to modeling gas in the protoplanetary disk, dust also plays an important role. The generic description of absorption and scattering for dust provided by RADMC-3D was changed in favor of a more physically-realistic description with OH5 grains. This description is more appropriate in high-density regions of the envelope around a protostar. Further improvements, such as consideration for the finite resolution of observations, have been implemented. The task at present is to compare our model with observations of protoplanetary systems like L1527. Some results of these comparisons will be presented.[1] Whitney et al. 2013, ApJS, 207:30[2] RADMC-3D: http://www.ita.uni-heidelberg.de/~dullemond/software/radmc-3d/

  4. X-ray diffraction patterns and diffracted intensity of Kα spectral lines of He-like ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Arun; Khatri, Indu; Singh, A. K.; Sharma, Rinku; Mohan, Man

    2017-09-01

    In the present paper, we have calculated fine-structure energy levels related to the configurations 1s2s, 1s2p, 1s3s and 1s3p by employing GRASP2K code. We have also computed radiative data for transitions from 1s2p 1 P1o, 1s2p 3 P2o, 1s2p 3 P1o and 1s2s 3S1 to the ground state 1s2. We have made comparisons of our presented energy levels and transition wavelengths with available results compiled by NIST and good agreement is achieved. We have also provided X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of Kα spectral lines, namely w, x, y and z of Cu XXVIII, Kr XXXV and Mo with diffraction angle and maximum diffracted intensity which is not published elsewhere in the literature. We believe that our presented results may be beneficial in determination of the order parameter, X-ray crystallography, solid-state drug analysis, forensic science, geological and medical applications.

  5. Estimation of Signal Coherence Threshold and Concealed Spectral Lines Applied to Detection of Turbofan Engine Combustion Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Jeffrey Hilton

    2010-01-01

    Combustion noise from turbofan engines has become important, as the noise from sources like the fan and jet are reduced. An aligned and un-aligned coherence technique has been developed to determine a threshold level for the coherence and thereby help to separate the coherent combustion noise source from other noise sources measured with far-field microphones. This method is compared with a statistics based coherence threshold estimation method. In addition, the un-aligned coherence procedure at the same time also reveals periodicities, spectral lines, and undamped sinusoids hidden by broadband turbofan engine noise. In calculating the coherence threshold using a statistical method, one may use either the number of independent records or a larger number corresponding to the number of overlapped records used to create the average. Using data from a turbofan engine and a simulation this paper shows that applying the Fisher z-transform to the un-aligned coherence can aid in making the proper selection of samples and produce a reasonable statistics based coherence threshold. Examples are presented showing that the underlying tonal and coherent broad band structure which is buried under random broadband noise and jet noise can be determined. The method also shows the possible presence of indirect combustion noise. Copyright 2011 Acoustical Society of America. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the Acoustical Society of America.

  6. Argus+: The Future of Wide-Field, Spectral-Line Imaging at 3-mm with the Green Bank Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalena, Ronald; Frayer, David; Lockman, Felix; O'Neil, Karen; White, Steven; Argus+ Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Robert C Byrd Green Bank Telescope has met its design goal of providing high-quality observations at 115 GHz. Observers also have access to the new, 16-pixel, 3-mm Argus receiver, which is providing high-dynamic range images over wide fields for the multitude of spectral lines between 85 and 115 GHz, including CO, 13CO, C18O, SiO, HCN, HCO+, HNC, N2H+, and CS. The small number of pixels in Argus limits its ability to map many of the most interesting objects whose extent exceeds many arc-minutes. The successful performance of Argus, and its modular design, demonstrates that receivers with many more pixels could be built for the GBT. A 12 x 12 array of the Argus design would have mapping speeds about nine times faster than Argus without suffering any degradation in performance for the outer pixels in the array. We present our plans to build the next-generation Argus instrument (Argus+) with 144-pixels, a footprint 5’x5’, and 7" resolution at 110 GHz. The project will be a collaboration between the Green Bank Observatory and university groups, who will supply key components. The key science drivers for Argus+ are studies of molecular filaments in the Milky Way, studies of molecular clouds in nearby galaxies, and the observations of rapidly evolving solar system objects.

  7. The importance of nuclear quantum effects in spectral line broadening of optical spectra and electrostatic properties in aromatic chromophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Y. K.; Hassanali, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we examine the importance of nuclear quantum effects on capturing the line broadening and vibronic structure of optical spectra. We determine the absorption spectra of three aromatic molecules indole, pyridine, and benzene using time dependent density functional theory with several molecular dynamics sampling protocols: force-field based empirical potentials, ab initio simulations, and finally path-integrals for the inclusion of nuclear quantum effects. We show that the absorption spectrum for all these chromophores are similarly broadened in the presence of nuclear quantum effects regardless of the presence of hydrogen bond donor or acceptor groups. We also show that simulations incorporating nuclear quantum effects are able to reproduce the heterogeneous broadening of the absorption spectra even with empirical force fields. The spectral broadening associated with nuclear quantum effects can be accounted for by the broadened distribution of chromophore size as revealed by a particle in the box model. We also highlight the role that nuclear quantum effects have on the underlying electronic structure of aromatic molecules as probed by various electrostatic properties.

  8. A Deep Chandra ACIS Study of NGC 4151. III. The Line Emission and Spectral Analysis of the Ionization Cone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junfeng; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Elvis, Martin; Risaliti, Guido; Karovska, Margarita; Zezas, Andreas; Mundell, Carole G.; Dumas, Gaelle; Schinnerer, Eva

    2011-11-01

    This paper is the third in a series in which we present deep Chandra ACIS-S imaging spectroscopy of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151, devoted to study its complex circumnuclear X-ray emission. Emission features in the soft X-ray spectrum of the bright extended emission (L 0.3-2 keV ~ 1040 erg s-1) at r > 130 pc (2'') are consistent with blended brighter O VII, O VIII, and Ne IX lines seen in the Chandra HETGS and XMM-Newton RGS spectra below 2 keV. We construct emission line images of these features and find good morphological correlations with the narrow-line region clouds mapped in [O III] λ5007. Self-consistent photoionization models provide good descriptions of the spectra of the large-scale emission, as well as resolved structures, supporting the dominant role of nuclear photoionization, although displacement of optical and X-ray features implies a more complex medium. Collisionally ionized emission is estimated to be lsim12% of the extended emission. Presence of both low- and high-ionization spectral components and extended emission in the X-ray image perpendicular to the bicone indicates leakage of nuclear ionization, likely filtered through warm absorbers, instead of being blocked by a continuous obscuring torus. The ratios of [O III]/soft X-ray flux are approximately constant (~15) for the 1.5 kpc radius spanned by these measurements, indicating similar relative contributions from the low- and high-ionization gas phases at different radial distances from the nucleus. If the [O III] and X-ray emission arise from a single photoionized medium, this further implies an outflow with a wind-like density profile. Using spatially resolved X-ray features, we estimate that the mass outflow rate in NGC 4151 is ~2 M ⊙ yr-1 at 130 pc and the kinematic power of the ionized outflow is 1.7 × 1041 erg s-1, approximately 0.3% of the bolometric luminosity of the active nucleus in NGC 4151.

  9. Spectral sensitization of TiO2 by new hemicyanine dyes in dye solar cell yielding enhanced photovoltage: Probing chain length effect on performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadadu, Kishan B.; Soni, Saurabh S.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: New hemicyanine dyes based on indolenine moiety were utilized as light harvesting materials in dye sensitized solar cell. Chain lengths of the molecules were varied in order to study its effect of chain length on the performance of DSSC. Electron transfer kinetic of the solar cell was studied and it was found that the chain length changes the electron transfer kinetic. We have achieved remarkable photovoltage and overall performance of DSSC. Highlights: ► New hemicyanine dyes based on indolenine moiety were utilized as light harvesting materials in dye sensitized solar cell. ► Chain lengths of the molecules were varied in order to study its effect of chain length on the performance of DSSC. ► Electron transfer kinetic of the solar cell was studied and it was found that the chain length changes the electron transfer kinetic. -- Abstract: New hemicyanine dyes having indole nucleus with different alkyl chain length were synthesized and characterized using 1 H NMR and mass spectroscopy. These dyes were used to sensitize the TiO 2 film in dye sensitized solar cell. Nanocrystalline dye solar cells were fabricated and characterized using various electrochemical techniques. It has been found that the alkyl chain length present in the dye molecules greatly affects the overall performance of dye solar cell. Molecules having longer alkyl chain are having better sensitizers which enhance V oc to significant extent. Chain length dependent performance was further investigated using Tafel polarization and impedance method. Hemicyanine dye having hexyl chain has outperformed by attaining 2.9% solar to electricity conversion efficiency

  10. Raman Microspectroscopic Mapping with Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) Applied to the High-Pressure Polymorph of Titanium Dioxide, TiO2-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph P; Smith, Frank C; Ottaway, Joshua; Krull-Davatzes, Alexandra E; Simonson, Bruce M; Glass, Billy P; Booksh, Karl S

    2017-08-01

    The high-pressure, α-PbO 2 -structured polymorph of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 -II) was recently identified in micrometer-sized grains recovered from four Neoarchean spherule layers deposited between ∼2.65 and ∼2.54 billion years ago. Several lines of evidence support the interpretation that these layers represent distal impact ejecta layers. The presence of shock-induced TiO 2 -II provides physical evidence to further support an impact origin for these spherule layers. Detailed characterization of the distribution of TiO 2 -II in these grains may be useful for correlating the layers, estimating the paleodistances of the layers from their source craters, and providing insight into the formation of the TiO 2 -II. Here we report the investigation of TiO 2 -II-bearing grains from these four spherule layers using multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) applied to Raman microspectroscopic mapping. Raman spectra provide evidence of grains consisting primarily of rutile (TiO 2 ) and TiO 2 -II, as shown by Raman bands at 174 cm -1 (TiO 2 -II), 426 cm -1 (TiO 2 -II), 443 cm -1 (rutile), and 610 cm -1 (rutile). Principal component analysis (PCA) yielded a predominantly three-phase system comprised of rutile, TiO 2 -II, and substrate-adhesive epoxy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggests heterogeneous grains containing polydispersed micrometer- and submicrometer-sized particles. Multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares applied to the Raman microspectroscopic mapping yielded up to five distinct chemical components: three phases of TiO 2 (rutile, TiO 2 -II, and anatase), quartz (SiO 2 ), and substrate-adhesive epoxy. Spectral profiles and spatially resolved chemical maps of the pure chemical components were generated using MCR-ALS applied to the Raman microspectroscopic maps. The spatial resolution of the Raman microspectroscopic maps was enhanced in comparable, cost-effective analysis times by limiting spectral resolution

  11. Plasma satellites of X-ray spectral lines of ions in a plasma of solid-state targets, heated by a picosecond laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, V.S.; Vinogradov, V.I.; Kurilov, A.S.; Matafonov, A.P.; Lisitsa, V.S.; Gavrilenko, V.P.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A.; Skobelev, I.Yu.; Magunov, A.I.; Pikuz, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    The results of measuring the ions X-ray spectral lines by the interaction of the picosecond laser pulses with the solid-state target are presented. The spectra of the X-ray radiation were observed on the fluorine ion line. The spectral lines satellites, testifying to the availability, are identified. The position of the satellites and the distance between them make it possible to connect them with the intensive electrostatic oscillations with the amplitude, exceeding 10 8 V/cm, and the frequency close to 7 x 10 14 s -1 , substantially lower than the laser wave frequency. The experimental results are compared with the calculated data on the multicharge ions spectra [ru

  12. Influence of dust particles on the neon spectral line intensities at the uniform positive column of dc discharge at the space apparatus “Plasma Kristall-4”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usachev, A. D.; Zobnin, A. V.; Shonenkov, A. V.; Lipaev, A. M.; Molotkov, V. I.; Petrov, O. F.; Fortov, V. E.; Pustyl'nik, M. Y.; Fink, M. A.; Thoma, M. A.; Thomas, H. M.; Padalka, G. I.

    2018-01-01

    Influence of the elongated dust cloud on the intensities of different neon spectral lines in visible and near ir spectral ranges in the uniform positive column has been experimentally investigated using the Russian-European space apparatus “Plasma Kristall-4” (SA PK-4) on board of the International Space Station (ISS). The investigation was performed in the low pressure (0.5 mbar) direct current (dc, 1 mA) gas discharge in neon. Microgravity allowed us to perform experiments with a large dust cloud in the steady-state regime. To avoid the dust cloud drift in the dc electric field a switching dc polarity discharge mode has been applied. During the experiment a dust cloud of 9 mm in diameter in the discharge tube of 30 mm in diameter with the length of about 100 mm has been observed in the steady-state regime. In this regard, the intensities of neon spectral lines corresponding to 3p → 3s electronic transitions have increased by a factor of 1.4 times, while the intensities of neon spectral lines corresponding to 3d → 3p electronic transitions have increased by a factor of 1.6 times. The observed phenomenon is explained on the basis of the Schottky approach by a self-consistent rising dc electric field in the dusty plasma cloud resulting in an increase of the electron temperature.

  13. Spectral line survey toward the spiral arm of M51 in the 3 and 2 mm bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Sorai, Kazuo, E-mail: nabe@taurus.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics/Department of Cosmoscience, Hokkaido University, Kita 10, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan)

    2014-06-10

    We have conducted a spectral line survey in the 3 and 2 mm bands toward two positions in a spiral arm of M51 (NGC 5194) with the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique 30 m telescope. In this survey, we have identified 13 molecular species, including CN, CCH, N{sub 2}H{sup +}, HNCO, and CH{sub 3}OH. Furthermore, six isotopologues of the major species have been detected. On the other hand, SiO, HC{sub 3}N, CH{sub 3}CN, and deuterated species such as DCN and DCO{sup +} were not detected. The deuterium fractionation ratios are evaluated to be less than 0.8% and 1.2% for DCN/HCN and DCO{sup +}/HCO{sup +}, respectively. By comparing the results of the two positions with different star formation activities, we have found that the observed chemical compositions do not strongly depend on star formation activities. They seem to reflect a chemical composition averaged over the 1 kpc scale region including many giant molecular clouds. Among the detected molecules CN, CCH, and CH{sub 3}OH are found to be abundant. High abundances of CN and CCH are consistent with the above picture of a widespread distribution of molecules because they can be produced by photodissociation. On the other hand, it seems likely that CH{sub 3}OH is liberated in the gas phase by shocks associated with large-scale phenomena such as cloud-cloud collisions and/or by nonthermal desorption processes such as photoevaporation due to cosmic-ray-induced UV photons. The present result demonstrates a characteristic chemical composition of a giant molecular cloud complex in the spiral arm, which can be used as a standard reference for studying chemistry in active galactic nuclei and starbursts.

  14. The structural defects and UV-VIS spectral characterization of TiO2 particles doped in the lattice with Cr3+ cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.L.; Cui, Z.L.; Zhang, Z.K.

    2005-01-01

    Titania nanoparticles doped with Cr 3+ (2% relative to molar quantity of titania) were prepared and examined by EDS, HRTEM, XRD, and UV-VIS analysis. HRTEM images showed the detailed atomic arrays and vacancy defects of the doped Titania nanocrystals and revealed that the implanted Cr element existed in titania mainly as Cr 3+ ions which located at the lattice positions of Ti 4+ ions. Compared with pure titania, the UV-VIS spectra of the Cr 3+ doped titania show significantly increased absorbance in visible light region. This indicated that the presence of the Cr 3+ ions affected the lattice structure of titania nanocrystals and plays an reformative role in spectral feature of titania

  15. Measured, calculated and predicted Stark widths of the singly ionized C, N, O, F, Ne, Si, P, S, Cl and Ar spectral lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeniže S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to find reliable Stark width data, needed in plasma spectroscopy comparision between the existing measured, calculated and predicted Stark width values was performed for ten singly ionized emitters: C, N, O, F, Ne Si, P, S, Cl and Ar in the lower lying 3s - 3p, 3p - 3d and 4s - 4p transitions. These emitters are present in many cosmic light sources. On the basis of the agreement between mentioned values 17 spectral lines from six singly ionized spectra have been recommended, for the first time, for plasma spectroscopy as spectral lines with reliable Stark width data. Critical analysis of the existing Stark width data is also given.

  16. Theoretical Stark broadening parameters for spectral lines arising from the 2p5ns, 2p5np and 2p5nd electronic configurations of Mg III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón, C.; Moreno-Díaz, C.; Alonso-Medina, A.

    2013-10-01

    In the present work we report theoretical Stark widths and shifts calculated using the Griem semi-empirical approach, corresponding to 237 spectral lines of Mg III. Data are presented for an electron density of 1017 cm-3 and temperatures T = 0.5-10.0 (104K). The matrix elements used in these calculations have been determined from 23 configurations of Mg III: 2s22p6, 2s22p53p, 2s22p54p, 2s22p54f and 2s22p55f for even parity and 2s22p5ns (n = 3-6), 2s22p5nd (n = 3-9), 2s22p55g and 2s2p6np (n = 3-8) for odd parity. For the intermediate coupling (IC) calculations, we use the standard method of least-squares fitting from experimental energy levels by means of the Cowan computer code. Also, in order to test the matrix elements used in our calculations, we present calculated values of 70 transition probabilities of Mg III spectral lines and 14 calculated values of radiative lifetimes of Mg III levels. There is good agreement between our calculations and experimental radiative lifetimes. Spectral lines of Mg III are relevant in astrophysics and also play an important role in the spectral analysis of laboratory plasma. Theoretical trends of the Stark broadening parameter versus the temperature for relevant lines are presented. No values of Stark parameters can be found in the bibliography.

  17. Using the van der Waals broadening of the spectral atomic lines to measure the gas temperature of an argon microwave plasma at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yubero, C.; Dimitrijevic, M.S.; Garcia, M.C.; Calzada, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    The ro-vibrational emission spectra of the molecular species are usually used to measure the gas temperature of a discharge at atmospheric pressure. However, under some experimental conditions, it is difficult to detect them. In order to overcome this difficulty and obtain the temperature, there are methods based on the relation between the gas temperature and the van der Waals broadening of argon atomic spectral lines with a Stark contribution negligible. In this work, we propose a method based on this relation but for lines with a Stark broadening comparable with the van der Waals one

  18. Modeling of the He-like magnesium spectral lines radiation from the plasma created by XeCl and Nd-glass lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, A. E.; Starostin, A. N.; Roerich, V. C.; Makhrov, V. A.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Magunov, A. I.; Pikuz, T. A.; Skobelev, I. Yu.; Flora, F.; Bollanti, S.; Di Lazzaro, P.; Lisi, N.; Letardi, T.; Palladino, L.; Reale, A.; Batani, D.; Bossi, S.; Bornadinelo, A.; Scafati, A.; Reale, L.

    1997-01-01

    Resonant and intercombination spectral lines formation of He-like magnesium is analyzed both experimentally and numerically. It is shown that in plasma created by XeCl laser at flux density 8·10 12 W/cm 2 the peak of electron temperature is placed downstream from the critical surface at density significantly smaller than critical, and radiation in both resonant and recombination lines is also produced by the plasma region with density below critical. Simulations also show significant line radiation at large distances (1-2 mm) from the target as it was observed in experiments. This secondary peak is produced by a compression wave forming near the plasma front. As opposite, radiation in these lines in plasma created by Nd-glass laser at flux density 5·10 13 W/cm 2 comes from the plasma region placed deeper than the critical surface and has no tail at large distances

  19. Theoretical Stark widths and shifts of spectral lines of 2p5nf and 2p55g configurations of Mg III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno-Díaz, Cristina; Alonso-Medina, Aurelia; Colón, Cristóbal

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report theoretical Stark widths and shifts calculated using the Griem semi-empirical approach, which corresponds to 111 spectral lines of Mg III. The values of these Stark broadening parameters of spectral lines that arise from levels of 2p 5 nf and 2p 5 5g configurations of Mg III are presented in the literature for the first time. The aim of this work is to provide values to estimate the electron density of plasma Mg III in astrophysics and industrial applications. The data are presented for the temperatures T = 0.5–10.0 (10 4 K) and for an electron density of 10 17 cm −3 . The matrix of elements used in these calculations has been determined from 23 configurations of Mg III: 2s 2 2p 6 , 2s 2 2p 5 3p, 2s 2 2p 5 4p, 2s 2 2p 5 4f and 2s 2 2p 5 5f for the even parity and 2s 2 2p 5 ns (n = 3–6), 2s 2 2p 5 nd (n = 3–9), 2s 2 2p 5 5g and 2s2p 6 np (n = 3–8) for the odd parity. For the intermediate coupling calculations, we use the standard method of least square fitting from experimental energy levels by means of Cowan’s computer code. Lines with wavelengths of 134.6460, 135.2800, 189.0380, 190.0043, 192.8424, 408.2939 and 409.4375 nm have high probabilities and also have high values of broadening. Therefore, these lines can be used in some applications. A common regularity for the Stark width of the 189.038 nm spectral line of Mg III is discussed. (paper)

  20. [Spectral Analysis of CdZnSe Ternary Quantum Dots Sensitized TiO2 Tubes and Its Application in Visible-Light Photocatalysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhi-zhong; Ren, Li-li; Pan, Hai-bo; Li, Chun-yan; Chen, Jing-hua; Chen, Jian-zhong

    2015-11-01

    In this work, cadmium nitrate hexahydrate [Cd(NO₃)₂ · 6H₂O] is as a source of cadmium, zinc nitrate [Zn(NO₃)₂] as a source of zinc source, and NaHSe as a source of selenium which was prepared through reducing the elemental selenium with sodium borohydride (NaBH₄). Then water-soluble Cd₁₋xZnxSe ternary quantum dots with different component were prepared by colloid chemistry. The as-prepared Cd₁₋xZnx Se ternary quantum dots exhibit stable fluorescent property in aqueous solution, and can still maintain good dispersivity at room temperature for four months. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) were used to analyze crystal structure and morphology of the prepared Cd₁₋xZnxSe. It is found that the as-prepared ternary quantum dots are cubic phase, show as sphere, and the average of particle size is approximate 4 nm. The spectral properties and energy band structure of the as-prepared ternary quantum dots were modulated through changing the atom ratio of elements Zn and Cd. Compared with binary quantum dots CdSe and ZnSe, the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Visible) absorption spectrum and fluorescence (FL) emission spectrum of ternary quantum dots are both red-shift. The composites (Cd₀.₅ Zn₀.₅ Se@TNTs) of Cd₀.₅ Zn₀.₅ Se ternary quantum dots and TiO₂ nanotubes (TNTs) were prepared by directly immerging TNTs into quantum dots dispersive solution for 5 hours. TEM image shows that the Cd₀.₅ Zn₀.₅ Se ternary quantum dots were closely combined to nanotube surface. The infrared spectra show that the Ti-Se bond was formed between Cd₀.₅ Zn₀.₅ Se ternary quantum dots and TiO₂ nanotubes, which improve the stability of the composite. Compared to pristine TNTs, UV-Visible absorption spectrum of the composites is significantly enhanced in the visible region of light. And the absorption band edge of Cd₀.₅Zn₀.₅ Se@TNTs red-shift from 400 to 700 nm. The recombination of the

  1. Hyperfine Structure of Spectral Lines of 143Nd+, 145Nd+, 139La+, 141Pr+ and 137Ba+ Investigated by Collinear Laser Ion Beam Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjum, N.

    2012-01-01

    In this research work the hyperfine structures of spectral lines of barium (Ba) and three lanthanides elements; praseodymium (Pr), lanthanum (La) and neodymium (Nd) have been investigated. The hyperfine splitting factors A and B of the involved levels have been determined with high accuracy and the data are compared with other published results. This research work is divided in four parts. In the 1st part, the hyperfine structures of the spectral lines of the singly ionized praseodymium (Pr II) are investigated by three different laser spectroscopic techniques; laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy, inter-modulated saturation spectroscopy and collinear laser ion beam spectroscopy (CLIBS). The 2nd part is concerned with the a control-check of the Marburg mass separator (MARS-II), as it was shifted from the University of Marburg, Germany, to Graz University of Technology in 2002. The check is performed using a well known spectral line 5853.67 Å of the odd isotope of singly ionized barium (137Ba II). In the 3rd part of this work the hyperfine structure of spectral lines of lanthanum-139 ions (139La II) is investigated. The 4th part is devoted to the investigation of the hyperfine structure of spectral lines of two odd isotopes of singly ionized neodymium (143Nd II and 145Nd II) and the determination of the coupling constants A and B of the involved levels. To determine the hyperfine anomaly the ratios of the magnetic dipole constants, i.e A143/A145, and the electric quadrupole constants B143/B145 of the corresponding levels are also calculated. The last three parts of this research project are executed using the high resolution, Doppler reduced method of CLIBS. In CLIBS technique the ions are accelerated by applying a high potential difference (∼ 20 kV). Due to the accelerating cooling (kinematic compression) the spread in velocities in the direction of the flight is reduced several times, hence the Doppler width is reduced. The accelerated ion beam is mass

  2. FIRST LONG-TERM OPTICAL SPECTRAL MONITORING OF A BINARY BLACK HOLE CANDIDATE E1821+643. I. VARIABILITY OF SPECTRAL LINES AND CONTINUUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapovalova, A. I.; Burenkov, A. N.; Zhdanova, V. E.; Popović, L. Č.; Chavushyan, V. H.; Valdés, J. R.; Patiño-Álvarez, V.; León-Tavares, J.; Torrealba, J.; Ilić, D.; Kovačević, A.; Kollatschny, W.

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of the first long-term (1990–2014) optical spectrophotometric monitoring of a binary black hole candidate QSO E1821+643, a low-redshift, high-luminosity, radio-quiet quasar. In the monitored period, the continua and Hγ fluxes changed about two times, while the Hβ flux changed about 1.4 times. We found periodical variations in the photometric flux with periods of 1200, 1850, and 4000 days, and 4500-day periodicity in the spectroscopic variations. However, the periodicity of 4000–4500 days covers only one cycle of variation and should be confirmed with a longer monitoring campaign. There is an indication of the period around 1300 days in the spectroscopic light curves, buts with small significance level, while the 1850-day period could not be clearly identified in the spectroscopic light curves. The line profiles have not significantly changed, showing an important red asymmetry and broad line peak redshifted around +1000 km s −1 . However, Hβ shows a broader mean profile and has a larger time lag (τ ∼ 120 days) than Hγ (τ ∼ 60 days). We estimate that the mass of the black hole is ∼2.6 × 10 9 M ⊙ . The obtained results are discussed in the frame of the binary black hole hypothesis. To explain the periodicity in the flux variability and high redshift of the broad lines, we discuss a scenario where dense, gas-rich, cloudy-like structures are orbiting around a recoiling black hole

  3. Magnetic fields in proton solar flare of X17.2/4B class according to data of simultaneous measurements in a few spectral lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozitsky, V.; Lozitska, N.

    2017-06-01

    Spectral-polarized magnetic field measurements in solar flare of 28 October 2003 of X17.2/4B class are compared in six FeI lines and in Hα line. Observations were carried out on Echelle spectrograph of horizontal solar telescope of Astronomical Observatory of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. Presented data relate to peak phase of flare and a place of photosphere outside sunspots where effective (average) magnetic field in FeI 6302.5 line was about 100 G and had S polarity. Measured splitting of emissive peaks in cores of strong FeI lines of 15th multiplet correspond to stronger fields, in range 550-700 G and S polarity too. Noticeablre splitting of emissive peaks (11-20 mÅ) were found also in Fe I 5434.527 line with effective Lande factor geff = -0.014. Value of this splitting and its sign indicate the existence of extremely strong fields of 25-50 kG of opposite (N) polarity which had negative Doppler velocities (lifting of plasma) on level of 1.7-2.2 km/sec. Magnetic field according to Hα line was 300 G and N polarity. Presented results indicate the essential inhomogeneity of magnetic field in flare volume which include the opposite polarities along the line of sight and wide range of effective magnetic fields.

  4. Spectral shapes of Ar-broadened HCl lines in the fundamental band by classical molecular dynamics simulations and comparison with experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, H., E-mail: ha.tran@lisa.u-pec.fr [Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, UMR CNRS 7583, Université Paris Est Créteil, Université Paris Diderot, Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace, 94010 Créteil Cedex (France); Domenech, J.-L. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, (IEM-CSIC), Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-14

    Spectral shapes of isolated lines of HCl perturbed by Ar are investigated for the first time using classical molecular dynamics simulations (CMDS). Using reliable intermolecular potentials taken from the literature, these CMDS provide the time evolution of the auto-correlation function of the dipole moment, whose Fourier-Laplace transform leads to the absorption spectrum. In order to test these calculations, room temperature spectra of various lines in the fundamental band of HCl diluted in Ar are measured, in a large pressure range, with a difference-frequency laser spectrometer. Comparisons between measured and calculated spectra show that the CMDS are able to predict the large Dicke narrowing effect on the shape of HCl lines and to satisfactorily reproduce the shapes of HCl spectra at different pressures and for various rotational quantum numbers.

  5. Curves of growth of spectral lines emitted by a laser-induced plasma: influence of the temporal evolution and spatial inhomogeneity of the plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilera, J.A.; Bengoechea, J.; Aragon, C. E-mail: carlos.aragon@unavarra.es

    2003-02-03

    The curves of growth (COG) of five Fe I lines emitted from a laser-induced plasma, generated with Fe-Ni alloys in air at atmospheric pressure, have been investigated. Spectral lines with different energy levels and line widths, emitted with a broad range of optical depths, have been included in the study in order to check the validity of theoretical models proposed for COG generation, based in the radiative transfer within a plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The COGs have been measured at time windows of 4-5 {mu}s and 15-18 {mu}s. The Stark widths of the Fe I lines have been obtained, and the line widths have been determined by measuring the plasma electron density at the time windows selected. It is shown that at a time window of 4-5 {mu}s, the inhomogeneity of the plasma magnitudes has an important influence on the COGs of intense lines. For this time window, a two-region model of the plasma has been used to generate theoretical COGs that describe satisfactorily the experimental curves of all the lines using a single set of plasma parameters. The results reveal the existence of considerable gradients between the inner and the outer plasma regions in the temperature (9400-7800 K) and in the density of Fe atoms (4x10{sup 16}-0.02x10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} for a sample with 100% Fe). On the contrary, at the time window 15-18 {mu}s, at which the plasma has suffered most of its expansion and cooling process, the COGs of all the lines may be described by a single-region model, corresponding to a plasma with uniform temperature (6700 K) and density of Fe atoms (0.06x10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} for a sample with 100% Fe). It is also shown that at initial times, the plasma inhomogeneity has an important effect in the line profiles of intense spectral lines, which are described by using the two-region model of the laser-induced plasma.

  6. THE AKARI 2.5-5.0 μm SPECTRAL ATLAS OF TYPE-1 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATOR, LINE RATIO, AND HOT DUST TEMPERATURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dohyeong; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Ji Hoon; Jun, Hyunsung David; Lee, Seong-Kook [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Shillim-Dong, Kwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Jong-Hak; Lee, Hyung Mok; Lee, Myung Gyoon [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Shillim-Dong, Kwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Nakagawa, Takao; Matsuhara, Hideo; Wada, Takehiko; Takagi, Toshinobu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Oyabu, Shinki [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Ohyama, Youichi, E-mail: dohyeong@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: mim@astro.snu.ac.kr [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2015-01-01

    We present 2.5-5.0 μm spectra of 83 nearby (0.002 < z < 0.48) and bright (K < 14 mag) type-1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) taken with the Infrared Camera on board AKARI. The 2.5-5.0 μm spectral region contains emission lines such as Brβ (2.63 μm), Brα (4.05 μm), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (3.3 μm), which can be used for studying the black hole (BH) masses and star formation activity in the host galaxies of AGNs. The spectral region also suffers less dust extinction than in the ultra violet (UV) or optical wavelengths, which may provide an unobscured view of dusty AGNs. Our sample is selected from bright quasar surveys of Palomar-Green and SNUQSO, and AGNs with reverberation-mapped BH masses from Peterson et al. Using 11 AGNs with reliable detection of Brackett lines, we derive the Brackett-line-based BH mass estimators. We also find that the observed Brackett line ratios can be explained with the commonly adopted physical conditions of the broad line region. Moreover, we fit the hot and warm dust components of the dust torus by adding photometric data of SDSS, 2MASS, WISE, and ISO to the AKARI spectra, finding hot and warm dust temperatures of ∼1100 K and ∼220 K, respectively, rather than the commonly cited hot dust temperature of 1500 K.

  7. Measurements of radiation near an atomic spectral line from the interaction of a 30 GeV electron beam and a long plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catravas, P.E.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W.P.; Assmann, R.; Decker, F.-J.; Hogan, M.J.; Iverson, R.; Siemann, R.H.; Walz, D.; Whittum, D.; Blue, B.; Clayton, C; Joshi, C.; Marsh, K.A.; Mori, W.B.; Wang, S.; Katsouleas, T.; Lee, S.; Muggli, P.

    2000-01-01

    Emissions produced or initiated by a 30 GeV electron beam propagating through a ∼ 1 m long heat pipe oven containing neutral and partially ionized vapor have been measured near atomic spectral lines in a beam-plasma wakefield experiment. The Cerenkov spatial profile has been studied as a function of oven temperature and pressure, observation wavelength, and ionizing laser intensity and delay. The Cerenkov peak angle is affected by the creating of plasma, and estimates of neutral and plasma density have been extracted. Increases in visible background radiation, consistent with increased plasma recombination emissions due to dissipation of wakefields, were simultaneously measured

  8. Pressure effects on some argon spectral lines belonging to the 3p54p-3p5nd (n=5-7) transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolnikowski, J.; Wawrzynski, J.; Bielski, A.; Szudy, J.

    1987-01-01

    Low pressure broadening and shift of four spectral lines of argon: 518.7 nm (3p 5 4p-3p 5 5d'), 522.1 nm (3p 5 4p-3p 5 7d), 549.6 nm (3p 5 4p-3p 5 6d) and 603.2 nm (3p 5 4p-3p 5 5d) have been investigated by means of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The values of the pressure broadening and shift coefficients for argon-argon, argon-neon and argon-helium interactions in the low-current glow discharge conditions are determined. For all lines in the pure argon a red shift and in the argon-neon and argon-helium mixtures a blue shift has been found. The results cannot be interpreted on the basis of the existing simple interaction potential models within the framework of the adiabatic impact broadening theory. (orig.)

  9. Magnetic field effects on spectrally resolved lifetime of on-line oxygen monitoring using magneto-optic probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermut, O.; Gallant, P.; Le Bouch, N.; Leclair, S.; Noiseux, I.; Vernon, M.; Morin, J.-F.; Diamond, K.; Patterson, M. S.; Samkoe, K.; Pogue, B.

    2009-02-01

    Multimodal agents that serve as both probes for contrast and light-activated effectors of cellular processes in diseased tissue were developed. These agents were introduced into multicellular tumor spheroids (3D tissue models) and in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of a chicken embryo. The luminescence decay was examined using a novel technique involving a spectrally-resolved fluorescence lifetime apparatus integrated with a weak electromagnet. A spectrallyresolved lifetime setup was used to identify magneto-optic species sensitive to magnetic field effects and distinguish from background emissions. We demonstrate that the applied magnetic fields can alter reaction rates and product distribution of some dyes detected by time- and spectrally-resolved luminescence changes. We will discuss the use of exogenous magneto-optical probes taken up in tumors to both induce phototoxicity, a process that is governed by complex and dynamically evolving mechanisms involving reactive oxygen species, and monitor treatment progress. The magnetic field enhancement, measured over a range of weak fields (0-300 mT) is correlated to oxygenation and may be used to monitor dynamic changes occurring due to oxygen consumption over the course of photodynamic therapy. Such online measurements provide the possibility to derive real-time information about response to treatment via monitoring magnetic field enhancement/suppression of the time-resolved, spectrally-resolved luminescence of the probe at the site of the treatment directly. Magnetic perturbation of lifetime can serve as a status reporter, providing optical feedback of oxygen-mediated treatments in situ and allowing for real-time adjustment of a phototherapy treatment plan.

  10. Mid-Infrared Interferometry on Spectral Lines. III. Ammonia and Silane around IRC +10216 and VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, J. D.; Danchi, W. C.; Hale, D. S.; Tuthill, P. G.; Townes, C. H.

    2000-11-01

    Using the University of California Berkeley Infrared Spatial Interferometer with a radio frequency (RF) filter bank, the first interferometric observations of mid-infrared molecular absorption features of ammonia (NH3) and silane (SiH4) with very high spectral resolution (λ/Δλ~105) were made. Under the assumptions of spherical symmetry and uniform outflow, these new data permitted the molecular stratification around carbon star IRC +10216 and red supergiant VY CMa to be investigated. For IRC +10216, both ammonia and silane were found to form in the dusty outflow significantly beyond both the dust formation and gas acceleration zones. Specifically, ammonia was found to form before silane in a region of decaying gas turbulence (>~20R*), while the silane is produced in a region of relatively smooth gas flow much farther from the star (>~80R*). The depletion of gas-phase SiS onto grains soon after dust formation may fuel silane-producing reactions on the grain surfaces. For VY CMa, a combination of interferometric and spectral observations suggest that NH3 is forming near the termination of the gas acceleration phase in a region of high gas turbulence (~40R*).

  11. A New Radio Spectral Line Survey of Planetary Nebulae: Exploring Radiatively-driven Heating and Chemistry of Molecular Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublitz, Jesse; Kastner, Joel H.; Santander-García, Miguel; Montez, Rodolfo; Alcolea, Javier; Balick, Bruce; Bujarrabal, Valentín

    2018-01-01

    We report the results of a survey of mm-wave molecular line emission from nine nearby (Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM) 30 m telescope. Our sample comprises molecule-rich PNe spanning a wide range of central star UV luminosities as well as central star and nebular X-ray emission properties. Nine molecular line frequencies were chosen to investigate the molecular chemistry of these nebulae. New detections of one or more of five molecules -- the molecular mass tracer 13CO and the chemically important trace species HCO+, CN, HCN, and HNC -- were made in at least one PN. We present analysis of emission line flux ratios that are potential diagnostics of the influence that ultraviolet and X-ray radiation have on the chemistry of residual molecular gas in PNe.

