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Sample records for tiny seed sprout

  1. Nutraceutical potential of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds and sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassinetti, Stefania; Moccia, Eleonora; Caltavuturo, Leonardo; Gabriele, Morena; Longo, Vincenzo; Bellani, Lorenza; Giorgi, Gianluca; Giorgetti, Lucia

    2018-10-01

    In this study the antioxidant effect of Cannabis sativa L. seeds and sprouts (3 and 5 days of germination) was evaluated. Total polyphenols, flavonoids and flavonols content, when expressed on dry weight basis, were highest in sprouts; ORAC and DPPH (in vitro assays), CAA-RBC (cellular antioxidant activity in red blood cells) and hemolysis test (ex vivo assays) evidenced a good antioxidant activity higher in sprouts than in seeds. Untargeted analysis by high resolution mass spectrometry in negative ion mode allowed the identification of main polyphenols (caffeoyltyramine, cannabisin A, B, C) in seeds and of ω-6 (linoleic acid) in sprouts. Antimutagenic effect of seeds and sprouts extracts evidenced a significant decrease of mutagenesis induced by hydrogen peroxide in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 strain. In conclusion our results show that C. sativa seeds and sprouts exert beneficial effects on yeast and human cells and should be further investigated as a potential functional food. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Virus free seed potato production through sprout cutting technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to evaluate the performance of sprout cutting for seed potato production against virus infection, a study was conducted at Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation (BADC) Foundation Seed Potato Production Farm, Domar, Nilphamary, Bangladesh in 2005 - 2006. Sprout cut seedlings were grown under ...

  3. Virus free seed potato production through sprout cutting technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... In order to evaluate the performance of sprout cutting for seed potato production against virus infection, a study was conducted at Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation (BADC). Foundation Seed Potato Production Farm, Domar, Nilphamary, Bangladesh in 2005 - 2006. Sprout cut seedlings ...

  4. Chloroxyanion residue on seeds and sprouts after chlorine dioxide sanitation of alfalfa seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of a 6-h chlorine dioxide sanitation of alfalfa seed (0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg seed) on total coliform bacteria, seed germination, and on the presence of chlorate and perchlorate residues in seed rinse, seed soak, and in alfalfa sprouts was determined. Chlorate residues in 20000 ppm cal...

  5. Factors affecting seed set in brussels sprouts, radish and cyclamen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murabaa, El A.I.M.

    1957-01-01

    If brussels sprouts were, self-fertilized, seed setting increased with age of the flower buds until a maximum some days before buds opened. After that, set decreased rapidly. Warmth shortened the period over which selfing was possible and shortened the period to the opening of the flowers. Most

  6. Effects of magnetic fields pretreatment of mungbean seeds on sprout ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tony

    2012-05-03

    May 3, 2012 ... the activities of some enzymes were increased by magnetic field treatment. ... field were sown separately in five plastic dishes (Φ 25 cm, each containing 100 ..... products on germination of mung bean seeds and microbial quality of sprouts. ... Carbohydrate degradation during germination. In J. Kigel & G.

  7. Microbiological Safety and Food Handling Practices of Seed Sprout Products in the Australian State of Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symes, Sally; Goldsmith, Paul; Haines, Heather

    2015-07-01

    Seed sprouts have been implicated as vehicles for numerous foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Seed sprouts pose a unique food safety concern because of the ease of microbiological seed contamination, the inherent ability of the sprouting process to support microbial growth, and their consumption either raw or lightly cooked. To examine seed sprout safety in the Australian state of Victoria, a survey was conducted to detect specific microbes in seed sprout samples and to investigate food handling practices relating to seed sprouts. A total of 298 seed sprout samples were collected from across 33 local council areas. Escherichia coli was detected in 14.8%, Listeria spp. in 12.3%, and Listeria monocytogenes in 1.3% of samples analyzed. Salmonella spp. were not detected in any of the samples. A range of seed sprout handling practices were identified as potential food safety issues in some food businesses, including temperature control, washing practices, length of storage, and storage in proximity to unpackaged ready-to-eat potentially hazardous foods.

  8. Genes controlling seed dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting in a rice-wheat-barley comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chengdao; Ni, Peixiang; Francki, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting results in significant economic loss for the grain industry around the world. Lack of adequate seed dormancy is the major reason for pre-harvest sprouting in the field under wet weather conditions. Although this trait is governed by multiple genes it is also highly heritable....... A major QTL controlling both pre-harvest sprouting and seed dormancy has been identified on the long arm of barley chromosome 5H, and it explains over 70% of the phenotypic variation. Comparative genomics approaches among barley, wheat and rice were used to identify candidate gene(s) controlling seed...... dormancy and hence one aspect of pre-harvest sprouting. The barley seed dormancy/pre-harvest sprouting QTL was located in a region that showed good synteny with the terminal end of the long arm of rice chromosome 3. The rice DNA sequences were annotated and a gene encoding GA20-oxidase was identified...

  9. Effect of corona discharge plasma jet on surface-borne microorganisms and sprouting of broccoli seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Je-Wook; Puligundla, Pradeep; Mok, Chulkyoon

    2017-01-01

    Different pathogenic microorganisms have been reported to cause sprouts-associated outbreaks. In order to sterilise and enhance the germination of seeds, non-thermal plasma has been increasingly investigated in the field of agricultural science as an alternative to the traditional pre-sowing seed treatments. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of corona discharge plasma jet (CDPJ) on disinfection of the natural bio-contaminants of broccoli seed and also studied the plasma effect on sprout seed germination rate and physico-chemical properties of sprouts. Aerobic bacteria, moulds and yeasts, B. cereus, E. coli, Salmonella spp. were detected on the broccoli seed surface. After 0-3 min treatment using CDPJ, the detected microorganisms were reduced in the range of 1.2-2.3 log units. Inactivation patterns were better explained using pseudo-first-order kinetics. The plasma treatment of seeds up to 2 min exhibited a positive effect on germination rate, seedling growth. The physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of sprouts were unaffected due to the CDPJ treatment of their respective seeds. Corona discharge plasma jet can potentially be used for microbial decontamination of broccoli seeds. In addition, the plasma treatment of broccoli sprout seeds has enabled a significant enhancement in their germination rate and seedling growth without compromising physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of their corresponding sprouts. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Flow cytometry for rapid detection of Salmonella spp. in seed sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bledar Bisha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed sprouts (alfalfa, mung bean, radish, etc. have been implicated in several recent national and international outbreaks of salmonellosis. Conditions used for sprouting are also conducive to the growth of Salmonella. As a result, this pathogen can quickly grow to very high cell densities during sprouting without any detectable organoleptic impact. Seed sprouts typically also support heavy growth (~108 CFU g−1 of a heterogeneous microbiota consisting of various bacterial, yeast, and mold species, often dominated by non-pathogenic members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. This heavy background may present challenges to the detection of Salmonella, especially if this pathogen is present in relatively low numbers. We combined DNA-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with flow cytometry (FCM for the rapid molecular detection of Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium in artificially contaminated alfalfa and other seed sprouts. Components of the assay included a set of cooperatively binding probes, a chemical blocking treatment intended to reduce non-specific background, and sample concentration via tangential flow filtration (TFF. We were able to detect S. Typhimurium in sprout wash at levels as low as 103 CFU ml−1 sprout wash (104 CFU g−1 sprouts against high microbial backgrounds (~108 CFU g−1 sprouts. Hybridization times were typically 30 min, with additional washing, but we ultimately found that S. Typhimurium could be readily detected using hybridization times as short as 2 min, without a wash step. These results clearly demonstrate the potential of combined DNA-FISH and FCM for rapid detection of Salmonella in this challenging food matrix and provide industry with a useful tool for compliance with sprout production standards proposed in the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA.

  11. Selected aspects of tiny vetch [Vicia hirsuta (L. Gray S.F.] seed ecology: generative reproduction and effects of seed maturity and seed storage on seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kucewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vicia hirsuta (L. Gray S.F. (tiny vetch is a common and persistent segetal weed. Tiny vetch seeds and pods reach different stages of maturity during the crop harvest season. Some seeds that mature before cereal harvest are shed in the field and deposited in the soil seed bank, while others become incorporated into seed material. The objective of this study was to describe selected aspects of tiny vetch seed ecology: to determine the rate of individual reproduction of vetch plants growing in winter and spring grain crops and to evaluate the germination of seeds at different stages of maturity, subject to storage conditions. The seeds and pods of V. hirsuta were sorted according to their development stages at harvest and divided into two groups. The first group was stored under laboratory conditions for two months. In the autumn of the same year, the seeds were subjected to germination tests. The remaining seeds were stored in a storeroom, and were planted in soil in the spring. The germination rate was evaluated after 8 months of storage. Potential productivity (developed pods and flowers, fruit buds was higher in plants fruiting in winter wheat than in spring barley. Vetch plants produced around 17-26% more pods (including cracked, mature, greenish-brown and green pods and around 25% less buds in winter wheat than in spring barley. Immature seeds were characterized by the highest germination capacity. Following storage under laboratory conditions and stratification in soil, mature seeds germinated at a rate of several percent. After storage in a storeroom, seeds at all three development stages broke dormancy at a rate of 72- 75%. The high germination power of tiny vetch seeds stored in a storeroom indicates that this plant can be classified as an obligatory speirochoric weed species.

  12. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by Shiga toxinproducing Escherichia coli (STEC) and other pathogenic bacteria in seeds and sprouted seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    Sprouted seeds are young seedlings obtained from the germination of seeds. They are ready-to-eat foods which have caused large outbreaks. The bacterial pathogens most frequently associated with illness due to contaminated sprouted seeds are Salmonella and to a lesser extent STEC. Bacillus cereus,...... of seed crops intended for sprouted seeds production before planting, and application of GAP, GHP, GMP, HACCP principles at all steps of the production chain. The relevance of decontamination treatments of seeds and of microbiological criteria is also discussed....

  13. Mutations in cauliflower and sprout broccoli grown from seeds flown in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong; Huang, Congli; Zhang, Keping; Sun, Yeqing

    2010-11-01

    Cauliflower and sprout broccoli are widely planted vegetables particularly in Fujian Province, China. To study the mutation in these two types of vegetables induced from spaceflight, we flew the seeds on the 20th Chinese recoverable satellite which orbited the Earth for 18 days. After returning to the Earth, the cauliflower seeds were planted for two generations and the sprout broccoli seeds for one generation at the Xiamen Agriculture Research Institute. Of the 12 cauliflowers planted for the first generation, two showed significant phenotypical changes in both the size of the plant and the weight of the flower head. In addition, most of the space flown plants were found to be resistant to the black rot attack in the field. Cauliflowers planted for the second generation from the seeds in one of the two plants that displayed phenotypical changes in the first generation showed similar mutations. For the first generation of sprout broccoli, the rate of emergence from the flown seeds was lower than that of the control by 30%. No significant changes in the phenotype between the sprout broccolis planted from the flown seeds and the control were observed except one of the mutated sprout broccolis showed a change in the appearance in the lesser bud of the chief flower head. Results of the study demonstrated that DNA damages in some of the genes may have occurred in the seeds flown in space, and some of the changes in the genes may have inherited from the first to the second generation. The improved resistance to the black rot attack and increased size of the flower head are apparently beneficial.

  14. Inductive effect of coconut water on germination of seeds and sprouting of corms of Dracontium grayumianum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patino Torres, Carlos; Mosquera Gamboa, Ferley; Gonzalez, Robert Tulio

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the promotional effect of coconut water, gibberellic acid, cold stratification and mechanical scarification on seed germination of Dracontium grayumianum, and the effect of gibberellic acid and coconut water on the sprouting of corms of the same species. The seeds without the inductive treatment were unable to germinate, but the immersion in coconut water had significant effects, producing a germination rate of 50%, higher than the effect achieved with other treatments. The liquid endosperm of coconut also had favorable effect on the sprouting of corms under nursery conditions, like the treatment with gibberellic acid solution. This is the first report of the use of coconut water as a promoter of seed germination with high latency, which places this resource as an additional alternative, highly efficient, and cost-effective, for use in plant propagation strategies of species with seeds of deep dormancy.

  15. Reprogramming of Seed Metabolism Facilitates Pre-harvest Sprouting Resistance of Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Caixiang; Ding, Feng; Hao, Fuhua; Yu, Men; Lei, Hehua; Wu, Xiangyu; Zhao, Zhengxi; Guo, Hongxiang; Yin, Jun; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

    2016-02-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is a worldwide problem for wheat production and transgene antisense-thioredoxin-s (anti-trx-s) facilitates outstanding resistance. To understand the molecular details of PHS resistance, we analyzed the metabonomes of the transgenic and wild-type (control) wheat seeds at various stages using NMR and GC-FID/MS. 60 metabolites were dominant in these seeds including sugars, organic acids, amino acids, choline metabolites and fatty acids. At day-20 post-anthesis, only malate level in transgenic wheat differed significantly from that in controls whereas at day-30 post-anthesis, levels of amino acids and sucrose were significantly different between these two groups. For mature seeds, most metabolites in glycolysis, TCA cycle, choline metabolism, biosynthesis of proteins, nucleotides and fatty acids had significantly lower levels in transgenic seeds than in controls. After 30-days post-harvest ripening, most metabolites in transgenic seeds had higher levels than in controls including amino acids, sugars, organic acids, fatty acids, choline metabolites and NAD+. These indicated that anti-trx-s lowered overall metabolic activities of mature seeds eliminating pre-harvest sprouting potential. Post-harvest ripening reactivated the metabolic activities of transgenic seeds to restore their germination vigor. These findings provided essential molecular phenomic information for PHS resistance of anti-trx-s and a credible strategy for future developing PHS resistant crops.

  16. Potential application of high hydrostatic pressure to eliminate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa sprouted seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neetoo, Hudaa; Ye, Mu; Chen, Haiqiang

    2008-12-10

    Sprouts eaten raw are increasingly being perceived as hazardous foods as they have been implicated in Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks where the seeds were found to be the likely source of contamination. The objective of our study was to evaluate the potential of using high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) technology for alfalfa seed decontamination. Alfalfa seeds inoculated with a cocktail of five strains of E. coli O157:H7 were subjected to pressures of 500 and 600 MPa for 2 min at 20 degrees C in a dry or wet (immersed in water) state. Immersing seeds in water during pressurization considerably enhanced inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 achieving reductions of 3.5 log and 5.7 log at 500 and 600 MPa, respectively. When dry seeds were pressurized, both pressure levels reduced the counts by 5 log reduction in the population was achieved when 600 MPa was applied for durations of > or =6 min although survivors were still detected by enrichment. When the pressure was stepped up to 650 MPa, the threshold time required to achieve complete elimination was 15 min. Un-inoculated seeds pressure-treated at 650 MPa for 15 min at 20 degrees C successfully sprouted achieving a germination rate identical to untreated seeds after eight days of sprouting. These results therefore demonstrate the promising application of HHP on alfalfa seeds to eliminate the risk of E. coli O157:H7 infections associated with consumption of raw alfalfa sprouts.

  17. Optimization of Cultivation and Storage Conditions on Red Cabbage Seed Sprouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, K.H.; Jo, D.J.; Park, J.H.; Kwon, J.H.; Kim, G.R.; Lee, G.D.; Kim, J.S.; Kim, Y.R.; Han, B.S.; Yoon, S.R.

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to find the optimal conditions for red cabbage seed sprouts in terms of their physicochemical and sensory qualities by electron-beam irradiation, cultivation and storage using the response surface methodology (RSM). Moisture content (R2 = 0.9638) was affected by irradiation dose and cultivation time. Total phenolics content (R2 = 0.9117) was mainly affected by irradiation dose, but carotenoid content (R2 = 0.8338) was affected in the order of irradiation dose, cultivation time and storage time. Sensory properties were also affected by irradiation dose, and thus scores decreased as irradiation dose increased. The optimum conditions estimated by superimposing total phenolics content and overall acceptance were 2.2-3.8 kGy of the irradiation dose, 3.0-4.0 days of cultivation and 2.0-3.0 days of storage

  18. Survival of Salmonella during Production of Partially Sprouted Pumpkin, Sunflower, and Chia Seeds Dried for Direct Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Susanne E; Anderson, Nathan M; Wang, Can; Burbick, Stephen J; Hildebrandt, Ian M; Gonsalves, Lauren J; Suehr, Quincy J; Farakos, Sofia M Santillana

    2018-04-01

    Ready-to-eat foods based on dried partially sprouted seeds have been associated with foodborne salmonellosis. Whereas research has focused on the potential for Salmonella initially present in or on seeds to grow and survive during fresh sprout production, little is known about the potential for growth and survival of Salmonella associated with seeds that have been partially sprouted and dried. The goal of this study was to determine the growth of Salmonella during soaking for partial germination of pumpkin, sunflower, and chia seeds and subsequent survival during drying and storage. Pumpkin, sunflower, and chia seeds were inoculated with a four-serotype Salmonella cocktail by the dry transfer method and were soaked in sterile water at 25 or 37°C for 24 h. During the soaking period, Salmonella exhibited growth rates of 0.37 ± 0.26, 0.27 ± 0.12, and 0.45 ± 0.19 log CFU/h at 25°C and 0.94 ± 0.44, 1.04 ± 0.84, and 0.73 ± 0.36 log CFU/h at 37°C for chia, pumpkin, and sunflower seeds, respectively. Soaked seeds were drained and dried at 25, 51, and 60°C. Drying resulted in >5 log CFU/g loss at both 51 and 60°C and ∼3 log CFU/g loss at 25°C on partially sprouted pumpkin and sunflower seeds. There was no decrease in Salmonella during drying of chia seeds at 25°C, and only drying at 60°C provided losses >5 log CFU/g. Dried seeds were stored at 37 and 45°C at 15 and 76% relative humidity (RH) levels. The combination of temperature and RH exerted a stronger effect than either factor alone, such that rates at which Salmonella decreased generally followed this order: 37°C at 15% RH < 45°C at 15% RH < 37°C at 76% RH < 45°C at 76% RH for all seeds tested. Rates differed based on seed type, with chia seeds and chia seed powder having the smallest rate of Salmonella decrease, followed by sunflower and pumpkin seeds. Drying at higher temperatures (50 and 61°C) or storing at elevated temperature and humidity (45°C and 76% RH) resulted in significantly different

  19. Peanut cross-reacting allergens in seeds and sprouts of a range of legumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.B.; Pedersen, M.H.; Skov, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, peanut-allergic patients have reported symptoms upon ingestion of bean sprouts produced from various legumes.......Recently, peanut-allergic patients have reported symptoms upon ingestion of bean sprouts produced from various legumes....

  20. Low temperature conditioning of garlic (Allium sativum L. "seed" cloves induces alterations in sprouts proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel David Dufoo-Hurtado

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Low-temperature conditioning of garlic seed cloves substitutes the initial climatic requirements of the crop and accelerates the cycle. We have reported that seed bulbs from ‘Coreano’ variety conditioned at 5 °C for five weeks reduces growth and plant weight as well as the crop yields and increases the synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Therefore, this treatment suggests a cold stress. Plant acclimation to stress is associated with deep changes in proteome composition. Since proteins are directly involved in plant stress response, proteomics studies can significantly contribute to unravel the possible relationships between protein abundance and plant stress acclimation. The aim of this work was to study the changes in the protein profiles of garlic seed cloves subjected to conditioning at low-temperature using proteomics approach. Two sets of garlic bulbs were used, one set was stored at room temperature (23 °C, and the other was conditioned at low temperature (5 °C for five weeks. Total soluble proteins were extracted from sprouts of cloves and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein spots showing statistically significant changes in abundance were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS and identified by database search analysis using the Mascot search engine. The results revealed that low-temperature conditioning of garlic seed cloves causes alterations in the accumulation of proteins involved in different physiological processes such as cellular growth, antioxidative/oxidative state, macromolecules transport, protein folding and transcription regulation process. The metabolic pathways affected include protein biosynthesis and quality control system, photosynthesis, photorespiration, energy production, and carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolism. These processes can work cooperatively to establish a new cellular homeostasis that might be related with the physiological and biochemical changes observed in previous

  1. RNA-seq analysis of transcriptome and glucosinolate metabolism in seeds and sprouts of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinjun; Yu, Xinxin; Ma, Fengming; Li, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), a member of Cruciferae, is an important vegetable containing high concentration of various nutritive and functional molecules especially the anticarcinogenic glucosinolates. The sprouts of broccoli contain 10-100 times higher level of glucoraphanin, the main contributor of the anticarcinogenesis, than the edible florets. Despite the broccoli sprouts' functional importance, currently available genetic and genomic tools for their studies are very limited, which greatly restricts the development of this functionally important vegetable. A total of ∼85 million 251 bp reads were obtained. After de novo assembly and searching the assembled transcripts against the Arabidopsis thaliana and NCBI nr databases, 19,441 top-hit transcripts were clustered as unigenes with an average length of 2,133 bp. These unigenes were classified according to their putative functional categories. Cluster analysis of total unigenes with similar expression patterns and differentially expressed unigenes among different tissues, as well as transcription factor analysis were performed. We identified 25 putative glucosinolate metabolism genes sharing 62.04-89.72% nucleotide sequence identity with the Arabidopsis orthologs. This established a broccoli glucosinolate metabolic pathway with high colinearity to Arabidopsis. Many of the biosynthetic and degradation genes showed higher expression after germination than in seeds; especially the expression of the myrosinase TGG2 was 20-130 times higher. These results along with the previous reports about these genes' studies in Arabidopsis and the glucosinolate concentration in broccoli sprouts indicate the breakdown products of glucosinolates may play important roles in the stage of broccoli seed germination and sprout development. Our study provides the largest genetic resource of broccoli to date. These data will pave the way for further studies and genetic engineering of broccoli sprouts and will also provide

  2. Foliar application of molybdenum reduces yield loss and pre-harvest sprouting in japonica rice seed subjected to simulated flooding during seed development and maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Tejakhod, Sujittra; Hammond, John P.; Ellis, Richard H.

    2018-01-01

    Flooding damages rice crops and its incidence is increasing. Foliar spray applications of molybdenum (100, 600 or 3000 mg Mo L-1), abscisic acid (ABA, 50 μM), or deionised water (control) were made to pot-grown plants of the Japonica rice cv. Gleva at flag leaf appearance to determine their effects on seed yield and pre-harvest sprouting after flooding. Plants were submerged , to simulate flooding, for four days from 20 or 30 days after anthesis (DAA). Seed yield per plant, seed weight, and p...

  3. Effect of Genotype on the Sprouting of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Seeds as a Source of Phenolic Compounds from Juice Industry by-Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcinelli, Beatrice; Marconi, Ombretta; Maranghi, Stefano; Lutts, Stanley; Rosati, Adolfo; Famiani, Franco; Benincasa, Paolo

    2017-12-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits are used mainly by the juice industry, for which seeds are a by-product to be disposed of, though they could potentially be a source of bioactive compounds. In this work, germination (total germination percentage, G; mean germination time, MGT; time to reach 80% of germination, TG80; seedling shoot length, fresh weight and dry matter), and nutritional value (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF; total non-tannins, TNT; antioxidant activities) of pomegranate seeds and sprouts were determined on four commercial pomegranate cultivars (Akko, Dente di Cavallo, Mollar de Elche and Wonderful). Seeds were removed from ripe fruits and incubated in plastic trays containing sterile cotton wetted with distilled water. Sprout shoots were harvested when they reached the complete cotyledon expansion, i.e., the ready-to-eat stage. Akko showed the best germination performance (G = 98%; MGT = 14 days after sowing, DAS; TG80 = 16 DAS), followed by Mollar de Elche. Sprouting dramatically increased TP, TF, TNT and antioxidant activity in all genotypes, with the highest values recorded in Mollar de Elche and Dente di Cavallo. Overall, based on germination performance, Akko and Mollar de Elche would be the best cultivars for sprouting. Sprouting pomegranate seeds appears to be a suitable way of utilizing by-products of the juice industry to obtain bioactive compounds.

  4. Improving phenolic bioactive-linked anti-hyperglycemic functions of dark germinated barley sprouts (Hordeum vulgare L.) using seed elicitation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, Ramnarain; Sarkar, Dipayan; Manduri, Avani; Iyer, Shreyas Ganesan; Shetty, Kalidas

    2017-10-01

    Sprouts of cereal grains, such as barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.), are a good source of beneficial phenolic bioactives. Such health relevant phenolic bioactives of cereal sprouts can be targeted to manage chronic hyperglycemia and oxidative stress commonly associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Therefore improving phenolic bioactives by stimulating plant endogenous defense responses such as protective pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) during sprouting has significant merit. Based on this metabolic rationale, this study aimed to enhance phenolic bioactives and associated antioxidant and anti-hyperglycemic functions in dark germinated barley sprouts using exogenous elicitor treatments. Dark-germinated sprouts of two malting barley cultivars (Pinnacle and Celebration), treated with chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) and marine protein hydrolysate (GP), were evaluated. Total soluble phenolic content (TSP), phenolic acid profiles, total antioxidant activity (TA) and in vitro inhibitory activities of hyperglycemia relevant α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes of the dark germinated barley sprouts were evaluated at day 2, 4, and 6 post elicitor treatments. Overall, TSP content, TA, and α-amylase inhibitory activity of dark germinated barley sprouts decreased, while α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and gallic acid content increased from day 2 to day 6. Among barley cultivars, high phenolic antioxidant-linked anti-hyperglycemic bioactives were observed in Celebration. Furthermore, GP and COS seed elicitor treatments in selective doses improved T2D relevant phenolic-linked anti-hyperglycemic bioactives of barley spouts at day 6. Therefore, such seed elicitation approach can be strategically used to develop bioactive enriched functional food ingredients from cereal sprouts targeting chronic hyperglycemia and oxidative stress linked to T2D.

  5. Effect of exogenous abscisic acid on accumulation of raffinose family oligosaccharides and galactosyl cyclitols in tiny vetch seeds (Vicia hirsuta [L.] S.F. Gray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesław B. Lahuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the abscisic acid (ABA in biosynthesis of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs and galactosyl cyclitols (Gal-C in tiny vetch (Vicia hirsuta [L.] S.F. Gray seeds was investigated. The ABA was applied through incubation of seed at various stage of its development. The level of RFOs and Gal-C was determined in seed maturing on plant and in seed maturing in vitro. In early stages of V. hirsuta seed development, the ABA activated the biosynthesis of galactinol, although the level of arisen galactinol quickly declined. In the later stages of V. hirsuta seed development ABA had stimulatory effect of RFOs and Gal-C biosynthesis. Influence of ABA on biosynthesis of a-galactosides in Vicia hirsuta seed seems to be dependent on abscisic acid concentration. Low concentration of ABA had stimulatory effect on a-galactosides biosynthesis, but high concentration of ABA inhibited the process.

  6. Characterization of Four Novel Bacteriophages Isolated from British Columbia for Control of Non-typhoidal Salmonella in Vitro and on Sprouting Alfalfa Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Fong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa sprouts have been linked to numerous North American outbreaks of Salmonella in recent years. Conventionally, treatments involving chlorine, heat, and irradiation are used for alfalfa seed sanitation. However, such treatments may be highly variable in their efficacy for pathogen control and/or detrimental to sprout quality, therefore negatively perceived by consumers advocating for natural alternatives. The usage of bacteriophages for pathogen control in sprouts has been previously explored, although with conflicting and inconsistent results. Lytic phages, viral predators of bacteria, represent an attractive approach as they provide several advantages compared to conventional treatments, such as their high specificity for bacterial targets and their ubiquity in nature. In this study, four Salmonella phages were isolated from British Columbia, Canada and characterized with respect to host range, burst size, latent period, and environmental stability to assess their potential to control Salmonella. Phage isolate SI1 showed the greatest host range, highest burst size and shortest latent period, greatest stability across all pH and temperatures and was the most effective in control of S. Enteritidis in vitro. Therefore, SI1 was chosen for treatment of sprouting alfalfa seeds artificially contaminated with S. Enteritidis with a multiplicity of infection (MOI of ∼110 PFU/CFU. A significant (p < 0.05 reduction of 38.3 ± 3.0% of viable Salmonella cells was observed following two h of phage treatment. On days two to six of the sprouting process, reductions of Salmonella were also observed, but were not significant compared to the control (p > 0.05. It was further demonstrated that the sprout yield was not significantly (p > 0.05 affected by phage treatment. These results highlight the potential of phages recovered from the British Columbia environment for use as biocontrol agents against Salmonella, although differing efficacies in vitro was

  7. Mitigation of starch-induced postprandial glycemic spikes in rats by antioxidants-rich extract of Cicer arietinum Linn. seeds and sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Consumption of highly processed calories dense diet leads abrupt increase in postprandial blood glucose level, which in turn induces immediate oxidative stress. Postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG and resultant oxidative stress is one of the earliest detectable abnormalities in diabetes prone individuals, independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular disorders (CVD, a major pathophysiological link between diabetes and CVD and an important contributing factor in atherogenesis even in non-diabetic individuals. Therefore, dietary supplements mitigating PPHG spikes along with potent antioxidant activities may help decrease development of PPHG and oxidative stress induced pathogenesis. Objectives: The study evaluated free radicals scavenging, antioxidant properties and intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in methanol extract of two varieties of Cicer arietinum Linn viz. Bengal gram and Kabuli chana and green gram (Vigna radiata Linn. Wilczek raw grains and their sprouts and studied their influence on starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion in rats. Materials and Methods: Healthy grains were procured from local markets. Free radicals scavenging antioxidant and glucose-induced hemoglobin (Hb-glycation inhibition activities were analyzed using standard in vitro procedures. In vitro antihyperglycemic activity was evaluated by assessing rat intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Influence on starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion in rats was studied by pre-treatment of rats with extracts. Results: Compared with raw seeds increase in total polyphenol and flavonoids concentration in green gram sprouts and Kabuli chana sprouts (KCs were observed. Total protein concentrations in sprouts did not differ from non-sprouted grains. 2,2′- Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid cation scavenging activity was more than twice in Bengal gram sprouts of (BGs and KCs than their raw seeds. 2,2-diphenyl-1

  8. California’s Hardwood Resource: Seeds, Seedlings, and Sprouts of Three Important Forest-Zone Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; John C. Tappeiner

    2002-01-01

    Although California black oak, tanoak, and Pacific madrone are the principal hardwood species in the forest zone of California and Oregon and are key components of many plant communities, their seed production, regeneration, and early growth requirements have received little study. Information is presented on seed production, storage, and germination, and on the...

  9. Bad Seeds Sprout Perilous Dynamics: Stochastic Thermostat Induced Trajectory Synchronization in Biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhikara, Daniel J; Kim, Seonah; Voter, Arthur F; Roitberg, Adrian E

    2009-06-09

    Molecular dynamics simulations starting from different initial conditions are commonly used to mimic the behavior of an experimental ensemble. We show in this article that when a Langevin thermostat is used to maintain constant temperature during such simulations, extreme care must be taken when choosing the random number seeds to prevent statistical correlation among the MD trajectories. While recent studies have shown that stochastically thermostatted trajectories evolving within a single potential basin with identical random number seeds tend to synchronize, we show that there is a synchronization effect even for complex, biologically relevant systems. We demonstrate this effect in simulations of alanine trimer and pentamer and in a simulation of a temperature-jump experiment for peptide folding of a 14-residue peptide. Even in replica-exchange simulations, in which the trajectories are at different temperatures, we find partial synchronization occurring when the same random number seed is employed. We explain this by extending the recent derivation of the synchronization effect for two trajectories in a harmonic well to the case in which the trajectories are at two different temperatures. Our results suggest several ways in which mishandling selection of a pseudorandom number generator initial seed can lead to corruption of simulation data. Simulators can fall into this trap in simple situations such as neglecting to specifically indicate different random seeds in either parallel or sequential restart simulations, utilizing a simulation package with a weak pseudorandom number generator, or using an advanced simulation algorithm that has not been programmed to distribute initial seeds.

  10. Screening and identification of major phytochemical compounds in seeds, sprouts and leaves of Tuscan black kale Brassica oleracea (L.) ssp acephala (DC) var. sabellica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgetti, Lucia; Giorgi, Gianluca; Cherubini, Edoardo; Gervasi, Pier Giovanni; Della Croce, Clara Maria; Longo, Vincenzo; Bellani, Lorenza

    2018-07-01

    We report the spectrophotometric determination of total polyphenols, flavonoids, glucosinolates and antioxidant activity in seeds, seedlings and leaves of Tuscan black kale. The highest content of phytochemicals was observed in 10 days sprouts and antioxidant activity was maximum in 2, 4 days seedlings. Identification and characterisation of phytochemicals were performed by mass spectrometry (MS), high resolution and tandem MS with electrospray ionisation mode. Low-molecular-weight metabolites were evidenced in seeds while metabolites at high m/z range were detected in cotyledons and leaves. MS spectra evidenced different phenolic compounds (flavonoid caffeoyl glucose, hydroxycinnamic acid sinapine) and glucosinolates (glucoerucin, glucobrassicin and glucoraphanin) in function of developmental stage; galactolipids ω3 and ω6 were observed in leaves. Identification of stages with the highest phytochemicals content encourages the consumption of black kale sprouts and young leaves. Our research can support food and pharmaceutical industries for production of health promoting products from black kale.

  11. Bad seeds sprout perilous dynamics: stochastic thermostat induced trajectory synchronization in biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voter, A. F.; Sindhikara, Daniel J.; Kim, Seonah; Roitberg, Adrian E.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations starting from different initial conditions are commonly used to mimic the behavior of an experimental ensemble. We show in this article that when a Langevin thermostat is used to maintain constant temperature during such simulations, extreme care must be taken when choosing the random number seeds used in order to prevent statistical correlation among the MD trajectories. While recent studies have shown that stochastically thermostatted trajectories evolving within a single potential basin with identical random number seeds tend to synchronize, we show that there is a synchronization effect even for complex, biologically relevant systems. We demonstrate this effect in simulations of Alanine trimer and pentamer and in a simulation of a temperature-jump experiment for peptide folding of a 14-residue peptide. Even in replica-exchange simulations, in which the trajectories are at different temperatures, we find partial synchronization occurring when the same random number seed is employed. We explain this by extending the recent derivation of the synchronization effect for two trajectories in a harmonic well to the case in which the trajectories are at two different temperatures. Our results suggest several ways in which mishandling selection of a pseudo random number generator initial seed can lead to corruption of simulation data. Simulators can fall into this trap in simple situations such as neglecting to specifically indicate different random seeds in either parallel or sequential restart simulations, utilizing a simulation package with a weak pseudorandom number generator, or using an advanced simulation algorithm that hasn't been programmed to distribute initial seeds

  12. Exogenously applied D-pinitol and D-chiro-inositol modifies the accumulation of α-D-galactosides in developing tiny vetch (Vicia hirsuta [L.] S.F. Gray seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesław B. Lahuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we have investigated the effect of exogenous cyclitols on the accumulation of their galactosides and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs, as well as on some enzymes important for their biosynthesis in seeds of tiny vetch (Vicia hirsuta [L.] S.F. Gray. Immature seeds during 6-day incubation with D-chiro-inositol (naturally does not appear in seeds of tiny vetch were accumulated cyclitol and its galactosides (fagopyritols: B1 and B2. Short 4-hour incubation with D-chiro-inositol, and subsequent slow desiccation process caused accumulation of free cyclitol only, without biosynthesis of its galactosides. Feeding D-chiro-inositol to pods of tiny vetch induced accumulation of high levels of its galactosides (fagopyritol B1, B2 and B3 in maturing seeds. Similarly, feeding D-pinitol increased accumulation of its mono-, di- and tri-galactosides: GPA, GPB, DGPA and TGPA in tiny vetch seed. Accumulation of both cyclitols and their galactosides drastically reduced accumulation of verbascose. Inhibition of RFOs biosynthesis by elevated levels of free cyclitols suggests some competition between formation of both types of galactosides and similarity of both biosynthetic routes in tiny vetch seeds. Galactinol synthase (GolS from tiny vetch seeds demonstrated ability to utilize D-chiro-inositol as galactosyl acceptor, instead of myo-inositol. Presence of both cyclitols, as substrates for GolS, caused synthesis of their galactosides: fagopyritol B1 and galactinol. However, formation of galactinol was more efficient than fagopyritol B1. D-chiro-Inositol and D-pinitol at concentrations several-fold higher than myo-inositol had inhibitory effect on GolS. Thus, we suggest that a level of free cyclitols can have an influence on the rate of galactinol biosynthesis and further accumulation of RFOs and galactosyl cyclitols in tiny vetch seeds.

  13. Analysis on seed coat trait and physiology characteristics of soybean varieties which was used for sprout production%芽用大豆品种材料的种皮性状及生理特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康玉凡; 王丽艳; 肖伶俐; 刘腾飞; 刘红开

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-two soybean varieties which were selected by previous study were used to determine the seed coat traits such as color and weight proportion of seed coat;physical characteristics such as 100-grain weight of seed;physiological characteristics such as the changes of biomass during germination,water absorption and seed vigor;sprouts characteristics such as sprout production,sprout morphological and sensory quality.This article analyzed the seed coat traits and the relationships between the physiological characteristics and the sprouts characteristics.The results showed that the ranges of 100-grain weight were 8.1-22.3 g.The ranges of brightness value were 38.6-55.1.The ranges of seed input-sprout output ratio were 1∶5.12-1∶6.95 and the ranges of hypocotyl length and diameter were 6.60-11.42 and 0.24-0.32 cm respectively.The brightness of seed coat had significant positive correlations with single sprout weight and hypocotyl length(P〈0.05).The sprouts output ratio had an extremely significant negative correlations with 100-grain weight of seeds(P〈0.01) and an extremely significant positive correlation with seed vigor(P〈0.01).The sensory quality had a significant negative correlations with the water absorption(P〈0.05) and a significant positive correlation with hypocotyl length(P〈0.05).The study also selected S-08-93、S-08-97and S-08-145 that were suitable for sprouts production.%测定了前期筛选出的22个芽用大豆品种种皮性状和百粒重等物理特性、种子生理特性以及芽用特性指标,分析了各项物理生理特性指标与芽用特性指标的相关性。结果显示:所用大豆品种种子百粒重为8.1-22.3 g,种皮亮度值为38.6-55.1,种子与豆芽产出比为1∶5.12-1∶6.95,下胚轴长和下胚轴粗分别为6.60-11.42和0.24-0.32 cm。种皮亮度与单根豆芽质量及豆芽下胚轴粗呈正相关(P〈0.05);豆芽产出比与种子百粒重呈极显著负相关(P〈0.01),

  14. Cereal sprouts: composition, nutritive value, food applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, K

    1980-01-01

    The practice of sprouting of cereal grains has become popular in the western world. Sprouted grains are thought of as having exceptional nutritive value. Sprouting is easy and can be done without sophisticated equipment. Untreated seeds of good quality and high germination percentage are placed in an environment of adequate water, a desirable temperature, and a certain composition of gases in the atmosphere for several days for sprouting. The sprouts can be kept for a few days to over a week under refrigeration. They can be used in many different foods including breakfast items, salads, soups, casseroles, pasta, and baked products. Sprouting of grains causes increased enzyme activity, a loss of total dry matter, an increase in total protein, a change in amino acid composition, a decrease in starch, increases in sugars, a slight increase in crude fat and crude fiber, and slightly higher amounts of certain vitamins and minerals. Most of the increases in nutrients are not true increases, however. They simply reflect the loss of dry matter, mainly in the form of carbohydrates, due to respiration during sprouting. As total carbohydrates decreases, the percentage of other nutrients increases. There are no nutritional evaluations of cereal sprouts in humans. Animal studies with cattle, pigs, chickens, and rats have failed to show a superior nutritive value of sprouted grains over ungerminated grains. Studies with humans are not likely to produce more encouraging results.

  15. Bowman-Birk inhibitor-like protein is secreted by sprouted pea seeds in response to induced colonization by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, Ravi; Raveendran, Muthuraj; Babu, Subramanian

    2013-11-01

    The interaction between the clinical isolate of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) SBANU8 and pea sprouts was compared with avirulent K 12. E. coli. This was carried out by repeated co-incubation with pea sprouts for 5 days, and the protein profile of the culture supernatant was analyzed by single and two-dimensional electrophoresis. Mass spectrometry analysis led to the identification of two serine protease inhibitors including a Bowman-Birk-type protein secreted by pea sprouts in response to clinical isolate. Expression of the E. coli intimin gene involved in animal host colonization and virulence was studied by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Expression of this gene was high in SBANU8 when co-incubated with pea sprouts. The present study gives baseline data on the molecular level interactions of EPEC and pea sprouts, which are needed to design the outbreak control strategies.

  16. Growth and quality of soybean sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) as affected by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean sprouts are considered as natural and healthy food by Asian consumers. However, sprouts are often associated with outbreaks of foodborne illnesses and recalls due to contamination of seeds with human pathogens. Irradiation may be used to inactivate pathogens on seeds and sprouts. In this stu...

  17. Early Sprouts: Cultivating Healthy Food Choices in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalich, Karrie; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    Plant lifelong healthy eating concepts in young children and counteract the prevalence of childhood obesity with "Early Sprouts." A research-based early childhood curriculum, this "seed-to-table" approach gets children interested in and enjoying nutritious fruits and vegetables. The "Early Sprouts" model engages…

  18. Effect Of Sprouting On Available Lysine Content Of Cowpea ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of sprouting on available Lysine content of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) flour and the performance of the flour used for producing “moi – moi” (steamed bean cake). Cowpea seed was subjected to sprouting for different periods of 1 day, 2 days and 3 days for samples B, C and ...

  19. TinyDebug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Tranberg

    2011-01-01

    Debugging embedded wireless systems can be cumbersome due to low visibility. To ease the task of debugging this paper present TinyDebug which is a multi-purpose passive debugging framework for developing embedded wireless sys- tems. TinyDebug is designed to be used throughout the entire system...... logging to extraction and show how the frame- work improves upon existing message based and event log- ging debugging techniques while enabling distributed event processing. We also present a number of optional event anal- ysis tools demonstrating the generality of the TinyDebug debug messages....

  20. The Tiny Terminators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 5. The Tiny Terminators - Mosquitoes and Diseases. P K Sumodan. General Article Volume 6 Issue 5 May 2001 pp 48-55. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/05/0048-0055 ...

  1. Pathogen detection, testing, and control in fresh broccoli sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahey Jed W

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent increased interest in consuming green vegetable sprouts has been tempered by the fact that fresh sprouts can in some cases be vehicles for food-borne illnesses. They must be grown according to proper conditions of sanitation and handled as a food product rather than as an agricultural commodity. When sprouts are grown in accordance with the criteria proposed from within the sprout industry, developed by regulatory agencies, and adhered to by many sprouters, green sprouts can be produced with very low risk. Contamination may occur when these guidelines are not followed. Methods A one year program of microbial hold-and-release testing, conducted in concert with strict seed and facility cleaning procedures by 13 U.S. broccoli sprout growers was evaluated. Microbial contamination tests were performed on 6839 drums of sprouts, equivalent to about 5 million consumer packages of fresh green sprouts. Results Only 24 (0.75% of the 3191 sprout samples gave an initial positive test for Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella spp., and when re-tested, 3 drums again tested positive. Composite testing (e.g., pooling up to 7 drums for pathogen testing was equally sensitive to single drum testing. Conclusion By using a "test-and-re-test" protocol, growers were able to minimize crop destruction. By pooling drums for testing, they were also able to reduce testing costs which now represent a substantial portion of the costs associated with sprout growing. The test-and-hold scheme described herein allowed those few batches of contaminated sprouts to be found prior to packaging and shipping. These events were isolated, and only safe sprouts entered the food supply.

  2. TinyOS Alliance Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe; Culler, David; Estrin, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    This memo describes the goals and organization structure of the TinyOS Alliance. It covers membership, the working group forums for contribution, intellectual property, source licensing, and the TinyOS Steering Committee (TSC)....

  3. Genetic control of seed dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting in wheat Controle genético da dormência e da germinação precoce em trigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei Andreoli

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS damage leads to occasional massive losses in all wheat producing areas, causing downgrading of grain quality, that severely limits end-use applications and results in substantial financial losses to farmers and food processors. Red grain color is a traditional marker for resistance to sprouting in wheat breeding programs, however red-grained genotype alone does not always guarantee effective resistance. The objective of this work was to find genes for resistance to PHS and investigate its inheritance in Brazilian wheat cultivars. Genetic variation for dormancy was investigated in the parents, F1 and 300 F2 lines derived from the cross Frontana × OR1 and its reciprocal. The germination/dormancy sprouted grains was evaluated on fifty seeds per replication, germinated in paper towel rolls at 20ºC for 5 days. A bimodal distribution for dormancy occurred in the Frontana/OR1 and OR1/Frontana derived F2 populations. The mean ratio of dormant and non-dormant seeds of the cross and its reciprocal was 85:1115, fitting a digenic model of 1:15 (P Germinação precoce na espiga (PHS ocasiona perdas significativas nas regiões produtoras de trigo, causando depreciação na qualidade do produto final, o que resulta em prejuízos para os produtores e os moageiros. A cor vermelha do grão é um marcador tradicional para resistência à germinação nos programas de melhoramento de trigo, todavia, o genótipo de grão vermelho sózinho não garante resistência efetiva. O objetivo desse trabalho foi encontrar gene(s para resistência à PHS e estudar a herança do caráter dormência de semente nos cultivares de trigo brasileiro. A variação genética para dormência foi investigada nos parentais, no F1 e em 300 linhas F2 derivadas do cruzamento de Frontana × OR1, e o cruzamento recíproco. Os grãos brotados (sprouted e os dormentes foram avaliados pelo teste de germinação, em rolo de papel, a 20º C por 5 dias. Observou-se uma

  4. Growth and quality of soybean sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) as affected by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Juan; Li, Xihong; Fan, Xuetong; Li, Weili; Jiang, Yuqian

    2013-01-01

    In this study, soybean seeds and sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) were exposed to radiation doses up to 3.0 kGy. The irradiated and non-irradiated seeds were germinated, and then germination rate, sprouts length, vitamin C content, antioxidants and visual and olfactory quality were determined after irradiation. Results indicated that there was no significant difference in the germination rate and sprouts length between the control and 0.3 kGy treated soybeans, however, the reductions in sprouts length of the 1.0 kGy and 3.0 kGy treated samples were quite significant with reductions of 20.4% and 58.8%, respectively. Irradiated sprouts had similar visual and olfactory quality as the non-irradiated one. Therefore, irradiation of seeds alone would have limited value in terms of commercial use due to reduced germination and length of sprouts. However, irradiation of sprouts at doses up to 3.0 kGy was feasible to enhance microbial safety of sprouts. - Highlights: ► Investigated the germination rate and the sprouts length after irradiation. ► Indicated the effect of irradiation on the antioxidants of the soybean sprouts. ► Evaluated the visual and olfactory quality of irradiated samples.

  5. Revenge of tiny Miranda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldreich, P.; Nicholson, P.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to Dermott and Gold (Nature 267: 590 (1977)) who proposed a resonance model for the rings of Uranus. They assumed that the rings are composed of small particles librating about stable resonances determined by pairs of satellites, either Ariel and Titania or Ariel and Oberon. They dismissed as insignificant resonances involving 'tiny Miranda'. It is reported here that, by a wide margin, the strongest resonances are all associated with Miranda. It is also shown that the hypothesis that the rings are made up of librating particles, whilst original and ingenious, is incorrect. (author)

  6. Some Results on Sprout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Subhadeep

    2015-01-01

    secret key, there exist around 230 IVs for which the LFSR used in Sprout enters the all zero state during the keystream generating phase. Using this observation, we will first show that it is possible to enumerate Key-IV pairs that produce keystream bits with period as small as 80. We will then outline...

  7. Growth and quality of soybean sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) as affected by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Juan; Li, Xihong; Fan, Xuetong; Li, Weili; Jiang, Yuqian

    2013-01-01

    In this study, soybean seeds and sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) were exposed to radiation doses up to 3.0 kGy. The irradiated and non-irradiated seeds were germinated, and then germination rate, sprouts length, vitamin C content, antioxidants and visual and olfactory quality were determined after irradiation. Results indicated that there was no significant difference in the germination rate and sprouts length between the control and 0.3 kGy treated soybeans, however, the reductions in sprouts length of the 1.0 kGy and 3.0 kGy treated samples were quite significant with reductions of 20.4% and 58.8%, respectively. Irradiated sprouts had similar visual and olfactory quality as the non-irradiated one. Therefore, irradiation of seeds alone would have limited value in terms of commercial use due to reduced germination and length of sprouts. However, irradiation of sprouts at doses up to 3.0 kGy was feasible to enhance microbial safety of sprouts.

  8. Phytase activity in brown rice during steeping and sprouting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, K.; Cheng, Y.; Xing, Y.; Lin, L.; Nout, M.J.R.; Liang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Phytase in brown rice will be activated and accumulated during seed germination. Changes of phytase activity in brown rice during two stages of germination (steeping and sprouting) affected by process conditions were studied. It was shown that steeping led to significant decrease of phytase activity

  9. Sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Chingakham Basanti; Kushwaha, Archana; Kumar, Anil

    2015-10-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), is an important arid legume with a good source of energy, protein, vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Sprouting of legumes enhances the bioavailability and digestibility of nutrients and therefore plays an important role in human nutrition. Improved varieties of grain cowpea viz. Pant Lobia-1 (PL-1) and Pant Lobia-2 (PL-2) and Pant Lobia-3 (PL-3) were examined for sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional quality. Soaking time, sprouting time and sprouting temperature combinations for desirable sprout length of ¼ to ½ inch for cowpea seed samples were standardized. All the observations were taken in triplicate except soaking time, where six observations were taken in a completely randomized design of three treatments. Results revealed that optimum soaking time of PL-1 and PL-2 seed was 3 h whereas PL-3 required 9 h. Sprouting period of 24 h at 25 °C was found to be desirable for obtaining good sprouts. Significant improvement in nutritional quality was observed after sprouting at 25 °C for 24 h; protein increased by 9-12 %, vitamin C increased by 4-38 times, phytic acid decreased by 4-16 times, trypsin inhibitor activity decreased by 28-55 % along with an increase of 8-20 % in in-vitro protein digestibility.

  10. Healthy food trends - Brussels sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... belong to the cabbage family, which also includes kale, broccoli, collard greens, and cauliflower. In fact, Brussels ... Brussels sprouts rank high in antioxidants, just after kale and spinach. Antioxidants are substances that can help ...

  11. Improving Breeding Selection of Seed Quality Traits for Food-Grade Soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Escamilla Sanchez, Diana Marcela

    2018-01-01

    Natto and sprout soybeans are produced using small-seeded soybeans and their production is a high value alternative to grow grain soybeans for food in U.S. The development of soybean cultivars with improved natto and sprout quality is crucial for maintaining and increasing the soyfood market. However, there is insufficient information on sprout soybean characteristics. Therefore, the first objective of this study was to evaluate seed and sprout traits as potential selection criteria and study...

  12. seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    peptidohydrolase (8.0%) from mung bean seedlings. (Baumgartner and Chrispeels, 1977), EP-HG (4.5%) from horse gram seedlings ( Rajeswari, 1997), acidic protease (15%) from germinating winged-bean seeds. (Usha and Singh, 1996) and EP-1 (1.6%) from barley seedlings and GA3-induced cysteine protease (3.38%).

  13. Tiny plastic lung mimics human pulmonary function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careers Inclusion & Diversity Work-Life Balance Career Resources Apply for a Job Postdocs Students Goals Recycling Green Purchasing Pollution Prevention Reusing Water Resources Environmental Management Releases - 2016 » April » Tiny plastic lung mimics human pulmonary function Tiny plastic lung mimics

  14. Effect of sprouting of soybean on the chemical composition and quality of soymilk and tofu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugkar, D Agrahar

    2014-05-01

    The effect of sprouting of soybean and preparing soymilk and tofu on the yield, nutritional quality, anti-nutritional profile, colour attributes, organoleptic quality and texture profile (tofu) of four commonly used varieties of India were studied to assess the feasibility of using sprouting as a non-chemical, non-thermal tool to improve quality of soy products. Soymilk was prepared from sprouted and unsprouted seeds with process parameters of 121 °C for 25 min. Coagulation of soymilk was done with 3% CaSO4 at 80 °C. Products from sprouted varieties showed an increase in protein (fb) of 7% in milk and 13% in tofu across varieties; a reduction in fat (fb) of 24% in milk and 12% in tofu; in trypsin inhibitor (db) of 73% in milk and 81% in tofu; in phytic acid (db) of 59% in milk and 56% in tofu across varieties. Tofu from sprouted seeds had higher protein and whiteness index but tofu strength was around 43% lesser than its unsprouted counterpart. Taste acceptability showed an increase of 10% and 6.3%; flavour of 23.2% and 11.6% and overall acceptability of 9.9% and 4.4% in milk and in tofu respectively from sprouted varieties. The improvements in composition and quality parameters was seen in all the varieties tested showing that sprouting could be beneficial for product development across varieties. The time and temperature used for production of soymilk was conventional (121 °C for 25 min). Evaluation of time and/temperature reductions could be tried out to reduce the heat requirement and intensity, which could result in better nutritional and functional quality products.

  15. [The Process of Healing Child Physical Abuse: Sprouting and Twining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Yi; Feng, Jui-Ying; Tseng, Ren-Mei

    2018-06-01

    Child physical abuse impacts the physical and psychological health of survivors. Healing child abuse is an essential process that helps survivors reorganize the meaning of the trauma and pursue a normal life. Considering the trauma of child physical abuse within the social context allows the experiences of individual survivors to be reflected in their process of healing. To explore the social interaction and construction process of healing experienced by survivors of child physical abuse. A qualitative research design using grounded theory was applied. Purposive and theoretical sampling was used to recruit survivors of childhood physical abuse who had experienced healing. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were used and data were analyzed using open, axial, and selective coding. The process of healing child physical abuse in this study was a process of sprouting and twining. Three core categories emerged: thriving, relationships, and ethics. The healing process was analogous to a seed growing in poor soil, sprouting out from the ground, and striving to live by seeking support. The survivors constantly established interactive relationships with their selves and with others and struggled to keep family bonds grounded and growing within the frame of ethics. The healing process of sprouting and twining for child physical abuse survivors in Taiwan integrates thriving, relationships, and ethics. Professionals working with child-physical-abuse survivors must recognize conflicts in ethics. Strategies should be developed to assist survivors to cope with the impact of childhood trauma in order to facilitate the healing process.

  16. Environmental life cycle analysis of potato sprout inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstholt, R.P.V.; Ree, C.M.; Moll, H.C.

    Potato sprout inhibitors are generally applied to suppress sprouting during winter storage. This study presents the compared environmental profiles of the two sprout inhibitors available on the Dutch market: A traditional chemical product with isopropyl-3-chlorophenylcarbamate (CIPC) and

  17. GROWTH RATE AND IDENTIFICATION OF YEASTS IN THREE DIFFERENT MEDIA: FLOUR, SPROUT OF CEREALS AND COMMERCIAL MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P DEHGHAN

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The yeasts are a large group of fungi. In addition to their different uses in food industries and pharmacology they can also cause human and animal infections under predisposing factors. For investigating the yeast"s growth phases and diagnosis of the species, they should culture in media from natural sources like the seeds on the commercial media. According to yeast"s nutritinal requierments and considering the various nutritional materials of seeds like wheat, rice, barney and better use of these seed"s compounds during sprouting, this research was done with the aim of measurment of growth rate and yeasts characterization in such media. Methods. For making seeds media, a fixed quantity of seed"s flour or sprout"s flour was added to a certain amount of agar in acidotic condition (pH=5.8. The germination of seeds was done by Hus method and for colony counting Mc, Farland tubes were used and microscopic and macroscopic characteristics were investigated and compared in both synthetic and seed media Results. The results showed that the rate of yeasts growth in all germinated seeds was more than the seeds themeselves. Statistical analysis showed no significal difference between the growth rate of yeasts in both wheat and barney sprout compared to the commercial media. In the microscopic studies, the species of Candida albicans in wheat flour has produced more chlamydoconidia than the synthetic medium of corn meal agar. Also production of the capsule in C.neoformans in the seed"s media has been better than the synthetic media. Discussion. According to the promising results obtained from the present study regard to the growth rate and differentiation of the fungal species in such media, standardization and mass production of them in our country would seem to be an productive step towards self sufficiency.

  18. Tiny Molybdenites Tell Diffusion Tales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, H. J.; Hannah, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    Diffusion invokes micron-scale exchange during crystal growth and dissolution in magma chambers on short time-scales. Fundamental to interpreting such data are assumptions on magma-fluid dynamics at all scales. Nevertheless, elemental diffusion profiles are used to estimate time scales for magma storage, eruption, and recharge. An underutilized timepiece to evaluate diffusion and 3D mobility of magmatic fluids is high-precision Re-Os dating of molybdenite. With spatially unique molybdenite samples from a young ore system (e.g., 1 Ma) and a double Os spike, analytical errors of 1-3 ka unambiguously separate events in time. Re-Os ages show that hydrous shallow magma chambers locally recharge and expel Cu-Mo-Au-silica as superimposed stockwork vein networks at time scales less than a few thousand years [1]. Re-Os ages provide diffusion rates controlled by a dynamic crystal mush, accumulation and expulsion of metalliferous fluid, and magma reorganization after explosive crystallization events. Importantly, this approach has broad application far from ore deposits. Here, we use Re-Os dating of molybdenite to assess time scales for generating and diffusing metals through the deep crust. To maximize opportunity for chemical diffusion, we use a continental-scale Sveconorwegian mylonite zone for the study area. A geologically constrained suite of molybdenite samples was acquired from quarry exposures. Molybdenite, previously unreported, is extremely scarce. Tiny but telling molybdenites include samples from like occurrences to assure geologic accuracy in Re-Os ages. Ages range from mid-Mesoproterozoic to mid-Neoproterozoic, and correspond to early metamorphic dehydration of a regionally widespread biotite-rich gneiss, localized melting of gneiss to form cm-m-scale K-feldspar ± quartz pods, development of vapor-rich, vuggy mm stringers that serve as volatile collection surfaces in felsic leucosomes, and low-angle (relative to foliation) cross-cutting cm-scale quartz veins

  19. Stimulation treatments of large-seed leguminous plants Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Istvan; Borbely, Ferenc; Nagy, Janos; Dezsi, Zoltan

    1983-01-01

    The effect of low dose X-ray irradiation on the sprouting and initial growth of some leguminous plants was studied. After having the seeds of peas, beans, lupines and horse beans irradiated, the sprouting rate, the amount of sprouting plants, the length of the roots, the sprouts and the sprouting plants, the electrolyte conductivity and the water uptake were determined. The height and the amount of the plants were measured after a period of 6 weeks. According to the sprout-length values, an increased variation in the plant features can be observed as a result of irradiation treatment: both stimulation and inhibition of plant growth occured, depending on the variety of the leguminosae. The indices of sprouting and initial growth agree well with each other. (V.N.)

  20. Relationship between grain colour and preharvest sprouting-resistance in wheat.

    OpenAIRE

    BASSOI, M.C.; FLINTHAM, J.

    2006-01-01

    Since red alleles (R) of the genes that control grain colour are important for the improvement of preharvest sprouting resistance in wheat and there are three independently inherited loci, on chromosomes 3A, 3B and 3D of hexaploid wheat, it is possible to vary the dosage of dominant alleles in a breeding program. The objective of this work was to evaluate the dosage effect of R genes on preharvest sprouting, in a single seed descent population, named TRL, derived from the cross between Timgal...

