WorldWideScience

Sample records for tiny extremely remote

  1. Digital mapping in extreme and remote environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Joel; Bauer, Tobias; Sarlus, Zimer; Zainy, Maher; Brethes, Anais

    2017-04-01

    During the last few years, Luleå University of Technology has performed a series of research projects in remote areas with extreme climatic conditions using digital mapping technologies. The majority of past and ongoing research projects focus on the arctic regions of the Fennoscandian Shield and Greenland but also on the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt in northern Iraq. Currently, we use the Midland Valley application FieldMove on iPad mini devices with ruggedized casings. As all projects have a strong focus on geological field work, harsh climatic conditions are a challenge not only for the geologists but also for the digital mapping hardware. In the arctic regions especially cold temperatures affect battery lifetime and performance of the screens. But also high temperatures are restricting digital mapping. From experience, a typical temperature range where digital mapping, using iPad tablets, is possible lies between -20 and +40 degrees. Furthermore, the remote character of field areas complicates access but also availability of electricity. By a combination of robust solar chargers and ruggedized batteries we are able to work entirely autarkical. Additionally, we are currently installing a drone system that allows us to map outcrops normally inaccessible because of safety reasons or time deficiency. The produced data will subsequently be taken into our Virtual Reality studio for interpretation and processing. There we will be able to work also with high resolution DEM data from Lidar scanning allowing us to interpret structural features such as post-glacial faults in areas that are otherwise only accessible by helicopter. By combining digital field mapping with drone technique and a Virtual Reality studio we are able to work in hardly accessible areas, improve safety during field work and increase efficiency substantially.

  2. Remote Sensing of Surficial Process Responses to Extreme Meteorological Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakenridge, G. Robert

    1997-01-01

    Changes in the frequency and magnitude of extreme meteorological events are associated with changing environmental means. Such events are important in human affairs, and can also be investigated by orbital remote sensing. During the course of this project, we applied ERS-1, ERS-2, Radarsat, and an airborne sensor (AIRSAR-TOPSAR) to measure flood extents, flood water surface profiles, and flood depths. We established a World Wide Web site (the Dartmouth Flood Observatory) for publishing remote sensing-based maps of contemporary floods worldwide; this is also an online "active archive" that presently constitutes the only global compilation of extreme flood events. We prepared an article for EOS concerning SAR imaging of the Mississippi Valley flood; an article for the International Journal of Remote Sensing on measurement of a river flood wave using ERS-2, began work on an article (since completed and published) on the Flood Observatory for a Geoscience Information Society Proceedings volume, and presented lectures at several Geol. Soc. of America Natl. Meetings, an Assoc. of Amer. Geographers Natl. Meeting, and a Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium (all on SAR remote sensing of the Mississippi Valley flood). We expanded in-house modeling capabilities by installing the latest version of the Army Corps of Engineers RMA two-dimensional hydraulics software and BYU Engineering Graphics Lab's Surface Water Modeling System (finite elements based pre- and post-processors for RMA work) and also added watershed modeling software. We are presently comparing the results of the 2-d flow models with SAR image data. The grant also supported several important upgrades of pc-based remote sensing infrastructure at Dartmouth. During work on this grant, we collaborated with several workers at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Remote Sensing/GIS laboratory (for flood inundation mapping and modeling; particularly of the Illinois River using the AIRSAR/TOPSAR/ERS-2 combined data), with Dr

  3. Microsystem for remote sensing of high energy radiation with associated extremely low photon flux densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, A.; Jain, V. K.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a microsystem for remote sensing of high energy radiation in extremely low flux density conditions. With wide deployment in mind, potential applications range from nuclear non-proliferation, to hospital radiation-safety. The daunting challenge is the low level of photon flux densities - emerging from a Scintillation Crystal (SC) on to a ~1 mm-square detector, which are a factor of 10000 or so lower than those acceptable to recently reported photonic chips (including `single-photon detection' chips), due to a combination of low Lux, small detector size, and short duration SC output pulses - on the order of 1 μs. These challenges are attempted to be overcome by the design of an innovative `System on a Chip' type microchip, with high detector sensitivity, and effective coupling from the SC to the photodetector. The microchip houses a tiny n+ diff p-epi photodiode (PD) as well as the associated analog amplification and other related circuitry, all fabricated in 0.5micron, 3-metal 2-poly CMOS technology. The amplification, together with pulse-shaping of the photocurrent-induced voltage signal, is achieved through a tandem of two capacitively coupled, double-cascode amplifiers. Included in the paper are theoretical estimates and experimental results.

  4. TinyDebug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Tranberg

    2011-01-01

    Debugging embedded wireless systems can be cumbersome due to low visibility. To ease the task of debugging this paper present TinyDebug which is a multi-purpose passive debugging framework for developing embedded wireless sys- tems. TinyDebug is designed to be used throughout the entire system...... logging to extraction and show how the frame- work improves upon existing message based and event log- ging debugging techniques while enabling distributed event processing. We also present a number of optional event anal- ysis tools demonstrating the generality of the TinyDebug debug messages....

  5. How good are remote sensors at measuring extreme winds?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sathe, A.R.; Courtney, M.; Mann, J.; Wagner, R.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes some preliminary efforts within the SafeWind project, aimed to identify the possible added value of using wind lidars to detect extreme wind events. Exceptionally good performance is now regularly reported in the measurement of the mean wind speed with some wind lidars in flat

  6. The Tiny Terminators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 5. The Tiny Terminators - Mosquitoes and Diseases. P K Sumodan. General Article Volume 6 Issue 5 May 2001 pp 48-55. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/05/0048-0055 ...

  7. TinyOS Alliance Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe; Culler, David; Estrin, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    This memo describes the goals and organization structure of the TinyOS Alliance. It covers membership, the working group forums for contribution, intellectual property, source licensing, and the TinyOS Steering Committee (TSC)....

  8. Use of a remote infrared thermography in experimental medicine at extreme influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datsenko A.V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents an analysis of published data on the use of remote infrared thermography in medicine and veterinary science and evaluated the main opportunities, methods and ways of thermovision registration in experimental medical studies on biological objects, including at extreme influences. The following resources of the bibliographic electronic databases had been used: eLibrary, PubMed, Clinical Key, Science. Now methods of infrared thermography in insufficient degree are used in experimental medicine, including when studying adverse biological effect of various harmful and dangerous extreme factors, which main manifestation, especially in the early period after exposure, are systemic microvascular disorders, determining the state of capacity of human biomodels. These dynamic remote ther-mographic studies of experimental biological objects can be used to evaluate disorders of the peripheral circulation, working capacity and an emotional condition of the biomodels exposed to extreme factors, including early after experimental studies in laboratory and field work.

  9. Revenge of tiny Miranda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldreich, P.; Nicholson, P.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to Dermott and Gold (Nature 267: 590 (1977)) who proposed a resonance model for the rings of Uranus. They assumed that the rings are composed of small particles librating about stable resonances determined by pairs of satellites, either Ariel and Titania or Ariel and Oberon. They dismissed as insignificant resonances involving 'tiny Miranda'. It is reported here that, by a wide margin, the strongest resonances are all associated with Miranda. It is also shown that the hypothesis that the rings are made up of librating particles, whilst original and ingenious, is incorrect. (author)

  10. Rainy Day: A Remote Sensing-Driven Extreme Rainfall Simulation Approach for Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Daniel; Yatheendradas, Soni; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Kirschbaum, Dalia; Ayalew, Tibebu; Mantilla, Ricardo; Krajewski, Witold

    2015-04-01

    Progress on the assessment of rainfall-driven hazards such as floods and landslides has been hampered by the challenge of characterizing the frequency, intensity, and structure of extreme rainfall at the watershed or hillslope scale. Conventional approaches rely on simplifying assumptions and are strongly dependent on the location, the availability of long-term rain gage measurements, and the subjectivity of the analyst. Regional and global-scale rainfall remote sensing products provide an alternative, but are limited by relatively short (~15-year) observational records. To overcome this, we have coupled these remote sensing products with a space-time resampling framework known as stochastic storm transposition (SST). SST "lengthens" the rainfall record by resampling from a catalog of observed storms from a user-defined region, effectively recreating the regional extreme rainfall hydroclimate. This coupling has been codified in Rainy Day, a Python-based platform for quickly generating large numbers of probabilistic extreme rainfall "scenarios" at any point on the globe. Rainy Day is readily compatible with any gridded rainfall dataset. The user can optionally incorporate regional rain gage or weather radar measurements for bias correction using the Precipitation Uncertainties for Satellite Hydrology (PUSH) framework. Results from Rainy Day using the CMORPH satellite precipitation product are compared with local observations in two examples. The first example is peak discharge estimation in a medium-sized (~4000 square km) watershed in the central United States performed using CUENCAS, a parsimonious physically-based distributed hydrologic model. The second example is rainfall frequency analysis for Saint Lucia, a small volcanic island in the eastern Caribbean that is prone to landslides and flash floods. The distinct rainfall hydroclimates of the two example sites illustrate the flexibility of the approach and its usefulness for hazard analysis in data-poor regions.

  11. Massive stars dying alone: Extremely remote environments of SN2009ip and SN2010jp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan

    2014-10-01

    We propose an imaging study of the astonishingly remote environments of two recent supernovae (SNe): SN2009ip and SN2010jp. Both were unusual Type IIn explosions that crashed into dense circumstellar material (CSM) ejected by the star shortly before explosion. The favored progenitors of these SNe are very massive luminous blue variable (LBV) stars. In fact, SN2009ip presents an extraordinay case where the LBV-like progenitor was actually detected directly in archival HST data, and where we obtained spectra and photometry for numerous pre-SN eruptions. No other SN has this treasure trove of detailed information about the progenitor (not even SN1987A). SN2010jp represents a possible collapsar-powered event, since it showed evidence of a fast bipolar jet in spectra and a low 56Ni mass; this would be an analog of the black-hole forming explosions that cause gamma ray bursts, but where the relativistic jet is damped by a residual H envelope on the star. In both cases, the only viable models for these SNe involve extremely massive (initial masses of 40-100 Msun) progenitor stars. This seems at odds with their extremely remote environments in the far outskirts of their host galaxies, with no detected evidence for an underlying massive star population in ground-based data (nor in the single shallow WFPC2/F606W image of SN2009ip). Here we propose deep UV HST images to search for any mid/late O-type stars nearby, deep red images to detect any red supergiants, and an H-alpha image to search for any evidence of ongoing star formation in the vicinity. These observations will place important and demanding constraints on the initial masses and ages of these progenitors.

  12. Tiny Molybdenites Tell Diffusion Tales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, H. J.; Hannah, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    Diffusion invokes micron-scale exchange during crystal growth and dissolution in magma chambers on short time-scales. Fundamental to interpreting such data are assumptions on magma-fluid dynamics at all scales. Nevertheless, elemental diffusion profiles are used to estimate time scales for magma storage, eruption, and recharge. An underutilized timepiece to evaluate diffusion and 3D mobility of magmatic fluids is high-precision Re-Os dating of molybdenite. With spatially unique molybdenite samples from a young ore system (e.g., 1 Ma) and a double Os spike, analytical errors of 1-3 ka unambiguously separate events in time. Re-Os ages show that hydrous shallow magma chambers locally recharge and expel Cu-Mo-Au-silica as superimposed stockwork vein networks at time scales less than a few thousand years [1]. Re-Os ages provide diffusion rates controlled by a dynamic crystal mush, accumulation and expulsion of metalliferous fluid, and magma reorganization after explosive crystallization events. Importantly, this approach has broad application far from ore deposits. Here, we use Re-Os dating of molybdenite to assess time scales for generating and diffusing metals through the deep crust. To maximize opportunity for chemical diffusion, we use a continental-scale Sveconorwegian mylonite zone for the study area. A geologically constrained suite of molybdenite samples was acquired from quarry exposures. Molybdenite, previously unreported, is extremely scarce. Tiny but telling molybdenites include samples from like occurrences to assure geologic accuracy in Re-Os ages. Ages range from mid-Mesoproterozoic to mid-Neoproterozoic, and correspond to early metamorphic dehydration of a regionally widespread biotite-rich gneiss, localized melting of gneiss to form cm-m-scale K-feldspar ± quartz pods, development of vapor-rich, vuggy mm stringers that serve as volatile collection surfaces in felsic leucosomes, and low-angle (relative to foliation) cross-cutting cm-scale quartz veins

  13. Elucidating the impact of temperature variability and extremes on cereal croplands through remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, John M A; Dash, Jadunandan; Atkinson, Peter M

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing-derived wheat crop yield-climate models were developed to highlight the impact of temperature variation during thermo-sensitive periods (anthesis and grain-filling; TSP) of wheat crop development. Specific questions addressed are: can the impact of temperature variation occurring during the TSP on wheat crop yield be detected using remote sensing data and what is the impact? Do crop critical temperature thresholds during TSP exist in real world cropping landscapes? These questions are tested in one of the world's major wheat breadbaskets of Punjab and Haryana, north-west India. Warming average minimum temperatures during the TSP had a greater negative impact on wheat crop yield than warming maximum temperatures. Warming minimum and maximum temperatures during the TSP explain a greater amount of variation in wheat crop yield than average growing season temperature. In complex real world cereal croplands there was a variable yield response to critical temperature threshold exceedance, specifically a more pronounced negative impact on wheat yield with increased warming events above 35 °C. The negative impact of warming increases with a later start-of-season suggesting earlier sowing can reduce wheat crop exposure harmful temperatures. However, even earlier sown wheat experienced temperature-induced yield losses, which, when viewed in the context of projected warming up to 2100 indicates adaptive responses should focus on increasing wheat tolerance to heat. This study shows it is possible to capture the impacts of temperature variation during the TSP on wheat crop yield in real world cropping landscapes using remote sensing data; this has important implications for monitoring the impact of climate change, variation and heat extremes on wheat croplands. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A review on substances and processes relevant for optical remote sensing of extremely turbid marine areas, with a focus on the Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommersom, A.; Wernand, M.R.; Peters, S.W.M.; de Boer, J.

    2010-01-01

    The interpretation of optical remote sensing data of estuaries and tidal flat areas is hampered by optical complexity and often extreme turbidity. Extremely high concentrations of suspended matter, chlorophyll and dissolved organic matter, local differences, seasonal and tidal variations and

  15. [Remote intelligent Brunnstrom assessment system for upper limb rehabilitation for post-stroke based on extreme learning machine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Yu, Lei; Fu, Jianming; Fang, Qiang

    2014-04-01

    In order to realize an individualized and specialized rehabilitation assessment of remoteness and intelligence, we set up a remote intelligent assessment system of upper limb movement function of post-stroke patients during rehabilitation. By using the remote rehabilitation training sensors and client data sampling software, we collected and uploaded the gesture data from a patient's forearm and upper arm during rehabilitation training to database of the server. Then a remote intelligent assessment system, which had been developed based on the extreme learning machine (ELM) algorithm and Brunnstrom stage assessment standard, was used to evaluate the gesture data. To evaluate the reliability of the proposed method, a group of 23 stroke patients, whose upper limb movement functions were in different recovery stages, and 4 healthy people, whose upper limb movement functions were normal, were recruited to finish the same training task. The results showed that, compared to that of the experienced rehabilitation expert who used the Brunnstrom stage standard table, the accuracy of the proposed remote Brunnstrom intelligent assessment system can reach a higher level, as 92.1%. The practical effects of surgery have proved that the proposed system could realize the intelligent assessment of upper limb movement function of post-stroke patients remotely, and it could also make the rehabilitation of the post-stroke patients at home or in a community care center possible.

  16. Origins of tiny neutrino mass and large flavor mixings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haba, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Active neutrino masses are extremely smaller than those of other quarks and leptons, and there are large flavor mixings in the lepton sector, contrary to the quark sector. They are great mysteries in the standard model, but also excellent hints of new physics beyond the standard model. Thus, questions 'What is an origin of tiny neutrino mass?' and 'What is an origin of large lepton flavor mixings?' are very important. In this paper, we overview various attempts to solve these big questions. (author)

  17. Tiny plastic lung mimics human pulmonary function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careers Inclusion & Diversity Work-Life Balance Career Resources Apply for a Job Postdocs Students Goals Recycling Green Purchasing Pollution Prevention Reusing Water Resources Environmental Management Releases - 2016 » April » Tiny plastic lung mimics human pulmonary function Tiny plastic lung mimics

  18. A study of the terrestrial thermosphere by remote sensing of OI dayglow in the far and extreme ultraviolet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    The upper region of the Earth's atmosphere, the thermosphere, is a key part of the coupled solar-terrestrial system. An important method of obtaining information in the this region is through analysis of radiation excited through the interactions of the thermosphere with solar ionizing, extreme and far ultraviolet radiation. This dissertation presents one such study by the remote sensing of OI in the far and extreme ultraviolet dayglow. The research program included the development construction, and flight of a sounding rocket spectrometer to test this current understanding of the excitation and transport mechanisms of the OI 1356, 1304, 1027, and 989 angstrom emissions. This data set was analyzed using current electron and radiative transport models with the purpose of checking the viability of OI remote sensing; that is, whether existing models and input parameters are adequate to predict these detailed measurements. From discrepancies between modeled and measured emissions, inferences about these input parameters were made. Among other things, the data supports a 40% optically thick cascade contribution to the 1304 angstrom emission. From upper lying states corresponding to 1040, 1027 and 989 angstrom about half of this cascade has been accounted for in this study. There is also evidence that the Lyman β airglow from the geo-corona contributes a significant proportion (30-50%) to the OI 1027 angstrom feature. Furthermore, the photoelectron contribution to the 1027 angstrom feature appears to be underestimated in the current models by a factor of 20

  19. Development of the RAIDS extreme ultraviolet wedge and strip detector. [Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detector System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, D. C.; Chater, W. T.; Christensen, A. B.; Howey, C. K.; Pranke, J. B.

    1988-01-01

    In the next few years the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detector System (RAIDS) package will be flown on a Tiros spacecraft. The EUV spectrometer experiment contains a position-sensitive detector based on wedge and strip anode technology. A detector design has been implemented in brazed alumina and kovar to provide a rugged bakeable housing and anode. A stack of three 80:1 microchannel plates is operated at 3500-4100 V. to achieve a gain of about 10 to the 7th. The top MCP is to be coated with MgF for increased quantum efficiency in the range of 50-115 nm. A summary of fabrication techniques and detector performance characteristics is presented.

  20. TinyOS-based quality of service management in wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, N.; Anusuya-Rangappa, L.; Shirazi, B.A.; Huang, R.; Song, W.-Z.; Miceli, M.; McBride, D.; Hurson, A.; LaHusen, R.

    2009-01-01

    Previously the cost and extremely limited capabilities of sensors prohibited Quality of Service (QoS) implementations in wireless sensor networks. With advances in technology, sensors are becoming significantly less expensive and the increases in computational and storage capabilities are opening the door for new, sophisticated algorithms to be implemented. Newer sensor network applications require higher data rates with more stringent priority requirements. We introduce a dynamic scheduling algorithm to improve bandwidth for high priority data in sensor networks, called Tiny-DWFQ. Our Tiny-Dynamic Weighted Fair Queuing scheduling algorithm allows for dynamic QoS for prioritized communications by continually adjusting the treatment of communication packages according to their priorities and the current level of network congestion. For performance evaluation, we tested Tiny-DWFQ, Tiny-WFQ (traditional WFQ algorithm implemented in TinyOS), and FIFO queues on an Imote2-based wireless sensor network and report their throughput and packet loss. Our results show that Tiny-DWFQ performs better in all test cases. ?? 2009 IEEE.

  1. Evaluation of last extreme drought events in Amazon basin using remotely sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panisset, Jéssica S.; Gouveia, Célia M.; Libonati, Renata; Peres, Leonardo; Machado-Silva, Fausto; França, Daniela A.; França, José R. A.

    2017-04-01

    Amazon basin has experienced several intense droughts among which were highlighted last recent ones in 2005 and 2010. Climate models suggest these events will be even more frequent due to higher concentration of greenhouse gases that are also driven forward by alteration in forest dynamics. Environmental and social impacts demand to identify these intense droughts and the behavior of climate parameters that affect vegetation. This present study also identifies a recent intense drought in Amazon basin during 2015. Meteorological parameters and vegetation indices suggest this event was the most severe already registered in the region. We have used land surface temperature (LST), vegetation indices, rainfall and shortwave radiation from 2000 to 2015 to analyze and compare droughts of 2005, 2010 and 2015. Our results show singularities among the three climate extreme events. The austral winter was the most affected season in 2005 and 2010, but not in 2015 when austral summer presented extreme conditions. Precipitation indicates epicenter of 2005 in west Amazon corroborating with previous studies. In 2010, the west region was strongly affected again together with the northwest and the southeast areas. However, 2015 epicenters were concentrated in the east of the basin. In 2015, shortwave radiation has exceeded the maximum values of 2005 and temperature the maximum value of 2010. Vegetation indices have shown positive and negative anomalies. Despite of heterogenous response of Amazon forest to drought, hybrid vegetation indices using NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and LST highlights the exceptionality of 2015 drought episode that exhibits higher vegetation water stress than the cases of 2010 and 2005. Finally, this work has shown how meteorological parameters influence droughts and the effects on vegetation in Amazon basin. Complexity of climate, ecosystem heterogeneity and high diversity of Amazon forest are response by idiosyncrasies of each drought. All

  2. The use of Saildrones as Long Endurance, Ocean Research Platforms in Remote and Extreme Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, R.; Peacock, D.; Jones, E.

    2016-02-01

    The world's oceans are experiencing significant change, which will have a profound impact on ecosystems, fish stocks and climate. Furthermore, the areas where some of the biggest changes are occurring are also some of the least measured and understood. This is largely due to their remote location and/or harsh environment, where the cost of deploying sensors is significant. New technologies are required to supplement ships and mooring data to meet the demand for longer, more economical deployments with the ability for real-time data and adaptive sampling. The Saildrone was designed to meet this need, providing the ability to reach almost any part of the world's oceans, without requiring a ship. Deployed from the dock, the unmanned Saildrone navigates autonomously to the area of interest, where it operates for extended periods before returning to shore for servicing and subsequent re-deployment. The Saildrone is propelled by wind power from a 4 m solid wing. Stability is provided by static weight in the keel and outrigger hulls. The 5.8 m hull includes several payload bays, with a payload capacity of 100 kg. Working with the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL), under a collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), the Saildrone platform was equipped with a suite of meteorological and oceanographic sensors that would enable a wide variety of ocean research missions to be undertaken. After field tests in San Francisco Bay, a 3 month mission was conducted in the eastern Bering Sea in spring 2015. The mission included rough sea-trials, sensor comparisons in coordination with the NOAAS Oscar Dyson, and a survey of the northern Bering Sea shortly after ice retreat. The mission was completed as planned, with the two Saildrones (SD-126 & SD-128) returning to the dock from which they were deployed after 97 days and each completing 4400 nautical miles. During the second half of 2015, two subsequent missions were conducted in the Gulf of Mexico. Two

  3. Physicists tackles questions of tiny dimensions

    CERN Multimedia

    Moran, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Today's physicists have a dilemna: they are using two separate theories to describe the universe. General relativity, which describes gravity, works for large objects like planets. Quantum mechanics, which involves the other forces, works for tiny objects like atoms. Unfortunately, the two theories don't match up.

  4. A 'tiny-orange' spectrometer for electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, N.C. da.

    1990-01-01

    An tiny-orange electron spectrometer was designed and constructed using flat permanent magnets and a surface barrier detector. The transmission functions of different system configurations were determined for energies in the 200-1100 KeV range. A mathematical model for the system was developed. (L.C.J.A.)

  5. Leros: A Tiny Microcontroller for FPGAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Leros is a tiny microcontroller that is optimized for current low-cost FPGAs. Leros is designed with a balanced logic to on-chip memory relation. The design goal is a microcontroller that can be clocked in about half of the speed a pipelined on-chip memory and consuming less than 300 logic cells...

  6. Advances in developing TiNi nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, A. Torres; Cuellar, E. Lopez; Mendez, U. Ortiz; Yacaman, M. Jose

    2006-01-01

    The elaboration of nanoparticles has become a field of great interest for many scientists. Nanoparticles possess different properties than those ones shown in bulk materials. Shape memory alloys have the exceptional ability to recuperate its original shape by simple heating after being 'plastically' deformed. When this process is originated, important changes in properties, as mechanical and electrical, are developed in bulk material. If there is possible to obtain nanoparticles with shape memory effects, these nanoparticles could be used in the elaboration of nanofluids with the ability to change their electrical and thermal conductivity with temperature changes, i.e., smart nanofluids. In this work, some recent results and discussion of TiNi nanoparticles obtained by ion beam milling directly from a TiNi wire with shape memory are presented. The nanoparticles obtained by this process are about 2 nm of diameter with a composition of Ti-41.0 at.% Ni. Synthesized nanoparticles elaborated by this method have an ordered structure

  7. Tiny Devices Project Sharp, Colorful Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Displaytech Inc., based in Longmont, Colorado and recently acquired by Micron Technology Inc. of Boise, Idaho, first received a Small Business Innovation Research contract in 1993 from Johnson Space Center to develop tiny, electronic, color displays, called microdisplays. Displaytech has since sold over 20 million microdisplays and was ranked one of the fastest growing technology companies by Deloitte and Touche in 2005. Customers currently incorporate the microdisplays in tiny pico-projectors, which weigh only a few ounces and attach to media players, cell phones, and other devices. The projectors can convert a digital image from the typical postage stamp size into a bright, clear, four-foot projection. The company believes sales of this type of pico-projector may exceed $1.1 billion within 5 years.

  8. From tiny microalgae to huge biorefineries

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia, L.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are an emerging research field due to their high potential as a source of several biofuels in addition to the fact that they have a high-nutritional value and contain compounds that have health benefits. They are also highly used for water stream bioremediation and carbon dioxide mitigation. Therefore, the tiny microalgae could lead to a huge source of compounds and products, giving a good example of a real biorefinery approach. This work shows and presents examples of experimental...

  9. Nanocellulose, a tiny fiber with huge applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abitbol, Tiffany; Rivkin, Amit; Cao, Yifeng; Nevo, Yuval; Abraham, Eldho; Ben-Shalom, Tal; Lapidot, Shaul; Shoseyov, Oded

    2016-06-01

    Nanocellulose is of increasing interest for a range of applications relevant to the fields of material science and biomedical engineering due to its renewable nature, anisotropic shape, excellent mechanical properties, good biocompatibility, tailorable surface chemistry, and interesting optical properties. We discuss the main areas of nanocellulose research: photonics, films and foams, surface modifications, nanocomposites, and medical devices. These tiny nanocellulose fibers have huge potential in many applications, from flexible optoelectronics to scaffolds for tissue regeneration. We hope to impart the readers with some of the excitement that currently surrounds nanocellulose research, which arises from the green nature of the particles, their fascinating physical and chemical properties, and the diversity of applications that can be impacted by this material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Extreme Tele-Echocardiography: Methodology for Remote Guidance of In-Flight Echocardiography Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David S.; Borowski, Allan; Bungo, Michael W.; Gladding, Patrick; Greenberg, Neil; Hamilton, Doug; Levine, Benjamin D.; Lee, Stuart M.; Norwood, Kelly; Platts, Steven H.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Methods: In the year before launch of an ISS mission, potential astronaut echocardiographic operators participate in 5 sessions to train for echo acquisitions that occur roughly monthly during the mission, including one exercise echocardiogram. The focus of training is familiarity with the study protocol and remote guidance procedures. On-orbit, real-time guidance of in-flight acquisitions is provided by a sonographer in the Telescience Center of Mission Control. Physician investigators with remote access are able to relay comments on image quality to the sonographer. Live video feed is relayed from the ISS to the ground via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System with a 2- second transmission delay. The expert sonographer uses these images, along with twoway audio, to provide instructions and feedback. Images are stored in non-compressed DICOM format for asynchronous relay to the ground for subsequent off-line analysis. Results: Since June, 2009, a total of 27 resting echocardiograms and 5 exercise studies have been performed during flight. Average acquisition time has been 45 minutes, reflecting 26,000 km of ISS travel per study. Image quality has been adequate in all studies, and remote guidance has proven imperative for fine-tuning imaging and prioritizing views when communication outages limit the study duration. Typical resting studies have included 27 video loops and 30 still-frame images requiring 750 MB of storage. Conclusions: Despite limited crew training, remote guidance allows research-quality echocardiography to be performed by non-experts aboard the ISS. Analysis is underway and additional subjects are being recruited to define the impact of microgravity on cardiac structure and systolic and diastolic function.

  11. Structural analysis of an off-grid tiny house

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calluari, Karina Arias; Alonso-Marroquín, Fernando

    2017-06-01

    The off-grid technologies and tiny house movement have experimented an unprecedented growth in recent years. Putting both sides together, we are trying to achieve an economic and environmental friendly solution to the higher cost of residential properties. This solution is the construction of off-grid tiny houses. This article presents a design for a small modular off-grid house made by pine timber. A numerical analysis of the proposed tiny house was performed to ensure its structural stability. The results were compared with the suggested serviceability limit state criteria, which are contended in the Australia Guidelines Standards making this design reliable for construction.

  12. Development of a multi-sensor based urban discharge forecasting system using remotely sensed data: A case study of extreme rainfall in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sunkwon; Jang, Sangmin; Park, Kyungwon

    2017-04-01

    Extreme weather due to changing climate is a main source of water-related disasters such as flooding and inundation and its damage will be accelerated somewhere in world wide. To prevent the water-related disasters and mitigate their damage in urban areas in future, we developed a multi-sensor based real-time discharge forecasting system using remotely sensed data such as radar and satellite. We used Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite (COMS) and Korea Meteorological Agency (KMA) weather radar for quantitative precipitation estimation. The Automatic Weather System (AWS) and McGill Algorithm for Precipitation Nowcasting by Lagrangian Extrapolation (MAPLE) were used for verification of rainfall accuracy. The optimal Z-R relation was applied the Tropical Z-R relationship (Z=32R1.65), it has been confirmed that the accuracy is improved in the extreme rainfall events. In addition, the performance of blended multi-sensor combining rainfall was improved in 60mm/h rainfall and more strong heavy rainfall events. Moreover, we adjusted to forecast the urban discharge using Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). Several statistical methods have been used for assessment of model simulation between observed and simulated discharge. In terms of the correlation coefficient and r-squared discharge between observed and forecasted were highly correlated. Based on this study, we captured a possibility of real-time urban discharge forecasting system using remotely sensed data and its utilization for real-time flood warning. Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant (13AWMP-B066744-01) from Advanced Water Management Research Program (AWMP) funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (MOLIT) of Korean government.

  13. Struggling to Hear? Tiny Devices Can Keep You Connected

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Human Services Search form Search Site Menu Home Latest Issue Past Issues Special Issues Subscribe May 2018 Print this issue Struggling to Hear? Tiny Devices Can Keep You Connected En español Send us ...

  14. Preliminary investigations on TINI based distributed instrumentation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezboruah, T.; Kalita, M.

    2006-04-01

    A prototype web enabled distributed instrumentation system is being proposed in the Department of Electronics Science, Gauhati University, Assam, India. The distributed instrumentation system contains sensors, legacy hardware, TCP/IP protocol converter, TCP/IP network Ethernet, Database Server, Web/Application Server and Client PCs. As part of the proposed work, Tiny Internet Interface (TINI, TBM390: Dallas Semiconductor) has been deployed as TCP/IP stack, and java programming language as software tools. A feature supported by Java, that is particularly relevant to the distributed system is its applet. An applet is a java class that can be downloaded from the web server and can be run in a context application such as web browser or an applet viewer. TINI has been installed as TCP/IP stack, as it is the best suited embedded system with java programming language and it has been uniquely designed for communicating over One Wire Devices (OWD) over network. Here we will discuss the hardware and software aspects of TINI with OWD for the present system. (author)

  15. Virginia Tech researchers find tiny bubbles a storehouse of knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Fluid inclusions -- tiny bubbles of fluid or vapor trapped inside rock as it forms-- are clues to the location of ores and even petroleum; and they are time capsules that contain insights on the power of volcanos and hints of life in the universe.

  16. Remote Sensing of the Upper Atmosphere and the Ionosphere in the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet: Results from the LITES Experiment aboard the IS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, S. C.; Chakrabarti, S.; Stephan, A. W.; Geddes, G.; Budzien, S. A.; Cook, T.; Aryal, S.; Martel, J.; Galkin, I. A.; Erickson, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Limb-Imaging Ionospheric and Thermospheric Extreme-ultraviolet Spectrograph (LITES) was launched as part of the Space Test Program Houston #5 (STP-H5) payload aboard a commercial resupply flight on February 19, 2017 and was subsequently installed on the International Space Station (ISS). LITES is an imaging spectrograph that spans the 60 - 140 nm wavelength range at 1 nm spectral resolution and samples tangent altitudes 150 - 350 km with 0.2° angular resolution. LITES, in combination with the GPS Radio Occultation and Ultraviolet Photometry - Colocated (GROUP-C) experiment, which includes a GPS receiver and a nadir viewing 135.6 nm photometer, jointly collect new information on the thermosphere and the ionosphere using simultaneous UV and radio emissions. LITES, which uses standard stars to perform in-flight calibration, observes altitude profiles of day and night airglow emissions that are being used to infer thermospheric and ionospheric density profiles. Furthermore, due to the inclination of the ISS, LITES has also observed auroral spectrum and their altitude and spatial variations. Finally, geomagnetic storm effects on its UV emissions can be used to remotely sense their effects on the upper atmospheric morphology. These ISS observations,which are complement to the upcoming ICON and GOLD NASA missions, are focused on ionosphere-atmosphere coupling and global-scale atmospheric response to space weather observed from higher altitudes . We will present an overview of the LITES instrument, some early results from the first few months of operations. We will also summarize the advantages in calibration and validation activities that are possible through space-based LITES, GROUP-C and stellar measurements and simultaneous ground-based optical and radar observations.

  17. Enhancing Extreme Heat Health-Related Intervention and Preparedness Activities Using Remote Sensing Analysis of Daily Surface Temperature, Surface Observation Networks and Ecmwf Reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, R. L.; Booth, J.; Hondula, D.; Ross, K. W.; Stuyvesant, A.; Alm, G.; Baghel, E.

    2015-12-01

    Extreme heat causes more human fatalities in the United States than any other natural disaster, elevating the concern of heat-related mortality. Maricopa County Arizona is known for its high heat index and its sprawling metropolitan complex which makes this region a perfect candidate for human health research. Individuals at higher risk are unequally spatially distributed, leaving the poor, homeless, non-native English speakers, elderly, and the socially isolated vulnerable to heat events. The Arizona Department of Health Services, Arizona State University and NASA DEVELOP LaRC are working to establish a more effective method of placing hydration and cooling centers in addition to enhancing the heat warning system to aid those with the highest exposure. Using NASA's Earth Observation Systems from Aqua and Terra satellites, the daily spatial variability within the UHI was quantified over the summer heat seasons from 2005 - 2014, effectively establishing a remotely sensed surface temperature climatology for the county. A series of One-way Analysis of Variance revealed significant differences between daily surface temperature averages of the top 30% of census tracts within the study period. Furthermore, synoptic upper tropospheric circulation patterns were classified to relate surface weather types and heat index. The surface weather observation networks were also reviewed for analyzing the veracity of the other methods. The results provide detailed information regarding nuances within the UHI effect and will allow pertinent recommendations regarding the health department's adaptive capacity. They also hold essential components for future policy decision-making regarding appropriate locations for cooling centers and efficient warning systems.

  18. Laser welding of Ti-Ni type shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Akio; Araki, Takao; Uchihara, Masato; Honda, Keizoh; Kondoh, Mitsuaki.

    1990-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to apply the laser welding to the joining of a shape memory alloy. Butt welding of a Ti-Ni type shape memory alloy was performed using 10 kW CO 2 laser. The laser welded specimens showed successfully the shape memory effect and super elasticity. These properties were approximately identical with those of the base metal. The change in super elasticity of the welded specimen during tension cycling was investigated. Significant changes in stress-strain curves and residual strain were not observed in the laser welded specimen after the 50-time cyclic test. The weld metal exhibited the celler dendrite. It was revealed by electron diffraction analysis that the phase of the weld metal was the TiNi phase of B2 structure which is the same as the parent phase of base metal and oxide inclusions crystallized at the dendrite boundary. However, oxygen contamination in the weld metal by laser welding did not occur because there was almost no difference in oxygen content between the base metal and the weld metal. The transformation temperatures of the weld metal were almost the same as those of the base metal. From these results, laser welding is applicable to the joining of the Ti-Ni type shape memory alloy. As the application of laser welding to new shape memory devices, the multiplex shape memory device of welded Ti-50.5 at % Ni and Ti-51.0 at % Ni was produced. The device showed two-stage shape memory effects due to the difference in transformation temperature between the two shape memory alloys. (author)

  19. The science of tiny things: physics at the nanoscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copp, Stacy Marla [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-07

    Nanoscience is the study of tiny objects that are only a billionth of a meter in size, or about 1,000 to 10,000 times smaller than a human hair. From the electronics in your smartphone to the molecular motors that are in your body’s cells, nanoscientists study and design materials that span a huge range of subjects, from physics to chemistry to biology. I will talk about some of what we do at LANL’s Center for Integrated Technologies, as well as how I first got interested in nanoscience and how I became a nanoscientist at LANL.

  20. Ultrahigh Sensitivity Piezoresistive Pressure Sensors for Detection of Tiny Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongwei; Wu, Kunjie; Xu, Zeyang; Wang, Zhongwu; Meng, Yancheng; Li, Liqiang

    2018-05-31

    High sensitivity pressure sensors are crucial for the ultra-sensitive touch technology and E-skin, especially at the tiny pressure range below 100 Pa. However, it is highly challenging to substantially promote sensitivity beyond the current level at several to two hundred kPa -1 , and to improve the detection limit lower than 0.1 Pa, which is significant for the development of pressure sensors toward ultrasensitive and highly precise detection. Here, we develop an efficient strategy to greatly improve the sensitivity near to 2000 kPa -1 by using short channel coplanar device structure and sharp microstructure, which is systematically proposed for the first time and rationalized by the mathematic calculation and analysis. Significantly, benefiting from the ultrahigh sensitivity, the detection limit is improved to be as small as 0.075 Pa. The sensitivity and detection limit are both superior to the current levels, and far surpass the function of human skin. Furthermore, the sensor shows fast response time (50 μs), excellent reproducibility and stability, and low power consumption. Remarkably, the sensor shows excellent detection capacity in the tiny pressure range including LED switching with a pressure of 7 Pa, ringtone (2-20 Pa) recognition, and ultrasensitive (0.1 Pa) electronic glove. This work represents a performance and strategic progress in the field of pressure sensing.

  1. Swimming of a Tiny Subtropical Sea Butterfly with Coiled Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, David; Karakas, Ferhat; Maas, Amy

    2017-11-01

    Sea butterflies, also known as pteropods, include a variety of small, zooplanktonic marine snails. Thecosomatous pteropods possess a shell and swim at low Reynolds numbers by beating their wing-like parapodia in a manner reminiscent of insect flight. In fact, previous studies of the pteropod Limacina helicina have shown that pteropod swimming hydrodynamics and tiny insect flight aerodynamics are dynamically similar. Studies of L. helicina swimming have been performed in polar (0 degrees C) and temperate conditions (12 degrees C). Here we present measurements of the swimming of Heliconoides inflatus, a smaller yet morphologically similar pteropod that lives in warm Bermuda seawater (21 degrees C) with a viscosity almost half that of the polar seawater. The collected H. inflatus have shell sizes less than 1.5 mm in diameter, beat their wings at frequencies up to 11 Hz, and swim upwards in sawtooth trajectories at speeds up to approximately 25 mm/s. Using three-dimensional wing and body kinematics collected with two orthogonal high speed cameras and time-resolved, 2D flow measurements collected with a micro-PIV system, we compare the effects of smaller body size and lower water viscosity on the flow physics underlying flapping-based swimming by pteropods and flight by tiny insects.

  2. Is previous disaster experience a good predictor for disaster preparedness in extreme poverty households in remote Muslim minority based community in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Emily Y Y; Kim, Jean H; Lin, Cherry; Cheung, Eliza Y L; Lee, Polly P Y

    2014-06-01

    Disaster preparedness is an important preventive strategy for protecting health and mitigating adverse health effects of unforeseen disasters. A multi-site based ethnic minority project (2009-2015) is set up to examine health and disaster preparedness related issues in remote, rural, disaster prone communities in China. The primary objective of this reported study is to examine if previous disaster experience significantly increases household disaster preparedness levels in remote villages in China. A cross-sectional, household survey was conducted in January 2011 in Gansu Province, in a predominately Hui minority-based village. Factors related to disaster preparedness were explored using quantitative methods. Two focus groups were also conducted to provide additional contextual explanations to the quantitative findings of this study. The village household response rate was 62.4 % (n = 133). Although previous disaster exposure was significantly associated with perception of living in a high disaster risk area (OR = 6.16), only 10.7 % households possessed a disaster emergency kit. Of note, for households with members who had non-communicable diseases, 9.6 % had prepared extra medications to sustain clinical management of their chronic conditions. This is the first study that examined disaster preparedness in an ethnic minority population in remote communities in rural China. Our results indicate the need of disaster mitigation education to promote preparedness in remote, resource-poor communities.

  3. Stress transmission through Ti-Ni alloy, titanium and stainless steel in impact compression test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, T; Doi, H; Kobayashi, E; Hamanaka, H; Tanabe, Y; Bonfield, W

    2000-06-01

    Impact stress transmission of Ti-Ni alloy was evaluated for biomedical stress shielding. Transformation temperatures of the alloy were investigated by means of DSC. An impact compression test was carried out with use of split-Hopkinson pressure-bar technique with cylindrical specimens of Ti-Ni alloy, titanium and stainless steel. As a result, the transmitted pulse through Ti-Ni alloy was considerably depressed as compared with those through titanium and stainless steel. The initial stress reduction was large through Ti-Ni alloy and titanium, but the stress reduction through Ti-Ni alloy was more continuous than titanium. The maximum value in the stress difference between incident and transmitted pulses through Ti-Ni alloy or titanium was higher than that through stainless steel, while the stress reduction in the maximum stress through Ti-Ni alloy was statistically larger than that through titanium or stainless steel. Ti-Ni alloy transmitted less impact stress than titanium or stainless steel, which suggested that the loading stress to adjacent tissues could be decreased with use of Ti-Ni alloy as a component material in an implant system. Copyright 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers

  4. SCADA SYSTEM SIMULATION USING THE TINY TIGER 2 DEVELOPMENT BOARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGAPE C.P.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new design for a surveillance and control system of a medium voltage cell. The accent is on the acquisition of information of the consumer’s state, the instantaneous current consumption, power and voltage apparent to the consumer. The proposed design is based on Wilke Technology development board at its basis being a Tiny-tiger 2 Multitasking Microcontroller. This computer has 2 MByte or 4 MByte Flash for programming, and 1 MByte SRAM with backup input for data. On the software’s behalf we managed to create a Delphi Interface which communicates with the serial port on the development board. The interface takes information about the consumer and its capacity to load with voltage.

  5. Prospect of Ti-Ni shape memory alloy applied in reactor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Yuangang

    1995-01-01

    Shape memory effect mechanism, physical property, composition, manufacturing process and application in mechanical structure of Ti-Ni shape memory alloy are introduced. Applications of Ti-Ni shape memory alloy in reactor structure are prospected and some necessary technical conditions of shape memory alloy applied in the reactor structure are put forward initially

  6. Tuning Valley Polarization in a WSe_{2} Monolayer with a Tiny Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Smoleński

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In monolayers of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides, the light helicity (σ^{+} or σ^{-} is locked to the valley degree of freedom, leading to the possibility of optical initialization of distinct valley populations. However, an extremely rapid valley pseudospin relaxation (at the time scale of picoseconds occurring for optically bright (electric-dipole active excitons imposes some limitations on the development of opto-valleytronics. Here, we show that valley pseudospin relaxation of excitons can be significantly suppressed in a WSe_{2} monolayer, a direct-gap two-dimensional semiconductor with the exciton ground state being optically dark. We demonstrate that the already inefficient relaxation of the exciton pseudospin in such a system can be suppressed even further by the application of a tiny magnetic field of about 100 mT. Time-resolved spectroscopy reveals the pseudospin dynamics to be a two-step relaxation process. An initial decay of the pseudospin occurs at the level of dark excitons on a time scale of 100 ps, which is tunable with a magnetic field. This decay is followed by even longer decay (>1  ns, once the dark excitons form more complex pseudo-particles allowing for their radiative recombination. Our findings of slow valley pseudospin relaxation easily manipulated by the magnetic field open new prospects for engineering the dynamics of the valley pseudospin in transition metal dichalcogenides.

  7. Tiny Ultraviolet Polarimeter for Earth Stratosphere from Space Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevodovskyi, P. V.; Morozhenko, O. V.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Ivakhiv, O.; Geraimchuk, M.; Zbrutskyi, O.

    2015-09-01

    One of the reasons for climate change (i.e., stratospheric ozone concentrations) is connected with the variations in optical thickness of aerosols in the upper sphere of the atmosphere (at altitudes over 30 km). Therefore, aerosol and gas components of the atmosphere are crucial in the study of the ultraviolet (UV) radiation passing upon the Earth. Moreover, a scrupulous study of aerosol components of the Earth atmosphere at an altitude of 30 km (i.e., stratospheric aerosol), such as the size of particles, the real part of refractive index, optical thickness and its horizontal structure, concentration of ozone or the upper border of the stratospheric ozone layer is an important task in the research of the Earth climate change. At present, the Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) of Ukraine, the National Technical University of Ukraine "KPI"and the Lviv Polytechnic National University are engaged in the development of methodologies for the study of stratospheric aerosol by means of ultraviolet polarimeter using a microsatellite. So fare, there has been created a sample of a tiny ultraviolet polarimeter (UVP) which is considered to be a basic model for carrying out space experiments regarding the impact of the changes in stratospheric aerosols on both global and local climate.

  8. A tiny tick can cause a big health problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel John

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are tiny crawling bugs in the spider family that feed by sucking blood from animals. They are second only to mosquitoes as vectors of human disease, both infectious and toxic. Infected ticks spread over a hundred diseases, some of which are fatal if undetected. They spread the spirochete (which multiplies in the insect's gut with a subsequent bite to the next host. We describe the only reported cases of peri ocular tick bite from India that presented to us within a span of 3 days and its management. Due suspicion and magnification of the lesions revealed the ticks which otherwise masqueraded as small skin tags/moles on gross examination. The ticks were firmly latched on to the skin and careful removal prevented incarceration of the mouth parts. Rickettsial diseases that were believed to have disappeared from India are reemerging and their presence has recently been documented in at least 11 states in the country. Among vector borne diseases, the most common, Lyme disease, also known as the great mimicker, can present with rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, multiple sclerosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, cardiac manifestations, encephalitis, and mental illness, to name some of the many associations. Common ocular symptoms and signs include conjunctivitis, keratitis, uveitis, and retinitis. Early detection and treatment of tick borne diseases is important to prevent multi system complications that can develop later in life.

  9. SMS Security System on Mobile Devices Using Tiny Encryption Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelan, M. S.; Husein, A. M.; Harahap, M.; Aisyah, S.

    2018-04-01

    The development of telecommunications technology is so rapid has given such great benefits. With the telecommunication technology, distance and time no longer be a significant obstacle. One of the results of telecommunications technology that is well known is the Short Message Service. In this study developed an application on the mobile phone to modify the SMS message into ciphertext so that the information content of the SMS is not known by others. SMS delivery system for encrypting messages into ciphertext using a key that is entered by the sender then sends to the destination number. SMS reception system to decrypt it to others via SMS without the fear of information from these messages will be known by others. The method used in the system encrypt and decrypt the message is the algorithm Tiny Encryption Algorithm and implemented using the Java programming language. JDK 1.7 as the Java programming language ciphertext into plaintext using the key entered by the receiver and displays the original message to the recipient. This application can be used by someone who wants to send a confidential information and the Java compiler. Eclipse, a Java SDK and the Android SDK as a Java source code editor.

  10. Tiny timekeepers witnessing high-rate exhumation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xin; Moulas, Evangelos; Tajčmanová, Lucie

    2018-02-02

    Tectonic forces and surface erosion lead to the exhumation of rocks from the Earth's interior. Those rocks can be characterized by many variables including peak pressure and temperature, composition and exhumation duration. Among them, the duration of exhumation in different geological settings can vary by more than ten orders of magnitude (from hours to billion years). Constraining the duration is critical and often challenging in geological studies particularly for rapid magma ascent. Here, we show that the time information can be reconstructed using a simple combination of laser Raman spectroscopic data from mineral inclusions with mechanical solutions for viscous relaxation of the host. The application of our model to several representative geological settings yields best results for short events such as kimberlite magma ascent (less than ~4,500 hours) and a decompression lasting up to ~17 million years for high-pressure metamorphic rocks. This is the first precise time information obtained from direct microstructural observations applying a purely mechanical perspective. We show an unprecedented geological value of tiny mineral inclusions as timekeepers that contributes to a better understanding on the large-scale tectonic history and thus has significant implications for a new generation of geodynamic models.

  11. Purple Salt and Tiny Drops of Water in Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.

    1999-12-01

    Some meteorites, especially those called carbonaceous chondrites, have been greatly affected by reaction with water on the asteroids in which they formed. These reactions, which took place during the first 10 million years of the Solar System's history, formed assorted water-bearing minerals, but nobody has found any of the water that caused the alteration. Nobody, that is, until now. Michael Zolensky and team of scientists from the Johnson Space Center in Houston and Virginia Tech (Blacksburg, Virginia) discovered strikingly purple sodium chloride (table salt) crystals in two meteorites. The salt contains tiny droplets of salt water (with some other elements dissolved in it). The salt is as old as the Solar System, so the water trapped inside the salt is also ancient. It might give us clues to the nature of the water that so pervasively altered carbonaceous chondrites and formed oceans on Europa and perhaps other icy satellites. However, how the salt got into the two meteorites and how it trapped the water remains a mystery - at least for now.

  12. Spark plasma sintering of TiNi nano-powders for biological application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Y Q; Gu, Y W; Shearwood, C; Luo, J K; Flewitt, A J; Milne, W I

    2006-01-01

    Nano-sized TiNi powder with an average size of 50 nm was consolidated using spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 800 deg. C for 5 min. A layer of anatase TiO 2 coating was formed on the sintered TiNi by chemical reaction with a hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) solution at 60 deg. C followed by heat treatment at 400 deg. C to enhance the bioactivity of the metal surface. Cell culture using osteoblast cells and a biomimetic test in simulated body fluid proved the biocompatibility of the chemically treated SPS TiNi

  13. XPS characterization of surface and interfacial structure of sputtered TiNi films on Si substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Yongqing; Du Hejun; Zhang, Sam; Huang Weimin

    2005-01-01

    TiNi films were prepared by co-sputtering TiNi and Ti targets. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to study surface chemistry of the films and interfacial structure of Si/TiNi system. Exposure of the TiNi film to the ambient atmosphere (23 deg. C and 80% relatively humidity) facilitated quick adsorption of oxygen and carbon on the surface. With time, carbon and oxygen content increased drastically at the surface, while oxygen diffused further into the layer. After a year, carbon content at the surface became as high as 65.57% and Ni dropped below the detection limit of XPS. Depth profiling revealed that significant inter-diffusion occurred between TiNi film and Si substrate with a layer of 90-100 nm. The detailed bond changes of different elements with depth were obtained using XPS and the formation of titanium silicides at the interface were identified

  14. Crystal structure of TiNi nanoparticles obtained by Ar ion beam deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, A. Torres; Cuellar, E. Lopez; Mendez, U. Ortiz; Yacaman, M. Jose

    2008-01-01

    Nanoparticles are a state of matter that have properties different from either molecules or bulk solids, turning them into a very interesting class of materials to study. In the present work, the crystal structure of TiNi nanoparticles obtained by ion beam deposition is characterized. TiNi nanoparticles were obtained from TiNi wire samples by sputtering with Ar ions using a Gatan precision ion polishing system. The TiNi nanoparticles were deposited on a Lacey carbon film that was used for characterization by transmission electron microscopy. The nanoparticles were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, high-angle annular dark-field imaging, electron diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Results of nanodiffraction seem to indicate that the nanoparticles keep the same B2 crystal structure as the bulk material but with a decreased lattice parameter

  15. Galled by the Gallbladder?: Your Tiny, Hard-Working Digestive Organ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Galled by the Gallbladder? Your Tiny, Hard-Working Digestive Organ En español Send us your comments Most ... among the most common and costly of all digestive system diseases. By some estimates, up to 20 ...

  16. The kinetics of Cr layer coated on TiNi films for hydrogen absorption

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The effect of hydrogen absorption on electrical resistance with temperature ... pressure by thermal evaporation on the glass substrate at room temperature. ... and charging rate becomes faster in comparison to FeTi and TiNi thin films.