  12. Spectral properties of the narrow-line region in Seyfert galaxies selected from the SDSS-DR7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaona, L.; Ciroi, S.; Di Mille, F.; Cracco, V.; La Mura, G.; Rafanelli, P.

    2012-12-01

    Although the properties of the narrow-line region (NLR) of active galactic nuclei (AGN) have been deeply studied by many authors in the past three decades, many questions are still open. The main goal of this work is to explore the NLR of Seyfert galaxies by collecting a large statistical spectroscopic sample of Seyfert 2 and Intermediate-type Seyfert galaxies having a high signal-to-noise ratio in order to take advantage of a high number of emission lines to be accurately measured. 2153 Seyfert 2 and 521 Intermediate-type Seyfert spectra were selected from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS-DR7) with a diagnostic diagram based on the oxygen emission-line ratios. All the emission lines, broad components included, were measured by means of a self-developed code, after the subtraction of the stellar component. Physical parameters, such as internal reddening, ionization parameter, temperature, density, gas and stellar velocity dispersion were determined for each object. Furthermore, we estimated mass and radius of the NLR, kinetic energy of the ionized gas and black hole accretion rate. From the emission-line analysis and the estimated physical properties, it appears that the NLR is similar in Seyfert 2 and Intermediate-Seyfert galaxies. The only differences, lower extinction, gas kinematics in general not dominated by the host galaxy gravitational potential and higher percentage of [O III]λ5007 blue asymmetries in Intermediate-Seyfert, can be ascribed to an effect of inclination of our line of sight with respect to the torus axis.

  13. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  14. Experimental transition probabilities for several spectral lines arising from the 5d10 6s{8s, 7p, 5f, 5g} electronic configurations of Pb III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Medina, A.

    2010-01-01

    Transition probabilities for 30 spectral lines, arising from the 5d 10 6s{8s, 7p, 5f, 5g} electronic configurations of Pb III (20 measured for the first time), have been experimentally determined from measurements of emission line intensities in a plasma lead induced by ablation with a Nd:YAG laser. The line intensities were obtained with the target placed in molecular argon at 6 Torr, recorded at a 400 ns delay from the laser pulse, which provides appropriate measurement conditions, and analysed between 200 and 700 nm. They are measured when the plasma reaches local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The plasma under study had an electron temperature (T) of 21,400 K and an electron number density (N e ) of 7x10 16 cm -3 . The influence of self-absorption has been estimated for every line, and plasma homogeneity has been checked. The values obtained were compared with previous experimental values and theoretical estimates where possible.

  15. Adding the s-Process Element Cerium to the APOGEE Survey: Identification and Characterization of Ce II Lines in the H-band Spectral Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.; Hasselquist, Sten; Souto, Diogo; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Frinchaboy, Peter; García-Hernández, D. Anibal; Holtzman, Jon; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Jőnsson, Henrik; Majewski, Steven R.; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Nidever, David; Pinsonneault, Mark; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Sobeck, Jennifer; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Zamora, Olga; Zasowski, Gail; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.

    2017-08-01

    Nine Ce II lines have been identified and characterized within the spectral window observed by the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey (between λ1.51 and 1.69 μm). At solar metallicities, cerium is an element that is produced predominantly as a result of the slow capture of neutrons (the s-process) during asymptotic giant branch stellar evolution. The Ce II lines were identified using a combination of a high-resolution (R=λ /δ λ ={{100,000}}) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) spectrum of α Boo and an APOGEE spectrum (R = 22,400) of a metal-poor, but s-process enriched, red giant (2M16011638-1201525). Laboratory oscillator strengths are not available for these lines. Astrophysical gf-values were derived using α Boo as a standard star, with the absolute cerium abundance in α Boo set by using optical Ce II lines that have precise published laboratory gf-values. The near-infrared Ce II lines identified here are also analyzed, as consistency checks, in a small number of bright red giants using archival FTS spectra, as well as a small sample of APOGEE red giants, including two members of the open cluster NGC 6819, two field stars, and seven metal-poor N- and Al-rich stars. The conclusion is that this set of Ce II lines can be detected and analyzed in a large fraction of the APOGEE red giant sample and will be useful for probing chemical evolution of the s-process products in various populations of the Milky Way.

  16. Spectral Filtering Criteria for U-Band Test Light for In-Service Line Monitoring in Optical Fiber Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Nazuki; Izumita, Hisashi; Nakamura, Minoru

    2006-06-01

    In the fiber-to-the-home era, thousands of optical fibers will have to be accommodated in the central offices of optical access networks. To reduce maintenance costs and improve the service reliability of optical fiber networks, the authors must develop an optical fiber line testing system with a function for in-service line monitoring that uses a test light with a wavelength different from the communication light wavelength. To monitor an in-service line in an optical network, the effective rejection ratio of the test light must be taken into account. This ratio depends on the spectrum of the test light from the optical time-domain reflectometer and the rejection band of the filter in front of the optical network unit. The dependence of the effective rejection ratio as a function of the sideband suppression ratio (SBSR) and of the ratio of the rejection band to the bandwidth of the sideband noise d/D is clarified. When d/D =0.1 and the target effective rejection ratio of the filter is -40 dB, the SBSR and the filter loss of the termination cable must be -70 and -43 dB, respectively, or the SBSR must be -80 dB. When d/D service line monitoring for a 10-Gb/s transmission using a 1650-nm test light with an SBSR of -80 dB is also demonstrated.

  17. A New Radio Spectral Line Survey of Planetary Nebulae: Exploring Radiatively Driven Heating and Chemistry of Molecular Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublitz, Jesse

    Planetary nebulae contain shells of cold gas and dust whose heating and chemistry is likely driven by UV and X-ray emission from their central stars and from wind-collision-generated shocks. We present the results of a survey of molecular line emissions in the 88 - 235 GHz range from nine nearby (Radioastronomie Millimetrique. Rotational transitions of nine molecules, including the well-studied CO isotopologues and chemically important trace species, were observed and the results compared with and augmented by previous studies of molecular gas in PNe. Lines of the molecules HCO+, HNC, HCN, and CN, which were detected in most objects, represent new detections for five planetary nebulae in our study. Flux ratios were analyzed to identify correlations between the central star and/or nebular ultraviolet/X-ray luminosities and the molecular chemistries of the nebulae. Analysis reveals the apparent dependence of the HNC/HCN line ratio on PN central star UV luminosity. There exists no such clear correlation between PN X-rays and various diagnostics of PN molecular chemistry. The correlation between HNC/HCN ratio and central star UV luminosity hints at the potential of molecular emission line studies of PNe for improving our understanding of the role that high-energy radiation plays in the heating and chemistry of photodissociation regions.

  18. A TALE OF TWO NARROW-LINE REGIONS: IONIZATION, KINEMATICS, AND SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS FOR A LOCAL PAIR OF MERGING OBSCURED ACTIVE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hainline, Kevin N.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Chen, Chien-Ting; Carroll, Christopher M.; Jones, Mackenzie L.; Zervos, Alexandros S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Goulding, Andrew D. [Department Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-05-20

    We explore the gas ionization and kinematics, as well as the optical-IR spectral energy distributions for UGC 11185, a nearby pair of merging galaxies hosting obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), also known as SDSS J181611.72+423941.6 and J181609.37+423923.0 (J1816NE and J1816SW, z ≈ 0.04). Due to the wide separation between these interacting galaxies (∼23 kpc), observations of these objects provide a rare glimpse of the concurrent growth of supermassive black holes at an early merger stage. We use BPT line diagnostics to show that the full extent of the narrow-line emission in both galaxies is photoionized by an AGN, and confirm the existence of a 10 kpc-scale ionization cone in J1816NE, while in J1816SW the AGN narrow-line region is much more compact (1–2 kpc) and relatively undisturbed. Our observations also reveal the presence of ionized gas that nearly spans the entire distance between the galaxies, which is likely in a merger-induced tidal stream. In addition, we carry out a spectral analysis of the X-ray emission using data from XMM-Newton . These galaxies represent a useful pair to explore how the [O iii] luminosity of an AGN is dependent on the size of the region used to explore the extended emission. Given the growing evidence for AGN “flickering” over short timescales, we speculate that the appearances and impacts of these AGNs may change multiple times over the course of the galaxy merger, which is especially important given that these objects are likely the progenitors of the types of systems commonly classified as “dual AGNs.”.

  19. Late-time spectral line formation in Type IIb supernovae, with application to SN 1993J, SN 2008ax, and SN 2011dh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerkstrand, A.; Ergon, M.; Smartt, S. J.; Fransson, C.; Sollerman, J.; Taubenberger, S.; Bersten, M.; Spyromilio, J.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate line formation processes in Type IIb supernovae (SNe) from 100 to 500 days post-explosion using spectral synthesis calculations. The modelling identifies the nuclear burning layers and physical mechanisms that produce the major emission lines, and the diagnostic potential of these. We compare the model calculations with data on the three best observed Type IIb SNe to-date - SN 1993J, SN 2008ax, and SN 2011dh. Oxygen nucleosynthesis depends sensitively on the main-sequence mass of the star and modelling of the [O I] λλ6300, 6364 lines constrains the progenitors of these three SNe to the MZAMS = 12-16 M⊙ range (ejected oxygen masses 0.3-0.9 M⊙), with SN 2011dh towards the lower end and SN 1993J towards the upper end of the range. The high ejecta masses from MZAMS ≳ 17 M⊙ progenitors give rise to brighter nebular phase emission lines than observed. Nucleosynthesis analysis thus supports a scenario of low-to-moderate mass progenitors for Type IIb SNe, and by implication an origin in binary systems. We demonstrate how oxygen and magnesium recombination lines may be combined to diagnose the magnesium mass in the SN ejecta. For SN 2011dh, a magnesium mass of 0.02-0.14 M⊙ is derived, which gives a Mg/O production ratio consistent with the solar value. Nitrogen left in the He envelope from CNO burning gives strong [N II] λλ6548, 6583 emission lines that dominate over Hα emission in our models. The hydrogen envelopes of Type IIb SNe are too small and dilute to produce any noticeable Hα emission or absorption after ~150 days, and nebular phase emission seen around 6550 Å is in many cases likely caused by [N II] λλ6548, 6583. Finally, the influence of radiative transport on the emergent line profiles is investigated. Significant line blocking in the metal core remains for several hundred days, which affects the emergent spectrum. These radiative transfer effects lead to early-time blueshifts of the emission line peaks, which gradually

  20. A DEEP CHANDRA ACIS STUDY OF NGC 4151. III. THE LINE EMISSION AND SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF THE IONIZATION CONE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Junfeng; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Elvis, Martin; Risaliti, Guido; Karovska, Margarita; Zezas, Andreas; Mundell, Carole G.; Dumas, Gaelle; Schinnerer, Eva

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the third in a series in which we present deep Chandra ACIS-S imaging spectroscopy of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151, devoted to study its complex circumnuclear X-ray emission. Emission features in the soft X-ray spectrum of the bright extended emission (L 0.3-2 k eV ∼ 10 40 erg s –1 ) at r > 130 pc (2'') are consistent with blended brighter O VII, O VIII, and Ne IX lines seen in the Chandra HETGS and XMM-Newton RGS spectra below 2 keV. We construct emission line images of these features and find good morphological correlations with the narrow-line region clouds mapped in [O III] λ5007. Self-consistent photoionization models provide good descriptions of the spectra of the large-scale emission, as well as resolved structures, supporting the dominant role of nuclear photoionization, although displacement of optical and X-ray features implies a more complex medium. Collisionally ionized emission is estimated to be ∼ ☉ yr –1 at 130 pc and the kinematic power of the ionized outflow is 1.7 × 10 41 erg s –1 , approximately 0.3% of the bolometric luminosity of the active nucleus in NGC 4151.

  1. GAS MOTION STUDY OF Lyα EMITTERS AT z ∼ 2 USING FUV AND OPTICAL SPECTRAL LINES ,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Takuya; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Nakajima, Kimihiko; Ouchi, Masami; Ono, Yoshiaki; Rauch, Michael; Janice Lee; Okamura, Sadanori

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of Magellan/MMIRS and Keck/NIRSPEC spectroscopy for five Lyα emitters (LAEs) at z ≅ 2.2 for which high-resolution FUV spectra from Magellan/MagE are available. We detect nebular emission lines including Hα on the individual basis and low-ionization interstellar (LIS) absorption lines in a stacked FUV spectrum, and measure average offset velocities of the Lyα line, Δv Lyα , and LIS absorption lines, Δv abs , with respect to the systemic velocity defined by the nebular lines. For a sample of eight z ∼ 2-3 LAEs without active galactic nucleus from our study and the literature, we obtain Δv Lyα = 175 ± 35 km s –1 , which is significantly smaller than that of Lyman-break Galaxies (LBGs), Δv Lyα ≅ 400 km s –1 . The stacked FUV spectrum gives Δv abs = –179 ± 73 km s –1 , comparable to that of LBGs. These positive Δv Lyα and negative Δv abs suggest that LAEs also have outflows. In contrast to LBGs, however, the LAEs' Δv Lyα is as small as |Δv abs |, suggesting low neutral hydrogen column densities. Such a low column density with a small number of resonant scattering may cause the observed strong Lyα emission of LAEs. We find an anti-correlation between Lyα equivalent width (EW) and Δv Lyα in a compilation of LAE and LBG samples. Although its physical origin is not clear, this anti-correlation result appears to challenge the hypothesis that a strong outflow, by means of a reduced number of resonant scattering, produces a large EW. If LAEs at z > 6 have similarly small Δv Lyα values, constraints on the reionization history derived from the Lyα transmissivity may need to be revised.

  2. GAS MOTION STUDY OF Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT z {approx} 2 USING FUV AND OPTICAL SPECTRAL LINES {sup ,}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Takuya; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Nakajima, Kimihiko [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ouchi, Masami; Ono, Yoshiaki [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Rauch, Michael; Janice Lee [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Okamura, Sadanori, E-mail: thashimoto@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Hosei University, 3-7-2 Kajino-cho, Koganei-shi, Tokyo 184-8584 (Japan)

    2013-03-01

    We present the results of Magellan/MMIRS and Keck/NIRSPEC spectroscopy for five Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at z {approx_equal} 2.2 for which high-resolution FUV spectra from Magellan/MagE are available. We detect nebular emission lines including H{alpha} on the individual basis and low-ionization interstellar (LIS) absorption lines in a stacked FUV spectrum, and measure average offset velocities of the Ly{alpha} line, {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}}, and LIS absorption lines, {Delta}v {sub abs}, with respect to the systemic velocity defined by the nebular lines. For a sample of eight z {approx} 2-3 LAEs without active galactic nucleus from our study and the literature, we obtain {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} = 175 {+-} 35 km s{sup -1}, which is significantly smaller than that of Lyman-break Galaxies (LBGs), {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} {approx_equal} 400 km s{sup -1}. The stacked FUV spectrum gives {Delta}v {sub abs} = -179 {+-} 73 km s{sup -1}, comparable to that of LBGs. These positive {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} and negative {Delta}v {sub abs} suggest that LAEs also have outflows. In contrast to LBGs, however, the LAEs' {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} is as small as |{Delta}v {sub abs}|, suggesting low neutral hydrogen column densities. Such a low column density with a small number of resonant scattering may cause the observed strong Ly{alpha} emission of LAEs. We find an anti-correlation between Ly{alpha} equivalent width (EW) and {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} in a compilation of LAE and LBG samples. Although its physical origin is not clear, this anti-correlation result appears to challenge the hypothesis that a strong outflow, by means of a reduced number of resonant scattering, produces a large EW. If LAEs at z > 6 have similarly small {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} values, constraints on the reionization history derived from the Ly{alpha} transmissivity may need to be revised.

  3. 3D Doppler Tomography of the X-Ray Binary System Cygnus X-1 from Spectral Observations in 2007 in the HeII λ 4686 Å Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agafonov, M. I.; Karitskaya, E. A.; Sharova, O. I.; Bochkarev, N. G.; Zharikov, S. V.; Butenko, G. Z.; Bondar', A. V.; Sidorov, M. Yu.

    2018-02-01

    The results of a 3D Doppler tomography analysis for the X-ray binary system Cyg X-1 in the HeII λ 4686 Å line are presented. Information about the motions of gaseous flows outside the orbital plane has been obtained for the first time. Line profiles obtained in June 2007 on the 2-m telescope of the Terskol Branch of the Institute of Astronomy (Russia) and on the 2.1-m telescope of the National Astronomical Observatory of Mexico were used. A detailed analysis of these spectral data is presented: the distribution of the data in time, distribution of orbital phases for the projections, comparison of the line profile shapes for the data from two observatories. The geometry of the total transfer function obtained in the reconstruction is considered. The possibility of applying the profiles obtained to realize 3D tomography is justified. The resolution of the constructed 3D tomogram in velocity space is 60 × 60 × 40 km/s for V x , V y , V z . Fifteen cross sections for 15 different V z values perpendicular to the orbital plane are presented. The intensity distributions corresponding to the velocities of gaseous structures in the binary system are obtained. The reconstruction was realized using the radio-astronomical approach, developed for solving problems in tomography with a limited number of projections.

  4. Multiphoton spectral analysis of benzo[a]pyrene uptake and metabolism in a rat liver cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barhoumi, Rola; Mouneimne, Youssef; Ramos, Ernesto; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.; Safe, Stephen; Parrish, Alan R.; Burghardt, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic analysis of the uptake and metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their metabolites within live cells in real time has the potential to provide novel insights into genotoxic and non-genotoxic mechanisms of cellular injury caused by PAHs. The present work, combining the use of metabolite spectra generated from metabolite standards using multiphoton spectral analysis and an 'advanced unmixing process', identifies and quantifies the uptake, partitioning, and metabolite formation of one of the most important PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, BaP) in viable cultured rat liver cells over a period of 24 h. The application of the advanced unmixing process resulted in the simultaneous identification of 8 metabolites in live cells at any single time. The accuracy of this unmixing process was verified using specific microsomal epoxide hydrolase inhibitors, glucuronidation and sulfation inhibitors as well as several mixtures of metabolite standards. Our findings prove that the two-photon microscopy imaging surpasses the conventional fluorescence imaging techniques and the unmixing process is a mathematical technique that seems applicable to the analysis of BaP metabolites in living cells especially for analysis of changes of the ultimate carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8-dihydrodiol-t-9,10-epoxide. Therefore, the combination of the two-photon acquisition with the unmixing process should provide important insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which BaP and other PAHs alter cellular homeostasis.

  5. Non-impact modeling of electron broadening of hydrogen spectral lines in dense but relatively cold plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferri, S.; Buescher, S.; Wrubel, Th.; Kunze, H.-J.; Calisti, A.; Stamm, R.; Talin, B.

    2001-01-01

    The standard static-ion/impact-electron theory of line broadening is assessed with calculations of hydrogen lines over a broad range of plasma conditions. In most cases, discrepancies between results from theory and experiments are explained by the neglect of ion-dynamics effects. Nevertheless, recent experiments involving high density but low temperature plasmas indicate that ion-dynamics/impact-electron models may seriously overestimate the broadening for such conditions. We show that the observed discrepancies are not due to the ion modeling but due to the impact approximation of the electrons in the Original Frequency Fluctuation Model (FFM). This situation arises for plasma conditions where the interactions with the electrons are a major broadening mechanism and quasi-static, i.e. non-binary, electron effects are important. An alternative approach to a binary collision operator is therefore proposed by means of the FFM code generalized to the two components (ions and electrons) of the plasma. Accurate simulations accounting for the electron plus ion field dynamics have been used to corroborate the FFM as applied to both ion and electron perturbers, and good agreement is found with recent experiments on H α and P α for dense but relatively cold plasmas

  6. Measurement of high-energy (10–60 keV) x-ray spectral line widths with eV accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seely, J. F., E-mail: seelyjf@gmail.com; Feldman, U. [Artep Inc., 2922 Excelsior Springs Court, Ellicott City, Maryland 21042 (United States); Glover, J. L.; Hudson, L. T.; Ralchenko, Y.; Henins, Albert [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Pereira, N. [Ecopulse Inc., P. O. Box 528, Springfield, Virginia 22152 (United States); Di Stefano, C. A.; Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Chen, Hui; Williams, G. J.; Park, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    A high resolution crystal spectrometer utilizing a crystal in transmission geometry has been developed and experimentally optimized to measure the widths of emission lines in the 10–60 keV energy range with eV accuracy. The spectrometer achieves high spectral resolution by utilizing crystal planes with small lattice spacings (down to 2d = 0.099 nm), a large crystal bending radius and Rowland circle diameter (965 mm), and an image plate detector with high spatial resolution (60 μm in the case of the Fuji TR image plate). High resolution W L-shell and K-shell laboratory test spectra in the 10–60 keV range and Ho K-shell spectra near 47 keV recorded at the LLNL Titan laser facility are presented. The Ho K-shell spectra are the highest resolution hard x-ray spectra recorded from a solid target irradiated by a high-intensity laser.

  7. Using the van der Waals broadening of spectral atomic lines to measure the gas temperature of an argon-helium microwave plasma at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, J.; Dimitrijevic, M.S.; Yubero, C.; Calzada, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    The applications of plasmas generated with gas mixtures have become increasingly common in different scientific and technological fields. In order to understand the advantages of these discharges, for instance in chemical analysis, it is necessary to know the gas temperature (T g , kinetic energy of the heavy particles) since it has a great influence on the atomization reactions of the molecules located in the discharge, along with the dependence of the reaction rate on this parameter. The ro-vibrational emission spectra of the molecular species are usually used to measure the gas temperature of a discharge at atmospheric pressure although under some experimental conditions, these are difficult to detect. In such cases, the gas temperature can be determined from the van der Waals broadening of the emitted atomic spectral lines related to this parameter. The method proposed is based on the van der Waals broadening taking into account two perturbers

  8. Review of Langmuir-Wave-Caused Dips and Charge-Exchange-Caused Dips in Spectral Lines from Plasmas and their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Dalimier

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We review studies of two kinds of dips in spectral line profiles emitted by plasmas—dips that have been predicted theoretically and observed experimentally: Langmuir-wave-caused dips (L-dips and charge-exchange-caused dips (X-dips. There is a principal difference with respect to positions of L-dips and X-dips relative to the unperturbed wavelength of a spectral line: positions of L-dips scale with the electron density Ne roughly as Ne1/2, while positions of X-dips are almost independent of Ne (the dependence is much weaker than for L-dips. L-dips and X-dips phenomena are important, both fundamentally and practically. The fundamental importance is due to a rich physics behind each of these phenomena. L-dips are a multi-frequency resonance phenomenon caused by a single-frequency (monochromatic electric field. X-dips are due to charge exchange at anticrossings of terms of a diatomic quasi-molecule, whose nuclei have different charges. As for important practical applications, they are as follows: observations of L-dips constitute a very accurate method to measure the electron density in plasmas—a method that does not require knowledge of the electron temperature. L-dips also allow measuring the amplitude of the electric field of Langmuir waves—the only spectroscopic method available for this purpose. Observations of X-dips provide an opportunity to determine rate coefficient of charge exchange between multi-charged ions. This is an important reference data, virtually inaccessible by other experimental methods. The rate coefficients of charge exchange are important for magnetic fusion in Tokamaks, for population inversion in the soft x-ray and VUV ranges, for ion storage devices, as well as for astrophysics (e.g., for the solar plasma and for determining the physical state of planetary nebulae.

  9. Broadband spectral study of the jet-disc emission in the radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0323+342

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ritesh; Dewangan, Gulab C.; Mallick, Labani; Raychaudhuri, Biplab

    2018-06-01

    We present a broadband spectral study of the radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0323+342 based on multi-epoch observations performed with NuSTAR on 2014 March 15, and two simultaneous observations performed with Suzaku and Swift on 2009 July 26 and 2013 March 1. We found the presence of a strong soft X-ray excess emission, a broad but weak Fe line and hard X-ray excess emission. We used the blurred reflection (relxill) and the intrinsic disc Comptonization (optxagnf), two physically motivated models, to describe the broadband spectra and to disentangle the disk/corona and jet emission. The relxill model is mainly constrained by the strong soft X-ray excess although the model failed to predict this excess when fitted above 3{keV} and extrapolated to lower energies. The joint spectral analysis of the three datasets above 3{keV} with this model resulted in a high black hole spin (a > 0.9) and moderate reflection fraction R ˜ 0.5. The optxagnf model fitted to the two simultaneous datasets resulted in an excess emission in the UV band. The simultaneous UV-to-hard X-ray spectra of 1H 0323+342 are best described by a model consisting of a primary X-ray power-law continuum with Γ ˜ 1.8, a blurred reflection component with R ˜ 0.5, Comptonised disk emission as the soft X-ray excess, optical/UV emission from a standard accretion disk around a black hole of mass ˜107M⊙ and a steep power law (Γ ˜ 3 - 3.5) component, most likely the jet emission in the UV band. The fractional RMS variability spectra suggest that both the soft excess and the powerlaw component are variable in nature.

  10. Quantum-mechanical vs. semi-classical spectral-line widths and shifts from the line core in the non-impact region for the Ar-perturbed/ K-radiator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreye, W.C.

    2007-01-01

    New quantum-mechanical (QM) and semi-classical (SC) shifts (d's) and widths (HWHM's, w's) were measured from the line core of computed full spectral-line shapes for the Ar-perturbed/K-radiator system (K/Ar). The initial state of our model was based on a 4p 2 P 3/2,1/2 pseudo-potential for the K/Ar system, and the final state on a zero potential. The Fourier transform of the line shape formed the basis for the computations. Excellent agreement was found between the QM and SC values of d and of w in a high-pressure (P) non-impact region, which was characterized by a √P dependence of w and a P dependence of d. These agreements were shown to be another example of a correspondence between classical (SC) quantities and QM quantities in the limit of large quantum numbers. Typically at P=1x10 6 Torr and T=400 K, w QM =448 cm -1 and w SC =479 cm -1 , where the deviation from the mean is ±3.3%. Also, d QM =-3815 cm -1 and d SC =-3716 cm -1 , where the deviation from the mean is ±1.3%. A new general method was formulated which yielded a definite pressure P 0 , which was defined as an upper limit to the low-pressure impact approximation and a lower limit to the non-impact region

  11. Spectral lines of methane measured up to 2.6 THz at sub-MHz accuracy with a CW-THz photomixing spectrometer: Line positions of rotational transitions induced by centrifugal distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, C.; Cuisset, A.; Hindle, F.; Mouret, G.; Bocquet, R.; Boudon, V.

    2017-12-01

    Several Doppler-limited rotational transitions of methane induced by centrifugal distortion have been measured with an unprecedented frequency accuracy using a THz photomixing synthesizer based on a frequency comb. Compared to previous synchrotron based FT-Far-IR measurements of Boudon et al. (Ref. [1]), the accuracy of the line frequency measurements is improved by one order of magnitude; this yields a corresponding increase of two orders of magnitude to the weighting of these transitions in the global fit. The rotational transitions in the ν4 ←ν4 hot band are measured for the first time by the broad spectral coverage of the photomixing CW-THz spectrometer providing access up to R(5) transitions at 2.6 THz. The new global fit including the present lines has been used to update the methane line list of the HITRAN database. Some small, but significant variations of the parameter values are observed and are accompanied by a reduction of the 1-σ uncertainties on the rotational (B0) and centrifugal distortion (D0) constants.

  12. Model calculations for a 600 A laser based on photopumping of Mo6+ by a spectral line of Mo11+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapisch, M.; Cohen, M.; Goldstein, W.H.; Feldman, U.

    1990-01-01

    We assess aspects of the feasibility of a recent proposal to use the coincidence between a Mo 11+ , 136.499 A, line and a 4p 6 -(4p 5 ) 1/2 6s, J=1, transition of Mo 6+ , to obtain amplified spontaneous emission around 600 A. A collisional-radiative model for the Mo 6+ ion, including resonant photoexcitation of the 4p 5 1/2 6s level, was constructed using the HULLAC atomic physics package. The model included the 4s 2 4p 6 ; 4p 5 4d, 4f; 4p 5 5s, 5p, 5d; 4p 5 6s, 6p, 6d; 4s4p 6 4d, 4f; 4p 6 4d 2 and 4s 2 4p 4 4d 2 configurations, amounting to 193 levels. All configuration interactions and collisional mixing were taken into account. A gain of 3 cm -1 is obtained for the 4p 5 6s(J = 1)-4p 5 5p(J = 2) transition at 645 A with T e = 5 eV, n e = 10 18 cm -3 , and an effective radiation temperature of T rad > 40 eV for the pump transition. Other transitions exhibit lower gains. (orig.)

  13. [Study on the Effects and Compensation Effect of Recording Parameters Error on Imaging Performance of Holographic Grating in On-Line Spectral Diagnose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan-xiu; Bayanheshig; Yang, Shuo; Zhao, Xu-long; Wu, Na; Li, Wen-hao

    2016-03-01

    To making the high resolution grating, a numerical calculation was used to analyze the effect of recording parameters on groove density, focal curve and imaging performance of the grating and their compensation. Based on Fermat' s principle, light path function and aberration, the effect on imaging performance of the grating was analyzed. In the case of fixed using parameters, the error of the recording angle has a greater influence on imaging performance, therefore the gain of the weight of recording angle can improve the accuracy of the recording angle values in the optimization; recording distance has little influence on imaging performance; the relative errors of recording parameters cause the change of imaging performance of the grating; the results indicate that recording parameter errors can be compensated by adjusting its corresponding parameter. The study can give theoretical guidance to the fabrication for high resolution varied-line-space plane holographic grating in on-line spectral diagnostic and reduce the alignment difficulty by analyze the main error effect the imaging performance and propose the compensation method.

  14. High-resolution measurement, line identification, and spectral modeling of the Kβ spectrum of heliumlike argon emitted by a laser-produced plasma using a gas-puff target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skobelev, I.Y.; Faenov, A.Y.; Dyakin, V.M.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Bartnik, A.; Szczurek, M.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Nilsen, J.; Osterheld, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    We present an analysis of the spectrum of satellite transitions to the He-β line in ArXVII. High-resolution measurements of the spectra from laser-heated Ar-gas-puff targets are made with spectral resolution of 10000 and spatial resolution of better than 50 μm. These are compared with tokamak measurements. Several different lines are identified in the spectra and the spectral analysis is used to determine the plasma parameters in the gas-puff laser-produced plasma. The data complement those from tokamak measurements to provide more complete information on the satellite spectra. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  15. The Spectral Energy Distributions of z ~ 8 Galaxies from the IRAC Ultra Deep Fields: Emission Lines, Stellar Masses, and Specific Star Formation Rates at 650 Myr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, I.; Oesch, P. A.; Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Magee, D.; González, V.; Carollo, C. M.; Franx, M.; Trenti, M.; van Dokkum, P. G.; Stiavelli, M.

    2013-11-01

    Using new ultradeep Spitzer/InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) photometry from the IRAC Ultra Deep Field program, we investigate the stellar populations of a sample of 63 Y-dropout galaxy candidates at z ~ 8, only 650 Myr after the big bang. The sources are selected from HST/ACS+WFC3/IR data over the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), two HUDF parallel fields, and wide area data over the CANDELS/GOODS-South. The new Spitzer/IRAC data increase the coverage in [3.6] and [4.5] to ~120h over the HUDF reaching depths of ~28 (AB,1σ). The improved depth and inclusion of brighter candidates result in direct >=3σ InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) detections of 20/63 sources, of which 11/63 are detected at >=5σ. The average [3.6]-[4.5] colors of IRAC detected galaxies at z ~ 8 are markedly redder than those at z ~ 7, observed only 130 Myr later. The simplest explanation is that we witness strong rest-frame optical emission lines (in particular [O III] λλ4959, 5007 + Hβ) moving through the IRAC bandpasses with redshift. Assuming that the average rest-frame spectrum is the same at both z ~ 7 and z ~ 8 we estimate a rest-frame equivalent width of {W}_{[O\\,\\scriptsize{III}]\\ \\lambda \\lambda 4959,5007+H\\beta }=670^{+260}_{-170} Å contributing 0.56^{+0.16}_{-0.11} mag to the [4.5] filter at z ~ 8. The corresponding {W}_{H\\alpha }=430^{+160}_{-110} Å implies an average specific star formation rate of sSFR=11_{-5}^{+11} Gyr-1 and a stellar population age of 100_{-50}^{+100} Myr. Correcting the spectral energy distribution for the contribution of emission lines lowers the average best-fit stellar masses and mass-to-light ratios by ~3 ×, decreasing the integrated stellar mass density to \\rho ^*(z=8,M_{\\rm{UV}}Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs #11563, 9797. Based on observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of

  16. THE SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF z ∼ 8 GALAXIES FROM THE IRAC ULTRA DEEP FIELDS: EMISSION LINES, STELLAR MASSES, AND SPECIFIC STAR FORMATION RATES AT 650 MYR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbé, I.; Bouwens, R. J.; Franx, M. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Oesch, P. A.; Illingworth, G. D.; Magee, D.; González, V. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Carollo, C. M. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Trenti, M. [Kavli Institute for Cosmology and Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Van Dokkum, P. G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Stiavelli, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    Using new ultradeep Spitzer/InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) photometry from the IRAC Ultra Deep Field program, we investigate the stellar populations of a sample of 63 Y-dropout galaxy candidates at z ∼ 8, only 650 Myr after the big bang. The sources are selected from HST/ACS+WFC3/IR data over the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), two HUDF parallel fields, and wide area data over the CANDELS/GOODS-South. The new Spitzer/IRAC data increase the coverage in [3.6] and [4.5] to ∼120h over the HUDF reaching depths of ∼28 (AB,1σ). The improved depth and inclusion of brighter candidates result in direct ≥3σ InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) detections of 20/63 sources, of which 11/63 are detected at ≥5σ. The average [3.6]-[4.5] colors of IRAC detected galaxies at z ∼ 8 are markedly redder than those at z ∼ 7, observed only 130 Myr later. The simplest explanation is that we witness strong rest-frame optical emission lines (in particular [O III] λλ4959, 5007 + Hβ) moving through the IRAC bandpasses with redshift. Assuming that the average rest-frame spectrum is the same at both z ∼ 7 and z ∼ 8 we estimate a rest-frame equivalent width of contributing 0.56{sup +0.16}{sub -0.11} mag to the [4.5] filter at z ∼ 8. The corresponding W{sub Hα}=430{sup +160}{sub -110} Å implies an average specific star formation rate of sSFR=11{sub -5}{sup +11} Gyr{sup –1} and a stellar population age of 100{sub -50}{sup +100} Myr. Correcting the spectral energy distribution for the contribution of emission lines lowers the average best-fit stellar masses and mass-to-light ratios by ∼3 ×, decreasing the integrated stellar mass density to ρ{sup *}(z=8,M{sub UV}<-18)=0.6{sup +0.4}{sub -0.3}×10{sup 6} M{sub sun} Mpc{sup –3}.

  17. Far-ultraviolet spectral changes of titanium dioxide with gold nanoparticles by ultraviolet and visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Ichiro; Kurawaki, Yuji

    2018-05-01

    Attenuated total reflectance spectra including the far-ultraviolet (FUV, ≤ 200 nm) region of titanium dioxide (TiO2) with and without gold (Au) nanoparticles were measured. A newly developed external light-irradiation system enabled to observe spectral changes of TiO2 with Au nanoparticles upon light irradiations. Absorption in the FUV region decreased and increased by the irradiation with ultraviolet and visible light, respectively. These spectral changes may reflect photo-induced electron transfer from TiO2 to Au nanoparticles under ultraviolet light and from Au nanoparticles to TiO2 under visible light, respectively.

  18. Temperature Dependences of the Quantum-Mechanical and Semi-Classical Spectral-Line Widths and the Separation 0 of the Impact and Non-Impact Regions for an Ar-Perturbed/K-Radiator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. C. Kreye

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum-mechanical and semi-classical spectral-line shapes are computed at =400, 800, and 1000 K for the line core of the 5802 Å line of the Ar-Perturbed/K-Radiator system. HWHMs ('s are measured from computed full spectral-line shapes. The final-state pseudopotential is for the 721/2 state, and the initial-state potential is for the 423/2,3/2 state. Three high-pressure (P log(—versus—log( curves, corresponding to the non-impact region, intersect a similar set of low-P, impact-region curves at intersections, 0's. Similarly, for two sets of log(—versus—log( curves, which yield intersections, 0's, where is the perturber density. These 0's and 0's separate the two regions and represent the upper limits of the impact regions. A specific validity condition for the impact region is given by the equation ≤0. From an earlier spectroscopic, Fabry-Perot paper, expt=0.021 cm−1 at =400 K and =10 torr. Two theoretical values, theor=0.025 and 0.062 cm−1 corresponding to two different pseudo-potentials, are reported. Two -dependent figures are given, in which the first shows an increase in the impact region with , based on as the basic parameter, and the second which shows a decrease in the impact region with , based on as the basic parameter.

  19. Electrospinning processed nanofibrous TiO2 membranes for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Katsuhiro; Ding, Bin; Tsuge, Yosuke; Naka, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Michiyo; Sugi, Shinichiro; Ohno, Shingo; Yoshikawa, Masato; Shiratori, Seimei

    2006-02-01

    We have recently fabricated dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) comprising nanofibrous TiO2 membranes as electrode materials. A thin TiO2 film was pre-deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated conducting glass substrate by immersion in TiF4 aqueous solution to reduce the electron back-transfer from FTO to the electrolyte. The composite polyvinyl acetate (PVac)/titania nanofibrous membranes can be deposited on the pre-deposited thin TiO2 film coated FTO by electrospinning of a mixture of PVac and titanium isopropoxide in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). The nanofibrous TiO2 membranes were obtained by calcining the electrospun composite nanofibres of PVac/titania as the precursor. Spectral sensitization of the nanofibrous TiO2 membranes was carried out with a ruthenium (II) complex, cis-dithiocyanate-N,N'-bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid) ruthenium (II) dihydrate. The results indicated that the photocurrent and conversion efficiency of electrodes can be increased with the addition of the pre-deposited TiO2 film and the adhesion treatment using DMF. Additionally, the dye loading, photocurrent, and efficiency of the electrodes were gradually increased by increasing the average thickness of the nanofibrous TiO2 membranes. The efficiency of the fibrous TiO2 photoelectrode with the average membrane thickness of 3.9 µm has a maximum value of 4.14%.