  1. Evaluating the impact of sprouting conditions on the glucosinolate content of Brassica oleracea sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, A P; Santos, J; Brito, N V; Fernandes, D; Rosa, E; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-07-01

    The glucosinolates content of brassica plants is a distinctive characteristic, representing a healthy advantage as many of these compounds are associated to antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties. Brassica sprouts are still an underutilized source of these bioactive compounds. In this work, four varieties of brassica sprouts (red cabbage, broccoli, Galega kale and Penca cabbage), including two local varieties from the North of Portugal, were grown to evaluate the glucosinolate profile and myrosinase activity during the sprouting. Also the influence of light/darkness exposure during sprouting on the glucosinolate content was assessed. Glucosinolate content and myrosinase activity of the sprouts was evaluated by HPLC methods. All sprouts revealed a higher content of aliphatic glucosinolates than of indole glucosinolates, contrary to the profile described for most of brassica mature plants. Galega kale sprouts had the highest glucosinolate content, mainly sinigrin and glucoiberin, which are recognized for their beneficial health effects. Penca cabbage sprouts were particularly richer in glucoraphanin, who was also one of the major compounds in broccoli sprouts. Red cabbage showed a higher content of progoitrin. Regarding myrosinase activity, Galega kale sprouts showed the highest values, revealing that the use of light/dark cycles and a sprouting phase of 7-9 days could be beneficial to preserve the glucosinolate content of this variety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Antioxidant capacity, phenolic and vitamin C contents of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as affected by sprouting and storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura N. Laus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant capacity (AC of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cv. Real seeds and sprouts obtained after 4 days of seed germination at 20°C and 70% humidity was evaluated using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assays, able to highlight reducing activity and peroxyl radical scavenging capacity, respectively; phenolic content (PC was also measured. Both TEAC and ORAC assays revealed a significantly higher (about 2- and 2.8-fold, respectively AC of 4-day-old sprouts compared to seeds; consistently, also PC values of sprouts resulted about 2.6 times higher than seeds. In order to investigate the influence of storage on AC and PC, as well as on vitamin C content (VCC, 4-day-old sprouts were subjected for 7 days at 5°C to three different conditions of controlled atmosphere storage (CAS compared with air. Interestingly, whatever the CAS conditions, storage of quinoa sprouts up to 7 days induced an increase of AC evaluated in terms of reducing activity by TEAC assay. Consistently, an increase of PC and VCC was measured during storage, positively correlated to TEAC values. Moreover, a decrease of peroxyl radical scavenging activity, measured by ORAC, was observed after 7 days of storage, in accordance with a shift of AC towards the reducing activity component. Overall, these findings indicate that sprouting approach using quinoa may provide highly antioxidant-enriched seedlings that may improve nutritional quality of diet or of functional foods. Interestingly, antioxidant properties of quinoa sprouts may be deeply influenced by storage, able to increase reducing activity by increasing phenols and vitamin C.

  3. Improved health-relevant functionality in dark germinated Mucuna pruriens sprouts by elicitation with peptide and phytochemical elicitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhir, Reena; Kwon, Young-In; Shetty, Kalidas

    2009-10-01

    The health-relevant functionality of Mucuna pruriens was improved by priming the seeds with elicitors of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) such as fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs), lactoferrin (LF) and oregano extract (OE) followed by dark germination. FPH elicited the highest phenolic content of 19 mg/g FW on day 1, which was 38% higher than control sprouts. OE enhanced Parkinson's disease-relevant L-DOPA content by 33% on day 1 compared to control sprouts. Anti-diabetes-relevant alpha-amylase inhibition percent (AIP) and alpha-glucosidase inhibition percent (GIP) were high in the cotyledons and decreased following elicitation and sprouting. For potential anti-diabetic applications, low AIP and high GIP with moderate L-DOPA content on day 4 of dark germination could be optimal. Improved L-DOPA concentrations in a soluble phenolic and antioxidant-rich M. pruriens background on day 1 sprouts have potential for Parkinson's disease management.

  4. Glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. italica) as conditioned by sulphate supply during germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Balibrea, Santiago; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2010-10-01

    Sulphur (S) fertilization is essential for primary and secondary metabolism in cruciferous foods. Deficient, suboptimal, or excessive S affects the growth and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in adult plants. Nevertheless, there is little information regarding the influence of S fertilization on sprouts and seedlings. An experiment was set up to evaluate the effect of S fertilization, supplied as K(2)SO(4) at 0, 15, 30, and 60 mg/L, on the glucosinolate content of broccoli sprouts during the germination course of 3, 6, 9, and 12 d after sowing. Glucosinolate concentration was strongly influenced by germination, causing a rapid increase during the first 3 d after sowing, and decreasing afterwards. The S supply increased aliphatic and total glucosinolate content at the end of the monitored sprouting period. S-treated sprouts, with S(15), S(30), and S(60) at 9 and 12 d after sowing presented enhanced glucosinolate content. Overall, both germination time and S fertilization were key factors in maximizing the bioactive health-promoting phytochemicals of broccoli. Practical Application: Germination with sulphate is a simple and inexpensive way to obtain sprouts that contain much higher levels of glucosinolates (health promoting compounds), than the corresponding florets from the same seeds.

  5. Optimisation of wheat-sprouted soybean flour bread using response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sprouted soybean flour on wheat bread was studied. Sprouting significantly increased the vitamin C content of soybean flour from 2.0 mg kg-1 to 3.25 mg kg-1. The sprouted soybean flour resulted in increased loaf volume, a firmer, spongy and more elastic loaf. However, increasing the sprouted soybean flour ...

  6. Biocontrol of the internalization of Salmonella enterica and Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli in mung bean sprouts with an endophytic Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhenyu; Mustapha, Azlin; Lin, Mengshi; Zheng, Guolu

    2017-06-05

    Internalization of Salmonella enterica and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) in seed sprouts poses a health risk to consumers, and the conventional sanitization methods are not always effective to reduce this risk. This study initiated a biocontrol approach to limit the internalization using endophytic Bacillus subtilis strains, which were isolated from the inner tissue of mung bean seeds or lettuce stems. By using the deferred agar method, 12 strains of B. subtilis out of 94 putative Bacillus isolates displayed inhibitory activity against at least one of the pathogenic indicators, S. enterica Typhimurium ATCC 14028 and E. coli O157:H7 505B. Two B. subtilis isolates (LCA1 and M24) showed a broad inhibitory spectrum against multiple strains of S. enterica and EHEC, Staphylococcus aureus sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603, and Listeria monocytogenes Scott A, while the laboratory B. subtilis strain 168 was only moderately inhibitory against L. monocytogenes. To facilitate the tracking of the three B. subtilis strains (LCA1, M24, and 168) in the mung bean sprouts, the three strains were genetically engineered to carry the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat), generating the strains LCA1-cat, M24-cat, and 168-cat, respectively. Data of the study using the cat-tagged strains demonstrated that both the two vegetable-associated and the laboratory B. subtilis strains could internalize in mung bean sprouts during the sprouting, but the latter displayed about 1.2 lg CFU/g of seeds lower in internalization. Overall, the presence of the three B. subtilis strains could significantly reduce the internalization of S. enterica or EHEC cocktail in mung bean sprouts during the sprouting. Among them, LCA1 showed the greatest inhibition against the EHEC cocktails with a reduction of about 2.0lg CFU/g of seeds by the end of sprouting (day 5), while 168 had the smallest reduction at about 0.6lg CFU/g of seeds. In addition, the three strains demonstrated a similar

  7. Physicists tackles questions of tiny dimensions

    CERN Multimedia

    Moran, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Today's physicists have a dilemna: they are using two separate theories to describe the universe. General relativity, which describes gravity, works for large objects like planets. Quantum mechanics, which involves the other forces, works for tiny objects like atoms. Unfortunately, the two theories don't match up.

  8. A 'tiny-orange' spectrometer for electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, N.C. da.

    1990-01-01

    An tiny-orange electron spectrometer was designed and constructed using flat permanent magnets and a surface barrier detector. The transmission functions of different system configurations were determined for energies in the 200-1100 KeV range. A mathematical model for the system was developed. (L.C.J.A.)

  9. Leros: A Tiny Microcontroller for FPGAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Leros is a tiny microcontroller that is optimized for current low-cost FPGAs. Leros is designed with a balanced logic to on-chip memory relation. The design goal is a microcontroller that can be clocked in about half of the speed a pipelined on-chip memory and consuming less than 300 logic cells...

  10. Hydrogen Peroxide Treatment and the Phenylpropanoid Pathway Precursors Feeding Improve Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity of Quinoa Sprouts via an Induction of L-Tyrosine and L-Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyases Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Świeca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide treatment and the phenylpropanoid pathway precursors feeding affected the antioxidant capacity of quinoa sprouts. Compared to the control, total phenolics content was significantly increased by treatment of control sprouts with 50 mM and 200 mM H2O2—an elevation of about 24% and 28%, respectively. The highest increase of flavonoids content was found for the sprouts treated with 200 mM H2O2 obtained from seeds fed with shikimic acid. All the studied modifications increased the antioxidant potential of sprouts (at least by 50% compared to control. The highest reducing power was found for the sprouts treated with 200 mM H2O2 obtained by phenylalanine feeding (5.03 mg TE/g DW and those obtained from the seeds fed with tyrosine (5.26 mg TE/g DW. The activities of L-tyrosine (TAL and L-phenylalanine (PAL ammonia-lyases were strongly affected by germination time as well as the applied modification of sprouting. On the 3rd day the highest PAL activity was determined for both untreated and induced with 50 mM H2O2 sprouts obtained by phenylalanine feeding. H2O2 induced TAL activity; the highest TAL activity was determined for 3-day-old sprouts induced with 200 mM H2O2 obtained from seeds fed with phenylalanine.

  11. Optimization of bioactive compounds in buckwheat sprouts and their effect on blood cholesterol in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Yun; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Yang, Ya-Lu; Peng, Robert Y

    2008-02-27

    Nutrient levels in buckwheats that were maximized in day 8 sprouts (D8SP) included total phenolics, quercetin, and l-ascorbic acid, whereas those of oxalic, malic, tartaric, and citric acids, rutin, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were found to reach maximum levels on day 10. Ethanolic extract of D8SP (2.5 mg/mL) revealed potent free-radical scavenging (FRS) and antioxidative (ANO) capabilities. However, its Fe2+-chelating capability was only moderate. To further study the hypolipidemic activity of D8SP, 36 Syrian hamsters were grouped into six groups and fed for 28 days, respectively, with (i) control meal, (ii) high fat plus high cholesterol meal, (iii) high fat plus high cholesterol plus 2.5% of buckwheat seeds, (iv) high fat plus high cholesterol plus 25% of buckwheat seeds, (v) high fat plus high cholesterol plus 2.5% of D8SP, and (vi) high fat plus high cholesterol plus 25% of D8SP. High seed meal prominently enhanced body weight gain, whereas high sprout meal exhibited the highest feed efficiency. Ratios of liver/body weight (L/B) were significantly lowered by all BS meals. Although low seed meal reduced serum total cholesterol (TC) levels (pcholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly suppressed by all buckwheat meals (pcholesterol (HDL-C) levels were increased, however, insignificantly. Nutraceutically more meaningful is that both LDL-C/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratios were significantly lowered (p<0.01). Apparently, hepatic TC levels were significantly reduced, whereas hepatic TG levels were totally unaffected. Conclusively, sprouting triggers a variety of nutritional changes in buckwheats. Day 8 sprouts, consisting of high polyphenolic and moderate quercetin contents, are nutraceutically maximized when hypocholesterolemic, hypotriglyceridemic, and antioxidative activities are concerned.

  12. Advances in developing TiNi nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, A. Torres; Cuellar, E. Lopez; Mendez, U. Ortiz; Yacaman, M. Jose

    2006-01-01

    The elaboration of nanoparticles has become a field of great interest for many scientists. Nanoparticles possess different properties than those ones shown in bulk materials. Shape memory alloys have the exceptional ability to recuperate its original shape by simple heating after being 'plastically' deformed. When this process is originated, important changes in properties, as mechanical and electrical, are developed in bulk material. If there is possible to obtain nanoparticles with shape memory effects, these nanoparticles could be used in the elaboration of nanofluids with the ability to change their electrical and thermal conductivity with temperature changes, i.e., smart nanofluids. In this work, some recent results and discussion of TiNi nanoparticles obtained by ion beam milling directly from a TiNi wire with shape memory are presented. The nanoparticles obtained by this process are about 2 nm of diameter with a composition of Ti-41.0 at.% Ni. Synthesized nanoparticles elaborated by this method have an ordered structure

  13. Tiny Devices Project Sharp, Colorful Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Displaytech Inc., based in Longmont, Colorado and recently acquired by Micron Technology Inc. of Boise, Idaho, first received a Small Business Innovation Research contract in 1993 from Johnson Space Center to develop tiny, electronic, color displays, called microdisplays. Displaytech has since sold over 20 million microdisplays and was ranked one of the fastest growing technology companies by Deloitte and Touche in 2005. Customers currently incorporate the microdisplays in tiny pico-projectors, which weigh only a few ounces and attach to media players, cell phones, and other devices. The projectors can convert a digital image from the typical postage stamp size into a bright, clear, four-foot projection. The company believes sales of this type of pico-projector may exceed $1.1 billion within 5 years.

  14. From tiny microalgae to huge biorefineries

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia, L.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are an emerging research field due to their high potential as a source of several biofuels in addition to the fact that they have a high-nutritional value and contain compounds that have health benefits. They are also highly used for water stream bioremediation and carbon dioxide mitigation. Therefore, the tiny microalgae could lead to a huge source of compounds and products, giving a good example of a real biorefinery approach. This work shows and presents examples of experimental...

  15. Results of irradiation of vegetable seeds before sowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daskalov, Kh; Maltseva, S [Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Tsentralna Lab. po Obshta Genetika

    1980-01-01

    Effect of low dose /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-irradiation upon seeds of tomatoes, pepper and egg-plants has been investigated for 10 years. It is established that low doses of irradiation stimulate the seeds sprouting, development of plants as a result of the seeds irradiated and early ripeness of the plants.

  16. SproutCore web application development

    CERN Document Server

    Keating, Tyler

    2013-01-01

    Written as a practical, step-by-step tutorial, Creating HTML5 Apps with SproutCore is full of engaging examples to help you learn in a practical context.This book is for any person looking to write software for the Web or already writing software for the Web. Whether your background is in web development or in software development, Creating HTML5 Apps with SproutCore will help you expand your skills so that you will be ready to apply the software development principles in the web development space.

  17. Indexes of the common reed's seed vitality from water-bodies of the Chernobyl exclusive zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavnuk, A.A.; Shevtsova, N.L.; Gudkov, D.I.; Levchenko, Ya.I.

    2010-01-01

    Investigation of the common reed's seed vitality (vegetation of 2009) from flood-plain water-bodies with different level of radionuclide contamination was carried out. Decrease in indexes of seed's vitality and abnormalities in seed dynamic sprouting was noticed. Dose-response relationship of germination, germinating force, survival rate of seeds of plants was determined. (authors)

  18. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from...

  19. HIF-2α Expression Regulates Sprout Formation into 3D Fibrin Matrices in Prolonged Hypoxia in Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauta, Tessa D; Duyndam, Monique C A; Weijers, Ester M; van Hinsbergh, Victor M W; Koolwijk, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    During short-term hypoxia, Hypoxia Inducible Factors (particular their subunits HIF-1α and HIF-2α) regulate the expression of many genes including the potent angiogenesis stimulator VEGF. However, in some pathological conditions chronic hypoxia occurs and is accompanied by reduced angiogenesis. We investigated the effect of prolonged hypoxia on the proliferation and sprouting ability of human microvascular endothelial cells and the involvement of the HIFs and Dll4/Notch signaling. Human microvascular endothelial cells (hMVECs), cultured at 20% oxygen for 14 days and seeded on top of 3D fibrin matrices, formed sprouts when stimulated with VEGF-A/TNFα. In contrast, hMVECs precultured at 1% oxygen for 14 days were viable and proliferative, but did not form sprouts into fibrin upon VEGF-A/TNFα stimulation at 1% oxygen. Silencing of HIF-2α with si-RNA partially restored the inhibition of endothelial sprouting, whereas HIF-1α or HIF-3α by si-RNA had no effect. No involvement of Dll4/Notch pathway in the inhibitory effect on endothelial sprouting by prolonged hypoxia was found. In addition, hypoxia decreased the production of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), needed for migration and invasion, without a significant effect on its inhibitor PAI-1. This was independent of HIF-2α, as si-HIF-2α did not counteract uPA reduction. Prolonged culturing of hMVECs at 1% oxygen inhibited endothelial sprouting into fibrin. Two independent mechanisms contribute. Silencing of HIF-2α with si-RNA partially restored the inhibition of endothelial sprouting pointing to a HIF-2α-dependent mechanism. In addition, reduction of uPA contributed to reduced endothelial tube formation in a fibrin matrix during prolonged hypoxia.

  20. Profitability of Precommericially Thinning Oak Stump Sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Dwyer; Daniel C. Dey; William B. Kurtz

    1993-01-01

    Thinning oak stump sprouts to a single stem at an early age will increase diameter growth of the released stem. However, percommercial thinning represents a substantial investment which must be carried for many years before any returns are realized. We estimated the incremental gains in yield and the present net worth for five crop-tree release treatments of 5-yr-old...

  1. Profitability of precommercially thinning oak stump sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Dwyer; Daniel C. Dey; William B. Kurtz

    1993-01-01

    Thinning oak stump sprouts to a single stem at an early age will increase diameter growth of the released stem. However, precommercial thinning represents a substantial investment which must be carried for many years before any returns are realized. We estimated the incremental gains in yield and the present net worth for five crop-tree release treatments of 5-year-old...

  2. Sprouting of dormant buds on border trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.R., Jr. Trimble; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1970-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of silvicultura1 systems used in managing Appalachian hardwoods, we are studying degrade of border trees surrounding harvest-cut openings made in the patch cutting and group selection systems. One facet of this research dealt with determining what portion of visually evident dormant buds on border tree boles sprouted when the openings were cut...

  3. Origin of buds, branches, and sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Recent research shows that survivor trees in rural, managed forests rebuild broken crowns with new branches and foliage after ice storm injury (Shortle et al. 2014). Veteran trees in historic parks and landscapes show repeated cycles of crown loss and recovery (Fay 2002). Crown rebuilding or reiteration from sprouts is a physiological response with architectural...

  4. Light influence in the nutritional composition of Brassica oleracea sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, A P; Santos, J; Brito, N V; Peixoto, V; Carvalho, Rosa; Rosa, E; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-07-01

    Brassica sprouts are considered a healthy food product, whose nutritional quality can be influenced by several factors. The aim of this work was to monitor the nutritional composition changes promoted by different sprouting conditions of four varieties of Brassica oleracea (red cabbage, broccoli, Galega kale and Penca cabbage). Sprouts were grown under light/darkness cycles and complete darkness. Standard AOAC methods were applied for nutritional value evaluation, while chromatographic methods with UV-VIS and FID detection were used to determine the free amino acids and fatty acids, respectively. Mineral content was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Sprouts composition revealed them as an excellent source of protein and dietary fiber. Selenium content was one of the most distinctive feature of sprouts, being the sprouting conditions determinant for the free amino acid and fatty acids profile. The use of complete darkness was beneficial to the overall nutritional quality of the brassica sprouts studied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of selenium enrichment on seed potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. TURAKAINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Se enrichment on the growth of sprouts and growth vigour of seed potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. stored for 2 to 8 months. Our results showed that Se did not affect the duration of dormancy. At the high addition levels (0.075 and 0.9 mg kg-1 quartz sand, Se had some positive effects on the growth of sprouts. The peak sprouting capacity was reached after 8 months of storage. The highest Se enrichment of tubers had some positive effect on the free putrescine content in sprouts. However, the better growth of sprouts was not consistent with the growth vigour of the seed tubers and yield produced. Selenium had no significant effect on the malondialdehyde (MDA or on the concentration of soluble sugars and starch. No significant effect of added Se on the early growth, stem and tuber numbers and yield parameters was observed. Irrespective of the level of Se added, the highest yield was harvested from plants produced with seed tubers stored for 6 months. Our results indicate that Se had some positive effects on the growth of sprouts, but it had no consistent effect on the growth vigour of seed tubers.;

  6. Nanocellulose, a tiny fiber with huge applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abitbol, Tiffany; Rivkin, Amit; Cao, Yifeng; Nevo, Yuval; Abraham, Eldho; Ben-Shalom, Tal; Lapidot, Shaul; Shoseyov, Oded

    2016-06-01

    Nanocellulose is of increasing interest for a range of applications relevant to the fields of material science and biomedical engineering due to its renewable nature, anisotropic shape, excellent mechanical properties, good biocompatibility, tailorable surface chemistry, and interesting optical properties. We discuss the main areas of nanocellulose research: photonics, films and foams, surface modifications, nanocomposites, and medical devices. These tiny nanocellulose fibers have huge potential in many applications, from flexible optoelectronics to scaffolds for tissue regeneration. We hope to impart the readers with some of the excitement that currently surrounds nanocellulose research, which arises from the green nature of the particles, their fascinating physical and chemical properties, and the diversity of applications that can be impacted by this material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevention of Preharvest Sprouting through Hormone Engineering and Germination Recovery by Chemical Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonogaki, Mariko; Nonogaki, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Vivipary, germination of seeds on the maternal plant, is observed in nature and provides ecological advantages in certain wild species, such as mangroves. However, precocious seed germination in agricultural species, such as preharvest sprouting (PHS) in cereals, is a serious issue for food security. PHS reduces grain quality and causes economical losses to farmers. PHS can be prevented by translating the basic knowledge of hormone biology in seeds into technologies. Biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), which is an essential hormone for seed dormancy, can be engineered to enhance dormancy and prevent PHS. Enhancing nine- cis -epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a rate-limiting enzyme of ABA biosynthesis, through a chemically induced gene expression system, has successfully been used to suppress germination of Arabidopsis seeds. The more advanced system NCED positive-feedback system, which amplifies ABA biosynthesis in a seed-specific manner without chemical induction, has also been developed. The proofs of concept established in the model species are now ready to be applied to crops. A potential problem is recovery of germination from hyperdormant crop grains. Hyperdormancy induced by the NCED systems can be reversed by inducing counteracting genes, such as NCED RNA interference or gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis genes. Alternatively, seed sensitivity to ABA can be modified to rescue germination using the knowledge of chemical biology. ABA antagonists, which were developed recently, have great potential to recover germination from the hyperdormant seeds. Combination of the dormancy-imposing and -releasing approaches will establish a comprehensive technology for PHS prevention and germination recovery.

  8. Exogenous ethylene inhibits sprout growth in onion bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufler, Gebhard

    2009-01-01

    Exogenous ethylene has recently gained commercial interest as a sprouting inhibitor of onion bulbs. The role of ethylene in dormancy and sprouting of onions, however, is not known. A cultivar (Allium cepa 'Copra') with a true period of dormancy was used. Dormant and sprouting states of onion bulbs were treated with supposedly saturating doses of ethylene or with the ethylene-action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Initial sprouting was determined during storage at 18 degrees C by monitoring leaf blade elongation in a specific size class of leaf sheaths. Changes in ATP content and sucrose synthase activity in the sprout leaves, indicators of the sprouting state, were determined. CO(2) and ethylene production of onion bulbs during storage were recorded. Exogenous ethylene suppressed sprout growth of both dormant and already sprouting onion bulbs by inhibiting leaf blade elongation. In contrast to this growth-inhibiting effect, ethylene stimulated CO(2) production by the bulbs about 2-fold. The duration of dormancy was not significantly affected by exogenous ethylene. However, treatment of dormant bulbs with 1-MCP caused premature sprouting. Exogenous ethylene proved to be a powerful inhibitor of sprout growth in onion bulbs. The dormancy breaking effect of 1-MCP indicates a regulatory role of endogenous ethylene in onion bulb dormancy.

  9. Sprouting inhibition of rhizomes by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmy, Nazly; Chosdu, Rahayu

    1985-01-01

    Sprouting inhibition by gamma irradiation to prolong the storage life of 4 species of rhizomes, namely curcuma domestica, kaemferia galanga, curcuma xanthoriza and curcuma aeruginosa, has been carried out. Two groups of samples were used, freshly harvested rhizomes and fresh rhizomes which have been stored for about two weeks. The samples were packed in a plastic net bag, each contained about 100 grams of rhizomes. Irradiation was carried out at room temperature at the doses of 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 kGy. Post irradiation storage was done at room temperature with relative humidity ranging between 85 and 95%. The results showed that irradiation doses of 0.06 to 0.08 kGy was sufficient to inhibit sprouting of freshly harvested rhizomes and prolonged its storage life for 6 weeks, while in the other group sprouting still occured at the dose of 0.25 kGy. Irradiation dose up to 0.25 kGy did not cause significant effect on moisture and volatile oil contents, as well as volatile oil characteristics of the samples. About 50% of weight losses were found either in irradiated or unirradiated samples after being stored for 8 weeks. Odour and texture were evaluated organoleptically while mould growth and insect damage were observed visually. (author)

  10. Fate of Salmonella enterica and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Cells Artificially Internalized into Vegetable Seeds during Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Da; Cui, Yue; Walcott, Ronald; Chen, Jinru

    2018-01-01

    Vegetable seeds contaminated with bacterial pathogens have been linked to fresh-produce-associated outbreaks of gastrointestinal infections. This study was undertaken to observe the physiological behavior of Salmonella enterica and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) cells artificially internalized into vegetable seeds during the germination process. Surface-decontaminated seeds of alfalfa, fenugreek, lettuce, and tomato were vacuum-infiltrated with four individual strains of Salmonella or EHEC. Contaminated seeds were germinated at 25°C for 9 days, and different sprout/seedling tissues were microbiologically analyzed every other day. The internalization of Salmonella and EHEC cells into vegetable seeds was confirmed by the absence of pathogens in seed-rinsing water and the presence of pathogens in seed homogenates after postinternalization seed surface decontamination. Results show that 317 (62%) and 343 (67%) of the 512 collected sprout/seedling tissue samples were positive for Salmonella and EHEC, respectively. The average Salmonella populations were significantly larger ( P seed coat tissues, followed by the root tissues, but the mean EHEC populations from all sampled tissue sections were statistically similar, except in pregerminated seeds. Three Salmonella and two EHEC strains had significantly larger cell populations on sprout/seedling tissues than other strains used in the study. Salmonella and EHEC populations from fenugreek and alfalfa tissues were significantly larger than those from tomato and lettuce tissues. The study showed the fate of internalized human pathogens on germinating vegetable seeds and sprout/seedling tissues and emphasized the importance of using pathogen-free seeds for sprout production. IMPORTANCE The internalization of microorganisms into vegetable seeds could occur naturally and represents a possible pathway of vegetable seed contamination by human pathogens. The present study investigated the ability of two important

  11. Structural analysis of an off-grid tiny house

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calluari, Karina Arias; Alonso-Marroquín, Fernando

    2017-06-01

    The off-grid technologies and tiny house movement have experimented an unprecedented growth in recent years. Putting both sides together, we are trying to achieve an economic and environmental friendly solution to the higher cost of residential properties. This solution is the construction of off-grid tiny houses. This article presents a design for a small modular off-grid house made by pine timber. A numerical analysis of the proposed tiny house was performed to ensure its structural stability. The results were compared with the suggested serviceability limit state criteria, which are contended in the Australia Guidelines Standards making this design reliable for construction.

  12. LAMURU CORN SEED QUALITY IN DIFFERENT STORE PERIOD WITH SOME STUDIES METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmawati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research quality of seed executed at green house and laboratory of seed, Hall of Research of Crop of Serealia Maros in May 2013. Maize used is Lamuru coming from warehouse of UPBS Balitsereal with period keep 12 and 23 month. Research conducted by using RCD four replicated. Result: test by using sand media show percentage germinate, speed growth, length root, amount root of secondary, long of shoot and seed of sprout do not differ significant. Examinatied by piercing paper test to show percentage germinated, speed growth and dry wight of sprout differ significant, while length root, amount secondary root and seed shoot not significant. Use of Brick gravel test to show same result by is piercing paper test except dry weight of sprout at brick gravel test to show result which do not significant. Seed with period keep 12 month have percentage germinate, dry weight sprout, long root primary, sum up root secondary and same seed length at all method test, while speed growth to differ significant at piercing paper test. Seed with period keep 23 month show different result by 12 month. Dry weight sprout, long root primary, sum up root secondary and seed length shoot show same result, while speed growth show different result at third test method. Percentage germinate obtained by piercing paper test to differ significant by brick is gravel test and sand media.

  13. Sprout inhibition in roots, tubers and bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna C, P.C.

    1992-05-01

    The treatment with ionizing radiations to low dose impedes that appear sprouts in the tubers (potatoes); bulbs (onion and garlic) and in roots like the ginger and the yucca. The purpose is to inhibit the germination during the process of manipulation and storage, and this way to avoid the lost ones post crop of these products. The radiation dose required to inhibit the germination goes to depend of: the development conditions, the differences of variety, of the storage state of the bulbs and the conditions of cured and storage. (Author)

  14. Sprouted barley for dairy cows: Nutritional composition and digestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 4-unit dual-flow continuous culture fermentor system was used to assess the effect of supplementing 7-d sprouted barley or barley grain with an haylage or pasture diet on nutrient digestibility and methane output. Barley grain was sprouted in climate controlled growth chambers, to be used as part ...

  15. Struggling to Hear? Tiny Devices Can Keep You Connected

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Human Services Search form Search Site Menu Home Latest Issue Past Issues Special Issues Subscribe May 2018 Print this issue Struggling to Hear? Tiny Devices Can Keep You Connected En español Send us ...

  16. Technology of irradiation processing for checking garlic sprouting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuntang

    1999-01-01

    Study on technology of irradiation processing for checking garlic sprouting was carried out. The results are as follows. 1. the suitable irradiation time of garlic could be prolonged when the garlic was preserved at low temperature (-2 +- 1 degree C). When the garlic was stored till the end of the year and then irradiated, the sprouting could be checked effectively. When the garlic was stored till the next March, the effect of sprouting inhibition decreased; 2. When garlic was irradiated at suitable time and then subsequently stored at low temperature, the effect of sprouting inhibition was the same as that with cold storage before irradiation. However, if the cold storage period was rather long, the effect was not as good as that with cold storage after irradiation; 3. Browning of irradiated garlic did not occur when the garlic was preserved at low temperature (-2 +- 1 degree C), indicating that the browning of sprout and bud was caused by higher storage temperature

  17. Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Fava Bean Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Koharu; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kawarazaki, Kai; Izawa, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2016-06-01

    Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Bacterial bioeffectors modify bioactive profile and increase isoflavone content in soybean sprouts (Glycine max var Osumi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algar, Elena; Ramos-Solano, Beatriz; García-Villaraco, Ana; Sierra, M Dolores Saco; Gómez, M Soledad Martín; Gutiérrez-Mañero, F Javier

    2013-09-01

    The effect of two bacterial strains to enhance bioactive contents (total phenolic compounds, total flavonoid compounds and isoflavones) and antioxidant activity on 3-day-old soybean sprouts were investigated. To identify bacterial determinants responsible for these effects, viable and UV-treated strains were delivered to wounded seeds at different concentration. Multivariate analysis performed with all the evaluated parameters indicated the different effectiveness of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia N5.18 and Pseudomonas fluorescens N21.4 based on different structural and metabolic determinants for each. N21.4 increased total phenolics and isoflavones from the genistein family, while N5.18 triggered biosynthesis of daidzein and genistein families coupled to a decrease in total phenolics, suggesting different molecular targets in the phenilpropanoid pathway. Only extracts from N5.18 treated seeds showed an improved antioxidant activity according to the β-carotene bleaching prevention method. In summary, bioeffectors from both bacterial strains are effective tools to improve soybean sprouts quality; structural elicitors from N5.18 also enhanced antioxidant activity, being the best alternative for further development of a biotechnological procedure.

  19. Effects of sprouting and salt stress on polyphenol composition and antiradical activity of einkorn, emmer and durum wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Stagnari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Germination is related with improvements of nutritional value of seeds, since it promotes accumulation of health-promoting phytochemicals. However, only few studies have investigated on phytochemicals accumulation during sprouting under sub-optimal conditions. Thus, we investigated the effect of salinity during germination of an einkorn (TMoM, an emmer (TDiZ and a durum wheat (TDuC genotype on the total polyphenols (TPC, free- and bound-phenolic acids [PAs; i.e. caffeic acid, syringic acid, Pcoumaric acid, trans-ferulic acid, and salicylic acid] contents and antiradical activity (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity; TEAC of sprouts and wheatgrass. The following NaCl treatments were applied: 0 (control, 25, 50 and 100 mM NaCl concentration throughout the whole experiment, or 50 and 100 mM NaCl until sprout stage and then 0 mM until wheatgrass stage (recovery treatments. TMoM showed higher total bound-PAs both in sprouts and wheatgrass with respect to the other Triticum genotypes (+25% and 24%, respectively as well as of total bound-PAs and bound-SA in the recovery treatments. Moderate salt stress significantly increased all the investigated variables in TDiZ. Salt stress induced higher TPC and TEAC as well as total free-PAs values till 50 mM NaCl in TDuC, whilst significantly lowered total bound-PAs due to the negative variation of both P-CA (-84% and trans-FA (-81% acids. Results indicate that salinity during germination could be efficiently modulated to improve the nutritional quality of sprouts, wheatgrass and cereal-based products.

  20. Sprout inhibition of onions by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, A.K.; Hossain, M.A.; Choudhury, M.S.U.; Matin, M.A.; Amin, M.R.; Hossain, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    Onions of a set grown local variety were gamma irradiated in the dose range of 2-8 Krad. The irradiated onions were then stored in 10 lb. bags and in single layer at an average ambient temperature of 83 0 F and 79% relative humidity. Radiation doses of 4 Krad and above were completely inhibitory to sprouting of onions. Weight loss and rot incidence were markedly reduced in irradiated samples up to 10 months in both jute bag and single layer storage. An analysis of the cost benefit revealed that commercial irradiation of onions is economically feasible in Bangladesh if post-irradiation of storage extends for a period of over 6 months. (author)

  1. Effect of electron beam irradiation on seed germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seunghee; Bae, Youngmin [Changwon Univ., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Effect of electron beam irradiation on seed germination was investigated in this research. Electron beam of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy was irradiated to the seeds of lettuce, green onion and cucumber, and the irradiated seeds were incubated at 25 .deg. Cn Nitsch medium solidified with 0.2% Phytagel. Germination percentage and the length of the sprouts were determined after 72 hours. Germination percentage of lettuce seeds was greatly reduced by the irradiation, and that of the green onion and cucumber were moderately reduced or unchanged by the irradiation. Although average length of the lettuce sprouts was reduced severely, that of the green onion and cucumber was unchanged or moderately reduced. Conclusively, electron beam irradiation might be a useful way of disinfecting some plant seeds including green onion and cucumber.

  2. Effect of electron beam irradiation on seed germination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seunghee; Bae, Youngmin

    2013-01-01

    Effect of electron beam irradiation on seed germination was investigated in this research. Electron beam of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy was irradiated to the seeds of lettuce, green onion and cucumber, and the irradiated seeds were incubated at 25 .deg. Cn Nitsch medium solidified with 0.2% Phytagel. Germination percentage and the length of the sprouts were determined after 72 hours. Germination percentage of lettuce seeds was greatly reduced by the irradiation, and that of the green onion and cucumber were moderately reduced or unchanged by the irradiation. Although average length of the lettuce sprouts was reduced severely, that of the green onion and cucumber was unchanged or moderately reduced. Conclusively, electron beam irradiation might be a useful way of disinfecting some plant seeds including green onion and cucumber

  3. Endogenous neurotrophin-3 promotes neuronal sprouting from dorsal root ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu-Yang; Gu, Pei-Yuan; Chen, Shi-Wen; Gao, Wen-Wei; Tian, Heng-Li; Lu, Xiang-He; Zheng, Wei-Ming; Zhuge, Qi-Chuan; Hu, Wei-Xing

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated the role of endogenous neurotrophin-3 in nerve terminal sprouting 2 months after spinal cord dorsal root rhizotomy. The left L1-5 and L7-S2 dorsal root ganglia in adult cats were exposed and removed, preserving the L6 dorsal root ganglia. Neurotrophin-3 was mainly expressed in large neurons in the dorsal root ganglia and in some neurons in spinal lamina II. Two months after rhizotomy, the number of neurotrophin-3-positive neurons in the spared dorsal root ganglia and the density of neurite sprouts emerging from these ganglia were increased. Intraperitoneal injection of an antibody against neurotrophin-3 decreased the density of neurite sprouts. These findings suggest that endogenous neurotrophin-3 is involved in spinal cord plasticity and regeneration, and that it promotes axonal sprouting from the dorsal root ganglia after spinal cord dorsal root rhizotomy.

  4. Effects of silver nanoparticles on radish sprouts: Root growth reduction and modifications in the nutritional value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia eZuverza-Mena

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reports indicate that silver nanoparticles (nAg are toxic to vegetation, but little is known about their effects in crop plants. This study examines the impacts of nAg on the physiology and nutritional quality of radish (Raphanus sativus sprouts. Seeds were germinated and grown for five days in nAg suspensions at 0, 125, 250, and 500 mg/L. Seed germination and seedling growth were evaluated with traditional methodologies; the uptake of Ag and nutrients was quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES and changes in macromolecules were analyzed by infrared (IR spectroscopy. None of the nAg concentrations reduced seed germination. However, the water content (% of the total weight was reduced by 1.62%, 1.65%, and 2.54% with exposure to 125, 250 and 500 mg/L, respectively, compared with the control. At 500 mg/L, the root and shoot lengths were reduced by 47.7% and 40%, with respect to the control. The seedlings exposed to 500 mg/L had 901±150 mg Ag/kg dry wt and significantly less Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Mn, and Zn, compared with the control. The infrared spectroscopy analysis showed changes in the bands corresponding to lipids (3000 – 2800 cm-1, proteins (1550 - 1530, and structural components of plant cells such as lignin, pectin and cellulose. These results suggest that nAg could significantly affect the growth, nutrient content and macromolecule conformation in radish sprouts, with unknown consequences for human health.

  5. Untargeted Metabolomics Reveals Predominant Alterations in Lipid Metabolism Following Light Exposure in Broccoli Sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariateresa Maldini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of vegetables belonging to the family Brassicaceae (e.g., broccoli and cauliflower is linked to a reduced incidence of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The molecular composition of such plants is strongly affected by growing conditions. Here we developed an unbiased metabolomics approach to investigate the effect of light and dark exposure on the metabolome of broccoli sprouts and we applied such an approach to provide a bird’s-eye view of the overall metabolic response after light exposure. Broccoli seeds were germinated and grown hydroponically for five days in total darkness or with a light/dark photoperiod (16 h light/8 h dark cycle. We used an ultra-performance liquid-chromatography system coupled to an ion-mobility, time-of-flight mass spectrometer to profile the large array of metabolites present in the sprouts. Differences at the metabolite level between groups were analyzed using multivariate statistical analyses, including principal component analysis and correlation analysis. Altered metabolites were identified by searching publicly available and in-house databases. Metabolite pathway analyses were used to support the identification of subtle but significant changes among groups of related metabolites that may have gone unnoticed with conventional approaches. Besides the chlorophyll pathway, light exposure activated the biosynthesis and metabolism of sterol lipids, prenol lipids, and polyunsaturated lipids, which are essential for the photosynthetic machinery. Our results also revealed that light exposure increased the levels of polyketides, including flavonoids, and oxylipins, which play essential roles in the plant’s developmental processes and defense mechanism against herbivores. This study highlights the significant contribution of light exposure to the ultimate metabolic phenotype, which might affect the cellular physiology and nutritional value of broccoli sprouts. Furthermore, this study highlights the

  6. Storage changes in the quality of sound and sprouted flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, R; Nagi, H P; Sharma, S; Sekhon, K S

    1993-07-01

    Sound and sprouted flours (24 and 48 hr) from bread wheat (WL-1562), durum wheat (PBW-34) and triticale (TL-1210) were stored at room temperature (34.8 degrees C) and relative humidity (66.7%) for 0, 45, 90 and 135 days to assess the changes in physico-chemical and baking properties. Protein, gluten, sedimentation value, starch and crude fat decreased during storage in all the samples; however, the decrease was more in sprouted flours. Free amino acids, proteolytic activity, diastatic activity and damaged starch decreased with increase in storage period. Total sugars and free fatty acids increased more rapidly in the flours of sprouted wheats during 135 days of storage. Loaf volume of breads decreased during storage in both sound and sprouted flour but the mean percent decrease in loaf volume was more in stored sound flours. Aging of sprouted flour for 45 days improved the cookie and cake making properties but further storage was of no value for these baked products. Chapati making properties of stored sound and sprouted flour were inferior to that of fresh counterparts.

  7. Preliminary investigations on TINI based distributed instrumentation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezboruah, T.; Kalita, M.

    2006-04-01

    A prototype web enabled distributed instrumentation system is being proposed in the Department of Electronics Science, Gauhati University, Assam, India. The distributed instrumentation system contains sensors, legacy hardware, TCP/IP protocol converter, TCP/IP network Ethernet, Database Server, Web/Application Server and Client PCs. As part of the proposed work, Tiny Internet Interface (TINI, TBM390: Dallas Semiconductor) has been deployed as TCP/IP stack, and java programming language as software tools. A feature supported by Java, that is particularly relevant to the distributed system is its applet. An applet is a java class that can be downloaded from the web server and can be run in a context application such as web browser or an applet viewer. TINI has been installed as TCP/IP stack, as it is the best suited embedded system with java programming language and it has been uniquely designed for communicating over One Wire Devices (OWD) over network. Here we will discuss the hardware and software aspects of TINI with OWD for the present system. (author)

  8. Virginia Tech researchers find tiny bubbles a storehouse of knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Fluid inclusions -- tiny bubbles of fluid or vapor trapped inside rock as it forms-- are clues to the location of ores and even petroleum; and they are time capsules that contain insights on the power of volcanos and hints of life in the universe.

  9. influence of treatment of seed potato tubers with plant crude

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    essential oil extracts, on the growth and yield of the potato crop. Treatments consisted of .... Seed potato tuber treatment with plant crude essential oil extracts. 297 were pipetted on to ..... and clove essential oils on sprout suppression in potato ...

  10. Synthetic seed technology for encapsulation and regrowth of in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, various concentrations of sodium alginate solutions and calcium chloride solutions were tested in order to optimize the size, shape and texture of alginate synthetic seeds or beads for Acacia hybrid bud-sprouting. The shoot buds and axillary buds from in vitro Acacia hybrids, as explants were encapsulated with ...

  11. Investigation of pea seeds treated by 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepold, J.; Soos, T.

    1979-01-01

    Two types of pea seeds were treated by 137 Cs. Radiation doses of 10 and 15 gray, resp. were applied at a dose rate of 480 gray per hour. Both the rate of sprouting and the number of plants per m 2 of the irradiated seeds exceeded the corresponding parameters of the control. The total quantity of the crop and its content of protein and water were higher, too. (L.E.)

  12. Studies on sprout inhibition of onions by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.; Srirangarajan, A.N.; Limaye, S.P.

    1975-01-01

    Sprout inhibition of onions by gamma irradiation was found to be influenced by the physiological state of the bulbs at the time of irradiation, radiation dose and the storage temperature after irradiation. Sprouting was minimal during storage at ambient temperature (26 to 32 0 C) while exposure to low temperature (4 to 20 0 C) or widely fluctuating diernal temperature (20 0 C min to 30 0 C max) accelerated it. Six to nine Krad inhibited sprouting during storage under the above conditions only if the bulbs were irradiated within a fortnight of harvest when they were in the dormant state. Twenty-five Krad caused a transient stimulation of sprouting regardless of the time of irradiation while 6 to 12 Krad only stimulated sprouting when the time interval between harvest and irradiation exceeded three weeks. Irradiation at all dose levels cause discoloration of the growth centre, the extent of which was minimal in bulbs exposed to low doses soon after harvest and in those stored at ambient temperature. (author)

  13. Haplotype Analysis of the Pre-harvest Sprouting Resistance Locus Phs-A1 Reveals a Causal Role of TaMKK3-A in Global Germplasm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shorinola, O.; Balcárková, Barbora; Hyles, J.; Tibbits, J. F. G.; Hayden, M. J.; Holušová, Kateřina; Valárik, Miroslav; Distelfeld, A.; Torada, A.; Barrero, R. A.; Uauy, C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, SEP 13 (2017), č. článku 1555. ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-07164S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : triticum-aestivum l. * controlling seed dormancy * white-grained wheat * pcr-based markers * chromosome 4a * winter-wheat * major qtl * abscisic-acid * bread wheat * genes * dormancy * seed * pm19 * TaMKK3-A * pre-harvest sprouting * Triticum aestivum * haplotype Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.298, year: 2016

  14. Origins of tiny neutrino mass and large flavor mixings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haba, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Active neutrino masses are extremely smaller than those of other quarks and leptons, and there are large flavor mixings in the lepton sector, contrary to the quark sector. They are great mysteries in the standard model, but also excellent hints of new physics beyond the standard model. Thus, questions 'What is an origin of tiny neutrino mass?' and 'What is an origin of large lepton flavor mixings?' are very important. In this paper, we overview various attempts to solve these big questions. (author)

  15. Survival of pathogens of Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea Gemifera group) in crop residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.; Vlaswinkel, M.E.T.; Groenenboom-de Haas, B.H.; Kastelein, P.; Hoof, van R.A.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Krijger, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Mycosphaerella brassicicola (ringspot), Alternaria brassicicola and A. brassicae (dark leaf spot) and Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (black spot) can infect leaves of Brussels sprouts resulting in yield losses. Infections of outer leaves of sprouts cause severe losses in quality. Crop

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on some physiological processes during maiz. seed germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerin, V; Ilieva, T [Vissh Selskostopanski Inst., Plovdiv (Bulgaria)

    1976-01-01

    The investigation was carried out with the SK/sub 4/ and Knezha 2L-403 hybrids. Dry seeds were irradiated by ..gamma..-rays in doses of 500 R, 750 R and 1000 R radioactive cesium 137. The effect of the individual ..gamma..-ray doses on sprout and root growth, respiration rate and peroxidase activity was followed up. Results showed that seed irradiation by a 500R dose had a stimulating effect on sprout and root growth, while the 750 R and 1000 R did not differ significantly from the ccntrol. Seed irradiation by 500 R reduced the respiration rate of the roots and sprouts, while both treatments with higher doses gave results similar to the control. The changes in the respiration enzyme peroxidase were in correlation with the changes in respiration rate.

  17. S-Carvone as a natural potato sprout inhibiting, fungistatic and bacteristatic compound.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhaven, K.; Poolman, B.; Smid, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    S-Carvone, a common monoterpene found in caraway (Carum carvi L.), inhibits the sprouting of potatoes very efficiently at continuous low head space concentrations. The length growth of potato sprouts was inhibited within 2 days following exposure to S-carvone. Sprouts were able to convert S-carvone

  18. Research on sprout inhibition effect of refrigerated garlic by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xuan; He Jianzhong; Li Ruijun

    2005-01-01

    This paper researches the sprout inhibition effect by irradiation on refrigerated garlic. The results shows that, the garlic is still in the period of dormancy within 7 days after taken out from the refrigerated warehouse, and irradiation have a good sprout inhibition effect on it. The irradiation dose is 40-90 Gy, the same as that of the post harvest irradiation treatment on garlic. Refrigerate the Zhongmu Garlic (at -2 degree C-0 degree C) until the middle ten days of February the next year, place it at the room temperature (10 degree C-15 degree C) for 1-7 days after taking it out of the warehouse, then use 60 Co γ-ray to irradiate it until the absorbed dose reaches 40-90 Gy, the sprout inhibition effect can be realized. The test also indicates that the deposited time after taking out of the refrigerated warehouse is crucial to the sprout inhibition effect of refrigerated garlic by irradiation. (authors)

  19. Oak sprouts grow better than seedlings under drought stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pietras, Justyna; Stojanović, Marko; Knott, R.; Pokorný, Radek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2016), s. 529-535 ISSN 1971-7458 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0267 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : drought stress * sap flow * transpiration * biomass Production * sessile Oak * sprout * seedling Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.623, year: 2016

  20. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Baenas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo, a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus.

  1. Effects of Growth Hormones on Sprouting and Rooting of Jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to assess the effect of growth hormone on sprouting and rooting ability of Jatropha curcas (L). Stem cuttings from mature plants were treated with two types of growth hormones: Naphthalene Acetic Acid and Indole-3-Butyric Acid while the untreated cuttings were used as control.

  2. Delta Healthy Sprouts: Participants' Diet and Food Environment at Baseline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local food environments influence the nutrition and health of area residents. This baseline analysis focuses on the food environments of women who participated in the Delta Healthy Sprouts project, a randomized, controlled, comparative trial designed to test the efficacy of two Maternal, Infant, an...

  3. Bud initiation and optimum harvest date in Brussels sprouts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, A.P.; Sukkel, W.

    1999-01-01

    For six cultivars of Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera) with a decreasing degree of earliness, or optimum harvest date, the time of bud initiation was determined during two seasons. Fifty percent of the plants had initiated buds between 60 and 75 days after planting (DAP) in 1994

  4. Growth and Survival of Northern Hardwood Sprouts After Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Perala

    1974-01-01

    Root collar sprouting of nine hardwoods was measured annually after a prescribed burn. Basswood, red oak, and paper birch were the most vigorous sprouters; sugar maple and yellow birch the least; and American elm, bur oak, ironwood and red maple were intermediate. Parent tree diameter influenced spreading.

  5. Effect of sprouting and pre-gelatinization on the physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sprouted (96-hour) and pregelatinized (780C) sorghum grains were milled and blended with graded proportion of pigeon-pea and used in formulating flaked breakfast cereal. A commercial ready-to-serve breakfast cereal served as product control. The flour blends and formulated products were subjected to the ...

  6. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A.; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E.

    2016-01-01

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus. PMID:26901196

  7. Sprouted barley for dairy cows: Is it worth it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouted grains have gained renewed interest among grazing dairy farmers in response to high grain prices, grain scarcity (in the organic dairy sector) and challenges in producing high-quality forages. This interest has been spurred by high-profile advertising by companies selling the systems, as we...

  8. Laser welding of Ti-Ni type shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Akio; Araki, Takao; Uchihara, Masato; Honda, Keizoh; Kondoh, Mitsuaki.

    1990-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to apply the laser welding to the joining of a shape memory alloy. Butt welding of a Ti-Ni type shape memory alloy was performed using 10 kW CO 2 laser. The laser welded specimens showed successfully the shape memory effect and super elasticity. These properties were approximately identical with those of the base metal. The change in super elasticity of the welded specimen during tension cycling was investigated. Significant changes in stress-strain curves and residual strain were not observed in the laser welded specimen after the 50-time cyclic test. The weld metal exhibited the celler dendrite. It was revealed by electron diffraction analysis that the phase of the weld metal was the TiNi phase of B2 structure which is the same as the parent phase of base metal and oxide inclusions crystallized at the dendrite boundary. However, oxygen contamination in the weld metal by laser welding did not occur because there was almost no difference in oxygen content between the base metal and the weld metal. The transformation temperatures of the weld metal were almost the same as those of the base metal. From these results, laser welding is applicable to the joining of the Ti-Ni type shape memory alloy. As the application of laser welding to new shape memory devices, the multiplex shape memory device of welded Ti-50.5 at % Ni and Ti-51.0 at % Ni was produced. The device showed two-stage shape memory effects due to the difference in transformation temperature between the two shape memory alloys. (author)

  9. The science of tiny things: physics at the nanoscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copp, Stacy Marla [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-07

    Nanoscience is the study of tiny objects that are only a billionth of a meter in size, or about 1,000 to 10,000 times smaller than a human hair. From the electronics in your smartphone to the molecular motors that are in your body’s cells, nanoscientists study and design materials that span a huge range of subjects, from physics to chemistry to biology. I will talk about some of what we do at LANL’s Center for Integrated Technologies, as well as how I first got interested in nanoscience and how I became a nanoscientist at LANL.

  10. Optimization of the composition of the powdered cereal sprouts mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumbas-Šaponjac Vesna T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sprouts of cereals have received significant attention as functional food due to their nutritional and functional value. Consumption of sprouts has become increasingly popular among people interested in improving and maintaining their health status by changing dietary habits. Cereal grains contain several classes of phytochemicals, i.e. phenolics, chlorophylls, and carotenoids. However, their nutritional and chemical profile is altered and improved during germination. The purpose of this study was to find the best ratio of the powdered wheat (WS, oat (OS and barley (BS sprouts for designing the cereal sprout mixture (CSM with the highest total phenolic content (TPh and antioxidant capacity (AC, using Simplex-Centroid experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM. Single- and multi-response optimizations showed that OS did not contribute to TPh or AC values of CSM and, therefore, was not included in any of the compositions of the optimized CSM. Single-response optimizations showed that the highest TPh was found for CSM containing 82% BS and 18% WS, while the best AC was found for pure BS. The predicted ratio of cereal sprout powders in CSM obtained by multi-response optimization was: 96% BS and 4% WS. This mixture possessed the highest predicted TPh and AC (372.32 mg GAE/100 g, 549.99 μmol TE/100 g, respectively, which was confirmed to be in accordance with the experimental values. Based on the results obtained in this study, a designed CSM is proposed as a convenient ingredient of functional food products, dietary supplements and nutraceuticals.

  11. Involvement of bacterial quorum-sensing signals in spoilage of bean sprouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Maria; Andersen, Jens Bo; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial communication signals, acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs), were extracted from samples of commercial bean sprouts undergoing soft-rot spoilage. Bean sprouts produced in the laboratory did not undergo soft-rot spoilage and did not contain AHLs or AHL-producing bacteria, although...... the bacterial population reached levels similar to those in the commercial sprouts, 10(8) to 10(9) CFU/g. AHL-producing bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae and pseudomonads) were isolated from commercial sprouts, and strains that were both proteolytic and pectinolytic were capable of causing soft-rot spoilage in bean...... sprouts. Thin-layer chromatography and liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed the presence of N-3-oxo-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone in spoiled bean sprouts and in extracts from pure cultures of bacteria. During normal spoilage, the pH of the sprouts increased due to proteolytic...

  12. Immunodetection and quantification of insulin-like antigens in sprouts: development of an efficient functional food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Pathak

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hormone Insulin is a drug used for the treatment of type 1 and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Insulin used in this experiment is derived from bovine and pork pancreas, as well as through recombinant technology. Patients with diabetes mellitus face an inability to utilize glucose from blood due to either less secretion of insulin, or the inability of the insulin to act; As a result of this glucose levels in the blood rise. The prevention and treatment of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus one is world’s major public health issues. Natural alternatives have a big role to play in this field. This study aims at discovering functional foods rich in Insulin like proteins. Here we are reporting Insulin-like proteins synthesizing during the embryo development stage of Glycine max: soybean, Vigna radiata: moong and Vigna unguiculata: cowpea seeds. Hence, germination transforms these seeds containing human insulin like proteins.Methods: In our investigation we have provided protein extraction with Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The plant materials weighing 1g were crushed in mortar and pestle, and the protein from the plant materials was extracted with 20 ml of 0.05 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.6. The suspensions were centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 15 min, and the clear supernatants were subjected to Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the detection of insulin-like proteins. We have used USDA nutritional data sources for the analysis of new products. Results: Our results demonstrate that Insulin is not expressed in dry mature dormant seeds, but is expressed only during the embryo development stage. Dry mature dormant seeds and the seeds germinated for 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours, and 96 hours of Glycine max, Vigna radiata and Vigna unguiculata, were investigated for expression of insulin through immunodetection using anti-insulin antibodies. Dry dormant seeds of all the three seeds showed zero expression at 450 nm for insulin, while

  13. Pilot plant experiments for the sprout inhibition of onions by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalman, B.; Kiss, I.; Farkas, J.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out with varieties grown from seed and sown onions, the former playing a decisive role in the onion production in Hungary. The results of pilot plant experiments proved the favourable and at the same time loss-decreasing effect of irradiation. During drying of onions treated and stored on large scale the yield-increasing effect of irradiation has been proved. In case of varieties grown from sown onions the saving of raw materials was almost 24 and 7%, respectively. In case of varieties grown from seed onions the yield-increase due to irradiation could not be observed each year. The decisive advantage of radiation treatment is direct yield-increase. However, the investigations of dried onions proved that the characteristics of the still not visible sprouts were affected favourably by irradiation, too. The consumer response to the irradiated onions has been favourable for several years. Though the consumers had a free choice, they distinctly insisted on buying irradiated onions on the basis of their favourable experience in using such onions. In order to utilize the results, an equipment has been designed for the economic operation of the onion-irradiating plants. (P.J.)

  14. Genome-wide association study of pre-harvest sprouting resistance in Chinese wheat founder parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS is a major abiotic factor affecting grain weight and quality, and is caused by an early break in seed dormancy. Association mapping (AM is used to detect correlations between phenotypes and genotypes based on linkage disequilibrium (LD in wheat breeding programs. We evaluated seed dormancy in 80 Chinese wheat founder parents in five environments and performed a genome-wide association study using 6,057 markers, including 93 simple sequence repeat (SSR, 1,472 diversity array technology (DArT, and 4,492 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. The general linear model (GLM and the mixed linear model (MLM were used in this study, and two significant markers (tPt-7980 and wPt-6457 were identified. Both markers were located on Chromosome 1B, with wPt-6457 having been identified in a previously reported chromosomal position. The significantly associated loci contain essential information for cloning genes related to resistance to PHS and can be used in wheat breeding programs.

  15. Ultrahigh Sensitivity Piezoresistive Pressure Sensors for Detection of Tiny Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongwei; Wu, Kunjie; Xu, Zeyang; Wang, Zhongwu; Meng, Yancheng; Li, Liqiang

    2018-05-31

    High sensitivity pressure sensors are crucial for the ultra-sensitive touch technology and E-skin, especially at the tiny pressure range below 100 Pa. However, it is highly challenging to substantially promote sensitivity beyond the current level at several to two hundred kPa -1 , and to improve the detection limit lower than 0.1 Pa, which is significant for the development of pressure sensors toward ultrasensitive and highly precise detection. Here, we develop an efficient strategy to greatly improve the sensitivity near to 2000 kPa -1 by using short channel coplanar device structure and sharp microstructure, which is systematically proposed for the first time and rationalized by the mathematic calculation and analysis. Significantly, benefiting from the ultrahigh sensitivity, the detection limit is improved to be as small as 0.075 Pa. The sensitivity and detection limit are both superior to the current levels, and far surpass the function of human skin. Furthermore, the sensor shows fast response time (50 μs), excellent reproducibility and stability, and low power consumption. Remarkably, the sensor shows excellent detection capacity in the tiny pressure range including LED switching with a pressure of 7 Pa, ringtone (2-20 Pa) recognition, and ultrasensitive (0.1 Pa) electronic glove. This work represents a performance and strategic progress in the field of pressure sensing.

  16. Swimming of a Tiny Subtropical Sea Butterfly with Coiled Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, David; Karakas, Ferhat; Maas, Amy

    2017-11-01

    Sea butterflies, also known as pteropods, include a variety of small, zooplanktonic marine snails. Thecosomatous pteropods possess a shell and swim at low Reynolds numbers by beating their wing-like parapodia in a manner reminiscent of insect flight. In fact, previous studies of the pteropod Limacina helicina have shown that pteropod swimming hydrodynamics and tiny insect flight aerodynamics are dynamically similar. Studies of L. helicina swimming have been performed in polar (0 degrees C) and temperate conditions (12 degrees C). Here we present measurements of the swimming of Heliconoides inflatus, a smaller yet morphologically similar pteropod that lives in warm Bermuda seawater (21 degrees C) with a viscosity almost half that of the polar seawater. The collected H. inflatus have shell sizes less than 1.5 mm in diameter, beat their wings at frequencies up to 11 Hz, and swim upwards in sawtooth trajectories at speeds up to approximately 25 mm/s. Using three-dimensional wing and body kinematics collected with two orthogonal high speed cameras and time-resolved, 2D flow measurements collected with a micro-PIV system, we compare the effects of smaller body size and lower water viscosity on the flow physics underlying flapping-based swimming by pteropods and flight by tiny insects.