  17. The kinetics of Cr layer coated on TiNi films for hydrogen absorption

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of hydrogen absorption on electrical resistance with temperature for TiNi and TiNi–Cr thin films was investigated. The TiNi thin films of thickness 800 Å were deposited at different angles ( = 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 75°) under 10−5 Torr pressure by thermal evaporation on the glass substrate at room temperature.

  18. The martensitic transformation in Ti-rich TiNi shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, H.C.; Wu, S.K.; Lin, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The martensitic (Ms) transformation temperatures and their ΔH values of Ti 51 Ni 49 and Ti 50.5 Ni 49.5 alloys are higher than those of equiatomic or Ni-rich TiNi alloys. The Ti-rich TiNi alloys exhibit good shape recovery in spite of a great deal of second phase Ti 2 Ni or Ti 4 Ni 2 O existing around B2 grain boundaries. The nearly identical transformation temperatures indicate that the absorbed oxygen in Ti-rich TiNi alloys may react with Ti 2 Ni particles, instead of the TiNi matrix, to form Ti 4 Ni 2 O. Martensite stabilization can be induced by cold rolling at room temperature. Thermal cycling can depress the transformation temperatures significantly, especially in the initial 20 cycles. The R-phase transformation can be promoted by both cold rolling and thermal cycling in Ti-rich TiNi alloys due to introduced dislocations depressing the Ms temperature. The strengthening effects of cold rolling and thermal cycling on the Ms temperature of Ti-rich TiNi alloys are found to follow the expression Ms = To - KΔσ y . The K values are affected by different strengthening processes and related to the as-annealed transformation temperatures. The higher the as-annealed Ms (or As), the larger the K value. (orig.)

  19. Remote Sensing and Imaging Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    Program Manager AFOSR/RSE Air Force Research Laboratory Remote Sensing and Imaging Physics 7 March 2012 Report Documentation Page Form...00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Remote Sensing And Imaging Physics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Imaging of Space Objects •Information without Imaging •Predicting the Location of Space Objects • Remote Sensing in Extreme Conditions •Propagation

  20. Remote RemoteRemoteRemote sensing potential for sensing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remote RemoteRemoteRemote sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing p. A Ngie, F Ahmed, K Abutaleb ...

  1. Mandelbrot's Extremism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beirlant, J.; Schoutens, W.; Segers, J.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    In the sixties Mandelbrot already showed that extreme price swings are more likely than some of us think or incorporate in our models.A modern toolbox for analyzing such rare events can be found in the field of extreme value theory.At the core of extreme value theory lies the modelling of maxima

  2. Fast Response Shape Memory Effect Titanium Nickel (TiNi) Foam Torque Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Shape Change Technologies has developed a process to manufacture net-shaped TiNi foam torque tubes that demonstrate the shape memory effect. The torque tubes dramatically reduce response time by a factor of 10. This Phase II project matured the actuator technology by rigorously characterizing the process to optimize the quality of the TiNi and developing a set of metrics to provide ISO 9002 quality assurance. A laboratory virtual instrument engineering workbench (LabVIEW'TM')-based, real-time control of the torsional actuators was developed. These actuators were developed with The Boeing Company for aerospace applications.

  3. Surface characterization of TiNi deformed by high-pressure torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awang Shri, Dayangku Noorfazidah [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Structural Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Koichi, E-mail: tsuchiya.koichi@nims.go.jp [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Structural Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Yamamoto, Akiko [Biomaterials Unit, International Center for Material Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2014-01-15

    Effect of grain refinements and amorphization by high-pressure torsion (HPT) on surface chemistry was investigated on TiNi. X-ray diffraction and micro-Vickers tests were used to check the phase changes and hardness before and after HPT. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to observe the changes in the natural passive film formation on the surface. Phase analysis reveals the change of crystalline TiNi to nanostructured one with increased hardness with straining by HPT. Grain refinement and amorphization caused by HPT reduce the amount of metallic Ni in the passive films and also increase the thickness of the film.

  4. Fabrication, microstructure and stress effects in sputtered TiNi thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grummon, D.S.

    2000-01-01

    Sputtered thin films of equiatomic TiNi and TiNiX ternary alloys have excellent mechanical properties and exhibit robust shape-memory and transformational superelasticity. Furthermore, the energetic nature of the sputter deposition process allows the creation of highly refined microstructures that are difficult to achieve by melt-solidification. The present paper will present recent work on the relationship between processing, microstructure and properties of binary TiNi thin films, focusing primarily on residual stresses, kinetics of stress-relaxation and crystallization, and fine grain sizes achievable using hot-substrate direct crystallization. (orig.)

  5. Tiny bubbles challenge giant turbines: Three Gorges puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengcai

    2015-10-06

    Since the birth of the first prototype of the modern reaction turbine, cavitation as conjectured by Euler in 1754 always presents as a challenge. Following his theory, the evolution of modern reaction (Francis and Kaplan) turbines has been completed by adding the final piece of the element 'draft-tube' that enables turbines to explore water energy at efficiencies of almost 100%. However, during the last two and a half centuries, with increasing unit capacity and specific speed, the problem of cavitation has been manifested and complicated by the draft-tube surges rather than being solved. Particularly, during the last 20 years, the fierce competition in the international market for extremely large turbines with compact design has encouraged the development of giant Francis turbines of 700-1000 MW. The first group (24 units) of such giant turbines of 700 MW each was installed in the Three Gorges project. Immediately after commission, a strange erosion phenomenon appeared on the guide vane of the machines that has puzzled professionals. From a multi-disciplinary analysis, this Three Gorges puzzle could reflect an unknown type of cavitation inception presumably triggered by turbulence production from the boundary-layer streak transitional process. It thus presents a fresh challenge not only to this old turbine industry, but also to the fundamental sciences.

  6. A study on the shape memory characteristics of Ti-Ni50-x-Pdx alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. W.; Chun, B. S.; Oh, S. J.; Kuk, I.H.

    1991-01-01

    The shape memory characteristics in TiNi alloys are greatly effected by the alloy composition and heat treatment condition. The present work was aimed to investigate the effect of Pd x (x=5,10,15,20) addition on the shape memory chracteristics of TiNi alloys by means of electrical resistance measurement. X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and electron dispersive analysis X-ray measurement. The results obtained from this study are as follows; 1. The martensitic transformation start temperature, Ms of Ti-Ni 50-x -Pd x alloys decreased considerably with the increase of Pd content up to 10at%, whereas increased largely with the increase of Pd content in the alloys with Pd content more than 15at%. 2. The Ms temperature of Ti-Ni 50-x -Pd x alloys with cold working was significantly lower than that of the fully annealed alloys because high density dislocation has been introduced by the cold working which suppressed the martensitic transformation. (Author)

  7. Homogenization of stationary Navier–Stokes equations in domains with tiny holes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Lu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2015), s. 381-392 ISSN 1422-6928 Keywords : compressible Navier - Stokes system * homogenization * tiny holes Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.023, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00021-015-0200-2

  8. Micromechanical Analysis of Crack Closure Mechanism for Intelligent Material Containing TiNi Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Shigetoshi; Ono, Hiroyuki; Saito, Kenji

    In our previous study, the micromechanical modeling of an intelligent material containing TiNi fibers was performed and the stress intensity factor KI at the tip of the crack in the material was expressed in terms of the magnitude of the shape memory shrinkage of the fibers and the thermal expansion strain in the material. In this study, the value of KI at the tip of the crack in the TiNi/epoxy material is calculated numerically by using analytical expressions obtained in our first report. As a result, we find that the KI value decreases with increasing shrink strain of the fibers, and this tendency agrees with that of the experimental result obtained by Shimamoto etal.(Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng., Vol. 65, No. 634 (1999), pp. 1282-1286). Moreover, there exists an optimal value of the shrink strain of the fibers to make the KI value zero. The change in KI with temperature during the heating process from the reference temperature to the inverse austenitic finishing temperature of TiNi fiber is also consistent with the experimental result. These results can be explained by the changes in the shrink strain, the thermal expansion strain, and the elastic moduli of TiNi fiber with temperature. These results may be useful in designing intelligent materials containing TiNi fibers from the viewpoint of crack closure.

  9. Tiny Integrated Network Analyzer for Noninvasive Measurements of Electrically Small Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buskgaard, Emil Feldborg; Krøyer, Ben; Tatomirescu, Alexandru

    2016-01-01

    the system. The tiny integrated network analyzer is a stand-alone Arduino-based measurement system that utilizes the transmit signal of the system under test as its reference. It features a power meter with triggering ability, on-board memory, universal serial bus, and easy extendibility with general...

  10. Long the fixation of physicists worldwide, a tiny particle is found

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "After decades of intensive effort by both experimental and theoretical physicists worldwide, a tiny particle with no charge, a very low mass and a lifetime much shorter than a nanosecond, dubbed the "axion", has now been detected by the University at Buffalo physicist who first suggested its existence in a little-read paper as early as 194." (2 pages)

  11. Remote Research

    CERN Document Server

    Tulathimutte, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Remote studies allow you to recruit subjects quickly, cheaply, and immediately, and give you the opportunity to observe users as they behave naturally in their own environment. In Remote Research, Nate Bolt and Tony Tulathimutte teach you how to design and conduct remote research studies, top to bottom, with little more than a phone and a laptop.

  12. Remote Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Khorram, Siamak; Koch, Frank H; van der Wiele, Cynthia F

    2012-01-01

    Remote Sensing provides information on how remote sensing relates to the natural resources inventory, management, and monitoring, as well as environmental concerns. It explains the role of this new technology in current global challenges. "Remote Sensing" will discuss remotely sensed data application payloads and platforms, along with the methodologies involving image processing techniques as applied to remotely sensed data. This title provides information on image classification techniques and image registration, data integration, and data fusion techniques. How this technology applies to natural resources and environmental concerns will also be discussed.

  13. Cavitation erosion of Ti-Ni shape memory alloy deposited coatings and Fe base shape memory alloy solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Shuji; Fujisawa, Seiji; Owa, Tomonobu

    2007-01-01

    In this study, cavitation erosion tests were carried out by using thermal spraying and deposition of Ti-Ni shape memory alloy for the surface coating. The results show the test speciment of Ti-Ni thermal spraying has many initial defects, so that the erosion resistance is very low. The erosion resistance of Ti-Ni deposit is about 5-10 times higher than that of SUS 304, thus erosion resistance of Ti-Ni deposit is better than that of Ti-Ni thermal spraying. The cavitation erosion tests were carried out by using Fe-Mn-Si with shape memory and gunmetal with low elastic modulus. The erosion resistance of Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloy solid is about 9 times higher than that of SUS 304. The erosion resistance of gunmetal is almost the same as SUS 304, because the test specimen of gunmetal has many small defects on the original surface. (author)

  14. The Milky Way's Tiny but Tough Galactic Neighbour

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".

  15. Extreme cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Gaensler, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    The universe is all about extremes. Space has a temperature 270°C below freezing. Stars die in catastrophic supernova explosions a billion times brighter than the Sun. A black hole can generate 10 million trillion volts of electricity. And hypergiants are stars 2 billion kilometres across, larger than the orbit of Jupiter. Extreme Cosmos provides a stunning new view of the way the Universe works, seen through the lens of extremes: the fastest, hottest, heaviest, brightest, oldest, densest and even the loudest. This is an astronomy book that not only offers amazing facts and figures but also re

  16. Alloying process of sputter-deposited Ti/Ni multilayer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, H.; Kim, H.Y.; Miyazaki, S.

    2006-01-01

    Alloying process of a Ti/Ni multilayer thin film was investigated in detail by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Ti/Ni multilayer thin film was prepared by depositing Ti and Ni layers alternately on a SiO 2 /Si substrate. The number of each metal layer was 100, and the total thickness was 3 μm. The alloy composition was determined as Ti-51 at.%Ni by electron probe micro analysis (EPMA). The DSC curve exhibited three exothermic peaks at 621, 680 and 701 K during heating the as-sputtered multilayer thin film. In order to investigate the alloying process, XRD and TEM observation was carried out for the specimens heated up to various temperatures with the heating rate same as the DSC measurement. The XRD profile of the as-sputtered film revealed only diffraction peaks of Ti and Ni. But reaction layers of 3 nm in thickness were observed at the interfaces of Ti and Ni layers in cross-sectional TEM images. The reaction layer was confirmed as an amorphous phase by the nano beam diffraction analysis. The XRD profiles exhibited that the intensity of Ti diffraction peak decreased in the specimen heat-treated above 600 K. The peak from Ni became broad and shifted to lower diffraction angle. The amorphous layer thickened up to 6 nm in the specimen heated up to 640 K. The diffraction peak corresponding to Ti-Ni B2 phase appeared and the peak from Ni disappeared for the specimen heated up to 675 K. The Ti-Ni B2 crystallized from the amorphous reaction layer. After further heating above the third exothermic peak, the intensity of the peak from the Ti-Ni B2 phase increased, the peak from Ti disappeared and the peaks corresponding to Ti 2 Ni appeared. The Ti 2 Ni phase was formed by the reaction of the Ti-Ni B2 and Ti

  17. Solid-state reaction in Ti/Ni multilayered films studied by using magneto-optical spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Y P; Kim, K W; Kim, C G; Kudryavtsev, Y V; Nemoshkalenko, V V; Szymanski, B

    2000-01-01

    A comparative study of the solid-state reaction (SSR) in a series of Ti/Ni multilayered films (MLDs) with bilayer periods of 0.65-22.2 nm and a constant Ti to Ni sublayer thickness ratio was performed by using experimental and computer-simulated magneto-optical (MO) spectroscopy based on different models of MLFs, as well as x-ray diffraction (XRD). The spectral and sublayer thickness dependences of the MO properties of the Ti/Ni MLFs were explained on the basis of the electromagnetic theory. The existence of a threshold nominal Ni-sublayer thickness of about 3 nm for the as-deposited Ti/Ni MLF to observe of the equatorial Kerr effect was explained by a solid-state reaction which formed nonmagnetic alloyed regions between pure components during the MLF deposition. The SSR in the Ti/Ni MLFs, which was caused by the low temperature annealing, led to the formation of an amorphous Ti-Ni alloy and took place mainly in the Ti/Ni MLFs with ''thick'' sublayers. For the caes of Ti/Ni MLFs, the MO approach turned out to...

  18. Detection of tiny amounts of fissile materials in large-sized containers with radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batyaev, V. F.; Skliarov, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    The paper is devoted to non-destructive control of tiny amounts of fissile materials in large-sized containers filled with radioactive waste (RAW). The aim of this work is to model an active neutron interrogation facility for detection of fissile ma-terials inside NZK type containers with RAW and determine the minimal detectable mass of U-235 as a function of various param-eters: matrix type, nonuniformity of container filling, neutron gen-erator parameters (flux, pulse frequency, pulse duration), meas-urement time. As a result the dependence of minimal detectable mass on fissile materials location inside container is shown. Nonu-niformity of the thermal neutron flux inside a container is the main reason of the space-heterogeneity of minimal detectable mass in-side a large-sized container. Our experiments with tiny amounts of uranium-235 (<1 g) confirm the detection of fissile materials in NZK containers by using active neutron interrogation technique.

  19. Limitations of constitutive relations for TiNi shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, W.; Sandstroem, R.

    1995-01-01

    Phase transformation tensor Ω in the constitutive equation proposed by Tanaka has been evaluated by employing experimental data of TiNi alloys in a constrained recovery process. It demonstrates that the absolute value of Ω for the constrained recovery process is typically about 0.6 ∼ 0.7 x 10 3 MPa, which is much smaller than that for the stress - induced martensitic transformation (typically 2.5 ∼ 3.5 x 10 3 ). Based on the evaluated results for Ω, predicted recovery stress - temperature relations by the constitutive equation are compared with the experimental data for TiNi rods under different strains. Big discrepancy exists for large strain conditions. Several transformation kinetic expressions are examined for the constitutive relation of the constrained recovery process. (orig.)

  20. Analysis of the transformations temperatures of helicoidal Ti-Ni actuators using computational numerical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto do N. Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of shape memory actuators has enabled noteworthy applications in the mechanical engineering, robotics, aerospace, and oil industries and in medicine. These applications have been targeted on miniaturization and taking full advantage of spaces. This article analyses a Ti-Ni shape memory actuator used as part of a flow control system. A Ti-Ni spring actuator is subjected to thermomechanical training and parameters such as transformation temperature, thermal hysteresis and shape memory effect performance were investigated. These parameters were important for understanding the behavior of the actuator related to martensitic phase transformation during the heating and cooling cycles which it undergoes when in service. The multiple regression methodology was used as a computational tool for analysing data in order to simulate and predict the results for stress and cycles where the experimental data was not developed. The results obtained using the training cycles enable actuators to be characterized and the numerical simulation to be validated.

  1. The application of Tiny Triplet Finder (TTF) in BTeV pixel trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jin-Yuan; Wang, M.; Gottschalk, E.; Shi, Z.; Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    We describe a track segment recognition scheme called the Tiny Triplet Finder (TTF) that involves grouping of three hits satisfying a constraint such as forming of a straight line. The TTF performs this O(n 3 ) function in O(n) time, where n is number of hits in each detector plane. The word ''tiny'' reflects the fact that the FPGA resource usage is small. The number of logic elements needed for the TTF is O(Nlog(N)), where N is the number of bins in the coordinate considered, which for large N, is significantly smaller than O(N 2 ) needed for typical implementations of similar functions. The TTF is also suitable for software implementations as well as many other pattern recognition problems

  2. The application of Tiny Triplet Finder (TTF) in BTeV pixel trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jin-Yuan; Wang, M.; Gottschalk, E.; Shi, Z.; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    We describe a track segment recognition scheme called the Tiny Triplet Finder (TTF) that involves grouping of three hits satisfying a constraint such as forming of a straight line. The TTF performs this O(n{sup 3}) function in O(n) time, where n is number of hits in each detector plane. The word ''tiny'' reflects the fact that the FPGA resource usage is small. The number of logic elements needed for the TTF is O(Nlog(N)), where N is the number of bins in the coordinate considered, which for large N, is significantly smaller than O(N{sup 2}) needed for typical implementations of similar functions. The TTF is also suitable for software implementations as well as many other pattern recognition problems.

  3. Betsy Pugel, Tiny houses: Planetary protection-focused materials selection for spaceflight hardware surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Schriml, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Betsy Pugel, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Tiny houses: Planetary protection-focused materials selection for spaceflight hardware surfacesOn October 10-12th, 2017 the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine co-hosting MoBE 2017 (Microbiology of the Built Environment Research and Applications Symposium) at the National Academy of Sciences Building to present the current state-of-the-science in understanding the formation and ...

  4. (Updated) Nanotechnology: Understanding the Tiny Particles That May Save a Life | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nathalie Walker, Guest Writer Could nanotechnology—the study of tiny matter ranging in size from 1 to 200 nanometers—be the future of cancer treatment? Although it is a relatively new field in cancer research, nanotechnology is not new to everyday life. Have you ever thought about the tennis ball you’ve thrown with your dog at the park and wondered what it is made of?

  5. Heterogeneous tiny energy: An appealing opportunity to power wireless sensor motes in a corrosive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Guofu; Sun, Guodong; Li, Hui; Ou, Jinping

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultra-low ambient energy was scavenged to power the first of its kind wireless corrosion sensors. • Three feasible tiny-energy sources were exploited for long-term corrosion monitoring. • Automatic recharging control of heterogeneous tiny energy was proposed for human-free monitoring. • Corrosion itself was applied as an energy source to power the wireless corrosion-monitoring motes. - Abstract: Reinforcing steel corrosion is a significant factor leading to the durability deterioration of reinforced concrete (RC) structures. The on-line monitoring of the corrosion of RC structures in a long-term, human-free manner is not only valuable in industry, but also a significant challenge in academia. This paper presents the first of its kind corrosion-monitoring approach that only exploits three heterogeneous tiny energy sources to power commercial-off-the-shelf wireless sensor motes such that the corrosion-related data are automatically and autonomously captured and sent to users via wireless channels. We first investigated the availability of these three tiny energy sources: corrosion energy, a cement battery, and a weak solar energy. In particular, the two former energy sources inherently exist in RC structures and can be generated continually in the service-life of RC structures, which beneficial for the prospects of long-term corrosion monitoring. We then proposed a proof-of-concept prototype, which consisted of a Telosb wireless sensor mote and an energy harvester in order to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of the ultralow-power ambient energy as a type of power supply in corrosion monitoring applications. The critical metrics for the holographic monitoring of RC structures, including electrochemical noise, humidity and temperature, were successfully acquired and analysed using a post-processing program. This paper describes a unique and novel approach towards the realisation of smart structural monitoring and control system in the

  6. In situ crystallization of sputter-deposited TiNi by ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikenaga, Noriaki; Kishi, Yoichi; Yajima, Zenjiro; Sakudo, Noriyuki

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We developed a sputtering deposition process equipped with an ion irradiation system. ► Ion irradiation enables crystallization at lower substrate temperature. ► Ion fluence has an effective range for low-temperature crystallization. ► Crystallized films made on polyimide by the process show the shape memory effect. -- Abstract: TiNi is well known as a typical shape-memory alloy, and the shape-memory property appears only when the structure is crystalline. Until recently, the material has been formed as amorphous film by single-target sputtering deposition at first and then crystallized by being annealed at high temperature over 500 °C. Therefore, it has been difficult to make crystalline TiNi film directly on a substrate of polymer-based material because of the low heat resistance of substrate. In order to realize an actuator from the crystallized TiNi film on polymer substrates, the substrate temperature should be kept below 200 °C throughout the whole process. In our previous studies we have found that deposited film can be crystallized at very low temperature without annealing but with simultaneous irradiation of Ar ions during sputter-deposition. And we have also demonstrated the shape-memory effect with the TiNi film made by the new process. In order to investigate what parameters of the process contribute to the low-temperature crystallization, we have focused to the ion fluence of the ion irradiation. Resultantly, it was found that the transition from amorphous structure to crystal one has a threshold range of ion fluence

  7. Fabrication of TiNi/CFRP smart composite using cold drawn TiNi wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ya; Otsuka, Kazuhiro; Toyama, Nobuyuki; Yoshida, Hitoshi; Jang, Byung-Koog; Nagai, Hideki; Oishi, Ryutaro; Kishi, Teruo

    2002-07-01

    In recent years, pre-strained TiNi shape memory alloys (SMA) have been used for fabricating smart structure with carbon fibers reinforced plastics (CFRP) in order to suppress microscopic mechanical damages. However, since the cure temperature of CFRP is higher than the reverse transformation temperatures of TiNi SMA, special fixture jigs have to be used for keeping the pre-strain during fabrication, which restricted its practical application. In order to overcome this difficulty, we developed a new method to fabricate SMA/CFRP smart composites without using special fixture jigs by controlling the transformation temperatures of SMA during fabrication. This method consists of using heavily cold-worked wires to increase the reverse transformation temperatures, and of using flash electrical heating of the wires after fabrication in order to decrease the reverse transformation temperatures to a lower temperature range again without damaging the epoxy resin around SMA wires. By choosing proper cold-working rate and composition of TiNi alloys, the reverse transformation temperatures were well controlled, and the TiNi/CFRP hybrid smart composite was fabricated without using special fixture jigs. The damage suppressing effect of cold drawn wires embedded in CFRP was confirmed.

  8. Cytocompatibility evaluation and surface characterization of TiNi deformed by high-pressure torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awang Shri, Dayangku Noorfazidah, E-mail: AWANGSHRI.Dayangku@nims.go.jp [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Structural Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Koichi [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Structural Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Yamamoto, Akiko [Biomaterials Unit, International Center for Material Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2014-10-01

    Effect of high-pressure torsion (HPT) deformation on biocompatibility and surface chemistry of TiNi was systematically investigated. Ti–50 mol% Ni was subjected to HPT straining for different numbers of turns, N = 0.25, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 at a rotation speed of 1 rpm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy observations after 7 days of cell culture revealed the changes in the surface oxide composition, enrichment of Ti and detection of nitrogen derived from organic molecules in the culture medium. Plating efficiency of L929 cells was slightly increased by HPT deformation though no significant difference was observed. Albumin adsorption was higher in HPT-deformed samples, while vitronectin adsorption was peaked at N = 1. HPT deformation was also found to effectively suppress the Ni ion release from the TiNi samples into the cell culture medium even after the low degree of deformation at N = 0.25. - Highlights: • Nanostructured Ti–50 mol%Ni alloy was produced using high-pressure torsion. • HPT deformation improved L929 growth on TiNi samples. • Changes in surface chemistry were observed in HPT deformed samples. • Protein adsorption behavior was influenced by the surface chemistry. • Ni ion release was suppressed in HPT deformed samples.

  9. THE ROLE OF TINY GRAINS ON THE ACCRETION PROCESS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Xuening

    2011-01-01

    Tiny grains such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been thought to dramatically reduce the coupling between the gas and magnetic fields in weakly ionized gas such as in protoplanetary disks (PPDs) because they provide a tremendous surface area to recombine free electrons. The presence of tiny grains in PPDs thus raises the question of whether the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is able to drive rapid accretion consistent with observations. Charged tiny grains have similar conduction properties as ions, whose presence leads to qualitatively new behaviors in the conductivity tensor, characterized by n-bar /n e >1, where n e and n-bar denote the number densities of free electrons and all other charged species, respectively. In particular, Ohmic conductivity becomes dominated by charged grains rather than by electrons when n-bar /n e exceeds about 10 3 , and Hall and ambipolar diffusion (AD) coefficients are reduced by a factor of ( n-bar /n e ) 2 in the AD-dominated regime relative to that in the Ohmic regime. Applying the methodology of Bai, we find that in PPDs, when PAHs are sufficiently abundant (∼> 10 -9 per H 2 molecule), there exists a transition radius r trans of about 10-20 AU, beyond which the MRI active layer extends to the disk midplane. At r trans , the optimistically predicted MRI-driven accretion rate M-dot is one to two orders of magnitude smaller than that in the grain-free case, which is too small compared with the observed rates, but is in general no smaller than the predicted M-dot with solar-abundance 0.1 μm grains. At r > r trans , we find that, remarkably, the predicted M-dot exceeds the grain-free case due to a net reduction of AD by charged tiny grains and reaches a few times 10 -8 M sun yr -1 . This is sufficient to account for the observed M-dot in transitional disks. Larger grains (∼> 0.1 μm) are too massive to reach such high abundance as tiny grains and to facilitate the accretion process.

  10. Costs Of Using “Tiny Targets” to Control Glossina fuscipes fuscipes, a Vector of Gambiense Sleeping Sickness in Arua District of Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Alexandra P. M.; Tirados, Inaki; Mangwiro, Clement T. N.; Esterhuizen, Johan; Lehane, Michael J.; Torr, Stephen J.; Kovacic, Vanja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate the relative effectiveness of tsetse control methods, their costs need to be analysed alongside their impact on tsetse populations. Very little has been published on the costs of methods specifically targeting human African trypanosomiasis Methodology/Principal Findings In northern Uganda, a 250 km2 field trial was undertaken using small (0.5 X 0.25 m) insecticide-treated targets (“tiny targets”). Detailed cost recording accompanied every phase of the work. Costs were calculated for this operation as if managed by the Ugandan vector control services: removing purely research components of the work and applying local salaries. This calculation assumed that all resources are fully used, with no spare capacity. The full cost of the operation was assessed at USD 85.4 per km2, of which USD 55.7 or 65.2% were field costs, made up of three component activities (target deployment: 34.5%, trap monitoring: 10.6% and target maintenance: 20.1%). The remaining USD 29.7 or 34.8% of the costs were for preliminary studies and administration (tsetse surveys: 6.0%, sensitisation of local populations: 18.6% and office support: 10.2%). Targets accounted for only 12.9% of the total cost, other important cost components were labour (24.1%) and transport (34.6%). Discussion Comparison with the updated cost of historical HAT vector control projects and recent estimates indicates that this work represents a major reduction in cost levels. This is attributed not just to the low unit cost of tiny targets but also to the organisation of delivery, using local labour with bicycles or motorcycles. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken, investigating key prices and assumptions. It is believed that these costs are generalizable to other HAT foci, although in more remote areas, with denser vegetation and fewer people, costs would increase, as would be the case for other tsetse control techniques. PMID:25811956

  11. High temperature annealing effect on structural and magnetic properties of Ti/Ni multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, Pramod; Ganeshan, V.; Reddy, V.R.; Chaudhari, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    High temperature annealing effect on structural and magnetic properties of Ti/Ni multilayer (ML) up to 600 deg. C have been studied and reported in this paper. Ti/Ni multilayer samples having constant layer thicknesses of 50 A each are deposited on float glass and Si(1 1 1) substrates using electron-beam evaporation technique under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions at room temperatures. The micro-structural parameters and their evolution with temperature for as-deposited as well as annealed multilayer samples up to 600 deg. C in a step of 100 deg. C for 1 h are determined by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity techniques. The X-ray diffraction pattern recorded at 300 deg. C annealed multilayer sample shows interesting structural transformation (from crystalline to amorphous) because of the solid-state reaction (SSR) and subsequent re-crystallization at higher temperatures of annealing, particularly at ≥400 deg. C due to the formation of TiNi 3 and Ti 2 Ni alloy phases. Sample quality and surface morphology are examined by using atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique for both as-deposited as well as annealed multilayer samples. In addition to this, a temperature dependent dc resistivity measurement is also used to study the structural transformation and subsequent alloy phase formation due to annealing treatment. The corresponding magnetization behavior of multilayer samples after each stage of annealing has been investigated by using Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect (MOKE) technique and results are interpreted in terms of observed micro-structural changes

  12. Effects of Surface Dipole Lengths on Evaporation of Tiny Water Aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shen; Wan Rongzheng; Fang Haiping; Tu Yusong

    2013-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulation, we compared evaporation behavior of a tiny amount of water molecules adsorbed on solid surfaces with different dipole lengths, including surface dipole lengths of 1 fold, 2 folds, 4 folds, 6 folds and 8 folds of 0.14 nm and different charges from 0.1e to 0.9e. Surfaces with short dipole lengths (1-fold system) can always maintain hydrophobic character and the evaporation speeds are not influenced, whether the surface charges are enhanced or weakened; but when surface dipole lengths get to 8 folds, surfaces become more hydrophilic as the surface charge increases, and the evaporation speeds increase gradually and monotonically. By tuning dipole lengths from 1-fold to 8-fold systems, we confirmed non-monotonic variation of the evaporation flux (first increases, then decreases) in 4 fold system with charges (0.1e–0.7e), reported in our previous paper [S. Wang, et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 116 (2012) 13863], and also show the process from the enhancement of this unexpected non-monotonic variation to its vanishment with surface dipole lengths increasing. Herein, we demonstrated two key factors to influence the evaporation flux of a tiny amount of water molecules adsorbed on solid surfaces: the exposed surficial area of water aggregation from where the water molecules can evaporate directly and the attraction potential from the substrate hindering the evaporation. In addition, more interestingly, we showed extra steric effect of surface dipoles on further increase of evaporation flux for 2-folds, 4-folds, 6-folds and 8-folds systems with charges around larger than 0.7e. (The steric effect is first reported by parts of our authors [C. Wang, et al., Sci. Rep. 2 (2012) 358]). This study presents a complete physical picture of the influence of surface dipole lengths on the evaporation behavior of the adsorbed tiny amount of water. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  13. Tiny intracranial aneurysms: Endovascular treatment by coil embolisation or sole stent deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jun; Liu Jiachun; Wang Lijun; Qi Peng; Wang Daming

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Tiny intracranial aneurysms pose a significant therapeutic challenge for interventional neuroradiologists. The authors report their preliminary results of endovascular treatment of these aneurysms. Methods: Between January 2002 and December 2009, 52 tiny intracranial aneurysms (defined as ≤3 mm in maximum diameter) in 46 patients (22 men; mean age, 57.9 years) were treated by endosaccular coil embolisation or sole stent deployment in the parent artery. Of 52 aneurysms, 29 had ruptured and 23 remained unruptured. The initial angiographic results, procedural complications, and clinical outcomes were assessed at discharge. Imaging follow-up was performed with cerebral angiography. Results: One aneurysm coiling procedure failed because of unsuccessful micro-catheterization. Forty-three aneurysms were successfully coil embolized, of which complete occlusion was obtained in 14, subtotal occlusion in 18 and incomplete occlusion in 11. The other 8 aneurysms were treated by sole stent deployment in the parent artery. Procedural complications (2 intraprocedural ruptures and 3 thromboembolic events) occurred in 5 (9.6%) of 52 aneurysms, resulting in permanent morbidity in only 1 (2.2%, 1/46) patient. No rebleeding occurred during clinical follow-up (mean duration, 46.7 months). Of the 16 coiled aneurysms that receiving repetitive angiography, 6 initially completely and 3 subtotally occluded aneurysms remained unchanged, 4 initially subtotally and 3 incompletely occluded aneurysms progressed to total occlusion. Five sole stent deployed aneurysms received angiographic follow-up (mean duration, 10.0 months), of which 3 remained unchanged, 1 became smaller and 1 progressed to total occlusion. Conclusion: Endovascular treatment of tiny intracranial aneurysms is technical feasible and relatively safe. Coil embolisation seems to be effective in preventing early recanalisation, whereas sole stenting technique needs further investigation to determine its effectiveness.

  14. Shape memory and pseudoelastic properties of Fe-Mn-Si and Ti-Ni based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenin, G.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to analyse and discuss some recent advances in shape memory and pseudoelastic properties of different alloys. Experimental work in connection with theoretical ones will be reviewed. The first part is devoted to the microstructural origin of shape memory properties of Fe-Mn-Si based alloys (γ-ε transformation); the second part is a synthetic analysis of the effects of thermomechanical treatments on shape memory and pseudoelastic effects in Ti-Ni alloys, with some focus on the behaviour of the R phase introduced. (orig.)

  15. Tiny optical fiber temperature sensor based on temperature-dependent refractive index of zinc telluride film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Qiang; Song, Zhangqi; Song, Dongyu; Zhang, Xueliang; Li, Bingsheng; Yu, Yang; Chen, Yuzhong

    2018-03-01

    The temperature-dependent refractive index of zinc telluride film can be used to develop a tiny, low cost and film-coated optical fiber temperature sensor. Pulse reference-based compensation technique is used to largely reduce the background noise which makes it possible to detect the minor reflectivity change of the film in different temperatures. The temperature sensitivity is 0.0034dB/° and the background noise is measured to be 0.0005dB, so the resolution can achieve 0.2°.

  16. Mechanical properties and related substructure of TiNi shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filip, P.; Kneissl, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    The mechanical properties of binary near equiatomic TiNi shape memory alloys were investigated after different types of mechanical and heat treatments. The changes of deformation behaviour are explained on the basis of substructure differences after work hardening. The ''elastic moduli'' of both the high-temperature phase B2 and the martensite B19' as well as the ''easy stage of deformation'' are dependent on the work hardening intensity and these changes are related to the mobility of B2/B19' interfaces. The martensite changes its morphology after work hardening. In contrast to a twinned martensite, typical for annealed alloys, the internally slipped martensite was detected after work hardening. (orig.)

  17. Growth and surface morphology of ion-beam sputtered Ti-Ni thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Ambati Pulla; Sunandana, C.S.

    2008-01-01

    Titanium-nickel thin films have been deposited on float glass substrates by ion beam sputtering in 100% pure argon atmosphere. Sputtering is predominant at energy region of incident ions, 1000 eV to 100 keV. The as-deposited films were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscope (AFM). In this paper we attempted to study the surface morphology and elemental composition through AFM and XPS, respectively. Core level as well as valence band spectra of ion-beam sputtered Ti-Ni thin films at various Ar gas rates (5, 7 and 12 sccm) show that the thin film deposited at 3 sccm possess two distinct peaks at binding energies 458.55 eV and 464.36 eV mainly due to TiO 2 . Upon increasing Ar rate oxidation of Ti-Ni is reduced and the Ti-2p peaks begin approaching those of pure elemental Ti. Here Ti-2p peaks are observed at binding energy positions of 454.7 eV and 460.5 eV. AFM results show that the average grain size and roughness decrease, upon increasing Ar gas rate, from 2.90 μm to 0.096 μm and from 16.285 nm to 1.169 nm, respectively

  18. Shape memory characteristics of sputter-deposited Ti-Ni thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Shuichi; Ishida, Akira.

    1994-01-01

    Ti-Ni shape memory alloy thin films were deposited using an RF magnetron sputtering apparatus. The as-sputtered films were heat-treated in order to crystallize and memorize. After the heat treatment, the shape memory characteristics have been investigated using DSC and thermomechanical tests. Upon cooling the thin films, the solution-treated films showed a single peak in the DSC curve indicating a single stage transformation occurring from B2 to the martensitic phase, while the age-treated films showed double peaks indicating a two-stage transformation, i.e., from B2 to the R-phase, then to the martensitic phase. A perfect shape memory effect was achieved in these sputter-deposited Ti-Ni thin films in association both with the R-phase and martensitic transformations. Transformation temperatures increased linearly with increasing applied stress. The transformation strain also increased with increasing stress. The shape memory characteristics were strongly affected by heat-treatment conditions. (author)

  19. Detection of tiny amounts of fissile materials in large-sized containers with radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batyaev V.F.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to non-destructive control of tiny amounts of fissile materials in large-sized containers filled with radioactive waste (RAW. The aim of this work is to model an active neutron interrogation facility for detection of fissile ma-terials inside NZK type containers with RAW and determine the minimal detectable mass of U-235 as a function of various param-eters: matrix type, nonuniformity of container filling, neutron gen-erator parameters (flux, pulse frequency, pulse duration, meas-urement time. As a result the dependence of minimal detectable mass on fissile materials location inside container is shown. Nonu-niformity of the thermal neutron flux inside a container is the main reason of the space-heterogeneity of minimal detectable mass in-side a large-sized container. Our experiments with tiny amounts of uranium-235 (<1 g confirm the detection of fissile materials in NZK containers by using active neutron interrogation technique.

  20. Remote viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C

    1988-04-15

    Remote viewing is the supposed faculty which enables a percipient, sited in a closed room, to describe the perceptions of a remote agent visiting an unknown target site. To provide convincing demonstration of such a faculty poses a range of experimental and practical problems, especially if feedback to the percipient is allowed after each trial. The precautions needed are elaborate and troublesome; many potential loopholes have to be plugged and there will be strong temptations to relax standards, requiring exceptional discipline and dedication by the experimenters. Most reports of remote viewing experiments are rather superficial and do not permit assessment of the experimental procedures with confidence; in many cases there is clear evidence of particular loopholes left unclosed. Any serious appraisal of the evidence would have to go beyond the reports. Meanwhile the published evidence is far from compelling, and certainly insufficient to justify overthrow of well-established scientific principles.

  1. Effect of Substrate Roughness on Adhesion and Structural Properties of Ti-Ni Shape Memory Alloy Thin Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghwan; Lee, Hyunsuk; Bae, Joohyeon; Jeong, Hyomin; Choi, Byeongkeun; Nam, Taehyun; Noh, Jungpil

    2018-09-01

    Ti-Ni shape memory alloy (SMA) thin films are very attractive material for industrial and medical applications such as micro-actuator, micro-sensors, and stents for blood vessels. An important property besides shape memory effect in the application of SMA thin films is the adhesion between the film and the substrate. When using thin films as micro-actuators or micro-sensors in MEMS, the film must be strongly adhered to the substrate. On the other hand, when using SMA thin films in medical devices such as stents, the deposited alloy thin film must be easily separable from the substrate for efficient processing. In this study, we investigated the effect of substrate roughness on the adhesion of Ti-Ni SMA thin films, as well as the structural properties and phase-transformation behavior of the fabricated films. Ti-Ni SMA thin films were deposited onto etched glass substrates with magnetron sputtering. Radio frequency plasma was used for etching the substrate. The adhesion properties were investigated through progressive scratch test. Structural properties of the films were determined via Feld emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction measurements (XRD) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. Phase transformation behaviors were observed with differential scanning calorimetry and low temperature-XRD. Ti-Ni SMA thin film deposited onto rough substrate provides higher adhesive strength than smooth substrate. However the roughness of the substrate has no influence on the growth and crystallization of the Ti-Ni SMA thin films.

  2. Effect of phase formation on valence band photoemission and photoresonance study of Ti/Ni multilayers using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, Pramod; Chaudhari, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents investigation of Ti-Ni alloy phase formation and its effect on valence band (VB) photoemission and photoresonance study of as-deposited as well as annealed Ti/Ni multilayers (MLs) up to 600 deg. C using synchrotron radiation. For this purpose [Ti (50 A)/Ni (50 A)]X 10 ML structures were deposited by using electron-beam evaporation technique under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions. Formation of different phases of Ti-Ni alloy due to annealing treatment has been confirmed by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The XRD pattern corresponding as-deposited ML sample shows crystalline nature of both Ti and Ni deposited layers, whereas 300 deg. C annealed ML sample show solid-state reaction (SSR) leading to amorphization and subsequent recrystallisation at higher temperatures of annealing (≥400 deg. C) with the formation of TiNi, TiNi 3 and Ti 2 Ni alloy phases. The survey scans corresponding to 400, 500 and 600 deg. C annealed ML sample shows interdiffusion and intermixing of Ni atoms into Ti layers leading to chemical Ti-Ni alloys phase formation at interface. The corresponding recorded VB spectra using synchrotron radiation at 134 eV on as-deposited ML sample with successive sputtering shows alternately photoemission bands due to Ti 3d and Ni 3d, respectively, indicating there is no mixing of the consequent layers and any phase formation at the interface during deposition. However, ML samples annealed at higher temperatures of annealing, particularly at 400, 500 and 600 deg. C show a clear shift in Ni 3d band and its satellite peak position to higher BE side indicates Ti-Ni alloy phase formation. In addition to this, reduction of satellite peak intensity and Ni 3d density of states (DOS) near Fermi level is also observed due to Ti-Ni phase formation with higher annealing temperatures. The variable photon energy VB measurements on as-deposited and ML samples annealed at 400 deg. C confirms existence and BE position of observed Ni 3d satellite

  3. Evaporation of tiny water aggregation on solid surfaces with different wetting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shen; Tu, Yusong; Wan, Rongzheng; Fang, Haiping

    2012-11-29

    The evaporation of a tiny amount of water on the solid surface with different wettabilities has been studied by molecular dynamics simulations. From nonequilibrium MD simulations, we found that, as the surface changed from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, the evaporation speed did not show a monotonic decrease as intuitively expected, but increased first, and then decreased after it reached a maximum value. The analysis of the simulation trajectory and calculation of the surface water interaction illustrate that the competition between the number of water molecules on the water-gas surface from where the water molecules can evaporate and the potential barrier to prevent those water molecules from evaporating results in the unexpected behavior of the evaporation. This finding is helpful in understanding the evaporation on biological surfaces, designing artificial surfaces of ultrafast water evaporating, or preserving water in soil.

  4. Geology and geochronology of the Sub-Antarctic Snares Islands/Tini Heke, New Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, JM; Turnbull, IM; Sagar, MW

    2015-01-01

    are prismatic and yield an essentially unimodal age population of c. 116 Ma that is within error of the granodiorite. These properties suggest that the dated raft represents a meta-igneous rock despite its mica-rich nature. Some schistose rocks on the Western Chain contain coarse relict plagioclase phenocrysts...... and appear to have an igneous protolith. No conclusive metasedimentary rocks have been identified, although sillimanite-bearing mica-rich schist occurs on Rua. Deformation of the crystalline rocks occurred after Snares Granite intrusion and before cooling below muscovite K–Ar closure at 400 ± 50 °C at 95 Ma......The first comprehensive geological map, a summary of lithologies and new radiogenic isotope data (U–Pb, Rb–Sr) are presented for crystalline rocks of the Sub-Antarctic Snares Islands/Tini Heke, 150 km south of Stewart Island. The main lithology is Snares Granite (c. 109 Ma from U–Pb dating...

  5. Tiny individuals attached to a new Silurian arthropod suggest a unique mode of brood care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Derek E. G.; Siveter, Derek J.; Siveter, David J.; Sutton, Mark D.

    2016-04-01

    The ˜430-My-old Herefordshire, United Kingdom, Lagerstätte has yielded a diversity of remarkably preserved invertebrates, many of which provide fundamental insights into the evolutionary history and ecology of particular taxa. Here we report a new arthropod with 10 tiny arthropods tethered to its tergites by long individual threads. The head of the host, which is covered by a shield that projects anteriorly, bears a long stout uniramous antenna and a chelate limb followed by two biramous appendages. The trunk comprises 11 segments, all bearing limbs and covered by tergites with long slender lateral spines. A short telson bears long parallel cerci. Our phylogenetic analysis resolves the new arthropod as a stem-group mandibulate. The evidence suggests that the tethered individuals are juveniles and the association represents a complex brooding behavior. Alternative possibilities—that the tethered individuals represent a different epizoic or parasitic arthropod—appear less likely.

  6. Tiny Grains Give Huge Gains: Nanocrystal–Based Signal Amplification for Biomolecule Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Sheng; Ren, Binbin; Zheng, Zhilan; Shen, Han; Bao, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Nanocrystals, despite their tiny sizes, contain thousands to millions of atoms. Here we show that the large number of atoms packed in each metallic nanocrystal can provide a huge gain in signal amplification for biomolecule detection. We have devised a highly sensitive, linear amplification scheme by integrating the dissolution of bound nanocrystals and metal-induced stoichiometric chromogenesis, and demonstrated that signal amplification is fully defined by the size and atom density of nanocrystals, which can be optimized through well-controlled nanocrystal synthesis. Further, the rich library of chromogenic reactions allows implementation of this scheme in various assay formats, as demonstrated by the iron oxide nanoparticle linked immunosorbent assay (ILISA) and blotting assay developed in this study. Our results indicate that, owing to the inherent simplicity, high sensitivity and repeatability, the nanocrystal based amplification scheme can significantly improve biomolecule quantification in both laboratory research and clinical diagnostics. This novel method adds a new dimension to current nanoparticle-based bioassays. PMID:23659350

  7. Macronuclear genome structure of the ciliate Nyctotherus ovalis: Single-gene chromosomes and tiny introns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landweber Laura F

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nyctotherus ovalis is a single-celled eukaryote that has hydrogen-producing mitochondria and lives in the hindgut of cockroaches. Like all members of the ciliate taxon, it has two types of nuclei, a micronucleus and a macronucleus. N. ovalis generates its macronuclear chromosomes by forming polytene chromosomes that subsequently develop into macronuclear chromosomes by DNA elimination and rearrangement. Results We examined the structure of these gene-sized macronuclear chromosomes in N. ovalis. We determined the telomeres, subtelomeric regions, UTRs, coding regions and introns by sequencing a large set of macronuclear DNA sequences (4,242 and cDNAs (5,484 and comparing them with each other. The telomeres consist of repeats CCC(AAAACCCCn, similar to those in spirotrichous ciliates such as Euplotes, Sterkiella (Oxytricha and Stylonychia. Per sequenced chromosome we found evidence for either a single protein-coding gene, a single tRNA, or the complete ribosomal RNAs cluster. Hence the chromosomes appear to encode single transcripts. In the short subtelomeric regions we identified a few overrepresented motifs that could be involved in gene regulation, but there is no consensus polyadenylation site. The introns are short (21–29 nucleotides, and a significant fraction (1/3 of the tiny introns is conserved in the distantly related ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia. As has been observed in P. tetraurelia, the N. ovalis introns tend to contain in-frame stop codons or have a length that is not dividable by three. This pattern causes premature termination of mRNA translation in the event of intron retention, and potentially degradation of unspliced mRNAs by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway. Conclusion The combination of short leaders, tiny introns and single genes leads to very minimal macronuclear chromosomes. The smallest we identified contained only 150 nucleotides.

  8. Pollination networks of oil-flowers: a tiny world within the smallest of all worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Elisângela L S; Machado, Isabel C; Mello, Marco A R

    2009-09-01

    1. In the Neotropics, most plants depend on animals for pollination. Solitary bees are the most important vectors, and among them members of the tribe Centridini depend on oil from flowers (mainly Malpighiaceae) to feed their larvae. This specialized relationship within 'the smallest of all worlds' (a whole pollination network) could result in a 'tiny world' different from the whole system. This 'tiny world' would have higher nestedness, shorter path lengths, lower modularity and higher resilience if compared with the whole pollination network. 2. In the present study, we contrasted a network of oil-flowers and their visitors from a Brazilian steppe ('caatinga') to whole pollination networks from all over the world. 3. A network approach was used to measure network structure and, finally, to test fragility. The oil-flower network studied was more nested (NODF = 0.84, N = 0.96) than all of the whole pollination networks studied. Average path lengths in the two-mode network were shorter (one node, both for bee and plant one-mode network projections) and modularity was lower (M = 0.22 and four modules) than in all of the whole pollination networks. Extinctions had no or small effects on the network structure, with an average change in nestedness smaller than 2% in most of the cases studied; and only two species caused coextinctions. The higher the degree of the removed species, the stronger the effect and the higher the probability of a decrease in nestedness. 4. We conclude that the oil-flower subweb is more cohesive and resilient than whole pollination networks. Therefore, the Malpighiaceae have a robust pollination service in the Neotropics. Our findings reinforce the hypothesis that each ecological service is in fact a mosaic of different subservices with a hierarchical structure ('webs within webs').

  9. TinyONet: A Cache-Based Sensor Network Bridge Enabling Sensing Data Reusability and Customized Wireless Sensor Network Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eui-Hyun; Park, Yong-Jin

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, a few protocol bridge research projects have been announced to enable a seamless integration of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) with the TCP/IP network. These studies have ensured the transparent end-to-end communication between two network sides in the node-centric manner. Researchers expect this integration will trigger the development of various application domains. However, prior research projects have not fully explored some essential features for WSNs, especially the reusability of sensing data and the data-centric communication. To resolve these issues, we suggested a new protocol bridge system named TinyONet. In TinyONet, virtual sensors play roles as virtual counterparts of physical sensors and they dynamically group to make a functional entity, Slice. Instead of direct interaction with individual physical sensors, each sensor application uses its own WSN service provided by Slices. If a new kind of service is required in TinyONet, the corresponding function can be dynamically added at runtime. Beside the data-centric communication, it also supports the node-centric communication and the synchronous access. In order to show the effectiveness of the system, we implemented TinyONet on an embedded Linux machine and evaluated it with several experimental scenarios. PMID:27873968

  10. Self-gated fetal cardiac MRI with tiny golden angle iGRASP: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, Kostas; Hedström, Erik; Bidhult, Sebastian; Testud, Frederik; Maglaveras, Nicos; Heiberg, Einar; Hansson, Stefan R; Arheden, Håkan; Aletras, Anthony H

    2017-07-01

    To develop and assess a technique for self-gated fetal cardiac cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using tiny golden angle radial sampling combined with iGRASP (iterative Golden-angle RAdial Sparse Parallel) for accelerated acquisition based on parallel imaging and compressed sensing. Fetal cardiac data were acquired from five volunteers in gestational week 29-37 at 1.5T using tiny golden angles for eddy currents reduction. The acquired multicoil radial projections were input to a principal component analysis-based compression stage. The cardiac self-gating (CSG) signal for cardiac gating was extracted from the acquired radial projections and the iGRASP reconstruction procedure was applied. In all acquisitions, a total of 4000 radial spokes were acquired within a breath-hold of less than 15 seconds using a balanced steady-state free precession pulse sequence. The images were qualitatively compared by two independent observers (on a scale of 1-4) to a single midventricular cine image from metric optimized gating (MOG) and real-time acquisitions. For iGRASP and MOG images, good overall image quality (2.8 ± 0.4 and 2.6 ± 1.3, respectively, for observer 1; 3.6 ± 0.5 and 3.4 ± 0.9, respectively, for observer 2) and cardiac diagnostic quality (3.8 ± 0.4 and 3.4 ± 0.9, respectively, for observer 1; 3.6 ± 0.5 and 3.6 ± 0.9, respectively, for observer 2) were obtained, with visualized myocardial thickening over the cardiac cycle and well-defined myocardial borders to ventricular lumen and liver/lung tissue. For iGRASP, MOG, and real time, left ventricular lumen diameter (14.1 ± 2.2 mm, 14.2 ± 1.9 mm, 14.7 ± 1.1 mm, respectively) and wall thickness (2.7 ± 0.3 mm, 2.6 ± 0.3 mm, 3.0 ± 0.4, respectively) showed agreement and no statistically significant difference was found (all P > 0.05). Images with iGRASP tended to have higher overall image quality scores compared with MOG and particularly

  11. Corrosion behavior of HPT-deformed TiNi alloys in cell culture medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shri, D. N. Awang; Tsuchiya, K.; Yamamoto, A.