  20. Absolute radiant power measurement for the Au M lines of laser-plasma using a calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer with flat-spectral response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troussel, Ph; Villette, B; Emprin, B; Oudot, G; Tassin, V; Bridou, F; Delmotte, F; Krumrey, M

    2014-01-01

    CEA implemented an absolutely calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer called DMX on the Omega laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in 1999 to measure radiant power and spectral distribution of the radiation of the Au plasma. The DMX spectrometer is composed of 20 channels covering the spectral range from 50 eV to 20 keV. The channels for energies below 1.5 keV combine a mirror and a filter with a coaxial photo-emissive detector. For the channels above 5 keV the photoemissive detector is replaced by a conductive detector. The intermediate energy channels (1.5 keV power measurements with the new MLM channel and with the usual channel composed of a thin titanium filter and a coaxial detector (without mirror) are compared. All elements of the channel have been calibrated in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany's National Metrology Institute, at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin using dedicated well established and validated methods.

  1. Simultaneous measure of a spectral line profile and the apparatus function of a Fabry-Perot spectrometer when continuous background is present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, J.M.; Quintanilla, M.; Mar, S.

    1978-01-01

    A deconvolution method of registered profile on a Fabry-Perot spectrometer is developed, when the actual profile of the source is a Voigt pattern together with a continuous background. The reliability and accuracy of the method is tested with theoreticaly simulated profiles. The method is applied both to measure the real line profiles and to find the Fabry-Perot parameters, as a test of its validity on studies of experimental profiles. Both measure types -source profile and apparatus function- are made simultaneously by means of analysis of the variations of registered profile, at 6438.5A Cd line and 6328A He-Ne laser line, varying the optical path between interferometer mirrors. (author) [es

  2. Amide I SFG Spectral Line Width Probes the Lipid-Peptide and Peptide-Peptide Interactions at Cell Membrane In Situ and in Real Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baixiong; Tan, Junjun; Li, Chuanzhao; Zhang, Jiahui; Ye, Shuji

    2018-06-13

    The balance of lipid-peptide and peptide-peptide interactions at cell membrane is essential to a large variety of cellular processes. In this study, we have experimentally demonstrated for the first time that sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy can be used to probe the peptide-peptide and lipid-peptide interactions in cell membrane in situ and in real time by determination of the line width of amide I band of protein backbone. Using a "benchmark" model of α-helical WALP23, it is found that the dominated lipid-peptide interaction causes a narrow line width of the amide I band, whereas the peptide-peptide interaction can markedly broaden the line width. When WALP23 molecules insert into the lipid bilayer, a quite narrow line width of the amide I band is observed because of the lipid-peptide interaction. In contrast, when the peptide lies down on the bilayer surface, the line width of amide I band becomes very broad owing to the peptide-peptide interaction. In terms of the real-time change in the line width, the transition from peptide-peptide interaction to lipid-peptide interaction is monitored during the insertion of WALP23 into 1,2-dipalmitoyl- sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'- rac-glycerol) (DPPG) lipid bilayer. The dephasing time of a pure α-helical WALP23 in 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl- sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'- rac-glycerol) and DPPG bilayer is determined to be 2.2 and 0.64 ps, respectively. The peptide-peptide interaction can largely accelerate the dephasing time.

  3. Development of on-line sorting system for detection of infected seed potatoes using visible near-infrared transmittance spectral technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Yong; Cho, Byoung Kwan [Dept. of Biosystems Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Mo, Chang Yeun [Rural Development Administration, National Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jun Soon [Dept. of Horticultural Bioscience, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    In this study, an online seed potato sorting system using a visible and near infrared (40 1100 nm) transmittance spectral technique and statistical model was evaluated for the nondestructive determination of infected and sound seed potatoes. Seed potatoes that had been artificially infected with Pectobacterium atrosepticum, which is known to cause a soil borne disease infection, were prepared for the experiments. After acquiring transmittance spectra from sound and infected seed potatoes, a determination algorithm for detecting infected seed potatoes was developed using the partial least square discriminant analysis method. The coefficient of determination(R{sup 2}{sub p}) of the prediction model was 0.943, and the classification accuracy was above 99% (n = 80) for discriminating diseased seed potatoes from sound ones. This online sorting system has good potential for developing a technique to detect agricultural products that are infected and contaminated by pathogens.

  4. PORTA: A three-dimensional multilevel radiative transfer code for modeling the intensity and polarization of spectral lines with massively parallel computers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpán, Jiří; Trujillo Bueno, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 557, September (2013), A143/1-A143/15 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP209/12/P741 Grant - others:EU(XE) COST action MP1104 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : line formation * magnetic fields * numerical methods Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.479, year: 2013

  5. Spectral stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Harold R.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach to stratigraphic analysis is described which uses photogeologic and spectral interpretation of multispectral remote sensing data combined with topographic information to determine the attitude, thickness, and lithology of strata exposed at the surface. The new stratigraphic procedure is illustrated by examples in the literature. The published results demonstrate the potential of spectral stratigraphy for mapping strata, determining dip and strike, measuring and correlating stratigraphic sequences, defining lithofacies, mapping biofacies, and interpreting geological structures.

  6. Models of Emission-Line Profiles and Spectral Energy Distributions to Characterize the Multi-Frequency Properties of Active Galactic Nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni La Mura

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs are often characterized by a wealth of emission lines with different profiles and intensity ratios that lead to a complicated classification. Their electromagnetic radiation spans more than 10 orders of magnitude in frequency. In spite of the differences between various classes, the origin of their activity is attributed to a combination of emitting components, surrounding an accreting supermassive black hole (SMBH, in the unified model. Currently, the execution of sky surveys, with instruments operating at various frequencies, provides the possibility to detect and to investigate the properties of AGNs on very large statistical samples. As a result of the spectroscopic surveys that allow the investigation of many objects, we have the opportunity to place new constraints on the nature and evolution of AGNs. In this contribution, we present the results obtained by working on multi-frequency data, and we discuss their relations with the available optical spectra. We compare our findings with the AGN unified model predictions, and we present a revised technique to select AGNs of different types from other line-emitting objects. We discuss the multi-frequency properties in terms of the innermost structures of the sources.

  7. Importance of Cross-redistribution in Scattering Polarization of Spectral Lines: The Cases of {sup 3}P−{sup 3}S Triplets of Mg i and Ca i

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampoorna, M.; Nagendra, K. N., E-mail: sampoorna@iiap.res.in, E-mail: knn@iiap.res.in [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bengaluru 560 034 (India)

    2017-04-01

    Scattering on a multi-level atomic system has dominant contributions from resonance and Raman scattering. While initial and final levels are the same for resonance scattering, they are different for Raman scattering. The frequency redistribution for resonance scattering is described by the usual partial frequency redistribution functions of Hummer, while that for Raman scattering is described by cross-redistribution (XRD) function. In the present paper, we investigate the importance of XRD on linear polarization profiles of {sup 3}P−{sup 3}S triplets of Mg i and Ca i formed in an isothermal one-dimensional atmosphere. We show that XRD produces significant effects on the linear polarization profiles when the wavelength separations between the line components of the multiplet are small, like in the cases of Mg i b and Ca i triplets.

  8. The STARK-B database VAMDC node: a repository for spectral line broadening and shifts due to collisions with charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahal-Bréchot, S.; Dimitrijević, M. S.; Moreau, N.; Ben Nessib, N.

    2015-05-01

    Accurate spectroscopic diagnostics and modeling require the knowledge of numerous collisional line profiles. Access to such data via an online database has become indispensable. The STARK-B database is aimed at meeting these needs for widths and shifts of isolated lines of neutral and ionized elements due to electron and ion impacts. This database of the Paris Observatory is a result of scientific cooperation between S Sahal-Bréchot (LERMA) and M S Dimitrijević (AOB). Access to it is free, and it was opened online at the end of 2008. STARK-B is a node of the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre (VAMDC) and thus complies with VAMDC and Virtual Observatory standards. VAMDC is a European Union-funded collaboration among groups involved in the generation and use of interoperable atomic and molecular data. STARK-B now contains all our semiclassical-perturbation (SCP) calculated data for more than 123 neutral or ionized elements as published in international refereed journals. It is devoted to modeling and spectroscopic diagnostics of stellar atmospheres and envelopes, laboratory plasmas, laser equipment, and technological plasmas. Hence, the range of temperatures and densities covered by the tables is broad and depends on the ionization degree of the radiating atom. The modified semiempirical (MSE) results of calculations have begun to be implemented. In this paper, we highlight the key points of the method and the assumptions used in the calculations, which have lately been revisited. Then we present the database and its recent developments, as well as our ongoing work and our plans for the future.

  9. The STARK-B database VAMDC node: a repository for spectral line broadening and shifts due to collisions with charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahal-Bréchot, S; Moreau, N; Dimitrijević, M S; Nessib, N Ben

    2015-01-01

    Accurate spectroscopic diagnostics and modeling require the knowledge of numerous collisional line profiles. Access to such data via an online database has become indispensable. The STARK-B database is aimed at meeting these needs for widths and shifts of isolated lines of neutral and ionized elements due to electron and ion impacts. This database of the Paris Observatory is a result of scientific cooperation between S Sahal-Bréchot (LERMA) and M S Dimitrijević (AOB). Access to it is free, and it was opened online at the end of 2008. STARK-B is a node of the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre (VAMDC) and thus complies with VAMDC and Virtual Observatory standards. VAMDC is a European Union-funded collaboration among groups involved in the generation and use of interoperable atomic and molecular data. STARK-B now contains all our semiclassical-perturbation (SCP) calculated data for more than 123 neutral or ionized elements as published in international refereed journals. It is devoted to modeling and spectroscopic diagnostics of stellar atmospheres and envelopes, laboratory plasmas, laser equipment, and technological plasmas. Hence, the range of temperatures and densities covered by the tables is broad and depends on the ionization degree of the radiating atom. The modified semiempirical (MSE) results of calculations have begun to be implemented. In this paper, we highlight the key points of the method and the assumptions used in the calculations, which have lately been revisited. Then we present the database and its recent developments, as well as our ongoing work and our plans for the future. (paper)

  10. Multi-Spectral Imaging from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Enables the Assessment of Seasonal Leaf Area Dynamics of Sorghum Breeding Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andries B. Potgieter

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement in sorghum breeding programs requires the assessment of adaptation traits in small-plot breeding trials across multiple environments. Many of these phenotypic assessments are made by manual measurement or visual scoring, both of which are time consuming and expensive. This limits trial size and the potential for genetic gain. In addition, these methods are typically restricted to point estimates of particular traits, such as leaf senescence or flowering and do not capture the dynamic nature of crop growth. In water-limited environments in particular, information on leaf area development over time would provide valuable insight into water use and adaptation to water scarcity during specific phenological stages of crop development. Current methods to estimate plant leaf area index (LAI involve destructive sampling and are not practical in breeding. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV and proximal-sensing technologies open new opportunities to assess these traits multiple times in large small-plot trials. We analyzed vegetation-specific crop indices obtained from a narrowband multi-spectral camera on board a UAV platform flown over a small pilot trial with 30 plots (10 genotypes randomized within 3 blocks. Due to variable emergence we were able to assess the utility of these vegetation indices to estimate canopy cover and LAI over a large range of plant densities. We found good correlations between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI with plant number per plot, canopy cover and LAI both during the vegetative growth phase (pre-anthesis and at maximum canopy cover shortly after anthesis. We also analyzed the utility of time-sequence data to assess the senescence pattern of sorghum genotypes known as fast (senescent or slow senescing (stay-green types. The Normalized Difference Red Edge (NDRE index which estimates leaf chlorophyll content was most useful in characterizing the leaf area

  11. The matrix effect study in the spectrographic analysis of rare earth elements. Pt. 1. The influence of Sn, Pb, Sb, Bi, Cu, Ag, Zn and Cd on the spectral lines intensity of Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in the current arc exciting between C-electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wysocka-Lisek, J.; Paszkowska, B.; Mularczyk, K.

    1976-01-01

    In the beginning the influence of Sn, Pb, Sb, Bi, Cu, Ag, Zn and Cd on the light rare earth spectral lines using Ni as the internal standard, during the intermittent current arc excitation between C-electrodes was studied. On the basis of the spectral lines intensity measurements, it was stated that one may apply the addition of Ni as the internal standard by the quantitative determination of Sn, Pb, Sb, Bi, Zn and Cd in the light rare earth mixtures with one of the above. Also a great influence of the presence of the individually studied metal was observed on the spectral line intensity of rare earth elements and nickel. The differences of the thermo-chemical reactions nature between excited elements and the carbon of the electrodes may cause that influence. (author)

  12. Experimental study of population inversion and spectral line broadening in a plasma containing a mixture of high Z and low Z ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griem, H.R.

    1988-10-01

    In our work this past year at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics we have studied laser-produced plasmas using spherical targets continuing layers of high Z and low Z materials. Our emphasis was on quantitative spectroscopy of ions in a very dense, recombining plasma. The targets used consisted of carbon-copper, carbon-gold, and aluminum-gold mixtures, instead of the originally proposed Fe or Mo mixtures with carbon. The thickness of the Cu and the Au layers were varied in order to study the effect of higher Z ions cooling the plasma. Indeed a pronounced cooling effect was observed by increasing the thickness of the Au layer in targets with Al-Au layers. Electron temperatures were studied by measuring the 1s-2p/1s 2 -1s2p line ratio of Al XIII to Al XII. Our experimental measurements, together with a collisional-radiative model and a 1-D hydrodynamic code, indicate that the electron temperature falls from 1500 eV with no gold to 950 eV with a 500 angstrom layer of gold. A detailed discussion of our results with Al-Au targets can be found in the enclosed preprint entitled Radiation Cooling in Laser-Produced Plasmas Due to High-Z Layers

  13. Defects improved photocatalytic ability of TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lei; Tian, Hong-Wei; Meng, Fan-Ling; Hu, Xiao-Ying; Zheng, Wei-Tao; Sun, Chang Q.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Defect improves the photocatalytic ability by band gap narrowing and carrier life prolonging. • Atomic undercoordination shortens the local bonds, entraps, and polarizes electrons. • Polarization lowers the local workfunction and lengthens carrier life. • Entrapment and polarization narrows the band gap tuning the wavelength of absorption. - Abstract: Defect generation forms an important means modulating the photocatalytic ability of TiO 2 with mechanisms that remain yet unclear. Here we show that a spectral distillation clarifies the impact of defect on modulating the band gap, electroaffinity, and work function of the substance. Firstly, by analyzing XPS measurements, we calibrated the 2p 3/2 level of 451.47 eV for an isolated Ti atom and its shifts by 2.14 and 6.94 eV, respectively, upon Ti and TiO 2 bulk formation. Spectral difference between the defected and the un-defected TiO 2 skin revealed then that the 2p 3/2 level shifts further from 6.94 to 9.67 eV due to the defect-induced quantum entrapment. This entrapment is associated with an elevation of the upper edges of both the 2p 3/2 and the conduction band by polarization. The shortening and strengthening of bonds between undercoordinated atoms densify and entrap the core electrons, which in turn polarize the dangling bond electrons of defect atoms. The entrapment and polarization mediate thus the band gap, the electroaffinity, the work function, and the photocatalytic ability of TiO 2

  14. Broadening of spectral lines of CO2, N2O , H2CO, HCN, and H2S by pressure of gases dominant in planetary atmospheres (H2, He and CO2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Shanelle; Gordon, Iouli; Tan, Yan

    2018-01-01

    HITRAN1,2 is a compilation of spectroscopic parameters that a variety of computer codes use to predict and simulate the transmission and emission of light in planetary atmospheres. The goal of this project is to add to the potential of the HITRAN database towards the exploration of the planetary atmospheres by including parameters describing broadening of spectral lines by H2, CO2, and He. These spectroscopic data are very important for the study of the hydrogen and helium-rich atmospheres of gas giants as well as rocky planets with volcanic activities, including Venus and Mars, since their atmospheres are dominated by CO2. First step in this direction was accomplished by Wilzewski et al.3 where this was done for SO2, NH3, HF, HCl, OCS and C2H2. The molecules investigated in this work were CO2, N2O, H2CO, HCN and H2S. Line-broadening coefficients, line shifts and temperature-dependence exponents for transitions of these molecules perturbed by H2, CO2 and He have been assembled from available peer-reviewed experimental and theoretical sources. The data was evaluated and the database was populated with these data and their extrapolations/interpolations using semi-empirical models that were developed to this end.Acknowledgements: Financial support from NASA PDART grant NNX16AG51G and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Latino Initiative Program from the Latino Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Latino Center is gratefully acknowledged.References: 1. HITRAN online http://hitran.org/2. Gordon, I.E., Rothman, L.S., Hill, C., Kochanov, R.V., Tan, Y., et al., 2017. The HITRAN2016 Molecular Spectroscopic Database. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2017.06.0383. Wilzewski, J.S., Gordon, I.E., Kochanov, R. V., Hill, C., Rothman, L.S., 2016. H2, He, and CO2 line-broadening coefficients, pressure shifts and temperature-dependence exponents for the HITRAN database. Part 1: SO2, NH3, HF, HCl, OCS and C2H2. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat

  15. Intensity Conserving Spectral Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Patsourakos, S.; Tripathi, D.

    2015-01-01

    The detailed shapes of spectral line profiles provide valuable information about the emitting plasma, especially when the plasma contains an unresolved mixture of velocities, temperatures, and densities. As a result of finite spectral resolution, the intensity measured by a spectrometer is the average intensity across a wavelength bin of non-zero size. It is assigned to the wavelength position at the center of the bin. However, the actual intensity at that discrete position will be different if the profile is curved, as it invariably is. Standard fitting routines (spline, Gaussian, etc.) do not account for this difference, and this can result in significant errors when making sensitive measurements. Detection of asymmetries in solar coronal emission lines is one example. Removal of line blends is another. We have developed an iterative procedure that corrects for this effect. It can be used with any fitting function, but we employ a cubic spline in a new analysis routine called Intensity Conserving Spline Interpolation (ICSI). As the name implies, it conserves the observed intensity within each wavelength bin, which ordinary fits do not. Given the rapid convergence, speed of computation, and ease of use, we suggest that ICSI be made a standard component of the processing pipeline for spectroscopic data.

  16. Microwave spectral lines in galactic dust globules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.N.; Barrett, A.H.

    1978-01-01

    In order to better understand galactic dust globules, a program of mapping several molecular transitions in these clouds has been undertaken. The results of observations of the J=1→0 rotational transitions of CO, 13 CO, C 18 O, and CS, the J=2→1rotational transitions of CS and C 34 S, the J, K=1, 1 and J, K=2, 2 inversion transitions of NH 3 , the J/sub KKprime/=1 11 →1 10 and J/sub KKprime/=2 12 →2 11 transitions of H 2 CO, and the OH 2 Pi/sub 3/2/F=2→2 and F=1→1 transitions are reported here. Twelve globules have been selected for observation; seven of these were studied in detail and the remainder observed only sparsely. A strong positive correlation appears to exist between the spatial extent of the molecular emission (or absorption) and the optical features of the globule. Even the main isotope of CO shows this correlation between dust extinction and molecular emission. Close examination of the Palomar prints reveals dust wherever CO is observed, and CO is probably a good tracer of dust extinction.The simultaneous observation of many molecular transitions has proven useful in obtaining reliable physical parameters for the dust globules. For example, CO and NH 3 are reliable thermometers of the kinetic temperature, and CS and NH 3 are indicators of the total gas density. The kinetic temperatures of the globules are almost always approx.10 K, and the derived H 2 densities are 10/sup 3.4/-10/sup 4.5/ cm -3 . The density in the core of the globules could well be larger than these value, which represent an average for the entire cloud. The kinetic temperature appears uniform across each cloud (within a few kelvins), in agreement with theoretical predictions. All of the globules studied in detail appear to be gravitationally bound and collapsing objects. Rotation has been observed in at least two globules (B163 and B163 SW). The projected axis of rotation is in a direction opposite to that of the Galaxy

  17. Spectral Ly{alpha}, Ly{beta}, and H{alpha} line shapes for the H atom in the presence of a magnetic field in a plasma; Profils des raies spectrales Ly{alpha}, Ly{beta}, et H{alpha} de l'atome H en presence d'un champ magnetique dans un plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, H; Herman, L [Laboratoire de Recherches Physiques, Faculte des sciences, 9 Quai Saint Bernard, 75 - Paris (France); Drawin, H W [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-02-15

    This report contains numerical data of the line shapes of Ly{alpha}, Ly{beta}, and H{alpha} for the following parameters: 1. 10{sup 2} {<=} H [gauss] {<=} 1.2. 10{sup 5} 1. 10{sup 15}{<=} N [cm{sup -3}] {<=} 1. 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} 1. 10{sup 4} {<=} T [deg. K] {<=} 4. 10{sup 4} where H = magnetic field strength, K = density of plasma ions, T = electron temperature. (authors) [French] Dans ce rapport, on donne les valeurs numeriques des contours des raies spectrales Ly{alpha}, Ly{beta}, et H{alpha} pour les valeurs suivantes des parametres H, N et T 1. 10{sup 2} {<=} H [gauss] {<=} 1.2. 10{sup 5} 1. 10{sup 15}{<=} N [cm{sup -3}] {<=} 1. 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} 1. 10{sup 4} {<=} T [deg. K] {<=} 4. 10{sup 4} ou H intensite du champ magnetique, N = densite des ions, T = temperature electronique. (auteurs)

  18. Spectral Compressive Sensing with Polar Interpolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Karsten; Dadkhahi, Hamid; F. Duarte, Marco

    2013-01-01

    . In this paper, we introduce a greedy recovery algorithm that leverages a band-exclusion function and a polar interpolation function to address these two issues in spectral compressive sensing. Our algorithm is geared towards line spectral estimation from compressive measurements and outperforms most existing...

  19. Toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to Escherichia coli: effects of particle size, crystal phase and water chemistry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuchun Lin

    Full Text Available Controversial and inconsistent results on the eco-toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs are commonly found in recorded studies and more experimental works are therefore warranted to elucidate the nanotoxicity and its underlying precise mechanisms. Toxicities of five types of TiO2 NPs with different particle sizes (10∼50 nm and crystal phases were investigated using Escherichia coli as a test organism. The effect of water chemistry on the nanotoxicity was also examined. The antibacterial effects of TiO2 NPs as revealed by dose-effect experiments decreased with increasing particle size and rutile content of the TiO2 NPs. More bacteria could survive at higher solution pH (5.0-10.0 and ionic strength (50-200 mg L(-1 NaCl as affected by the anatase TiO2 NPs. The TiO2 NPs with anatase crystal structure and smaller particle size produced higher content of intracellular reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde, in line with their greater antibacterial effect. Transmission electron microscopic observations showed the concentration buildup of the anatase TiO2 NPs especially those with smaller particle sizes on the cell surfaces, leading to membrane damage and internalization. These research results will shed new light on the understanding of ecological effects of TiO2 NPs.

  20. Toxicity of TiO2 Nanoparticles to Escherichia coli: Effects of Particle Size, Crystal Phase and Water Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuchun; Li, Jingyi; Ma, Si; Liu, Gesheng; Yang, Kun; Tong, Meiping; Lin, Daohui

    2014-01-01

    Controversial and inconsistent results on the eco-toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) are commonly found in recorded studies and more experimental works are therefore warranted to elucidate the nanotoxicity and its underlying precise mechanisms. Toxicities of five types of TiO2 NPs with different particle sizes (10∼50 nm) and crystal phases were investigated using Escherichia coli as a test organism. The effect of water chemistry on the nanotoxicity was also examined. The antibacterial effects of TiO2 NPs as revealed by dose-effect experiments decreased with increasing particle size and rutile content of the TiO2 NPs. More bacteria could survive at higher solution pH (5.0–10.0) and ionic strength (50–200 mg L−1 NaCl) as affected by the anatase TiO2 NPs. The TiO2 NPs with anatase crystal structure and smaller particle size produced higher content of intracellular reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde, in line with their greater antibacterial effect. Transmission electron microscopic observations showed the concentration buildup of the anatase TiO2 NPs especially those with smaller particle sizes on the cell surfaces, leading to membrane damage and internalization. These research results will shed new light on the understanding of ecological effects of TiO2 NPs. PMID:25310452

  1. Application of the Spectral Neighborhood of Soil Line Technique to Analyze the Intensity of Soil Use in 1985-2014 (by the Example of Three Districts of Tula Oblast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukhovich, D. I.; Rukhovich, A. D.; Rukhovich, D. D.; Simakova, M. S.; Kulyanitsa, A. L.; Koroleva, P. V.

    2018-03-01

    The technique of separation of the spectral neighborhood of soil line (SNSL) makes it possible to perform quantitative estimates of the intensity of agricultural land use. This is achieved via calculation of the frequency of occurrence of bare soil surface (BSS). It is shown that the frequency of occurrence of BSS in 1984-1994 was linearly related to the soil type within the sequence of soddy strongly podzolic, soddy moderately podzolic, soddy slightly podzolic (Eutric Albic Glossic Retisols (Loamic, Aric, Cutanic, Differentic, Ochric)); light gray forest (Eutric Retisols (Loamic, Aric, Cutanic, Differentic, Ochric)), gray forest (Eutric Retisols (Loamic, Aric, Cutanic, Ochric)), and dark gray forest soils (Luvic Retic Greyzemic Phaeozems (Loamic, Aric)); podzolized chernozems (Luvic Greyzemic Chernic Phaeozems (Loamic, Aric, Pachic)) and leached chernozems (Luvic Chernic Phaeozems (Loamic, Aric, Pachic)). The intensity of exploitation of the least and most fertile soils in this sequence comprised 28 and 48%, respectively. In the next decade (1995-2004) the relationship between the type of soil and the intensity of its exploitation drastically changed; the intensity of exploitation of the leas and most fertile soils comprised 14 and 43%, respectively. Nearly a half of agricultural lands in the zones of soddy-podzolic and gray forest soils were abandoned, because the cultivation of the soils with the natural fertility below that in the podzolized chernozems became economically unfeasible under conditions of the economic crisis of the 1990s. The spatiotemporal relationships between the character of the soil cover and the intensity of exploitation of the agricultural lands manifest themselves by the decreasing frequency of occurrence of BSS from leached chernozems to soddy strongly podzolic soils and from 1985 to 2014.

  2. Analysis of 3D Doppler Tomography of the X-ray Binary System Cygnus X-1 from Spectral Observations in 2007 in the HeII λ 4686 Å Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agafonov, M. I.; Karitskaya, E. A.; Sharova, O. I.; Bochkarev, N. G.; Zharikov, S. V.; Butenko, G. Z.; Bondar', A. V.; Bubukin, I. T.

    2018-03-01

    This is the second paper in a series dedicated to studies of the X-ray binary Cyg X-1 in the HeII λ 4686 Å line using 3D Doppler tomography. A detailed analysis of the tomogram constructed has made it possible for the first time to obtain information about the motions of gaseous flows including all three velocity components. The observations were obtained in June 2007 at the Terskol Branch of the Institute of Astronomy (Russia) and the National Astronomical Observatory of Mexico. The correctness of the tomographic results and their discussion is analyzed. The results are compared with a 2D Doppler tomogram reconstruction. Model-atmosphere computations of HeII λ 4686 Å line profiles are used to estimate the influence of absorption features of the Osupergiant on the emission structure in the tomogram. The correctness of the 3D solutions is confirmed by the good agreement between the original sequence of spectral data and a control data set computed using the constructed 3D Doppler tomogram. Tomograms constructed using the data of each of the two observatories are compared. The results of the reconstruction for inclinations of the system of 40° and 45° essentially coincide. The maximum absorption (corresponding to the O supergiant) and emission structural features in the 3D tomogram are located in its central ( V x , V y ) section, where the velocity component perpendicular to the orbital plane V z is zero. The emission is generated mainly in the outer part of the accretion structure, close to the supergiant. A gaseous stream from the Lagrangian point L1 with its motion close to the orbital plane can be distinguished. Its maximum velocity reaches 800 km/s. The identification of an emission structure with V z 300 km/s and with V x , V y in the velocity interval corresponding to the donor star was unexpected. Its presence may indicate, for example, an outflow of matter from a magnetic pole of the supergiant.

  3. Lunar mare TiO2 abundances estimated from UV/Vis reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Robinson, Mark S.; Lawrence, Samuel J.; Denevi, Brett W.; Hapke, Bruce; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Hiesinger, Harald

    2017-11-01

    The visible (400-700 nm) and near-infrared (700-2800 nm) reflectance of the lunar regolith is dominantly controlled by variations in the abundance of plagioclase, iron-bearing silicate minerals, opaque minerals (e.g., ilmenite), and maturation products (e.g., agglutinate glass, radiation-produced rims on soil grains, and Fe-metal). The same materials control reflectance into the near-UV (250-400 nm) with varying degrees of importance. A key difference is that while ilmenite is spectrally neutral in the visible to near-infrared, it exhibits a diagnostic upturn in reflectance in the near-UV, at wavelengths shorter than about 450 nm. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide Angle Camera (WAC) filters were specifically designed to take advantage of this spectral feature to enable more accurate mapping of ilmenite within mare soils than previously possible. Using the reflectance measured at 321 and 415 nm during 62 months of repeated near-global WAC observations, first we found a linear correlation between the TiO2 contents of the lunar soil samples and the 321/415 nm ratio of each sample return site. We then used the coefficients from the linear regression and the near-global WAC multispectral mosaic to derive a new TiO2 map. The average TiO2 content is 3.9 wt% for the 17 major maria. The highest TiO2 values were found in Mare Tranquillitatis (∼12.6 wt%) and Oceanus Procellarum (∼11.6 wt%). Regions contaminated by highland ejecta, lunar swirls, and the low-TiO2 maria (e.g., Mare Frigoris, the northeastern units of Mare Imbrium) exhibit very low TiO2 values (2.6 Ga), whereas only medium to high TiO2 values (average = 6.8 wt%, minimum = 4.5 wt%) are found for younger mare units (<2.6 Ga).

  4. Highly stable colloidal TiO2 nanocrystals with strong violet-blue emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghamsari, Morteza Sasani; Gaeeni, Mohammad Reza; Han, Wooje; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Improved sol–gel method has been applied to prepare highly stable colloidal TiO 2 nanocrystals. The synthesized titania nanocrystals exhibit strong emission in the violet-blue wavelength region. Very long evolution time was obtained by preventing the sol to gel conversion with reflux process. FTIR, XRD, UV–vis absorption, photoluminescence and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) were used to study the optical properties, crystalline phase, morphology, shape and size of prepared TiO 2 colloidal nanocrystals. HRTEM showed that the diameter of TiO 2 colloidal nanocrystals is about 5 nm. Although the PL spectra show similar spectral features upon excitation wavelengths at 280, 300 and 350 nm, but their emission intensities are significantly different from each other. Photoluminescence quantum yield for TiO 2 colloidal nanocrystals is estimated to be 49% with 280 nm excitation wavelength which is in agreement and better than reported before. Obtained results confirm that the prepared colloidal TiO 2 sample has enough potential for optoelectronics applications.

  5. Spectral Imaging by Upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Pedersen, Christian; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to obtain spectrally resolved images using upconversion. By this method an image is spectrally shifted from one spectral region to another wavelength. Since the process is spectrally sensitive it allows for a tailored spectral response. We believe this will allow standard...... silicon based cameras designed for visible/near infrared radiation to be used for spectral images in the mid infrared. This can lead to much lower costs for such imaging devices, and a better performance....

  6. Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA) is an unsupervised feature extraction technique similar to PCA that was developed to better distinguish spectral features in...

  7. A new mathematical formulation of the line-by-line method in case of weak line overlapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishov, Alexander G.; Krymova, Natalie V.

    1994-01-01

    A rigorous mathematical proof is presented for multiline representation on the equivalent width of a molecular band which consists in the general case of n overlapping spectral lines. The multiline representation includes a principal term and terms of minor significance. The principal term is the equivalent width of the molecular band consisting of the same n nonoverlapping spectral lines. The terms of minor significance take into consideration the overlapping of two, three and more spectral lines. They are small in case of the weak overlapping of spectral lines in the molecular band. The multiline representation can be easily generalized for optically inhomogeneous gas media and holds true for combinations of molecular bands. If the band lines overlap weakly the standard formulation of line-by-line method becomes too labor-consuming. In this case the multiline representation permits line-by-line calculations to be performed more effectively. Other useful properties of the multiline representation are pointed out.

  8. Metallicity and the spectral energy distribution and spectral types of dwarf O-stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokiem, MR; Martin-Hernandez, NL; Lenorzer, A; de Koter, A; Tielens, AGGA

    We present a systematic study of the effect of metallicity on the stellar spectral energy distribution (SED) of 0 main sequence (dwarf) stars, focussing on the hydrogen and helium ionizing continua, and on the optical and near-IR lines used for spectral classification. The spectra are based on

  9. Metallicity and the spectral energy distribution and spectral types of dwarf O-stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokiem, M.R.; Martín-Hernández, N.L.; Lenorzer, A.; de Koter, A.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.

    2004-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the effect of metallicity on the stellar spectral energy distribution (SED) of O main sequence (dwarf) stars, focussing on the hydrogen and helium ionizing continua, and on the optical and near-IR lines used for spectral classification. The spectra are based on

  10. Visible-Light-Active Titania Photocatalysts: The Case of N-Doped TiO2s—Properties and Some Fundamental Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei V. Emeline

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly reviews some factors that have impacted heterogeneous photocatalysis with next generation TiO2 photocatalysts, along with some issues of current debate in the fundamental understanding of the science that underpins the field. Preparative methods and some characteristics features of N-doped TiO2 are presented and described briefly. At variance are experimental results and interpretations of X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS with regard to assignments of N 1s binding energies in N-doped TiO2 systems. Relative to pristine nominally clean TiO2 with absorption edges at 3.2 eV (anatase and 3.0 eV (rutile, N-doped TiO2s display red-shifted absorption edges into the visible spectral region. Several workers have surmised that the (intrinsic band gap of TiO2 is narrowed by coupling dopant energy states with valence band (VB states, an inference based on DFT computations. With similar DFT computations, others concluded that red-shifted absorption edges originate from the presence of localized intragap dopant states above the upper level of the VB band. Recent analyses of absorption spectral features in the visible region for a large number of doped TiO2 specimens, however, have suggested a common origin owing to the strong similarities of the absorption features, and this regardless of the preparative methods and the nature of the dopants. The next generation of (doped TiO2 photocatalysts should enhance overall process photoefficiencies (in some cases, since doped TiO2s absorb a greater quantity of solar radiation. The fundamental science that underpins heterogeneous photocatalysis with the next generation of photocatalysts is a rich playing field ripe for further exploration.

  11. Spectral investigation of a complex space charge structure in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurlui, S.; Dimitriu, D. G.; Ionita, C.; Schrittwieser, R. W.

    2009-01-01

    Complex space charge structures bordered by electrical double layers were spectrally investigated in argon plasma in the domain 400-1000 nm, identifying the lines corresponding to the transitions from different excited states of argon. The electron excitation temperature in the argon atoms was estimated from the spectral lines intensity ratio. (authors)

  12. Solar Spectral Irradiance Changes During Cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchenko, Sergey; Deland, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    We use solar spectra obtained by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the Aura satellite to detect and follow long-term (years) and short-term (weeks) changes in the solar spectral irradiance (SSI) in the 265-500 nm spectral range. During solar Cycle 24, in the relatively line-free regions the SSI changed by approximately 0.6% +/- 0.2% around 265 nm. These changes gradually diminish to 0.15% +/- 0.20% at 500 nm. All strong spectral lines and blends, with the notable exception of the upper Balmer lines, vary in unison with the solar "continuum." Besides the lines with strong chromospheric components, the most involved species include Fe I blends and all prominent CH, NH, and CN spectral bands. Following the general trend seen in the solar "continuum," the variability of spectral lines also decreases toward longer wavelengths. The long-term solar cycle SSI changes are closely, to within the quoted 0.1%-0.2% uncertainties, matched by the appropriately adjusted short-term SSI variations derived from the 27 day rotational modulation cycles. This further strengthens and broadens the prevailing notion about the general scalability of the UV SSI variability to the emissivity changes in the Mg II 280 nm doublet on timescales from weeks to years. We also detect subtle deviations from this general rule: the prominent spectral lines and blends at lambda approximately or greater than 350 nm show slightly more pronounced 27 day SSI changes when compared to the long-term (years) trends. We merge the solar data from Cycle 21 with the current Cycle 24 OMI and GOME-2 observations and provide normalized SSI variations for the 170-795 nm spectral region.

  13. Facile synthesis and characterization of N-doped TiO2/C nanocomposites with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Tiekun; Fu, Fang; Yu, Dongsheng; Cao, Jianliang; Sun, Guang

    2018-02-01

    Ultrafine anatase N-doped TiO2 nanocrystals modified with carbon (denoted as N-doped TiO2/C) were successfully prepared via a facile and low-cost approach, using titanium tetrachloride, aqueous ammonia and urea as starting materials. The phase composition, surface chemical composition, morphological structure, electronic and optical properties of the as-prepared photocatalysts were well characterized and analyzed. On the basis of Raman spectral characterization combining with the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), it could be concluded that N dopant ions were successfully introduced into TiO2 crystal lattice and carbon species were modified on the surface or between the nanoparticles to form N-doped TiO2/C nanocomposites. Compared with that of bare TiO2, the adsorption band edge of N-doped TiO2/C nanocomposites were found to have an evident red-shift toward visible light region, implying that the bandgap of N-doped TiO2/C nanocomposites is narrowed and the visible light absorption capacity is significantly enhanced due to N doping and carbon modification. The photoactivity of the as-prepared photocatalytsts was tested by the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light (λ > 420 nm), and the results showed that the N-doped TiO2/C nanocomposites exhibited much higher photodegradation rate than pure TiO2 and N-doped TiO2, which was mainly attributed to the synergistic effect of the enhanced light harvesting, augmented catalytic active sites and efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs.