  17. (Heckel) seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UTILISATEUR

    Garcinia kola seeds to six different hormonal pre-germination treatments. This consisted of ... Thus, seed dormancy in this case is not a coat- imposed .... development of the cultivation of the species. The cause .... Hormonal regulation of seed ...

  18. Tiny changes in local order identify the cluster formation threshold in model fluids with competing interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomont, Jean-Marc; Costa, Dino; Bretonnet, Jean-Louis

    2017-06-14

    We use Monte Carlo simulations to carry out a thorough analysis of structural correlations arising in a relatively dense fluid of rigid spherical particles with prototype competing interactions (short-range attractive and long-range repulsive two-Yukawa model). As the attraction strength increases, we show that the local density of the fluid displays a tiny reversal of trend within specific ranges of interparticle distances, whereupon it decreases first and increases afterwards, passing through a local minimum. Particles involved in this trend display, accordingly, distinct behaviours: for a sufficiently weak attraction, they seem to contribute to the long-wave oscillations typically heralding the formation of patterns in such fluids; for a stronger attraction, after the reversal of the local density has occurred, they form an outer shell of neighbours stabilizing the existing aggregation seeds. Following the increment of attraction, precisely in correspondence of the local density reversal, the local peak developed in the structure factor at small wavevectors markedly rises, signalling-in agreement with recent structural criteria-the onset of a clustered state. A detailed cluster analysis of microscopic configurations fully validates this picture.

  19. Efficiency of application of instantaneous radiation of seeds by plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyganov, A.R.; Gordeev, Yu.A.; Poddubnaya, O.V.

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of application of instantaneous (impulse) radiation of seeds of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) and oat (Avena sativa) by plasma was analyzed. Research results showed that presowing treatment of seeds with instantaneous helium radiation in course of 0,01 seconds (the total duration of seed treatment with plasmatron ion source impulses – one second). In course of the practical experiments there was proved possibility of application impulse radiation technologies in modern agricultural production. Seed germination capacity exceeded the control variants on 14%. Results of influence of applied irradiation on length of sprouts, length of roots and their germinating ability were presented. Irradiation efficiency developed in course of plant vegetation. In accordance with research results and accumulated experimental material on presowing seed treatment with impulses of low temperature helium plasma could make it possible to obtain yields with higher capacity and quality with the minimal expenses for seed treatment

  20. Stress transmission through Ti-Ni alloy, titanium and stainless steel in impact compression test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, T; Doi, H; Kobayashi, E; Hamanaka, H; Tanabe, Y; Bonfield, W

    2000-06-01

    Impact stress transmission of Ti-Ni alloy was evaluated for biomedical stress shielding. Transformation temperatures of the alloy were investigated by means of DSC. An impact compression test was carried out with use of split-Hopkinson pressure-bar technique with cylindrical specimens of Ti-Ni alloy, titanium and stainless steel. As a result, the transmitted pulse through Ti-Ni alloy was considerably depressed as compared with those through titanium and stainless steel. The initial stress reduction was large through Ti-Ni alloy and titanium, but the stress reduction through Ti-Ni alloy was more continuous than titanium. The maximum value in the stress difference between incident and transmitted pulses through Ti-Ni alloy or titanium was higher than that through stainless steel, while the stress reduction in the maximum stress through Ti-Ni alloy was statistically larger than that through titanium or stainless steel. Ti-Ni alloy transmitted less impact stress than titanium or stainless steel, which suggested that the loading stress to adjacent tissues could be decreased with use of Ti-Ni alloy as a component material in an implant system. Copyright 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers

  1. Detection of QTLs for traits associated with pre-harvest sprouting resistance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liangzi; Hayashi, Kazuki; Tokui, Mayumi; Mori, Masahiko; Miura, Hideho; Onishi, Kazumitsu

    2016-03-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is one of the serious problems for wheat production, especially in rainy regions. Although seed dormancy is the most critical trait for PHS resistance, the control of heading time should also be considered to prevent seed maturation during unfavorable conditions. In addition, awning is known to enhance water absorption by the spike, causing PHS. In this study, we conducted QTL analysis for three PHS resistant related traits, seed dormancy, heading time and awn length, by using recombinant inbred lines from 'Zenkouji-komugi' (high PHS resistance) × 'Chinese Spring' (weak PHS resistance). QTLs for seed dormancy were detected on chromosomes 1B (QDor-1B) and 4A (QDor-4A), in addition to a QTL on chromosome 3A, which was recently cloned as TaMFT-3A. In addition, the accumulation of the QTLs and their epistatic interactions contributed significantly to a higher level of dormancy. QDor-4A is co-located with the Hooded locus for awn development. Furthermore, an effective QTL, which confers early heading by the Zenkouji-komugi allele, was detected on the short arm of chromosome 7B, where the Vrn-B3 locus is located. Understanding the genetic architecture of traits associated with PHS resistance will facilitate the marker assisted selection to breed new varieties with higher PHS resistance.

  2. Sprout inhibition of potatoes by electron irradiation, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Junichiro; Hiraoka, Eiichi; Okamoto, Shinichi; Fujishiro, Masatoshi; Kanazawa, Tamotsu; Ohnishi, Tokuhiro; Tsujii, Yukio; Hori, Shiro

    1982-01-01

    Sprouting of potatoes are inhibited usually by the gamma-ray irradiation. The buds of potatoes exist in a very thin layer near surface of each tuber. So the inhibition will be performed sufficiently by surface irradiation using electron beams. To irradiate all surfaces of each potato uniformly, the authors prepare a new apparatus which is a conveyer passing under an electron beam scanner of accelerator rotating the potatoes by many rotating rollers. The sprout inhibition experiment of potatoes was performed by following three methods to obtain the performance of this apparatus, and the results were compared. 1) turn over irradiation method --- potatoes were arranged in one layer in plastic baskets and were irradiated on the conveyor. After irradiation, the potatoes were turned over and were irradiated again. 2) rotating irradiation method --- potatoes were rotated on the rotating roller apparatus set on the conveyer and were passed under the electron beam scanner. 3) rotating irradiation method with an improved rotating roller apparatus --- the rotating rollers have many protuberances on their surface to irradiate all of potato surface more uniform. 550 keV electron beams by Cockcroft-Walton type accelerator were used for the irradiation and the irradiated dose was 5 to 20 krad. 40 pieces of potates, ''Danshaku'' variety yielded in June 1981, were irradiated for each dose in the beginning of August. Prior to these irradiation experiments, the dose and dose uniformity were checked by the agar color dosimeters. After the irradiation, potatoes were stored in natural condition and their sprouting was observed. The potatoes irradiated by the improved rotating roller apparatus were almost completely sprout-inhibited by 20 krad irradiation. (author)

  3. Mechanisms of lumen formation during sprouting angiogenesis in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Gebala, V. M.

    2016-01-01

    During development, vascular networks expand following a process known as sprouting angiogenesis. New vascular branches arise from pre-existing vessels through the coordinated migration and proliferation of endothelial cells, and eventually connect to form new vascular loops. The functionality of these new vessel segments is dependent on the opening of a central lumen to allow perfusion. While mechanisms of lumen formation during the establishment of the primary vasculature by vasculogenesis ...

  4. SCADA SYSTEM SIMULATION USING THE TINY TIGER 2 DEVELOPMENT BOARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGAPE C.P.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new design for a surveillance and control system of a medium voltage cell. The accent is on the acquisition of information of the consumer’s state, the instantaneous current consumption, power and voltage apparent to the consumer. The proposed design is based on Wilke Technology development board at its basis being a Tiny-tiger 2 Multitasking Microcontroller. This computer has 2 MByte or 4 MByte Flash for programming, and 1 MByte SRAM with backup input for data. On the software’s behalf we managed to create a Delphi Interface which communicates with the serial port on the development board. The interface takes information about the consumer and its capacity to load with voltage.

  5. ESTIMATION OF BIOMASS COMMERCIAL SPROUTS OF Ilex paraguariensis A.ST.-HIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Vuaden

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at developing some models that allow estimating the biomass of commercial green shoots of Ilex paraguariensis after pruning, at 10 years-old. In September 2007, 40 Ilex paraguariensis were pruned. One year after the first pruning, in 2008, they were evaluated dendrometrically and their biomass was determined from the commercial harvest of 16 individuals. To the others, the commercial biomass was estimated by the sum of the biomass of shoots.  The result obtained is that the biomass of commercial sprouts can be estimated as a function of the length of the rolls sprouting, with specific models for sprouts short, simple and compound average sprouts and long sprouts compounds. The models used to estimate the biomass of commercial sprouts using the length sum rolls and rolls of the length as independent variables underestimate the values of biomass with a margin of error of only 2.6%.

  6. Malt sprout, an underused beer by-product with promising potential for the growth and dehydration of lactobacilli strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejas, Luján; Romano, Nelson; Moretti, Ana; Mobili, Pablo; Golowczyc, Marina; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea

    2017-12-01

    Malt sprout (MS), a by-product of the malt industry obtained by removing rootlets and sprouts from the seed of germinated barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.), was used as culture, dehydration and storage medium of three strains of lactobacilli: Lactobacillus salivarius CM-CIDCA 1231B and CM-CIDCA 1232Y and Lactobacillus plantarum CIDCA 83114. The three strains were grown in MS and MS supplemented with 20% w/v fructo-oligosaccharides (MS FOS). Bacterial growth was determined by registering the decrease of pH and by plate counting. Comparable results with those of microorganisms grown in MRS (controls) were observed in terms of lag times, ΔpH and acidification rates. Furthermore, during fermentation, a significant increase of DP6 (FOS with degree of polymerization 6) was observed at expenses of inulin and DP7, probably indicating their hydrolysis. A concomitant decrease of DP3, sucrose and monosaccharides was also observed, as result of their bacterial consumption during growth. The presence of FOS in the fermented media protected microorganisms during freeze-drying and storage, as no decrease of culturability was observed after 60 days at 4 °C (> 10 8 CFU/mL). Using MS appears as an innovative strategy for the production of lactobacilli at large scale, supporting their use for the elaboration of functional foods containing prebiotics and probiotics.

  7. Applications of immunomagnetic capture and time-resolved fluorescence to detect outbreak Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella in alfalfa sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shu-I.; Gordon, Marsha; Fett, William F.; Gehring, Andrew G.; Irwin, Peter L.

    2004-03-01

    Commercially available alfalfa seeds were inoculated with low levels (~ 4 CFU/g) of pathogenic bacteria. The inoculated seeds were then allowed to sprout in sterile tap water at 22°C. After 48 hours, the irrigation water and sprouts were separately transferred to bovine heart infusion (BHI) media. The microbes in the BHI samples were allowed to grow for 4 hours at 37°C and 160 rpm. Specific immunomagnetic beads (IMB) were then applied to capture the E.coli O157 and/or Salmonella in the growth media. Separation and concentration of IMB-captured pathogens were achieved using magnetic separators. The captured E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp were further tagged with europium (Eu) labeled anti-E. coli O157 antibodies and samarium (Sm) labeled anti-Salmonella antibodies, respectively. After washing, the lanthanide labels were extracted out from the complexes by specific chelators to form strongly fluorescent chelates. The specific time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) associated with Eu or Sm was measured to estimate the extent of capture of the E. coli O157 and Salmonella, respectively. The results indicated that the approach could detect E. coli O157 and Salmonella enterica from the seeds inoculated with ~ 4 CFU/g of the pathogens. Non-targeted bacteria, e.g., Aeromonas and Citrobacter exhibited essentially no cross reactivity. Since the pathogen detection from the sprouts was achieved within 6 hours, the developed methodology could be use as a rapid, sensitive and specific screening process for E. coli O157 and Salmonella enterica in this popular salad food.

  8. Native Plants and Seeds, Oh My! Fifth Graders Explore an Unfamiliar Subject While Learning Plant Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauley, Lauren; Weege, Kendra; Koomen, Michele Hollingsworth

    2016-01-01

    Native plants are not typically the kinds of plants that are used in elementary classroom studies of plant biology. More commonly, students sprout beans or investigate with fast plants. At the time the authors started their plant unit (November), the school-yard garden had an abundance of native plants that had just started seeding, including…

  9. Effects on nitrogen fertilization on dill (Anethum graveolens L.) seed and carvone production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wander, J.G.N.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    Research was conducted to remedy the lack of information on the effect of nitrogen fertilization on the seed and carvone (a potato sprouting inhibitor) production of dill under Dutch conditions. From two trials conducted in 1995 on fertile loamy soils it can be concluded that dill is able to

  10. Control of weight loss and sprouting of ginger rhizome in storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paull, R.E.; Chen, N.J.; Goo, T.T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Methods were investigated to control weight loss and sprouting of stored ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale Rosc), including waxing, sprout inhibitors, and gamma irradiation. Rhizomes stored for 3 months at 22°C and 70% RH lost about 20% weight. Waxing of the rhizome did not reduce water loss. Some wax treatments increased the number and length of sprouts. Preharvest application of maleic hydrazide significantly increased the number and reduced the length of sprouts. Postharvest CIPC application significantly reduced the length of sprouts. Vacuum infiltration increased the effectiveness of CIPC in reducing sprout length. Gamma and X-ray irradiation also reduced sprout number and length. Minimum doses of gamma radiation for sprout control was 25 Gy and 120 to 150 Gy for X-ray irradiation if the rhizome was stored for more than 3 months at 22°C. At higher dose of irradiation (500 Gy) was required if complete sprout growth control was needed for storage periods < 3 months at 22.degree. Suberization occurred during curing at 22°C, but the suberin layer did not completely protect the cut surface

  11. POTENCY OF MUNG BEAN SPROUT AS ENZYME SOURCE (α-AMILASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suarni Suarni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mung bean sprouts contain enzyme of α-amylase. A research on the effect of the sprout age and sprout varieties to the α-amylase activity and the protein level has been carried out in Laboratorium Bioproses BB Pascapanen Bogor using  Full Factorial Random Design with two factorials (1 sprout age; 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days as well as (2 varieties of mung bean; Kenari, Bhakti and Parkit.  Parameters observed were water and protein content of sprout, pH, activities of α-amylase, and dissolved protein in the enzyme extract. Results showed that the optimum temperature of α-amylase was 30 ºC, the highest protein level of sprout and the highest activity of α-amylase were given by the sprout of Bhakti at the age of three days. The water content in sprout was 65.23%, the protein level was 12.93 %, the dissolved protein in the enzyme extract was 2.88743 mg/mL, pH was 5.45, and the activity of enzyme was 4.09 Unit/mL. The potency of enzyme found in mung bean can be utilized in industries processing materials having high starch content, such as maize flour.   Keywords;  sprout of mung bean, activity of α-amylase, protein

  12. Short-lag spatial coherence beamforming of photoacoustic images for enhanced visualization of prostate brachytherapy seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Kuo, Nathanael; Song, Danny Y.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2013-01-01

    Prostate brachytherapy, administered by implanting tiny radioactive seeds to treat prostate cancer, currently relies on transrectal ultrasound imaging for intraoperative visualization of the metallic seeds. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging has been suggested as a feasible alternative to ultrasound imaging due to its superior sensitivity to metal surrounded by tissue. However, PA images suffer from poor contrast when seeds are distant from the light source. We propose a transperineal light delivery ...

  13. Prospect of Ti-Ni shape memory alloy applied in reactor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Yuangang

    1995-01-01

    Shape memory effect mechanism, physical property, composition, manufacturing process and application in mechanical structure of Ti-Ni shape memory alloy are introduced. Applications of Ti-Ni shape memory alloy in reactor structure are prospected and some necessary technical conditions of shape memory alloy applied in the reactor structure are put forward initially

  14. Non-thermal plasma treatment as a new biotechnology in relation to seeds, dry fruits, and grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Božena, ŠERÁ; Michal, ŠERÝ

    2018-04-01

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) technology offers wide potential use in the food technology, the same as in the unconventional agriculture. Some seeds, dry fruits, grains and their sprouts gain popularity in the culinary industry as ‘raw seeds’. This review paper draws the current research and trends in NTP pre-treatment of selected seeds/fruits that are useable as ‘raw seeds’. The main applications are connected with activation of seed germination, early growth of seedlings, microbial inactivation of seed/fruit surface, and possibility of increasing quantity of biological active compounds in sprouting seeds. The paper presents a list of plant species that are able to be used as ‘raw seed’ including current information about main type of NTP treatment implemented.

  15. Tiny Ultraviolet Polarimeter for Earth Stratosphere from Space Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevodovskyi, P. V.; Morozhenko, O. V.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Ivakhiv, O.; Geraimchuk, M.; Zbrutskyi, O.

    2015-09-01

    One of the reasons for climate change (i.e., stratospheric ozone concentrations) is connected with the variations in optical thickness of aerosols in the upper sphere of the atmosphere (at altitudes over 30 km). Therefore, aerosol and gas components of the atmosphere are crucial in the study of the ultraviolet (UV) radiation passing upon the Earth. Moreover, a scrupulous study of aerosol components of the Earth atmosphere at an altitude of 30 km (i.e., stratospheric aerosol), such as the size of particles, the real part of refractive index, optical thickness and its horizontal structure, concentration of ozone or the upper border of the stratospheric ozone layer is an important task in the research of the Earth climate change. At present, the Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) of Ukraine, the National Technical University of Ukraine "KPI"and the Lviv Polytechnic National University are engaged in the development of methodologies for the study of stratospheric aerosol by means of ultraviolet polarimeter using a microsatellite. So fare, there has been created a sample of a tiny ultraviolet polarimeter (UVP) which is considered to be a basic model for carrying out space experiments regarding the impact of the changes in stratospheric aerosols on both global and local climate.

  16. A tiny tick can cause a big health problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel John

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are tiny crawling bugs in the spider family that feed by sucking blood from animals. They are second only to mosquitoes as vectors of human disease, both infectious and toxic. Infected ticks spread over a hundred diseases, some of which are fatal if undetected. They spread the spirochete (which multiplies in the insect's gut with a subsequent bite to the next host. We describe the only reported cases of peri ocular tick bite from India that presented to us within a span of 3 days and its management. Due suspicion and magnification of the lesions revealed the ticks which otherwise masqueraded as small skin tags/moles on gross examination. The ticks were firmly latched on to the skin and careful removal prevented incarceration of the mouth parts. Rickettsial diseases that were believed to have disappeared from India are reemerging and their presence has recently been documented in at least 11 states in the country. Among vector borne diseases, the most common, Lyme disease, also known as the great mimicker, can present with rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, multiple sclerosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, cardiac manifestations, encephalitis, and mental illness, to name some of the many associations. Common ocular symptoms and signs include conjunctivitis, keratitis, uveitis, and retinitis. Early detection and treatment of tick borne diseases is important to prevent multi system complications that can develop later in life.

  17. SMS Security System on Mobile Devices Using Tiny Encryption Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelan, M. S.; Husein, A. M.; Harahap, M.; Aisyah, S.

    2018-04-01

    The development of telecommunications technology is so rapid has given such great benefits. With the telecommunication technology, distance and time no longer be a significant obstacle. One of the results of telecommunications technology that is well known is the Short Message Service. In this study developed an application on the mobile phone to modify the SMS message into ciphertext so that the information content of the SMS is not known by others. SMS delivery system for encrypting messages into ciphertext using a key that is entered by the sender then sends to the destination number. SMS reception system to decrypt it to others via SMS without the fear of information from these messages will be known by others. The method used in the system encrypt and decrypt the message is the algorithm Tiny Encryption Algorithm and implemented using the Java programming language. JDK 1.7 as the Java programming language ciphertext into plaintext using the key entered by the receiver and displays the original message to the recipient. This application can be used by someone who wants to send a confidential information and the Java compiler. Eclipse, a Java SDK and the Android SDK as a Java source code editor.

  18. Tiny timekeepers witnessing high-rate exhumation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xin; Moulas, Evangelos; Tajčmanová, Lucie

    2018-02-02

    Tectonic forces and surface erosion lead to the exhumation of rocks from the Earth's interior. Those rocks can be characterized by many variables including peak pressure and temperature, composition and exhumation duration. Among them, the duration of exhumation in different geological settings can vary by more than ten orders of magnitude (from hours to billion years). Constraining the duration is critical and often challenging in geological studies particularly for rapid magma ascent. Here, we show that the time information can be reconstructed using a simple combination of laser Raman spectroscopic data from mineral inclusions with mechanical solutions for viscous relaxation of the host. The application of our model to several representative geological settings yields best results for short events such as kimberlite magma ascent (less than ~4,500 hours) and a decompression lasting up to ~17 million years for high-pressure metamorphic rocks. This is the first precise time information obtained from direct microstructural observations applying a purely mechanical perspective. We show an unprecedented geological value of tiny mineral inclusions as timekeepers that contributes to a better understanding on the large-scale tectonic history and thus has significant implications for a new generation of geodynamic models.

  19. Purple Salt and Tiny Drops of Water in Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.

    1999-12-01

    Some meteorites, especially those called carbonaceous chondrites, have been greatly affected by reaction with water on the asteroids in which they formed. These reactions, which took place during the first 10 million years of the Solar System's history, formed assorted water-bearing minerals, but nobody has found any of the water that caused the alteration. Nobody, that is, until now. Michael Zolensky and team of scientists from the Johnson Space Center in Houston and Virginia Tech (Blacksburg, Virginia) discovered strikingly purple sodium chloride (table salt) crystals in two meteorites. The salt contains tiny droplets of salt water (with some other elements dissolved in it). The salt is as old as the Solar System, so the water trapped inside the salt is also ancient. It might give us clues to the nature of the water that so pervasively altered carbonaceous chondrites and formed oceans on Europa and perhaps other icy satellites. However, how the salt got into the two meteorites and how it trapped the water remains a mystery - at least for now.

  20. Technology of sprouting inhibition by irradiation for ginger storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Shuangqing; Wang Shoujing; Yu Zihou; Sun Shouyi; Zou Jiwan; Lei Peng

    2003-01-01

    The study results showed that the proper irradiation dose for ginger sprouting inhibition was 0.08-0.40 kGy and the maximum tolerable irradiation dose for ginger was 0.4 kGy. Treatment with proper irradiation combined with PE film package could keep ginger fresh after 120 days of storage and the fresh ratio was above 90%. In order to obtain good storage results, keeping lower absorbed dose ununiformity was necessary. Content of V C and Ca was not affected by the irradiation with 0.08-0.25 kGy

  1. The Sprouting Potential of Dormant Buds on the Bole of Pole-Size Sugar Maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Godman; Gilbert A. Mattson

    1970-01-01

    A study of epicormic sprouting in pole-size sugar maples showed that all visible dormant buds on the bole were capable of producing epicormic shoots. The buds were induced to break dormancy by applying four methods of crown removal known to stimulate sprouting. The amount of crown removed determined the year that the buds broke dormancy; this may be accounted for by...

  2. The Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Axon Guidance in Mossy Fiber Sprouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuta Koyama

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The question of whether mossy fiber sprouting is epileptogenic has not been resolved; both sprouting-induced recurrent excitatory and inhibitory circuit hypotheses have been experimentally (but not fully supported. Therefore, whether mossy fiber sprouting is a potential therapeutic target for epilepsy remains under debate. Moreover, the axon guidance mechanisms of mossy fiber sprouting have attracted the interest of neuroscientists. Sprouting of mossy fibers exhibits several uncommon axonal growth features in the basically non-plastic adult brain. For example, robust branching of axonal collaterals arises from pre-existing primary mossy fiber axons. Understanding the branching mechanisms in adulthood may contribute to axonal regeneration therapies in neuroregenerative medicine in which robust axonal re-growth is essential. Additionally, because granule cells are produced throughout life in the neurogenic dentate gyrus, it is interesting to examine whether the mossy fibers of newly generated granule cells follow the pre-existing trajectories of sprouted mossy fibers in the epileptic brain. Understanding these axon guidance mechanisms may contribute to neuron transplantation therapies, for which the incorporation of transplanted neurons into pre-existing neural circuits is essential. Thus, clarifying the axon guidance mechanisms of mossy fiber sprouting could lead to an understanding of central nervous system (CNS network reorganization and plasticity. Here, we review the molecular and cellular mechanisms of axon guidance in mossy fiber sprouting by discussing mainly in vitro studies.

  3. Predicting stump sprouting and competitive success of five oak species in southern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale R. Weigel; Chao-Ying Joanne Peng

    2002-01-01

    We measured 2188 oak trees (Quercus spp.) on the Hoosier National Forest in southern Indiana before and 1, 5, and 10 years after clear-cutting to determine the influence of parent tree age, diameter breast height, and site index on the probability that there was one or more living sprouts per stump: (i) 1 year after clear-cutting (sprouting...

  4. The spatial and temporal rooting pattern of Brussels sprouts and leeks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.L.; Booij, R.; Werf, van der A.

    1996-01-01

    Rooting intensity and root distribution of Brussels sprouts and leeks were assessed in field experiments and in the Wageningen Rhizolab, a rhizotron facility built in 1990, in relation to their contrasting N uptake behaviour (Brussels sprouts usually take up N rapidly after planting, resulting in

  5. Development of epicormic sprouts in Sitka spruce following thinning and pruning in south-east Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; R. James Barbour; Michael H. McClellan; Dean L. Parry

    2003-01-01

    The frequency and size of epicormic sprouts in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) were assessed in five 23-29 year-old mixed Sitka spruce-western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) stands that were uniformly thinned and pruned to 2.4, 3.7 and 5.2 m lift heights. Six to nine years after treatment sprouts were...

  6. Crown Release Increases Diameter Growth and Bole Sprouting of Pole-Size Yellow Birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayne G. Erdmann; Ralph M. Jr. Peterson

    1971-01-01

    During the second and third years after release, dominant, codominant, and intermediate pole-size yellow birch grew nearly twice as fast in diameter as unreleased poles. Growth rates were also related to foliage density. Epicormic sprouting was increased by crown release but most sprouting occured in the second log.

  7. Different aspects of S-carvone, a natural potato sprout growth inhibitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhaven, J.

    1995-01-01

    After harvest, potato tubers are usually stored at a temperature of 6-8°C in combination with the application of a synthetic sprout inhibitor. Frequently used sprout inhibitors are isopropyl N-phenyl-carbamate (propham or IPC), isopropyl N-(3-chlorophenyl)carbamate (chlorpropham or CIPC) or

  8. Rooting stem cuttings of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) utilizing hedged stump sprouts formed on recently felled trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew H. Gocke; Daniel J. Robinson

    2010-01-01

    The ability to root stem cuttings collected from hedged stump sprouts formed on recently felled trees was evaluated for 26 codominant northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) trees growing in Durham County, NC. Sprouting occurred, the same year as felling, on 23 of the 26 tree stumps and sprout number was significantly and positively correlated with stump diameter. The...

  9. Spark plasma sintering of TiNi nano-powders for biological application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Y Q; Gu, Y W; Shearwood, C; Luo, J K; Flewitt, A J; Milne, W I

    2006-01-01

    Nano-sized TiNi powder with an average size of 50 nm was consolidated using spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 800 deg. C for 5 min. A layer of anatase TiO 2 coating was formed on the sintered TiNi by chemical reaction with a hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) solution at 60 deg. C followed by heat treatment at 400 deg. C to enhance the bioactivity of the metal surface. Cell culture using osteoblast cells and a biomimetic test in simulated body fluid proved the biocompatibility of the chemically treated SPS TiNi

  10. Tortuous Microvessels Contribute to Wound Healing via Sprouting Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Diana C; Yu, Zhixian; Brighton, Hailey E; Bear, James E; Bautch, Victoria L

    2017-10-01

    Wound healing is accompanied by neoangiogenesis, and new vessels are thought to originate primarily from the microcirculation; however, how these vessels form and resolve during wound healing is poorly understood. Here, we investigated properties of the smallest capillaries during wound healing to determine their spatial organization and the kinetics of formation and resolution. We used intravital imaging and high-resolution microscopy to identify a new type of vessel in wounds, called tortuous microvessels. Longitudinal studies showed that tortuous microvessels increased in frequency after injury, normalized as the wound healed, and were closely associated with the wound site. Tortuous microvessels had aberrant cell shapes, increased permeability, and distinct interactions with circulating microspheres, suggesting altered flow dynamics. Moreover, tortuous microvessels disproportionately contributed to wound angiogenesis by sprouting exuberantly and significantly more frequently than nearby normal capillaries. A new type of transient wound vessel, tortuous microvessels, sprout dynamically and disproportionately contribute to wound-healing neoangiogenesis, likely as a result of altered properties downstream of flow disturbances. These new findings suggest entry points for therapeutic intervention. © 2017 The Authors.

  11. [Establishment of sprouting embryoid body model mimicking early embryonic vasculogenesis in human embryo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hua; Feng, You-Ji; Xie, Yi; Han, Jin-Lan; Wang, Zack; Chen, Tong

    2008-10-14

    To establish a sprouting embryoid body model mimicking early embryonic vasculogenesis in human embryo. Human embryonic stem were (hESCs) were cultured on the mouse embryo fibroblasts and then were induced to differentiate to form three-dimensional EB. The hEBs were cultured in media containing various angiogenesis-related factors: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), endostatin, angiostatin, and platelet factor (PF)-4 of different concentrations for 3 days to observe the sprouting of the hEBs. 3, 3, 3', 3'-tetramethylindo-carbocyanine perchlorate labeled acetylated low density lipoprotein (Dil-AcLDL) was added onto the hEBs foe 4 h Immunofluorescence assay was used to observe if Dil-AcLDL was absorbed and if CD31 was expressed so as to determine the existence of embryonic endothelial cells in the sprouting structures. The ideal culturing condition was analyzed. The differentiated EBs formed sprouting structures in the collagen I matrix containing VEGF and FGF. The sprouts among individual EBs were able to link to each other and form vascular network-like structures. In the presence of VEGF and FGF, the sprouts branching from the EBs assimilated Dil-AcLDL, expressed CD31 and formed a 3-dimensional cylindrical organization. The concentrations of growth factors ideally stimulating sprouting growth were 100 ng/ml of VEGF and 50 ng/ml of FGF. The networks among the EBs were abolished by the angiostatin, endostatin, and PF4. The sprouting from hEBs accumulates embryonic endothelial cells and the sprouting network-like structures are indeed endothelial in nature. Inducing of sprouting EBs is an ideal model that mimics early embryonic vasculogenesis in humans.

  12. Research on tomato seed vigor based on X-ray digital image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xueguan; Gao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xiu; Li, Cuiling; Wang, Songlin; Feng, Qinghun

    2016-10-01

    Seed size, interior abnormal and damage of the tomato seeds will affect the germination. The purpose of this paper was to study the relationship between the internal morphology, seed size and seed germination of tomato. The preprocessing algorithm of X-ray image of tomato seeds was studied, and the internal structure characteristics of tomato seeds were extracted by image processing algorithm. By developing the image processing software, the cavity area between embryo and endosperm and the whole seed zone were determined. According to the difference of area of embryo and endosperm and Internal structural condition, seeds were divided into six categories, Respectively for three kinds of tomato seed germination test, the relationship between seed vigor and seed size , internal free cavity was explored through germination experiment. Through seedling evaluation test found that X-ray image analysis provide a perfect view of the inside part of the seed and seed morphology research methods. The larger the area of the endosperm and the embryo, the greater the probability of healthy seedlings sprout from the same size seeds. Mechanical damage adversely effects on seed germination, deterioration of tissue prone to produce week seedlings and abnormal seedlings.

  13. Evaluation of essential oils in health and physiological quality of Schinus molle seeds and seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Cardoso Pereira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon nardus and Eucalyptus globules essential oils, in sanitary and physiological quality of Schinus molle L. seeds and seedlings. The seeds were treated with essential oils at concentrations of 10%, on 1 μL g-1, 20%, on 2 μL g-1, 30% , on 3 μL g-1 and control. After treatments, seeds were evaluated by sanity test, using filter paper method (“blotter test” and by germination test, where the seeds were placed between vermiculite substrate. For counts, sprouted and dead seeds were considered. Shoot length, root, total height and stem diameter were measured for seedlings evaluation. The use of citronella and mint essential oils reduced the incidence of different pathogens in S. molle seeds. Mint essential oil at 20% and 30% were effective to promote seeds germination. Eucalyptus essential oil in any concentration was efficient to increase seedlings growth.

  14. XPS characterization of surface and interfacial structure of sputtered TiNi films on Si substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Yongqing; Du Hejun; Zhang, Sam; Huang Weimin

    2005-01-01

    TiNi films were prepared by co-sputtering TiNi and Ti targets. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to study surface chemistry of the films and interfacial structure of Si/TiNi system. Exposure of the TiNi film to the ambient atmosphere (23 deg. C and 80% relatively humidity) facilitated quick adsorption of oxygen and carbon on the surface. With time, carbon and oxygen content increased drastically at the surface, while oxygen diffused further into the layer. After a year, carbon content at the surface became as high as 65.57% and Ni dropped below the detection limit of XPS. Depth profiling revealed that significant inter-diffusion occurred between TiNi film and Si substrate with a layer of 90-100 nm. The detailed bond changes of different elements with depth were obtained using XPS and the formation of titanium silicides at the interface were identified

  15. Crystal structure of TiNi nanoparticles obtained by Ar ion beam deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, A. Torres; Cuellar, E. Lopez; Mendez, U. Ortiz; Yacaman, M. Jose

    2008-01-01

    Nanoparticles are a state of matter that have properties different from either molecules or bulk solids, turning them into a very interesting class of materials to study. In the present work, the crystal structure of TiNi nanoparticles obtained by ion beam deposition is characterized. TiNi nanoparticles were obtained from TiNi wire samples by sputtering with Ar ions using a Gatan precision ion polishing system. The TiNi nanoparticles were deposited on a Lacey carbon film that was used for characterization by transmission electron microscopy. The nanoparticles were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, high-angle annular dark-field imaging, electron diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Results of nanodiffraction seem to indicate that the nanoparticles keep the same B2 crystal structure as the bulk material but with a decreased lattice parameter

  16. Galled by the Gallbladder?: Your Tiny, Hard-Working Digestive Organ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Galled by the Gallbladder? Your Tiny, Hard-Working Digestive Organ En español Send us your comments Most ... among the most common and costly of all digestive system diseases. By some estimates, up to 20 ...

  17. The kinetics of Cr layer coated on TiNi films for hydrogen absorption

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The effect of hydrogen absorption on electrical resistance with temperature ... pressure by thermal evaporation on the glass substrate at room temperature. ... and charging rate becomes faster in comparison to FeTi and TiNi thin films.

  18. The kinetics of Cr layer coated on TiNi films for hydrogen absorption

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of hydrogen absorption on electrical resistance with temperature for TiNi and TiNi–Cr thin films was investigated. The TiNi thin films of thickness 800 Å were deposited at different angles ( = 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 75°) under 10−5 Torr pressure by thermal evaporation on the glass substrate at room temperature.

  19. Results from irradiation of tobacco seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyrbev, B.; Velikov, S.

    1990-01-01

    A series of experiments was carried out in the Struma river valley with tobacco seedlings in the period 1984-1987. The seeds were gamma irradiated with 1000 R and 2000 R and sowed after 2-3 days with and without fertilizers. The results from phenological observations and biometrical measurements of the seedlings showed no positive radiation effect on the sprouting and phenophase transition. No significant changes between irradiated plants and controls were detected in the total weight of the seedlings, the number, height, length and width of the leaves, the yield and quality of tobacco. In conclusion the authors do not recommend gamma irradiation of tobacco seeds as a plant growth stimulation agent. 3 tabs

  20. TinyOS-based quality of service management in wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, N.; Anusuya-Rangappa, L.; Shirazi, B.A.; Huang, R.; Song, W.-Z.; Miceli, M.; McBride, D.; Hurson, A.; LaHusen, R.

    2009-01-01

    Previously the cost and extremely limited capabilities of sensors prohibited Quality of Service (QoS) implementations in wireless sensor networks. With advances in technology, sensors are becoming significantly less expensive and the increases in computational and storage capabilities are opening the door for new, sophisticated algorithms to be implemented. Newer sensor network applications require higher data rates with more stringent priority requirements. We introduce a dynamic scheduling algorithm to improve bandwidth for high priority data in sensor networks, called Tiny-DWFQ. Our Tiny-Dynamic Weighted Fair Queuing scheduling algorithm allows for dynamic QoS for prioritized communications by continually adjusting the treatment of communication packages according to their priorities and the current level of network congestion. For performance evaluation, we tested Tiny-DWFQ, Tiny-WFQ (traditional WFQ algorithm implemented in TinyOS), and FIFO queues on an Imote2-based wireless sensor network and report their throughput and packet loss. Our results show that Tiny-DWFQ performs better in all test cases. ?? 2009 IEEE.

  1. The martensitic transformation in Ti-rich TiNi shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, H.C.; Wu, S.K.; Lin, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The martensitic (Ms) transformation temperatures and their ΔH values of Ti 51 Ni 49 and Ti 50.5 Ni 49.5 alloys are higher than those of equiatomic or Ni-rich TiNi alloys. The Ti-rich TiNi alloys exhibit good shape recovery in spite of a great deal of second phase Ti 2 Ni or Ti 4 Ni 2 O existing around B2 grain boundaries. The nearly identical transformation temperatures indicate that the absorbed oxygen in Ti-rich TiNi alloys may react with Ti 2 Ni particles, instead of the TiNi matrix, to form Ti 4 Ni 2 O. Martensite stabilization can be induced by cold rolling at room temperature. Thermal cycling can depress the transformation temperatures significantly, especially in the initial 20 cycles. The R-phase transformation can be promoted by both cold rolling and thermal cycling in Ti-rich TiNi alloys due to introduced dislocations depressing the Ms temperature. The strengthening effects of cold rolling and thermal cycling on the Ms temperature of Ti-rich TiNi alloys are found to follow the expression Ms = To - KΔσ y . The K values are affected by different strengthening processes and related to the as-annealed transformation temperatures. The higher the as-annealed Ms (or As), the larger the K value. (orig.)

  2. Infestation of Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae on re-sprout of cotton plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Jurca Grigolli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The destruction of cotton crop residues at the end of the crop cycle is a key strategy for the phytosanitary crop management, since its off-season re-sprout can provide sites for feeding and oviposition of pests such as the boll weevil. This study aimed to evaluate the re-sprout capacity of cotton cultivars, as well as their infestation by Anthonomus grandis. A randomized blocks design, in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement, with three cultivars (FM 910, DeltaOPAL and NuOPAL, two mowing heights (10 cm and 20 cm and four replications, was used. Weekly evaluations were carried out for measuring the percentage of plant re-sprout for both mowing heights, percentage of flower buds infested by the boll weevil and number of adults per re-sprout. Plants mowed at 10 cm presented a lower sprout capacity and consequently less flower buds, reducing the boll weevil population density in the area, while plants mowed at 20 cm showed high re-sprouts rates, seven days after mowing. The FM 910 cultivar had the highest number of re-sprout plants, while the DeltaOPAL cultivar showed the highest number of flower buds and adults per plant, as well as the highest percentage of buds damaged by the boll weevil.

  3. Small GTPases are involved in sprout formation in human granulosa lutein cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Maximilian B; Daube, Stefanie; Keck, Christoph; Sator, Michael; Pietrowski, Detlef

    2013-04-01

    The corpus luteum (CL), develops from the ruptured follicle after gonadotropin stimulation. Based on intracellular reorganization of the cytoskeleton an human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) dependent sprouting and migration of luteinizing granulosa cells (LGCs) and endothelial cells is observed. Rho-GTPases are shown to be key regulators of cytoskeletal restructuring. In the present study we analyzed the role of Rho-GTPases in the sprouting activity of LGCs. We used the Rho-GTPase-inhibitors Toxin A and -B and the Cdc42-activator Bradykinin in a LGC-spheroid sprouting assay to determine the effect of these modulators in LGCs. Toxin A and Toxin B reduces sprout formation in LGC spheroids. However, the reduction is less than in hCG treated cells. The usage of Bradykinin demonstrates both, a reduction of sprouts in untreated spheroids and an increase of sprouting in previous hCG treated spheroids. The presented results let us suggest that small Rho-GTPases may regulate the sprouting activity of LGCs after stimulation by hCG and that this mechanism may play a role in CL formation.

  4. Effect of NaCl treatments on glucosinolate metabolism in broccoli sprouts*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rong-fang; Yuan, Gao-feng; Wang, Qiao-mei

    2013-01-01

    To understand the regulation mechanism of NaCl on glucosinolate metabolism in broccoli sprouts, the germination rate, fresh weight, contents of glucosinolates and sulforaphane, as well as myrosinase activity of broccoli sprouts germinated under 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mmol/L of NaCl were investigated in our experiment. The results showed that glucoerucin, glucobrassicin, and 4-hydroxy glucobrassicin in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts were significantly enhanced and the activity of myrosinase was inhibited by 100 mmol/L of NaCl. However, the total glucosinolate content in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts was markedly decreased although the fresh weight was significantly increased after treatment with NaCl at relatively low concentrations (20, 40, and 60 mmol/L). NaCl treatment at the concentration of 60 mmol/L for 5 d maintained higher biomass and comparatively higher content of glucosinolates in sprouts of broccoli with decreased myrosinase activity. A relatively high level of NaCl treatment (100 mmol/L) significantly increased the content of sulforaphane in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts compared with the control. These results indicate that broccoli sprouts grown under a suitable concentration of NaCl could be desirable for human nutrition. PMID:23365011

  5. Effect of Sprouting on invitro digestibility of some locally consumed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    Functional properties of lipid seed oil. (Lupinus metabilis) proteins and protein concentration. Journal of Food Science. 47: 491-. 497. (Taugo, L.C., Donangelo, C.M., Taugo, N.M.F. and. Knudsen-Bach, K.E. (2000)). Effect of heat treatment on nutritional quality of germinated legume seed J. Agric. Food Chem. 48: 2082-.

  6. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.

    Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production.

  7. Effect of pre-sowing laser biostimulation on seeds on white lupine growth under differentiated temperature conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podleśny, J.

    1999-01-01

    The experiment went on over 6 weeks. Plants emergence depended on the temperature and pre-sowing laser irradiation of seeds. White lupine seeds germinated better under normal thermal conditions than in chilling stress. Triple irradiation of seeds showed the best advantageous effect improving the quality of plant emergence, irrespective of thermal conditions. The plants sprouted about 3-4 days earlier in comparison to plants from not irradiated seeds. Laser light positively affected also the height of plants, root length and dry matter yield of roots and aboveground parts

  8. Isoflavones extracted from chickpea Cicer arietinum L. sprouts induce mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Ma, Hai-Rong; Gao, Yan-Hua; Zhang, Xue; Habasi, Madina; Hu, Rui; Aisa, Haji Akber

    2015-02-01

    Isoflavones are important chemical components of the seeds and sprouts of chickpeas. We systematically investigated the effects of isoflavones extracted from chickpea sprouts (ICS) on the human breast cancer cell lines SKBr3 and Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7). 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays showed that ICS (10-60 µg/mL) significantly inhibited the proliferation of both cell lines in a time-dependent and dose-dependent fashion. Wright-Giemsa staining as well as annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide (Annexin V/PI) staining showed that ICS significantly increased cytoclasis and apoptotic body formation. Quantitative Annexin V/PI assays further showed that the number of apoptotic cells increased in a dose-dependent manner following ICS treatment. Semiquantitative reverse transcription PCR showed that ICS increased the expression of the apoptosis-promoting gene Bcl-2-associated X protein and decreased the expression of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2. Western blot analysis showed that treatment of SKBr3 and MCF-7 cells with ICS increased the expression of caspase 7, caspase 9, P53, and P21 in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry assays using the fluorescent probe 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide showed a dose-dependent decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential following ICS treatment. Treatment using ICS also induced a dose-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species production. This is the first study to demonstrate that ICS may be a chemopreventive or therapeutic agent against breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. seed oils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    processes, production of biodiesel, as lubricant and in deep-frying purposes. They could ... for its juice, nectars and fruit while its seeds are ... Malaysia. The fine seed powder was stored in a plastic container inside a refrigerator at between 4 o.

  10. seed flour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... and with a nice taste, used for cooking or as lamp oil. The fatty acid ... Pra seeds were obtained from a local market in Nakhon Si Thammarat. Page 2. Table 1. Proximate composition of pra seed flour. Constituent. Percentage ...

  11. Neuronal sFlt1 and Vegfaa determine venous sprouting and spinal cord vascularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wild, Raphael; Klems, Alina; Takamiya, Masanari

    2017-01-01

    Formation of organ-specific vasculatures requires cross-talk between developing tissue and specialized endothelial cells. Here we show how developing zebrafish spinal cord neurons coordinate vessel growth through balancing of neuron-derived Vegfaa, with neuronal sFlt1 restricting Vegfaa......-Kdrl mediated angiogenesis at the neurovascular interface. Neuron-specific loss of flt1 or increased neuronal vegfaa expression promotes angiogenesis and peri-neural tube vascular network formation. Combining loss of neuronal flt1 with gain of vegfaa promotes sprout invasion into the neural tube. On loss...... of neuronal flt1, ectopic sprouts emanate from veins involving special angiogenic cell behaviours including nuclear positioning and a molecular signature distinct from primary arterial or secondary venous sprouting. Manipulation of arteriovenous identity or Notch signalling established that ectopic sprouting...

  12. Perforant path lesioning induces sprouting of CA3-associated fibre systems in mouse hippocampal formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drøjdahl, Nina; Hegelund, Iørn V; Poulsen, Frantz R

    2002-01-01

    mice. We found that lesioning led to translaminar sprouting of Timm stained regio inferior hippocampus (CA3)-associated fibre systems into the denervated termination zones of the CA3 and dentate gyrus, from the adjacent non-denervated stratum radiatum of CA3. Differences were seen in the Timm staining...... pattern of the two strains of mice, while the response to lesioning appeared similar albeit less pronounced than that observed in the rat. We also observed an intensified acetylcholine esterase staining reflective of cholinergic sprouting in the denervated perforant path termination zones, which...... was particularly prominent in areas with sprouting of Timm stained CA3-associated fibres. Finally, we showed that some of the sprouting fibres within the CA3 were myelinated, due to an increased density of silver impregnated myelinated fibres in this region after lesioning. These results show that the basic...

  13. Effects of X-irradiation on axonal sprouting induced by botulinum toxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, S; Duchen, L W [National Hospital, London (UK); Hornsey, S [Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK). M.R.C. Cyclotron Unit

    1982-01-01

    The effect of X-irradiation on axonal sprouting of motor nerves induced by botulinum toxin was examined. Muscles of one leg in the mouse were X-irradiated (15Gy) prior to the injection of a locally paralysing dose of botulinum toxin. It was found that axonal sprouting occurred as expected, but the sprouts remained unmyelinated and many degenerated. Fewer new end-plates were formed, muscles remained more severely atrophied and supersensitive to acetylcholine and recovery of neuromuscular transmission was greatly delayed when compared with the effects of botulinum toxin alone. X-irradiation did not prevent sprouting but, probably by impairing Schwann cell proliferation, altered axon-Schwann cell relationships and prevented the maturation of newly-formed axons and the differentiation of new end-plates.

  14. Is stump sprout treatment necessary to effectively control Phytophthora ramorum in California's wildlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yana Valachovic; Richard Cobb; David Rizzo; Brendan Twieg; Chris Lee; Radoslaw Glebocki

    2013-01-01

    In California, wildland hosts that support sporulation of Phytophthora ramorum, such as California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica (Hook. & Arn.) Nutt.) and tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus (Hook. & Arn.) Manos, Cannon & S.H. Oh), also develop prolific basal sprouts following...

  15. Robotic seeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Fountas, Spyros; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural robotics has received attention for approximately 20 years, but today there are only a few examples of the application of robots in agricultural practice. The lack of uptake may be (at least partly) because in many cases there is either no compelling economic benefit......, or there is a benefit but it is not recognized. The aim of this chapter is to quantify the economic benefits from the application of agricultural robots under a specific condition where such a benefit is assumed to exist, namely the case of early seeding and re-seeding in sugar beet. With some predefined assumptions...... with regard to speed, capacity and seed mapping, we found that among these two technical systems both early seeding with a small robot and re-seeding using a robot for a smaller part of the field appear to be financially viable solutions in sugar beet production....

  16. Nutritional value of seed rape meal in relation to different processing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurang-Zeb; Bibi, N.; Badshah, A.; Sattar, A.; Khan, I.

    1990-01-01

    Rat bioassays were conducted to study the effects of different processing methods on the nutritive value of rape seed meal. Treatments given to rape seed were irradiation alone, irradiation + autoclaving, irradiation + dry heating and sprouting. Results revealed that feeding rape seed as the sole source of dietary protein resulted in severe weight loss with control as well as all the treated samples. However, replacing half the maintenance level protein with wheat resulted in remarkable improvement in the nutritional quality of meal. There were weigh gains in all the groups. Weight gains were 32.15, 20.06, 17.36, 34.00, 19.93 and 26.27 g/rat in casein, control, sprouting, radiation, radiation + heat and radiation + autoclving groups, respectively. Protein efficiency ratios (PER) when adjusted to casein, were 2.10 for radiation + autoclaving and 2.03 for sprouting. Protein digestibility ranged from 92.68 to 96.79% among all the rape seed groups as compared to 97.77% for casein. Among organs, heart weight was influenced most by different diets (0.43 to 0.48% of body weight), while differences in weights of lungs, liver, spleen and kidney were negligible. (author)

  17. Tip cell overtaking occurs as a side effect of sprouting in computational models of angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Sonja E M; Merks, Roeland M H

    2015-11-21

    During angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from existing ones, endothelial cells differentiate into tip and stalk cells, after which one tip cell leads the sprout. More recently, this picture has changed. It has become clear that endothelial cells compete for the tip position during angiogenesis: a phenomenon named tip cell overtaking. The biological function of tip cell overtaking is not yet known. From experimental observations, it is unclear to what extent tip cell overtaking is a side effect of sprouting or to what extent it is regulated through a VEGF-Dll4-Notch signaling network and thus might have a biological function. To address this question, we studied tip cell overtaking in computational models of angiogenic sprouting in absence and in presence of VEGF-Dll4-Notch signaling. We looked for tip cell overtaking in two existing Cellular Potts models of angiogenesis. In these simulation models angiogenic sprouting-like behavior emerges from a small set of plausible cell behaviors. In the first model, cells aggregate through contact-inhibited chemotaxis. In the second model the endothelial cells assume an elongated shape and aggregate through (non-inhibited) chemotaxis. In both these sprouting models the endothelial cells spontaneously migrate forwards and backwards within sprouts, suggesting that tip cell overtaking might occur as a side effect of sprouting. In accordance with other experimental observations, in our simulations the cells' tendency to occupy the tip position can be regulated when two cell lines with different levels of Vegfr2 expression are contributing to sprouting (mosaic sprouting assay), where cell behavior is regulated by a simple VEGF-Dll4-Notch signaling network. Our modeling results suggest that tip cell overtaking can occur spontaneously due to the stochastic motion of cells during sprouting. Thus, tip cell overtaking and sprouting dynamics may be interdependent and should be studied and interpreted in combination. VEGF

  18. ``From seed-to-seed'' experiment with wheat plants under space-flight conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashinsky, A.; Ivanova, I.; Derendyaeva, T.; Nechitailo, G.; Salisbury, F.

    1994-11-01

    An important goal with plant experiments in microgravity is to achieve a complete life cycle, the ``seed-to-seed experiment''. Some Soviet attempts to reach this goal are described, notably an experiment with the tiny mustard, Arabidopsis thaliana, in the Phyton 3 device on Salyut 7. Normal seeds were produced although yields were reduced and development was delayed. Several other experiments have shown abnormalities in plants grown in space. In recent work, plants of wheat (Triticum aestivum) were studied on the ground and then in a preliminary experiment in space. Biometric indices of vegetative space plants were 2 to 2.5 times lower than those of controls, levels of chlorophyll a and b were reduced (no change in the ratio of the two pigments), carotenoids were reduced, there was a serious imbalance in major minerals, and membrane lipids were reduced (no obvious change in lipid patterns). Following the preliminary studies, an attempt was made with the Svetoblock-M growth unit to grow a super-dwarf wheat cultivar through a life cycle. The experiment lasted 167 d on Mir. Growth halted from about day 40 to day 100, when new shoots appeared. Three heads had appeared in the boot (surrounded by leaves) when plants were returned to earth. One head was sterile, but 28 seeds matured on earth, and most of these have since produced normal plants and seeds. In principle, a seed-to-seed experiment with wheat should be successful in microgravity.

  19. Study the relationship between the multi embryo and the sprout inhibition of onion by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.

    2006-04-01

    To determine the possible effect on sprout inhibition of onions, Indolbutyric acid (IBA) and cytokinins (5000 ppm), low doses of gamma irradiation (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 Gy) in a 60 Co package irradiator, combined treatment of IBA and cytokinin followed by irradiation, were applied on the cultivars Baladi red and Baladi white produced in middle and south area of Syria. Treatments were done immediately and after 4, 7, 10 weeks of harvest. After treated and untreated samples were stored at room temperature. Weight loss, sprouting percentage and length of sprouting were determined after 8 months of storage. Results indicated that, there were no significant differences (P<0.05) in weight loss, sprouting percentage and length of sprouting between the treated and untreated bulbs with IBA and cytokinin. Gamma irradiation reduced the weight loss, and inhibited the sprouting when the irradiation were done after 4 weeks of harvest, and reduced it when the irradiation were done after 7 or 10 weeks of harvest. (author)

  20. Development and quality evaluation of hypoallergic complementary foods from rice incorporated with sprouted green gram flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiya Bazaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice flour and green gram flour (sprouted as well as unsprouted were blended in different proportions with apple pulp, sugar, milk and water for formulation of 12 hypoallergic diets. The formulations were studied for physico-chemical properties, antinutrient content (phytate and oxalate and in vitro protein digestibility. Blending and sprouting significantly affected all the studied parameters. Sprouting significantly (p ≤ 0.05 improved protein content and in vitro protein digestibility, while carbohydrate content and antinutrients decreased significantly. Nutrition profile of water-based diets met RDA guidelines only after addition of sprouted green gram flour and were comparable to control (commercial weaning food. Water-based formulation showed lower sensory score than milk-based diets; however, addition of sprouted green gram flour significantly (p ≤ 0.05 improved their overall acceptability. It could be concluded that by incorporating sprouted green gram flour, milk could be replaced with water for production of hypoallergic weaning foods without affecting the nutritional and sensory attributes of formulations and thereby making the production more economical, especially for underdeveloped countries.

  1. Enrichment of Probiotic Yogurt with Broccoli Sprout Extract and its Effect on Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Sadeghi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Antibiotic consumption is the main way to cure infection induced by Helicobacter pylori. On the other hand, antibiotics have side effects on human body. So, finding an efficient way to replace antibiotic consumption seems necessary. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of broccoli sprout extract on the viability of probiotic bacteria and yogurt’s physicochemical properties, and examine the synergistic effect of this extract with probiotics on Helicobacter pylori growth inhibition.Material and Methods: Four levels of broccoli sprout extract (22.5, 45, 90 and 180 mg ml-1 were prepared and their effect on probiotic yogurt samples was examined. Moreover, their anti- Helicobacter pylori effect was determined.Results and Conclusion: The research results revealed that Broccoli sprout extract did not have any inhibitory effect on Bifidobacterium lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The variations in acidity of the samples were not significant during storage. A positive correlation was observed between broccoli sprout extract concentration and syneresis. The findings showed the synergistic effect of broccoli sprout extract and probiotics on Helicobacter pylori growth inhibition. Therefore, using broccoli sprout extract and probiotic bacteria, we can produce a yogurt that is effective on the growth inhibition of Helicobacter pylori.Conflict of interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

  2. Seed regulations and local seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.

    2000-01-01

    Seed regulations have been introduced in most countries based on the development of formal seed production. Concerns about seed quality and about the varietal identity of the seeds have commonly led to seed laws. However, formal regulations are often inappropriate for informal seed systems, which

  3. Seed dispersal of Diospyros virginiana in the past and the present: Evidence for a generalist evolutionary strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebein, Mimi; Davis, Charli N; Abad, Helena; Stone, Taylor; Del Sol, Jillian; Skinner, Natalie; Moran, Matthew D

    2017-06-01

    Several North American trees are hypothesized to have lost their co-evolved seed disperser during the late-Pleistocene extinction and are therefore considered anachronistic. We tested this hypothesis for the American persimmon ( Diospyros virginiana ) by studying the effects of gut passage of proposed seed dispersers on seedling survival and growth, natural fruiting characteristics, and modern animal consumption patterns. We tested gut passage effects on persimmon seeds using three native living species, the raccoon ( Procyon lotor ), Virginia opossum ( Didelphis virginiana ), and coyote ( Canis latrans ), and two Pleistocene analogs; the Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus ) and alpaca ( Vicugna pacos ). Persimmon seeds excreted by raccoons, coyotes, and elephants survived gut transit. Gut passage did not affect sprouting success, but did tend to decrease time to sprout and increase seedling quality. Under field conditions, persimmon fruits were palatable on the parent tree and on the ground for an equal duration, but most fruits were consumed on the ground. Seven vertebrate species fed upon persimmon fruits, with the white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus )-a species not capable of dispersing persimmon seeds-comprising over 90% of detections. Conversely, potential living seed dispersers were rarely detected. Our results suggest the American persimmon evolved to attract a variety of seed dispersers and thus is not anachronistic. However, human-induced changes in mammal communities could be affecting successful seed dispersal. We argue that changes in the relative abundance of mammals during the Anthropocene may be modifying seed dispersal patterns, leading to potential changes in forest community composition.

  4. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Abscisic Acid/Gibberellin Balance in the Control of Seed Dormancy and Germination in Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham A. Tuan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Seed dormancy is an adaptive trait that does not allow the germination of an intact viable seed under favorable environmental conditions. Non-dormant seeds or seeds with low level of dormancy can germinate readily under optimal environmental conditions, and such a trait leads to preharvest sprouting, germination of seeds on the mother plant prior to harvest, which significantly reduces the yield and quality of cereal crops. High level of dormancy, on the other hand, may lead to non-uniform germination and seedling establishment. Therefore, intermediate dormancy is considered to be a desirable trait as it prevents the problems of sprouting and allows uniformity of postharvest germination of seeds. Induction, maintenance, and release of seed dormancy are complex physiological processes that are influenced by a wide range of endogenous and environmental factors. Plant hormones, mainly abscisic acid (ABA and gibberellin (GA, are the major endogenous factors that act antagonistically in the control of seed dormancy and germination; ABA positively regulates the induction and maintenance of dormancy, while GA enhances germination. Significant progress has been made in recent years in the elucidation of molecular mechanisms regulating ABA/GA balance and thereby dormancy and germination in cereal seeds, and this review summarizes the current state of knowledge on the topic.

  5. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Abscisic Acid/Gibberellin Balance in the Control of Seed Dormancy and Germination in Cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Pham A.; Kumar, Rohit; Rehal, Pawanpuneet K.; Toora, Parneet K.; Ayele, Belay T.