    2017-09-01

    In recent years there are growing interest in fabrication of bulk nanostructured metals and alloys by using severe plastic deformation (SPD) techniques as new alternative in producing bulk nanocrystalline materials. These techniques allows for processing of bulk, fully dense workpiece with ultrafine grains. Metal undergoes SPD processing in certain techniques such as high pressure torsion (HPT), equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) or multi-directional forging (MDF) are subjected to extensive hydrostatic pressure that may be used to impart a very high strain to the bulk solid without the introduction of any significant change in overall dimension of the sample. The change in the structure (small grain size and high-volume fraction of grain boundaries) of the material may result in the corrosion behavior different from that of the coarse-grained material. Electrochemical measurements were done to understand the corrosion behavior of TiNi alloys before and after HPT deformation. The experiment was carried out using standard three electrode setup (a sample as working electrode; a platinum wire as a counter electrode and a saturated calomel electrode in saturated KCl as a reference electrode) with the surface area of 26.42 mm2 exposed to the EMEM+10% FBS cell culture medium. The measurements were performed in an incubator with controlled environment at 37 °C and 5% CO2, simulating the cell culture condition. The potential of the specimen was monitored over 1 hour, and the stabilized potential was used as the open-circuit potential (EOCP). Potentiodynamic curves were scanned in the potential range from -0.5 V to 1.5 V relative to the EOCP, at a rate of 0.5 mV/s. The result of OCP-time measurement done in the cell culture medium shows that the OCP of HPT-deformed samples shifts towards to the more positive rather than that of BHPT samples. The OCP of deformed samples were ennobled to more than +70 mV for Ti-50mol%. The shift of OCP towards the nobler direction

  12. Tiny intraplate earthquakes triggered by nearby episodic tremor and slip in Cascadia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidale, J.E.; Hotovec, A.J.; Ghosh, A.; Creager, K.C.; Gomberg, J.

    2011-01-01

    Episodic tremor and slip (ETS) has been observed in many subduction zones, but its mechanical underpinnings as well as its potential for triggering damaging earthquakes have proven difficult to assess. Here we use a seismic array in Cascadia of unprecedented density to monitor seismicity around a moderate 16 day ETS episode. In the 4 months of data we examine, we observe five tiny earthquakes within the subducting slab during the episode and only one more in the same area, which was just before and nearby the next ETS burst. These earthquakes concentrate along the sides and updip edge of the ETS region, consistent with greater stress concentration there than near the middle and downdip edge of the tremor area. Most of the seismicity is below the megathrust, with a similar depth extent to the background intraslab seismicity. The pattern of earthquakes that we find suggests slow slip has a more continuous temporal and spatial pattern than the tremor loci, which notoriously appear in bursts, jumps, and streaks. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. The splicing of tiny introns of Paramecium is controlled by MAGO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Julia; Begley, Victoria; Marsella, Laura; Villalobo, Eduardo

    2018-07-15

    The exon junction complex (EJC) is a key element of the splicing machinery. The EJC core is composed of eIF4A3, MAGO, Y14 and MLN51. Few accessory proteins, such as CWC22 or UPF3, bind transiently to the EJC. The EJC has been implicated in the control of the splicing of long introns. To ascertain whether the EJC controls the splicing of short introns, we used Paramecium tetraurelia as a model organism, since it has thousands of very tiny introns. To elucidate whether EJC affects intron splicing in P. tetraurelia, we searched for EJC protein-coding genes, and silenced those genes coding for eIF4A3, MAGO and CWC22. We found that P. tetraurelia likely assembles an active EJC with only three of the core proteins, since MLN51 is lacking. Silencing of eIF4A3 or CWC22 genes, but not that of MAGO, caused lethality. Silencing of the MAGO gene caused either an increase, decrease, or no change in intron retention levels of some intron-containing mRNAs used as reporters. We suggest that a fine-tuning expression of EJC genes is required for steady intron removal in P. tetraurelia. Taking into consideration our results and those published by others, we conclude that the EJC controls splicing independently of the intron size. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhanced water collection through a periodic array of tiny holes in dropwise condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyungjun; Kim, Gyeonghee; Oh, Sunjong; Lim, Hyuneui

    2018-02-01

    This paper introduces a simple method of water collection by increasing the coalescence effects in dropwise condensation with the use of microscale holes. The tiny holes modified the surface free energy states of the droplets on the plate, yielding a surface free energy barrier between the flat solid surface and the holes. The spatial difference in the surface free energy of the droplets enabled the droplets to move toward the adjacent droplets, thus increasing the possibility of coalescence. The water collection experiments were performed using a Peltier-based cooling system at 2 °C inside a chamber at 30 °C and 70% humidity. The results demonstrated that the perforated plates without any additional treatment provided the water collection rate of up to 22.64 L/m2 day, which shows an increase of 30% compared to that demonstrated by the bare plate. By comparing the experimental results for the surface of filmwise condensation, it was proved that the dominant water collecting improvement results from the increased coalescence effects. This simple technique can enhance the performance of systems exposed to water condensation, including water collection, heat-transfer, and dehumidifying systems.

  15. ARECIBO MULTI-EPOCH H I ABSORPTION MEASUREMENTS AGAINST PULSARS: TINY-SCALE ATOMIC STRUCTURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanimirovic, S.; Weisberg, J. M.; Pei, Z.; Tuttle, K.; Green, J. T.

    2010-01-01

    We present results from multi-epoch neutral hydrogen (H I) absorption observations of six bright pulsars with the Arecibo telescope. Moving through the interstellar medium (ISM) with transverse velocities of 10-150 AU yr -1 , these pulsars have swept across 1-200 AU over the course of our experiment, allowing us to probe the existence and properties of the tiny-scale atomic structure (TSAS) in the cold neutral medium (CNM). While most of the observed pulsars show no significant change in their H I absorption spectra, we have identified at least two clear TSAS-induced opacity variations in the direction of B1929+10. These observations require strong spatial inhomogeneities in either the TSAS clouds' physical properties themselves or else in the clouds' galactic distribution. While TSAS is occasionally detected on spatial scales down to 10 AU, it is too rare to be characterized by a spectrum of turbulent CNM fluctuations on scales of 10 1 -10 3 AU, as previously suggested by some work. In the direction of B1929+10, an apparent correlation between TSAS and interstellar clouds inside the warm Local Bubble (LB) indicates that TSAS may be tracing the fragmentation of the LB wall via hydrodynamic instabilities. While similar fragmentation events occur frequently throughout the ISM, the warm medium surrounding these cold cloudlets induces a natural selection effect wherein small TSAS clouds evaporate quickly and are rare, while large clouds survive longer and become a general property of the ISM.

  16. Quadrupolar order, hidden octupolar order and tiny magnetic moment in URu2Si2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruta, Atsushi; Matsuura, Tamifusa; Kuroda, Yoshihiro

    2000-01-01

    Possible orders in URu 2 Si 2 are investigated using a two-channel degenerate Anderson model. The ground state of uranium ions is the non-Kramers quadrupolar doublet Γ 5 with (5f) 2 , and its relevant excited state is the Kramers dipolar doublet Γ 7 with (5f) 1 . These states mix with each other via conduction electrons. At low temperatures, the system forms renormalized bands with both quadrupole and dipole degrees of freedom due to the quadrupolar Kondo effect which slightly mixes quadrupolar Γ 5 , a primary state of uranium ions, with dipolar Γ 7 . At a certain low temperature, conduction electrons in the renormalized bands undergo quadrupolar ordering with a large quadrupolar moment. At a further lower temperature, octupolar ordering occurs, accompanied by a tiny dipolar moment which is attributed to the property of the renormalized bands with primarily the Γ 5 -character slightly mixed with the Γ 7 -character. These phenomena are well described by the 1/N-expansion method with pseudo-fermions for the non-Kramers doublet Γ 5 and slave bosons for the Kramers doublet Γ 7 . (author)

  17. Transformation-Induced Relaxation and Stress Recovery of TiNi Shape Memory Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Takeda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The transformation-induced stress relaxation and stress recovery of TiNi shape memory alloy (SMA in stress-controlled subloop loading were investigated based on the local variation in temperature and transformation band on the surface of the tape in the tension test. The results obtained are summarized as follows. (1 In the loading process, temperature increases due to the exothermic martensitic transformation (MT until the holding strain and thereafter temperature decreases while holding the strain constant, resulting in stress relaxation due to the MT; (2 In the unloading process, temperature decreases due to the endothermic reverse transformation until the holding strain and thereafter temperature increases while holding the strain constant, resulting in stress recovery due to the reverse transformation; (3 Stress varies markedly in the initial stage followed by gradual change while holding the strain constant; (4 If the stress rate is high until the holding strain in the loading and unloading processes, both stress relaxation and stress recovery are large; (5 It is important to take into account this behavior in the design of SMA elements, since the force of SMA elements varies even if the atmospheric temperature is kept constant.

  18. Stress Relaxation Effects in TiNi SMA During Superelastic Deformation: Experiment and Constitutive Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieczyska, Elżbieta A.; Kowalewski, Zbigniew L.; Dunić, Vladimir Lj.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents an investigation of thermomechanical effects related to the phenomena of stress relaxation occurring in TiNi SMA subjected to modified program of displacement-controlled tension. The deformation data were taken from testing machine, whereas the temperature changes accompanying the exothermic/endothermic martensite forward/reverse transformation were measured by infrared camera. At the advanced stages of the transformations, the strain was kept constant for a few minutes and the SMA load and temperature were recorded continuously. As a consequence, the stress and temperature changed significantly during the loading stops. A large stress drop, caused by the transformation, was observed during the relaxation stage in both courses of the SMA loading and unloading. Moreover, the non-uniform temperature distribution, reflecting macroscopically inhomogeneous transformation, lapsed while the strain was kept constant, yet restarted at the end of the relaxation stop and developed at the reloading stage. Along with the experimental results, the mechanical and thermal responses induced by the transformation were obtained by 3D coupled thermomechanical numerical analysis, realized in partitioned approach. Latent heat production was correlated with an amount of the martensitic volume fraction. The stress and temperature drops recorded during the experiment were satisfactorily reproduced by the model proposed for the SMA thermomechanical coupling.

  19. An Improved Task Scheduling Algorithm for Intelligent Control in Tiny Mechanical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialiang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN has been already widely used in many fields in terms of industry, agriculture, and military, and so forth. The basic composition is WSN nodes that are capable of performing processing, gathering information, and communicating with other connected nodes in the network. The main components of a WSN node are microcontroller, transceiver, and some sensors. Undoubtedly, it also can be added with some actuators to form a tiny mechanical system. Under this case, the existence of task preemption while executing operating system will not only cost more energy for WSN nodes themselves, but also bring unacceptable system states caused by vibrations. However for these nodes, task I/O delays are inevitable due to the existence of task preemption, which will bring extra overhead for the whole system, and even bring unacceptable system states caused by vibrations. This paper mainly considers the earliest deadline first (EDF task preemption algorithm executed in WSN OS and proposes an improved task preemption algorithm so as to lower the preemption overhead and I/O delay and then improve the system performance. The experimental results show that the improved task preemption algorithm can reduce the I/O delay effectively, so the real-time processing ability of the system is enhanced.

  20. A tiny short-legged bird from the early Oligocene of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bochenski Zbigniew M.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe an articulated partial leg of an Oligocene bird. It is one of the smallest avian fossils ever recorded. Its slender and exceptionally short tarsometatarsus, hallux as long as the tarsometatarsus and stout moderately curved claws agree with stem-group Apodidae (swifts, stem-group Trochilidae (hummingbirds, and stem-group Upupidae/Phoeniculidae (hoopoes/woodhoopoes. Unfortunately, due to the poor preservation of the specimen its more precise affinities remain unresolved. The specimen differs in many details from all other tiny Palaeogene birds and therefore most probably it represents a new taxon but it is too fragmentary to describe it. It is just the twelfth avian fossil from the Oligocene marine deposits of the Outer Carpathians and Central Palaeogene Basin — a huge area that covers south-eastern Poland, north-eastern Czech Republic and northern Slovakia — and therefore it adds to our very limited knowledge on the avifauna of that region. The remains of land birds from Jamna Dolna and other sites of the region can be attributed to the general sea level fall at that time, which led to limitation of the connection with the open ocean and resulted in many shallow shoals, temporary islands and exposed dry land areas along the coast.

  1. Tiny changes in local order identify the cluster formation threshold in model fluids with competing interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomont, Jean-Marc; Costa, Dino; Bretonnet, Jean-Louis

    2017-06-14

    We use Monte Carlo simulations to carry out a thorough analysis of structural correlations arising in a relatively dense fluid of rigid spherical particles with prototype competing interactions (short-range attractive and long-range repulsive two-Yukawa model). As the attraction strength increases, we show that the local density of the fluid displays a tiny reversal of trend within specific ranges of interparticle distances, whereupon it decreases first and increases afterwards, passing through a local minimum. Particles involved in this trend display, accordingly, distinct behaviours: for a sufficiently weak attraction, they seem to contribute to the long-wave oscillations typically heralding the formation of patterns in such fluids; for a stronger attraction, after the reversal of the local density has occurred, they form an outer shell of neighbours stabilizing the existing aggregation seeds. Following the increment of attraction, precisely in correspondence of the local density reversal, the local peak developed in the structure factor at small wavevectors markedly rises, signalling-in agreement with recent structural criteria-the onset of a clustered state. A detailed cluster analysis of microscopic configurations fully validates this picture.

  2. Remote artificial eyes using micro-optical circuit for long-distance 3D imaging perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammawongsa, Nopparat; Yupapin, Preecha P

    2016-01-01

    A small-scale optical device incorporated with an optical nano-antenna is designed to operate as the remote artificial eye using a tiny conjugate mirror. A basic device known as a conjugate mirror can be formed using the artificial eye device, the partially reflected light intensities from input source are interfered and the 3D whispering gallery modes formed within the ring centers, which can be modulated and propagated to the object. The image pixel is obtained at the center ring and linked with the optic nerve in the remote area via the nano-antenna, which is useful for blind people.

  3. Transformers For Extreme Environments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Imagine a revolutionary way to remotely control the environment surrounding one or more roving vehicles exploring remote and unexplored areas of the Solar System,...

  4. Extremely Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Extremely Preterm Birth Home For Patients Search FAQs Extremely Preterm Birth ... Spanish FAQ173, June 2016 PDF Format Extremely Preterm Birth Pregnancy When is a baby considered “preterm” or “ ...

  5. Electron irradiation effect on the reverse phase transformation temperatures in TiNi shape memory alloy thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.G.; Zu, X.T.; Fu, Y.Q.; Zhu, S.; Wang, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, Ti-Ni shape memory alloy thin films were irradiated by 1.7 MeV electron with three types of fluences: 4 x 10 20 , 7 x 10 20 and 1 x 10 21 /m 2 . The influence of electron irradiation on the transformation behavior of the TiNi thin films were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The transformation temperatures A s and A f shifted to higher temperature after electron irradiation, the martensite was stabilized. The electron irradiation effect can be easily eliminated by one thermal cycle. The shifts of the transformation temperatures can be explained from the change of potential energy barrier and coherency energy between parent phase and martensite after irradiation

  6. An experimental study on the erosion behavior of pseudoelastic TiNi alloy in dry sand and in aggressive media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, T.; Li, D.Y. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2000-11-30

    The corrosive erosion behavior of Ti-51at.%Ni alloy under different erosion conditions was studied and compared to that of 304 stainless steel. Erosion tests were performed in a slurry-pot tester with dry sand, 3.5% NaCl slurry and 0.1 moll{sup -1} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} slurry containing 30% silica sand, respectively. Synergistic effects of corrosion and erosion were studied in steady corrosion, polarization, dry sand erosion and micro-wear experiments. An electrochemical-scratching test characterized the failure and recovery of the passive film formed on TiNi alloy in 3.5% NaCl and 0.1 mol l{sup -1} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions, respectively. In both dry sand and the corrosive media, the TiNi alloy exhibited considerably greater erosion resistance than 304 stainless steel. (orig.)

  7. Effects of post-irradiation annealing on the transformation behavior of Ti-Ni alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, A.; Tsuruga, H.; Morimura, T.; Misawa, T.; Miyazaki, S.

    1993-01-01

    Recovery processes of martensitic transformation of neutron irradiated Ti-50.0, 50.5 and 51.0 at.%Ni alloys during post-irradiation annealing were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile tests and transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations. Neutron irradiation up to a fluence of 1.2x10 24 n/cm 2 at 333 K suppressed the martensitic transformation as well as the stress-induced martensitic transformation of these alloys above 150 K. The TEM observations revealed that the disordered zones containing small defect clusters in high density were formed in the neutron irradiated Ti-Ni alloys. The DSC measurements also showed that the post-irradiation annealing caused recovery of the transformation of which the progress depended on the annealing temperature and period. A significant retardation of the recovery was recognized in the Ti-51.0 at.%Ni alloy in comparison with the Ti-50.0 at.%Ni alloy. From the shifts in the transformation temperature upon isothermal annealing at various annealing temperatures, the activation energies of the recovery process of the transformation in the neutron irradiated Ti-50.0 and 51.0 at.%Ni alloys were evaluated by a cross-cut method to be 1.2 eV and 1.5 eV, respectively. The recovery of the transformation was ascribed to the re-ordering resulting from decomposition of vacancy clusters, and those obtained values of the activation energy were considered to be the sum of the migration energy of vacancy and the binding energy of vacancy-vacancy cluster. The retardation of the recovery in the Ti-51.0 at%Ni alloy was interpreted in terms of large binding energy in this alloy due to the off-stoichiometry. (author)

  8. Geology and geochronology of the sub-Antarctic Snares Islands/Tini Heke, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.M.; Turnbull, I.M.; Sagar, M.W.; Tulloch, A.J.; Waight, T.E.; Palin, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The first comprehensive geological map, a summary of lithologies and new radiogenic isotope data (U-Pb, Rb-Sr) are presented for crystalline rocks of the Sub-Antarctic Snares Islands/Tini Heke, 150 km south of Stewart Island. The main lithology is Snares Granite (c. 109 Ma from U-Pb dating of zircon), which intrudes Broughton Granodiorite (c. 114 Ma from U-Pb zircon) on Broughton Island. Rafts of schist within Snares Granite are common on the outlying Western Chain islets, and rare on North East and Broughton islands. Zircon grains extracted from one schistose raft on Broughton Island are prismatic and yield an essentially unimodal age population of c. 116 Ma that is within error of the granodiorite. These properties suggest that the dated raft represents a meta-igneous rock despite its mica-rich nature. Some schistose rocks on the Western Chain contain coarse relict plagioclase phenocrysts and appear to have an igneous protolith. No conclusive metasedimentary rocks have been identified, although sillimanite-bearing mica-rich schist occurs on Rua. Deformation of the crystalline rocks occurred after Snares Granite intrusion and before cooling below muscovite K-Ar closure at 400 ± 50 degrees C at 95 Ma. This period overlaps the age of extensional ductile shear zones on Stewart Island. The discovery of several basaltic dykes, which cut across fabrics and are unmetamorphosed, indicates that volcanic rocks are associated with all Sub-Antarctic island groups. The larger of the islands are overlain by peat, which on North East Island also contains gravel deposits. (author).

  9. Remote possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, J.

    1995-01-01

    The impact that wireless communications has had for gas and oil producers was discussed. Wireless communication, which has been replacing the traditional formats of radio and telephone data networks, has proved to be cheaper, smaller, and faster than creating privately owned communication networks. With highly developed supervisory control and data acquisition systems - combined with cellular or satellite technology - information from drill sites can be online at the corporate headquarters instantaneously. Eighty percent of Canada's land mass is beyond reach of traditional wireline and wireless services. Research into advanced communications, including telecommunication and mobile applications, yielded lucrative results for service providers such as BCTel, SaskTel, Bell Mobility and AGT. The latest data transmission technology is the cellular digital packet data (CDPD) which will operate over existing cellular networks. However, unlike circuit-switched cellular, CDPD technology provides an airlink where data is secure. It will be available to the marketplace over the course of the coming year. Among other advantages, CDPD will allow producers to remotely monitor production information and downtime alarms from wells and compressor stations. It will also provide fleet operators with the means to monitor operating vital signs on rolling stock

  10. Miniaturised Gravity Sensors for Remote Gravity Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlemiss, R. P.; Bramsiepe, S. G.; Hough, J.; Paul, D. J.; Rowan, S.; Samarelli, A.; Hammond, G.

    2016-12-01

    Gravimetry lets us see the world from a completely different perspective. The ability to measure tiny variations in gravitational acceleration (g), allows one to see not just the Earth's gravitational pull, but the influence of smaller objects. The more accurate the gravimeter, the smaller the objects one can see. Gravimetry has applications in many different fields: from tracking magma moving under volcanoes before eruptions; to locating hidden tunnels. The top commercial gravimeters weigh tens of kg and cost at least $100,000, limiting the situations in which they can be used. By contrast, smart phones use a MEMS (microelectromechanical system) accelerometer that can measure the orientation of the device. These are not nearly sensitive or stable enough to be used for the gravimetry but they are cheap, light-weight and mass-producible. At Glasgow University we have developed a MEMS device with both the stability and sensitivity for useful gravimetric measurements. This was demonstrated by a measurement of the Earth tides - the first time this has been achieved with a MEMS sensor. A gravimeter of this size opens up the possiblility for new gravity imaging modalities. Thousands of gravimeters could be networked over a survey site, storing data on an SD card or communicating wirelessly to a remote location. These devices could also be small enough to be carried by a UAVs: airborne gravity surveys could be carried out at low altitude by mulitple UAVs, or UAVs could be used to deliver ground based gravimeters to remote or inaccessible locations.

  11. Is Pluto a planet? Student powered video rap ';battle' over tiny Pluto's embattled planetary standing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisser, K.; Cruikshank, D. P.; McFadden, T.

    2013-12-01

    Is Pluto a planet? Some creative low income Bay-area middle-schoolers put a musical spin on this hot science debate with a video rap ';battle' over tiny Pluto's embattled planetary standing. The students' timing was perfect, with NASA's New Horizons mission set to conduct the first reconnaissance of Pluto and its moons in July 2015. Pluto - the last of the nine original planets to be explored by spacecraft - has been the subject of scientific study and speculation since Clyde Tombaugh discovered it in 1930, orbiting the Sun far beyond Neptune. Produced by the students and a very creative educator, the video features students 'battling' back and forth over the idea of Pluto being a planet. The group collaborated with actual space scientists to gather information and shot their video before a 'green screen' that was eventually filled with animations and visuals supplied by the New Horizons mission team. The video debuted at the Pluto Science Conference in Maryland in July 2013 - to a rousing response from researchers in attendance. The video marks a nontraditional approach to the ongoing 'great planet debate' while educating viewers on a recently discovered region of the solar system. By the 1990s, researchers had learned that Pluto possessed multiple exotic ices on its surface, a complex atmosphere and seasonal cycles, and a large moon (Charon) that likely resulted from a giant impact on Pluto itself. It also became clear that Pluto was no misfit among the planets - as had long been thought - but the largest and brightest body in a newly discovered 'third zone' of our planetary system called the Kuiper Belt. More recent observations have revealed that Pluto has a rich system of satellites - five known moons - and a surface that changes over time. Scientists even speculate that Pluto may possess an internal ocean. For these and other reasons, the 2003 Planetary Decadal Survey ranked a Pluto/Kuiper Belt mission as the highest priority mission for NASA's newly created

  12. Development of divertor remote maintenance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Nobukazu; Oka, Kiyoshi; Akou, Kentaro; Takiguchi, Yuji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    The ITER divertor is categorized as a scheduled maintenance component because of extreme heat and particle loads it is exposed to by plasma. It is also highly activated by 14 MeV neutrons. Reliable remote handling equipment and tools are required for divertor maintenance under intense gamma radiation. To facilitate remote maintenance, the divertor is segmented into 60 cassettes, and each cassette weighing about 25 tons and maintained and replaced through four maintenance ports each 90 degrees. Divertor cassettes must be transported toroidally and radially for replacement through maintenance ports. Remote handling involving cassette movers and carriers for toroidal and radial transport has been developed. Under the ITER R and D program, technology critical to divertor cassette maintenance is being developed jointly by Japan, E.U., and U.S. home teams. This paper summarizes divertor remote maintenance design and the status of technology development by the Japan Home Team. (author)

  13. Development of divertor remote maintenance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Nobukazu; Oka, Kiyoshi; Akou, Kentaro; Takiguchi, Yuji

    1998-01-01

    The ITER divertor is categorized as a scheduled maintenance component because of extreme heat and particle loads it is exposed to by plasma. It is also highly activated by 14 MeV neutrons. Reliable remote handling equipment and tools are required for divertor maintenance under intense gamma radiation. To facilitate remote maintenance, the divertor is segmented into 60 cassettes, and each cassette weighing about 25 tons and maintained and replaced through four maintenance ports each 90 degrees. Divertor cassettes must be transported toroidally and radially for replacement through maintenance ports. Remote handling involving cassette movers and carriers for toroidal and radial transport has been developed. Under the ITER R and D program, technology critical to divertor cassette maintenance is being developed jointly by Japan, E.U., and U.S. home teams. This paper summarizes divertor remote maintenance design and the status of technology development by the Japan Home Team. (author)

  14. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  15. Extreme value distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Ahsanullah, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the book is to give a through account of the basic theory of extreme value distributions. The book cover a wide range of materials available to date. The central ideas and results of extreme value distributions are presented. The book rwill be useful o applied statisticians as well statisticians interrested to work in the area of extreme value distributions.vmonograph presents the central ideas and results of extreme value distributions.The monograph gives self-contained of theory and applications of extreme value distributions.

  16. The effect of the electronic structure, phase transition, and localized dynamics of atoms in the formation of tiny particles of gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Mubarak, E-mail: mubarak74@comsats.edu.pk, E-mail: mubarak74@mail.com [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Physics (Pakistan); Lin, I-Nan [Tamkang University, Department of Physics (China)

    2017-01-15

    In addition to self-governing properties, tiny-sized particles of metallic colloids are the building blocks of large-sized particles; thus, their study has been the subject of a large number of publications. In the present work, it has been discussed that geometry structure of tiny particle made through atom-to-atom amalgamation depends on attained dynamics of gold atoms along with protruded orientations. The localized process conditions direct two-dimensional structure of a tiny particle at atomically flat air-solution interface while heating locally dynamically approached atoms, thus, negate the role of van der Waals interactions. At electronphoton-solution interface, impinging electrons stretch or deform atoms of tiny particles depending on the mechanism of impingement. In addition, to strike regular grid of electrons ejected on split of atoms not executing excitations and de-excitations of their electrons, atoms of tiny particles also deform or stretch while occupying various sites depending on the process of synergy. Under suitable impinging electron streams, those tiny particles in monolayer two-dimensional structure electron states of their atoms are diffused in the direction of transferred energy, thus, coincide to the next adjacent atoms in each one-dimensional array dealing the same sort of behavior. Instantaneously, photons of adequate energy propagate on the surfaces of such electronic structures and modify those into smooth elements, thus, disregard the phenomenon of localized surface plasmons. This study highlights the fundamental process of formation of tiny particles where the role of localized dynamics of atoms and their electronic structure along with interaction to light are discussed. Such a tool of processing materials, in nonequilibrium pulse-based process, opens a number of possibilities to develop engineered materials with specific chemical, optical, and electronic properties.

  17. The remote atmospheric and ionospheric detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, R.P.; Wolfram, K.D.; Meier, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) experiment, to fly on a TIROS spacecraft in the late 1980's, consists of a comprehensive set of one limb imaging and seven limb scanning optical sensors. These eight instruments span the spectral range from the extreme ultraviolet to the near infrared, allowing simultaneous observations of the neutral and ion composition on the day and night side as well as in the auroral region. The primary objective of RAIDS is to demonstrate a system for remote sensing of the ionosphere to produce global maps of the electron density, peak altitude and critical frequency

  18. Remote Network Access (RNA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... Remote Network Access (RNA) includes or is associated with all communication devices/software, firewalls, intrusion detection systems and virus protection applications to ensure security of the OIG, DoD, Network from remote...

  19. Introduction to remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Cracknell, Arthur P

    2007-01-01

    Addressing the need for updated information in remote sensing, Introduction to Remote Sensing, Second Edition provides a full and authoritative introduction for scientists who need to know the scope, potential, and limitations in the field. The authors discuss the physical principles of common remote sensing systems and examine the processing, interpretation, and applications of data. This new edition features updated and expanded material, including greater coverage of applications from across earth, environmental, atmospheric, and oceanographic sciences. Illustrated with remotely sensed colo

  20. Remote detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, K.V.; France, S.W.; Garcia, C.; Hastings, R.D.

    1981-05-01

    A newly designed remote detection system has been developed at Los Alamos that allows the collection of high-resolution gamma-ray spectra and neutron data from a remote location. The system consists of the remote unit and a command unit. The remote unit collects data in a potentially hostile environment while the operator controls the unit by either radio or wire link from a safe position. Both units are battery powered and are housed in metal carrying cases

  1. High-spatial-resolution electron density measurement by Langmuir probe for multi-point observations using tiny spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, H.; Røed, K.; Bekkeng, T. A.; Trondsen, E.; Clausen, L. B. N.; Miloch, W. J.; Moen, J. I.

    2017-11-01

    A method for evaluating electron density using a single fixed-bias Langmuir probe is presented. The technique allows for high-spatio-temporal resolution electron density measurements, which can be effectively carried out by tiny spacecraft for multi-point observations in the ionosphere. The results are compared with the multi-needle Langmuir probe system, which is a scientific instrument developed at the University of Oslo comprising four fixed-bias cylindrical probes that allow small-scale plasma density structures to be characterized in the ionosphere. The technique proposed in this paper can comply with the requirements of future small-sized spacecraft, where the cost-effectiveness, limited space available on the craft, low power consumption and capacity for data-links need to be addressed. The first experimental results in both the plasma laboratory and space confirm the efficiency of the new approach. Moreover, detailed analyses on two challenging issues when deploying the DC Langmuir probe on a tiny spacecraft, which are the limited conductive area of the spacecraft and probe surface contamination, are presented in the paper. It is demonstrated that the limited conductive area, depending on applications, can either be of no concern for the experiment or can be resolved by mitigation methods. Surface contamination has a small impact on the performance of the developed probe.

  2. Effect of hydrogen on transformation characteristics and deformation behavior in a Ti-Ni shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshiya, Taiji; Ando, Hiroei; Den, Shoji; Katsuta, Hiroshi.

    1992-01-01

    Transformation characteristics and deformation behavior of hydrogenated Ti-50.5 at% Ni alloys, which were occluded in a low pressure range of hydrogen between 1.1 and 78.5 kPa, have been studied by electrical resistivity measurement, tensile test, X-ray diffraction analysis and microstructural observation. M S temperature of the Ti-Ni alloys decreased with an increase in hydrogen content. This corresponds to the stabilization of the parent phase during cooling, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction: The suppression effect of hydrogen takes place on the martensitic transformation. Critical stress for slip deformation of hydrogenated Ti-Ni alloys changed with hydrogen content and thus hydrogen had a major influence on deformation behavior of those alloys. With hydrogen contents above 0.032 mol%, hardening was distinguished from softening which was pronounced in the contents from 0 to 0.032 mol% H. Hydrides were formed in hydrogen contents over 1.9 mol%. The hydride formation results in the reorientation in variants of the R phase and increase in the lattice strains of the parent phase. (author)

  3. How extreme is extreme hourly precipitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Dialynas, Yannis G.; Pappas, Christoforos

    2016-04-01

    The importance of accurate representation of precipitation at fine time scales (e.g., hourly), directly associated with flash flood events, is crucial in hydrological design and prediction. The upper part of a probability distribution, known as the distribution tail, determines the behavior of extreme events. In general, and loosely speaking, tails can be categorized in two families: the subexponential and the hyperexponential family, with the first generating more intense and more frequent extremes compared to the latter. In past studies, the focus has been mainly on daily precipitation, with the Gamma distribution being the most popular model. Here, we investigate the behaviour of tails of hourly precipitation by comparing the upper part of empirical distributions of thousands of records with three general types of tails corresponding to the Pareto, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions. Specifically, we use thousands of hourly rainfall records from all over the USA. The analysis indicates that heavier-tailed distributions describe better the observed hourly rainfall extremes in comparison to lighter tails. Traditional representations of the marginal distribution of hourly rainfall may significantly deviate from observed behaviours of extremes, with direct implications on hydroclimatic variables modelling and engineering design.

  4. Optimization with Extremal Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettcher, Stefan; Percus, Allon G.

    2001-01-01

    We explore a new general-purpose heuristic for finding high-quality solutions to hard discrete optimization problems. The method, called extremal optimization, is inspired by self-organized criticality, a concept introduced to describe emergent complexity in physical systems. Extremal optimization successively updates extremely undesirable variables of a single suboptimal solution, assigning them new, random values. Large fluctuations ensue, efficiently exploring many local optima. We use extremal optimization to elucidate the phase transition in the 3-coloring problem, and we provide independent confirmation of previously reported extrapolations for the ground-state energy of ±J spin glasses in d=3 and 4

  5. Characterization and study of the behavior of wire Ti-Ni with shape memory effect enables manufacture of actuators; Estudo da caracterizacao e do comportamento de fios de Ti-Ni com efeito memoria de forma viabilizando fabricacao de atuadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pina, E.A.C.; Araujo Filho, O.O. de; Urtiga Filho, S.L.; Gonzalez, C.H., E-mail: kikipina@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEM/CTG/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    This work aims to characterize the wire commercial Ti-Ni of 1.27 mm in diameter with shape memory effect for the development of helical springs with the function of sensor / actuator. After heat treatment, the transformation temperatures, the presence of precipitates, the degree of damping, maximum stress of rupture, modulus of elasticity, the presence of phase R, the behavior of the alloy under tension, will be analyzed and compared in each situation. For characterization we used several methods including: heat treatment, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), tensile, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), X-ray diffraction, thermomechanical cycling. The wires were cut into pieces and heat-treated at 400 deg C with variation of time in muffle furnaces and quenching in water at 25 deg C. (author)

  6. Classifying Returns as Extreme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    I consider extreme returns for the stock and bond markets of 14 EU countries using two classification schemes: One, the univariate classification scheme from the previous literature that classifies extreme returns for each market separately, and two, a novel multivariate classification scheme tha...

  7. Micromechanical characteristics of an Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-TiNi ceramic produced in a high-pressure chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barashkov, G.A.; Neshpor, V.S.; Berdikov, V.F.; Pushkarev, O.I.; Lavrenova, E. A.

    1987-03-01

    The micromechanical characteristics of an Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-TiNi ceramic produced in high-pressure chambers under conditions of forced mass transfer are investigated experimentally using the microindentation method. The objective of the study is to use micromechanical characteristics to determine the time required for producing an Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-TiNi ceramic with a fully formed structure. It is found that the process of forced mass transfer and crystallization is completed within 60-120 s.

  8. Kulturní hodnoty tzv. Mariánského trojúhelníku - Sloup, Vranov, Křtiny

    OpenAIRE

    Bezděková, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    In the Moravian Karst there are three big churches consecrated to The Virgin Mary. These are visited by many pilgrims and have their own calendar of pilgrimages. They are Vranov, Křtiny and Sloup. Churches in these towns are consecrated to The Virgin Mary: Vranov commemorates the birth of The Virgin Mary, Křtiny commemorates the name of The Virgin Mary and Sloup commemorates the sufferings of The Virgin Mary. So we talk about the triangle of The Virgin Mary. This term is the main point of my ...

  9. Remote Monitoring Transparency Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhoruchkin, V.K.; Shmelev, V.M.; Roumiantsev, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the Remote Monitoring Transparency Program is to evaluate and demonstrate the use of remote monitoring technologies to advance nonproliferation and transparency efforts that are currently being developed by Russia and the United States without compromising the national security to the participating parties. Under a lab-to-lab transparency contract between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Kurchatov Institute (KI RRC), the Kurchatov Institute will analyze technical and procedural aspects of the application of remote monitoring as a transparency measure to monitor inventories of direct- use HEU and plutonium (e.g., material recovered from dismantled nuclear weapons). A goal of this program is to assist a broad range of political and technical experts in learning more about remote monitoring technologies that could be used to implement nonproliferation, arms control, and other security and confidence building measures. Specifically, this program will: (1) begin integrating Russian technologies into remote monitoring systems; (2) develop remote monitoring procedures that will assist in the application of remote monitoring techniques to monitor inventories of HEU and Pu from dismantled nuclear weapons; and (3) conduct a workshop to review remote monitoring fundamentals, demonstrate an integrated US/Russian remote monitoring system, and discuss the impacts that remote monitoring will have on the national security of participating countries

  10. A high-stability scanning tunneling microscope achieved by an isolated tiny scanner with low voltage imaging capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qi; Wang, Junting; Lu, Qingyou; Hou, Yubin

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel homebuilt scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with high quality atomic resolution. It is equipped with a small but powerful GeckoDrive piezoelectric motor which drives a miniature and detachable scanning part to implement coarse approach. The scanning part is a tiny piezoelectric tube scanner (industry type: PZT-8, whose d 31 coefficient is one of the lowest) housed in a slightly bigger polished sapphire tube, which is riding on and spring clamped against the knife edges of a tungsten slot. The STM so constructed shows low back-lashing and drifting and high repeatability and immunity to external vibrations. These are confirmed by its low imaging voltages, low distortions in the spiral scanned images, and high atomic resolution quality even when the STM is placed on the ground of the fifth floor without any external or internal vibration isolation devices

  11. A high-stability scanning tunneling microscope achieved by an isolated tiny scanner with low voltage imaging capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Hou, Yubin; Wang, Junting; Lu, Qingyou

    2013-11-01

    We present a novel homebuilt scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with high quality atomic resolution. It is equipped with a small but powerful GeckoDrive piezoelectric motor which drives a miniature and detachable scanning part to implement coarse approach. The scanning part is a tiny piezoelectric tube scanner (industry type: PZT-8, whose d31 coefficient is one of the lowest) housed in a slightly bigger polished sapphire tube, which is riding on and spring clamped against the knife edges of a tungsten slot. The STM so constructed shows low back-lashing and drifting and high repeatability and immunity to external vibrations. These are confirmed by its low imaging voltages, low distortions in the spiral scanned images, and high atomic resolution quality even when the STM is placed on the ground of the fifth floor without any external or internal vibration isolation devices.

  12. A high-stability scanning tunneling microscope achieved by an isolated tiny scanner with low voltage imaging capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Hou, Yubin; Wang, Junting; Lu, Qingyou

    2013-11-01

    We present a novel homebuilt scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with high quality atomic resolution. It is equipped with a small but powerful GeckoDrive piezoelectric motor which drives a miniature and detachable scanning part to implement coarse approach. The scanning part is a tiny piezoelectric tube scanner (industry type: PZT-8, whose d31 coefficient is one of the lowest) housed in a slightly bigger polished sapphire tube, which is riding on and spring clamped against the knife edges of a tungsten slot. The STM so constructed shows low back-lashing and drifting and high repeatability and immunity to external vibrations. These are confirmed by its low imaging voltages, low distortions in the spiral scanned images, and high atomic resolution quality even when the STM is placed on the ground of the fifth floor without any external or internal vibration isolation devices.

  13. Interfacial characteristics and fracture behavior of spark-plasma-sintered TiNi fiber-reinforced 2024Al matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Peng; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Wenxian; Chen, Shaoping; Zhou, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Embedding of shape memory alloy (SMA) fibers into materials to fabricate SMA composites has attracted considerable attention because of the potential applicability of these composites in smart systems and structures. In this study, 2024Al matrix composites reinforced by continuous TiNi SMA fibers were fabricated using spark plasma sintering (SPS). The interface between the fibers and matrix consisted of a bilayer. The layer close to the fiber consisted of a multiple phase mixture, and the other layer exhibited a periodic morphology resulting from the alternating phases of Al 3 Ti and Al 3 Ni. In addition, a small quantity of TiO 2 phases was also observed in the interface layer. Based on detailed interface studies of the orientation relationships between the Al 3 Ti, Al 3 Ni, and TiO 2 phases and the atomic correspondence at phase boundaries, the effects of the interface phases on the fracture behavior of the composites were demonstrated.

  14. Heat treatments and thermomechanical cycling influences on the R-phase in Ti-Ni shape memory alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar Henrique Gonzalez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article studies changes observed on the R-phase thermoelastic behavior in a near-equiatomic Ti-Ni shape memory alloy. Three kinds of procedures have been performed: different treatments, thermomechanical cycling under constant loading in shape memory helical springs and thermal cycling in as-treated and trained samples. Several heat treatments were carried out to investigate evolution of the R-phase by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. A heat treatment was chosen on which R-phase is absent. Shape memory springs were produced and submitted to a training process in an apparatus by tensioning the springs under constant loading. Thermal cycling in DSC was realized in as-treated and trained samples. Several aspects of one-step (B2→B19' and two-steps (B2→R→B19' martensitic transformations and R-phase formation and their evolution during tests were observed and discussed.

  15. Effect of plastic strain on shape memory characteristics in sputter-deposited Ti-Ni thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, K.

    1995-01-01

    The plastic strain which is introduced during cooling and heating under a constant stress has an influence upon the transformation and deformation characteristics of sputter-deposited Ti-Ni shape memory alloy thin films. With increasing the accumulated plastic strain, Ms rises and recovery strain increases. The changes in such characteristics are due to the internal stress field that is formed by plastic deformation. However, the change in Ms in Ti-50.5at%Ni is larger than that in Ti-48.9at%Ni, although the plastic strain in the former is lower than that in the latter. In order to understand this point, the effective internal stresses were estimated in both alloys; the internal stress in the former is more effectively created by the introduction of plastic strain than in the latter. (orig.)

  16. Lossless synthesis of graphene nanosheets decorated with tiny cadmium sulfide quantum dots with excellent nonlinear optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Miao; Zhan Hongbing; Sun Ruiqing; Chen Yu

    2010-01-01

    The implantation and growth of metal nanoparticles on graphene nanosheets (GNS) leads directly to severe damage to the regular structure of the graphene sheets, which disrupts the extended π conjugation, resulting in an impaired device performance. In this paper, we describe a facile approach for achieving the lossless formation of graphene composite decorated with tiny cadmium sulfide quantum dots (QDs) with excellent nonlinear optical properties by using benzyl mercaptan (BM) as the interlinker. The mercapto substituent of BM binds to the CdS QDs during their nucleation and growth process, and then the phenyl comes into contact with the GNS via the π-π stacking interaction. Using this strategy, CdS QDs with an average diameter of 3 nm are uniformly dispersed over the surface of graphene, and the resulting QD-graphene composite exhibits excellent optical limiting properties, mainly contributed by nonlinear scattering and nonlinear absorption, upon both 532 and 1064 nm excitations, in the nanosecond laser pulse regime.

  17. Rubber bulge forming of single-stage bellows of TiNi shape memory alloy using the displacement control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senba, Hiromasa; Yamaji, Toru; Okita, Keisuke; Okabe, Nagatoshi; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Matsumoto, Kenya

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the bulge process for forming the single-stage bellows of TiNi shape memory alloys, which is proposed as a new type of seismic applications, and especially considering the material's special behavior. Thin walled tubes with 20% cold work, whose composition is Ti-51.0 at% Ni, were prepared. First they are appropriately heat-treated and then the rubber bulge process is introduced for the tubes under the condition of austenite phase at room temperature. Displacement control method is adapted to the process. Theoretical prediction of change in outer diameter of the tube on compression is derived, and modified taking into account the progress of the stress-induced martensite transformation on tube's surface by observing the detachment of the oxide layer of the surface. Finally theoretical relationship between compressive displacement and the outer diameter of the tube, which is the most important for the design of the bellows shape, is cleared. (author)

  18. Characterization and study of the behavior of wire Ti-Ni with shape memory effect enables manufacture of actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, E.A.C.; Araujo Filho, O.O. de; Urtiga Filho, S.L.; Gonzalez, C.H.

    2010-01-01

    This work aims to characterize the wire commercial Ti-Ni of 1.27 mm in diameter with shape memory effect for the development of helical springs with the function of sensor / actuator. After heat treatment, the transformation temperatures, the presence of precipitates, the degree of damping, maximum stress of rupture, modulus of elasticity, the presence of phase R, the behavior of the alloy under tension, will be analyzed and compared in each situation. For characterization we used several methods including: heat treatment, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), tensile, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), X-ray diffraction, thermomechanical cycling. The wires were cut into pieces and heat-treated at 400 deg C with variation of time in muffle furnaces and quenching in water at 25 deg C. (author)

  19. Laser heat stimulation of tiny skin areas adds valuable information to quantitative sensory testing in postherpetic neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Marcel; Spohn, Dorothee; Ritter, Alexander; Rolke, Roman; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Weiss, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Patients suffering from postherpetic neuralgia often complain about hypo- or hypersensation in the affected dermatome. The loss of thermal sensitivity has been demonstrated by quantitative sensory testing as being associated with small-fiber (Aδ- and C-fiber) deafferentation. We aimed to compare laser stimulation (radiant heat) to thermode stimulation (contact heat) with regard to their sensitivity and specificity to detect thermal sensory deficits related to small-fiber dysfunction in postherpetic neuralgia. We contrasted detection rate of laser stimuli with 5 thermal parameters (thresholds of cold/warm detection, cold/heat pain, and sensory limen) of quantitative sensory testing. Sixteen patients diagnosed with unilateral postherpetic neuralgia and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects were tested. Quantitative sensory testing and laser stimulation of tiny skin areas were performed in the neuralgia-affected skin and in the contralateral homologue of the neuralgia-free body side. Across the 5 thermal parameters of thermode stimulation, only one parameter (warm detection threshold) revealed sensory abnormalities (thermal hypoesthesia to warm stimuli) in the neuralgia-affected skin area of patients but not in the contralateral area, as compared to the control group. In contrast, patients perceived significantly less laser stimuli both in the affected skin and in the contralateral skin compared to controls. Overall, laser stimulation proved more sensitive and specific in detecting thermal sensory abnormalities in the neuralgia-affected skin, as well as in the control skin, than any single thermal parameter of thermode stimulation. Thus, laser stimulation of tiny skin areas might be a useful diagnostic tool for small-fiber dysfunction. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Remote metal analysis by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckworth, A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a new technique by which the composition of irradiated or inaccessible reactor components can be determined remotely. The technique uses very short duration, high energy laser pulses at a wavelength which can be transmitted down an optical fibre to ablate a tiny plasma from the surface of a metal component. Light from the plasma is collected by a second fibre and returned to a spectrometer where it is split into the characteristic emission wavelengths of the elements in the sample. Comparison of the emission line amplitude for a particular element with that of a chosen calibration line can be used to deduce the concentration of the element in the sample. The technique has been used successfully to differentiate between different highly radioactive control rod batches at Sizewell ''A'' and Hinkley Point ''A'' Power Stations. The material analysis accuracy is comparable with that obtained from electron microphobe analysis and other direct spectroscopic methods. However, by analysing the mild steel control rod casing material remotely, difficult sample removal becomes unneccessary and the integrity of the component remains essentially unaltered. In addition, removal of deposits or surface corrosion is incorporated very neatly into the process. These factors make remote laser induced breakdown spectroscopy an ideal tool for material analysis in the nuclear environment. (UK)

  1. Remote metal analysis by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckworth, A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a new technique by which the composition of irradiated or inaccessible reactor components can be determined remotely. The technique uses very short duration, high energy laser pulses at a wavelength which can be transmitted down an optical fibre to ablate a tiny plasma from the surface of a metal component. Light from the plasma is collected by a second fibre and returned to a spectrometer where it is split into the characteristic emission wavelengths of the elements in the sample. Comparison of the emission line amplitude for a particular element with that of a chosen calibrationline can be used to deduce the concentration of the element in the sample. The technique has been used successfully to differentiate between highly radioactive control rod batches at Sizewell 'A' and Hinkley Point 'A Power Stations. The material analysis accuracy is comparable with that obtained from electron microprobe analysis and other direct spectroscopic methods. However, by analysing the mild steel control rod casing material remotely, difficult sample removal becomes unnecessary and the integrity of the component remains essentially unaltered. In addition, removal of deposits or surface corrosion is incorporated very neatly into the process. These factors make remote laser induced breakdown spectroscopy an ideal tool for material analysis in the nuclear environment. (Author)

  2. Extreme physics take a quantum leap... to the edge of science

    CERN Document Server

    Basher, Simon

    2013-01-01

    In Basher's totally hip and quirky style, readers are introduced to the amazing research that is revolutionizing physics! From the pioneering experiments taking place in the Hadron Collider to NASAs deep-space exploration, "Basher Science: Extreme Physics "highlights the realm of miniscule things that was discovered in the early 1900s by scientists who were on the hunt for teeny-tiny parts of matter, the bits from which all larger things are made. This wild, uncertain world is bursting with crazy characters you're about to meet-youre gonna love them!

  3. Optical remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Saurabh; Chanussot, Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    Optical remote sensing relies on exploiting multispectral and hyper spectral imagery possessing high spatial and spectral resolutions respectively. These modalities, although useful for most remote sensing tasks, often present challenges that must be addressed for their effective exploitation. This book presents current state-of-the-art algorithms that address the following key challenges encountered in representation and analysis of such optical remotely sensed data: challenges in pre-processing images, storing and representing high dimensional data, fusing different sensor modalities, patter

  4. REMOTE SENSING IN OCEANOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    remote sensing from satellites. Sensing of oceanographic variables from aircraft began with the photographing of waves and ice. Since then remote measurement of sea surface temperatures and wave heights have become routine. Sensors tested for oceanographic applications include multi-band color cameras, radar scatterometers, infrared spectrometers and scanners, passive microwave radiometers, and radar imagers. Remote sensing has found its greatest application in providing rapid coverage of large oceanographic areas for synoptic and analysis and

  5. Advanced Remote Sensing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, Terrence; Jones, John W.; Price, Susan D.; Hogan, Dianna

    2008-01-01

    'Remote sensing' is a generic term for monitoring techniques that collect information without being in physical contact with the object of study. Overhead imagery from aircraft and satellite sensors provides the most common form of remotely sensed data and records the interaction of electromagnetic energy (usually visible light) with matter, such as the Earth's surface. Remotely sensed data are fundamental to geographic science. The Eastern Geographic Science Center (EGSC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is currently conducting and promoting the research and development of three different aspects of remote sensing science: spectral analysis, automated orthorectification of historical imagery, and long wave infrared (LWIR) polarimetric imagery (PI).

  6. Remote Maintenance Monitoring System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Remote Maintenance and Monitoring System (RMMS) is a collection of subsystems that includes telecommunication components, hardware, and software, which serve to...

  7. Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory deploys rugged, cutting-edge electro-optical instrumentation for the collection of various event signatures, with expertise in...

  8. Remote Systems Design & Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2009-08-28

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) to provide information and lessons learned relating to the design, development and deployment of remote systems, particularly remote arm/manipulator systems. This report reflects PNNL’s experience with remote systems and lays out the most important activities that need to be completed to successfully design, build, deploy and operate remote systems in radioactive and chemically contaminated environments. It also contains lessons learned from PNNL’s work experiences, and the work of others in the national laboratory complex.

  9. Remote docking apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dent, T.H.; Sumpman, W.C.; Wilhelm, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    The remote docking apparatus comprises a support plate with locking devices mounted thereon. The locking devices are capable of being inserted into tubular members for suspending the support plate therefrom. A vertical member is attached to the support plate with an attachment mechanism attached to the vertical member. A remote access manipulator is capable of being attached to the attachment mechanism so that the vertical member can position the remote access manipulator so that the remote access manipulator can be initially attached to the tubular members in a well defined manner

  10. Extremal surface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Wall, Aron C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a generic condition for Lorentzian manifolds to have a barrier that limits the reach of boundary-anchored extremal surfaces of arbitrary dimension. We show that any surface with nonpositive extrinsic curvature is a barrier, in the sense that extremal surfaces cannot be continuously deformed past it. Furthermore, the outermost barrier surface has nonnegative extrinsic curvature. Under certain conditions, we show that the existence of trapped surfaces implies a barrier, and conversely. In the context of AdS/CFT, these barriers imply that it is impossible to reconstruct the entire bulk using extremal surfaces. We comment on the implications for the firewall controversy

  11. Statistics of Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Davison, Anthony C.; Huser, Raphaë l

    2015-01-01

    Statistics of extremes concerns inference for rare events. Often the events have never yet been observed, and their probabilities must therefore be estimated by extrapolation of tail models fitted to available data. Because data concerning the event

  12. Analysis of extreme events

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khuluse, S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ) determination of the distribution of the damage and (iii) preparation of products that enable prediction of future risk events. The methodology provided by extreme value theory can also be a powerful tool in risk analysis...

  13. Acute lower extremity ischaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute lower extremity ischaemia. Acute lower limb ischaemia is a surgical emergency. ... is ~1.5 cases per 10 000 persons per year. Acute ischaemia ... Table 2. Clinical features discriminating embolic from thrombotic ALEXI. Clinical features.

  14. Change of texture, microdeformation and hardness in surface layer of TiNi alloy depending on the number of pulses of electron beam effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisner, L. L.; Meisner, S. N.; Markov, A. B.; Yakovlev, E. V.; Ozur, G. E.; Rotshtein, V. P.; Mironov, Yu. P.