  14. Sol-Gel TiO2 thin films sensitized with the mulberry pigment cyanidin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Henrique de Faria

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 films have various applications, among them solar cells and photodegradation of pollutants. In this study, we investigated TiO2 films functionalized with the organic dye cyanidin extracted from black mulberry (Morus nigra. The TiO2 was functionalized by the sol-gel method and the film was deposited on glass substrates by dip-coating. Our aim was to investigate the interaction between the semiconductor and the dye, as well as the influence of the velocity and number of deposits on the characteristics of the film. Using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, we observed a shift from the maximum absorption band at 545 nm for the dye’s ethanol solution to 595 nm for the film, indicating interaction of the cyanidin with the TiO2. The absorption spectra in the infrared region of the functionalized TiO2 particles showed bands characteristic of the oxide and indicated their interaction with the dye. Using profilometry and m-line techniques, we found that the films presented thicknesses in the order of 100 nm. A SEM analysis confirmed the high density of the films.

  15. Improving the Osteoblast Cell Adhesion on Electron Beam Controlled TiO2 Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Wook Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we investigate the osteogenesis and synostosis processes on the surface-modified TiO2 nanotubes via electron beam irradiation. The TiO2 nanotubes studied were synthesized by anodization process under different anodizing voltage. For the anodization voltage of 15, 20, and 25 V, TiO2 nanotubes with diameters of 59, 82, and 105 nm and length of 115, 276, and 310 nm were obtained, respectively. MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cell line was incubated on the TiO2 nanotubes to monitor the change in the cell adhesion before and after the electron beam irradiation. We observe that the electron beam irradiation affects the number of surviving osteoblast cells as well as the cultivation time. In particular, the high adhesion rate of 155% was obtained when the osteoblast cells were cultivated for 2 hours on the TiO2 nanotube, anodized under 20 V, and irradiated with 5,000 kGy of electron beam.

  16. CdSe quantum dots co-sensitized TiO2 photoelectrodes: particle size dependent properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabakar, K; Minkyu, S; Inyoung, S; Heeje, K

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (QDs) with different particle sizes have been used as an inorganic co-sensitizer in addition to organic dye for large band gap mesoporous TiO 2 dye sensitized solar cells. The QDs co-sensitized solar cells exhibited overall highest conversion efficiency of 3.65% at 1 sun irradiation for 3.3 nm particle size corresponding to a visible light absorption wavelength of 528 nm. The photovoltaic characteristics of CdSe QDs co-sensitized cells depend on the particle sizes rather than broad spectral light absorption as compared with CdSe QDs alone sensitized and standard dye-sensitized solar cells. Correlation between CdSe QDs adsorption on mesoporous TiO 2 surfaces and photoelectron injection into TiO 2 has been demonstrated. (fast track communication)

  17. Sealed two-electrode photoelectrochemical cell based on nanocrystalline TiO2 analyzed as a UV sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forcade, Fresnel; Gonzalez, Bernardo; Maqueda, Ma. de la Luz; Curbelo, Larisa; Vigil, Elena; Jennings, James R.; Dunn, Halina; Wang, Hongxia; PeteR, Lauri M.

    2008-01-01

    Potentialities as UV sensor of a sealed two-electrode photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) based on nanocrystalline TiO 2 are analyzed. Ultraviolet component of solar light is responsible for a number of skin disorders and diseases. An inexpensive and simple UV sensor would be convenient to measure the UV intensity been exposed to. Nanocrystalline TiO 2 is a rather inexpensive material, innocuous and very stable which is intensively studied at the present moment because of its possible applications in dye-sensitized solar cells, photocatalysis, electrochromics, etc. The method for obtaining the sensor and its structure are described. Different TiO 2 layer structures for the photoelectrode are studied. Important parameters, such as, spectral response, external quantum efficiency, current vs light intensity and current-voltage curve are presented. Results show prospective for the implementation of this type of sensor. (Full text)

  18. Spectral gamuts and spectral gamut mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Mitchell R.; Derhak, Maxim W.

    2006-01-01

    All imaging devices have two gamuts: the stimulus gamut and the response gamut. The response gamut of a print engine is typically described in CIE colorimetry units, a system derived to quantify human color response. More fundamental than colorimetric gamuts are spectral gamuts, based on radiance, reflectance or transmittance units. Spectral gamuts depend on the physics of light or on how materials interact with light and do not involve the human's photoreceptor integration or brain processing. Methods for visualizing a spectral gamut raise challenges as do considerations of how to utilize such a data-set for producing superior color reproductions. Recent work has described a transformation of spectra reduced to 6-dimensions called LabPQR. LabPQR was designed as a hybrid space with three explicit colorimetric axes and three additional spectral reconstruction axes. In this paper spectral gamuts are discussed making use of LabPQR. Also, spectral gamut mapping is considered in light of the colorimetric-spectral duality of the LabPQR space.

  19. Characterization and Comparison of Photocatalytic Activity Silver Ion doped on TiO2(TiO2/Ag+) and Silver Ion doped on Black TiO2(Black TiO2/Ag+)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Yi; Sim, Ho Hyung; Song, Sinae; Noh, Yeoung Ah; Lee, Hong Woon; Taik Kim, Hee

    2018-03-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the representative ceramic materials containing photocatalyst, optic and antibacterial activity. The hydroxyl radical in TiO2 applies to the intensive oxidizing agent, hence TiO2 is suitable to use photocatalytic materials. Black TiO2was prepared through reduction of amorphous TiO2 conducting under H2 which leads to color changes. Its black color is proven that absorbs 100% light across the whole-visible light, drawing enhancement of photocatalytic property. In this study, we aimed to compare the photocatalytic activity of silver ion doped on TiO2(TiO2/Ag+) and silver ion doped on black TiO2(black TiO2/Ag+) under visible light range. TiO2/Ag+ was fabricated following steps. 1) TiO2 was synthesized by a sol-gel method from Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). 2) Then AgNO3 was added during an aging process step for silver ion doping on the surface of TiO2. Moreover, Black TiO2/Ag+ was obtained same as TiO2/Ag+ except for calcination under H2. The samples were characterized X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible reflectance (UV-vis DRS), and Methylene Blue degradation test. XRD analysis confirmed morphology of TiO2. The band gap of black TiO2/Ag+ was confirmed (2.6 eV) through UV-vis DRS, which was lower than TiO2/Ag+ (2.9 eV). The photocatalytic effect was conducted by methylene blue degradation test. It demonstrated that black TiO2/Ag+ had a photocatalytic effect under UV light also visible light.

  20. Preparation and solar-light photocatalytic activity of TiO2 composites: TiO2/kaolin, TiO2/diatomite, and TiO2/zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Li, S. G.; Wang, J.; Li, Y.; Ma, C. H.; Zhang, L.

    2014-12-01

    Three TiO2 loaded composites, TiO2/kaolin, TiO2/diatomite, and TiO2/zeolite, were prepared in order to improve the solar-light photocatalytic activity of TiO2. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity could obviously be enhanced by loading appropriate amount of inorganic mineral materials. Meanwhile, TiO2 content, heat-treatment temperature and heat-treatment time on the photocatalytic activity were reviewed. Otherwise, the effect of solar light irradiation time and dye concentration on the photocatalytic degradation of Acid Red B was investigated. Furthermore, the degradation mechanism and adsorption process were also discussed.

  1. SPECTRAL SMILE CORRECTION IN CRISM HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceamanos, X.; Doute, S.

    2009-12-01

    sharpening for every Θi is determined thanks to a loop of sharpening procedures, which is assessed by the examination of an estimation of the smile energy (the MNF-smile eigenvalue). As a matter of fact, a higher sharpening is performed on Θi as long as the smile energy decreases. Experiments on CRISM data show remarkable results regarding the decrease of smile energy (up to 80%) and the spectral shape preservation. In fact, initial smile-affected spectra do no longer show shifting nor smoothing (see Fig. 2). Line-averaged spectra and band 155 of FRT5AE3_07 showing spectral smile effects Line-averaged spectra and band 155 of smile-corrected FRT5AE3_07

  2. Adaptive Spectral Doppler Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Jakobsson, Andreas; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2009-01-01

    . The methods can also provide better quality of the estimated power spectral density (PSD) of the blood signal. Adaptive spectral estimation techniques are known to pro- vide good spectral resolution and contrast even when the ob- servation window is very short. The 2 adaptive techniques are tested......In this paper, 2 adaptive spectral estimation techniques are analyzed for spectral Doppler ultrasound. The purpose is to minimize the observation window needed to estimate the spectrogram to provide a better temporal resolution and gain more flexibility when designing the data acquisition sequence...... and compared with the averaged periodogram (Welch’s method). The blood power spectral capon (BPC) method is based on a standard minimum variance technique adapted to account for both averaging over slow-time and depth. The blood amplitude and phase estimation technique (BAPES) is based on finding a set...

  3. Introduction to spectral theory

    CERN Document Server

    Levitan, B M

    1975-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the spectral theory of the Sturm- Liouville operator and to the spectral theory of the Dirac system. In addition, some results are given for nth order ordinary differential operators. Those parts of this book which concern nth order operators can serve as simply an introduction to this domain, which at the present time has already had time to become very broad. For the convenience of the reader who is not familar with abstract spectral theory, the authors have inserted a chapter (Chapter 13) in which they discuss this theory, concisely and in the main without proofs, and indicate various connections with the spectral theory of differential operators.

  4. Functionalized TiO2 nanoparticle containing isocyanate groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, Baoli; Li, Duxin; Liu, Qingquan; Zhou, Zhihua; Liao, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Functionalized TiO 2 nanoparticle containing isocyanate groups can extend the TiO 2 nanoparticle chemistry, and may promote their many potential applications such as in polymer composites and coatings. This paper describes a facile method to prepare functionalized TiO 2 nanoparticle with highly reactive isocyanate groups on its surface, via the reaction between toluene-2, 4-diisocyanate (TDI) and hydroxyl on TiO 2 nanoparticle surface. The main effect factors on the reaction of TiO 2 with TDI were studied by determining the reaction extent of hydroxyl groups on TiO 2 surface. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed that reactive isocyanate groups were covalently attached to the TiO 2 nanoparticle surface. The dispersion of the TDI-functionalized TiO 2 nanoparticle was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Owing to the TDI molecules covalently bonded on TiO 2 nanoparticle surface, it was established that the TiO 2 nanoparticle can be uniformly dispersed in toluene, thus indicating that this functionalization method can prevent TiO 2 nanoparticle from agglomerating. -- Highlights: ► TiO 2 nanoparticle was functionalized with toluene-2, 4-diisocyanate. ► Functionalized TiO 2 nanoparticle can be uniformly dispersed in xylene. ► Compatibility of TiO 2 nanoparticle and organic solvent is significantly improved. ► TiO 2 containing isocyanate groups can extend the TiO 2 nanoparticle chemistry.

  5. Luminosity and Redshift dependence of quasar spectral properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel E. Vanden Berk et al.

    2004-03-09

    Using a large sample of quasar spectra from the SDSS, we examine the composite spectral trends of quasars as functions of both redshift and luminosity, independently of one another. Aside from the well known Baldwin effect (BE)--the decrease of line equivalent width with luminosity--the average spectral properties are remarkably similar. Host galaxy contamination and the BE are the primary causes for apparent changes in the average spectral slope of the quasars. The BE is detected for most emission lines, including the Balmer lines, but with several exceptions including NV1240A. Emission line shifts of several lines are associated with the BE. The BE is mainly a function of luminosity, but also partly a function of redshift in that line equivalent widths become stronger with redshift. Some of the complex iron features change with redshift, particularly near the small blue bump region.

  6. Pure rotational spectra of TiO and TiO2 in VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiński, T.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Menten, K. M.; Patel, N. A.; Young, K. H.; Brünken, S.; Müller, H. S. P.; McCarthy, M. C.; Winters, J. M.; Decin, L.

    2013-03-01

    We report the first detection of pure rotational transitions of TiO and TiO2 at (sub-)millimeter wavelengths towards the red supergiant VY CMa. A rotational temperature, Trot, of about 250 K was derived for TiO2. Although Trot was not well constrained for TiO, it is likely somewhat higher than that of TiO2. The detection of the Ti oxides confirms that they are formed in the circumstellar envelopes of cool oxygen-rich stars and may be the "seeds" of inorganic-dust formation, but alternative explanations for our observation of TiO and TiO2 in the cooler regions of the envelope cannot be ruled out at this time. The observations suggest that a significant fraction of the oxides is not converted to dust, but instead remains in the gas phase throughout the outflow. Based on observations carried out with the Submillimeter Array and IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer.Plateau de Bure data (FITS file) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/551/A113

  7. Crystal structure mediates mode of cell death in TiO2 nanotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braydich-Stolle, Laura K.; Schaeublin, Nicole M.; Murdock, Richard C.; Jiang, Jingkun; Biswas, Pratim; Schlager, John J.; Hussain, Saber M.

    2009-01-01

    Certain properties that nanoparticles possess differentiate them from their bulk counterparts, and these characteristics must be evaluated prior to nanoparticle studies and include: size, shape, dispersion, physical and chemical properties, surface area, and surface chemistry. Early nanotoxicity studies evaluating TiO 2 have yielded conflicting data which identify either size or crystal structure as the mediating property for nano-TiO 2 toxicity. However, it is important to note that none of these studies examined size with the crystal structure composition controlled for or examined crystal structure while controlling the nanoparticle size. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of size and crystal structure in TiO 2 nanotoxicity while controlling for as many other nanoproperties as possible using the HEL-30 mouse keratinocyte cell line as a model for dermal exposure. In the size-dependent studies, all the nanoparticles are 100% anatase, and aggregate sizes were determined in order to take into account the effect of agglomeration on size-dependent toxicity. In addition, varying crystal structures were assessed while the size of the nanoparticles was controlled. We were able to identify that both size and crystal structure contribute to cytotoxicity and that the mechanism of cell death varies based on crystal structure. The 100% anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles, regardless of size, induced cell necrosis, while the rutile TiO 2 nanoparticles initiated apoptosis through formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  8. Suggestion for the detection of TiO2 in interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Sharma, Mohit; Sharma, Monika; Chandra, Suresh

    2017-09-01

    Since all the carbon in oxygen-rich stars is locked into carbon monoxide (CO), how the formation of dust takes place in their environment is a matter of great interest. Being a refractory species, the titanium dioxide (TiO2) is thought to play important role in the dust-condensation sequence. The TiO2 is detected in the environment of red supergiant VY Canis Majoris through sub-millimeter wavelengths. All these lines are between the levels lying at high energies for which large kinetic temperature in the region is required. Based on the detailed study of transfer of radiation, we propose for the identification of TiO2 through its transitions between low lying levels. Using spectroscopic data, we have calculated energies of 100 rotational levels of para-TiO2 (up to 82 cm^{-1}) and the Einstein A-coefficients for radiative transitions between the levels. These Einstein A-coefficients along with the scaled values of collisional rate coefficients, we have solved a set of 100 statistical equilibrium equations coupled with 436 equations of radiative transfer. We have found 9 transitions having anomalous absorption and 6 transitions showing emission features. These transitions may help in identification of TiO2 in a cosmic object.

  9. Performance of spectral fitting methods for vegetation fluorescence quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meroni, M.; Busetto, D.; Colombo, R.; Guanter, L.; Moreno, J.; Verhoef, W.

    2010-01-01

    The Fraunhofer Line Discriminator (FLD) principle has long been considered as the reference method to quantify solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (F) from passive remote sensing measurements. Recently, alternative retrieval algorithms based on the spectral fitting of hyperspectral radiance

  10. An Elementary Proof of the Polynomial Matrix Spectral Factorization Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Ephremidze, Lasha

    2010-01-01

    A very simple and short proof of the polynomial matrix spectral factorization theorem (on the unit circle as well as on the real line) is presented, which relies on elementary complex analysis and linear algebra.

  11. On Longitudinal Spectral Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Leif

    1979-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the longitudinal spectral coherence differs significantly from the transversal spectral coherence in its dependence on displacement and frequency. An expression for the longitudinal coherence is derived and it is shown how the scale of turbulence, the displacement between ...... observation sites and the turbulence intensity influence the results. The limitations of the theory are discussed....

  12. Volume versus surface-mediated recombination in anatase TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavigli, Lucia; Bogani, Franco; Vinattieri, Anna; Faso, Valentina; Baldi, Giovanni

    2009-09-01

    We present an experimental study of the radiative recombination dynamics in size-controlled anatase TiO2 nanoparticles in the range 20-130 nm. From time-integrated photoluminescence spectra and picosecond time-resolved experiments as a function of the nanoparticle size, excitation density, and temperature, we show that photoluminescence comes out from a bulk and a surface radiative recombination. The spectral shift and the different time dynamics provide a clear distinction between them. Moreover, the intrinsic nature of the emission is also proven, providing a quantitative evaluation of volume and surface contributions.

  13. [Study on the arc spectral information for welding quality diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Yong; Gu, Xiao-Yan; Li, Huan; Yang, Li-Jun

    2009-03-01

    Through collecting the spectral signals of TIG and MIG welding arc with spectrometer, the arc light radiations were analyzed based on the basic theory of plasma physics. The radiation of welding arc distributes over a broad range of frequency, from infrared to ultraviolet. The arc spectrum is composed of line spectra and continuous spectra. Due to the variation of metal density in the welding arc, there is great difference between the welding arc spectra of TIG and MIG in both their intensity and distribution. The MIG welding arc provides more line spectra of metal and the intensity of radiation is greater than TIG. The arc spectrum of TIG welding is stable during the welding process, disturbance factors that cause the spectral variations can be reflected by the spectral line related to the corresponding element entering the welding arc. The arc spectrum of MIG welding will fluctuate severely due to droplet transfer, which produces "noise" in the line spectrum aggregation zone. So for MIG welding, the spectral zone lacking spectral line is suitable for welding quality diagnosis. According to the characteristic of TIG and MIG, special spectral zones were selected for welding quality diagnosis. For TIG welding, the selected zone is in ultraviolet zone (230-300 nm). For MIG welding, the selected zone is in visible zone (570-590 nm). With the basic theory provided for welding quality diagnosis, the integral intensity of spectral signal in the selected zone of welding process with disturbing factor was studied to prove the theory. The results show that the welding quality and disturbance factors can be diagnosed with good signal to noise ratio in the selected spectral zone compared with signal in other spectral zone. The spectral signal can be used for real-time diagnosis of the welding quality.

  14. X-ray and EPR study of reactions between B4C and TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakazey, M.; Vlasova, M.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G.; Dominguez-Patino, M.; Leder, R.

    2006-01-01

    X-ray diffraction and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) methods have been used to study the reaction process in a system of 95 wt.% of B 4 C + 5 wt.% TiO 2 . The addition of TiO 2 to B 4 C was effective in accelerating the removal of carbon inclusions. Two types of reactions between B 4 C and TiO 2 , starting at temperatures ∼1173 K, took place: (a) gas-transport exchange and (b) diffusion of Ti atoms into the B 4 C lattice. These reactions modify the number and type of donor centers in the B 4 C. The dependence of EPR line width on the number of donor centers in B 4 C (from conditions of sample treatment) is a useful method for investigating the formation of powders and ceramics based on B 4 C

  15. All-Dielectric Full-Color Printing with TiO2 Metasurfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shang; Zhou, Zhenxing; Zhang, Chen; Gao, Yisheng; Duan, Zonghui; Xiao, Shumin; Song, Qinghai

    2017-05-23

    Recently, color generation in resonant nanostructures have been intensively studied. Despite of their exciting progresses, the structural colors are usually generated by the plasmonic resonances of metallic nanoparticles. Due to the inherent plasmon damping, such plasmonic nanostructures are usually hard to create very distinct color impressions. Here we utilize the concept of metasurfaces to produce all-dielectric, low-loss, and high-resolution structural colors. We have fabricated TiO 2 metasurfaces with electron-beam lithography and a very simple lift-off process. The optical characterizations showed that the TiO 2 metasurfaces with different unit sizes could generate high reflection peaks at designed wavelengths. The maximal reflectance was as high as 64% with full width at half-maximum (fwhm) around 30 nm. Consequently, distinct colors have been observed in bright field and the generated colors covered the entire visible spectral range. The detailed numerical analysis shows that the distinct colors were generated by the electric resonance and magnetic resonances in TiO 2 metasurfaces. Based on the unique properties of magnetic resonances, distinct colors have been observed in bright field when the metasurfaces were reduced to a 4 × 4 array, giving a spatial resolution around 16000 dpi. Considering the cost, stability, and CMOS-compatibility, this research will be important for the structural colors to reach real-world industrial applications.

  16. Estimation of spectral kurtosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutawanir

    2017-03-01

    Rolling bearings are the most important elements in rotating machinery. Bearing frequently fall out of service for various reasons: heavy loads, unsuitable lubrications, ineffective sealing. Bearing faults may cause a decrease in performance. Analysis of bearing vibration signals has attracted attention in the field of monitoring and fault diagnosis. Bearing vibration signals give rich information for early detection of bearing failures. Spectral kurtosis, SK, is a parameter in frequency domain indicating how the impulsiveness of a signal varies with frequency. Faults in rolling bearings give rise to a series of short impulse responses as the rolling elements strike faults, SK potentially useful for determining frequency bands dominated by bearing fault signals. SK can provide a measure of the distance of the analyzed bearings from a healthy one. SK provides additional information given by the power spectral density (psd). This paper aims to explore the estimation of spectral kurtosis using short time Fourier transform known as spectrogram. The estimation of SK is similar to the estimation of psd. The estimation falls in model-free estimation and plug-in estimator. Some numerical studies using simulations are discussed to support the methodology. Spectral kurtosis of some stationary signals are analytically obtained and used in simulation study. Kurtosis of time domain has been a popular tool for detecting non-normality. Spectral kurtosis is an extension of kurtosis in frequency domain. The relationship between time domain and frequency domain analysis is establish through power spectrum-autocovariance Fourier transform. Fourier transform is the main tool for estimation in frequency domain. The power spectral density is estimated through periodogram. In this paper, the short time Fourier transform of the spectral kurtosis is reviewed, a bearing fault (inner ring and outer ring) is simulated. The bearing response, power spectrum, and spectral kurtosis are plotted to

  17. Spectrally accurate contour dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Buskirk, R.D.; Marcus, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    We present an exponentially accurate boundary integral method for calculation the equilibria and dynamics of piece-wise constant distributions of potential vorticity. The method represents contours of potential vorticity as a spectral sum and solves the Biot-Savart equation for the velocity by spectrally evaluating a desingularized contour integral. We use the technique in both an initial-value code and a newton continuation method. Our methods are tested by comparing the numerical solutions with known analytic results, and it is shown that for the same amount of computational work our spectral methods are more accurate than other contour dynamics methods currently in use

  18. Spectral radius of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Stevanovic, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Spectral Radius of Graphs provides a thorough overview of important results on the spectral radius of adjacency matrix of graphs that have appeared in the literature in the preceding ten years, most of them with proofs, and including some previously unpublished results of the author. The primer begins with a brief classical review, in order to provide the reader with a foundation for the subsequent chapters. Topics covered include spectral decomposition, the Perron-Frobenius theorem, the Rayleigh quotient, the Weyl inequalities, and the Interlacing theorem. From this introduction, the

  19. Development of a high resolution cylindrical crystal spectrometer for line shape and spectral diagnostics of x-rays emitted from - hot - plasmas. Final report, June 1, 1976-December 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaellne, E.G.

    1984-01-01

    The development, installation and evaluation of a high resolution X-ray spectroscopic diagnostics are reported. The approach has been to optimize spectrometer throughput to enable single shot plasma diagnostics with good time resolution and to ensure sufficient energy resolution to allow line profile analysis. These goals have been achieved using a new X-ray geometry combined with a new position sensitive X-ray detector. These diagnostics have been used at Alcator C to detect X-ray emission of highly ionized impurity elements as well as argon seed elements specially introduced into the plasma for this diagnostic. Temporally resolved ion temperature profiles have been obtained from the recorded X-ray spectra simultaneously with other plasma parameters such as electron temperature, ionization temperature and ionization stage distribution. Radial profiles have also been measured. The developed X-ray diagnostics thus serve as a major multiparameter probe of the central core of the plasma with complementary informtion on radial profiles

  20. Spectral unmixing: estimating partial abundances

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available techniques is complicated when considering very similar spectral signatures. Iron-bearing oxide/hydroxide/sulfate minerals have similar spectral signatures. The study focuses on how could estimates of abundances of spectrally similar iron-bearing oxide...

  1. Titanium-based spectrally selective surfaces for solar thermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, A D; Holmes, J P

    1983-10-01

    A study of spectrally selective surfaces based on anodic oxide films on titanium is presented. These surfaces have low values of solar absorptance, 0.77, due to the nonideal optical properties of the anodic TiO2 for antireflection of titanium. A simple chemical etching process is described which gives a textured surface with dimensions similar to the wavelengths of solar radiation, leading to spectral selectivity. The performance of this dark-etched surface can be further improved by anodising, and optimum absorbers have been produced with alpha(s) 0.935 and hemispherical emittances (400 K) 0.23. The surface texturing effects a significant improvement in alpha(s) at oblique incidence.

  2. Rectangular spectral collocation

    KAUST Repository

    Driscoll, Tobin A.; Hale, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Boundary conditions in spectral collocation methods are typically imposed by removing some rows of the discretized differential operator and replacing them with others that enforce the required conditions at the boundary. A new approach based upon

  3. Vowel Inherent Spectral Change

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    It has been traditional in phonetic research to characterize monophthongs using a set of static formant frequencies, i.e., formant frequencies taken from a single time-point in the vowel or averaged over the time-course of the vowel. However, over the last twenty years a growing body of research has demonstrated that, at least for a number of dialects of North American English, vowels which are traditionally described as monophthongs often have substantial spectral change. Vowel Inherent Spectral Change has been observed in speakers’ productions, and has also been found to have a substantial effect on listeners’ perception. In terms of acoustics, the traditional categorical distinction between monophthongs and diphthongs can be replaced by a gradient description of dynamic spectral patterns. This book includes chapters addressing various aspects of vowel inherent spectral change (VISC), including theoretical and experimental studies of the perceptually relevant aspects of VISC, the relationship between ar...

  4. Radio Interferometric Detection of TiO and TiO_2 in VY Canis Majoris: "seeds" of Inorganic Dust Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunken, S.; Muller, H. S. P.; Kaminski, T.; Menten, K. M.; Gott-Lieb, C. A.; Patel, N. A.; Young, K. H.; McCarthy, M. C.; Winters, J. M.; Decin, L.

    2013-06-01

    Circumstellar envelopes around late-type stars harbour a rich variety of molecular gas and copious amounts of dust, originating from the mass-loss of the central star during the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) or the red supergiant phase. The formation of dust in these objects, in particular the first nucleation stages out of gas phase molecules, is still poorly understood. Here we report the first detection of pure rotational transitions of the two simplest titanium oxides, TiO and TiO_2, towards the oxygen-rich red supergiant VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa). This actually represents the first secure identification of TiO_2 in space. Observations of several rotational emission lines of both species with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) in the 345 GHz-band and with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) around 220 GHz confirm the presence of these refractory species in the cool (<1000 K) circumstellar envelope in a region several times the size of the dust formation zone. The role of Ti oxides as "seeds" of inorganic dust formation in oxygen-rich circumstellar envelopes will be discussed in view of the present observations.

  5. Spectrally selective glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Spectrally selective glazing is window glass that permits some portions of the solar spectrum to enter a building while blocking others. This high-performance glazing admits as much daylight as possible while preventing transmission of as much solar heat as possible. By controlling solar heat gains in summer, preventing loss of interior heat in winter, and allowing occupants to reduce electric lighting use by making maximum use of daylight, spectrally selective glazing significantly reduces building energy consumption and peak demand. Because new spectrally selective glazings can have a virtually clear appearance, they admit more daylight and permit much brighter, more open views to the outside while still providing the solar control of the dark, reflective energy-efficient glass of the past. This Federal Technology Alert provides detailed information and procedures for Federal energy managers to consider spectrally selective glazings. The principle of spectrally selective glazings is explained. Benefits related to energy efficiency and other architectural criteria are delineated. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application of spectrally selective glazing, and step-by-step instructions are given for estimating energy savings. Case studies are also presented to illustrate actual costs and energy savings. Current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are included for users who have questions not fully addressed here.

  6. Synthesis of hybrid cellulose nanocomposite bonded with dopamine SiO2/TiO2 and its antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Sivalingam; Kim, Gwang-Hoon; Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Joo-Hyung

    2015-04-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid material based cellulose was synthesized by the sol-gel approach. The explosion of activity in this area in the past decade has made tremendous progress in industry or academic both fundamental understanding of sol-gel process and applications of new functionalized hybrid materials. In this present research work, we focused on cellulose-dopamine functionalized SiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite by sol-gel process. The cellulose-dopamine hybrid nanocomposite was synthesized via γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (γ-APTES) coupling agent by in-situ sol-gel process. The chemical structure of cellulose-amine functionalized dopamine bonding to cellulose structure with covalent cross linking hybrids was confirmed by FTIR spectral analysis. The morphological analysis of cellulose-dopamine nanoSiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite materials was characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM. From this different analysis results indicate that the optical transparency, thermal stability, control morphology of cellulose-dopamine-SiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite. Furthermore cellulose-dopamine-SiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite was tested against pathogenic bacteria for antimicrobial activity.

  7. Achromatization of Debye-Scherrer Lines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ekstein, Hans

    1951-01-01

    A method is described for reducing the width of a Debye-Scherrer line produced by diffraction from a polycrystalline medium, if this width is due to the spectral impurity of the primary characteristic radiation...

  8. Program of telluric lines monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vince I.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new observational program of telluric lines monitoring was introduced at Belgrade Astronomical Observatory. The ultimate goal of this program is to investigate the properties of Earth’s atmosphere through modeling the observed profiles of telluric lines. The program is intend to observe infrared molecular oxygen lines that were selected according to spectral sensitivity of the available CCD camera. In this paper we give the initial and the final selection criteria for spectral lines included in the program the description of equipment and procedures used for observations and reduction, a review of preliminary observational results with the estimated precision, and a short discussion on the comparison of the theoretical predictions and the measurements.

  9. Low Loss Sol-Gel TiO2 Thin Films for Waveguiding Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Fischer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 thin films were synthesized by sol-gel process: titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP was dissolved in isopropanol, and then hydrolyzed by adding a water/isopropanol mixture with a controlled hydrolysis ratio. The as prepared sol was deposited by “dip-coating” on a glass substrate with a controlled withdrawal speed. The obtained films were annealed at 350 and 500 °C (2 h. The morphological properties of the prepared films were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM. The optical waveguiding properties of TiO2 films were investigated for both annealing temperature using m-lines spectroscopy. The refractive indices and the film thickness were determined from the measured effective indices. The results show that the synthesized planar waveguides are multimodes and demonstrate low propagation losses of 0.5 and 0.8 dB/cm for annealing temperature 350 and 500 °C, respectively.

  10. Studied Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Effects of Au Nanoparticles on TiO2 by FDTD Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Ying Yao

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR plays a significant role in the fields of photocatalysis and solar cells. It can not only broaden the spectral response range of materials, but also improve the separation probability of photo-generated electron-hole pairs through local field enhancement or hot electron injection. In this article, the LSPR effects of Au/TiO2 composite photocatalyst, with different sizes and shapes, have been simulated by the finite difference time domain (FDTD method. The variation tendency of the resonance-absorption peaks and the intensity of enhanced local enhanced electric field were systematically compared and emphasized. When the location of Au nanosphere is gradually immersed into the TiO2 substrate, the local enhanced electric field of the boundary is gradually enhanced. When Au nanoshperes are covered by TiO2 at 100 nm depths, the local enhanced electric field intensities reach the maximum value. However, when Au nanorods are loaded on the surface of the TiO2 substrate, the intensity of the corresponding enhanced local enhanced electric field is the maximum. Au nanospheres produce two strong absorption peaks in the visible light region, which are induced by the LSPR effect and interband transitions between Au nanoparticles and the TiO2 substrate. For the LSPR resonance-absorption peaks, the corresponding position is red-shifted by about 100 nm, as the location of Au nanospheres are gradually immersed into the TiO2 substrate. On the other hand, the size change of the Au nanorods do not lead to a similar variation of the LSPR resonance-absorption peaks, except to change the length-diameter ratio. Meanwhile, the LSPR effects are obviously interfered with by the interband transitions between the Au nanorods and TiO2 substrate. At the end of this article, three photo-generated carrier separation mechanisms are proposed. Among them, the existence of direct electron transfer between Au nanoparticles and the TiO2

  11. Comment on "Atomic structure calculations and identification of EUV and SXR spectral lines in Sr XXX" by A. Goyal, I. Khatri, S. Aggarwal, A.K. Singh, M. Mohan [J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transf 2015;161:157

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Kanti M.

    2015-11-01

    Recently, Goyal et al. [1] reported energies and lifetimes (τ) for the lowest 113 levels of the 2s22p5, 2s2p6, 2s22p43ℓ, 2s2p53ℓ and 2p63ℓ configurations of F-like Sr XXX. For the calculations they adopted the multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) and the flexible atomic code (FAC). Additionally, they also listed radiative rates (A- values), oscillator strengths (f- values) and line strengths (S- values) for four types of transitions, namely electric dipole (E1), electric quadrupole (E2), magnetic dipole (M1) and magnetic quadrupole (M2), but only from the ground to the higher excited levels. However, there are two clear anomalies in their reported data. Firstly, the f-values listed from FAC in their Tables 3-6 are larger than from MCDF by a factor of two, for all transitions. This is because they have blindly listed the output from FAC without realising that, unlike MCDF, FAC lists ωf where ω is the statistical weight, and happens to be exactly 2 in the present case. Secondly, their lifetime for level 2 (2s22p51/2 o 2P) is incorrect. This is because the dominant contributing transition for this level is 1-2 M1 for which A=3.25×106 s-1, listed (correctly) in their Table 5, and this leads to τ=3.08×10-7 s, and not 1.54×10-7 s, as listed in their Table 1.

  12. Spectral monitoring of AB Aur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Díaz, L. F.; Oostra, B.

    2017-07-01

    The Astronomical Observatory of the Universidad de los Andes in Bogotá, Colombia, did a spectral monitoring during 2014 and 2015 to AB Aurigae, the brightest Herbig Ae/be star in the northern hemisphere. The aim of this project is applying spectral techniques, in order to identify specific features that could help us not only to understand how this star is forming, but also to establish a pattern to explain general star formation processes. We have recorded 19 legible spectra with a resolving power of R = 11,0000, using a 40 cm Meade telescope with an eShel spectrograph, coupled by a 50-micron optical fiber. We looked for the prominent absorption lines, the Sodium doublet at 5890Å and 5896Å, respectively and Magnesium II at 4481Å; to measure radial velocities of the star, but, we did not find a constant value. Instead, it ranges from 15 km/s to 32 km/s. This variability could be explained by means of an oscillation or pulsation of the external layers of the star. Other variabilities are observed in some emission lines: Hα, Hβ, He I at 5876Å and Fe II at 5018Å. It seems this phenomenon could be typical in stars that are forming and have a circumstellar disk around themselves. This variability is associated with the nonhomogeneous surface of the star and the interaction that it has with its disk. Results of this interaction could be seen also in the stellar wind ejected by the star. More data are required in order to look for a possible period in the changes of radial velocity of the star, the same for the variability of He I and Fe II, and phenomena present in Hα. We plan to take new data in January of 2017.

  13. Theory of atomic spectral emission intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yngstroem, S.

    1989-02-01

    The theoretical derivation of a new spectral line intensity formula for atomic radiative emission is presented. The theory is based on first principles of quantum physics and statistical physics. It is argued that the formulation of the theory provides a very good example of the manner in which quantum logic transforms into common sense logic. The theory is strongly supported by experimental evidence. (author) (16 refs.)

  14. TiO2-TiO2 composite resistive humidity sensor: ethanol crosssensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghalamboran, Milad; Saedi, Yasin

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication method and characterization results of a TiO 2 -TiO 2 composite bead used for humidity sensing along with its negative cross-sensitivity to ethanol vapor are reported. The bead shaped resistive sample sensors are fabricated by the drop-casting of a TiO 2 slurry on two Pt wire segments. The dried bead is pre-fired at 750°C and subsequently impregnated with a Ti-based sol. The sample is ready for characterization after a thermal annealing at 600°C in air. Structurally, the bead is a composite of the micron-sized TiO 2 crystallites embedded in a matrix of nanometric TiO 2 particle aggregates. The performance of the beads as resistive humidity sensors is recorded at room temperature in standard humidity level chambers. Results evince the wide dynamic range of the sensors fabricated in the low relative humidity range. While the sensor conductance is not sensitive to ethanol vapor in dry air, in humid air, sensor's responses are negatively affected by the contaminant. (paper)

  15. CRISS power spectral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeth, W.

    1979-04-01

    The correlation of signal components at different frequencies like higher harmonics cannot be detected by a normal power spectral density measurement, since this technique correlates only components at the same frequency. This paper describes a special method for measuring the correlation of two signal components at different frequencies: the CRISS power spectral density. From this new function in frequency analysis, the correlation of two components can be determined quantitatively either they stem from one signal or from two diverse signals. The principle of the method, suitable for the higher harmonics of a signal as well as for any other frequency combinations is shown for the digital frequency analysis technique. Two examples of CRISS power spectral densities demonstrates the operation of the new method. (orig.) [de

  16. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2012-01-19

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  17. Photovoltaic spectral responsivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, K.; Dunlavy, D.; Field, H.; Moriarty, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This paper discusses the various elemental random and nonrandom error sources in typical spectral responsivity measurement systems. The authors focus specifically on the filter and grating monochrometer-based spectral responsivity measurement systems used by the Photovoltaic (PV) performance characterization team at NREL. A variety of subtle measurement errors can occur that arise from a finite photo-current response time, bandwidth of the monochromatic light, waveform of the monochromatic light, and spatial uniformity of the monochromatic and bias lights; the errors depend on the light source, PV technology, and measurement system. The quantum efficiency can be a function of he voltage bias, light bias level, and, for some structures, the spectral content of the bias light or location on the PV device. This paper compares the advantages and problems associated with semiconductor-detector-based calibrations and pyroelectric-detector-based calibrations. Different current-to-voltage conversion and ac photo-current detection strategies employed at NREL are compared and contrasted.