    2018-01-01

    Seed dormancy is an adaptive trait that does not allow the germination of an intact viable seed under favorable environmental conditions. Non-dormant seeds or seeds with low level of dormancy can germinate readily under optimal environmental conditions, and such a trait leads to preharvest sprouting, germination of seeds on the mother plant prior to harvest, which significantly reduces the yield and quality of cereal crops. High level of dormancy, on the other hand, may lead to non-uniform germination and seedling establishment. Therefore, intermediate dormancy is considered to be a desirable trait as it prevents the problems of sprouting and allows uniformity of postharvest germination of seeds. Induction, maintenance, and release of seed dormancy are complex physiological processes that are influenced by a wide range of endogenous and environmental factors. Plant hormones, mainly abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA), are the major endogenous factors that act antagonistically in the control of seed dormancy and germination; ABA positively regulates the induction and maintenance of dormancy, while GA enhances germination. Significant progress has been made in recent years in the elucidation of molecular mechanisms regulating ABA/GA balance and thereby dormancy and germination in cereal seeds, and this review summarizes the current state of knowledge on the topic. PMID:29875780

  6. Fast Response Shape Memory Effect Titanium Nickel (TiNi) Foam Torque Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Shape Change Technologies has developed a process to manufacture net-shaped TiNi foam torque tubes that demonstrate the shape memory effect. The torque tubes dramatically reduce response time by a factor of 10. This Phase II project matured the actuator technology by rigorously characterizing the process to optimize the quality of the TiNi and developing a set of metrics to provide ISO 9002 quality assurance. A laboratory virtual instrument engineering workbench (LabVIEW'TM')-based, real-time control of the torsional actuators was developed. These actuators were developed with The Boeing Company for aerospace applications.

  7. Surface characterization of TiNi deformed by high-pressure torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awang Shri, Dayangku Noorfazidah [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Structural Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Koichi, E-mail: tsuchiya.koichi@nims.go.jp [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Structural Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Yamamoto, Akiko [Biomaterials Unit, International Center for Material Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2014-01-15

    Effect of grain refinements and amorphization by high-pressure torsion (HPT) on surface chemistry was investigated on TiNi. X-ray diffraction and micro-Vickers tests were used to check the phase changes and hardness before and after HPT. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to observe the changes in the natural passive film formation on the surface. Phase analysis reveals the change of crystalline TiNi to nanostructured one with increased hardness with straining by HPT. Grain refinement and amorphization caused by HPT reduce the amount of metallic Ni in the passive films and also increase the thickness of the film.

  8. Fabrication, microstructure and stress effects in sputtered TiNi thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grummon, D.S.

    2000-01-01

    Sputtered thin films of equiatomic TiNi and TiNiX ternary alloys have excellent mechanical properties and exhibit robust shape-memory and transformational superelasticity. Furthermore, the energetic nature of the sputter deposition process allows the creation of highly refined microstructures that are difficult to achieve by melt-solidification. The present paper will present recent work on the relationship between processing, microstructure and properties of binary TiNi thin films, focusing primarily on residual stresses, kinetics of stress-relaxation and crystallization, and fine grain sizes achievable using hot-substrate direct crystallization. (orig.)

  9. Anticancer and Antioxidant Activity of Bread Enriched with Broccoli Sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Świeca, Michał; Dziki, Dariusz; Sęczyk, Łukasz; Złotek, Urszula; Różyło, Renata; Kaszuba, Kinga; Ryszawy, Damian; Czyż, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    This study is focused on antioxidant and anticancer capacity of bread enriched with broccoli sprouts (BS) in the light of their potential bioaccessibility and bioavailability. Generally, bread supplementation elevated antioxidant potential of product (both nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant capacities); however, the increase was not correlated with the percent of BS. A replacement up to 2% of BS gives satisfactory overall consumers acceptability and desirable elevation of antioxidant potential. High activity was especially found for extracts obtained after simulated digestion, which allows assuming their protective effect for upper gastrointestinal tract; thus, the anticancer activity against human stomach cancer cells (AGS) was evaluated. A prominent cytostatic response paralleled by the inhibition of AGS motility in the presence of potentially mastication-extractable phytochemicals indicates that phenolic compounds of BS retain their biological activity in bread. Importantly, the efficient phenolics concentration was about 12 μM for buffer extract, 13 μM for extracts after digestion in vitro, and 7 μM for extract after absorption in vitro. Our data confirm chemopreventive potential of bread enriched with BS and indicate that BS comprise valuable food supplement for stomach cancer chemoprevention. PMID:25050366

  10. Antioxidant capacity of broccoli sprouts subjected to gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychlik, Joanna; Olejnik, Anna; Olkowicz, Mariola; Kowalska, Katarzyna; Juzwa, Wojciech; Myszka, Kamila; Dembczyński, Radosław; Moyer, Mary Pat; Grajek, Włodzimierz

    2015-07-01

    Broccoli is a common vegetable recognized as a rich source of antioxidants. To date, research on the antioxidant properties of broccoli, predominantly conducted on extracts, has not considered the lesions of composition and this activity after gastrointestinal digestion. Here the stability of antioxidants during gastrointestinal digestion was evaluated in conjunction with the protective effects of broccoli sprouts (BS) against oxidative stress in human colon cells. The obtained data suggest that, among the biocompounds identified in BS, glucosinolates were mainly degraded under gastrointestinal digestion, while phenolics, particularly hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, were the most resistant constituents. The antioxidant capacity of BS extract subjected to gastrointestinal digestion was similar to or higher than that determined for non-digested BS. Gastrointestinal digested BS extract exhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS)-inhibitory capacity in NCM460 human colon cells, with 1 mg mL(-1) showing an ROS clearance of 76.59%. A 57.33% reduction in oxidative DNA damage in NCM460 cells due to treatment with digested BS extract was observed. The results lend support to the possible application of BS as a rich source of antioxidants to improve the defensive system against oxidative stress in the human colon mucosa. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Anticancer and Antioxidant Activity of Bread Enriched with Broccoli Sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Gawlik-Dziki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on antioxidant and anticancer capacity of bread enriched with broccoli sprouts (BS in the light of their potential bioaccessibility and bioavailability. Generally, bread supplementation elevated antioxidant potential of product (both nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant capacities; however, the increase was not correlated with the percent of BS. A replacement up to 2% of BS gives satisfactory overall consumers acceptability and desirable elevation of antioxidant potential. High activity was especially found for extracts obtained after simulated digestion, which allows assuming their protective effect for upper gastrointestinal tract; thus, the anticancer activity against human stomach cancer cells (AGS was evaluated. A prominent cytostatic response paralleled by the inhibition of AGS motility in the presence of potentially mastication-extractable phytochemicals indicates that phenolic compounds of BS retain their biological activity in bread. Importantly, the efficient phenolics concentration was about 12 μM for buffer extract, 13 μM for extracts after digestion in vitro, and 7 μM for extract after absorption in vitro. Our data confirm chemopreventive potential of bread enriched with BS and indicate that BS comprise valuable food supplement for stomach cancer chemoprevention.

  12. Size and Density of Artemisia annua Stomata Soaked in Water Extract of Gloriosa superba Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Indah Rahmawati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is a herbaceous plant that produces artemisinin as a malaria drug, haemorrhoids therapy, aromatherapy, antiviral, anticancer and antibacterial. Gloriosa superba is a plant that contains high colchicine compounds, especially on the seeds. Gloriosa superba extracts of tubers, stems, seeds, and leaves were used as biomutagen for many plants. Colchicine contains of these plants as antimitotic have been studied and proven by the mitotic index plants. Water extracts of Gloriosa superba seeds was used as a mutagen for Artemisia annua. The aim of this study was to determine the size and density of Artemisia annua stomata soaked in water extract of Gloriosa superba seeds as a mutagen. Extraction of Gloriosa superba seeds obtained naturally on Krakal Beach, Gunung Kidul by using a maceration method with water solvent (1:1. Artemisia annua sprouts were obtained from B2P2TOOT Tawangmangu. Variables treatment on sprouts using water extract concentration of Gloriosa superba seeds and soaking time of Artemisia annua sprouts. Measurements of stomatal length, width and density were conducted in epidermis of Artemisia annua leaf. Observation and measurements of the stomata were conducted by using a light microscope. The results showed that the length and width of stomata were 0.025 mm and 0.017 mm respectively. The stomatal density of the control leaf (174.69 amount/mm2 was lower than the other treated plants. Stomatal size and density has increased with the increasing concentration extracts on treated plants. Water extracts of Gloriosa superba seeds proved the effects on stomatal size and density of treated plants.  

  13. Effect of Se on Yield and Vegetative Characteristics of Brussels Sprouts in Hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rozita khademi astaneh

    2017-10-01

    and Methods: This experiment was tested in a controlled condition hydroponic greenhouse of Horticulture Department, College of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, The greenhouse was covered with polyethylene monolayer and equipped with a cooling and fogging systems to control the temperature in the warm months and humidity, respectively. Daily temperatures were setted3 ± 20 3 ± 16. Seeds of Gemmifera varieties brussels cabbage weregerminated in petri dishes. Seedlings were transferred to the plastic cups (to the floating system with perlite in four leaf stage. . Plants root system were floated in solution. Modified Hoagland nutrient solution (Table 1 was prepared (12 liters per container with 40 and 32 cm height and diameter, respectively. Results and Discussion: Results of vegetative Brussels sprouts button showed that selenium significantly increased leaf, stem and root dry weight, leaf number and leaf area. Leaf area, leaves, stems and roots fresh and dry weight increased with increasing selenium up to 8 mg L- but then decreased due to a high concentration of selenium toxicity. There were no significant difference in the treatments on stem length, stem diameter. Number of buds was significantly (P≤0.05 affected by selenium treatments and the highest number of sprouts were in two levels of 8 and 16 mg selenium per liter, respectively. Yield and shoot dry weight showed a significant increase (at 1 percent with increasing levels of selenium,.Conclusions Plants yield significantly (P≤0.01 affected by selenium treatments, so that selenium concentration in the nutrient solution increased from 0 to 8 mg L-1increased yield and reduced afterward. The maximum yield was observed at a concentration of 8 mg L-compared with control. Based on the findings of this study, selenium concentration can be up to 8 mg L-1 in order to improve plant growth to nutrient solution.

  14. Effect of processing (sprouting and fermentation) of five local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    protein digestibility and mineral element composition of five local varieties were studied. ... Processed sorghum seeds or flour were found to be important sources of ... digestible than the proteins of other similar cooked cereals such as wheat and ... covered and kept for 72 hours away from light for fermentation to occur.

  15. A study on the shape memory characteristics of Ti-Ni50-x-Pdx alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. W.; Chun, B. S.; Oh, S. J.; Kuk, I.H.

    1991-01-01

    The shape memory characteristics in TiNi alloys are greatly effected by the alloy composition and heat treatment condition. The present work was aimed to investigate the effect of Pd x (x=5,10,15,20) addition on the shape memory chracteristics of TiNi alloys by means of electrical resistance measurement. X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and electron dispersive analysis X-ray measurement. The results obtained from this study are as follows; 1. The martensitic transformation start temperature, Ms of Ti-Ni 50-x -Pd x alloys decreased considerably with the increase of Pd content up to 10at%, whereas increased largely with the increase of Pd content in the alloys with Pd content more than 15at%. 2. The Ms temperature of Ti-Ni 50-x -Pd x alloys with cold working was significantly lower than that of the fully annealed alloys because high density dislocation has been introduced by the cold working which suppressed the martensitic transformation. (Author)

  16. Homogenization of stationary Navier–Stokes equations in domains with tiny holes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Lu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2015), s. 381-392 ISSN 1422-6928 Keywords : compressible Navier - Stokes system * homogenization * tiny holes Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.023, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00021-015-0200-2

  17. Micromechanical Analysis of Crack Closure Mechanism for Intelligent Material Containing TiNi Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Shigetoshi; Ono, Hiroyuki; Saito, Kenji

    In our previous study, the micromechanical modeling of an intelligent material containing TiNi fibers was performed and the stress intensity factor KI at the tip of the crack in the material was expressed in terms of the magnitude of the shape memory shrinkage of the fibers and the thermal expansion strain in the material. In this study, the value of KI at the tip of the crack in the TiNi/epoxy material is calculated numerically by using analytical expressions obtained in our first report. As a result, we find that the KI value decreases with increasing shrink strain of the fibers, and this tendency agrees with that of the experimental result obtained by Shimamoto etal.(Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng., Vol. 65, No. 634 (1999), pp. 1282-1286). Moreover, there exists an optimal value of the shrink strain of the fibers to make the KI value zero. The change in KI with temperature during the heating process from the reference temperature to the inverse austenitic finishing temperature of TiNi fiber is also consistent with the experimental result. These results can be explained by the changes in the shrink strain, the thermal expansion strain, and the elastic moduli of TiNi fiber with temperature. These results may be useful in designing intelligent materials containing TiNi fibers from the viewpoint of crack closure.

  18. Tiny Integrated Network Analyzer for Noninvasive Measurements of Electrically Small Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buskgaard, Emil Feldborg; Krøyer, Ben; Tatomirescu, Alexandru

    2016-01-01

    the system. The tiny integrated network analyzer is a stand-alone Arduino-based measurement system that utilizes the transmit signal of the system under test as its reference. It features a power meter with triggering ability, on-board memory, universal serial bus, and easy extendibility with general...

  19. Long the fixation of physicists worldwide, a tiny particle is found

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "After decades of intensive effort by both experimental and theoretical physicists worldwide, a tiny particle with no charge, a very low mass and a lifetime much shorter than a nanosecond, dubbed the "axion", has now been detected by the University at Buffalo physicist who first suggested its existence in a little-read paper as early as 194." (2 pages)

  20. [Non-thermal effect of GSM electromagnetic radiation on quality of pea seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselova, T V; Veselovskiĭ, V A; Deev, L I; Baĭzhumanov, A A

    2012-01-01

    The seeds with low level of room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) were selected from a lot of air-dry peas (Pisum sativum) with 62% germination. These strong seeds (95-97% germination percentage) in air-dry, imbibed or emerged states were exposed to 905 MHz GSM-band electromagnetic radiation (EMR). The following effects of EMR were observed. Fraction II with higher RTP level appeared in the air-dry seeds. The germination rate decreased 2-3 fold in the air-dry, swollen and sprouting seeds due to an increase in the ratio of the seedlings with morphological defects (from 3 to 38%) and suffocated seeds (from 1 to 15%). We suggest tentative mechanisms to account for the decreased fitness of peas under GSM-band EMR (905 MHz); also discussed is the role of non-enzymatic hydrolysis of carbohydrates and amino-carbonyl reaction in this process.

  1. Effect of application of Chlorpropham in sprouting of olluco tubers (Ullucus tuberosus L. under storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Aliaga

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the effect of Chlorpropham on the sprouting of root’s tubers vegetables (Ullucus tuberosum L. Tarmeño variety during storage at 15 °C and RH of 85 %, the treatments were 0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 mg of Chlorpropham / kg of tubers, in a completely random design with 4 repetitions. After 60 days of storage the sprouts, length for the control without Chlorpropham was 9.63 cm and for the treatments with Chlorpropham from 0.22 to 0.71 cm after 90 days the length of the sprouts were kept the same and some of them began to dry up, except the control where increased in size from 15 to 20 cm. After 90 days of storage, weight loss for the treatments with Chlorpropham was averaged of 21 % and for the witness of 37.35 %. All Chlorpropham treatments showed a lower number of sprouts per tuber, lower length of buds, fewer number of tubers with sprouts and less weight loss, with a p <0.05, Duncan test showed don’t exist significant differences between treatments with Chlorpropham for the assessed variables, but significant differences with the control treatment

  2. Dietary broccoli sprouts protect against myocardial oxidative damage and cell death during ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Masoumeh; Bandy, Brian

    2010-09-01

    Cruciferous vegetables are known for antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic effects. In the current study we asked whether dietary broccoli sprouts can protect the heart from ischemia-reperfusion. Rats were fed either control diet (sham and control groups) or a diet mixed with 2% dried broccoli sprouts for 10 days. After 10 days the isolated hearts were subjected to ischemia for 20 min and reperfusion for 2 h, and evaluated for cell death, oxidative damage, and Nrf2-regulated phase 2 enzyme activities. Broccoli sprouts feeding inhibited markers of necrosis (lactate dehydrogenase release) and apoptosis (caspase-3 activity) by 78-86%, and decreased indices of oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and aconitase inactivation) by 82-116%. While broccoli sprouts increased total glutathione and activities of the phase 2 enzymes glutamate cysteine ligase and quinone reductase in liver, they did not affect these in ischemic-reperfused heart. While the mechanism is not clear, the results show that a relatively short dietary treatment with broccoli sprouts can strongly protect the heart against oxidative stress and cell death caused by ischemia-reperfusion.

  3. Agent-based model of angiogenesis simulates capillary sprout initiation in multicellular networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpole, J; Chappell, J C; Cluceru, J G; Mac Gabhann, F; Bautch, V L; Peirce, S M

    2015-09-01

    Many biological processes are controlled by both deterministic and stochastic influences. However, efforts to model these systems often rely on either purely stochastic or purely rule-based methods. To better understand the balance between stochasticity and determinism in biological processes a computational approach that incorporates both influences may afford additional insight into underlying biological mechanisms that give rise to emergent system properties. We apply a combined approach to the simulation and study of angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels from existing networks. This complex multicellular process begins with selection of an initiating endothelial cell, or tip cell, which sprouts from the parent vessels in response to stimulation by exogenous cues. We have constructed an agent-based model of sprouting angiogenesis to evaluate endothelial cell sprout initiation frequency and location, and we have experimentally validated it using high-resolution time-lapse confocal microscopy. ABM simulations were then compared to a Monte Carlo model, revealing that purely stochastic simulations could not generate sprout locations as accurately as the rule-informed agent-based model. These findings support the use of rule-based approaches for modeling the complex mechanisms underlying sprouting angiogenesis over purely stochastic methods.

  4. Increased antioxidant activity and polyphenol metabolites in methyl jasmonate treated mung bean (Vigna radiata sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li LI

    Full Text Available Abstract Mung bean sprouts are a popular health food both in China and worldwide. We determined the optimal concentration of exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA for the promotion of the sprouting in mung beans (Vigna radiata. The 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH scavenging test showed that MeJA application resulted in significantly improved antioxidant capacity in the sprouts 72 h later. Measurement of total polyphenols in MeJA-treated beans from 0 to 168 h, using Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetry, showed that the polyphenols changing was significantly correlated with antioxidant activity. The main polyphenols isovitexin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, daidzein, genistein, isoquercitrin, p-coumaric acid, and caffeic acid were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/QqQ MS and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA. MeJA promoted the production of polyphenols, metabolites, and antioxidants in the sprouts; therefore, its use may allow sprouts to be prepared more quickly or increase their nutritional value.

  5. Effect of high pressure processing and storage on the free amino acids in seedlings of Brussels sprouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barba Orellana, Francisco Jose; Poojary, Mahesha Manjunatha; Wang, Jia

    2017-01-01

    The potential of high pressure (HP) to affect the content of free amino acids (FAA) using seedlings of Brussels sprouts as a simple non-chopped vegetable system was examined. Firstly, the effect on FAA composition during growth was assessed and it was found that the composition of total free amino...... acids (TFAA) and individual FAA changed dramatically during growth of the seeds to the seedling at 7 days with the highest content of TFAA. Secondly, 7-day-old seedlings were HP-treated at various pressure levels (200–800 MPa for 3 min at 5 °C). As expected the HP-treatment did not affect the amino...... acids as no changes in TFFA were found immediately after pressurisation. In this line, HP-treatment up to 800 MPa had minor, but significant, effect on the FAA concentrations of 10 FAA (Ala, Asp, Glu, Gly, Leu, Phe, Pro, Ser, Trp and Tyr) and no significant changes were found for 7 of the FAA (Asn, Gln...

  6. Cavitation erosion of Ti-Ni shape memory alloy deposited coatings and Fe base shape memory alloy solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Shuji; Fujisawa, Seiji; Owa, Tomonobu

    2007-01-01

    In this study, cavitation erosion tests were carried out by using thermal spraying and deposition of Ti-Ni shape memory alloy for the surface coating. The results show the test speciment of Ti-Ni thermal spraying has many initial defects, so that the erosion resistance is very low. The erosion resistance of Ti-Ni deposit is about 5-10 times higher than that of SUS 304, thus erosion resistance of Ti-Ni deposit is better than that of Ti-Ni thermal spraying. The cavitation erosion tests were carried out by using Fe-Mn-Si with shape memory and gunmetal with low elastic modulus. The erosion resistance of Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloy solid is about 9 times higher than that of SUS 304. The erosion resistance of gunmetal is almost the same as SUS 304, because the test specimen of gunmetal has many small defects on the original surface. (author)

  7. Cloning and expression of a sorghum gene with homology to maize vp1. Its potential involvement in pre-harvest sprouting resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrari, F; Perez-Flore, L; Lijavetzky, D; Enciso, S; Sanchez, R; Benech-Arnold, R; Iusem, N

    2001-04-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) in sorghum is related to the lack of a normal dormancy level during seed development and maturation. Based on previous evidence that seed dormancy in maize is controlled by the vp1 gene, we used a PCR-based approach to isolate two Sorghum bicolor genomic and cDNA clones from two genotypes exhibiting different PHS behaviour and sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA). The two 699 amino acid predicted protein sequences differ in two residues at positions 341 (Gly or Cys within the repression domain) and 448 (Pro or Ser) and show over 80, 70 and 60% homology to maize, rice and oat VP1 proteins respectively. Expression analysis of the sorghum vp1 gene in the two lines shows a slightly higher level of vp1 mRNA in the embryos susceptible to PHS than in those resistant to PHS during embryogenesis. However, timing of expression was different between these genotypes during this developmental process. Whereas for the former the main peak of expression was observed at 20 days after pollination (DAP), the peak in the latter was found at later developmental stages when seed maturation was almost complete. Under favourable germination conditions and in the presence of fluridone (an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis), sorghum vp1 mRNA showed to be consistently correlated with sensitivity to ABA but not with ABA content and dormancy.

  8. Characterization of Tamyb10 allelic variants and development of STS marker for pre-harvest sprouting resistance in Chinese bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Wang, X L; Meng, J Y; Zhang, Y J; He, Z H; Yang, Y

    2016-01-01

    Wheat grain color does not only affect the brightness of flour but also seed dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) tolerance. The transcription factor Tamyb10 is an important candidate for R-1 gene, and the expression of its homologs determines wheat seed coat color. In the present study, the allelic variations of Tamyb10 were explored in a set of Chinese bread wheat varieties and advanced lines with different PHS tolerance, and a sequenced-tagged site (STS) marker for Tamyb10-D1 gene was developed, designated as Tamyb10D , which could be used as an efficient and reliable marker to evaluate the depth dormancy of wheat seeds. Using the marker Tamyb10D , 1629- and 1178-bp PCR fragments were amplified from the tolerant varieties, whereas a 1178-bp fragment was from the susceptible ones. Of the Chinese bread wheat varieties and advanced lines, 103 were used to validate the relationship between the polymorphic fragments of Tamyb10D and PHS tolerance. Statistical analysis indicated that Tamyb10D was significantly ( P  varieties, 8 Tamyb10 genotypes ( Tamybl0-A1 , Tamybl0-B1 , and Tamyb10-D1 loci) were detected, namely, aaa, aab, aba, abb, baa, bab, bba, and bbb, and these were significantly associated with GI value.

  9. Changes in peroxidases associated with radiation-induced sprout inhibition in garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croci, C.A.; Curvetto, N.R.; Orioli, G.A.; Arguello, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of an acute dose of γ-rays (10 Gy) to post-dormant garlic cloves on inner sprout growth and changes in peroxidases and soluble proteins were evaluated up to 100 days of storage in darkness at 19±1 0 C and 42±2% relative humidity. Radiation-induced inhibition of sprout growth became evident after 25 days of treatment and was synchronous with a marked increase in peroxidase activity. Thin-layer isoelectric focusing revealed that radiation induced an increase in the number of anodic peroxidase isoenzymes at 100 days, suggesting modifications in the vascularization process. Neither the soluble protein content nor the protein pattern were affected by irradiation. These results are discussed in terms of a possible mediating effect of peroxidase on radiation-induced sprout inhibition in garlic. (author)

  10. Sprout inhibition by gamma irradiation in fresh ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof, N.

    1990-01-01

    A study on sprout inhibition by gamma irradiation in fresh ginger of a local variety was carried out. Fresh ginger was irradiated at the doses of 0, 25, 50 and 80 Grays (Gy) and stored at temperature 25-28 degrees C and relative humidity ranging from 76-96% for 4 months. The parameters observed were physiological weight loss, sprouting, external appearance, fungal infection, moisture content, water activity, crude fiber content and total sugar. The results show that irradiation at the doses studied effectively inhibited sprouting in ginger when compared to the nonirradiated samples. However, radiation was unable to extend the shelf-life as all samples started to deteriorate after 2 months storage

  11. Biosynthesis and Accumulation of Sulphur Compounds in White Radish During the First Three Days of Sprouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Doinița Borș

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Glucosinolates (GLs and S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide (SMCSO are natural sulphur containing phytochemicals. They are two of the most important bioactive compounds found in brassica vegetables, which are highly regarded for their health-promoting activity. In this study we have analysed the content of GLs and SMCSO in white radish, by an HPLC-MS method, in order to illustrate their biosynthesis and accumulation during the first 72 hours of sprouting. Total GLs content ranged between  54.17 and 126.86 µmol/g DW. There were eight GLs identified, in radish sprouts and around 94 % of them were aliphatic. Obvious differences, during the 72 hours of sprouting, were noticed in glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin. S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide content ranged between 0.21 and 35.95 µmol/g DW. Our results revealed a negative strong correlation between GLs and SMCSO.

  12. Combined Effects of Blue and Ultraviolet Lights on the Accumulation of Flavonoids in Tartary Buckwheat Sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hongbin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of blue and UV-A (365 nm/UV-C (254 nm or their combinations on the levels of total flavonoids, rutin, quercetin, phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL, chalcone isomerase (CHI, rutin degrading enzymes (RDEs and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity in tartary buckwheat sprouts were investigated in this study. The total flavonoids content in the tartary buckwheat sprouts irradiated with blue light followed by UV-C (BL+UV-C raised by 10%, compared with the opposite combination sequence (UV-C+BL. However, blue light did not show the same results when combined with UV-A, and their combinations on the accumulation of total flavonoids were still lower than that of UV-A/UV-C. Key enzymes (PAL, CHI and RDEs revealed a significant correlation with total flavonoids in tartary buckwheat sprouts.

  13. [Resistance of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to preharvest sprouting: an association analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mart'ianov, S P; Dobrotvorskaia, T V

    2012-10-01

    A statistical analysis of the data about 1422 bread wheat accessions with estimated preharvest sprouting was carried out. Close associations of preharvest sprouting resistance with the grain color and with resistance to Fusarium head blight were revealed, as well as weak, but statistically significant, associations with the type of development, awnedness, and reduced height genes Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 (insensitive to gibberellin GA3). The pedigree analysis showed that the cluster structures of the gene pools of the North American red-grained and white-grained varieties are practically identical. In both groups, varieties that are resistant to preharvest sprouting differ from susceptible ones in the percentage of the contributions of the Crimean and Mediterranean landraces. Resistance is associated with a high contribution by the Crimean landrace and susceptibility is associated with a high contribution by the Mediterranean landrace.

  14. Changes in peroxidases associated with radiation-induced sprout inhibition in garlic (Allium sativum L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croci, C.A.; Curvetto, N.R.; Orioli, G.A. (Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina)); Arguello, J.A. (Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina). Dept. de Biologia Aplicada)

    1991-02-01

    The effects of an acute dose of {gamma}-rays (10 Gy) to post-dormant garlic cloves on inner sprout growth and changes in peroxidases and soluble proteins were evaluated up to 100 days of storage in darkness at 19+-1{sup 0}C and 42+-2% relative humidity. Radiation-induced inhibition of sprout growth became evident after 25 days of treatment and was synchronous with a marked increase in peroxidase activity. Thin-layer isoelectric focusing revealed that radiation induced an increase in the number of anodic peroxidase isoenzymes at 100 days, suggesting modifications in the vascularization process. Neither the soluble protein content nor the protein pattern were affected by irradiation. These results are discussed in terms of a possible mediating effect of peroxidase on radiation-induced sprout inhibition in garlic. (author).

  15. Impact of selenium supply on Se-methylselenocysteine and glucosinolate accumulation in selenium-biofortified Brassica sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Fabricio William; Yang, Yong; Faquin, Valdemar; Ramos, Silvio Junio; Guilherme, Luiz Roberto G; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Li, Li

    2014-12-15

    Brassica sprouts are widely marketed as functional foods. Here we examined the effects of Se treatment on the accumulation of anticancer compound Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSCys) and glucosinolates in Brassica sprouts. Cultivars from the six most extensively consumed Brassica vegetables (broccoli, cauliflower, green cabbage, Chinese cabbage, kale, and Brussels sprouts) were used. We found that Se-biofortified Brassica sprouts all were able to synthesize significant amounts of SeMSCys. Analysis of glucosinolate profiles revealed that each Brassica crop accumulated different types and amounts of glucosinolates. Cauliflower sprouts had high total glucosinolate content. Broccoli sprouts contained high levels of glucoraphanin, a precursor for potent anticancer compound. Although studies have reported an inverse relationship between accumulation of Se and glucosinolates in mature Brassica plants, Se supply generally did not affect glucosinolate accumulation in Brassica sprouts. Thus, Brassica vegetable sprouts can be biofortified with Se for the accumulation of SeMSCys without negative effects on chemopreventive glucosinolate contents. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Long-term effects of burning on woody plant species sprouting on the False thornveld of Eastern Cape

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ratsele, C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sprouting allows woody plant species to persist in a site after a wide range of disturbances (e.g. prolonged fire), where opportunities for seedling establishment are limited. A study to investigate long-term effects of fire sprouting of woody...

  17. Survival and sprouting responses of Chihuahua Pine after the Rodeo-Chediski Fire on the Mogollon Rim, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth H. Baumgartner; Peter Z. Fule

    2007-01-01

    Chihuahua pines (Pinus leiophylla Schiede and Deppe var. chihuahuana Engelmann) were surveyed on 11 study plots on the Mogollon Rim in east central Arizona to compare characteristics of trees that sprouted from the base or root collar after the Rodeo-Chediski fire with those of trees that did not sprout. The differences in trees...

  18. Characteristics of soybean sprout locally cultivated in the Jeonju region, used for Bibimbap and Kongnamul-gukbap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Eun Lee

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Soybean sprouts cultivated using Chinese soybeans in Jeonju were better in the overall acceptability than those grown in other regions because the Jeonju product contained two to three times less amino acids, such as leucine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine, than the other regional products, which tasted bitter. The cultivating water may affect the free amino-acid content of soybean sprouts and their taste.

  19. Preemergence infection of potato sprouts by Phytophthora infestans in the highland tropics of Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Peter; Taipe, Arturo; Andrade-Piedra, Jorge L.

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether preemergence infection of potato sprouts by Phytophthora infestans occurs in the highland tropics of Ecuador. In three separate experiments in the field, P. infestans was identified on the preemerged sprouts of 49, 5, and 43% of tubers, respectively...

  20. Accumulation of solvent-soluble and solvent-insoluble antioxidant phenolics in edible bean sprouts: implication of germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-You Gan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Edible bean sprouts are popular fresh vegetables widely recognized for their nutritional quality. However, while their antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition in both solvent-soluble and solvent-insoluble extracts has not been systematically evaluated. Methods: The antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition in both solvent-soluble and solvent-insoluble fractions of 12 cultivars of edible bean sprouts were evaluated, and relationships of antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content were also analyzed. Results: Sprouts demonstrated a wide range of antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content, with lower but substantial antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content in the solvent-insoluble fractions. Highest levels were found in the green mung bean sprout. Phenolic compounds, such as catechin, ellagic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid and p-coumaric acid were widely detected in these sprouts. Additionally, a positive correlation was discovered between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content in these edible bean sprouts. Conclusions: Germination generally resulted in the accumulation of antioxidant phenolics in the most edible bean sprouts. Edible bean sprouts with high antioxidant phenolics can be valuable natural sources of dietary antioxidants for the prevention of oxidative stress-related chronic diseases.

  1. Effect of gamma radiation and temperature on ginger (Zingiber officinale L.) sprout and weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirikulvadhana, Suda; Prompubesara, Chavangsakdhi.

    1979-09-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale L.) preservation was conducted by irradiated ginger at 0 (control), 4, 6 and 10 Krad and then stored at 20(+-1) deg C and room temperature (32+-3 deg C) with 75% relative humidity. The results of the experiment are as follows: after 1 month storage at 32 deg C both irradiated and non-irradiated ginger weight losses were 15-18% and water contents decreased from 88.67 to 81.82%. Only non-irradiated ginger sprouted 1 cm. in length by average at this time. Weight loss after three month storage of irradiated 0, 4, 6 and 10 Krad ginger increased to 36.37, 32.67, 34.95 and 35.95% respectively, and the water contents decreased to 69.33, 72.00, 73.33 and 70.66% respectively. No sprout also, was found in 4-10 Krad ginger. The weight loss of non-irradiated ginger stored at 20 deg C for 6 months was lower than those irradiated ginger, i.e. only 21.07 for 0 Krad but 26.55, 28.07 and 34.30% for 4, 6 and 10 Krad ginger respectively. In addition, water contents were found to be highest in non-irradiated ginger (76.00%) but lowest in irradiated ginger, at 10 Krad (66,66%). However, non-irradiated ginger sprouted 1.5 cm but no sprout was found in irradiated ginger. In conclusion, radiation only 4 Krad inhibited ginger sprout and did not decrease ginger weight (P<.01). Furthermore, cool temperature at 20 deg C delayed ginger sprout up to 4 months and decreased ginger weight loss

  2. Effect of sprouting on anthocyanin, antioxidant activity, color intensity and color attributes in purple sweet potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudiono, K.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potatoes stored in a humid state will generally sprout, leading to them being deemed inedible by customers. During the sprouting process enzyme activities increase and as such it was assumed that there had been changes in the nutrition and secondary metabolism compounds, e.g. anthocyanins. The purpose of this research was to investigate the changes occurred in the characteristics of anthocyanins during the purple sweet potatoes’ sprouting. One-factor Randomized Block Design was used in the research design, i.e. the sprouting time in 6 stages: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks. The results showed that the highest antioxidant activity is 51.61±2.11%, the highest color intensity is 0.72±0.72, and the lowest hue angle value or the lowest h is 30.75±0.93o, occurring in the 4th week of sprouting. While the highest total anthocyanin is 222.07±2.65 mg/kg wet weight, and the highest red color value or a* is 12.80±0.49, occurring in the 3rd week of sprouting. The major components that compose purple sweet potatoes are Cyanidin-3-0-glucoside ([M-X]+ = m/z 286.50 to 287.50 and [M]+ = m/z 449 and Peonidin -3,5-0-diglucoside ([M-X]+ = m/z 462.50 to 463.50 and [M]+ = m/z 625.

  3. LA sprouts randomized controlled nutrition and gardening program reduces obesity and metabolic risk in Latino youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Nicole M; Martinez, Lauren C; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Davis, Jaimie N

    2015-06-01

    To assess the effects of a 12-week gardening, nutrition, and cooking intervention ("LA Sprouts") on dietary intake, obesity parameters, and metabolic disease risk among low-income, primarily Hispanic/Latino youth in Los Angeles. The randomized controlled trial involved four elementary schools [two schools randomized to intervention (172 third-through fifth-grade students); two schools randomized to control (147 third-through fifth-grade students)]. Classes were taught in 90-minute sessions once a week to each grade level for 12 weeks. Data collected at pre- and postintervention included dietary intake via food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), anthropometric measures [BMI, waist circumference (WC)], body fat, and fasting blood samples. LA Sprouts participants had significantly greater reductions in BMI z-scores (0.1-vs. 0.04-point decrease, respectively; P = 0.01) and WC (-1.2 cm vs. no change; P < 0.001). Fewer LA Sprouts participants had the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) after the intervention than before, while the number of controls with MetSyn increased. LA Sprouts participants had improvements in dietary fiber intake (+3.5% vs. -15.5%; P = 0.04) and less decreases in vegetable intake (-3.6% vs. -26.4%; P = 0.04). Change in fruit intake before and after the intervention did not significantly differ between LA Sprouts and control subjects. LA Sprouts was effective in reducing obesity and metabolic risk. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  4. Motor cortex electrical stimulation augments sprouting of the corticospinal tract and promotes recovery of motor function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Jason B.; Martin, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The corticospinal system—with its direct spinal pathway, the corticospinal tract (CST) – is the primary system for controlling voluntary movement. Our approach to CST repair after injury in mature animals was informed by our finding that activity drives establishment of connections with spinal cord circuits during postnatal development. After incomplete injury in maturity, spared CST circuits sprout, and partially restore lost function. Our approach harnesses activity to augment this injury-dependent CST sprouting and to promote function. Lesion of the medullary pyramid unilaterally eliminates all CST axons from one hemisphere and allows examination of CST sprouting from the unaffected hemisphere. We discovered that 10 days of electrical stimulation of either the spared CST or motor cortex induces CST axon sprouting that partially reconstructs the lost CST. Stimulation also leads to sprouting of the cortical projection to the magnocellular red nucleus, where the rubrospinal tract originates. Coordinated outgrowth of the CST and cortical projections to the red nucleus could support partial re-establishment of motor systems connections to the denervated spinal motor circuits. Stimulation restores skilled motor function in our animal model. Lesioned animals have a persistent forelimb deficit contralateral to pyramidotomy in the horizontal ladder task. Rats that received motor cortex stimulation either after acute or chronic injury showed a significant functional improvement that brought error rate to pre-lesion control levels. Reversible inactivation of the stimulated motor cortex reinstated the impairment demonstrating the importance of the stimulated system to recovery. Motor cortex electrical stimulation is an effective approach to promote spouting of spared CST axons. By optimizing activity-dependent sprouting in animals, we could have an approach that can be translated to the human for evaluation with minimal delay. PMID:24994971

  5. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    Neem seed oil from the neem tree (Azadiracta indica) finds wide usage one of which is its utilization for cosmetics particularly .... obtained which is higher than that of olive oil 17. mgKOH/g (Davine ... The skin tolerance of shea fat employed as ...

  6. Morphological changes induced by different doses of gamma irradiation in garlic sprouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrini, C.N. E-mail: pellegri@criba.edu.ar; Croci, C.A.; Orioli, G.A

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of different doses of gamma rays applied in dormancy and post-dormancy on garlic bulbs in relation with some morphophysiological parameters. High (commercial) doses cause the complete inhibition of sprouting and mitosis (due to nuclear aberrations). Relatively low doses show no effects on bulbs but doses of 10 Gy applied in post-dormancy reduce sprouting and stop mitosis. This inhibition becomes noticeable from 150 days post-harvest onwards. Exogenous growth regulators can reverse these effects. Results may reinforce the good practice of radioinhibition processes in garlic. (author)0.

  7. The irradiation dose for the inhibition of the sprouting of Baraka variety potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Rivero, B.; Salcines, R.; Prieto, E.

    1990-01-01

    Baraka variety potatoes graded in the packing house, were irradiated with doses of 0.08; 0.10; 0.15 and 0.20 kGy after a two weeks curing period. The potatoes were stored for five months at 12 0 +- 2 0 C and relative humidity of 85 to 95%, and to determine the percentages of sprouting, rotting and loss in weight. It was concluded that doses of 0.08 kGy or more inhibited definitively the sprouting process. Less total losses and better commercial quality were obtained with a dose of 0.08 kGy the last of the store. 13 refs

  8. Ingestion of broccoli sprouts does not improve endothelial function in humans with hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Buris; Bellostas Muguerza, Natalia; Petersen, Atheline Major

    2010-01-01

    be the case in humans suffering from essential hypertension. METHODS: 40 hypertensive individuals without diabetes and with normal levels of cholesterol were examined. The participants were randomized either to ingest 10 g dried broccoli sprouts, a natural donor of glucosinolates with high in vitro...... groups. Diastolic blood pressure stayed essentially unchanged in both groups, while the systolic blood pressure showed a small non significant decrease (9 mm Hg) in the interventional group from a value of 153 mm Hg at start. CONCLUSION: Daily ingestion of 10 g dried broccoli sprouts does not improve...

  9. Alloying process of sputter-deposited Ti/Ni multilayer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, H.; Kim, H.Y.; Miyazaki, S.

    2006-01-01

    Alloying process of a Ti/Ni multilayer thin film was investigated in detail by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Ti/Ni multilayer thin film was prepared by depositing Ti and Ni layers alternately on a SiO 2 /Si substrate. The number of each metal layer was 100, and the total thickness was 3 μm. The alloy composition was determined as Ti-51 at.%Ni by electron probe micro analysis (EPMA). The DSC curve exhibited three exothermic peaks at 621, 680 and 701 K during heating the as-sputtered multilayer thin film. In order to investigate the alloying process, XRD and TEM observation was carried out for the specimens heated up to various temperatures with the heating rate same as the DSC measurement. The XRD profile of the as-sputtered film revealed only diffraction peaks of Ti and Ni. But reaction layers of 3 nm in thickness were observed at the interfaces of Ti and Ni layers in cross-sectional TEM images. The reaction layer was confirmed as an amorphous phase by the nano beam diffraction analysis. The XRD profiles exhibited that the intensity of Ti diffraction peak decreased in the specimen heat-treated above 600 K. The peak from Ni became broad and shifted to lower diffraction angle. The amorphous layer thickened up to 6 nm in the specimen heated up to 640 K. The diffraction peak corresponding to Ti-Ni B2 phase appeared and the peak from Ni disappeared for the specimen heated up to 675 K. The Ti-Ni B2 crystallized from the amorphous reaction layer. After further heating above the third exothermic peak, the intensity of the peak from the Ti-Ni B2 phase increased, the peak from Ti disappeared and the peaks corresponding to Ti 2 Ni appeared. The Ti 2 Ni phase was formed by the reaction of the Ti-Ni B2 and Ti

  10. Density separation as a strategy to reduce the enzyme load of preharvest sprouted wheat and enhance its bread making quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaerts, Heleen; De Bondt, Yamina; Courtin, Christophe M

    2018-02-15

    As preharvest sprouting of wheat impairs its use in food applications, postharvest solutions for this problem are required. Due to the high kernel to kernel variability in enzyme activity in a batch of sprouted wheat, the potential of eliminating severely sprouted kernels based on density differences in NaCl solutions was evaluated. Compared to higher density kernels, lower density kernels displayed higher α-amylase, endoxylanase, and peptidase activities as well as signs of (incipient) protein, β-glucan and arabinoxylan breakdown. By discarding lower density kernels of mildly and severely sprouted wheat batches (11% and 16%, respectively), density separation increased flour FN of the batch from 280 to 345s and from 135 to 170s and increased RVA viscosity. This in turn improved dough handling, bread crumb texture and crust color. These data indicate that density separation is a powerful technique to increase the quality of a batch of sprouted wheat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Physiological changes and sHSPs genes relative transcription in relation to the acquisition of seed germination during maturation of hybrid rice seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Wei; Cao, Dong-Dong; Hu, Qi-Juan; Guan, Ya-Jing; Hu, Wei-Min; Nawaz, Aamir; Hu, Jin

    2016-03-30

    During the production of early hybrid rice seed, the seeds dehydrated slowly and retained high moisture levels when rainy weather lasted for a couple of days, and the rice seeds easily occurred pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) along with high temperature. Therefore it is necessary to harvest the seeds before the PHS occurred. The seeds of hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L. subsp. indica) cv. Qianyou No1 that harvests from 19 to 28 days after pollination (DAP) all had high seed vigour. The seed moisture content at 10 DAP was 36.1%, and declined to 28.6% at 19 DAP; the contents of soluble sugar and total starch increased significantly with the development of seeds. The soluble protein content, the level of abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA3 ), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity continued to decrease from 10 DAP to 19 DAP. The seeds at 19 DAP had the highest peroxidase (POD) activity and lowest catalase (CAT) activity while the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity had no significant difference among the different developing periods. The relative expressions of genes 64S Hsp18.0 and Os03g0267200 transcripts increased significantly from 10 to 19 DAP, and then decreased. However, no significant change was recorded in soluble protein, sugar and GA3 after 16 DAP, and they all significantly correlated with seed viability and vigour during the process of seed maturity. The seeds of hybrid rice Qianyou No1 had a higher viability and vigour when harvested from 19 DAP to 28 DAP, the transcription levels of 64S Hsp18.0 and Os03g0267200 increased significantly from 10 DAP to 19 DAP and the highest value was recorded at 19 DAP. The seeds could be harvested as early as 19 DAP without negative influence on seed vigour and viability. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Solid-state reaction in Ti/Ni multilayered films studied by using magneto-optical spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Y P; Kim, K W; Kim, C G; Kudryavtsev, Y V; Nemoshkalenko, V V; Szymanski, B

    2000-01-01

    A comparative study of the solid-state reaction (SSR) in a series of Ti/Ni multilayered films (MLDs) with bilayer periods of 0.65-22.2 nm and a constant Ti to Ni sublayer thickness ratio was performed by using experimental and computer-simulated magneto-optical (MO) spectroscopy based on different models of MLFs, as well as x-ray diffraction (XRD). The spectral and sublayer thickness dependences of the MO properties of the Ti/Ni MLFs were explained on the basis of the electromagnetic theory. The existence of a threshold nominal Ni-sublayer thickness of about 3 nm for the as-deposited Ti/Ni MLF to observe of the equatorial Kerr effect was explained by a solid-state reaction which formed nonmagnetic alloyed regions between pure components during the MLF deposition. The SSR in the Ti/Ni MLFs, which was caused by the low temperature annealing, led to the formation of an amorphous Ti-Ni alloy and took place mainly in the Ti/Ni MLFs with ''thick'' sublayers. For the caes of Ti/Ni MLFs, the MO approach turned out to...

  13. Detection of tiny amounts of fissile materials in large-sized containers with radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batyaev, V. F.; Skliarov, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    The paper is devoted to non-destructive control of tiny amounts of fissile materials in large-sized containers filled with radioactive waste (RAW). The aim of this work is to model an active neutron interrogation facility for detection of fissile ma-terials inside NZK type containers with RAW and determine the minimal detectable mass of U-235 as a function of various param-eters: matrix type, nonuniformity of container filling, neutron gen-erator parameters (flux, pulse frequency, pulse duration), meas-urement time. As a result the dependence of minimal detectable mass on fissile materials location inside container is shown. Nonu-niformity of the thermal neutron flux inside a container is the main reason of the space-heterogeneity of minimal detectable mass in-side a large-sized container. Our experiments with tiny amounts of uranium-235 (<1 g) confirm the detection of fissile materials in NZK containers by using active neutron interrogation technique.

  14. Limitations of constitutive relations for TiNi shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, W.; Sandstroem, R.

    1995-01-01

    Phase transformation tensor Ω in the constitutive equation proposed by Tanaka has been evaluated by employing experimental data of TiNi alloys in a constrained recovery process. It demonstrates that the absolute value of Ω for the constrained recovery process is typically about 0.6 ∼ 0.7 x 10 3 MPa, which is much smaller than that for the stress - induced martensitic transformation (typically 2.5 ∼ 3.5 x 10 3 ). Based on the evaluated results for Ω, predicted recovery stress - temperature relations by the constitutive equation are compared with the experimental data for TiNi rods under different strains. Big discrepancy exists for large strain conditions. Several transformation kinetic expressions are examined for the constitutive relation of the constrained recovery process. (orig.)

  15. Analysis of the transformations temperatures of helicoidal Ti-Ni actuators using computational numerical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto do N. Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of shape memory actuators has enabled noteworthy applications in the mechanical engineering, robotics, aerospace, and oil industries and in medicine. These applications have been targeted on miniaturization and taking full advantage of spaces. This article analyses a Ti-Ni shape memory actuator used as part of a flow control system. A Ti-Ni spring actuator is subjected to thermomechanical training and parameters such as transformation temperature, thermal hysteresis and shape memory effect performance were investigated. These parameters were important for understanding the behavior of the actuator related to martensitic phase transformation during the heating and cooling cycles which it undergoes when in service. The multiple regression methodology was used as a computational tool for analysing data in order to simulate and predict the results for stress and cycles where the experimental data was not developed. The results obtained using the training cycles enable actuators to be characterized and the numerical simulation to be validated.

  16. The application of Tiny Triplet Finder (TTF) in BTeV pixel trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jin-Yuan; Wang, M.; Gottschalk, E.; Shi, Z.; Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    We describe a track segment recognition scheme called the Tiny Triplet Finder (TTF) that involves grouping of three hits satisfying a constraint such as forming of a straight line. The TTF performs this O(n 3 ) function in O(n) time, where n is number of hits in each detector plane. The word ''tiny'' reflects the fact that the FPGA resource usage is small. The number of logic elements needed for the TTF is O(Nlog(N)), where N is the number of bins in the coordinate considered, which for large N, is significantly smaller than O(N 2 ) needed for typical implementations of similar functions. The TTF is also suitable for software implementations as well as many other pattern recognition problems

  17. The application of Tiny Triplet Finder (TTF) in BTeV pixel trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jin-Yuan; Wang, M.; Gottschalk, E.; Shi, Z.; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    We describe a track segment recognition scheme called the Tiny Triplet Finder (TTF) that involves grouping of three hits satisfying a constraint such as forming of a straight line. The TTF performs this O(n{sup 3}) function in O(n) time, where n is number of hits in each detector plane. The word ''tiny'' reflects the fact that the FPGA resource usage is small. The number of logic elements needed for the TTF is O(Nlog(N)), where N is the number of bins in the coordinate considered, which for large N, is significantly smaller than O(N{sup 2}) needed for typical implementations of similar functions. The TTF is also suitable for software implementations as well as many other pattern recognition problems.

  18. Betsy Pugel, Tiny houses: Planetary protection-focused materials selection for spaceflight hardware surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Schriml, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Betsy Pugel, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Tiny houses: Planetary protection-focused materials selection for spaceflight hardware surfacesOn October 10-12th, 2017 the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine co-hosting MoBE 2017 (Microbiology of the Built Environment Research and Applications Symposium) at the National Academy of Sciences Building to present the current state-of-the-science in understanding the formation and ...

  19. (Updated) Nanotechnology: Understanding the Tiny Particles That May Save a Life | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nathalie Walker, Guest Writer Could nanotechnology—the study of tiny matter ranging in size from 1 to 200 nanometers—be the future of cancer treatment? Although it is a relatively new field in cancer research, nanotechnology is not new to everyday life. Have you ever thought about the tennis ball you’ve thrown with your dog at the park and wondered what it is made of?

  20. Heterogeneous tiny energy: An appealing opportunity to power wireless sensor motes in a corrosive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Guofu; Sun, Guodong; Li, Hui; Ou, Jinping

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultra-low ambient energy was scavenged to power the first of its kind wireless corrosion sensors. • Three feasible tiny-energy sources were exploited for long-term corrosion monitoring. • Automatic recharging control of heterogeneous tiny energy was proposed for human-free monitoring. • Corrosion itself was applied as an energy source to power the wireless corrosion-monitoring motes. - Abstract: Reinforcing steel corrosion is a significant factor leading to the durability deterioration of reinforced concrete (RC) structures. The on-line monitoring of the corrosion of RC structures in a long-term, human-free manner is not only valuable in industry, but also a significant challenge in academia. This paper presents the first of its kind corrosion-monitoring approach that only exploits three heterogeneous tiny energy sources to power commercial-off-the-shelf wireless sensor motes such that the corrosion-related data are automatically and autonomously captured and sent to users via wireless channels. We first investigated the availability of these three tiny energy sources: corrosion energy, a cement battery, and a weak solar energy. In particular, the two former energy sources inherently exist in RC structures and can be generated continually in the service-life of RC structures, which beneficial for the prospects of long-term corrosion monitoring. We then proposed a proof-of-concept prototype, which consisted of a Telosb wireless sensor mote and an energy harvester in order to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of the ultralow-power ambient energy as a type of power supply in corrosion monitoring applications. The critical metrics for the holographic monitoring of RC structures, including electrochemical noise, humidity and temperature, were successfully acquired and analysed using a post-processing program. This paper describes a unique and novel approach towards the realisation of smart structural monitoring and control system in the

  1. In situ crystallization of sputter-deposited TiNi by ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikenaga, Noriaki; Kishi, Yoichi; Yajima, Zenjiro; Sakudo, Noriyuki

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We developed a sputtering deposition process equipped with an ion irradiation system. ► Ion irradiation enables crystallization at lower substrate temperature. ► Ion fluence has an effective range for low-temperature crystallization. ► Crystallized films made on polyimide by the process show the shape memory effect. -- Abstract: TiNi is well known as a typical shape-memory alloy, and the shape-memory property appears only when the structure is crystalline. Until recently, the material has been formed as amorphous film by single-target sputtering deposition at first and then crystallized by being annealed at high temperature over 500 °C. Therefore, it has been difficult to make crystalline TiNi film directly on a substrate of polymer-based material because of the low heat resistance of substrate. In order to realize an actuator from the crystallized TiNi film on polymer substrates, the substrate temperature should be kept below 200 °C throughout the whole process. In our previous studies we have found that deposited film can be crystallized at very low temperature without annealing but with simultaneous irradiation of Ar ions during sputter-deposition. And we have also demonstrated the shape-memory effect with the TiNi film made by the new process. In order to investigate what parameters of the process contribute to the low-temperature crystallization, we have focused to the ion fluence of the ion irradiation. Resultantly, it was found that the transition from amorphous structure to crystal one has a threshold range of ion fluence

  2. Fabrication of TiNi/CFRP smart composite using cold drawn TiNi wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ya; Otsuka, Kazuhiro; Toyama, Nobuyuki; Yoshida, Hitoshi; Jang, Byung-Koog; Nagai, Hideki; Oishi, Ryutaro; Kishi, Teruo

    2002-07-01

    In recent years, pre-strained TiNi shape memory alloys (SMA) have been used for fabricating smart structure with carbon fibers reinforced plastics (CFRP) in order to suppress microscopic mechanical damages. However, since the cure temperature of CFRP is higher than the reverse transformation temperatures of TiNi SMA, special fixture jigs have to be used for keeping the pre-strain during fabrication, which restricted its practical application. In order to overcome this difficulty, we developed a new method to fabricate SMA/CFRP smart composites without using special fixture jigs by controlling the transformation temperatures of SMA during fabrication. This method consists of using heavily cold-worked wires to increase the reverse transformation temperatures, and of using flash electrical heating of the wires after fabrication in order to decrease the reverse transformation temperatures to a lower temperature range again without damaging the epoxy resin around SMA wires. By choosing proper cold-working rate and composition of TiNi alloys, the reverse transformation temperatures were well controlled, and the TiNi/CFRP hybrid smart composite was fabricated without using special fixture jigs. The damage suppressing effect of cold drawn wires embedded in CFRP was confirmed.

  3. Cytocompatibility evaluation and surface characterization of TiNi deformed by high-pressure torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awang Shri, Dayangku Noorfazidah, E-mail: AWANGSHRI.Dayangku@nims.go.jp [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Structural Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Koichi [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Structural Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Yamamoto, Akiko [Biomaterials Unit, International Center for Material Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2014-10-01

    Effect of high-pressure torsion (HPT) deformation on biocompatibility and surface chemistry of TiNi was systematically investigated. Ti–50 mol% Ni was subjected to HPT straining for different numbers of turns, N = 0.25, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 at a rotation speed of 1 rpm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy observations after 7 days of cell culture revealed the changes in the surface oxide composition, enrichment of Ti and detection of nitrogen derived from organic molecules in the culture medium. Plating efficiency of L929 cells was slightly increased by HPT deformation though no significant difference was observed. Albumin adsorption was higher in HPT-deformed samples, while vitronectin adsorption was peaked at N = 1. HPT deformation was also found to effectively suppress the Ni ion release from the TiNi samples into the cell culture medium even after the low degree of deformation at N = 0.25. - Highlights: • Nanostructured Ti–50 mol%Ni alloy was produced using high-pressure torsion. • HPT deformation improved L929 growth on TiNi samples. • Changes in surface chemistry were observed in HPT deformed samples. • Protein adsorption behavior was influenced by the surface chemistry. • Ni ion release was suppressed in HPT deformed samples.

  4. Root sprouting in Knautia arvensis (Dipsacaceae): effects of polyploidy, soil origin and nutrient availability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martínková, Jana; Klimešová, Jitka; Doležal, Jiří; Kolář, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 216, č. 6 (2015), s. 901-911 ISSN 1385-0237 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : root-sprouting * ploidy * Knautia arvensis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.490, year: 2015

  5. Bioavailability of Isothiocyanates From Broccoli Sprouts in Protein, Lipid, and Fiber Gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliviero, Teresa; Lamers, Simone; Capuano, Edoardo; Dekker, Matthijs; Verkerk, Ruud

    2018-01-01

    Scope: Optimization of bioavailability of dietary bioactive health-beneficial compounds is as important as increasing their concentration in foods. The aim of this study is to explore the change in bioavailability of isothiocyanates (ITCs) in broccoli sprouts incorporated in protein, fiber, and

  6. Chopper GEN2 + Glyphosate efficacy for height classes of hardwood sprouts recolonizing six clearcut pine sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmie Yeiser; Andrew Ezell

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess sprout size as a determinant of subsequent control by a standard, single rate of imazapyr +glyphosate applied during site preparation. All study sites were in the hilly upper coastal plain of Mississippi (Winston or Oktibbeha Counties) or Louisiana (Sabine or Winn Parishes) and supported loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations...

  7. UVA, UVB Light Doses and Harvesting Time Differentially Tailor Glucosinolate and Phenolic Profiles in Broccoli Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Rodríguez, Melissa; Nair, Vimal; Benavides, Jorge; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A

    2017-06-26

    Broccoli sprouts contain health-promoting glucosinolate and phenolic compounds that can be enhanced by applying ultraviolet light (UV). Here, the effect of UVA or UVB radiation on glucosinolate and phenolic profiles was assessed in broccoli sprouts. Sprouts were exposed for 120 min to low intensity and high intensity UVA (UVA L , UVA H ) or UVB (UVB L , UVB H ) with UV intensity values of 3.16, 4.05, 2.28 and 3.34 W/m², respectively. Harvest occurred 2 or 24 h post-treatment; and methanol/water or ethanol/water (70%, v / v ) extracts were prepared. Seven glucosinolates and 22 phenolics were identified. Ethanol extracts showed higher levels of certain glucosinolates such as glucoraphanin, whereas methanol extracts showed slight higher levels of phenolics. The highest glucosinolate accumulation occurred 24 h after UVB H treatment, increasing 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin, glucobrassicin and glucoraphanin by ~170, 78 and 73%, respectively. Furthermore, UVA L radiation and harvest 2 h afterwards accumulated gallic acid hexoside I (~14%), 4- O -caffeoylquinic acid (~42%), gallic acid derivative (~48%) and 1-sinapoyl-2,2-diferulolyl-gentiobiose (~61%). Increases in sinapoyl malate (~12%), gallotannic acid (~48%) and 5-sinapoyl-quinic acid (~121%) were observed with UVB H Results indicate that UV-irradiated broccoli sprouts could be exploited as a functional food for fresh consumption or as a source of bioactive phytochemicals with potential industrial applications.