    2015-01-01

    This work comprises a study of the influence of the pulse number of low-energy high-current electron beam (LEHCEB) exposure on the value and character of distribution of residual elastic stresses, texturing effects and the relationship between structural-phase states and physical and mechanical properties of the modified surface layers of TiNi alloy. LEHCEB processing of the surface of TiNi samples was carried out using a RITM-SP [3] installation. Energy density of electron beam was constant at E s = 3.9 ± 0.5 J/cm 2 ; pulse duration was 2.8 ± 0.3 μs. The number of pulses in the series was changeable, (n = 2–128). It was shown that as the result of multiple LEHCEB processing of TiNi samples, hierarchically organized multilayer structure is formed in the surface layer. The residual stress field of planar type is formed in the modified surface layer as following: in the direction of the normal to the surface the strain component ε ⊥ < 0 (compressing strain), and in a direction parallel to the surface, the strain component ε || > 0 (tensile deformation). Texturing effects and the level of residual stresses after LEHCEB processing of TiNi samples with equal energy density of electron beam (∼3.8 J/cm 2 ) depend on the number of pulses and increase with the rise of n > 10

  15. The influence of the substrate on the adhesive strength of the micro-arc oxidation coating developed on TiNi shape memory alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Shy-Feng; Ou, Shih-Fu; Chou, Chia-Kai

    2017-01-01

    TiNi shape memory alloys (SMAs), used as long-term implant materials, have a disadvantage. Ni-ion release from the alloys may trigger allergies in the human body. Micro-arc oxidation has been utilized to modify the surface of the TiNi SMA for improving its corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. However, there are very few reports investigating the essential adhesive strength between the micro-arc oxidized film and TiNi SMA. Two primary goals were attained by this study. First, Ti50Ni48.5Mo1.5 SMA having a phase transformation temperature (Af) less than body temperature and good shape recovery were prepared. Next, the Ti50Ni50 and Ti50Ni48.5Mo1.5 SMA surfaces were modified by micro-arc oxidation in phosphoric acid by applying relatively low voltages to maintain the adhesive strength. The results indicated that the pore size, film thickness, and P content increased with applied voltage. The micro-arc oxidized film, comprising Ti oxides, Ni oxide, and phosphate compounds, exhibited a glassy amorphous structure. The outmost surface of the micro-arc oxidized film contained a large amount of P (>12 at%) but only a trace of Ni (micro-arc oxidized films exceeded the requirements of ISO 13779. Furthermore, Mo addition into TiNi SMAs was found to be favorable for improving the adhesive strength of the micro-arc oxidized film.

  16. Hyperspectral remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Eismann, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is an emerging, multidisciplinary field with diverse applications that builds on the principles of material spectroscopy, radiative transfer, imaging spectrometry, and hyperspectral data processing. This book provides a holistic treatment that captures its multidisciplinary nature, emphasizing the physical principles of hyperspectral remote sensing.

  17. Remote actuated valve implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Timothy E; Johnson, Anthony; Moise, Jr., Kenneth J; Ericson, Milton Nance; Baba, Justin S; Wilgen, John B; Evans, III, Boyd McCutchen

    2014-02-25

    Valve implant systems positionable within a flow passage, the systems having an inlet, an outlet, and a remotely activatable valve between the inlet and outlet, with the valves being operable to provide intermittent occlusion of the flow path. A remote field is applied to provide thermal or magnetic activation of the valves.

  18. Remote handling at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, D.L.; Lambert, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental area A at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) encompasses a large area. Presently there are four experimental target cells along the main proton beam line that have become highly radioactive, thus dictating that all maintenance be performed remotely. The Monitor remote handling system was developed to perform in situ maintenance at any location within area A. Due to the complexity of experimental systems and confined space, conventional remote handling methods based upon hot cell and/or hot bay concepts are not workable. Contrary to conventional remote handling which require special tooling for each specifically planned operation, the Monitor concept is aimed at providing a totally flexible system capable of remotely performing general mechanical and electrical maintenance operations using standard tools. The Monitor system is described

  19. Remote vehicle survey tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Burks, B.L.; Kress, R.L.; Wagner, D.G.; Ward, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Remote Vehicle Survey Tool (RVS7) is a color graphical display tool for viewing remotely acquired scientific data. The RVST displays the data in the form of a color two-dimensional world model map. The world model map allows movement of the remote vehicle to be tracked by the operator and the data from sensors to be graphically depicted in the interface. Linear and logarithmic meters, dual channel oscilloscopes, and directional compasses are used to display sensor information. The RVST is user-configurable by the use of ASCII text files. The operator can configure the RVST to work with any remote data acquisition system and teleoperated or autonomous vehicle. The modular design of the RVST and its ability to be quickly configured for varying system requirements make the RVST ideal for remote scientific data display in all environmental restoration and waste management programs

  20. Extreme Programming: Maestro Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jeffrey; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, I-Hsiang; Powell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    "Extreme Programming: Maestro Style" is the name of a computer programming methodology that has evolved as a custom version of a methodology, called extreme programming that has been practiced in the software industry since the late 1990s. The name of this version reflects its origin in the work of the Maestro team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory that develops software for Mars exploration missions. Extreme programming is oriented toward agile development of software resting on values of simplicity, communication, testing, and aggressiveness. Extreme programming involves use of methods of rapidly building and disseminating institutional knowledge among members of a computer-programming team to give all the members a shared view that matches the view of the customers for whom the software system is to be developed. Extreme programming includes frequent planning by programmers in collaboration with customers, continually examining and rewriting code in striving for the simplest workable software designs, a system metaphor (basically, an abstraction of the system that provides easy-to-remember software-naming conventions and insight into the architecture of the system), programmers working in pairs, adherence to a set of coding standards, collaboration of customers and programmers, frequent verbal communication, frequent releases of software in small increments of development, repeated testing of the developmental software by both programmers and customers, and continuous interaction between the team and the customers. The environment in which the Maestro team works requires the team to quickly adapt to changing needs of its customers. In addition, the team cannot afford to accept unnecessary development risk. Extreme programming enables the Maestro team to remain agile and provide high-quality software and service to its customers. However, several factors in the Maestro environment have made it necessary to modify some of the conventional extreme

  1. NASA Fluid Lensing & MiDAR: Next-Generation Remote Sensing Technologies for Aquatic Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirayath, Ved

    2018-01-01

    We present two recent instrument technology developments at NASA, Fluid Lensing and MiDAR, and their application to remote sensing of Earth's aquatic systems. Fluid Lensing is the first remote sensing technology capable of imaging through ocean waves in 3D at sub-cm resolutions. MiDAR is a next-generation active hyperspectral remote sensing and optical communications instrument capable of active fluid lensing. Fluid Lensing has been used to provide 3D multispectral imagery of shallow marine systems from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, or drones), including coral reefs in American Samoa and stromatolite reefs in Hamelin Pool, Western Australia. MiDAR is being deployed on aircraft and underwater remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) to enable a new method for remote sensing of living and nonliving structures in extreme environments. MiDAR images targets with high-intensity narrowband structured optical radiation to measure an objectâ€"TM"s non-linear spectral reflectance, image through fluid interfaces such as ocean waves with active fluid lensing, and simultaneously transmit high-bandwidth data. As an active instrument, MiDAR is capable of remotely sensing reflectance at the centimeter (cm) spatial scale with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) multiple orders of magnitude higher than passive airborne and spaceborne remote sensing systems with significantly reduced integration time. This allows for rapid video-frame-rate hyperspectral sensing into the far ultraviolet and VNIR wavelengths. Previously, MiDAR was developed into a TRL 2 laboratory instrument capable of imaging in thirty-two narrowband channels across the VNIR spectrum (400-950nm). Recently, MiDAR UV was raised to TRL4 and expanded to include five ultraviolet bands from 280-400nm, permitting UV remote sensing capabilities in UV A, B, and C bands and enabling mineral identification and stimulated fluorescence measurements of organic proteins and compounds, such as green fluorescent proteins in terrestrial and

  2. Extreme meteorological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinger de Schwarzkopf, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    Different meteorological variables which may reach significant extreme values, such as the windspeed and, in particular, its occurrence through tornadoes and hurricanes that necesarily incide and wich must be taken into account at the time of nuclear power plants' installation, are analyzed. For this kind of study, it is necessary to determine the basic phenomenum of design. Two criteria are applied to define the basic values of design for extreme meteorological variables. The first one determines the expected extreme value: it is obtained from analyzing the recurence of the phenomenum in a convened period of time, wich may be generally of 50 years. The second one determines the extreme value of low probability, taking into account the nuclear power plant's operating life -f.ex. 25 years- and considering, during said lapse, the occurrence probabilities of extreme meteorological phenomena. The values may be determined either by the deterministic method, which is based on the acknowledgement of the fundamental physical characteristics of the phenomena or by the probabilistic method, that aims to the analysis of historical statistical data. Brief comments are made on the subject in relation to the Argentine Republic area. (R.J.S.) [es

  3. Acclimatization to extreme heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, M. E.; Ganguly, A. R.; Bhatia, U.

    2017-12-01

    Heat extremes throughout the globe, as well as in the United States, are expected to increase. These heat extremes have been shown to impact human health, resulting in some of the highest levels of lives lost as compared with similar natural disasters. But in order to inform decision makers and best understand future mortality and morbidity, adaptation and mitigation must be considered. Defined as the ability for individuals or society to change behavior and/or adapt physiologically, acclimatization encompasses the gradual adaptation that occurs over time. Therefore, this research aims to account for acclimatization to extreme heat by using a hybrid methodology that incorporates future air conditioning use and installation patterns with future temperature-related time series data. While previous studies have not accounted for energy usage patterns and market saturation scenarios, we integrate such factors to compare the impact of air conditioning as a tool for acclimatization, with a particular emphasis on mortality within vulnerable communities.

  4. Extremely deformable structures

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a new research stimulus has derived from the observation that soft structures, such as biological systems, but also rubber and gel, may work in a post critical regime, where elastic elements are subject to extreme deformations, though still exhibiting excellent mechanical performances. This is the realm of ‘extreme mechanics’, to which this book is addressed. The possibility of exploiting highly deformable structures opens new and unexpected technological possibilities. In particular, the challenge is the design of deformable and bi-stable mechanisms which can reach superior mechanical performances and can have a strong impact on several high-tech applications, including stretchable electronics, nanotube serpentines, deployable structures for aerospace engineering, cable deployment in the ocean, but also sensors and flexible actuators and vibration absorbers. Readers are introduced to a variety of interrelated topics involving the mechanics of extremely deformable structures, with emphasis on ...

  5. Statistics of Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Davison, Anthony C.

    2015-04-10

    Statistics of extremes concerns inference for rare events. Often the events have never yet been observed, and their probabilities must therefore be estimated by extrapolation of tail models fitted to available data. Because data concerning the event of interest may be very limited, efficient methods of inference play an important role. This article reviews this domain, emphasizing current research topics. We first sketch the classical theory of extremes for maxima and threshold exceedances of stationary series. We then review multivariate theory, distinguishing asymptotic independence and dependence models, followed by a description of models for spatial and spatiotemporal extreme events. Finally, we discuss inference and describe two applications. Animations illustrate some of the main ideas. © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  6. Adventure and Extreme Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin

    2016-03-01

    Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Extremal graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bollobas, Bela

    2004-01-01

    The ever-expanding field of extremal graph theory encompasses a diverse array of problem-solving methods, including applications to economics, computer science, and optimization theory. This volume, based on a series of lectures delivered to graduate students at the University of Cambridge, presents a concise yet comprehensive treatment of extremal graph theory.Unlike most graph theory treatises, this text features complete proofs for almost all of its results. Further insights into theory are provided by the numerous exercises of varying degrees of difficulty that accompany each chapter. A

  8. Increasing tobacco quitline calls from pregnant african american women: the "one tiny reason to quit" social marketing campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, May G; Genderson, Maureen Wilson; Sepulveda, Allison L; Garland, Sheryl L; Wilson, Diane Baer; Stith-Singleton, Rose; Dubuque, Susan

    2013-05-01

    Pregnant African American women are at disproportionately high risk of premature birth and infant mortality, outcomes associated with cigarette smoking. Telephone-based, individual smoking cessation counseling has been shown to result in successful quit attempts in the general population and among pregnant women, but "quitlines" are underutilized. A social marketing campaign called One Tiny Reason to Quit (OTRTQ) promoted calling a quitline (1-800-QUIT-NOW) to pregnant, African American women in Richmond, Virginia, in 2009 and was replicated there 2 years later. The campaign disseminated messages via radio, interior bus ads, posters, newspaper ads, and billboards. Trained volunteers also delivered messages face-to-face and distributed branded give-away reminder items. The number of calls made from pregnant women in the Richmond area during summer 2009 was contrasted with (a) the number of calls during the seasons immediately before and after the campaign, and (b) the number of calls the previous summer. The replication used the same evaluation design. There were statistically significant spikes in calls from pregnant women during both campaign waves for both types of contrasts. A higher proportion of the calls from pregnant women were from African Americans during the campaign. A multimodal quitline promotion like OTRTQ should be considered for geographic areas with sizable African American populations and high rates of infant mortality.

  9. Increasing Tobacco Quitline Calls from Pregnant African American Women: The “One Tiny Reason to Quit” Social Marketing Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genderson, Maureen Wilson; Sepulveda, Allison L.; Garland, Sheryl L.; Wilson, Diane Baer; Stith-Singleton, Rose; Dubuque, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Pregnant African American women are at disproportionately high risk of premature birth and infant mortality, outcomes associated with cigarette smoking. Telephone-based, individual smoking cessation counseling has been shown to result in successful quit attempts in the general population and among pregnant women, but “quitlines” are underutilized. A social marketing campaign called One Tiny Reason to Quit (OTRTQ) promoted calling a quitline (1-800-QUIT-NOW) to pregnant, African American women in Richmond, Virginia, in 2009 and was replicated there 2 years later. Methods The campaign disseminated messages via radio, interior bus ads, posters, newspaper ads, and billboards. Trained volunteers also delivered messages face-to-face and distributed branded give-away reminder items. The number of calls made from pregnant women in the Richmond area during summer 2009 was contrasted with (a) the number of calls during the seasons immediately before and after the campaign, and (b) the number of calls the previous summer. The replication used the same evaluation design. Results There were statistically significant spikes in calls from pregnant women during both campaign waves for both types of contrasts. A higher proportion of the calls from pregnant women were from African Americans during the campaign. Conclusion A multimodal quitline promotion like OTRTQ should be considered for geographic areas with sizable African American populations and high rates of infant mortality. PMID:23621745

  10. Interfacial characteristics and fracture behavior of spark-plasma-sintered TiNi fiber-reinforced 2024Al matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Peng, E-mail: dongpeng@tyut.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Shanxi Key Laboratory of Advanced Magnesium-Based Materials, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Wang, Zhe [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Wenxian [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Shanxi Key Laboratory of Advanced Magnesium-Based Materials, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Chen, Shaoping [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Zhou, Jun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University Erie, Erie, PA 16563 (United States)

    2017-04-13

    Embedding of shape memory alloy (SMA) fibers into materials to fabricate SMA composites has attracted considerable attention because of the potential applicability of these composites in smart systems and structures. In this study, 2024Al matrix composites reinforced by continuous TiNi SMA fibers were fabricated using spark plasma sintering (SPS). The interface between the fibers and matrix consisted of a bilayer. The layer close to the fiber consisted of a multiple phase mixture, and the other layer exhibited a periodic morphology resulting from the alternating phases of Al{sub 3}Ti and Al{sub 3}Ni. In addition, a small quantity of TiO{sub 2} phases was also observed in the interface layer. Based on detailed interface studies of the orientation relationships between the Al{sub 3}Ti, Al{sub 3}Ni, and TiO{sub 2} phases and the atomic correspondence at phase boundaries, the effects of the interface phases on the fracture behavior of the composites were demonstrated.

  11. Stellar extreme ultraviolet astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, W.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The design, calibration, and launch of a rocket-borne imaging telescope for extreme ultraviolet astronomy are described. The telescope, which employed diamond-turned grazing incidence optics and a ranicon detector, was launched November 19, 1976, from the White Sands Missile Range. The telescope performed well and returned data on several potential stellar sources of extreme ultraviolet radiation. Upper limits ten to twenty times more sensitive than previously available were obtained for the extreme ultraviolet flux from the white dwarf Sirius B. These limits fall a factor of seven below the flux predicted for the star and demonstrate that the temperature of Sirius B is not 32,000 K as previously measured, but is below 30,000 K. The new upper limits also rule out the photosphere of the white dwarf as the source of the recently reported soft x-rays from Sirius. Two other white dwarf stars, Feige 24 and G191-B2B, were observed. Upper limits on the flux at 300 A were interpreted as lower limits on the interstellar hydrogen column densities to these stars. The lower limits indicate interstellar hydrogen densitites of greater than .02 cm -3 . Four nearby stars (Sirius, Procyon, Capella, and Mirzam) were observed in a search for intense low temperature coronae or extended chromospheres. No extreme ultraviolet radiation from these stars was detected, and upper limits to their coronal emisson measures are derived

  12. Extremity x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003461.htm Extremity x-ray To use the sharing features on this page, ... in the body Risks There is low-level radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the ...

  13. Extremity perfusion for sarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Harald Joan

    2008-01-01

    For more than 50 years, the technique of extremity perfusion has been explored in the limb salvage treatment of local, recurrent, and multifocal sarcomas. The "discovery" of tumor necrosis factor-or. in combination with melphalan was a real breakthrough in the treatment of primarily irresectable

  14. Statistics of Local Extremes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Bierbooms, W.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2003-01-01

    . A theoretical expression for the probability density function associated with local extremes of a stochasticprocess is presented. The expression is basically based on the lower four statistical moments and a bandwidth parameter. The theoretical expression is subsequently verified by comparison with simulated...

  15. Remote Sensing Information Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote Sensing Information Gateway, a tool that allows scientists, researchers and decision makers to access a variety of multi-terabyte, environmental datasets and to subset the data and obtain only needed variables, greatly improving the download time.

  16. Remote handling equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, G.

    1984-01-01

    After a definition of intervention, problems encountered for working in an adverse environment are briefly analyzed for development of various remote handling equipments. Some examples of existing equipments are given [fr

  17. Hyperspectral remote sensing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eismann, Michael Theodore

    2012-01-01

    ..., and hyperspectral data processing. While there are many resources that suitably cover these areas individually and focus on specific aspects of the hyperspectral remote sensing field, this book provides a holistic treatment...

  18. The remote control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansweijer, P.P.M.

    1988-01-01

    The remote-control system is applied in order to control various signals in the car of the spectrometer at distance. The construction (hardware and software) as well as the operation of the system is described. (author). 20 figs

  19. Accessing Remote Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maskell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    young, single-site firms search for distant sources of complementary competences. The discussion is positioned within a comprehensive framework that allows a systematic investigation of the approaches available to firms engaged in globally extended learning. By utilizing the distinction between problem...... awareness (what remote knowledge is needed?) and source awareness (where does this knowledge reside?) the article explores the relative merits and inherent limitations of pipelines, listening posts, crowdsourcing and trade fairs to acquire knowledge and solutions from geographically and relationally remote...

  20. Remote maintenance development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zook, C.R.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of remote maintenance as it pertains to nuclear fuel fabrication facilities is quite unique. The future may require completely remote facilities where maintenance will be performed by hybrid manipulators/robots. These units will be capable of being preprogrammed for automatic operation or manually operated with the operator becoming a part of the closed loop control system. These robots will mesh television, computer control, and direct force feedback manual control in a usable new concept of robotics

  1. Rapid thermal annealing of Ti-rich TiNi thin films: A new approach to fabricate patterned shape memory thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motemani, Y.; Tan, M.J.; White, T.J.; Huang, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the rapid thermal annealing (RTA) of Ti-rich TiNi thin films, synthesized by the co-sputtering of TiNi and Ti targets. Long-range order of aperiodic alloy could be achieved in a few seconds with the optimum temperature of 773 K. Longer annealing (773 K/240 s), transformed the film to a poorly ordered vitreous phase, suggesting a novel method for solid state amorphization. Reitveld refinement analyses showed significant differences in structural parameters of the films crystallized by rapid and conventional thermal annealing. Dependence of the elastic modulus on the valence electron density (VED) of the crystallized films was studied. It is suggested that RTA provides a new approach to fabricate patterned shape memory thin films.

  2. Selected aspects of tiny vetch [Vicia hirsuta (L. Gray S.F.] seed ecology: generative reproduction and effects of seed maturity and seed storage on seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kucewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vicia hirsuta (L. Gray S.F. (tiny vetch is a common and persistent segetal weed. Tiny vetch seeds and pods reach different stages of maturity during the crop harvest season. Some seeds that mature before cereal harvest are shed in the field and deposited in the soil seed bank, while others become incorporated into seed material. The objective of this study was to describe selected aspects of tiny vetch seed ecology: to determine the rate of individual reproduction of vetch plants growing in winter and spring grain crops and to evaluate the germination of seeds at different stages of maturity, subject to storage conditions. The seeds and pods of V. hirsuta were sorted according to their development stages at harvest and divided into two groups. The first group was stored under laboratory conditions for two months. In the autumn of the same year, the seeds were subjected to germination tests. The remaining seeds were stored in a storeroom, and were planted in soil in the spring. The germination rate was evaluated after 8 months of storage. Potential productivity (developed pods and flowers, fruit buds was higher in plants fruiting in winter wheat than in spring barley. Vetch plants produced around 17-26% more pods (including cracked, mature, greenish-brown and green pods and around 25% less buds in winter wheat than in spring barley. Immature seeds were characterized by the highest germination capacity. Following storage under laboratory conditions and stratification in soil, mature seeds germinated at a rate of several percent. After storage in a storeroom, seeds at all three development stages broke dormancy at a rate of 72- 75%. The high germination power of tiny vetch seeds stored in a storeroom indicates that this plant can be classified as an obligatory speirochoric weed species.

  3. In search of critically endangered species: the current situation of two tiny salamander species in the Neotropical mountains of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Sandoval-Comte

    Full Text Available Worldwide, one in every three species of amphibian is endangered, 39 species have gone extinct in the last 500 years and another 130 species are suspected to have gone extinct in recent decades. Of the amphibians, salamanders have the highest portion of their species in one of the risk categories, even higher than the frogs. To date there have been few studies that have used recent field data to examine the status of populations of endangered salamanders. In this study we evaluate the current situation of two tiny salamanders, Parvimolge townsendi and Thorius pennatulus, both of which are distributed at intermediate elevations in the mountains of the northern Neotropics and are considered to be critically endangered; the first has been proposed as possibly extinct. By carrying out exhaustive surveys in both historical and potentially suitable sites for these two species, we evaluated their abundance and the characteristics of their habitats, and we estimated their potential geographic distribution. We visited 22 sites, investing 672 person-hours of sampling effort in the surveys, and found 201 P. townsendi salamanders in 11 sites and only 13 T. pennatulus salamanders in 5 sites. Both species were preferentially found in cloud forest fragments that were well conserved or only moderately transformed, and some of the salamanders were found in shade coffee plantations. The potential distribution area of both species is markedly fragmented and we estimate that it has decreased by more than 48%. The results of this study highlight the importance of carrying out exhaustive, systematic field surveys to obtain accurate information about the current situation of critically endangered species, and help us better understand the crisis that amphibians are facing worldwide.

  4. In search of critically endangered species: the current situation of two tiny salamander species in the Neotropical mountains of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Comte, Adriana; Pineda, Eduardo; Aguilar-López, José L

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, one in every three species of amphibian is endangered, 39 species have gone extinct in the last 500 years and another 130 species are suspected to have gone extinct in recent decades. Of the amphibians, salamanders have the highest portion of their species in one of the risk categories, even higher than the frogs. To date there have been few studies that have used recent field data to examine the status of populations of endangered salamanders. In this study we evaluate the current situation of two tiny salamanders, Parvimolge townsendi and Thorius pennatulus, both of which are distributed at intermediate elevations in the mountains of the northern Neotropics and are considered to be critically endangered; the first has been proposed as possibly extinct. By carrying out exhaustive surveys in both historical and potentially suitable sites for these two species, we evaluated their abundance and the characteristics of their habitats, and we estimated their potential geographic distribution. We visited 22 sites, investing 672 person-hours of sampling effort in the surveys, and found 201 P. townsendi salamanders in 11 sites and only 13 T. pennatulus salamanders in 5 sites. Both species were preferentially found in cloud forest fragments that were well conserved or only moderately transformed, and some of the salamanders were found in shade coffee plantations. The potential distribution area of both species is markedly fragmented and we estimate that it has decreased by more than 48%. The results of this study highlight the importance of carrying out exhaustive, systematic field surveys to obtain accurate information about the current situation of critically endangered species, and help us better understand the crisis that amphibians are facing worldwide.

  5. Sweating the small stuff: simulating dwarf galaxies, ultra-faint dwarf galaxies, and their own tiny satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Coral; Oñorbe, Jose; Bullock, James S.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Elbert, Oliver D.; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea; Hopkins, Philip F.; Kereš, Dušan

    2015-10-01

    We present Feedback in Realistic Environment (FIRE)/GIZMO hydrodynamic zoom-in simulations of isolated dark matter haloes, two each at the mass of classical dwarf galaxies (Mvir ≃ 1010 M⊙) and ultra-faint galaxies (Mvir ≃ 109 M⊙), and with two feedback implementations. The resulting central galaxies lie on an extrapolated abundance matching relation from M⋆ ≃ 106 to 104 M⊙ without a break. Every host is filled with subhaloes, many of which form stars. Each of our dwarfs with M⋆ ≃ 106 M⊙ has 1-2 well-resolved satellites with M⋆ = 3-200 × 103 M⊙. Even our isolated ultra-faint galaxies have star-forming subhaloes. If this is representative, dwarf galaxies throughout the Universe should commonly host tiny satellite galaxies of their own. We combine our results with the Exploring the Local Volume in Simulations (ELVIS) simulations to show that targeting ˜ 50 kpc regions around nearby isolated dwarfs could increase the chances of discovering ultra-faint galaxies by ˜35 per cent compared to random pointings, and specifically identify the region around the Phoenix dwarf galaxy as a good potential target. The well-resolved ultra-faint galaxies in our simulations (M⋆ ≃ 3-30 × 103 M⊙) form within Mpeak ≃ 0.5-3 × 109 M⊙ haloes. Each has a uniformly ancient stellar population ( > 10 Gyr) owing to reionization-related quenching. More massive systems, in contrast, all have late-time star formation. Our results suggest that Mhalo ≃ 5 × 109 M⊙ is a probable dividing line between haloes hosting reionization `fossils' and those hosting dwarfs that can continue to form stars in isolation after reionization.

  6. Tiny staining spots in liver cirrhosis associated with HCV infection observed by computed tomographic hepatic arteriography. Follow-up study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiyama, Tomoya; Terasaki, Shuichi; Kaneko, Shuichi; Kaji, Kyosuke; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Matsui, Osamu [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    2002-10-01

    It is important to distinguish small lesions with increased arterial perfusion observed by computed tomographic arteriography (CT-A) from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the clinical characteristics and prognosis of such lesions have not been clarified. We retrospectively examined 200 patients with cirrhosis related to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection who had undergone both CT-A and CT arterioportography between 1995 and 1998, and found 80 tiny staining spots (TSS)s, with a diameter of 5-10 mm, by CT-A (35 patients). The mean TSS observation period was 29.0 months. If the major axis was larger than 10 mm and showed a 1.5-fold or more increase, the lesion was regarded as tumor growth (TG). The TSS lesions were divided into two groups according to whether the patient had or did not have HCC. The prognosis of TSS was classified into three groups; HCC-suspected group, nontumor group, and unclassified group, in which TG was negative although transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) had been performed. Of the 40 TSSs in 14 patients without HCC, 2 (5%) were suspected as HCC. Of the 40 TSSs in 21 patients with HCC, 13 (32.5%) were suspected as HCC. There were no significant differences in the size, position, and morphology of TSSs among the three prognostic groups. Of the 7 TSSs with a high signal intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images, 5 were in the HCC-suspected group. We recommend early treatment of TSSs accompanying HCC or showing features of malignancy at the imaging workup. (author)

  7. Remote Sensing of Ocean Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierssen, Heidi M.; Randolph, Kaylan

    The oceans cover over 70% of the earth's surface and the life inhabiting the oceans play an important role in shaping the earth's climate. Phytoplankton, the microscopic organisms in the surface ocean, are responsible for half of the photosynthesis on the planet. These organisms at the base of the food web take up light and carbon dioxide and fix carbon into biological structures releasing oxygen. Estimating the amount of microscopic phytoplankton and their associated primary productivity over the vast expanses of the ocean is extremely challenging from ships. However, as phytoplankton take up light for photosynthesis, they change the color of the surface ocean from blue to green. Such shifts in ocean color can be measured from sensors placed high above the sea on satellites or aircraft and is called "ocean color remote sensing." In open ocean waters, the ocean color is predominantly driven by the phytoplankton concentration and ocean color remote sensing has been used to estimate the amount of chlorophyll a, the primary light-absorbing pigment in all phytoplankton. For the last few decades, satellite data have been used to estimate large-scale patterns of chlorophyll and to model primary productivity across the global ocean from daily to interannual timescales. Such global estimates of chlorophyll and primary productivity have been integrated into climate models and illustrate the important feedbacks between ocean life and global climate processes. In coastal and estuarine systems, ocean color is significantly influenced by other light-absorbing and light-scattering components besides phytoplankton. New approaches have been developed to evaluate the ocean color in relationship to colored dissolved organic matter, suspended sediments, and even to characterize the bathymetry and composition of the seafloor in optically shallow waters. Ocean color measurements are increasingly being used for environmental monitoring of harmful algal blooms, critical coastal habitats

  8. Controllable gaussian-qubit interface for extremal quantum state engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Campbell, Steve; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Paternostro, Mauro

    2010-06-18

    We study state engineering through bilinear interactions between two remote qubits and two-mode gaussian light fields. The attainable two-qubit states span the entire physically allowed region in the entanglement-versus-global-purity plane. Two-mode gaussian states with maximal entanglement at fixed global and marginal entropies produce maximally entangled two-qubit states in the corresponding entropic diagram. We show that a small set of parameters characterizing extremally entangled two-mode gaussian states is sufficient to control the engineering of extremally entangled two-qubit states, which can be realized in realistic matter-light scenarios.

  9. Extremes in nature

    CERN Document Server

    Salvadori, Gianfausto; Kottegoda, Nathabandu T

    2007-01-01

    This book is about the theoretical and practical aspects of the statistics of Extreme Events in Nature. Most importantly, this is the first text in which Copulas are introduced and used in Geophysics. Several topics are fully original, and show how standard models and calculations can be improved by exploiting the opportunities offered by Copulas. In addition, new quantities useful for design and risk assessment are introduced.

  10. Tiny, silent killers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, S.R.

    contaminated fish and shellfish before they reach market. But it is not so everywhere and therefore toxic blooms are taking a heavy toll. Fish and shellfish losses total tens of millions of dollars every year. While the wild fish can swim away from blooms... for monitoring toxin level in shellfish and accordingly closes or allows its harvest from shellfish beds. Marketable shellfish are generally considered to be safe, but in spite of these precautions, there are known illnesses. One dramatic example is from 1990...

  11. TinyInventor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Tranberg; Kusy, Branislav

    Most of wireless sensor network (WSN) operating systems today provide IPv6 as their standard communication primitive. As a consequence, sensor data can be seamlessly accessed by users through their PCs or mobile devices. Growth of WSNs into this potentially large domain, however, has been limited...

  12. The Tiny Terminators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    humid and hot areas of Africa, the Americas, Asia and numerous ... traordinary enlargement of many parts of the body. It is a .... related to acute dengue fever. ... Table 2. Potential mosquito-borne viral diseases. 1. Apeu. Brazil. 22. Mayaro.

  13. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Bhaskar N

    1997-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma accounting for almost 55%. These tumors arise from unsegmented mesoderm or primitive mesenchyma, which have the capacity to differentiate into muscle. Less than 5% occur in the first year of life. Extremity rhabdomyosarcoma are mainly seen in the adolescent years. The most common histologic subtype is the alveolar variant. Other characteristics of extremity rhabdomyosarcoma include a predilection for lymph node metastasis, a high local failure, and a relatively low survival rate. They often present as slow painless masses; however, lesions in the hand and foot often present as painful masses and imaging studies may show invasion of the bone. Initial diagnostic approaches include needle biopsy or incisional biopsy for larger lesions. Excisional biopsy is indicated preferably for lesions less than 2.5 cm. following this in most instances therapy is initiated with multi agent chemotherapy depending upon response, the next modality may be either surgery with intent to cure or radiation therapy. Amputation of an extremity for local control is not considered in most instances. Prognostic factors that have been determined over the years to be of significance by multi variant analysis have included age, tumor size, invasiveness, presence of either nodal or distant metastasis, and complete excision whenever feasible, with supplemental radiation therapy for local control

  14. Remote connector development study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-05-01

    Plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) connectors, the most common connectors used at the Hanford site, offer a certain level of flexibility in pipe routing, process system configuration, and remote equipment/instrument replacement. However, these desirable features have inherent shortcomings like leakage, high pressure drop through the right angle bends, and a limited range of available pipe diameters that can be connect by them. Costs for construction, maintenance, and operation of PUREX connectors seem to be very high. The PUREX connector designs include a 90 degree bend in each connector. This increases the pressure drop and erosion effects. Thus, each jumper requires at least two 90 degree bends. PUREX connectors have not been practically used beyond 100 (4 in.) inner diameter. This study represents the results of a survey on the use of remote pipe-connection systems in US and foreign plants. This study also describes the interdependence between connectors, remote handling equipment, and the necessary skills of the operators

  15. Use of remote monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournel, E; Gouilloux, C

    1977-01-01

    Paper traces the development of remote monitoring devices, since their first appearance for safety purposes. Discusses their uses in coal mines: working and safety (definitions); sources and channels of information (transmission of information by automatic or verbal means); mine control stations; duties and responsibilities of persons in charge. Examines the contribution made by remote monitoring to management in production sector. Gives examples of assistance given to production management showing a very advantageous result on balance, by their use. The use of computers in real time and in batched mode is compared. Discusses their use in monitoring mine atmosphere. Very favorable results have already been obtained in France and abroad. The broadening scope and future of remote monitoring is considered.

  16. NET remote workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinemann, K.

    1990-10-01

    The goal of this NET study was to define the functionality of a remote handling workstation and its hardware and software architecture. The remote handling workstation has to fulfill two basic functions: (1) to provide the man-machine interface (MMI), that means the interface to the control system of the maintenance equipment and to the working environment (telepresence) and (2) to provide high level (task level) supporting functions (software tools) during the maintenance work and in the preparation phase. Concerning the man-machine interface, an important module of the remote handling workstation besides the standard components of man-machine interfacing is a module for graphical scene presentation supplementing viewing by TV. The technique of integrated viewing is well known from JET BOOM and TARM control using the GBsim and KISMET software. For integration of equipment dependent MMI functions the remote handling workstation provides a special software module interface. Task level support of the operator is based on (1) spatial (geometric/kinematic) models, (2) remote handling procedure models, and (3) functional models of the equipment. These models and the related simulation modules are used for planning, programming, execution monitoring, and training. The workstation provides an intelligent handbook guiding the operator through planned procedures illustrated by animated graphical sequences. For unplanned situations decision aids are available. A central point of the architectural design was to guarantee a high flexibility with respect to hardware and software. Therefore the remote handling workstation is designed as an open system based on widely accepted standards allowing the stepwise integration of the various modules starting with the basic MMI and the spatial simulation as standard components. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Remote Reactor Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Adam [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dazeley, Steve [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dobie, Doug [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Marleau, Peter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brennan, Jim [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gerling, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sumner, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sweany, Melinda [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-21

    The overall goal of the WATCHMAN project is to experimentally demonstrate the potential of water Cerenkov antineutrino detectors as a tool for remote monitoring of nuclear reactors. In particular, the project seeks to field a large prototype gadolinium-doped, water-based antineutrino detector to demonstrate sensitivity to a power reactor at ~10 kilometer standoff using a kiloton scale detector. The technology under development, when fully realized at large scale, could provide remote near-real-time information about reactor existence and operational status for small operating nuclear reactors out to distances of many hundreds of kilometers.

  18. Remote sensing image fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Alparone, Luciano; Baronti, Stefano; Garzelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    A synthesis of more than ten years of experience, Remote Sensing Image Fusion covers methods specifically designed for remote sensing imagery. The authors supply a comprehensive classification system and rigorous mathematical description of advanced and state-of-the-art methods for pansharpening of multispectral images, fusion of hyperspectral and panchromatic images, and fusion of data from heterogeneous sensors such as optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and integration of thermal and visible/near-infrared images. They also explore new trends of signal/image processing, such as

  19. Introduction to remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, James B

    2012-01-01

    A leading text for undergraduate- and graduate-level courses, this book introduces widely used forms of remote sensing imagery and their applications in plant sciences, hydrology, earth sciences, and land use analysis. The text provides comprehensive coverage of principal topics and serves as a framework for organizing the vast amount of remote sensing information available on the Web. Including case studies and review questions, the book's four sections and 21 chapters are carefully designed as independent units that instructors can select from as needed for their courses. Illustrations in

  20. Radar Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This lecture was just a taste of radar remote sensing techniques and applications. Other important areas include Stereo radar grammetry. PolInSAR for volumetric structure mapping. Agricultural monitoring, soil moisture, ice-mapping, etc. The broad range of sensor types, frequencies of observation and availability of sensors have enabled radar sensors to make significant contributions in a wide area of earth and planetary remote sensing sciences. The range of applications, both qualitative and quantitative, continue to expand with each new generation of sensors.

  1. Extreme Programming Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Chromatic

    2003-01-01

    Extreme Programming (XP) is a radical new approach to software development that has been accepted quickly because its core practices--the need for constant testing, programming in pairs, inviting customer input, and the communal ownership of code--resonate with developers everywhere. Although many developers feel that XP is rooted in commonsense, its vastly different approach can bring challenges, frustrations, and constant demands on your patience. Unless you've got unlimited time (and who does these days?), you can't always stop to thumb through hundreds of pages to find the piece of info

  2. Upper extremity golf injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Michael A; Lee, Steven K; Strauss, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    Golf is a global sport enjoyed by an estimated 60 million people around the world. Despite the common misconception that the risk of injury during the play of golf is minimal, golfers are subject to a myriad of potential pathologies. While the majority of injuries in golf are attributable to overuse, acute traumatic injuries can also occur. As the body's direct link to the golf club, the upper extremities are especially prone to injury. A thorough appreciation of the risk factors and patterns of injury will afford accurate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of further injury.

  3. PresenceRemote

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Tomas; Svensson, Marcus Sanchez

    2008-01-01

    how these technologies can accommodate the specific challenges related to the everyday life of elderly people. In particular, using an example concept – the PresenceRemote – we will discuss how the stigma associated with being lonely, an inherent part of senior living, can be addressed by leaving room...

  4. A Remote WIRELESS Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Uiterwijk

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Continuing need for available distance learning facilities has led to the development of a remote lab facility focusing on wireless technology. In the field of engineering there is a student need of gaining experience in set-up, monitoring and maintenance of 802.11A/B/G based wireless LAN environments.

  5. Remote sensing: best practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Gareth [Sgurr Energy (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents remote sensing best practice in the wind industry. Remote sensing is a technique whereby measurements are obtained from the interaction of laser or acoustic pulses with the atmosphere. There is a vast diversity of tools and techniques available and they offer wide scope for reducing project uncertainty and risk but best practice must take into account versatility and flexibility. It should focus on the outcome in terms of results and data. However, traceability of accuracy requires comparison with conventional instruments. The framework for the Boulder protocol is given. Overviews of the guidelines for IEA SODAR and IEA LIDAR are also mentioned. The important elements of IEC 61400-12-1, an international standard for wind turbines, are given. Bankability is defined based on the Boulder protocol and a pie chart is presented that illustrates the uncertainty area covered by remote sensing. In conclusion it can be said that remote sensing is changing perceptions about how wind energy assessments can be made.

  6. Remote RF Battery Charging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Pop, V.; Op het Veld, J.H.G.; Vullers, R.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The design of a remote RF battery charger is discussed through the analysis and design of the subsystems of a rectenna (rectifying antenna): antenna, rectifying circuit and loaded DC-to-DC voltage (buck-boost) converter. Optimum system power generation performance is obtained by adopting a system

  7. Section summary: Remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinda Arunarwati Margono

    2013-01-01

    Remote sensing is an important data source for monitoring the change of forest cover, in terms of both total removal of forest cover (deforestation), and change of canopy cover, structure and forest ecosystem services that result in forest degradation. In the context of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), forest degradation monitoring requires information...

  8. Remote Voice Detection System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blackmon, Fletcher A

    2007-01-01

    A device and system to remotely detect vocalizations of speech. The skin located on the throat region of a speaking person or a reflective layer on the skin on the throat region vibrates in response to vocalizations of speech by the person...

  9. Remotely controlled spray gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, William C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A remotely controlled spray gun is described in which a nozzle and orifice plate are held in precise axial alignment by an alignment member, which in turn is held in alignment with the general outlet of the spray gun by insert. By this arrangement, the precise repeatability of spray patterns is insured.

  10. Dexterous Manipulation: Making Remote Manipulators Easy to Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HARRIGAN, RAYMOND W.; BENNETT, PHIL C.

    2001-01-01

    Perhaps the most basic barrier to the widespread deployment of remote manipulators is that they are very difficult to use. Remote manual operations are fatiguing and tedious, while fully autonomous systems are seldom able to function in changing and unstructured environments. An alternative approach to these extremes is to exploit computer control while leaving the operator in the loop to take advantage of the operator's perceptual and decision-making capabilities. This report describes research that is enabling gradual introduction of computer control and decision making into operator-supervised robotic manipulation systems, and its integration on a commercially available, manually controlled mobile manipulator

  11. Remote sensing for water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giardino, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    The application of remote sensing to the study of lakes is begun in years 80 with the lunch of the satellites of second generation. Many experiences have indicated the contribution of remote sensing for the limnology [it

  12. Time-sensitive remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Lippitt, Christopher; Coulter, Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    This book documents the state of the art in the use of remote sensing to address time-sensitive information requirements. Specifically, it brings together a group of authors who are both researchers and practitioners, who work toward or are currently using remote sensing to address time-sensitive information requirements with the goal of advancing the effective use of remote sensing to supply time-sensitive information. The book addresses the theoretical implications of time-sensitivity on the remote sensing process, assessments or descriptions of methods for expediting the delivery and improving the quality of information derived from remote sensing, and describes and analyzes time-sensitive remote sensing applications, with an emphasis on lessons learned. This book is intended for remote sensing scientists, practitioners (e.g., emergency responders or administrators of emergency response agencies), and students, but will also be of use to those seeking to understand the potential of remote sensing to addres...

  13. A Perspective on Equipment Design for Fusion Remote Handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, S.; Haist, B.; Hamilton, D.

    2006-01-01

    For 8 years, JET remote operations have become more capable and confident. Many tasks have been successfully completed, even those never intended to be remote maintenance activities. The general approach to the provision of remote handling equipment at JET has been the preferred use of commercially-off-the-shelf equipment. In the areas of electrical, electronic, software and control this approach has been generally achievable. However, in the area of mechanical equipment it has been more difficult. In particular the RH tooling has been almost entirely bespoke as its requirements are highly sensitive to the design of the JET component being handled and there are many design variations. Hence, JET has required the design and manufacture of over 700 types of bespoke RH equipment. This paper will discuss the experience of introducing and developing remote handling mechanical equipment for JET. The paper will cover the relationship between the remote handling equipment and the JET component design and the potential for improving the design function. A major lesson from the introduction of remote handling to JET has been demonstration of the very close interdependency of the design of JET components with design of remote handling tooling. The JET remote handling manual was originally introduced as the vehicle to ensure remote handling compatibility by the introduction of standards. Experience has shown that in general the remote handling manual approach has been insufficient. Future fusion machines will be much more complex than JET and will demand even greater remote handling compatibility. This paper will discuss possible methods for improving this process. Equipment operating in a high radiation environment must be dependable It may spend part of its time in areas that would be extremely difficult to recover from in the case of failure. The equipment may also have a high duty cycle to minimise shutdown times and probably cannot be manually inspected on a frequent

  14. Remote Sensing and the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosius, Craig A.; And Others

    This document is designed to help senior high school students study remote sensing technology and techniques in relation to the environmental sciences. It discusses the acquisition, analysis, and use of ecological remote data. Material is divided into three sections and an appendix. Section One is an overview of the basics of remote sensing.…

  15. Investigating NARCCAP Precipitation Extremes via Bivariate Extreme Value Theory (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, G. B.; Cooley, D. S.; Sain, S. R.; Bukovsky, M. S.; Mearns, L. O.

    2013-12-01

    We introduce methodology from statistical extreme value theory to examine the ability of reanalysis-drive regional climate models to simulate past daily precipitation extremes. Going beyond a comparison of summary statistics such as 20-year return values, we study whether the most extreme precipitation events produced by climate model simulations exhibit correspondence to the most extreme events seen in observational records. The extent of this correspondence is formulated via the statistical concept of tail dependence. We examine several case studies of extreme precipitation events simulated by the six models of the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) driven by NCEP reanalysis. It is found that the NARCCAP models generally reproduce daily winter precipitation extremes along the Pacific coast quite well; in contrast, simulation of past daily summer precipitation extremes in a central US region is poor. Some differences in the strength of extremal correspondence are seen in the central region between models which employ spectral nudging and those which do not. We demonstrate how these techniques may be used to draw a link between extreme precipitation events and large-scale atmospheric drivers, as well as to downscale extreme precipitation simulated by a future run of a regional climate model. Specifically, we examine potential future changes in the nature of extreme precipitation along the Pacific coast produced by the pineapple express (PE) phenomenon. A link between extreme precipitation events and a "PE Index" derived from North Pacific sea-surface pressure fields is found. This link is used to study PE-influenced extreme precipitation produced by a future-scenario climate model run.

  16. Network Challenges for Cyber Physical Systems with Tiny Wireless Devices: A Case Study on Reliable Pipeline Condition Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The synergy of computational and physical network components leading to the Internet of Things, Data and Services has been made feasible by the use of Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs. CPS engineering promises to impact system condition monitoring for a diverse range of fields from healthcare, manufacturing, and transportation to aerospace and warfare. CPS for environment monitoring applications completely transforms human-to-human, human-to-machine and machine-to-machine interactions with the use of Internet Cloud. A recent trend is to gain assistance from mergers between virtual networking and physical actuation to reliably perform all conventional and complex sensing and communication tasks. Oil and gas pipeline monitoring provides a novel example of the benefits of CPS, providing a reliable remote monitoring platform to leverage environment, strategic and economic benefits. In this paper, we evaluate the applications and technical requirements for seamlessly integrating CPS with sensor network plane from a reliability perspective and review the strategies for communicating information between remote monitoring sites and the widely deployed sensor nodes. Related challenges and issues in network architecture design and relevant protocols are also provided with classification. This is supported by a case study on implementing reliable monitoring of oil and gas pipeline installations. Network parameters like node-discovery, node-mobility, data security, link connectivity, data aggregation, information knowledge discovery and quality of service provisioning have been reviewed.

  17. Network challenges for cyber physical systems with tiny wireless devices: a case study on reliable pipeline condition monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Salman; Qaisar, Saad Bin; Saeed, Husnain; Khan, Muhammad Farhan; Naeem, Muhammad; Anpalagan, Alagan

    2015-03-25

    The synergy of computational and physical network components leading to the Internet of Things, Data and Services has been made feasible by the use of Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs). CPS engineering promises to impact system condition monitoring for a diverse range of fields from healthcare, manufacturing, and transportation to aerospace and warfare. CPS for environment monitoring applications completely transforms human-to-human, human-to-machine and machine-to-machine interactions with the use of Internet Cloud. A recent trend is to gain assistance from mergers between virtual networking and physical actuation to reliably perform all conventional and complex sensing and communication tasks. Oil and gas pipeline monitoring provides a novel example of the benefits of CPS, providing a reliable remote monitoring platform to leverage environment, strategic and economic benefits. In this paper, we evaluate the applications and technical requirements for seamlessly integrating CPS with sensor network plane from a reliability perspective and review the strategies for communicating information between remote monitoring sites and the widely deployed sensor nodes. Related challenges and issues in network architecture design and relevant protocols are also provided with classification. This is supported by a case study on implementing reliable monitoring of oil and gas pipeline installations. Network parameters like node-discovery, node-mobility, data security, link connectivity, data aggregation, information knowledge discovery and quality of service provisioning have been reviewed.

  18. Comparative Study of Temporal Aspects of Data Collection Using Remote Database vs. Abstract Database in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahmen BELFKIH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The real-time aspect is an important factor for Wireless Sensor Network (WSN applications, which demand a timely data delivery, to reflect the current state of the environment. However, most existing works in the field of sensor networks are only interested in data processing and energy consumption, to improve the lifetime of WSN. Extensive researches have been done on data processing in WSN. Some works have been interested in improving data collection methods, and others have focused on various query processing techniques. In recent years, the query processing using abstract database technology like Cougar and TinyDB has shown efficient results in many researches. This paper presents a study of timing properties through two data processing techniques for WSN. The first is based on a warehousing approach, in which data are collected and stored on a remote database. The second is based on query processing using an abstract database like TinyDB. This study has allowed us to identify some factors which enhance the respect of temporal constraints.

  19. Remote maintenance development for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Eisuke; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the overall ITER remote maintenance design concept developed mainly for in-vessel components such as diverters and blankets, and outlines the ITER R and D program to develop remote handling equipment and radiation hard components. Reactor structures inside the ITER cryostat must be maintained remotely due to DT operation, making remote handling technology basic to reactor design. The overall maintenance scenario and design concepts have been developed, and maintenance design feasibility, including fabrication and testing of full-scale in-vessel remote maintenance handling equipment and tool, is being verified. (author)

  20. Remote maintenance development for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, Eisuke [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

    1998-04-01

    This paper describes the overall ITER remote maintenance design concept developed mainly for in-vessel components such as diverters and blankets, and outlines the ITER R and D program to develop remote handling equipment and radiation hard components. Reactor structures inside the ITER cryostat must be maintained remotely due to DT operation, making remote handling technology basic to reactor design. The overall maintenance scenario and design concepts have been developed, and maintenance design feasibility, including fabrication and testing of full-scale in-vessel remote maintenance handling equipment and tool, is being verified. (author)

  1. Remote monitoring demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, Susan; Olsen, John

    2006-01-01

    The recently upgraded remote monitoring system at the Joyo Experimental Reactor uses a DCM-14 camera module and GEMINI software. The final data is compatible both with the IAEA-approved GARS review software and the ALIS software that was used for this demonstration. Features of the remote monitoring upgrade emphasized compatibility with IAEA practice. This presentation gives particular attention to the selection process for meeting network security considerations at the O'arai site. The Joyo system is different from the NNCA's ACPF system, in that it emphasizes use of IAEA standard camera technology and data acquisition and transmission software. In the demonstration itself, a temporary virtual private network (VPN) between the meeting room and the server at Sandia in Albuquerque allowed attendees to observe data stored from routine transmissions from the Joyo Fresh Fuel Storage to Sandia. Image files from a fuel movement earlier in the month showed Joyo workers and IAEA inspectors carrying out a transfer. (author)

  2. RemoteLabs Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Crabeel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a first step towards the implementation of a framework for remote experimentation of electric machines – the RemoteLabs platform. This project was focused on the development of two main modules: the user Web-based and the electric machines interfaces. The Web application provides the user with a front-end and interacts with the back-end – the user and experiment persistent data. The electric machines interface is implemented as a distributed client server application where the clients, launched by the Web application, interact with the server modules located in platforms physically connected the electric machines drives. Users can register and authenticate, schedule, specify and run experiments and obtain results in the form of CSV, XML and PDF files. These functionalities were successfully tested with real data, but still without including the electric machines. This inclusion is part of another project scheduled to start soon.

  3. Recruiting in remote locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionel, C. [Enerflex Systems Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This presentation provided details of Enerflex, a leading supplier of products and services to the oil and gas industry, and outlined their personnel hiring policies. Enerflex's core values include community involvement and divisional logo branding. The extensive training that is provided places an emphasis on employee empowerment. The company also places an emphasis on employee safety, diversity, and team building. Competitive salaries are offered along with generous equipment allowances and a flexible benefits program. Benefits include travel and overtime rates; health benefits; retirement savings; scholarship programs; career opportunities; and apprenticeship programs. External technical training is provided. An employee referral program has been developed, and the company's recruitment program also advertises in remote newspapers to develop career streams within remote communities. tabs., figs.