  18. Enhancement of mechanical strength of TiO2/high-density polyethylene composites for bone repair with silane-coupling treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Masami; Takadama, Hiroaki; Mizuno, Mineo; Kokubo, Tadashi

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical properties of composites made up of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and silanated TiO 2 particles for use as a bone-repairing material were investigated in comparison with those of the composites of HDPE with unsilanized TiO 2 particles. The interfacial morphology and interaction between silanated TiO 2 and HDPE were analyzed by means of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The absorption in spectral bands related to the carboxyl bond in the silane-coupling agent, the vinyl group in the HDPE, and the formation of the ether bond was studied in order to assess the influence of the silane-coupling agent. The SEM micrograph showed that the 'bridging effect' between HDPE and TiO 2 was brought about by the silane-coupling agent. The use of the silane-coupling agent and the increase of the hot-pressing pressure for shaping the composites facilitated the penetration of polymer into cavities between individual TiO 2 particles, which increased the density of the composite. Therefore, mechanical properties such as bending yield strength and Young's modulus increased from 49 MPa and 7.5 GPa to 65 MPa and 10 GPa, respectively, after the silane-coupling treatment and increase in the hot-pressing pressure

  19. Photocatalytic degradation of sulfamethoxazole in aqueous solution using a floating TiO2-expanded perlite photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Długosz, Maciej; Żmudzki, Paweł; Kwiecień, Anna; Szczubiałka, Krzysztof; Krzek, Jan; Nowakowska, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sulfamethoxazole was degraded using a floating photocatalyst under UV irradiation. • The photocatalyst was obtained by supporting TiO 2 onto expanded perlite. • The mechanism of sulfamethoxazole photodegradation in water was proposed. • The photodegradation rate of sulfamethoxazole is greater at higher pH. - Abstract: Photocatalytic degradation of an antibiotic, sulfamethoxazole (SMX), in aqueous solution using a novel floating TiO 2 -expanded perlite photocatalyst (EP-TiO 2 -773) and radiation from the near UV spectral range was studied. The process is important considering that SMX is known to be a widespread and highly persistent pollutant of water resources. SMX degradation was described using a pseudo-first-order kinetic equation according to the Langmuir–Hinshelwood model. The products of the SMX photocatalytic degradation were identified. The effect of pH on the kinetics and mechanism of SMX photocatalytic degradation was explained

  20. Photovoltaic characterization of hybrid solar cells using surface modified TiO2 nanoparticles and poly(3-hexyl)thiophene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenes, Serap; Marjanovic, Nenad; Nedeljkovic, Jovan M; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar

    2008-01-01

    We report on the photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells using novel nanoparticles of 6-palmitate ascorbic acid surface modified TiO 2 as an electron acceptor embedded into the donor poly(3-hexyl)thiophene (P3HT) matrix. Devices were fabricated by using P3HT with varying amounts of red TiO 2 nanoparticles (1:1, 1:2, 1:3 w-w ratio). The devices were characterized by measuring current-voltage characteristics under simulated AM 1.5 conditions. Incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE) was spectrally resolved. The nanoscale morphology of such organic/inorganic hybrid blends was also investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  1. Enhancement of photocatalytic properties of TiO2 nanoparticles doped with CeO2 and supported on SiO2 for phenol degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Chunjing; Li, Jing; Zhang, Zailei; Ji, Yongjun; Zhan, Hanhui; Xiao, Fangxing; Wang, Dan; Liu, Bin; Su, Fabing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CeO 2 -TiO 2 /SiO 2 composites were prepared via a facile co-precipitation method. • Introduction of SiO 2 support increases the dispersion of CeO 2 -TiO 2 . • CeO 2 -TiO 2 /SiO 2 exhibits an enhanced photocatalytic efficiency for phenol degradation. • Ce 3+ /Ce 4+ pair coexisting in CeO 2 improves electron–hole pairs separation efficiency. - Abstract: A series of CeO 2 -TiO 2 and CeO 2 -TiO 2 /SiO 2 composites were prepared with TiCl 4 and Ce (NO 3 ) 3 ·6H 2 O as precursors via a facile co-precipitation method. The obtained samples were characterized by various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption (N 2 -BET), Fourier transformation infrared spectrum (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV–Vis spectroscopy measurements. The results indicated that TiO 2 doped with CeO 2 and supported on SiO 2 could reduce the crystallite size, inhibit the phase transformation, enhance the thermal stability, and effectively extend the spectral response from UV to visible range. When applied to the phenol photodegradation on a homemade batch reactor with an external cooling jacket, the CeO 2 -TiO 2 /SiO 2 catalysts exhibited significantly enhanced photodegradation efficiency in comparison with commercial Degussa P25 and CeO 2 -TiO 2 . The unique catalytic properties of CeO 2 -TiO 2 /SiO 2 were ascribed to improved electron–hole pairs separation efficiency and formation of more reactive oxygen species owing to the presence of Ce 3+ /Ce 4+ , as well as high dispersion of active component of CeO 2 -TiO 2 as a result of the introduction of SiO 2 support. Furthermore, the catalysts can be easily recovered from the reaction solution by centrifugation and reused for four cycles without significant loss of activity

  2. SPAM- SPECTRAL ANALYSIS MANAGER (UNIX VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    The Spectral Analysis Manager (SPAM) was developed to allow easy qualitative analysis of multi-dimensional imaging spectrometer data. Imaging spectrometers provide sufficient spectral sampling to define unique spectral signatures on a per pixel basis. Thus direct material identification becomes possible for geologic studies. SPAM provides a variety of capabilities for carrying out interactive analysis of the massive and complex datasets associated with multispectral remote sensing observations. In addition to normal image processing functions, SPAM provides multiple levels of on-line help, a flexible command interpretation, graceful error recovery, and a program structure which can be implemented in a variety of environments. SPAM was designed to be visually oriented and user friendly with the liberal employment of graphics for rapid and efficient exploratory analysis of imaging spectrometry data. SPAM provides functions to enable arithmetic manipulations of the data, such as normalization, linear mixing, band ratio discrimination, and low-pass filtering. SPAM can be used to examine the spectra of an individual pixel or the average spectra over a number of pixels. SPAM also supports image segmentation, fast spectral signature matching, spectral library usage, mixture analysis, and feature extraction. High speed spectral signature matching is performed by using a binary spectral encoding algorithm to separate and identify mineral components present in the scene. The same binary encoding allows automatic spectral clustering. Spectral data may be entered from a digitizing tablet, stored in a user library, compared to the master library containing mineral standards, and then displayed as a timesequence spectral movie. The output plots, histograms, and stretched histograms produced by SPAM can be sent to a lineprinter, stored as separate RGB disk files, or sent to a Quick Color Recorder. SPAM is written in C for interactive execution and is available for two different

  3. Spectral analysis by correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauque, J.M.; Berthier, D.; Max, J.; Bonnet, G.

    1969-01-01

    The spectral density of a signal, which represents its power distribution along the frequency axis, is a function which is of great importance, finding many uses in all fields concerned with the processing of the signal (process identification, vibrational analysis, etc...). Amongst all the possible methods for calculating this function, the correlation method (correlation function calculation + Fourier transformation) is the most promising, mainly because of its simplicity and of the results it yields. The study carried out here will lead to the construction of an apparatus which, coupled with a correlator, will constitute a set of equipment for spectral analysis in real time covering the frequency range 0 to 5 MHz. (author) [fr

  4. Spectral backward radiation profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sung Duck; Lee, Keun Hyun; Kim, Bo Ra; Yoon, Suk Soo

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasonic backward radiation profile is frequency-dependent when incident region has deptional gradient of acoustical properties or multi-layers. Until now, we have measured the profiles of principal frequencies of used transducers so that it was not easy to understand the change of the frequency component and spectrum of backward radiation from the profile. We tried to measure the spectral backward radiation profiles using DFP(digital filer package) Lecroy DSO. The very big changes in the shape and pattern of spectral backward radiation profiles leads to the conclusion that this new try could be very effective tool to evaluate frequency dependent surface area.

  5. Sparse spectral deconvolution algorithm for noncartesian MR spectroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhave, Sampada; Eslami, Ramin; Jacob, Mathews

    2014-02-01

    To minimize line shape distortions and spectral leakage artifacts in MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). A spatially and spectrally regularized non-Cartesian MRSI algorithm that uses the line shape distortion priors, estimated from water reference data, to deconvolve the spectra is introduced. Sparse spectral regularization is used to minimize noise amplification associated with deconvolution. A spiral MRSI sequence that heavily oversamples the central k-space regions is used to acquire the MRSI data. The spatial regularization term uses the spatial supports of brain and extracranial fat regions to recover the metabolite spectra and nuisance signals at two different resolutions. Specifically, the nuisance signals are recovered at the maximum resolution to minimize spectral leakage, while the point spread functions of metabolites are controlled to obtain acceptable signal-to-noise ratio. The comparisons of the algorithm against Tikhonov regularized reconstructions demonstrates considerably reduced line-shape distortions and improved metabolite maps. The proposed sparsity constrained spectral deconvolution scheme is effective in minimizing the line-shape distortions. The dual resolution reconstruction scheme is capable of minimizing spectral leakage artifacts. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Instability of Hydrogenated TiO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Shutthanandan, V.; Manandhar, Sandeep; Schwarz, Ashleigh M.; Oxenford, Lucas S.; Kennedy, John V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Henderson, Michael A.

    2015-11-06

    Hydrogenated TiO2 (H-TiO2) is toted as a viable visible light photocatalyst. We report a systematic study on the thermal stability of H-implanted TiO2 using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Protons (40 keV) implanted at a ~2 atom % level within a ~120 nm wide profile of rutile TiO2(110) were situated ~300 nm below the surface. NRA revealed that this H-profile broadened preferentially toward the surface after annealing at 373 K, dissipated out of the crystal into vacuum at 473 K, and was absent within the beam sampling depth (~800 nm) at 523 K. Photoemission showed that the surface was reduced in concert with these changes. Similar anneals had no effect on pristine TiO2(110). The facile bulk diffusivity of H in rutile, as well as its activity toward interfacial reduction, significantly limits the utilization of H-TiO2 as a photocatalyst. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. The research was performed using the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  7. An Alternative to Annealing TiO2 Nanotubes for Morphology Preservation: Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Sang-Hee; Uhm, Soo-Hyuk; Kwon, Jae-Sung; Choi, Eun Ha; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2015-03-01

    Titanium oxide nanotube layer formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is known to be excellent in biomaterial applications. However, the annealing process which is commonly performed on the TiO2 nanotubes cause defects in the nanotubular structure. The purpose of this work was to apply a non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet on diameter-controlled TiO2 nanotubes to mimic the effects of annealing while maintaining the tubular structure for use as biomaterial. Diameter-controlled nanotube samples fabricated by plasma electrolytic oxidation were dried and prepared under three different conditions: untreated, annealed at 450 °C for 1 h in air with a heating rate of 10 °C/min, and treated with an air-based non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet for 5 minutes. The contact angle measurement was investigated to confirm the enhanced hydrophilicity of the TiO2 nanotubes. The chemical composition of the surface was studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the morphology of TiO2 nanotubes was examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy. For the viability of the cell, the attachment of the osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 was determined using the water-soluble tetrazolium salt assay. We found that there are no morphological changes in the TiO2 nanotubular structure after the plasma treatment. Also, we investigated a change in the chemical composition and enhanced hydrophilicity which result in improved cell behavior. The results of this study indicated that the non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet results in osteoblast functionality that is comparable to annealed samples while maintaining the tubular structure of the TiO2 nanotubes. Therefore, this study concluded that the use of a non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet on nanotube surfaces may replace the annealing process following plasma electrolytic oxidation.

  8. Structural, Morphological and Optical Characterization of Eu3+ and Nd3+ Co-Doped Tio2 Nano Particles by Sol Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sanjay

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor nano crystals have been widely studied for their fundamental properties. The Eu3+ and Nd3+ doped titanium dioxide nano powder was successfully synthesized by sol-gel method. The morphological and structural properties of as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM. The Powder X- ray diffraction is carried out in order to examine the phase formation and substitution of Eu3+ and Nd3+ doped in TiO2 matrix. The UV-Vis spectral analysis was carried out between 200 nm and 1200 nm. The band gap of the Eu3+ and Nd3+ doped Tio2 nanoparticles was calculated. The functional groups of the synthesized compound have been identified by FTIR spectral analysis. The strong PL intensity confirms a blue shift.

  9. Antimicrobial photodisinfection with Zn(II) phthalocyanine adsorbed on TiO2 upon UVA and red irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantareva, Vanya; Eneva, Ivelina; Kussovski, Vesselin; Borisova, Ekaterina; Angelov, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The light exposure on a daily basis has been well accepted as a competitive method for decontamination of wastewater. The catalytic properties of TiO2 offer a great potential to reduce the transmission of pathogens in the environment. Although the titanium dioxide shows high activity against pathogens, its general usage in water cleaning is limited due to the insufficient excitation natural light (about 3% of the solar spectrum). A hydrophobic dodecylpyridyloxy Zn(II)-phthalocyanine with four peripheral hydrocarbon chains of C12 (ZnPcDo) was immobilized on a photocatalyst TiO2 anatase (P25). The resulted greenish colored nanoparticles of phthalocyanine were characterized by the means of absorption, fluorescence and infrared spectroscopy. The laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy was used to visualize the phthalocyanine dye by the red fluorescence emission (650 - 740 nm). The intensive Q-band in the far red visible spectral region (~ 690 nm) suggested a monomeric state of phthalocyanine on TiO2 nanoparticles. Two pathogenic bacterial strains (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus - MRSA and Salmonella enteritidis) associated with wastewater were photoinactivated with the suspension of the particles. The effective photoinactivation was observed with 1 g.L-1 TiO2 anatase at irradiation with UVA 364 nm as with UVA 364 nm and LED 643 nm. The gram-negative Salmonella enteritidis was fully photoinactivated with ZnPcDo-TiO2 and TiO2 alone at UVA 346 nm and at irradiation with two light sources (364 nm + 643 nm). The proposed conjugate appears as an useful composite material for antibacterial disinfection.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of a stable, label-free optical biosensor from TiO2-coated porous silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianlin; Sailor, Michael J

    2014-05-15

    A nanoscale layer of TiO2 is coated on the inner pore walls of a porous silicon (PSi) film by room-temperature infiltration of a TiO2 sol-gel precursor and firing at 500 °C. The PSi:TiO2 composite films are characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectral analysis (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and reflective interferometric Fourier transform spectroscopy (RIFTS). The analysis indicates that TiO2 conformally coats the inner pore surfaces of the PSi film. The film displays greater aqueous stability in the pH range 2-12 relative to a PSi:SiO2 surface. A label-free optical interference immunosensor based on the TiO2-coated PSi film is demonstrated by real-time monitoring of the physical adsorption of protein A, followed by the specific binding of rabbit anti-sheep immunoglobulin (IgG) and then specific capture of sheep IgG. The time to achieve equilibrium for the physical adsorption of protein A on the surface of TiO2-coated PSi film is significantly greater than that of PSi film. The specificity of the protein A and rabbit anti-sheep IgG construct on the sensor is confirmed by tests with non-binding chicken IgG. The sensitivity of the immunosensor is shown to be 8210 ± 170 nm/refractive index unit (RIU). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dwarfs Cooler Than M: The Definition of Spectral Type L Using Discoveries form the 2-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, J.; Reid, I.; Liebert, J.; Cutri, R.; Nelson, B.; Beichan, C.; Dahn, C.; Monet, D.; Gizis, J.; Skrutskie, M.

    2000-01-01

    Because the TiO and VO bands, which dominate the far-optical portions of late-M spectra, disappear in these cooler dwarfs, we define a new spectral class L in wich metallic oxides are replaced by metallic hydrides and neutral alkali metals as the major spectroscopic signatures.

  12. Revised Line Profile Function for Hydrogenic Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapar A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Analytical series expansions for the hydrogenic spectral line profile functions are derived starting from the three single expressions, obtained by integrating twice the convolution of the Holtsmark, Lorentz and Doppler line profile functions. We get well converging series expansions for the line wings and centers by reducing the number of arguments in the profile function by one, introducing the module of the Holtsmark and Lorentz profiles as a new argument. In the intermediate part of the line, the parabolic cylinder functions expressed via the confluent hypergeometric series, are used. The multi-component Stark splitting of the hydrogenic spectral lines and the modeled stochastic electron transitions in the electric field of the adjacent ions generate wide Doppler plateaux at the line centers, with the characteristic widths estimated from the fit to the characteristic width of the Holtsmark profile. This additional Doppler broadening of the line profile function removes the central dip typical to the Holtsmark profile.

  13. Spectral Ensemble Kalman Filters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandel, Jan; Kasanický, Ivan; Vejmelka, Martin; Fuglík, Viktor; Turčičová, Marie; Eben, Kryštof; Resler, Jaroslav; Juruš, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2014), EMS2014-446 [EMS Annual Meeting /14./ & European Conference on Applied Climatology (ECAC) /10./. 06.10.2014-10.10.2014, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S Grant - others:NSF DMS-1216481 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data assimilation * spectral filter Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  14. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.G.; Wilson, J.F.; Salton, R.B.; Fensterer, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements from the reactor core for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The apparatus includes drivemechanisms for moving the displacer elements relative to the core and guide mechanisms for guiding the displayer rods through the reactor vessel

  15. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.G.; Wilson, J.F.; Salton, R.B.; Fensterer, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements from the reactor core for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The apparatus includes drive mechanisms for moving the displacer elements relative to the core and guide mechanisms for guiding the displacer rods through the reactor vessel. (author)

  16. Influence of nanocrystalline structure and surface properties of TiO2 thin films on the viability of L929 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osękowska Małgorzata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work the physicochemical and biological properties of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films were investigated. Thin films were prepared by magnetron sputtering method. Their properties were examined by X-ray diffraction, photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, optical transmission method and optical profiler. Moreover, surface wettability and scratch resistance were determined. It was found that as-deposited coatings were nanocrystalline and had TiO2-anatase structure, built from crystallites in size of 24 nm. The surface of the films was homogenous, composed of closely packed grains and hydrophilic. Due to nanocrystalline structure thin films exhibited good scratch resistance. The results were correlated to the biological activity (in vitro of thin films. Morphological changes of mouse fibroblasts (L929 cell line after contact with the surface of TiO2 films were evaluated with the use of a contrast-phase microscope, while their viability was tested by MTT colorimetric assay. The viability of cell line upon contact with the surface of nanocrystalline TiO2 film was comparable to the control sample. L929 cells had homogenous cytoplasm and were forming a confluent monofilm, while lysis and inhibition of cell growth was not observed. Moreover, the viability in contact with surface of examined films was high. This confirms non-cytotoxic effect of TiO2 film surface on mouse fibroblasts.

  17. (LMRG): Microscope Resolution, Objective Quality, Spectral Accuracy and Spectral Un-mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayles, Carol J.; Cole, Richard W.; Eason, Brady; Girard, Anne-Marie; Jinadasa, Tushare; Martin, Karen; McNamara, George; Opansky, Cynthia; Schulz, Katherine; Thibault, Marc; Brown, Claire M.

    2012-01-01

    The second study by the LMRG focuses on measuring confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) resolution, objective lens quality, spectral imaging accuracy and spectral un-mixing. Affordable test samples for each aspect of the study were designed, prepared and sent to 116 labs from 23 countries across the globe. Detailed protocols were designed for the three tests and customized for most of the major confocal instruments being used by the study participants. One protocol developed for measuring resolution and objective quality was recently published in Nature Protocols (Cole, R. W., T. Jinadasa, et al. (2011). Nature Protocols 6(12): 1929–1941). The first study involved 3D imaging of sub-resolution fluorescent microspheres to determine the microscope point spread function. Results of the resolution studies as well as point spread function quality (i.e. objective lens quality) from 140 different objective lenses will be presented. The second study of spectral accuracy looked at the reflection of the laser excitation lines into the spectral detection in order to determine the accuracy of these systems to report back the accurate laser emission wavelengths. Results will be presented from 42 different spectral confocal systems. Finally, samples with double orange beads (orange core and orange coating) were imaged spectrally and the imaging software was used to un-mix fluorescence signals from the two orange dyes. Results from 26 different confocal systems will be summarized. Time will be left to discuss possibilities for the next LMRG study.

  18. A Simple Spectral Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Torres

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The principal aim of a spectral observer is twofold: the reconstruction of a signal of time via state estimation and the decomposition of such a signal into the frequencies that make it up. A spectral observer can be catalogued as an online algorithm for time-frequency analysis because is a method that can compute on the fly the Fourier transform (FT of a signal, without having the entire signal available from the start. In this regard, this paper presents a novel spectral observer with an adjustable constant gain for reconstructing a given signal by means of the recursive identification of the coefficients of a Fourier series. The reconstruction or estimation of a signal in the context of this work means to find the coefficients of a linear combination of sines a cosines that fits a signal such that it can be reproduced. The design procedure of the spectral observer is presented along with the following applications: (1 the reconstruction of a simple periodical signal, (2 the approximation of both a square and a triangular signal, (3 the edge detection in signals by using the Fourier coefficients, (4 the fitting of the historical Bitcoin market data from 1 December 2014 to 8 January 2018 and (5 the estimation of a input force acting upon a Duffing oscillator. To round out this paper, we present a detailed discussion about the results of the applications as well as a comparative analysis of the proposed spectral observer vis-à-vis the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT, which is a well-known method for time-frequency analysis.

  19. Quantum Mechanical Determination of Potential Energy Surfaces for TiO and H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss current ab initio methods for determining potential energy surfaces, in relation to the TiO and H2O molecules, both of which make important contributions to the opacity of oxygen-rich stars. For the TiO molecule we discuss the determination of the radiative lifetimes of the excited states and band oscillator strengths for both the triplet and singlet band systems. While the theoretical radiative lifetimes for TiO agree well with recent measurements, the band oscillator strengths differ significantly from those currently employed in opacity calculations. For the H2O molecule we discuss the current results for the potential energy and dipole moment ground state surfaces generated at NASA Ames. We show that it is necessary to account for such effects as core-valence Correlation energy to generate a PES of near spectroscopic accuracy. We also describe how we solve the ro-vibrational problem to obtain the line positions and intensities that are needed for opacity sampling.

  20. Two-Level Micro-to-Nanoscale Hierarchical TiO2 Nanolayers on Titanium Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena G. Zemtsova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Joint replacement is being actively developed within modern orthopedics. One novel material providing fast implantation is bioactive coatings. The synthesis of targeted nanocoatings on metallic nanotitanium surface is reported in this paper. TiO2-based micro- and nanocoatings were produced by sol-gel synthesis using dip-coating technology with subsequent fast (shock drying in hot plate mode at 400 °C. As a result of shock drying, the two-level hierarchical TiO2 nanolayer on the nanotitanium was obtained. This two-level hierarchy includes nanorelief of porous xerogel and microrelief of the micron-sized “defect” network (a crack network. The thickness of TiO2 nanolayers was controlled by repeating dip-coating process the necessary number of times after the first layer deposition. The state of the MS3T3-E1 osteoblast cell line (young cells that form bone tissue on the two-level hierarchical surface has been studied. Particularly, adhesion character, adhesion time and morphology have been studied. The reported results may serve the starting point for the development of novel bioactive coatings for bone and teeth implants.

  1. Fabrication of a TiO2-P25/(TiO2-P25+TiO2 nanotubes junction for dye sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Huy Hao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC, which converts solar light into electric energy, is expected to be a promising renewable energy source for today's world. In this work, dye sensitized solar cells, one containing a single layer and one containing a double layer, were fabricated. In the double layer DSSC structure, the under-layer was TiO2-P25 film, and the top layer consisted of a mixture of TiO2-P25 and TiO2 nanotubes. The results indicated that the efficiency of the DSSC with the double layer structure was a significant improvement in comparison to the DSSC consisting of only a single film layer. The addition of TiO2-P25 in the top layer caused an improvement in the adsorption of dye molecules on the film rather than on the TiO2 nanotubes only. The presence of the TiO2 nanotubes together with TiO2-P25 in the top layer revealed the enhancement in harvesting the incident light and an improvement of electron transport through the film.

  2. Nightside studies of coherent HF Radar spectral width behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Woodfield

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A previous case study found a relationship between high spectral width measured by the CUTLASS Finland HF radar and elevated electron temperatures observed by the EISCAT and ESR incoherent scatter radars in the post-midnight sector of magnetic local time. This paper expands that work by briefly re-examining that interval and looking in depth at two further case studies. In all three cases a region of high HF spectral width (>200 ms-1 exists poleward of a region of low HF spectral width (<200 ms-1. Each case, however, occurs under quite different geomagnetic conditions. The original case study occurred during an interval with no observed electrojet activity, the second study during a transition from quiet to active conditions with a clear band of ion frictional heating indicating the location of the flow reversal boundary, and the third during an isolated sub-storm. These case studies indicate that the relationship between elevated electron temperature and high HF radar spectral width appears on closed field lines after 03:00 magnetic local time (MLT on the nightside. It is not clear whether the same relationship would hold on open field lines, since our analysis of this relationship is restricted in latitude. We find two important properties of high spectral width data on the nightside. Firstly the high spectral width values occur on both open and closed field lines, and secondly that the power spectra which exhibit high widths are both single-peak and multiple-peak. In general the regions of high spectral width (>200 ms-1 have more multiple-peak spectra than the regions of low spectral widths whilst still maintaining a majority of single-peak spectra. We also find that the region of ion frictional heating is collocated with many multiple-peak HF spectra. Several mechanisms for the generation of high spectral width have been proposed which would produce multiple-peak spectra, these are discussed in relation to the data presented here. Since the

  3. Nightside studies of coherent HF Radar spectral width behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Woodfield

    Full Text Available A previous case study found a relationship between high spectral width measured by the CUTLASS Finland HF radar and elevated electron temperatures observed by the EISCAT and ESR incoherent scatter radars in the post-midnight sector of magnetic local time. This paper expands that work by briefly re-examining that interval and looking in depth at two further case studies. In all three cases a region of high HF spectral width (>200 ms-1 exists poleward of a region of low HF spectral width (<200 ms-1. Each case, however, occurs under quite different geomagnetic conditions. The original case study occurred during an interval with no observed electrojet activity, the second study during a transition from quiet to active conditions with a clear band of ion frictional heating indicating the location of the flow reversal boundary, and the third during an isolated sub-storm. These case studies indicate that the relationship between elevated electron temperature and high HF radar spectral width appears on closed field lines after 03:00 magnetic local time (MLT on the nightside. It is not clear whether the same relationship would hold on open field lines, since our analysis of this relationship is restricted in latitude. We find two important properties of high spectral width data on the nightside. Firstly the high spectral width values occur on both open and closed field lines, and secondly that the power spectra which exhibit high widths are both single-peak and multiple-peak. In general the regions of high spectral width (>200 ms-1 have more multiple-peak spectra than the regions of low spectral widths whilst still maintaining a majority of single-peak spectra. We also find that the region of ion frictional heating is collocated with many multiple-peak HF spectra. Several mechanisms for the generation of high spectral width have been proposed which would produce multiple-peak spectra, these are discussed in relation to

  4. Particle Dispersibility Improvement of Polyester Fibers with a New Line Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Yoon; Kim, Hak Yong; Jin, Fan Long; Park, Soo Jin

    2010-01-01

    In order to develop a new line injection system for spin draw yarn (FD SDY) fibers, the effect of various parameters in extrusion and melt line conditions on the dispersion and distribution of TiO 2 particles within FD PET fibers was investigated. As a result, the dispersibility of TiO 2 particles in a PET matrix is found to depend on the particle size and its surface characteristics. Surface modification of TiO 2 by dimethyl polysiloxane resulted in the improved dispersibility and affinity of TiO 2 particles in the PET matrix. Especially, residence time, mixing temperature, and mixing shear rate in the new line injection system under the SDY spinning process were very important parameters to minimize the agglomeration of TiO 2 particles. The FD SDY prepared by the new line injection system was superior to those using the polymerization process and the conventional masterbatch chip dosing process in the color-L and color-b values of the fibers

  5. Spectral confocal reflection microscopy using a white light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, M.; Juškaitis, R.; Wilson, T.

    2008-08-01

    We present a reflection confocal microscope incorporating a white light supercontinuum source and spectral detection. The microscope provides images resolved spatially in three-dimensions, in addition to spectral resolution covering the wavelength range 450-650nm. Images and reflection spectra of artificial and natural specimens are presented, showing features that are not normally revealed in conventional microscopes or confocal microscopes using discrete line lasers. The specimens include thin film structures on semiconductor chips, iridescent structures in Papilio blumei butterfly scales, nacre from abalone shells and opal gemstones. Quantitative size and refractive index measurements of transparent beads are derived from spectral interference bands.

  6. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin P Clark

    Full Text Available Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID. In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM. Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with

  7. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Darin P.

    2017-01-01

    Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD) technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID). In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM). Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with a spectral

  8. Noncommutativity from spectral flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzl, Thomas; Ilderton, Anton [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-27

    We investigate the transition from second- to first-order systems. Quantum mechanically, this transforms configuration space into phase space and hence introduces noncommutativity in the former. This transition may be described in terms of spectral flow. Gaps in the energy or mass spectrum may become large which effectively truncates the available state space. Using both operator and path integral languages we explicitly discuss examples in quantum mechanics (light-front) quantum field theory and string theory.

  9. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.F.; Sherwood, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises a reactive core having fuel assemblies accommodating both water displacer elements and neutron absorbing control rods for selectively changing the volume of water-moderator in the core. The fuel assemblies with displacer and control rods are arranged in alternating fashion so that one displacer element drive mechanism may move displacer elements in more than one fuel assembly without interfering with the movement of control rods of a corresponding control rod drive mechanisms. (author)

  10. SOSPEX, an interactive tool to explore SOFIA spectral cubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Dario; Chambers, Edward T.

    2018-01-01

    We present SOSPEX (SOFIA SPectral EXplorer), an interactive tool to visualize and analyze spectral cubes obtained with the FIFI-LS and GREAT instruments onboard the SOFIA Infrared Observatory. This software package is written in Python 3 and it is available either through Github or Anaconda.Through this GUI it is possible to explore directly the spectral cubes produced by the SOFIA pipeline and archived in the SOFIA Science Archive. Spectral cubes are visualized showing their spatial and spectral dimensions in two different windows. By selecting a part of the spectrum, the flux from the corresponding slice of the cube is visualized in the spatial window. On the other hand, it is possible to define apertures on the spatial window to show the corresponding spectral energy distribution in the spectral window.Flux isocontours can be overlapped to external images in the spatial window while line names, atmospheric transmission, or external spectra can be overplotted on the spectral window. Atmospheric models with specific parameters can be retrieved, compared to the spectra and applied to the uncorrected FIFI-LS cubes in the cases where the standard values give unsatisfactory results. Subcubes can be selected and saved as FITS files by cropping or cutting the original cubes. Lines and continuum can be fitted in the spectral window saving the results in Jyson files which can be reloaded later. Finally, in the case of spatially extended observations, it is possible to compute spectral momenta as a function of the position to obtain velocity dispersion maps or velocity diagrams.

  11. TiO2-Impregnated Porous Silica Tube and Its Application for Compact Air- and Water-Purification Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Ochiai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple, convenient, reusable, and inexpensive air- and water-purification unit including a one-end sealed porous amorphous-silica (a-silica tube coated with TiO2 photocatalyst layers has been developed. The porous a-silica layers were formed through outside vapor deposition (OVD. TiO2 photocatalyst layers were formed through impregnation and calcination onto a-silica layers. The resulting porous TiO2-impregnated a-silica tubes were evaluated for air-purification capacity using an acetaldehyde gas decomposition test. The tube (8.5 mm e.d. × 150 mm demonstrated a 93% removal rate for high concentrations (ca. 300 ppm of acetaldehyde gas at a single-pass condition with a 250 mL/min flow rate under UV irradiation. The tube also demonstrated a water purification capacity at a rate 2.0 times higher than a-silica tube without TiO2 impregnation. Therefore, the tubes have a great potential for developing compact and in-line VOC removal and water-purification units.

  12. Effects of LP-MOCVD prepared TiO2 thin films on the in vitro behavior of gingival fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cimpean, Anisoara; Popescu, Simona; Ciofrangeanu, Cristina M.; Gleizes, Alain N.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the in vitro response of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1 cell line) to various thin films of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) deposited on titanium (Ti) substrates by low pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD). The aim was to study the influence of film structural parameters on the cell behavior comparatively with a native-oxide covered titanium specimen, this objective being topical and interesting for materials applications in implantology. HGF-1 cells were cultured on three LP-MOCVD prepared thin films of TiO 2 differentiated by their thickness, roughness, transversal morphology, allotropic composition and wettability, and on a native-oxide covered Ti substrate. Besides traditional tests of cell viability and morphology, the biocompatibility of these materials was evaluated by fibronectin immunostaining, assessment of cell proliferation status and the zymographic evaluation of gelatinolytic activities specific to matrix metalloproteinases secreted by cells grown in contact with studied specimens. The analyzed surfaces proved to influence fibronectin fibril assembly, cell proliferation and capacity to degrade extracellular matrix without considerably affecting cell viability and morphology. The MOCVD of TiO 2 proved effective in positively modifying titanium surface for medical applications. Surface properties playing a crucial role for cell behavior were the wettability and, secondarily, the roughness, HGF-1 cells preferring a moderately rough and wettable TiO 2 coating.

  13. Controlled Directional Growth of TiO2 Nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In, Su-il; Hou, Yidong; Abrams, Billie

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate how the anodization direction and growth rate of vertically aligned, highly ordered TiO2 nanotube (NT) arrays can be controlled and manipulated by the local concentration of O-2 in the electrolyte. This leads to the growth of highly active TiO2 NT arrays directly on nonconducting s...

  14. Silicon protected with atomic layer deposited TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Brian; Tilley, S. David; Pedersen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The present work demonstrates that tuning the donor density of protective TiO2 layers on a photocathode has dramatic consequences for electronic conduction through TiO2 with implications for the stabilization of oxidation-sensitive catalysts on the surface. Vacuum annealing at 400 °C for 1 hour o...

  15. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Photocatalyst; TiO2 nanoparticle; polyaniline; conducting polymer; core-shell nanocomposite. 1. Introduction ..... tine TiO2 nanoparticles, HCl-doped PANI and PANI/TiO2 ..... Karim M R, Lim K T, Lee M S, Kim K and Yeum J H 2009 Synth. Met.

  16. Speech recognition from spectral dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carrier nature of speech; modulation spectrum; spectral dynamics ... the relationships between phonetic values of sounds and their short-term spectral envelopes .... the number of free parameters that need to be estimated from training data.

  17. Stark Broadening Parameters for Neutral Oxygen Spectral Lines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fundamental state; its fundamental configuration is 2s22p4 and is subdivided into 3 even terms: 3P ... μ the reduced mass of the system atom-perturber). Recently ... where We(VALD) are the widths taken from the VALD database for T = 10000.

  18. On Closed Form Calculation of Line Spectral Frequencies (LSF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Paul; Andersen, Ove

    2014-01-01

    of characteristic polynomial zeros. The theoretical analysis is based on decomposition of sequences into symmetric and anti-symmetric polynomials defined as a series expansion of reduced Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind. Two variants of closed form functions are presented — each characterised by using...

  19. 3-D interactive visualisation tools for Hi spectral line imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, J. M.; Punzo, D.; Roerdink, J. B. T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Upcoming HI surveys will deliver such large datasets that automated processing using the full 3-D information to find and characterize HI objects is unavoidable. Full 3-D visualization is an essential tool for enabling qualitative and quantitative inspection and analysis of the 3-D data, which is

  20. Validation of spectral gas radiation models under oxyfuel conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becher, Johann Valentin

    2013-05-15

    Combustion of hydrocarbon fuels with pure oxygen results in a different flue gas composition than combustion with air. Standard computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) spectral gas radiation models for air combustion are therefore out of their validity range in oxyfuel combustion. This thesis provides a common spectral basis for the validation of new spectral models. A literature review about fundamental gas radiation theory, spectral modeling and experimental methods provides the reader with a basic understanding of the topic. In the first results section, this thesis validates detailed spectral models with high resolution spectral measurements in a gas cell with the aim of recommending one model as the best benchmark model. In the second results section, spectral measurements from a turbulent natural gas flame - as an example for a technical combustion process - are compared to simulated spectra based on measured gas atmospheres. The third results section compares simplified spectral models to the benchmark model recommended in the first results section and gives a ranking of the proposed models based on their accuracy. A concluding section gives recommendations for the selection and further development of simplified spectral radiation models. Gas cell transmissivity spectra in the spectral range of 2.4 - 5.4 {mu}m of water vapor and carbon dioxide in the temperature range from 727 C to 1500 C and at different concentrations were compared in the first results section at a nominal resolution of 32 cm{sup -1} to line-by-line models from different databases, two statistical-narrow-band models and the exponential-wide-band model. The two statistical-narrow-band models EM2C and RADCAL showed good agreement with a maximal band transmissivity deviation of 3 %. The exponential-wide-band model showed a deviation of 6 %. The new line-by-line database HITEMP2010 had the lowest band transmissivity deviation of 2.2% and was therefore recommended as a reference model for the

  1. Lagrangian Curves on Spectral Curves of Monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilfoyle, Brendan; Khalid, Madeeha; Ramon Mari, Jose J.