  8. Vasohibin inhibits angiogenic sprouting in vitro and supports vascular maturation processes in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, Johann; Steurer, Michael; Gastl, Günther; Gunsilius, Eberhard; Untergasser, Gerold

    2009-01-01

    The murine homologue of human vasohibin (mVASH1), a putative antiangiogenic protein, was investigated for its effects on in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis. Cell growth and migration were analyzed in murine fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells. Angiogenic sprouting was studied in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in the spheroid sprouting assay. In vivo effects on blood vessel formation were investigated in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and in the C57BL/6 melanoma xenograft model. Purified murine and human VASH1 protein induced apoptosis of murine fibroblasts in vitro, but not of vascular aortic smooth muscle cells (AoSMC) or endothelial cells. Adenoviral overexpression of murine and human VASH1 inhibited capillary sprouting of HUVECs in the spheroid assay. Administration of recombinant murine and human VASH1 inhibited growth of large vessels in the CAM assay and promoted the formation of a dense, fine vascular network. Murine VASH1-overexpressing B16F10 melanomas displayed a reduction in large vessels and vascular area. Moreover, tumors showed more microvessels that stained positive for the mural cell markers α-smooth muscle cell actin (ASMA) and proteoglycan (NG2). Our data imply that murine VASH1 causes angiogenic remodelling by inhibiting angiogenic sprouting and large vessel growth, thereby supporting the formation of a vascular bed consisting predominantly of mature microvessels

  9. Microbial evaluation of fresh, minimally-processed vegetables and bagged sprouts from chain supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeddi, Maryam Zare; Yunesian, Masud; Gorji, Mohamad Es'haghi; Noori, Negin; Pourmand, Mohammad Reza; Khaniki, Gholam Reza Jahed

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial and fungal quality of minimally-processed vegetables (MPV) and sprouts. A total of 116 samples of fresh-cut vegetables, ready-to-eat salads, and mung bean and wheat sprouts were randomly collected and analyzed. The load of aerobic mesophilic bacteria was minimum and maximum in the fresh-cut vegetables and fresh mung bean sprouts respectively, corresponding to populations of 5.3 and 8.5 log CFU/g. E. coli O157:H7 was found to be absent in all samples; however,  other E. coli strains were detected in 21 samples (18.1%), and Salmonella spp. were found in one mung bean (3.1%) and one ready-to-eat salad sample (5%). Yeasts were the predominant organisms and were found in 100% of the samples. Geotrichum, Fusarium, and Penicillium spp. were the most prevalent molds in mung sprouts while Cladosporium and Penicillium spp. were most frequently found in ready-to-eat salad samples. According to results from the present study, effective control measures should be implemented to minimize the microbiological contamination of fresh produce sold in Tehran, Iran.

  10. Microbial Evaluation of Fresh, Minimally-processed Vegetables and Bagged Sprouts from Chain Supermarkets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeddi, Maryam Zare; Yunesian, Masud; Gorji, Mohamad Es'haghi; Noori, Negin; Pourmand, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial and fungal quality of minimally-processed vegetables (MPV) and sprouts. A total of 116 samples of fresh-cut vegetables, ready-to-eat salads, and mung bean and wheat sprouts were randomly collected and analyzed. The load of aerobic mesophilic bacteria was minimum and maximum in the fresh-cut vegetables and fresh mung bean sprouts respectively, corresponding to populations of 5.3 and 8.5 log CFU/g. E. coli O157:H7 was found to be absent in all samples; however,  other E. coli strains were detected in 21 samples (18.1%), and Salmonella spp. were found in one mung bean (3.1%) and one ready-to-eat salad sample (5%). Yeasts were the predominant organisms and were found in 100% of the samples. Geotrichum, Fusarium, and Penicillium spp. were the most prevalent molds in mung sprouts while Cladosporium and Penicillium spp. were most frequently found in ready-to-eat salad samples. According to results from the present study, effective control measures should be implemented to minimize the microbiological contamination of fresh produce sold in Tehran, Iran. PMID:25395902

  11. Growth performance of broilers fed on sprouted-roasted guar bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzimure, James; Muchapa, Lorraine; Gwiriri, Lovemore; Bakare, Archibold G; Masaka, Lawrence

    2017-06-01

    In a completely randomized block design with 96 Cobb-500 broilers, a study was conducted to evaluate the potential of dietary inclusion of sprouted then roasted guar bean in broiler diets. The 96 male day-old broiler chicks, blocked by pen into equal weight groups of six chicks replicated four times per treatment, were randomly allocated to treatment diets containing graded levels of sprouted then roasted guar bean meal (GBM) at 0, 50, 100 and 150 g kg -1 inclusion level. The guar bean was sprouted and roasted to reduce guar gum effect. Total feed intake decreased significantly as the guar bean meal content increased in the starter phase (P  0.05) were observed. Diets containing 0 and 50 g kg -1 GBM recorded significantly higher total feed intake compared to the diet containing 150 g kg -1 GBM. Although average weight gain was not significantly different in birds fed 0 and 50 g kg -1 GBM diets, it was significantly higher than in birds fed on 100 and 150 g kg -1 GBM diets. Feed conversion ratio was not significantly different among treatment groups (P > 0.05) but showed a general decreasing trend with increasing guar bean meal inclusion level, the effect being more pronounced during the starter phase. In conclusion, the optimum inclusion level of sprouted then roasted guar bean meal in broiler diets is 50 g kg -1 .

  12. UVA, UVB Light Doses and Harvesting Time Differentially Tailor Glucosinolate and Phenolic Profiles in Broccoli Sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Moreira-Rodríguez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli sprouts contain health-promoting glucosinolate and phenolic compounds that can be enhanced by applying ultraviolet light (UV. Here, the effect of UVA or UVB radiation on glucosinolate and phenolic profiles was assessed in broccoli sprouts. Sprouts were exposed for 120 min to low intensity and high intensity UVA (UVAL, UVAH or UVB (UVBL, UVBH with UV intensity values of 3.16, 4.05, 2.28 and 3.34 W/m2, respectively. Harvest occurred 2 or 24 h post-treatment; and methanol/water or ethanol/water (70%, v/v extracts were prepared. Seven glucosinolates and 22 phenolics were identified. Ethanol extracts showed higher levels of certain glucosinolates such as glucoraphanin, whereas methanol extracts showed slight higher levels of phenolics. The highest glucosinolate accumulation occurred 24 h after UVBH treatment, increasing 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin, glucobrassicin and glucoraphanin by ~170, 78 and 73%, respectively. Furthermore, UVAL radiation and harvest 2 h afterwards accumulated gallic acid hexoside I (~14%, 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid (~42%, gallic acid derivative (~48% and 1-sinapoyl-2,2-diferulolyl-gentiobiose (~61%. Increases in sinapoyl malate (~12%, gallotannic acid (~48% and 5-sinapoyl-quinic acid (~121% were observed with UVBH Results indicate that UV-irradiated broccoli sprouts could be exploited as a functional food for fresh consumption or as a source of bioactive phytochemicals with potential industrial applications.

  13. Abundance, diversity and community composition of free-living protozoa on vegetable sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavatte, N; Lambrecht, E; Van Damme, I; Sabbe, K; Houf, K

    2016-05-01

    Interactions with free-living protozoa (FLP) have been implicated in the persistence of pathogenic bacteria on food products. In order to assess the potential involvement of FLP in this contamination, detailed knowledge on their occurrence, abundance and diversity on food products is required. In the present study, enrichment and cultivation methods were used to inventory and quantify FLP on eight types of commercial vegetable sprouts (alfalfa, beetroot, cress, green pea, leek, mung bean, red cabbage and rosabi). In parallel, total aerobic bacteria and Escherichia coli counts were performed. The vegetable sprouts harbored diverse communities of FLP, with Tetrahymena (ciliate), Bodo saltans and cercomonads (flagellates), and Acanthamoeba and Vannella (amoebae) as the dominant taxa. Protozoan community composition and abundance significantly differed between the sprout types. Beetroot harbored the most abundant and diverse FLP communities, with many unique species such as Korotnevella sp., Vannella sp., Chilodonella sp., Podophrya sp. and Sphaerophrya sp. In contrast, mung bean sprouts were species-poor and had low FLP numbers. Sampling month and company had no significant influence, suggesting that seasonal and local factors are of minor importance. Likewise, no significant relationship between protozoan community composition and bacterial load was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. MG SPROUTS: A Project-in-a-Box Approach to Educational Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn,Sheri; Slagle, Krissy

    2016-01-01

    MG SPROUTS was developed as a "project-in-a-box" program, a self-contained educational programming tool for Extension agents working with master gardener Extension volunteers (MGEVs). The program design incorporates programmatic materials and project management materials and follows best management practices for volunteer management. MG…

  15. Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hae Won; Moon, Joon-Kwan; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2015-02-04

    Samples prepared from fresh broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) sprouts by water distillation or freeze-drying were examined for antioxidant activity using three assays. All samples exhibited dose-dependent antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity ranged from 74.48 ± 0.46% (less volatile sample) to 93.2 ± 0.2% (dichloromethane extract sample) at the level of 500 μg/mL. Both dichloromethane extract samples from a water distillate of broccoli sprouts and freeze-dried broccoli sprouts showed potent antioxidant activity, which was comparable to that of BHT. Among the 43 compounds positively identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, 5-methylthiopentylnitrile (31.64 μg/g) was found in the greatest concentration, followed by 4-methylthiobutylisothiocyanate (14.55 μg/g), 4-methylthiobutylnitrile (10.63 μg/g), 3-methylthiopropylisothiocyanate (3.00 μg/g), and 4-methylpentylisothiocyanate (2.48 μg/g). These isothiocyanates are known to possess antioxidant properties. Possible phenolic antioxidants found are 4-(1-methylpropyl)phenol (0.012 μg/g), 4-methylphenol (0.159 μg/g), and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (0.009 μg/g). The present study demonstrates that broccoli sprouts are a good source of natural antioxidants.

  16. Natural seedlings and sprouts after regeneration cuttings in old-growth redwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth N. Boe

    1975-01-01

    Natural regeneration of harvested old-growth stands of redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) is one way to start a new forest that is needed quickly for continuous timber production. Natural seedlings and sprouts developing after stands were cut were studied on the Redwood Experimental Forest, northern California. Three types of regeneration cuttings were...

  17. Distinct activities of Bartonella henselae type IV secretion effector proteins modulate capillary-like sprout formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, F; Ellner, Y; Guye, P; Rhomberg, T A; Weber, H; Augustin, H G; Dehio, C

    2009-07-01

    The zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae (Bh) can lead to vasoproliferative tumour lesions in the skin and inner organs known as bacillary angiomatosis and bacillary peliosis. The knowledge on the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in this pathogen-triggered angiogenic process is confined by the lack of a suitable animal model and a physiologically relevant cell culture model of angiogenesis. Here we employed a three-dimensional in vitro angiogenesis assay of collagen gel-embedded endothelial cell (EC) spheroids to study the angiogenic properties of Bh. Spheroids generated from Bh-infected ECs displayed a high capacity to form sprouts, which represent capillary-like projections into the collagen gel. The VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system and a subset of its translocated Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) were found to profoundly modulate this Bh-induced sprouting activity. BepA, known to protect ECs from apoptosis, strongly promoted sprout formation. In contrast, BepG, triggering cytoskeletal rearrangements, potently inhibited sprouting. Hence, the here established in vitro model of Bartonella- induced angiogenesis revealed distinct and opposing activities of type IV secretion system effector proteins, which together with a VirB/VirD4-independent effect may control the angiogenic activity of Bh during chronic infection of the vasculature.

  18. Hormonal Regulation of Dormancy in Developing Sorghum Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, H. S.; Benech-Arnold, R. L.; Sanchez, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    The role of abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) in determining the dormancy level of developing sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench.) seeds from varieties presenting contrasting preharvest sprouting behavior (Redland B2, susceptible; IS 9530, resistant) was investigated. Panicles from both varieties were sprayed soon after pollination with fluridone or paclobutrazol to inhibit ABA and GA synthesis, respectively. Fluridone application to the panicles increased germinability of Redland B2 immature caryopses, whereas early treatment with paclobutrazol completely inhibited germination of this variety during most of the developmental period. Incubating caryopses in the presence of 100 [mu]M GA4+7 overcame the inhibitory effect of paclobutrazol, but also stimulated germination of seeds from other treatments. IS 9530 caryopses presented germination indices close to zero until physiological maturity (44 d after pollination) in control and paclobutrazol-treated particles. However, fluridone-treated caryopses were released from dormancy earlier than control and paclobutrazol-treated caryopses. Incubation in the presence of GA4+7 stimulated germination of caryopses from all treatments. Our results support the proposition that a low dormancy level (which is related to a high preharvest sprouting susceptibility) is determined not only by a low embryonic sensitivity to ABA, but also by a high GA content or sensitivity.

  19. THE ROLE OF TINY GRAINS ON THE ACCRETION PROCESS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Xuening

    2011-01-01

    Tiny grains such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been thought to dramatically reduce the coupling between the gas and magnetic fields in weakly ionized gas such as in protoplanetary disks (PPDs) because they provide a tremendous surface area to recombine free electrons. The presence of tiny grains in PPDs thus raises the question of whether the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is able to drive rapid accretion consistent with observations. Charged tiny grains have similar conduction properties as ions, whose presence leads to qualitatively new behaviors in the conductivity tensor, characterized by n-bar /n e >1, where n e and n-bar denote the number densities of free electrons and all other charged species, respectively. In particular, Ohmic conductivity becomes dominated by charged grains rather than by electrons when n-bar /n e exceeds about 10 3 , and Hall and ambipolar diffusion (AD) coefficients are reduced by a factor of ( n-bar /n e ) 2 in the AD-dominated regime relative to that in the Ohmic regime. Applying the methodology of Bai, we find that in PPDs, when PAHs are sufficiently abundant (∼> 10 -9 per H 2 molecule), there exists a transition radius r trans of about 10-20 AU, beyond which the MRI active layer extends to the disk midplane. At r trans , the optimistically predicted MRI-driven accretion rate M-dot is one to two orders of magnitude smaller than that in the grain-free case, which is too small compared with the observed rates, but is in general no smaller than the predicted M-dot with solar-abundance 0.1 μm grains. At r > r trans , we find that, remarkably, the predicted M-dot exceeds the grain-free case due to a net reduction of AD by charged tiny grains and reaches a few times 10 -8 M sun yr -1 . This is sufficient to account for the observed M-dot in transitional disks. Larger grains (∼> 0.1 μm) are too massive to reach such high abundance as tiny grains and to facilitate the accretion process.

  20. Pre-harvest Sprouting and Grain Dormancy in Sorghum bicolor: What Have We Learned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto L. Benech-Arnold

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of obtaining sorghum grains with quality to match the standards for a diversity of end-uses is frequently hampered by the susceptibility to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS displayed by many elite genotypes. For these reasons, obtaining resistance to PHS is considered in sorghum breeding programs, particularly when the crop is expected to approach harvest maturity under rainy or damp conditions prevalence. As in other cereals, the primary cause for sprouting susceptibility is a low dormancy prior to crop harvest; in consequence, most research has focused in understanding the mechanisms through which the duration of dormancy is differentially controlled in genotypes with contrasting sprouting behavior. With this aim two tannin-less, red-grained inbred lines were used as a model system: IS9530 (sprouting resistant and Redland B2 (sprouting susceptible. Redland B2 grains are able to germinate well before reaching physiological maturity (PM while IS9530 ones can start to germinate at 40–45 days after pollination, well after PM. Results show that the anticipated dormancy loss displayed by Redland B2 grains is related reduced embryo sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA and increased levels of GA upon imbibition. In turn, transcriptional data showed that ABA signal transduction is impaired in Redland B2, which appears to have an impact on GA catabolism, thus affecting the overall GA/ABA balance that regulates germination. QTL analyses were conducted to test whether previous candidate genes were located in a dormancy QTL, but also to identify new genes involved in dormancy. These analyses yielded several dormancy QTL and one of them located in chromosome 9 (qGI-9 was consistently detected even across environments. Fine mapping is already in progress to narrow down the number of candidate genes in qGI-9.

  1. Reactivation of meristem activity and sprout growth in potato tubers require both cytokinin and gibberellin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Anja; Senning, Melanie; Hedden, Peter; Sonnewald, Uwe; Sonnewald, Sophia

    2011-02-01

    Reactivation of dormant meristems is of central importance for plant fitness and survival. Due to their large meristem size, potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers serve as a model system to study the underlying molecular processes. The phytohormones cytokinins (CK) and gibberellins (GA) play important roles in releasing potato tuber dormancy and promoting sprouting, but their mode of action in these processes is still obscure. Here, we established an in vitro assay using excised tuber buds to study the dormancy-releasing capacity of GA and CK and show that application of gibberellic acid (GA(3)) is sufficient to induce sprouting. In contrast, treatment with 6-benzylaminopurine induced bud break but did not support further sprout growth unless GA(3) was administered additionally. Transgenic potato plants expressing Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) GA 20-oxidase or GA 2-oxidase to modify endogenous GA levels showed the expected phenotypical changes as well as slight effects on tuber sprouting. The isopentenyltransferase (IPT) from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and the Arabidopsis cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase1 (CKX) were exploited to modify the amounts of CK in transgenic potato plants. IPT expression promoted earlier sprouting in vitro. Strikingly, CKX-expressing tubers exhibited a prolonged dormancy period and did not respond to GA(3). This supports an essential role of CK in terminating tuber dormancy and indicates that GA is not sufficient to break dormancy in the absence of CK. GA(3)-treated wild-type and CKX-expressing tuber buds were subjected to a transcriptome analysis that revealed transcriptional changes in several functional groups, including cell wall metabolism, cell cycle, and auxin and ethylene signaling, denoting events associated with the reactivation of dormant meristems.

  2. Cereal cystatins delay sprouting and nutrient loss in tubers of potato, Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, Aurélie; Simon, Marie-Aube; Khalf, Moustafa; Goulet, Marie-Claire; Michaud, Dominique

    2015-12-21

    Recent studies have reported agronomically useful ectopic effects for recombinant protease inhibitors expressed in leaves of transgenic plants, including improved tolerance to abiotic stress conditions and partial resistance to necrotrophic pathogens. Here we assessed the effects of these proteins on the post-dormancy sprouting of storage organs, using as a model potato tubers expressing cysteine protease inhibitors of the cystatin protein superfamily. Sprout emergence and distribution, soluble proteins, starch and soluble sugars were monitored in tubers of cereal cystatin-expressing clones stored for several months at 4 °C. Cystatin expression had a strong repressing effect on sprout growth, associated with an apparent loss of apical dominance and an increased number of small buds at the skin surface. Soluble protein content remained high for up to 48 weeks in cystatin-expressing tubers compared to control (untransformed) tubers, likely explained by a significant stabilization of the major storage protein patatin, decreased hydrolysis of the endogenous protease inhibitor multicystatin and low cystatin-sensitive cysteine protease activity in tuber tissue. Starch content decreased after several months in cystatin-expressing tubers but remained higher than in control tubers, unlike sucrose showing a slower accumulation in the transgenics. Plantlet emergence, storage protein processing and height of growing plants showed similar time-course patterns for control and transgenic tubers, except for a systematic delay of 2 or 3 d in the latter group likely due to limited sprout size at sowing. Our data point overall to the onset of metabolic interference effects for cereal cystatins in sprouting potato tubers. They suggest, in practice, the potential of endogenous cysteine proteases as relevant targets for the development of potato varieties with longer storage capabilities.

  3. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 Regulates Seed Dormancy in Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shingo; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Morishige, Hiromi; Kubo, Yuta; Nakamura, Masako; Ichimura, Kazuya; Seo, Shigemi; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Wu, Jianzhong; Ando, Tsuyu; Hensel, Goetz; Sameri, Mohammad; Stein, Nils; Sato, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Takashi; Yano, Masahiro; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-03-21

    Seed dormancy has fundamental importance in plant survival and crop production; however, the mechanisms regulating dormancy remain unclear [1-3]. Seed dormancy levels generally decrease during domestication to ensure that crops successfully germinate in the field. However, reduction of seed dormancy can cause devastating losses in cereals like wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) due to pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seed (grain) on the mother plant when rain occurs before harvest. Understanding the mechanisms of dormancy can facilitate breeding of crop varieties with the appropriate levels of seed dormancy [4-8]. Barley is a model crop [9, 10] and has two major seed dormancy quantitative trait loci (QTLs), SD1 and SD2, on chromosome 5H [11-19]. We detected a QTL designated Qsd2-AK at SD2 as the single major determinant explaining the difference in seed dormancy between the dormant cultivar "Azumamugi" (Az) and the non-dormant cultivar "Kanto Nakate Gold" (KNG). Using map-based cloning, we identified the causal gene for Qsd2-AK as Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 (MKK3). The dormant Az allele of MKK3 is recessive; the N260T substitution in this allele decreases MKK3 kinase activity and appears to be causal for Qsd2-AK. The N260T substitution occurred in the immediate ancestor allele of the dormant allele, and the established dormant allele became prevalent in barley cultivars grown in East Asia, where the rainy season and harvest season often overlap. Our findings show fine-tuning of seed dormancy during domestication and provide key information for improving pre-harvest sprouting tolerance in barley and wheat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  5. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  6. SCREENING OF LOCAL AND EXOTIC ONION (ALLIUM CEPA L. CULTIVARS FOR SEED PRODUCTION POTENTIALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.M. Aminul Islam

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted aiming to find out the seed production potentiality of 19 local and exotic onion cultivars. The analysis of variance showed significant differences among the genotypes for all characters except sprouting percentage, number of flowers per umbel and number of umbel per bulb. Maximum number of days to 50% bolting (52.67 was exhibited by the genotype G2 and minimum by G6 (27.00 days. The larger bulb size after harvest was obtained from G14 and G19 (18.11 g. Genotypes G4 and G11 required the maximum (16.66 and the minimum (9.00 days for 100% sprouting, respectively. The highest stalk length was found in the genotype G1 (67.23 cm and the lowest in G8 (38.47 cm. Maximum number (5.75 of stalk was produced by the genotype G7 and minimum number (2.09 of stalk by the genotype G11. The genotype G1 produced the highest number of seeds per umbel (1395.92 and seed yield per plant (4.29 g. The lowest (0.45 g seed yield per plant and maximum bulb weight was obtained by the genotype G8.

  7. Identification of Changes in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Seeds Proteome in Response to Anti–trx s Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongxiang; Zhang, Huizhen; Li, Yongchun; Ren, Jiangping; Wang, Xiang; Niu, Hongbin; Yin, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Background Thioredoxin h (trx h) is closely related to germination of cereal seeds. The cDNA sequences of the thioredoxin s (trx s) gene from Phalaris coerulescens and the thioredoxin h (trx h) gene from wheat are highly homologous, and their expression products have similar biological functions. Transgenic wheat had been formed after the antisense trx s was transferred into wheat, and it had been certified that the expression of trx h decreased in transgenic wheat, and transgenic wheat has high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting. Methodology/Principal Findings Through analyzing the differential proteome of wheat seeds between transgenic wheat and wild type wheat, the mechanism of transgenic wheat seeds having high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting was studied in the present work. There were 36 differential proteins which had been identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). All these differential proteins are involved in regulation of carbohydrates, esters, nucleic acid, proteins and energy metabolism, and biological stress. The quantitative real time PCR results of some differential proteins, such as trx h, heat shock protein 70, α-amylase, β-amylase, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, 14-3-3 protein, S3-RNase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and WRKY transcription factor 6, represented good correlation between transcripts and proteins. The biological functions of many differential proteins are consistent with the proposed role of trx h in wheat seeds. Conclusions/Significance A possible model for the role of trx h in wheat seeds germination was proposed in this paper. These results will not only play an important role in clarifying the mechanism that transgenic wheat has high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting, but also provide further evidence for the role of trx h in germination of wheat seeds. PMID:21811579

  8. Identification of changes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds proteome in response to anti-trx s gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongxiang; Zhang, Huizhen; Li, Yongchun; Ren, Jiangping; Wang, Xiang; Niu, Hongbin; Yin, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Thioredoxin h (trx h) is closely related to germination of cereal seeds. The cDNA sequences of the thioredoxin s (trx s) gene from Phalaris coerulescens and the thioredoxin h (trx h) gene from wheat are highly homologous, and their expression products have similar biological functions. Transgenic wheat had been formed after the antisense trx s was transferred into wheat, and it had been certified that the expression of trx h decreased in transgenic wheat, and transgenic wheat has high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting. Through analyzing the differential proteome of wheat seeds between transgenic wheat and wild type wheat, the mechanism of transgenic wheat seeds having high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting was studied in the present work. There were 36 differential proteins which had been identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). All these differential proteins are involved in regulation of carbohydrates, esters, nucleic acid, proteins and energy metabolism, and biological stress. The quantitative real time PCR results of some differential proteins, such as trx h, heat shock protein 70, α-amylase, β-amylase, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, 14-3-3 protein, S3-RNase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and WRKY transcription factor 6, represented good correlation between transcripts and proteins. The biological functions of many differential proteins are consistent with the proposed role of trx h in wheat seeds. A possible model for the role of trx h in wheat seeds germination was proposed in this paper. These results will not only play an important role in clarifying the mechanism that transgenic wheat has high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting, but also provide further evidence for the role of trx h in germination of wheat seeds.

  9. Identification of changes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. seeds proteome in response to anti-trx s gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiang Guo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thioredoxin h (trx h is closely related to germination of cereal seeds. The cDNA sequences of the thioredoxin s (trx s gene from Phalaris coerulescens and the thioredoxin h (trx h gene from wheat are highly homologous, and their expression products have similar biological functions. Transgenic wheat had been formed after the antisense trx s was transferred into wheat, and it had been certified that the expression of trx h decreased in transgenic wheat, and transgenic wheat has high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Through analyzing the differential proteome of wheat seeds between transgenic wheat and wild type wheat, the mechanism of transgenic wheat seeds having high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting was studied in the present work. There were 36 differential proteins which had been identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS. All these differential proteins are involved in regulation of carbohydrates, esters, nucleic acid, proteins and energy metabolism, and biological stress. The quantitative real time PCR results of some differential proteins, such as trx h, heat shock protein 70, α-amylase, β-amylase, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, 14-3-3 protein, S3-RNase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and WRKY transcription factor 6, represented good correlation between transcripts and proteins. The biological functions of many differential proteins are consistent with the proposed role of trx h in wheat seeds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A possible model for the role of trx h in wheat seeds germination was proposed in this paper. These results will not only play an important role in clarifying the mechanism that transgenic wheat has high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting, but also provide further evidence for the role of trx h in germination of wheat seeds.

  10. High temperature annealing effect on structural and magnetic properties of Ti/Ni multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, Pramod; Ganeshan, V.; Reddy, V.R.; Chaudhari, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    High temperature annealing effect on structural and magnetic properties of Ti/Ni multilayer (ML) up to 600 deg. C have been studied and reported in this paper. Ti/Ni multilayer samples having constant layer thicknesses of 50 A each are deposited on float glass and Si(1 1 1) substrates using electron-beam evaporation technique under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions at room temperatures. The micro-structural parameters and their evolution with temperature for as-deposited as well as annealed multilayer samples up to 600 deg. C in a step of 100 deg. C for 1 h are determined by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity techniques. The X-ray diffraction pattern recorded at 300 deg. C annealed multilayer sample shows interesting structural transformation (from crystalline to amorphous) because of the solid-state reaction (SSR) and subsequent re-crystallization at higher temperatures of annealing, particularly at ≥400 deg. C due to the formation of TiNi 3 and Ti 2 Ni alloy phases. Sample quality and surface morphology are examined by using atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique for both as-deposited as well as annealed multilayer samples. In addition to this, a temperature dependent dc resistivity measurement is also used to study the structural transformation and subsequent alloy phase formation due to annealing treatment. The corresponding magnetization behavior of multilayer samples after each stage of annealing has been investigated by using Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect (MOKE) technique and results are interpreted in terms of observed micro-structural changes

  11. Effects of Surface Dipole Lengths on Evaporation of Tiny Water Aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shen; Wan Rongzheng; Fang Haiping; Tu Yusong

    2013-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulation, we compared evaporation behavior of a tiny amount of water molecules adsorbed on solid surfaces with different dipole lengths, including surface dipole lengths of 1 fold, 2 folds, 4 folds, 6 folds and 8 folds of 0.14 nm and different charges from 0.1e to 0.9e. Surfaces with short dipole lengths (1-fold system) can always maintain hydrophobic character and the evaporation speeds are not influenced, whether the surface charges are enhanced or weakened; but when surface dipole lengths get to 8 folds, surfaces become more hydrophilic as the surface charge increases, and the evaporation speeds increase gradually and monotonically. By tuning dipole lengths from 1-fold to 8-fold systems, we confirmed non-monotonic variation of the evaporation flux (first increases, then decreases) in 4 fold system with charges (0.1e–0.7e), reported in our previous paper [S. Wang, et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 116 (2012) 13863], and also show the process from the enhancement of this unexpected non-monotonic variation to its vanishment with surface dipole lengths increasing. Herein, we demonstrated two key factors to influence the evaporation flux of a tiny amount of water molecules adsorbed on solid surfaces: the exposed surficial area of water aggregation from where the water molecules can evaporate directly and the attraction potential from the substrate hindering the evaporation. In addition, more interestingly, we showed extra steric effect of surface dipoles on further increase of evaporation flux for 2-folds, 4-folds, 6-folds and 8-folds systems with charges around larger than 0.7e. (The steric effect is first reported by parts of our authors [C. Wang, et al., Sci. Rep. 2 (2012) 358]). This study presents a complete physical picture of the influence of surface dipole lengths on the evaporation behavior of the adsorbed tiny amount of water. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  12. Tiny intracranial aneurysms: Endovascular treatment by coil embolisation or sole stent deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jun; Liu Jiachun; Wang Lijun; Qi Peng; Wang Daming

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Tiny intracranial aneurysms pose a significant therapeutic challenge for interventional neuroradiologists. The authors report their preliminary results of endovascular treatment of these aneurysms. Methods: Between January 2002 and December 2009, 52 tiny intracranial aneurysms (defined as ≤3 mm in maximum diameter) in 46 patients (22 men; mean age, 57.9 years) were treated by endosaccular coil embolisation or sole stent deployment in the parent artery. Of 52 aneurysms, 29 had ruptured and 23 remained unruptured. The initial angiographic results, procedural complications, and clinical outcomes were assessed at discharge. Imaging follow-up was performed with cerebral angiography. Results: One aneurysm coiling procedure failed because of unsuccessful micro-catheterization. Forty-three aneurysms were successfully coil embolized, of which complete occlusion was obtained in 14, subtotal occlusion in 18 and incomplete occlusion in 11. The other 8 aneurysms were treated by sole stent deployment in the parent artery. Procedural complications (2 intraprocedural ruptures and 3 thromboembolic events) occurred in 5 (9.6%) of 52 aneurysms, resulting in permanent morbidity in only 1 (2.2%, 1/46) patient. No rebleeding occurred during clinical follow-up (mean duration, 46.7 months). Of the 16 coiled aneurysms that receiving repetitive angiography, 6 initially completely and 3 subtotally occluded aneurysms remained unchanged, 4 initially subtotally and 3 incompletely occluded aneurysms progressed to total occlusion. Five sole stent deployed aneurysms received angiographic follow-up (mean duration, 10.0 months), of which 3 remained unchanged, 1 became smaller and 1 progressed to total occlusion. Conclusion: Endovascular treatment of tiny intracranial aneurysms is technical feasible and relatively safe. Coil embolisation seems to be effective in preventing early recanalisation, whereas sole stenting technique needs further investigation to determine its effectiveness.

  13. Shape memory and pseudoelastic properties of Fe-Mn-Si and Ti-Ni based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenin, G.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to analyse and discuss some recent advances in shape memory and pseudoelastic properties of different alloys. Experimental work in connection with theoretical ones will be reviewed. The first part is devoted to the microstructural origin of shape memory properties of Fe-Mn-Si based alloys (γ-ε transformation); the second part is a synthetic analysis of the effects of thermomechanical treatments on shape memory and pseudoelastic effects in Ti-Ni alloys, with some focus on the behaviour of the R phase introduced. (orig.)

  14. Tiny optical fiber temperature sensor based on temperature-dependent refractive index of zinc telluride film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Qiang; Song, Zhangqi; Song, Dongyu; Zhang, Xueliang; Li, Bingsheng; Yu, Yang; Chen, Yuzhong

    2018-03-01

    The temperature-dependent refractive index of zinc telluride film can be used to develop a tiny, low cost and film-coated optical fiber temperature sensor. Pulse reference-based compensation technique is used to largely reduce the background noise which makes it possible to detect the minor reflectivity change of the film in different temperatures. The temperature sensitivity is 0.0034dB/° and the background noise is measured to be 0.0005dB, so the resolution can achieve 0.2°.

  15. Mechanical properties and related substructure of TiNi shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filip, P.; Kneissl, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    The mechanical properties of binary near equiatomic TiNi shape memory alloys were investigated after different types of mechanical and heat treatments. The changes of deformation behaviour are explained on the basis of substructure differences after work hardening. The ''elastic moduli'' of both the high-temperature phase B2 and the martensite B19' as well as the ''easy stage of deformation'' are dependent on the work hardening intensity and these changes are related to the mobility of B2/B19' interfaces. The martensite changes its morphology after work hardening. In contrast to a twinned martensite, typical for annealed alloys, the internally slipped martensite was detected after work hardening. (orig.)

  16. Effects of light quality on main health-promoting compounds and antioxidant capacity of Chinese kale sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hongmei; Liu, Tianyu; Deng, Mingdan; Miao, Huiying; Cai, Congxi; Shen, Wangshu; Wang, Qiaomei

    2016-04-01

    The effects of different light qualities, including white, red and blue lights, on main health-promoting compounds and antioxidant capacity of Chinese kale sprouts were investigated using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as a light source. Our results showed that blue light treatment significantly decreased the content of gluconapin, the primary compound for bitter flavor in shoots, while increased the glucoraphanin content in roots. Moreover, the maximum content of vitamin C was detected in the white-light grown sprouts and the highest levels of total phenolic and anthocyanins, as well as the strongest antioxidant capacity were observed in blue-light grown sprouts. Taken together, the application of a colorful light source is a good practice for improvement of the consumers' acceptance and the nutritional phtyochemicals of Chinese kale sprouts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of pre-harvest red light irradiation on main phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of Chinese kale sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mingdan; Qian, Hongmei; Chen, Lili; Sun, Bo; Chang, Jiaqi; Miao, Huiying; Cai, Congxi; Wang, Qiaomei

    2017-05-01

    The effects of pre-harvest red light irradiation on main healthy phytochemicals as well as antioxidant activity of Chinese kale sprouts during postharvest storage were investigated. 6-day-old sprouts were treated by red light for 24h before harvest and sampled for further analysis of nutritional quality on the first, second and third day after harvest. The results indicated that red light exposure notably postponed the degradation of aliphatic, indole, and total glucosinolates during postharvest storage. The vitamin C level was remarkably higher in red light treated sprouts on the first and second day after harvest when compared with the control. In addition, red light treatment also enhanced the accumulation of total phenolics and maintained higher level of antioxidant activity than the control. All above results suggested that pre-harvest red light treatment might provide a new strategy to maintain the nutritive value of Chinese kale sprouts during postharvest storage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Repeated quick hot-and-chilling treatments for the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in mung bean and radish seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Md Latiful; Sugiyama, Jun; Kawamoto, Shinnichi

    2009-01-01

    The majority of the seed sprout-related outbreaks have been associated with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Therefore, it is necessary to find an effective method to inactivate these organisms on the seeds prior to sprouting. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of repeated quick hot-and-chilling treatments with various chemicals to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 populations inoculated onto mung bean and radish seeds intended for sprout production and to determine the effect of these treatments on seed germination. The treatment time was 20 sec for quick hot and 20 sec for quick chilling in one repeat. Likewise up to five repeats were done throughout the experiments. The chemicals used for this study were electrolyzed acidic (EO) water, phytic acid (0.05%), oxalic acid (3%), surfcera(R), and alpha-torino water(R), and distilled water was used as control. The quick hot treatment was done with 75 degrees C, 70 degrees C, and 60 degrees C, and the chilling temperature was 0 degrees C. The treated seeds were then assessed for the efficacy of this treatment in reducing populations of the pathogens and the effects of repeated quick hot-and-chilling treatments on germination yield. It was found that repeating treatment at 75 degrees C for two or three repeats with phytic acid and oxalic acid could reduce 4.38-log colony-forming unit (CFU)/g of E. coli O157:H7 in mung bean seeds. EO water and distilled water were found equally effective at 75 degrees C for four or five repeats to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 in mung bean seeds. However, alpha-torino water(R) and surfcera(R) were not found effective in comparison to other sanitizers used in this experiment. Irrespective of sanitizer used, the germination yield of the mung bean seed was not affected significantly. On the other hand, distilled water, EO water, and alpha-torino water(R) at 75 degrees C for five repeats were found effective in reducing 5.80-log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 in radish seeds; however, the

  19. Effect of radiation processing on nutritional and sensory quality of minimally processed green gram and garden pea sprouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajare, Sachin N.; Saroj, Sunil D.; Dhokane, Varsha S.; Shashidhar, R.; Bandekar, Jayant R.

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, radiation processing of minimally processed green gram and garden pea sprouts was carried out at doses 1 and 2 kGy. The effect of this treatment on different quality parameters like vitamin C content, total carotenoids content, sensory quality, texture, and color was determined over a storage period of 12 days at two different temperatures, a 4 and 8 deg. C. It was observed that treatment of irradiation (1 and 2 kGy) and storage period did not have any significant effect on vitamin C content of control as well as irradiated sprout samples stored at 4 and 8 deg.C. Total carotenoids content of sprouts stored at 4, as well as at 8 deg. C, for 12 days remained almost unchanged after irradiation as well as during storage. Sensory evaluation studies showed that irradiation had no significant effect (p>0.05) on the ratings of any of the sensory attributes in green gram as well as garden pea sprouts and, thus, did not alter the overall acceptability of the irradiated sprouts. Textural studies revealed that there was no significant change (p>0.05) in the firmness of irradiated sprouts (1 and 2 kGy) as compared to control samples at both the temperatures. Storage period of 12 days also did not affect the firmness of sprouts significantly. Color measurement results indicated no drastic change in the color coordinates of the green gram samples except greenness of controls stored at both the temperatures, which showed insignificant decrease in the a * values. Thus, the nutritional as well as sensory quality of minimally processed green gram and garden pea sprouts did not alter significantly after gamma irradiation with a dose of 1 and 2 kGy

  20. Starch and protein analysis of wheat bread enriched with phenolics-rich sprouted wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał; Dziki, Dariusz; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2017-08-01

    Wheat flour in the bread formula was replaced with sprouted wheat flour (SF) characterized by enhanced nutraceutical properties, at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% levels. The addition of SF slightly increased the total protein content; however, it decreased their digestibility. Some qualitative and quantitative changes in the electrophoretic pattern of proteins were also observed; especially, in the bands corresponding with 27kDa and 15-17kDa proteins. These results were also confirmed by SE-HPLC technique, where a significant increase in the content of proteins and peptides (molecular masses breads with 20% of SF. Bread enriched with sprouted wheat flour had more resistant starch, but less total starch, compared to control bread. The highest in vitro starch digestibility was determined for the control bread. The studied bread with lowered nutritional value but increased nutritional quality can be used for special groups of consumers (obese, diabetic). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Axonal sprouting regulates myelin basic protein gene expression in denervated mouse hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, M B; Poulsen, F R; Finsen, B

    2000-01-01

    to 35 days after transection of the entorhino-hippocampal perforant path axonal projection. In situ hybridization analysis showed that anterograde axonal and terminal degeneration lead to upregulated oligodendrocyte MBP mRNA expression starting between day 2 and day 4, in (1) the deep part of stratum...... axonal and terminal degeneration, myelin degenerative changes, microglial activation and axotomi-induced axonal sprouting. Oligodendrocyte MBP mRNA expression reached maximum in both these areas at day 7. MBP gene transcription remained constant in stratum radiatum, stratum pyramidale and stratum oriens...... of CA1, areas that were unaffected by perforant path transection. These results provide strong evidence that oligodendrocyte MBP gene expression can be regulated by axonal sprouting independently of microglial activation in the injured adult CNS....

  2. Growth and surface morphology of ion-beam sputtered Ti-Ni thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Ambati Pulla; Sunandana, C.S.

    2008-01-01

    Titanium-nickel thin films have been deposited on float glass substrates by ion beam sputtering in 100% pure argon atmosphere. Sputtering is predominant at energy region of incident ions, 1000 eV to 100 keV. The as-deposited films were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscope (AFM). In this paper we attempted to study the surface morphology and elemental composition through AFM and XPS, respectively. Core level as well as valence band spectra of ion-beam sputtered Ti-Ni thin films at various Ar gas rates (5, 7 and 12 sccm) show that the thin film deposited at 3 sccm possess two distinct peaks at binding energies 458.55 eV and 464.36 eV mainly due to TiO 2 . Upon increasing Ar rate oxidation of Ti-Ni is reduced and the Ti-2p peaks begin approaching those of pure elemental Ti. Here Ti-2p peaks are observed at binding energy positions of 454.7 eV and 460.5 eV. AFM results show that the average grain size and roughness decrease, upon increasing Ar gas rate, from 2.90 μm to 0.096 μm and from 16.285 nm to 1.169 nm, respectively

  3. Shape memory characteristics of sputter-deposited Ti-Ni thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Shuichi; Ishida, Akira.

    1994-01-01

    Ti-Ni shape memory alloy thin films were deposited using an RF magnetron sputtering apparatus. The as-sputtered films were heat-treated in order to crystallize and memorize. After the heat treatment, the shape memory characteristics have been investigated using DSC and thermomechanical tests. Upon cooling the thin films, the solution-treated films showed a single peak in the DSC curve indicating a single stage transformation occurring from B2 to the martensitic phase, while the age-treated films showed double peaks indicating a two-stage transformation, i.e., from B2 to the R-phase, then to the martensitic phase. A perfect shape memory effect was achieved in these sputter-deposited Ti-Ni thin films in association both with the R-phase and martensitic transformations. Transformation temperatures increased linearly with increasing applied stress. The transformation strain also increased with increasing stress. The shape memory characteristics were strongly affected by heat-treatment conditions. (author)

  4. Detection of tiny amounts of fissile materials in large-sized containers with radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batyaev V.F.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to non-destructive control of tiny amounts of fissile materials in large-sized containers filled with radioactive waste (RAW. The aim of this work is to model an active neutron interrogation facility for detection of fissile ma-terials inside NZK type containers with RAW and determine the minimal detectable mass of U-235 as a function of various param-eters: matrix type, nonuniformity of container filling, neutron gen-erator parameters (flux, pulse frequency, pulse duration, meas-urement time. As a result the dependence of minimal detectable mass on fissile materials location inside container is shown. Nonu-niformity of the thermal neutron flux inside a container is the main reason of the space-heterogeneity of minimal detectable mass in-side a large-sized container. Our experiments with tiny amounts of uranium-235 (<1 g confirm the detection of fissile materials in NZK containers by using active neutron interrogation technique.

  5. Broccoli sprouts: An exceptionally rich source of inducers of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Jed W.; Zhang, Yuesheng; Talalay, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Induction of phase 2 detoxication enzymes [e.g., glutathione transferases, epoxide hydrolase, NAD(P)H: quinone reductase, and glucuronosyltransferases] is a powerful strategy for achieving protection against carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, and other forms of toxicity of electrophiles and reactive forms of oxygen. Since consumption of large quantities of fruit and vegetables is associated with a striking reduction in the risk of developing a variety of malignancies, it is of interest that a number of edible plants contain substantial quantities of compounds that regulate mammalian enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism. Thus, edible plants belonging to the family Cruciferae and genus Brassica (e.g., broccoli and cauliflower) contain substantial quantities of isothiocyanates (mostly in the form of their glucosinolate precursors) some of which (e.g., sulforaphane or 4-methylsulfinylbutyl isothiocyanate) are very potent inducers of phase 2 enzymes. Unexpectedly, 3-day-old sprouts of cultivars of certain crucifers including broccoli and cauliflower contain 10–100 times higher levels of glucoraphanin (the glucosinolate of sulforaphane) than do the corresponding mature plants. Glucosinolates and isothiocyanates can be efficiently extracted from plants, without hydrolysis of glucosinolates by myrosinase, by homogenization in a mixture of equal volumes of dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethylformamide, and acetonitrile at −50°C. Extracts of 3-day-old broccoli sprouts (containing either glucoraphanin or sulforaphane as the principal enzyme inducer) were highly effective in reducing the incidence, multiplicity, and rate of development of mammary tumors in dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-treated rats. Notably, sprouts of many broccoli cultivars contain negligible quantities of indole glucosinolates, which predominate in the mature vegetable and may give rise to degradation products (e.g., indole-3-carbinol) that can enhance tumorigenesis. Hence, small quantities of crucifer sprouts may protect

  6. Disturbance is an important factor in the evolution and distribution of root-sprouting species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Jitka; Herben, Tomáš; Martínková, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2017), s. 387-399 ISSN 0269-7653 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-19245S; GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : disturbance * root-sprouting species * bud bank Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.818, year: 2016

  7. The Effects of Light and Temperature on Biotin Synthesis in Pea Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiyama, Shin; Ohnuki, Risa; Moriki, Aoi; Abe, Megumi; Ishiguro, Mariko; Sone, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    Biotin is an essential micronutrient, and is a cofactor for several carboxylases that are involved in the metabolism of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids. Because plant cells can synthesize their own biotin, a wide variety of plant-based foods contains significant amounts of biotin; however, the influence of environmental conditions on the biotin content in plants remains largely unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of different cultivation conditions on the biotin content and biotin synthesis in pea sprouts (Pisum sativum). In the experiment, the pea sprouts were removed from their cotyledons and cultivated by hydroponics under five different lighting and temperature conditions (control [25ºC, 12-h light/12-h dark cycle], low light [25ºC, 4-h light/20-h dark cycle], dark [25ºC, 24 h dark], low temperature [12ºC, 12-h light/12-h dark cycle], and cold [6ºC, 12-h light/12-h dark cycle]) for 10 d. Compared to the biotin content of pea sprouts under the control conditions, the biotin contents of pea sprouts under the low-light, dark, and cold conditions had significantly decreased. The dark group showed the lowest biotin content among the groups. Expression of the biotin synthase gene (bio2) was also significantly decreased under the dark and cold conditions compared to the control condition, in a manner similar to that observed for the biotin content. No significant differences in the adenosine triphosphate content were observed among the groups. These results indicate that environmental conditions such as light and temperature modulate the biotin content of pea plant tissues by regulating the expression of biotin synthase.

  8. Bioavailability of Isothiocyanates From Broccoli Sprouts in Protein, Lipid, and Fiber Gels

    OpenAIRE

    Oliviero, Teresa; Lamers, Simone; Capuano, Edoardo; Dekker, Matthijs; Verkerk, Ruud

    2018-01-01

    Scope: Optimization of bioavailability of dietary bioactive health-beneficial compounds is as important as increasing their concentration in foods. The aim of this study is to explore the change in bioavailability of isothiocyanates (ITCs) in broccoli sprouts incorporated in protein, fiber, and lipid gels. Methods and results: Five participants took part in a cross-over study and collected timed urine samples up to 24 h after consumption of proteins, dietary fibers, and lipid gels containing ...

  9. Redundant dopaminergic activity may enable compensatory axonal sprouting in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkadir, David; Bergman, Hagai; Fahn, Stanley

    2014-03-25

    Neurodegenerative diseases become clinically apparent only after a substantial population of neurons is lost. This raises the possibility of compensatory mechanisms in the early phase of these diseases. The importance of understanding these mechanisms cannot be underestimated because it may guide future disease-modifying strategies. Because the anatomy and physiology of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways have been well described, the study of Parkinson disease can offer insight into these early compensatory mechanisms. Collateral axonal sprouting of dopaminergic terminals into the denervated striatum is the most studied compensatory mechanism in animal (almost exclusively rodent) models of Parkinson disease and is correlated with behavioral recovery after partial lesions. This sprouting, however, does not respect the normal anatomy of the original nigrostriatal pathways and leads to aberrant neuronal networks. We suggest here that the unique physiologic property of the dopaminergic innervation of the striatum, namely redundancy of information encoding, is crucial to the efficacy of compensatory axonal sprouting in the presence of aberrant anatomical connections. Redundant information encoding results from the similarity of representation of salient and rewarding events by many dopaminergic neurons, from the wide axonal field of a single dopaminergic neuron in the striatum, and from the nonspecific spatial effect of dopamine on striatal neurons (volume conductance). Finally, we discuss the relevance of these findings in animal models to human patients with Parkinson disease.

  10. VEGF-A/Notch-Induced Podosomes Proteolyse Basement Membrane Collagen-IV during Retinal Sprouting Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirjo Spuul

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available During angiogenic sprouting, endothelial tip cells emerge from existing vessels in a process that requires vascular basement membrane degradation. Here, we show that F-actin/cortactin/P-Src-based matrix-degrading microdomains called podosomes contribute to this step. In vitro, VEGF-A/Notch signaling regulates the formation of functional podosomes in endothelial cells. Using a retinal neovascularization model, we demonstrate that tip cells assemble podosomes during physiological angiogenesis in vivo. In the retina, podosomes are also part of an interconnected network that surrounds large microvessels and impinges on the underlying basement membrane. Consistently, collagen-IV is scarce in podosome areas. Moreover, Notch inhibition exacerbates podosome formation and collagen-IV loss. We propose that the localized proteolytic action of podosomes on basement membrane collagen-IV facilitates endothelial cell sprouting and anastomosis within the developing vasculature. The identification of podosomes as key components of the sprouting machinery provides another opportunity to target angiogenesis therapeutically.

  11. Sprout inhibition and change in organic components of potato by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.S.; Kume, Tamikazu; Ishigaki, Isao.

    1989-12-01

    Radiation technology for sprout inhibition and change in organic components of potato by irradiation were investigated. Dose distribution in the package filled with potatoes (depth 45cm, density: 0.56g/cm 3 ) was measured using Fricke dosimeter. When the package was irradiated at dose rate of 5 x 10 5 , 1 x 10 5 and 5 x 10 4 rad/hr, the dose uniformities were calculated as 1.79, 1,45 and 1.35, and the relative throughput capacities were 1.0, 0.26 and 0.14, respectively. After 7 months storage, the sprout of potatoes was not observed at 10 krad irradiation while 57% of potatoes was sprouted at 5 krad. The contents of oxalic and malic acids were slightly increased by irradiation up to 100 krad while that of citric and succinic acids were not changed. The change in contents of these organic acids during storage was almost the same in both unirradiated and irradiated samples. Sucrose content was reached maximum after 8 days in 15 krad irradiated sample while it was increased through 40 days storage in 300 krad irradiated sample. The increase in sucrose contents by irradiation was higher in cortical tissue than in medullary tissue. (author)

  12. Effect of Substrate Roughness on Adhesion and Structural Properties of Ti-Ni Shape Memory Alloy Thin Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghwan; Lee, Hyunsuk; Bae, Joohyeon; Jeong, Hyomin; Choi, Byeongkeun; Nam, Taehyun; Noh, Jungpil

    2018-09-01

    Ti-Ni shape memory alloy (SMA) thin films are very attractive material for industrial and medical applications such as micro-actuator, micro-sensors, and stents for blood vessels. An important property besides shape memory effect in the application of SMA thin films is the adhesion between the film and the substrate. When using thin films as micro-actuators or micro-sensors in MEMS, the film must be strongly adhered to the substrate. On the other hand, when using SMA thin films in medical devices such as stents, the deposited alloy thin film must be easily separable from the substrate for efficient processing. In this study, we investigated the effect of substrate roughness on the adhesion of Ti-Ni SMA thin films, as well as the structural properties and phase-transformation behavior of the fabricated films. Ti-Ni SMA thin films were deposited onto etched glass substrates with magnetron sputtering. Radio frequency plasma was used for etching the substrate. The adhesion properties were investigated through progressive scratch test. Structural properties of the films were determined via Feld emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction measurements (XRD) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. Phase transformation behaviors were observed with differential scanning calorimetry and low temperature-XRD. Ti-Ni SMA thin film deposited onto rough substrate provides higher adhesive strength than smooth substrate. However the roughness of the substrate has no influence on the growth and crystallization of the Ti-Ni SMA thin films.

  13. Barley Seed Germination/Root Elongation Toxicity Test For Evaluation Of Sludge Pre-Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Barrett Sørensen, Mie

    Application of sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on agricultural land is an approach for nutrient recycling that rise challenges due to recalcitrant and harmful pollutants. In this study we assessed the feasibility of a seed germination test to evaluate sludge ecotoxicity and compared...... germination responses from two test parameters, root elongation and seed germination (sprouts elongation) of the barley (Hordeum vulgare). 2nd objective was to evaluate sewage sludge pre-treatments at batch-scale of sludge samples from two WWTPs using anaerobic digestion, and thermal and ozonation pre......-treatments. Glyphosate and eco-labelled soil were used as references. Inhibition of germination of seeds exposed to the glyphosate and sludge was registered and thus germination was successfully applied for sludge ecotoxicity assessment, and using the root elongation as the end-point was both faster and more precise...

  14. Assessment of the anticancer compounds Se-methylselenocysteine and glucosinolates in Se-biofortified broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) sprouts and florets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Fabricio William; Faquin, Valdemar; Yang, Yong; Ramos, Silvio Junio; Guilherme, Luiz Roberto G; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Li, Li

    2013-07-03

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is a rich source of chemopreventive compounds. Here, we evaluated and compared the effect of selenium (Se) treatment on the accumulation of anticancer compounds Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSCys) and glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts and florets. Total Se and SeMSCys content in sprouts increased concomitantly with increasing Se doses. Selenate was superior to selenite in inducing total Se accumulation, but selenite is equally effective as selenate in promoting SeMSCys synthesis in sprouts. Increasing sulfur doses reduced total Se and SeMSCys content in sprouts treated with selenate, but not in those with selenite. Examination of five broccoli cultivars reveals that sprouts generally have better fractional ability than florets to convert inorganic Se into SeMSCys. Distinctive glucosinolate profiles between sprouts and florets were observed, and sprouts contained approximately 6-fold more glucoraphanin than florets. In contrast to florets, glucosinolate content was not affected by Se treatment in sprouts. Thus, Se-enriched broccoli sprouts are excellent for simultaneous accumulation of chemopreventive compounds SeMSCys and glucoraphanin.

  15. Highly localized interactions between sensory neurons and sprouting sympathetic fibers observed in a transgenic tyrosine hydroxylase reporter mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jun-Ming

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sprouting of sympathetic fibers into sensory ganglia occurs in many preclinical pain models, providing a possible anatomical substrate for sympathetically enhanced pain. However, the functional consequences of this sprouting have been controversial. We used a transgenic mouse in which sympathetic fibers expressed green fluorescent protein, observable in live tissue. Medium and large diameter lumbar sensory neurons with and without nearby sympathetic fibers were recorded in whole ganglion preparations using microelectrodes. Results After spinal nerve ligation, sympathetic sprouting was extensive by 3 days. Abnormal spontaneous activity increased to 15% and rheobase was reduced. Spontaneously active cells had Aαβ conduction velocities but were clustered near the medium/large cell boundary. Neurons with sympathetic basket formations had a dramatically higher incidence of spontaneous activity (71% and had lower rheobase than cells with no sympathetic fibers nearby. Cells with lower density nearby fibers had intermediate phenotypes. Immunohistochemistry of sectioned ganglia showed that cells surrounded by sympathetic fibers were enriched in nociceptive markers TrkA, substance P, or CGRP. Spontaneous activity began before sympathetic sprouting was observed, but blocking sympathetic sprouting on day 3 by cutting the dorsal ramus in addition to the ventral ramus of the spinal nerve greatly reduced abnormal spontaneous activity. Conclusions The data suggest that early sympathetic sprouting into the sensory ganglia may have highly localized, excitatory effects. Quantitatively, neurons with sympathetic basket formations may account for more than half of the observed spontaneous activity, despite being relatively rare. Spontaneous activity in sensory neurons and sympathetic sprouting may be mutually re-enforcing.

  16. Neuroimmune processes associated with Wallerian degeneration support neurotrophin-3-induced axonal sprouting in the injured spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qin; Shine, H David

    2013-10-01

    Lesions of the spinal cord cause two distinctive types of neuroimmune responses, a response at the lesion site that leads to additional tissue destruction and a more subtle response, termed Wallerian degeneration (WD), that occurs distal to the lesion site. We have evidence that the neuroimmune response associated with WD may support tissue repair. Previously, we found that overexpression of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) induced axonal growth in the spinal cord after a unilateral corticospinal tract (CST) lesion, but only if the immune system was intact and activated. We reasoned that a neuroimmune response associated with WD was involved in this neuroplasticity. To test this, we compared NT-3-induced axonal sprouting in athymic nude rats that lack functional T cells with rats with functional T cells and in nude rats grafted with CD4(+) T cells or CD8(+) T cells. There was no sprouting in nude rats and in nude rats grafted with CD8(+) T cells. However, nude rats grafted with CD4(+) T cells mounted a sprouting response. To determine which CD4(+) subtype, type 1 T helper (Th1) or type 2 T helper (Th2) cells, was responsible, we grafted Th1 and Th2 cells into nude rats and tested whether they would support sprouting. Axonal sprouting was greater in rats grafted with Th2 cells, demonstrating that the Th2 subtype was responsible for supporting axonal sprouting. These data suggest that WD activates Th2 cells that, along with the direct effects of NT-3 on CST axons, act to support axonal sprouting in the lesioned spinal cord. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Comparison of Listeria monocytogenes recoveries from spiked mung bean sprouts by the enrichment methods of three regulatory agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauchon, Kaitlin E; Hitchins, Anthony D; Smiley, R Derike

    2017-09-01

    Three selective enrichment methods, the United States Food and Drug Administration's (FDA method), the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety Inspection Service's (USDA method), and the EN ISO 11290-1 standard method, were assessed for their suitability for recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from spiked mung bean sprouts. Three parameters were evaluated; the enrichment L. monocytogenes population from singly-spiked sprouts, the enrichment L. monocytogenes population from doubly-spiked (L. monocytogenes and Listeria innocua) sprouts, and the population differential resulting from the enrichment of doubly-spiked sprouts. Considerable L. monocytogenes inter-strain variation was observed. The mean enrichment L. monocytogenes populations for singly-spiked sprouts were 6.1 ± 1.2, 4.9 ± 1.2, and 6.9 ± 2.3 log CFU/mL for the FDA, USDA, and EN ISO 11290-1 methods, respectively. The mean L. monocytogenes populations for doubly-spiked sprouts were 4.7 ± 1.1, 5.5 ± 1.3, and 4.6 ± 1.4 log CFU/mL for the FDA, USDA, and ISO 11290-1 enrichment methods, respectively. The corresponding mean population differentials were 2.8 ± 1.1, 3.3 ± 1.3, and 3.6 ± 1.4 Δlog CFU/mL for the same three enrichment methods, respectively. The presence of L. innocua and resident microorganisms on the sprouts negatively impacted final levels of L. monocytogenes with all three enrichment methods. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Effect of phase formation on valence band photoemission and photoresonance study of Ti/Ni multilayers using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, Pramod; Chaudhari, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents investigation of Ti-Ni alloy phase formation and its effect on valence band (VB) photoemission and photoresonance study of as-deposited as well as annealed Ti/Ni multilayers (MLs) up to 600 deg. C using synchrotron radiation. For this purpose [Ti (50 A)/Ni (50 A)]X 10 ML structures were deposited by using electron-beam evaporation technique under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions. Formation of different phases of Ti-Ni alloy due to annealing treatment has been confirmed by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The XRD pattern corresponding as-deposited ML sample shows crystalline nature of both Ti and Ni deposited layers, whereas 300 deg. C annealed ML sample show solid-state reaction (SSR) leading to amorphization and subsequent recrystallisation at higher temperatures of annealing (≥400 deg. C) with the formation of TiNi, TiNi 3 and Ti 2 Ni alloy phases. The survey scans corresponding to 400, 500 and 600 deg. C annealed ML sample shows interdiffusion and intermixing of Ni atoms into Ti layers leading to chemical Ti-Ni alloys phase formation at interface. The corresponding recorded VB spectra using synchrotron radiation at 134 eV on as-deposited ML sample with successive sputtering shows alternately photoemission bands due to Ti 3d and Ni 3d, respectively, indicating there is no mixing of the consequent layers and any phase formation at the interface during deposition. However, ML samples annealed at higher temperatures of annealing, particularly at 400, 500 and 600 deg. C show a clear shift in Ni 3d band and its satellite peak position to higher BE side indicates Ti-Ni alloy phase formation. In addition to this, reduction of satellite peak intensity and Ni 3d density of states (DOS) near Fermi level is also observed due to Ti-Ni phase formation with higher annealing temperatures. The variable photon energy VB measurements on as-deposited and ML samples annealed at 400 deg. C confirms existence and BE position of observed Ni 3d satellite

  19. QTL analysis of falling number and seed longevity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, Andreas; Nagel, Manuela; Agacka-Mołdoch, Monika; Gierke, Peter Ulrich; Oberforster, Michael; Albrecht, Theresa; Mohler, Volker

    2018-02-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) and seed longevity (SL) are complex biological processes of major importance for agricultural production. In the present study, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between the German winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars History and Rubens was used to identify genetic factors controlling these two physiological seed traits. A falling number (FN) test was employed to evaluate PHS, while SL was measured using a germination test (and the speed of germination) after controlled deterioration. FN of the population was assessed in four environments; SL traits were measured in one environment. Four major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for FN were detected on chromosomes 4D, 5A, 5D, and 7B, whereas for SL traits, a major QTL was found on chromosome 1A. The FN QTL on chromosome 4D that coincided with the position of the dwarfing gene Rht-D1b only had effects in environments that were free of PHS. The remaining three QTL for FN were mostly pronounced under conditions conducive to PHS. The QTL on the long arm of chromosome 7B corresponded to the major gene locus controlling late maturity α-amylase (LMA) in wheat. The severity of the LMA phenotype became truly apparent under sprouting conditions. The position on the long arm of chromosome 1A of the QTL for SL points to a new QTL for this important regenerative seed trait.