  4. Remote handling in ZEPHYR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andelfinger, C.; Lackner, E.; Ulrich, M.; Weber, G.; Schilling, H.B.

    1982-04-01

    A conceptual design of the ZEPHYR building is described. The listed radiation data show that remote handling devices will be necessary in most areas of the building. For difficult repair and maintenance works it is intended to transfer complete units from the experimental hall to a hot cell which provides better working conditions. The necessary crane systems and other transport means are summarized as well as suitable commercially available manipulators and observation devices. The conept of automatic devices for cutting and welding and other operations inside the vacuum vessel and the belonging position control system is sketched. Guidelines for the design of passive components are set up in order to facilitate remote operation. (orig.)

  5. Remote Ischemic Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusch, Gerd; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Przyklenk, Karin; Redington, Andrew; Yellon, Derek

    2014-01-01

    In remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) brief, reversible episodes of ischemia with reperfusion in one vascular bed, tissue or organ confer a global protective phenotype and render remote tissues and organs resistant to ischemia/reperfusion injury. The peripheral stimulus can be chemical, mechanical or electrical and involves activation of peripheral sensory nerves. The signal transfer to the heart or other organs is through neuronal and humoral communications. Protection can be transferred, even across species, with plasma-derived dialysate and involves nitric oxide, stromal derived factor-1α, microRNA-144, but also other, not yet identified factors. Intracardiac signal transduction involves: adenosine, bradykinin, cytokines, and chemokines, which activate specific receptors; intracellular kinases; and mitochondrial function. RIC by repeated brief inflation/deflation of a blood pressure cuff protects against endothelial dysfunction and myocardial injury in percutaneous coronary interventions, coronary artery bypass grafting and reperfused acute myocardial infarction. RIC is safe and effective, noninvasive, easily feasible and inexpensive. PMID:25593060

  6. Does Market Remoteness Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Moctar, Ndiaye; Elodie, Maitre d’Hôtel; Tristan, Le Cotty

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of market remoteness in explaining maize price volatility in Burkina Faso. A model of price formation is introduced to demonstrate formally that transport costs between urban and rural markets exacerbate maize price volatility. Empirical support is provided to the proposition by exploring an unusually rich data set of monthly maize price series across 28 markets over 2004-13. The methodology relies on an autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity model to inve...

  7. Remote entanglement distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, B.C.; Gour, G.; Meyer, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Shared bipartite entanglement is a crucial shared resource for many quantum information tasks such as teleportation, entanglement swapping, and remote state preparation. In general different nodes of a quantum network share an entanglement resource, such as ebits, that are consumed during the task. In practice, generating entangled states is expensive, but here we establish a protocol by which a quantum network requires only a single supplier of entanglement to all nodes who, by judicious measurements and classical communication, provides the nodes with a unique pair wise entangled state independent of the measurement outcome. Furthermore, we extend this result to a chain of suppliers and nodes, which enables an operational interpretation of concurrence. In the special case that the supplier shares bipartite states with two nodes, and such states are pure and maximally entangled, our protocol corresponds to entanglement swapping. However, in the practical case that initial shared entanglement between suppliers and nodes involves partially entangled or mixed states, we show that general local operations and classical communication by all parties (suppliers and nodes) yields distributions of entangled states between nodes. In general a distribution of bipartite entangled states between any two nodes will include states that do not have the same entanglement; thus we name this general process remote entanglement distribution. In our terminology entanglement swapping with partially entangled states is a particular class of remote entanglement distribution protocols. Here we identify which distributions of states that can or cannot be created by remote entanglement distribution. In particular we prove a powerful theorem that establishes an upper bound on the entanglement of formation that can be produced between two qubit nodes. We extend this result to the case of a linear chain of parties that play the roles of suppliers and nodes; this extension provides

  8. Remote earth sensing experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trifonov, Yu V

    1981-01-01

    Description of data devices for deriving multi-spectral measuring television measurement data of middle and high resolution through use of second generation Meteor-type satellites. Options for developing a permanent and active remote sensing system in USSR are discussed. It is noted that the present experiment is an important step in that direction. Design and structural data for this particular device and its application in the experiment are covered.

  9. Remote maintenance development for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Eisuke; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

    1997-01-01

    This paper both describes the overall design concept of the ITER remote maintenance system, which has been developed mainly for use with in-vessel components such as divertor and blanket, and outlines of the ITER R and D program, which has been established to develop remote handling equipment/tools and radiation hard components. In ITER, the reactor structures inside cryostat have to be maintained remotely because of activation due to DT operation. Therefore, remote-handling technology is fundamental, and the reactor-structure design must be made consistent with remote maintainability. The overall maintenance scenario and design concepts of the required remote handling equipment/tools have been developed according to their maintenance classification. Technologies are also being developed to verify the feasibility of the maintenance design and include fabrication and testing of a fullscale remote-handling equipment/tools for in-vessel maintenance. (author)

  10. Exogenously applied D-pinitol and D-chiro-inositol modifies the accumulation of α-D-galactosides in developing tiny vetch (Vicia hirsuta [L.] S.F. Gray seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesław B. Lahuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we have investigated the effect of exogenous cyclitols on the accumulation of their galactosides and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs, as well as on some enzymes important for their biosynthesis in seeds of tiny vetch (Vicia hirsuta [L.] S.F. Gray. Immature seeds during 6-day incubation with D-chiro-inositol (naturally does not appear in seeds of tiny vetch were accumulated cyclitol and its galactosides (fagopyritols: B1 and B2. Short 4-hour incubation with D-chiro-inositol, and subsequent slow desiccation process caused accumulation of free cyclitol only, without biosynthesis of its galactosides. Feeding D-chiro-inositol to pods of tiny vetch induced accumulation of high levels of its galactosides (fagopyritol B1, B2 and B3 in maturing seeds. Similarly, feeding D-pinitol increased accumulation of its mono-, di- and tri-galactosides: GPA, GPB, DGPA and TGPA in tiny vetch seed. Accumulation of both cyclitols and their galactosides drastically reduced accumulation of verbascose. Inhibition of RFOs biosynthesis by elevated levels of free cyclitols suggests some competition between formation of both types of galactosides and similarity of both biosynthetic routes in tiny vetch seeds. Galactinol synthase (GolS from tiny vetch seeds demonstrated ability to utilize D-chiro-inositol as galactosyl acceptor, instead of myo-inositol. Presence of both cyclitols, as substrates for GolS, caused synthesis of their galactosides: fagopyritol B1 and galactinol. However, formation of galactinol was more efficient than fagopyritol B1. D-chiro-Inositol and D-pinitol at concentrations several-fold higher than myo-inositol had inhibitory effect on GolS. Thus, we suggest that a level of free cyclitols can have an influence on the rate of galactinol biosynthesis and further accumulation of RFOs and galactosyl cyclitols in tiny vetch seeds.

  11. Remote repair appliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heumann, F.K.; Wilkinson, J.C.; Wooding, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    A remote appliance for supporting a tool for performing work at a work site on a substantially circular bore of a work piece and for providing video signals of the work site to a remote monitor comprises: a base plate having an inner face and an outer face; a plurality of rollers, wherein each roller is rotatably and adjustably attached to the inner face of the base plate and positioned to roll against the bore of the work piece when the base plate is positioned against the mouth of the bore such that the appliance may be rotated about the bore in a plane substantially parallel to the base plate; a tool holding means for supporting the tool, the tool holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the base plate such that the working end of the tool is positioned on the inner face side of the base plate; a camera for providing video signals of the work site to the remote monitor; and a camera holding means for supporting the camera on the inner face side of the base plate, the camera holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the base plate. In a preferred embodiment, roller guards are provided to protect the rollers from debris and a bore guard is provided to protect the bore from wear by the rollers and damage from debris. 5 figs

  12. Modular remote radiation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, Fabio; Farias, Marcos S.; Aghina, Mauricio A.C.; Oliveira, Mauro V.

    2013-01-01

    The Modular Remote Radiation Monitor (MRRM) is a novel radiation monitor suitable for monitoring environmental exposure to ionizing radiation. It is a portable compact-size low-power microprocessor-based electronic device which provides its monitoring data to other electronic systems, physically distant from it, by means of an electronic communication channel, which can be wired or wireless according to the requirements of each application. Besides its low-power highly-integrated circuit design, the Modular Remote Radiation Monitor is presented in a modular architecture, which promotes full compliance to the technical requirements of different applications while minimizing cost, size and power consumption. Its communication capability also supports the implementation of a network of multiple radiation monitors connected to a supervisory system, capable of remotely controlling each monitor independently as well as visualizing the radiation levels from all monitors. A prototype of the MRRM, functionally equivalent to the MRA-7027 radiation monitor, was implemented and connected to a wired MODBUS network of MRA-7027 monitors, responsible for monitoring ionizing radiation inside Argonauta reactor room at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear. Based on the highly positive experimental results obtained, further design is currently underway in order to produce a consumer version of the MRRM. (author)

  13. Subsurface remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweitzer, Jeffrey S.; Groves, Joel L.

    2002-01-01

    Subsurface remote sensing measurements are widely used for oil and gas exploration, for oil and gas production monitoring, and for basic studies in the earth sciences. Radiation sensors, often including small accelerator sources, are used to obtain bulk properties of the surrounding strata as well as to provide detailed elemental analyses of the rocks and fluids in rock pores. Typically, instrument packages are lowered into a borehole at the end of a long cable, that may be as long as 10 km, and two-way data and instruction telemetry allows a single radiation instrument to operate in different modes and to send the data to a surface computer. Because these boreholes are often in remote locations throughout the world, the data are frequently transmitted by satellite to various locations around the world for almost real-time analysis and incorporation with other data. The complete system approach that permits rapid and reliable data acquisition, remote analysis and transmission to those making decisions is described

  14. Are BALQSOs extreme accretors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, M. J.; Wills, B. J.

    2002-12-01

    Broad Absorption Line (BAL) QSOs are QSOs with massive absorbing outflows up to 0.2c. Two hypothesis have been suggested in the past about the nature of BALQSOs: Every QSO might have BAL outflow with some covering factor. BALQSOs are those which happen to have outflow along our line of sight. BALQSOs have intrinsically different physical properties than non-BALQSOs. Based on BALQSO's optical emission properties and a large set of correlations linking many general QSO emission line and continuum properties, it has been suggested that BALQSOs might accrete at near Eddington limit with abundant of fuel supplies. With new BALQSO Hβ region spectroscopic observation conducted at UKIRT and re-analysis of literature data for low and high redshift non-BALQSOs, We confirm that BALQSOs have extreme Fe II and [O III] emission line properties. Using results derived from the latest QSO Hβ region reverberation mapping, we calculated Eddington ratios (˙ {M}/˙ {M}Edd) for our BAL and non-BALQSOs. The Fe II and [O III] strengths are strongly correlated with Eddington ratios. Those correlations link Eddington ratio to a large set of general QSO properties through the Boroson & Green Eigenvector 1. We find that BALQSOs have Eddington ratios close to 1. However, all high redshift, high luminosity QSOs have rather high Eddington ratios. We argue that this is a side effect from selecting the brightest objects. In fact, our high redshift sample might constitute BALQSO's high Eddington ratio orientation parent population.

  15. A note on extreme sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Cymer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In decomposition theory, extreme sets have been studied extensively due to its connection to perfect matchings in a graph. In this paper, we first define extreme sets with respect to degree-matchings and next investigate some of their properties. In particular, we prove the generalized Decomposition Theorem and give a characterization for the set of all extreme vertices in a graph.

  16. Likelihood estimators for multivariate extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Huser, Raphaë l; Davison, Anthony C.; Genton, Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    The main approach to inference for multivariate extremes consists in approximating the joint upper tail of the observations by a parametric family arising in the limit for extreme events. The latter may be expressed in terms of componentwise maxima, high threshold exceedances or point processes, yielding different but related asymptotic characterizations and estimators. The present paper clarifies the connections between the main likelihood estimators, and assesses their practical performance. We investigate their ability to estimate the extremal dependence structure and to predict future extremes, using exact calculations and simulation, in the case of the logistic model.

  17. Likelihood estimators for multivariate extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Huser, Raphaël

    2015-11-17

    The main approach to inference for multivariate extremes consists in approximating the joint upper tail of the observations by a parametric family arising in the limit for extreme events. The latter may be expressed in terms of componentwise maxima, high threshold exceedances or point processes, yielding different but related asymptotic characterizations and estimators. The present paper clarifies the connections between the main likelihood estimators, and assesses their practical performance. We investigate their ability to estimate the extremal dependence structure and to predict future extremes, using exact calculations and simulation, in the case of the logistic model.

  18. SenStick: Comprehensive Sensing Platform with an Ultra Tiny All-In-One Sensor Board for IoT Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugo Nakamura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a comprehensive sensing platform called SenStick, which is composed of hardware (ultra tiny all-in-one sensor board, software (iOS, Android, and PC, and 3D case data. The platform aims to allow all the researchers to start IoT research, such as activity recognition and context estimation, easily and efficiently. The most important contribution is the hardware that we have designed. Various sensors often used for research are embedded in an ultra tiny board with the size of 50 mm (W × 10 mm (H × 5 mm (D and weight around 3 g including a battery. Concretely, the following sensors are embedded on this board: acceleration, gyro, magnetic, light, UV, temperature, humidity, and pressure. In addition, this board has BLE (Bluetooth low energy connectivity and capability of a rechargeable battery. By using 110 mAh battery, it can run more than 15 hours. The most different point from other similar boards is that our board has a large flash memory for logging all the data without a smartphone. By using SenStick, all the users can collect various data easily and focus on IoT data analytics. In this paper, we introduce SenStick platform and some case studies. Through the user study, we confirmed the usefulness of our proposed platform.

  19. The effects of inserting a tiny sphere in the center of a nanospherical pore on the structure, adsorption, and capillary condensation of a confined fluid (a DFT study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Ezat; Helmi, Abbas

    2015-02-26

    The modified fundamental measure theory (MFMT) has been employed to investigate the effects of inserting a tiny sphere in the center of a nanospherical pore on the structure, adsorption, and capillary condensation of fluids confined in it. In the first part of this Article, we have solved the weighted density integrals for all pores with spherical symmetries, including spherical and bispherical pores. In the second part, we show that the structure, amount of adsorption, and position of the fluid's capillary condensation change drastically when even a very thin sphere, R(s) = 0.01σ, is inserted into the center of a spherical pore (SP). In fact, the existence of a forbidden region around the inner sphere for the case of bispherical pores, even when R(s) = 0.01σ, causes a remarkable shift in both the amount of adsorption and the bulk density at which the capillary condensation occurs. Moreover, the insertion causes a sudden increase in the value of the contact density of the liquid, or the liquid in equilibrium with its vapor, at the wall of the outer sphere compared to that for an SP. In other words, the insertion of a tiny sphere in an SP causes the liquid droplet, which is formed in the center of the SP, to sprinkle throughout the whole nanopore. Also, we have demonstrated that the critical temperature and densities decrease with decreasing radius of the inner sphere.

  20. Graphite-like carbon nitride coupled with tiny Bi2S3 nanoparticles as 2D/0D heterojunction with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengzhang; Gong, Tingting; Xian, Qiming; Xie, Jimin

    2018-06-01

    Novel well-dispersed tiny Bi2S3 nanoparticles (NPs) with an average sizes of approximately 16.2 nm were used to decorate layered g-C3N4 nanosheets (NSs), with the purpose of constructing highly efficient 0D/2D heterojunction photocatalyst by a simple hydrothermal method in one step. The fabricated Bi2S3/g-C3N4 heterostructures exhibited superior visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity toward methyl orange (MO) degradation in contrast to that of individual Bi2S3 and g-C3N4, which could be mainly ascribed to the synergistic effect of the tiny size effect of 0D Bi2S3 NPs and 2D g-C3N4 NSs, the matched energy level positions, and the abundant coupling heterointerfaces between two moieties. More importantly, the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB), rhodamine B (RhB) and colorless tetracycline (TC), ciprofloxacin (CIP) further revealed the broad-spectrum photodegradation capacities of the heterojunction materials. The possible photoinduced charge transfer and pollutant degradation process over Bi2S3/g-C3N4 heterojunctions under visible-light irradiation were proposed. This work may provide a platform for constructing new visible light 0D/2D intimate contact heterostructures with stable and efficient photocatalytic performance.

  1. Further outlooks: extremely uncomfortable; Die weiteren Aussichten: extrem ungemuetlich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resenhoeft, T.

    2006-07-01

    Climate is changing extremely in the last decades. Scientists dealing with extreme weather, should not only stare at computer simulations. They have also to turn towards psyche, seriously personal experiences, knowing statistics, relativise supposed sensational reports and last not least collecting more data. (GL)

  2. Assessing Climate Variability using Extreme Rainfall and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    extreme frequency); the average intensity of rainfall from extreme events ... frequency and extreme intensity indices, suggesting that extreme events are more frequent and intense during years with high rainfall. The proportion of total rainfall from ...

  3. Remote diagnosis via a telecommunication satellite--ultrasonic tomographic image transmission experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, I; Inokuchi, S; Tajima, T; Takahashi, T

    1985-04-01

    An experiment to transmit ultrasonic tomographic section images required for remote medical diagnosis and care was conducted using the mobile telecommunication satellite OSCAR-10. The images received showed the intestinal condition of a patient incapable of verbal communication, however the image screen had a fairly coarse particle structure. On the basis of these experiments, were considered as the transmission of ultrasonic tomographic images extremely effective in remote diagnosis.

  4. A Metastatistical Approach to Satellite Estimates of Extreme Rainfall Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzetto, E.; Marani, M.

    2017-12-01

    The estimation of the average recurrence interval of intense rainfall events is a central issue for both hydrologic modeling and engineering design. These estimates require the inference of the properties of the right tail of the statistical distribution of precipitation, a task often performed using the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution, estimated either from a samples of annual maxima (AM) or with a peaks over threshold (POT) approach. However, these approaches require long and homogeneous rainfall records, which often are not available, especially in the case of remote-sensed rainfall datasets. We use here, and tailor it to remotely-sensed rainfall estimates, an alternative approach, based on the metastatistical extreme value distribution (MEVD), which produces estimates of rainfall extreme values based on the probability distribution function (pdf) of all measured `ordinary' rainfall event. This methodology also accounts for the interannual variations observed in the pdf of daily rainfall by integrating over the sample space of its random parameters. We illustrate the application of this framework to the TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis rainfall dataset, where MEVD optimally exploits the relatively short datasets of satellite-sensed rainfall, while taking full advantage of its high spatial resolution and quasi-global coverage. Accuracy of TRMM precipitation estimates and scale issues are here investigated for a case study located in the Little Washita watershed, Oklahoma, using a dense network of rain gauges for independent ground validation. The methodology contributes to our understanding of the risk of extreme rainfall events, as it allows i) an optimal use of the TRMM datasets in estimating the tail of the probability distribution of daily rainfall, and ii) a global mapping of daily rainfall extremes and distributional tail properties, bridging the existing gaps in rain gauges networks.

  5. Combining low level features and visual attributes for VHR remote sensing image classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fumin; Sun, Hao; Liu, Shuai; Zhou, Shilin

    2015-12-01

    Semantic classification of very high resolution (VHR) remote sensing images is of great importance for land use or land cover investigation. A large number of approaches exploiting different kinds of low level feature have been proposed in the literature. Engineers are often frustrated by their conclusions and a systematic assessment of various low level features for VHR remote sensing image classification is needed. In this work, we firstly perform an extensive evaluation of eight features including HOG, dense SIFT, SSIM, GIST, Geo color, LBP, Texton and Tiny images for classification of three public available datasets. Secondly, we propose to transfer ground level scene attributes to remote sensing images. Thirdly, we combine both low-level features and mid-level visual attributes to further improve the classification performance. Experimental results demonstrate that i) Dene SIFT and HOG features are more robust than other features for VHR scene image description. ii) Visual attribute competes with a combination of low level features. iii) Multiple feature combination achieves the best performance under different settings.

  6. A Remote Monitoring System for Greenhouse Based on the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhenfeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IOT is considered as a great opportunity for the development in the information field nowadays, and has been applied widely in many fields. The IOT can be applied to monitor and control the microclimate factors of greenhouse remotely. In this paper, a wireless monitoring network is designed in the perception layer of the IOT. The nodes are developed based on the Mica2 hardware and the TinyOS software. The LPL (low power listening technology is adopted to reduce the energy consumption of the relay node which is powered by a solar panel. The ACK (Acknowledgement mechanism is used in the software to improve the quality of wireless communications. A remote monitoring terminal is developed by using Java technology. The monitoring terminal is easy to operate with good interactivity. The system has been installed in a glass greenhouse. The actual operation results show that the system is stable and reliable, which lays a good foundation for the development of remote control strategies in future.

  7. Management of the mangled extremity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prasarn, Mark L.; Helfet, David L.; Kloen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The management of a mangled extremity continues to be a matter of debate. With modern advances in trauma resuscitation, microvascular tissue transfer, and fracture fixation, severe traumatic extremity injuries that would historically have been amputated are often salvaged. Even if preserving a

  8. A decade of weather extremes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumou, Dim; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    The ostensibly large number of recent extreme weather events has triggered intensive discussions, both in- and outside the scientific community, on whether they are related to global warming. Here, we review the evidence and argue that for some types of extreme - notably heatwaves, but also

  9. Attitude extremity, consensus and diagnosticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.; Ester, P.; van der Linden, J.

    1983-01-01

    Studied the effects of attitude extremity on perceived consensus and willingness to ascribe trait terms to others with either pro- or antinuclear attitudes. 611 Ss rated their attitudes toward nuclear energy on a 5-point scale. Results show that attitude extremity affected consensus estimates. Trait

  10. Remotely controllable liquid marbles

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2012-07-26

    Liquid droplets encapsulated by self-organized hydrophobic particles at the liquid/air interface - liquid marbles - are prepared by encapsulating water droplets with novel core/shell-structured responsive magnetic particles, consisting of a responsive block copolymer-grafted mesoporous silica shell and magnetite core (see figure; P2VP-b-PDMS: poly(2-vinylpyridine-b- dimethylsiloxane)). Desirable properties of the liquid marbles include that they rupture upon ultraviolet illumination and can be remotely manipulated by an external magnetic field. 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Alfredo; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Lange, Julia

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy report provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind it began in year 2008 at DTU Wind Energy (formerly Risø) during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy...... state-of-the-art ‘guideline’ available for people involved in Remote Sensing in Wind Energy....

  12. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy Compendium provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind this compendium began in year 2008 at Risø DTU during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy. Thus......-of-the-art compendium available for people involved in Remote Sensing in Wind Energy....

  13. Plans for the extreme ultraviolet explorer data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Herman L.; Dobson, Carl A.; Malina, Roger F.; Bowyer, Stuart

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents an approach for storage and fast access to data that will be obtained by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE), a satellite payload scheduled for launch in 1991. The EUVE telescopes will be operated remotely from the EUVE Science Operation Center (SOC) located at the University of California, Berkeley. The EUVE science payload consists of three scanning telescope carrying out an all-sky survey in the 80-800 A spectral region and a Deep Survey/Spectrometer telescope performing a deep survey in the 80-250 A spectral region. Guest Observers will remotely access the EUVE spectrometer database at the SOC. The EUVE database will consist of about 2 X 10 to the 10th bytes of information in a very compact form, very similar to the raw telemetry data. A history file will be built concurrently giving telescope parameters, command history, attitude summaries, engineering summaries, anomalous events, and ephemeris summaries.

  14. Remote handling maintenance of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haange, R.

    1999-01-01

    The remote maintenance strategy and the associated component design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) have reached a high degree of completeness, especially with respect to those components that are expected to require frequent or occasional remote maintenance. Large-scale test stands, to demonstrate the principle feasibility of the remote maintenance procedures and to develop the required equipment and tools, were operational at the end of the Engineering Design Activities (EDA) phase. The initial results are highly encouraging: major remote equipment deployment and component replacement operations have been successfully demonstrated. (author)

  15. Automatic remote communication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoichi

    1990-05-01

    The Upgraded RECOVER (Remote Continual Verification) system is a communication system for remote continual verification of security and safeguards status of nuclear material in principal nuclear facilities. The system is composed of a command center and facility sub-systems. A command center is a mini-computer system to process C/S (Containment and Surveillance) status data. Facility sub-systems consists of OSM (On-site Multiplexer), MU (Monitoring Unit) and C/S sensor. The system uses public telephone network for communication between a command center and facility sub-systems, and it encrypts communication data to prevent falsification and wiretapping by unauthorized persons. This system inherits the design principle of RECOVER system that was tested by IAEA before. We upgraded and expanded its capabilities more than those of RECOVER. The development of this system began in 1983, and it finished in 1987. Performance tests of the system were carried out since 1987. It showed a farely good result with some indications which should need further improvements. The Upgraded RECOVER system provides timely information about the status of C/S systems, which could contribute to the reduction of inspection effort and the improvement of cost performance. (author)

  16. Wireless Remote Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Tigauan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a wireless remote control system based on the ZigBee communication protocol. Gathering data from sensors or performing control tasks through wireless communication is advantageous in situations in which the use of cables is impractical. An Atmega328 microcontroller (from slave device is used for gathering data from the sensors and transmitting it to a coordinator device with the help of the XBee modules. The ZigBee standard is suitable for low-cost, low-data-rate and low-power wireless networks implementations. The XBee-PRO module, designed to meet ZigBee standards, requires minimal power for reliable data exchange between devices over a distance of up to 1600m outdoors. A key component of the ZigBee protocol is the ability to support networking and this can be used in a wireless remote control system. This system may be employed e.g. to control temperature and humidity (SHT11 sensor and light intensity (TSL230 sensor levels inside a commercial greenhouse.

  17. Geological remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Charlotte; Rivard, Benoit; de Souza Filho, Carlos; van der Meer, Freek

    2018-02-01

    Geology is defined as the 'study of the planet Earth - the materials of which it is made, the processes that act on these materials, the products formed, and the history of the planet and its life forms since its origin' (Bates and Jackson, 1976). Remote sensing has seen a number of variable definitions such as those by Sabins and Lillesand and Kiefer in their respective textbooks (Sabins, 1996; Lillesand and Kiefer, 2000). Floyd Sabins (Sabins, 1996) defined it as 'the science of acquiring, processing and interpreting images that record the interaction between electromagnetic energy and matter' while Lillesand and Kiefer (Lillesand and Kiefer, 2000) defined it as 'the science and art of obtaining information about an object, area, or phenomenon through the analysis of data acquired by a device that is not in contact with the object, area, or phenomenon under investigation'. Thus Geological Remote Sensing can be considered the study of, not just Earth given the breadth of work undertaken in planetary science, geological features and surfaces and their interaction with the electromagnetic spectrum using technology that is not in direct contact with the features of interest.

  18. Remote control manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, T

    1970-02-28

    A prior-art remote control manipulator comprises a horizontal suspension section, a master arm and a slave arm which are coupled to ends of the suspension section in a manner to pivotally move relative to the suspension section, and a connecting device which includes a tape and which joins both the arms. When the connecting device malfunctions, the slave arm can neither be extended nor contracted. Means to keep the tension of the tape is required which restricts the extension length of the slave arm. Further, the slave arm can be moved only in the axial direction. The invention described provides an improved remote control manipulator of the specified type. A moving device which moves the slave arm relative to the master arm without the intervention of the connecting device is mounted on a movable part of the slave arm, while pulleys which maintain the joining relationship of the connecting device are mounted on the movable part and fixed part of the slave arm. Owing to this construction, movement of the slave arm is assured despite troubles which may arise in the connecting device. In addition, no slack arises in the tape. By applying a similar construction to the horizontal suspension section, the suspension section can be stretched, and hence, the slave arm can be moved in a direction orthogonal to its axis.

  19. A remote control valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachard, Maurice de; Dumont, Maurice.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns a remote control valve for shutting off or distributing a fluid flowing at a high rate and low pressure. Among the different valves at present in use, electric valves are the most recommended for remote control but their reliability is uncertain and they soon become costly when large diameter valves are used. The valve described in this invention does away with this drawback owing to its simplicity and the small number of moving parts, this makes it particularly reliable. It mainly includes: a tubular body fitted with at least one side opening; at least one valve wedge for this opening, coaxial with the body, and mobile; a mobile piston integral with this wedge. Several valves to the specifications of this invention can be fitted in series (a shut-off valve can be used in conjunction with one or more distribution valves). The fitting and maintenance of the valve is very simple owing to its design. It can be fabricated in any material such as metals, alloys, plastics and concrete. The structure of the valve prevents the flowing fluid from coming into contact with the outside environment, thereby making it particularly suitable in the handling of dangerous or corrosive fluids. Finally, the opening and shutting of the valve occurs slowly, thereby doing away with the water hammer effect so frequent in large bore pipes [fr

  20. Controls from remote through Social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ingrao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Author focuses on the recently reformed provisions regulating the employer’s power to control from remote the employees’ activities (art. 4 of the Workers Statute, with particular regard to controls performed by means of Social networks.Such controls are in fact extremely powerful due to the versatile and multi-purpose character of Social networks, which may also be used as a working device. A widespread case law shows indeed that employer’s controls may cost a worker his job.Therefore, after the reform, all employees will have to read carefully the employer’s Privacy policies, before accessing socials during the worktime to express opinions and/or frustrations.

  1. Remote secure observing for the Faulkes Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert J.; Steele, Iain A.; Marchant, Jonathan M.; Fraser, Stephen N.; Mucke-Herzberg, Dorothea

    2004-09-01

    Since the Faulkes Telescopes are to be used by a wide variety of audiences, both powerful engineering level and simple graphical interfaces exist giving complete remote and robotic control of the telescope over the internet. Security is extremely important to protect the health of both humans and equipment. Data integrity must also be carefully guarded for images being delivered directly into the classroom. The adopted network architecture is described along with the variety of security and intrusion detection software. We use a combination of SSL, proxies, IPSec, and both Linux iptables and Cisco IOS firewalls to ensure only authenticated and safe commands are sent to the telescopes. With an eye to a possible future global network of robotic telescopes, the system implemented is capable of scaling linearly to any moderate (of order ten) number of telescopes.

  2. Remotely Activated Microcapsules for Oil Recovery Treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazurek, Malgorzata Natalia

    the pores and ensure permanent water shut-off treatment. To eliminate the danger of premature plug formation, stimulus-responsive materials were investigated. Considering that fractures are extremely hard-to-access places, the designed material should respond to a remotely applied stimulus, in order......-off treatments are extensively investigated, though currently applied materials still suffer from some disadvantages. The main drawback is lack of control over the setting of plugs in the fracture, and this may cause blocking of the injection well and the formation of the plug before placing the material...... to achieve better control over plug formation. The developed material consists of vinyl-functional polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microparticles and microcapsules with an encapsulated PDMS cross-linker. Due to reactions between the released cross-linker and vinyl groups on the PDMS microparticles’ surface...

  3. Remote Viewing End Effectors for Light Duty Utility Arm Robot (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Robinson, C.W.; Haynes, H.B.; Anderosn, E.K.; Pardini, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    The Robotics Development Groups at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and at the Hanford site have developed remote video and photography systems for deployment in underground radioactive-waste storage tanks at the Department of Energy (DOE) sites as a part of the Office of Science and Technology (OST) program within DOE. Viewing and documenting the tank interiors and their associated annular spaces is an extremely valuable tool in characterizing their condition and contents and in controlling their remediation. Several specialized video/photography systems and robotic End Effectors have been fabricated that provide remote viewing and lighting. All are remotely deployable into and out of the tank, with all viewing functions remotely operated. Positioning all control components away from the facility prevents the potential for personnel exposure to radiation and contamination. Only the remote video systems are discussed in this paper

  4. [Psychologic management of extreme prematurity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granboulan, V; Danan, C; Dassieu, G; Janaud, J C; Durand, B

    1995-05-01

    The ongoing progress in neonatal intensive care is modifying the psychic context of prematurity for all the partners, infants as well as parents and physicians. Comfort and prognosis of preterm infants have much improved. Since newborns under 24 weeks of gestational age are now surviving, they spend approximately half the duration of pregnancy out of the maternal uterus. All the psychological issues of such an early separation have to be considered, including the developmental outcome of a sensorial environment which is quite different from the intra-uterine one. Research has been developing in this field. The cooperation between neonatalogists and psychologists has been profitable to parents. Problems linked to the separation, such as difficulty in representing the infant, are no more frequent owing to the attention paid to the mother-child bond and subsequent early contacts. What is forward now is the impact of an hyper technical world of intensive care on the parents, and of the strange aspect of the tiny baby surrounded by engines and tubes. Such an overpresence of reality often results in a reaction of traumatic daziness among parents. The cooperation of the whole staff is necessary for the resumption of an imaginary process of psychic functioning. Finally, the survival of very-low-birth-weight infants confronts the neonatalogists with some delicate ethical questions. Psychiatrists and psychologists might have an important part to play in aiding the profession in its sorting out of these ethical issues.

  5. Spatial dependence of extreme rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Noor Fadhilah Ahmad; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah; Satari, Siti Zanariah; Azman, Muhammad Az-zuhri

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to model the spatial extreme daily rainfall process using the max-stable model. The max-stable model is used to capture the dependence structure of spatial properties of extreme rainfall. Three models from max-stable are considered namely Smith, Schlather and Brown-Resnick models. The methods are applied on 12 selected rainfall stations in Kelantan, Malaysia. Most of the extreme rainfall data occur during wet season from October to December of 1971 to 2012. This period is chosen to assure the available data is enough to satisfy the assumption of stationarity. The dependence parameters including the range and smoothness, are estimated using composite likelihood approach. Then, the bootstrap approach is applied to generate synthetic extreme rainfall data for all models using the estimated dependence parameters. The goodness of fit between the observed extreme rainfall and the synthetic data is assessed using the composite likelihood information criterion (CLIC). Results show that Schlather model is the best followed by Brown-Resnick and Smith models based on the smallest CLIC's value. Thus, the max-stable model is suitable to be used to model extreme rainfall in Kelantan. The study on spatial dependence in extreme rainfall modelling is important to reduce the uncertainties of the point estimates for the tail index. If the spatial dependency is estimated individually, the uncertainties will be large. Furthermore, in the case of joint return level is of interest, taking into accounts the spatial dependence properties will improve the estimation process.

  6. Evolution caused by extreme events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Peter R; Grant, B Rosemary; Huey, Raymond B; Johnson, Marc T J; Knoll, Andrew H; Schmitt, Johanna

    2017-06-19

    Extreme events can be a major driver of evolutionary change over geological and contemporary timescales. Outstanding examples are evolutionary diversification following mass extinctions caused by extreme volcanism or asteroid impact. The evolution of organisms in contemporary time is typically viewed as a gradual and incremental process that results from genetic change, environmental perturbation or both. However, contemporary environments occasionally experience strong perturbations such as heat waves, floods, hurricanes, droughts and pest outbreaks. These extreme events set up strong selection pressures on organisms, and are small-scale analogues of the dramatic changes documented in the fossil record. Because extreme events are rare, almost by definition, they are difficult to study. So far most attention has been given to their ecological rather than to their evolutionary consequences. We review several case studies of contemporary evolution in response to two types of extreme environmental perturbations, episodic (pulse) or prolonged (press). Evolution is most likely to occur when extreme events alter community composition. We encourage investigators to be prepared for evolutionary change in response to rare events during long-term field studies.This article is part of the themed issue 'Behavioural, ecological and evolutionary responses to extreme climatic events'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Wireless pilot monitoring system for extreme race conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Esteban J; Arias, Diego E; Aqueveque, Pablo; Melin, Pedro; Curtis, Dorothy W

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an assistive device to monitor car drivers under extreme conditions. In particular, this system is designed in preparation for the 2012 Atacama Solar Challenge to be held in the Chilean desert. Actual preliminary results show the feasibility of such a project including physiological and ambient sensors, real-time processing algorithms, wireless data transmission and a remote monitoring station. Implementation details and field results are shown along with a discussion of the main problems found in real-life telemetry monitoring.

  8. Damage to spruce stands by deer barking and subsequent rots in Forest Range Proklest, the Křtiny Training Forest Enterprise “Masaryk Forest” (the Drahany Upland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Čermák

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with determination of the rate of damage by red deer barking, determination of the rate of damage by a subsequent rot caused by Stereum sanguinolentum and the rate of its progress. The paper elucidates causes of the damage and quantifies depreciation of wood by rots in the Proklest Forest Range, the Křtiny Training Forest Enterprise “Masaryk Forest“. The deer barking caused damage to 85% of stands. In the most damaged 2nd and 4th age classes, rot caused by Stereum sanguinolentum was noticed in 89% of damaged trees. The greatest proportion is made by damage from the 70s of the last century. After the 80s, the damage occurred only exceptionally. The average percentage loss of wood is highest in the 2nd age class, viz. 38%. The determined progress of the rot ranged from 1 to 36.4 cm.year-1.

  9. Microstructure and functional properties of the TiNi- and CuAl-based SMA thin films and coats produced by PVD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomytsev, V.; Musienko, R.; Nevdacha, V.; Panarin, V.; Pasko, A.; Cesari, E.; Segui, C.; Humbeeck, J. van

    2000-01-01

    The TiNi- and CuAl-based shape memory alloy thin films and wear/corrosion resistant surface coats have been produced by the ion-plasma deposition method with an arc dispersion of the cathode/target. This technique was widely used for production of the coats from a sprayed pure metal or a single-phase alloy. We have offered to use this process for dispersion of the heterophase alloys like shape memory alloys. The arguments for choosing of this technique are discussed with respect to creation of the conditions for preservation not only chemical composition, but also phase structure of an alloy in a covering, thus the shape memory/superelastic effects to be kept in a coat. (orig.)

  10. Effect of electrothermal annealing on the transformation behavior of TiNi shape memory alloy and two-way shape memory spring actuated by direct electrical current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.G.; Zu, X.T.; Feng, X.D.; Zhu, S.; Deng, J.; Wang, L.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, the effect of electrothermal annealing on the transformation characterization of TiNi shape memory alloy and the electrothermal actuating characteristics of a two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) extension spring were investigated with direct electrical current. The results showed that with increasing direct electrical current density, the B2→R-phase transformation shifts to a lower temperature and R-phase→B19' shifts to a higher temperature in the cooling process. When annealing electrical current density reached 12.2 A/mm 2 , the R-phase disappeared and austenite transformed into martensite directly. The electrothermal annealing was an effective method of heat treatment in a selected part of shape memory alloy device. The electrothermal actuating characteristics of a TWSME spring showed that the time response and the maximum elongation greatly depended on the magnitude of the electrical current

  11. Effect of exogenous abscisic acid on accumulation of raffinose family oligosaccharides and galactosyl cyclitols in tiny vetch seeds (Vicia hirsuta [L.] S.F. Gray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesław B. Lahuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the abscisic acid (ABA in biosynthesis of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs and galactosyl cyclitols (Gal-C in tiny vetch (Vicia hirsuta [L.] S.F. Gray seeds was investigated. The ABA was applied through incubation of seed at various stage of its development. The level of RFOs and Gal-C was determined in seed maturing on plant and in seed maturing in vitro. In early stages of V. hirsuta seed development, the ABA activated the biosynthesis of galactinol, although the level of arisen galactinol quickly declined. In the later stages of V. hirsuta seed development ABA had stimulatory effect of RFOs and Gal-C biosynthesis. Influence of ABA on biosynthesis of a-galactosides in Vicia hirsuta seed seems to be dependent on abscisic acid concentration. Low concentration of ABA had stimulatory effect on a-galactosides biosynthesis, but high concentration of ABA inhibited the process.

  12. Alloying effect on K shell X-ray fluorescence cross-sections and yields in Ti-Ni based shape memory alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bünyamin Alım

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available K shell X-ray fluorescence cross-sections (σKα, σKβ and σK, and K shell fluorescence yields (ωK of Ti, Ni both in pure metals and in different alloy compositions (TixNi1-x; x = 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7 were measured by using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF technique. The samples were excited by 22.69 keV X-rays from a 10 mCi Cd-109 radioactive point source and K X rays emitted by samples were counted by a high resolution Si(Li solid-state detector coupled to a 4 K multichannel analyzer (MCA. The alloying effects on the X-ray fluorescence (XRF parameters of Ti-Ni shape memory alloys (SMAs were investigated. It is clearly observed that alloying effect causes to change in K shell XRF parameter values in Ti-Ni based SMAs for different compositions of x. Also, the present investigation makes it possible to perform reliable interpretation of experimental σKα, σKβ and ωK values for Ti and Ni in SMAs and can also provide quantitative information about the changes of K shell X-ray fluorescence cross sections and fluorescence yields of these metals with alloy composition. Keywords: Alloying effect, XRF, K X-ray fluorescence cross-section, K shell fluorescence yield, Shape memory alloy

  13. Surface tiny grain-dependent enhanced rate performance of MoO3 nanobelts with pseudocapacitance contribution for lithium-ion battery anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liyun; He, Juju; Li, Jiayin; Yan, Jingwen; Huang, Jianfeng; Qi, Ying; Feng, Liangliang

    2018-07-01

    In order to improve the rate performance of MoO3, a novel MoO3 nanobelt with tiny grains on surface (named as d-MoO3) is fabricated via one-step facile hydrothermal method with citric acid adding, in which citric acid (CA) serves as a weak reductant as well as surface modification agent. When tested as an anode in LIBs, d-MoO3 displays an improved discharge capacity of 787 mAh·g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 over 100 cycles with capacity retention of ∼91% while MoO3 decays to 50 mAh·g-1 in the 100th cycle. Notably, d-MoO3 delivers enhanced rate capability (536 and 370 mAh·g-1 at high rates of 5 and 10 A g-1 respectively). We consider these excellent electrochemical properties of d-MoO3 electrode are associated with the tiny grains on MoO3 surface, which effectively maintains the electrode's structural integrity. Even though d-MoO3 nanobelt suffers from a degree of in-situ pulverization after several cycles, these pulverized active particles can still maintain stable electrochemical contact and are highly exposed to electrolyte, realizing ultrahigh e-/Li+ diffusion kinetics. In addition, part extrinsic pseudocapacitance contribution to the Li+ storage also explains the high-rate performance. Combining all these merits, d-MoO3 is potentially a high-energy, high-power and well-stable anode material for Li ion batteries (LIBs).

  14. TiNi shape memory alloys: effects of the fabrication route, the oxygen content and the zirconium or hafnium additions on the metallurgical characteristics and the thermomechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olier, P.

    1996-01-01

    In order to promote the development of Ti-Ni shape memory alloys, we have studied the correlation between the fabrication route, the chemical composition (O 2 content, Zr or Hf additions), the metallurgical characteristics and the thermomechanical properties. A conventional sintering does not allow to obtain a homogeneous compound of pure Ti 50 Ni 50 alloy because of the occurrence of Kirkendall porosities which act as a diffusion barrier. An original process including combustion synthesis and hot-extrusion was successfully developed. Resulting products exhibit a smaller grain size (15-20μm) and an enhanced workability in comparison with products obtained by arc-melting and subsequent hot rolling. The presence of oxygen in equiatomic Ti-Ni alloy induces the oxide precipitation of Ti 4 Ni 2 O x type (with x ≤ 1). The precipitated particle fraction is proportional to the oxygen nominal content of the alloy. We show that the decrease of the transformation temperatures is correlated with the decrease of Ti in solid solution due to Ti 4 Ni 2 O precipitation. Moreover, we find that a fine and homogenous oxide dispersion is suitable to decrease the grain size during hot rolling and to enhance to the one way shape memory properties. An increase of the typical transformation temperatures is obtained through of Zr or Hf (in substitution to Ti). But, an increase of the hardness is measured, and consequently the workability of the ternary alloys becomes reduced. However, it is worthwhile to point out that a Ti 38 Ni 50 Hf 12 product obtained by arc melting and hot extrusion is able to fully recover an apparent plastic strain of more than 4% during tensile tests performed under special loading conditions. Such as behaviour is of great interest with respect to potential applications in a temperature range higher that 100 deg. C. (author)

  15. Remote Testing of Timed Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mikucionis, Marius

    2013-01-01

    We present a study and a testing framework on black box remote testing of real-time systems using UPPAAL TIGA. One of the essential challenges of remote testing is the communication latency between the Tester and the System Under Test (IUT) that may lead to interleaving of inputs and outputs. Thi...

  16. Remote handling machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shinri

    1985-01-01

    In nuclear power facilities, the management of radioactive wastes is made with its technology plus the automatic techniques. Under the radiation field, the maintenance or aid of such systems is important. To cope with this situation, MF-2 system, MF-3 system and a manipulator system as remote handling machines are described. MF-2 system consists of an MF-2 carrier truck, a control unit and a command trailer. It is capable of handling heavy-weight objects. The system is not by hydraulic but by electrical means. MF-3 system consists of a four-crawler truck and a manipulator. The truck is versatile in its posture by means of the four independent crawlers. The manipulator system is bilateral in operation, so that the delicate handling is made possible. (Mori, K.)

  17. Remote controlled transport device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahira, Masataka; Oka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Akira; Tada, Eisuke; Sato, Masaki

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for transporting equipments for maintenance and parts between a maintenance port and a facility for maintenance by remote control in a radioactive material handling facility such as a nuclear power plant. Namely, a power supply bus bar is disposed along a transferring path in order to supply power to a transporting means, and is divided into every region having a predetermined length. Each of the power supply bus bar regions is controlled for the power supply by a control device. Accordingly, the transporting means can be moved and driven successively being independent on every power supply bus bar region. Accordingly, a plurality of transporting means can be operated independently in a transferring path without laying around power cables and control signal cables. (I.S.)

  18. Statistical Model of Extreme Shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2004-01-01

    In order to continue cost-optimisation of modern large wind turbines, it is important to continously increase the knowledge on wind field parameters relevant to design loads. This paper presents a general statistical model that offers site-specific prediction of the probability density function...... by a model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describe the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of high-sampled full-scale time series measurements...... are consistent, given the inevitabel uncertainties associated with model as well as with the extreme value data analysis. Keywords: Statistical model, extreme wind conditions, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, wind shear, wind turbines....

  19. Racial Extremism in the Army

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hudson, Walter M

    1998-01-01

    ... modem phenomenon of "skinheads." I then discuss the history of white supremacist extremism in the Army, culminating in the December, 1995 murders of two black civilians by soldiers assigned to the 82d Airborne Division at Fort Bragg, North Carolina...

  20. Demographics and remote locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppus, G. [Dynawise Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Within the next decade, the number of people leaving the workforce will exceed the number of new entrants. The demand for workers is expected to increase in Alberta due to oil sands industry growth. Sixty-four per cent of all responding federal, provincial, and municipal government organizations have reported shortages in their work environments, and almost 8 in 10 organizations predict they will continue to be understaffed in the next 3 to 5 years. Tightness in the general labour market will have an impact on employers in remote locations, and planning is essential to avoid the creation of a mercenary culture and a reliance on compensation. Challenges found in remote locations include high turnover rates among recent hires; critical gaps in service length; aggressive retirement; and the fact that the local population is often seen as unqualified for many industrial jobs. This Power Point presentation suggested that although decisions to join or quit a company are often based on considerations such as the organizational environment and amount of compensation, the relationship between employees and management is the most important attribute in many career decisions. Rigorous quantitative analysis of current demographics combined with forecasting analysis may help to forestall recruitment difficulties for many companies. Productivity analyses, and the effects of work overload on absenteeism, attrition and quality of workmanship must also be examined. Many companies are now focusing on retention and development strategies on mid-career staff to address depletion, as well as redesigning procedures to operate with less skilled staff. It was concluded that extra efforts are now being made to attract non-traditional employees, and non-traditional employment models are being considered by some companies. refs., tabs., figs.

  1. Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, B. H.

    1973-01-01

    The Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study was initiated as part of the research program of the NASA Earth Resources Laboratory. The objective of this study is development of remote sensing techniques to study near-shore marine waters. Included within this general objective are the following: (1) evaluate existing techniques and instruments used for remote measurement of parameters of interest within these waters; (2) develop methods for interpretation of state-of-the-art remote sensing data which are most meaningful to an understanding of processes taking place within near-shore waters; (3) define hardware development requirements and/or system specifications; (4) develop a system combining data from remote and surface measurements which will most efficiently assess conditions in near-shore waters; (5) conduct projects in coordination with appropriate operating agencies to demonstrate applicability of this research to environmental and economic problems.

  2. Legacies from extreme drought increase ecosystem sensitivity to future extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. D.; Knapp, A.; Hoover, D. L.; Avolio, M. L.; Felton, A. J.; Wilcox, K. R.

    2016-12-01

    Climate extremes, such as drought, are increasing in frequency and intensity, and the ecological consequences of these extreme events can be substantial and widespread. Although there is still much to be learned about how ecosystems will respond to an intensification of drought, even less is known about the factors that determine post-drought recovery of ecosystem function. Such knowledge is particularly important because post-drought recovery periods can be protracted depending on the extent to which key plant populations, community structure and biogeochemical processes are affected. These drought legacies may alter ecosystem function for many years post-drought and may impact future sensitivity to climate extremes. We experimentally imposed two extreme growing season droughts in a central US grassland to assess the impacts of repeated droughts on ecosystem resistance (response) and resilience (recovery). We found that this grassland was not resistant to the first extreme drought due to reduced productivity and differential sensitivity of the co-dominant C4 grass (Andropogon gerardii) and C3 forb (Solidago canadensis) species. This differential sensitivity led to a reordering of species abundances within the plant community. Yet, despite this large shift in plant community composition, which persisted post-drought, the grassland was highly resilient post-drought, due to increased abundance of the dominant C4 grass. Because of this shift to increased C4 grass dominance, we expected that previously-droughted grassland would be more resistant to a second extreme drought. However, contrary to these expectations, previously droughted grassland was more sensitive to drought than grassland that had not experienced drought. Thus, our result suggest that legacies of drought (shift in community composition) may increase ecosystem sensitivity to future extreme events.

  3. Pellet presses for remote fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Densley, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    Two types of mechanical presses are being tested from the remote operation and remote maintenance aspects. Results will be used to recommend the type of press and design considerations required for operation in a remotely operated and maintained process line

  4. Global predictability of temperature extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan de Perez, Erin; van Aalst, Maarten; Bischiniotis, Konstantinos; Mason, Simon; Nissan, Hannah; Pappenberger, Florian; Stephens, Elisabeth; Zsoter, Ervin; van den Hurk, Bart

    2018-05-01

    Extreme temperatures are one of the leading causes of death and disease in both developed and developing countries, and heat extremes are projected to rise in many regions. To reduce risk, heatwave plans and cold weather plans have been effectively implemented around the world. However, much of the world’s population is not yet protected by such systems, including many data-scarce but also highly vulnerable regions. In this study, we assess at a global level where such systems have the potential to be effective at reducing risk from temperature extremes, characterizing (1) long-term average occurrence of heatwaves and coldwaves, (2) seasonality of these extremes, and (3) short-term predictability of these extreme events three to ten days in advance. Using both the NOAA and ECMWF weather forecast models, we develop global maps indicating a first approximation of the locations that are likely to benefit from the development of seasonal preparedness plans and/or short-term early warning systems for extreme temperature. The extratropics generally show both short-term skill as well as strong seasonality; in the tropics, most locations do also demonstrate one or both. In fact, almost 5 billion people live in regions that have seasonality and predictability of heatwaves and/or coldwaves. Climate adaptation investments in these regions can take advantage of seasonality and predictability to reduce risks to vulnerable populations.

  5. Scaling a Survey Course in Extreme Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    "Extreme Weather" is a survey-level course offered at the University of Michigan that is broadcast via the web and serves as a research testbed to explore best practices for large class conduct. The course has led to the creation of LectureTools, a web-based student response and note-taking system that has been shown to increase student engagement dramatically in multiple courses by giving students more opportunities to participate in class. Included in this is the capacity to pose image-based questions (see image where question was "Where would you expect winds from the south") as well as multiple choice, ordered list, free response and numerical questions. Research in this class has also explored differences in learning outcomes from those who participate remotely versus those who physically come to class and found little difference. Moreover the technologies used allow instructors to conduct class from wherever they are while the students can still answer questions and engage in class discussion from wherever they are. This presentation will use LectureTools to demonstrate its features. Attendees are encouraged to bring a mobile device to the session to participate.

  6. Colors of extreme exo-Earth environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Siddharth; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The search for extrasolar planets has already detected rocky planets and several planetary candidates with minimum masses that are consistent with rocky planets in the habitable zone of their host stars. A low-resolution spectrum in the form of a color-color diagram of an exoplanet is likely to be one of the first post-detection quantities to be measured for the case of direct detection. In this paper, we explore potentially detectable surface features on rocky exoplanets and their connection to, and importance as, a habitat for extremophiles, as known on Earth. Extremophiles provide us with the minimum known envelope of environmental limits for life on our planet. The color of a planet reveals information on its properties, especially for surface features of rocky planets with clear atmospheres. We use filter photometry in the visible as a first step in the characterization of rocky exoplanets to prioritize targets for follow-up spectroscopy. Many surface environments on Earth have characteristic albedos and occupy a different color space in the visible waveband (0.4-0.9 μm) that can be distinguished remotely. These detectable surface features can be linked to the extreme niches that support extremophiles on Earth and provide a link between geomicrobiology and observational astronomy. This paper explores how filter photometry can serve as a first step in characterizing Earth-like exoplanets for an aerobic as well as an anaerobic atmosphere, thereby prioritizing targets to search for atmospheric biosignatures.