    2010-01-01

    We study Lagrangian points on smooth holomorphic curves in TP 1 equipped with a natural neutral Kaehler structure, and prove that they must form real curves. By virtue of the identification of TP 1 with the space LE 3 of oriented affine lines in Euclidean 3-space, these Lagrangian curves give rise to ruled surfaces in E 3 , which we prove have zero Gauss curvature. Each ruled surface is shown to be the tangent lines to a curve in E 3 , called the edge of regression of the ruled surface. We give an alternative characterization of these curves as the points in E 3 where the number of oriented lines in the complex curve Σ that pass through the point is less than the degree of Σ. We then apply these results to the spectral curves of certain monopoles and construct the ruled surfaces and edges of regression generated by the Lagrangian curves.

  2. Electrophysiological measurements of spectral sensitivities: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D. DeVoe

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Spectral sensitivities of visual systems are specified as the reciprocals of the intensities of light (quantum fluxes needed at each wavelength to elicit the same criterion amplitude of responses. This review primarily considers the methods that have been developed for electrophysiological determinations of criterion amplitudes of slow-wave responses from single retinal cells. Traditional flash methods can require tedious dark adaptations and may yield erroneous spectral sensitivity curves which are not seen in such modifications as ramp methods. Linear response methods involve interferometry, while constant response methods involve manual or automatic adjustments of continuous illumination to keep response amplitudes constant during spectral scans. In DC or AC computerized constant response methods, feedback to determine intensities at each wavelength is derived from the response amplitudes themselves. Although all but traditional flash methods have greater or lesser abilities to provide on-line determinations of spectral sensitivities, computerized constant response methods are the most satisfactory due to flexibility, speed and maintenance of a constant adaptation level

  3. Thickness Dependent Optical Properties of Sol-gel based MgF2 – TiO2 Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddarth Krishnaraja Achar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available MgF2 – TiO2 thin films were prepared by cost effective solgel technique onto glass substrates and optical parameters were determined by envelope technique. Thin films were characterized by optical transmission spectroscopy in the spectral range 290 – 1000 nm. The refractive index, extinction coefficient, Optical thickness and band gap dependency on thickness were evaluated. Thickness dependency of thin films showed direct allowed transition with band gap of 3.66 to 3.73 eV.

  4. Understanding Soliton Spectral Tunneling as a Spectral Coupling Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Hairun; Wang, Shaofei; Zeng, Xianglong

    2013-01-01

    Soliton eigenstate is found corresponding to a dispersive phase profile under which the soliton phase changes induced by the dispersion and nonlinearity are instantaneously counterbalanced. Much like a waveguide coupler relying on a spatial refractive index profile that supports mode coupling...... between channels, here we suggest that the soliton spectral tunneling effect can be understood supported by a spectral phase coupler. The dispersive wave number in the spectral domain must have a coupler-like symmetric profile for soliton spectral tunneling to occur. We show that such a spectral coupler...

  5. Water Adsorption on TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Bjørk; Wendt, Stefan; Besenbacher, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) studies and Density Functional Theory (DFT) investigations of the interaction of water with the rutile TiO2 (110) surface are summarized. From high-resolution STM the following reactions have been revealed: water adsorption and diffusion in the Ti troughs, water...... dissociation in bridging oxygen vacancies, assembly of adsorbed water monomers into rapidly diffusing water dimers, and formation of water dimers by reduction of oxygen molecules. The STM results are rationalized based on DFT calculations, revealing the bonding geometries and reaction pathways of the water...

  6. TiO2 Nanorod Arrays Based Self-Powered UV Photodetector: Heterojunction with NiO Nanoflakes and Enhanced UV Photoresponse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanyan; Xu, Jianping; Shi, Shaobo; Dong, Hong; Cheng, Yahui; Wei, Chengtai; Zhang, Xiaosong; Yin, Shougen; Li, Lan

    2018-04-04

    The self-powered ultraviolet photodetectors (UV PDs) have attracted increasing attention due to their potential applications without consuming any external power. It is important to obtain the high-performance self-powered UV PDs by a simple method for the practical application. Herein, TiO 2 nanorod arrays (NRs) were synthesized by hydrothermal method, which were integrated with p-type NiO nanoflakes to realize a high performance pn heterojunction for the efficient UV photodetection. TiO x thin film can improve the morphological and carrier transport properties of TiO 2 NRs and decrease the surface and defect states, resulting in the enhanced photocurrent of the devices. NiO/TiO 2 nanostructural heterojunctions show excellent rectifying characteristics (rectification ratio of 2.52 × 10 4 and 1.45 × 10 5 for NiO/TiO 2 NRs and NiO/TiO 2 NRs/TiO x , respectively) with a very low reverse saturation current. The PDs based on the heterojunctions exhibit good spectral selectivity, high photoresponsivity, and fast response and recovery speeds without external applied bias under the weak light radiation. The devices demonstrate good stability and repeatability under UV light radiation. The self-powered performance could be attributed to the proper built-in electric field of the heterojunction. TiO 2 NRs and NiO nanoflakes construct the well-aligned energy-band structure. The enhanced responsivity and detectivity for the devices with TiO x thin films is related to the increased interfacial charge separation efficiency, reduced carrier recombination, and relatively good electron transport of TiO 2 NRs.

  7. Bioactivity studies on TiO2-bearing Na2O–CaO–SiO2–B2O3 glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagan Mohini, G.; Sahaya Baskaran, G.; Ravi Kumar, V.; Piasecki, M.; Veeraiah, N.

    2015-01-01

    Soda lime silica borate glasses mixed with different concentrations of TiO 2 are synthesized by the melt-quenching technique. As a part of study on bioactivity of these glasses, the samples were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution for prolonged times (~ 21 days) during which weight loss along with pH measurements is carried out at specific intervals of time. The XRD and SEM analyses of post-immersed samples confirm the formation of crystalline hydroxyapatite layer (HA) on the surface of the samples. To assess the role of TiO 2 on the formation of HA layer and degradability of the samples the spectroscopic studies viz. optical absorption and IR spectral studies on post- and pre-immersed samples have been carried out. The analysis of the results of degradability together with spectroscopic studies as a function of TiO 2 concentration indicated that about 6.0 mol% of TiO 2 is the optimal concentration for achieving better bioactivity of these glasses. The presence of the maximal concentration octahedral titanium ions in this glass that facilitates the formation of HA layer is found to be the reason for such a higher bioactivity. - Highlights: • Soda lime silica borate glasses mixed with TiO 2 are synthesized. • Bioactivity of the glasses is studied by immersing them in SBF solution. • XRD and SEM studies indicated the formation of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface. • Quantum of degradability is the highest in the glasses mixed with 6.0 mol% of TiO 2. • The results are analyzed using IR and optical absorption studies

  8. Microwave absorption properties of polypyrrole-SrFe12O19-TiO2-epoxy resin nanocomposites: Optimization using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed Dorraji, M. S.; Rasoulifard, M. H.; Amani-Ghadim, A. R.; Khodabandeloo, M. H.; Felekari, M.; Khoshrou, M. R.; hajimiri, I.

    2016-10-01

    At a few works are discussed about formation of heterogeneous composites with different distribution of particle shape and size that are used for electromagnetic absorption purposes. In this study a novel heterogeneous nanocpmposites is investigated. The nanocomposite has been successfully prepared based on epoxy resin including various nano-metal oxides (TiO2, SrFe12O19) and polypyrrole (PPy) by sol-gel and the solution chemistry method, respectively. The performance of prepared nanocomposite in absorption of microwave in X-band range was investigated and transmission line method by X-band waveguide straight was used to measure EM parameters of nanocomposites. The Response surface methodology (RSM) with central composite design (CCD) was utilized to study the effects of the wt.% TiO2 in SrFe12O19, wt.% Tio2-SrFe12O19 in PPy and wt.% TiO2-SrFe12O19-PPy in epoxy resin, on the microwave absorption properties with the absorber thickness of only 2 mm. The proposed quadratic model was in accordance with the experimental results with correlation coefficient of 96.5%. The optimum condition for maximum microwave absorption efficiency were wt.% TiO2 in SrFe12O19 of 70, wt.% TiO2-SrFe12O19 in PPy of 10 and wt.% TiO2-SrFe12O19-PPy in epoxy of 25. The sample prepared in optimal conditions indicated reflection loss of -15 dB corresponding to 97% absorption, at the range of 9.2-10.8 GHz.

  9. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many....... The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings...

  10. ??????????? ??????????????? ????? ??????-???????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?aO?Al2O3?TiO2 ??? ???????? ?????? ?????

    OpenAIRE

    ???????, ????; ??????, ?????????

    2011-01-01

    ? ????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??? ??????-????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?aO?Al2O3?TiO2, ?? ???????? ??????? ? ???????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?????. ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? 12000?, ?? ????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????, ????????? ???? ? ?????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???????????. ????????, ?? ?? ...

  11. Theory of atomic spectral emission intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yngström, Sten

    1994-07-01

    The theoretical derivation of a new spectral line intensity formula for atomic radiative emission is presented. The theory is based on first principles of quantum physics, electrodynamics, and statistical physics. Quantum rules lead to revision of the conventional principle of local thermal equilibrium of matter and radiation. Study of electrodynamics suggests absence of spectral emission from fractions of the numbers of atoms and ions in a plasma due to radiative inhibition caused by electromagnetic force fields. Statistical probability methods are extended by the statement: A macroscopic physical system develops in the most probable of all conceivable ways consistent with the constraining conditions for the system. The crucial role of statistical physics in transforming quantum logic into common sense logic is stressed. The theory is strongly supported by experimental evidence.

  12. Spectral signature selection for mapping unvegetated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, G. A.; Petersen, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    Airborne multispectral scanner data covering the wavelength interval from 0.40-2.60 microns were collected at an altitude of 1000 m above the terrain in southeastern Pennsylvania. Uniform training areas were selected within three sites from this flightline. Soil samples were collected from each site and a procedure developed to allow assignment of scan line and element number from the multispectral scanner data to each sampling location. These soil samples were analyzed on a spectrophotometer and laboratory spectral signatures were derived. After correcting for solar radiation and atmospheric attenuation, the laboratory signatures were compared to the spectral signatures derived from these same soils using multispectral scanner data. Both signatures were used in supervised and unsupervised classification routines. Computer-generated maps using the laboratory and multispectral scanner derived signatures resulted in maps that were similar to maps resulting from field surveys. Approximately 90% agreement was obtained between classification maps produced using multispectral scanner derived signatures and laboratory derived signatures.

  13. On spectral pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llobet, X.; Appert, K.; Bondeson, A.; Vaclavik, J.

    1990-01-01

    Finite difference and finite element approximations of eigenvalue problems, under certain circumstances exhibit spectral pollution, i.e. the appearance of eigenvalues that do not converge to the correct value when the mesh density is increased. In the present paper this phenomenon is investigated in a homogeneous case by means of discrete dispersion relations: the polluting modes belong to a branch of the dispersion relation that is strongly distorted by the discretization method employed, or to a new, spurious branch. The analysis is applied to finite difference methods and to finite element methods, and some indications about how to avoiding polluting schemes are given. (author) 5 figs., 10 refs

  14. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, P.K.; George, R.A.; Dollard, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift arrangement for controlling a nuclear reactor includes a plurality of reactor coolant displacer members which are inserted into a reactor core at the beginning of the core life to reduce the volume of reactor coolant-moderator in the core at start-up. However, as the reactivity of the core declines with fuel depletion, selected displacer members are withdrawn from the core at selected time intervals to increase core moderation at a time when fuel reactivity is declining. (author)

  15. Spectral signatures of chirality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Mortensen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    We present a new way of measuring chirality, via the spectral shift of photonic band gaps in one-dimensional structures. We derive an explicit mapping of the problem of oblique incidence of circularly polarized light on a chiral one-dimensional photonic crystal with negligible index contrast...... to the formally equivalent problem of linearly polarized light incident on-axis on a non-chiral structure with index contrast. We derive analytical expressions for the first-order shifts of the band gaps for negligible index contrast. These are modified to give good approximations to the band gap shifts also...

  16. Spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, W.R.; Piplica, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    A spectral shift pressurized water reactor comprising apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements having differing neutron absorbing capabilities for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The displacer elements comprise substantially hollow cylindrical low neutron absorbing rods and substantially hollow cylindrical thick walled stainless rods. Since the stainless steel displacer rods have greater neutron absorbing capability, they can effect greater reactivity change per rod. However, by arranging fewer stainless steel displacer rods in a cluster, the reactivity worth of the stainless steel displacer rod cluster can be less than a low neutron absorbing displacer rod cluster. (author)

  17. World lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Waser Jürgen; Fuchs Raphael; Ribicic Hrvoje; Schindler Benjamin; Blöschl Günther; Gröller Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation visualization and...

  18. TiO2 beads and TiO2-chitosan beads for urease immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ispirli Doğaç, Yasemin; Deveci, İlyas; Teke, Mustafa; Mercimek, Bedrettin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to synthesize TiO 2 beads for urease immobilization. Two different strategies were used to immobilize the urease on TiO 2 beads. In the first method (A), urease enzyme was immobilized onto TiO 2 beads by adsorption and then crosslinking. In the second method (B), TiO 2 beads were coated with chitosan-urease mixture. To determine optimum conditions of immobilization, different parameters were investigated. The parameters of optimization were initial enzyme concentration (0.5; 1; 1.5; 2 mg/ml), alginate concentration (1; 2; 3%), glutaraldehyde concentration (1; 2; 3% v/v) and chitosan concentration (2; 3; 4 mg/ml). The optimum enzyme concentrations were determined as 1.5 mg/ml for A and 1.0 mg/ml for B. The other optimum conditions were found 2.0% (w/v) for alginate concentration (both A and B); 3.0 mg/ml for chitosan concentration (B) and 2.0% (v/v) for glutaraldehyde concentration (A). The optimum temperature (20-60 °C), optimum pH (3.0-10.0), kinetic parameters, thermal stability (4–70 °C), pH stability (4.0-9.0), operational stability (0-230 min) and reusability (20 times) were investigated for characterization. The optimum temperatures were 30 °C (A), 40 °C (B) and 35 °C (soluble). The temperature profiles of the immobilized ureases were spread over a large area. The optimum pH values for the soluble urease and immobilized urease prepared by using methods (A) and (B) were found to be 7.5, 7.0, 7.0, respectively. The thermal stabilities of immobilized enzyme sets were studied and they maintained 50% activity at 65 °C. However, at this temperature free urease protected only 15% activity. - Highlights: • TiO 2 and TiO 2 -chitosan beads for urease immobilization have been prepared and characterized. • The beads used in this work are good matrices for the immobilization of urease. • The immobilized urease was shown to have good properties and stabilities (pH and thermal stability, operational stability). • The 50

  19. FIMS Wavelength Calibration via Airglow Line Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Hee Lee

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Far-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (FIMS is the main payload of the Korea's first scientific micro satellite STSAT-1, which was launched at Sep. 27 2003 successfully. Major objective of FIMS is observing hot gas in the Galaxy in FUV bands to diagnose the energy flow models of the interstellar medium. Supernova remnants, molecular clouds, and Aurora emission in the geomagnetic pole regions are specific targets for pointing observation. Although the whole system was calibrated before launch, it is essential to perform on-orbit calibration for data analysis. For spectral calibration, we observed airglow lines in the atmosphere since they provide good spectral references. We identify and compare the observed airglow lines with model calculations, and correct the spectral distortion appeared in the detector system to improve the spectral resolution of the system.

  20. Polycrystalline thin-film TiO2/Se solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakada, T; Kunioka, A

    1985-07-01

    A new type of selenium solar cell with a titanium dioxide (TiO2)/Se heterojunction has been fabricated by low-cost process.An efficiency of 5.01 percent under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW/sq cm) has been achieved without antireflection coatings. The corresponding short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage, and fill factor are 10.8 mA/sq cm, 0.884 V, and 0.525, respectively.The efficiency is the highest among Se-based solar cells reported to date. These cells also have extremely high spectral response at short wavelengths, resulting in efficiencies of 11-13 percent under fluorescent light (500 lux). 10 references.

  1. Oriented epitaxial TiO2 nanowires for water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wenting; Cortez, Pablo; Wuhrer, Richard; Macartney, Sam; Bozhilov, Krassimir N.; Liu, Rong; Sheppard, Leigh R.; Kisailus, David

    2017-06-01

    Highly oriented epitaxial rutile titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanowire arrays have been hydrothermally grown on polycrystalline TiO2 templates with their orientation dependent on the underlying TiO2 grain. Both the diameter and areal density of the nanowires were tuned by controlling the precursor concentration, and the template surface energy and roughness. Nanowire tip sharpness was influenced by precursor solubility and diffusivity. A new secondary ion mass spectrometer technique has been developed to install additional nucleation sites in single crystal TiO2 templates and the effect on nanowire growth was probed. Using the acquired TiO2 nanowire synthesis knowhow, an assortment of nanowire arrays were installed upon the surface of undoped TiO2 photo-electrodes and assessed for their photo-electrochemical water splitting performance. The key result obtained was that the presence of short and dispersed nanowire arrays significantly improved the photocurrent when the illumination intensity was increased from 100 to 200 mW cm-2. This is attributed to the alignment of the homoepitaxially grown nanowires to the [001] direction, which provides the fastest charge transport in TiO2 and an improved pathway for photo-holes to find water molecules and undertake oxidation. This result lays a foundation for achieving efficient water splitting under conditions of concentrated solar illumination.

  2. A multi-object spectral imaging instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, G.M.; Dienerowitz, M.; Kelleher, P.A.; Harvey, A.R.; Padgett, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a snapshot spectral imaging system which fits onto the side camera port of a commercial inverted microscope. The system provides spectra, in real time, from multiple points randomly selected on the microscope image. Light from the selected points in the sample is directed from the side port imaging arm using a digital micromirror device to a spectrometer arm based on a dispersing prism and CCD camera. A multi-line laser source is used to calibrate the pixel positions on the ...

  3. Study of nanophase TiO2 grain boundaries by Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melendres, C.A.; Narayanasamy, A.; Maroni, V.A.; Siegel, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Raman spectra have been recorded for as-consolidated nanophase TiO 2 samples with differing grain sizes and on samples annealed in air at a variety of temperatures up to 1273 K. The nanophase samples with the smallest grain size, about 12 nm average diameter, could have 15-30% of their atoms in grain boundaries; nevertheless, the strong Raman-active lines representative of the rutile structure were found to dominate all of the observed spectra, independent of grain size and annealing treatment. These lines were quite broad in the as-consolidated nanophase samples, equally in 12 nm and 100 nm grain-size compacts, but sharpened considerably upon annealing at elevated temperatures. The Raman data give no indication of grain-boundary structures in nanophase TiO 2 that are significantly different from those in conventional polycrystals. However, defect structures within the grains, which anneal out at elevated temperatures, are evidenced by changes in the Raman spectra. 15 refs., 2 figs

  4. Comparing Cr, and N only doping with (Cr,N)-codoping for enhancing visible light reactivity of TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuan; Wang, Wei; Qiu, Xiaofeng; Meyer, Harry M. III; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Eres, Gyula; Zhang, Zhenyu; Gu, Baohua

    2011-01-01

    The photoreactivity of titania (TiO2) nanoclusters with varying levels of N or Cr-doping, or (Cr,N)-codoping, was systematically investigated using photodegradation of methyl orange in aqueous suspensions. The shifting of the TiO2 absorption edge into the visible spectral region that is primarily attributable to band gap narrowing was found to be a reliable metric for estimating the photoreactivity of the doped nanoclusters. Compared to the weak response with undoped and N-doped TiO2, Cr-doping and (Cr, N)-codoping were found to significantly enhance photodegradation of methyl orange under visible light. The initial reaction rates increase from about 0 to above 1.6 10-2 min-1 when the doping concentration of Cr in TiO2 increases from 0 to 5%. In stark contrast, under UV irradiation, doping is not only ineffective but detrimental to the photoreactivity, and all doping including N or Cr only and (Cr, N)-codoping were found to reduce photoreactivity.

  5. Preparation and characterization of Bi-doped TiO2 and its solar photocatalytic activity for the degradation of isoproturon herbicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Police Anil Kumar; Srinivas, Basavaraju; Kala, Pruthu; Kumari, Valluri Durga; Subrahmanyam, Machiraju

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Visible active Bi-TiO 2 photocatalyst preparation and thorough charaterization. → Bi-TiO 2 shows high activity for isoproturon degradation under solar light irradiation. → The spectral response of TiO 2 shifts from UV to visible light region by Bi doping. → Bi 3+δ+ species are playing a vital role in minimizing e - /h + recombination. -- Abstract: Bi-doped TiO 2 catalyst was prepared by sol-gel method and was characterized by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction spectra (XRD), X-ray photo electronic spectroscopy (XPS), UV-Vis diffused reflectance spectra (DRS), photoluminescence spectra (PLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) and BET surface area. The photocatalytic activity of the catalysts were evaluated for the degradation of isoproturon herbicide under solar light irradiation. The UV-Visible DRS of Bi-doped TiO 2 showed red shift in optical absorption. The presence of Bi 3+δ+ species are playing a vital role in minimizing the electron hole recombination resulting higher activity compared to bare TiO 2 .

  6. Stimulated nuclear spin echos and spectral diffusion in glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, N.M.; Engelsberg, M.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental results of stimulated nuclear spin echos decay in glasses are presented. The measurements were performed in B 2 O 3 glasses, at the 23Na and 11 B resonance lines. The data analysis allows the study of Spectral diffusion at an inhomogeneous nuclear magnetic (NMR) resonance line, broadened for a desordered system of nuclear spins. A model is proposed to explain the time constants, and the particular form of the decay. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  7. Silver linings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultas, Margaret W; Pohlman, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretive phenomenological study was to gain a better understanding of the experiences of 11 mothers of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers were interviewed three times over a 6 week period. Interviews were analyzed using interpretive methods. This manuscript highlights one particular theme-a positive perspective mothers described as the "silver lining." This "silver lining" represents optimism despite the adversities associated with parenting a child with ASD. A deeper understanding of this side of mothering children with ASD may help health care providers improve rapport, communication, and result in more authentic family centered care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. SU-G-TeP3-15: Radiation Dose Enhancement by Anatase TiO2NPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youkhana, E; Geso, M; Feltis, B [RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This work investigates radiation dose enhancement caused by TiO2 nanoparticles covering entire X-ray energy ranges used in radiation therapy. Methods: Anatase TiO2NPs crystal were synthesised and modified as hydrophilic and hydrophobic to disperse in culture-medium and halocarbons (PRESAGE chemical composition) respectively. TiO2NPs were characterised using TEM, XPS, XRD, TGA and FTIR. Various Concentrations have been utilised for determination of radiation-dose enhancement. This investigation is carried out in two ways; one using PRESAGE dosimeter/phantom and the other is radiobiological and based on in vitro study using two types of cell lines, Human Keratinocyte (HaCaT) and prostate cancer cell lines. The x-ray used are both kilovoltage and megavoltage separately. The prepared PRESAGE dosimeters were scanned using optical CT scanner. Clonogenic and MTS assays were employed for cell cytotoxicity and viability measurements for determination of the levels of dose enhancement. Results: Significant about (50%, 45%) dose enhancement by TiO2-NPs for kV x-rays is measured in both ways (Presage and Cells study). Slightly more is detected with the cells. However, the dose enhancement with megavoltage beams was insignificant using Presage and under same conditions the cells survival curves indicates around 20% which is relatively high. This difference can only be attributed to some biochemical effects. Such as generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), this can affect the cells while it can’t be detected by Presage. Elevation of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) of many orders is observed with the inclusion of TiO2-NPs in cells-medium. Conclusion: Dose enhancement inflicted by TiO2-NPs is proven to be significant with megavoltage beams and minimal with kV. The high dose enhancements obtained can be attributed to higher levels of ROS generated. Since MV beams are most commonly used, this research proves potential value for more efficient beam delivery. This has

  9. Rectangular spectral collocation

    KAUST Repository

    Driscoll, Tobin A.

    2015-02-06

    Boundary conditions in spectral collocation methods are typically imposed by removing some rows of the discretized differential operator and replacing them with others that enforce the required conditions at the boundary. A new approach based upon resampling differentiated polynomials into a lower-degree subspace makes differentiation matrices, and operators built from them, rectangular without any row deletions. Then, boundary and interface conditions can be adjoined to yield a square system. The resulting method is both flexible and robust, and avoids ambiguities that arise when applying the classical row deletion method outside of two-point scalar boundary-value problems. The new method is the basis for ordinary differential equation solutions in Chebfun software, and is demonstrated for a variety of boundary-value, eigenvalue and time-dependent problems.

  10. Spectral evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocca-Volmerange, B.

    1989-01-01

    A recent striking event in Observational Cosmology is the discovery of a large population of galaxies at extreme cosmological distances (extended from spectral redshifts ≅ 1 to ≥ 3) corresponding to a lookback time of 80% of the Universe's age. However when galaxies are observed at such remote epochs, their appearances are affected by at least two simultaneous effects which are respectively a cosmological effect and the intrinsic evolution of their stellar populations which appear younger than in our nearby galaxies. The fundamental problem is first to disentangle the respective contributions of these two effects to apparent magnitudes and colors of distant galaxies. Other effects which are likely to modify the appearance of galaxies are amplification by gravitational lensing and interaction with environment will also be considered. (author)

  11. ATR neutron spectral characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.W.; Anderl, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at INEL provides intense neutron fields for irradiation-effects testing of reactor material samples, for production of radionuclides used in industrial and medical applications, and for scientific research. Characterization of the neutron environments in the irradiation locations of the ATR has been done by means of neutronics calculations and by means of neutron dosimetry based on the use of neutron activation monitors that are placed in the various irradiation locations. The primary purpose of this report is to present the results of an extensive characterization of several ATR irradiation locations based on neutron dosimetry measurements and on least-squares-adjustment analyses that utilize both neutron dosimetry measurements and neutronics calculations. This report builds upon the previous publications, especially the reference 4 paper. Section 2 provides a brief description of the ATR and it tabulates neutron spectral information for typical irradiation locations, as derived from the more historical neutron dosimetry measurements. Relevant details that pertain to the multigroup neutron spectral characterization are covered in section 3. This discussion includes a presentation on the dosimeter irradiation and analyses and a development of the least-squares adjustment methodology, along with a summary of the results of these analyses. Spectrum-averaged cross sections for neutron monitoring and for displacement-damage prediction in Fe, Cr, and Ni are given in section 4. In addition, section4 includes estimates of damage generation rates for these materials in selected ATR irradiation locations. In section 5, the authors present a brief discussion of the most significant conclusions of this work and comment on its relevance to the present ATR core configuration. Finally, detailed numerical and graphical results for the spectrum-characterization analyses in each irradiation location are provided in the Appendix.

  12. Gamma-ray spectral map of standard pottery. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yellin, J.

    1984-01-01

    The gamma-ray spectrum of a neutron activated Standard Pottery is analyzed completely by means of spectral line shape fitting. A detailed spectral map of the standard is presented as it is typically used in pottery analysis. The spectrum obtained by a planar geometry Ge(Li) detector converts the energy range 11 to 409 keV. The map is intended to serve as a guide to the uninitiated user of Standard Pottery as well as a basis of comparison with other standards employed in pottery provenience work. It is shown that the process of calibrating detectors for spectral line interference can be greatly aided by means of a general approach to spectrum analysis and that much usefull information can be obtained by a general approach to pottery spectrum analysis. (orig.)

  13. Optimization of TiO2/Cu/TiO2 multilayers as a transparent composite electrode deposited by electron-beam evaporation at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong-Tao; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Kou, Zhi-Qi; Wang, Li-Jun; Wang, Jin-Ye; Sun, Yi-Qing

    2015-04-01

    Highly transparent indium-free composite electrodes of TiO2/Cu/TiO2 are deposited by electron-beam evaporation at room temperature. The effects of Cu thickness and annealing temperature on the electrical and optical properties of the multilayer film are investigated. The critical thickness of Cu mid-layer to form a continuous conducting layer is found to be 11 nm. The multilayer with a mid-Cu thickness of 11 nm is optimized to obtain a resistivity of 7.4×10-5 Ω·cm and an average optical transmittance of 86% in the visible spectral range. The figure of merit of the TiO2/Cu(11 nm)/TiO2 multilayer annealed at 150 °C reaches a minimum resistivity of 5.9×10-5 Ω·cm and an average optical transmittance of 88% in the visible spectral range. The experimental results indicate that TiO2/Cu/TiO2 multilayers can be used as a transparent electrode for solar cell and other display applications. Project supported by the Research Innovation Key Project of Education Committee of Shanghai, China (Grant No. 14ZZ137) and the National Cultivation Fund from University of Shanghai for Science and Technology (Grant No. 14XPM04).

  14. Automatic parquet block sorting using real-time spectral classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrom, Anders; Astrand, Erik; Johansson, Magnus

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents a real-time spectral classification system based on the PGP spectrograph and a smart image sensor. The PGP is a spectrograph which extracts the spectral information from a scene and projects the information on an image sensor, which is a method often referred to as Imaging Spectroscopy. The classification is based on linear models and categorizes a number of pixels along a line. Previous systems adopting this method have used standard sensors, which often resulted in poor performance. The new system, however, is based on a patented near-sensor classification method, which exploits analogue features on the smart image sensor. The method reduces the enormous amount of data to be processed at an early stage, thus making true real-time spectral classification possible. The system has been evaluated on hardwood parquet boards showing very good results. The color defects considered in the experiments were blue stain, white sapwood, yellow decay and red decay. In addition to these four defect classes, a reference class was used to indicate correct surface color. The system calculates a statistical measure for each parquet block, giving the pixel defect percentage. The patented method makes it possible to run at very high speeds with a high spectral discrimination ability. Using a powerful illuminator, the system can run with a line frequency exceeding 2000 line/s. This opens up the possibility to maintain high production speed and still measure with good resolution.

  15. Spectral Coherence Along a Lidar-Anemometer Beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Leif; Kirkegaard, Peter; Mann, Jakob

    cannot be predicted realistically. Special emphasis has been placed on the effect of line average along the beam. One section has been devoted to the effect of spectral aliasing, which may cause severe problems in the interpretation of measured data. This work is considered the theoretical background...

  16. Spectral Theory of Chemical Bonding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Langhoff, P. W; Boatz, J. A; Hinde, R. J; Sheehy, J. A

    2004-01-01

    .... Wave function antisymmetry in the aggregate atomic spectral-product basis is enforced by unitary transformation performed subsequent to formation of the Hamiltonian matrix, greatly simplifying its construction...

  17. [Review of digital ground object spectral library].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Hu; Zhou, Ding-Wu

    2009-06-01

    A higher spectral resolution is the main direction of developing remote sensing technology, and it is quite important to set up the digital ground object reflectance spectral database library, one of fundamental research fields in remote sensing application. Remote sensing application has been increasingly relying on ground object spectral characteristics, and quantitative analysis has been developed to a new stage. The present article summarized and systematically introduced the research status quo and development trend of digital ground object reflectance spectral libraries at home and in the world in recent years. Introducing the spectral libraries has been established, including desertification spectral database library, plants spectral database library, geological spectral database library, soil spectral database library, minerals spectral database library, cloud spectral database library, snow spectral database library, the atmosphere spectral database library, rocks spectral database library, water spectral database library, meteorites spectral database library, moon rock spectral database library, and man-made materials spectral database library, mixture spectral database library, volatile compounds spectral database library, and liquids spectral database library. In the process of establishing spectral database libraries, there have been some problems, such as the lack of uniform national spectral database standard and uniform standards for the ground object features as well as the comparability between different databases. In addition, data sharing mechanism can not be carried out, etc. This article also put forward some suggestions on those problems.

  18. Smart app-based on-field colorimetric quantification of mercury via analyte-induced enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of TiO2-Au nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindranath, Rini; Periasamy, Arun Prakash; Roy, Prathik; Chen, Yu-Wen; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2018-06-04

    We have devised a unique strategy for highly sensitive, selective, and colorimetric detection of mercury based on analyte-induced enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 -Au nanospheres (TiO 2 -Au NSs) toward degradation of methylene blue (MB). Through electrostatic interactions, Au nanoparticles are attached to poly-(sodium 4-styreneulfonate)/poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) modified TiO 2 nanoparticles, which then form an Au shell on each TiO 2 core through reduction of Au 3+ with ascorbic acid. Notably, the deposition of Hg species (Hg 2+ /CH 3 Hg + ) onto TiO 2 -Au NSs through strong Au-Hg aurophilic interactions speeds up catalytic degradation of MB. The first-order degradation rates of MB by TiO 2 -Au NSs and TiO 2 -Au-Hg NSs are 1.4 × 10 -2  min -1 and 2.1 × 10 -2  min -1 , respectively. Using a commercial absorption spectrometer, the TiO 2 -Au NSs/MB approach provides linearity (R 2  = 0.98) for Hg 2+ over a concentration range of 10.0 to 100.0 nM, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 1.5 nM. On the other hand, using a low-cost smartphone app that records the color changes (ΔRGB) of MB solution based on the red-blue-green (RGB) component values, the TiO 2 -Au NSs/MB approach provides an LOD of 2.0 nM for Hg 2+ and 5.0 nM for CH 3 Hg + , respectively. Furthermore, the smartphone app sensing system has been validated for the analyses of various samples, including tap water, lake water, soil, and Dorm II, showing its great potential for on-line analysis of environmental and biological samples. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  19. Constructing the spectral web of rotating plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedbloed, Hans

    2012-10-01

    Rotating plasmas are ubiquitous in nature. The theory of MHD stability of such plasmas, initiated a long time ago, has severely suffered from the wide spread misunderstanding that it necessarily involves non-self-adjoint operators. It has been shown (J.P. Goedbloed, PPCF 16, 074001, 2011; Goedbloed, Keppens and Poedts, Advanced Magnetohydrodynamics, Cambridge, 2010) that, on the contrary, spectral theory of moving plasmas can be constructed entirely on the basis of energy conservation and self-adjointness of the occurring operators. The spectral web is a further development along this line. It involves the construction of a network of curves in the complex omega-plane associated with the complex complementary energy, which is the energy needed to maintain harmonic time dependence in an open system. Vanishing of that energy, at the intersections of the mentioned curves, yields the eigenvalues of the closed system. This permits to consider the enormous diversity of MHD instabilities of rotating tokamaks, accretion disks about compact objects, and jets emitted from those objects, from a single view point. This will be illustrated with results obtained with a new spectral code (ROC).

  20. Line broadening by focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, A.L. de; Jabs, A.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that the spectral width of a quasi-monochromatic light beam broadens when the beam is focused. A quantitative formula for this broadening is derived from classical wave theory. The effect is shown to explain some experiments on laser beams done by E. Panarella which that author has explained under the ad-hoc hypothesis that the frequency of the photons changes along with the intensity of the light beam. The line broadening by focusing might also contribute to gas ionization by incident light when the ionization potential is well above the mean photon energy. Some remarks are made on some direct applications of the Heisenberg relations in comparison with our treatment. (Author) [pt

  1. Radiation from an equilibrium CO2-N2 plasma in the [250-850 nm] spectral region: II. Spectral modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M Lino da; Vacher, D; Andre, P; Faure, G; Dudeck, M

    2008-01-01

    In the first part of this work, described in a previous paper, the thermodynamic conditions in an atmospheric pressure inductively coupled CO 2 -N 2 plasma have been determined, and the radiation emission spectrum has been measured and calibrated in the [250-850 nm] spectral region. In the second part of this work, a synthetic radiation spectrum is obtained taking into account (a) the geometry of the plasma torch and (b) the local thermodynamic conditions of the plasma. This synthetic spectrum has then been compared against the measured spectrum. The good agreement between the two spectra allows validating the spectral database of the line-by-line code SPARTAN for the simulation of the radiative emission of CO 2 -N 2 plasmas from the near-UV to the near-IR spectral region.

  2. Multi-spectral imager

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stolper, R

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available channel are boresighted with two beamsplitter windows; and • The IR system is boresighted. APPLICATION High-voltage environment • Detecting loose strands, bolts and nuts; • Detecting Corona discharges on insulator discs; • Detecting... and locating spark gaps; • Detecting and locating RIV sources; • Audit sub-stations and transmission lines for audio noise and Corona activities. RECORDINGS / APPLICATIONS REPORTING TOOL: MultiSOFT • Image handling software for grabbing, processing...

  3. Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue under UV Light Irradiation on Prepared Carbonaceous TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zatil Amali Che Ramli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study involves the investigation of altering the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 using composite materials. Three different forms of modified TiO2, namely, TiO2/activated carbon (AC, TiO2/carbon (C, and TiO2/PANi, were compared. The TiO2/carbon composite was obtained by pyrolysis of TiO2/PANi prepared by in situ polymerization method, while the TiO2/activated carbon (TiO2/AC was obtained after treating TiO2/carbon with 1.0 M KOH solution, followed by calcination at a temperature of 450°C. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TG-DTA, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET, and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used to characterize and evaluate the prepared samples. The specific surface area was determined to be in the following order: TiO2/AC > TiO2/C > TiO2/PANi > TiO2 (179 > 134 > 54 > 9 m2 g−1. The evaluation of photocatalytic performance for the degradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation was also of the same order, with 98 > 84.7 > 69% conversion rate, which is likely to be attributed to the porosity and synergistic effect in the prepared samples.