  20. Evaporation of tiny water aggregation on solid surfaces with different wetting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shen; Tu, Yusong; Wan, Rongzheng; Fang, Haiping

    2012-11-29

    The evaporation of a tiny amount of water on the solid surface with different wettabilities has been studied by molecular dynamics simulations. From nonequilibrium MD simulations, we found that, as the surface changed from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, the evaporation speed did not show a monotonic decrease as intuitively expected, but increased first, and then decreased after it reached a maximum value. The analysis of the simulation trajectory and calculation of the surface water interaction illustrate that the competition between the number of water molecules on the water-gas surface from where the water molecules can evaporate and the potential barrier to prevent those water molecules from evaporating results in the unexpected behavior of the evaporation. This finding is helpful in understanding the evaporation on biological surfaces, designing artificial surfaces of ultrafast water evaporating, or preserving water in soil.

  1. Geology and geochronology of the Sub-Antarctic Snares Islands/Tini Heke, New Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, JM; Turnbull, IM; Sagar, MW

    2015-01-01

    are prismatic and yield an essentially unimodal age population of c. 116 Ma that is within error of the granodiorite. These properties suggest that the dated raft represents a meta-igneous rock despite its mica-rich nature. Some schistose rocks on the Western Chain contain coarse relict plagioclase phenocrysts...... and appear to have an igneous protolith. No conclusive metasedimentary rocks have been identified, although sillimanite-bearing mica-rich schist occurs on Rua. Deformation of the crystalline rocks occurred after Snares Granite intrusion and before cooling below muscovite K–Ar closure at 400 ± 50 °C at 95 Ma......The first comprehensive geological map, a summary of lithologies and new radiogenic isotope data (U–Pb, Rb–Sr) are presented for crystalline rocks of the Sub-Antarctic Snares Islands/Tini Heke, 150 km south of Stewart Island. The main lithology is Snares Granite (c. 109 Ma from U–Pb dating...

  2. Tiny individuals attached to a new Silurian arthropod suggest a unique mode of brood care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Derek E. G.; Siveter, Derek J.; Siveter, David J.; Sutton, Mark D.

    2016-04-01

    The ˜430-My-old Herefordshire, United Kingdom, Lagerstätte has yielded a diversity of remarkably preserved invertebrates, many of which provide fundamental insights into the evolutionary history and ecology of particular taxa. Here we report a new arthropod with 10 tiny arthropods tethered to its tergites by long individual threads. The head of the host, which is covered by a shield that projects anteriorly, bears a long stout uniramous antenna and a chelate limb followed by two biramous appendages. The trunk comprises 11 segments, all bearing limbs and covered by tergites with long slender lateral spines. A short telson bears long parallel cerci. Our phylogenetic analysis resolves the new arthropod as a stem-group mandibulate. The evidence suggests that the tethered individuals are juveniles and the association represents a complex brooding behavior. Alternative possibilities—that the tethered individuals represent a different epizoic or parasitic arthropod—appear less likely.

  3. Tiny Grains Give Huge Gains: Nanocrystal–Based Signal Amplification for Biomolecule Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Sheng; Ren, Binbin; Zheng, Zhilan; Shen, Han; Bao, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Nanocrystals, despite their tiny sizes, contain thousands to millions of atoms. Here we show that the large number of atoms packed in each metallic nanocrystal can provide a huge gain in signal amplification for biomolecule detection. We have devised a highly sensitive, linear amplification scheme by integrating the dissolution of bound nanocrystals and metal-induced stoichiometric chromogenesis, and demonstrated that signal amplification is fully defined by the size and atom density of nanocrystals, which can be optimized through well-controlled nanocrystal synthesis. Further, the rich library of chromogenic reactions allows implementation of this scheme in various assay formats, as demonstrated by the iron oxide nanoparticle linked immunosorbent assay (ILISA) and blotting assay developed in this study. Our results indicate that, owing to the inherent simplicity, high sensitivity and repeatability, the nanocrystal based amplification scheme can significantly improve biomolecule quantification in both laboratory research and clinical diagnostics. This novel method adds a new dimension to current nanoparticle-based bioassays. PMID:23659350

  4. Macronuclear genome structure of the ciliate Nyctotherus ovalis: Single-gene chromosomes and tiny introns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landweber Laura F

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nyctotherus ovalis is a single-celled eukaryote that has hydrogen-producing mitochondria and lives in the hindgut of cockroaches. Like all members of the ciliate taxon, it has two types of nuclei, a micronucleus and a macronucleus. N. ovalis generates its macronuclear chromosomes by forming polytene chromosomes that subsequently develop into macronuclear chromosomes by DNA elimination and rearrangement. Results We examined the structure of these gene-sized macronuclear chromosomes in N. ovalis. We determined the telomeres, subtelomeric regions, UTRs, coding regions and introns by sequencing a large set of macronuclear DNA sequences (4,242 and cDNAs (5,484 and comparing them with each other. The telomeres consist of repeats CCC(AAAACCCCn, similar to those in spirotrichous ciliates such as Euplotes, Sterkiella (Oxytricha and Stylonychia. Per sequenced chromosome we found evidence for either a single protein-coding gene, a single tRNA, or the complete ribosomal RNAs cluster. Hence the chromosomes appear to encode single transcripts. In the short subtelomeric regions we identified a few overrepresented motifs that could be involved in gene regulation, but there is no consensus polyadenylation site. The introns are short (21–29 nucleotides, and a significant fraction (1/3 of the tiny introns is conserved in the distantly related ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia. As has been observed in P. tetraurelia, the N. ovalis introns tend to contain in-frame stop codons or have a length that is not dividable by three. This pattern causes premature termination of mRNA translation in the event of intron retention, and potentially degradation of unspliced mRNAs by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway. Conclusion The combination of short leaders, tiny introns and single genes leads to very minimal macronuclear chromosomes. The smallest we identified contained only 150 nucleotides.

  5. Pollination networks of oil-flowers: a tiny world within the smallest of all worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Elisângela L S; Machado, Isabel C; Mello, Marco A R

    2009-09-01

    1. In the Neotropics, most plants depend on animals for pollination. Solitary bees are the most important vectors, and among them members of the tribe Centridini depend on oil from flowers (mainly Malpighiaceae) to feed their larvae. This specialized relationship within 'the smallest of all worlds' (a whole pollination network) could result in a 'tiny world' different from the whole system. This 'tiny world' would have higher nestedness, shorter path lengths, lower modularity and higher resilience if compared with the whole pollination network. 2. In the present study, we contrasted a network of oil-flowers and their visitors from a Brazilian steppe ('caatinga') to whole pollination networks from all over the world. 3. A network approach was used to measure network structure and, finally, to test fragility. The oil-flower network studied was more nested (NODF = 0.84, N = 0.96) than all of the whole pollination networks studied. Average path lengths in the two-mode network were shorter (one node, both for bee and plant one-mode network projections) and modularity was lower (M = 0.22 and four modules) than in all of the whole pollination networks. Extinctions had no or small effects on the network structure, with an average change in nestedness smaller than 2% in most of the cases studied; and only two species caused coextinctions. The higher the degree of the removed species, the stronger the effect and the higher the probability of a decrease in nestedness. 4. We conclude that the oil-flower subweb is more cohesive and resilient than whole pollination networks. Therefore, the Malpighiaceae have a robust pollination service in the Neotropics. Our findings reinforce the hypothesis that each ecological service is in fact a mosaic of different subservices with a hierarchical structure ('webs within webs').

  6. Relationship between grain colour and preharvest sprouting-resistance in wheat Relação entre cor de grão e resistência à germinação pré-colheita em trigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Carlos Bassoi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Since red alleles (R of the genes that control grain colour are important for the improvement of preharvest sprouting resistance in wheat and there are three independently inherited loci, on chromosomes 3A, 3B and 3D of hexaploid wheat, it is possible to vary the dosage of dominant alleles in a breeding program. The objective of this work was to evaluate the dosage effect of R genes on preharvest sprouting, in a single seed descent population, named TRL, derived from the cross between Timgalen, white-grained wheat, and RL 4137, red-grained wheat. The study was carried out using sprouting data in ripe ears obtained under artificial conditions in a rainfall simulator over three years. According to the results there is a significant effect on preharvest sprouting provided by colour and a weaker effect of increasing R dosage. However, the significant residual genotypic variation between red lines and all lines (reds and whites at 0.1% level showed that preharvest sprouting was also controlled by other genes. There are no significant correlations between sprouting and date of ripeness or between ripeness, R dosage and colour intensity.Uma vez que os alelos dominantes para cor vermelha (R, dos genes que controlam a cor do grão, têm importância no incremento da resistência à germinação pré-colheita, em trigo, e há três locos herdados independentemente, nos cromossomos 3A, 3B e 3D do trigo hexaplóide, é possível variar sua dosagem em um programa de melhoramento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de dosagem dos genes R na germinação pré-colheita, em uma população de descendência por semente única, batizada de TRL, derivada do cruzamento entre Timgalen, trigo de grão branco, e RL 4137, trigo de grão vermelho. O estudo utilizou dados de germinação em espigas maduras, obtidos sob condições artificiais em um simulador de chuva, em três anos. De acordo com os resultados, o efeito da cor de grão e, menos acentuadamente

  7. Combined physico-chemical treatments based on enterocin AS-48 for inactivation of Gram-negative bacteria in soybean sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo Molinos, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; López, Rosario Lucas; Valdivia, Eva; Omar, Nabil Ben; Gálvez, Antonio

    2008-08-01

    Enterocin AS-48 was tested for decontamination of soybean sprouts against Gram-negative bacteria. Although treatment with bacteriocin alone had no effect on Salmonella enterica, a synergistic antimicrobial effect was detected at pH 9.0 and in combination with moderate heat treatment. Greatest inactivation was achieved for sprouts heated for 5 min at 65 degrees C in an alkaline (pH 9.0) enterocin AS-48 solution of 25 microg/ml. Bactericidal activity against S. enterica increased greatly when enterocin AS-48 was used in washing solutions in combination with several chemical compounds: EDTA, lactic acid, peracetic acid, polyphosphoric acid, sodium hypochlorite, hexadecylpyridinium chloride, propyl-p-hydroxybenzoate, and hydrocinnamic acid. The combined treatment of enterocin AS-48 and polyphosphoric acid was tested against several other Gram-negative bacteria inoculated on sprouts. The bacteria tested showed great differences in sensitivity to polyphosphoric acid, but synergism with enterocin AS-48 was confirmed in all cases. Combinations of enterocin AS-48 (25 microg/ml) and polyphosphoric acid in a concentration range of 0.1 to 2.0% significantly reduced or inhibited growth of the populations of S. enterica, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella spp., Enterobacter aerogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas fluorescens in sprout samples stored at 6 degrees C and 15 degrees C. The combined treatment could therefore be applied to reduce the risks of Gram-negative pathogenic as well as spoilage bacteria on sprouts.

  8. Increased expression of fructan 1-exohydrolase in rhizophores of Vernonia herbacea during sprouting and exposure to low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asega, Amanda Francine; do Nascimento, João Roberto O; Carvalho, Maria Angela M

    2011-04-15

    Rhizophores of Vernonia herbacea, an Asteraceae found in the Brazilian Cerrado, store high amounts of fructans that vary in composition over the phenological cycle. Fructan 1-exohydrolase (1-FEH) activity is detectable during the sprouting phase, mainly in the proximal regions of rhizophores, of plants induced to sprout by defoliation and/or cold storage. We found an increase in 1-FEH gene expression during natural and induced sprouting and further enhancement through low-temperature treatment. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of 1-FEH gene expression in different regions of the rhizophores during the transition from dormancy to sprouting is presented. Transcripts were detected mainly in the proximal region, coinciding with high 1-FEH activity and a high concentration of free fructose. Low temperature promoted the accumulation of fructans of a low degree of polymerization (DP) and enhanced 1-FEH activity and gene expression. It is hypothesized that a set of 1-FEH proteins acts in two different ways during fructan mobilization: (1) by hydrolyzing fructo-oligosaccharides and -polysaccharides in sprouting plants (naturally or induced) for carbon supply and (2) by hydrolyzing preferably fructo-polysaccharides under low temperature to maintain the oligosaccharide pool for plant cold acclimation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Regeneration Dynamics of Coast Redwood, a Sprouting Conifer Species: A Review with Implications for Management and Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin L. O’Hara

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens (Lamb. ex. D. Don Endl. is unique among conifer species because of its longevity, the great sizes of individual trees, and its propensity to reproduce through sprouts. Timber harvesting in the native redwood range along the coast of the western United States has necessitated restoration aimed to promote old forest structures to increase the total amount of old forest, the connectivity between old forests, and to enhance the resiliency of these ecosystems. After disturbance or harvest, healthy redwood stumps sprout vigorously, often producing dozens of sprouts within two years of disturbance. These sprouts form highly aggregated spatial patterns because they are clustered around stumps that may number less than 50 ha−1. Thinning of sprouts can accelerate individual tree growth, providing an effective restoration strategy to accelerate formation of large trees and old forest structures or increase stand growth for timber production. However, management, including restoration activities, is a contentious issue throughout the native range of redwood because of the history of overexploitation of this resource and perceptions that overexploitation is continuing. This paper reviews the science of early stand dynamics in coast redwood and their implications for restoration and other silvicultural strategies.

  10. Responses of growing Japanese quails that received selenium from selenium enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantiratikul, Anut; Chinrasri, Orawan; Pakmaruek, Pornpan; Chantiratikul, Piyanete; Thosaikham, Withpol; Aengwanich, Worapol

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of selenium (Se) from Se-enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.) on the performance and Se concentrations in tissues of growing Japanese quails. Two hundred quails were divided into five treatments. Each treatment consisted of four replicates and each replicate contained ten quails in a completely randomize design. The experiment was conducted for 5 weeks. The treatments were T1, control diet; T2, control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from sodium selenite; T3, T4, and T5, control diet plus 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg Se/kg from Se-enriched kale sprout. The results revealed that Se supplementation had no impact on feed intake, performance, and carcass characteristics of quails (p > 0.05). However, Se supplementation from both sodium selenite and Se-enriched kale sprout increased (p kale sprout. The results indicate that Se from Se-enriched kale sprout offers no advantage over Se from sodium selenite on tissue Se concentration.

  11. Replacing corn with pearl millet (raw and sprouted) with and without enzyme in chickens' diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsharmanesh, M; Ghorbani, N; Mehdipour, Z

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare a commercial corn-soya bean meal diet with a pearl millet (raw and sprouted) diet containing less soya bean meal, alone or in combination with exogenous enzyme, on growth performance and ileal villus development of chicks. Two-hundred-and-forty-one-day-old male broilers (10/pen) were randomly allocated to one of the following dietary treatments: (i) a standard corn-soya bean meal control diet (CTL); (ii) a raw pearl millet-soya bean meal diet (PM); (iii) a sprouted pearl millet-soya bean meal diet (SPM); (iv) CTL + exogenous enzymes (CE); (v) PM + exogenous enzymes (PE); and (vi) SPM + exogenous enzymes (SPE) with four replicate pens/treatment. Body weight of birds at day 21 did not differ between those fed the CTL, and SPM and PE diets. In comparison with feeding broilers the CTL diet, feeding the PE and SPM diets caused significant decrease in feed intake, but with equivalent growth and feed efficiency. However, at day 21, feed conversion ratio did not differ between birds fed the CTL diet and those fed the PM, PE and SPM diets. At day 21, broilers fed the PM and PE diets had longer villi (p diet. At day 21, villi width was reduced (p diet. It is concluded that, in comparison with corn, broiler diets formulated with sprouted pearl millet or pearl millet with enzyme require less soya bean meal and can be used to improve growth performance traits and villus development. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Effect of different process parameters on the quality of soymilk and tofu from sprouted soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugkar, Dipika Agrahar

    2015-05-01

    The effect of grinding cum blanching (GCB) of sprouted soybean at different temperatures on milk and tofu quality was studied. Three temperatures (121 °C-T1,100 °C-T2 and 80 °C-T3) for GCB were used to produce soymilk and tofu from sprouted soybean which were analysed for the yield, nutritional, anti-nutritional profile, colour attributes, particle size, organoleptic quality and texture profile. Unsprouted Soybeans with GCB at 121 °C served as control (C). There was significant difference (P Hardness (N) of tofu was around 11.22 in C and reduced to 8.9, 8.6 and 4.4 in T1, T2 and T3 respectively. L values of soymilk ranged from 83.4 in C to 85.8 in T3; in tofu from 83.1(T3) to 87.2 (C) and decreased with the increase in heating temperature and time. Particle size d [3, 2] and volume d [4, 3] between treatments varied significantly (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0038). Overall acceptability scores on 9 point hedonic scale for all treatments for milk and tofu were above 5. The texture scores of tofu for T3 were very low due to its soft structure. From the above investigations 100 °C was the optimal temperature for GCB of sprouted soybean for the production of good quality soymilk and tofu.

  13. TinyONet: A Cache-Based Sensor Network Bridge Enabling Sensing Data Reusability and Customized Wireless Sensor Network Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eui-Hyun; Park, Yong-Jin

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, a few protocol bridge research projects have been announced to enable a seamless integration of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) with the TCP/IP network. These studies have ensured the transparent end-to-end communication between two network sides in the node-centric manner. Researchers expect this integration will trigger the development of various application domains. However, prior research projects have not fully explored some essential features for WSNs, especially the reusability of sensing data and the data-centric communication. To resolve these issues, we suggested a new protocol bridge system named TinyONet. In TinyONet, virtual sensors play roles as virtual counterparts of physical sensors and they dynamically group to make a functional entity, Slice. Instead of direct interaction with individual physical sensors, each sensor application uses its own WSN service provided by Slices. If a new kind of service is required in TinyONet, the corresponding function can be dynamically added at runtime. Beside the data-centric communication, it also supports the node-centric communication and the synchronous access. In order to show the effectiveness of the system, we implemented TinyONet on an embedded Linux machine and evaluated it with several experimental scenarios. PMID:27873968

  14. Effects of a Brussels sprouts extract on oxidative DNA damage and metabolising enzymes in rat liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Jensen, B.R.; Poulsen, Henrik E.

    2001-01-01

    and catalase activity was also assessed in the kidneys. In order to examine a possible effect of the Brussels sprouts related to oxidative stress, we measured oxidative DNA damage in terms of 7-hydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and lipid peroxidation in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) formation...... on MDA levels were found. The present results support the data obtained in several studies that consumption of cruciferous vegetables is capable of inducing various phase II enzyme systems. However, the observed increase in oxidative DNA damage raises the question of whether greatly increased ingestion...

  15. Sprout inhibition in roots, tubers and bulbs; Inhibicion de brotes en raices, tuberculos y bulbos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna C, P.C

    1992-05-15

    The treatment with ionizing radiations to low dose impedes that appear sprouts in the tubers (potatoes); bulbs (onion and garlic) and in roots like the ginger and the yucca. The purpose is to inhibit the germination during the process of manipulation and storage, and this way to avoid the lost ones post crop of these products. The radiation dose required to inhibit the germination goes to depend of: the development conditions, the differences of variety, of the storage state of the bulbs and the conditions of cured and storage. (Author)

  16. Studies on sprout inhibition of onions by irradiation in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenewald, T.

    1978-01-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany imports about 97% of the onions for human consumption, especially from the Netherlands and from 7 other countries. The onions are distributed for sale immediately without long storage in storehouses. Therefore the objective of this study was not primarily to clear the irradiation and storage processing but to obtain better information about the quality of imported irradiated onions and about the parameters influencing the quality. Seven varieties cultivated in Germany with different physical and sensory properties were irradiated with 10MeV electrons at doses of 5 or 10krad and stored at temperatures of +4, +9, +10 or +20 0 C. The time between harvest and irradiation and the storage conditions for this time were also varied. In all periods physical, chemical and sensory properties of fresh and cooked bulbs were tested and statistically analysed during the storage periods of 8 to 10 months after harvest. It could be demonstrated that a dose of 5krad of 10MeV electrons was high enough to inhibit sprouting in all varieties, independent of the storage conditions, if the irradiation was applied within 4 weeks after harvest. If more time elapsed between harvest and irradiation, reduced sprout suppression was obtained. The sensory quality of the onion bulbs, irradiated and stored for 8 months, was evaluated as only 1 or 2 points lower than at the beginning of storage, when tested as cooked vegetables. The influence of the variety and storage conditions on the properties was more evident than the influence of irradiation, apart from sprouting. However, the browning in the growth centre of the irradiated onion bulbs could not be ignored. Varying the time between harvest and irradiation had no effect, and different storage conditions demonstrated only that lower storage temperatures delayed the browning but did not prevent it. This will probably not influence the marketability of the onions and would be compensated by lower prices for the

  17. What Are Chia Seeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your diet? Chia seeds come from the desert plant Salvia hispanica , a member of the mint family. ... ancient Aztec diet. The seeds of a related plant, Salvia columbariae (golden chia), were used primarily by ...

  18. Seeds and Synergies

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    'Seeds and Synergies presents inspiring evidence of change in practice and policy ... Seeds of inspiration: breathing new life into the formal agricultural research .... and Urban Development and Poverty Alleviation and Agricultural Commodity ...

  19. Seeds as biosocial commons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patnaik, Archana

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates and describes the conservation and use of Plant Genetic Resources (PGRs), especially seeds through processes of commonisation. Seeds form an important element for sustaining human life (through food production) and social relations (by maintaining agricultural

  20. Seed dispersal in fens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middleton, Beth; van Diggelen, Rudy; Jensen, Kai

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and

  1. Verification of presence of caprolactam in sprouted achenes of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and its influence on plant phenolic compound content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinová, Jana P; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Moos, Martin

    2014-08-15

    The presence of caprolactam, a precursor of Nylon-6, among those synthetic polymers which are widely-spread throughout the environment, could be the reason for its being found in plants. The aim of this work was to confirm the previously described presence of caprolactam in dry and sprouted achenes, as well as in achene exudates of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). When the lyophilized sprouted and dry buckwheat achenes, along with exudates from growth experiments, with caprolactam-free medium were analysed by HPLC, no caprolactam was found. After addition of caprolactam into the growth medium, we confirmed the uptake of caprolactam in the lyophilized sprouted buckwheat achenes. The uptake of caprolactam is also a function of light conditions during the growth experiments. Caprolactam also inhibits the content of phenolic compounds; especially rutin, vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and homoorientin in buckwheat plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Exogenous Hormones (NAA, BA, GA3, and Ethephon, Chemical Inhibitors (MH and CIP and Low Temperature on Sprouting of Onion Bulbs, AIIium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Benkeblia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of exogenous hormones (ABA, NAA, BA, GA; and ethephon and chemical inhibitors (MH and CW, associated with cooling, on sprouting of dormant (freshly harvested and non dormant (kept six months at 5-6 °C onion bulbs were investigated. Effects of NM and BA on the sprouting of the bulbs were similar, particularly when associated with cooling. Cooled + NAA and BA treated dormant bulbs, both sprouted after lo weeks, while non-cooled bulbs sprouted after 10 and 12 weeks, respectively. Non-dormant bulbs sprouted after 3 and 4 weeks, respectively. No significant effect of MH, ClP and STS on sprouting of non dormant bulbs was observed. Gibberellin and ethylene were less effective on sprouting of dormant onion bulbs. Nevertheless significant differences were observed between GA; or ethylene treated and cooled bulbs, and others treated bulbs. For non dormant bulbs, significant differences were noted among GA3,-ethephon-control, and MH-CIP treated bulbs. Sprouting of bulbs was also affected by ABA treatment, while cooling slowed down significantly this inhibitory effect of ABA.

  3. Transient downregulation of Sema3A mRNA in a rat model for temporal lobe epilepsy. A novel molecular event potentially contributing to mossy fiber sprouting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtmaat, Anthony J D G; Gorter, Jan A; de Wit, Joris; Tolner, Else A; Spijker, Sabine; Giger, Roman J; Lopes da Silva, Fernando H; Verhaagen, J.

    Mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus is thought to play a critical role in the hyperexcitability of the hippocampus in temporal lobe epilepsy patients. The composition of molecular signals that is needed to direct this sprouting response has not yet been elucidated to a great

  4. Self-gated fetal cardiac MRI with tiny golden angle iGRASP: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, Kostas; Hedström, Erik; Bidhult, Sebastian; Testud, Frederik; Maglaveras, Nicos; Heiberg, Einar; Hansson, Stefan R; Arheden, Håkan; Aletras, Anthony H

    2017-07-01

    To develop and assess a technique for self-gated fetal cardiac cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using tiny golden angle radial sampling combined with iGRASP (iterative Golden-angle RAdial Sparse Parallel) for accelerated acquisition based on parallel imaging and compressed sensing. Fetal cardiac data were acquired from five volunteers in gestational week 29-37 at 1.5T using tiny golden angles for eddy currents reduction. The acquired multicoil radial projections were input to a principal component analysis-based compression stage. The cardiac self-gating (CSG) signal for cardiac gating was extracted from the acquired radial projections and the iGRASP reconstruction procedure was applied. In all acquisitions, a total of 4000 radial spokes were acquired within a breath-hold of less than 15 seconds using a balanced steady-state free precession pulse sequence. The images were qualitatively compared by two independent observers (on a scale of 1-4) to a single midventricular cine image from metric optimized gating (MOG) and real-time acquisitions. For iGRASP and MOG images, good overall image quality (2.8 ± 0.4 and 2.6 ± 1.3, respectively, for observer 1; 3.6 ± 0.5 and 3.4 ± 0.9, respectively, for observer 2) and cardiac diagnostic quality (3.8 ± 0.4 and 3.4 ± 0.9, respectively, for observer 1; 3.6 ± 0.5 and 3.6 ± 0.9, respectively, for observer 2) were obtained, with visualized myocardial thickening over the cardiac cycle and well-defined myocardial borders to ventricular lumen and liver/lung tissue. For iGRASP, MOG, and real time, left ventricular lumen diameter (14.1 ± 2.2 mm, 14.2 ± 1.9 mm, 14.7 ± 1.1 mm, respectively) and wall thickness (2.7 ± 0.3 mm, 2.6 ± 0.3 mm, 3.0 ± 0.4, respectively) showed agreement and no statistically significant difference was found (all P > 0.05). Images with iGRASP tended to have higher overall image quality scores compared with MOG and particularly

  5. Seed development and carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittich, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be

  6. Cutaneous collateral axonal sprouting re-innervates the skin component and restores sensation of denervated Swine osteomyocutaneous alloflaps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhaib Ibrahim

    Full Text Available Reconstructive transplantation such as extremity and face transplantation is a viable treatment option for select patients with devastating tissue loss. Sensorimotor recovery is a critical determinant of overall success of such transplants. Although motor function recovery has been extensively studied, mechanisms of sensory re-innervation are not well established. Recent clinical reports of face transplants confirm progressive sensory improvement even in cases where optimal repair of sensory nerves was not achieved. Two forms of sensory nerve regeneration are known. In regenerative sprouting, axonal outgrowth occurs from the transected nerve stump while in collateral sprouting, reinnervation of denervated tissue occurs through growth of uninjured axons into the denervated tissue. The latter mechanism may be more important in settings where transected sensory nerves cannot be re-apposed. In this study, denervated osteomyocutaneous alloflaps (hind- limb transplants from Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC-defined MGH miniature swine were performed to specifically evaluate collateral axonal sprouting for cutaneous sensory re-innervation. The skin component of the flap was externalized and serial skin sections extending from native skin to the grafted flap were biopsied. In order to visualize regenerating axonal structures in the dermis and epidermis, 50 um frozen sections were immunostained against axonal and Schwann cell markers. In all alloflaps, collateral axonal sprouts from adjacent recipient skin extended into the denervated skin component along the dermal-epidermal junction from the periphery towards the center. On day 100 post-transplant, regenerating sprouts reached 0.5 cm into the flap centripetally. Eight months following transplant, epidermal fibers were visualized 1.5 cm from the margin (rate of regeneration 0.06 mm per day. All animals had pinprick sensation in the periphery of the transplanted skin within 3 months post

  7. Evolution of nutrient ingredients in tartary buckwheat seeds during germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiming, Zhou; Hong, Wang; Linlin, Cui; Xiaoli, Zhou; Wen, Tang; Xinli, Song

    2015-11-01

    Evolution of nutrient components and the antioxidative activity of seed sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum L. Gaertn) were investigated in the course of germination. Results showed that the contents of total flavonoids increased with germination time and leveled off after the third germination day with the changing trend of rutin and quercetin opposite to each other. The decrease of total protein and total sugar contents in the germinated seeds was accompanied respectively by an increase of amino acid and reducing sugar contents. The contents of vitamin C (Vc) and B1(V(B1)) exhibited a minimum with no appreciable changes found for vitamin B(2) (V(B2)) and B(6) (V(B6)). The contents of total chlorophyll, chlorophyll A and B all exhibited a maximum on the fifth germination day. The contents of fatty acids had no regular changing trend with germination time. The free radical-scavenging activities of the seeds increased with germination time and were caused by an increase in their antioxidative activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Corrosion behavior of HPT-deformed TiNi alloys in cell culture medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shri, D. N. Awang; Tsuchiya, K.; Yamamoto, A.

    2017-09-01

    In recent years there are growing interest in fabrication of bulk nanostructured metals and alloys by using severe plastic deformation (SPD) techniques as new alternative in producing bulk nanocrystalline materials. These techniques allows for processing of bulk, fully dense workpiece with ultrafine grains. Metal undergoes SPD processing in certain techniques such as high pressure torsion (HPT), equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) or multi-directional forging (MDF) are subjected to extensive hydrostatic pressure that may be used to impart a very high strain to the bulk solid without the introduction of any significant change in overall dimension of the sample. The change in the structure (small grain size and high-volume fraction of grain boundaries) of the material may result in the corrosion behavior different from that of the coarse-grained material. Electrochemical measurements were done to understand the corrosion behavior of TiNi alloys before and after HPT deformation. The experiment was carried out using standard three electrode setup (a sample as working electrode; a platinum wire as a counter electrode and a saturated calomel electrode in saturated KCl as a reference electrode) with the surface area of 26.42 mm2 exposed to the EMEM+10% FBS cell culture medium. The measurements were performed in an incubator with controlled environment at 37 °C and 5% CO2, simulating the cell culture condition. The potential of the specimen was monitored over 1 hour, and the stabilized potential was used as the open-circuit potential (EOCP). Potentiodynamic curves were scanned in the potential range from -0.5 V to 1.5 V relative to the EOCP, at a rate of 0.5 mV/s. The result of OCP-time measurement done in the cell culture medium shows that the OCP of HPT-deformed samples shifts towards to the more positive rather than that of BHPT samples. The OCP of deformed samples were ennobled to more than +70 mV for Ti-50mol%. The shift of OCP towards the nobler direction

  9. Study on the seed production and germination dynamic of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sárkány, S E; Lehoczky, E; Nagy, P

    2008-01-01

    The common milkweed causes considerable damages on the agricultural and nature conservation areas. The area occupied by this weed is continuously bigger. The common milkweed is spread over North-America between the 35th and 50th degree of western Latitude and 60th 103rd degree of longitude. Millions of hectares are polluted by this weed in the United States. Important is its spread also in Asia (Iraq), in Europe (Carpathian Basin, Poland, Bulgaria, Switzerland, France, Austria, Germany), as well as in the area of the former Soviet Union (Belorussia, The Baltic Countries, Caucasus, and the Ukraine). Though the basic biological characters of this plant are well known, still its control is a significant problem, the damages increase on the areas occupied by this weed. We collect seed samples from several Hungarian areas in 2007. After the sampling we determined the average sprout length and the number of follicle as well as the average seed numbers in the follicle. We determined also the weight of thousand seeds of the resultant seed samples. At natural circumstances the seedlings appear at a soil temperature of 15 degrees C during the end of April and first week of May. Under Laboratory circumstances the dormancy of the seeds ceases continuously from November on, germinate at a temperature of 20-30 degrees C, the maximum germination can be achieved in the first part of April. At January we started germination examinations with the seeds in Petri dish, among laboratory condition.

  10. Sprouting angiogenesis in human midterm uterus and fallopian tube is guided by endothelial tip cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, M C; Motoc, A G M; Pop, F; Folescu, R

    2013-01-01

    Five samples of human midterm fetal uterus and fallopian tube (four donor bodies) were used to assess whether or not processes of angiogenesis are guided by endothelial tip cells (ETCs), and if cytokine-receptors, such as CD117/c-kit and PDGFR-α, are expressed in the microenvironment of the endothelial tubes. CD34 labeled microvessels in the uterine wall (myometrium and endometrium) and in the wall of the uterine (fallopian) tube, and accurately identified ETCs in both organs. We conclude that sprouting angiogenesis in the developing human female tract is guided by ETCs. Moreover, CD117/c-kit antibodies labeled mural networks of pericytes, α-SMA-positive and desmin-negative, related to the endometrial (but not myometrial) microvessels, and similar labeling was identified in the wall of the uterine tube. PDGFR-α positive labeling, stromal and pericytary, was also found. Thus, sprouting angiogenesis in human fetal genital organs appears to be guided by tip cells and is influenced by tyrosine kinase receptor signaling.

  11. Study of selenocompounds from selenium-enriched culture of edible sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funes-Collado, Virginia; Morell-Garcia, Albert; Rubio, Roser; López-Sánchez, José Fermín

    2013-12-15

    Selenium is recognised as an essential micronutrient for humans and animals. One of the main sources of selenocompounds in the human diet is vegetables. Therefore, this study deals with the Se species present in different edible sprouts grown in Se-enriched media. We grew alfalfa, lentil and soy in a hydroponic system amended with soluble salts, containing the same proportion of Se, in the form of Se(VI) and Se(IV). Total Se in the sprouts was determined by acidic digestion in a microwave system and by ICP/MS. Se speciation was carried out by enzymatic extraction (Protease XIV) and measured by LC-ICP/MS. The study shows that the Se content of plants depends on the content in the growth culture, and that part of the inorganic Se was biotransformed mainly into SeMet. These results contribute to our understanding of the uptake of inorganic Se and its biotransformation by edible plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of harvest time on storage loss and sprouting in onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. SUOJALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Storability of onion is affected by timing of harvest. However, the optimal time for maximum yield and maximum storability do not necessarily coincide. This study aimed to determine the most suitable harvest time for obtaining a high bulb yield with high quality and storability. Storage experiments were conducted on onions produced in field experiments at a research field and on farms in four years. Results indicate that harvesting could be delayed to 100% maturity, or even longer, without a marked increase in storage loss. In rainy years, late harvest is likely to impair the quality. The incidence of sprouting in shelf life tests varied considerably between years. An early harvest before 50% maturity and a delayed harvest increased the risk of sprouting. It may be concluded that the harvesting of onions for long-term storage can be timed to take place between 50% maturity and even some weeks after complete maturity without a loss in storage quality. Therefore, it is possible to combine high yield and good storage quality.

  13. Batch scale storage of sprouting foods by irradiation combined with natural low temperature; pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, H.O.; Kwon, J.H.; Yang, H.S.; Byun, M.W.; Lee, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    In order to develop the commercial storage method of potatoes by irradiation combined with natural low temperature, two varieties of potatoes, Irish cobbler and Shimabara were stored at natural low temperature storage room (450x650x250cm; year round temperature change, 2-17 degC; 70-85% R.H.) on a batch scale followed by irradiation with optimum dose level. Irish cobbler and Shimabara were 100% sprouted after 3 months storage in control, whereas in 15Krad irradiated group, sprouting was completely inhibited at Irish cobbler for 9 months storage, and at Shimabara for 12 months. The extent of loss due to rot attack after 9 months storage was 6% in control, 6-8% in 10-15Krad irradiated group at Irish cobbler and weight loss was 16.5% in control, 5.1-5.6% in irradiated group, whereas rotting rate of Shimabara after 12 months storage was 100% in control, 15% in irradiated group and the weight loss of its was 12.6% in control, 7.3-7.4% in irradiated group. The moisture content in whole storage period of two varieties were 72-82% without remarkable changes. The total sugar and ascorbic acid contents were slightly decreased according to the dose increase and elapse of storage period, whereas reducing sugar content was increased. Irish cobbler was 90% markrtable after 9 months storage and 85% in Shimabara after 12 months storage. (Author)

  14. Effect of pre-plant treatments of yam (Dioscorea rotundata setts on the production of healthy seed yam, seed yam storage and consecutive ware tuber production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Olufunmilayo Claudius-Cole

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous pests and diseases of yams are perpetuated from season to season through the use of infected seed material. Developing a system for generating healthy seed material would disrupt this disease cycle and reduce losses in field and storage. The use of various pre-plant treatments was evaluated in field experiments carried out at three sites in Nigeria. Yam tubers of four preferred local cultivars were cut into 100 g setts and treated with pesticide (fungicide + insecticide mixture, neem extract (1 : 5 w/v, hot water (20 min at 53 °C or wood ash (farmers practice and compared with untreated setts. Pesticide treated setts sprouted better than all other treatments and generally led to lower pest and disease damage of yam tubers. Pesticide treatment increased tuber yields over most treatments, depending on cultivar, but effectively doubled the production as compared to the control. Pesticide and hot water treated setts produced the healthiest seed yams, which had lower storage losses than tubers from other treatments. These pre-treated seed yams produced higher yields corresponding to 700 % potential gain compared to the farmers usual practice. Treatments had no obvious influence on virus incidence, although virus-symptomatic plants yielded significantly less than nonsymptomatic plants. This study demonstrated that pre-plant treatment of setts with pesticide is a simple and effective method that guarantees more, heavier and healthier seed yam tubers.

  15. Tiny intraplate earthquakes triggered by nearby episodic tremor and slip in Cascadia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidale, J.E.; Hotovec, A.J.; Ghosh, A.; Creager, K.C.; Gomberg, J.

    2011-01-01

    Episodic tremor and slip (ETS) has been observed in many subduction zones, but its mechanical underpinnings as well as its potential for triggering damaging earthquakes have proven difficult to assess. Here we use a seismic array in Cascadia of unprecedented density to monitor seismicity around a moderate 16 day ETS episode. In the 4 months of data we examine, we observe five tiny earthquakes within the subducting slab during the episode and only one more in the same area, which was just before and nearby the next ETS burst. These earthquakes concentrate along the sides and updip edge of the ETS region, consistent with greater stress concentration there than near the middle and downdip edge of the tremor area. Most of the seismicity is below the megathrust, with a similar depth extent to the background intraslab seismicity. The pattern of earthquakes that we find suggests slow slip has a more continuous temporal and spatial pattern than the tremor loci, which notoriously appear in bursts, jumps, and streaks. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Tuning Valley Polarization in a WSe_{2} Monolayer with a Tiny Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Smoleński

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In monolayers of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides, the light helicity (σ^{+} or σ^{-} is locked to the valley degree of freedom, leading to the possibility of optical initialization of distinct valley populations. However, an extremely rapid valley pseudospin relaxation (at the time scale of picoseconds occurring for optically bright (electric-dipole active excitons imposes some limitations on the development of opto-valleytronics. Here, we show that valley pseudospin relaxation of excitons can be significantly suppressed in a WSe_{2} monolayer, a direct-gap two-dimensional semiconductor with the exciton ground state being optically dark. We demonstrate that the already inefficient relaxation of the exciton pseudospin in such a system can be suppressed even further by the application of a tiny magnetic field of about 100 mT. Time-resolved spectroscopy reveals the pseudospin dynamics to be a two-step relaxation process. An initial decay of the pseudospin occurs at the level of dark excitons on a time scale of 100 ps, which is tunable with a magnetic field. This decay is followed by even longer decay (>1  ns, once the dark excitons form more complex pseudo-particles allowing for their radiative recombination. Our findings of slow valley pseudospin relaxation easily manipulated by the magnetic field open new prospects for engineering the dynamics of the valley pseudospin in transition metal dichalcogenides.

  17. The splicing of tiny introns of Paramecium is controlled by MAGO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Julia; Begley, Victoria; Marsella, Laura; Villalobo, Eduardo

    2018-07-15

    The exon junction complex (EJC) is a key element of the splicing machinery. The EJC core is composed of eIF4A3, MAGO, Y14 and MLN51. Few accessory proteins, such as CWC22 or UPF3, bind transiently to the EJC. The EJC has been implicated in the control of the splicing of long introns. To ascertain whether the EJC controls the splicing of short introns, we used Paramecium tetraurelia as a model organism, since it has thousands of very tiny introns. To elucidate whether EJC affects intron splicing in P. tetraurelia, we searched for EJC protein-coding genes, and silenced those genes coding for eIF4A3, MAGO and CWC22. We found that P. tetraurelia likely assembles an active EJC with only three of the core proteins, since MLN51 is lacking. Silencing of eIF4A3 or CWC22 genes, but not that of MAGO, caused lethality. Silencing of the MAGO gene caused either an increase, decrease, or no change in intron retention levels of some intron-containing mRNAs used as reporters. We suggest that a fine-tuning expression of EJC genes is required for steady intron removal in P. tetraurelia. Taking into consideration our results and those published by others, we conclude that the EJC controls splicing independently of the intron size. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhanced water collection through a periodic array of tiny holes in dropwise condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyungjun; Kim, Gyeonghee; Oh, Sunjong; Lim, Hyuneui

    2018-02-01

    This paper introduces a simple method of water collection by increasing the coalescence effects in dropwise condensation with the use of microscale holes. The tiny holes modified the surface free energy states of the droplets on the plate, yielding a surface free energy barrier between the flat solid surface and the holes. The spatial difference in the surface free energy of the droplets enabled the droplets to move toward the adjacent droplets, thus increasing the possibility of coalescence. The water collection experiments were performed using a Peltier-based cooling system at 2 °C inside a chamber at 30 °C and 70% humidity. The results demonstrated that the perforated plates without any additional treatment provided the water collection rate of up to 22.64 L/m2 day, which shows an increase of 30% compared to that demonstrated by the bare plate. By comparing the experimental results for the surface of filmwise condensation, it was proved that the dominant water collecting improvement results from the increased coalescence effects. This simple technique can enhance the performance of systems exposed to water condensation, including water collection, heat-transfer, and dehumidifying systems.

  19. ARECIBO MULTI-EPOCH H I ABSORPTION MEASUREMENTS AGAINST PULSARS: TINY-SCALE ATOMIC STRUCTURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanimirovic, S.; Weisberg, J. M.; Pei, Z.; Tuttle, K.; Green, J. T.

    2010-01-01

    We present results from multi-epoch neutral hydrogen (H I) absorption observations of six bright pulsars with the Arecibo telescope. Moving through the interstellar medium (ISM) with transverse velocities of 10-150 AU yr -1 , these pulsars have swept across 1-200 AU over the course of our experiment, allowing us to probe the existence and properties of the tiny-scale atomic structure (TSAS) in the cold neutral medium (CNM). While most of the observed pulsars show no significant change in their H I absorption spectra, we have identified at least two clear TSAS-induced opacity variations in the direction of B1929+10. These observations require strong spatial inhomogeneities in either the TSAS clouds' physical properties themselves or else in the clouds' galactic distribution. While TSAS is occasionally detected on spatial scales down to 10 AU, it is too rare to be characterized by a spectrum of turbulent CNM fluctuations on scales of 10 1 -10 3 AU, as previously suggested by some work. In the direction of B1929+10, an apparent correlation between TSAS and interstellar clouds inside the warm Local Bubble (LB) indicates that TSAS may be tracing the fragmentation of the LB wall via hydrodynamic instabilities. While similar fragmentation events occur frequently throughout the ISM, the warm medium surrounding these cold cloudlets induces a natural selection effect wherein small TSAS clouds evaporate quickly and are rare, while large clouds survive longer and become a general property of the ISM.

  20. Quadrupolar order, hidden octupolar order and tiny magnetic moment in URu2Si2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruta, Atsushi; Matsuura, Tamifusa; Kuroda, Yoshihiro

    2000-01-01

    Possible orders in URu 2 Si 2 are investigated using a two-channel degenerate Anderson model. The ground state of uranium ions is the non-Kramers quadrupolar doublet Γ 5 with (5f) 2 , and its relevant excited state is the Kramers dipolar doublet Γ 7 with (5f) 1 . These states mix with each other via conduction electrons. At low temperatures, the system forms renormalized bands with both quadrupole and dipole degrees of freedom due to the quadrupolar Kondo effect which slightly mixes quadrupolar Γ 5 , a primary state of uranium ions, with dipolar Γ 7 . At a certain low temperature, conduction electrons in the renormalized bands undergo quadrupolar ordering with a large quadrupolar moment. At a further lower temperature, octupolar ordering occurs, accompanied by a tiny dipolar moment which is attributed to the property of the renormalized bands with primarily the Γ 5 -character slightly mixed with the Γ 7 -character. These phenomena are well described by the 1/N-expansion method with pseudo-fermions for the non-Kramers doublet Γ 5 and slave bosons for the Kramers doublet Γ 7 . (author)

  1. Transformation-Induced Relaxation and Stress Recovery of TiNi Shape Memory Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Takeda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The transformation-induced stress relaxation and stress recovery of TiNi shape memory alloy (SMA in stress-controlled subloop loading were investigated based on the local variation in temperature and transformation band on the surface of the tape in the tension test. The results obtained are summarized as follows. (1 In the loading process, temperature increases due to the exothermic martensitic transformation (MT until the holding strain and thereafter temperature decreases while holding the strain constant, resulting in stress relaxation due to the MT; (2 In the unloading process, temperature decreases due to the endothermic reverse transformation until the holding strain and thereafter temperature increases while holding the strain constant, resulting in stress recovery due to the reverse transformation; (3 Stress varies markedly in the initial stage followed by gradual change while holding the strain constant; (4 If the stress rate is high until the holding strain in the loading and unloading processes, both stress relaxation and stress recovery are large; (5 It is important to take into account this behavior in the design of SMA elements, since the force of SMA elements varies even if the atmospheric temperature is kept constant.

  2. Stress Relaxation Effects in TiNi SMA During Superelastic Deformation: Experiment and Constitutive Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieczyska, Elżbieta A.; Kowalewski, Zbigniew L.; Dunić, Vladimir Lj.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents an investigation of thermomechanical effects related to the phenomena of stress relaxation occurring in TiNi SMA subjected to modified program of displacement-controlled tension. The deformation data were taken from testing machine, whereas the temperature changes accompanying the exothermic/endothermic martensite forward/reverse transformation were measured by infrared camera. At the advanced stages of the transformations, the strain was kept constant for a few minutes and the SMA load and temperature were recorded continuously. As a consequence, the stress and temperature changed significantly during the loading stops. A large stress drop, caused by the transformation, was observed during the relaxation stage in both courses of the SMA loading and unloading. Moreover, the non-uniform temperature distribution, reflecting macroscopically inhomogeneous transformation, lapsed while the strain was kept constant, yet restarted at the end of the relaxation stop and developed at the reloading stage. Along with the experimental results, the mechanical and thermal responses induced by the transformation were obtained by 3D coupled thermomechanical numerical analysis, realized in partitioned approach. Latent heat production was correlated with an amount of the martensitic volume fraction. The stress and temperature drops recorded during the experiment were satisfactorily reproduced by the model proposed for the SMA thermomechanical coupling.

  3. An Improved Task Scheduling Algorithm for Intelligent Control in Tiny Mechanical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialiang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN has been already widely used in many fields in terms of industry, agriculture, and military, and so forth. The basic composition is WSN nodes that are capable of performing processing, gathering information, and communicating with other connected nodes in the network. The main components of a WSN node are microcontroller, transceiver, and some sensors. Undoubtedly, it also can be added with some actuators to form a tiny mechanical system. Under this case, the existence of task preemption while executing operating system will not only cost more energy for WSN nodes themselves, but also bring unacceptable system states caused by vibrations. However for these nodes, task I/O delays are inevitable due to the existence of task preemption, which will bring extra overhead for the whole system, and even bring unacceptable system states caused by vibrations. This paper mainly considers the earliest deadline first (EDF task preemption algorithm executed in WSN OS and proposes an improved task preemption algorithm so as to lower the preemption overhead and I/O delay and then improve the system performance. The experimental results show that the improved task preemption algorithm can reduce the I/O delay effectively, so the real-time processing ability of the system is enhanced.

  4. A tiny short-legged bird from the early Oligocene of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bochenski Zbigniew M.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe an articulated partial leg of an Oligocene bird. It is one of the smallest avian fossils ever recorded. Its slender and exceptionally short tarsometatarsus, hallux as long as the tarsometatarsus and stout moderately curved claws agree with stem-group Apodidae (swifts, stem-group Trochilidae (hummingbirds, and stem-group Upupidae/Phoeniculidae (hoopoes/woodhoopoes. Unfortunately, due to the poor preservation of the specimen its more precise affinities remain unresolved. The specimen differs in many details from all other tiny Palaeogene birds and therefore most probably it represents a new taxon but it is too fragmentary to describe it. It is just the twelfth avian fossil from the Oligocene marine deposits of the Outer Carpathians and Central Palaeogene Basin — a huge area that covers south-eastern Poland, north-eastern Czech Republic and northern Slovakia — and therefore it adds to our very limited knowledge on the avifauna of that region. The remains of land birds from Jamna Dolna and other sites of the region can be attributed to the general sea level fall at that time, which led to limitation of the connection with the open ocean and resulted in many shallow shoals, temporary islands and exposed dry land areas along the coast.

  5. Amplification of ABA biosynthesis and signaling through a positive feedback mechanism in seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonogaki, Mariko; Sall, Khadidiatou; Nambara, Eiji; Nonogaki, Hiroyuki

    2014-05-01

    Abscisic acid is an essential hormone for seed dormancy. Our previous study using the plant gene switch system, a chemically induced gene expression system, demonstrated that induction of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a rate-limiting ABA biosynthesis gene, was sufficient to suppress germination in imbibed Arabidopsis seeds. Here, we report development of an efficient experimental system that causes amplification of NCED expression during seed maturation. The system was created with a Triticum aestivum promoter containing ABA responsive elements (ABREs) and a Sorghum bicolor NCED to cause ABA-stimulated ABA biosynthesis and signaling, through a positive feedback mechanism. The chimeric gene pABRE:NCED enhanced NCED and ABF (ABRE-binding factor) expression in Arabidopsis Columbia-0 seeds, which caused 9- to 73-fold increases in ABA levels. The pABRE:NCED seeds exhibited unusually deep dormancy which lasted for more than 3 months. Interestingly, the amplified ABA pathways also caused enhanced expression of Arabidopsis NCED5, revealing the presence of positive feedback in the native system. These results demonstrated the robustness of positive feedback mechanisms and the significance of NCED expression, or single metabolic change, during seed maturation. The pABRE:NCED system provides an excellent experimental system producing dormant and non-dormant seeds of the same maternal origin, which differ only in zygotic ABA. The pABRE:NCED seeds contain a GFP marker which enables seed sorting between transgenic and null segregants and are ideal for comparative analysis. In addition to its utility in basic research, the system can also be applied to prevention of pre-harvest sprouting during crop production, and therefore contributes to translational biology. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Influence of orimulsion ashes on germinating power of seeds of cultured plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankevicius, K.; Juskenas, R.; Klimantaviciute, M. G.; Salkauskas, M.

    1998-01-01

    Investigation on dissolution of orimulsion ashes, which contain MgSO 4 6H 2 0, and Ca 0.17 V 2 O 5 as well as nickel and iron, in water and acidic and basic water solution was fulfilled. Exothermic solubility in water reaches 18 % and such a saturated green or yellow solution (pH - 2,7) contains 0,3 mol/l of vanadium and 0,1 mol/l nickel. 4 % sodium hydroxide solution convert orimulsion ashes to gel, but 20 % sulfuric acid dissolve up to - 20 (a brown solution). Small quantities of water convert orimulsion ashes to a solid substance. The non-soluble part of orimulsion ashes consists of Fe 3 O 4 and Fe 2 O 3 which can be used as cheep pigments for paints. The bio testing method was used to estimate the toxic effects of orimulsion ashes from Elektrenai Electric Power Plant in Lithuania. It was established that 0,005% aqueous solution of orimulsion ashes stimulates the sprouting of wheat, rye and vetch seeds. Therefore, it is supposed that orimulsion ashes may be used as additives to fertilizers containing microelements. It was found that 0,5 % aqueous solution of orimulsion ashes inhibits the sprouting of wheat, rye and vetch seeds. (author)

  7. Hot seeding using large Y-123 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scruggs, S J; Putman, P T; Zhou, Y X; Fang, H; Salama, K

    2006-01-01

    There are several motivations for increasing the diameter of melt textured single domain discs. The maximum magnetic field produced by a trapped field magnet is proportional to the radius of the sample. Furthermore, the availability of trapped field magnets with large diameter could enable their use in applications that have traditionally been considered to require wound electromagnets, such as beam bending magnets for particle accelerators and electric propulsion. We have investigated the possibility of using large area epitaxial growth instead of the conventional point nucleation growth mechanism. This process involves the use of large Y123 seeds for the purpose of increasing the maximum achievable Y123 single domain size. The hot seeding technique using large Y-123 seeds was employed to seed Y-123 samples. Trapped field measurements indicate that single domain samples were indeed grown by this technique. Microstructural evaluation indicates that growth can be characterized by a rapid nucleation followed by the usual peritectic grain growth which occurs when large seeds are used. Critical temperature measurements show that no local T c suppression occurs in the vicinity of the seed. This work supports the suggestion of using an iterative method for increasing the size of Y-123 single domains that can be grown

  8. Oil palm seed distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand-Gasselin Tristan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available For a tropical plant, the oil palm commodity chain has the peculiarity of possessing a major seed production sector for reasons that are primarily genetic. This seed sector has numerous original aspects. Breeders are also propagators and usually also distribute their seeds. Oil palm seeds are semi-recalcitrant: they display pseudo-dormancy. Achieving seed germination is difficult and requires lengthy treatments and special installations. This restriction greatly influences seed distribution and the role of the different stakeholders in the commodity chain. It was only once it had been discovered how the “sh” gene functioned, which controls shell thickness, and when it became necessary to produce “tenera” seeds derived from exclusively “dura x pisifera” crosses, that a true seed market developed. In addition it is difficult to organize seed distribution to smallholders. This is partly due to difficulties that the profession, or a State-run organization, has in controlling middlemen networks, and partly to the absence of any protective systems (UPOV, plant breeder certificate, etc. that generally oblige breeders to preserve and propagate parents in their own installations. In fact there are major inequalities in the access to seeds between agroindustry and smallholders. Another peculiarity of the oil palm seed market is the virtually total absence of guarantees for buyers: the quality of the research conducted by breeders, the seed production strategies necessary for transferring genetic progress, and the technical quality of production. The only guarantee today comes from the relations of confidence established year after year between breeders/distributors and growers. In this fields, research can lead to some proposals: molecular biology offers some interesting prospects for certifying seed quality and social science develop effective communication methods.

  9. Enrichment of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid in Bean Sprouts: Exploring Biosynthesis of Plant Metabolite Using Common Household Reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojanarata, Theerasak; Plianwong, Samarwadee; Opanasopit, Praneet; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait

    2018-01-01

    The enrichment of plant foods with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is currently an interesting issue in the field of nutraceuticals and can be used as an experiment for upper-division undergraduate students. Here, an interdisciplinary hands-on experiment to produce GABA-enriched mung bean sprouts using common household reagents is described. Based…

  10. Single-tree harvesting reduces survival and growth of oak stump sprouts in the Missouri Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; Randy G. Jensen; Michael J. Wallendorf

    2008-01-01

    Regeneration and recruitment into the overstory is critical to the success of using uneven-aged systems to sustain oak forests. We evaluated survival and growth of white oak (Quercus alba L.), black oak (Q. velutina Lam.), and scarlet oak (Q. coccinea Muenchh.) stump sprouts 10 years after harvesting Ozark...

  11. The combined effect of CO2 and ethylene sprout inhibitor on the fry colour of stored potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniels-Lake, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that the darkening of potato processing colour attributable to a trace concentration of ethylene gas is more severe when CO2 is also elevated. In view of the increasing use of ethylene gas for sprout suppression in potato storage facilities, it was considered important to

  12. Survival of Salmonella Typhimurium on soybean sprouts after treatment with gaseous chlorine dioxide and biocontrol Pseudomonas bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control of Salmonella Typhimurium on sprouts and minimally processed produce is crucial for food and consumer safety. The aim of this research was to assess natural microflora populations on soybean and evaluate the effects of gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and biocontrol Pseudomonas on the surviva...

  13. Survival of Salmonella enterica on soybean sprouts following treatments with gaseous chlorine dioxide and biocontrol Pseudomonas bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control of Salmonella enterica on sprouts and minimally processed, ready-to-eat fruits and vegetables is important for food and consumer safety. The aim of this research was to assess the effects of gaseous chlorine dioxide(ClO2)and biocontrol microorganisms (Pseudomonas chlororaphis and P. fluoresc...

  14. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber ageing induces changes in the proteome and antioxidants associated with the sprouting pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delaplace, P.; Fauconnier, M.L.; Sergeant, K.; Dierick, J.F.; Oufir, M.; Wal, van der F.; America, A.H.P.; Renaut, J.; Hausman, J.F.; Jardin, du P.