  7. Resonant line transfer in a fog: using Lyman-alpha to probe tiny structures in atomic gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronke, Max; Dijkstra, Mark; McCourt, Michael; Peng Oh, S.

    2017-11-01

    Motivated by observational and theoretical work that suggest very small-scale (≲ 1 pc) structure in the circumgalactic medium of galaxies and in other environments, we study Lyman-α (Lyα) radiative transfer in an extremely clumpy medium with many clouds of neutral gas along the line of sight. While previous studies have typically considered radiative transfer through sightlines intercepting ≲ 10 clumps, we explored the limit of a very large number of clumps per sightline (up to fc 1000). Our main finding is that, for covering factors greater than some critical threshold, a multiphase medium behaves similarly to a homogeneous medium in terms of the emergent Lyα spectrum. The value of this threshold depends on both the clump column density and the movement of the clumps. We estimated this threshold analytically and compare our findings to radiative transfer simulations with a range of covering factors, clump column densities, radii, and motions. Our results suggest that (I) the success in fitting observed Lyα spectra using homogeneous "shell models" (and the corresponding failure of multiphase models) hints at the presence of very small-scale structure in neutral gas, which is in agreement within a number of other observations; and (II) the recurrent problems of reproducing realistic line profiles from hydrodynamical simulations may be due to their inability to resolve small-scale structure, which causes simulations to underestimate the effective covering factor of neutral gas clouds. The movie associated to Fig. B.2 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  8. Extreme ground motions and Yucca Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Thomas C.; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Baker, Jack W.; Boore, David M.; Board, Mark; Brune, James N.; Cornell, C. Allin; Whitney, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is the designated site of the underground repository for the United States' high-level radioactive waste (HLW), consisting of commercial and military spent nuclear fuel, HLW derived from reprocessing of uranium and plutonium, surplus plutonium, and other nuclear-weapons materials. Yucca Mountain straddles the western boundary of the Nevada Test Site, where the United States has tested nuclear devices since the 1950s, and is situated in an arid, remote, and thinly populated region of Nevada, ~100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Mountain was originally considered as a potential underground repository of HLW because of its thick units of unsaturated rocks, with the repository horizon being not only ~300 m above the water table but also ~300 m below the Yucca Mountain crest. The fundamental rationale for a geologic (underground) repository for HLW is to securely isolate these materials from the environment and its inhabitants to the greatest extent possible and for very long periods of time. Given the present climate conditions and what is known about the current hydrologic system and conditions around and in the mountain itself, one would anticipate that the rates of infiltration, corrosion, and transport would be very low—except for the possibility that repository integrity might be compromised by low-probability disruptive events, which include earthquakes, strong ground motion, and (or) a repository-piercing volcanic intrusion/eruption. Extreme ground motions (ExGM), as we use the phrase in this report, refer to the extremely large amplitudes of earthquake ground motion that arise at extremely low probabilities of exceedance (hazard). They first came to our attention when the 1998 probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for Yucca Mountain was extended to a hazard level of 10-8/yr (a 10-4/yr probability for a 104-year repository “lifetime”). The primary purpose of this report is to summarize the principal results of the ExGM research program

  9. Ideologies and Discourses: Extreme Narratives in Extreme Metal Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Radovanović

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Historically speaking, metal music has always been about provoking a strong reaction. Depending on the characteristics of different sub-genres, one can focus on the sound, technique, visual appearance, and furthermore, the ideologies and ideas that are the foundation for each of the sub-genres. Although the majority of the metal community rejects accusations of being racially intolerant, some ideologies of extreme sub-genres (such as black metal are in fact formed around the ideas of self-conscious elitism expressed through interest in pagan mythology, racism, Nazism and fascism. There has been much interest in the Nazi era within the extreme metal scene thus influencing other sub-genres and artists. The aim of this paper is to examine various appearances of extreme narratives such as Nazism and racism in  different sub-genres of metal, bearing in mind variations dependent on geographical, political, and other factors.

  10. Remote participation for LHD experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emoto, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Komada, S.; Nagayama, Y.

    2006-01-01

    To accomplish a large-scale experiment, such as large helical device (LHD) experiment, effective cooperation among institutes is necessary. In order to establish such cooperation, the NIFS provides the following remote participation facilities for the LHD experiments. (1) Remote access: The user can use a virtual private network (VPN) to connect to the LAN. This is the most flexible technique to participate in the experiments. The users who are not familiar with the experiments can log into the remote server running MetaFrame and Linux. In these computers, the required software is already installed. Therefore, the user need not be concerned with installing software. (2) Remote data reference: A mirror server exists to provide physical data to remote users. Moreover, the users can retrieve summarized data via a web server, which provides summarized information of each discharge experiment and graphs of the principal physical data. These graphs are useful for finding the required data quickly. (3) Remote communication and monitoring: For effective remote cooperation, communication between researchers is very important. For this purpose, a video conferencing system and a video streaming service are available. In addition to these facilities, the NIFS introduced Super SINET in 2002. This is an optical-fiber-based network. The backbone speed of this network is 10 Gbps, and the speed is 1 Gbps for direct connections

  11. The ITER remote maintenance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesini, A.; Palmer, J.

    2007-01-01

    ITER is a joint international research and development project that aims to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion power. As soon as the plasma operation begins using tritium, the replacement of the vacuum vessel internal components will need to be done with remote handling techniques. To accomplish these operations ITER has equipped itself with a Remote Maintenance System; this includes the Remote Handling equipment set and the Hot Cell facility. Both need to work in a cooperative way, with the aim of minimizing the machine shutdown periods and to maximize the machine availability. The ITER Remote Handling equipment set is required to be available, robust, reliable and retrievable. The machine components, to be remotely handle-able, are required to be designed simply so as to ease their maintenance. The baseline ITER Remote Handling equipment is described. The ITER Hot Cell Facility is required to provide a controlled and shielded area for the execution of repair operations (carried out using dedicated remote handling equipment) on those activated components which need to be returned to service, inside the vacuum vessel. The Hot Cell provides also the equipment and space for the processing and temporary storage of the operational and decommissioning radwaste. A conceptual ITER Hot Cell Facility is described. (orig.)

  12. Remote participation for LHD experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emoto, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)]. E-mail: emoto.masahiko@LHD.nifs.ac.jp; Yamamoto, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Komada, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Nagayama, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2006-07-15

    To accomplish a large-scale experiment, such as large helical device (LHD) experiment, effective cooperation among institutes is necessary. In order to establish such cooperation, the NIFS provides the following remote participation facilities for the LHD experiments. (1) Remote access: The user can use a virtual private network (VPN) to connect to the LAN. This is the most flexible technique to participate in the experiments. The users who are not familiar with the experiments can log into the remote server running MetaFrame and Linux. In these computers, the required software is already installed. Therefore, the user need not be concerned with installing software. (2) Remote data reference: A mirror server exists to provide physical data to remote users. Moreover, the users can retrieve summarized data via a web server, which provides summarized information of each discharge experiment and graphs of the principal physical data. These graphs are useful for finding the required data quickly. (3) Remote communication and monitoring: For effective remote cooperation, communication between researchers is very important. For this purpose, a video conferencing system and a video streaming service are available. In addition to these facilities, the NIFS introduced Super SINET in 2002. This is an optical-fiber-based network. The backbone speed of this network is 10 Gbps, and the speed is 1 Gbps for direct connections.

  13. Legitimate data in remote monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, J D

    2009-01-01

    An approach for ensuring legitimate data transfers of an individual within a remote healthcare solution. Biometric traits and networking are discussed for clarification of the approach. In this approach, a biometric solution is identified as a fingerprint scanner for use in a personal area network of the patient's home. Secure data exchange is acknowledged as a potential weakness in the transferring of patient data within this network. Some options are discussed to ensure security of data for the review by the caregiver. Example approaches regarding legitimacy are identified using a pulse oximeter [1], a blood pressure meter, and a weight scale as the remote patient devices in the remote healthcare solution.

  14. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Alfredo; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy report provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind it began in year 2008 at DTU Wind Energy (formerly Risø) during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy...... colleagues in the Meteorology and Test and Measurements Sections from DTU Wind Energy in the PhD Summer Schools. We hope to continue adding more topics in future editions and to update and improve as necessary, to provide a truly state-of-the-art ‘guideline’ available for people involved in Remote Sensing...

  15. Remote Lab for Robotics Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Jiménez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development of a remote lab environment used to test and training sessions for robotics tasks. This environment is made up of the components and devices based on two robotic arms, a network link, Arduino card and Arduino shield for Ethernet, as well as an IP camera. The remote laboratory is implemented to perform remote control of the robotic arms with visual feedback by camera, of the robots actions, where, with a group of test users, it was possible to obtain performance ranges in tasks of telecontrol of up to 92%.

  16. Remote video registration of seals at Rødsand seal sanctuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edren, Susi M.C.; Teilmann, J.; Dietz, R.

    This report describes the preliminary use of a remote-controlled webbased camera system in the Rødsand seal sanctuary. The camera system powered by solar and wind energy is designed to operate under extreme weather conditions. Live images and still photos are transmitted to a land station, from...

  17. Remote direct memory access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

    2012-12-11

    Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for remote direct memory access. Embodiments include transmitting, from an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node to a plurality target DMA engines on target compute nodes, a request to send message, the request to send message specifying a data to be transferred from the origin DMA engine to data storage on each target compute node; receiving, by each target DMA engine on each target compute node, the request to send message; preparing, by each target DMA engine, to store data according to the data storage reference and the data length, including assigning a base storage address for the data storage reference; sending, by one or more of the target DMA engines, an acknowledgment message acknowledging that all the target DMA engines are prepared to receive a data transmission from the origin DMA engine; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, the acknowledgement message from the one or more of the target DMA engines; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine, data to data storage on each of the target compute nodes according to the data storage reference using a single direct put operation.

  18. Seasonal temperature extremes in Potsdam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundzewicz, Zbigniew; Huang, Shaochun

    2010-12-01

    The awareness of global warming is well established and results from the observations made on thousands of stations. This paper complements the large-scale results by examining a long time-series of high-quality temperature data from the Secular Meteorological Station in Potsdam, where observation records over the last 117 years, i.e., from January 1893 are available. Tendencies of change in seasonal temperature-related climate extremes are demonstrated. "Cold" extremes have become less frequent and less severe than in the past, while "warm" extremes have become more frequent and more severe. Moreover, the interval of the occurrence of frost has been decreasing, while the interval of the occurrence of hot days has been increasing. However, many changes are not statistically significant, since the variability of temperature indices at the Potsdam station has been very strong.

  19. Lymphoscintigraphy of the lower extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, N.Z.

    1990-01-01

    Fifty one lower extremities of 26 normal healthy volunteers and 26 extremities of 13 patients with oedema have been studied. Dynamic quantitative lymphoscintigraphy using 99Tc-m antimony sulphide colloid during passive exercise as well as before and after active exercise was performed. parameters of lymphatic function including percentage of radioactivity cleared from the injection site, the percentage uptake by the inguinal lymph nodes, the time of arrival of activity at the regional lymph nodes and the lymphatic reserve index have been evaluated. The percentage clearance of activity from the injection site was found technically difficult to standardize and proved to be an unreliable parameter of lymphatic function. However, the quantitation of nodal uptake, the lymphatic transit time and the lymphatic reserve capacity accurately depicted the lymphatic functional status of an individual. The physiologic parameters of lymphatic function of the contralateral lower extremities were compared and a physiologic difference in the lymphatic capacity of the two limbs was scintigraphically documented. (author)

  20. (When and where) Do extreme climate events trigger extreme ecosystem responses? - Development and initial results of a holistic analysis framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, Eva K.; Donner, Reik V.

    2015-04-01

    a seasonal cycle for each quantile of the distribution, which can be used for a fully data-adaptive definition of extremes as exceedances above this time-dependent quantile function. (2) Having thus identified the extreme events, their distribution is analyzed in both space and time. Following a procedure recently proposed by Lloyd-Hughes (2012) and further exploited by Zscheischler et al. (2013), extremes observed at neighboring points in space and time are considered to form connected sets. Investigating the size distribution of these sets provides novel insights into the development and dynamical characteristics of spatio-temporally extended climate and ecosystem extremes. (3) Finally, the timing of such spatio-temporally extended extremes in different climatic as well as ecological variables is tested pairwise to rule out that co-occurrences of extremes have emerged solely due to chance. For this purpose, the recently developed framework of coincidence analysis (Donges et al., 2011; Rammig et al. 2014) is applied. The corresponding analysis allows identifying potential causal linkages between climatic extremes and extreme ecosystem responses and, thus, to study their mechanisms and spatial as well as seasonal distribution in great detail. In this work, the described method is exemplified by using different climate data from the ERA-Interim reanalysis as well as remote sensing-based land surface temperature data. References: Donges et al., PNAS, 108, 20422, 2011 Lloyd-Hughes, Int. J. Climatol., 32, 406, 2012 Rammig et al., Biogeosc. Disc., 11, 2537, 2014 Zscheischler et al., Ecol. Inform., 15, 66, 2013

  1. Online remote monitoring facilities for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kolos, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Feng, E; Hauser, R; Yakovlev, A; Zaytsev, A

    2010-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the 4 LHC experiments which started to be operated in the collisions mode in 2010. The ATLAS apparatus itself as well as the Trigger and the DAQ system are extremely complex facilities which have been built up by the collaboration including 144 institutes from 33 countries. The effective running of the experiment is supported by a large number of experts distributed all over the world. This paper describes the online remote monitoring system which has been developed in the ATLAS TDAQ community in order to support efficient participation of the experts from remote institutes in the exploitation of the experiment. The facilities provided by the remote monitoring system are ranging from the WEB based access to the general status and data quality for the ongoing data taking session to the scalable service providing real-time mirroring of the detailed monitoring data from the experimental area to the dedicated computers in the CERN public network, where this data is made available to remote users t...

  2. Statistical Model of Extreme Shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2005-01-01

    In order to continue cost-optimisation of modern large wind turbines, it is important to continuously increase the knowledge of wind field parameters relevant to design loads. This paper presents a general statistical model that offers site-specific prediction of the probability density function...... by a model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describes the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of full-scale measurements recorded with a high sampling rate...

  3. Automation Rover for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauder, Jonathan; Hilgemann, Evan; Johnson, Michael; Parness, Aaron; Hall, Jeffrey; Kawata, Jessie; Stack, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Almost 2,300 years ago the ancient Greeks built the Antikythera automaton. This purely mechanical computer accurately predicted past and future astronomical events long before electronics existed1. Automata have been credibly used for hundreds of years as computers, art pieces, and clocks. However, in the past several decades automata have become less popular as the capabilities of electronics increased, leaving them an unexplored solution for robotic spacecraft. The Automaton Rover for Extreme Environments (AREE) proposes an exciting paradigm shift from electronics to a fully mechanical system, enabling longitudinal exploration of the most extreme environments within the solar system.

  4. Hygienic diagnosis in extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofronov, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    Review for book by M.P. Zakharchenko, S.A. Lopatin, G.N. Novozhilov, V.I. Zakharov Hygienic diagnosis in extreme conditions is presented discussing the problem of people health preservation under extreme conditions. Hygienic diagnosis is considered illustrated by cases of hostilities (Afghan War), earthquake response in Armenia (1988) and Chernobyl accident response. Attention is paid to the estimation of radiation doses to people and characteristics of main types of dosimeters. The high scientific level of the book is marked

  5. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, R. G.; Neary, V. S.; Lawson, M. J.; Yu, Y.; Weber, J.

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, NM on May 13th-14th, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. hurricanes and other large storms) and to suggest how U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry.

  6. Remote sensing of oil slicks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fondekar, S.P.; Rao, L.V.G.

    the drawback of expensive conventional surveying methods. An airborne remote sensing system used for monitoring and surveillance of oil comprises different sensors such as side-looking airborne radar, synthetic aperture radar, infrared/ultraviolet line scanner...

  7. Remote Decommissioning Experiences at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownridge, M.

    2006-01-01

    British Nuclear Group has demonstrated through delivery of significant decommissioning projects the ability to effectively deploy innovative remote decommissioning technologies and deliver cost effective solutions. This has been achieved through deployment and development of off-the-shelf technologies and design of bespoke equipment. For example, the worlds first fully remotely operated Brokk was successfully deployed to enable fully remote dismantling, packaging and export of waste during the decommissioning of a pilot reprocessing facility. British Nuclear Group has also successfully implemented remote decommissioning systems to enable the decommissioning of significant challenges, including dismantling of a Caesium Extraction Facility, Windscale Pile Chimney and retrieval of Plutonium Contaminated Material (PCM) from storage cells. The challenge for the future is to continue to innovate through utilization of the supply chain and deploy off-the-shelf technologies which have been demonstrated in other industry sectors, thus reducing implementation schedules, cost and maintenance. (authors)

  8. Remote sensing technology: symposium proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Papers were presented in four subject areas: applications of remote sensing; data analysis, digital and analog; acquisition systems; and general. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base

  9. Classification of remotely sensed images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudeni, N

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available For this research, the researchers examine various existing image classification algorithms with the aim of demonstrating how these algorithms can be applied to remote sensing images. These algorithms are broadly divided into supervised...

  10. Remote Sensing of Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a problem of international scope and concern. It can be subdivided into problems relating to water, air, or land pollution. Many of the problems in these three categories lend themselves to study and possible solution by remote sensing. Through the use of remote sensing systems and techniques, it is possible to detect and monitor, and in some cases, identify, measure, and study the effects of various environmental pollutants. As a guide for making decisions regarding the use of remote sensors for pollution studies, a special five-dimensional sensor/applications matrix has been designed. The matrix defines an environmental goal, ranks the various remote sensing objectives in terms of their ability to assist in solving environmental problems, lists the environmental problems, ranks the sensors that can be used for collecting data on each problem, and finally ranks the sensor platform options that are currently available.

  11. Robotics and remote systems applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabold, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    This article is a review of numerous remote inspection techniques in use at the Savannah River (and other) facilities. These include: (1) reactor tank inspection robot, (2) californium waste removal robot, (3) fuel rod lubrication robot, (4) cesium source manipulation robot, (5) tank 13 survey and decontamination robots, (6) hot gang valve corridor decontamination and junction box removal robots, (7) lead removal from deionizer vessels robot, (8) HB line cleanup robot, (9) remote operation of a front end loader at WIPP, (10) remote overhead video extendible robot, (11) semi-intelligent mobile observing navigator, (12) remote camera systems in the SRS canyons, (13) cameras and borescope for the DWPF, (14) Hanford waste tank camera system, (15) in-tank precipitation camera system, (16) F-area retention basin pipe crawler, (17) waste tank wall crawler and annulus camera, (18) duct inspection, and (19) deionizer resin sampling

  12. Remote data monitoring for CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kippenhan, H.A. Jr.; Lidinsky, W.; Roediger, G.

    1995-11-01

    Remote data monitoring from the physicists' home institutions has become an important issue in large international experiments to ensure high performance of the detectors and high quality of data and scientific results. The CDF experiment is a collaboration of 450 physicists from 36 institutions in the U.S., Japan, Canada, Italy and Taiwan. Future experiments at Fermilab, CERN and elsewhere will be even larger, and will be performed over a period of order 10 years. The ability of collaborators at remote sites to monitor the increasingly complex detectors and feed the results back into the data acquisition process will be of great importance We report on the status and performance of remote monitoring from Japan of the CDF experiment in Batavia Illinois. We also discuss feasibilities for modest Remote Control Rooms

  13. Moving in extreme environments: what's extreme and who decides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, James David; Tipton, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Humans work, rest and play in immensely varied extreme environments. The term 'extreme' typically refers to insufficiency or excess of one or more stressors, such as thermal energy or gravity. Individuals' behavioural and physiological capacity to endure and enjoy such environments varies immensely. Adverse effects of acute exposure to these environments are readily identifiable (e.g. heat stroke or bone fracture), whereas adverse effects of chronic exposure (e.g. stress fractures or osteoporosis) may be as important but much less discernable. Modern societies have increasingly sought to protect people from such stressors and, in that way, minimise their adverse effects. Regulations are thus established, and advice is provided on what is 'acceptable' exposure. Examples include work/rest cycles in the heat, hydration regimes, rates of ascent to and duration of stay at altitude and diving depth. While usually valuable and well intentioned, it is important to realise the breadth and importance of limitations associated with such guidelines. Regulations and advisories leave less room for self-determination, learning and perhaps adaptation. Regulations based on stress (e.g. work/rest cycles relative to WBGT) are more practical but less direct than those based on strain (e.g. core temperature), but even the latter can be substantively limited (e.g. by lack of criterion validation and allowance for behavioural regulation in the research on which they are based). Extreme Physiology & Medicine is publishing a series of reviews aimed at critically examining the issues involved with self- versus regulation-controlled human movement acutely and chronically in extreme environments. These papers, arising from a research symposium in 2013, are about the impact of people engaging in such environments and the effect of rules and guidelines on their safety, enjoyment, autonomy and productivity. The reviews will cover occupational heat stress, sporting heat stress, hydration, diving

  14. Remote sensing for vineyard management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipson, W. R.; Erb, T. L.; Fernandez, D.; Mcleester, J. N.

    1980-01-01

    Cornell's Remote Sensing Program has been involved in a continuing investigation to assess the value of remote sensing for vineyard management. Program staff members have conducted a series of site and crop analysis studies. These include: (1) panchromatic aerial photography for planning artificial drainage in a new vineyard; (2) color infrared aerial photography for assessing crop vigor/health; and (3) color infrared aerial photography and aircraft multispectral scanner data for evaluating yield related factors. These studies and their findings are reviewed.

  15. Scale issues in remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, Qihao

    2014-01-01

    This book provides up-to-date developments, methods, and techniques in the field of GIS and remote sensing and features articles from internationally renowned authorities on three interrelated perspectives of scaling issues: scale in land surface properties, land surface patterns, and land surface processes. The book is ideal as a professional reference for practicing geographic information scientists and remote sensing engineers as well as a supplemental reading for graduate level students.

  16. Remote sensing and resource exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Baz, F.; Hassan, M.H.A.; Cappellini, V.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the Workshop was to study in depth the application of remote sensing technology to the fields of archaeology, astronomy, geography, geology, and physics. Some emphasis was placed on utilizing remote sensing methods and techniques in the search for water, mineral and land resources. The Workshop was attended by 90 people from 35 countries. The proceedings of this meeting includes 15 papers, 12 of them have a separate abstract in the INIS Database. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Remote interest in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, C.

    1993-01-01

    The United Kingdom nuclear industry has moved on from its low-technology solutions to remote handling problems which were popular in the 1950s and 1960s. A change in attitude has occurred which means that users are looking for high-technology solutions to today's remote handling problems. This review focuses on the ways in which their needs are being met and on the demands for future development which they are generating. (UK)

  18. Advances in Remote Sensing for Vegetation Dynamics and Agricultural Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Compton; Puma, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing has led to great advances in the global monitoring of vegetation. For example, the NASA Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) group has developed widely used datasets from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensors as well as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) map imagery and normalized difference vegetation index datasets. These data are valuable for analyzing vegetation trends and variability at the regional and global levels. Numerous studies have investigated such trends and variability for both natural vegetation (e.g., re-greening of the Sahel, shifts in the Eurasian boreal forest, Amazonian drought sensitivity) and crops (e.g., impacts of extremes on agricultural production). Here, a critical overview is presented on recent developments and opportunities in the use of remote sensing for monitoring vegetation and crop dynamics.

  19. Remote maintenance development, July 1975--July 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, R.D.

    1977-04-01

    The results of the second year's efforts on remote handling development and studies for remote maintenance of failure-prone areas of the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) are presented. Test arrangements and results for specific viewing situations and component remote installation and removal in the Remote Maintenance Development Facility (RMDF) and component material evaluations are discussed

  20. Remote mechanical C line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuttall, K.R.; Gardner, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company is developing a desk-top simulation based training program on the operation of the Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line process in the Plutonium Finishing Plant on the Hanford site, Richland, Washington. Simulations display aod contioually update current values of system parameters on computer graphics of RMC line equipment. Students are able to operate a variety of controllers to maintain proper system status. Programmed faults, selectable by the course instructor, can be used to test student responses to off-normal events. Prior to operation of the simulation, students are given computer-based tutorials on the function, processes, operation, and error conditions associated with individual components. By including the capability of operating each individual component - valves, heaters, agitators, etc. - the computer-based training (CBT) lessons become an interactive training manual. From one perspective RMC represents one step in the diffusion of the well-known and well-documented simulator training activities for nuclear reactor operators to other training programs, equally critical, perhaps, but less well scrutinized in the past. Because of the slowly responding nature of the actual process, RMC can retain many of the capabilities of practice and testing in a simulated work environment while avoiding the cost of a full scale simulator and the exposure and waste developed by practice runs of the RMC line. From another perspective RMC suggests training advances even beyond the most faithful simulators. For example, by integrating CBT lessons with the simulation, RMC permits students to focus in on specific processes occurring inside chosen components. In effect, the interactive training manual is available on-line with the simulation itself. Cost are also discussed

  1. Remote radiation environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashayev, A.M.; Mehdiyev, A.Sh.; Bayramov, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The project of the automated remote monitoring for a level of an environment background radiation in settlements along boundary of the Azerbaijan Republic is developed. The main purpose of the project is: increase of a level of a radiation safety on territory of the Azerbaijan Republic; controlling of a level of an environment background radiation on boundary of the Azerbaijan Republic with the purpose of well-timed warning and acceptance of indispensable measures at probable emergencies on Atomic Power Stations in a number adjacent from Azerbaijan countries, or other ecological catastrophes; controlling of a level of an environment background radiation along eastern suburbs of Azerbaijan regions occupied of Armenia's army and detection of the facts of wrongful disposals of atomic engineering of Armenia on territory of Azerbaijan. As is known, in a number adjacent from Azerbaijan countries the nuclear industry is advanced or develops. It has resulted in origin of threat of a radiation hazard in case of ecological catastrophes: widely scale leakage of radioactive wastes, explosions, or fires on nuclear generating sets, acts of sabotage, directional against Azerbaijan. In this case, at unfavorable meteorological conditions a radioactive waste may be brought by a wind or a rain on territory of Azerbaijan. Measurement is supposed a carry with the help of 'EKOMON' fixed stations. The results of round-the-clock a gamma and a neutron background measurement from the stations will be transmitted automatically to a dispatcher station in the central computer. Established on the stations telescopic sensors also will allow to determine a direction of a radiation and coordinates of radiation source. Stations will be located along boundary, and also in Kedabek, Akstafa, Terter, Agdam and Fizuli regions, and in Autonomous Republic of Nakhichevan

  2. Effects of climate extremes on the terrestrial carbon cycle: concepts, processes and potential future impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Dorothea; Reichstein, Markus; Bahn, Michael; Thonicke, Kirsten; Frank, David; Mahecha, Miguel D; Smith, Pete; van der Velde, Marijn; Vicca, Sara; Babst, Flurin; Beer, Christian; Buchmann, Nina; Canadell, Josep G; Ciais, Philippe; Cramer, Wolfgang; Ibrom, Andreas; Miglietta, Franco; Poulter, Ben; Rammig, Anja; Seneviratne, Sonia I; Walz, Ariane; Wattenbach, Martin; Zavala, Miguel A; Zscheischler, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Extreme droughts, heat waves, frosts, precipitation, wind storms and other climate extremes may impact the structure, composition and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, and thus carbon cycling and its feedbacks to the climate system. Yet, the interconnected avenues through which climate extremes drive ecological and physiological processes and alter the carbon balance are poorly understood. Here, we review the literature on carbon cycle relevant responses of ecosystems to extreme climatic events. Given that impacts of climate extremes are considered disturbances, we assume the respective general disturbance-induced mechanisms and processes to also operate in an extreme context. The paucity of well-defined studies currently renders a quantitative meta-analysis impossible, but permits us to develop a deductive framework for identifying the main mechanisms (and coupling thereof) through which climate extremes may act on the carbon cycle. We find that ecosystem responses can exceed the duration of the climate impacts via lagged effects on the carbon cycle. The expected regional impacts of future climate extremes will depend on changes in the probability and severity of their occurrence, on the compound effects and timing of different climate extremes, and on the vulnerability of each land-cover type modulated by management. Although processes and sensitivities differ among biomes, based on expert opinion, we expect forests to exhibit the largest net effect of extremes due to their large carbon pools and fluxes, potentially large indirect and lagged impacts, and long recovery time to regain previous stocks. At the global scale, we presume that droughts have the strongest and most widespread effects on terrestrial carbon cycling. Comparing impacts of climate extremes identified via remote sensing vs. ground-based observational case studies reveals that many regions in the (sub-)tropics are understudied. Hence, regional investigations are needed to allow a global

  3. Angiography of the upper extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janevski, B.K.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis provides a description of the technical and medical aspects of arteriography of the upper extremity and an extensive analysis of the angiographic anatomy and pathology of 750 selective studies performed in more than 500 patients. A short historical review is provided of angiography as a whole and of arteriography of the hand in particular. The method of percutaneous transfemoral catheterization of the arteries of the upper extremity and particularly the arteries of the hand is considered, discussing the problems the angiographer encounters frequently, describing the angiographic complications which may occur and emphasizing the measures to keep them to a minimum. The use of vasodilators in hand angiography is discussed. A short description of the embryological patterns persisting in the arteries of the arm is included in order to understand the congenital variations of the arteries of the upper extremity. The angiographic patterns and clinical aspects of the most common pathological processes involving the arteries of the upper extremities are presented. Special attention is paid to the correlation between angiography and pathology. (Auth.)

  4. Extreme conditions (p, T, H)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesot, J [Lab. for Neutron Scattering ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland) and Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarize the sample environment which will be accessible at the SINQ. In order to illustrate the type of experiments which will be feasible under extreme conditions of temperature, magnetic field and pressure at the SINQ a few selected examples are also given. (author) 7 figs., 14 refs.

  5. Book review: Extreme ocean waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.

    2011-01-01

    ‘‘Extreme Ocean Waves’’ is a collection of ten papers edited by Efim Pelinovsky and Christian Kharif that followed the April 2007 meeting of the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union. A note on terminology: extreme waves in this volume broadly encompass different types of waves, includ- ing deep-water and shallow-water rogue waves (alternatively termed freak waves), storm surges from cyclones, and internal waves. Other types of waves such as tsunamis or rissaga (meteotsunamis) are not discussed in this volume. It is generally implied that ‘‘extreme’’ has a statistical connotation relative to the average or significant wave height specific to each type of wave. Throughout the book, in fact, the reader will find a combination of theoretical and statistical/ empirical treatment necessary for the complete examination of this subject. In the introduction, the editors underscore the importance of studying extreme waves, documenting several dramatic instances of damaging extreme waves that occurred in 2007. 

  6. Extreme Energy Events Monitoring report

    CERN Document Server

    Baimukhamedova, Nigina

    2015-01-01

    Following paper reflects the progress I made on Summer Student Program within Extreme Energy Events Monitor project I was working on. During 8 week period I managed to build a simple detector system that is capable of triggering events similar to explosions (sudden change in sound levels) and measuring approximate location of the event. Source codes are available upon request and settings described further.

  7. Astrobiology: Life in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It seeks to answer two important scientific questions: how did we get here and are we alone in the universe? Scientists begin by studying life on Earth and its limits. The discovery of extremophiles on Earth capable of surviving extremes encourages the…

  8. The development of remote repairing system, decontamination and in-cell remote inspection equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Yuzo; Toyoda, Osamu; Haginoya, Isao; Yamamoto, Ryuichi; Tanaka, Yasumasa

    1993-01-01

    PNC has been developing remote repair and inspection technologies for in-cell components in reprocessing Plants. In this report, several remote technologies such as remote dismantling and removal, decontamination, remote pipe maintenance and remote in-cell inspection equipment are described. (author)

  9. Extreme Spectroscopy: In situ nuclear materials behavior from optical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimbretiere, G.; Canizares, A.; Raimboux, N.; Omnee, R.; Duval, F.; Ammar, M.R.; Simon, P. [CNRS - UPR3079 CEMHTI, Universite d' Orleans, 45071Orleans cedex 2 (France); Desgranges, L.; Mohun, R. [CEA, DEN, DEC, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Jegou, C.; Magnin, M. [CEA/DTCD/SECM/LMPA, Marcoule 30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France); Clavier, N.; Dacheux, N. [ICSM-UMR5257 CEA/CNRS/UM2/ENSCM, Marcoule, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    2015-07-01

    In the nuclear industry, materials are regularly exposed to high temperature or/and irradiation and a better knowledge and understanding of their behavior under such extreme conditions is a key-point for improvements and further developments. Nowadays, Raman spectroscopy begins to be well known as a promising technique in the post mortem and remote characterization of nuclear materials exposed to extreme conditions. On this topic, at ANIMMA 2013 conference, we have presented some results about its implementation in the study of model or real nuclear fuel. However, the strength of Raman spectroscopy as in situ characterization tool is mainly its ability to be implemented remotely through optical fibers. Aware of this, implementation of other optical techniques can be considered in order to gain information not only on the structural dynamics of materials but also on the electronic charge carrier populations. In this paper, we propose to present our last advances in Raman characterization of nuclear materials and enlarge to the in situ use of complementary optical spectroscopies. Emphasis will be made on the information that can be gained to the behavior of the model fuel depleted UO{sub 2} under extreme conditions of high temperature and ionic irradiation: - In Situ Raman identification of the radiolysis alteration products of UO{sub 2} in contact with water under ionic irradiation. - In Situ Raman recording of the damaged dynamic of UO{sub 2} under inert atmosphere. - In Situ Raman and photo-luminescence study of virgin and damaged UO2 at high temperature. - In Situ study of electronic charge carriers' behavior in U{sub x}Th{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} solid solutions by mean of Iono- and Thermo- luminescence under and post- ionic irradiation. (authors)

  10. Nutrition security under extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, A.

    2017-12-01

    Nutrition security under extreme events. Zero hunger being one of the Sustainable Development Goal from the United Nations, food security has become a trending research topic. However extreme events impact on global food security is not yet 100% understood and there is a lack of comprehension of the underlying mechanisms of global food trade and nutrition security to improve countries resilience to extreme events. In a globalized world, food is still a highly regulated commodity and a strategic resource. A drought happening in a net food-exporter will have little to no effect on its own population but the repercussion on net food-importers can be extreme. In this project, we propose a methodology to describe and quantify the impact of a local drought to human health at a global scale. For this purpose, nutrition supply and global trade data from FAOSTAT have been used with domestic food production from national agencies and FAOSTAT, global precipitation from the Climate Research Unit and health data from the World Health Organization. A modified Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) has been developed to measure the level of resilience of one country to a drought happening in another country. This index describes how a country is dependent of importation and how diverse are its importation. Losses of production and exportation due to extreme events have been calculated using yield data and a simple food balance at country scale. Results show that countries the most affected by global droughts are the one with the highest dependency to one exporting country. Changes induced by droughts also disturbed their domestic proteins, fat and calories supply resulting most of the time in a higher intake of calories or fat over proteins.

  11. Assessing changes in extreme convective precipitation from a damage perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeer, K.; Tye, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Projected increases in high-intensity short-duration convective precipitation are expected even in regions that are likely to become more arid. Such high intensity precipitation events can trigger hazardous flash floods, debris flows and landslides that put people and local assets at risk. However, the assessment of local scale precipitation extremes is hampered by its high spatial and temporal variability. In addition to which, not only are extreme events rare, but such small scale events are likely to be underreported where they don't coincide with the observation network. Rather than focus solely on the convective precipitation, understanding the characteristics of these extremes which drive damage may be more effective to assess future risks. Two sources of data are used in this study. First, sub-daily precipitation observations over the Southern Alps enable an examination of seasonal and regional patterns in high-intensity convective precipitation and their relationship with weather types. Secondly, reports of private loss and damage on a household scale are used to identify which events are most damaging, or what conditions potentially enhance the vulnerability to these extremes.This study explores the potential added value from including recorded loss and damage data to understand the risks from summertime convective precipitation events. By relating precipitation generating weather types to the severity of damage we hope to develop a mechanism to assess future risks. A further benefit would be to identify from damage reports the likely occurrence of precipitation extremes where no direct observations are available and use this information to validate remotely sensed observations.

  12. Remote sensing in meteorology, oceanography and hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cracknell, A P [ed.

    1981-01-01

    Various aspects of remote sensing are discussed. Topics include: the EARTHNET data acquisition, processing, and distribution facility the design and implementation of a digital interactive image processing system geometrical aspects of remote sensing and space cartography remote sensing of a complex surface legal aspects of remote sensing remote sensing of pollution, dust storms, ice masses, and ocean waves and currents use of satellite images for weather forecasting. Notes on field trips and work-sheets for laboratory exercises are included.

  13. Cause and Properties of the Extreme Space Weather Event of 2012 July 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. D.; Luhmann, J. G.; Kajdic, P.; Kilpua, E.; Lugaz, N.; Nitta, N.; Lavraud, B.; Bale, S. D.; Farrugia, C. J.; Galvin, A. B.

    2013-12-01

    Extreme space weather refers to extreme conditions in space driven by solar eruptions and subsequent disturbances in interplanetary space, or otherwise called solar superstorms. Understanding extreme space weather events is becoming ever more vital, as the vulnerability of our society and its technological infrastructure to space weather has increased dramatically. Instances of extreme space weather, however, are very rare by definition and therefore are difficult to study. Here we report and investigate an extreme event, which occurred on 2012 July 23 with a maximum speed of about 3050 km/s near the Sun. This event, with complete modern remote sensing and in situ observations from multiple vantage points, provides an unprecedented opportunity to study the cause and consequences of extreme space weather. It produced a superfast shock with a peak solar wind speed of 2246 km/s and a superstrong magnetic cloud with a peak magnetic field of 109 nT observed near 1 AU at STEREO A. The record solar wind speed and magnetic field would produce a record geomagnetic storm since the space era with a minimum Dst of -1200 - -600 nT, if this event hit the Earth. We demonstrate how successive coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can be enhanced into a solar superstorm as they interact en route from the Sun to 1 AU. These results not only provide a benchmark for studies of extreme space weather, but also present a new view of how an extreme space weather event can be generated from usual solar eruptions.

  14. MRI findings of a remote and isolated vaginal metastasis revealing an adenocarcinoma of the mid-sigmoid colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Arco, Felice; Pizzuti, Laura Micol; Romano, Federica; Natella, Valentina; Laccetti, Ettore; Storto, Giovanni; Maurea, Simone; Mainenti, Pier Paolo

    2014-01-01

    A remote vaginal metastasis from a colo-rectal carcinoma is extremely rare. Only few cases have been described in the literature. The radiological appearances of a vaginal metastasis from colon-rectal cancer have not been extensively investigated. We report the MRI findings with clinical and pathological correlations of a remote and isolated vaginal metastasis revealing a mid-sigmoid adenocarcinoma in a 67 years old woman

  15. Disappearing or residual tiny (≤5 mm) colorectal liver metastases after chemotherapy on gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging: Is local treatment required?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cheonan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kyoung Doo; Kim, Young Kon [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Cheol; Huh, Jung Wook [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Suk; Park, Joon Oh; Kim, Seung Tae [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    To evaluate the clinical course of disappearing colorectal liver metastases (DLM) or residual tiny (≤5 mm) colorectal liver metastases (RTCLM) on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in patients who had colorectal liver metastases (CLM) and received chemotherapy. Among 137 patients who received chemotherapy for CLM and underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and DWI between 2010 and 2012, 43 patients with 168 DLMs and 48 RTCLMs were included. The cumulative in situ recurrence rate of DLM and progression rate of RTCLM and their predictive factors were evaluated. A total of 150 DLMs and 26 RTCLMs were followed up without additional treatment. At 1 and 2 years, respectively, the cumulative in situ recurrence rates for DLM were 10.9 % and 15.7 % and the cumulative progression rates for RTCLM were 27.2 % and 33.2 %. The in situ recurrence rate at 2 years was 4.9 % for the DLM group that did not show reticular hypointensity of liver parenchyma on hepatobiliary phase. DLM on gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI and DWI indicates a high possibility of clinical complete response, especially in patients without chemotherapy-induced sinusoidal obstruction syndrome. Thirty-three percent of RTCLMs showed progression at 2 years. (orig.)

  16. The measurement of tiny dew droplets at the initial deposition stage and dew point using a phase-shift interference microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeaki, Matsumoto

    2003-12-01

    The shape of a dew droplet deposited on the mirror surface of a copper plate was measured accurately using an interference microscope that employed a phase-shift technique. The microscope was constructed by adding a piezoelectric transducer to an interference microscope. A simple method that uses a conventional speaker horn and an optical fibre cable was used to depress any speckle noise. The shape of a dew droplet deposited at dew point on the plate surface with average roughness of 0.1 µm was measured with an accuracy of ± 3 nm. The mass of a tiny dew droplet could be determined from the volume of its shape and was of the order of 10-9 g. The total mass of a dew droplet deposited per unit area and the deposition velocity under a gentle wind were also obtained in a similar way. The total mass was of the order of 10-5 g cm-2 at the beginning of deposition and the deposition velocity ranged from 1 × 10-5 to 6 × 10-5 g cm-2 min-1 at room temperature.

  17. Development of transformation bands in TiNi SMA for various stress and strain rates studied by a fast and sensitive infrared camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieczyska, E A; Kulasinski, K; Tobushi, H

    2013-01-01

    TiNi shape memory alloy (SMA) was subjected to tension at various strain rates for stress- and strain-controlled tests. The nucleation, development and saturation of the stress-induced martensitic transformation were investigated, based on the specimen temperature changes, measured by a fast and sensitive infrared camera. It was found that the initial, macroscopically homogeneous phase transformation occurs at the same stress level for all strain rates applied, regardless of the loading manner, while the stress of the localized transformation increases with the strain rate. At higher strain rate, a more dynamic course of the transformation process was observed, revealed in the creation of numerous fine transformation bands. An inflection point was noticed on the stress–strain curve, dividing the transformation range into two stages: the first heterogeneous, where transformation bands nucleate and evolve throughout the sample; the second, where the bands overlap, related to significant temperature increase and an upswing region of the curve. In the final part of the SMA loading a decrease of the average sample temperature revealed the saturation stage of the transformation. It was also observed that nucleation of the localized martensitic forward transformation takes place in the weakest area of the sample in both approaches, whereas the reverse transformation always initiates in its central part. (paper)

  18. Highly stretchable strain sensor based on polyurethane substrate using hydrogen bond-assisted laminated structure for monitoring of tiny human motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Zhao, Yunong; Wang, Yang; Guo, Xiaohui; Zhang, Yangyang; Liu, Ping; Liu, Caixia; Zhang, Yugang

    2018-03-01

    Strain sensors used as flexible and wearable electronic devices have improved prospects in the fields of artificial skin, robotics, human-machine interfaces, and healthcare. This work introduces a highly stretchable fiber-based strain sensor with a laminated structure made up of a graphene nanoplatelet layer and a carbon black/single-walled carbon nanotube synergetic conductive network layer. An ultrathin, flexible, and elastic two-layer polyurethane (PU) yarn substrate was successively deposited by a novel chemical bonding-based layered dip-coating process. These strain sensors demonstrated high stretchability (˜350%), little hysteresis, and long-term durability (over 2400 cycles) due to the favorable tensile properties of the PU substrate. The linearity of the strain sensor could reach an adjusted R-squared of 0.990 at 100% strain, which is better than most of the recently reported strain sensors. Meanwhile, the strain sensor exhibited good sensibility, rapid response, and a lower detection limit. The lower detection limit benefited from the hydrogen bond-assisted laminated structure and continuous conductive path. Finally, a series of experiments were carried out based on the special features of the PU strain sensor to show its capacity of detecting and monitoring tiny human motions.

  19. Anisotropic Negative Thermal Expansion Behavior of the As-Fabricated Ti-Rich and Equiatomic Ti-Ni Alloys Induced by Preferential Grain Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhong-Xun; Ma, Xiao; Cao, Shan-Shan; Ke, Chang-Bo; Zhang, Xin-Ping

    2018-03-01

    The present study focuses on the anisotropic negative thermal expansion (NTE) behaviors of Ti-rich (Ti54Ni46) and equiatomic Ti-Ni (Ti50Ni50) alloys fabricated by vacuum arc melting and without subsequent plastic deformation. Both alloys exhibit NTE responses in vertical and horizontal directions, and the total strains and CTEs of the NTE stage along the two mutually perpendicular measuring directions are obviously different, indicating obvious anisotropic NTE behavior of the alloys. Besides, the numerical differences between the starting temperature of NTE and austenitic transformation and between the finishing temperature of NTE and austenitic transformation are very small, which indicates that an apparent relationship exists between the NTE behavior and the phase transformation. The microstructure in the vertical cross sections shows obviously preferential orientation characteristics: Ti2Ni phases of both alloys grow along the vertical direction, and B19' martensite of Ti50Ni50 alloy has distinct preferential orientation, which results from a large temperature gradient between the top and the bottom of the button ingots during solidification. The microstructure with preferential orientation induces the anisotropic NTE behavior of the samples.

  20. Remote monitoring for international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupree, S.A.; Sonnier, C.S.

    1999-01-01

    Remote monitoring is not a new technology, and its application to safeguards-relevant activities has been examined for a number of years. On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy and international partners, remote monitoring systems have been emplaced in nuclear facilities and laboratories in various parts of the world. The experience gained from these Geld trials of remote monitoring systems has shown the viability of the concept of using integrated monitoring systems. Although a wide variety of sensors has been used in the remote monitoring field trials conducted to date, the possible range of instrumentation that might be used has scarcely been touched. As the technology becomes widespread, large amounts of data will become available to inspectors responsible for safeguards activities at the sites. Effective use of remote monitoring will require processing, archiving, presenting, and assessing of these data. To provide reasonable efficiency in the application of this technology, data processing should be done in a careful and organized manner. The problem will be not an issue of poring over scant records but of surviving under a deluge of information made possible by modern technology Fortunately, modem technology, which created the problem of the data glut, is available to come to the assistance of those inundated by data. Apart from the technological problems, one of the most important aspects of remote monitoring is the potential constraint related to the transmission of data out of a facility or beyond national borders. Remote monitoring across national borders can be seriously considered only in the context of a comprehensive, transparent, and open implementation regime. (author)

  1. Remote monitoring in international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupree, S.A.; Sonnier, C.S.; Johnson, C.S.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, technology that permits the integration of monitoring sensors and instruments into a coherent network has become available. Such integrated monitoring systems provide a means for the automatic collection and assessment of sensor signals and instrument readings and for processing such signals and readings in near real time. To gain experience with the new monitoring system technology, the US Department of energy, through bilateral agreements with its international partners, has initiated a project to emplace demonstration systems in various nuclear facilities and conduct field trials of the technology. This effort is the International Remote Monitoring Project. Under this project, remote monitoring systems are being deployed around the world in an incremental manner. Each deployment is different and each offers lessons for improving the performance and flexibility of the technology. Few problems were encountered with the operation of the installations to date, and much has been learned about the operation and use of the new technology. In the future, the authors believe systems for safeguards applications should be capable of being monitored remotely, emphasize the use of sensors, and utilize selective triggering for recording of images. Remote monitoring across national borders can occur only in the context of a cooperative, nonadversarial implementation regime. However, significant technical and policy work remains to be done before widespread safeguards implementation of remote monitoring should be considered. This paper shows that an abundance of technology supports the implementation of integrated and remote monitoring systems. Current field trials of remote monitoring systems are providing practical data and operational experience to aid in the design of tomorrow's systems

  2. Advances in hybrid optics physical sensors for extreme environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza, Nabeel A.

    2010-04-01

    Highlighted are novel innovations in hybrid optical design physical sensors for extreme environments. Various hybrid design compositions are proposed that are suited for a particular sensor application. Examples includes combining freespace (wireless) and fiber-optics (wired) for gas turbine sensing and combining single crystal and sintered Silicon Carbide (SiC) materials for robust extreme environment Coefficent of Thermal Expansion (CTE) matched frontend probe design. Sensor signal processing also includes the hybrid theme where for example Black-Body radiation thermometry (pyrometry) is combined with laser interferometry to provide extreme temperature measurements. The hybrid theme also operates on the optical device level where a digital optical device such as a Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) is combined with an analog optical device such as an Electronically Controlled Variable Focal Length Lens (ECVFL) to deliver a smart and compressive Three Dimensional (3-D) imaging sensor for remote scene and object shape capture including both ambient light (passive) mode and active laser targeting and receive processing. Within a device level, the hybrid theme also operates via combined analog and digital control such as within a wavelength-coded variable optical delay line. These powerful hybrid design optical sensors have numerous applications in engineering and science applications from the military to the commercial/industrial sectors.

  3. Photogrammetry - Remote Sensing and Geoinformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridou, M. A.; Patmio, E. N.

    2012-07-01

    Earth and its environment are studied by different scientific disciplines as geosciences, science of engineering, social sciences, geography, etc. The study of the above, beyond pure scientific interest, is useful for the practical needs of man. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (defined by Statute II of ISPRS) is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and of processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. Therefore, according to this definition, photogrammetry and remote sensing can support studies of the above disciplines for acquisition of geoinformation. This paper concerns basic concepts of geosciences (geomorphology, geology, hydrology etc), and the fundamentals of photogrammetry-remote sensing, in order to aid the understanding of the relationship between photogrammetry-remote sensing and geoinformation and also structure curriculum in a brief, concise and coherent way. This curriculum can represent an appropriate research and educational outline and help to disseminate knowledge in various directions and levels. It resulted from our research and educational experience in graduate and post-graduate level (post-graduate studies relative to the protection of environment and protection of monuments and historical centers) in the Lab. of Photogrammetry - Remote Sensing in Civil Engineering Faculty of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.

  4. The ITER remote maintenance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesini, A.; Palmer, J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarize the ITER approach to machine components maintenance. A major objective of the ITER project is to demonstrate that a future power producing fusion device can be maintained effectively and offer practical levels of plant availability. During its operational lifetime, many systems of the ITER machine will require maintenance and modification; this can be achieved using remote handling methods. The need for timely, safe and effective remote operations on a machine as complex as ITER and within one of the world's most hostile remote handling environments represents a major challenge at every level of the ITER Project organization, engineering and technology. The basic principles of fusion reactor maintenance are presented. An updated description of the ITER remote maintenance system is provided. This includes the maintenance equipment used inside the vacuum vessel, inside the hot cell and the hot cell itself. The correlation between the functions of the remote handling equipment, of the hot cell and of the radwaste processing system is also described. The paper concludes that ITER has equipped itself with a good platform to tackle the challenges presented by its own maintenance and upgrade needs

  5. The remote infrared remote control system based on LPC1114

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yingjie; Guo, Kai; Xu, Xinni; Sun, Dayu; Wang, Li

    2018-05-01

    In view of the shortcomings such as the short control distance of the traditional air conditioner remote controller on the market nowadays and combining with the current smart home new mode "Cloud+ Terminal" mode, a smart home system based on internet is designed and designed to be fully applied to the simple and reliable features of the LPC1114 chip. The controller is added with temperature control module, timing module and other modules. Through the actual test, it achieved remote control air conditioning, with reliability and stability and brought great convenience to people's lives.

  6. Pediatric lower extremity mower injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sean M; Elwood, Eric T

    2011-09-01

    Lawn mower injuries in children represent an unfortunate common problem to the plastic reconstructive surgeon. There are approximately 68,000 per year reported in the United States. Compounding this problem is the fact that a standard treatment algorithm does not exist. This study follows a series of 7 pediatric patients treated for lower extremity mower injuries by a single plastic surgeon. The extent of soft tissue injury varied. All patients were treated with negative pressure wound therapy as a bridge to definitive closure. Of the 7 patients, 4 required skin grafts, 1 required primary closure, 1 underwent a lower extremity amputation secondary to wounds, and 1 was repaired using a cross-leg flap. Function limitations were minimal for all of our patients after reconstruction. Our basic treatment algorithm is presented with initial debridement followed by the simplest method possible for wound closure using negative pressure wound therapy, if necessary.

  7. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, Ryan Geoffrey [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neary, Vincent Sinclair [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lawon, Michael J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weber, Jochem [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, New Mexico on May 13–14, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to numerically and experimentally model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. large ocean storms) and to suggest how national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry. More than 30 U.S. and European WEC experts from industry, academia, and national research institutes attended the workshop, which consisted of presentations from W EC developers, invited keynote presentations from subject matter experts, breakout sessions, and a final plenary session .

  8. Extreme project. Progress report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyrolle, F.; Masson, O.; Charmasson, S.