  4. Spectral measurements of gamma radiation streaming through ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meenakshisundaram, P.K.; Bhatnagar, V.M.; Raghunath, V.M.; Gopinath, D.V.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents the spectral measurements of gamma radiation streaming through multi-legged rectangular concrete ducts for cesium-137 and cobald-60 sources. Effect of lead lining the inner surface of the duct on the streaming radiation spectrum and optimization of liner thickness for minimum streaming radiation dose have been studied. For three-legged ducts, a comparative analysis of lead lining the entire duct as against lining any one or both the corners of the duct is reported. It is seen that lead lining any one of the corners would reduce the streaming radiation dose by a factor of 5 to 12. Lining both the corners which is nearly as effective as lining the entire duct reduces the dose by a factor of 16 to 60 depending on the soruce energy and duct dimensions. (orig.)

  5. Hydrogen isotope behavior on Li2TiO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares, Ryan; Oda, Takuji; Tanaka, Satoru; Oya, Yasuhisa; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko

    2004-01-01

    The surface nature of Li 2 TiO 3 and the adsorption behavior of water on Li 2 TiO 3 surface were studied by XPS/UPS and FT/IR. Preliminary experiments by Ar ion sputtering, heating and water exposure were conducted, and the following results were obtained. (1) By Ar sputtering, Li deficient surface was made, and Ti was reduced from Ti 4+ to Ti 3+ . (2) By heating sputtered samples over 573-673 K, Li emerged on the surface and Ti was re-oxidized to Ti 4+ . The surface -OH was removed. The valence band of Li 2 TiO 3 became similar to that of TiO 2 . (3) By water exposure at 623 K, H 2 O could be adsorbed dissociatively on the surface. LiOH was not formed. (4) The nature of Li 2 TiO 3 surface resembles that of TiO 2 , rather than Li 2 O. (author)

  6. Fabrication and Characteristics of Macroporous TiO2 Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiyun Yi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroporous TiO2 photocatalyst was synthesized by a facile nanocasting method using polystyrene (PS spherical particles as the hard template. The synthesized photocatalyst was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetry-differential thermogravimetry (TG-DTG, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and N2-sorption. TEM, SEM, and XRD characterizations confirmed that the macroporous TiO2 photocatalyst is composed of anatase phase. The high specific surface area of 87.85 m2/g can be achieved according to the N2-sorption analysis. Rhodamine B (RhB was chosen as probe molecule to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 catalysts. Compared with the TiO2 materials synthesized in the absence of PS spherical template, the macroporous TiO2 photocatalyst sintered at 500°C exhibits much higher activity on the degradation of RhB under the UV irradiation, which can be assigned to the well-structured macroporosity. The macroporous TiO2 material presents great potential in the fields of environmental remediation and energy conversion and storage.

  7. High pressure synthesis of amorphous TiO2 nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanjun Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous TiO2 nanotubes with diameters of 8-10 nm and length of several nanometers were synthesized by high pressure treatment of anatase TiO2 nanotubes. The structural phase transitions of anatase TiO2 nanotubes were investigated by using in-situ high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD method. The starting anatase structure is stable up to ∼20GPa, and transforms into a high-density amorphous (HDA form at higher pressure. Pressure-modified high- to low-density transition was observed in the amorphous form upon decompression. The pressure-induced amorphization and polyamorphism are in good agreement with the previous results in ultrafine TiO2 nanoparticles and nanoribbons. The relationship between the LDA form and α-PbO2 phase was revealed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM study. In addition, the bulk modulus (B0 = 158 GPa of the anatase TiO2 nanotubes is smaller than those of the corresponding bulks and nanoparticles (180-240 GPa. We suggest that the unique open-ended nanotube morphology and nanosize play important roles in the high pressure phase transition of TiO2 nanotubes.

  8. TiO2-ITO and TiO2-ZnO nanocomposites: application on water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessais B.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most promising ideas to enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of the TiO2 is to couple this photocatalyst with other semiconductors. In this work, we report on the development of photo-catalytic properties of two types of composites based on TiO2 – ITO (Indium Tin Oxide and TiO2 – ZnO deposited on conventional ceramic substrates. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM. The photo-catalytic test was carried out under UV light in order to reduce/oxidize a typical textile dye (Cibacron Yellow. The experiment was carried out in a bench scale reactor using a solution having a known initial dye concentration. After optimization, we found that both nanocomposites exhibit better photocatalytic activity compared to the standard photocatalyst P25 TiO2.

  9. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF EXCHANGE RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEŠA LOTRIČ DOLINAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using spectral analysis is very common in technical areas but rather unusual in economics and finance, where ARIMA and GARCH modeling are much more in use. To show that spectral analysis can be useful in determining hidden periodic components for high-frequency finance data as well, we use the example of foreign exchange rates

  10. Observation of Significant enhancement in the efficiency of a DSSC by InN nanoparticles over TiO 2-nanoparticle films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tsai-Te; Raghunath, P.; Lu, Yun-Fang; Liu, Yu-Chang; Chiou, Chwei-Huawn; Lin, M. C.

    2011-06-01

    We have studied the effect of InN deposited over TiO2 nanoparticle (NP) films on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using N3 dye with I/I3- electrolyte. A 10-20% increase in efficiency was observed for InN deposited, N3 sensitized 5-8.5 μm thick TiO2 films as compared to similar non-treated films. The deposition of InN was carried out in the temperature range of 573-723 K organometallic chemical vapor deposition (OMCVD). Spectral shifts and DFT calculations with a model anchoring group (R‧COOH) both suggest binding of the N3 dye directly to both InN and the InN/TiO2 sites.

  11. Titanium dioxide (TIO2) thin film and plasma properties in RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Riyaz Ahmad Mohamed; Nayan, Nafarizal

    2013-01-01

    Lately, titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) films with anatase crystalline property received numerous attentions as unique material properties. There are wide applications of TiO 2 thin film such as for photocatalytic application in solar cell. In the present study, radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique has been used to produce high dense, homogeneously controllable film layer at low deposition temperature using titanium (Ti) target. The diameter of the Ti target is 3 inch with fixed discharge power of 400W. Magnetron sputtering plasma has been produced in high purity 99.99% Argon (Ar) and 99.99% Oxygen (O 2 ) environment pressure ranging from 5 to 20 mTorr. The TiO2 were growth on silicon and glass substrates. Substrate temperature during deposition was kept constant at 400°C. The distance between target and substrate holder was maintain at 14 cm with rotation of 10 rotation-per-minutes. Our X-ray diffraction result, shows anatase crystalline successfully formed with characterization peaks of plane (101) at 2θ = 25.28°, plane (202) at 2θ = 48.05° and plane (211) at 2θ = 55.06°. In addition, it is our interest to study the plasma properties and optical spectrum of Ti, Ti+ , O- , ArM and Ar+ in the chamber during the deposition process. Result of emission line intensities, electron density and temperature from optical spectroscope and Langmuir probe will be discuss further during the workshop. This works were supported by Graduate Incentive Scheme of Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) and Fundamental Research Grant Scheme of Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia. (author)

  12. ULTRAVIOLET RAMAN SPECTRAL SIGNATURE ACQUISITION: UV RAMAN SPECTRAL FINGERPRINTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEDLACEK,III, A.J.FINFROCK,C.

    2002-09-01

    As a member of the science-support part of the ITT-lead LISA development program, BNL is tasked with the acquisition of UV Raman spectral fingerprints and associated scattering cross-sections for those chemicals-of-interest to the program's sponsor. In support of this role, the present report contains the first installment of UV Raman spectral fingerprint data on the initial subset of chemicals. Because of the unique nature associated with the acquisition of spectral fingerprints for use in spectral pattern matching algorithms (i.e., CLS, PLS, ANN) great care has been undertaken to maximize the signal-to-noise and to minimize unnecessary spectral subtractions, in an effort to provide the highest quality spectral fingerprints. This report is divided into 4 sections. The first is an Experimental section that outlines how the Raman spectra are performed. This is then followed by a section on Sample Handling. Following this, the spectral fingerprints are presented in the Results section where the data reduction process is outlined. Finally, a Photographs section is included.

  13. Xanes and SR-XRF Study of Skin as a Barrier to Ultra-Fine Nanocrystals of TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatek, W.M.; Lekki, J.; Stachura, Z.; Hanson, A.; Ablett, J.

    2007-01-01

    Nanocrystalline TiO 2 is commonly used in cosmetic industry as a photoprotective agent. With recent advances in nanomaterial processing, the size of TiO 2 crystals decreased into the nanometre regime. There is no satisfactory evidence that crystals of such small size are harmless to the human population. An EU project NANODERM has been launched where several techniques have been applied to investigate the possibility of particle penetration through the protective horny layer into vital skin regions. Skin biopsies of the animal and human skin have been collected after exposition to formulations containing TiO 2 nanocrystals. The Ti depth distributions were measured by electron and ion microscopy. The microscopy studies did not detect penetration into vital tissue of healthy skin what does not exclude a possibility that TiO 2 could penetrate pathological skin with lowered barrier efficiency. Due to literature the physical effect of the UV irradiation of the TiO 2 nanoparticle is the shift from 4 th to 3 rd oxidation state of the Ti. Titanium at 3 rd oxidation state interact with environment producing free radicals and Reactive Oxygen Species. In order to quantify the oxidation state shift, XANES experiments were carried out with commercially available TiO 2 nanocrystals (6 - 100 nm size), both in anatase and rutile phase. The samples were irradiated with X-rays with, and without accompanying UV illumination at the NSLS X27A beam line. The corresponding XANES spectra were registered and the absorption edge was compared in UV - illuminated and not illuminated spectra. A shift of about 1 eV in the absorption edge position of the rutile sample exposed to UVA light (365 nm, 20 mW/cm 2 ) has been measured and attributed to the changed electron configuration. However, the direction of the shift detected in measured samples was opposite to the expected. (author)

  14. Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Connor J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program

    2016-03-01

    The Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST) measures the absolute infrared (IR) spectral radiance (watts per square meter per steradian per wavenumber) of the sky directly above the instrument. More information about the instrument can be found through the manufacturer’s website. The spectral measurement range of the instrument is 3300 to 520 wavenumbers (cm-1) or 3-19.2 microns for the normal-range instruments and 3300 to 400 cm-1 or 3-25 microns, for the extended-range polar instruments. Spectral resolution is 1.0 cm-1. Instrument field-of-view is 1.3 degrees. Calibrated sky radiance spectra are produced on cycle of about 141 seconds with a group of 6 radiance spectra zenith having dwell times of about 14 seconds each interspersed with 55 seconds of calibration and mirror motion. The ASSIST data is comparable to the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data and can be used for 1) evaluating line-by-line radiative transport codes, 2) detecting/quantifying cloud effects on ground-based measurements of infrared spectral radiance (and hence is valuable for cloud property retrievals), and 3) calculating vertical atmospheric profiles of temperature and water vapor and the detection of trace gases.

  15. production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.

  16. Selective microwave sensors exploiting the interaction of analytes with trap states in TiO2 nanotube arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarifi, M. H.; Farsinezhad, S.; Abdolrazzaghi, M.; Daneshmand, M.; Shankar, K.

    2016-03-01

    Sensing of molecular analytes by probing the effects of their interaction with microwaves is emerging as a cheap, compact, label-free and highly sensitive detection and quantification technique. Microstrip ring-type resonators are particularly favored for this purpose due to their planar sensing geometry, electromagnetic field enhancements in the coupling gap and compatibility with established printed circuit board manufacturing. However, the lack of selectivity in what is essentially a permittivity-sensing method is an impediment to wider adoption and implementation of this sensing platform. By placing a polycrystalline anatase-phase TiO2 nanotube membrane in the coupling gap of a microwave resonator, we engineer selectivity for the detection and differentiation of methanol, ethanol and 2-propanol. The scavenging of reactive trapped holes by aliphatic alcohols adsorbed on TiO2 is responsible for the alcohol-specific detection while the different short chain alcohols are distinguished on the basis of differences in their microwave response. Electrodeless microwave sensors which allow spectral and time-dependent monitoring of the resonance frequency and quality factor provide a wealth of information in comparison with electrode-based resistive sensors for the detection of volatile organic compounds. A high dynamic range (400 ppm-10 000 ppm) is demonstrated for methanol detection.Sensing of molecular analytes by probing the effects of their interaction with microwaves is emerging as a cheap, compact, label-free and highly sensitive detection and quantification technique. Microstrip ring-type resonators are particularly favored for this purpose due to their planar sensing geometry, electromagnetic field enhancements in the coupling gap and compatibility with established printed circuit board manufacturing. However, the lack of selectivity in what is essentially a permittivity-sensing method is an impediment to wider adoption and implementation of this sensing platform

  17. Single particle analysis of TiO2 in candy products using triple quadrupole ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candás-Zapico, S; Kutscher, D J; Montes-Bayón, M; Bettmer, J

    2018-04-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) belongs to the materials that have gained great importance in many applications. In its particulate form (micro- or nanoparticles), it has entered a huge number of consumer products and food-grade TiO 2 , better known as E171 within the European Union, represents an important food additive. Thus, there is an increasing need for analytical methods able to detect and quantify such particles. In this regard, inductively coupled-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), in particular single particle ICP-MS (spICP-MS), has gained importance due to its simplicity and ease of use. Nevertheless, the number of applications for Ti nanoparticles is rather limited. In this study, we have applied the spICP-MS strategy by comparing different measuring modes available in triple quadrupole ICP-MS. First, single quadrupole mode using the collision/reaction cell system was selected for monitoring the isotope 47 Ti. Different cell gases like He, O 2 and NH 3 were tested under optimised conditions for its applicability in spICP-MS of standard suspensions of TiO 2 . The determined analytical figures of merit were compared to those obtained by triple quadrupole mode using the 47 Ti or 48 Ti reaction products using O 2 and NH 3 as reaction gases. This comparison demonstrated that the triple quadrupole mode (TQ mode) was superior in terms of sensitivity due to the more efficient removal of spectral interferences. Particle size detection limits down to 26nm were obtained using the best instrumental conditions for TiO 2 particles at a dwell time of 10ms. Finally, the different measuring modes were applied to the analysis of chewing gum samples after a simple extraction procedure using an ultrasonic bath. The obtained results showed a good agreement for the detected particle size range using the different TQ modes. The size range of TiO 2 particles was determined to be between approximately 30 and 200nm, whereas roughly 40% of the particles were smaller than 100nm. For the

  18. Line facilities outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    This book deals with line facilities. The contents of this book are outline line of wire telecommunication ; development of line, classification of section of line and theory of transmission of line, cable line ; structure of line, line of cable in town, line out of town, domestic cable and other lines, Optical communication ; line of optical cable, transmission method, measurement of optical communication and cable of the sea bottom, Equipment of telecommunication line ; telecommunication line facilities and telecommunication of public works, construction of cable line and maintenance and Regulation of line equipment ; regulation on technique, construction and maintenance.

  19. Spectral Analysis of Moderately Charged Rare-Gas Atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Reyna Almandos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a review concerning the spectral analysis of several ions of neon, argon, krypton and xenon, with impact on laser studies and astrophysics that were mainly carried out in our collaborative groups between Argentina and Brazil during many years. The spectra were recorded from the vacuum ultraviolet to infrared regions using pulsed discharges. Semi-empirical approaches with relativistic Hartree–Fock and Dirac-Fock calculations were also included in these investigations. The spectral analysis produced new classified lines and energy levels. Lifetimes and oscillator strengths were also calculated.

  20. Polarization of Coronal Forbidden Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hao; Qu, Zhongquan [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650011 (China); Landi Degl’Innocenti, Egidio, E-mail: sayahoro@ynao.ac.cn [Dipartimento di Astronomia e Scienza dello Spazio, Università di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2017-03-20

    Since the magnetic field is responsible for most manifestations of solar activity, one of the most challenging problems in solar physics is the diagnostics of solar magnetic fields, particularly in the outer atmosphere. To this end, it is important to develop rigorous diagnostic tools to interpret polarimetric observations in suitable spectral lines. This paper is devoted to analyzing the diagnostic content of linear polarization imaging observations in coronal forbidden lines. Although this technique is restricted to off-limb observations, it represents a significant tool to diagnose the magnetic field structure in the solar corona, where the magnetic field is intrinsically weak and still poorly known. We adopt the quantum theory of polarized line formation developed in the framework of the density matrix formalism, and synthesize images of the emergent linear polarization signal in coronal forbidden lines using potential-field source-surface magnetic field models. The influence of electronic collisions, active regions, and Thomson scattering on the linear polarization of coronal forbidden lines is also examined. It is found that active regions and Thomson scattering are capable of conspicuously influencing the orientation of the linear polarization. These effects have to be carefully taken into account to increase the accuracy of the field diagnostics. We also found that linear polarization observation in suitable lines can give valuable information on the long-term evolution of the magnetic field in the solar corona.

  1. Optimized nanostructured TiO2 photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Selda; Jodhani, Gagan; Gouma, Pelagia

    2016-07-01

    Titania is the most widely studied photocatalyst. In it’s mixed-phase configuration (anatase-rutile form) -as manifested in the commercially available P25 Degussa material- titania was previously found to exhibit the best photocatalytic properties reported for the pure system. A great deal of published research by various workers in the field have not fully explained the underlying mechanism for the observed behavior of mixed-phase titania photocatalysts. One of the prevalent hypothesis in the literature that is tested in this work involves the presence of small, active clusters of interwoven anatase and rutile crystallites or “catalytic “hot-spots””. Therefore, non-woven nanofibrous mats of titania were produced and upon calcination the mats consisted of nanostructured fibers with different anatase-rutile ratios. By assessing the photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical properties of these samples the optimized photocatalyst was determined. This consisted of TiO2 nanostructures annealed at 500˚C with an anatase /rutile content of 90/10. Since the performance of this material exceeded that of P25 complete structural characterization was employed to understand the catalytic mechanism involved. It was determined that the dominant factors controlling the photocatalytic behavior of the titania system are the relative particle size of the different phases of titania and the growth of rutile laths on anatase grains which allow for rapid electron transfer between the two phases. This explains how to optimize the response of the pure system.

  2. Rise and Fall of Tios-Tieion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Erman; Yıldırım, Şahin

    2017-10-01

    The existence or endurance of the city is determined by social, economic, cultural, and technological factors. Therefore, transportation connections become physical signifiers of the relation between two spaces. Nevertheless, the potential for change in transportation is more dynamic when compared to other factors. Change in the infrastructure and systems of transportation become evident at the urban scale more rapidly. In addition to leading to the formation of new cities or to socio-cultural and economic development in the already-existent cities, this dynamic structure may also cause the decrease in economic power, and even the desertion of settlements. Furthermore, it functions as a leading, even determining, parameter in the formation of space, thereby in economic and social development. The fact that, throughout history, centres of communication and commerce were established at intersection, stopping and lodging points of transportation links and/or their development into residential areas attests to this interaction. In the commercial centres and life of the city, the effects of regional transportation networks and technologies surface relatively. By means of the analytical method, this study focuses on how, within the history of settlements, population increases due to the choice of location based on transportation and strategic significance, and how urban functions vary accordingly. As such, the interaction between urban development and transportation links for the Ancient City of Tios will be analysed, and the signifiers for urban development will be designated.

  3. SDP_mharwit_1: Demonstration of HIFI Linear Polarization Analysis of Spectral Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwit, M.

    2010-03-01

    We propose to observe the polarization of the 621 GHz water vapor maser in VY Canis Majoris to demonstrate the capability of HIFI to make polarization observations of Far-Infrared/Submillimeter spectral lines. The proposed Demonstration Phase would: - Show that HIFI is capable of interesting linear polarization measurements of spectral lines; - Test out the highest spectral resolving power to sort out closely spaced Doppler components; - Determine whether the relative intensities predicted by Neufeld and Melnick are correct; - Record the degree and direction of linear polarization for the closely-Doppler shifted peaks.

  4. Effective spectral index properties for Fermi blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, JiangHe; Fan, JunHui; Liu, Yi; Zhang, YueLian; Tuo, ManXian; Nie, JianJun; Yuan, YuHai

    2018-05-01

    Blazars are a special subclass of active galactic nuclei with extreme observation properties. This subclass can be divided into two further subclasses of flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) according to their emission line features. To compare the spectral properties of FSRQs and BL Lacs, the 1.4 GHz radio, optical R-band, 1 keV X-ray, and 1 GeV γ-ray flux densities for 1108 Fermi blazars are calculated to discuss the properties of the six effective spectral indices of radio to optical ( α RO), radio to X-ray ( α RX), radio to γ ray ( α Rγ), optical to X-ray ( α OX), optical to γ ray ( α Oγ), and X-ray to γ ray ( α Xγ). The main results are as follows: For the averaged effective spectral indices, \\overline {{α _{OX}}} > \\overline {{α _{Oγ }}} > \\overline {{α _{Xγ }}} > \\overline {{α _{Rγ }}} > \\overline {{α _{RX}}} > \\overline {{α _{RO}}} for samples of whole blazars and BL Lacs; \\overline {{α _{Xγ }}} ≈ \\overline {{α _{Rγ }}} ≈ \\overline {{α _{RX}}} for FSRQs and low-frequency-peaked BL Lacs (LBLs); and \\overline {{α _{OX}}} ≈ \\overline {{α _{Oγ }}} ≈ \\overline {{α _{Xγ }}} for high-synchrotron-frequency-peaked BL Lacs (HBLs). The distributions of the effective spectral indices involving optical emission ( α RO, α OX, and α Oγ) for LBLs are different from those for FSRQs, but if the effective spectral index does not involve optical emission ( α RX, α Rγ, and α Xγ), the distributions for LBLs and FSRQs almost come from the same parent population. X-ray emissions from blazars include both synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) components; the IC component for FSRQs and LBLs accounts for a larger proportion than that for HBLs; and the radiation mechanism for LBLs is similar to that for FSRQs, but the radiation mechanism for HBLs is different from that for both FSRQs and LBLs in X-ray bands. The tendency of α Rγ decreasing from LBLs to HBLs suggests that the synchrotron self

  5. Thermal degradation of TiO2 nanotubes on titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaram, Anish; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this research was to study thermal degradation behavior of TiO2 nanotubes on titanium (Ti). TiO2 nanotubes were grown via anodization method on commercially pure Ti (Cp-Ti) discs using two different electrolytes, 1 vol. % HF in deionized (DI) water and 1 vol. % HF + 0.5 wt. % NH4F + 10 vol. % DI water in ethylene glycol, to obtain nanotubes with two different lengths, 300 nm and 950 nm keeping the nanotube diameter constant at 100 ± 20 nm. As grown TiO2 nanotubes were subjected to heat treatment to understand thermal degradation as a function of both temperature and hold time. The signs of degradation were observed mainly when amorphous nanotubes started to crystallize, however the crystallization temperature varied based on TiO2 nanotubes length and anodizing condition. Overall, 300 nm nanotubes were thermally stable at least up to 400 °C for 12 h, while the 950 nm long nanotubes show signs of degradation from 400 °C for 6 h only. Clearly, length of nanotubes, heat treatment temperature as well as hold times show influence toward degradation kinetics of TiO2 nanotubes on titanium.

  6. Substitution dynamical systems spectral analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Queffélec, Martine

    2010-01-01

    This volume mainly deals with the dynamics of finitely valued sequences, and more specifically, of sequences generated by substitutions and automata. Those sequences demonstrate fairly simple combinatorical and arithmetical properties and naturally appear in various domains. As the title suggests, the aim of the initial version of this book was the spectral study of the associated dynamical systems: the first chapters consisted in a detailed introduction to the mathematical notions involved, and the description of the spectral invariants followed in the closing chapters. This approach, combined with new material added to the new edition, results in a nearly self-contained book on the subject. New tools - which have also proven helpful in other contexts - had to be developed for this study. Moreover, its findings can be concretely applied, the method providing an algorithm to exhibit the spectral measures and the spectral multiplicity, as is demonstrated in several examples. Beyond this advanced analysis, many...

  7. Spectral characterization of natural backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Max

    2017-10-01

    As the distribution and use of hyperspectral sensors is constantly increasing, the exploitation of spectral features is a threat for camouflaged objects. To improve camouflage materials at first the spectral behavior of backgrounds has to be known to adjust and optimize the spectral reflectance of camouflage materials. In an international effort, the NATO CSO working group SCI-295 "Development of Methods for Measurements and Evaluation of Natural Background EO Signatures" is developing a method how this characterization of backgrounds has to be done. It is obvious that the spectral characterization of a background will be quite an effort. To compare and exchange data internationally the measurements will have to be done in a similar way. To test and further improve this method an international field trial has been performed in Storkow, Germany. In the following we present first impressions and lessons learned from this field campaign and describe the data that has been measured.

  8. Parallel Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Worner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available James Worner is an Australian-based writer and scholar currently pursuing a PhD at the University of Technology Sydney. His research seeks to expose masculinities lost in the shadow of Australia’s Anzac hegemony while exploring new opportunities for contemporary historiography. He is the recipient of the Doctoral Scholarship in Historical Consciousness at the university’s Australian Centre of Public History and will be hosted by the University of Bologna during 2017 on a doctoral research writing scholarship.   ‘Parallel Lines’ is one of a collection of stories, The Shapes of Us, exploring liminal spaces of modern life: class, gender, sexuality, race, religion and education. It looks at lives, like lines, that do not meet but which travel in proximity, simultaneously attracted and repelled. James’ short stories have been published in various journals and anthologies.

  9. Adiabatic theorem and spectral concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenciu, G.

    1981-01-01

    The spectral concentration of arbitrary order, for the Stark effect is proved to exist for a large class of Hamiltonians appearing in nonrelativistic and relativistic quantum mechanics. The results are consequences of an abstract theorem about the spectral concentration for self-ad oint operators. A general form of the adiabatic theorem of quantum mechanics, generalizing an earlier result of the author as well as some results of Lenard, is also proved [ru

  10. Spectral Variations of T Tauri stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, E.

    1994-02-01

    Although it can now be taken for granted that T Tauri stars accrete matter from circumstellar disks, the way in which the matter is ultimately accreted by the star is still under discussion. Boundary layer models, as well as models of magnetic accretion are considered. Since the very inner part of the disk, the star, and the boundary layer or the accretion shock radiate mainly in the optical, it is necessary to investigate this wavelength region. Optical spectra of classical T Tauri stars consist of emission lines superimposed on a late-type photospheric spectrum, but the photospheric lines in T Tauri stars are much weaker than the lines of main sequence stars of the same spectral type. This is generally attributed to the presence of an additional continuum which veils the photospheric spectrum of the star, which may be be the emission of the boundary layer, or the emission of the immediate vicinity of an accretion shock. The aim of this work is to give additional information on the nature of the region that emits the veiling continuum by investigating the correlations between the veiling and line fluxes in time serieses of T Tauri stars. For this work a time series of 27, 117, and 89 spectra of BM And, DI Cep and DG Tau, were taken in 9, 13, and 12 nights, using the Echellette-Spectrograph of the 2.2m telescope on Calar Alto, Spain. These T Tauri stars were selected because of their different of levels of activity. The spectra cover the whole region between 3200Å and 11000Å with a resolution of about Δ λ λ = 3000. Using 32 template stars the spectral types of the stars were determined, which is found to remain unchanged during the whole time series. The wavelengths of all photospheric lines are in agreement with a single doppler shift (+/- 6 km/s), which is taken as the systemic velocity. It is thus assumed that the low excitation lines are indeed the photospheric lines of the star and the veiling is an additional continuum source. The spectrum of the veiling

  11. Photodegradation of HCFC-22 Using Microwave Discharge Electrodeless Mercury Lamp with TiO2 Photocatalyst Balls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Gyu Seo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The photodegradation of chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22 was investigated using microwave/UV/TiO2 photocatalysts hybrid system. The microwave discharge electrodeless mercury lamp (MDEML used in this study showed mainly atomic Hg emission lines at 253.7 nm. The decomposition efficiency of HCFC-22 increased with decreasing inlet concentration and with increasing reactor residence time. The removal efficiency increased with increasing microwave power on every oxygen concentration. The highest degradation efficiency was obtained when both TiO2 balls and MDEML were used.

  12. Fate of pristine TiO2 nanoparticles and aged paint-containing TiO2 nanoparticles in lettuce crop after foliar exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larue, Camille; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Sobanska, Sophie; Trcera, Nicolas; Sorieul, Stéphanie; Cécillon, Lauric; Ouerdane, Laurent; Legros, Samuel; Sarret, Géraldine

    2014-05-30

    Engineered TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) are present in a large variety of consumer products, and are produced in largest amount. The building industry is a major sector using TiO2-NPs, especially in paints. The fate of NPs after their release in the environment is still largely unknown, and their possible transfer in plants and subsequent impacts have not been studied in detail. The foliar transfer pathway is even less understood than the root pathway. In this study, lettuces were exposed to pristine TiO2-NPs and aged paint leachate containing TiO2-NPs and microparticles (TiO2-MPs). Internalization and in situ speciation of Ti were investigated by a combination of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. Not only TiO2-NPs pristine and from aged paints, but also TiO2-MPs were internalized in lettuce leaves, and observed in all types of tissues. No change in speciation was noticed, but an organic coating of TiO2-NPs is likely. Phytotoxicity markers were tested for plants exposed to pristine TiO2-NPs. No acute phytotoxicity was observed; variations were only observed in glutathione and phytochelatin levels but remained low as compared to typical values. These results obtained on the foliar uptake mechanisms of nano- and microparticles are important in the perspective of risk assessment of atmospheric contaminations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Favorable recycling photocatalyst TiO2/CFA: Effects of loading percent of TiO2 on the structural property and photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jianwen; Chen Shaohua; Ye Zhilong; Wang Shumei; Wu Peng

    2010-01-01

    A series of photocatalysts TiO 2 /CFA were prepared using coal fly ash (CFA), waste discharged from coal-fired power plant, as substrate, and then these photocatalysts were characterized by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction analysis, nitrogen adsorption test and ultraviolet-visible absorption analysis. The effects of loading percent of TiO 2 on the photocatalytic activity and re-use property of TiO 2 /CFA were evaluated by the photocatalytic decoloration and mineralization of methyl orange solution. The results show that the pore volume and the specific surface area of the TiO 2 /CFA both increased with the increase in the loading percent of TiO 2 , which improved the photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 /CFA. However, when the loading percent of TiO 2 was too high (up to 54.51%), superfluous TiO 2 was easy to break away from CFA in the course of water treatment, which was disadvantaged to the recycling property of TiO 2 /CFA. In this study, the optimal loading percent of TiO 2 was 49.97%, and the efficiencies of photocatalytic decoloration and mineralization could be maintained above 99% and 90%, respectively, when the photocatalyst was used repeatedly, without any decline, even at the sixth cycle.

  14. TiO2 and SiC nanostructured films, organized CNT structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sized nanostructured TiO2 films through hydrolysis of titanium tetra-isopropoxide. (TTIP) [9 ... structured TiO2 as a photocatalyst is as follows [15]:. TiO2(ns) ... The deposited films were easily detached from the silica tube and subjected to. SEM.

  15. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Anatase TiO2 Nanorods Prepared by Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jer Jeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal method provides an effective reaction environment for the synthesis of nanocrystalline materials with high purity and well-controlled crystallinity. In this work, we started with various sizes of commercial TiO2 powders and used the hydrothermal method to prepare TiO2 thin films. We found that the synthesized TiO2 nanorods were thin and long when smaller TiO2 particles were used, while larger TiO2 particles produced thicker and shorter nanorods. We also found that TiO2 films prepared by TiO2 nanorods exhibited larger surface roughness than those prepared by the commercial TiO2 particles. It was found that a pure anatase phase of TiO2 nanorods can be obtained from the hydrothermal method. The dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated with TiO2 nanorods exhibited a higher solar efficiency than those fabricated with commercial TiO2 nanoparticles directly. Further, triple-layer structures of TiO2 thin films with different particle sizes were investigated to improve the solar efficiency.

  16. Enhanced Bonding of Silver Nanoparticles on Oxidized TiO2(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas Ørbæk; Salazar, Estephania Lira; Galliker, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of silver nanoclusters on TiO2(110) surfaces with on-top O adatoms (oxidized TiO2), surface O vacancies and H adatoms (reduced TiO2) have been studied. From the interplay of scanning tunneling microscopy/photoelectron spectroscopy experiments and density functional theor...

  17. Stellar and wind parameters of massive stars from spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Ignacio; Curé, Michel

    2017-11-01

    The only way to deduce information from stars is to decode the radiation it emits in an appropriate way. Spectroscopy can solve this and derive many properties of stars. In this work we seek to derive simultaneously the stellar and wind characteristics of a wide range of massive stars. Our stellar properties encompass the effective temperature, the surface gravity, the stellar radius, the micro-turbulence velocity, the rotational velocity and the Si abundance. For wind properties we consider the mass-loss rate, the terminal velocity and the line-force parameters α, k and δ (from the line-driven wind theory). To model the data we use the radiative transport code Fastwind considering the newest hydrodynamical solutions derived with Hydwind code, which needs stellar and line-force parameters to obtain a wind solution. A grid of spectral models of massive stars is created and together with the observed spectra their physical properties are determined through spectral line fittings. These fittings provide an estimation about the line-force parameters, whose theoretical calculations are extremely complex. Furthermore, we expect to confirm that the hydrodynamical solutions obtained with a value of δ slightly larger than ~ 0.25, called δ-slow solutions, describe quite reliable the radiation line-driven winds of A and late B supergiant stars and at the same time explain disagreements between observational data and theoretical models for the Wind-Momentum Luminosity Relationship (WLR).

  18. Synthesis of titanate, TiO2 (B), and anatase TiO2 nanofibers from natural rutile sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavasupree, Sorapong; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Yoshikawa, Susumu; Kawahata, Ryoji

    2005-01-01

    Titanate nanofibers were synthesized by hydrothermal method (150 deg. C for 72 h) using natural rutile sand as the starting materials. TiO 2 (B) and anatase TiO 2 (high crystallinity) nanofibers with the diameters of 20-100 nm and the lengths of 10-100 μm were obtained by calcined titanate nanofibers for 4 h at 400 and 700 deg. C (in air), respectively. The samples characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, SAED, HRTEM, and BET surface area. This synthesis method provides a simple route to fabricate one-dimensional nanostructured TiO 2 from low cost material. -- Graphical abstract: Titanate nanofibers (b) were synthesized by hydrothermal method (150 deg. C for 72 h) using natural rutile sand (a) as the starting materials. TiO 2 (B) (c) and anatase TiO 2 (d) nanofibers with the diameters of 20-50 nm and the lengths of 10-100 μm were obtained by calcined titanate nanofibers for 4 h at 400 deg. C and 700 deg. C (in air), respectively

  19. Effect of TiO2 on the Gas Sensing Features of TiO2/PANi Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong Ngoc Huyen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A nanocomposite of titanium dioxide (TiO2 and polyaniline (PANi was synthesized by in-situ chemical polymerization using aniline (ANi monomer and TiCl4 as precursors. SEM pictures show that the nanocomposite was created in the form of long PANi chains decorated with TiO2 nanoparticles. FTIR, Raman and UV-Vis spectra reveal that the PANi component undergoes an electronic structure modification as a result of the TiO2 and PANi interaction. The electrical resistor of the nanocomposite is highly sensitive to oxygen and NH3 gas, accounting for the physical adsorption of these gases. A nanocomposite with around 55% TiO2 shows an oxygen sensitivity of 600–700%, 20–25 times higher than that of neat PANi. The n-p contacts between TiO2 nanoparticles and PANi matrix give rise to variety of shallow donors and acceptor levels in the PANi band gap which enhance the physical adsorption of gas molecules.

  20. Line-shape asymmetry of water vapor absorption lines in the 720-nm wavelength region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Benoist E.; Browell, Edward V.

    1991-01-01

    Spectral line-shape analyses were performed for water vapor lines broadened by argon, oxygen, and xenon in the 720-nm wavelength region. A line-shape asymmetry was observed, which is attributed to statistical dependence or correlation between velocity- and state-changing collisions. The generalized (asymmetric) Galatry profile, which results from the soft-collision profile and includes correlation between velocity- and state-changing collisions, was fitted to the observed line shapes and was found to compare favorably with the observed data. The most prominent asymmetries were observed with xenon as the buffer gas.

  1. Characterizing CDOM Spectral Variability Across Diverse Regions and Spectral Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, Brice K.; Mouw, Colleen B.; Ciochetto, Audrey B.

    2018-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) has focused on CDOM absorption (aCDOM) at a reference wavelength, as its magnitude provides insight into the underwater light field and large-scale biogeochemical processes. CDOM spectral slope, SCDOM, has been treated as a constant or semiconstant parameter in satellite retrievals of aCDOM despite significant regional and temporal variabilities. SCDOM and other optical metrics provide insights into CDOM composition, processing, food web dynamics, and carbon cycling. To date, much of this work relies on fluorescence techniques or aCDOM in spectral ranges unavailable to current and planned satellite sensors (e.g., global variability in SCDOM and fit deviations in the aCDOM spectra using the recently proposed Gaussian decomposition method. From this, we investigate if global variability in retrieved SCDOM and Gaussian components is significant and regionally distinct. We iteratively decreased the spectral range considered and analyzed the number, location, and magnitude of fitted Gaussian components to understand if a reduced spectral range impacts information obtained within a common spectral window. We compared the fitted slope from the Gaussian decomposition method to absorption-based indices that indicate CDOM composition to determine the ability of satellite-derived slope to inform the analysis and modeling of large-scale biogeochemical processes. Finally, we present implications of the observed variability for remote sensing of CDOM characteristics via SCDOM.