    2009-01-01

    During post-harvest storage, potato tubers age as they undergo an evolution of their physiological state influencing their sprouting pattern. In the present study, physiological and biochemical approaches were combined to provide new insights on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Desiree) tuber

  15. LA Sprouts: A 12-Week Gardening, Nutrition, and Cooking Randomized Control Trial Improves Determinants of Dietary Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jaimie N; Martinez, Lauren C; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Gatto, Nicole M

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of an exploratory 12-week nutrition, cooking, and gardening trial (LA Sprouts) on preference for fruit and vegetables (FV); willingness to try FV; identification of FV; self-efficacy to garden, eat, and cook FV; motivation to garden, eat, and cook FV; attitudes toward FV; nutrition and gardening knowledge; and home gardening habits. Randomized controlled trial. Four elementary schools. Three hundred four predominately Hispanic/Latino third- through fifth-grade students were randomized to either the LA Sprouts group (n = 167 students) or control group (n = 137 students). Twelve-week after-school nutrition, cooking, and gardening intervention. Determinants of dietary behavior as measured by questionnaire at baseline and postintervention. Analyses of covariance. After the 12-week program, compared with controls, LA Sprouts participants improved scores for identification of vegetables (+11% vs +5%; P = .001) and nutrition and gardening knowledge (+14.5% vs -5.0%; P = .003), and were more likely to garden at home (+7.5% vs -4.4%; P = .003). The LA Sprouts program positively affected a number of determinants of dietary behaviors that suggest possible mechanisms by which gardening and nutrition education act to improve dietary intake and health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. LA Sprouts Randomized Controlled Nutrition, Cooking and Gardening Program Reduces Obesity and Metabolic Risk in Latino Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Nicole M.; Martinez, Lauren C.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Davis, Jaimie N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of a 12-week gardening, nutrition, and cooking intervention (“LA Sprouts”) on dietary intake, obesity parameters and metabolic disease risk among low-income, primarily Hispanic/Latino youth in Los Angeles. Methods Randomized control trial involving four elementary schools [2 schools randomized to intervention (172, 3rd–5th grade students); 2 schools randomized to control (147, 3rd–5th grade students)]. Classes were taught in 90-minute sessions once a week to each grade level for 12 weeks. Data collected at pre- and post-intervention included dietary intake via food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), anthropometric measures [BMI, waist circumference (WC)], body fat, and fasting blood samples. Results LA Sprouts participants had significantly greater reductions in BMI z-scores (0.1 versus 0.04 point decrease, respectively; p=0.01) and WC (−1.2 cm vs. no change; p<0.001). Fewer LA Sprouts participants had the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) after the intervention than before, while the number of controls with MetSyn increased. LA Sprouts participants had improvements in dietary fiber intake (+3.5% vs. −15.5%; p=0.04) and less decreases in vegetable intake (−3.6% vs. −26.4%; p=0.04). Change in fruit intake before and after the intervention did not significantly differ between LAS and control subjects. Conclusions LA Sprouts was effective in reducing obesity and metabolic risk. PMID:25960146

  17. The effect of injury on whole-plant senescence: an experiment with two root-sprouting Barbarea species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martínková, Jana; Šmilauer, P.; Mihulka, S.; Latzel, Vít; Klimešová, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 4 (2016), s. 667-679 ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : injury * senescence * root sprouting Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.041, year: 2016

  18. Electron irradiation effect on the reverse phase transformation temperatures in TiNi shape memory alloy thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.G.; Zu, X.T.; Fu, Y.Q.; Zhu, S.; Wang, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, Ti-Ni shape memory alloy thin films were irradiated by 1.7 MeV electron with three types of fluences: 4 x 10 20 , 7 x 10 20 and 1 x 10 21 /m 2 . The influence of electron irradiation on the transformation behavior of the TiNi thin films were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The transformation temperatures A s and A f shifted to higher temperature after electron irradiation, the martensite was stabilized. The electron irradiation effect can be easily eliminated by one thermal cycle. The shifts of the transformation temperatures can be explained from the change of potential energy barrier and coherency energy between parent phase and martensite after irradiation

  19. An experimental study on the erosion behavior of pseudoelastic TiNi alloy in dry sand and in aggressive media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, T.; Li, D.Y. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2000-11-30

    The corrosive erosion behavior of Ti-51at.%Ni alloy under different erosion conditions was studied and compared to that of 304 stainless steel. Erosion tests were performed in a slurry-pot tester with dry sand, 3.5% NaCl slurry and 0.1 moll{sup -1} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} slurry containing 30% silica sand, respectively. Synergistic effects of corrosion and erosion were studied in steady corrosion, polarization, dry sand erosion and micro-wear experiments. An electrochemical-scratching test characterized the failure and recovery of the passive film formed on TiNi alloy in 3.5% NaCl and 0.1 mol l{sup -1} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions, respectively. In both dry sand and the corrosive media, the TiNi alloy exhibited considerably greater erosion resistance than 304 stainless steel. (orig.)

  20. A Comparative Study of Collagen Matrix Density Effect on Endothelial Sprout Formation Using Experimental and Computational Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloo, Amir; Mohammadaliha, Negar; Heilshorn, Sarah C; Bauer, Amy L

    2016-04-01

    A thorough understanding of determining factors in angiogenesis is a necessary step to control the development of new blood vessels. Extracellular matrix density is known to have a significant influence on cellular behaviors and consequently can regulate vessel formation. The utilization of experimental platforms in combination with numerical models can be a powerful method to explore the mechanisms of new capillary sprout formation. In this study, using an integrative method, the interplay between the matrix density and angiogenesis was investigated. Owing the fact that the extracellular matrix density is a global parameter that can affect other parameters such as pore size, stiffness, cell-matrix adhesion and cross-linking, deeper understanding of the most important biomechanical or biochemical properties of the ECM causing changes in sprout morphogenesis is crucial. Here, we implemented both computational and experimental methods to analyze the mechanisms responsible for the influence of ECM density on the sprout formation that is difficult to be investigated comprehensively using each of these single methods. For this purpose, we first utilized an innovative approach to quantify the correspondence of the simulated collagen fibril density to the collagen density in the experimental part. Comparing the results of the experimental study and computational model led to some considerable achievements. First, we verified the results of the computational model using the experimental results. Then, we reported parameters such as the ratio of proliferating cells to migrating cells that was difficult to obtain from experimental study. Finally, this integrative system led to gain an understanding of the possible mechanisms responsible for the effect of ECM density on angiogenesis. The results showed that stable and long sprouts were observed at an intermediate collagen matrix density of 1.2 and 1.9 mg/ml due to a balance between the number of migrating and proliferating

  1. Does the informal seed system threaten cowpea seed health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.; Oguntade, O.; Lava Kumar, P.; Stomph, T.J.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most smallholder farmers in developing countries depend on an informal Seed System (SS) for their seed. The informal SS is often criticized because farmer-produced seed samples are not tested for seed health, thus accepting the risk of planting infected seeds. Here we aimed at assessing the quality

  2. Effects of post-irradiation annealing on the transformation behavior of Ti-Ni alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, A.; Tsuruga, H.; Morimura, T.; Misawa, T.; Miyazaki, S.

    1993-01-01

    Recovery processes of martensitic transformation of neutron irradiated Ti-50.0, 50.5 and 51.0 at.%Ni alloys during post-irradiation annealing were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile tests and transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations. Neutron irradiation up to a fluence of 1.2x10 24 n/cm 2 at 333 K suppressed the martensitic transformation as well as the stress-induced martensitic transformation of these alloys above 150 K. The TEM observations revealed that the disordered zones containing small defect clusters in high density were formed in the neutron irradiated Ti-Ni alloys. The DSC measurements also showed that the post-irradiation annealing caused recovery of the transformation of which the progress depended on the annealing temperature and period. A significant retardation of the recovery was recognized in the Ti-51.0 at.%Ni alloy in comparison with the Ti-50.0 at.%Ni alloy. From the shifts in the transformation temperature upon isothermal annealing at various annealing temperatures, the activation energies of the recovery process of the transformation in the neutron irradiated Ti-50.0 and 51.0 at.%Ni alloys were evaluated by a cross-cut method to be 1.2 eV and 1.5 eV, respectively. The recovery of the transformation was ascribed to the re-ordering resulting from decomposition of vacancy clusters, and those obtained values of the activation energy were considered to be the sum of the migration energy of vacancy and the binding energy of vacancy-vacancy cluster. The retardation of the recovery in the Ti-51.0 at%Ni alloy was interpreted in terms of large binding energy in this alloy due to the off-stoichiometry. (author)

  3. Geology and geochronology of the sub-Antarctic Snares Islands/Tini Heke, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.M.; Turnbull, I.M.; Sagar, M.W.; Tulloch, A.J.; Waight, T.E.; Palin, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The first comprehensive geological map, a summary of lithologies and new radiogenic isotope data (U-Pb, Rb-Sr) are presented for crystalline rocks of the Sub-Antarctic Snares Islands/Tini Heke, 150 km south of Stewart Island. The main lithology is Snares Granite (c. 109 Ma from U-Pb dating of zircon), which intrudes Broughton Granodiorite (c. 114 Ma from U-Pb zircon) on Broughton Island. Rafts of schist within Snares Granite are common on the outlying Western Chain islets, and rare on North East and Broughton islands. Zircon grains extracted from one schistose raft on Broughton Island are prismatic and yield an essentially unimodal age population of c. 116 Ma that is within error of the granodiorite. These properties suggest that the dated raft represents a meta-igneous rock despite its mica-rich nature. Some schistose rocks on the Western Chain contain coarse relict plagioclase phenocrysts and appear to have an igneous protolith. No conclusive metasedimentary rocks have been identified, although sillimanite-bearing mica-rich schist occurs on Rua. Deformation of the crystalline rocks occurred after Snares Granite intrusion and before cooling below muscovite K-Ar closure at 400 ± 50 degrees C at 95 Ma. This period overlaps the age of extensional ductile shear zones on Stewart Island. The discovery of several basaltic dykes, which cut across fabrics and are unmetamorphosed, indicates that volcanic rocks are associated with all Sub-Antarctic island groups. The larger of the islands are overlain by peat, which on North East Island also contains gravel deposits. (author).

  4. Persistence and internalization of Salmonella on/in organic spinach sprout: exploring the contamination route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: The effects of contamination route, including seed and water, on the persistence and internalization of Salmonella in organic spinach cultivars- Lazio, Space, Emilia and Waitiki were studied. Methods: Seeds (1g) were contaminated with S. Newport using 10 ml of S. Newport-water suspension ov...

  5. Utilization of Diamine Oxidase Enzyme from Mung Bean Sprouts (Vigna radiata L) for Histamine biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Abdul; Wahab, A. W.; Raya, I.; Natsir, H.; Arif, A. R.

    2018-03-01

    This research is aimed to utilize the diamine oxidase enzyme (DAO) which isolated from mung bean sprouts (Vigna radiata L) to develop histamine biosensors based on electode enzyme with the amperometric method (cyclic voltammetry).The DAO enzyme is trapped inside the membrane of chitin-cellulose acetate 2:1 and glutaraldehyde which super imposed on a Pt electrode. Histamine will be oxidized by DAO enzyme to produce aldehydes and H2O2 that acting as electron transfer mediators.The performance of biosensors will be measured at various concentrations of glutaraldehyde, temperature changes and different range of pH. Recently, it has been found that the optimal conditions obtained from the paramaters as follows; at 25% of glutaraldehyde, temperature of 37°C and pH of 7.4. Eventually, the results provided an expectation for applying histamine biosensors in determining the freshness and safety of fish specifically skombroidae families.

  6. ABA pretreatment can alter the distribution of polysomes in salt-stressed barley sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szypulska Ewa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed caryopses of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Stratus. Caryopses were germinated in darkness at 20°C in three experimental setups: (a in distilled water for 24 hours, followed by 100 mM NaCl for another 24 hours (salinity stress, SS, (b in 100 μM of abscisic acid for the first 24 hours, followed by rinsing with distilled water to remove residual ABA, and in 100 mM NaCl for another 24 hours (ABA pretreatment + salinity stress, ABAS, (c in distilled water only (control, C. Changes in the content of free polysomes (FP, membrane-bound polysomes (MBP, cytoskeleton-bound polysomes (CBP and cytomatrix-bound polysomes (CMBP were examined in barley sprouts germinated in SS and ABAS treatments for 48 hours. In salt-stressed barley sprouts, the concentrations of membrane-bound and cytoskeleton-bound polysomes (MBP, CBP and CMBP decreased significantly, whereas an increase was noted only in the free polysome (FP fraction. ABA pretreatment altered the distribution of polysomes in stressed plants. The content of cytoskeletonbound polysomes (CBP and CMBP increased, FP levels decreased, whereas no changes in MBP content were observed in response to ABA treatment. Our results suggest that plants respond to salt stress by increasing the concentrations of free polysomes that are probably released from damaged cell structures, mainly membranes. Our present and previous findings indicate that ABA could inhibit the release of FP in stressed plants by enhancing polysome binding to the cytoskeleton.

  7. MOSAIC: a multiscale model of osteogenesis and sprouting angiogenesis with lateral inhibition of endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Carlier

    Full Text Available The healing of a fracture depends largely on the development of a new blood vessel network (angiogenesis in the callus. During angiogenesis tip cells lead the developing sprout in response to extracellular signals, amongst which vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is critical. In order to ensure a correct development of the vasculature, the balance between stalk and tip cell phenotypes must be tightly controlled, which is primarily achieved by the Dll4-Notch1 signaling pathway. This study presents a novel multiscale model of osteogenesis and sprouting angiogenesis, incorporating lateral inhibition of endothelial cells (further denoted MOSAIC model through Dll4-Notch1 signaling, and applies it to fracture healing. The MOSAIC model correctly predicted the bone regeneration process and recapitulated many experimentally observed aspects of tip cell selection: the salt and pepper pattern seen for cell fates, an increased tip cell density due to the loss of Dll4 and an excessive number of tip cells in high VEGF environments. When VEGF concentration was even further increased, the MOSAIC model predicted the absence of a vascular network and fracture healing, thereby leading to a non-union, which is a direct consequence of the mutual inhibition of neighboring cells through Dll4-Notch1 signaling. This result was not retrieved for a more phenomenological model that only considers extracellular signals for tip cell migration, which illustrates the importance of implementing the actual signaling pathway rather than phenomenological rules. Finally, the MOSAIC model demonstrated the importance of a proper criterion for tip cell selection and the need for experimental data to further explore this. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the MOSAIC model creates enhanced capabilities for investigating the influence of molecular mechanisms on angiogenesis and its relation to bone formation in a more mechanistic way and across different time and spatial

  8. Synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation, tube formation, and sprouting by cyclosporin A and itraconazole.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A Nacev

    Full Text Available Pathological angiogenesis contributes to a number of diseases including cancer and macular degeneration. Although angiogenesis inhibitors are available in the clinic, their efficacy against most cancers is modest due in part to the existence of alternative and compensatory signaling pathways. Given that angiogenesis is dependent on multiple growth factors and a broad signaling network in vivo, we sought to explore the potential of multidrug cocktails for angiogenesis inhibition. We have screened 741 clinical drug combinations for the synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. We focused specifically on existing clinical drugs since the re-purposing of clinical drugs allows for a more rapid and cost effective transition to clinical studies when compared to new drug entities. Our screen identified cyclosporin A (CsA, an immunosuppressant, and itraconazole, an antifungal drug, as a synergistic pair of inhibitors of endothelial cell proliferation. In combination, the IC(50 dose of each drug is reduced by 3 to 9 fold. We also tested the ability of the combination to inhibit endothelial cell tube formation and sprouting, which are dependent on two essential processes in angiogenesis, endothelial cell migration and differentiation. We found that CsA and itraconazole synergistically inhibit tube network size and sprout formation. Lastly, we tested the combination on human foreskin fibroblast viability as well as Jurkat T cell and HeLa cell proliferation, and found that endothelial cells are selectively targeted. Thus, it is possible to combine existing clinical drugs to synergistically inhibit in vitro models of angiogenesis. This strategy may be useful in pursuing the next generation of antiangiogenesis therapy.

  9. Synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation, tube formation, and sprouting by cyclosporin A and itraconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacev, Benjamin A; Liu, Jun O

    2011-01-01

    Pathological angiogenesis contributes to a number of diseases including cancer and macular degeneration. Although angiogenesis inhibitors are available in the clinic, their efficacy against most cancers is modest due in part to the existence of alternative and compensatory signaling pathways. Given that angiogenesis is dependent on multiple growth factors and a broad signaling network in vivo, we sought to explore the potential of multidrug cocktails for angiogenesis inhibition. We have screened 741 clinical drug combinations for the synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. We focused specifically on existing clinical drugs since the re-purposing of clinical drugs allows for a more rapid and cost effective transition to clinical studies when compared to new drug entities. Our screen identified cyclosporin A (CsA), an immunosuppressant, and itraconazole, an antifungal drug, as a synergistic pair of inhibitors of endothelial cell proliferation. In combination, the IC(50) dose of each drug is reduced by 3 to 9 fold. We also tested the ability of the combination to inhibit endothelial cell tube formation and sprouting, which are dependent on two essential processes in angiogenesis, endothelial cell migration and differentiation. We found that CsA and itraconazole synergistically inhibit tube network size and sprout formation. Lastly, we tested the combination on human foreskin fibroblast viability as well as Jurkat T cell and HeLa cell proliferation, and found that endothelial cells are selectively targeted. Thus, it is possible to combine existing clinical drugs to synergistically inhibit in vitro models of angiogenesis. This strategy may be useful in pursuing the next generation of antiangiogenesis therapy.

  10. Primary afferent terminal sprouting after a cervical dorsal rootlet section in the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darian-Smith, Corinna

    2004-03-01

    We examined the role of primary afferent neurons in the somatosensory cortical "reactivation" that occurs after a localized cervical dorsal root lesion (Darian-Smith and Brown [2000] Nat. Neurosci. 3:476-481). After section of the dorsal rootlets that enervate the macaque's thumb and index finger (segments C6-C8), the cortical representation of these digits was initially silenced but then re-emerged for these same digits over 2-4 postlesion months. Cortical reactivation was accompanied by the emergence of physiologically detectable input from these same digits within dorsal rootlets bordering the lesion site. We investigated whether central axonal sprouting of primary afferents spared by the rhizotomy could mediate this cortical reactivation. The cortical representation of the hand was mapped electrophysiologically 15-25 weeks after the dorsal rootlet section to define this reactivation. Cholera toxin subunit B conjugated to horseradish peroxidase was then injected into the thumb and index finger pads bilaterally to label the central terminals of any neurons that innervated these digits. Primary afferent terminal proliferation was assessed in the spinal dorsal horn and cuneate nucleus at 7 days and 15-25 postlesion weeks. Labeled terminal bouton distributions were reconstructed and the "lesion" and control sides compared within each monkey. Distributions were significantly larger on the side of the lesion in the dorsal horn and cuneate nucleus at 15-25 weeks after the dorsal rootlet section, than those mapped only 7 days postlesion. Our results provide direct evidence for localized sprouting of spared (uninjured) primary afferent terminals in the dorsal horn and cuneate nucleus after a restricted dorsal root injury. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. combining high seed number and weight to improve seed yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    ABSTRACT. Increasing seed size and seed weight is an important trait for trade, yield component and adaptation of chickpea ... determining yield or quality, and the development of rapid and ..... C.G. 1981. Control of seed growth in soybeans.

  12. Producing the target seed: Seed collection, treatment, and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2011-01-01

    The role of high quality seeds in producing target seedlings is reviewed. Basic seed handling and upgrading techniques are summarized. Current advances in seed science and technology as well as those on the horizon are discussed.

  13. Efficiency of alfalfa seed processing with different seed purity

    OpenAIRE

    Đokić, Dragoslav; Stanisavljević, Rade; Terzić, Dragan; Milenković, Jasmina; Radivojević, Gordana; Koprivica, Ranko; Štrbanović, Ratibor

    2015-01-01

    The work was carried out analysis of the impact of the initial purity of raw alfalfa seed on the resulting amount of processed seed in the processing. Alfalfa is very important perennial forage legume which is used for fodder and seed production. Alfalfa seed is possible to achieve high yields and very good financial effects. To obtain the seed material with good characteristics complex machines for cleaning and sorting seeds are used. In the processing center of the Institute for forage crop...

  14. Paper (essay on seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirić Mladen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on detailed studies of the past of the agrarian thought of the world (evolution of agro-innovation, and within it, the relationship of man and seed, the author has selected key data for Table 1. In addition, more or less known folk sayings, proverbs, curses and allegories in which the seed is the key word have been collected. Then, religious books, folk art and literature works (sayings of prominent individuals and experts and observations of the author himself have been studied. According to the collected opus, it can be concluded that the vast importance of seed meaningfully entwined into all spheres of folk life and cultural heritage. Seed is directly tied to the following eight key (revolutionary milestones in the food and economic life of mankind: 1. the first and for the longest time, the seed used to be the main food of the people and the first food reserve; 2. Neolithic Revolution was simply caused by the sowing of seeds; 3. for the sake of sowing man began to develop more complex processing techniques; 4. everywhere and forever, especially since the late 15th century, the seed has been a carrier of (rescuing plants between Europe and the New World, that is, between continents; 5. seed was the first product that has been chemically treated since the mid-18th century; 6. standard operation procedures and quality are promoted on seed by which it became the first product to have prescribed (compulsory methods, but it also became a good whose quality has to be tested before sale; 7. hybrid seed is a 'perpetrator' of the green revolution in the mid-20th century and at last there is disputable seed of genetically modified organisms that are spreading with certain reactions. The author proposes that the United Nations Standard International Trade Classification includes a special section (division which would classify the seed for sowing, while beyond this Classification terms such as seed, plant seed should be replaced with non-seed

  15. Evaluation of chemical composition of raw and processed tropical sickle pod (Senna obtusifolia seed meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Augustine

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A laboratory analysis was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition of raw and differently processed Senna obtusifolia seed meal. Senna obtusifolia seeds were processed using boiling, soaking, sprouting and fermentation methods respectively. The processed and raw seed meals were milled and the representative seed meal samples were analysed using standard laboratory methods. The results of the chemical analysis revealed that Senna obtusifolia seed meal possessed good nutritional properties (23.40 – 25.90% crude protein and 2.14 – 2.86 MJ/kg metabolizable energy and has good amino acid profile as an alternative feed source for livestock. However, the raw seed meal contains 378.5, 247.2, 102.0, 248.6 and 190.0 mg/100.0g of tannins, phytates, oxalate, alkaloids and saponins, respectively. The different processing methods were observed to be effective in reducing the level of the antinutrients with fermentation recording the highest reduction levels of 68.25, 66.32, 43.70, 58.07 and 44.30% for tannins, phytates, oxalate, alkaloids and saponins followed by boiling with reduction levels of 66.27, 46.97, 46.97, 47.89, 58.66 and 45.78% for tannins, phytates, oxalate, alkaloids and saponins, respectively. In conclusion, Senna obtusifolia seed can be effectively process for utilization as feed ingredient using fermentation. Feeding trial should be conducted using Senna obtusifolia seed meal to evaluate the feeding value in livestock especially monogastric animals

  16. In vitro seed germination of economically important edible bamboo Dendrocalamus membranaceus Munro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, Jasmine; Anand, Manju; Sood, Anil

    2013-01-01

    An in vitro propagation protocol using mature seeds of D. membranaceus was successfully established. Scarcity of seeds in bamboos because of their long flowering periods and irregular seed set resulting in low viability and germination potential, motivated us to undertake the present study. The effects of sterilants, light conditions, exogenous application of plant growth regulators and temperature in overcoming germination barriers in ageing seeds of bamboo were studied. It was found that HgCl2 (0.1%) along with bleach (15%) was more effective in raising aseptic cultures. Dark conditions, high temperatures around 30 degrees C and soaking of seeds in GA3 solution (50 ppm) overnight stimulated high percent of seed germination with corresponding increase in shoot length (2.7 +/- 0.7 mm) and number of sprouts (2.1 +/- 0.7) per explants during culture initiation. 6-benzylaminopurine acted synergistically with kinetin to give optimum germination rate of 70 +/- 13.9% as compared to 63.13% when used individually. For prolonged maintenance of cultures, 2% sucrose was found to be suitable for promoting photomixotrophic micropropagation. Following this procedure, about 65% survival of plantlets could be achieved during hardening. Biochemically seeds consume starchy endosperm for emergence of radicle which is taken as a sign of germination as also evident from the present study. Loss of viability and vigour after a year was confirmed by Tetrazolium chloride test. Micropropagation protocol developed here will ensure regeneration of large number of plants in a relatively short time. Conclusively, in vitro propagation protocol developed in D. membranaceus using mature seeds as an explants is reported for the first time.

  17. Seed dormancy and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Steven

    2017-09-11

    Reproduction is a critical time in plant life history. Therefore, genes affecting seed dormancy and germination are among those under strongest selection in natural plant populations. Germination terminates seed dispersal and thus influences the location and timing of plant growth. After seed shedding, germination can be prevented by a property known as seed dormancy. In practise, seeds are rarely either dormant or non-dormant, but seeds whose dormancy-inducing pathways are activated to higher levels will germinate in an ever-narrower range of environments. Thus, measurements of dormancy must always be accompanied by analysis of environmental contexts in which phenotypes or behaviours are described. At its simplest, dormancy can be imposed by the formation of a simple physical barrier around the seed through which gas exchange and the passage of water are prevented. Seeds featuring this so-called 'physical dormancy' often require either scarification or passage through an animal gut (replete with its associated digestive enzymes) to disrupt the barrier and permit germination. In other types of seeds with 'morphological dormancy' the embryo remains under-developed at maturity and a dormant phase exists as the embryo continues its growth post-shedding, eventually breaking through the surrounding tissues. By far, the majority of seeds exhibit 'physiological dormancy' - a quiescence program initiated by either the embryo or the surrounding endosperm tissues. Physiological dormancy uses germination-inhibiting hormones to prevent germination in the absence of the specific environmental triggers that promote germination. During and after germination, early seedling growth is supported by catabolism of stored reserves of protein, oil or starch accumulated during seed maturation. These reserves support cell expansion, chloroplast development and root growth until photoauxotrophic growth can be resumed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Artificial Seeds and their Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    currently working on ... heterozygosity of seed, minute seed size, presence of reduced ... Advantages of Artificial or Synthetic Seeds over Somatic Embryos for Propagation .... hour gives optimum bead hardness and rigidity for the produc-.

  19. Is Pluto a planet? Student powered video rap ';battle' over tiny Pluto's embattled planetary standing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisser, K.; Cruikshank, D. P.; McFadden, T.

    2013-12-01

    Is Pluto a planet? Some creative low income Bay-area middle-schoolers put a musical spin on this hot science debate with a video rap ';battle' over tiny Pluto's embattled planetary standing. The students' timing was perfect, with NASA's New Horizons mission set to conduct the first reconnaissance of Pluto and its moons in July 2015. Pluto - the last of the nine original planets to be explored by spacecraft - has been the subject of scientific study and speculation since Clyde Tombaugh discovered it in 1930, orbiting the Sun far beyond Neptune. Produced by the students and a very creative educator, the video features students 'battling' back and forth over the idea of Pluto being a planet. The group collaborated with actual space scientists to gather information and shot their video before a 'green screen' that was eventually filled with animations and visuals supplied by the New Horizons mission team. The video debuted at the Pluto Science Conference in Maryland in July 2013 - to a rousing response from researchers in attendance. The video marks a nontraditional approach to the ongoing 'great planet debate' while educating viewers on a recently discovered region of the solar system. By the 1990s, researchers had learned that Pluto possessed multiple exotic ices on its surface, a complex atmosphere and seasonal cycles, and a large moon (Charon) that likely resulted from a giant impact on Pluto itself. It also became clear that Pluto was no misfit among the planets - as had long been thought - but the largest and brightest body in a newly discovered 'third zone' of our planetary system called the Kuiper Belt. More recent observations have revealed that Pluto has a rich system of satellites - five known moons - and a surface that changes over time. Scientists even speculate that Pluto may possess an internal ocean. For these and other reasons, the 2003 Planetary Decadal Survey ranked a Pluto/Kuiper Belt mission as the highest priority mission for NASA's newly created

  20. Seed thioredoxin h

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    , for example chloroplastic f- and m-type thioredoxins involved in regulation of the Calvin-Benson cycle. The cytosolic h-type thioredoxins act as key regulators of seed germination and are recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. The present review on thioredoxin h systems in plant seeds focuses...

  1. Saving Seed Microbiomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Gabriele; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Plant seeds are home to diverse microbial communities whose composition is determined by plant genotype, environment, and management practices. Plant domestication is now recognized as an important driver of plant-associated microbial diversity. To what extent and how domestication affects seed

  2. Glioblastoma with spinal seeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhrai, N.; Fazeny-Doerner, B.; Marosi, C.; Czech, T.; Diekmann, K.; Birner, P.; Hainfellner, J.A.; Prayer, D.

    2004-01-01

    Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

  3. Glioblastoma with spinal seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrai, N.; Fazeny-Doerner, B.; Marosi, C. [Clinical Div. of Oncology, Dept. of Medicine I, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Czech, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Diekmann, K. [Dept. of Radiooncology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Birner, P.; Hainfellner, J.A. [Clinical Inst. for Neurology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Prayer, D. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

  4. Physalis peruviana seed storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia L. M. de Souza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Physalis peruviana belongs to Solanaceae family and has a high nutritional and nutraceutical potential. The production is intended for fruit consumption and the propagation is mainly by seeds. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of priming on the kinetics of germination of P. peruviana seeds stored at different temperatures. The seeds were stored at 5 and 25 °C in a chamber saturated with zinc chloride solution and in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C. Every 4 months, the seeds were removed from storage for evaluation of germination and moisture content in the laboratory and emergence and development of seedlings in greenhouse. During the last evaluation at 16 months, the seeds under the same conditions were subjected to salt stress. The moisture content varied during the storage period, but was always higher for seeds kept at -196 ºC. These seeds kept high germination percentage in water until 16 months, regardless of the tested temperature; however, in salt solution the germination percentage was significantly reduced.

  5. Optimization growth of Spirulina platensis in bean sprouts extract medium with urea fertilizer for phycocyanin production as antioxidant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianursanti, Taurina, Zarahmaida; Indraputri, Claudia Maya

    2018-02-01

    Spirulina platensis has the potential to be developed because of essential chemical compounds in the form of phycocyanin that can be used as an antioxidant. The growth of microalgae and phycocyanin depends on the availability of nutrition contained in culture medium. The cultivation will be carried out at 1 L reactor with continuous aeration, light intensity is 3000-4000 lux, and temperature is 27-30°C. Phycocyanin is obtained by liquid-liquid extraction method using phosphate buffer pH 7. Phycocyanin test performed by using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The result show that the highest dry biomass is obtained on bean sprouts extract medium 8% (v/v) with the addition of urea fertilizer 120 ppm. The highest content of phycocyanin is obtained on bean sprouts extract medium 8% (v/v) with the addition of urea fertilizer 100 ppm with phycocyanin concentration of 257.12 mg/L.

  6. Content of amino acids and the quality of protein in Brussels sprouts, both raw and prepared for consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisiewska, Zofia; Slupski, Jacek; Skoczen-Slupska, Radoslawa; Kmiecik, Waldemar [Department of Raw Materials and Processing of Fruit and Vegetables, Agricultural University of Krakow, Balicka 122, 30-149 Krakow (Poland)

    2009-03-15

    The aim of the investigation was to evaluate the content of amino acids and the quality of protein in Brussels sprouts. The investigation included the raw material, cooked sample and two types of frozen product stored at -20 C for 12 months and then prepared for consumption. The frozen products investigated were obtained using the traditional method (blanching before freezing) and the modified method (cooking before freezing, then defrosting and heating in microwave oven after refrigerated storage) of the ready-to-eat type. Brussels sprouts, both fresh and prepared for consumption, were a good source of protein and amino acids. Proline and glutamic acid were dominating; leucine and tyrosine with phenylalanine were limiting amino acids. The product obtained by modified method contained 16% less amino acids in 16 g N than the raw material and 14% less than the raw material after cooking, and also 10% lower than that of the traditionally obtained product. (author)

  7. Effects of gamma radiation on sprouting turmeric rhizome and the quality and resulting characteristics in powdered form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peret-Almeida, Lucia [UNI-BH, Centro Universitario de Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Junqueira, Roberto Goncalves; Gloria, Maria Beatriz A. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (FAFAR/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Fac. de Farmacia

    2008-07-01

    Rhizomes were submitted to doses of 0.00, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 kGy and stored at 26 {+-} 1 deg C and 85% relative humidity for 135 days. In 45 day intervals samples were collected for analysis of the rhizomes and processed into ground turmeric. The higher the dose the longer the time required for sprouting. At 0.15 kGy there was no sprouting up to 135 days of storage, however callus started to appear. The levels of curcuminoid pigments in ground turmeric were not affected by irradiation dose; however they varied with storage time. The CIE L{sup *}a{sup *}b{sup *} color characteristics of ground turmeric were not affected by radiation dose, but changed with storage time, except for 0.15 kGy. (author)

  8. Effects of gamma radiation on sprouting turmeric rhizome and the quality and resulting characteristics in powdered form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peret-Almeida, Lucia; Junqueira, Roberto Goncalves; Gloria, Maria Beatriz A.

    2008-01-01

    Rhizomes were submitted to doses of 0.00, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 kGy and stored at 26 ± 1 deg C and 85% relative humidity for 135 days. In 45 day intervals samples were collected for analysis of the rhizomes and processed into ground turmeric. The higher the dose the longer the time required for sprouting. At 0.15 kGy there was no sprouting up to 135 days of storage, however callus started to appear. The levels of curcuminoid pigments in ground turmeric were not affected by irradiation dose; however they varied with storage time. The CIE L * a * b * color characteristics of ground turmeric were not affected by radiation dose, but changed with storage time, except for 0.15 kGy. (author)

  9. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to examine the influence of Lagenaria siceraria seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor. Three seed fermentation methods (fermented in ambient air, plastic bag stored in ambient or in plastic bag buried) were tested on two cultivars during two years. Seed germination and ...

  10. Anatomical, germination and in vitro studies on shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa.) seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iddrisu, A.

    2013-07-01

    In vitro and in vivo germination and regeneration studies were conducted on the development of vitellaria paradoxa seedlings as an initial effort towards its domestication. However, to achieve this objective, the morphology and anatomy of the seeds were first studied because they influence germination. Although a smooth, brown coast enclosed a V. paradoxa seed, it did not impose dormancy on the embroyo. Transverse and longitudinal sections through the seed showed that the embrayo is surrounded by latex and fat-containing tissues which made its identification difficult. Thus, the embrayo was identified by immersing transversely cut seeds in 1.0 % tetrazolium chloride (TTC) solution for 24 hours which stained it red. When V. paradoxa seeds of similar size were sown on nursery beds, the resulting seedlings developed through seven stages namely sprouting, pseudoradicle elongation, bulging, appearance of the shoot on the pseudoradicle, shoot elongation, emergence and seedling establishment. The pseudoradicle is the fused petioles of the two cotyledons and a transverse section through it revealed an outer sheath and lactiferous vessels surrounding a central hollow tube. Longitudinal section also show the lactiferous vessels surrounding the central hallow tube in which the plumule moves through until it reaches the bulge of the pseudoradicle where it develops into a rudimentary shoot. The rudimentary shoot then pseudoradicle and grows upwards. Classifying seeds into three groups based on size significantly affected days to germination and the morphology of the resulting seedlings. Large seeds germinated within one week after sowing with vigorous growth compared to small and medium seeds. Although the seedcoat of V. paradoxa never imposed dormancy, deshelling (removal of the seedcoat) significantly led to early germination and synchronous seedling emergence compared to those for intact seeds (control). In vitro culture of intact and deshelled seeds on Muarashige and Skoog

  11. A novel method for efficient and abundant production of Phytophthora brassicae zoospores on Brussels sprout leaf discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govers Francine

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytophthora species are notorious oomycete pathogens that cause diseases on a wide range of plants. Our understanding how these pathogens are able to infect their host plants will benefit greatly from information obtained from model systems representative for plant-Phytophthora interactions. One attractive model system is the interaction between Arabidopsis and Phytophthora brassicae. Under laboratory conditions, Arabidopsis can be easily infected with mycelial plugs as inoculum. In the disease cycle, however, sporangia or zoospores are the infectious propagules. Since the current P. brassicae zoospore isolation methods are generally regarded as inefficient, we aimed at developing an alternative method for obtaining high concentrations of P. brassicae zoospores. Results P. brassicae isolates were tested for pathogenicity on Brussels sprout plants (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera. Microscopic examination of leaves, stems and roots infected with a GFP-tagged transformant of P. brassicae clearly demonstrated the susceptibility of the various tissues. Leaf discs were cut from infected Brussels sprout leaves, transferred to microwell plates and submerged in small amounts of water. In the leaf discs the hyphae proliferated and abundant formation of zoosporangia was observed. Upon maturation the zoosporangia released zoospores in high amounts and zoospore production continued during a period of at least four weeks. The zoospores were shown to be infectious on Brussels sprouts and Arabidopsis. Conclusion The in vitro leaf disc method established from P. brassicae infected Brussels sprout leaves facilitates convenient and high-throughput production of infectious zoospores and is thus suitable to drive small and large scale inoculation experiments. The system has the advantage that zoospores are produced continuously over a period of at least one month.

  12. MMP-sensitive PEG diacrylate hydrogels with spatial variations in matrix properties stimulate directional vascular sprout formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael V Turturro

    Full Text Available The spatial presentation of immobilized extracellular matrix (ECM cues and matrix mechanical properties play an important role in directed and guided cell behavior and neovascularization. The goal of this work was to explore whether gradients of elastic modulus, immobilized matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-sensitivity, and YRGDS cell adhesion ligands are capable of directing 3D vascular sprout formation in tissue engineered scaffolds. PEGDA hydrogels were engineered with mechanical and biofunctional gradients using perfusion-based frontal photopolymerization (PBFP. Bulk photopolymerized hydrogels with uniform mechanical properties, degradation, and immobilized biofunctionality served as controls. Gradient hydrogels exhibited an 80.4% decrease in elastic modulus and a 56.2% decrease in immobilized YRGDS. PBFP hydrogels also demonstrated gradients in hydrogel degradation with degradation times ranging from 10-12 hours in the more crosslinked regions to 4-6 hours in less crosslinked regions. An in vitro model of neovascularization, composed of co-culture aggregates of endothelial and smooth muscle cells, was used to evaluate the effect of these gradients on vascular sprout formation. Aggregate invasion in gradient hydrogels occurred bi-directionally with sprout alignment observed in the direction parallel to the gradient while control hydrogels with homogeneous properties resulted in uniform invasion. In PBFP gradient hydrogels, aggregate sprout length was found to be twice as long in the direction parallel to the gradient as compared to the perpendicular direction after three weeks in culture. This directionality was found to be more prominent in gradient regions of increased stiffness, crosslinked MMP-sensitive peptide presentation, and immobilized YRGDS concentration.

  13. Effect of soil salinity on fructan content and polymerization degree in the sprouting tubers of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Rui; Song, Xiaoyang; Li, Ziwei; Zhang, Aiqin; Yan, Xiufeng; Pang, Qiuying

    2018-04-01

    In addition to their role as reserve carbohydrates, fructans have been recognized as compounds that are protective against adverse environments. The aim of this study was to identify changes in the content and the degree of polymerization (DP) of fructan in sprouting tubers of Jerusalem artichoke under salt stress. Fructan was extracted from tubers at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days after planting in sandy loam soil irrigated with NaCl solution. Fructan accumulation and polymerization and the expression of genes encoding enzymes for fructan synthesis and degradation were evaluated. No significant differences between the control and treatment groups were observed until 5 days after sowing. The highest level of salinity (250 mM) not only inhibited sprouting and root growth but also decreased the level of fructan in the tubers. The proportion of fructan at DP 2-5 rapidly increased one day after sowing and then decreased over time. Under various NaCl treatments, at 7 days after sowing, all fructans except fructan at DP 6-10 were present in proportions less than or equal to the control. The variation in the DP of fructan was related to the transcription level of fructan metabolism genes. Fructan may support sprouting or resistance to salt stress by changing the DP of fructan molecules through hydrolysis without changing the total amount of fructan. The low-molecular-weight oligosaccharides (DP < 5) may be the major carbohydrates that support tuber sprouting or that are involved in protection from salt stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Genealogical Analysis of the North-American Spring Wheat Varieties with Different Resistance to Pre-harvest Sprouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynov Sergey

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of genetic diversity of North American spring wheat varieties differing in resistance to pre-harvest sprouting was carried out. For identification of sources of resistance the genealogical profiles of 148 red-grained and 63 white-grained North-American spring wheat varieties with full pedigrees were calculated and estimates were made of pre-harvest sprouting. The cluster structure of the populations of red-grained and white-grained varieties was estimated. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences between the average contributions of landraces in the groups of resistant and susceptible varieties. Distribution of the putative sources of resistance in the clusters indicated that varieties having different genetic basis may have different sources of resistance. For red-grained varieties the genetic sources of resistance to pre-harvest sprouting are landraces Crimean, Hard Red Calcutta, and Iumillo, or Button, Kenya 9M-1A-3, and Kenya-U, or Red Egyptian and Kenya BF4-3B-10V1. Tracking of pedigrees showed these landraces contributed to the pedigrees, respectively, via Thatcher, Kenya-Farmer, and Kenya-58, which were likely donors of resistance for red-grained varieties. For white-grained varieties the sources of resistance were landraces Crimean, Hard Red Calcutta, Ostka Galicyjska, Iumillo, Akakomugi, Turco, Hybrid English, Rough Chaff White and Red King, and putative donors of resistance — Thatcher, RL2265, and Frontana. The genealogical profile of accession RL4137, the most important donor of resistance to pre-harvest sprouting in North American spring wheat breeding programmes, contains almost all identified sources of resistance.

  15. Cyclic ADP-ribose and IP3 mediate abscisic acid-induced isoflavone accumulation in soybean sprouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Caifeng; Yang, Runqiang; Gu, Zhenxin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the roles of ABA-cADPR-Ca 2+ and ABA-IP3-Ca 2+ signaling pathways in UV-B-induced isoflavone accumulation in soybean sprouts were investigated. Results showed that abscisic acid (ABA) up regulated cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) levels in soybean sprouts under UV-B radiation. Furthermore, cADPR and IP3, as second messengers of UV-B-triggered ABA, induced isoflavone accumulation by up-regulating proteins and genes expression and activity of isoflavone biosynthetic-enzymes (chalcone synthase, CHS; isoflavone synthase, IFS). After Ca 2+ was chelated by EGTA, isoflavone content decreased. Overall, ABA-induced cADPR and IP3 up regulated isoflavone accumulation which was mediated by Ca 2+ signaling via enhancing the expression of proteins and genes participating in isoflavone biosynthesis in soybean sprouts under UV-B radiation. - Highlights: • UV-B-induced cADPR and IP3 synthesis was mediated by ABA. • cADPR and IP3 were involved in UV-B-ABA-induced isoflavone accumulation. • cADPR and IP3-induced isoflavone accumulation may be mediated by Ca 2+ . • ABA, cADPR, IP3 and Ca 2+ could activate proteins expression of CHS and IFS.

  16. Bioconversion of biomass residue from the cultivation of pea sprouts on spent Pleurotus sajor-caju compost employing Lumbricus rubellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi Abu Bakar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Vermicomposting is a green technology for the purpose of nutrient enrichment from a variety of organic waste products. In this study, saw dust-based spent mushroom compost (SMC, an organic waste and biomass residue, was used as a medium for the cultivation of pea sprouts. After harvesting the pea sprouts, the growth medium was reused to culture earthworms, Lumbricus rubellus. The culturing activity was conducted for 50 days without any pre-composting or thermocomposting. Thus duration of vermicomposting process was shortened as opposed to previous work on vermicomposting of saw dust-based SMC (no amendment for 70 days. The culturing treatments were conducted in triplicate, including one treatment without earthworms as the control. The analysis showed that concentrations of macronutrients in vermicompost were higher compared to controls, in which N = 4.12%, P = 2.07% and K = 1.56%. The C:N ratio was 11.77, which indicates a stabilisation and maturity of the organic waste compost, compared with the C:N ratio for the control, which was 59.34. At the end of the experiment, increment of total biomass and number of earthworms were observed and no mortality was recorded. The results suggested that vermicomposting could be used as an environmentally valuable technology to convert saw dust used for mushroom and pea sprouts cultivation into vermicompost or bio-fertiliser by employing L. rubellus.

  17. HPLC Separation of Sulforaphane Enantiomers in Broccoli and Its Sprouts by Transformation into Diastereoisomers Using Derivatization with (S)-Leucine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Makiko; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Aizawa, Sen-Ichi; Taga, Atsushi; Terashima, Hiroyuki; Kodama, Shuji

    2017-01-11

    Racemic sulforaphane, which was derivatized with (S)-leucine (l-leucine), was resolved by reversed phase HPLC with UV detection. The optimum mobile phase conditions were found to be 10 mM citric acid (pH 2.8) containing 22% methanol at 35 °C using detection at 254 nm. Sulforaphane enantiomers in florets and stems of five brands of broccoli and leaves and stems of three brands of broccoli sprouts were analyzed by the proposed HPLC method. Both sulforaphane enantiomers were detected in all of the samples. The S/R ratios of sulforaphane in broccoli samples were 1.5-2.6/97.4-98.5% for florets and 5.0-12.1/87.9-95.0% for stems. The S/R ratios in broccoli sprout samples were higher than those in broccoli samples and were found to be 8.3-19.7/80.3-91.7% for leaves and 37.0-41.8/58.2-63.0% for stems. (S)-Sulforaphane detected in the broccoli and its sprout samples was positively identified by separately using an HPLC with a chiral column (Chiralpak AD-RH) and mass spectrometry.

  18. Studies on sprout inhibition of potatoes and onions and shelf-life extensions of dates in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auda, H.; Khalaf, Z.

    1979-01-01

    Small scale experiments were carried out with onions and potatoes to examine the effect of gamma irradiation on sprout inhibition under different storage conditions. Doses of 15 to 20 krad caused some physical damage to potatoes stored in an incubator at 4 to 10 0 C and 40 to 70% relative humidity. This damage was also observed when potatoes have been stored at room temperature. Sprouting appeared after 30 to 60 days storage. The best results were obtained when a dose of 10 to 12 krad was used. Studies on onions irradiated and stored at room temperature for ten months showed that 6 to 9 krad gave the best results, extending the storage for 10 months. No sprouting could be detected throughout the storage period. Shelf-life and organoleptic study was done on four varieties of Iraqi dates at different stages of development. The results showed that the eating quality of fresh dates was not affected significantly by irradiation up to 270 krad and the duration of softening process (after-ripening) of dates was prolonged by low doses of 10 to 90 krad in the majority of the experimental batches. (author)

  19. Thermally induced degradation of sulfur-containing aliphatic glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanschen, Franziska S; Platz, Stefanie; Mewis, Inga; Schreiner, Monika; Rohn, Sascha; Kroh, Lothar W

    2012-03-07

    Processing reduces the glucosinolate (GSL) content of plant food, among other aspects due to thermally induced degradation. Since there is little information about the thermal stability of GSL and formation of corresponding breakdown products, the thermally induced degradation of sulfur-containing aliphatic GSL was studied in broccoli sprouts and with isolated GSL in dry medium at different temperatures as well as in aqueous medium at different pH values. Desulfo-GSL have been analyzed with HPLC-DAD, while breakdown products were estimated using GC-FID. Whereas in the broccoli sprouts structural differences of the GSL with regard to thermal stability exist, the various isolated sulfur-containing aliphatic GSL degraded nearly equally and were in general more stable. In broccoli sprouts, methylsulfanylalkyl GSL were more susceptible to degradation at high temperatures, whereas methylsulfinylalkyl GSL were revealed to be more affected in aqueous medium under alkaline conditions. Besides small amounts of isothiocyanates, the main thermally induced breakdown products of sulfur-containing aliphatic GSL were nitriles. Although they were most rapidly formed at comparatively high temperatures under dry heat conditions, their highest concentrations were found after cooking in acidic medium, conditions being typical for domestic processing.

  20. Growth of vegetative explant Moringa oleifera on different composition of auxin and cytokinin and its synthetic seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslihatin, Wirdhatul; Jadid, Nurul; Puspitasari, Ika D.; Safitri, Chusnul E.

    2017-06-01

    The spread of Moringa oleifera is also rare for seed germination and viability or survival are low, and the lack of vegetative propagation method. The purpose of this study are to determine the effect of auxin and cytokinin on growth vegetative explants Moringa oleifera and its synthetic seed germination. The explants grown on MS medium with sucrose content of 30% and a range of additional hormone. Addition concentration and different types of hormone made in order to know the sensitivity and response explant growth on a variety of media to get a good callus and embryosomatic. The composition of the hormone given is MS + 2.4 D 3 ppm; MS + 2,4D 2 ppm + BAP 2 ppm; MS + NAA + 0.5 ppm kinetin 1 ppm; MS + NAA 1 ppm + kinetin 1 ppm; MS + NAA 1 ppm + 0.5 ppm kinetin. The explants were incubated at a temperature of 18-20 ° C with a photoperiod 16/8. Explants and MS medium is incubated to form embryonic callus. Seeds synthetic made from embryonic callus growing on medium 1 ppm kinetin + NAA 1 ppm with encapsulation method with sodium alginate 2%. Seed synthetic germinated in some kind of medium that medium ms0 solid (M1), ms0 liquid (M2), MS0 semi-solid (M3), MS solid NAA 1ppm + Kinetin 1 ppm (M4), MS liquid NAA 1 ppm + kinetin (M5), and semi-solid MS + NAA 1 ppm kinetin 1 ppm (M6). Synthetic seed viability was observed with the parameters of the fresh weight of synthetic seed, germination percentage and seedling. Chlorophyll content was measured by spectrophotometric method with solvent asseton. Best callus generated in this study are embryonic callus that grew on media NAA 1 ppm + kinetin 1 ppm. Embryonic callus on M6 + NAA 1 ppm kinetin 1 ppm capable of germination with an average weight of callus and sprouts of 40.38 mg. Of the entire amount of a synthetic seed on M6, just 5 seed germinate, so the percentage of germination of seeds is equal to 41.67%. with an average length of sprouts 1 cm with an average total chlorophyll content of 8.66 mg / g.

  1. The effect of the electronic structure, phase transition, and localized dynamics of atoms in the formation of tiny particles of gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Mubarak, E-mail: mubarak74@comsats.edu.pk, E-mail: mubarak74@mail.com [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Physics (Pakistan); Lin, I-Nan [Tamkang University, Department of Physics (China)

    2017-01-15

    In addition to self-governing properties, tiny-sized particles of metallic colloids are the building blocks of large-sized particles; thus, their study has been the subject of a large number of publications. In the present work, it has been discussed that geometry structure of tiny particle made through atom-to-atom amalgamation depends on attained dynamics of gold atoms along with protruded orientations. The localized process conditions direct two-dimensional structure of a tiny particle at atomically flat air-solution interface while heating locally dynamically approached atoms, thus, negate the role of van der Waals interactions. At electronphoton-solution interface, impinging electrons stretch or deform atoms of tiny particles depending on the mechanism of impingement. In addition, to strike regular grid of electrons ejected on split of atoms not executing excitations and de-excitations of their electrons, atoms of tiny particles also deform or stretch while occupying various sites depending on the process of synergy. Under suitable impinging electron streams, those tiny particles in monolayer two-dimensional structure electron states of their atoms are diffused in the direction of transferred energy, thus, coincide to the next adjacent atoms in each one-dimensional array dealing the same sort of behavior. Instantaneously, photons of adequate energy propagate on the surfaces of such electronic structures and modify those into smooth elements, thus, disregard the phenomenon of localized surface plasmons. This study highlights the fundamental process of formation of tiny particles where the role of localized dynamics of atoms and their electronic structure along with interaction to light are discussed. Such a tool of processing materials, in nonequilibrium pulse-based process, opens a number of possibilities to develop engineered materials with specific chemical, optical, and electronic properties.

  2. Prosopis Africana SEEDS (OKPEYE)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Keywords: Prosopis africana, okpeye seeds, thermal heat conductivity, specific heat capacity, thermal heat diffusivity, .... 2.3 Determination of Thermal Properties of Prosopis. Africana .... and the guard ring was filled with fiber glass at both the.

  3. Oil seed marketing prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceroni, G.

    1992-01-01

    With its 100 million tonnes annual production, the American continent is by far the world's biggest producer of oil seed, followed by Asia - 52 million, and Europe - 27 million tonnes. The Italian and European Communities have the farming capacity to double their production, but international agreements currently prohibit such initiatives. After first providing a panorama of the world oil seed market, this paper discusses new reforms in European Communities internal agricultural policies which currently limit production. These reforms, intended to encourage the production of oil seed for use as an ecological automotive fuel alternative, call for an obligatory set-aside of 15% of producing farm-land in exchange for the compensatory removal of oil seed production limits

  4. Genetics and Forest Seed Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    2016-01-01

    High genetic quality seed is obtained from seed sources that match the planting site, have a good outcrossing rate, and are superior in some desirable characters. Non-degraded natural forests and plantations may be used as untested seed sources, which can sometimes be managed to promote outbreeding...... and increase seed production. Planted seed orchards aim at capturing large genetic variation and are planted in a design that facilitates genetic evaluation and promotes outbred seed production. Good seed production relies upon success of the whole range of reproductive events from flower differentiation...

  5. Seeds of impurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pavoni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ai Weiwei’s art installation Kui Hua Zi [Sunflower Seeds] took place between 2010 and 2011 in the gigantic Turbine Hall of the Tate Modern Gallery, in London. It consisted of 100 millions hand-crafted porcelain seeds made in Jingdezhen, China.1 An uneven surface to dive into, a haptic space of undulating vision, rustling steps, unusual horizontality, a meaningless quicksand where the separation between artwork and spectator is engulfed, the immunity of distant contemplation denied.

  6. High-spatial-resolution electron density measurement by Langmuir probe for multi-point observations using tiny spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, H.; Røed, K.; Bekkeng, T. A.; Trondsen, E.; Clausen, L. B. N.; Miloch, W. J.; Moen, J. I.

    2017-11-01

    A method for evaluating electron density using a single fixed-bias Langmuir probe is presented. The technique allows for high-spatio-temporal resolution electron density measurements, which can be effectively carried out by tiny spacecraft for multi-point observations in the ionosphere. The results are compared with the multi-needle Langmuir probe system, which is a scientific instrument developed at the University of Oslo comprising four fixed-bias cylindrical probes that allow small-scale plasma density structures to be characterized in the ionosphere. The technique proposed in this paper can comply with the requirements of future small-sized spacecraft, where the cost-effectiveness, limited space available on the craft, low power consumption and capacity for data-links need to be addressed. The first experimental results in both the plasma laboratory and space confirm the efficiency of the new approach. Moreover, detailed analyses on two challenging issues when deploying the DC Langmuir probe on a tiny spacecraft, which are the limited conductive area of the spacecraft and probe surface contamination, are presented in the paper. It is demonstrated that the limited conductive area, depending on applications, can either be of no concern for the experiment or can be resolved by mitigation methods. Surface contamination has a small impact on the performance of the developed probe.

  7. Effect of hydrogen on transformation characteristics and deformation behavior in a Ti-Ni shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshiya, Taiji; Ando, Hiroei; Den, Shoji; Katsuta, Hiroshi.

    1992-01-01

    Transformation characteristics and deformation behavior of hydrogenated Ti-50.5 at% Ni alloys, which were occluded in a low pressure range of hydrogen between 1.1 and 78.5 kPa, have been studied by electrical resistivity measurement, tensile test, X-ray diffraction analysis and microstructural observation. M S temperature of the Ti-Ni alloys decreased with an increase in hydrogen content. This corresponds to the stabilization of the parent phase during cooling, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction: The suppression effect of hydrogen takes place on the martensitic transformation. Critical stress for slip deformation of hydrogenated Ti-Ni alloys changed with hydrogen content and thus hydrogen had a major influence on deformation behavior of those alloys. With hydrogen contents above 0.032 mol%, hardening was distinguished from softening which was pronounced in the contents from 0 to 0.032 mol% H. Hydrides were formed in hydrogen contents over 1.9 mol%. The hydride formation results in the reorientation in variants of the R phase and increase in the lattice strains of the parent phase. (author)

  8. Storage of sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Castro Lima

    Full Text Available The sunflower is among the top five crops in the world for the production of edible vegetable oil. The species displays rustic behavior, with an excellent edaphic and climatic adaptability index, being able to be cultivated throughout Brazil. Seed quality is the key to increasing production and productivity in the sunflower. The objective of this work was to monitor the viability of sunflower seeds with a view to their conservation when stored in different environments and packaging. The seeds were packed in paper bags, multilayered paper, black polyethylene and PET bottles; and stored for a period of twelve months in the following environments: dry cold room (10 ºC and 55% RH, the ambient conditions of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (30-32 ºC and 75% RH, refrigerator (4 ºC and 38-43% RH and freezer (-20 ºC. Every three months, the water content of the seeds was determined and germination, accelerated ageing, speed of emergence index, and seedling dry weight were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a scheme of split-lots, with four replications. It can be concluded that the natural environment is not suitable for the storage of sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds remain viable for 12 months when stored in a dry cold room, refrigerator or freezer, irrespective of the type of packaging used.

  9. Seed dispersal in fens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, B.; Van Diggelen, R.; Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and reducing genetic exchange. Species in fragmented wetlands may have lower reproductive success, which can lead to biodiversity loss. While fens may have always been relatively isolated from each other, they have become increasingly fragmented in modern times within agricultural and urban landscapes in both Europe and North America. Dispersal by water, animals and wind has been hampered by changes related to development in landscapes surrounding fens. Because the seeds of certain species are long-lived in the seed bank, frequent episodes of dispersal are not always necessary to maintain the biodiversity of fens. However, of particular concern to restoration is that some dominant species, such as the tussock sedge Carex stricta, may not disperse readily between fens. Conclusions: Knowledge of seed dispersal can be used to maintain and restore the biodiversity of fens in fragmented landscapes. Given that development has fragmented landscapes and that this situation is not likely to change, the dispersal of seeds might be enhanced by moving hay or cattle from fens to damaged sites, or by reestablishing lost hydrological connections. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  10. Green synthesis of soya bean sprouts-mediated superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Yan; Shen Yuhua; Xie Anjian; Li Shikuo; Wang Xiufang

    2010-01-01

    Superparamagnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were first synthesized via soya bean sprouts (SBS) templates under ambient temperature and normal atmosphere. The reaction process was simple, eco-friendly, and convenient to handle. The morphology and crystalline phase of the nanoparticles were determined from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra. The effect of SBS template on the formation of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles was investigated using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicate that spherical Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles with an average diameter of 8 nm simultaneously formed on the epidermal surface and the interior stem wall of SBS. The SBS are responsible for size and morphology control during the whole formation of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. In addition, the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) results indicate the products are superparamagnetic at room temperature, with blocking temperature (T B ) of 150 K and saturation magnetization of 37.1 emu/g.

  11. Green synthesis of soya bean sprouts-mediated superparamagnetic Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yan; Shen, Yuhua; Xie, Anjian; Li, Shikuo; Wang, Xiufang

    2010-10-01

    Superparamagnetic Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles were first synthesized via soya bean sprouts (SBS) templates under ambient temperature and normal atmosphere. The reaction process was simple, eco-friendly, and convenient to handle. The morphology and crystalline phase of the nanoparticles were determined from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra. The effect of SBS template on the formation of Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles was investigated using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicate that spherical Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles with an average diameter of 8 nm simultaneously formed on the epidermal surface and the interior stem wall of SBS. The SBS are responsible for size and morphology control during the whole formation of Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles. In addition, the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) results indicate the products are superparamagnetic at room temperature, with blocking temperature ( TB) of 150 K and saturation magnetization of 37.1 emu/g.

  12. Gestational Weight Gain: Results from the Delta Healthy Sprouts Comparative Impact Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Thomson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Delta Healthy Sprouts trial was designed to test the comparative impact of two home visiting programs on weight status, dietary intake, and health behaviors of Southern African American women and their infants. Results pertaining to the primary outcome, gestational weight gain, are reported. Methods. Participants (n=82, enrolled early in their second trimester of pregnancy, were randomly assigned to one of two treatment arms. Gestational weight gain, measured at six monthly home visits, was calculated by subtracting measured weight at each visit from self-reported prepregnancy weight. Weight gain was classified as under, within, or exceeding the Institute of Medicine recommendations based on prepregnancy body mass index. Chi-square tests and generalized linear mixed models were used to test for significant differences in percentages of participants within recommended weight gain ranges. Results. Differences in percentages of participants within the gestational weight gain guidelines were not significant between treatment arms across all visits. Conclusions. Enhancing the gestational nutrition and physical activity components of an existing home visiting program is feasible in a high risk population of primarily low income African American women. The impact of these enhancements on appropriate gestational weight gain is questionable given the more basic living needs of such women. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01746394, registered 4 December 2012.