    2007-01-01

    The E.X.T.R.E.M.E. project introduced in 2005 to the S.E.S.U.R.E. / L.E.R.C.M. has for objectives to acquire data on the consequences of the extreme climatic meteorological episodes on the distribution of the artificial radioisotopes within the various compartments of the geosphere. This report presents the synthesis of the actions developed in 2006 in positioning and in co financing of the project by means of regional or national research programs (C.A.R.M.A., E.X.T.R.E.M.A., E.C.C.O.R.E.V.I.), of data acquisition, valuation and scientific collaboration. (N.C.)

  9. On causality of extreme events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Zanin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple metrics have been developed to detect causality relations between data describing the elements constituting complex systems, all of them considering their evolution through time. Here we propose a metric able to detect causality within static data sets, by analysing how extreme events in one element correspond to the appearance of extreme events in a second one. The metric is able to detect non-linear causalities; to analyse both cross-sectional and longitudinal data sets; and to discriminate between real causalities and correlations caused by confounding factors. We validate the metric through synthetic data, dynamical and chaotic systems, and data representing the human brain activity in a cognitive task. We further show how the proposed metric is able to outperform classical causality metrics, provided non-linear relationships are present and large enough data sets are available.

  10. Extreme Nonlinear Optics An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Wegener, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Following the birth of the laser in 1960, the field of "nonlinear optics" rapidly emerged. Today, laser intensities and pulse durations are readily available, for which the concepts and approximations of traditional nonlinear optics no longer apply. In this regime of "extreme nonlinear optics," a large variety of novel and unusual effects arise, for example frequency doubling in inversion symmetric materials or high-harmonic generation in gases, which can lead to attosecond electromagnetic pulses or pulse trains. Other examples of "extreme nonlinear optics" cover diverse areas such as solid-state physics, atomic physics, relativistic free electrons in a vacuum and even the vacuum itself. This book starts with an introduction to the field based primarily on extensions of two famous textbook examples, namely the Lorentz oscillator model and the Drude model. Here the level of sophistication should be accessible to any undergraduate physics student. Many graphical illustrations and examples are given. The followi...

  11. Promoting Exit from Violent Extremism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    A number of Western countries are currently adding exit programs targeting militant Islamists to their counterterrorism efforts. Drawing on research into voluntary exit from violent extremism, this article identifies themes and issues that seem to cause doubt, leading to exit. It then provides a ...... the influence attempt as subtle as possible, use narratives and self-affirmatory strategies to reduce resistance to persuasion, and consider the possibility to promote attitudinal change via behavioral change as an alternative to seek to influence beliefs directly....

  12. Racial Extremism in the Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    of Deference ...................................................................................................... 46 1. The Separation of Powers Doctrine...to the military. This deference has a two-fold basis. First, the separation of powers in the U.S. Constitution gives authority to the executive (and...Why should there be judicial deference to the Army’s policy on extremism? There are two principal reasons. First, the Constitution’s separation of powers doctrine

  13. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    LM, de Crombrugghe B. Some recent advances in the chemistry and biology of trans- forming growth factor-beta. J Cell Biol 1987;105:1039e45. 12. Hao Y...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT In current war trauma, 20-30% of all extremity injuries and >80% of penetrating injuries being associated with peripheral nerve...through both axonal advance and in revascularization of the graft following placement. We are confident that this technology may allow us to

  14. Technology improves upper extremity rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczewski, Jan; Prochazka, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Stroke survivors with hemiparesis and spinal cord injury (SCI) survivors with tetraplegia find it difficult or impossible to perform many activities of daily life. There is growing evidence that intensive exercise therapy, especially when supplemented with functional electrical stimulation (FES), can improve upper extremity function, but delivering the treatment can be costly, particularly after recipients leave rehabilitation facilities. Recently, there has been a growing level of interest among researchers and healthcare policymakers to deliver upper extremity treatments to people in their homes using in-home teletherapy (IHT). The few studies that have been carried out so far have encountered a variety of logistical and technical problems, not least the difficulty of conducting properly controlled and blinded protocols that satisfy the requirements of high-level evidence-based research. In most cases, the equipment and communications technology were not designed for individuals with upper extremity disability. It is clear that exercise therapy combined with interventions such as FES, supervised over the Internet, will soon be adopted worldwide in one form or another. Therefore it is timely that researchers, clinicians, and healthcare planners interested in assessing IHT be aware of the pros and cons of the new technology and the factors involved in designing appropriate studies of it. It is crucial to understand the technical barriers, the role of telesupervisors, the motor improvements that participants can reasonably expect and the process of optimizing IHT-exercise therapy protocols to maximize the benefits of the emerging technology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Typologies of extreme longevity myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert D; Desjardins, Bertrand; McLaughlin, Kirsten; Poulain, Michel; Perls, Thomas T

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Political, national, religious, and other motivations have led the media and even scientists to errantly accept extreme longevity claims prima facie. We describe various causes of false claims of extraordinary longevity. Design and Methods. American Social Security Death Index files for the period 1980-2009 were queried for individuals with birth and death dates yielding ages 110+ years of age. Frequency was compared to a list of age-validated supercentenarians maintained by the Gerontology Research Group who died during the same time period. Age claims of 110+ years and the age validation experiences of the authors facilitated a list of typologies of false age claims. Results. Invalid age claim rates increase with age from 65% at age 110-111 to 98% by age 115 to 100% for 120+ years. Eleven typologies of false claims were: Religious Authority Myth, Village Elder Myth, Fountain of Youth Myth (substance), Shangri-La Myth (geographic), Nationalist Pride, Spiritual Practice, Familial Longevity, Individual and/or Family Notoriety, Military Service, Administrative Entry Error, and Pension-Social Entitlement Fraud. Conclusions. Understanding various causes of false extreme age claims is important for placing current, past, and future extreme longevity claims in context and for providing a necessary level of skepticism.

  16. Moderate and extreme maternal obesity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abdelmaboud, M O

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of moderate and extreme obesity among an Irish obstetric population over a 10-year period, and to evaluate the obstetric features of such pregnancies. Of 31,869 women delivered during the years 2000-2009, there were 306 women in the study group, including 173 in the moderate or Class 2 obese category (BMI 35-39.9) and 133 in the extreme or Class 3 obese category (BMI > or = 40).The prevalence of obese women with BMI > or = 35 was 9.6 per 1000 (0.96%), with an upward trend observed from 2.1 per 1000 in the year 2000, to 11.8 per 1000 in the year 2009 (P = 0.001). There was an increase in emergency caesarean section (EMCS) risk for primigravida versus multigravid women, within both obese categories (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in EMCS rates observed between Class 2 and Class 3 obese women, when matched for parity. The prevalence of moderate and extreme obesity reported in this population is high, and appears to be increasing. The increased rates of abdominal delivery, and the levels of associated morbidity observed, have serious implications for such women embarking on pregnancy.

  17. Attribution of climate extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.; Fasullo, John T.; Shepherd, Theodore G.

    2015-08-01

    There is a tremendous desire to attribute causes to weather and climate events that is often challenging from a physical standpoint. Headlines attributing an event solely to either human-induced climate change or natural variability can be misleading when both are invariably in play. The conventional attribution framework struggles with dynamically driven extremes because of the small signal-to-noise ratios and often uncertain nature of the forced changes. Here, we suggest that a different framing is desirable, which asks why such extremes unfold the way they do. Specifically, we suggest that it is more useful to regard the extreme circulation regime or weather event as being largely unaffected by climate change, and question whether known changes in the climate system's thermodynamic state affected the impact of the particular event. Some examples briefly illustrated include 'snowmaggedon' in February 2010, superstorm Sandy in October 2012 and supertyphoon Haiyan in November 2013, and, in more detail, the Boulder floods of September 2013, all of which were influenced by high sea surface temperatures that had a discernible human component.

  18. Typologies of Extreme Longevity Myths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Young

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Political, national, religious, and other motivations have led the media and even scientists to errantly accept extreme longevity claims prima facie. We describe various causes of false claims of extraordinary longevity. Design and Methods. American Social Security Death Index files for the period 1980–2009 were queried for individuals with birth and death dates yielding ages 110+ years of age. Frequency was compared to a list of age-validated supercentenarians maintained by the Gerontology Research Group who died during the same time period. Age claims of 110+ years and the age validation experiences of the authors facilitated a list of typologies of false age claims. Results. Invalid age claim rates increase with age from 65% at age 110-111 to 98% by age 115 to 100% for 120+ years. Eleven typologies of false claims were: Religious Authority Myth, Village Elder Myth, Fountain of Youth Myth (substance, Shangri-La Myth (geographic, Nationalist Pride, Spiritual Practice, Familial Longevity, Individual and/or Family Notoriety, Military Service, Administrative Entry Error, and Pension-Social Entitlement Fraud. Conclusions. Understanding various causes of false extreme age claims is important for placing current, past, and future extreme longevity claims in context and for providing a necessary level of skepticism.

  19. Remote sensing of natural phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag D. Regodić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There has always been a need to directly perceive and study the events whose extent is beyond people's possibilities. In order to get new data and to make observations and studying much more objective in comparison with past syntheses - a new method of examination called remote sensing has been adopted. The paper deals with the principles and elements of remote sensing, as well as with the basic aspects of using remote research in examining meteorological (weather parameters and the conditions of the atmosphere. The usage of satellite images is possible in all phases of the global and systematic research of different natural phenomena when airplane and satellite images of different characteristics are used and their analysis and interpretation is carried out by viewing and computer added procedures. Introduction Remote sensing of the Earth enables observing and studying global and local events that occur on it. Satellite images are nowadays used in geology, agriculture, forestry, geodesy, meteorology, spatial and urbanism planning, designing of infrastructure and other objects, protection from natural and technological catastrophes, etc. It it possible to use satellite images in all phases of global and systematic research of different natural phenomena. Basics of remote sensing Remote sensing is a method of the acquisition and interpretation of information about remote objects without making a physical contact with them. The term Daljinska detekcija is a literal translation of the English term Remote Sensing. In French it isTeledetection, in German - Fernerkundung, in Russian - дистанционие иследования. We also use terms such as: remote survailance, remote research, teledetection, remote methods, and distance research. The basic elements included in Remote Sensing are: object, electromagnetic energy, sensor, platform, image, analysis, interpretation and the information (data, fact. Usage of satellite remote research in

  20. Remote Participation tools at TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer-Flecken, A.; Krom, J.; Landgraf, B.; Lambertz, H.T.

    2010-01-01

    Remote Participation is a widely used term with different meanings. In the fusion community it has gained an increasing interest with the shut down of small experiments and participation of associations in larger experiments. Also at TEXTOR Remote Participation becomes more and more important with an increasing number of collaborations. At TEXTOR we differentiate between active and passive remote experiment participation. In addition potential users of TEXTOR like to be involved in the experiment preparation phase where the experiment schedule and the availability of diagnostic systems is discussed as well. After an experiment joint groups of users like to share the results and communicate with each other. The final step in publishing the results is also made more transparent for the users in a twofold process. Using a web based pinboard to spread the publication within the user community allows an extensive and early discussion of the results.

  1. Remote field eddy current testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Y. M.; Jung, H. K.; Huh, H.; Lee, Y. S.; Shim, C. M.

    2001-03-01

    The state-of-art technology of the remote field eddy current, which is actively developed as an electromagnetic non-destructive testing tool for ferromagnetic tubes, is described. The historical background and recent R and D activities of remote-field eddy current technology are explained including the theoretical development of remote field eddy current, such as analytical and numerical approach, and the results of finite element analysis. The influencing factors for actual applications, such as the effect of frequency, magnetic permeability, receiving sensitivity, and difficulties of detection and classification of defects are also described. Finally, two examples of actual application, 1) the gap measurement between pressure tubes and calandria tube in CANDU reactor and, 2) the detection of defects in the ferromagnetic heat exchanger tubes, are described. The future research efforts are also included

  2. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy Compendium provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind this compendium began in year 2008 at Risø DTU during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy. Thus...... in the Meteorology and Test and Measurements Programs from the Wind Energy Division at Risø DTU in the PhD Summer Schools. We hope to add more topics in future editions and to update as necessary, to provide a truly state-of-the-art compendium available for people involved in Remote Sensing in Wind Energy....

  3. The divertor remote maintenance project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, D.; Martin, E.; Akou, K.

    2001-01-01

    Remote replacement of the ITER divertor will be required several times during the life of ITER. To facilitate its regular exchange, the divertor is assembled in the ITER vacuum vessel from 60 cassettes. Radial movers transport each cassette along radial rails through the handling ports and into the vessel where a toroidal mover lifts and transports the cassette around a pair of toroidal rails. Once at its final position the cassette is locked to the toroidal rails and is accurately aligned in both poloidal and toroidal directions. A further requirement on the divertor is to minimise the amount of activated waste to be sent to a repository. To this end the cassettes have been designed to allow the remote replacement, in a hot cell, of their plasma facing components. The paper describes the two facilities built at ENEA Brasimone, Italy, whose aim is to demonstrate the reliable remote maintenance of the divertor cassettes. (author)

  4. The divertor remote maintenance project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, D.; Martin, E.; Akou, K.

    1999-01-01

    Remote replacement of the ITER divertor will be required several times during the life of ITER. To facilitate its regular exchange, the divertor is assembled in the ITER vacuum vessel from 60 cassettes. Radial movers transport each cassette along radial rails through the handling ports and into the vessel where a toroidal mover lifts and transports the cassette around a pair of toroidal rails. Once at its final position the cassette is locked to the toroidal rails and is accurately aligned in both poloidal and toroidal directions. A further requirement on the divertor is to minimise the amount of activated waste to be sent to a repository. To this end the cassettes have been designed to allow the remote replacement, in a hot cell, of their plasma facing components. The paper describes the two facilities built at ENEA Brasimone, Italy, whose aim is to demonstrate the reliable remote maintenance of the divertor cassettes. (author)

  5. Current perspective on remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    Surveillance and tracking of oil spills has been a feature of most spill response situations for many years. The simplest and most direct method uses visual observations from an aircraft and hand-plotting of the data on a map. This technique has proven adequate for most small spills and for responses in fair weather. As the size of the spill increases or the weather deteriorates, there is a need to augment visual aerial observations with remote sensing methods. Remote sensing and its associated systems are one of the most technically complex and sophisticated elements of an oil spill response. During the past few years, a number of initiatives have been undertaken to use contemporary electronic and computing systems to develop new and improved remote sensing systems

  6. Conceptual design of a test facility for the remote handling operations of the ITER Test Blanker Modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marqueta, A.; Garcia, I.; Gomez, A.; Garcia, L.; Sedano, E.; Fernandez, I.

    2012-01-01

    Conceptual Design of a test facility for the remote handling operations of the ITER Test Blanket Modules. Conditions inside a fusion reactor are incompatible with conventional manual maintenance tasks. the same applies for ancillary equipment. As a consequence, it will become necessary to turn to remote visualization and remote handling techniques, which will have in consideration the extreme conditions, both physical and operating, of ITER. Main goal of the project has been the realization of the conceptual design for the test facility for the Test Blanket Modules of ITER and their associated systems, related to the Remote Handling operations regarding the Port Cell area. Besides the definition of the operations and the specification of the main components and ancillary systems of the TBM graphical simulation have been used for the design, verification and validation of the remote handling operations. (Author)

  7. TinyPower – Power conversion on a tiny scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Anpan; Jørgensen, Anders Michael

    2014-01-01

    The world surrounding us is filled with devices relying on electrical power and the rise of internet-of-thingswill mean that powering devices will remain important in the future. The size and cost of the power supplyhas become a dominant factor in many applications. At the same time, most of the ...... project is an ambitious approach to taking miniature power converters into a new domainand the trickle-down effect on micro fabricated inductors can hopefully benefit other projects....

  8. Prospect for extreme field science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, T. [Ludwig Maximilian Univ. and Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics, Garching (Germany); Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyoto and KEK, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    The kind of laser extreme light infrastructure (ELI) provides will usher in a class of experiments we have only dreamed of for years. The characteristics that ELI brings in include: the highest intensity ever, large fluence, and relatively high repetition rate. A personal view of the author on the prospect of harnessing this unprecedented opportunity for advancing science of extreme fields is presented. The first characteristic of ELI, its intensity, will allow us to access, as many have stressed already, extreme fields that hover around the Schwinger field or at the very least the neighboring fields in which vacuum begins to behave as a nonlinear medium. In this sense, we are seriously probing the 'material' property of vacuum and thus the property that theory of relativity itself described and will entail. We will probe both special theory and general theory of relativity in regimes that have been never tested so far. We may see a glimpse into the reach of relativity or even its breakdown in some extreme regimes. We will learn Einstein and may even go beyond Einstein, if our journey is led. Laser-driven acceleration both by the laser field itself and by the wakefield that is triggered in a plasma is huge. Energies, if not luminosity, we can access, may be unprecedented going far beyond TeV. The nice thing about ELI is that it has relatively high repetition rate and average fluence as compared with other extreme lasers. This high fluence can be a key element that leads to applications to high energy physics, such as gamma-gamma collider driver experiment, and some gamma ray experiments that may be relevant in the frontier of photo-nuclear physics, and atomic energy applications. Needless to say, high fluence is one of most important features that industrial and medical applications may need. If we are lucky, we may see a door opens at the frontier of novel physics that may not be available by any other means. (authors)

  9. Lighting for remote viewing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    Scenes viewed by television do not provide the same channels of information for judgment of distances as scenes viewed directly, since television eliminates or degrades several depth perception cues. However, it may be possible to improve depth perception of televised scenes by enhancing the information available through depth cues that are available from lighting. A literature survey and expert opinions were integrated to design a remote lighting arrangement which could enhance depth perception of operators performing remote handling operations. This paper describes the lighting arrangement and discusses some of its advantages and disadvantages. 10 references, 2 figures

  10. Servidor d'escriptoris remots

    OpenAIRE

    Cid Solé, Òscar

    2012-01-01

    El projecte que s'ha dut a terme és un estudi introductori del funcionament de la tecnologia NX fent ús d'una eina lliure com és FreeNX. Aquesta tecnologia està destinada a millorar el rendiment dels processos de comunicació que s'estableixen quan volem accedir a un escriptori remot. El resultat d'aquest estudi s'ha plasmat en un appliance que integra el servidor esmentat juntament amb una aplicació que s'ha desenvolupat per a la gestió d'escriptoris remots utilitzant el servidor FreeNX i els...

  11. Lighting for remote viewing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    Scenes viewed by television do not provide the same channels of information for judgement of distances as scenes viewed directly, since television eliminates or degrades several depth perception cues. However, it may be possible to improve depth perception of televised scenes by enhancing the information available through depth cues that are available from lighting. A literature survey and expert opinions were integrated to design a remote lighting arrangement which could enhance depth perception of operators performing remote handling operations. This paper describes the lighting arrangement and discusses some of its advantages and disadvantages. 10 references, 2 figures

  12. Lighting for remote viewing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    Scenes viewed by television do not provide the same channels of information for judgment of distances as scenes viewed directly, since television eliminates or degrades several depth perception cues. However, it may be possible to improve depth perception of televised scenes by enhancing the information available through depth cues that are available from lighting. A literature survey and expert opinions were integrated to design a remote lighting arrangement which could enhance depth perception of operators performing remote handling operations. This paper describes the lighting arrangement and discusses some of its advantages and disadvantages

  13. Lighting for remote viewing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    Scenes viewed by television do not provide the same channels of information for judgment of distances as scenes viewed directly, since television eliminates or degrades several depth perception cues. However, it may be possible to improve depth perception of televised scenes by enhancing the information available through depth cues that are available from lighting. A literature survey and expert opinions were integrated to design a remote lighting arrangement which could enhance depth perception of operators performing remote handling operations. This paper describes the lighting arrangement and discusses some of its advantages and disadvantages. 10 references, 2 figures.

  14. Lighting for remote viewing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    Scenes viewed by television do not provide the same channels of information for judgement of distances as scenes viewed directly, since television eliminates or degrades several depth perception cues. However, it may be possible to improve depth perception of televised scenes by enhancing the information available through depth cues that are available from lighting. A literature survey and expert opinions were integrated to design a remote lighting arrangement which could enhance depth perception of operators performing remote handling operations. This paper describes the lighting arrangement and discusses some of its advantages and disadvantages. 10 references, 2 figures.

  15. Sustainable remote Australian transport for living on country and going out bush

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Spandonide

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Both the domestic and international academic literature’s analysis of links between transport and wellbeing focuses mainly on urban settings and vulnerable population groups including older people, people with health issues, socio-economically disadvantaged people, or people undergoing more frequent extreme climatic events. While the relationship between remote Australians wellbeing and travelling activities is evident, its complexity still remains an under-researched topic. This is paradoxical when considering that extreme distances, high supply chain costs, limited access to services and to economic participation are well recognised obstacles for sustaining vibrant remote Australian communities. The latest accessibility-driven technological innovations in both the digital and the sharing economies are highly topical in transport projects in urban agglomerations but still a distant reality for remote Australia. There is a need for researching an appropriateness framework of such technologies because of the strong relevance of the multiple outcomes in terms of wellbeing that some of these innovations provide. Furthermore what defines a good quality of life can sometimes be very similar and other times greatly differ between remote and urban contexts. In the light of some recent transport and mobility research this paper analyses the potential connections between more appropriate transport innovations and increasingly resilient remote communities.

  16. Elements of Tiny Plasma Spectrometers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to advance major elements of a miniaturized plasma spectrometer for flight on future missions. This type of instrument has been developed and successfully...

  17. Remote Sensing of Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P. G.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing, as a tool to aid in the control of water pollution, offers a means of making rapid, economical surveys of areas that are relatively inaccessible on the ground. At the same time, it offers the only practical means of mapping pollution patterns that cover large areas. Detection of oil slicks, thermal pollution, sewage, and algae are discussed.

  18. Remote measurement of atmospheric pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allario, F.; Hoell, J.; Seals, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The concentration and vertical distribution of atmospheric ammonia and ozone are remotely sensed, using dual-C02-laser multichannel infrared Heterodyne Spectrometer (1HS). Innovation makes atmospheric pollution measurements possible with nearly-quantum-noise-limited sensitivity and ultrafine spectral resolution.

  19. Adaptive Control Of Remote Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1989-01-01

    Robotic control system causes remote manipulator to follow closely reference trajectory in Cartesian reference frame in work space, without resort to computationally intensive mathematical model of robot dynamics and without knowledge of robot and load parameters. System, derived from linear multivariable theory, uses relatively simple feedforward and feedback controllers with model-reference adaptive control.

  20. Satellite Remote Sensing: Aerosol Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosols are solid or liquid particles suspended in the air, and those observed by satellite remote sensing are typically between about 0.05 and 10 microns in size. (Note that in traditional aerosol science, the term "aerosol" refers to both the particles and the medium in which they reside, whereas for remote sensing, the term commonly refers to the particles only. In this article, we adopt the remote-sensing definition.) They originate from a great diversity of sources, such as wildfires, volcanoes, soils and desert sands, breaking waves, natural biological activity, agricultural burning, cement production, and fossil fuel combustion. They typically remain in the atmosphere from several days to a week or more, and some travel great distances before returning to Earth's surface via gravitational settling or washout by precipitation. Many aerosol sources exhibit strong seasonal variability, and most experience inter-annual fluctuations. As such, the frequent, global coverage that space-based aerosol remote-sensing instruments can provide is making increasingly important contributions to regional and larger-scale aerosol studies.

  1. Remote input/output station

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    A general view of the remote input/output station installed in building 112 (ISR) and used for submitting jobs to the CDC 6500 and 6600. The card reader on the left and the line printer on the right are operated by programmers on a self-service basis.

  2. Remote file inquiry (RFI) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    System interrogates and maintains user-definable data files from remote terminals, using English-like, free-form query language easily learned by persons not proficient in computer programming. System operates in asynchronous mode, allowing any number of inquiries within limitation of available core to be active concurrently.

  3. Experiences with remote electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, Michael A.; Parvin, Bahram

    2002-02-22

    With the advent of a rapidly proliferating international computer network, it became feasible to consider remote operation of instrumentation normally operated locally. For modern electron microscopes, the growing automation and computer control of many instrumental operations facilitated the task of providing remote operation. In order to provide use of NCEM TEMs by distant users, a project was instituted in 1995 to place a unique instrument, a Kratos EM-1500 operating at 1.5MeV, on-line for remote use. In 1996, the Materials Microcharacterization Collaboratory (MMC) was created as a pilot project within the US Department of Energy's DOE2000 program to establish national collaboratories to provide access via the Internet to unique or expensive DOE research facilities as well as to expertise for remote collaboration, experimentation, production, software development, modeling, and measurement. A major LBNL contribution to the MMC was construction of DeepView, a microscope-independent computer-control system that could be ported to other MMC members to provide a common graphical user-interface (GUI) for control of any MMC instrument over the wide area network.

  4. Maintenance of remote reconnaissance vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schein, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    A description is provided of the maintenance program developed for remote reconnaissance vehicles, such as RRV-1, in use at the Three Mile Island Unit 2. The described approach, which is simple, effective, and flexible, helped to make the effort successful. It will be applied to future projects

  5. US remote monitoring operational experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupree, S.A.; Sonnier, C.S.

    1997-01-01

    Under international partnerships and bilateral agreements with the U.S. Department of Energy, Sandia National Laboratories, other national laboratories, and international partner organizations have emplaced remote monitoring systems in nuclear facilities and laboratories in various parts of the world for the purpose of conducting field trials of remote monitoring. The purpose of the present report is to review the results from these field trials and draw general conclusions regarding the trials. Many thousands of hours of sensor and system operation have been logged, and data have been retrieved from many locations. In virtually all cases the system components have functioned as intended and data have been successfully collected and transmitted for review. Comparisons between front-end-triggered video and time-lapse video have shown that the triggered record has captured all relevant monitored operations at the various nuclear facilities included in the field trials. We believe the utility and functional reliability of remote monitoring for international safeguards has been shown. However, it should be kept in mind that openness and transparency, including some form of short-notice inspections, are likely to be prerequisites to the safeguards implementation of remote monitoring in any State

  6. Guidelines for Outsourcing Remote Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Ardoth; Neuman, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing remote access to campus computer networks and the Internet, focusing on improved service, cost-sharing, partnerships with vendors, supported protocols, bandwidth, scope of access, implementation, support, network security, and pricing. Includes a checklist for a request for proposals on…

  7. Welding method by remote handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashinokuchi, Minoru.

    1994-01-01

    Water is charged into a pit (or a water reservoir) and an article to be welded is placed on a support in the pit by remote handling. A steel plate is disposed so as to cover the article to be welded by remote handling. The welding device is positioned to the portion to be welded and fixed in a state where the article to be welded is shielded from radiation by water and the steel plate. Water in the pit is drained till the portion to be welded is exposed to the atmosphere. Then, welding is conducted. After completion of the welding, water is charged again to the pit and the welding device and fixing jigs are decomposed in a state where the article to be welded is shielded again from radiation by water and the steel plate. Subsequently, the steel plate is removed by remote handling. Then, the article to be welded is returned from the pit to a temporary placing pool by remote handling. This can reduce operator's exposure. Further, since the amount of the shielding materials can be minimized, the amount of radioactive wastes can be decreased. (I.N.)

  8. Outcomes for Extremely Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C.; Costarino, Andrew T.; Stayer, Stephen A.; Brett, Claire; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for four years and is now approximately 11.5%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23–24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal EDC. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (ELBW) (CPAP, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91–95% (compared to 85–89%) avoids excess mortality. However, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending The development of neonatal neurocognitive care visits may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and social problems is critical for children born at these early gestational ages. The striking similarities in response to extreme prematurity in the lung and brain imply that agents and

  9. Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX mission will be the first mission to catalogue the X-ray polarisation of many astrophysical objects including black-holes and pulsars. This first of its kind mission is enabled by the novel use of a time projection chamber as an X-ray polarimeter. The detector has been developed over the last 5 years, with the current effort charged toward a demonstration of it's technical readiness to be at level 6 prior to the preliminary design review. This talk will describe the design GEMS polarimeter and the results to date from the engineering test unit.

  10. How extreme is enough to cause a threshold response of ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, S.; Zhang, F.; Yang, Q.; Song, B.; Sun, J.

    2017-12-01

    Precipitation is a primary determinant of terrestrial ecosystem productivity over much of the globe. Recent studies have shown asymmetric or threshold responses of ecosystem productivity to precipitation gradient. However, it's not clear how extreme is enough to cause a threshold response of ecosystem. We conducted a global meta-analysis of precipitation experiments, a site level precipitation gradient experiment, and a remote sensing data mining on the relationship between precipitation extreme vs NDVI extreme. The meta-analysis shows that ANPP, BNPP, NEE, and other carbon cycle variables, showed similar response magnitudes to either precipitation increase or decrease when precipitation levels were normalized to the medium value of treatments (40%) across all the studies. Overall, the response ratios of these variables were linearly correlated with changes in precipitation amounts and soil water content. In the field gradient study with treatments of 1/12, 1/8. 1/4, 1/2, control, and 5/4 of ambient precipitation, the threshold of NPP, SR, NEE occurred when precipitation was reduced to the level of 1/8-1/12 of ambient precipitation. This means that only extreme drought can induce a threshold response of ecosystem. The regional remote sensing data showed that climate extremes with yearly low precipitation from 1982 to 2013 rarely cause extreme responses of vegetation, further suggesting that it is very difficult to detect threshold responses to natural climatic fluctuation. Our three studies together indicate that asymmetrical responses of vegetation to precipitation are likely detected, but only in very extreme precipitation events.

  11. Remote Sensing Wind and Wind Shear System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contents: Remote sensing of wind shear and the theory and development of acoustic doppler; Wind studies; A comparison of methods for the remote detection of winds in the airport environment; Acoustic doppler system development; System calibration; Airport operational tests.

  12. Operational Use of Remote Sensing within USDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethel, Glenn R.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation of remote sensing imagery within the USDA is shown. USDA Aerial Photography, Digital Sensors, Hurricane imagery, Remote Sensing Sources, Satellites used by Foreign Agricultural Service, Landsat Acquisitions, and Aerial Acquisitions are also shown.

  13. Climate change & extreme weather vulnerability assessment framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The Federal Highway Administrations (FHWAs) Climate Change and Extreme Weather Vulnerability : Assessment Framework is a guide for transportation agencies interested in assessing their vulnerability : to climate change and extreme weather event...

  14. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about Extreme Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Extreme Heat Older Adults (Aged 65+) Infants and Children Chronic Medical Conditions Low Income Athletes Outdoor Workers Pets Hot Weather Tips Warning Signs and Symptoms FAQs Social Media How to Stay Cool Missouri Cooling Centers Extreme ...

  15. Remote repair robots for dissolvers in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Sen; Hirose, Yasuo; Kawamura, Hironobu; Minato, Akira; Ozaki, Norihiko.

    1984-01-01

    In nuclear facilities, for the purpose of the reduction of radiation exposure of workers, the shortening of working time and the improvement of capacity ratio of the facilities, the technical development of various devices for remote maintenance and inspection has been advanced so far. This time, an occasion came to inspect and repair the pinhole defects occurred in spent fuel dissolving tanks in the reprocessing plant of Tokai Establishment, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. However, since the radiation environmental condition and the restricting condition due to the object of repair were extremely severe, it was impossible to cope with them using conventional robot techniques. Consequently, a repair robot withstanding high level radiation has been developed anew, which can work by totally remote operation in the space of about 270 mm inside diameter and about 6 m length. The repair robot comprises a periscope reflecting mirror system, a combined underwater and atmospheric use television, a grinder, a welder, a liquid penetrant tester and an ultrasonic flaw detector. The key points of the development were the parts withstanding high level radiation and the selection of materials, to make the mechanism small size and the realization of totally remote operation. (Kako, I.)

  16. Online remote monitoring facilities for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kolos, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Feng, E; Hauser, R; Yakovlev, A; Zaytsev, A

    2011-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the 4 LHC experiments which started to be operated in the collisions mode in 2010. The ATLAS apparatus itself as well as the Trigger and the DAQ system are extremely complex facilities which have been built up by the collaboration including 144 institutes from 33 countries. The effective running of the experiment is supported by a large number of experts distributed all over the world. This paper describes the online remote monitoring system which has been developed in the ATLAS Trigger and DAQ(TDAQ) community in order to support efficient participation of the experts from remote institutes in the exploitation of the experiment. The facilities provided by the remote monitoring system are ranging from the WEB based access to the general status and data quality for the ongoing data taking session to the scalable service providing real-time mirroring of the detailed monitoring data from the experimental area to the dedicated computers in the CERN public network, where this data is made available ...

  17. Remote Sensing Best Paper Award 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad Thenkabail

    2013-01-01

    Remote Sensing has started to institute a “Best Paper” award to recognize the most outstanding papers in the area of remote sensing techniques, design and applications published in Remote Sensing. We are pleased to announce the first “Remote Sensing Best Paper Award” for 2013. Nominations were selected by the Editor-in-Chief and selected editorial board members from among all the papers published in 2009. Reviews and research papers were evaluated separately.

  18. Extreme Maximum Land Surface Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.

    1992-09-01

    There are numerous reports in the literature of observations of land surface temperatures. Some of these, almost all made in situ, reveal maximum values in the 50°-70°C range, with a few, made in desert regions, near 80°C. Consideration of a simplified form of the surface energy balance equation, utilizing likely upper values of absorbed shortwave flux (1000 W m2) and screen air temperature (55°C), that surface temperatures in the vicinity of 90°-100°C may occur for dry, darkish soils of low thermal conductivity (0.1-0.2 W m1 K1). Numerical simulations confirm this and suggest that temperature gradients in the first few centimeters of soil may reach 0.5°-1°C mm1 under these extreme conditions. The study bears upon the intrinsic interest of identifying extreme maximum temperatures and yields interesting information regarding the comfort zone of animals (including man).

  19. The greenhouse effect and extreme weather

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern; Kvamstoe, Nils Gunnar

    2002-01-01

    The article asserts that an anthropogenic global warming is occurring. This greenhouse effect is expected to cause more occurrences of extreme weather. It is extremely difficult, however, to relate specific weather catastrophes to global warming with certainty, since such extreme weather conditions are rare historically. The subject is controversial. The article also discusses the public debate and the risk of floods

  20. Medical Applications of Remote Electronic Browsing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Joseph

    The purposes of this study are to identify and define viable remote browsing techniques and the requirements for an interactive medical information system that would permit the use of such techniques. The main emphasis is in the areas of: (1) remote viewing of page material; and (2) remote interrogation of fact banks with question-answering…

  1. Remote sensing for agriculture, ecosystems, and hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engman, E.T.

    1998-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of SPIE's remote sensing symposium which was held September 22--24, 1998, in Barcelona, Spain. Topics of discussion include the following: calibration techniques for soil moisture measurements; remote sensing of grasslands and biomass estimation of meadows; evaluation of agricultural disasters; monitoring of industrial and natural radioactive elements; and remote sensing of vegetation and of forest fires

  2. ACCURACY DIMENSIONS IN REMOTE SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. Barsi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The technological developments in remote sensing (RS during the past decade has contributed to a significant increase in the size of data user community. For this reason data quality issues in remote sensing face a significant increase in importance, particularly in the era of Big Earth data. Dozens of available sensors, hundreds of sophisticated data processing techniques, countless software tools assist the processing of RS data and contributes to a major increase in applications and users. In the past decades, scientific and technological community of spatial data environment were focusing on the evaluation of data quality elements computed for point, line, area geometry of vector and raster data. Stakeholders of data production commonly use standardised parameters to characterise the quality of their datasets. Yet their efforts to estimate the quality did not reach the general end-user community running heterogeneous applications who assume that their spatial data is error-free and best fitted to the specification standards. The non-specialist, general user group has very limited knowledge how spatial data meets their needs. These parameters forming the external quality dimensions implies that the same data system can be of different quality to different users. The large collection of the observed information is uncertain in a level that can decry the reliability of the applications. Based on prior paper of the authors (in cooperation within the Remote Sensing Data Quality working group of ISPRS, which established a taxonomy on the dimensions of data quality in GIS and remote sensing domains, this paper is aiming at focusing on measures of uncertainty in remote sensing data lifecycle, focusing on land cover mapping issues. In the paper we try to introduce how quality of the various combination of data and procedures can be summarized and how services fit the users’ needs. The present paper gives the theoretic overview of the issue, besides

  3. Accuracy Dimensions in Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, Á.; Kugler, Zs.; László, I.; Szabó, Gy.; Abdulmutalib, H. M.

    2018-04-01

    The technological developments in remote sensing (RS) during the past decade has contributed to a significant increase in the size of data user community. For this reason data quality issues in remote sensing face a significant increase in importance, particularly in the era of Big Earth data. Dozens of available sensors, hundreds of sophisticated data processing techniques, countless software tools assist the processing of RS data and contributes to a major increase in applications and users. In the past decades, scientific and technological community of spatial data environment were focusing on the evaluation of data quality elements computed for point, line, area geometry of vector and raster data. Stakeholders of data production commonly use standardised parameters to characterise the quality of their datasets. Yet their efforts to estimate the quality did not reach the general end-user community running heterogeneous applications who assume that their spatial data is error-free and best fitted to the specification standards. The non-specialist, general user group has very limited knowledge how spatial data meets their needs. These parameters forming the external quality dimensions implies that the same data system can be of different quality to different users. The large collection of the observed information is uncertain in a level that can decry the reliability of the applications. Based on prior paper of the authors (in cooperation within the Remote Sensing Data Quality working group of ISPRS), which established a taxonomy on the dimensions of data quality in GIS and remote sensing domains, this paper is aiming at focusing on measures of uncertainty in remote sensing data lifecycle, focusing on land cover mapping issues. In the paper we try to introduce how quality of the various combination of data and procedures can be summarized and how services fit the users' needs. The present paper gives the theoretic overview of the issue, besides selected, practice

  4. Extremity doses to interventional radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wihtby, M.; Martin, C. J.

    2002-01-01

    Radiologists performing interventional procedures are often required to stand close to the patient's side when carrying out manipulations under fluoroscopic control. This can result in their extremities receiving a high radiation dose, due to scattered radiation. These doses are sometimes high enough to warrant that the radiologist in question be designated a classified radiation worker. Classification in the UK is a result of any worker receiving or likely to receive in the course of their duties in excess of 3/10ths of any annual dose limit (500mSv to extremities, skin). The doses to the legs of radiologists have received less attention than those to the hands, however the doses may be high, due to the proximity of the legs and feet to scattered radiation. The legs can be exposed to a relatively high level of scattered radiation as the radiation in produced from scatter of the un attenuated beam from the bottom of the patient couch. The routine monitoring of extremity doses in interventional radiology is difficult due to several factors. Firstly a wide range of interventional procedures in undertaken in every radiology department, and these procedures require many different techniques, equipment and skills. This means that the position the radiologist adopts in relation to scattering medium and therefore their exposure, depends heavily on the type of procedure. As the hands which manipulate the catheters within the patient are often located close to the patients side and to the area under irradiation, the distribution of dose across the hands can be variable, with very high localised doses, making routine monitoring difficult. The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude and distribution of dose to the hands and legs of interventional radiologists carrying out a wide range of both diagnostic and therapeutic interventional procedures. To ascertain the most effective method of monitoring the highest dose in accordance with the Basic safety standards

  5. a Coarse-To Model for Airplane Detection from Large Remote Sensing Images Using Saliency Modle and Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Z. N.; Sui, H. G.

    2018-04-01

    High resolution remote sensing images are bearing the important strategic information, especially finding some time-sensitive-targets quickly, like airplanes, ships, and cars. Most of time the problem firstly we face is how to rapidly judge whether a particular target is included in a large random remote sensing image, instead of detecting them on a given image. The problem of time-sensitive-targets target finding in a huge image is a great challenge: 1) Complex background leads to high loss and false alarms in tiny object detection in a large-scale images. 2) Unlike traditional image retrieval, what we need to do is not just compare the similarity of image blocks, but quickly find specific targets in a huge image. In this paper, taking the target of airplane as an example, presents an effective method for searching aircraft targets in large scale optical remote sensing images. Firstly, we used an improved visual attention model utilizes salience detection and line segment detector to quickly locate suspected regions in a large and complicated remote sensing image. Then for each region, without region proposal method, a single neural network predicts bounding boxes and class probabilities directly from full images in one evaluation is adopted to search small airplane objects. Unlike sliding window and region proposal-based techniques, we can do entire image (region) during training and test time so it implicitly encodes contextual information about classes as well as their appearance. Experimental results show the proposed method is quickly identify airplanes in large-scale images.

  6. A COARSE-TO-FINE MODEL FOR AIRPLANE DETECTION FROM LARGE REMOTE SENSING IMAGES USING SALIENCY MODLE AND DEEP LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. N. Song

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available High resolution remote sensing images are bearing the important strategic information, especially finding some time-sensitive-targets quickly, like airplanes, ships, and cars. Most of time the problem firstly we face is how to rapidly judge whether a particular target is included in a large random remote sensing image, instead of detecting them on a given image. The problem of time-sensitive-targets target finding in a huge image is a great challenge: 1 Complex background leads to high loss and false alarms in tiny object detection in a large-scale images. 2 Unlike traditional image retrieval, what we need to do is not just compare the similarity of image blocks, but quickly find specific targets in a huge image. In this paper, taking the target of airplane as an example, presents an effective method for searching aircraft targets in large scale optical remote sensing images. Firstly, we used an improved visual attention model utilizes salience detection and line segment detector to quickly locate suspected regions in a large and complicated remote sensing image. Then for each region, without region proposal method, a single neural network predicts bounding boxes and class probabilities directly from full images in one evaluation is adopted to search small airplane objects. Unlike sliding window and region proposal-based techniques, we can do entire image (region during training and test time so it implicitly encodes contextual information about classes as well as their appearance. Experimental results show the proposed method is quickly identify airplanes in large-scale images.

  7. Shocking matter to extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Y.M.; Sharma, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    A good understanding of the thermodynamic response of matter at high compression and high energy densities is important to several areas of physics. Shock-wave experiments are uniquely suited for obtaining data at extreme conditions, and a shock-compressed matter can be viewed as a condensed system with or without dissociation or as a strongly coupled plasma. This article reviews work by Da Silva et al. in which irradiances ranging from 5x10 superscript 12 to 2x10 superscript 14 W/cm 2 were used to generate 8- to 10-ns square pulses in liquid deuterium. The authors demonstrated negligible pre-heating of the sample, steady propagation of the shock wave, and direct determination of the shock wave velocity along with particle velocity and density in the shocked state. Da Silva et al. results are compared with models and other experimental information, and the usefulness of the data in other areas is assessed. 11 refs., 1 fig

  8. Weather extremes could affect agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-05-01

    As Earth's climate warms, agricultural producers will need to adapt. Changes, especially increases in extreme events, are already having an impact on food production, according to speakers at a 1 May session on agriculture and food security at the AGU Science Policy Conference. Christopher Field, director of the Department of Global Ecology at the Carnegie Institution for Science of Washington, D. C., pointed out the complex factors that come into play in understanding food security, including spatially varying controls and stresses, incomplete models, and the potential for threshold responses. Factors that are likely to cause problems include increasing population; increasing preference for meat, which needs more land and energy inputs to produce; climate change; and increasing use of agricultural lands for biomass energy.

  9. Generic Hurricane Extreme Seas State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehmeyer, Christof; Skourup, Jesper; Frigaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Extreme sea states, which the IEC 61400-3 (2008) standard requires for the ultimate limit state (ULS) analysis of offshore wind turbines are derived to establish the design basis for the conceptual layout of deep water floating offshore wind turbine foundations in hurricane affected areas....... Especially in the initial phase of floating foundation concept development, site specific metocean data are usually not available. As the areas of interest are furthermore not covered by any design standard, in terms of design sea states, generic and in engineering terms applicable environmental background...... data is required for a type specific conceptual design. ULS conditions for different return periods are developed, which can subsequently be applied in siteindependent analysis and conceptual design. Recordings provided by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), of hurricanes along...

  10. Pneumatic tourniquets in extremity surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wakai, A

    2012-02-03

    Pneumatic tourniquets maintain a relatively bloodless field during extremity surgery, minimize blood loss, aid identification of vital structures, and expedite the procedure. However, they may induce an ischemia-reperfusion injury with potentially harmful local and systemic consequences. Modern pneumatic tourniquets are designed with mechanisms to regulate and maintain pressure. Routine maintenance helps ensure that these systems are working properly. The complications of tourniquet use include postoperative swelling, delay of recovery of muscle power, compression neurapraxia, wound hematoma with the potential for infection, vascular injury, tissue necrosis, and compartment syndrome. Systemic complications can also occur. The incidence of complications can be minimized by use of wider tourniquets, careful preoperative patient evaluation, and adherence to accepted principles of tourniquet use.

  11. Slowing and cooling of heavy or light (even with a tiny electric dipole moment) polar molecules using a novel, versatile electrostatic Stark decelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Hou, Shunyong; Xu, Liang; Yin, Jianping

    2016-02-21

    To meet some demands for realizing precise measurements of an electric dipole moment of electron (eEDM) and examining cold collisions or cold chemical physics, we have proposed a novel, versatile electrostatic Stark decelerator with an array of true 3D electric potential wells, which are created by a series of horizontally-oriented, U-shaped electrodes with time-sequence controlling high voltages (± HV) and two guiding electrodes with a constant voltage. We have calculated the 2D electric field distribution, the Stark shifts of the four lowest rotational sub-levels of PbF molecules in the X1(2)Π1/2(v = 0) electronic and vibrational ground states as well as the population in the different rotational levels. We have discussed the 2D longitudinal and transverse phase-space acceptances of PbF molecules in our decelerator. Subsequently, we have simulated the dynamic processes of the decelerated PbF molecules using the 3D Monte-Carlo method, and have found that a supersonic PbF beam with a velocity of 300 m s(-1) can be efficiently slowed to about 5 m s(-1), which will greatly enhance the sensitivities to research a parity violation and measure an eEDM. In addition, we have investigated the dependences of the longitudinal velocity spread, longitudinal temperature and bunching efficiency on both the number of guiding stages and high voltages, and found that after bunching, a cold packet of PbF molecules in the J = 7/2, MΩ = -7/4 state with a longitudinal velocity spread of 0.69 m s(-1) (corresponding to a longitudinal temperature of 2.35 mK) will be produced by our high-efficient decelerator, which will generate a high energy-resolution molecular beam for studying cold collision physics. Finally, our novel decelerator can also be used to efficiently slow NO molecules with a tiny electric dipole moment (EDM) of 0.16 D from 315 m s(-1) to 28 m s(-1). It is clear that our proposed new decelerator has a good slowing performance and experimental feasibility as well as wide

  12. Reaching remote areas in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimes, R

    1994-01-01

    Poor communities in remote and inaccessible areas tend to not only be cut off from family planning education and services, but they are also deprived of basic primary health care services. Efforts to bring family planning to such communities and populations should therefore be linked with other services. The author presents three examples of programs to bring effective family planning services to remote communities in Central and South America. Outside of the municipal center in the Tuxtlas region of Mexico, education and health levels are low and people live according to ancient customs. Ten years ago with the help of MEXFAM, the IPPF affiliate in Mexico, two social promoters established themselves in the town of Catemaco to develop a community program of family planning and health care offering education and prevention to improve the quality of people's lives. Through their health brigades taking health services to towns without an established health center, the program has influenced an estimated 100,000 people in 50 villages and towns. The program also has a clinic. In Guatemala, the Family Welfare Association (APROFAM) gave bicycles to 240 volunteer health care workers to facilitate their outreach work in rural areas. APROFAM since 1988 has operated an integrated program to treat intestinal parasites and promote family planning in San Lucas de Toliman, an Indian town close to Lake Atitlan. Providing health care to more than 10,000 people, the volunteer staff has covered the entire department of Solola, reaching each family in the area. Field educators travel on motorcycles through the rural areas of Guatemala coordinating with the health volunteers the distribution of contraceptives at the community level. The Integrated Project's Clinic was founded in 1992 and currently carries out pregnancy and Pap tests, as well as general lab tests. Finally, Puna is an island in the middle of the Gulf of Guayaquil, Ecuador. Women on the island typically have 10

  13. Development of a Remote Monitoring System Using Meteor Burst Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewanic, M.A.; Dunstan, M.T.; Reichhardt, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring the cleanup and closure of contaminated sites requires extensive data acquisition, processing, and storage. At remote sites, the task of monitoring often becomes problematical due to the lack of site infrastructure (i.e., electrical power lines, telephone lines, etc.). MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) has designed an economical and efficient remote monitoring system that will handle large amounts of data; process the data, if necessary; and transmit this data over long distances. Design criteria MSE considered during the development of the remote monitoring system included: the ability to handle multiple, remote sampling points with independent sampling frequencies; robust (i.e., less susceptible to moisture, heat, and cold extremes); independent of infrastructure; user friendly; economical; and easy to expand system capabilities. MSE installed and tested a prototype system at the Mike Mansfield Advanced Technology Center (MMATC), Butte, Montana, in June 2005. The system MSE designed and installed consisted of a 'master' control station and two remote 'slave' stations. Data acquired at the two slave stations were transmitted to the master control station, which then transmits a complete data package to a ground station using meteor burst technology. The meteor burst technology has no need for hardwired land-lines or man-made satellites. Instead, it uses ionized particles in the Earth's atmosphere to propagate a radio signal. One major advantage of the system is that it can be configured to accept data from virtually any type of device, so long as the signal from the device can be read and recorded by a standard data-logger. In fact, MSE has designed and built an electrical resistivity monitoring system that will be powered and controlled by the meteor burst system components. As sites move through the process of remediation and eventual closure, monitoring provides data vital to the successful long term management of the site. The remote

  14. Sensitivity analysis in remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Ustinov, Eugene A

    2015-01-01

    This book contains a detailed presentation of general principles of sensitivity analysis as well as their applications to sample cases of remote sensing experiments. An emphasis is made on applications of adjoint problems, because they are more efficient in many practical cases, although their formulation may seem counterintuitive to a beginner. Special attention is paid to forward problems based on higher-order partial differential equations, where a novel matrix operator approach to formulation of corresponding adjoint problems is presented. Sensitivity analysis (SA) serves for quantitative models of physical objects the same purpose, as differential calculus does for functions. SA provides derivatives of model output parameters (observables) with respect to input parameters. In remote sensing SA provides computer-efficient means to compute the jacobians, matrices of partial derivatives of observables with respect to the geophysical parameters of interest. The jacobians are used to solve corresponding inver...

  15. Remote sensing and water resources

    CERN Document Server

    Champollion, N; Benveniste, J; Chen, J

    2016-01-01

    This book is a collection of overview articles showing how space-based observations, combined with hydrological modeling, have considerably improved our knowledge of the continental water cycle and its sensitivity to climate change. Two main issues are highlighted: (1) the use in combination of space observations for monitoring water storage changes in river basins worldwide, and (2) the use of space data in hydrological modeling either through data assimilation or as external constraints. The water resources aspect is also addressed, as well as the impacts of direct anthropogenic forcing on land hydrology (e.g. ground water depletion, dam building on rivers, crop irrigation, changes in land use and agricultural practices, etc.). Remote sensing observations offer important new information on this important topic as well, which is highly useful for achieving water management objectives. Over the past 15 years, remote sensing techniques have increasingly demonstrated their capability to monitor components of th...

  16. Systems design for remote healthcare

    CERN Document Server

    Bonfiglio, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a multidisciplinary overview of the design and implementation of systems for remote patient monitoring and healthcare. Readers are guided step-by-step through the components of such a system and shown how they could be integrated in a coherent framework for deployment in practice. The authors explain planning from subsystem design to complete integration and deployment, given particular application constraints. Readers will benefit from descriptions of the clinical requirements underpinning the entire application scenario, physiological parameter sensing techniques, information processing approaches and overall, application dependent system integration. Each chapter ends with a discussion of practical design challenges and two case studies are included to provide practical examples and design methods for two remote healthcare systems with different needs. ·         Provides a multi-disciplinary overview of next-generation mobile healthcare system design; ·         Includes...

  17. PO-62 - Remote ischemic preconditioning in head and neck cancer reconstruction - a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, A E; Kiil, B J; Hvas, Christine Lodberg

    2016-01-01

    flap anastomoses or microcirculation is the main reason for total flap necrosis with potential fatal consequences for the patient. Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC), where brief cycles of upper extremity ischemia are induced with an inflatable tourniquet, triggers a global protection of tissues...... will be included in the trial. The subjects will be randomized to RIPC or sham during surgery. RIPC is administered by four 5-minute cycles of upper extremity ischemia, each separated by five minutes of reperfusion. Blood samples will be drawn preoperatively, before RIPC/sham, 3 hours after RIPC/ sham, 6 hours...... oncologic therapy can be initiated in timely fashion....