  2. Spectral theory of infinite-area hyperbolic surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Borthwick, David

    2016-01-01

    This text introduces geometric spectral theory in the context of infinite-area Riemann surfaces, providing a comprehensive account of the most recent developments in the field. For the second edition the context has been extended to general surfaces with hyperbolic ends, which provides a natural setting for development of the spectral theory while still keeping technical difficulties to a minimum. All of the material from the first edition is included and updated, and new sections have been added. Topics covered include an introduction to the geometry of hyperbolic surfaces, analysis of the resolvent of the Laplacian, scattering theory, resonances and scattering poles, the Selberg zeta function, the Poisson formula, distribution of resonances, the inverse scattering problem, Patterson-Sullivan theory, and the dynamical approach to the zeta function. The new sections cover the latest developments in the field, including the spectral gap, resonance asymptotics near the critical line, and sharp geometric constan...

  3. Interdigitated electrode (IDE) for porcine detection based on titanium dioxide (TiO_2) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordin, N.; Azizah, N.; Hashim, U.

    2016-01-01

    Interdigited Electrode (IDE) porcine detection can be accomplished to authenticate the halal issue that has been a concern to Muslim not only in Malaysia but all around the world. The method used is photolithography that used the p-type photoresist on the spin coater with 2500 rpm. Bare IDEs device is deposited with Titanium Dioxide (TiO_2) to improve the performance of the device. The result indicates that current-voltage (I-V) measurement of porcine probe line slightly above porcine target due to negative charges repelled each other. The IDE device can detect the porcine presence in food as lowest as 1.0 µM. Better performance of the device can be achieved with the replacement of gold deposited to trigger more sensitivity of the device.

  4. Interdigitated electrode (IDE) for porcine detection based on titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, N.; Hashim, U.; Azizah, N.

    2016-07-01

    Interdigited Electrode (IDE) porcine detection can be accomplished to authenticate the halal issue that has been a concern to Muslim not only in Malaysia but all around the world. The method used is photolithography that used the p-type photoresist on the spin coater with 2500 rpm. Bare IDEs device is deposited with Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) to improve the performance of the device. The result indicates that current-voltage (I-V) measurement of porcine probe line slightly above porcine target due to negative charges repelled each other. The IDE device can detect the porcine presence in food as lowest as 1.0 µM. Better performance of the device can be achieved with the replacement of gold deposited to trigger more sensitivity of the device.

  5. Safety Profile of TiO2-Based Photocatalytic Nanofabrics for Indoor Formaldehyde Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixin Cui

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (TNPs are synthesized using the sol-gel method and loaded onto the surface of polyester-cotton (65/35 fabrics. The nanofabrics degrade formaldehyde at an efficiency of 77% in eight hours with visible light irradiation or 97% with UV light. The loaded TNPs display very little release from nanofabrics (~0.0% during a standard fastness to rubbing test. Assuming TNPs may fall off nanofabrics during their life cycles, we also examine the possible toxicity of TNPs to human cells. We found that up to a concentration of 220 μg/mL, they do not affect viability of human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 macrophages and human liver and kidney cells.

  6. Cyclotron Lines in Accreting Neutron Star Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, Jörn; Schönherr, Gabriele; Schmid, Julia; Dauser, Thomas; Kreykenbohm, Ingo

    2009-05-01

    Cyclotron lines are formed through transitions of electrons between discrete Landau levels in the accretion columns of accreting neutron stars with strong (1012 G) magnetic fields. We summarize recent results on the formation of the spectral continuum of such systems, describe recent advances in the modeling of the lines based on a modification of the commonly used Monte Carlo approach, and discuss new results on the dependence of the measured cyclotron line energy from the luminosity of transient neutron star systems. Finally, we show that Simbol-X will be ideally suited to build and improve the observational database of accreting and strongly magnetized neutron stars.

  7. Prediction of impurity spectral emission in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, H.; Summers, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarises the development of a set of general purpose computational procedures for the prediction of spectral emission from plasmas, with emphasis on fusion plasmas. The first stage was concerned with the calculation of populations of low levels of impurity ions in a statistical balance approximation in thermal plasmas of arbitrary electron and proton temperatures and densities. This was merged with associated calculations of ionisation stage abundances in equilibrium, time dependent and spatially inhomogeneous conditions to yield spectrum line emissivities of direct relevance for comparative and diagnostic studies of observed spectra. The integrated computer program package draws upon sets or basic atomic data. In the present work the compilation of this basic data is adressed. A set of computer programs has beeen developed and used to convert systematically atomic rate data, drawn from the literature, to standard forms and parameter ranges. Regularities in this data along isoelectronic sequences are exploited to infer rates for an arbitrary ion from a set of representative data (termed the 'general Z' database). From this, the input for the spectral prediction codes above is generated. Presently data in the H, He, Li and Be isoelectronic sequences is prepared. The operation of the procedures is illustrated. (orig.)

  8. A spectral analysis of ablating meteors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloxam, K.; Campbell-Brown, M.

    2017-09-01

    Meteor ablation features in the spectral lines occurring at 394, 436, 520, and 589 nm were observed using a four-camera spectral system between September and December 2015. In conjunction with this multi-camera system the Canadian Automated Meteor Observatory was used to observe the orbital parameters and fragmentation of these meteors. In total, 95 light curves with complete data in the 520 and 589 nm filters were analyzed; some also had partial or complete data in the 394 nm filter, but no usable data was collected with the 436 nm filter. Of the 95 events, 70 exhibited some degree of differential ablation, and in all except 3 of these 70 events the 589 nm filter started or ended sooner compared with the 520 nm filter, indicating early ablation at the 589 nm wavelength. In the majority of cases the meteor showed evidence of fragmentation regardless of the type of ablation (differential or uniform). A surprising result was the lack of correlation found concerning the KB parameter, linked to meteoroid strength, and differential ablation. In addition, 22 shower-associated meteors were observed; Geminids showed mainly slight differential ablation, while Taurids were more likely to ablate uniformly.

  9. A multi-object spectral imaging instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, G M; Dienerowitz, M; Kelleher, P A; Harvey, A R; Padgett, M J

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a snapshot spectral imaging system which fits onto the side camera port of a commercial inverted microscope. The system provides spectra, in real time, from multiple points randomly selected on the microscope image. Light from the selected points in the sample is directed from the side port imaging arm using a digital micromirror device to a spectrometer arm based on a dispersing prism and CCD camera. A multi-line laser source is used to calibrate the pixel positions on the CCD for wavelength. A CMOS camera on the front port of the microscope allows the full image of the sample to be displayed and can also be used for particle tracking, providing spectra of multiple particles moving in the sample. We demonstrate the system by recording the spectra of multiple fluorescent beads in aqueous solution and from multiple points along a microscope sample channel containing a mixture of red and blue dye. (paper)

  10. An efficient quantum algorithm for spectral estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Adrian; Rebentrost, Patrick; Marvian, Iman; Eisert, Jens; Lloyd, Seth

    2017-03-01

    We develop an efficient quantum implementation of an important signal processing algorithm for line spectral estimation: the matrix pencil method, which determines the frequencies and damping factors of signals consisting of finite sums of exponentially damped sinusoids. Our algorithm provides a quantum speedup in a natural regime where the sampling rate is much higher than the number of sinusoid components. Along the way, we develop techniques that are expected to be useful for other quantum algorithms as well—consecutive phase estimations to efficiently make products of asymmetric low rank matrices classically accessible and an alternative method to efficiently exponentiate non-Hermitian matrices. Our algorithm features an efficient quantum-classical division of labor: the time-critical steps are implemented in quantum superposition, while an interjacent step, requiring much fewer parameters, can operate classically. We show that frequencies and damping factors can be obtained in time logarithmic in the number of sampling points, exponentially faster than known classical algorithms.

  11. Spectral analysis of allogeneic hydroxyapatite powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timchenko, P. E.; Timchenko, E. V.; Pisareva, E. V.; Vlasov, M. Yu; Red'kin, N. A.; Frolov, O. O.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the application of Raman spectroscopy to the in vitro analysis of the hydroxyapatite powder samples produced from different types of animal bone tissue during demineralization process at various acid concentrations and exposure durations. The derivation of the Raman spectrum of hydroxyapatite is attempted by the analysis of the pure powders of its known constituents. Were experimentally found spectral features of hydroxyapatite, based on analysis of the line amplitude at wave numbers 950-965 cm-1 ((PO4)3- (ν1) vibration) and 1065-1075 cm-1 ((CO3)2-(ν1) B-type replacement). Control of physicochemical properties of hydroxyapatite was carried out by Raman spectroscopy. Research results are compared with an infrared Fourier spectroscopy.

  12. Spectral analysis of allogeneic hydroxyapatite powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timchenko, P E; Timchenko, E V; Pisareva, E V; Vlasov, M Yu; Red’kin, N A; Frolov, O O

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the application of Raman spectroscopy to the in vitro analysis of the hydroxyapatite powder samples produced from different types of animal bone tissue during demineralization process at various acid concentrations and exposure durations. The derivation of the Raman spectrum of hydroxyapatite is attempted by the analysis of the pure powders of its known constituents. Were experimentally found spectral features of hydroxyapatite, based on analysis of the line amplitude at wave numbers 950-965 cm -1 ((PO 4 ) 3- (ν 1 ) vibration) and 1065-1075 cm -1 ((CO 3 ) 2- (ν 1 ) B-type replacement). Control of physicochemical properties of hydroxyapatite was carried out by Raman spectroscopy. Research results are compared with an infrared Fourier spectroscopy. (paper)

  13. Study on the use of TiO2 passivation layer to reduce recombination losses in dye sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskander bin Samsudin, Adel; Mohamed, Norani Muti; Nayan, Nafarizal; Ali, Riyaz Ahmad Mohamed; Shariffuddin, Sharifah Amira Amir; Omar, Salwa

    2012-01-01

    A lot of research on various aspects of dye solar cells (DSC) has been carried out in order to improve efficiency. This paper analyzes the utilization of TiO 2 passivation layers of different thicknesses by improving the electron transport properties. Four different thicknesses of passivation layers namely 10, 20, 50 and 100 nm were deposited onto the working electrode using r.f sputtering. The electrodes were assembled into TiO 2 based DSC with active area of 1 cm 2 . The solar performance was investigated using 100 mW/cm 2 of AM 1.5 simulated sunlight from solar simulator. The kinetics of the solar cells was investigated using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurement and the spectral response was measured using Incident Photon to Electron Conversion (IPCE) measurement system. The highest efficiency was found for DSC with 20 nm passivation layer. DSCs with the passivation layer have open circuit voltage, V OC increased by 57 mV, their current density, J SC increased by 0.774 mA cm −2 compared to the one without the passivation layer. The quantum efficiency of the 20 nm passivation layer is the highest, peaking at the wavelength of 534 nm, resulting in the highest performance. All DSCs with the passivation layer recorded higher ratio of R BR /R T where R T is the diffusion resistance of the TiO 2 particles in the mesoscopic layer and R BR is the recombination resistance of the electron to the electrolyte. This implies that the recombination of the electrolyte I − 3 /3I − couple at the substrate/electrolyte interface has been effectively reduced resulting in an enhanced efficiency.

  14. Photocatalytic effects for the TiO2-coated phosphor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Jung-Sik

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The photocatalytic behavior of the coupling of TiO 2 with phosphorescent materials. → The photobleaching of an MB aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. → The ALD TiO 2 -coated phosphor composite showed much higher photocatalytic reactivity. → The light emitted from the phosphors contributed to the photo-generation. - Abstract: This study investigated the photocatalytic behavior of the coupling of TiO 2 with phosphorescent materials. A TiO 2 thin film was deposited on CaAl 2 O 4 :Eu 2+ ,Nd 3+ phosphor particles by using atomic layer deposition (ALD), and its photocatalytic reaction was investigated by the photobleaching of an aqueous solution of methylene-blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. To clarify the mechanism of the TiO 2 -phosphorescent materials, two different samples of TiO 2 -coated phosphor and TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -coated phosphor particles were prepared. The photocatalytic mechanisms of the ALD TiO 2 -coated phosphor powders were different from those of the pure TiO 2 and TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -coated phosphor. The absorbance in a solution of the ALD TiO 2 -coated phosphor decreased much faster than that of pure TiO 2 under visible irradiation. In addition, the ALD TiO 2 -coated phosphor showed moderately higher photocatalytic degradation of MB solution than the TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -coated phosphor did. The TiO 2 -coated phosphorescent materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS).

  15. VT Digital Line Graph Miscellaneous Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of Miscellaineous Transmission Lines. Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic...

  16. Microwave-assisted self-doping of TiO2 photonic crystals for efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhonghai; Yang, Xiulin; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Ahmed, Elaf S.; Shi, Le; Wang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we report that the combination of microwave heating and ethylene glycol, a mild reducing agent, can induce Ti3+ self-doping in TiO2. A hierarchical TiO2 nanotube array with the top layer serving as TiO2 photonic crystals (TiO2 NTPCs

  17. Onboard spectral imager data processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Leonard J.; Meigs, Andrew D.; Franklin, Abraham J.; Sears, Robert D.; Robison, Mark W.; Rafert, J. Bruce; Fronterhouse, Donald C.; Grotbeck, Ronald L.

    1999-10-01

    Previous papers have described the concept behind the MightySat II.1 program, the satellite's Fourier Transform imaging spectrometer's optical design, the design for the spectral imaging payload, and its initial qualification testing. This paper discusses the on board data processing designed to reduce the amount of downloaded data by an order of magnitude and provide a demonstration of a smart spaceborne spectral imaging sensor. Two custom components, a spectral imager interface 6U VME card that moves data at over 30 MByte/sec, and four TI C-40 processors mounted to a second 6U VME and daughter card, are used to adapt the sensor to the spacecraft and provide the necessary high speed processing. A system architecture that offers both on board real time image processing and high-speed post data collection analysis of the spectral data has been developed. In addition to the on board processing of the raw data into a usable spectral data volume, one feature extraction technique has been incorporated. This algorithm operates on the basic interferometric data. The algorithm is integrated within the data compression process to search for uploadable feature descriptions.

  18. Intersection numbers of spectral curves

    CERN Document Server

    Eynard, B.

    2011-01-01

    We compute the symplectic invariants of an arbitrary spectral curve with only 1 branchpoint in terms of integrals of characteristic classes in the moduli space of curves. Our formula associates to any spectral curve, a characteristic class, which is determined by the laplace transform of the spectral curve. This is a hint to the key role of Laplace transform in mirror symmetry. When the spectral curve is y=\\sqrt{x}, the formula gives Kontsevich--Witten intersection numbers, when the spectral curve is chosen to be the Lambert function \\exp{x}=y\\exp{-y}, the formula gives the ELSV formula for Hurwitz numbers, and when one chooses the mirror of C^3 with framing f, i.e. \\exp{-x}=\\exp{-yf}(1-\\exp{-y}), the formula gives the Marino-Vafa formula, i.e. the generating function of Gromov-Witten invariants of C^3. In some sense this formula generalizes ELSV, Marino-Vafa formula, and Mumford formula.

  19. Spectral filtering for plant production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, R.E.; McMahon, M.J.; Rajapakse, N.C.; Becoteau, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Research to date suggests that spectral filtering can be an effective alternative to chemical growth regulators for altering plant development. If properly implemented, it can be nonchemical and environmentally friendly. The aqueous CuSO{sub 4}, and CuCl{sub 2} solutions in channelled plastic panels have been shown to be effective filters, but they can be highly toxic if the solutions contact plants. Some studies suggest that spectral filtration limited to short EOD intervals can also alter plant development. Future research should be directed toward confirmation of the influence of spectral filters and exposure times on a broader range of plant species and cultivars. Efforts should also be made to identify non-noxious alternatives to aqueous copper solutions and/or to incorporate these chemicals permanently into plastic films and panels that can be used in greenhouse construction. It would also be informative to study the impacts of spectral filters on insect and microbal populations in plant growth facilities. The economic impacts of spectral filtering techniques should be assessed for each delivery methodology.

  20. Spectral dimension of quantum geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Oriti, Daniele; Thürigen, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The spectral dimension is an indicator of geometry and topology of spacetime and a tool to compare the description of quantum geometry in various approaches to quantum gravity. This is possible because it can be defined not only on smooth geometries but also on discrete (e.g., simplicial) ones. In this paper, we consider the spectral dimension of quantum states of spatial geometry defined on combinatorial complexes endowed with additional algebraic data: the kinematical quantum states of loop quantum gravity (LQG). Preliminarily, the effects of topology and discreteness of classical discrete geometries are studied in a systematic manner. We look for states reproducing the spectral dimension of a classical space in the appropriate regime. We also test the hypothesis that in LQG, as in other approaches, there is a scale dependence of the spectral dimension, which runs from the topological dimension at large scales to a smaller one at short distances. While our results do not give any strong support to this hypothesis, we can however pinpoint when the topological dimension is reproduced by LQG quantum states. Overall, by exploring the interplay of combinatorial, topological and geometrical effects, and by considering various kinds of quantum states such as coherent states and their superpositions, we find that the spectral dimension of discrete quantum geometries is more sensitive to the underlying combinatorial structures than to the details of the additional data associated with them. (paper)

  1. Spectral Imaging of Portolan Charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Fenella G.; Wilson, Meghan A.; Ghez, Anita

    2018-05-01

    Spectral imaging of Portolan Charts, early nautical charts, provided extensive new information about their construction and creation. The origins of the portolan chart style have been a continual source of perplexity to numerous generations of cartographic historians. The spectral imaging system utilized incorporates a 50 megapixel mono-chrome camera with light emitting diode (LED) illumination panels that cover the range from 365 nm to 1050 nm to capture visible and non-visible information. There is little known about how portolan charts evolved, and what influenced their creation. These early nautical charts began as working navigational tools of medieval mariners, initially made in the 1300s in Italy, Portugal and Spain; however the origin and development of the portolan chart remained shrouded in mystery. Questions about these early navigational charts included whether colorants were commensurate with the time period and geographical location, and if different, did that give insight into trade routes, or possible later additions to the charts? For example; spectral data showed the red pigment on both the 1320 portolan chart and the 1565 Galapagos Islands matched vermillion, an opaque red pigment used since antiquity. The construction of these charts was also of great interest. Spectral imaging with a range of illumination modes revealed the presence of a "hidden circle" often referred to in relation to their construction. This paper will present in-depth analysis of how spectral imaging of the Portolans revealed similarities and differences, new hidden information and shed new light on construction and composition.

  2. High-resolution Laboratory Measurements of Coronal Lines near the Fe IX Line at 171 Å

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiersdorfer, Peter; Träbert, Elmar

    2018-02-01

    We present high-resolution laboratory measurements in the spectral region between 165 and 175 Å that focus on the emission from various ions of C, O, F, Ne, S, Ar, Fe, and Ni. This wavelength region is centered on the λ171 Fe IX channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory, and we place special emphasis on the weaker emission lines of Fe IX predicted in this region. In general, our measurements show a multitude of weak lines missing in the current databases, where the emission lines of Ni are probably most in need of further identification and reclassification. We also find that the wavelengths of some of the known lines need updating. Using the multi-reference Møller–Plesset method for wavelength predictions and collisional-radiative modeling of the line intensities, we have made tentative assignments of more than a dozen lines to the spectrum of Fe IX, some of which have formerly been identified as Fe VII, Fe XIV, or Fe XVI lines. Several Fe features remain unassigned, although they appear to be either Fe VII or Fe X lines. Further work will be needed to complete and correct the spectral line lists in this wavelength region.

  3. Microporous TiO2-WO3/TiO2 films with visible-light photocatalytic activity synthesized by micro arc oxidation and DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Kee-Rong; Hung, Chung-Hsuang; Yeh, Chung-Wei; Wu, Jiing-Kae

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A simple MAO is used to prepare porous WO 3 /TiO 2 layer on Ti sheet as a visible-light enabled catalyst. ► The photocatalytic activity of the WO 3 /TiO 2 is enhanced by sputtering over an N,C-TiO 2 layer. ► This is ascribed to the synergetic effect of hybrid sample prepared by two-step method. - Abstract: This study reports the preparation of microporous TiO 2 -WO 3 /TiO 2 films with a high surface area using a two-step approach. A porous WO 3 /TiO 2 template was synthesized by oxidizing a titanium sheet using a micro arc oxidation (MAO) process. This sheet was subsequently overlaid with a visible light (Vis)-enabled TiO 2 (N,C-TiO 2 ) film, which was deposited by codoping nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) ions into a TiO 2 lattice using direct current magnetron sputtering. The resulting microporous TiO 2 -WO 3 /TiO 2 film with a 0.38-μm-thick N,C-TiO 2 top-layer exhibited high photocatalytic activity in methylene blue (MB) degradation among samples under ultraviolet (UV) and Vis irradiation. This is attributable to the synergetic effect of two-step preparation method, which provides a highly porous microstructure and the well-crystallized N,C-TiO 2 top-layer. This is because a higher surface area with high crystallinity favors the adsorption of more MB molecules and more photocatalytic active areas. Thus, the microporous TiO 2 -WO 3 /TiO 2 film has promising applications in the photocatalytic degradation of dye solution under UV and Vis irradiation. These results imply that the microporous WO 3 /TiO 2 can be used as a template of hybrid electrode because it enables rapid fabrication.

  4. Growth and characterization of nitrogen-doped TiO2 thin films prepared by reactive pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauthier, G.; Ferrer, F.J.; Figueras, A.; Gyoergy, E.

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films were grown on (001) SiO 2 substrates by reactive pulsed laser deposition. A KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τ FWHM ≅ 10 ns, ν = 10 Hz) was used for the irradiations of pressed powder targets composed by both anatase and rutile phase TiO 2 . The experiments were performed in a controlled reactive atmosphere consisting of oxygen or mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen gases. The obtained thin film crystal structure was investigated by X-ray diffraction, while their chemical composition as well as chemical bonding states between the elements were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. An interrelation was found between nitrogen concentration, crystalline structure, bonding states between the elements, and the formation of titanium oxinitride compounds. Moreover, as a result of the nitrogen incorporation in the films a continuous red-shift of the optical absorption edge accompanied by absorption in the visible spectral range between 400 and 500 nm wavelength was observed.

  5. Influence of surfactant and annealing temperature on optical properties of sol-gel derived nano-crystalline TiO2 thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwas, M; Sharma, Sudhir Kumar; Rao, K Narasimha; Mohan, S; Gowda, K V Arjuna; Chakradhar, R P S

    2010-03-01

    Titanium dioxide thin films have been synthesized by sol-gel spin coating technique on glass and silicon substrates with and without surfactant polyethylene glycol (PEG). XRD and SEM results confirm the presence of nano-crystalline (anatase) phase at an annealing temperature of 300 degrees C. The influence of surfactant and annealing temperature on optical properties of TiO(2) thin films has been studied. Optical constants and film thickness were estimated by Swanepoel's (envelope) method and by ellipsometric measurements in the visible spectral range. The optical transmittance and reflectance were found to decrease with an increase in PEG percentage. Refractive index of the films decreased and film thickness increased with the increase in percentage of surfactant. The refractive index of the un-doped TiO(2) films was estimated at different annealing temperatures and it has increased with the increasing annealing temperature. The optical band gap of pure TiO(2) films was estimated by Tauc's method at different annealing temperature. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhanced Power Conversion Efficiency of Perovskite Solar Cells with an Up-Conversion Material of Er3+-Yb3+-Li+ Tri-doped TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenlong; Qin, Jianqiang; Shi, Wenjia; Liu, Yanyan; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Yuefeng; Gao, Huiping; Mao, Yanli

    2018-05-11

    In this paper, Er 3+ -Yb 3+ -Li + tri-doped TiO 2 (UC-TiO 2 ) was prepared by an addition of Li + to Er 3+ -Yb 3+ co-doped TiO 2 . The UC-TiO 2 presented an enhanced up-conversion emission compared with Er 3+ -Yb 3+ co-doped TiO 2 . The UC-TiO 2 was applied to the perovskite solar cells. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the solar cells without UC-TiO 2 was 14.0%, while the PCE of the solar cells with UC-TiO 2 was increased to 16.5%, which presented an increase of 19%. The results suggested that UC-TiO 2 is an effective up-conversion material. And this study provided a route to expand the spectral absorption of perovskite solar cells from visible light to near-infrared using up-conversion materials.

  7. Films of brookite TiO2 nanorods/nanoparticles deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation as NO2 gas-sensing layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricato, A. P.; Buonsanti, R.; Catalano, M.; Cesaria, M.; Cozzoli, P. D.; Luches, A.; Manera, M. G.; Martino, M.; Taurino, A.; Rella, R.

    2011-09-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanorods in the brookite phase, with average dimensions of 3-4 nm × 20-50 nm, were synthesized by a wet-chemical aminolysis route and used as precursors for thin films that were deposited by the matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique. A nanorod solution in toluene (0.016 wt% TiO2) was frozen at the liquid-nitrogen temperature and irradiated with a KrF excimer laser at a fluence of 350 mJ/cm2 and repetition rate of 10 Hz. Single-crystal Si wafers, silica slides, carbon-coated Cu grids and alumina interdigitated slabs were used as substrates to allow performing different characterizations. Films fabricated with 6000 laser pulses had an average thickness of ˜150 nm, and a complete coverage of the selected substrate as achieved. High-resolution scanning and transmission electron microscopy investigations evidenced the formation of quite rough films incorporating individually distinguishable TiO2 nanorods and crystalline spherical nanoparticles with an average diameter of ˜13 nm. Spectrophotometric analysis showed high transparency through the UV-Vis spectral range. Promising resistive sensing responses to 1 ppm of NO2 mixed in dry air were obtained.

  8. The Copernicus ultraviolet spectral atlas of Iota Herculis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upson, W. L., II; Rogerson, J. B., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An ultraviolet spectral atlas is presented for the B3 IV star Iota Herculis, which has been scanned from 999 to 1467 A by the Princeton spectrometer aboard the Copernicus satellite. From 999 to 1422 A the observations have a nominal resolution of 0.05 A. At the longer wavelengths the resolution is 0.1 A. The atlas is presented in graphs. Lines identified in the spectrum are also listed.

  9. High pressure structural phase transitions of TiO2 nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Quan-Jun; Liu Bing-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the high pressure study on the TiO 2 nanomaterials has attracted considerable attention due to the typical crystal structure and the fascinating properties of TiO 2 with nanoscale sizes. In this paper, we briefly review the recent progress in the high pressure phase transitions of TiO 2 nanomaterials. We discuss the size effects and morphology effects on the high pressure phase transitions of TiO 2 nanomaterials with different particle sizes, morphologies, and microstructures. Several typical pressure-induced structural phase transitions in TiO 2 nanomaterials are presented, including size-dependent phase transition selectivity in nanoparticles, morphology-tuned phase transition in nanowires, nanosheets, and nanoporous materials, and pressure-induced amorphization (PIA) and polyamorphism in ultrafine nanoparticles and TiO 2 -B nanoribbons. Various TiO 2 nanostructural materials with high pressure structures are prepared successfully by high pressure treatment of the corresponding crystal nanomaterials, such as amorphous TiO 2 nanoribbons, α -PbO 2 -type TiO 2 nanowires, nanosheets, and nanoporous materials. These studies suggest that the high pressure phase transitions of TiO 2 nanomaterials depend on the nanosize, morphology, interface energy, and microstructure. The diversity of high pressure behaviors of TiO 2 nanomaterials provides a new insight into the properties of nanomaterials, and paves a way for preparing new nanomaterials with novel high pressure structures and properties for various applications. (topical review)

  10. Sol-gel synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles and photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange in aqueous TiO2 suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Huaming; Zhang Ke; Shi Rongrong; Li Xianwei; Dong Xiaodan; Yu Yongmei

    2006-01-01

    Anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles of about 16 nm in crystal size have been successfully synthesized via a sol-gel method. Thermal treatment of the precursor at 500-600 deg. C results in the formation of different TiO 2 phase compositions. The samples were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Effects of the pH value of the solution, H 2 O 2 addition, TiO 2 phase composition and recycled TiO 2 on the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MeO) in TiO 2 suspensions under ultraviolet (UV) illumination were primarily investigated. The results indicate that a low pH value, proper amount of H 2 O 2 and pure anatase TiO 2 will facilitate the photocatalytic oxidation of the MeO solution. The photodegradation degree decreases with increasing the pH value of the solution and varies with different amounts of H 2 O 2 . Pure anatase TiO 2 shows better photocatalytic activity for MeO decolorization than biphase TiO 2 . The photocatalytic mechanism of the as-synthesized TiO 2 nanoparticles was discussed

  11. OXIDACIÓN DE p -NITROFENOL USANDO TiO 2 -ADENOSINA MONOFOSFATO I OXIDATION OF p -NITROPHENOL USING TiO 2 -ADENOSIN MONOPHOSPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Rivas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The surface of TiO2 was modified with the nucleotides adenosine 3’-monophosphate (AMP’3 and Adenosine 5’-monophosphate (AMP’5. The adsorption of nucleotides was adjusted to Langmuir ́s adsorption model, determining that the optimal condition for TiO 2 modification was at neutral pH. UV-Visible Diffuse Reflectance and IR Attenuated Total Reflectance spectra show that the chemisorption of nucleotides take placed on TiO 2 anatase. The new catalysts (TiO 2 -nucleotide improved the photodegradation of p -nitrophenol in a wide range of pH as compared with the titanium dioxide precursor. Most photoactivity was generated by using the new photocatalytic in the degradation of p -nitrophenol at pH = 6, obtaining high values for the pseudo first order kinetic constant (0.0254 min -1 and 0.0244 min -1 for TiO 2 -AMP’3 and TiO 2 -AMP’5, respectively. For all pH, the trend obtained for the photodegradation was: TiO 2 -AMP ́3 @ TiO 2 -AMP’5 > TiO 2 . Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics shows that the contribution of the surface reac tion rate governs the oxidation of the contaminant.

  12. Low temperature fabrication of perovskite solar cells with TiO2 nanoparticle layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanayama, Masato; Oku, Takeo; Suzuki, Atsushi; Yamada, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Hiroki; Minami, Satoshi; Kohno, Kazufumi

    2016-01-01

    TiO 2 /CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 -based photovoltaic devices were fabricated by a spin-coating method using a mixture solution. TiO 2 require high-temperature processing to achieve suitably high carrier mobility. TiO 2 electron transport layers and TiO 2 scaffold layers for the perovskite were fabricated from TiO 2 nanoparticles with different grain sizes. The photovoltaic properties and microstructures of solar cells were characterized. Nanoparticle sizes of these TiO 2 were 23 nm and 3 nm and the performance of solar cells was improved by combination of two TiO 2 nanoparticles

  13. Photocatalytic decouloration of malachite green dye by application of TiO2 nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, Alexandre G.S.; Costa, Leonardo L.

    2009-01-01

    The nanotubes of titania were synthesized in a hydrothermal system and characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), FT-IR, FT-Raman, and surface charge density by surface area analyzer. These nanomaterials were applied to photocatalyse malachite green dye degradation. Photodegradation capacity of TiO 2 nanotubes was compared to TiO 2 anatase photoactivity. Malachite dye was completely degraded in 75 and 105 min of reaction photocatalysed by TiO 2 nanotubes and TiO 2 anatase, respectively. Catalysts displayed high photodegradation activity at pH 4. TiO 2 nanotubes were easily recycled whereas the reuse of TiO 2 anatase was not effective. Nanotubes maintained 80% of their activity after 10 catalytic cycles and TiO 2 anatase presented only 8% of its activity after 10 cycles.

  14. First-principles atomistic Wulff constructions for an equilibrium rutile TiO2 shape modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fengzhou; Yang, Lei; Zhou, Dali; He, Gang; Zhou, Jiabei; Wang, Fanhou; Chen, Zhi-Gang

    2018-04-01

    Identifying the exposed surfaces of rutile TiO2 crystal is crucial for its industry application and surface engineering. In this study, the shape of the rutile TiO2 was constructed by applying equilibrium thermodynamics of TiO2 crystals via first-principles density functional theory (DFT) and Wulff principles. From the DFT calculations, the surface energies of six low-index stoichiometric facets of TiO2 are determined after the calibrations of crystal structure. And then, combined surface energy calculations and Wulff principles, a geometric model of equilibrium rutile TiO2 is built up, which is coherent with the typical morphology of fully-developed equilibrium TiO2 crystal. This study provides fundamental theoretical guidance for the surface analysis and surface modification of the rutile TiO2-based materials from experimental research to industry manufacturing.

  15. Composition of Surface Adsorbed Layer of TiO2 Stored in Ambient Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharenko V.S.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The processes of dark, UV, and visible light promoted desorption of surface species were investigated for three different TiO2 samples: TiO2 prepared by dispersion of the titania single crystal, TiO2 prepared by combustion of a pyrotechnic mixture in air, and commercial TiO2 P25. The composition of the adsorbed layer was identified in the dark and under UV and visible light irradiation. The composition of desorption products showed the dependence of the adsorption layer state on the TiO2 nature. Methane photodesorption was detected only for the commercial TiO2 P25. Possible reasons for methane emission include the capturing of complete molecules during the TiO2 production process and photocatalytic hydrogenation of CO2 under UV-light.

  16. Immobilization of TiO2 nanoparticles on Fe-filled carbon nanocapsules for photocatalytic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.-C.; Huang, G.-L.; Chen, H.-L.; Lee, Y.-D.

    2006-01-01

    Using a simple sol-gel method, a novel magnetic photocatalyst was produced by immobilization of TiO 2 nano-crystal on Fe-filled carbon nanocapsules (Fe-CNC). High resolution TEM images indicated that the immobilization of TiO 2 on Fe-CNC was driven primarily by heterogeneous coagulation, whereas surface nucleation and growth was the dominant mechanism for immobilizing TiO 2 on acid-functionalized hollow CNC. The TiO 2 immobilized on Fe-CNC exhibited the anatase phase as revealed by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. In comparison with free TiO 2 and TiO 2 -coated CNC, TiO 2 -coated Fe-CNC displayed good performance in the removal of NO gas under UV exposure. Due to the advantages of easy recycling and good photocatalytic efficiency, the novel magnetic photocatalyst developed here has potential use in photocatalytic applications for pollution prevention

  17. Study of TiO2 nanotubes as an implant application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazan, Roshasnorlyza; Sreekantan, Srimala; Mydin, Rabiatul Basria S. M. N.; Mat, Ishak; Abdullah, Yusof

    2016-01-01

    Vertically aligned TiO 2 nanotubes have become the primary candidates for implant materials that can provide direct control of cell behaviors. In this work, 65 nm inner diameters of TiO 2 nanotubes were successfully prepared by anodization method. The interaction of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) in term of cell adhesion and cell morphology on bare titanium and TiO 2 nanotubes is reported. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis proved interaction of BMSC on TiO 2 nanotubes structure was better than flat titanium (Ti) surface. Also, significant cell adhesion on TiO 2 nanotubes surface during in vitro study revealed that BMSC prone to attach on TiO 2 nanotubes. From the result, it can be conclude that TiO 2 nanotubes are biocompatible to biological environment and become a new generation for advanced implant materials

  18. Examination of Spectral Transformations on Spectral Mixture Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y.; Wu, C.

    2018-04-01

    While many spectral transformation techniques have been applied on spectral mixture analysis (SMA), few study examined their necessity and applicability. This paper focused on exploring the difference between spectrally transformed schemes and untransformed scheme to find out which transformed scheme performed better in SMA. In particular, nine spectrally transformed schemes as well as untransformed scheme were examined in two study areas. Each transformed scheme was tested 100 times using different endmember classes' spectra under the endmember model of vegetation- high albedo impervious surface area-low albedo impervious surface area-soil (V-ISAh-ISAl-S). Performance of each scheme was assessed based on mean absolute error (MAE). Statistical analysis technique, Paired-Samples T test, was applied to test the significance of mean MAEs' difference between transformed and untransformed schemes. Results demonstrated that only NSMA could exceed the untransformed scheme in all study areas. Some transformed schemes showed unstable performance since they outperformed the untransformed scheme in one area but weakened the SMA result in another region.

  19. SPAM- SPECTRAL ANALYSIS MANAGER (DEC VAX/VMS VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    The Spectral Analysis Manager (SPAM) was developed to allow easy qualitative analysis of multi-dimensional imaging spectrometer data. Imaging spectrometers provide sufficient spectral sampling to define unique spectral signatures on a per pixel basis. Thus direct material identification becomes possible for geologic studies. SPAM provides a variety of capabilities for carrying out interactive analysis of the massive and complex datasets associated with multispectral remote sensing observations. In addition to normal image processing functions, SPAM provides multiple levels of on-line help, a flexible command interpretation, graceful error recovery, and a program structure which can be implemented in a variety of environments. SPAM was designed to be visually oriented and user friendly with the liberal employment of graphics for rapid and efficient exploratory analysis of imaging spectrometry data. SPAM provides functions to enable arithmetic manipulations of the data, such as normalization, linear mixing, band ratio discrimination, and low-pass filtering. SPAM can be used to examine the spectra of an individual pixel or the average spectra over a number of pixels. SPAM also supports image segmentation, fast spectral signature matching, spectral library usage, mixture analysis, and feature extraction. High speed spectral signature matching is performed by using a binary spectral encoding algorithm to separate and identify mineral components present in the scene. The same binary encoding allows automatic spectral clustering. Spectral data may be entered from a digitizing tablet, stored in a user library, compared to the master library containing mineral standards, and then displayed as a timesequence spectral movie. The output plots, histograms, and stretched histograms produced by SPAM can be sent to a lineprinter, stored as separate RGB disk files, or sent to a Quick Color Recorder. SPAM is written in C for interactive execution and is available for two different

  20. Berlin Reflectance Spectral Library (BRSL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henckel, D.; Arnold, G.; Kappel, D.; Moroz, L. V.; Markus, K.

    2017-09-01

    The Berlin Reflectance Spectral Library (BRSL) provides a collection of reflectance spectra between 0.3 and 17 µm. It was originally dedicated to support space missions to small solar system bodies. Meanwhile the library includes selections of biconical reflectance spectra for spectral data analysis of other planetary bodies as well. The library provides reference spectra of well-characterized terrestrial analogue materials and meteorites for interpretation of remote sensing reflectance spectra of planetary surfaces. We introduce the BRSL, summarize the data available, and access to use them for further relevant applications.