  13. Molasses melanoidin promotes copper uptake for radish sprouts: the potential for an accelerator of phytoextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Ken-Ichi; Kanazawa, Kazuki; Tomura, Hiroki; Yamatsu, Takeshi; Tsunoda, Kin-Ichi; Kubota, Kenji

    2016-09-01

    Phytoextraction has been proposed as an alternative remediation technology for heavy metal contamination, and it is well known that chelators may alter the toxicity of heavy metals and the bioavailability in plants. Our previous work demonstrated that an adsorbent-column chromatography can effectively separate melanoidin-like product (MLP) from sugarcane molasses. The aim of this study was to examine the chelating property of MLP and to evaluate the facilitatory influence on the phytoextraction efficiency of Japanese radish. The result showed that MLP binds to all the metal ions examined and the binding capacity of MLP toward Cu(2+) seems to be the highest among them. The metal detoxification by MLP followed the order of Pb(2+) > Zn(2+) > Ni(2+) > Cu(2+) > Fe(2+) > Cd(2+) > Co(2+). Furthermore, in the phytoextraction experiment using copper sulfate, the application of MLP accelerated the detoxification of copper and the bioavailability in radish sprouts. Thus, these results suggest that MLP possesses the potential for an accelerator of phytoextraction in the copper-contaminated media.

  14. Sequential light programs shape kale (Brassica napus) sprout appearance and alter metabolic and nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sofia D; Folta, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    Different light wavelengths have specific effects on plant growth and development. Narrow-bandwidth light-emitting diode (LED) lighting may be used to directionally manipulate size, color and metabolites in high-value fruits and vegetables. In this report, Red Russian kale (Brassica napus) seedlings were grown under specific light conditions and analyzed for photomorphogenic responses, pigment accumulation and nutraceutical content. The results showed that this genotype responds predictably to darkness, blue and red light, with suppression of hypocotyl elongation, development of pigments and changes in specific metabolites. However, these seedlings were relatively hypersensitive to far-red light, leading to uncharacteristically short hypocotyls and high pigment accumulation, even after growth under very low fluence rates (<1 μmol m−2 s−1). General antioxidant levels and aliphatic glucosinolates are elevated by far-red light treatments. Sequential treatments of darkness, blue light, red light and far-red light were applied throughout sprout development to alter final product quality. These results indicate that sequential treatment with narrow-bandwidth light may be used to affect key economically important traits in high-value crops. PMID:26504531

  15. Ornithine decarboxylase and extracellular polyamines regulate microvascular sprouting and actin cytoskeleton dynamics in endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucharzewska, Paulina; Welch, Johanna E.; Svensson, Katrin J.; Belting, Mattias

    2010-01-01

    The polyamines are essential for cancer cell proliferation during tumorigenesis. Targeted inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), i.e. a key enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis, by α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) has shown anti-neoplastic activity in various experimental models. This activity has mainly been attributed to the anti-proliferative effect of DFMO in cancer cells. Here, we provide evidence that unperturbed ODC activity is a requirement for proper microvessel sprouting ex vivo as well as the migration of primary human endothelial cells. DFMO-mediated ODC inhibition was reversed by extracellular polyamine supplementation, showing that anti-angiogenic effects of DFMO were specifically related to polyamine levels. ODC inhibition was associated with an abnormal morphology of the actin cytoskeleton during cell spreading and migration. Moreover, our data suggest that de-regulated actin cytoskeleton dynamics in DFMO treated endothelial cells may be related to constitutive activation of the small GTPase CDC42, i.e. a well-known regulator of cell motility and actin cytoskeleton remodeling. These insights into the potential role of polyamines in angiogenesis should stimulate further studies testing the combined anti-tumor effect of polyamine inhibition and established anti-angiogenic therapies in vivo.

  16. Evaluation of fermentation quality of brewers' grains ensiled in combination with malt sprouts and chemical conservation additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Vyskočil

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to evaluate the effect of addition of humidity absorbent (malt sprouts and chemical conservation additive on fermentation process quality of brewer grains’ silage. Chemical conservation additive was based on formic acid, propionic acid, benzoic acid and ammonium formate content. In a model experiment the fresh brewer grains were used. A dry matter (DM content of brewer grains was 187.4 g / kg. Six treatments with three repetitions per treatment were prepared. The treatments A1, A2 and A3 were not supplied by humidity absorbent. Treatment A1 was a control treatment without any additive. The treatments A2 and A3 were supplied by chemical conservation additive in a dose of 3 L per tonne and 6 L per tonne, respectively. The treatments B1, B2 and B3 were supplied by malt sprouts to reach DM content of conserved matter on level 320–350 g / kg. Moreover the treatments B2 and B3 were supplied by chemical additive with its dose 3 and 6 L per tonne. Model silages were evaluated after 8 months of conservation at average laboratory temperature 26–28  °C, from each treatment were the final laboratory samples taken and analyzed. During conservation of treatments B1, B2 and B3 were no drain recognized. From A1 treatment drained 1300 ml of waste fluid that is 145 L per tonne of conserved matter. That was significant (P < 0.01 the malt sprouts addition support the lactic acid production and eliminate acetic acid production. There was no propionic acid or butyric acid detected in silages with malt sprouts event in these silages were analyzed higher (P < 0.01 concentration of ammoniac. Chemical additive supplementation improved (P < 0.01 the pH value and water leach acidity. The results show the malt sprout addition eliminates waste fluid drain and improves fermentation process. The higher concentration of chemical additive (6 l / t inhibited the fermentation process in our model experiment.

  17. Preliminary design, construction and evaluation of robot of tomato seed planting for the trays of greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Ghezavati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: From an economic viewpoint, tomato is considered as the second most valuable crop after potato. It is also preceded by the potato in terms of per capita consumption in the world. In 2008, the cultivation area used for the tomato as equal to 163,539 hectares in Iran and the production of it was equal to 5,887,715 tons with an average production of 117,887 tons in 4352 hectares in the provinces, respectively. Having high production volume and quality, costly hybrid seeds are currently used for the major planting areas of vegetable in Iran. Most of the used transplanted seedlings are 83%. Since the seeds are expensive, the percentage of seedlings and healthy and disease-free seeds should be used for maximized germination and be transferred to the fields of open space. Preparing seedlings in transplanting trays is a technology to respond to this need. Trays are covered with a layer of Peat and Miculite fertilizers. Then, one seed is manually placed in each cell after gauging and preparing a suitable field. However, manually placing seeds is time-consuming and requires hard labor. Sixteen working labors per hour are required for 15 × 7 cell in order to have 10200 seedlings grown in 100 trays. Due to lack of adequate labor, production capacity of greenhouses is reduced, especially in the farming season when finding labor for planting vegetable sprouts is laborious. Therefore, mechanizing tray seeding operations is essential to increase the capacity of the growing industry of greenhouses in Iran. Materials and Methods: Initially, the tomato seeds were examined in the laboratory. The most important parameters of the study included size, shape, weight, the speed of getting out of the tank and the minimum carrying speed. Then, a vacuum-based single seed picking unit was prepared to investigate the factors influencing the design, so that a single tomato seed can be harvested from the masses. The most important factors considered in the

  18. Seed-borne pathogens and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Luiza Wain-Tassi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Adequate procedures to evaluate seed vigor are important. Regarding the electrical conductivity test (EC, the interference in the test results caused by seed-borne pathogens has not been clarified. This research was carried out to study the influence of Phomopsis sojae (Leh. and Colletotrichum dematium (Pers. ex Fr. Grove var. truncata (Schw. Arx. fungi on EC results. Soybean seeds (Glycine max L. were inoculated with those fungi using potato, agar and dextrose (PDA medium with manitol (-1.0 MPa and incubated for 20 h at 25 °C. The colony diameter, index of mycelial growth, seed water content, occurrence of seed-borne pathogens, physiological potential of the seeds, measured by germination and vigor tests (seed germination index, cold test, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity, and seedling field emergence were determined. The contents of K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the seed and in the soaking solution were also determined. A complete 2 × 4 factorial design with two seed sizes (5.5 and 6.5 mm and four treatments (control, seeds incubated without fungi, seeds incubated with Phomopsis and seeds incubated with Colletotrichum were used with eight (5.5 mm large seeds and six (6.5 mm large seeds replications. All seeds submitted to PDA medium had their germination reduced in comparison to the control seeds. This reduction was also observed when seed vigor and leached ions were considered. The presence of Phomopsis sojae fungus in soybean seed samples submitted to the EC test may be the cause of misleading results.

  19. The importance of using certified seed

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanović Sandra; Mladenov Velimir; Balešević-Tubić Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Certified seed is produced from the seed of known genetic origin and genetic purity with controlled and tested production, processed and declared in accordance with the Law on Seeds. Production of certified seed is carried out under the supervision of the Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protection, by seed producers formally listed in the Seed Register. Seed is processed in registered seed processing centres and quality is tested in laboratories accredited for seed testing. The orga...

  20. Characterization and study of the behavior of wire Ti-Ni with shape memory effect enables manufacture of actuators; Estudo da caracterizacao e do comportamento de fios de Ti-Ni com efeito memoria de forma viabilizando fabricacao de atuadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pina, E.A.C.; Araujo Filho, O.O. de; Urtiga Filho, S.L.; Gonzalez, C.H., E-mail: kikipina@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEM/CTG/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    This work aims to characterize the wire commercial Ti-Ni of 1.27 mm in diameter with shape memory effect for the development of helical springs with the function of sensor / actuator. After heat treatment, the transformation temperatures, the presence of precipitates, the degree of damping, maximum stress of rupture, modulus of elasticity, the presence of phase R, the behavior of the alloy under tension, will be analyzed and compared in each situation. For characterization we used several methods including: heat treatment, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), tensile, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), X-ray diffraction, thermomechanical cycling. The wires were cut into pieces and heat-treated at 400 deg C with variation of time in muffle furnaces and quenching in water at 25 deg C. (author)

  1. The influence of sowing period and seeding norm on autumn vegetation, winter hardiness and yield of winter cereal crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potapova G. N.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available the winter wheat and triticale in the middle part of the Ural Mountains haven’t been seeded before. The technology of winter crop cultivation should be improved due to the production of new varieties of winter rye. Winter hardiness and yield of winter rye are higher in comparison with winter triticale and especially with winter wheat. The sowing period and the seeding rate influence the amount of yield and winter hardiness. The winter hardiness of winter cereals and the yield of the rye variety Iset sowed on August 25 and the yield of the triticale variety Bashkir short-stalked and wheat Kazanskaya 560 sowed on August 15 were higher. It is important to sow winter grain in local conditions in the second half of August. The sowing this period allows to provide plants with the necessary amount of positive temperatures (450–500 °C. This helps the plants to form 3–4 shoots of tillering and a mass of 10 dry plants reaching 3–5 grams. The winter grain crops in the middle part of the Ural Mountains should be sown with seeding rates of 6 and 7 million of sprouting grains per 1 ha, and the seeds must be cultivated with fungicidal preparation before seeding.

  2. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, T.Y.; Chin, C.J.; Lu, S.C.; Yiacoumi, S.

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration consists of two steps: heterogeneous particle flocculation of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in a stirred tank and high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic-seeding filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic seeding filtration are theoretically and experimentally investigated. A trajectory model that includes hydrodynamic resistance, van der Waals, and electrostatic forces is developed to calculate the flocculation frequency in a turbulent-shear regime. Fractal dimension is introduced to simulate the open structure of aggregates. A magnetic-filtration model that consists of trajectory analysis, a particle build-up model, a breakthrough model, and a bivariate population-balance model is developed to predict the breakthrough curve of magnetic-seeding filtration. A good agreement between modeling results and experimental data is obtained. The results show that the model developed in this study can be used to predict the performance of magnetic-seeding filtration without using empirical coefficients or fitting parameters. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  3. Molecular physiology of seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajduch, M.

    2014-05-01

    Plant development is well described. However, full understanding of the regulation of processes associated with plant development is still missing. Present Dr.Sc. thesis advances our understanding of the regulation of plant development by quantitative proteomics analyses of seed development of soybean, canola, castor, flax, and model plant arabidopsis in control and environmentally challenged environments. The analysis of greenhouse-grown soybean, canola, castor, and arabidospis provided complex characterization of metabolic processes during seed development, for instance, of carbon assimilation into fatty acids. Furthermore, the analyses of soybean and flax grown in Chernobyl area provided in-depth characterization of seed development in radio-contaminated environment. Soybean and flax were altered by radio-contaminated environment in different way. However, these alterations resulted into modifications in seed oil content. Further analyses showed that soybean and flax possess alterations of carbon metabolism in cytoplasm and plastids along with increased activity of photosynthetic apparatus. Our present experiments are focused on further characterization of molecular bases that might be responsible for alterations of seed oil content in Chernobyl grown plants. (author)

  4. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required under... seeds. (b) Seed consigned to a seed cleaning or processing establishment, for cleaning or processing for... pertaining to such seed show that it is “Seed for processing,” or, if the seed is in containers and in...

  5. Sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprout extract improves hepatic abnormalities in male subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Ushida, Yusuke; Shiozawa, Hirokazu; Umeda, Rumiko; Tsuruya, Kota; Aoki, Yudai; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Nishizaki, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate effects of dietary supplementation of sulforaphane (SF)-rich broccoli sprout (BS) extract on hepatic abnormalities in Japanese male participants. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind trial, male participants with fatty liver received either BS capsules containing glucoraphanin [GR; a precursor of SF (n = 24)] or placebo (n = 28) for 2 mo. Liver function markers, serum levels of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT, respectively) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP) and an oxidative stress marker, urinary levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), were measured and compared in participants before and after the trial period. In an animal model, chronic liver failure was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by successive intraperitoneal injection with N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) for 4 wk. Concomitantly, rats received AIN-76 diets supplemented with or without BS extract. Thereafter, rats were sacrificed, and their sera and livers were collected to measure serum liver function markers and hepatic levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels and hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, a prototypical phase 2 antioxidant enzyme. RESULTS: Dietary supplementation with BS extract containing SF precursor GR for 2 mo significantly decreased serum levels of liver function markers, ALT [median (interquartile range), before: 54.0 (34.5-79.0) vs after supplementation: 48.5 (33.3-65.3) IU/L, P NDMA-induced chronic liver failure in rats, which was attributable to the suppression of the increase in TBARS through induction of hepatic phase 2 antioxidant enzymes including hepatic GST (86.6 ± 95.2 vs 107.8 ± 7.7 IU/g, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Dietary supplementation with BS extract containing the SF precursor GR is likely to be highly effective in improving liver function through reduction of oxidative stress. PMID:26604653

  6. Obtaining and application of increased food and biological value iodinated products from lentils sprouted grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Antipova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice of research direction is related to the actual problem of production and distribution of functional purpose food products due to the spread of nutritional diseases and the lack of micronutrients in ordinary people and athletes diet. As an object for enrichment with iodine, it was suggested to use lentils, which is famous for its high protein content, low lipid and oligosaccharide content, and low inhibitory effect. The iodine accumulation occurs during germination, due to the use of a nutrient solution of the iodine inorganic form. In addition, the biochemical composition of the grain and the biological value of lentils are significantly improved: an increase in the content of total amino acids and vitamins is found to be 1.5-2.0 times, a mass fraction of the oligosaccharide fraction is observed. To determine the effect of technological processing on the degree of iodine conservation in lentils the grains were exposed to the following impact: grinding, extrusion, frying. An insignificant decrease in the amount of iodine during extrusion was noted and more significant one - during grinding. The obtained results of the determination of biological safety by the method of studying the effect of the investigated product on the growth response of ciliates allowed to confirm the safety of both fresh and dried sprouted grain of lentils. When studying the microbiology of grain by sowing on agarized selective diagnostic environments with subsequent identification of the qualitative and quantitative composition of microflora, including colony-forming units, deviations from the normative indices were not revealed. Experimental production of the extrudate was carried out, possible ways of its use in meat systems for improving the functional and technological properties of minced meat, as well as for independent use as snacks for the nutrition of athletes were suggested.

  7. Transport and degradation of 2-14C abscicine acid in the coleus rehneltianus berger sprout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaska, A.

    1979-01-01

    1 μg ABA-2- 14 C aqueous solution was injected into the youngest or into a fully grown leaf of young and older coleus plants. The activity quantity in the various sprout parts is investigated after 2, 24 and 72 h; as well as which labelled substances other than abscisic acid (ABA) occur. The activity in the ethanol extracts was detected with the help of liquid scintillation measurements. Thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography were used to characterize the radioactive substances. The results show that ABA is degraded into three metabolites which are characterized by their relative Rsub(F) values using chromatography with LM 2 as substance 0.2, 0.5a, 0.5b and 0.8. Comparing with the literature shows that it could be 6'-hydroxy methyl ABA, ABA glucoside, phaseic acid and dihydrophaseic acid. Young and old leaves in older plants have the same ability to degrade ABA taking the occurence of the 0.8 metabolite as standard. The degradation in younger plants is firstly very slight. However, within 72 h the ability of ABA degradation is induced in older leaves of younger plants, so that finally the degradation rate is as big as in older plants. Activity is essentially exported by adult leaves of older plants. The basipetal transport is considerably greater than the acropetal one. Results show that mainly ABA is transported in the acropetal test, whereas ABA and fraction 0.5 are transported in the basipetal direction. A reversed transport direction is observed after applying ABA to a young leaf. The transport basipetal is polarized in the first two hours, after 72 hours of transport there is a definite acropetal polarity. (orig./MG) [de

  8. Phase 1 Study of a Sulforaphane-Containing Broccoli Sprout Homogenate for Sickle Cell Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer F Doss

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease (SCD is the most common inherited hemoglobinopathy worldwide. Our previous results indicate that the reduced oxidative stress capacity of sickle erythrocytes may be caused by decreased expression of NRF2 (Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2, an oxidative stress regulator. We found that activation of NRF2 with sulforaphane (SFN in erythroid progenitors significantly increased the expression of NRF2 targets HMOX1, NQO1, and HBG1 (subunit of fetal hemoglobin in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, we hypothesized that NRF2 activation with SFN may offer therapeutic benefits for SCD patients by restoring oxidative capacity and increasing fetal hemoglobin concentration. To test this hypothesis, we performed a Phase 1, open-label, dose-escalation study of SFN, contained in a broccoli sprout homogenate (BSH that naturally contains SFN, in adults with SCD. The primary and secondary study endpoints were safety and physiological response to NRF2 activation, respectively. We found that BSH was well tolerated, and the few adverse events that occurred during the trial were not likely related to BSH consumption. We observed an increase in the mean relative whole blood mRNA levels for the NRF2 target HMOX1 (p = 0.02 on the last day of BSH treatment, compared to pre-treatment. We also observed a trend toward increased mean relative mRNA levels of the NRF2 target HBG1 (p = 0.10 from baseline to end of treatment, but without significant changes in HbF protein. We conclude that BSH, in the provided doses, is safe in stable SCD patients and may induce changes in gene expression levels. We therefore propose investigation of more potent NRF2 inducers, which may elicit more robust physiological changes and offer clinical benefits to SCD patients. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01715480.

  9. Role of the Norrie disease pseudoglioma gene in sprouting angiogenesis during development of the retinal vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Ulrich F O; Lin, Jihong; Acar, Niyazi; Lammel, Stefanie; Feil, Silke; Grimm, Christian; Seeliger, Mathias W; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Berger, Wolfgang

    2005-09-01

    To characterize developmental defects and the time course of Norrie disease in retinal and hyaloid vasculature during retinal development and to identify underlying molecular angiogenic pathways that may be affected in Norrie disease, exudative vitreoretinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity, and Coats' disease. Norrie disease pseudoglioma homologue (Ndph)-knockout mice were studied during retinal development at early postnatal (p) stages (p5, p10, p15, and p21). Histologic techniques, quantitative RT-PCR, ELISA, and Western blot analyses provided molecular data, and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) angiography and electroretinography (ERG) were used to obtain in vivo data. The data showed that regression of the hyaloid vasculature of Ndph-knockout mice occurred but was drastically delayed. The development of the superficial retinal vasculature was strongly delayed, whereas the deep retinal vasculature did not form because of the blockage of vessel outgrowth into the deep retinal layers. Subsequently, microaneurysm-like lesions formed. Several angiogenic factors were differentially transcribed during retinal development. Increased levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF1alpha) and VEGFA, as well as a characteristic ERG pattern, confirmed hypoxic conditions in the inner retina of the Ndph-knockout mouse. These data provide evidence for a crucial role of Norrin in hyaloid vessel regression and in sprouting angiogenesis during retinal vascular development, especially in the development of the deep retinal capillary networks. They also suggest an early and a late phase of Norrie disease and may provide an explanation for similar phenotypic features of allelic retinal diseases in mice and patients as secondary consequences of pathologic hypoxia.

  10. Novel molecular, cytotoxical, and immunological study on promising and selective anticancer activity of Mung bean sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafidh Rand R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anticancer and immunomodulatory activity of mung bean sprouts (MBS and the underlying mechanisms against human cervical and hepatocarcinoma cancer cells were explored. Methods MBS cytotoxicity and MBS-induced anticancer cytokines, TNF-α and IFN-β from cancer cells, and immunological cytokines, IL-4, IFN-γ, and IL-10 from peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNC were assessed by MTS and ELISA assays. Apoptotic cells were investigated by flow cytometry. The expression level of apoptotic genes (Bax, BCL-2, Capsases 7–9 and cell cycle regulatory genes (cyclin D, E, and A and tumor suppressor proteins (p27, p21, and p53 was assessed by real-time qPCR in the cancer cells treated with extract IC50. Results The cytotoxicity on normal human cells was significantly different from HeLa and HepG2 cells, 163.97 ± 5.73, 13.3 ± 0.89, and 14.04 ± 1.5 mg/ml, respectively. The selectivity index (SI was 12.44 ± 0.83 for HeLa and 11.94 ± 1.2 for HepG2 cells. Increased levels of TNF-α and IFN-β were observed in the treated HeLa and HepG2 culture supernatants when compared with untreated cells. MBS extract was shown to be an immunopolarizing agent by inducing IFNγ and inhibiting IL-4 production by PBMC; this leads to triggering of CMI and cellular cytotoxicity. The extract induced apoptosis, in a dose and time dependent manner, in treated HeLa and HepG2, but not in untreated, cells (P Conclusion MBS extract was shown to be a potent anticancer agent granting new prospects of anticancer therapy using natural products.

  11. UVA, UVB Light, and Methyl Jasmonate, Alone or Combined, Redirect the Biosynthesis of Glucosinolates, Phenolics, Carotenoids, and Chlorophylls in Broccoli Sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Rodríguez, Melissa; Benavides, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Broccoli sprouts contain health-promoting phytochemicals that can be enhanced by applying ultraviolet light (UV) or phytohormones. The separate and combined effects of methyl jasmonate (MJ), UVA, or UVB lights on glucosinolate, phenolic, carotenoid, and chlorophyll profiles were assessed in broccoli sprouts. Seven-day-old broccoli sprouts were exposed to UVA (9.47 W/m2) or UVB (7.16 W/m2) radiation for 120 min alone or in combination with a 25 µM MJ solution, also applied to sprouts without UV supplementation. UVA + MJ and UVB + MJ treatments increased the total glucosinolate content by ~154% and ~148%, respectively. MJ induced the biosynthesis of indole glucosinolates, especially neoglucobrassicin (~538%), showing a synergistic effect with UVA stress. UVB increased the content of aliphatic and indole glucosinolates, such as glucoraphanin (~78%) and 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin (~177%). UVA increased several phenolics such as gallic acid (~57%) and a kaempferol glucoside (~25.4%). MJ treatment decreased most phenolic levels but greatly induced accumulation of 5-sinapoylquinic acid (~239%). MJ treatments also reduced carotenoid and chlorophyll content, while UVA increased lutein (~23%), chlorophyll b (~31%), neoxanthin (~34%), and chlorophyll a (~67%). Results indicated that UV- and/or MJ-treated broccoli sprouts redirect the carbon flux to the biosynthesis of specific glucosinolates, phenolics, carotenoids, and chlorophylls depending on the type of stress applied. PMID:29113068

  12. UVA, UVB Light, and Methyl Jasmonate, Alone or Combined, Redirect the Biosynthesis of Glucosinolates, Phenolics, Carotenoids, and Chlorophylls in Broccoli Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Rodríguez, Melissa; Nair, Vimal; Benavides, Jorge; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A

    2017-11-04

    Broccoli sprouts contain health-promoting phytochemicals that can be enhanced by applying ultraviolet light (UV) or phytohormones. The separate and combined effects of methyl jasmonate (MJ), UVA, or UVB lights on glucosinolate, phenolic, carotenoid, and chlorophyll profiles were assessed in broccoli sprouts. Seven-day-old broccoli sprouts were exposed to UVA (9.47 W/m²) or UVB (7.16 W/m²) radiation for 120 min alone or in combination with a 25 µM MJ solution, also applied to sprouts without UV supplementation. UVA + MJ and UVB + MJ treatments increased the total glucosinolate content by ~154% and ~148%, respectively. MJ induced the biosynthesis of indole glucosinolates, especially neoglucobrassicin (~538%), showing a synergistic effect with UVA stress. UVB increased the content of aliphatic and indole glucosinolates, such as glucoraphanin (~78%) and 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin (~177%). UVA increased several phenolics such as gallic acid (~57%) and a kaempferol glucoside (~25.4%). MJ treatment decreased most phenolic levels but greatly induced accumulation of 5-sinapoylquinic acid (~239%). MJ treatments also reduced carotenoid and chlorophyll content, while UVA increased lutein (~23%), chlorophyll b (~31%), neoxanthin (~34%), and chlorophyll a (~67%). Results indicated that UV- and/or MJ-treated broccoli sprouts redirect the carbon flux to the biosynthesis of specific glucosinolates, phenolics, carotenoids, and chlorophylls depending on the type of stress applied.

  13. Micromechanical characteristics of an Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-TiNi ceramic produced in a high-pressure chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barashkov, G.A.; Neshpor, V.S.; Berdikov, V.F.; Pushkarev, O.I.; Lavrenova, E. A.

    1987-03-01

    The micromechanical characteristics of an Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-TiNi ceramic produced in high-pressure chambers under conditions of forced mass transfer are investigated experimentally using the microindentation method. The objective of the study is to use micromechanical characteristics to determine the time required for producing an Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-TiNi ceramic with a fully formed structure. It is found that the process of forced mass transfer and crystallization is completed within 60-120 s.

  14. Kulturní hodnoty tzv. Mariánského trojúhelníku - Sloup, Vranov, Křtiny

    OpenAIRE

    Bezděková, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    In the Moravian Karst there are three big churches consecrated to The Virgin Mary. These are visited by many pilgrims and have their own calendar of pilgrimages. They are Vranov, Křtiny and Sloup. Churches in these towns are consecrated to The Virgin Mary: Vranov commemorates the birth of The Virgin Mary, Křtiny commemorates the name of The Virgin Mary and Sloup commemorates the sufferings of The Virgin Mary. So we talk about the triangle of The Virgin Mary. This term is the main point of my ...

  15. A high-stability scanning tunneling microscope achieved by an isolated tiny scanner with low voltage imaging capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qi; Wang, Junting; Lu, Qingyou; Hou, Yubin

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel homebuilt scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with high quality atomic resolution. It is equipped with a small but powerful GeckoDrive piezoelectric motor which drives a miniature and detachable scanning part to implement coarse approach. The scanning part is a tiny piezoelectric tube scanner (industry type: PZT-8, whose d 31 coefficient is one of the lowest) housed in a slightly bigger polished sapphire tube, which is riding on and spring clamped against the knife edges of a tungsten slot. The STM so constructed shows low back-lashing and drifting and high repeatability and immunity to external vibrations. These are confirmed by its low imaging voltages, low distortions in the spiral scanned images, and high atomic resolution quality even when the STM is placed on the ground of the fifth floor without any external or internal vibration isolation devices

  16. A high-stability scanning tunneling microscope achieved by an isolated tiny scanner with low voltage imaging capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Hou, Yubin; Wang, Junting; Lu, Qingyou

    2013-11-01

    We present a novel homebuilt scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with high quality atomic resolution. It is equipped with a small but powerful GeckoDrive piezoelectric motor which drives a miniature and detachable scanning part to implement coarse approach. The scanning part is a tiny piezoelectric tube scanner (industry type: PZT-8, whose d31 coefficient is one of the lowest) housed in a slightly bigger polished sapphire tube, which is riding on and spring clamped against the knife edges of a tungsten slot. The STM so constructed shows low back-lashing and drifting and high repeatability and immunity to external vibrations. These are confirmed by its low imaging voltages, low distortions in the spiral scanned images, and high atomic resolution quality even when the STM is placed on the ground of the fifth floor without any external or internal vibration isolation devices.

  17. A high-stability scanning tunneling microscope achieved by an isolated tiny scanner with low voltage imaging capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Hou, Yubin; Wang, Junting; Lu, Qingyou

    2013-11-01

    We present a novel homebuilt scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with high quality atomic resolution. It is equipped with a small but powerful GeckoDrive piezoelectric motor which drives a miniature and detachable scanning part to implement coarse approach. The scanning part is a tiny piezoelectric tube scanner (industry type: PZT-8, whose d31 coefficient is one of the lowest) housed in a slightly bigger polished sapphire tube, which is riding on and spring clamped against the knife edges of a tungsten slot. The STM so constructed shows low back-lashing and drifting and high repeatability and immunity to external vibrations. These are confirmed by its low imaging voltages, low distortions in the spiral scanned images, and high atomic resolution quality even when the STM is placed on the ground of the fifth floor without any external or internal vibration isolation devices.

  18. Interfacial characteristics and fracture behavior of spark-plasma-sintered TiNi fiber-reinforced 2024Al matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Peng; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Wenxian; Chen, Shaoping; Zhou, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Embedding of shape memory alloy (SMA) fibers into materials to fabricate SMA composites has attracted considerable attention because of the potential applicability of these composites in smart systems and structures. In this study, 2024Al matrix composites reinforced by continuous TiNi SMA fibers were fabricated using spark plasma sintering (SPS). The interface between the fibers and matrix consisted of a bilayer. The layer close to the fiber consisted of a multiple phase mixture, and the other layer exhibited a periodic morphology resulting from the alternating phases of Al 3 Ti and Al 3 Ni. In addition, a small quantity of TiO 2 phases was also observed in the interface layer. Based on detailed interface studies of the orientation relationships between the Al 3 Ti, Al 3 Ni, and TiO 2 phases and the atomic correspondence at phase boundaries, the effects of the interface phases on the fracture behavior of the composites were demonstrated.

  19. Heat treatments and thermomechanical cycling influences on the R-phase in Ti-Ni shape memory alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar Henrique Gonzalez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article studies changes observed on the R-phase thermoelastic behavior in a near-equiatomic Ti-Ni shape memory alloy. Three kinds of procedures have been performed: different treatments, thermomechanical cycling under constant loading in shape memory helical springs and thermal cycling in as-treated and trained samples. Several heat treatments were carried out to investigate evolution of the R-phase by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. A heat treatment was chosen on which R-phase is absent. Shape memory springs were produced and submitted to a training process in an apparatus by tensioning the springs under constant loading. Thermal cycling in DSC was realized in as-treated and trained samples. Several aspects of one-step (B2→B19' and two-steps (B2→R→B19' martensitic transformations and R-phase formation and their evolution during tests were observed and discussed.

  20. Effect of plastic strain on shape memory characteristics in sputter-deposited Ti-Ni thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, K.

    1995-01-01

    The plastic strain which is introduced during cooling and heating under a constant stress has an influence upon the transformation and deformation characteristics of sputter-deposited Ti-Ni shape memory alloy thin films. With increasing the accumulated plastic strain, Ms rises and recovery strain increases. The changes in such characteristics are due to the internal stress field that is formed by plastic deformation. However, the change in Ms in Ti-50.5at%Ni is larger than that in Ti-48.9at%Ni, although the plastic strain in the former is lower than that in the latter. In order to understand this point, the effective internal stresses were estimated in both alloys; the internal stress in the former is more effectively created by the introduction of plastic strain than in the latter. (orig.)

  1. Lossless synthesis of graphene nanosheets decorated with tiny cadmium sulfide quantum dots with excellent nonlinear optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Miao; Zhan Hongbing; Sun Ruiqing; Chen Yu

    2010-01-01

    The implantation and growth of metal nanoparticles on graphene nanosheets (GNS) leads directly to severe damage to the regular structure of the graphene sheets, which disrupts the extended π conjugation, resulting in an impaired device performance. In this paper, we describe a facile approach for achieving the lossless formation of graphene composite decorated with tiny cadmium sulfide quantum dots (QDs) with excellent nonlinear optical properties by using benzyl mercaptan (BM) as the interlinker. The mercapto substituent of BM binds to the CdS QDs during their nucleation and growth process, and then the phenyl comes into contact with the GNS via the π-π stacking interaction. Using this strategy, CdS QDs with an average diameter of 3 nm are uniformly dispersed over the surface of graphene, and the resulting QD-graphene composite exhibits excellent optical limiting properties, mainly contributed by nonlinear scattering and nonlinear absorption, upon both 532 and 1064 nm excitations, in the nanosecond laser pulse regime.

  2. Rubber bulge forming of single-stage bellows of TiNi shape memory alloy using the displacement control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senba, Hiromasa; Yamaji, Toru; Okita, Keisuke; Okabe, Nagatoshi; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Matsumoto, Kenya

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the bulge process for forming the single-stage bellows of TiNi shape memory alloys, which is proposed as a new type of seismic applications, and especially considering the material's special behavior. Thin walled tubes with 20% cold work, whose composition is Ti-51.0 at% Ni, were prepared. First they are appropriately heat-treated and then the rubber bulge process is introduced for the tubes under the condition of austenite phase at room temperature. Displacement control method is adapted to the process. Theoretical prediction of change in outer diameter of the tube on compression is derived, and modified taking into account the progress of the stress-induced martensite transformation on tube's surface by observing the detachment of the oxide layer of the surface. Finally theoretical relationship between compressive displacement and the outer diameter of the tube, which is the most important for the design of the bellows shape, is cleared. (author)

  3. Characterization and study of the behavior of wire Ti-Ni with shape memory effect enables manufacture of actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, E.A.C.; Araujo Filho, O.O. de; Urtiga Filho, S.L.; Gonzalez, C.H.

    2010-01-01

    This work aims to characterize the wire commercial Ti-Ni of 1.27 mm in diameter with shape memory effect for the development of helical springs with the function of sensor / actuator. After heat treatment, the transformation temperatures, the presence of precipitates, the degree of damping, maximum stress of rupture, modulus of elasticity, the presence of phase R, the behavior of the alloy under tension, will be analyzed and compared in each situation. For characterization we used several methods including: heat treatment, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), tensile, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), X-ray diffraction, thermomechanical cycling. The wires were cut into pieces and heat-treated at 400 deg C with variation of time in muffle furnaces and quenching in water at 25 deg C. (author)

  4. Improving Soil Seed Bank Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, Steven C; Flessner, Michael L

    2018-05-08

    Problems associated with simplified weed management motivate efforts for diversification. Integrated weed management uses fundamentals of weed biology and applied ecology to provide a framework for diversified weed management programs; the soil seed bank comprises a necessary part of this framework. By targeting seeds, growers can inhibit the propagule pressure on which annual weeds depend for agricultural invasion. Some current management practices affect weed seed banks, such as crop rotation and tillage, but these tools are often used without specific intention to manage weed seeds. Difficulties quantifying the weed seed bank, understanding seed bank phenology, and linking seed banks to emerged weed communities challenge existing soil seed bank management practices. Improved seed bank quantification methods could include DNA profiling of the soil seed bank, mark and recapture, or 3D LIDAR mapping. Successful and sustainable soil seed bank management must constrain functionally diverse and changing weed communities. Harvest weed seed controls represent a step forward, but over-reliance on this singular technique could make it short-lived. Researchers must explore tools inspired by other pest management disciplines, such as gene drives or habitat modification for predatory organisms. Future weed seed bank management will combine multiple complementary practices that enhance diverse agroecosystems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important development issue. This study deals with the impact different types of regulation have on how farmers access seed. I have analysed current regulatory frameworks in terms of their impact on differe...

  6. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depaoli, D.

    1996-01-01

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes

  7. Laser heat stimulation of tiny skin areas adds valuable information to quantitative sensory testing in postherpetic neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Marcel; Spohn, Dorothee; Ritter, Alexander; Rolke, Roman; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Weiss, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Patients suffering from postherpetic neuralgia often complain about hypo- or hypersensation in the affected dermatome. The loss of thermal sensitivity has been demonstrated by quantitative sensory testing as being associated with small-fiber (Aδ- and C-fiber) deafferentation. We aimed to compare laser stimulation (radiant heat) to thermode stimulation (contact heat) with regard to their sensitivity and specificity to detect thermal sensory deficits related to small-fiber dysfunction in postherpetic neuralgia. We contrasted detection rate of laser stimuli with 5 thermal parameters (thresholds of cold/warm detection, cold/heat pain, and sensory limen) of quantitative sensory testing. Sixteen patients diagnosed with unilateral postherpetic neuralgia and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects were tested. Quantitative sensory testing and laser stimulation of tiny skin areas were performed in the neuralgia-affected skin and in the contralateral homologue of the neuralgia-free body side. Across the 5 thermal parameters of thermode stimulation, only one parameter (warm detection threshold) revealed sensory abnormalities (thermal hypoesthesia to warm stimuli) in the neuralgia-affected skin area of patients but not in the contralateral area, as compared to the control group. In contrast, patients perceived significantly less laser stimuli both in the affected skin and in the contralateral skin compared to controls. Overall, laser stimulation proved more sensitive and specific in detecting thermal sensory abnormalities in the neuralgia-affected skin, as well as in the control skin, than any single thermal parameter of thermode stimulation. Thus, laser stimulation of tiny skin areas might be a useful diagnostic tool for small-fiber dysfunction. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. genetics and inheritance of seed dormancy inflicted by seed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    ABSTRACT. The study was undertaken to investigate the genetic mode of inheritance of dormancy imposed by the hull (seed coat) in rice seeds. Freshly harvested seeds of parents, F1 and F2 populations of a cross between a dormant cultivar Kisegese and non-dormant strain K2004 were used. Germination test of the ...

  9. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important

  10. Effects of seed collecting date and storage duration on seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of seed collecting dates (5 to 6 times from mid-November to early January, 10 days intervals) and seed storage duration (4, 8, and 12 months) at room temperature on seed germination of four Artemisia species (Artemisia sieberi, A. diffusa, A. kupetdaghensis, and A.

  11. Cone and seed yields in white spruce seed production areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Pitcher

    1966-01-01

    The source of seed is an important consideration in the reforestation program on the National Forests in the North Central Region. Thirty-five seed production areas have been set up in the Region, along the lines proposed by the North Central Forest Experiment Station, to provide control of seed source. Red pine, white pine, shortleaf and loblolly pine, and white...

  12. Design and methodology of the LA Sprouts nutrition, cooking and gardening program for Latino youth: A randomized controlled intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Lauren C; Gatto, Nicole M; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Davis, Jaimie N

    2015-05-01

    The LA Sprouts 12-week nutrition, cooking and gardening intervention targets obesity reduction in Latino children. While other gardening and nutrition programs are shown to improve dietary intake, LA Sprouts is unique in that it utilized a curriculum demonstrated to decrease obesity. This methodology paper outlines the design and processes of the LA Sprouts study, and discusses key strategies employed to foster successful implementation of the program. After-school program in four Los Angeles elementary schools. 3rd-5th grade students. Randomized controlled trial. Gardens were built on two of four school campuses, and the 90-minute weekly lessons focused on strategies to increase fruit and vegetable consumption, gardening at school and home, and cooking healthy meals/snacks. Data collection was conducted pre- and post-intervention and included basic clinical and anthropometric measures, dietary intake and psychosocial constructs measured by questionnaire, and an optional fasting blood draw. Baseline data was collected from 364 children, and 320 (88%) completed follow-up. No participants withdrew from the program (data were missing for other reasons). Intervention students attended 9.7 ± 2.3 lessons. Fasting blood samples were collected on 169 children at baseline, and 113 (67%) at follow-up. Questionnaire scales had good internal consistency (IC) and intra-rater reliability (IRR; in child scales: 88% items with IC > 0.7 and 70% items with IRR > 0.50; in parent scales: 75% items with IC > 0.7). The intervention was successfully implemented in the schools and scales appear appropriate to evaluate psychosocial constructs relevant to a gardening intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. seed germination and seedlings growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... The role of 20E in plant physiology including seed germination is not studied. ..... GA3, ABA and CKs on lettuce Lactuca sativa seed germination are ..... Practical uses for ecdysteroids in mammals and humans: an update. J.

  14. Potato Sprout Inhibition and Tuber Quality after Post-Harvest Treatment with Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis L.) Leaves and Branches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talei, Daryush; Bina, Fatemeh; Valdiani, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Storage of potatoes is one of the most important concerns in maintaining freshness and nutritional quality in the storage process. To achieve this, an experiment was carried out with five different storage conditions at various temperatures using fresh rosemary leaves and branches with three...... replicates. The results revealed that storage of potatoes at 25°C with rosemary leaves and branches resulted in the lowest sprout development and weight loss after 10 weeks. This was significantly different from either 4°C or 30°C. The findings indicated the potential of rosemary fresh leaves and branches...

  15. SpRoUTS (Space Robot Universal Truss System): Reversible Robotic Assembly of Deployable Truss Structures of Reconfigurable Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenett, Benjamin; Cellucci, Daniel; Cheung, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Automatic deployment of structures has been a focus of much academic and industrial work on infrastructure applications and robotics in general. This paper presents a robotic truss assembler designed for space applications - the Space Robot Universal Truss System (SpRoUTS) - that reversibly assembles a truss from a feedstock of hinged andflat-packed components, by folding the sides of each component up and locking onto the assembled structure. We describe the design and implementation of the robot and show that the assembled truss compares favorably with prior truss deployment systems.

  16. Post Wildfire Changes in Plant Functioning and Vegetation Dynamics: Implications for Water Fluxes in Re-sprouting Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, R. H.; Lane, P. N.; Mitchell, P. J.; Bradstock, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    Fire induced changes to the vegetation dynamics in temperate forests have been demonstrated to affect evapotranspiration (Et) rates through increases in plant size and density and stand-level transpiration and interception. In many cases these transient changes in forest structure result in substantial declines in stream flow for protracted periods after the disturbance. However to date research has focused on the wetter 'ash' forests of south-eastern Australia which solely regenerate via seedlings, it is unknown what changes in Et may occur in those forests which re-sprout post-fire. We hypothesize that Et fluxes track post-fire changes in sapwood area and leaf area index (L) in re-sprouting temperate forests, increasing as the forest regenerates. Following the 2009 Black Saturday wildfires in Victoria, we monitored Et rates for over a year in both damp and dry re-sprouting forest, incorporating a range of fire severity classes. Components of Et including overstorey transpiration, rainfall interception loss and forest floor Et were measured in conjunction with changes in L, sapwood area and leaf physiology. The monitoring period began one year post-fire with a typical hot, dry summer, at which stage Et rates in burnt forest were similar or less than those in unburnt forest. During the following summer, which was one of the wettest on record, Et increased across all monitoring plots but particularly so in the burnt forest where seedling regeneration resulted in an understorey L nearly twice that of unburnt forest. Forest floor Et was up to 46% higher in burnt forest, and rainfall interception values accounted for approximately 25% of rainfall compared to 15% in unburnt forest. The greatest increase in canopy transpiration rates over this period occurred in those trees subject to a low intensity fire where most of the canopy remained intact but there was also fire-triggered sprouting of new leaves along the trunk and main branches. In these trees rates of sapflow

  17. Seed research for improved technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Bino,R.J.; Jalink,H.; Oluoch,M.O.; Groot,S.P.C.

    1998-01-01

    The production of high-quality seed is the basis for a durable a profitable agriculture. After production, seed is processed, conditioned, stored, shipped and germinated. For quality assurance, seed quality has to be controlled at all steps of the production chain. Seed functioning is accompanied by programmed transitions from cell proliferation to quiescence upon maturation and from quiescence to reinitiation of cellular metabolism upon imbibition. Despite the obvious importance of these con...

  18. (Lupinus albus) SEEDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-08-08

    Aug 8, 2010 ... lupin samples indicated that lupins can be used as a raw material for various food ... lupin seeds can be utilized for milk and meat imitation products. ... estimated by multiplying the percentage of crude protein, crude fat and ...

  19. Seed for change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassena Beko, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Ethiopia is an agrarian country where agriculture dominates the economy, and thus agriculture is considered as an engine of growth by the government. Seed as one of the agricultural technologies, in fact, a carrier of many technologies, is critical to increasing production, but the use of quality

  20. Managing Stress. Project Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Donna; Wilk, Jan

    One of eight papers from Project Seed, this paper describes a stress management project undertaken with high school sophomores. Managing Stress is described as an interactive workshop that offers young people an opportunity to examine specific areas of stress in their lives and to learn effective ways to deal with them. The program described…

  1. Grape Seed Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Greece people have used grapes, grape leaves, and sap for health purposes. Grape seed extract was developed ... sharing research results, and educating the public. Its resources include publications (such as Dietary ... Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Center for ...

  2. The SEED Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Carolyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Committed to fulfilling the promise of the green economy, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched the Sustainability Education and Economic Development (SEED) initiative (www.theseedcenter.org) in October 2010. The project advances sustainability and clean energy workforce development practices at community colleges by…

  3. Dormancy in Plant Seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, H.W.M.; Finch-Savage, W.E.; Buitink, J.; Bolingue, W.; Leubner-Metzger, G.

    2010-01-01

    Seed dormancy has been studied intensely over the past decades and, at present, knowledge of this plant trait is at the forefront of plant biology. The main model species is Arabidopsis thaliana, an annual weed, possessing nondeep physiological dormancy. This overview presents the state-of-the-art

  4. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yiacoumi, Sotira

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process.

  5. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C.; Yiacoumi, Sotira.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process

  6. [Study on seed testing for Salvia miltiorrhiza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Hong-mei; Qi, Jian-jun; Zhou, Li-li; Li, Xian-en

    2008-09-01

    To establish a seed testing methods for Salvia miltiorrhiza. Referring to the International Seed Testing Rules made by ISTA and the Seed Testing for Crops (GB/T3543. 1-1995) issued by China. The seeds are selected by winnowing; the seed purity is about 50%-60%; 100 grain weight is used to determine the quality of the seed; the seed moisture content is determined by air drying, the drying hour is 3 h. Seed viability is tested by TFC method.

  7. Germination of red alder seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Radwan; D.S. DeBell

    1981-01-01

    Red alder seeds were collected from six locations throughout the natural range of the species. Each seed lot was obtained from a single tree, and the seeds were used to determine germination with and without stratification treatment. Irrespective of treatment, germination varied significantly (P

  8. Nest-mediated seed dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Warren; Jason P. Love; Mark A. Bradford

    2017-01-01

    Many plant seeds travel on the wind and through animal ingestion or adhesion; however, an overlooked dispersal mode may lurk within those dispersal modes. Viable seeds may remain attached or embedded within materials birds gather for nest building. Our objective was to determine if birds inadvertently transport seeds when they forage for plant materials to...

  9. Seed systems support in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munyi, Peter; Jonge, De Bram

    2015-01-01

    The threats of climate change and rising food prices have stirred renewed attention for seed and food security in Africa, inviting new thinking on the role of seed sector development in coping with these concerns. One conceptual framework that has gained attention is the Integrated Seed Sector

  10. Potential of cultivar and crop management to affect phytochemical content in winter-grown sprouting broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Kim; Valverde, Juan; Finn, Leo; Rai, Dilip K; Brunton, Nigel; Sorensen, Jens C; Sorensen, Hilmer; Gaffney, Michael

    2014-01-30

    Variety and crop management strategies affect the content of bioactive compounds (phenolics, flavonoids and glucosinolates) in green broccoli (calabrese) types, which are cultivated during summer and autumn in temperate European climates. Sprouting broccoli types are morphologically distinct and are grown over the winter season and harvested until early spring. Thus they show considerable potential for development as an import substitution crop for growers and consumers during the 'hungry gap' of early spring. The present study investigated the effect of variety and management practices on phytochemical content in a range of sprouting broccoli varieties. Yields were significantly higher in white sprouting broccoli varieties. Levels of phenolics and flavonoids were in the range 81.64-297.65 and 16.95-104.80 mg 100 g⁻¹ fresh weight, respectively, depending on year and cultivar, and were highest in variety 'TZ 5052' in both years. In-row spacing did not affect flavonoid content. Phenolic and flavonoid content generally increased with increasing floret maturity and levels were high in edible portions of the crop. Crop wastes (leaf and flower) contained 145.9-239.3 and 21.5-116.6 mg 100 g⁻¹ fresh weight total phenolics and flavonoids, respectively, depending on cultivar, tissue and year. Climatic factors had a significant effect on phenolic and flavonoid content. Levels of total and some individual glucosinolates were higher in sprouting broccoli than in the green broccoli variety 'Ironman'. Levels of total phenolics, flavonoids and glucosinolates are higher in sprouting than green broccoli types. Sprouting broccoli represents an excellent source of dietary bioactive compounds. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation or...

  12. Change of texture, microdeformation and hardness in surface layer of TiNi alloy depending on the number of pulses of electron beam effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisner, L. L.; Meisner, S. N.; Markov, A. B.; Yakovlev, E. V.; Ozur, G. E.; Rotshtein, V. P.; Mironov, Yu. P.

    2015-01-01

    This work comprises a study of the influence of the pulse number of low-energy high-current electron beam (LEHCEB) exposure on the value and character of distribution of residual elastic stresses, texturing effects and the relationship between structural-phase states and physical and mechanical properties of the modified surface layers of TiNi alloy. LEHCEB processing of the surface of TiNi samples was carried out using a RITM-SP [3] installation. Energy density of electron beam was constant at E s = 3.9 ± 0.5 J/cm 2 ; pulse duration was 2.8 ± 0.3 μs. The number of pulses in the series was changeable, (n = 2–128). It was shown that as the result of multiple LEHCEB processing of TiNi samples, hierarchically organized multilayer structure is formed in the surface layer. The residual stress field of planar type is formed in the modified surface layer as following: in the direction of the normal to the surface the strain component ε ⊥ < 0 (compressing strain), and in a direction parallel to the surface, the strain component ε || > 0 (tensile deformation). Texturing effects and the level of residual stresses after LEHCEB processing of TiNi samples with equal energy density of electron beam (∼3.8 J/cm 2 ) depend on the number of pulses and increase with the rise of n > 10

  13. The influence of the substrate on the adhesive strength of the micro-arc oxidation coating developed on TiNi shape memory alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Shy-Feng; Ou, Shih-Fu; Chou, Chia-Kai

    2017-01-01

    TiNi shape memory alloys (SMAs), used as long-term implant materials, have a disadvantage. Ni-ion release from the alloys may trigger allergies in the human body. Micro-arc oxidation has been utilized to modify the surface of the TiNi SMA for improving its corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. However, there are very few reports investigating the essential adhesive strength between the micro-arc oxidized film and TiNi SMA. Two primary goals were attained by this study. First, Ti50Ni48.5Mo1.5 SMA having a phase transformation temperature (Af) less than body temperature and good shape recovery were prepared. Next, the Ti50Ni50 and Ti50Ni48.5Mo1.5 SMA surfaces were modified by micro-arc oxidation in phosphoric acid by applying relatively low voltages to maintain the adhesive strength. The results indicated that the pore size, film thickness, and P content increased with applied voltage. The micro-arc oxidized film, comprising Ti oxides, Ni oxide, and phosphate compounds, exhibited a glassy amorphous structure. The outmost surface of the micro-arc oxidized film contained a large amount of P (>12 at%) but only a trace of Ni (micro-arc oxidized films exceeded the requirements of ISO 13779. Furthermore, Mo addition into TiNi SMAs was found to be favorable for improving the adhesive strength of the micro-arc oxidized film.

  14. The effects of free amino acids profiles on seeds germination/dormancy and seedlings development of two genetically different cultivars of Yemeni Pomegranates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhadi Fatima A.

    2012-04-01

    seeds germination in plant, therefore Khazemi germination capacity was assumed to be regulated more or less by these AAs. In addition, changes in amino acid composition in the germinated Khazemi cultivar during various stages of seeds germination including imbibition, germination, and sprouts stages have been noticed to change in response with germination demands. This suggests that amino acids reserves in dry seeds are major determinant for germination capacity and germination behavior in the following steps of germination. The noticed particular AAs increase/decrease along the time course of Khazemi pomegranate germination till establishment of heterotrophic seedlings were used as cornerstones for elucidation and deduction of putative function and relevant biochemical pathways controlling initiation of seeds germination and seedlings developments. Based on publicly available databases of model plants and literatures surveys, we established correlations between prevailing AAs factors as biochemical parameters actively involved in seeds dormancy-breaking and germination process.

  15. Generation of scaled protogalactic seed magnetic fields in laser-produced shock waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, G; Ravasio, A; Murphy, C D; Schaar, K; Baird, A; Bell, A R; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A; Bingham, R; Constantin, C; Drake, R P; Edwards, M; Everson, E T; Gregory, C D; Kuramitsu, Y; Lau, W; Mithen, J; Niemann, C; Park, H-S; Remington, B A; Reville, B; Robinson, A P L; Ryutov, D D; Sakawa, Y; Yang, S; Woolsey, N C; Koenig, M; Miniati, F

    2012-01-25

    The standard model for the origin of galactic magnetic fields is through the amplification of seed fields via dynamo or turbulent processes to the level consistent with present observations. Although other mechanisms may also operate, currents from misaligned pressure and temperature gradients (the Biermann battery process) inevitably accompany the formation of galaxies in the absence of a primordial field. Driven by geometrical asymmetries in shocks associated with the collapse of protogalactic structures, the Biermann battery is believed to generate tiny seed fields to a level of about 10(-21) gauss (refs 7, 8). With the advent of high-power laser systems in the past two decades, a new area of research has opened in which, using simple scaling relations, astrophysical environments can effectively be reproduced in the laboratory. Here we report the results of an experiment that produced seed magnetic fields by the Biermann battery effect. We show that these results can be scaled to the intergalactic medium, where turbulence, acting on timescales of around 700 million years, can amplify the seed fields sufficiently to affect galaxy evolution.

  16. Mechanical harvesting of pumpkin seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Sito, Stjepan; Ivančan, Stjepan; Barković, Edi; Mucalo, Ana

    2009-01-01

    One of the key problems in production technology of pumpkin seed for oil production is mechanized harvesting and losses of seed during mechanical harvesting. The losses of pumpkin seed during mechanical harvesting at peripheral velocity of 1.57 m/s (optimally adjusted machine) were 4.4% for Gleisdorf species, 5.2% for Slovenska species and 7.8% for pumpkin with husk. The higher average losses of pumpkin seed with husk were caused by tight connection of seed and pumpkin fruit.

  17. Quantitative anatomical and behavioral analyses of regeneration and collateral sprouting following spinal cord transection in the nurse shark (ginglymostoma cirratum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderd, J B

    1979-01-01

    The spinal cord was transected at the mid-thoracic level in 32 nurse sharks. Four animals per group were sacrificed at intervals of 10, 20, 30, 40, 60 and 90 days postoperative. Two groups of fish underwent a subsequent spinla1 cord retransection at the same site at 90 days and were sacrificed 10 and 20 days later. Three sections of spinal cord were removed from each shark for histological analysis. Behaviorally, timed trials for swimming speed and a strength test for axial musculature contraction caudal to the lesion site were performed at 5 day postoperative intervals. Histological analysis showed little regeneration (9-13 percent) of two descending tracts 90 days following the lesion and no return of rostrally controlled movements caudal to the lesion. However, synaptic readjustment did occur caudal to the lesion. This phenomenon was attributed to local segmental sprouting of adjacent, intact nerve fibers. A close correlation was shown between this synaptic readjustment and the strength of uncontrollable undulatory movements seen caudal to the lesion site following spinal cord transection. The relationship of regeneration and collateral sprouting to quantitative behavioral changes is discussed.

  18. The effect of tomato juices and bean sprout extracts on vitro shoot regeneration of Physalis angulata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastuti, Retno; Munawarti, Aminatun; Rosyidah, Mufidatur

    2017-11-01

    Physalis angulata L. (Ciplukan) which belongs to Solanaceae is an important medicinal plant. In vitro culture medium contains carbon source, inorganic substance, vitamins, and plant growth regulators. However, organic growth supplements have frequently been added to improve regeneration capability of explants. This study was conducted to observe the effect of tomato juices and extract bean sprout on shoot regeneration and multiplication of in vitro nodal explants. The explants were cultured on MS basal medium + 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP) 2 mg/L + indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) 0.05 mg/L with and without organic supplements. Tomato juices (T) 5, 7.5 and 10% or bean sprout extract (B) 1.25, 2.5, and 3.75% were added as natural organic supplements. Almost all explants have produced shoots one week after culture. After six weeks of culture maximum shoot number (12.5±3.9) was produced in medium MS + T5 while maximum shoot length (10.7 ± 0.7 cm) was obtained in medium MS + T 7.5. Medium T tends to produce more shoots than the medium B and medium control. This result indicates the potential of natural organic supplements for supporting Ciplukan propagation through in vitro culture.

  19. Occurrence and characterization of food-borne pathogens isolated from fruit, vegetables and sprouts retailed in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojkovská, Hana; Myšková, Petra; Gelbíčová, Tereza; Skočková, Alena; Koláčková, Ivana; Karpíšková, Renáta

    2017-05-01

    Food of non-animal origin is a major component of the human diet and has been considered to pose a low risk from the point of view of bacteriological safety. However, an increase in the number of outbreaks of illness caused by such pathogens and linked to the consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables have been reported from around the world recently. Salmonella spp., STEC (Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli) and Listeria monocytogenes are among the most frequently identified agents. Additionally, the transmission of antibiotic resistant strains including also the methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) to humans via the food chain is one of the greatest public health problems being confronted today. Therefore, we focused on the bacterial safety of fruit, vegetables and sprouts on sale in the Czech Republic. One strain (0.3%) of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type PT8, one strain (0.3%) of MRSA and 17 strains (5.0%) of L. monocytogenes were isolated from a total of 339 collected samples. The most problematic commodities were frozen fruit and vegetables (packed and unpacked) and fresh-cut vegetables. Our findings indicate deficiencies in hygiene practices during harvesting, processing and distribution of these commodities. Although sprouts and berries are the most likely to be contaminated by human pathogens, only two samples were positive for the presence of L. monocytogenes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. LA sprouts randomized controlled nutrition, cooking and gardening programme reduces obesity and metabolic risk in Hispanic/Latino youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, N M; Martinez, L C; Spruijt-Metz, D; Davis, J N

    2017-02-01

    Many programmes for children that involve gardening and nutrition components exist; however, none include experimental designs allowing more rigorous evaluation of their impact on obesity. The objective of this study is to explore the effects of a novel 12-week gardening, nutrition and cooking intervention {'LA Sprouts'} on dietary intake, obesity parameters and metabolic disease risk among low-income, primarily Hispanic/Latino youth in Los Angeles.. This study used a randomized control trial involving four elementary schools [two randomized to intervention {172, 3rd-5th grade students}; two randomized to control {147, 3rd-5th grade students}]. Classes were taught in 90-min sessions once per week for 12 weeks. Data collected at pre-intervention and post-intervention included dietary intake via food frequency questionnaire, anthropometric measures {body mass index, waist circumference}, body fat, and fasting blood samples. LA Sprouts participants compared with controls had significantly greater reductions in body mass index z-scores {-0.1 vs. -0.04, respectively; p = 0.01} and waist circumference {-1.2 vs. 0.1 cm; p obesity and metabolic risk; however, additional larger and longer-term studies are warranted. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.