  18. Connecting Remote Clusters with ATM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, T.C.; Wyckoff, P.S.

    1998-10-01

    Sandia's entry into utilizing clusters of networked workstations is called Computational Plant or CPlant for short. The design of CPlant uses Ethernet to boot the individual nodes, Myrinet to communicate within a node cluster, and ATM to connect between remote clusters. This SAND document covers the work done to enable the use of ATM on the CPlant nodes in the Fall of 1997.

  19. Remote Observational Techniques in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Mayo, L.

    2002-09-01

    The ability to observe celestial objects remotely is making a major impact into classroom access to astronomical instrumentation previously impossible to encorporate into curriculum. Two programs, Radio Jove and Telescopes In Education have made important contributions in this field. Radio JOVE is an interactive, hands-on, educational activity for learning the scientific method through the medium of radio observations of Jupiter, the Sun, and the galactic radio background. Students build radio receivers from relatively inexpensive non-profit kits (about \\$125 plus shipping) and use them to record data, analyze the data, and share the results with others. Alternatively, for no cost, the students can record and analyze data from remote radio receivers connected to the web. The projects are useful adjuncts to activities in optical observing since students should recognize that we learn about the universe through more than just the optical spectrum. The projects are mini-electronics courses and also teach about charged particles and magnetic fields. The Radio JOVE web site (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) should be consulted for further information. The NASA-sponsored Telescopes In Education (TIE) network (http://tie.jpl.nasa.gov) has been wildly successful in engaging the K-12 education community in real-time, hands-on, interactive astronomy activities. Hundreds of schools in the US, Australia, Canada, England, and Japan have participated in the TIE program, remotely controlling the 24-inch telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory from their classrooms. In recent years, several (approximately 20 to date) other telescopes have been, or are in the process of being, outfitted for remote use as TIE affiliates. These telescopesare integrated seamlessly into one virtual observatory providing the services required to operate this facility, including a scheduling service, tools for data manipulation, an online proposal review environment, an online "Virtual TIE Student Ap J

  20. Remote handling equipment for SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulten, B.H.

    1983-01-01

    This report gives information on the areas of the SNS, facility which become highly radioactive preventing hands-on maintenance. Levels of activity are sufficiently high in the Target Station Area of the SNS, especially under fault conditions, to warrant reactor technology to be used in the design of the water, drainage and ventilation systems. These problems, together with the type of remote handling equipment required in the SNS, are discussed

  1. Remote laboratory with Raspberry Pi

    OpenAIRE

    Dvorščak, Mihael

    2016-01-01

    The thesis is intended for teachers in junior high school and students of technology education in planning innovational and different learning lessons using information and communication technologies and inductive methods. In thesis is represented an indicative layout of the remote laboratory for educational purposes on the basis of the Raspberry Pi computer. Thesis features used hardware components for this theme, Raspberry Pi computer, its development and commonly used peripheral device...

  2. LIDAR and atmosphere remote sensing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venkataraman, S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available using state of the art Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) instrumentation and other active and passive remote sensing tools. First “Lidar Field Campaign” • 2-day measurement campaign at University of Pretoria • First 23-hour continuous measurement... head2rightCirrus cloud morphology and dynamics. Atmospheric Research in Southern Africa and Indian Ocean (ARSAIO) Slide 24 © CSIR 2008 www.csir.co.za Middle atmosphere dynamics and thermal structure: comparative studies from...

  3. Remote Sensing Information Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Keith C.; Scepan, Joseph; Hemphill, Jeffrey; Herold, Martin; Husak, Gregory; Kline, Karen; Knight, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    This document is the final report summarizing research conducted by the Remote Sensing Research Unit, Department of Geography, University of California, Santa Barbara under National Aeronautics and Space Administration Research Grant NAG5-10457. This document describes work performed during the period of 1 March 2001 thorough 30 September 2002. This report includes a survey of research proposed and performed within RSRU and the UCSB Geography Department during the past 25 years. A broad suite of RSRU research conducted under NAG5-10457 is also described under themes of Applied Research Activities and Information Science Research. This research includes: 1. NASA ESA Research Grant Performance Metrics Reporting. 2. Global Data Set Thematic Accuracy Analysis. 3. ISCGM/Global Map Project Support. 4. Cooperative International Activities. 5. User Model Study of Global Environmental Data Sets. 6. Global Spatial Data Infrastructure. 7. CIESIN Collaboration. 8. On the Value of Coordinating Landsat Operations. 10. The California Marine Protected Areas Database: Compilation and Accuracy Issues. 11. Assessing Landslide Hazard Over a 130-Year Period for La Conchita, California Remote Sensing and Spatial Metrics for Applied Urban Area Analysis, including: (1) IKONOS Data Processing for Urban Analysis. (2) Image Segmentation and Object Oriented Classification. (3) Spectral Properties of Urban Materials. (4) Spatial Scale in Urban Mapping. (5) Variable Scale Spatial and Temporal Urban Growth Signatures. (6) Interpretation and Verification of SLEUTH Modeling Results. (7) Spatial Land Cover Pattern Analysis for Representing Urban Land Use and Socioeconomic Structures. 12. Colorado River Flood Plain Remote Sensing Study Support. 13. African Rainfall Modeling and Assessment. 14. Remote Sensing and GIS Integration.

  4. Remote handling in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streiff, G.

    1984-01-01

    Remote control will be the rule for maintenance in hot cells of future spent fuel reprocessing plants because of the radioactivity level. New handling equipments will be developed and intervention principles defined. Existing materials, recommendations for use and new manipulators are found in the PMDS' documentation. It is also a help in the choice and use of intervention means and a guide for the user [fr

  5. Nuclear reactors in remote earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzon, L.; Cavero, A.

    1999-01-01

    Same basic geological principles along with other facts, have allowed us to establish the existence in the remote past (Between 2.5 and 4 x 10''9 years ago) of the uranium deposits and/or uranium mineralized volumes, which be-have as nuclear reactors. A simplified neutronic diffusion model have allowed us to describe the main characteristics of such systems. The obtained results indicate that this phenomenon was a rather frequent fact. (Author) 7 refs

  6. Portuguese Universities Sharing Remote Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Restivo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a pedagogical assignment based on a cooperative work involving teachers/students from two Portuguese universities. As it happens one is the oldest in the country – University of Coimbra (UC - and the other the largest - University of Porto (UP, about 120 km apart. The authors, believing in the relevance of Information and Communication Technologies (ITs in teaching/learning methodologies and in cooperative teaching methods worked together to plan this pedagogical experience and to run it in a one semester course. Students from UC have been introduced to the remote lab at UP and got the first contact with the remote experiments using easily available sound and image resources based on Skype and an IP camera for better image quality. This first contact has been conducted by the first author at UP with support of the second author at UC. The work will describe briefly the remote experiments used, their inclusion in the course at UC, the associated assessment criteria and, finally, student comments.

  7. Experience with Remote Job Execution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, Vickie E.; Cobb, John W; Green, Mark L.; Kohl, James Arthur; Miller, Stephen D.; Ren, Shelly; Smith, Bradford C.; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S.

    2008-01-01

    The Neutron Science Portal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory submits jobs to the TeraGrid for remote job execution. The TeraGrid is a network of high performance computers supported by the US National Science Foundation. There are eleven partner facilities with over a petaflop of peak computing performance and sixty petabytes of long-term storage. Globus is installed on a local machine and used for job submission. The graphical user interface is produced by java coding that reads an XML file. After submission, the status of the job is displayed in a Job Information Service window which queries globus for the status. The output folder produced in the scratch directory of the TeraGrid machine is returned to the portal with globus-url-copy command that uses the gridftp servers on the TeraGrid machines. This folder is copied from the stage-in directory of the community account to the user's results directory where the output can be plotted using the portal's visualization services. The primary problem with remote job execution is diagnosing execution problems. We have daily tests of submitting multiple remote jobs from the portal. When these jobs fail on a computer, it is difficult to diagnose the problem from the globus output. Successes and problems will be presented

  8. Testbed for remote telepresence research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Sarmad; Cheatham, John B., Jr.

    1992-11-01

    Teleoperated robots offer solutions to problems associated with operations in remote and unknown environments, such as space. Teleoperated robots can perform tasks related to inspection, maintenance, and retrieval. A video camera can be used to provide some assistance in teleoperations, but for fine manipulation and control, a telepresence system that gives the operator a sense of actually being at the remote location is more desirable. A telepresence system comprised of a head-tracking stereo camera system, a kinematically redundant arm, and an omnidirectional mobile robot has been developed at the mechanical engineering department at Rice University. This paper describes the design and implementation of this system, its control hardware, and software. The mobile omnidirectional robot has three independent degrees of freedom that permit independent control of translation and rotation, thereby simulating a free flying robot in a plane. The kinematically redundant robot arm has eight degrees of freedom that assist in obstacle and singularity avoidance. The on-board control computers permit control of the robot from the dual hand controllers via a radio modem system. A head-mounted display system provides the user with a stereo view from a pair of cameras attached to the mobile robotics system. The head tracking camera system moves stereo cameras mounted on a three degree of freedom platform to coordinate with the operator's head movements. This telepresence system provides a framework for research in remote telepresence, and teleoperations for space.

  9. TPX remote maintenance and shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennich, M.J.; Nelson, B.E.

    1994-01-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment machine design incorporates comprehensive planning for efficient and safe component maintenance. Three programmatic decisions have been made to insure the successful implementation of this objective. First, the tokamak incorporates radiation shielding to reduce activation of components and limit the dose rate to personnel working on the outside of the machine. This allows most of the ex-vessel equipment to be maintained through conventional ''hands-on'' procedures. Second, to the maximum extent possible, low activation materials will be used inside the shielding volume. This resulted in the selection of Titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) for the vacuum vessel and PFC structures. The third decision stipulated that the primary in-vessel components will be replaced or repaired via remote maintenance tools specifically provided for the task. The component designers have been given the responsibility of incorporating maintenance design and for proving the maintainability of the design concepts in full-scale mockup tests prior to the initiation of final fabrication. Remote maintenance of the TPX machine is facilitated by general purpose tools provided by a special purpose design team. Major tools will include an in-vessel transporter, a vessel transfer system and a large component transfer container. In addition, tools such as manipulators and remotely operable impact wrenches will be made available to the component designers by this group. Maintenance systems will also provide the necessary controls for this equipment

  10. Remote sensing for wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.; Bay Hasager, C.; Lange, J. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Wind Energy, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark) (and others

    2013-06-15

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy report provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind it began in year 2008 at DTU Wind Energy (formerly Risoe) during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy. Thus it is closely linked to the PhD Summer Schools where state-of-the-art is presented during the lecture sessions. The advantage of the report is to supplement with in-depth, article style information. Thus we strive to provide link from the lectures, field demonstrations, and hands-on exercises to theory. The report will allow alumni to trace back details after the course and benefit from the collection of information. This is the third edition of the report (first externally available), after very successful and demanded first two, and we warmly acknowledge all the contributing authors for their work in the writing of the chapters, and we also acknowledge all our colleagues in the Meteorology and Test and Measurements Sections from DTU Wind Energy in the PhD Summer Schools. We hope to continue adding more topics in future editions and to update and improve as necessary, to provide a truly state-of-the-art 'guideline' available for people involved in Remote Sensing in Wind Energy. (Author)

  11. The JOYO remote monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damico, Joseph P.; Hashimoto, Yu

    2000-01-01

    The evolution of the personal computer, operating systems and applications software and the Internet has brought drastic change and many benefits worldwide. Remote monitoring systems benefit from computer network and other modern software technologies. The availability of fast, inexpensive and secure communications enables new solutions for monitoring system applications. The JOYO Remote Monitoring System (RMS) utilizes computer network communications and modular software design to provide a distributed integrated solution for monitoring multiple storage locations. This paper describes the remote monitoring system installed at the JOYO Fast Reactor. The system combines sensors, software, and computer network technologies to create a powerful data collection, storage and dissemination capability. The RMS provides a flexible, scalable solution for a variety of applications. The RMS integrates a variety of state of the art technologies from several sources and serves as a test bed for cutting edge technologies that can be shared with outside users. This paper describes the system components and their operation and discusses system benefits. Current activities and future plants for the JOYO RMS will be discussed. (author)

  12. Smart Cards and remote entrusting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aussel, Jean-Daniel; D'Annoville, Jerome; Castillo, Laurent; Durand, Stephane; Fabre, Thierry; Lu, Karen; Ali, Asad

    Smart cards are widely used to provide security in end-to-end communication involving servers and a variety of terminals, including mobile handsets or payment terminals. Sometime, end-to-end server to smart card security is not applicable, and smart cards must communicate directly with an application executing on a terminal, like a personal computer, without communicating with a server. In this case, the smart card must somehow trust the terminal application before performing some secure operation it was designed for. This paper presents a novel method to remotely trust a terminal application from the smart card. For terminals such as personal computers, this method is based on an advanced secure device connected through the USB and consisting of a smart card bundled with flash memory. This device, or USB dongle, can be used in the context of remote untrusting to secure portable applications conveyed in the dongle flash memory. White-box cryptography is used to set the secure channel and a mechanism based on thumbprint is described to provide external authentication when session keys need to be renewed. Although not as secure as end-to-end server to smart card security, remote entrusting with smart cards is easy to deploy for mass-market applications and can provide a reasonable level of security.

  13. Remote and unattended monitoring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedin-Zadeh, R.; Whichello, J.

    1998-01-01

    In the last years, there has been a tremendous growth in the number of unattended assay and monitoring systems in the field. These systems have enabled reduced presence of inspectors while increasing the verification coverage. As part of the Strengthened safeguards System and in particular as part of the measures to improve the cost-effectiveness of safeguards, the possibility of remote transfer of authenticated and encrypted video surveillance, seals and radiation sensor data via telephone or special satellite links have been demonstrated and the necessary arrangements and infrastructure have been prepared. The evaluation of field trials of the remote monitoring systems have shown that the systems are effective in monitoring events of safeguards relevance in near real times. The systems are competitive from a cost standpoint when compared to current methods. The reduction of inspection efforts can be realized by application of remote monitoring technique with scheduled inspections and more effectively with the short notice or unannounced random inspections. It is expected that, upon completion of the necessary arrangements with the Member States authorities, the safeguards department will implement the technique widely before the year 2000

  14. Scenarios for remote gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangen, Grethe; Molnvik, Mona J.

    2009-01-01

    The amount of natural gas resources accessible via proven production technology and existing infrastructure is declining. Therefore, smaller and less accessible gas fields are considered for commercial exploitation. The research project Enabling production of remote gas builds knowledge and technology aiming at developing competitive remote gas production based on floating LNG and chemical gas conversion. In this project, scenarios are used as basis for directing research related to topics that affect the overall design and operation of such plants. Selected research areas are safety, environment, power supply, operability and control. The paper summarises the scenario building process as a common effort among research institutes and industry. Further, it documents four scenarios for production of remote gas and outlines how the scenarios are applied to establish research strategies and adequate plans in a multidisciplinary project. To ensure relevance of the scenarios, it is important to adapt the building process to the current problem and the scenarios should be developed with extensive participation of key personnel.

  15. Large Scale Meteorological Pattern of Extreme Rainfall in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuswanto, Heri; Grotjahn, Richard; Rachmi, Arinda; Suhermi, Novri; Oktania, Erma; Wijaya, Yosep

    2014-05-01

    Extreme Weather Events (EWEs) cause negative impacts socially, economically, and environmentally. Considering these facts, forecasting EWEs is crucial work. Indonesia has been identified as being among the countries most vulnerable to the risk of natural disasters, such as floods, heat waves, and droughts. Current forecasting of extreme events in Indonesia is carried out by interpreting synoptic maps for several fields without taking into account the link between the observed events in the 'target' area with remote conditions. This situation may cause misidentification of the event leading to an inaccurate prediction. Grotjahn and Faure (2008) compute composite maps from extreme events (including heat waves and intense rainfall) to help forecasters identify such events in model output. The composite maps show large scale meteorological patterns (LSMP) that occurred during historical EWEs. Some vital information about the EWEs can be acquired from studying such maps, in addition to providing forecaster guidance. Such maps have robust mid-latitude meteorological patterns (for Sacramento and California Central Valley, USA EWEs). We study the performance of the composite approach for tropical weather condition such as Indonesia. Initially, the composite maps are developed to identify and forecast the extreme weather events in Indramayu district- West Java, the main producer of rice in Indonesia and contributes to about 60% of the national total rice production. Studying extreme weather events happening in Indramayu is important since EWEs there affect national agricultural and fisheries activities. During a recent EWE more than a thousand houses in Indramayu suffered from serious flooding with each home more than one meter underwater. The flood also destroyed a thousand hectares of rice plantings in 5 regencies. Identifying the dates of extreme events is one of the most important steps and has to be carried out carefully. An approach has been applied to identify the

  16. Extreme diversity in noncalcifying haptophytes explains a major pigment paradox in open oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Probert, Ian; Uitz, Julia; Claustre, Hervé; Aris-Brosou, Stéphane; Frada, Miguel; Not, Fabrice; de Vargas, Colomban

    2009-01-01

    The current paradigm holds that cyanobacteria, which evolved oxygenic photosynthesis more than 2 billion years ago, are still the major light harvesters driving primary productivity in open oceans. Here we show that tiny unicellular eukaryotes belonging to the photosynthetic lineage of the Haptophyta are dramatically diverse and ecologically dominant in the planktonic photic realm. The use of Haptophyta-specific primers and PCR conditions adapted for GC-rich genomes circumvented biases inherent in classical genetic approaches to exploring environmental eukaryotic biodiversity and led to the discovery of hundreds of unique haptophyte taxa in 5 clone libraries from subpolar and subtropical oceanic waters. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that this diversity emerged in Paleozoic oceans, thrived and diversified in the permanently oxygenated Mesozoic Panthalassa, and currently comprises thousands of ribotypic species, belonging primarily to low-abundance and ancient lineages of the “rare biosphere.” This extreme biodiversity coincides with the pervasive presence in the photic zone of the world ocean of 19′-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin (19-Hex), an accessory photosynthetic pigment found exclusively in chloroplasts of haptophyte origin. Our new estimates of depth-integrated relative abundance of 19-Hex indicate that haptophytes dominate the chlorophyll a-normalized phytoplankton standing stock in modern oceans. Their ecologic and evolutionary success, arguably based on mixotrophy, may have significantly impacted the oceanic carbon pump. These results add to the growing evidence that the evolution of complex microbial eukaryotic cells is a critical force in the functioning of the biosphere. PMID:19622724

  17. Response identification in the extremely low frequency region of an electret condenser microphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Yih-Nen; Yang, Tzung-Ming; Lee, Shang-Yin

    2011-01-01

    This study shows that a small electret condenser microphone connected to a notebook or a personal computer (PC) has a prominent response in the extremely low frequency region in a specific environment. It confines most acoustic waves within a tiny air cell as follows. The air cell is constructed by drilling a small hole in a digital versatile disk (DVD) plate. A small speaker and an electret condenser microphone are attached to the two sides of the hole. Thus, the acoustic energy emitted by the speaker and reaching the microphone is strong enough to actuate the diaphragm of the latter. The experiments showed that, once small air leakages are allowed on the margin of the speaker, the microphone captured the signal in the range of 0.5 to 20 Hz. Moreover, by removing the plastic cover of the microphone and attaching the microphone head to the vibration surface, the low frequency signal can be effectively captured too. Two examples are included to show the convenience of applying the microphone to pick up the low frequency vibration information of practical systems.

  18. Response Identification in the Extremely Low Frequency Region of an Electret Condenser Microphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Yin Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study shows that a small electret condenser microphone connected to a notebook or a personal computer (PC has a prominent response in the extremely low frequency region in a specific environment. It confines most acoustic waves within a tiny air cell as follows. The air cell is constructed by drilling a small hole in a digital versatile disk (DVD plate. A small speaker and an electret condenser microphone are attached to the two sides of the hole. Thus, the acoustic energy emitted by the speaker and reaching the microphone is strong enough to actuate the diaphragm of the latter. The experiments showed that, once small air leakages are allowed on the margin of the speaker, the microphone captured the signal in the range of 0.5 to 20 Hz. Moreover, by removing the plastic cover of the microphone and attaching the microphone head to the vibration surface, the low frequency signal can be effectively captured too. Two examples are included to show the convenience of applying the microphone to pick up the low frequency vibration information of practical systems.

  19. Extreme Rainfall In A City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkemdirim, Lawrence

    Cities contain many structures and activities that are vulnerable to severe weather. Heavy precipitation cause floods which can damage structures, compromise transportation and water supply systems, and slow down economic and social activities. Rain induced flood patterns in cities must be well understood to enable effective placement of flood control and other regulatory measures. The planning goal is not to eliminate all floods but to reduce their frequency and resulting damage. Possible approaches to such planning include probability based extreme event analysis. Precipitation is normally the most variable hydrologic element over a given area. This variability results from the distribution of clouds and in cloud processes in the atmosphere, the storm path, and the distribution of topographical features on the ground along path. Some studies suggest that point rainfall patterns are also affected by urban industrial effects hence some agreement that cities are wetter than the country surrounding them. However, there are still questions regarding the intra- urban distribution of precipitation. The sealed surfaces, urban structures, and the urban heat anomaly increase convection in cities which may enhance the generation of clouds. Increased dust and gaseous aerosols loads are effective condensation and sublimation nuclei which may also enhance the generation of precipitation. Based on these associations, the greatest amount of convection type rainfall should occur at city center. A study of summer rainfall in Calgary showed that frequencies of trace amounts of rainfall and events under 0.2mm are highest downtown than elsewhere. For amounts greater than than 0.2 mm, downtown sites were not favored. The most compelling evidence for urban-industrial precipitation enhancement came from the Metromex project around St. Loius, Missouri where maximum increases of between 5 to 30 per cent in summer rainfall downwind of the city was linked to urbanization and

  20. Extreme Water Deficit in Brazil Detected from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Getirana

    2016-01-01

    Extreme droughts have caused significant socioeconomic and environmental damage worldwide. In Brazil, ineffective energy development and water management policies have magnified the impacts of recent severe droughts, which include massive agricultural losses, water supply restrictions, and energy rationing. Spaceborne remote sensing data advance our understanding of the spatiotemporal variability of large-scale droughts and enhance the detection and monitoring of extreme water-related events. In this study, data derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission are used to detect and quantify an extended major drought over eastern Brazil and provide estimates of impacted areas and region-specific water deficits. Two structural breakpoint detection methods were applied to time series of GRACE-based terrestrial water storage anomalies (TWSA), determining when two abrupt changes occurred. One, in particular, defines the beginning of the current drought. Using TWSA, a water loss rate of 26.1 cmyr21 over southeastern Brazil was detected from 2012 to 2015. Based on analysis of Global Land Data Assimilation System(GLDAS) outputs, the extreme drought is mostly related to lower-than-usual precipitation rates, resulting in high soil moisture depletion and lower-than-usual rates of evapotranspiration. A reduction of 2023 of precipitation over an extended period of 3 years is enough to raise serious water scarcity conditions in the country. Correlations between monthly time series of both grid-based TWSA and ground-based water storage measurements at 16 reservoirs located within southeastern Brazil varied from 0.42 to 0.82. Differences are mainly explained by reservoir sizes and proximity to the drought nucleus.

  1. Acute effects of remote ischemic preconditioning on cutaneous microcirculation - a controlled prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraemer Robert

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Therapeutic strategies aiming to reduce ischemia/reperfusion injury by conditioning tissue tolerance against ischemia appear attractive not only from a scientific perspective, but also in clinics. Although previous studies indicate that remote ischemic intermittent preconditioning (RIPC is a systemic phenomenon, only a few studies have focused on the elucidation of its mechanisms of action especially in the clinical setting. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the acute microcirculatory effects of remote ischemic preconditioning on a distinct cutaneous location at the lower extremity which is typically used as a harvesting site for free flap reconstructive surgery in a human in-vivo setting. Methods Microcirculatory data of 27 healthy subjects (25 males, age 24 ± 4 years, BMI 23.3 were evaluated continuously at the anterolateral aspect of the left thigh during RIPC using combined Laser-Doppler and photospectrometry (Oxygen-to-see, Lea Medizintechnik, Germany. After baseline microcirculatory measurement, remote ischemia was induced using a tourniquet on the contralateral upper arm for three cycles of 5 min. Results After RIPC, tissue oxygen saturation and capillary blood flow increased up to 29% and 35% during the third reperfusion phase versus baseline measurement, respectively (both p = 0.001. Postcapillary venous filling pressure decreased statistically significant by 16% during second reperfusion phase (p = 0.028. Conclusion Remote intermittent ischemic preconditioning affects cutaneous tissue oxygen saturation, arterial capillary blood flow and postcapillary venous filling pressure at a remote cutaneous location of the lower extremity. To what extent remote preconditioning might ameliorate reperfusion injury in soft tissue trauma or free flap transplantation further clinical trials have to evaluate. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01235286

  2. Extreme heat and runoff extremes in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zappa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydrological response of Swiss river basins to the 2003 European summer heatwave was evaluated by a combined analysis of historical discharge records and specific applications of distributed hydrological modeling. In the summer of 2003, the discharge from headwater streams of the Swiss Central Plateau was only 40%–60% of the long-term average. For alpine basins runoff was about 60%–80% of the average. Glacierized basins showed the opposite behavior. According to the degree of glacierization, the average summer runoff was close or even above average. The hydrological model PREVAH was applied for the period 1982–2005. Even if the model was not calibrated for such extreme meteorological conditions, it was well able to simulate the hydrological responses of three basins. The aridity index φ describes feedbacks between hydrological and meteorological anomalies, and was adopted as an indicator of hydrological drought. The anomalies of φ and temperature in the summer of 2003 exceeded the 1982–2005 mean by more than 2 standard deviations. Catchments without glaciers showed negative correlations between φ and discharge R. In basins with about 15% glacierization, φ and R were not correlated. River basins with higher glacier percentages showed a positive correlation between φ and R. Icemelt was positively correlated with φ and reduced the variability of discharge with larger amounts of meltwater. Runoff generation from the non-glaciated sub-areas was limited by high evapotranspiration and reduced precipitation. The 2003 summer heatwave could be a precursor to similar events in the near future. Hydrological models and further data analysis will allow the identification of the most sensitive regions where heatwaves may become a recurrent natural hazard with large environmental, social and economical impacts.

  3. BELM: Bayesian extreme learning machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria-Olivas, Emilio; Gómez-Sanchis, Juan; Martín, José D; Vila-Francés, Joan; Martínez, Marcelino; Magdalena, José R; Serrano, Antonio J

    2011-03-01

    The theory of extreme learning machine (ELM) has become very popular on the last few years. ELM is a new approach for learning the parameters of the hidden layers of a multilayer neural network (as the multilayer perceptron or the radial basis function neural network). Its main advantage is the lower computational cost, which is especially relevant when dealing with many patterns defined in a high-dimensional space. This brief proposes a bayesian approach to ELM, which presents some advantages over other approaches: it allows the introduction of a priori knowledge; obtains the confidence intervals (CIs) without the need of applying methods that are computationally intensive, e.g., bootstrap; and presents high generalization capabilities. Bayesian ELM is benchmarked against classical ELM in several artificial and real datasets that are widely used for the evaluation of machine learning algorithms. Achieved results show that the proposed approach produces a competitive accuracy with some additional advantages, namely, automatic production of CIs, reduction of probability of model overfitting, and use of a priori knowledge.

  4. Driving Extreme Efficiency to Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbesi, Karina

    2014-03-01

    The rapid development of extremely energy efficient appliances and equipment is essential to curtail catastrophic climate disruption. This will require the on-going development of products that apply all best-practices and that take advantage of the synergies of hybridization and building integration. Beyond that, it requires the development of new disruptive technologies and concepts. To facilitate these goals, in 2011 the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the U.S. Department of Energy launched the Max Tech and Beyond Design Competition for Ultra-Low-Energy-Use Appliances and Equipment. Now in its third year, the competition supports faculty-lead student design teams at U.S. universities to develop and test new technology prototypes. This talk describes what the competition and the Max Tech Program are doing to drive such rapid technology progress and to facilitate the entry to the market of successful Max Tech prototypes. The talk also initiates a discussion of physicists' unique role in driving that technology progress faster and farther. Emerging Technologies, Building Technologies Office, U.S. Department of Energy.

  5. Masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinale, G; Goldsmith, J; Kearney, P A; Larson, C; Moore, C E; Prisbrey, S; Tong, W; Vernon, S P; Weber, F; Yan, P-Y.

    1998-01-01

    In extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), the technology specific requirements on the mask are a direct consequence of the utilization of radiation in the spectral region between 10 and 15 nm. At these wavelengths, all condensed materials are highly absorbing and efficient radiation transport mandates the use of all-reflective optical systems. Reflectivity is achieved with resonant, wavelength-matched multilayer (ML) coatings on all of the optical surfaces - including the mask. The EUV mask has a unique architecture - it consists of a substrate with a highly reflective ML coating (the mask blank) that is subsequently over-coated with a patterned absorber layer (the mask). Particulate contamination on the EUVL mask surface, errors in absorber definition and defects in the ML coating all have the potential to print in the lithographic process. While highly developed technologies exist for repair of the absorber layer, no viable strategy for the repair of ML coating defects has been identified. In this paper the state-of-the-art in ML deposition technology, optical inspection of EUVL mask blank defects and candidate absorber patterning approaches are reviewed

  6. Gene adaptation to extreme environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlaire, P.; Rodriguez, V.; Kerner, N.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: This work is oriented to the study of gene adaptation to extreme conditions, such as the hydrothermal system located in Copahue, Neuquen, Argentina. The organisms living there develop under two pressure selection conditions: the high temperature of thermal water and the strong impact of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Several microorganisms found in this region were isolated and different colonies resistant to UV radiation were selected, a Geobacillus thermoleovorans strain identified through 16S RNA sequence, being the most remarkable. A gene library was prepared out of this strain with UV sensitive bacteria BH200 (uvrA::Tn10). A number of clones were isolated by means of UV selection, the most outstanding being a gene carrier able to codify for the guanosine monophosphate synthetase enzyme (GMPs). The suitability of said enzyme was proved by means of additional assays performed on ght 1 bacteria (guaA26::Tn 10) which lacked the enzyme. A transcript of 1100 pb was detected through Northern Blot. The result was consistent with that obtained for the mapping of the starting transcription site. The cloned GMPs produces an increase in growth speed and a greater biomass in BH200 bacteria. (author)

  7. Infection in the ischemic lower extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, D E; Marek, J M; Langsfeld, M

    1998-06-01

    Infections in the lower extremity of the patient with ischemia can cover a broad spectrum of different diseases. An understanding of the particular pathophysiologic circumstances in the ischemic extremity can be of great value in understanding the natural history of the disease and the potential complications that may occur. Optimizing blood flow to the extremity by using revascularization techniques is important for any patient with an ischemic lower extremity complicated by infection or ulceration. Infections in the ischemic lower extremity require local débridement and systemic antibiotics. For severe infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis or the fetid foot, more extensive local débridement and even amputation may be required. Fundamentals of managing prosthetic graft infection require removing the infected prosthesis, local wound débridement, and systemic antibiotics while attempting to preserve viability of the lower extremity using autogenous graft reconstruction.

  8. On the Extreme Wave Height Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou

    1994-01-01

    The determination of the design wave height is usually based on the statistical analysis of long-term extreme wave height measurements. After an introduction to the procedure of the extreme wave height analysis, the paper presents new development concerning various aspects of the extreme wave...... height analysis. Finally, the paper gives a practical example based on a data set of the hindcasted wave heights for a deep water location in the Mediterranean Sea....

  9. Extreme Events in Nature and Society

    CERN Document Server

    Albeverio, Sergio; Kantz, Holger

    2006-01-01

    Significant, and usually unwelcome, surprises, such as floods, financial crisis, epileptic seizures, or material rupture, are the topics of Extreme Events in Nature and Society. The book, authored by foremost experts in these fields, reveals unifying and distinguishing features of extreme events, including problems of understanding and modelling their origin, spatial and temporal extension, and potential impact. The chapters converge towards the difficult problem of anticipation: forecasting the event and proposing measures to moderate or prevent it. Extreme Events in Nature and Society will interest not only specialists, but also the general reader eager to learn how the multifaceted field of extreme events can be viewed as a coherent whole.

  10. Controlling extreme events on complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Zhong; Huang, Zi-Gang; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2014-08-01

    Extreme events, a type of collective behavior in complex networked dynamical systems, often can have catastrophic consequences. To develop effective strategies to control extreme events is of fundamental importance and practical interest. Utilizing transportation dynamics on complex networks as a prototypical setting, we find that making the network ``mobile'' can effectively suppress extreme events. A striking, resonance-like phenomenon is uncovered, where an optimal degree of mobility exists for which the probability of extreme events is minimized. We derive an analytic theory to understand the mechanism of control at a detailed and quantitative level, and validate the theory numerically. Implications of our finding to current areas such as cybersecurity are discussed.

  11. Introductory remote sensing principles and concepts principles and concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to Remote Sensing Principles and Concepts provides a comprehensive student introduction to both the theory and application of remote sensing. This textbook* introduces the field of remote sensing and traces its historical development and evolution* presents detailed explanations of core remote sensing principles and concepts providing the theory required for a clear understanding of remotely sensed images.* describes important remote sensing platforms - including Landsat, SPOT and NOAA * examines and illustrates many of the applications of remotely sensed images in various fields.

  12. Remote Sensing and Reflectance Profiling in Entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, Christian; Elliott, Norman

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing describes the characterization of the status of objects and/or the classification of their identity based on a combination of spectral features extracted from reflectance or transmission profiles of radiometric energy. Remote sensing can be benchtop based, and therefore acquired at a high spatial resolution, or airborne at lower spatial resolution to cover large areas. Despite important challenges, airborne remote sensing technologies will undoubtedly be of major importance in optimized management of agricultural systems in the twenty-first century. Benchtop remote sensing applications are becoming important in insect systematics and in phenomics studies of insect behavior and physiology. This review highlights how remote sensing influences entomological research by enabling scientists to nondestructively monitor how individual insects respond to treatments and ambient conditions. Furthermore, novel remote sensing technologies are creating intriguing interdisciplinary bridges between entomology and disciplines such as informatics and electrical engineering.

  13. Remote Inspection, Measurement and Handling for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kershaw, K; Coin, A; Delsaux, F; Feniet, T; Grenard, J L; Valbuena, R

    2007-01-01

    Personnel access to the LHC tunnel will be restricted to varying extents during the life of the machine due to radiation, cryogenic and pressure hazards. The ability to carry out visual inspection, measurement and handling activities remotely during periods when the LHC tunnel is potentially hazardous offers advantages in terms of safety, accelerator down time, and costs. The first applications identified were remote measurement of radiation levels at the start of shut-down, remote geometrical survey measurements in the collimation regions, and remote visual inspection during pressure testing and initial machine cool-down. In addition, for remote handling operations, it will be necessary to be able to transmit several real-time video images from the tunnel to the control room. The paper describes the design, development and use of a remotely controlled vehicle to demonstrate the feasibility of meeting the above requirements in the LHC tunnel. Design choices are explained along with operating experience to-dat...

  14. Field experience with remote monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desrosiers, A.E. [Bartlett Services, Inc., Plymouth, MA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The Remote Monitoring System (RMS) is a combination of Merlin Gerin detection hardware, digital data communications hardware, and computer software from Bartlett Services, Inc. (BSI) that can improve the conduct of reactor plant operations in several areas. Using the RMS can reduce radiation exposures to radiation protection technicians (RPTs), reduce radiation exposures to plant maintenance and operations personnel, and reduce the time required to complete maintenance and inspections during outages. The number of temporary RPTs required during refueling outages can also be reduced. Data from use of the RMS at a two power plants are presented to illustrate these points.

  15. Magnetotactic Bacteria from Extreme Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T. Lefèvre

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB represent a diverse collection of motile prokaryotes that biomineralize intracellular, membrane-bounded, tens-of-nanometer-sized crystals of a magnetic mineral called magnetosomes. Magnetosome minerals consist of either magnetite (Fe3O4 or greigite (Fe3S4 and cause cells to align along the Earth’s geomagnetic field lines as they swim, a trait called magnetotaxis. MTB are known to mainly inhabit the oxic–anoxic interface (OAI in water columns or sediments of aquatic habitats and it is currently thought that magnetosomes function as a means of making chemotaxis more efficient in locating and maintaining an optimal position for growth and survival at the OAI. Known cultured and uncultured MTB are phylogenetically associated with the Alpha-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria classes of the phylum Proteobacteria, the Nitrospirae phylum and the candidate division OP3, part of the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae (PVC bacterial superphylum. MTB are generally thought to be ubiquitous in aquatic environments as they are cosmopolitan in distribution and have been found in every continent although for years MTB were thought to be restricted to habitats with pH values near neutral and at ambient temperature. Recently, however, moderate thermophilic and alkaliphilic MTB have been described including: an uncultured, moderately thermophilic magnetotactic bacterium present in hot springs in northern Nevada with a probable upper growth limit of about 63 °C; and several strains of obligately alkaliphilic MTB isolated in pure culture from different aquatic habitats in California, including the hypersaline, extremely alkaline Mono Lake, with an optimal growth pH of >9.0.

  16. REMOTE OPERATIONS IN A GLOBAL ACCELERATOR NETWORK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PEGGS, S.; SATOGATA, T.; AGARWAL, D.; RICE, D.

    2003-01-01

    The INTRODUCTION to this paper summarizes the history of the Global Accelerator Network (GAN) concept and the recent workshops that discussed the relationship between GAN and Remote Operations. The REMOTE OPERATIONS SCENARIOS section brings out the organizational philosophy embodied in GAN-like and to non-GAN-like scenarios. The set of major TOPICS RAISED AT THE WORKSHOPS are only partially resolved. COLLABORATION TOOLS are described and discussed, followed by examples of REMOTE ACCELERATOR CONTROL PROJECTS around the world

  17. Remote operations in a global accelerator network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peggs, Steve; Satogata, Todd; Agarwal, Deborah; Rice, David

    2003-01-01

    The INTRODUCTION to this paper summarizes the history of the Global Accelerator Network (GAN) concept and the recent workshops that discussed the relationship between GAN and Remote Operations. The REMOTE OPERATIONS SCENARIOS section brings out the organizational philosophy embodied in GAN-like and to non-GAN-like scenarios. The set of major TOPICS RAISED AT THE WORKSHOPS are only partially resolved. COLLABORATION TOOLS are described and discussed, followed by examples of REMOTE ACCELERATOR CONTROL PROJECTS around the world

  18. Adaptable imaging package for remote vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Liardon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An easy-to-customize, low-cost solution for remote imagery is described. The system, denoted ImPROV (Imaging Package for Remote Vehicles, supports multiple cameras, live streaming, long-range encrypted communication using mobile networks, positioning and time-stamped imagery, etc. The adaptability of the system is demonstrated by its deployment on different remotely operated or autonomous vehicles, which include model aircraft, drones, balloon, kite and a submarine.

  19. Basic Remote Sensing Investigations for Beach Reconnaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progress is reported on three tasks designed to develop remote sensing beach reconnaissance techniques applicable to the benthic, beach intertidal...and beach upland zones. Task 1 is designed to develop remote sensing indicators of important beach composition and physical parameters which will...ultimately prove useful in models to predict beach conditions. Task 2 is designed to develop remote sensing techniques for survey of bottom features in

  20. LWIR Microgrid Polarimeter for Remote Sensing Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-28

    Polarimeter for Remote Sensing Studies 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-08-1-0295 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 1. Scott Tyo 5e. TASK...and tested at the University of Arizona, and preliminary images are shown in this final report. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Remote Sensing , polarimetry 16...7.0 LWIR Microgrid Polarimeter for Remote Sensing Studies J. Scott Tyo College of Optical Sciences University of Arizona Tucson, AZ, 85721 tyo

  1. Development of standard components for remote handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, Kou; Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Ito, Akira

    1998-01-01

    The core of Fusion Experimental Reactor consists of various components such as superconducting magnets and forced-cooled in-vessel components, which are remotely maintained due to intense of gamma radiation. Mechanical connectors such as cooling pipe connections, insulation joints and electrical connectors are commonly used for maintenance of these components and have to be standardized in terms of remote handling. This paper describes these mechanical connectors developed as the standard component compatible with remote handling and tolerable for radiation. (author)

  2. Development of standard components for remote handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, Kou; Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Ito, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    The core of Fusion Experimental Reactor consists of various components such as superconducting magnets and forced-cooled in-vessel components, which are remotely maintained due to intense of gamma radiation. Mechanical connectors such as cooling pipe connections, insulation joints and electrical connectors are commonly used for maintenance of these components and have to be standardized in terms of remote handling. This paper describes these mechanical connectors developed as the standard component compatible with remote handling and tolerable for radiation. (author)

  3. Remote inspection system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, K.; Fujii, M.; Doi, A.; Harima, T.

    1977-01-01

    A remote inspection system for nuclear power plants was constructed based on an analysis of inspections performed by an operator on patrol. This system consists of an operator's console and a remote station. The remote station, equipped with five kinds of sensors, is steered along the inspection route by a photoelectric guiding system or may be manually controlled from an operator's console in a main control room. Signals for control and inspection data are multiplexed and transmitted through a coaxial cable

  4. REMOTE OPERATIONS IN A GLOBAL ACCELERATOR NETWORK.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PEGGS,S.; SATOGATA,T.; AGARWAL,D.; RICE,D.

    2003-05-12

    The INTRODUCTION to this paper summarizes the history of the Global Accelerator Network (GAN) concept and the recent workshops that discussed the relationship between GAN and Remote Operations. The REMOTE OPERATIONS SCENARIOS section brings out the organizational philosophy embodied in GAN-like and to non-GAN-like scenarios. The set of major TOPICS RAISED AT THE WORKSHOPS are only partially resolved. COLLABORATION TOOLS are described and discussed, followed by examples of REMOTE ACCELERATOR CONTROL PROJECTS around the world.

  5. Remote systems and remote maintenance of a reprocessing plant in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funaya, T.

    1977-01-01

    The design concept and overall maintenance philosophy applied in the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation Reprocessing Plant at Tokai-mura, Japan, are briefly introduced. Details on remote systems and remote maintenance in mechanical processing areas are described

  6. Remote maintenance in nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herndon, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    Remote maintenance techniques applied in large-scale nuclear fuel reprocessing plants are reviewed with particular attention to the three major maintenance philosophy groupings: contact, remote crane canyon, and remote/contact. Examples are given, and the relative success of each type is discussed. Probable future directions for large-scale reprocessing plant maintenance are described along with advanced manipulation systems for application in the plants. The remote maintenance development program within the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is also described. 19 refs., 19 figs

  7. Textbooks and technical references for remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, R. D.; Bowden, L. W.; Colwell, R. N.; Estes, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    A selective bibliography is presented which cites 89 textbooks, monographs, and articles covering introductory and advanced remote sensing techniques, photointerpretation, photogrammetry, and image processing.

  8. The international remote monitoring project and implication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnier, C.S.; Johnson, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    The future of remote monitoring in International Safeguards system is analyzed. Problems of an update on the International Remote Monitoring Project are considered. The Project allows to remotely transmit safeguards-relevant data directly to IAEA from nuclear facilities worldwide. Description of integrated monitoring system (IMS) is given. A key element of state-of-art of IMS is modular nodal system which accepts information from sensors and provides information to both a data storage unit and a transmitter. Remote Monitoring Systems of Australia and Sweden are presented. 3 figs

  9. TPX in-vessel remote maintenance tooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennich, M.J.; Silke, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) has used the lessons learned from successful remote maintenance and remote handling facilities to develop both a concept and philosophy for incorporation of remote design from the earliest phases of the project. Initiation of mockup testing during the conceptual design phase leads to significant improvements in the basic maintenance equipment configuration. In addition, remote handling features and capabilities have been incorporated into the design of the plasma-facing components (PFCs) as part of the total PFC design effort

  10. Remote operation system for container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Hirotaka; Hayata, Takashi; Kajiyama, Shigeru; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a remote operation system for conducting operation with operation reaction for the inside of a container filled with water (liquid), such as of inner walls and inner structural materials of a BWR type reactor. Namely, a swimming robot comprises a swimming device swimming in the liquid and an attaching/detaching device for holding/releasing the handling robot. A control device remotely operate the swimming robot and the handling robot by way of a cable. A cable processing device takes up or dispenses the cable. In addition, when the swimming robot grasps the handling robot by the attaching/detaching device, the swimming robot transmits an operation instruction sent from the control device by way of the cable to the handling robot. After the attaching/detaching device of the swimming robot releases the handling robot, the handling robot operates based on the transmitted operation instruction. It is preferable that the handling robot has an adsorptive moving device for moving itself while being adsorbed on the wall surface of the container. (I.S.)

  11. Data Quality in Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batini, C.; Blaschke, T.; Lang, S.; Albrecht, F.; Abdulmutalib, H. M.; Barsi, Á.; Szabó, G.; Kugler, Zs.

    2017-09-01

    The issue of data quality (DQ) is of growing importance in Remote Sensing (RS), due to the widespread use of digital services (incl. apps) that exploit remote sensing data. In this position paper a body of experts from the ISPRS Intercommission working group III/IVb "DQ" identifies, categorises and reasons about issues that are considered as crucial for a RS research and application agenda. This ISPRS initiative ensures to build on earlier work by other organisations such as IEEE, CEOS or GEO, in particular on the meritorious work of the Quality Assurance Framework for Earth Observation (QA4EO) which was established and endorsed by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) but aims to broaden the view by including experts from computer science and particularly database science. The main activities and outcomes include: providing a taxonomy of DQ dimensions in the RS domain, achieving a global approach to DQ for heterogeneous-format RS data sets, investigate DQ dimensions in use, conceive a methodology for managing cost effective solutions on DQ in RS initiatives, and to address future challenges on RS DQ dimensions arising in the new era of the big Earth data.

  12. Remote Laser Diffraction PSD Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batcheller, T.A.; Huestis, G.M.; Bolton, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of radioactive slurry samples were obtained using a modified off-the-shelf classical laser light scattering particle size analyzer. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model La-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a hot cell (gamma radiation) environment. The general details of the modifications to this analyzer are presented in this paper. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not achievable - making this technology far superior than the traditional methods used previously. Remote deployment and utilization of this technology is in an exploratory stage. The risk of malfunction in this radiation environment is countered by gaining of this tremendously useful fundamental engineering data. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives

  13. Taiwan's second remote sensing satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Jeng-Shing; Ling, Jer; Weng, Shui-Lin

    2008-12-01

    FORMOSAT-2 is Taiwan's first remote sensing satellite (RSS). It was launched on 20 May 2004 with five-year mission life and a very unique mission orbit at 891 km altitude. This orbit gives FORMOSAT-2 the daily revisit feature and the capability of imaging the Arctic and Antarctic regions due to the high enough altitude. For more than three years, FORMOSAT-2 has performed outstanding jobs and its global effectiveness is evidenced in many fields such as public education in Taiwan, Earth science and ecological niche research, preservation of the world heritages, contribution to the International Charter: space and major disasters, observation of suspected North Korea and Iranian nuclear facilities, and scientific observation of the atmospheric transient luminous events (TLEs). In order to continue the provision of earth observation images from space, the National Space Organization (NSPO) of Taiwan started to work on the second RSS from 2005. This second RSS will also be Taiwan's first indigenous satellite. Both the bus platform and remote sensing instrument (RSI) shall be designed and manufactured by NSPO and the Instrument Technology Research Center (ITRC) under the supervision of the National Applied Research Laboratories (NARL). Its onboard computer (OBC) shall use Taiwan's indigenous LEON-3 central processing unit (CPU). In order to achieve cost effective design, the commercial off the shelf (COTS) components shall be widely used. NSPO shall impose the up-screening/qualification and validation/verification processes to ensure their normal functions for proper operations in the severe space environments.

  14. Remote Laser Diffraction PSD Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas; Huestis, Gary Michael; Bolton, Steven Michael

    2000-01-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of radioactive slurry samples were obtained using a modified ''off-the-shelf'' classical laser light scattering particle size analyzer. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model La-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a ''hot cell'' (gamma radiation) environment. The general details of the modifications to this analyzer are presented in this paper. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not achievable--making this technology far superior than the traditional methods used previously. Remote deployment and utilization of this technology is in an exploratory stage. The risk of malfunction in this radiation environment is countered by gaining of this tremendously useful fundamental engineering data. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives

  15. Remote handling procedures in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimondi, T.; Huguet, M.

    1976-01-01

    Remote maintenance will be needed in the second phase of operation due to the structural activation produced by deuterium-tritium discharges. Priority will be given to tasks which require frequent intervention, but efforts will be made also to tackle larger operations such as replacement of an octant. Owing to the variety and unpredictability of the operations which may be required, general purpose telemanipulator and TV systems will be used, mounted on versatile articulated supports capable of reaching the various parts of the machine. An experimental programme is planned to test the envisaged equipment and develop procedures for carrying out the various tasks as they are more clearly identified. Design of peripheral equipment for easy accessibility, choice of simple connection methods, development of auxiliary tools, as well as careful programming of the operations, will be essential for successful remote maintenance. The effort put into these areas will, however, also result in considerable time saving during the assembly and maintenance in non-active conditions. Preliminary feasibility tests of some difficult operations have already been done with a force-reflecting servo-manipulator and two TV sets for front and side viewing. Leak identification and precision welding for vacuum tightness were demonstrated

  16. Ultraviolet spectrographs for thermospheric and ionospheric remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dymond, K.F.; McCoy, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has been developing far- and extreme-ultraviolet spectrographs for remote sensing the Earth's upper atmosphere and ionosphere. The first of these sensors, called the Special Sensor Ultraviolet Limb Imager (SSULI), will be flying on the Air Force's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) block 5D3 satellites as an operational sensor in the 1997-2010 time frame. A second sensor, called the High-resolution ionospheric and Thermospheric Spectrograph (HITS), will fly in late 1995 on the Air Force Space Test Program's Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS, also known as P91-1) as part of NRL's High Resolution Airglow and Auroral Spectroscopy (HIRAAS) experiment. Both of these instruments are compact and do not draw much power and would be good candidates for small satellite applications. The instruments and their capabilities are discussed. Possible uses of these instruments in small satellite applications are also presented

  17. Thermodynamics of extremal rotating thin shells in an extremal BTZ spacetime and the extremal black hole entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, José P. S.; Minamitsuji, Masato; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2017-02-01

    In a (2 +1 )-dimensional spacetime with a negative cosmological constant, the thermodynamics and the entropy of an extremal rotating thin shell, i.e., an extremal rotating ring, are investigated. The outer and inner regions with respect to the shell are taken to be the Bañados-Teitelbom-Zanelli (BTZ) spacetime and the vacuum ground state anti-de Sitter spacetime, respectively. By applying the first law of thermodynamics to the extremal thin shell, one shows that the entropy of the shell is an arbitrary well-behaved function of the gravitational area A+ alone, S =S (A+). When the thin shell approaches its own gravitational radius r+ and turns into an extremal rotating BTZ black hole, it is found that the entropy of the spacetime remains such a function of A+, both when the local temperature of the shell at the gravitational radius is zero and nonzero. It is thus vindicated by this analysis that extremal black holes, here extremal BTZ black holes, have different properties from the corresponding nonextremal black holes, which have a definite entropy, the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy S (A+)=A/+4G , where G is the gravitational constant. It is argued that for extremal black holes, in particular for extremal BTZ black holes, one should set 0 ≤S (A+)≤A/+4G;i.e., the extremal black hole entropy has values in between zero and the maximum Bekenstein-Hawking entropy A/+4 G . Thus, rather than having just two entropies for extremal black holes, as previous results have debated, namely, 0 and A/+4 G , it is shown here that extremal black holes, in particular extremal BTZ black holes, may have a continuous range of entropies, limited by precisely those two entropies. Surely, the entropy that a particular extremal black hole picks must depend on past processes, notably on how it was formed. A remarkable relation between the third law of thermodynamics and the impossibility for a massive body to reach the velocity of light is also found. In addition, in the procedure, it

  18. Area spectra of near extremal black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Deyou; Yang, Haitang; Zu, Xiaotao

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by Maggiore's new interpretation of quasinormal modes, we investigate area spectra of a near extremal Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole and a higher-dimensional near extremal Reissner-Nordstrom-de Sitter black hole. The result shows that the area spectra are equally spaced and irrelevant to the parameters of the black holes. (orig.)

  19. Meaning and Forms of Political Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Backes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to contribute to the conceptualisation of political extremism and to lay a foundation for further theoretical studies which are explanatory in nature. A sketch of the history of the concepts follows a discussion of structural characteristics and then a typological examination of forms of extremism, particularly those of the 20th and 21st century.

  20. Extremely strict ideals in Banach spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Motivated by the notion of an ideal introduced by Godefroy et al. (Stu- dia Math. 104 (1993) 13–59), in this article, we introduce and study the notion of an extremely strict ideal. For a Poulsen simplex K, we show that the space of affine contin- uous functions on K is an extremely strict ideal in the space of continuous ...